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Sample records for grounded theory study

  1. Grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  2. Motivations of Baby Boomer Doctoral Learners: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julia J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a substantive theory of the motivations of Baby Boomer doctoral learners, using the grounded theory approach. These Baby Boomers possess a wealth of wisdom. Their experiences, coupled with educational credentials, could take their leadership abilities to the next level. The grounded theory method developed by…

  3. Community Involvement of High School Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Karin Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study focused on the perspectives of high school seniors, college freshmen, and working young adults in Orange County, California, to create a useful and practical theory about high school students' civic participation as it relates to students' enrollment in postsecondary education. Data collection consisted of…

  4. Community Involvement of High School Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Karin Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study focused on the perspectives of high school seniors, college freshmen, and working young adults in Orange County, California, to create a useful and practical theory about high school students' civic participation as it relates to students' enrollment in postsecondary education. Data collection consisted of…

  5. Humanitarian nursing challenges: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Almonte, Angelica L C

    2009-05-01

    In response to the 2004 tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean, the U.S. Navy deployed teams aboard the USNS Mercy to provide aid during Operation Unified Assistance (OUA). To date, few research studies have examined how Navy nurses prepared for and clinically performed during this relief operation. The current article describes the challenges faced by Navy nurses throughout OUA. A purposive convenience sample was recruited; 11 participated. Data were collected from interviews, observations, field notes, memos, and a demographic tool. Information was categorized, coded, compared to incoming data, then analyzed using Strauss and Corbin's open coding, axial coding, and selective coding methods. A theoretical model was developed to illustrate how participants experienced the mission. Key lessons learned were that most were unprepared for providing pediatric care, and saying "No" in delivering care. Recommendations include: deployment of advanced-practice nurses (specialists in pediatrics and well-mental health) and predeployment training on moral distress.

  6. How Chairpersons Enhance Faculty Research: A Grounded Theory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, John W.; Brown, Martha L.

    1992-01-01

    A study examined how department chairpersons enhanced research performance of college and university faculty. By applying grounded theory methods to a corpus of 33 interviews with chairpersons, the study resulted in a typology of chair roles (administrative, advocacy, interpersonal), then assessed the process of assistance for faculty at four…

  7. A Grounded Theory Study of Supervision of Preservice Consultation Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a university-based supervision process for consultants-in-training (CITs) engaged in a preservice level consultation course with applied practicum experience. The study was approached from a constructivist worldview using a grounded theory methodology. Data consisted of supervision session transcripts,…

  8. Regaining a Foothold: A Grounded Theory Study of Immigrant Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Kara Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study of immigrants reestablishing their lives in a new country used classic, Glaserian grounded theory. The purpose of the study was to discover the main concerns of the participants as they engaged in the basic social process of changing their country of residence. Using the grand tour question of "Tell me about coming to the United…

  9. Marshaling Resources: A Classic Grounded Theory Study of Online Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalof, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Students who enroll in online courses comprise one quarter of an increasingly diverse student body in higher education today. Yet, it is not uncommon for an online program to lose over 50% of its enrolled students prior to graduation. This study used a classic grounded theory qualitative methodology to investigate the persistent problem of…

  10. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  11. Newly-graduated midwives transcending barriers: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Barry, Michele J; Hauck, Yvonne L; O'Donoghue, Thomas; Clarke, Simon

    2013-12-01

    Midwifery has developed its own philosophy to formalise its unique identity as a profession. Newly-graduated midwives are taught, and ideally embrace, this philosophy during their education. However, embarking in their career within a predominantly institutionalised and the medically focused health-care model may challenge this application. The research question guiding this study was as follows: 'How do newly graduated midwives deal with applying the philosophy of midwifery in their first six months of practice?' The aim was to generate a grounded theory around this social process. This Western Australian grounded theory study is conceptualised within the social theory of symbolic interactionism. Data were collected by means of in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 11 recent midwifery graduates. Participant and interviewer's journals provided supplementary data. The 'constant comparison' approach was used for data analysis. The substantive theory of transcending barriers was generated. Three stages in transcending barriers were identified: Addressing personal attributes, Understanding the 'bigger picture', and finally, 'Evaluating, planning and acting' to provide woman-centred care. An overview of these three stages provides the focus of this article. The theory of transcending barriers provides a new perspective on how newly-graduated midwives deal with applying the philosophy of midwifery in their first six months of practice. A number of implications for pre and post registration midwifery education and policy development are suggested, as well as recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of empathy in psychiatric practice: constructivist grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Watling, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychiatry has faced significant criticism for overreliance on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and medications with purported disregard for empathetic, humanistic interventions. Aims To develop an empirically based qualitative theory explaining how psychiatrists use empathy in day-to-day practice, to inform practice and teaching approaches. Method This study used constructivist grounded theory methodology to ask (a) ‘How do psychiatrists understand and use empathetic engagement in the day-to-day practice of psychiatry?’ and (b) ‘How do psychiatrists learn and teach the skills of empathetic engagement?’ The authors interviewed 17 academic psychiatrists and 4 residents and developed a theory by iterative coding of the collected data. Results This constructivist grounded theory of empathetic engagement in psychiatric practice considered three major elements: relational empathy, transactional empathy and instrumental empathy. As one moves from relational empathy through transactional empathy to instrumental empathy, the actions of the psychiatrist become more deliberate and interventional. Conclusions Participants were described by empathy-based interventions which are presented in a theory of ’empathetic engagement’. This is in contrast to a paradigm that sees psychiatry as purely based on neurobiological interventions, with psychotherapy and interpersonal interventions as completely separate activities from day-to-day psychiatric practice. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:28243463

  13. Assertiveness process of Iranian nurse leaders: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudirad, Gholamhossein; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Vanaki, Zohreh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the assertiveness process in Iranian nursing leaders. A qualitative design based on the grounded theory approach was used to collect and analyze the assertiveness experiences of 12 nurse managers working in four hospitals in Iran. Purposeful and theoretical sampling methods were employed for the data collection and selection of the participants, and semistructured interviews were held. During the data analysis, 17 categories emerged and these were categorized into three themes: "task generation", "assertiveness behavior", and "executive agents". From the participants' experiences, assertiveness theory emerged as being fundamental to the development of a schematic model describing nursing leadership behaviors. From another aspect, religious beliefs also played a fundamental role in Iranian nursing leadership assertiveness. It was concluded that bringing a change in the current support from top managers and improving self-learning are required in order to enhance the assertiveness of the nursing leaders in Iran.

  14. Understanding Jordanian Psychiatric Nurses' Smoking Behaviors: A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Aldiabat, Khaldoun M.; Clinton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Smoking is prevalent in psychiatric facilities among staff and patients. However, there have been few studies of how contextual factors in specific cultures influence rates of smoking and the health promotion role of psychiatric nurses. This paper reports the findings of a classical grounded theory study conducted to understand how contextual factors in the workplace influences the smoking behaviors of Jordanian psychiatric nurses (JPNs). Method. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with a sample of eight male JPNs smokers at a psychiatric facility in Amman, Jordan. Findings. Constant comparative analysis identified becoming a heavy smoker as a psychosocial process characterized by four sub-categories: normalization of smoking; living in ambiguity; experiencing workplace conflict; and, facing up to workplace stressors. Conclusion. Specific contextual workplace factors require targeted smoking cessation interventions if JPNs are to receive the help they need to reduce health risks associated with heavy smoking. PMID:23844286

  15. Method for Studying a Human Ecology: An Adaptation of the Grounded Theory Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaslin, Mark L.; Scott, Karen Wilson

    Constructivist grounded theory is focused on discovery through understanding data in a human ecology. The procedures outlined in this paper are designed to guide the beginning theorist through the process of creating a theory grounded in data that is a product of the human ecology under study. These new procedures extend grounded theory, providing…

  16. Multidisciplinary collaboration reporting child abuse: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Fetzer, Susan; Chen, Yi-Wen; Yeh, Lily; Huang, Mei-Chih

    2010-12-01

    The complexity of reporting child abuse requires multidisciplinary collaboration. The dynamics of a mulidisciplinary team in reporting child abuse which begins the process of child protection remains unclear. To explore the experiences and perspectives of professionals working with other disciplines when reporting child abuse. A qualitative study with grounded theory was used. Participants were recruited from hospitals, the Department of Child Welfare, and schools in Taiwan. Twenty-one professionals from four disciplines agreed to participate. The purposive sample included 5 physicians, 5 nurses, 6 social workers, and 5 teachers. Individual interviews were conducted to explore the experiences in reporting child abuse of a purposive sample of 21 professionals including physicians, nurses, social workers, and teachers. Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Categorical themes were developed that reflected reporters' experiences and perspectives in reporting child abuse. The professionals involved in reported child abuse are described as participants in a relay race. Four themes emerged from the interviews: running the relay race of child protection; reporters as runners with expectations of runners' characteristics and the order of runners; carrying the baton of a mandatory report described using baton characteristics while running in space and time; and team chemistry including trust of and communication with teammates. Systems that encourage and promote team building and collaboration among child abuse reporters are needed. Success in the race to report child abuse across professional disciplines includes runners' skills, speed, a light and easy to carry baton, and team chemistry. As a team of child abuse reporters, when performance is enhanced by practice, the team's success will be measured as victories in child protection. The paradigm of individual disciplines developing their own goals, designing their own training, and practicing within

  17. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was “what is going on in the field of dying today?” What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient’s death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on “gut feelings” - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia

  18. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Thulesius, Hans O; Scott, Helen; Helgesson, Gert; Lynöe, Niels

    2013-03-13

    Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was "what is going on in the field of dying today?" What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient's death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on "gut feelings" - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia or PAS, is seen in Europe and North

  19. Academic learning for specialist nurses: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Millberg, Lena German; Berg, Linda; Brämberg, Elisabeth Björk; Nordström, Gun; Ohlén, Joakim

    2014-11-01

    The aim was to explore the major concerns of specialist nurses pertaining to academic learning during their education and initial professional career. Specialist nursing education changed in tandem with the European educational reform in 2007. At the same time, greater demands were made on the healthcare services to provide evidence-based and safe patient-care. These changes have influenced specialist nursing programmes and consequently the profession. Grounded Theory guided the study. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire with open-ended questions distributed at the end of specialist nursing programmes in 2009 and 2010. Five universities were included. Further, individual, pair and group interviews were used to collect data from 12 specialist nurses, 5-14 months after graduation. A major concern for specialist nurses was that academic learning should be "meaningful" for their professional future. The specialist nurses' "meaningful academic learning process" was characterised by an ambivalence of partly believing in and partly being hesitant about the significance of academic learning and partly receiving but also lacking support. Specialist nurses were influenced by factors in two areas: curriculum and healthcare context. They felt that the outcome of contribution to professional confidence was critical in making academic learning meaningful.

  20. The journey into fatherhood: A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Sansiriphun, Nantaporn; Kantaruksa, Kannika; Klunklin, Areewan; Baosuang, Chavee; Liamtrirat, Saowanee

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the process of transition into fatherhood for Thai men from childbirth to the postpartum period. Forty-one first-time Thai fathers were voluntarily recruited from two hospitals in Chiang Mai, Thailand, from December 2012 to June 2013. In-depth interviews were used to collect the data, which were analyzed based on grounded theory methodology. The basic social process that emerged as the core category was termed: "the journey into fatherhood." This process was divided into three phases: labor, delivery, and family beginning. Within this process, there were various situations, challenges, and pressures, which caused many changes of mood and feelings for the first-time fathers. Throughout this process, they applied various strategies to manage their concerns and needs, in order to develop into masterly fathers. Identifying the process of the journey into fatherhood provides nurses and midwives insight into the new fathers' experiences, which will enable them to be more sensitive, respectful, and effective caregivers. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Staying married after stroke: a constructivist grounded theory qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sharon; Keating, Norah C; Wilson, Donna M

    2017-07-10

    Marriages are one of the most powerful predictors of health and longevity, yet research in stroke has focused separately on survivors' experience of impairments and how spouses deal with caregiving. The purpose of this constructivist grounded theory study was to understand the key themes related to reconstruction or breakdown of marriages after stroke. In semi-structured interviews, 18 couples in long-term marriages discussed how their marriages were reconstructed or broke down after one member of the couple returned home after being hospitalized for a stroke. Constant comparison methods were used to compare the experiences of 12 couples in which both partners indicated their relationship was going well with 6 couples who either separated or remained in parallel marriages. Analysis revealed an overarching process of reconstructing compatible role-identities and three themes related to the reconstruction or breakdown of the marital identity: feeling overwhelmed, resolving conflict, and perceiving value in the marriage. Our findings highlight that marriages are contexts in which survivors and spouses can recalibrate their role-identities. Marriage relationships are not peripheral to survivors' and spouses' outcomes after stroke; rather, marriage is fundamental to the management of impairments and to the well-being of the couple.

  2. Becoming empowered: a grounded theory study of Aboriginal women's agency.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Roxanne

    2011-07-01

    The study aim was to identify the process underlying the performance of agency for urban-dwelling Aboriginal women in contemporary Australian society with a view to promoting social change for Aboriginal people. Grounded theory methods were used in the conduct of 20 life history narrative interviews with Aboriginal women from across fourteen different language groups. Analysis identified a specific ecological model of Aboriginal women's empowerment, defined as "becoming empowered". "Performing Aboriginality" was identified as the core category and encompassed the women's concern for carving out a fulfilling life and carrying out their perceived responsibilities as Aboriginal women. While confirming much of the extant literature on empowerment, the analysis also offered unique contributions--a spiritual sensibility, cultural competence and an ethics of care and morality. This sheds new light on the creative ways in which Aboriginal women "disrupt" discourses and create alternate modes of existence. The findings have implications for improving quality of life for Aboriginal people by informing the practical development and delivery of social and health policies and programs.

  3. Minority nursing student success: A grounded theory case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mister, Brenda J.

    There has been a dramatic increase in the nation's racial and ethnic minority populations over recent years. This increase is placing a higher demand on the health care industry to provide culturally competent care to these diverse populations. This challenge is met with yet another problem as the nation faces a critical shortage of nurses, particularly minority nurses. This shortage is only expected to worsen over the next several years. As schools of nursing across the country are being asked to increase the number of nursing program graduates, specifically minorities, they are confronted with a double edged sword as retention rates are decreasing, and attrition rates are increasing. This is particularly troublesome when many racial and ethnic minority nursing students do not graduate. This qualitative study was implemented to assess and understand the perceived educational experiences of racial and ethnic minority nursing students enrolled in a rural community college nursing program on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Eight voluntary nursing students who identified themselves as either a racial or ethnic minority participated in the study. Data were collected by: individual audio-taped interview sessions; audio-taped focus group sessions; and documentation of field notes. Participants also provided demographic information and were asked to provide a brief written response to a scenario regarding increasing the recruitment and retention rates of minority nursing students. All data were analyzed utilizing the constant comparative method. Results of the study revealed six different themes: personal support systems and peer relationships; college services and academic resources; faculty support; cultural understanding versus cultural insensitivity; personal attributes of self-efficacy/advice for future nursing students; and suggestions for college and nursing program improvement. After the major themes were examined one central theme, a grounded theory, was born. The

  4. Student nurse socialisation in compassionate practice: a Grounded Theory study.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Katherine; Horton, Khim; Smith, Pam

    2012-10-01

    Compassionate practice is expected of Registered Nurses (RNs) around the world while at the same time remaining a contested concept. Nevertheless, student nurses are expected to enact compassionate practice in order to become RNs. In order for this to happen they require professional socialisation within environments where compassion can flourish. However, there is concern that student nurse socialisation is not enabling compassion to flourish and be maintained upon professional qualification. In order to investigate this further, a glaserian Grounded Theory study was undertaken using in-depth, digitally recorded interviews with student nurses (n=19) at a university in the north of England during 2009 and 2010. Interviews were also undertaken with their nurse teachers (n=5) and data from National Health Service (NHS) patients (n=72,000) and staff (n=290,000) surveys were used to build a contextual picture of the student experience. Within the selected findings presented, analysis of the data indicates that students aspire to the professional ideal of compassionate practice although they have concerns about how compassionate practice might fit within the RN role because of constraints on RN practice. Students feel vulnerable to dissonance between professional ideals and practice reality. They experience uncertainty about their future role and about opportunities to engage in compassionate practice. Students manage their vulnerability and uncertainty by balancing between an intention to uphold professional ideals and challenge constraints, and a realisation they might need to adapt their ideals and conform to constraints. This study demonstrates that socialisation in compassionate practice is compromised by dissonance between professional idealism and practice realism. Realignment between the reality of practice and professional ideals, and fostering student resilience, are required if students are to be successfully socialised in compassionate practice and enabled

  5. Generating Curriculum Theory Through Grounded Theory Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehrke, Nathalie J.; Parker, Walter C.

    The purpose of this paper is threefold: to describe grounded theory research strategies, to present a summary of several studies in education that have followed this approach, and to explore the potential uses of the grounded theory techniques in curriculum theory generation. The paper is arranged into six parts. In the first and second parts of…

  6. Satisfaction with College Major: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milsom, Amy; Coughlin, Julie

    2015-01-01

    All college students must eventually choose and complete a major. Many switch majors, and some change it multiple times. Despite extensive literature addressing factors that influence students' initial choice of major, few scholars have examined students' experiences after enrollment in a selected major. In this study, we used a grounded theory…

  7. Exploring Attitude Transformation: A Grounded Theory Study of Romanian Teachers of Roma Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Laura Estella

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic grounded theory study was to explore the process of change in teacher attitudes toward including Roma ("Gypsy") students in non-segregated schools in Romania. The theories guiding this study included Mezirow's (1991, 2000) theory of transformation, Gay's (2002, 2013) theory of culturally responsive…

  8. Exploring Attitude Transformation: A Grounded Theory Study of Romanian Teachers of Roma Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Laura Estella

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic grounded theory study was to explore the process of change in teacher attitudes toward including Roma ("Gypsy") students in non-segregated schools in Romania. The theories guiding this study included Mezirow's (1991, 2000) theory of transformation, Gay's (2002, 2013) theory of culturally responsive…

  9. Living with coeliac disease: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Rose, C; Howard, R

    2014-02-01

    Coeliac disease can be controlled only through adherence to a gluten-free diet. This diet is highly restrictive and can be challenging to maintain. It has been linked with elevated levels of psychological distress, including depression, anxiety and social phobia. Narratives on living with coeliac disease were written by 130 adult members of Coeliac UK (mean age 52.7 years; mean time since diagnosis 10.2 years; 67% sample female; 28% male). Qualitative analysis using grounded theory methods identified five key categories: living with widespread ignorance; social invisibility; creating a coeliac community; a changed identity; grief - and accepting the trade-off. A psychosocial model of living with coeliac disease was constructed from the findings, the central category of which was the changed identity of those diagnosed with the condition. Grief was experienced in relation to a loss of the former diet, changed personal and social identities, loss of social confidence and loss of social activities. Grief was generally mitigated over time as adjustments were made to changes in identity and lifestyle. Creating (or becoming part of) a coeliac community was a strategy enabling those with coeliac disease to re-establish their identities and increase social recognition and acceptance of the condition. Gluten-free living entails a substantial restriction of food choice. The losses and changes entailed impact on the personal and social identities of those living with coeliac disease, and on the behaviour of others towards them. Psychosocial interventions focussed on facilitating coping and adjustment may benefit those experiencing difficulties. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  10. Is it really theoretical? A review of sampling in grounded theory studies in nursing journals.

    PubMed

    McCrae, Niall; Purssell, Edward

    2016-10-01

    Grounded theory is a distinct method of qualitative research, where core features are theoretical sampling and constant comparative analysis. However, inconsistent application of these activities has been observed in published studies. This review assessed the use of theoretical sampling in grounded theory studies in nursing journals. An adapted systematic review was conducted. Three leading nursing journals (2010-2014) were searched for studies stating grounded theory as the method. Sampling was assessed using a concise rating tool. A high proportion (86%) of the 134 articles described an iterative process of data collection and analysis. However, half of the studies did not demonstrate theoretical sampling, with many studies declaring or indicating a purposive sampling approach throughout. Specific reporting guidelines for grounded theory studies should be developed to ensure that study reports describe an iterative process of fieldwork and theoretical development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The use of grounded theory in studies of nurses and midwives' coping processes: a systematic literature search.

    PubMed

    Cheer, Karen; MacLaren, David; Tsey, Komla

    2015-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly using grounded theory methodologies to study the professional experience of nurses and midwives. To review common grounded theory characteristics and research design quality as described in grounded theory studies of coping strategies used by nurses and midwives. A systematic database search for 2005-2015 identified and assessed grounded theory characteristics from 16 studies. Study quality was assessed using a modified Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Grounded theory was considered a methodology or a set of methods, able to be used within different nursing and midwifery contexts. Specific research requirements determined the common grounded theory characteristics used in different studies. Most researchers did not clarify their epistemological and theoretical perspectives. To improve research design and trustworthiness of grounded theory studies in nursing and midwifery, researchers need to state their theoretical stance and clearly articulate their use of grounded theory methodology and characteristics in research reporting.

  12. Exploring Knowledge Exchange between Senior and Future Leaders: A Grounded-Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzaga, Stephanie Young

    2009-01-01

    A grounded theory study examined senior leaders methods of knowledge sharing with junior leaders in a small commercial mortgage company. The study was designed to develop an emergent theory to explain the cultural elements that influenced the methods leaders used to transfer knowledge to junior people. The study identified a systemic value of…

  13. Exploring Knowledge Exchange between Senior and Future Leaders: A Grounded-Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzaga, Stephanie Young

    2009-01-01

    A grounded theory study examined senior leaders methods of knowledge sharing with junior leaders in a small commercial mortgage company. The study was designed to develop an emergent theory to explain the cultural elements that influenced the methods leaders used to transfer knowledge to junior people. The study identified a systemic value of…

  14. Being There: A Grounded-Theory Study of Student Perceptions of Instructor Presence in Online Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeler, William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of experienced individual online students at a community college in Texas in order to generate a substantive theory of community college student perceptions of online instructor presence. This qualitative study used Active Interviewing and followed a Straussian grounded-theory design to…

  15. Reinventing Grounded Theory: Some Questions about Theory, Ground and Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gary; James, David

    2006-01-01

    Grounded theory's popularity persists after three decades of broad-ranging critique. In this article three problematic notions are discussed--"theory," "ground" and "discovery"--which linger in the continuing use and development of grounded theory procedures. It is argued that far from providing the epistemic security promised by grounded theory,…

  16. Shifting Ground(s): Surveying the contested terrain of LGBT studies and queer theory.

    PubMed

    Lovaas, Karen E; Elia, John P; Yep, Gust A

    2006-01-01

    While queer theory initially grew out of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) studies, there are numerous points of contestation between these two approaches, originating mostly from their disparate positions on (sexual) identity politics. To describe, analyze, and contextualize this contested terrain, we begin this piece by providing some historical notes on LGBT studies and queer theory. Next, we turn to an explication of some enduring tensions to identify the criticisms generated by LGBT scholars toward queer theory approaches and vice versa. What follows is our rationale for producing LGBT Studies and Queer Theory: New Conflicts, Collaborations, and Contested Terrain. In this section we discuss how this project originated and the specific objectives we hope this volume will meet. The contributions of the individual articles in this volume are identified and summarized next. Finally, in the context of LGBT studies' and queer theory's similar qualities and points of difference, we offer ideas for potential directions of scholarship in the future that would explore three major areas: identity and difference; community and community organizing; and political engagement and social change.

  17. The Remodeling Process: A Grounded Theory Study of Perceptions of Treatment among Adult Male Incest Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheela, Rochelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted grounded theory study to explore incest offender perceptions of treatment to generate explanatory theory of sexual abuse treatment process. Findings from theoretical sampling of 20 adult male incest offenders revealed that offenders felt remodeling process occurred as they faced discovery of their abuse and went through treatment.…

  18. Culturally Responsive Teaching in the Context of Mathematics: A Grounded Theory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, Emily P.; Adams, Thomasenia L.

    2012-01-01

    In this grounded theory case study, four interconnected, foundational cornerstones of culturally responsive mathematics teaching (CRMT), communication, knowledge, trust/relationships, and constant reflection/revision, were systematically unearthed to develop an initial working theory of CRMT that directly informs classroom practice. These…

  19. Grounded theory in music therapy research.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Clare

    2012-01-01

    Grounded theory is one of the most common methodologies used in constructivist (qualitative) music therapy research. Researchers use the term "grounded theory" when denoting varying research designs and theoretical outcomes. This may be challenging for novice researchers when considering whether grounded theory is appropriate for their research phenomena. This paper examines grounded theory within music therapy research. Grounded theory is briefly described, including some of its "contested" ideas. A literature search was conducted using the descriptor "music therapy and grounded theory" in Pubmed, CINAHL PsychlNFO, SCOPUS, ERIC (CSA), Web of Science databases, and a music therapy monograph series. A descriptive analysis was performed on the uncovered studies to examine researched phenomena, grounded theory methods used, and how findings were presented, Thirty music therapy research projects were found in refereed journals and monographs from 1993 to "in press." The Strauss and Corbin approach to grounded theory dominates the field. Descriptors to signify grounded theory components in the studies greatly varied. Researchers have used partial or complete grounded theory methods to examine clients', family members', staff, music therapy "overhearers," music therapists', and students' experiences, as well as music therapy creative products and professional views, issues, and literature. Seven grounded theories were offered. It is suggested that grounded theory researchers clarify what and who inspired their design, why partial grounded theory methods were used (when relevant), and their ontology. By elucidating assumptions underpinning the data collection, analysis, and findings' contribution, researchers will continue to improve music therapy research using grounded theory methods.

  20. Informed Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  1. Informed Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  2. Rigour and grounded theory research.

    PubMed

    Chiovitti, Rosalina F; Piran, Niva

    2003-11-01

    Grounded theory methodology is a suitable qualitative research approach for clinical inquiry into nursing practice, leading to theory development in nursing. Given the variations in, and subjectivity attached to, the manner in which qualitative research is carried out, it is important for researchers to explain the process of how a theory about a nursing phenomenon was generated. Similarly, when grounded theory research reports are reviewed for clinical use, nurses need to look for researchers' explanations of their inquiry process. The focus of this article is to discuss the practical application of grounded theory procedures as they relate to rigour. Reflecting on examples from a grounded theory research study, we suggest eight methods of research practice to delineate further Beck's schema for ensuring, credibility, auditability and fittingness, which are all components of rigour. The eight methods of research practice used to enhance rigour in the course of conducting a grounded theory research study were: (1) let participants guide the inquiry process; (2) check the theoretical construction generated against participants' meanings of the phenomenon; (3) use participants' actual words in the theory; (4) articulate the researcher's personal views and insights about the phenomenon explored; (5) specify the criteria built into the researcher's thinking; (6) specify how and why participants in the study were selected; (7) delineate the scope of the research; and (8) describe how the literature relates to each category which emerged in the theory. The eight methods of research practice should be of use to those in nursing research, management, practice and education in enhancing rigour during the research process and for critiquing published grounded theory research reports.

  3. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  4. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  5. Leading Critically: A Grounded Theory of Applied Critical Thinking in Leadership Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jekins, Daniel M.; Cutchens, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the development of a grounded theory of applied critical thinking in leadership studies and examines how student-centered experiential learning in leadership education bridged critical thinking with action. Over three semester undergraduate students in an upper level leadership studies course at a large four-year public…

  6. The Factors That Influence Bureaucracy and Professionalism in Schools: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koybasi, Fatma; Ugurlu, Celal Teyyar

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the factors that influence the interaction between bureaucracy and professionalism in schools and to develop a model of bureaucracy-professionalism interaction. This is a qualitative study carried out in grounded theory model. The study group consisted of 10 male and 10 female teachers who were working in Sivas…

  7. The Development and Support of Teacher Leaders in Ohio: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jennifer Elaine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explore and conceptualize how teacher leaders are trained, developed, and supported both formally and informally to be effective in their roles. The study furthered examined teachers perceptions of the Ohio teacher leader endorsement and its impact on them as teacher leaders. The study was conducted…

  8. The Development and Support of Teacher Leaders in Ohio: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jennifer Elaine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explore and conceptualize how teacher leaders are trained, developed, and supported both formally and informally to be effective in their roles. The study furthered examined teachers perceptions of the Ohio teacher leader endorsement and its impact on them as teacher leaders. The study was conducted…

  9. Leading Critically: A Grounded Theory of Applied Critical Thinking in Leadership Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jekins, Daniel M.; Cutchens, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the development of a grounded theory of applied critical thinking in leadership studies and examines how student-centered experiential learning in leadership education bridged critical thinking with action. Over three semester undergraduate students in an upper level leadership studies course at a large four-year public…

  10. Instilling Foundation Behaviors of Professional Practice in Undergraduate Athletic Training Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to investigate the implementation of the "Foundational Behaviors of Professional Practice" in undergraduate athletic training education program curriculums accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education [CAATE]. Specifically, this study examined the educational and…

  11. Graphic Novels as Great Books: A Grounded Theory Study of Faculty Teaching Graphic Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Boniecki, Jeannie

    2013-01-01

    This Glaserian grounded theory study, through conceptual coding of interviews and course syllabi, aimed at exploring the motivations and aspirations university professors had when they offered courses dedicated to the study of graphic novels. As a result, the emergence of the graphic novel as a vital literary influence in 21st-century academia was…

  12. Graphic Novels as Great Books: A Grounded Theory Study of Faculty Teaching Graphic Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Boniecki, Jeannie

    2013-01-01

    This Glaserian grounded theory study, through conceptual coding of interviews and course syllabi, aimed at exploring the motivations and aspirations university professors had when they offered courses dedicated to the study of graphic novels. As a result, the emergence of the graphic novel as a vital literary influence in 21st-century academia was…

  13. A Grounded Theory Study of Effective Global Leadership Development Strategies: Perspectives from Brazil, India, and Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokkesmoe, Karen Jane

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study focuses on global leadership and global leadership development strategies from the perspective of people from three developing countries, Brazil, India, and Nigeria. The study explores conceptualizations of global leadership, the skills required to lead effectively in global contexts, and recommended…

  14. Discovering Shared Experiences of Second Generation Community College Employees: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studebaker, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The second generation community college employee had not been a target population of any previous research in the field of higher education. This study added to a broader understanding of employees, their various characteristics, and the implications of those characteristics. The purpose of this study was to develop a grounded theory defining the…

  15. Instilling Foundation Behaviors of Professional Practice in Undergraduate Athletic Training Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to investigate the implementation of the "Foundational Behaviors of Professional Practice" in undergraduate athletic training education program curriculums accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education [CAATE]. Specifically, this study examined the educational and…

  16. Discovering Shared Experiences of Second Generation Community College Employees: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studebaker, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The second generation community college employee had not been a target population of any previous research in the field of higher education. This study added to a broader understanding of employees, their various characteristics, and the implications of those characteristics. The purpose of this study was to develop a grounded theory defining the…

  17. A Grounded Theory Study of Effective Global Leadership Development Strategies: Perspectives from Brazil, India, and Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokkesmoe, Karen Jane

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study focuses on global leadership and global leadership development strategies from the perspective of people from three developing countries, Brazil, India, and Nigeria. The study explores conceptualizations of global leadership, the skills required to lead effectively in global contexts, and recommended…

  18. The Role of Professional School Counselors in Working with Students in Gangs: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Jennifer Cahoon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a grounded theory that contributed to the understanding of the professional school counselor's role at the secondary school level in working with students in gangs. The study explored the role of the professional school counselor from the first person perspective of the professional school counselor and…

  19. The Role of Professional School Counselors in Working with Students in Gangs: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Jennifer Cahoon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a grounded theory that contributed to the understanding of the professional school counselor's role at the secondary school level in working with students in gangs. The study explored the role of the professional school counselor from the first person perspective of the professional school counselor and…

  20. Methodological issues in grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Cutcliffe, J R

    2000-06-01

    Examination of the qualitative methodological literature shows that there appear to be conflicting opinions and unresolved issues regarding the nature and process of grounded theory. Researchers proposing to utilize this method would therefore be wise to consider these conflicting opinions. This paper therefore identifies and attempts to address four key issues, namely, sampling, creativity and reflexivity, the use of literature, and precision within grounded theory. The following recommendations are made. When utilizing a grounded method researchers need to consider their research question, clarify what level of theory is likely to be induced from their study, and then decide when they intend to access and introduce the second body of literature. They should acknowledge that in the early stages of data collection, some purposeful sampling appears to occur. In their search for conceptually dense theory, grounded theory researchers may wish to free themselves from the constraints that limit their use of creativity and tacit knowledge. Furthermore, the interests of researchers might be served by attention to issues of precision including, avoiding method slurring, ensuring theoretical coding occurs, and using predominantly one method of grounded theory while explaining and describing any deviation away from this chosen method. Such mindfulness and the resulting methodological rigour is likely to increase the overall quality of the inquiry and enhance the credibility of the findings.

  1. Learning the Ropes: A Grounded Theory Study of Children Crossing Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Patricia E.

    2012-01-01

    Educators in American public school settings have tried to determine the best practices to reach an increasingly diverse student population. In this qualitative study using grounded theory design, 13 individuals who have graduated from high schools in northern Virginia were asked to recollect their experiences as they moved through the dual…

  2. Motivating and Inhibiting Factors in Online Gambling Behaviour: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Abby; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    To date, there has been very little empirical research examining why people gamble online or--just as importantly--why they do not gamble online. A grounded theory study examining the motivating and inhibiting factors in online gambling was carried out. The sample comprised 15 online gamblers, 14 offline gamblers, and 11 non-gamblers, and resulted…

  3. Motivating and Inhibiting Factors in Online Gambling Behaviour: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Abby; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    To date, there has been very little empirical research examining why people gamble online or--just as importantly--why they do not gamble online. A grounded theory study examining the motivating and inhibiting factors in online gambling was carried out. The sample comprised 15 online gamblers, 14 offline gamblers, and 11 non-gamblers, and resulted…

  4. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  5. A Grounded Theory Study of the Relationship between E-Mail and Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camargo, Marta Rocha

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: This study consisted of a qualitative investigation into the role of e-mail in work-related burnout among high technology employees working full time and on-site for Internet, hardware, and software companies. Method: Grounded theory methodology was used to provide a systemic approach in categorising, sorting, and analysing data…

  6. Ganas of Showing the Way: A Grounded Theory Study of Hispanic Presidents in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios Gutierrez, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, based on classical grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967, 1971; Glaser, 1978, 1992, 1993, 1994a, 1994b, 1996, 1998, 2001, 2003, 2004), second generation Hispanic presidents and chancellors in higher education were studied to discover how they continually try to resolve second culture-coping challenges, the…

  7. Looping as an Educational Practice in Deaf Education: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Yvonne Theresa Artis

    2009-01-01

    The current qualitative study, using a grounded theory approach, explores the benefits of looping as an instructional practice by comparing the success of deaf and hard-of-hearing students in looping classrooms to the success of hearing students in looping classrooms. Limited information is currently available about the success of looping as an…

  8. Ganas of Showing the Way: A Grounded Theory Study of Hispanic Presidents in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios Gutierrez, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, based on classical grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967, 1971; Glaser, 1978, 1992, 1993, 1994a, 1994b, 1996, 1998, 2001, 2003, 2004), second generation Hispanic presidents and chancellors in higher education were studied to discover how they continually try to resolve second culture-coping challenges, the…

  9. Learning the Ropes: A Grounded Theory Study of Children Crossing Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Patricia E.

    2012-01-01

    Educators in American public school settings have tried to determine the best practices to reach an increasingly diverse student population. In this qualitative study using grounded theory design, 13 individuals who have graduated from high schools in northern Virginia were asked to recollect their experiences as they moved through the dual…

  10. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  11. Grounded Theory: Research as Praxis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnotto, Joyce Neff

    In the mid-1960s, social scientists Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss developed grounded theory as a systematic and rigorous method of qualitative data analysis leading to "the discovery of theory from data." In grounded theory, the researcher applies a set of coding procedures to the data until a provisional theory emerges inductively.…

  12. Implications of male circumcision for women in Papua New Guinea: a transformational grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Mills, Jane; Tommbe, Rachael; MacLaren, David; Speare, Rick; McBride, William J H

    2017-07-27

    Male circumcision reduces the risk of female-to-male transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and is being explored for HIV prevention in Papua New Guinea (PNG). PNG has a concentrated HIV epidemic which is largely heterosexually transmitted. There are a diverse range of male circumcision and penile modification practices across PNG. Exploring the implications of male circumcision for women in PNG is important to inform evidence-based health policy that will result in positive, intended consequences. The transformational grounded theory study incorporated participatory action research and decolonizing methodologies. In Phase One, an existing data set from a male circumcision study of 861 male and 519 female participants was theoretically sampled and analyzed for women's understanding and experience of male circumcision. In Phase Two of the study, primary data were co-generated with 64 women in seven interpretive focus group discussions and 11 semi-structured interviews to develop a theoretical model of the processes used by women to manage the outcomes of male circumcision. In Phase Three participants assisted to refine the developing transformational grounded theory and identify actions required to improve health. Many women know a lot about male circumcision and penile modification and the consequences for themselves, their families and communities. Their ability to act on this knowledge is determined by numerous social, cultural and economic factors. A transformational grounded theory was developed with connecting categories of: Women Know a Lot, Increasing Knowledge; Increasing Options; and Acting on Choices. Properties and dimensions of each category are represented in the model, along with the intervening condition of Safety. The condition of Safety contextualises the overarching lived realty for women in PNG, enables the inclusion of men in the transformational grounded theory model, and helps to explain relationships between men and women. The

  13. Tailoring reablement: A grounded theory study of establishing reablement in a community setting in Norway.

    PubMed

    Moe, Cathrine; Brinchmann, Berit Støre

    2017-06-27

    Reablement is an interprofessional, home-based rehabilitation service that aims to enable senior residents to cope with everyday life and to prevent functional impairments. Systematic accounts of what practitioners actually do when establishing reablement are lacking. This study aims to generate a grounded theory of practitioners' patterns of action when establishing reablement. The study is located in Norway, and grounded theory is the methodological approach. Data were collected from January 2014 to August 2016 through participant observations, focus group interviews and individual interviews. Informants are municipal healthcare employees in different organisational areas associated with the process of establishing reablement services (managers of conventional home care and representatives from the administration and service-provider offices). Altogether, 17 individuals are interviewed. The empirical data are analysed several times using open, selective and theoretical coding. The grounded theory, "tailoring reablement," includes three phases-replicating, adapting and establishing-and the strategies of collaborating, developing knowledge, habituating and filtering. The theory of tailoring reablement also includes the impact of the contextual factors. The study seeks to bridge the gap between research and practice. The theory of tailoring reablement emerges from an inductive approach and theorises participants' actions. The theory focuses on the phases from innovation to implementation. Establishing a new service model in a complex welfare setting requires a wide range of actors and agencies. Tailoring reablement also requires flexibility and professional autonomy. It is important to create terms and conditions for this within a stringent health and care service. The insights of this study have implications for practice development of reablement and can fit other public sector fields. © 2017 The Authors. Health and Social Care in the Community Published by John

  14. Stigma and treatment delay in first-episode psychosis: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Lauren; Carter, Tandrea; Leiner, Amy S.; Bergner, Erin; Thompson, Nancy J.; Compton, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Aim A longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is associated with greater morbidity in the early course of schizophrenia. This formative, hypothesis-generating study explored the effects of stigma, as perceived by family members, on DUP. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 African American family members directly involved in treatment initiation for a relative with first-episode psychosis. Data analysis relied on a grounded theory approach. A testable model informed by constructs of Link's modified labelling theory was developed. Results Four main themes were identified, including: (i) society's beliefs about mental illnesses; (ii) families' beliefs about mental illnesses; (iii) fear of the label of a mental illness; and (iv) a raised threshold for the initiation of treatment. A grounded theory model was developed as a schematic representation of the themes and subthemes uncovered in the family members' narratives. Conclusions The findings suggest that due to fear of the official label of a mental illness, certain coping mechanisms may be adopted by families, which may result in a raised threshold for treatment initiation, and ultimately treatment delay. If the relationships within the grounded theory model are confirmed by further qualitative and quantitative research, public educational programs could be developed with the aim of reducing this threshold, ultimately decreasing DUP. PMID:20199480

  15. A case study using grounded theory of environmental education in an alternative school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyle, Laurina Isabella

    This study examines the appropriate practices of an alternative school in west Tennessee in educating middle and high school students in long- and short-term alternative school placement. The participants included 23 students in grades 7-12 who had been classified as disruptive or failing academically, thus requiring intervention. The study's aim was to determine the effect of environmental education on the academic progress of these students. Data were obtained through multi-triangulation methodology and analyzed by grounded theory methodology. Four concepts emerged: social dynamics, relevance, conversion, and affirmation. A grounded theory for effective alternative education through environmental education based on the emergent concepts is proposed, including a new learning framework from which alternative school educators can design curricula and instructional units.

  16. A model to explain suicide by self-immolation among Iranian women: A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Rezaie, Leeba; Shakeri, Jalal; Schwebel, David C

    2015-11-01

    Self-immolation is a common method of suicide among Iranian women. There are several contributing motives for attempting self-immolation, and exploration of the process of self-immolation incidents will help interventionists and clinicians develop prevention programs. A grounded theory study using face-to-face, recorded interviews was conducted with surviving self-immolated patients (n=14), their close relatives (n=5), and medical staff (n=8) in Kermanshah, Iran. Data were analyzed using constant comparison in open, axial, and selective coding stages. A conceptual model was developed to explain the relationships among the main categories extracted through the grounded theory study. Family conflicts emerged as the core category. Cultural context of self-immolated patients offered a contextual condition. Other important categories linked to the core category were mental health problems, distinct characteristics of the suicidal method, and self-immolation as a threat. The role of mental health problems as a causal condition was detected in different levels of the self-immolation process. Finally, adverse consequences of self-immolation emerged as having important impact. The conceptual model, derived through grounded theory study, can guide design of prevention programs. The pivotal role of family conflicts should be emphasized in mental health interventions. The impact of adverse consequences of self-immolation on further suicidal processes necessitates post-suicide prevention programs. Further research to design specific interventions is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. A Grounded Theory Study on Journeying through the Shield to Sacredness: "Ni'hokaa' Diyin Dine'e Idliini Dolzin"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    In doing a grounded theory study, the researcher does not identify a hypothesis, formulate research questions, or state a specific problem at the beginning of the research. Grounded theory research begins with data collection, minimizing preconceptions about outcomes to the greatest extent possible. I began my research with this attitude of not…

  18. A Grounded Theory Study on Journeying through the Shield to Sacredness: "Ni'hokaa' Diyin Dine'e Idliini Dolzin"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    In doing a grounded theory study, the researcher does not identify a hypothesis, formulate research questions, or state a specific problem at the beginning of the research. Grounded theory research begins with data collection, minimizing preconceptions about outcomes to the greatest extent possible. I began my research with this attitude of not…

  19. Psychotherapists' spiritual, religious, atheist or agnostic identity and their practice of psychotherapy: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Magaldi-Dopman, Danielle; Park-Taylor, Jennie; Ponterotto, Joseph G

    2011-05-01

    In this present grounded theory study, 16 experienced psychologists, who practiced from varied theoretical orientations and came from diverse religious/spiritual/nonreligious backgrounds, explored their personal religious/spiritual/nonreligious identity development journeys, their experiences with clients' religious/spiritual content in psychotherapy sessions, and how their identity may have influenced the way they interacted with religious/spiritual material during sessions. Results revealed that psychologists' spiritual/religious/nonreligious identity is conflicted and complex and that their academic and clinical training did not provide sufficient opportunity to examine how this may affect their therapeutic work. A tentative grounded theory emerged suggesting that psychologists both identified with and were activated by clients' spiritual/religious conflicts and their internal experiences about the spiritual/religious content, both of which presented significant challenges to therapeutic work.

  20. Breaking Ground: A Study of Gestalt Therapy Theory and Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Paul J.

    In both Gestalt therapy and Holland's theory of vocational choice, person-environment interaction receives considerable emphasis. Gestalt therapy theory suggests that people make contact (that is, meet needs) through a characteristic style of interacting with the environment. Holland identifies six personality types in his theory and asserts that…

  1. Grounded theory methodology--narrativity revisited.

    PubMed

    Ruppel, Paul Sebastian; Mey, Günter

    2015-06-01

    This article aims to illuminate the role of narrativity in Grounded Theory Methodology and to explore an approach within Grounded Theory Methodology that is sensitized towards aspects of narrativity. The suggested approach takes into account narrativity as an aspect of the underlying data. It reflects how narrativity could be conceptually integrated and systematically used for shaping the way in which coding, category development and the presentation of results in a Grounded Theory Methodology study proceed.

  2. A symbolic awareness context identified through a grounded theory study of health visiting.

    PubMed

    Cowley, S

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of the study, which is not yet complete, was one of theory building or conceptualization. This was needed because of a lack of information about how health visitors identify which approach to use within any particular situation. An overview of the method of grounded theory explains how data were collected and analysed. Then, one major aspect of the emerging theory--a symbolic awareness context which seems to surround and influence interactions between health visitors and their clients--is outlined. The analysis suggests that, when the interaction is examined in context, any one question, purpose or topic selected by health visitor or client as a specific focus, forms only a relatively small component part of the whole. Strategies which enhance openness and consonance within the context are detailed. The awareness context has implications for health visiting practice and organization.

  3. Finding a balance: a grounded theory study of spirituality in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Walton, Joni

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover what spirituality means to hemodialysis patients and how it influences their lives. Grounded theory qualitative research method was used to discover meaning, provide understanding, and create a beginning substantive theory of spirituality. Four men and 7 women, 36 to 78 years of age, receiving outpatient hemodialysis in the northwestern United States, volunteered to participate in this study. Demographic data were collected and indepth interviews were completed. The Glaserian method of grounded theory was used for data collection and analysis. The central core category of this study was finding a balance, which occurred in the following four phases: (a) confronting mortality, (b) reframing, (c) adjusting to dialysis, and (d) facing the challenge. Categories of spirituality were faith, presence, and receiving and giving back. Participants described spirituality as a life-giving force from within, full of awe, wonder, and solitude, that inspires one to strive for balance in life. Participants validated the description of spirituality, categories, and phases to assure that it captured their person experiences. A focus group of hemodialysis staff validated the results for clarity, understanding, and application to clinical practice. The results of this study provide a theoretical framework to guide nursing practice as well as an understanding of what spirituality means to hemodialysis patients and how it influences their lives.

  4. Grounded Classification: Grounded Theory and Faceted Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Star, Susan Leigh

    1998-01-01

    Compares the qualitative method of grounded theory (GT) with Ranganathan's construction of faceted classifications (FC) in library and information science. Both struggle with a core problem--the representation of vernacular words and processes, empirically discovered, which will, although ethnographically faithful, be powerful beyond the single…

  5. Emergency Nursing Experiences in Assisting People With Suicidal Behavior: A Grounded Theory Study.

    PubMed

    Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; Magrini, Daniel Fernando; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi; de Souza, Jacqueline; Borges, Tatiana Longo

    2017-08-01

    To understand emergency nursing experiences in assisting people with suicidal behavior. Grounded theory study with symbolic interactionism conducted in 2015 to 2016 in Brazil with 19 nurses. Assistance for people with suicidal behavior is critical, challenging, evokes different feelings and requires knowledge, skills and emotional control. Nurses did not feel prepared or supported, and identified recurrent gaps and problems. Nurses occupied a limited role, restricted to attending to physical needs. They predominantly manifested opposition, judgments and incomprehension about patients. This study presents key elements to be addressed in interventions and investigations regarding nursing support, training and supervision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The illness of women and men with sickle cell disease: a Grounded Theory study1

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Rosa Cândida; Ferreira, Silvia Lúcia; Santos, Ane Caroline da Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to understand the meanings given by women and men with sickle cell disease on the illness experience. Method: analytical study with a qualitative approach, conducted with 17 adults with sickle cell disease using the Theory Based on Data, or Grounded Theory, as theoretical-methodological referential. Data were collected between the years of 2012 and 2013, in an individual in-depth interview. All the interviews were recorded and analyzed according to the Grounded Theory comparative analysis technique. Results: data show four categories which group the experience of illness, the feelings experienced and the path to living with sickle cell disease. Conclusions: it was possible to understand that the experience was built by a process in which these people redefined the meaning of their lives, applying new directions to life and to care regarding the experience of the illness. In the context of chronic disease, the nurse's care is also seen in this study as a foundation, providing attention, directions, and guidance through the required confrontations. Understanding the experience lived by these people, it is possible to enlarge the dimensions and the essence of nursing care required throughout life. PMID:26626003

  7. The illness of women and men with sickle cell disease: a Grounded Theory study.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Rosa Cândida; Ferreira, Silvia Lúcia; Santos, Ane Caroline da Cruz

    2015-01-01

    To understand the meanings given by women and men with sickle cell disease on the illness experience. Analytical study with a qualitative approach, conducted with 17 adults with sickle cell disease using the Theory Based on Data, or Grounded Theory, as theoretical-methodological referential. Data were collected between the years of 2012 and 2013, in an individual in-depth interview. All the interviews were recorded and analyzed according to the Grounded Theory comparative analysis technique. Data show four categories which group the experience of illness, the feelings experienced and the path to living with sickle cell disease. It was possible to understand that the experience was built by a process in which these people redefined the meaning of their lives, applying new directions to life and to care regarding the experience of the illness. In the context of chronic disease, the nurse's care is also seen in this study as a foundation, providing attention, directions, and guidance through the required confrontations. Understanding the experience lived by these people, it is possible to enlarge the dimensions and the essence of nursing care required throughout life.

  8. Virtual patient design: exploring what works and why. A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Bateman, James; Allen, Maggie; Samani, Dipti; Kidd, Jane; Davies, David

    2013-06-01

    Virtual patients (VPs) are online representations of clinical cases used in medical education. Widely adopted, they are well placed to teach clinical reasoning skills. International technology standards mean VPs can be created, shared and repurposed between institutions. A systematic review has highlighted the lack of evidence to support which of the numerous VP designs may be effective, and why. We set out to research the influence of VP design on medical undergraduates. This is a grounded theory study into the influence of VP design on undergraduate medical students. Following a review of the literature and publicly available VP cases, we identified important design properties. We integrated them into two substantial VPs produced for this research. Using purposeful iterative sampling, 46 medical undergraduates were recruited to participate in six focus groups. Participants completed both VPs, an evaluation and a 1-hour focus group discussion. These were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed using grounded theory, supported by computer-assisted analysis. Following open, axial and selective coding, we produced a theoretical model describing how students learn from VPs. We identified a central core phenomenon designated 'learning from the VP'. This had four categories: VP Construction; External Preconditions; Student-VP Interaction, and Consequences. From these, we constructed a three-layer model describing the interactions of students with VPs. The inner layer consists of the student's cognitive and behavioural preconditions prior to sitting a case. The middle layer considers the VP as an 'encoded object', an e-learning artefact and as a 'constructed activity', with associated pedagogic and organisational elements. The outer layer describes cognitive and behavioural change. This is the first grounded theory study to explore VP design. This original research has produced a model which enhances understanding of how and why the delivery and design of VPs

  9. Virtual patient design: exploring what works and why. A grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, James; Allen, Maggie; Samani, Dipti; Kidd, Jane; Davies, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Virtual patients (VPs) are online representations of clinical cases used in medical education. Widely adopted, they are well placed to teach clinical reasoning skills. International technology standards mean VPs can be created, shared and repurposed between institutions. A systematic review has highlighted the lack of evidence to support which of the numerous VP designs may be effective, and why. We set out to research the influence of VP design on medical undergraduates. Methods This is a grounded theory study into the influence of VP design on undergraduate medical students. Following a review of the literature and publicly available VP cases, we identified important design properties. We integrated them into two substantial VPs produced for this research. Using purposeful iterative sampling, 46 medical undergraduates were recruited to participate in six focus groups. Participants completed both VPs, an evaluation and a 1-hour focus group discussion. These were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed using grounded theory, supported by computer-assisted analysis. Following open, axial and selective coding, we produced a theoretical model describing how students learn from VPs. Results We identified a central core phenomenon designated ‘learning from the VP’. This had four categories: VP Construction; External Preconditions; Student–VP Interaction, and Consequences. From these, we constructed a three-layer model describing the interactions of students with VPs. The inner layer consists of the student's cognitive and behavioural preconditions prior to sitting a case. The middle layer considers the VP as an ‘encoded object’, an e-learning artefact and as a ‘constructed activity’, with associated pedagogic and organisational elements. The outer layer describes cognitive and behavioural change. Conclusions This is the first grounded theory study to explore VP design. This original research has produced a model which enhances understanding

  10. Nurses experience of using scientific knowledge in clinical practice: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Renolen, Åste; Hjälmhult, Esther

    2015-12-01

    Guidelines recommend the use of evidence-based practice in nursing. Nurses are expected to give patients care and treatment based on the best knowledge available. They may have knowledge and positive attitudes, but this does not mean that they are basing their work on evidence-based practice. Knowledge is still lacking about what is needed to successfully implement evidence-based practice. The aim of this study was to gain more knowledge about what nurses perceive as the most important challenge in implementing evidence-based practice and to explain how they act to face and overcome this challenge. We used classical grounded theory methodology and collected data through four focus groups and one individual interview in different geographical locations in one large hospital trust in Norway. Fourteen registered clinical practice nurses participated. We analysed the data in accordance with grounded theory, using the constant comparative method. Contextual balancing of knowledge emerged as the core category and explains how the nurses dealt with their main concern, how to determine what types of knowledge they could trust. The nurses' main strategies were an inquiring approach, examining knowledge and maintaining control while taking care of patients. They combined their own experienced-based knowledge and the guidelines of evidence-based practice with a sense of control in the actual situation. The grounded theory contextual balancing of knowledge may help us to understand how nurses detect what types of knowledge they can trust in clinical practice. The nurses needed to rely on what they did, and they seemed to rely on their own experience rather than on research. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  11. Decision-making processes for the self-management of persistent pain: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Clare; Chaboyer, Wendy; St John, Winsome

    2012-08-01

    Persistent pain negatively impacts upon the individual suffering this condition. Almost all care related to persistent pain is self-managed. Decision-making is a critical skill of the self-manager and without these skills it would be improbable that effective self-management would emerge. However, current theories regarding decision-making and self-management have not adequately accounted for the many difficulties faced by individuals enduring persistent pain and the consequences of these experiences for the decision-maker. This grounded theory study revealed that individuals will transform into three distinct types of decision-makers using three different styles of decision-making in response to the many and varied problems related to the experience of persistent pain. These findings will provide nurses with valuable information to better equip individuals with persistent pain through the decision-making processes necessary for successful self-management.

  12. The Core of Sibling Stem Cell Donation – A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Kisch, Annika M; Forsberg, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of theoretical framework supporting stem cell transplant nurses in their assessment, judgment and caring interventions of sibling stem cell donors. Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore sibling stem cell donors’ main concerns and how they deal with them before and after donation. Method: Ten healthy sibling donors, 5 men and 5 women, with a median age of 54 years were included in this study when they were due to donate stem cells to a brother or sister. Data were collected prospectively on three occasions (before the donation and three and twelve months after it) through in-depth interviews, which were recorded and transcribed verbatim for analysis by the Grounded Theory method according to Charmaz. Results: This study describes the efforts of the ten donors to fulfil their duty as a sibling by doing what they considered necessary in order to help. Their efforts were summarised in a process wherein the grounded theory generated three main categories; Prepare, Promote and Preserve. A clear path of transition leading to fulfilment is evident, starting before the donation and continuing for one year afterwards. Conclusions: Being a sibling stem cell donor means doing what you have to do to fulfil your duty and if possible, saving the life of a seriously ill brother or sister. The relationship between the siblings is strengthened by the donation process. Sibling stem cell donation appears to be about fulfilment and the theoretical framework may support clinicians in their evaluation and support of donors. PMID:28839511

  13. The Core of Sibling Stem Cell Donation - A Grounded Theory Study.

    PubMed

    Kisch, Annika M; Forsberg, Anna

    2017-01-01

    There is a lack of theoretical framework supporting stem cell transplant nurses in their assessment, judgment and caring interventions of sibling stem cell donors. The purpose of this study was to explore sibling stem cell donors' main concerns and how they deal with them before and after donation. Ten healthy sibling donors, 5 men and 5 women, with a median age of 54 years were included in this study when they were due to donate stem cells to a brother or sister. Data were collected prospectively on three occasions (before the donation and three and twelve months after it) through in-depth interviews, which were recorded and transcribed verbatim for analysis by the Grounded Theory method according to Charmaz. This study describes the efforts of the ten donors to fulfil their duty as a sibling by doing what they considered necessary in order to help. Their efforts were summarised in a process wherein the grounded theory generated three main categories; Prepare, Promote and Preserve. A clear path of transition leading to fulfilment is evident, starting before the donation and continuing for one year afterwards. Being a sibling stem cell donor means doing what you have to do to fulfil your duty and if possible, saving the life of a seriously ill brother or sister. The relationship between the siblings is strengthened by the donation process. Sibling stem cell donation appears to be about fulfilment and the theoretical framework may support clinicians in their evaluation and support of donors.

  14. Coping with post-lingual severe-profound hearing impairment: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, L R; Påsse, U; Ringdahl, A

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of coping with demanding auditory situations in everyday life from the perspective of individuals with severe-profound hearing impairment. Seventeen individuals (11 women and 6 men), with post-lingual severe-profound hearing impairment participated in the study. All were patients at the Department of Audiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Göteborg, Sweden. Inclusion criteria were a hearing impairment exceeding 70 dB HL at the frequency of 1 kHz in the better ear, and full-time employment. Data were assessed by in-depth interviews lasting about one hour. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed line-by-in line in accordance with the grounded theory tradition. Six theoretical constructs, or categories, were grounded in the data. These categories were labelled 'coaching', 'belonging to two worlds', 'self-efficacy', 'hardiness' and 'directing coping strategies'. In a grounded theory the central phenomenon on which all the other categories are integrated is known as the 'core category'. The core category, which emerged in the present study, was labelled 'finding flow and entering a positive circle'. This was described as a condition necessary for successful coping with the demanding situation of being a profoundly hearing-impaired person working full-time. According to the core category, there is a small 'margin' within the positive circle (a space where smaller mistakes may occur). However, if mistakes are too severe, or too many, individuals will no longer find flow in the positive circle, rather they enter a negative circle. In the present study subjects' personalities were characterized by hardiness. It is suggested that coaching behaviour and the hearing-impaired individuals' personality dispositions of hardiness and self-efficacy function as resistance resources, buffering stressful events in everyday life.

  15. Sustaining the Image of Life: A Grounded Theory Study of Funeral Service Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sharen

    2012-01-01

    This grounded theory dissertation explores the educational experiences of funeral service students as they matriculate through the college of funeral service. Student interviews were utilized to explore the world of funeral service education. The analysis of the data led to the discovery of the theory, "Sustaining the Image of Life." The…

  16. Women's self-management of chronic illnesses in the context of caregiving: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Marcos, Mercedes; De la Cuesta-Benjumea, Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Uncover how women self-manage their own chronic illness while taking care of a dependent relative. International policies place special emphasis in promoting interventions addressed to control, prevent and care for people with chronic health conditions. Self-management is a crucial part of this care. Caregivers are more prone to have chronic illness than non-caregivers. They are confronted with dilemmas about taking care of themselves while taking care of their dependent relative and the rest of their families. Caregivers articulate strategies to enable them to focus their energy on caring. Qualitative study using constructivist grounded theory. Thirty-nine women caregivers with a chronic illness participated in the study. Twenty-three semi-structured interviews and two focus groups were carried out between April 2010-December 2011. Data were analysed using grounded theory procedures. Self-management helps women caregivers with a chronic illness to balance the demands of their own illness and those of the dependent relative. They self-manage their illness by self-regulating the treatment, by regulating their strength and by controlling their emotions. Women caregivers integrate effectively and creatively the management of their chronic illnesses within the complexities of family care. This renders their health needs invisible and reaffirms them as capable caregivers. Identifying self-management strategies of women caregivers allow health professionals to acknowledge and reinforce effective self-care measures and to deter those that are ineffective and lessen their quality of life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Sifting, sorting and saturating data in a grounded theory study of information use by practice nurses: a worked example.

    PubMed

    Hoare, Karen J; Mills, Jane; Francis, Karen

    2012-12-01

    The terminology used to analyse data in a grounded theory study can be confusing. Different grounded theorists use a variety of terms which all have similar meanings. In the following study, we use terms adopted by Charmaz including: initial, focused and axial coding. Initial codes are used to analyse data with an emphasis on identifying gerunds, a verb acting as a noun. If initial codes are relevant to the developing theory, they are grouped with similar codes into categories. Categories become saturated when there are no new codes identified in the data. Axial codes are used to link categories together into a grounded theory process. Memo writing accompanies this data sifting and sorting. The following article explains how one initial code became a category providing a worked example of the grounded theory method of constant comparative analysis. The interplay between coding and categorization is facilitated by the constant comparative method.

  18. Surviving a critical illness through mutually being there with each other: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Vico C L

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to conduct a theoretical analysis of the critically ill patients' perceptions of the impact of informal support and care from their main family carer (MFC) during the time of their stay in the hospital (ICU) and thereafter (and vice versa). RESEARCH DESIGN AND SETTING: The grounded theory method was used to investigate the target phenomenon in the ICU of a large general hospital, and three months later in the community after the patients were discharged. Qualitative data were collected through participant observation and interviews for constant comparative analysis until theoretical saturation. A substantive theory emerged and it illustrated and described the dynamic actions and interactions between critically ill patients and their MFC during the process of recovery. Three categories, 1) being there with, 2) coping and 3) self-relying, comprise the essential components of this theory. The theory represents the core process of 'surviving a critical illness through mutually being there with each other' in which both the patients and their MFC are involved. Implications and recommendations were proposed to provide a basis for further research and nursing practice on the phenomenon of informal support and care of critically ill patients and their recovery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pursuing meaning and purpose in life among Thai adolescents living with HIV: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Balthip, Quantar; Purnell, Marguerite J

    2014-01-01

    This grounded theory study aimed to understand how Thai adolescents living with HIV pursued meaning and purpose in life. Data were gathered from 11 adolescents in southern Thailand who were between ages 18 and 20 years, and who had lived with HIV for 2 or more years. Purposive and theoretical sampling techniques were used to recruit the participants. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, participant observations, and field notes. Strauss and Corbin's (1998) grounded theory method guided data analysis. The core category of "pursuing meaning and purpose in life among Thai adolescents living with HIV" emerged out of a recursive process of uncertainty, inferiority, self-realization, and growth that comprised three categories: (a) condition: realizing self-value, (b) strategy: being connected to prolonging life, and (c) consequence: achieving peace and calm. The findings enhance knowledge that would benefit nurses helping adolescents living with HIV find meaning and purpose in life. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. All rights reserved.

  20. Workplace Bullying in Academe: A Grounded Theory Study Exploring How Faculty Cope with the Experience of Being Bullied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkin, La Vena

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to generate a theory about how targets of workplace bullying in academe may begin to heal from the aftermath of their ill-treatment. The emphasis was on understanding the experiences of university faculty members who had been targets of workplace bullying. A key factor in this study was to…

  1. Workplace Bullying in Academe: A Grounded Theory Study Exploring How Faculty Cope with the Experience of Being Bullied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkin, La Vena

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to generate a theory about how targets of workplace bullying in academe may begin to heal from the aftermath of their ill-treatment. The emphasis was on understanding the experiences of university faculty members who had been targets of workplace bullying. A key factor in this study was to…

  2. Clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches in osteopathy - a qualitative grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Oliver P; Petty, Nicola J; Moore, Ann P

    2014-02-01

    There is limited understanding of how osteopaths make decisions in relation to clinical practice. The aim of this research was to construct an explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of experienced osteopaths in the UK. Twelve UK registered osteopaths participated in this constructivist grounded theory qualitative study. Purposive and theoretical sampling was used to select participants. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews which were audio-recorded and transcribed. As the study approached theoretical sufficiency, participants were observed and video-recorded during a patient appointment, which was followed by a video-prompted interview. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyse and code data. Data analysis resulted in the construction of three qualitatively different therapeutic approaches which characterised participants and their clinical practice, termed; Treater, Communicator and Educator. Participants' therapeutic approach influenced their approach to clinical decision-making, the level of patient involvement, their interaction with patients, and therapeutic goals. Participants' overall conception of practice lay on a continuum ranging from technical rationality to professional artistry, and contributed to their therapeutic approach. A range of factors were identified which influenced participants' conception of practice. The findings indicate that there is variation in osteopaths' therapeutic approaches to practice and clinical decision-making, which are influenced by their overall conception of practice. This study provides the first explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of osteopaths. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Therapeutic Nursing in Neurological (Early-)Rehabilitation: A Grounded Theory Study].

    PubMed

    Lautenschläger, S

    2015-08-01

    What is therapeutic nursing? This question is gaining relevance in the context of the billing of services in the DRG system (DRG=Diagnosis-Related Groups), because in paragraph 8-552 of the operations and procedures coding system (OPS), it is explicitly stated that therapeutic care must be carried out by specially trained personnel. To date, empirical results on therapeutic nursing in neurological early rehabilitation are sparse. The objective of the study is to develop a theory of therapeutic care in neurological early rehabilitation. The study is based on the method of grounded theory. Open participatory observations (n=92) and episodic interviews (n=10) with nursing professionals and nursing auxiliaries were conducted in 5 inpatient rehabilitation clinics. The theory of therapeutic nursing includes 6 categories: (1) nursing care, (2) observation/perception, (3) communication, (4) autonomy and individual needs of patients and their relatives, (5) multi-professional team and (6) prerequisites. The results indicate which aspects are included in therapeutic nursing and the necessary prerequisites for delivering therapeutic nursing. Against this background, continuing education programs reveal conspicuous gaps in the area of knowledge transfer and application in practice. The results of the study should be taken into consideration and integrated in nursing education, both at the basic level and in continuing education. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Reconnecting with life: a grounded theory study of mental health recovery in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Kartalova-O'Doherty, Yulia; Stevenson, Chris; Higgins, Agnes

    2012-04-01

    The concept of recovery has become central to international mental health policy and service planning. At present there, however, is no unified theory of mental health recovery available to guide clinical practice. The aim of this study was to develop a coherent theory of recovering from mental health problems from the point of view of those recovering in Ireland. The study was guided by classic grounded theory and based on individual interviews with 32 volunteers who had experienced mental health problems. The participants' main concern was identified as striving to reconnect with life. The core category of reconnecting with life had three interactive subcategories: (1) reconnecting with self through accepting oneself as a worthy human being capable of positive change; (2) reconnecting with others through accepting and validating interaction; (3) reconnecting with time, through getting a glimpse of positive future, coming to terms with the past, and actively shaping and executing one's present and future. The study shows that accepting, validating and the hope-instilling interaction can facilitate the process of reconnecting with life and is, therefore, crucial for recovery-oriented care.

  5. Essential methodological considerations when using grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Achora, Susan; Matua, Gerald Amandu

    2016-07-01

    To suggest important methodological considerations when using grounded theory. A research method widely used in nursing research is grounded theory, at the centre of which is theory construction. However, researchers still struggle with some of its methodological issues. Although grounded theory is widely used to study and explain issues in nursing practice, many researchers are still failing to adhere to its rigorous standards. Researchers should articulate the focus of their investigations - the substantive area of interest as well as the focal population. This should be followed by a succinct explanation of the strategies used to collect and analyse data, supported by clear coding processes. Finally, the resolution of the core issues, including the core category and related categories, should be explained to advance readers' understanding. Researchers should endeavour to understand the tenets of grounded theory. This enables 'neophytes' in particular to make methodological decisions that will improve their studies' rigour and fit with grounded theory. This paper complements the current dialogue on improving the understanding of grounded theory methodology in nursing research. The paper also suggests important procedural decisions researchers need to make to preserve their studies' scientific merit and fit with grounded theory.

  6. How People Reason: A Grounded Theory Study of Scientific Reasoning about Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shiyu

    Scientific reasoning is crucial in both scientific inquiry and everyday life. While the majority of researchers have studied "how people reason" by focusing on their cognitive processes, factors related to the underpinnings of scientific reasoning are still under-researched. The present study aimed to develop a grounded theory that captures not only the cognitive processes during reasoning but also their underpinnings. In particular, the grounded theory and phenomenographic methodologies were integrated to explore how undergraduate students reason about competing theories and evidence on global climate change. Twenty-six undergraduate students were recruited through theoretical sampling. Constant comparative analysis of responses from interviews and written assessments revealed that participants were mostly drawn to the surface features when reasoning about evidence. While prior knowledge might not directly contribute to participants' performance on evidence evaluation, it affected their level of engagement when reading and evaluating competing arguments on climate issues. More importantly, even though all participants acknowledged the relative correctness of multiple perspectives, they predominantly favored arguments that supported their own beliefs with weak scientific reasoning about the opposing arguments. Additionally, factors such as personal interests, religious beliefs, and reading capacity were also found to have bearings on the way participants evaluated evidence and arguments. In all, this work contributes to the current endeavors in exploring the nature of scientific reasoning. Taking a holistic perspective, it provides an in-depth discussion of factors that may affect or relate to scientific reasoning processes. Furthermore, in comparison with traditional methods used in the literature, the methodological approach employed in this work brought an innovative insight into the investigation of scientific reasoning. Last but not least, this research may

  7. Nursing students' time management, reducing stress and gaining satisfaction: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Tayebeh; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Rafii, Forough

    2012-03-01

    In the course of their studies, nursing students must learn many skills and acquire the knowledge required for their future profession. This study investigates how Iranian nursing students manage their time according to the circumstances and obstacles of their academic field. Research was conducted using the grounded theory method. Twenty-one nursing students were purposefully chosen as participants. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the method suggested by Corbin and Strauss. One of the three processes that the nursing students used was "unidirectional time management." This pattern consists of accepting the nursing field, overcoming uncertainty, assessing conditions, feeling stress, and trying to reduce stress and create satisfaction. It was found that students allotted most of their time to academic tasks in an attempt to overcome their stress. The findings of this study indicate the need for these students to have time for the extra-curricular activities and responsibilities that are appropriate to their age.

  8. Adolescents' experiences on coping with parental multiple sclerosis: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Mauseth, Torild; Hjälmhult, Esther

    2016-03-01

    To gain insight into what adolescents see as their main concern when having parents who suffer from multiple sclerosis, and develop concepts and theory that may explain how they cope with this concern. Health professionals have a special responsibility towards children of parents with chronic diseases, including multiple sclerosis. Few studies show the perspective of the adolescents themselves, and point out that further knowledge is needed. Previous research supports the need for intervention at a youth, parent and family level. Grounded theory. We used grounded theory with a generative and constant comparative approach. Data were collected through fifteen individual semi-structured interviews with adolescents aged 12-18 years who had a parent diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. The adolescents' main concern was identified to be preserving control in an uncertain everyday life. This concern was resolved by 'balancing needs', implying the pattern of (1) reflecting, (2) adjusting, (3) taking responsibility and (4) seeking respite. These were used interchangeably in the adolescents' effort to solve their main concern. Openness within the family and outwards to the network, is essential for the well-being of the adolescents, and relies on knowledge about the disease, family functioning and support from health professionals. Thus, long-term intervention programs offering information and guidance should be offered. Understanding the impact of multiple sclerosis on the family from the perspective of the adolescents, gives a basis for health professionals when planning the best possible support for these adolescents. School nurses may play an active role in ensuring a high quality of this work. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Self-Reorientation Following Colorectal Cancer Treatment - A Grounded Theory Study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ann-Caroline B; Axelsson, Malin; Berndtsson, Ina; Brink, Eva

    2015-01-01

    After colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment, people reorganize life in ways that are consistent with their understanding of the illness and their expectations for recovery. Incapacities and abilities that have been lost can initiate a need to reorient the self. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have explicitly focused on the concept of self-reorientation after CRC treatment. The aim of the present study was therefore to explore self-reorientation in the early recovery phase after CRC surgery. Grounded theory analysis was undertaken, using the method presented by Charmaz. The present results explained self-reorientation as the individual attempting to achieve congruence in self-perception. A congruent self-perception meant bringing together the perceived self and the self that was mirrored in the near environs. The results showed that societal beliefs and personal explanations are essential elements of self-reorientation, and that it is therefore important to make them visible.

  10. Developing a Taxonomy of Dark Triad Triggers at Work – A Grounded Theory Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nübold, Annika; Bader, Josef; Bozin, Nera; Depala, Romil; Eidast, Helena; Johannessen, Elisabeth A.; Prinz, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    In past years, research and corporate scandals have evidenced the destructive effects of the dark triad at work, consisting of narcissism (extreme self-centeredness), psychopathy (lack of empathy and remorse) and Machiavellianism (a sense of duplicity and manipulativeness). The dark triad dimensions have typically been conceptualized as stable personality traits, ignoring the accumulating evidence that momentary personality expressions – personality states – may change due to the characteristics of the situation. The present research protocol describes a qualitative study that aims to identify triggers of dark triad states at work by following a grounded theory approach using semi-structured interviews. By building a comprehensive categorization of dark triad triggers at work scholars may study these triggers in a parsimonious and structured way and organizations may derive more effective interventions to buffer or prevent the detrimental effects of dark personality at work. PMID:28326048

  11. Occupational therapy students in the process of interprofessional collaborative learning: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Howell, Dana

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to generate a theory of the interprofessional collaborative learning process of occupational therapy (OT) students who were engaged in a collaborative learning experience with students from other allied health disciplines. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews with nine OT students from four different interprofessional collaborative learning experiences at three universities. The emergent theory explained OT students' need to build a culture of mutual respect among disciplines in order to facilitate interprofessional collaborative learning. Occupational therapy students went through a progression of learned skills that included learning how to represent the profession of OT, hold their weight within a team situation, solve problems collaboratively, work as a team, and ultimately, to work in an actual team in practice. This learning process occurred simultaneously as students also learned course content. The students had to contend with barriers and facilitators that influenced their participation and the success of their collaboration. Understanding the interprofessional learning process of OT students will help allied health faculty to design more effective, inclusive interprofessional courses.

  12. Integrating care for neurodevelopmental disorders by unpacking control: A grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Waxegård, Gustaf; Thulesius, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Background To establish integrated healthcare pathways for patients with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) such as autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is challenging. This study sets out to investigate the main concerns for healthcare professionals when integrating ND care pathways and how they resolve these concerns. Methods Using classic grounded theory (Glaser), we analysed efforts to improve and integrate an ND care pathway for children and youth in a Swedish region over a period of 6 years. Data from 42 individual interviews with a range of ND professionals, nine group interviews with healthcare teams, participant observation, a 2-day dialogue conference, focus group meetings, regional media coverage, and reports from other Swedish regional ND projects were analysed. Results The main concern for participants was to deal with overwhelming ND complexity by unpacking control, which is control over strategies to define patients’ status and needs. Unpacking control is key to the professionals’ strivings to expand constructive life space for patients, to squeeze health care to reach available care goals, to promote professional ideologies, and to uphold workplace integrity. Control-seeking behaviour in relation to ND unpacking is ubiquitous and complicates integration of ND care pathways. Conclusions The Unpacking control theory expands central aspects of professions theory and may help to improve ND care development. PMID:27609793

  13. Nurses' perceptions of leadership style in hospitals: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Su, Shu-Fen; Jenkins, Mary; Liu, Po-Erh

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the leadership style of hospital managers. Leadership has been widely studied in nursing from the perspective of nurses' psychological strain caused by nursing leadership. There is, however, little contained in the Western and Eastern literatures on the leadership style of hospital managers and certainly no study has explored managers' leadership style in Taiwanese hospitals from the nurses' stance. Grounded theory. A sample of 28 nurses from seven teaching hospitals in Taiwan, Republic of China was selected through theoretical sampling. A multi-step analytic procedure based on the grounded theory approach was used to analyse the qualitative data. The Chinese culture was found to affect the leadership style of Taiwanese hospital managers. They had extreme power and led nurses in a hierarchical manner. Nurse managers followed the autocratic leadership style of their hospital managers. The main category found in this study was thus hierarchical leadership. The Confucian principles of authoritarianism and obedience were found to be part of the Taiwanese hospitals' organisational cultures and strongly impacted on the managers' leadership style. Hospital managers' treatment of doctors and nurses was dependent on their social rankings. Nurses' lowly ranking fed into these enculturated managerial tendencies of using power and obedience thus increasing psychological strain on nurses. Managers of the hospitals demonstrate power and misuse obedience through their leadership style, resulting in deterioration of nurses' work environment. Nurses' managers are not given enough power by the hospitals in Taiwan. Subsequently, nurses feel themselves the lowest and most powerless subordinates. This study reveals that the Chinese cultural burdens are embedded in the leadership of Taiwanese hospitals. These findings enhance the knowledge of leadership and add to the understanding of managerial attitudes in Chinese hospitals located worldwide. © 2011 Blackwell

  14. A study of Iranian immigrants' experiences of accessing Canadian health care services: a grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Dastjerdi, Mahdieh; Olson, Karin; Ogilvie, Linda

    2012-09-29

    Immigration is not a new phenomenon but, rather, has deep roots in human history. Documents from every era detail individuals who left their homelands and struggled to reestablish their lives in other countries. The aim of this study was to explore and understand the experience of Iranian immigrants who accessed Canadian health care services. Research with immigrants is useful for learning about strategies that newcomers develop to access health care services. The research question guiding this study was, "What are the processes by which Iranian immigrants learn to access health care services in Canada?" To answer the question, a constructivist grounded theory approach was applied. Initially, unstructured interviews were conducted with 17 participants (11 women and six men) who were adults (at least 18 years old) and had immigrated to Canada within the past 15 years. Eight participants took part in a second interview, and four participants took part in a third interview. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, "tackling the stumbling blocks of access" emerged as the core category. The basic social process (BSP), becoming self-sufficient, was a transitional process and had five stages: becoming a stranger; feeling helpless; navigating/seeking information; employing strategies; and becoming integrated and self-sufficient. We found that "tackling the stumbling blocks of access" was the main struggle throughout this journey. Some of the immigrants were able to overcome these challenges and became proficient in accessing health care services, but others were unable to make the necessary changes and thus stayed in earlier stages/phases of transition, and sometimes returned to their country of origin. During the course of this journey a substantive grounded theory was developed that revealed the challenges and issues confronted by this particular group of immigrants. This process explains why some Iranian immigrants are able to access Canadian health care

  15. A study of Iranian immigrants’ experiences of accessing Canadian health care services: a grounded theory

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Immigration is not a new phenomenon but, rather, has deep roots in human history. Documents from every era detail individuals who left their homelands and struggled to reestablish their lives in other countries. The aim of this study was to explore and understand the experience of Iranian immigrants who accessed Canadian health care services. Research with immigrants is useful for learning about strategies that newcomers develop to access health care services. Methods The research question guiding this study was, “What are the processes by which Iranian immigrants learn to access health care services in Canada?” To answer the question, a constructivist grounded theory approach was applied. Initially, unstructured interviews were conducted with 17 participants (11 women and six men) who were adults (at least 18 years old) and had immigrated to Canada within the past 15 years. Eight participants took part in a second interview, and four participants took part in a third interview. Results Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” emerged as the core category. The basic social process (BSP), becoming self-sufficient, was a transitional process and had five stages: becoming a stranger; feeling helpless; navigating/seeking information; employing strategies; and becoming integrated and self-sufficient. We found that “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” was the main struggle throughout this journey. Some of the immigrants were able to overcome these challenges and became proficient in accessing health care services, but others were unable to make the necessary changes and thus stayed in earlier stages/phases of transition, and sometimes returned to their country of origin. Conclusion During the course of this journey a substantive grounded theory was developed that revealed the challenges and issues confronted by this particular group of immigrants. This process explains why some Iranian

  16. Negotiating identity development among undocumented immigrant college students: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Lauren M; Chen, Eric C

    2013-04-01

    This qualitative study explored the identity development process of 11 undocumented college students living in the United States, focusing on how undocumented college students negotiate the interplay of acculturation, ethnic identity, and educational and career pursuits. A semistructured interview protocol was used and data analysis was iterative, consistent with grounded theory methodology. Four major themes emerged from the data: (a) "sewn with two threads" describes the salience of bicultural identity; (b) enhancement of positive attributes as a result of documentation struggles; (c) challenging reflections, addressing the ways in which documentation status challenges one's perception of oneself and the world; and (d) identity formation as an ongoing negotiation, capturing the long-term shifts in understanding of status implications and emotional response to this understanding. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for educators, counseling psychologists, and career counselors. Suggestions regarding how mental health professionals can educate and empower undocumented immigrant youth are presented.

  17. Therapeutic engagement styles of child sexual offenders in a group treatment program: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Frost, Andrew

    2004-06-01

    It is widely observed that child sexual offenders typically exhibit considerable reluctance to self-disclose at a level that reflects the full reality of their offending. Their successful engagement in relapse prevention-based programs is therefore problematic. This paper describes a study involving men undertaking a prototypical group treatment program, facing the challenge of revealing to others the details of their offense process. A procedure was developed to access their covert responses at the time of this encounter. From a grounded theory analysis, participants were found to employ various strategies to manage situations where self-disclosure was required. Four distinct disclosure management styles emerged: exploratory, oppositional, evasive, and placatory; the latter three of which appear unfavorable to effective engagement in treatment. As well as suggesting ways of influencing disclosure management style, analysis indicated that it might be possible to predict these different orientations during routine assessment.

  18. Adaptation and innovation: a grounded theory study of procedural variation in the academic surgical workplace.

    PubMed

    Apramian, Tavis; Watling, Christopher; Lingard, Lorelei; Cristancho, Sayra

    2015-10-01

    Surgical research struggles to describe the relationship between procedural variations in daily practice and traditional conceptualizations of evidence. The problem has resisted simple solutions, in part, because we lack a solid understanding of how surgeons conceptualize and interact around variation, adaptation, innovation, and evidence in daily practice. This grounded theory study aims to describe the social processes that influence how procedural variation is conceptualized in the surgical workplace. Using the constructivist grounded theory methodology, semi-structured interviews with surgeons (n = 19) from four North American academic centres were collected and analysed. Purposive sampling targeted surgeons with experiential knowledge of the role of variations in the workplace. Theoretical sampling was conducted until a theoretical framework representing key processes was conceptually saturated. Surgical procedural variation was influenced by three key processes. Seeking improvement was shaped by having unsolved procedural problems, adapting in the moment, and pursuing personal opportunities. Orienting self and others to variations consisted of sharing stories of variations with others, taking stock of how a variation promoted personal interests, and placing trust in peers. Acting under cultural and material conditions was characterized by being wary, positioning personal image, showing the logic of a variation, and making use of academic resources to do so. Our findings include social processes that influence how adaptations are incubated in surgical practice and mature into innovations. This study offers a language for conceptualizing the sociocultural influences on procedural variations in surgery. Interventions to change how surgeons interact with variations on a day-to-day basis should consider these social processes in their design. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Adaptation and innovation: a grounded theory study of procedural variation in the academic surgical workplace

    PubMed Central

    Apramian, Tavis; Watling, Christopher; Lingard, Lorelei; Cristancho, Sayra

    2017-01-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives Surgical research struggles to describe the relationship between procedural variations in daily practice and traditional conceptualizations of evidence. The problem has resisted simple solutions, in part, because we lack a solid understanding of how surgeons conceptualize and interact around variation, adaptation, innovation, and evidence in daily practice. This grounded theory study aims to describe the social processes that influence how procedural variation is conceptualized in the surgical workplace. Method Using the constructivist grounded theory methodology, semi-structured interviews with surgeons (n = 19) from four North American academic centres were collected and analysed. Purposive sampling targeted surgeons with experiential knowledge of the role of variations in the workplace. Theoretical sampling was conducted until a theoretical framework representing key processes was conceptually saturated. Results Surgical procedural variation was influenced by three key processes. Seeking improvement was shaped by having unsolved procedural problems, adapting in the moment, and pursuing personal opportunities. Orienting self and others to variations consisted of sharing stories of variations with others, taking stock of how a variation promoted personal interests, and placing trust in peers. Acting under cultural and material conditions was characterized by being wary, positioning personal image, showing the logic of a variation, and making use of academic resources to do so. Our findings include social processes that influence how adaptations are incubated in surgical practice and mature into innovations. Conclusions This study offers a language for conceptualizing the sociocultural influences on procedural variations in surgery. Interventions to change how surgeons interact with variations on a day-to-day basis should consider these social processes in their design. PMID:26096874

  20. The process of patient enablement in general practice nurse consultations: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Desborough, Jane; Banfield, Michelle; Phillips, Christine; Mills, Jane

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the process of patient enablement in general practice nursing consultations. Enhanced roles for general practice nurses may benefit patients through a range of mechanisms, one of which may be increasing patient enablement. In studies with general practitioners enhanced patient enablement has been associated with increases in self-efficacy and skill development. This study used a constructivist grounded theory design. In-depth interviews were conducted with 16 general practice nurses and 23 patients from 21 general practices between September 2013 - March 2014. Data generation and analysis were conducted concurrently using constant comparative analysis and theoretical sampling focussing on the process and outcomes of patient enablement. Use of the storyline technique supported theoretical coding and integration of the data into a theoretical model. A clearly defined social process that fostered and optimised patient enablement was constructed. The theory of 'developing enabling healthcare partnerships between nurses and patients in general practice' incorporates three stages: triggering enabling healthcare partnerships, tailoring care and the manifestation of patient enablement. Patient enablement was evidenced through: 1. Patients' understanding of their unique healthcare requirements informing their health seeking behaviours and choices; 2. Patients taking an increased lead in their partnership with a nurse and seeking choices in their care and 3. Patients getting health care that reflected their needs, preferences and goals. This theoretical model is in line with a patient-centred model of health care and is particularly suited to patients with chronic disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The process of adopting and incorporating simulation into undergraduate nursing curricula: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Taplay, Karyn; Jack, Susan M; Baxter, Pamela; Eva, Kevin; Martin, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explain the process of adopting and incorporating simulation as a teaching strategy in undergraduate nursing programs, define uptake, and discuss potential outcomes. In many countries, simulation is increasingly adopted as a common teaching strategy. However, there is a dearth of knowledge related to the process of adoption and incorporation. We used an interpretive, constructivist approach to grounded theory to guide this research study. We conducted the study was in Ontario, Canada, during 2011-2012. Using multiple data sources, we informed the development of this theory including in-depth interviews (n = 43) and a review of key organizational documents, such as mission and vision statements (n = 67) from multiple nursing programs (n = 13). The adoption and uptake of mid- to high-fidelity simulation equipment is a multistep iterative process involving various organizational levels within the institution that entails a seven-phase process: (a) securing resources, (b) nursing leaders working in tandem, (c) getting it out of the box, (d) learning about simulation and its potential for teaching, (e) finding a fit, (f) trialing the equipment, and (g) integrating into the curriculum. These findings could assist nursing programs in Canada and internationally that wish to adopt or further incorporate simulation into their curricula and highlight potential organizational and program level outcomes.

  2. The persistence of women in STEM: A constructivist grounded theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamm, Ryan

    Men and women have reached relative parity in most sectors of the United States workforce. Yet women remain underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields (AAUW, 2010). Underrepresentation persists despite several decades of research, legislation, and intervention focused on gender equality in STEM fields (Clewell, 2002). The underrepresentation or shortage of women in STEM fields is identifiable primarily in degree attainment, in workforce demographics, and in a gender wage gap. Situated in constructivist grounded theory, this study asks how do women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, particularly those in established career positions, persist when encountering personal and institutional barriers, resistance, and hostility? I use an interpretive-constructivist lens to conduct a grounded theory study exploring the experiences of women who persist in STEM fields, their relation to extant literature on this topic, and the connections to K-12 education practices, specifically curriculum. To understand the connections to curriculum I employ Pinar's (2012) method of currere. Pinar (2012) contends currere "provides a strategy for students of curriculum to study the relations between academic knowledge and life history in the interests of self-understanding and social reconstruction" (p.44). This qualitative study explored nine female STEM workers stories of persistence as each respondent works in STEM fields were gender parity has yet to be established. This study presents a substantive theory: As women persist in STEM fields they reframe themselves to be situated in the overlapping intersection of the social processes that correspond to "engagement" and "persistence." This reframing is possible by interpreting one's present day circumstances by independently removing oneself from current circumstances to understand the cumulative effect of both past and present. The findings highlight the importance

  3. Fathers' Orientation to Their Children's Autism Diagnosis: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Michael D.; Hannon, LaChan V.

    2017-01-01

    Sixteen fathers of individuals with autism were interviewed to develop a grounded theory explaining how they learned about their children's autism diagnosis. Results suggest the orientation process entails at least two phases: orienting oneself and orienting others. The orienting oneself phase entailed fathers having suspicion of developmental…

  4. Finding the Groove: A Grounded Theory Study on Leading Others to a Productive Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roshann Reed

    2011-01-01

    Finding the groove was systematically discovered directly from data following the classical grounded theory methodology developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967) and further developed by Glaser (1965, 1978, 1992, 1998, 2001). This basic social process emerged from data as the pattern of behavior that leaders proceed through to increase performer…

  5. How Australian Female Adolescents Prioritize Pregnancy Protection: A Grounded Theory Study of Contraceptive Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jennifer L.; Skinner, S. Rachel; Fenwick, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Grounded theory principles were systematically employed to reveal key differences in pregnancy risk and underlying disparities in contraceptive use in (a) never-pregnant (b) pregnant-terminated and (c) pregnant-continued teenagers. Analysis of 69 semistructured interviews revealed a bicausal model of pregnancy protection that accounted for…

  6. The Lack of Motivation to Pursue Postsecondary Education among Hmong Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Xang

    2015-01-01

    In rural areas, a lack of motivation to pursue a postsecondary degree continues to affect Hmong students at the postsecondary education level. The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory research was to create a model based on the exploration of the lack of motivation to pursue postsecondary education among Hmong high school students.…

  7. How Homeless Sector Workers Deal with the Death of Service Users: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakeman, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Homeless sector workers often encounter the deaths of service users. A modified grounded theory methodology project was used to explore how workers make sense of, respond to, and cope with sudden death. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 16 paid homeless sector workers who had experienced the death of someone with whom they worked.…

  8. Finding the Groove: A Grounded Theory Study on Leading Others to a Productive Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roshann Reed

    2011-01-01

    Finding the groove was systematically discovered directly from data following the classical grounded theory methodology developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967) and further developed by Glaser (1965, 1978, 1992, 1998, 2001). This basic social process emerged from data as the pattern of behavior that leaders proceed through to increase performer…

  9. How Homeless Sector Workers Deal with the Death of Service Users: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakeman, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Homeless sector workers often encounter the deaths of service users. A modified grounded theory methodology project was used to explore how workers make sense of, respond to, and cope with sudden death. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 16 paid homeless sector workers who had experienced the death of someone with whom they worked.…

  10. How Australian Female Adolescents Prioritize Pregnancy Protection: A Grounded Theory Study of Contraceptive Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jennifer L.; Skinner, S. Rachel; Fenwick, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Grounded theory principles were systematically employed to reveal key differences in pregnancy risk and underlying disparities in contraceptive use in (a) never-pregnant (b) pregnant-terminated and (c) pregnant-continued teenagers. Analysis of 69 semistructured interviews revealed a bicausal model of pregnancy protection that accounted for…

  11. The Lack of Motivation to Pursue Postsecondary Education among Hmong Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Xang

    2015-01-01

    In rural areas, a lack of motivation to pursue a postsecondary degree continues to affect Hmong students at the postsecondary education level. The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory research was to create a model based on the exploration of the lack of motivation to pursue postsecondary education among Hmong high school students.…

  12. Organizational Culture Shapes the Adoption and Incorporation of Simulation into Nursing Curricula: A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Susan M.; Eva, Kevin; Martin, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To create a substantive mid-range theory explaining how the organizational cultures of undergraduate nursing programs shape the adoption and incorporation of mid-to high-level technical fidelity simulators as a teaching strategy within curricula. Method. A constructivist grounded theory was used to guide this study which was conducted in Ontario, Canada, during 2011-12. Semistructured interviews (n = 43) with participants that included nursing administrators, nursing faculty, and simulation leaders across multiple programs (n = 13) informed this study. Additionally, key documents (n = 67) were reviewed. Purposeful and theoretical sampling was used and data were collected and analyzed simultaneously. Data were compared among and between sites. Findings. The organizational elements that shape simulation in nursing (OESSN) model depicts five key organizational factors at the nursing program level that shaped the adoption and incorporation of simulation: (1) leaders working in tandem, (2) information exchange, (3) physical locale, (4) shared motivators, and (5) scaffolding to manage change. Conclusions. The OESSN model provides an explanation of the organizational factors that contributed to the adoption and incorporation of simulation into nursing curricula. Nursing programs that use the OESSN model may experience a more rapid or broad uptake of simulation when organizational factors that impact adoption and incorporation are considered and planned for. PMID:24818018

  13. Seeking Comfort: Women Mental Health Process in I. R. Iran: A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Eftekhari, Monir Baradaran; Dejman, Masoumeh; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh; Mirabzadeh, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psychosocial factor is considered as intermediate social determinant of health, because it has powerful effects on health especially in women. Hence deeper understanding of the mental-health process needed for its promotion. The aim of this study was to explore women's experience of the mental-health problem and related action-interactions activities to design the appropriate interventions. Methods: In-depth interviews with women 18-65 years were analyzed according to the grounded theory method. The selection of Participants was based on purposeful and theoretical sampling. Results: In this study, a substantive theory was generated; explaining how female with the mental-health problem handled their main concern, which was identified as their effort to achieve comfort (core variable). The other six categories are elements in this process. Daily stress as a trigger, satisfaction is the end point, marriage is the key point and action - interaction activities in this process are strengthening human essence, Developing life skills and help seeking. Conclusions: Better understanding the mental-health process might be useful to design the interventional program among women with mental-health problems. PMID:24627750

  14. The Ebb and Flow of Filipino First-Time Fatherhood Transition Space: A Grounded Theory Study.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Neil Jupiter E; de Guzman, Allan B; Matienzo, Evangeline T

    2016-11-01

    Fatherhood, as a developmental process, is both a human experience and a text that needs to be read. For developing nations like the Philippines, little is known about the process undergone by first-time fathers on their transition to fatherhood, and how nurses can play a significant role in assisting them. This grounded theory study purported to conceptualize the multifaceted process of transition from the lens of Filipino first-time fathers' lived experiences. A total of 20 first-time fathers from Metro Manila, Philippines, were purposively selected to take part in an individual, semistructured, and in-depth interview. The Glaserian (classical) method of analysis was specifically used, and field texts were inductively analyzed using a repertory grid. Member checking and correspondence were done to validate the findings of the study. Six surfacing stages emerged relative to the process of transition. Interestingly, The B.R.I.D.G.E. Theory of First-Time Fatherhood Transition Space describes how these fathers progress from the beholding, reorganizing, inhibiting, delivering, grasping, and embracing phases toward successful transition. This emerged theoretical model can be used in framing health care programs where the needs of fathers during this period are met and addressed. Finally, it can also be used in guiding nurses in their provision of a more empathetic care for first-time fathers.

  15. Grounded theory, feminist theory, critical theory: toward theoretical triangulation.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Kaysi Eastlick; Morrow, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Nursing and social science scholars have examined the compatibility between feminist and grounded theory traditions in scientific knowledge generation, concluding that they are complementary, yet not without certain tensions. This line of inquiry is extended to propose a critical feminist grounded theory methodology. The construction of symbolic interactionist, feminist, and critical feminist variants of grounded theory methodology is examined in terms of the presuppositions of each tradition and their interplay as a process of theoretical triangulation.

  16. Men in Nursing: Intention, Intentionality, Caring, and Healing: Emphasis on the Results of a Grounded Theory Study.

    PubMed

    Zahourek, Rothlyn P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to amplify the results section of a grounded theory study on how men in nursing view and experience intention, intentionality, caring, and healing. This is the second grounded theory study addressing intentionality in healing. The first study included a female population. The theory that was generated-Intentionality: The Matrix of Healing (IMH)-is examined with these new data. The results are compared with issues generally faced by men in nursing and how they described their beliefs and experiences with intentionality and healing. The theory (IMH) is supported; the importance of action in this cohort was an additional emphasis. This article provides an expanded view of men in nursing and their experiences as nurses and with intentionality, caring, and healing and has implications for the development of holistic nursing theory as well.

  17. Negotiating the role of the professional nurse: The pedagogy of simulation: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Walton, Joni; Chute, Elizabeth; Ball, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    Simulation is the mainstay of laboratory education in health sciences, yet there is a void of pedagogy-the art and science of teaching. Nursing faculty does not have adequate evidence-based resources related to how students learn through simulation. The research questions that were addressed were as follows: (a) How do students learn using simulation? (b) What is the process of learning with simulations from the students' perspective? (c) What faculty teaching styles promote learning? and (d) How can faculty support students during simulation? Grounded theory methodology was used to explore how senior baccalaureate nursing students learn using simulation. Twenty-six students participated in this research study. Sixteen nursing students who completed two semesters of simulation courses volunteered for in-depth audio-taped interviews. In addition, there were two focus groups with five senior students in each group who validated findings and identified faculty teaching styles and supportive interventions. Negotiating the Role of the Professional Nurse was the core category, which included the following phases (I) feeling like an imposter, (II) trial and error, (III) taking it seriously, (IV) transference of skills and knowledge, and (V) professionalization. Faculty traits and teaching strategies for teaching with simulation were also identified. A conceptual model of the socialization process was developed to assist faculty in understanding the ways students learn with simulation and ways to facilitate their development. These findings provide a midrange theory for the pedagogy of simulation and will help faculty gain insight and help to assimilate into teaching-learning strategies.

  18. Can nurse teachers manage student incivility by guided democracy? A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Rad, Mostafa; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Ildarabadi, Eshagh

    2017-07-17

    Managing incivility in academic settings is among the basic concerns and challenges of most educational systems, including nursing education. Incivility management cannot be considered devoid of disruptive behaviors. However, incivility management is a complexphenomenon upon which few studies are conducted. The present study aims at discovering teachers and students' experiences regarding incivility and developing an approach to manage nursing students' incivility. The present study was conducted based on the qualitative research design of the grounded theory methodology. This study was conducted at schools of nursing in academic settings in Iran. Study participants in the present study include nurse teachers (N=20) and nursing students (N=9). In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted using theoretical and purposive sampling. Constant comparative analysis was used for data analysis. The results include four main categories; (1) deterioration of learning; (2) dominant individual and organisational culture; (3) guided democracy; and (4) movement toward professionalism. Guided democracy is recognised as the main basic psychosocial process for incivility management. Incivility management is pursued to help learners develop professional performance. As indicated by the results of the present study, guided democracy is an effective strategy for incivility management in nursing education. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Can nurse teachers manage student incivility by guided democracy? A grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Rad, Mostafa; Ildarabadi, Eshagh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Managing incivility in academic settings is among the basic concerns and challenges of most educational systems, including nursing education. Incivility management cannot be considered devoid of disruptive behaviors. However, incivility management is a complexphenomenon upon which few studies are conducted. Objectives The present study aims at discovering teachers and students’ experiences regarding incivility and developing an approach to manage nursing students’ incivility. Design The present study was conducted based on the qualitative research design of the grounded theory methodology. Settings This study was conducted at schools of nursing in academic settings in Iran. Participants Study participants in the present study include nurse teachers (N=20) and nursing students (N=9). Method In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted using theoretical and purposive sampling. Constant comparative analysis was used for data analysis. Results The results include four main categories; (1) deterioration of learning; (2) dominant individual and organisational culture; (3) guided democracy; and (4) movement toward professionalism. Guided democracy is recognised as the main basic psychosocial process for incivility management. Conclusions Incivility management is pursued to help learners develop professional performance. As indicated by the results of the present study, guided democracy is an effective strategy for incivility management in nursing education. PMID:28716787

  20. The educational journeys of first-generation college women in STEM: A grounded theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, Susan

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the various factors that influenced these first-generation college women as they chose a college and selected a STEM major and subsequently persisted to upper level (junior/senior) status. Twenty-five first-generation college women in STEM majors who attended a research-intensive university in the Midwest were interviewed. Approaching this study using constructivist grounded theory provided the opportunity for deeper insights by examining data at a conceptual level while preserving the voices of the women in this study. The women faced numerous challenges on their journeys, yet they persisted. As the women in this study selected and persisted in STEM, they demonstrated thoughtful determination, experienced shifting identities, established purposeful relationships and applied forward thinking, as they practiced high-stakes decision-making during their journeys. The experiences of these women, namely first-generation women in STEM fields, may inform students, parents, educators, researchers, and policymakers concerned with (a) inspiring students to consider STEM majors, (b) fostering student success in STEM throughout their academic journeys, and (c) ultimately increasing the number of underrepresented minorities and women in the STEM fields.

  1. Nursing Challenges in Motivating Nursing Students through Clinical Education: A Grounded Theory Study.

    PubMed

    Nasrin, Hanifi; Soroor, Parvizy; Soodabeh, Joolaee

    2012-01-01

    Nurses are the first role models for students in clinical settings. They can have a significant role on students' motivation. The purpose of this study was to explore the understanding of nursing students and instructors concerning the role of nurses in motivating nursing students through clinical education. The sampling was first started purposefully and continued with theoretical sampling. The study collected qualitative data through semistructured and interactive interviews with 16 nursing students and 4 nursing instructors. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded theory approach. One important pattern emerged in this study was the "concerns of becoming a nurse," which itself consisted of three categories: "nurses clinical competency," "nurses as full-scale mirror of the future," and "Monitoring and modeling through clinical education" (as the core variable). The findings showed that the nurses' manners of performance as well as the profession's prospect have a fundamental role in the process of formation of motivation through clinical education. Students find an insight into the nursing profession by substituting themselves in the place of a nurse, and as result, are or are not motivated towards the clinical education.

  2. Nursing Challenges in Motivating Nursing Students through Clinical Education: A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Nasrin, Hanifi; Soroor, Parvizy; Soodabeh, Joolaee

    2012-01-01

    Nurses are the first role models for students in clinical settings. They can have a significant role on students' motivation. The purpose of this study was to explore the understanding of nursing students and instructors concerning the role of nurses in motivating nursing students through clinical education. The sampling was first started purposefully and continued with theoretical sampling. The study collected qualitative data through semistructured and interactive interviews with 16 nursing students and 4 nursing instructors. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded theory approach. One important pattern emerged in this study was the “concerns of becoming a nurse,” which itself consisted of three categories: “nurses clinical competency,” “nurses as full-scale mirror of the future,” and “Monitoring and modeling through clinical education” (as the core variable). The findings showed that the nurses' manners of performance as well as the profession's prospect have a fundamental role in the process of formation of motivation through clinical education. Students find an insight into the nursing profession by substituting themselves in the place of a nurse, and as result, are or are not motivated towards the clinical education. PMID:22830005

  3. Mental health professional experiences of the flexible assertive community treatment model: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Lexén, Annika; Svensson, Bengt

    2016-08-01

    Despite the lack of evidence for effectiveness of the Flexible Assertive Community Treatment (Flexible ACT), the model is considered feasible and is well received by mental health professionals. No current studies have adequately examined mental health professional experiences of working with Flexible ACT. The aim of this study was to explore mental health professional experiences of working with the Flexible ACT model compared with standard care. The study was guided by grounded theory and based on the interviews with 19 theoretically chosen mental health professionals in Swedish urban areas primarily working with consumers with psychosis, who had worked with the Flexible ACT model for at least 6 months. The analysis resulted in the core category: "Flexible ACT and the shared caseload create a common action space" and three main categories: (1) "Flexible ACT fills the need for a systematic approach to crisis intervention"; (2) "Flexible ACT has advantages in the psychosocial working environment"; and (3) "Flexible ACT increases the quality of care". Mental health professionals may benefit from working with the Flexible ACT model through decreased job-strain and stress, increased feeling of being in control over their work situation, and experiences of providing higher quality of care.

  4. A Grounded Theory Study of the Mentoring Process Involved With Undergraduate Athletic Training Students.

    PubMed

    Pitney, William A; Ehlers, Greg G

    2004-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To gain insight regarding the mentoring processes involving students enrolled in athletic training education programs and to create a mentoring model. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a grounded theory study with students and mentors currently affiliated with 1 of 2 of the athletic training education programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs. PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen interviews were conducted, 13 with athletic training students and 3 with individuals identified as mentors. The students ranged in age from 20 to 24 years, with an average of 21.6 years. The mentors ranged from 24 to 38 years of age, with an average of 33.3 years. Participants were purposefully selected based on theoretic sampling and availability. DATA ANALYSIS: The transcribed interviews were analyzed using open-, axial-, and selective-coding procedures. Member checks, peer debriefings, and triangulation were used to ensure trustworthiness. RESULTS: Students who acknowledged having a mentor overwhelmingly identified their clinical instructor in this role. The open-coding procedures produced 3 categories: (1) mentoring prerequisites, (2) interpersonal foundations, and (3) educational dimensions. Mentoring prerequisites included accessibility, approachability, and protege initiative. Interpersonal foundations involved the mentor and protege having congruent values, trust, and a personal relationship. The educational dimensions category involved the mentor facilitating knowledge and skill development, encouraging professional perspectives, and individualizing learning. Although a student-certified athletic trainer relationship can be grounded in either interpersonal or educational aspects, the data support the occurrence of an authentic mentoring relationship when the dimensions coalesced. CONCLUSIONS: Potential mentors must not only be accessible but also approachable by a prospective protege. Mentoring takes initiative on behalf of a student and

  5. The Study of Electronic Medical Record Adoption in a Medicare Certified Home Health Agency Using a Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Joy L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to examine the experiences of clinicians in the adoption of Electronic Medical Records in a Medicare certified Home Health Agency. An additional goal for this study was to triangulate qualitative research between describing, explaining, and exploring technology acceptance. The experiences…

  6. The Study of Electronic Medical Record Adoption in a Medicare Certified Home Health Agency Using a Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Joy L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to examine the experiences of clinicians in the adoption of Electronic Medical Records in a Medicare certified Home Health Agency. An additional goal for this study was to triangulate qualitative research between describing, explaining, and exploring technology acceptance. The experiences…

  7. Accreditation Follow-Up: A Grounded Theory Qualitative Study of WASC-Accredited Private Schools in Southern California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafin, Marsha Jean

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory qualitative study was to explore the value and effectiveness of key aspects of the accreditation process. The aspects explored were the procedures and structures that school leadership establishes in response both to the schoolwide Action Plans that a school develops as part of the self-study process and to the…

  8. Process of becoming a mother for Iranian surrogacy-commissioning mothers: A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Zandi, Mitra; Vanaki, Zohreh; Shiva, Marziyeh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2017-01-20

    Little knowledge is available about the experiences of the commissioning mothers during the process of surrogacy; thus, the present study was conducted in order to explore and analyze this process. This study was conducted in a referral institute in Tehran with a qualitative approach and using grounded theory methodology. The data were collected through 39 unstructured, in-depth interviews that were conducted with 15 gestational commissioning mothers, two of their husbands, four surrogates, and five of the personnel at centers for assisted reproduction (some participants were interviewed more than once). Sampling started purposively and then continued theoretically. The analysis revealed the main concern of these mothers to be the feeling of "insecurity about becoming a mother" and their predominant strategy for dealing with it to be "seeking security about becoming a mother," which emerged as a core concept. The consequences of the mothers' adopted strategies and the effects of the intervening factors included "reaching a state of relative peace," "a continuing threat to one's identity," and "mental and physical exhaustion." Identifying the demands of this group of mothers can help medical personnel, particularly nurses, adopt better plans for the future and to optimize the care they provide to these patients. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  9. Promoting participation in healthcare situations for children with JIA: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Gilljam, Britt-Mari; Arvidsson, Susann; Nygren, Jens M.; Svedberg, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Children's right to participate in their own healthcare has increasingly become highlighted in national and international research as well as in government regulations. Nevertheless, children's participation in healthcare is unsatisfactorily applied in praxis. There is a growing body of research regarding children's participation, but research from the children's own perspective is scarce. The aim of this study was thus to explore the experiences and preferences for participation in healthcare situations among children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) as a foundation for creating strategies to promote their participation in pediatric healthcare. Twenty children, aged 8 to 17 years, with JIA were interviewed individually and in focus groups. In order to increase the children's opportunities to express their own experiences, different interview techniques were used, such as draw-and-tell and role play with dolls. The analysis was conducted with a constructivist grounded theory. The result explores children's perspective of influencing processes promoting their participation in healthcare situations. The core category that emerged was, “Releasing fear and uncertainty opens up for confidence and participation,” and the categories related to the core category are, “surrounded by a sense of security and comfort,” and “strengthened and supported to become involved.” In conclusion, the knowledge gained in this study offers new insights from the perspective of children themselves, and can constitute a valuable contribution to the understanding of necessary conditions for the development of specific interventions that promote participation among children in healthcare situations. PMID:27172512

  10. Promoting participation in healthcare situations for children with JIA: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Gilljam, Britt-Mari; Arvidsson, Susann; Nygren, Jens M; Svedberg, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Children's right to participate in their own healthcare has increasingly become highlighted in national and international research as well as in government regulations. Nevertheless, children's participation in healthcare is unsatisfactorily applied in praxis. There is a growing body of research regarding children's participation, but research from the children's own perspective is scarce. The aim of this study was thus to explore the experiences and preferences for participation in healthcare situations among children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) as a foundation for creating strategies to promote their participation in pediatric healthcare. Twenty children, aged 8 to 17 years, with JIA were interviewed individually and in focus groups. In order to increase the children's opportunities to express their own experiences, different interview techniques were used, such as draw-and-tell and role play with dolls. The analysis was conducted with a constructivist grounded theory. The result explores children's perspective of influencing processes promoting their participation in healthcare situations. The core category that emerged was, "Releasing fear and uncertainty opens up for confidence and participation," and the categories related to the core category are, "surrounded by a sense of security and comfort," and "strengthened and supported to become involved." In conclusion, the knowledge gained in this study offers new insights from the perspective of children themselves, and can constitute a valuable contribution to the understanding of necessary conditions for the development of specific interventions that promote participation among children in healthcare situations.

  11. The experiences of families of critically ill patients in Greece: a social constructionist grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Plakas, Sotirios; Cant, Bob; Taket, Ann

    2009-02-01

    The experiences of patients' families in intensive care units (ICUs) are of international concern. In Greece however, adequate attention has not been paid to this issue. To explore the experiences of critical care patients' families in Greece. The intensive care units of 3 general district hospitals in the area of Athens, Greece. The social constructionist version of grounded theory was used. In-depth interviews with 25 relatives of critically ill patients were carried out, and participant and non-participant observation was used to cross-validate the data obtained. Seven major categories were identified, with 32 components across all categories. The experiences of families revolved around the two core categories of "Intense Emotions" and "Vigilant Attendance". The study conceptualised two new categories in this field, "Religiosity" and "Loss of Intimacy" and enhanced the category "Vigilant Attendance". Three further categories were identified, namely "Caring", "Dignity" and "Information". The various interrelationships between the categories were also examined. The study has examined the experience of Greek patients' families from a qualitative perspective and suggests that major changes need to be made in terms of management and support.

  12. Assimilating to Hierarchical Culture: A Grounded Theory Study on Communication among Clinical Nurses.

    PubMed

    Kim, MinYoung; Oh, Seieun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a substantive model that accounts for the explanatory social processes of communication in which nurses were engaged in clinical settings in Korea. Grounded theory methodology was used in this study. A total of 15 clinical nurses participated in the in-depth interviews. "Assimilating to the hierarchical culture" emerged as the basic social process of communication in which the participants engaged in their work environments. To adapt to the cultures of their assigned wards, the nurses learned to be silent and engaged in their assimilation into the established hierarchy. The process of assimilation consisted of three phases based on the major goals that nurses worked to achieve: getting to know about unspoken rules, persevering within the culture, and acting as senior nurse. Seven strategies and actions utilized to achieve the major tasks emerged as subcategories, including receiving strong disapproval, learning by observing, going silent, finding out what is acceptable, minimizing distress, taking advantages as senior nurse, and taking responsibilities as senior nurse. The findings identified how the pattern of communication in nursing organizations affected the way in which nurses were assimilated into organizational culture, from individual nurses' perspectives. In order to improve the rigid working atmosphere and culture in nursing organizations and increase members' satisfaction with work and quality of life, managers and staff nurses need training that focuses on effective communication and encouraging peer opinion-sharing within horizontal relationships. Moreover, organization-level support should be provided to create an environment that encourages free expression.

  13. Obtaining a Foundation for Nursing Care at the Time of Patient Admission: A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, Inger; Pilhammar, Ewa; Forsberg, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The nursing process can be viewed as a problem-solving model, but we do not know whether use of the whole process including care plans with interventions based on nursing diagnoses improves nurses’ ability to carry out assessments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to illuminate and describe the assessment and decision-making process performed by nurses who formulated individual care plans including nursing diagnosis, goals and interventions or who used standardized care plans when a patient was admitted to their ward for care, and those who did not. Data collection and analysis were carried out by means of Grounded theory. Nurses were observed while assessing patients, after which they were interviewed. The main concern of all nurses was to obtain a foundation for nursing care based on four strategies; building pre-understanding, creating a caring environment, collecting information on symptoms and signs and performing an analysis from different perspectives. It appeared that the most important aspect for nurses who did not employ care plans was the medical reason for the patient’s admission. The nurses who employed care plans discussed their decisions in terms of nursing problems, needs and risks. The results indicate that nurses who formulated care plans were more aware of their professional role. PMID:19746207

  14. Decision-making regarding organ donation in Korean adults: A grounded-theory study.

    PubMed

    Yeun, Eun Ja; Kwon, Young Mi; Kim, Jung A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the hidden patterns of behavior leading toward the decision to donate organs. Thirteen registrants at the Association for Organ Sharing in Korea were recruited. Data were collected using in-depth interview and the interview transcripts were analyzed using Glaserian grounded-theory methodology. The main problem of participants was "body attachment" and the core category (management process) was determined to be "pursuing life." The theme consisted of four phases, which were: "hesitating," "investigating," "releasing," and "re-discovering. " Therefore, to increase organ donations, it is important to find a strategy that will create positive attitudes about organ donation through education and public relations. These results explain and provide a deeper understanding of the main problem that Korean people have about organ donation and their management of decision-making processes. These findings can help care providers to facilitate the decision-making process and respond to public needs while taking into account the sociocultural context within which decisions are made. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. A grounded theory study on the influence of sleep on Parkinson's symptoms.

    PubMed

    van Gilst, Merel M; Cramer, Iris C; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Faber, Marjan J

    2016-06-10

    Upon awaking, many Parkinson's patients experience an improved mobility, a phenomenon known as 'sleep benefit'. Despite the potential clinical relevance, no objective correlates of sleep benefit exist. The discrepancy between the patients' subjective experience of improvement in absence of objective changes is striking, and raises questions about the nature of sleep benefit. We aimed to clarify what patients reporting subjective sleep benefit, actually experience when waking up. Furthermore, we searched for factors associated with subjective sleep benefit. Using a standardized topic list, we interviewed 14 Parkinson patients with unambiguous subjective sleep benefit, selected from a larger questionnaire-based cohort. A grounded theory approach was used to analyse the data. A subset of the participants described a temporary decrease in their Parkinson motor symptoms after sleep. Others did experience beneficial effects which were, however, non-specific for Parkinson's disease (e.g. feeling 'rested'). The last group misinterpreted the selection questionnaire and did not meet the definition of sleep benefit for various reasons. There were no general sleep-related factors that influenced the presence of sleep benefit. Factors mentioned to influence functioning at awakening were mostly stress related. The group of participants convincingly reporting sleep benefit in the selection questionnaire appeared to be very heterogeneous, with only a portion of them describing sleep benefit on motor symptoms. The group of participants actually experiencing motor sleep benefit may be much smaller than reported in the literature so far. Future studies should employ careful inclusion criteria, which could be based on our reported data.

  16. Opium addiction in patients with coronary artery disease: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Mansoureh A; Ghaffari, Fatemeh; Seyed Fatemi, Naiemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are widespread misconceptions about the positive effects of opium on coronary artery disease (CAD). Thus, we performed a study to explore the opium addiction process contributing factors among CAD patients using a grounded theory approach. Methods: The sample comprised 30 addicted CAD patients and their family members, physicians, nurses and friends. Purposive and theoretical sampling was employed; semi-structured interviews were conducted. Coding and constant comparative analysis techniques were as proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1998). Results: The core category was ‘Fighting for Survival’, comprising three main themes, namely, ‘the gateway’, ‘blowing into the fire’ and ‘getting stuck in the mud’. Conclusion: Increasing knowledge about the adverse effects of opium on the cardiovascular system would reinforce prevention and rehabilitation measures. Involving patients’ family-members in addiction prevention and rehabilitation programs and referring patients to specialized rehabilitation centres could help patients quit opium. Healthcare providers (HCPs) should notice to the effects of opium consumption among CAD patients; nursing care must be holistic in nature. Although opium is stigmatised in Iran, HCPs must treat addicted CAD patients similar to other patients. Nursing students’ must be aware of the negative effects of illegal drugs on CAD patients and the misconceptions regarding the positive effects thereof. Any misconceptions must be probed and clarified. Rehabilitation centres must be supervised by cardiologists and HCPs. PMID:26793658

  17. Barriers to Healthcare Provision for Victims of Sexual Assault: A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Shahali, Shadab; Mohammadi, Eesa; Lamyian, Minoor; Kashanian, Maryam; Eslami, Mohammad; Montazeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Victims of sexual assault need comprehensive healthcare services to deal with the consequences of their experience. However, there are still many girls/women that delay seeking healthcare after they experience sexual assault. Objectives: To explore the process of health care and clinical services for victims of sexual assault in the health care centers of Iran. Patients and Methods: This was a qualitative study based on the grounded theory method. The sample consisted of 23 health care providers and 10 victims of sexual violence. Unstructured interviews and observations were used for data collection. Constant comparative analysis was used according to the Strauss and Corbin method. Results: The analysis of all data led to the extraction of four categories: “performing routines”, “victims’ expectations”, “conflict between expectations of victims and existing healthcare services”, and the core category of “neglect of healthcare providers to address the needs and expectations of victims”. Providers were offering health care to the victims of sexual violence regardless of their needs. Due to this neglect, victims sought illegal solutions to overcome the consequences that led to social stigma. Conclusions: The findings indicate the lack of mutual understanding between health care providers and victims of sexual violence in relation to the expectations and priorities of victims. PMID:27231579

  18. The core of after death care in relation to organ donation - a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Anna; Flodén, Anne; Lennerling, Annette; Karlsson, Veronika; Nilsson, Madeleine; Fridh, Isabell

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how intensive and critical care nurses experience and deal with after death care i.e. the period from notification of a possible brain dead person, and thereby a possible organ donor, to the time of post-mortem farewell. Grounded theory, based on Charmaz' framework, was used to explore what characterises the ICU-nurses concerns during the process of after death and how they handle it. Data was collected from open-ended interviews. The core category: achieving a basis for organ donation through dignified and respectful care of the deceased person and the close relatives highlights the main concern of the 29 informants. This concern is categorised into four main areas: safeguarding the dignity of the deceased person, respecting the relatives, dignified and respectful care, enabling a dignified farewell. After death care requires the provision of intense, technical, medical and nursing interventions to enable organ donation from a deceased person. It is achieved by extensive nursing efforts to preserve and safeguard the dignity of and respect for the deceased person and the close relatives, within an atmosphere of peace and tranquillity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Midwifery scope of practice among staff nurses: a grounded theory study in Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bharati; Johansson, Eva; Prakasamma, M; Mavalankar, Dileep; Christensson, Kyllike

    2013-06-01

    midwifery is a part of the nursing profession in India. This current study explores and describes the midwifery scope of practice among staff nurses. a grounded theory approach was used to develop a model. Twenty-eight service providers from the maternity sections of public health facilities, selected through purposive and theoretical sampling were interviewed in-depth. Unstructured observations in the labour wards were also used for developing the model. the midwifery practice of staff nurses was limited in scope compared to international standards of midwifery. Their practice was circumstance driven, ranging from extended to marginal depending on the context. Their right to practice was not legally defined, but they were not specifically prohibited from practice. As a consequence, the staff nurses faced loss of skills, and deskilling when their practice was restricted. Their practice was perceived as risky, when the scope of practice was extended because it was not rightfully endorsed, the nurses having no officially recognized right to practice midwifery at that level. The clinical midwifery education of nursing and midwifery students was marginalized because the education of medical students was given priority, and the students only got exposed to the restricted practice of staff nurses. unclear definitions of the right to practice and the scope of practice have led to the un-utilized potential of staff nurses practising midwifery. This is detrimental because India faces an acute shortage of qualified personnel to meet the need in providing human resources for maternal health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Balancing intertwined responsibilities: A grounded theory study of teamwork in everyday intensive care unit practice.

    PubMed

    Bjurling-Sjöberg, Petronella; Wadensten, Barbro; Pöder, Ulrika; Jansson, Inger; Nordgren, Lena

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to describe and explain teamwork and factors that influence team processes in everyday practice in an intensive care unit (ICU) from a staff perspective. The setting was a Swedish ICU. Data were collected from 38 ICU staff in focus groups with registered nurses, assistant nurses, and anaesthetists, and in one individual interview with a physiotherapist. Constant comparative analysis according to grounded theory was conducted, and to identify the relations between the emerged categories, the paradigm model was applied. The core category to emerge from the data was "balancing intertwined responsibilities." In addition, eleven categories that related to the core category emerged. These categories described and explained the phenomenon's contextual conditions, causal conditions, and intervening conditions, as well as the staff actions/interactions and the consequences that arose. The findings indicated that the type of teamwork fluctuated due to circumstantial factors. Based on the findings and on current literature, strategies that can optimise interprofessional teamwork are presented. The analysis generated a conceptual model, which aims to contribute to existing frameworks by adding new dimensions about perceptions of team processes within an ICU related to staff actions/interactions. This model may be utilised to enhance the understanding of existing contexts and processes when designing and implementing interventions to facilitate teamwork in the pursuit of improving healthcare quality and patient safety.

  1. Being publicly diagnosed: a grounded theory study of Danish patients with tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Konradsen, Hanne; Lillebaek, Troels; Wilcke, Torgny; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease which affects people worldwide, but there is knowledge lacking about patients' experiences in low-prevalence and high-income countries. To provide a theoretical framework for the process of being diagnosed with tuberculosis in a Danish setting. A grounded theory design with field studies and qualitative interviews, following the recommendations from Glaser and Strauss. A process of being publicly diagnosed was identified, which developed during the patient's trajectory from being on the way to becoming a patient, becoming a patient with TB, and finally being in medical treatment. Before being diagnosed with TB, patients were weighing between biding their time and deciding to undergo an examination. Social pressure and feelings of social responsibility tended to affect the decision. Having undergone the examination(s), the patients were publicly diagnosed. Being publicly diagnosed meant changing social interactions and fighting to regain control. Findings offer new insight and an empirically derived basis for developing interventions aimed at reducing the burden of being diagnosed with tuberculosis and increasing the wellbeing of the patients.

  2. Health visitor views on consultation using the Solihull approach: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Stefanopoulou, Evgenia; Coker, Sian; Greenshields, Maria; Pratt, Richard

    2011-07-01

    Consultation is integral to maintaining competence for health professionals and involves a collaborative relationship between specialist and primary care services. Although consultation aims to support them in their work, existing literature exploring health visitors' experiences of consultation is limited. This study explored health visitors' experiences of consultation in relation to their clinical practice, their experience of their work and its impact on the wider service. In all, 10 health visitors were interviewed using a semi-structured guide and analysis was subjected to a grounded theory framework. Participants' views were influenced by a combination of factors--consultants' training specific to their role, their communication and engagement, consultation's support of joint-working and/or transitions, and its relevance to and impact upon practice. Findings suggest that such interface activities require effective co-ordination, communication and structuring strategies, highlighting the importance of future initiatives in developing health visitors' mental health role further. Given the comparative lack of evaluation of such activities, these findings may inform policy-making and service development to ensure high quality of service delivery.

  3. User involvement and experiential knowledge in interprofessional rehabilitation: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Slomic, Mirela; Christiansen, Bjørg; Soberg, Helene L; Sveen, Unni

    2016-10-04

    User involvement is increasingly important in developing relevant health care services. The aim of this study was to contribute to a deeper understanding of user involvement and patients' experiential knowledge as recognized and incorporated into clinical practice by rehabilitation professionals. A qualitative design using a grounded theory approach was applied. Data were collected by observations of the interprofessional meetings at two rehabilitation units treating patients with traumatic brain injury and multiple trauma and by individual semi-structured interviews with rehabilitation professionals. The professionals recognized and incorporated user involvement into clinical practice as formal or authentic. Formal user involvement was sometimes considered pro forma. Incorporating patient' experiential knowledge was considered a part of authentic user involvement. Possible gaps between the patients' experiential knowledge and professional expertise were recognized. Challenges included dealing with 'artifacts', sources of information external to the patients' own experiences, and addressing the patients' possibly reduced insight due to trauma. Patients' experiential knowledge was recognized as an essential component of the professionals' knowledge base. The professionals considered user involvement and patients' experiential knowledge as part of their clinical practice. Implementation of user involvement and contribution of patients' experiential knowledge could be improved by understanding the issues raised in practice, such as possible negative consequences of user involvement in form of burdening or disempowering the patients. A better understanding of the characteristics and measures of user involvement is necessary in order to be able to offer its full benefits for both the patients and the professionals.

  4. First Generation College Students in Engineering: A Grounded Theory Study of Family Influence on Academic Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Denise Rutledge

    2012-01-01

    This work develops a constructivist grounded theory describing the influence of family and those that serve a role similar to family on the academic decision making of undergraduate first generation in college (FGC) students majoring in engineering. FGC students, in this study, are students with neither parent having attained a bachelor's…

  5. Mentoring: A Grounded Theory Study Examining How the Relationship between the Mentor and Mentee Becomes Mutually Beneficial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, David Richard

    2013-01-01

    This grounded theory qualitative study examined the mentee/mentor relationship between five first year teachers and their five assigned mentors in a school district in Central Florida. To generate a model that seeks to explain how and why a mentee/mentor relationship changes and evolves from that of a single directional stream of information to…

  6. Mentoring: A Grounded Theory Study Examining How the Relationship between the Mentor and Mentee Becomes Mutually Beneficial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, David Richard

    2013-01-01

    This grounded theory qualitative study examined the mentee/mentor relationship between five first year teachers and their five assigned mentors in a school district in Central Florida. To generate a model that seeks to explain how and why a mentee/mentor relationship changes and evolves from that of a single directional stream of information to…

  7. Grounded theory in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 70.

    PubMed

    Watling, Christopher J; Lingard, Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research in general and the grounded theory approach in particular, have become increasingly prominent in medical education research in recent years. In this Guide, we first provide a historical perspective on the origin and evolution of grounded theory. We then outline the principles underlying the grounded theory approach and the procedures for doing a grounded theory study, illustrating these elements with real examples. Next, we address key critiques of grounded theory, which continue to shape how the method is perceived and used. Finally, pitfalls and controversies in grounded theory research are examined to provide a balanced view of both the potential and the challenges of this approach. This Guide aims to assist researchers new to grounded theory to approach their studies in a disciplined and rigorous fashion, to challenge experienced researchers to reflect on their assumptions, and to arm readers of medical education research with an approach to critically appraising the quality of grounded theory studies.

  8. Work and Risk: Perceptions of Nuclear-Power Personnel. a Study in Grounded Theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields, Claire Dewitt

    1992-01-01

    The utility industry has devoted time and money to assure personnel within nuclear power plants are informed about occupational risks. Radiation-protection training programs are designed to present information to employees about occupational radiation and protective procedures. Work -related concerns are known to create stress, affect the morale of the workforce, influence collective bargaining, and increase compensation claims. This study was designed to determine perceptions of risk among employees of nuclear power plants and identify variables that influence these perceptions. Four power plants were included in the study, one in Canada and three in the United States. Data were generated through participant observations and interviews of 350 participants during a period of 3 weeks at each plant. Data were gathered and analyzed following procedures advanced by Grounded Theory, a naturalistic methodology used in this study. Training content, information, and communication materials were additional sources of data. Findings indicated employees believed health and safety risks existed within the work environment. Perceptions of risk were influenced by training quality, the work environment, nuclear myths and images of the general public, and fears of family members. Among the three groups of workers, administration personnel, security personnel, and radiation workers, the latter identified a larger number of risks. Workers perceived radiation risks, shift work, and steam pipe ruptures as high-level concerns. Experiencing stress, making mistakes, and fear of sabotage were concerns shared among all employee groups at various levels of concern. Strategies developed by employees were used to control risk. Strategies included teamwork, humor, monitoring, avoidance, reframing, and activism. When risks were perceived as uncontrollable, the employee left the plant. A coping strategy of transferring concerns about radiological risks to nonradiological risks were uncovered in

  9. How Nursing Home Residents Develop Relationships with Peers & Staff: A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Tonya; Bowers, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Social support and social relationships have been repeatedly identified as essential to nursing home resident quality of life. However, little is known about ways residents develop relationships with peers or staff. Objective This study was conducted to explore the ways resident develop relationships with peers and staff in nursing homes. Design & methods Fifteen cognitively intact nursing home residents from two facilities were interviewed for this grounded theory study. Sampling, interviewing, and analysis occurred in a cyclical process with results at each stage of the study informing decisions about data collection and analysis in the next. Unstructured interviews and field observations were conducted. Data were analyzed with open, axial, and selective coding. Results Residents developed relationships with peers and staff largely as an unintended consequence of trying to have a life in the nursing home. Having a life was a two-step process. First, life motivations (Being Self and Creating a Positive Atmosphere) influenced resident preferences for daily activities and interaction goals and subsequently their strategies for achieving and establishing both. Second, the strategies residents used for achieving their required daily activities (Passing Time and Getting Needs Met) and interaction goals then influenced the nature of interaction and the subsequent peer or staff response to these interactions. Residents defined relationships as friendly or unfriendly depending on whether peers or staff responded positively or negatively. There was considerable overlap in the ways peer and staff relationships developed and the results highlight the role of peer and staff responsiveness in relationship development. Implications The results provide possible explanations for the success of interventions in the literature designed to improve staff responsiveness to residents. The results suggest that adapting these kinds of interventions for use with peers may also be

  10. Factors Involved in Iranian Women Heads of Household's Health Promotion Activities: A Grounded Theory Study.

    PubMed

    Rafii, Forough; Seyedfatemi, Naima; Rezaei, Mahboubeh

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to explore and describe the factors involved in Iranian women heads of household's health promotion activities. Grounded theory was used as the method. Sixteen women heads of household were recruited. Data were generated by semi structured interviews. Our findings indicated that remainder of resources (money, time and energy) alongside perceived severity of health risk were two main factors whereas women's personal and socio-economic characteristics were two contextual factors involved in these women's health promotion activities. To help these women improve their health status, we recommended that the government, non-governmental organizations and health care professionals provide them with required resources and increase their knowledge by holding training sessions.

  11. Making sense of medically unexplained symptoms in general practice: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Stone, Louise

    2013-06-01

    Background General practitioners often encounter patients with medically unexplained symptoms. These patients share many common features, but there is little agreement about the best diagnostic framework for describing them. Aims This study aimed to explore how GPs make sense of medically unexplained symptoms. Design Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 GPs. Each participant was asked to describe a patient with medically unexplained symptoms and discuss their assessment and management. Setting The study was conducted among GPs from teaching practices across Australia. Methods Participants were selected by purposive sampling and all interviews were transcribed. Iterative analysis was undertaken using constructivist grounded theory methodology. Results GPs used a variety of frameworks to understand and manage patients with medically unexplained symptoms. They used different frameworks to reason, to help patients make sense of their suffering, and to communicate with other health professionals. GPs tried to avoid using stigmatising labels such as 'borderline personality disorder', which were seen to apply a 'layer of dismissal' to patients. They worried about missing serious physical disease, but managed the risk by deliberately attending to physical cues during some consultations, and focusing on coping with medically unexplained symptoms in others. They also used referrals to exclude serious disease, but were wary of triggering a harmful cycle of uncoordinated care. Conclusion GPs were aware of the ethical relevance of psychiatric diagnoses, and attempted to protect their patients from stigma. They crafted helpful explanatory narratives for patients that shaped their experience of suffering. Disease surveillance remained an important role for GPs who were managing medically unexplained symptoms.

  12. Why are physicians not persuaded by scientific evidence? A grounded theory interview study

    PubMed Central

    Sekimoto, Miho; Imanaka, Yuichi; Kitano, Nobuko; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Takahashi, Osamu

    2006-01-01

    Background The government-led "evidence-based guidelines for cataract treatment" labelled pirenoxine and glutathione eye drops, which have been regarded as the standard care for cataracts in Japan, as lacking evidence of effectiveness, causing great upset among ophthalmologists and professional ophthalmology societies. This study investigated the reasons why such "scientific evidence of treatment effectiveness" is not easily accepted by physicians, and thus, why they do not change their clinical practices to reflect such evidence. Methods We conducted a qualitative study based on grounded theory to explore physicians' awareness of "scientific evidence" and evidence-supported treatment in relation to pirenoxine and glutathione eye drops, and to identify current barriers to the implementation of evidence-based policies in clinical practice. Interviews were conducted with 35 ophthalmologists and 3 general practitioners on their prescribing behaviours, perceptions of eye drop effectiveness, attitudes toward the eye drop guideline recommendations, and their perceptions of "scientific evidence." Results Although few physicians believed that eye drops are remarkably effective, the majority of participants reported that they prescribed eye drops to patients who asked for them, and that such patients accounted for a considerable proportion of those with cataracts. Physicians seldom attempted to explain to patients the limitations of effectiveness or to encourage them to stop taking the eye drops. Physicians also acknowledged the benefits of prescribing such drugs, which ultimately outweighed any uncertainty of their effectiveness. These benefits included economic incentives and a desire to be appreciated by patients. Changes in clinical practice were considered to bring little benefit to physicians or patients. Government approval, rarity of side effects, and low cost of the drops also encouraged prescription. Conclusion Physicians occasionally provide treatment without

  13. Why are physicians not persuaded by scientific evidence? A grounded theory interview study.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Miho; Imanaka, Yuichi; Kitano, Nobuko; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Takahashi, Osamu

    2006-07-27

    The government-led "evidence-based guidelines for cataract treatment" labelled pirenoxine and glutathione eye drops, which have been regarded as the standard care for cataracts in Japan, as lacking evidence of effectiveness, causing great upset among ophthalmologists and professional ophthalmology societies. This study investigated the reasons why such "scientific evidence of treatment effectiveness" is not easily accepted by physicians, and thus, why they do not change their clinical practices to reflect such evidence. We conducted a qualitative study based on grounded theory to explore physicians' awareness of "scientific evidence" and evidence-supported treatment in relation to pirenoxine and glutathione eye drops, and to identify current barriers to the implementation of evidence-based policies in clinical practice. Interviews were conducted with 35 ophthalmologists and 3 general practitioners on their prescribing behaviours, perceptions of eye drop effectiveness, attitudes toward the eye drop guideline recommendations, and their perceptions of "scientific evidence." Although few physicians believed that eye drops are remarkably effective, the majority of participants reported that they prescribed eye drops to patients who asked for them, and that such patients accounted for a considerable proportion of those with cataracts. Physicians seldom attempted to explain to patients the limitations of effectiveness or to encourage them to stop taking the eye drops. Physicians also acknowledged the benefits of prescribing such drugs, which ultimately outweighed any uncertainty of their effectiveness. These benefits included economic incentives and a desire to be appreciated by patients. Changes in clinical practice were considered to bring little benefit to physicians or patients. Government approval, rarity of side effects, and low cost of the drops also encouraged prescription. Physicians occasionally provide treatment without expecting remarkable therapeutic

  14. Patients' perceptions of the meaning of good care in surgical care: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Mako, Tünde; Svanäng, Pernilla; Bjerså, Kristofer

    2016-01-01

    Patients in surgical care have reported a fear of being discharged prior to sufficient recovery and a lack of control of their situation. Establishing the patient-nurse relationship is essential in the context of the care. The Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare has established indicators for good care for comparison, evaluation and improvement of the quality of the health care system. These indicators are knowledge-based, appropriate, safe, effective and equal health care, as well as care within a reasonable time and patient-centred care. Current core competence in nursing education include quality improvement, patient-centred care, teamwork and collaboration, using evidence-based practice, safety and informatics. This study investigates patients' perceptions of the meaning of good care in inpatient surgical care. Grounded theory according to Charmaz was chosen as the study design. Interviews were conducted with 13 patients from six surgical wards in the south of Sweden in 2014-2015. The results showed that patients in surgical care perceived good care as being safe, as they were vulnerable and anxious. This could be achieved through accessible care, reliable care, caring attitudes and participating in one's own care. Patient participation was achieved by information and education and the possibility to affect their care. Patients need safety to experience good care. Caring attitudes and patient participation can be attained through patient-centred care. Bedside handover can improve patients' perceptions of accessible care and reliable care and can increase patient participation. Continuously maintaining competence and using evidence-based practice are needed to achieve reliable care.

  15. Sympathy, empathy, and compassion: A grounded theory study of palliative care patients’ understandings, experiences, and preferences

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Shane; Beamer, Kate; Hack, Thomas F; McClement, Susan; Raffin Bouchal, Shelley; Chochinov, Harvey M; Hagen, Neil A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Compassion is considered an essential element in quality patient care. One of the conceptual challenges in healthcare literature is that compassion is often confused with sympathy and empathy. Studies comparing and contrasting patients’ perspectives of sympathy, empathy, and compassion are largely absent. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate advanced cancer patients’ understandings, experiences, and preferences of “sympathy,” “empathy,” and “compassion” in order to develop conceptual clarity for future research and to inform clinical practice. Design: Data were collected via semi-structured interviews and then independently analyzed by the research team using the three stages and principles of Straussian grounded theory. Setting/participants: Data were collected from 53 advanced cancer inpatients in a large urban hospital. Results: Constructs of sympathy, empathy, and compassion contain distinct themes and sub-themes. Sympathy was described as an unwanted, pity-based response to a distressing situation, characterized by a lack of understanding and self-preservation of the observer. Empathy was experienced as an affective response that acknowledges and attempts to understand individual’s suffering through emotional resonance. Compassion enhanced the key facets of empathy while adding distinct features of being motivated by love, the altruistic role of the responder, action, and small, supererogatory acts of kindness. Patients reported that unlike sympathy, empathy and compassion were beneficial, with compassion being the most preferred and impactful. Conclusion: Although sympathy, empathy, and compassion are used interchangeably and frequently conflated in healthcare literature, patients distinguish and experience them uniquely. Understanding patients’ perspectives is important and can guide practice, policy reform, and future research. PMID:27535319

  16. Factors influencing decision-making around family presence during resuscitation: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Giles, Tracey; de Lacey, Sheryl; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine factors impacting family presence during resuscitation practices in the acute care setting. Family presence during resuscitation was introduced in the 1980s, so family members/significant others could be with their loved ones during life-threatening events. Evidence demonstrates important benefits; yet despite growing support from the public and endorsement from professional groups, family presence is practiced inconsistently and rationales for poor uptake are unclear. Constructivist grounded theory design. Twenty-five health professionals, family members and patients informed the study. In-depth interviews were undertaken between October 2013-November 2014 to interpret and explain their meanings and actions when deciding whether to practice or participate in FPDR. The Social Construction of Conditional Permission explains the social processes at work when deciding to adopt or reject family presence during resuscitation. These processes included claiming ownership, prioritizing preferences and rights, assessing suitability, setting boundaries and protecting others/self. In the absence of formal policies, decision-making was influenced primarily by peoples' values, preferences and pre-existing expectations around societal roles and associated status between health professionals and consumers. As a result, practices were sporadic, inconsistent and often paternalistic rather than collaborative. An increased awareness of the important benefits of family presence and the implementation of clinical protocols are recommended as an important starting point to address current variations and inconsistencies in practice. These measures would ensure future practice is guided by evidence and standards for health consumer safety and welfare rather than personal values and preferences of the individuals 'in charge' of permissions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Spreading and sustaining best practices for home care of older adults: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Ploeg, Jenny; Markle-Reid, Maureen; Davies, Barbara; Higuchi, Kathryn; Gifford, Wendy; Bajnok, Irmajean; McConnell, Heather; Plenderleith, Jennifer; Foster, Sandra; Bookey-Bassett, Sue

    2014-11-07

    Improving health care quality requires effective and timely spread of innovations that support evidence-based practices. However, there is limited rigorous research on the process of spread, factors influencing spread, and models of spread. It is particularly important to study spread within the home care sector given the aging of the population, expansion of home care services internationally, the high proportion of older adult users of home care services, and the vulnerability of this group who are frail and live with multiple chronic conditions. The purpose of this study was to understand how best practices related to older adults are spread within home care organizations. Four home care organizations in Ontario, Canada that had implemented best practices related to older adults (falls prevention, pain management, management of venous leg ulcers) participated. Using a qualitative grounded theory design, interviews were conducted with frontline providers, managers, and directors at baseline (n = 44) and 1 year later (n = 40). Open, axial, and selective coding and constant comparison analysis were used. A model of the process of spread of best practices within home care organizations was developed. The phases of spread included (1) committing to change, (2) implementing on a small scale, (3) adapting locally, (4) spreading internally to multiple users and sites, and (5) disseminating externally. Factors that facilitated progression through these phases were (1) leading with passion and commitment, (2) sustaining strategies, and (3) seeing the benefits. Project leads, champions, managers, and steering committees played vital roles in leading the spread process. Strategies such as educating/coaching and evaluating and feedback were key to sustaining the change. Spread occurred within the home care context of high staff and manager turnover and time and resource constraints. Spread of best practices is optimized through the application of the phases of spread

  18. Assimilating to Hierarchical Culture: A Grounded Theory Study on Communication among Clinical Nurses

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a substantive model that accounts for the explanatory social processes of communication in which nurses were engaged in clinical settings in Korea. Grounded theory methodology was used in this study. A total of 15 clinical nurses participated in the in-depth interviews. “Assimilating to the hierarchical culture” emerged as the basic social process of communication in which the participants engaged in their work environments. To adapt to the cultures of their assigned wards, the nurses learned to be silent and engaged in their assimilation into the established hierarchy. The process of assimilation consisted of three phases based on the major goals that nurses worked to achieve: getting to know about unspoken rules, persevering within the culture, and acting as senior nurse. Seven strategies and actions utilized to achieve the major tasks emerged as subcategories, including receiving strong disapproval, learning by observing, going silent, finding out what is acceptable, minimizing distress, taking advantages as senior nurse, and taking responsibilities as senior nurse. The findings identified how the pattern of communication in nursing organizations affected the way in which nurses were assimilated into organizational culture, from individual nurses’ perspectives. In order to improve the rigid working atmosphere and culture in nursing organizations and increase members’ satisfaction with work and quality of life, managers and staff nurses need training that focuses on effective communication and encouraging peer opinion-sharing within horizontal relationships. Moreover, organization-level support should be provided to create an environment that encourages free expression. PMID:27253389

  19. Making sense of medically unexplained symptoms in general practice: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background General practitioners often encounter patients with medically unexplained symptoms. These patients share many common features, but there is little agreement about the best diagnostic framework for describing them. Aims This study aimed to explore how GPs make sense of medically unexplained symptoms. Design Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 GPs. Each participant was asked to describe a patient with medically unexplained symptoms and discuss their assessment and management. Setting The study was conducted among GPs from teaching practices across Australia. Methods Participants were selected by purposive sampling and all interviews were transcribed. Iterative analysis was undertaken using constructivist grounded theory methodology. Results GPs used a variety of frameworks to understand and manage patients with medically unexplained symptoms. They used different frameworks to reason, to help patients make sense of their suffering, and to communicate with other health professionals. GPs tried to avoid using stigmatising labels such as ‘borderline personality disorder’, which were seen to apply a ‘layer of dismissal’ to patients. They worried about missing serious physical disease, but managed the risk by deliberately attending to physical cues during some consultations, and focusing on coping with medically unexplained symptoms in others. They also used referrals to exclude serious disease, but were wary of triggering a harmful cycle of uncoordinated care. Conclusion GPs were aware of the ethical relevance of psychiatric diagnoses, and attempted to protect their patients from stigma. They crafted helpful explanatory narratives for patients that shaped their experience of suffering. Disease surveillance remained an important role for GPs who were managing medically unexplained symptoms. PMID:24427176

  20. Nursing communication in nursing care to mastectomized women: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Araújo, Iliana Maria; da Silva, Raimunda Magalhães; Bonfim, Isabela Melo; Fernandes, Ana Fátima Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    The goal was to understand the nurse/patient communication process, emphasizing nursing care to mastectomized women. Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory were used to interview eight nurses from a referral institution in cancer treatment, using the guiding question: how do nurses perceive their communication process with mastectomized women? Data analysis allowed for the creation of a central theory: the meaning of communication in nursing care to women, constituted by three distinct but inter-related phenomena: perceiving communication, the relationship nurse/mastectomized woman and rethinking the communication nurse/mastectomized woman. With a view to satisfactory communication, professionals need to get involved and believe that their presence is as important as the performance of technical procedures that relieve situations of stress.

  1. Maintaining Unity - relatives in older patients' fast-track treatment programmes. A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-12-01

    To generate a substantive grounded theory of relatives' pattern of behaviour in older patients' fast-track treatment programmes during total hip or knee replacement. Fast-track treatment programmes are designed to make total hip and knee replacements more efficient through recovery improvements. The support of relatives during older patients' trajectory is important. However, knowledge is needed on the relatives' pattern of behaviour to strengthen their involvement in fast-track treatment programmes. We used a Glaserian grounded theory approach based on a systematic generation of theory from data to explain the latent pattern of behaviour of relatives. Data were collected from 2010-2011 in orthopaedic wards at two Danish university hospitals and consisted of 14 non-participant observations, 14 postobservational interviews and five interviews. Seven relatives of patients over 70 years of age participated. The constant comparative method was the guiding principle for simultaneous data collection, data analysis and coding, while theoretically sampling and writing memos. Maintaining Unity emerged as the relatives' pattern of behaviour through which they resolved their main concern: preventing the patients from feeling alone. The relatives resolved their main concern through three interchangeable behavioural modes: Protecting Mode, by providing loving and respectful support; Substituting Mode, with practical and cognitive support; and an Adapting Mode, by trying to fit in with the patients' and health professionals' requirements. The substantive theory of Maintaining Unity offers knowledge of relatives' strong desire to provide compassionate and loving support for the older patients during fast-track treatment programmes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A Grounded theory study of the intention of nurses to leave the profession.

    PubMed

    Alilu, Leyla; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Valizadeh, Leila; Habibzadeh, Hosein; Gillespie, Mark

    2017-06-05

    this study explores the process of the development of an intention to leave bedside nursing. the process was studied from the perspective of 21 nurses using the grounded theory method. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and the constant comparative method of Corbin and Strauss was used for data analysis. according to the participants, the two main categories, "social image of nursing", and "culture and structure of the bedside", were the contextual factors that influence why nurses are leaving bedside care provision. Disappointment with a perceived lack of progress or improvement in the clinical experience formed primary psychosocial concerns for the participants. Competence and a process of self-control were steps taken by the participants. These, associated with interventional conditions produced the outcomes of the loss of professional commitment and desire to leave bedside nursing. "Failure to integrate personal expectations with organizational expectations: in search of escape" was the central category of the study that linked the categories together. the findings of this study provide useful information about the needs of nurses for overcoming the intention to leave bedside care. The identification of this process can help in recognizing emerging problems and providing solutions for them. este estudo explora o processo de desenvolvimento da intenção de deixar a enfermagem de cabeceira. o processo foi estudado desde a perspectiva de 21 enfermeiras utilizando o método da Grounded Theory (Teoria Fundamentada). Os dados foram coletados utilizando entrevistas semi-estruturadas e o método comparativo constante de Corbin e Strauss se utilizou para analisar os dados. segundo os participantes, duas categorias principais, "imagem social da enfermagem" e "cultura e estrutura de cabeceira", foram os fatores contextuais que influenciam as razões para que as enfermeiras estejam deixando o cuidado de cabeceira. A decepção com a percepção de falta

  3. How family carers engage with technical health procedures in the home: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Janet; McKinlay, Eileen; Keeling, Sally; Levack, William

    2015-07-06

    To explore the experiences of family carers who manage technical health procedures at home and describe their learning process. A qualitative study using grounded theory. New Zealand family carers (21 women, 5 men) who managed technical health procedures such as enteral feeding, peritoneal dialysis, tracheostomy care, a central venous line or urinary catheter. In addition, 15 health professionals involved in teaching carers were interviewed. Semistructured interviews were coded soon after completion and preliminary analysis influenced subsequent interviews. Additional data were compared with existing material and as analysis proceeded, initial codes were grouped into higher order concepts until a core concept was described. Interviewing continued until no new ideas emerged and concepts were well defined. The response of carers to the role of managing technical health procedures in the home is presented in terms of five dispositions: (1) Embracing care, (2) Resisting, (3) Reluctant acceptance, (4) Relinquishing and (5) Being overwhelmed. These dispositions were not static and carers commonly changed between them. Embracing care included cognitive understanding of the purpose and benefits of a procedure; accepting a 'technical' solution; practical management; and an emotional response. Accepting embrace is primarily motivated by perceived benefits for the recipient. It may also be driven by a lack of alternatives. Resisting or reluctant acceptance results from a lack of understanding about the procedure or willingness to manage it. Carers need adequate support to avoid becoming overwhelmed, and there are times when it is appropriate to encourage them to relinquish care for the sake of their own needs. The concept of embracing care encourages health professionals to extend their attention beyond simply the practical aspects of technical procedures to assessing and addressing carers' emotional and behavioural responses to health technology during the training process

  4. How family carers engage with technical health procedures in the home: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Janet; McKinlay, Eileen; Keeling, Sally; Levack, William

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the experiences of family carers who manage technical health procedures at home and describe their learning process. Design A qualitative study using grounded theory. Participants New Zealand family carers (21 women, 5 men) who managed technical health procedures such as enteral feeding, peritoneal dialysis, tracheostomy care, a central venous line or urinary catheter. In addition, 15 health professionals involved in teaching carers were interviewed. Methods Semistructured interviews were coded soon after completion and preliminary analysis influenced subsequent interviews. Additional data were compared with existing material and as analysis proceeded, initial codes were grouped into higher order concepts until a core concept was described. Interviewing continued until no new ideas emerged and concepts were well defined. Results The response of carers to the role of managing technical health procedures in the home is presented in terms of five dispositions: (1) Embracing care, (2) Resisting, (3) Reluctant acceptance, (4) Relinquishing and (5) Being overwhelmed. These dispositions were not static and carers commonly changed between them. Embracing care included cognitive understanding of the purpose and benefits of a procedure; accepting a ‘technical’ solution; practical management; and an emotional response. Accepting embrace is primarily motivated by perceived benefits for the recipient. It may also be driven by a lack of alternatives. Resisting or reluctant acceptance results from a lack of understanding about the procedure or willingness to manage it. Carers need adequate support to avoid becoming overwhelmed, and there are times when it is appropriate to encourage them to relinquish care for the sake of their own needs. Conclusions The concept of embracing care encourages health professionals to extend their attention beyond simply the practical aspects of technical procedures to assessing and addressing carers’ emotional and

  5. Decision-making in Swiss home-like childbirth: A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Yvonne; Frank, Franziska; Schläppy Muntwyler, Franziska; Fleming, Valerie; Pehlke-Milde, Jessica

    2017-06-14

    Decision-making in midwifery, including a claim for shared decision-making between midwives and women, is of major significance for the health of mother and child. Midwives have little information about how to share decision-making responsibilities with women, especially when complications arise during birth. To increase understanding of decision-making in complex home-like birth settings by exploring midwives' and women's perspectives and to develop a dynamic model integrating participatory processes for making shared decisions. The study, based on grounded theory methodology, analysed 20 interviews of midwives and 20 women who had experienced complications in home-like births. The central phenomenon that arose from the data was "defining/redefining decision as a joint commitment to healthy childbirth". The sub-indicators that make up this phenomenon were safety, responsibility, mutual and personal commitments. These sub-indicators were also identified to influence temporal conditions of decision-making and to apply different strategies for shared decision-making. Women adopted strategies such as delegating a decision, making the midwife's decision her own, challenging a decision or taking a decision driven by the dynamics of childbirth. Midwives employed strategies such as remaining indecisive, approving a woman's decision, making an informed decision or taking the necessary decision. To respond to recommendations for shared responsibility for care, midwives need to strengthen their shared decision-making skills. The visual model of decision-making in childbirth derived from the data provides a framework for transferring clinical reasoning into practice. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ingredients and change processes in occupational therapy for children: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Samantha; Swallow, Veronica; Kolehmainen, Niina

    2017-05-01

    There is limited evidence about the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions for participation outcomes in children with coordination difficulties. Developing theory about the interventions, i.e. their ingredients and change processes, is the first step to advance the evidence base. To develop theory about the key ingredients of occupational therapy interventions for children with coordination difficulties and the processes through which change in participation might happen. Grounded theory methodology, as described by Kathy Charmaz, was used to develop the theory. Children and parents participated in semi-structured interviews to share their experiences of occupational therapy and processes of change. Data collection and analysis were completed concurrently using constant comparison methods. Five key ingredients of interventions were described: performing activities and tasks; achieving; carer support; helping and supporting the child; and labelling. Ingredients related to participation by changing children's mastery experience, increasing capability beliefs and sense of control. Parents' knowledge, skills, positive emotions, sense of empowerment and capability beliefs also related to children's participation. The results identify intervention ingredients and change pathways within occupational therapy to increase participation. It is unclear how explicitly and often therapists consider and make use of these ingredients and pathway.

  7. Balancing power: A grounded theory study on partnership of academic service institutes

    PubMed Central

    HESHMATI NABAVI, FATEMEH; VANAKI, ZOHREH; MOHAMMADI, EESA; YAZDANI, SHAHRAM

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Governments and professional organizations have called for new partnerships between health care providers and academics to improve clinical education for the benefit of both students and patients. To develop a substantive grounded theory on the process of forming academic-service partnerships in implementing clinical education, from the perspective of academic and clinical nursing staff members and managers working in Iranian settings. Methods: The participants included 15 hospital nurses, nurse managers, nurse educators, and educational managers from two central universities and clinical settings from 2009 to 2012. Data were collected through 30 in-depth, semi-structure interviews with the individual participants and then analyzed using the methodology of Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory. Results: Utilizing “balancing power” as the core variable enabled us to integrate the concepts concerning the partnership processes between clinical and educational institutes. Three distinct and significant categories emerged to explain the process of partnership: 1) divergence, 2) conflict between educational and caring functions, and 3) creation of balance between educational and caring functions. Conclusions: In implementing clinical education, partnerships have been formed within a challenging context in Iran. Conflict between clinical and educational functions was the main concern of both sides of the partnership in forming a collaborative relationship, with our findings emphasizing the importance of nursing educators' role in the establishment of partnership programs. PMID:28761886

  8. Balancing power: A grounded theory study on partnership of academic service institutes.

    PubMed

    Heshmati Nabavi, Fatemeh; Vanaki, Zohreh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Yazdani, Shahram

    2017-07-01

    Governments and professional organizations have called for new partnerships between health care providers and academics to improve clinical education for the benefit of both students and patients. To develop a substantive grounded theory on the process of forming academic-service partnerships in implementing clinical education, from the perspective of academic and clinical nursing staff members and managers working in Iranian settings. The participants included 15 hospital nurses, nurse managers, nurse educators, and educational managers from two central universities and clinical settings from 2009 to 2012. Data were collected through 30 in-depth, semi-structure interviews with the individual participants and then analyzed using the methodology of Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory. Utilizing "balancing power" as the core variable enabled us to integrate the concepts concerning the partnership processes between clinical and educational institutes. Three distinct and significant categories emerged to explain the process of partnership: 1) divergence, 2) conflict between educational and caring functions, and 3) creation of balance between educational and caring functions. In implementing clinical education, partnerships have been formed within a challenging context in Iran. Conflict between clinical and educational functions was the main concern of both sides of the partnership in forming a collaborative relationship, with our findings emphasizing the importance of nursing educators' role in the establishment of partnership programs.

  9. A qualitative study of middle school students' perceptions of factors facilitating the learning of science: Grounded theory and existing theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, Barbara S.; Gibson, Charles W.

    The purpose of this study was to explore middle school students' perceptions of what factors facilitated their learning of science. Florida's Educational Reform Act of 1983 funded programs providing the state's precollege students with summer learning opportunities in science. mathematics, and computers. The programs were intended to encourage the development of creative approaches to the teaching of these disciplines. Under this program, between 50 and 60 high-achieving middle school students were in residence on the University of South Florida campus for 12 consecutive days of study in the World of Water (WOW) program. There were two sessions per summer involving a total of 572 participants. Eighi specially trained teachers were in residence with the students. Between 50 and 70 experts from the university, government. business, and industry interacted with the students each year in an innovative science/technology/society (STS) program. An assignment toward the close of the program asked students to reflect on their experiences in residence at the university and write an essay comparing learning in the WOW program to learning in their schools. Those essays were the base for this study. This was a qualitative study using a discursive approach to emergent design to generate grounded theory. Document review, participant observation, and open-ended interviews were used to gather and triangulate data in five phases. Some of the factors that middle school students perceived as helpful to learning science were (a) experiencing the situations about which they were learning; (b) having live presentations by professional experts; (c) doing hands-on activities: (d) being active learners; (e) using inductive reasoning to generate new knowledge; (f) exploring transdisciplinary approaches to problem solving; (g) having adult mentors; (h) interacting with peers and adults; (i) establishing networks; (j) having close personal friends who shared their interest in learning; (k

  10. Weight maintenance as a tight rope walk - a Grounded Theory study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are considerable public health problems internationally as well as in Sweden. The long-term results of obesity treatment are modest as reported by other studies. The importance of extending the focus to not only comprise obesity treatment but also prevention of weight gain is therefore being emphasized. However, despite the suggested change in focus there is still no consensus on how to prevent obesity or maintain weight. This study reports findings from a qualitative study focusing on attitudes, behaviors and strategies important for primary weight maintenance in a middle-aged population. Methods In depth interviews were conducted with 23 maintainers and four slight gainers in Sweden. The interviews were transcribed and an analysis of weight maintenance was performed using Grounded Theory. Results Based on the informants' stories, describing attitudes, behaviors and strategies of importance for primary weight maintenance, a model illustrating the main findings, was constructed. Weight maintenance was seen as "a tightrope walk" and four strategies of significance for this "tightrope walk" were described as "to rely on heritage", "to find the joy", "to find the routine" and "to be in control". Eleven "ideal types" were included in the model to illustrate different ways of relating to the main strategies. These "ideal types" described more specific attitudes and behaviors such as; eating food that is both tasteful and nutritious, and choosing exercise that provides joy. However, other somewhat contradictory behaviors were also found such as; only eating nutritious food regardless of taste, and being physically active to control stress and emotions. Conclusion This study show great variety with regards to attitudes, strategies and behaviors important for weight maintenance, and considerations need to be taken before putting the model into practice. However, the results from this study can be used within primary health care by

  11. A Grounded Theory Study of Aircraft Maintenance Technician Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norcross, Robert

    Aircraft maintenance technician decision-making and actions have resulted in aircraft system errors causing aircraft incidents and accidents. Aircraft accident investigators and researchers examined the factors that influence aircraft maintenance technician errors and categorized the types of errors in an attempt to prevent similar occurrences. New aircraft technology introduced to improve aviation safety and efficiency incur failures that have no information contained in the aircraft maintenance manuals. According to the Federal Aviation Administration, aircraft maintenance technicians must use only approved aircraft maintenance documents to repair, modify, and service aircraft. This qualitative research used a grounded theory approach to explore the decision-making processes and actions taken by aircraft maintenance technicians when confronted with an aircraft problem not contained in the aircraft maintenance manuals. The target population for the research was Federal Aviation Administration licensed aircraft and power plant mechanics from across the United States. Nonprobability purposeful sampling was used to obtain aircraft maintenance technicians with the experience sought in the study problem. The sample population recruitment yielded 19 participants for eight focus group sessions to obtain opinions, perceptions, and experiences related to the study problem. All data collected was entered into the Atlas ti qualitative analysis software. The emergence of Aircraft Maintenance Technician decision-making themes regarding Aircraft Maintenance Manual content, Aircraft Maintenance Technician experience, and legal implications of not following Aircraft Maintenance Manuals surfaced. Conclusions from this study suggest Aircraft Maintenance Technician decision-making were influenced by experience, gaps in the Aircraft Maintenance Manuals, reliance on others, realizing the impact of decisions concerning aircraft airworthiness, management pressures, and legal concerns

  12. Struggling with motherhood and coping with fatherhood - A grounded theory study among Thai teenagers.

    PubMed

    Sriyasak, Atcharawadee; Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Sridawruang, Chaweewan; Neamsakul, Wanwadee; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet

    2016-11-01

    to gain a deeper understanding of Thai teenage parents' perspectives, experiences and reasoning about becoming and being a teenage parent from a gender perspective. an exploratory design using grounded theory methodology. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. An interview guide was developed, a pilot study was undertaken, and interviews were performed on two different occasions: once during the second trimester of pregnancy and again when the infant was 5-6 months old. a province in the western part of Thailand. the selection of a heterogeneous group of teenage parents-to-be continued until saturation was reached, as describe by Glaser and Strauss (1967), in all n=50. Inclusion criteria for participants were that they were heterosexual couples, under 20 years of age, cohabiting, and expecting their first child. the core category 'struggling with motherhood and coping with fatherhood' comprises descriptions of the process from when the teenagers first learned about the pregnancy until the child was six months old. The teenagers had failed to use contraceptives which led to an unintended parenthood. Their parenthood became a turning point as the teenagers started to change their behaviours and lifestyle during pregnancy, and adapted their relationships to partner and family. Family commitments was a facilitator, through support given by their families. Finally, becoming a parent describes ways of dealing with the parental role, by engaging in parental activities and reestablishing goals in life. Most of the teenage parents reproduced traditional gender roles by being a caring mother or a breadwinning father respectively. 'struggling with motherhood and coping with fatherhood' referred to the parents' stories about how they struggled and coped with life changes and their parental role when they became unintentionally pregnant, accepted their parenting, and finally became parents. After becoming parents, the main concerns of most of the teenage parents

  13. Information needs and behaviors of geoscience educators: A grounded theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aber, Susan Ward

    2005-12-01

    Geoscience educators use a variety of resources and resource formats in their classroom teaching to facilitate student understanding of concepts and processes that define subject areas considered in the realm of geoscience. In this study of information needs and behaviors of geoscience educators, the researcher found that participants preferred visual media such as personal photographic and digital images, as well as published figures, animations, and cartoons, and that participants bypassed their academic libraries to meet these information needs. In order to investigate the role of information in developing introductory geoscience course and instruction, a grounded theory study was conducted through a qualitative paradigm with an interpretive approach and naturalistic inquiry. The theoretical and methodological framework was constructivism and sense-making. Research questions were posited on the nature of geoscience subject areas and the resources and resource formats used in conveying geoscience topics to science and non-science majors, as well as educators' preferences and concerns with curriculum and instruction. The underlying framework was to investigate the place of the academic library and librarian in the sense-making, constructivist approach of geoscience educators. A purposive sample of seven geoscience educators from four universities located in mid-western United States was identified as exemplary teachers by department chairpersons. A triangulation of data collection methods included semi-structured interviews, document reviews, and classroom observations. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method, which included coding, categorizing, and interpreting for patterns and relationships. Contextual factors were identified and a simple model resulted showing the role of information in teaching for these participants. While participants developed lectures and demonstrations using intrapersonal knowledge and personal collections, one barrier

  14. A theoretical framework of caring in the Chinese context: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Meng, Meng; Zhang, Xiuwei; Jiang, Anli

    2011-07-01

    This paper is a report of a study describing the components of nurse caring in the Chinese cultural context. The expressions, dimensions and patterns of caring vary in different cultures. Caring is deeply embedded in the Chinese culture and nurses are told to care for patients as if they were related by blood. However, to put caring in a professional and practical context, it must extend meaning with a deeper philosophical inspiration that is transcendent and described to guide nursing practices. A grounded theory research design and the Delphi method were adopted. First, a total of 16 individual non-structured interviews were conducted with noted scholars on nursing education, clinical nursing, nursing administration, medical education and the humanities between January 2006 and June 2007. All interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed using constant comparative data analysis. Secondly, 20 experts with the same inclusion criteria were recruited to conduct a two-round Delphi study to enrich and validate the theoretical framework of caring. Experts were asked to score 0 = disagree or 1 = agree for each listed item and its description in a scale. Consensus was considered when 90% or more agreement was reached. Data were collected from May 2007 to February 2009 and calculated for the agreement rates using SPSS version 11.0. Four attributes of caring including attitude of caring, knowledge of caring, ability of caring and perceptions of caring were determined, along with 8 associated subcategories and 22 statements. Among them, caring attitude is central for presenting care in daily practice. Professional knowledge of nursing, the humanities and social science give the basic theoretical guidance for nurses to exhibit caring behaviour. In the education process, perceptions of giving and receiving care are the key factors for cultivating care. The framework could be interpreted as a list of teaching objectives and could contribute to the further development

  15. Building a competent health manager at district level: a grounded theory study from Eastern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Tetui, Moses; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Ekirpa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N; Coe, Anna-Britt

    2016-11-21

    Health systems in low-income countries are often characterized by poor health outcomes. While many reasons have been advanced to explain the persistently poor outcomes, management of the system has been found to play a key role. According to a WHO framework, the management of health systems is central to its ability to deliver needed health services. In this study, we examined how district managers in a rural setting in Uganda perceived existing approaches to strengthening management so as to provide a pragmatic and synergistic model for improving management capacity building. Twenty-two interviews were conducted with district level administrative and political managers, district level health managers and health facility managers to understand their perceptions and definitions of management and capacity building. Kathy Charmaz's constructive approach to grounded theory informed the data analysis process. An interative, dynamic and complex model with three sub-process of building a competent health manager was developed. A competent manager was understood as one who knew his/her roles, was well informed and was empowered to execute management functions. Professionalizing health managers which was viewed as the foundation, the use of engaging learning approaches as the inside contents and having a supportive work environment the frame of the model were the sub-processes involved in the model. The sub-processes were interconnected although the respondents agreed that having a supportive work environment was more time and effort intensive relative to the other two sub-processes. The model developed in our study makes four central contributions to enhance the WHO framework and the existing literature. First, it emphasizes management capacity building as an iterative, dynamic and complex process rather than a set of characteristics of competent managers. Second, our model suggests the need for professionalization of health managers at different levels of the health

  16. Nobody was out back then: a grounded theory study of midlife and older lesbians with alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Pettinato, Maria

    2008-06-01

    This explorative study used grounded theory methodology (GTM) to develop a substantive theory regarding the life experience of the misuse of alcohol among midlife and older lesbians. The core category in this study is represented by the overarching process of "Disconnecting from their Authentic Selves." Professional health care providers may better be able to understand and assist midlife and older lesbians who misuse alcohol by being aware of their life experience with alcohol problems and the concepts they have described. A theoretical model is presented as a visual representation of the key concepts described in this paper and their interrelationships.

  17. Collaborating in the context of co-location: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Wener, Pamela; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2016-03-10

    Most individuals with mental health concerns seek care from their primary care provider, who may lack comfort, knowledge, and time to provide care. Interprofessional collaboration between providers improves access to primary mental health services and increases primary care providers' comfort offering these services. Building and sustaining interprofessional relationships is foundational to collaborative practice in primary care settings. However, little is known about the relationship building process within these collaborative relationships. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to gain a theoretical understanding of the interprofessional collaborative relationship-building process to guide health care providers and leaders as they integrate mental health services into primary care settings. Forty primary and mental health care providers completed a demographic questionnaire and participated in either an individual or group interview. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were reviewed several times and then individually coded. Codes were reviewed and similar codes were collapsed to form categories using using constant comparison. All codes and categories were discussed amongst the researchers and the final categories and core category was agreed upon using constant comparison and consensus. A four-stage developmental interprofessional collaborative relationship-building model explained the emergent core category of Collaboration in the Context of Co-location. The four stages included 1) Looking for Help, 2) Initiating Co-location, 3) Fitting-in, and 4) Growing Reciprocity. A patient-focus and communication strategies were essential processes throughout the interprofessional collaborative relationship-building process. Building interprofessional collaborative relationships amongst health care providers are essential to delivering mental health services in primary care settings. This developmental model describes the process

  18. Teaching spiritual care--a grounded theory study among undergraduate nursing educators.

    PubMed

    Cone, Pamela H; Giske, Tove

    2013-07-01

    To explore teachers' understanding of spirituality and how they prepare undergraduate nursing students to recognise spiritual cues and learn to assess and provide spiritual care. Nursing education addresses patient care in all domains of the person. Systematic teaching and supervision of students to prepare them to assist patients spiritually is an important part of holistic care. However, few role models for spiritual care are seen in clinical practice, and limited research addresses necessary student competencies or how teachers can best facilitate this process. Grounded theory was used to identify teachers' main concern and develop a substantive grounded theory. Data collected during semi-structured interviews at three Norwegian University Colleges in five focus groups with 19 undergraduate nursing teachers were conducted from 2008 to 2009. Data were analysed through constant comparison of transcribed interviews until categories emerged and were saturated. The participants' main concern was 'How to help students recognize cues and ways of providing spiritual care'. Participants resolved this by 'Journeying with Students through their Maturation'. This basic social process has three iterative phases that develop throughout the nursing programme: 'Raising Student awareness to Recognize the Essence of Spirituality', 'Assisting Students to Overcome Personal Barriers', and 'Mentoring Students' Competency in Spiritual Care'. Nursing education should prepare students to recognise and act on spiritual cues. Making spiritual assessment and interventions more visible and explicit throughout nursing programmes, in both classroom and clinical settings, will facilitate student maturation as they learn to integrate theoretical thinking into clinical practice. Nursing students need role models who demonstrate spiritual care in the fast-paced hospital environment as well as in other clinical practice settings. To model spirituality as part of nursing care can assist students to

  19. Challenging the philosophy of partnership with parents: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Imelda; Cowley, Sarah

    2007-08-01

    Parent participation is viewed as a pivotal concept to the provision of high quality nursing care for children and their families. Since the 1990's, the term 'partnership with parents' has increasingly been reported in the literature and adopted as a philosophy of care in most paediatric units in the United Kingdom. To explore children's, parents', and nurses' views on participation in care in the healthcare setting. Using grounded theory, data were collected through in-depth interviews, and participant observation. Sample consisted of eleven children, ten parents and twelve nurses from four paediatric wards in two hospitals in England. Most nurses assumed that parents would participate in care and viewed their role as facilitators rather than 'doers'. Nurses reported that the ideology of partnership with parents did not accurately reflect or describe their relationships with parents. Parents could never be partners in care as control of the boundaries of care rested with the nurses. Parents felt compelled to be there and to be responsible for their children's welfare in hospital. The pendulum of parent participation has swung from excluding parents in the past to making parents feel total responsibility for their child in hospital. It is argued that the current models or theories on parent participation/partnership are inappropriate or inadequate because they do not address important elements of children's, parents' and nurses' experiences in hospital.

  20. Experience of providing cultural safety in mental health to Aboriginal patients: A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    McGough, Shirley; Wynaden, Dianne; Wright, Michael

    2017-02-06

    The need for mental health clinicians to practice cultural safety is vital in ensuring meaningful care and in moving towards improving the mental health outcomes for Aboriginal people. The concept of cultural safety is particularly relevant to mental health professionals as it seeks to promote cultural integrity and the promotion of social justice, equity and respect. A substantive theory that explained the experience of providing cultural safety in mental health care to Aboriginal patients was developed using grounded theory methodology. Mental health professionals engaged in a social psychological process, called seeking solutions by navigating the labyrinth to overcome the experience of being unprepared. During this process participants moved from a state of being unprepared to one where they began to navigate the pathway of cultural safety. The findings of this research suggest health professionals have a limited understanding of the concept of cultural safety. The experience of providing cultural safety has not been adequately addressed by organizations, health services, governments, educational providers and policy makers. Health services, organizations and government agencies must work with Aboriginal people to progress strategies that inform and empower staff to practice cultural safety.

  1. Victimising of School Bullying: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert; Halldin, Karolina; Bolmsjo, Natalie; Petersson, Annelie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how individuals;who had been victims of school bullying; perceived their bullying experiences and how these had affected them; and to generate a grounded theory of being a victim of bullying at school. Twenty-one individuals, who all had prior experiences of being bullied in school for more than one year,…

  2. Grounded Theory Methods and Qualitative Family Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRossa, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    Among the different qualitative approaches that may be relied upon in family theorizing, grounded theory methods (GTM), developed by Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss, are the most popular. Despite their centrality to family studies and to other fields, however, GTM can be opaque and confusing. Believing that simplifying GTM would allow them to be…

  3. A Grounded Theory of Adult Student Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    This grounded theory study investigates adult student persistence at a community college. Student persistence in college is a prerequisite for degree achievement, which correlates with higher earnings and overall better quality of life. Persistence rates remain low for adult students, who combine their college endeavors with responsibilities to…

  4. Victimising of School Bullying: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert; Halldin, Karolina; Bolmsjo, Natalie; Petersson, Annelie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how individuals;who had been victims of school bullying; perceived their bullying experiences and how these had affected them; and to generate a grounded theory of being a victim of bullying at school. Twenty-one individuals, who all had prior experiences of being bullied in school for more than one year,…

  5. Clinical reasoning of junior doctors in emergency medicine: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Adams, E; Goyder, C; Heneghan, C; Brand, L; Ajjawi, R

    2017-02-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) has a high case turnover and acuity making it a demanding clinical reasoning domain especially for junior doctors who lack experience. We aimed to better understand their clinical reasoning using dual cognition as a guiding theory. EM junior doctors were recruited from six hospitals in the south of England to participate in semi-structured interviews (n=20) and focus groups (n=17) based on recall of two recent cases. Transcripts were analysed using a grounded theory approach to identify themes and to develop a model of junior doctors' clinical reasoning in EM. Within cases, clinical reasoning occurred in three phases. In phase 1 (case framing), initial case cues and first impressions were predominantly intuitive, but checked by analytical thought and determined the urgency of clinical assessment. In phase 2 (evolving reasoning), non-analytical single cue and pattern recognitions were common which were subsequently validated by specific analytical strategies such as use of red flags. In phase 3 (ongoing uncertainty) analytical self-monitoring and reassurance strategies were used to precipitate a decision regarding discharge. We found a constant dialectic between intuitive and analytical cognition throughout the reasoning process. Our model of clinical reasoning by EM junior doctors illustrates the specific contextual manifestations of the dual cognition theory. Distinct diagnostic strategies are identified and together these give EM learners and educators a framework and vocabulary for discussion and learning about clinical reasoning. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Effects of the Virtual Environment on Online Faculty Perceptions of Leadership: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how faculty members, teaching in the virtual environment of higher education, perceived the effectiveness of leader actions to understand how principles of existing leadership theory in critical areas such as communication effectiveness, development of trust, and ability to motivate faculty…

  7. Effects of the Virtual Environment on Online Faculty Perceptions of Leadership: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how faculty members, teaching in the virtual environment of higher education, perceived the effectiveness of leader actions to understand how principles of existing leadership theory in critical areas such as communication effectiveness, development of trust, and ability to motivate faculty…

  8. The paradigm model of distorted doctor-patient relationship in Southern Iran: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Kalateh Sadati, Ahmad; Tabei, Seyed Ziauddin; Ebrahimzade, Najme; Zohri, Mohsen; Argasi, Hossein; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    The doctor-patient relationship (DPR) is one of the most important subjects in medical sociology and health policy. Due to mutual understanding, undistorted DPRs not only result in satisfaction of both doctors and patients, but also help to reduce financial burdens for patients and the health care system. The purpose of this research was to identify a DPR based on the qualitative paradigm model which is called the grounded theory (GT) methodology. The data were collected from 3 focus groups, the participants of which consisted of 21 faculty members of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. The content of the interviews, following the transcription stage, was organized based on open, axial, and selective coding. Results showed that DPR was distorted which was the consequence of an inefficient structure in the healthcare system which is related to several cultural barriers. In this situation, agency is determinant so the doctor's personality determines the direction of DPR. Consequences of such scenarios are the patient’s distrust, patient's dissatisfaction, lack of mutual understanding, patient suppression, and patient deception. Therefore, the health care system should emphasize on reforming its inefficient infrastructures, so that, besides being controlled and surveyed, physicians are socialized ethically. PMID:27390617

  9. Balancing the Roles of a Family Medicine Residency Faculty: A Grounded Theory Study.

    PubMed

    Reitz, Randall; Sudano, Laura; Siler, Anne; Trimble, Kristopher

    2016-05-01

    Great variety exists in the roles that family medicine residency faculty fill in the lives of their residents. A family medicine-specific model has never been created to describe and promote effective training relationships. This research aims to create a consensus model for faculty development, ethics education, and policy creation. Using a modified grounded theory methods, researchers conducted phone interviews with 22 key informants from US family medicine residencies. Data were analyzed to delineate faculty roles, common role conflicts, and ethical principles for avoiding and managing role conflicts. Key informants were asked to apply their experience and preferences to adapt an existing model to fit with family medicine residency settings. The primary result of this research is the creation of a family medicine-specific model that describes faculty roles and provides insight into how to manage role conflicts with residents. Primary faculty roles include Role Model, Advisor, Teacher, Supervisor, and Evaluator. Secondary faculty roles include Friendly Colleague, Wellness Supporter, and Helping Hand. The secondary roles exist on a continuum from disengaged to enmeshed. When not balanced, the secondary roles can detract from the primary roles. Differences were found between role expectations of physician versus behavioral science faculty and larger/university/urban residencies versus smaller/community/rural residencies. Diversity of opinion exists related to the types of roles that are appropriate for family medicine faculty to maintain with residents. This new model is a first attempt to build consensus in the field and has application to faculty development, ethics education, and policy creation.

  10. Conceptualizing handover strategies at change of shift in the emergency department: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Renée H; Tomolo, Anne M; Garlisi, Andy P; Aron, David C

    2008-12-16

    The importance and complexity of handovers is well-established. Progress for intervening in the emergency department change of shift handovers may be hampered by lack of a conceptual framework. The objectives were to gain a better understanding of strategies used for change of shift handovers in an emergency care setting and to further expand current understanding and conceptualizations. Observations, open-ended questions and interviews about handover strategies were collected at a Veteran's Health Administration Medical Center in the United States. All relevant staff in the emergency department was observed; 31 completed open-ended surveys; 10 completed in-depth interviews. The main variables of interest were strategies used for handovers at change of shift and obstacles to smooth handovers. Of 21 previously identified strategies, 8 were used consistently, 4 were never used, and 9 were used occasionally. Our data support ten additional strategies. Four agent types and 6 phases of the process were identified via grounded theory analysis. Six general themes or clusters emerged covering factors that intersect to define the degree of handover smoothness. Including phases and agents in conceptualizations of handovers can help target interventions to improve patient safety. The conceptual model also clarifies unique handover considerations for the emergency department setting.

  11. Non-physiological mechanisms influencing disulfiram treatment of alcohol use disorder: A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Newton-Howes, Giles; Levack, William M M; McBride, Sam; Gilmor, Moira; Tester, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism of action of disulfiram is not clear and recent systematic reviews have reached differing conclusions. The purpose of this research was to develop a conceptual model of the mechanisms that underpin the effective use of disulfiram in management of alcohol used disorder. Grounded theory was used, based on anonymized transcripts of in-depth interviews with 14 individual clients who experienced taking disulfiram for alcohol use disorder within the context of a specialized clinic setting from New Zealand. The central concept was that of abstinence being a psychosocial construction, with the taking of disulfiram, being a physical manifestation of the decision not to drink. The main subthemes included the importance of participants believing in the potential for disulfiram producing a negative reaction, the increased autonomy achieved by disulfiram removing the need to ruminate on drinking decisions, and the importance of external structure, routine, and social contact with others to support ongoing engagement with disulfiram therapy. The physiological effects of disulfiram, in particular its adverse reaction when combined with alcohol, explains only part of its effect on problem drinking behaviour. The act of taking a disulfiram pill is also partly symbolic of making an absolute decision not to drink for a short period, allowing people with alcohol use disorder to explore other options for managing life without alcohol. Drug trials involving disulfiram need to treat it not simply as pharmaceutical but as part of a complex psychosocial intervention conducted within a supportive social context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Continuity means "preserving a consistent whole"-A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Östman, Malin; Ung, Eva Jakobsson; Falk, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Living with a chronic disease like chronic heart failure (CHF) results in disruptions, losses, and setbacks in the participants' daily lives that affect health and well-being. By using grounded theory method, we illuminate whether persons with CHF experience discontinuity in life and, if so, what helps them to preserve and strengthen continuity in their daily lives. Thirteen individual interviews and one group interview with five participants, aged 62 to 88 years, were carried out. Through data collection and data analysis, we constructed three concepts that make up a model illustrating the participants' experiences in daily life in relation to corporeality, temporality, and identity: experiences of discontinuity, recapturing approaches, and reconciliation. The first concept, experiences of discontinuity, was constructed from the following categories: the alienated body, the disrupted time, and the threatened self. The second concept, recapturing approaches, consists of categories with continuity creative constructions: repossessing the body, maintaining a façade, seizing the day, restoring the balance of time, and preserving self. These actions are intended to overcome problems and master changes in order to maintain balance in daily life through constructions that recreate normality and predictability. The third concept, reconciliation, was constructed from three categories: feel normal, set to adjust, and be positioned. These categories describe how the participants minimize their experiences of discontinuity by recapturing approaches in order to reconcile with various changes and maintain continuity in daily life. Our findings provide a fresh perspective on continuity that may contribute to the development of significant interventions in continuity of care for persons with CHF. However, continuity requires that healthcare systems support each patient's ability to manage change, reorientation, and adjustment to the new situation in order to make it easier for

  13. Continuity means "preserving a consistent whole"--A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Östman, Malin; Jakobsson Ung, Eva; Falk, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Living with a chronic disease like chronic heart failure (CHF) results in disruptions, losses, and setbacks in the participants' daily lives that affect health and well-being. By using grounded theory method, we illuminate whether persons with CHF experience discontinuity in life and, if so, what helps them to preserve and strengthen continuity in their daily lives. Thirteen individual interviews and one group interview with five participants, aged 62 to 88 years, were carried out. Through data collection and data analysis, we constructed three concepts that make up a model illustrating the participants' experiences in daily life in relation to corporeality, temporality, and identity: experiences of discontinuity, recapturing approaches, and reconciliation. The first concept, experiences of discontinuity, was constructed from the following categories: the alienated body, the disrupted time, and the threatened self. The second concept, recapturing approaches, consists of categories with continuity creative constructions: repossessing the body, maintaining a façade, seizing the day, restoring the balance of time, and preserving self. These actions are intended to overcome problems and master changes in order to maintain balance in daily life through constructions that recreate normality and predictability. The third concept, reconciliation, was constructed from three categories: feel normal, set to adjust, and be positioned. These categories describe how the participants minimize their experiences of discontinuity by recapturing approaches in order to reconcile with various changes and maintain continuity in daily life. Our findings provide a fresh perspective on continuity that may contribute to the development of significant interventions in continuity of care for persons with CHF. However, continuity requires that healthcare systems support each patient's ability to manage change, reorientation, and adjustment to the new situation in order to make it easier for

  14. Continuity means “preserving a consistent whole”—A grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Ung, Eva Jakobsson; Falk, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Living with a chronic disease like chronic heart failure (CHF) results in disruptions, losses, and setbacks in the participants’ daily lives that affect health and well-being. By using grounded theory method, we illuminate whether persons with CHF experience discontinuity in life and, if so, what helps them to preserve and strengthen continuity in their daily lives. Thirteen individual interviews and one group interview with five participants, aged 62 to 88 years, were carried out. Through data collection and data analysis, we constructed three concepts that make up a model illustrating the participants’ experiences in daily life in relation to corporeality, temporality, and identity: experiences of discontinuity, recapturing approaches, and reconciliation. The first concept, experiences of discontinuity, was constructed from the following categories: the alienated body, the disrupted time, and the threatened self. The second concept, recapturing approaches, consists of categories with continuity creative constructions: repossessing the body, maintaining a façade, seizing the day, restoring the balance of time, and preserving self. These actions are intended to overcome problems and master changes in order to maintain balance in daily life through constructions that recreate normality and predictability. The third concept, reconciliation, was constructed from three categories: feel normal, set to adjust, and be positioned. These categories describe how the participants minimize their experiences of discontinuity by recapturing approaches in order to reconcile with various changes and maintain continuity in daily life. Our findings provide a fresh perspective on continuity that may contribute to the development of significant interventions in continuity of care for persons with CHF. However, continuity requires that healthcare systems support each patient's ability to manage change, reorientation, and adjustment to the new situation in order to make it easier

  15. A grounded theory study of 'turning into a strong nurse': Earthquake experiences and perspectives on disaster nursing education.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Turale, Sue; Stone, Teresa E; Petrini, Marcia

    2015-09-01

    While Asia has the dubious distinction of being the world's most natural disaster-prone area, disaster nursing education and training are sparse in many Asian countries, especially China where this study took place. To explore the earthquake disaster experiences of Chinese nurses and develop a substantive theory of earthquake disaster nursing that will help inform future development of disaster nursing education. A qualitative study employing grounded theory, informed by symbolic interactionism. Fifteen Chinese registered nurses from five hospitals in Jiangxi Province who undertook relief efforts after the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake. Data were collected in 2012-2013 in digitally-recorded, semi-structured, in-depth interviews and reflective field notes, and analyzed using Glaser's grounded theory method. Participants were unprepared educationally and psychologically for their disaster work. Supporting the emergent theory of "working in that terrible environment", was the core category of "turning into a strong nurse", a process of three stages: "going to the disaster"; "immersing in the disaster"; and "trying to let disaster experiences fade away". The participants found themselves thrust in "terrible" scenes of destruction, experienced personal dangers and ethical dilemmas, and tried the best they could to help survivors, communities and themselves, with limited resources and confronting professional work. Our rich findings confirm those of other studies in China and elsewhere, that attention must be paid to disaster education and training for nurses, as well as the mental health of nurses who work in disaster areas. Emergent theory helps to inform nurse educators, researchers, leaders and policy makers in China, and elsewhere in developing strategies to better prepare nurses for future disasters, and assist communities to prepare for and recover after earthquake disasters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Determining quality in doctoral programming: A grounded theory study of biological sciences, English studies, and special education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fansler, A. Gigi

    This study uses the grounded theory approach to identify how 12 faculty members at Illinois State University define the key determinants of a quality doctoral program. Two sets of interviews were conducted, lasting from 45 to 90 minutes. The first round of interviews was guided by the following open-ended questions: (1) How do you define a quality doctoral program? (2) What has led you to define quality in that way? and (3) What events or actions have you experienced that have been evidence of "quality?" While these three served as the primary questions, many follow-up questions and prompts were used throughout the entire interview process. A subsequent interview was conducted with the participants in order to explore the 12 emergent categories. The theory was generated using the transcriptions from both rounds of interviews and a conceptual map that was revised throughout the process. The researcher used open-coding, axial coding, and selective coding throughout the study until saturation of the data was achieved, and relationships among the categories were formed. The following nine factors of the model emerged from the data: (a) professional mentorship; (b) faculty productivity; (c) program accountability and/or evaluation; (d) students who publish; (e) solid educational experience; (f) quality of students; (g) student placement; (h) experience as a faculty member; (i) experiences as a doctoral student. The first seven describe how the 12 faculty members defined a quality doctoral program. The last two address the factors that led the participants to define quality in the way they did. This study provides leaders of higher education institutions a glimpse of one stakeholder group's perceptions of what constitutes a quality doctoral program. Such information can be used as a starting point for assessing quality of doctoral programs in an era of accountability.

  17. Building Employer Capacity to Support Meaningful Employment for Persons with Developmental Disabilities: A Grounded Theory Study of Employment Support Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Marghalara; Hodgetts, Sandra; Nicholas, David

    2017-08-29

    To explore strategies to build employer capacity to support people with DD in meaningful employment from perspective of employment support workers. A grounded theory study was conducted with 34 employment support individuals. A theoretical sampling approach was used to identify and recruit participants from multiple sites in Ontario and Alberta. Three main themes, with seven sub-themes, emerged: (1) experiences of supporting employment finding for people with DD, (2) institutional influences on employee experiences, and (3) attitudes, assumptions and stigma. Several recommendations related to building employer capacity were offered. Our findings provide insight on specific elements and strategies that can support building employer capacity for persons with DD.

  18. Tailoring a response to youth binge drinking in an Aboriginal Australian community: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    McCalman, Janya; Tsey, Komla; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Singleton, Michele; Doran, Christopher

    2013-08-07

    While Aboriginal Australian health providers prioritise identification of local community health needs and strategies, they do not always have the opportunity to access or interpret evidence-based literature to inform health improvement innovations. Research partnerships are therefore important when designing or modifying Aboriginal Australian health improvement initiatives and their evaluation. However, there are few models that outline the pragmatic steps by which research partners negotiate to develop, implement and evaluate community-based initiatives. The objective of this paper is to provide a theoretical model of the tailoring of health improvement initiatives by Aboriginal community-based service providers and partner university researchers. It draws from the case of the Beat da Binge community-initiated youth binge drinking harm reduction project in Yarrabah. A theoretical model was developed using the constructivist grounded theory methods of concurrent sampling, data collection and analysis. Data was obtained from the recordings of reflective Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) processes with Aboriginal community partners and young people, and university researchers. CBPR data was supplemented with interviews with theoretically sampled project participants. The transcripts of CBPR recordings and interviews were imported into NVIVO and coded to identify categories and theoretical constructs. The identified categories were then developed into higher order concepts and the relationships between concepts identified until the central purpose of those involved in the project and the core process that facilitated that purpose were identified. The tailored alcohol harm reduction project resulted in clarification of the underlying local determinants of binge drinking, and a shift in the project design from a social marketing awareness campaign (based on short-term events) to a more robust advocacy for youth mentoring into education, employment and

  19. Why take the chance? A qualitative grounded theory study of nocturnal haemodialysis recipients who decline kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Meagen M; Molzahn, Anita E; Chan, Christopher T; Cockfield, Sandra L; Kim, S Joseph; Pauly, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine the factors that influence decision-making to forgo transplantation in favour of remaining on nocturnal haemodialysis (NHD). Design A grounded theory approach using in-depth telephone interviewing was used. Setting Participants were identified from 2 tertiary care renal programmes in Canada. Participants The study participants were otherwise eligible patients with end-stage renal disease who have opted to remain off of the transplant list. A total of 7 eligible participants were interviewed. 5 were male. The mean age was 46 years. Analysis A constant comparative method of analysis was used to identify a core category and factors influencing the decision-making process. Results In this grounded theory study of people receiving NHD who refused kidney transplantation, the core category of ‘why take a chance when things are going well?’ was identified, along with 4 factors that influenced the decision including ‘negative past experience’, ‘feeling well on NHD’, ‘gaining autonomy’ and ‘responsibility’. Conclusions This study provides insight into patients' thought processes surrounding an important treatment decision. Such insights might help the renal team to better understand, and thereby respect, patient choice in a patient-centred care paradigm. Findings may also be useful in the development of education programmes addressing the specific concerns of this population of patients. PMID:27194322

  20. Managing preconceived expectations: mental health service users experiences of going home from hospital: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Keogh, B; Callaghan, P; Higgins, A

    2015-11-01

    What is known on the subject? The time of discharge from a mental health hospital can be challenging for mental health service users, with high rates of readmission in the immediate months following discharge. Although some research exists that explores service users' perspectives of being discharged, little evidence exists that explores the processes influencing or used by service users' to adapt to the transition from in-patient acute mental health service. What this papers adds to existing knowledge? The findings of this grounded theory study demonstrates the strategies service users used to managed their own, as well as their social audiences, preconceived expectations arising from their new identity as 'psychiatric patients' following their discharge from hospital. While there is a move to develop recovery-orientated mental health services, key indicators of recovery-oriented practices were often absent from service users' experiences of service provision. What are the implications for practice? Nurses and other mental health professionals need to recognize their contribution to the architecture of stigma that transcends the physical structures of hospital or ward and are entrenched within attitudes, interactions and practices. The findings of this study can provide guidance to those working with service users and help them to understand the complexities of their experiences when using mental health services, which go far beyond the management of their symptoms. Following a period of hospitalization, the transition to home can result in increased vulnerability and a source of stress for mental health service users. Readmission rates have been suggested as one indicator of the success of the transition from hospital to community care. Despite knowledge of some of the factors that impact on service users following discharge, no coherent model or theoretical framework could be located in the literature, which explains or aides an in-depth understanding of the

  1. Grounded Theory Methodology: Positivism, Hermeneutics, and Pragmatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Age, Lars-Johan

    2011-01-01

    Glaserian grounded theory methodology, which has been widely adopted as a scientific methodology in recent decades, has been variously characterised as "hermeneutic" and "positivist." This commentary therefore takes a different approach to characterising grounded theory by undertaking a comprehensive analysis of: (a) the philosophical paradigms of…

  2. Enduring to gain new perspective: a grounded theory study of the experience of perinatal bereavement in Black adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fenstermacher, Kimberly H

    2014-04-01

    Black adolescents in the US experience perinatal loss at a higher rate than other races and ethnicities. The experience of eight Black urban adolescents through the first 3 months after perinatal loss was studied using grounded theory. The process of "enduring to gain new perspective" began with "denying and hesitating" when surprised by unplanned pregnancy but led to "getting ready for this whole new life," followed by shock of "suffering through the loss," "all that pain for nothing," and "mixed emotions going everywhere." Over time, the adolescents began "reaching out for support" and eventually "preserving the memory and maintaining relationship," "searching for meaning and asking why," and "gaining new perspective on life." Parallels are noted to extant bereavement theory. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Enduring to Gain New Perspective: A Grounded Theory Study of the Experience of Perinatal Bereavement in Black Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fenstermacher, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Black adolescents in the US experience perinatal loss at a higher rate than other races and ethnicities. The experience of eight Black urban adolescents through the first three months after perinatal loss was studied using grounded theory. The process of “enduring to gain new perspective” began with “denying and hesitating” when surprised by unplanned pregnancy but led to “getting ready for this whole new life,” followed by shock of “suffering through the loss,” “all that pain for nothing,” and “mixed emotions going everywhere.” Over time, the adolescents began “reaching out for support” and eventually “preserving the memory and maintaining relationship,” “searching for meaning and asking why,” and gaining new perspective on life.” Parallels are noted to extant bereavement theory. PMID:24391049

  4. Being healthy: A Grounded Theory study of help seeking behaviour among Chinese elders living in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenmi; Beaver, Kinta; Speed, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    The health of older people is a priority in many countries as the world's population ages. Attitudes towards help seeking behaviours in older people remain a largely unexplored field of research. This is particularly true for older minority groups where the place that they have migrated to presents both cultural and structural challenges. The UK, like other countries, has an increasingly aging Chinese population about who relatively little is known. This study used a qualitative grounded theory design following the approach of Glaser (1978). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 33 Chinese elders who were aged between 60 and 84, using purposive and theoretical sampling approaches. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method until data saturation occurred and a substantive theory was generated. “Being healthy” (the core category) with four interrelated categories: self-management, normalizing/minimizing, access to health services, and being cured form the theory. The theory was generated around the core explanations provided by participants and Chinese elders’ concerns about health issues they face in their daily life. We also present data about how they direct their health-related activities towards meeting their physical and psychological goals of being healthy. Their differential understanding of diseases and a lack of information about health services were potent predictors of non–help seeking and “self” rather than medical management of their illnesses. This study highlights the need for intervention and health support for Chinese elders. PMID:25361531

  5. Being healthy: a grounded theory study of help seeking behaviour among Chinese elders living in the UK.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenmi; Beaver, Kinta; Speed, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    The health of older people is a priority in many countries as the world's population ages. Attitudes towards help seeking behaviours in older people remain a largely unexplored field of research. This is particularly true for older minority groups where the place that they have migrated to presents both cultural and structural challenges. The UK, like other countries, has an increasingly aging Chinese population about who relatively little is known. This study used a qualitative grounded theory design following the approach of Glaser (1978). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 33 Chinese elders who were aged between 60 and 84, using purposive and theoretical sampling approaches. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method until data saturation occurred and a substantive theory was generated. "Being healthy" (the core category) with four interrelated categories: self-management, normalizing/minimizing, access to health services, and being cured form the theory. The theory was generated around the core explanations provided by participants and Chinese elders' concerns about health issues they face in their daily life. We also present data about how they direct their health-related activities towards meeting their physical and psychological goals of being healthy. Their differential understanding of diseases and a lack of information about health services were potent predictors of non-help seeking and "self" rather than medical management of their illnesses. This study highlights the need for intervention and health support for Chinese elders.

  6. Entrepreneurial Orientation of Community College Workforce Divisions and the Impact of Organizational Structure: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefen, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on how organizational structure of community colleges influenced the entrepreneurial orientation of deans, directors, vice presidents, and vice chancellors of workforce units. Using grounded theory methodology, the researcher identified three emergent theories applicable to both integrated and separate workforce units. These…

  7. Entrepreneurial Orientation of Community College Workforce Divisions and the Impact of Organizational Structure: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefen, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on how organizational structure of community colleges influenced the entrepreneurial orientation of deans, directors, vice presidents, and vice chancellors of workforce units. Using grounded theory methodology, the researcher identified three emergent theories applicable to both integrated and separate workforce units. These…

  8. Constructing a Grounded Theory of E-Learning Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonso-Díaz, Laura; Yuste-Tosina, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    This study traces the development of a grounded theory of assessment in e-learning environments, a field in need of research to establish the parameters of an assessment that is both reliable and worthy of higher learning accreditation. Using grounded theory as a research method, we studied an e-assessment model that does not require physical…

  9. Constructing a Grounded Theory of E-Learning Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonso-Díaz, Laura; Yuste-Tosina, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    This study traces the development of a grounded theory of assessment in e-learning environments, a field in need of research to establish the parameters of an assessment that is both reliable and worthy of higher learning accreditation. Using grounded theory as a research method, we studied an e-assessment model that does not require physical…

  10. Facilitating classroom based interprofessional learning: a grounded theory study of university educators' perceptions of their role adequacy as facilitators.

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, Julie A; Machin, Alison I; Crozier, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The provision of inter professional learning (IPL) within undergraduate programmes is now well established within many Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). IPL aims to better equip nurses and other health professionals with effective collaborative working skills and knowledge to improve the quality of patient care. Although there is still ambiguity in relation to the optimum timing and method for delivering IPL, effective facilitation is seen as essential. This paper reports on a grounded theory study of university educators' perceptions of the knowledge and skills needed for their role adequacy as IPL facilitators. Data was collected using semi structured interviews with nine participants who were theoretically sampled from a range of professional backgrounds, with varied experiences of education and involvement in facilitating IPL. Constant comparative analysis was used to generate four data categories: creating and sustaining an IPL group culture through transformational IPL leadership (core category), readiness for IPL facilitation, drawing on past interprofessional learning and working experiences and role modelling an interprofessional approach. The grounded theory generated from this study, although propositional, suggests that role adequacy for IPL facilitation is dependent on facilitator engagement in a process of 'transformational interprofessional learning leadership' to create and sustain a group culture.

  11. Investigating the Perceptions of Care Coordinators on Using Behavior Theory-Based Mobile Health Technology With Medicaid Populations: A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Medicaid populations are less engaged in their health care than the rest of the population, translating to worse health outcomes and increased health care costs. Since theory-based mobile health (mHealth) interventions have been shown to increase patient engagement, mobile phones may be an optimal strategy to reach this population. With increased development of theory-based mHealth technology, these interventions must now be evaluated with these medically underserved populations in a real-world setting. Objective The aim of our study was to investigate care coordinators’ perceived value of using a health behavior theory-based mHealth platform with Medicaid clients. In particular, attention was paid to the perceived impact on patient engagement. This research was conducted using the patient-provider text messaging (short message service, SMS) platform, Sense Health (now Wellpass), which integrates the transtheoretical model (TTM), also called the stages of change model; social cognitive theory (SCT); supportive accountability; and motivational interviewing (MI). Methods Interviews based in grounded theory methodology were conducted with 10 care managers to understand perceptions of the relationship between mHealth and patient engagement. Results The interviews with care managers yielded a foundation for a grounded theory model, presenting themes that suggested 4 intertwined correlative relationships revolving around patient engagement: (1) A text messaging (short message service, SMS) platform supplements the client-care manager dynamic, which is grounded in high quality, reciprocal-communication to increase patient engagement; (2) Texting enhances the relationship between literacy and access to care for Medicaid patients, increasing low-literacy patients’ agency to access services; (3) Texting enhances communication, providing care managers with a new means to support their clients; and (4) Reminders augment client accountability, leading to both

  12. Investigating the Perceptions of Care Coordinators on Using Behavior Theory-Based Mobile Health Technology With Medicaid Populations: A Grounded Theory Study.

    PubMed

    Sigler, Brittany Erika

    2017-03-21

    Medicaid populations are less engaged in their health care than the rest of the population, translating to worse health outcomes and increased health care costs. Since theory-based mobile health (mHealth) interventions have been shown to increase patient engagement, mobile phones may be an optimal strategy to reach this population. With increased development of theory-based mHealth technology, these interventions must now be evaluated with these medically underserved populations in a real-world setting. The aim of our study was to investigate care coordinators' perceived value of using a health behavior theory-based mHealth platform with Medicaid clients. In particular, attention was paid to the perceived impact on patient engagement. This research was conducted using the patient-provider text messaging (short message service, SMS) platform, Sense Health (now Wellpass), which integrates the transtheoretical model (TTM), also called the stages of change model; social cognitive theory (SCT); supportive accountability; and motivational interviewing (MI). Interviews based in grounded theory methodology were conducted with 10 care managers to understand perceptions of the relationship between mHealth and patient engagement. The interviews with care managers yielded a foundation for a grounded theory model, presenting themes that suggested 4 intertwined correlative relationships revolving around patient engagement: (1) A text messaging (short message service, SMS) platform supplements the client-care manager dynamic, which is grounded in high quality, reciprocal-communication to increase patient engagement; (2) Texting enhances the relationship between literacy and access to care for Medicaid patients, increasing low-literacy patients' agency to access services; (3) Texting enhances communication, providing care managers with a new means to support their clients; and (4) Reminders augment client accountability, leading to both increased motivation and readiness to change

  13. A grounded theory of positive youth development through sport based on results from a qualitative meta-study.

    PubMed

    Holt, Nicholas L; Neely, Kacey C; Slater, Linda G; Camiré, Martin; Côté, Jean; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; MacDonald, Dany; Strachan, Leisha; Tamminen, Katherine A

    2017-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to create a model of positive youth development (PYD) through sport grounded in the extant qualitative literature. More specifically, the first objective was to review and evaluate qualitative studies of PYD in sport. The second objective was to analyze and synthesize findings from these studies. Following record identification and screening, 63 articles were retained for analysis. Meta-method analysis revealed strengths of studies were the use of multiple data collection and validity techniques, which produced high-quality data. Weaknesses were limited use of 'named' methodologies and inadequate reporting of sampling procedures. Philosophical perspectives were rarely reported, and theory was used sparingly. Results of an inductive meta-data analysis produced three categories: PYD climate (adult relationships, peer relationships, and parental involvement), life skills program focus (life skill building activities and transfer activities), and PYD outcomes (in personal, social, and physical domains). A model that distinguishes between implicit and explicit processes to PYD is presented.

  14. Ground Effect - Theory and Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pistolesi, E

    1937-01-01

    The conclusion of a previous article by Pistolesi is that the increment of lift due to ground effect is largely attributable to the effect of induction of the free vortices, and is practically equivalent to a virtual increase in aspect ratio. The ground clearance was of the order of magnitude comparable to the wing chord. New reports by Le Seur and Datwyler treat the case of minimum distance from the ground and is confined to the plane problem only. The author briefly reviews these reports and also one by Timotika. References to all the reviewed reports are in the attached bibliography.

  15. A Leadership Identity Development Model: Applications from a Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komives, Susan R.; Mainella, Felicia C.; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Osteen, Laura; Owen, Julie E.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a stage-based model of leadership identity development (LID) that resulted from a grounded theory study on developing a leadership identity (Komives, Owen, Longerbeam, Mainella, & Osteen, 2005). The LID model expands on the leadership identity stages, integrates the categories of the grounded theory into the LID model, and…

  16. A Leadership Identity Development Model: Applications from a Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komives, Susan R.; Mainella, Felicia C.; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Osteen, Laura; Owen, Julie E.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a stage-based model of leadership identity development (LID) that resulted from a grounded theory study on developing a leadership identity (Komives, Owen, Longerbeam, Mainella, & Osteen, 2005). The LID model expands on the leadership identity stages, integrates the categories of the grounded theory into the LID model, and…

  17. Grounded theory as feminist research methodology.

    PubMed

    Keddy, B; Sims, S L; Stern, P N

    1996-03-01

    Feminist research is evolving, and with it new methods of doing science. In this feminist post-positivist era, grounded theory, while less inclusive and descriptive than ethnography, allows for complex analysis of complex questions. While Glaser & Strauss (the originators of this methodology) have written about grounded theory in an esoteric way, others have written extensively about this method in a much clearer and less rigid fashion. In this paper we discuss how grounded theory could be used in a creative and constantly evolving manner for feminist research.

  18. The Impact of Multiple Master Patient Index Records on the Business Performance of Health Care Organizations: A Qualitative Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banton, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to explore and examine the factors that led to the creation of multiple record entries, and present a theory on the impact the problem has on the business performance of health care organizations. A sample of 59 health care professionals across the United States participated in an online…

  19. The Impact of Multiple Master Patient Index Records on the Business Performance of Health Care Organizations: A Qualitative Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banton, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to explore and examine the factors that led to the creation of multiple record entries, and present a theory on the impact the problem has on the business performance of health care organizations. A sample of 59 health care professionals across the United States participated in an online…

  20. Is There Light? Well It Depends--A Grounded Theory Study of Nurses, Lighting, and Medication Administration.

    PubMed

    Graves, Krisanne; Symes, Lene; Cesario, Sandra K; Malecha, Ann

    2015-01-01

    We know that human vision has limitations, medication administration is a high-risk activity, and some nurses work in environments that do not meet recommended lighting standards. The goal of this study was to inform safe medication administration practices and add evidence for establishing guidelines for lighting decisions by understanding registered nurses' (RNs') decision making about lighting during medication administration. Grounded theory methodology was followed (n = 16). Theoretical sampling was used to ensure that participants represented a variety of backgrounds and hospital settings. Results were validated by three expert researchers. Two of the researchers had significant expertise in medication administration errors. Data analysis culminated in the substantive theory It Depends. This theory describes a process of frequently automatic decision making about lighting, whose aspects include assessing variation, balancing safety and healing, and RN bias. All RNs expressed concerns about perceived risks in relation to lighting, but had difficulty describing how they confirmed when the correct decision about lighting was made. Nurses are often unaware of their reasons for lighting decisions, and there is a need for education and other measures to increase the likelihood that lighting decisions that enhance patient safety are made by nurses. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. "Awakening to" a new meaning of being at-risk for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Manuel, April; Brunger, Fern

    2015-04-01

    Efforts of social scientists to understand how individuals living in a family at risk for a genetically linked condition make health care decisions, having brought to the forefront the contextual nature of risk perception. Using a grounded theory approach, this study examines the experiences of 29 individuals living in families at risk for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Attention is paid to how individuals (re)construct the meaning of being at risk in relation to the developing science of gene discovery. Findings highlight that individuals living in a family at risk for ARVC juxtapose existing scientific knowledge against experiential knowledge as they "awaken to" the fact that they or a family member are at risk. This process is pragmatic and fluid and contingent upon whether and how symptoms are aligned with the constructed image of the at-risk relative.

  2. District nurses’ experiences of caring for leg ulcers in accordance with clinical guidelines: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Lagerin, Annica; Hylander, Ingrid; Törnkvist, Lena

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This qualitative study used the grounded theory method to investigate district nurses’ experiences of caring for leg ulcers in accordance with clinical guidelines at seven primary health care centres in Stockholm, Sweden. Group interviews were conducted with 30 nurses. The results describe how district nurses strive to stay on track in order to follow clinical guidelines and remain motivated despite prolonged wound treatment and feelings of hopelessness. Three main obstacles to following the guidelines were found. District nurses used compensating strategies so the obstacles would not lead to negative consequences. If the compensating strategies were insufficient, perceived prolonged wound treatment and feelings of hopelessness could result. District nurses then used motivating strategies to overcome these feelings of hopelessness. Sometimes, despite the motivating strategies, treatment in accordance with guidelines could not be achieved. With some patients, district nurses had to compromise and follow the guidelines as far as possible. PMID:28747091

  3. Reclaiming life on one's own terms: a grounded theory study of the process of breast cancer survivorship.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Deborah Witt; Rosedale, Mary; Haber, Judith

    2012-05-01

    To develop a substantive theory of the process of breast cancer survivorship. Grounded theory. A LISTSERV announcement posted on the SHARE Web site and purposeful recruitment of women known to be diagnosed and treated for breast cancer. 15 women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. Constant comparative analysis. Breast cancer survivorship. The core variable identified was Reclaiming Life on One's Own Terms. The perceptions and experiences of the participants revealed overall that the diagnosis of breast cancer was a turning point in life and the stimulus for change. That was followed by the recognition of breast cancer as now being a part of life, leading to the necessity of learning to live with breast cancer, and finally, creating a new life after breast cancer. Participants revealed that breast cancer survivorship is a process marked and shaped by time, the perception of support, and coming to terms with the trauma of a cancer diagnosis and the aftermath of treatment. The process of survivorship continues by assuming an active role in self-healing, gaining a new perspective and reconciling paradoxes, creating a new mindset and moving to a new normal, developing a new way of being in the world on one's own terms, and experiencing growth through adversity beyond survivorship. The process of survivorship for women with breast cancer is an evolutionary journey with short- and long-term challenges. This study shows the development of an empirically testable theory of survivorship that describes and predicts women's experiences following breast cancer treatment from the initial phase of recovery and beyond. The theory also informs interventions that not only reduce negative outcomes, but promote ongoing healing, adjustment, and resilience over time.

  4. A Grounded Theory Study of the Re-Entry Process of Teen Parents' Return to School after Dropping Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Brenda L.

    2013-01-01

    Without the rich stories of the experiences of teen parents who drop out of school and then re-enter, we do not have a total picture of the dropout phenomenon and how best to address the issues for this marginalized group. Using the research strategies of Charmaz' social constructivist grounded theory, Melton has gathered detailed stories about…

  5. A Grounded Theory Study of the Re-Entry Process of Teen Parents' Return to School after Dropping Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Brenda L.

    2013-01-01

    Without the rich stories of the experiences of teen parents who drop out of school and then re-enter, we do not have a total picture of the dropout phenomenon and how best to address the issues for this marginalized group. Using the research strategies of Charmaz' social constructivist grounded theory, Melton has gathered detailed stories about…

  6. The Importance of Student and Teacher Interactions for Disaffected Middle School Students: A Grounded Theory Study of Community Day Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Brianna L.

    2011-01-01

    Students who are expelled from school often demonstrate the need for alternative learning environments that respond to their academic disengagement as well as their behavioral challenges. Teachers in such environments contend with a variety of student needs while attempting to engage students in the learning process. This grounded theory study…

  7. As Pliant as the Bamboo: A Grounded Theory Study of Incarcerated Filipino Elderly People's Sense of Resiliency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Imperial, Marnie Yvette G.; Javier, Rianne Rae L.; Kawasaki, Arisa M.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of prison upon incarcerated individuals is considerably destructive and may lead to low mental health resiliency. Despite a large body of literature on resiliency, little is known about the process that the elderly go through in developing resiliency in the penal setting--hence, this grounded theory investigation. The overall intent of…

  8. As Pliant as the Bamboo: A Grounded Theory Study of Incarcerated Filipino Elderly People's Sense of Resiliency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Imperial, Marnie Yvette G.; Javier, Rianne Rae L.; Kawasaki, Arisa M.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of prison upon incarcerated individuals is considerably destructive and may lead to low mental health resiliency. Despite a large body of literature on resiliency, little is known about the process that the elderly go through in developing resiliency in the penal setting--hence, this grounded theory investigation. The overall intent of…

  9. Towards an understanding of the attributes of simulation that enable learning in undergraduate nurse education: A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Bland, Andrew J; Tobbell, Jane

    2016-09-01

    Simulation has become an established feature of nurse education yet little is understood about the mechanisms that lead to learning. To explore the attributes of simulation-based education that enable student learning in undergraduate nurse education. Final year students drawn from one UK University (n=46) participated in a grounded theory study. First, nonparticipant observation and video recording of student activity was undertaken. Following initial analysis, recordings and observations were deconstructed during focus group interviews that enabled both the researcher and participants to unpack meaning. Lastly emergent findings were verified with final year students drawn from a second UK University (n=6). A staged approach to learning emerged from engagement in simulation. This began with initial hesitation as students moved through nonlinear stages to making connections and thinking like a nurse. Core findings suggest that simulation enables curiosity and intellect (main concern) through doing (core category) and interaction with others identified as social collaboration (category). This study offers a theoretical basis for understanding simulation-based education and integration of strategies that maximise the potential for learning. Additionally it offers direction for further research, particularly with regards to how the application of theory to practice is accelerated through learning by doing and working collaboratively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Caring for teenagers and young adults with cancer: a grounded theory study of network-focused nursing.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Pia Riis; Harder, Ingegerd

    2011-04-01

    Teenagers and young adults (TYAs) are extremely vulnerable and dependant on a supportive social network when diagnosed with cancer and undergoing treatment. The aim of the study was to generate a substantive theory by exploring processes and strategies of oncology nurses engaged in a nursing programme, which aims at supporting these young patients and their significant others to maintain, establish and strengthen support from their social network during the treatment period. A grounded theory approach was used and data were generated through interviews, observations, informal conversations and documents. All nurses (7) from a Danish oncology youth unit participated. 'Bridging' was defined as the core concept in nurses' strategies aimed at creating a space for the TYAs' normal growth and development. By strategies of 'Tuning in', 'Framing the situation', 'Navigating towards the goal' and 'Connecting people' the nurses attempted to provide a foundation for the seriously ill TYAs to connect to their normal everyday life. The study complements existing knowledge of caring for TYAs with cancer, showing how oncology nurses can use their knowledge and position to facilitate involvement of the patients' social network. It contributes with a theoretical framework for clinical practice that offers insight into an unexplored area of nursing. Network-focused nursing is a complex and demanding practice that needs to be addressed by nurses, educators, researchers and health policy makers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors influencing how senior nurses and midwives acquire and integrate coaching skills into routine practice: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Rae; Fairbrother, Greg

    2015-06-01

    To introduce a theory which describes the process of and explicates the factors moderating, the acquisition and integration of leadership coaching skills into the routine practice of senior nurses and midwives. Organizations invest significant resources in leadership coaching programs to ensure that coaching is embedded as a core function of the manager's role. However, even after training, many managers remain unable to undertake this role successfully. The process by which health professionals translate 'manager as coach' training into successful practice outcomes, has remained largely unexplored. A grounded theory study design. Data, collected between February 2012-May 2013, included in-depth interviews with 20 senior nurses and midwives who had attended a leadership coaching program and analysis of nine reflective practice journals. Multiple researchers coded and analysed the data using constant comparative techniques. The outcomes of coaching training ranged from inappropriate use of the coaching skills through to transformed managerial practice. These outcomes were influenced by the dynamic interaction of three central domains of the emergent theoretical model: pre-existing individual perceptions, program elements and contemporaneous experiences. Interactions occurred within the domains and between them, impacting on activators such as courage, motivation, commitment and confidence. The study offers new insights into how senior nurses and midwives acquire and integrate coaching skills into their routine practice. The process is described as multifactorial and dynamic and has implications for the training design, delivery and organizational support of future leadership coaching programs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Straussian Grounded-Theory Method: An Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thai, Mai Thi Thanh; Chong, Li Choy; Agrawal, Narendra M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the benefits and application of Straussian Grounded Theory method in conducting research in complex settings where parameters are poorly defined. It provides a detailed illustration on how this method can be used to build an internationalization theory. To be specific, this paper exposes readers to the behind-the-scene work…

  13. Moral Distress Model Reconstructed Using Grounded Theory.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hsun-Kuei; Chin, Chi-Chun; Hsu, Min-Tao

    2016-12-29

    The problems of nurse burnout and manpower shortage relate to moral distress. Thus, having a good understanding of moral distress is critical to developing strategies that effectively improve the clinical ethical climate and improve nursing retention in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the model of moral distress using the grounded theory. Twenty-five staff nurses at work units who attend to the needs of adult, pediatric, acute, and critical disease or end-of-life-care patients were recruited as participants using theoretical sampling from three teaching hospitals in Taiwan. Data were collected using intensive, 2- to 3-hour interviews with each participant. Audio recordings of the interviews were made and then converted into transcripts. The data were analyzed using the grounded theory. In the clinical setting, the perspective that nurses take toward clinical moral events reflects their moral values, which trigger moral cognition, provocation, and appraisal. The moral barriers that form when moral events that occur in clinical settings contradict personal moral values may later develop into moral distress. In handling moral barriers in the clinical environment, nurses make moral judgments and determine what is morally correct. Influenced by moral efficacy, the consequence may either be a moral action or an expression of personal emotion. Wasting National Health Insurance resources and Chinese culture are key sources of moral distress for nurses in Taiwan. The role of self-confidence in promoting moral efficacy and the role of heterodox skills in promoting moral actions represent findings that are unique to this study. The moral distress model was used in this study to facilitate the development of future nursing theories. On the basis of our findings, we suggested that nursing students be encouraged to use case studies to establish proper moral values, improve moral cognition and judgment capabilities, and promote moral actions to better handle the

  14. General study of ground states in gauged N=2 supergravity theories with symmetric scalar manifolds in 5 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ögetbil, O.

    2007-03-01

    After reviewing the existing results we give an extensive analysis of the critical points of the potentials of the gauged N=2 Yang-Mills/Einstein supergravity theories coupled to tensor multiplets and hypermultiplets. Our analysis includes all the possible gaugings of all N=2 Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories whose scalar manifolds are symmetric spaces. In general, the scalar potential gets contributions from R-symmetry gauging, tensor couplings, and hypercouplings. We show that the coupling of a hypermultiplet into a theory whose potential has a nonzero value at its critical point, and gauging a compact subgroup of the hyperscalar isometry group will only rescale the value of the potential at the critical point by a positive factor, and therefore will not change the nature of an existing critical point. However this is not the case for noncompact SO(1,1) gaugings. An SO(1,1) gauging of the hyperisometry will generally lead to de Sitter vacua, which is analogous to the ground states found by simultaneously gauging SO(1,1) symmetry of the real scalar manifold with U(1)R in earlier literature. SO(m,1) gaugings with m>1, which give contributions to the scalar potential only in the magical Jordan family theories, on the other hand, do not lead to de Sitter vacua. Anti-de Sitter vacua are generically obtained when the U(1)R symmetry is gauged. We also show that it is possible to embed certain generic Jordan family theories into the magical Jordan family preserving the nature of the ground states. However the magical Jordan family theories have additional ground states which are not found in the generic Jordan family theories.

  15. A Qualitative Study of Middle School Students' Perceptions of Factors Facilitating the Learning of Science: Grounded Theory and Existing Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Barbara S.; Gibson, Charles W.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a qualitative study that explores students' perceptions of their own learning. Document review, participant observation, and open-ended interviews were used to gather and triangulate data. Factors that were perceived as helpful were woven into a theoretical model. The uses of the model are discussed. (Author/KR)

  16. Sexual life and fertility desire in long-term HIV serodiscordant couples in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Even though remarkable progress has been achieved, HIV/AIDS continues to be a major global health priority. HIV discordant relationship is one of the emerging issues in HIV prevention endeavour. In Ethiopia, very little is known about HIV-serodiscordant couples particularly how they manage their sexual relationship and fertility desire. Therefore, we conduct this study with the aim of exploring the experiences of HIV discordant couples about their sexual life, and fertility desire in the context of long-term relationships in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A grounded theory approach was employed using in-depth interviews among 36 informants in ART/PMTCT centers of three public hospitals, a health center and one PLHIV association in Addis Ababa. Theoretical sampling was used to recruit 28 clients who lived in a discordant relationship and eight health care providers as key informants. Data collection and analysis were undertaken simultaneously using a constant comparison. The analysis was facilitated using OpenCode software. Results A grounded theory pertaining to sexual life and desire to have a child among HIV discordant couples emerged as “maintaining the relationship” as a core category. Couples pass through a social process of struggle to maintain their relationship. The causal conditions for couples to enter into the process of struggle to maintain their relationship were collectively categorized as “Entering in-to a transition” (knowing HIV serostatus) and this includes mismatch of desire to have a child, controversy on safe sex versus desire to have a child, and undeniable change in sexual desire and practice through time were the features in entering into-transition. Then after the transition, couples engaged in certain actions/strategies that are categorized as “dealing with discordancy” such as entertaining partner’s interest by scarifying once self interest to maintain their relationship. Conclusions HIV discordant couples

  17. Sexual life and fertility desire in long-term HIV serodiscordant couples in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Hailemariam, Tewodros G; Kassie, Getnet M; Sisay, Mitike M

    2012-10-24

    Even though remarkable progress has been achieved, HIV/AIDS continues to be a major global health priority. HIV discordant relationship is one of the emerging issues in HIV prevention endeavour. In Ethiopia, very little is known about HIV-serodiscordant couples particularly how they manage their sexual relationship and fertility desire. Therefore, we conduct this study with the aim of exploring the experiences of HIV discordant couples about their sexual life, and fertility desire in the context of long-term relationships in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A grounded theory approach was employed using in-depth interviews among 36 informants in ART/PMTCT centers of three public hospitals, a health center and one PLHIV association in Addis Ababa. Theoretical sampling was used to recruit 28 clients who lived in a discordant relationship and eight health care providers as key informants. Data collection and analysis were undertaken simultaneously using a constant comparison. The analysis was facilitated using OpenCode software. A grounded theory pertaining to sexual life and desire to have a child among HIV discordant couples emerged as "maintaining the relationship" as a core category. Couples pass through a social process of struggle to maintain their relationship. The causal conditions for couples to enter into the process of struggle to maintain their relationship were collectively categorized as "Entering in-to a transition" (knowing HIV serostatus) and this includes mismatch of desire to have a child, controversy on safe sex versus desire to have a child, and undeniable change in sexual desire and practice through time were the features in entering into-transition. Then after the transition, couples engaged in certain actions/strategies that are categorized as "dealing with discordancy" such as entertaining partner's interest by scarifying once self interest to maintain their relationship. HIV discordant couples' relationship is filled with controversies of maintaining

  18. Disclosing victimisation to healthcare professionals in Sweden: a constructivist grounded theory study of experiences among men exposed to interpersonal violence

    PubMed Central

    Brüggemann, Adrianus Jelmer; Swahnberg, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop a theoretical model concerning male victims' processes of disclosing experiences of victimisation to healthcare professionals in Sweden. Design Qualitative interview study. Setting Informants were recruited from the general population and a primary healthcare centre in Sweden. Participants Informants were recruited by means of theoretical sampling among respondents in a previous quantitative study. Eligible for this study were men reporting sexual, physical and/or emotional violence victimisation by any perpetrator and reporting that they either had talked to a healthcare provider about their victimisation or had wanted to do so. Method Constructivist grounded theory. 12 interviews were performed and saturation was reached after 9. Results Several factors influencing the process of disclosing victimisation can be recognised from previous studies concerning female victims, including shame, fear of negative consequences of disclosing, specifics of the patient–provider relationship and time constraints within the healthcare system. However, this study extends previous knowledge by identifying strong negative effects of adherence to masculinity norms for victimised men and healthcare professionals on the process of disclosing. It is also emphasised that the process of disclosing cannot be separated from other, even seemingly unrelated, circumstances in the men's lives. Conclusions The process of disclosing victimisation to healthcare professionals was a complex process involving the men's experiences of victimisation, adherence to gender norms, their life circumstances and the dynamics of the actual healthcare encounter. PMID:27324711

  19. What Makes Hotel Expatriates Remain in Their Overseas Assignments: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Zoe Ju-Yu

    2012-01-01

    In this study the researcher uses a qualitative research design to discover what makes hotel expatriates remain in their overseas assignments. In-depth interviews, participant observations, and personal documents are used as data collection methods. Four hotel expatriates are recruited as participants of the study. The collected interview…

  20. The application of grounded theory and symbolic interactionism.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yun-Hee

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the methodological and theoretical context and underpinnings of a study that examined community psychiatric nurses' work with family caregivers of older people with depression. The study used grounded theory research methods, with its theoretical foundations drawn from symbolic interactionism. The aims of the study were to describe and conceptualize the processes involved when community nurses work and interact with family caregivers and to develop an explanatory theory of these processes. This paper begins with an explanation of the rationale for using grounded theory as the method of choice, followed by a discussion of the theoretical underpinnings of the study, including a brief summary of the nature and origins of symbolic interactionism. Key premises of symbolic interactionism regarded as central to the study are outlined and an analytical overview of the grounded theory method is provided. The paper concludes with a commentary on some of the issues and debates in the use of grounded theory in nursing research. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a methodical and critical review of symbolic interactionism and grounded theory that can help readers, particularly those who are intending to use grounded theory, better understand the processes involved in applying this method to their research.

  1. A grounded theory of positive youth development through sport based on results from a qualitative meta-study

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Neely, Kacey C.; Slater, Linda G.; Camiré, Martin; Côté, Jean; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; MacDonald, Dany; Strachan, Leisha; Tamminen, Katherine A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The overall purpose of this study was to create a model of positive youth development (PYD) through sport grounded in the extant qualitative literature. More specifically, the first objective was to review and evaluate qualitative studies of PYD in sport. The second objective was to analyze and synthesize findings from these studies. Following record identification and screening, 63 articles were retained for analysis. Meta-method analysis revealed strengths of studies were the use of multiple data collection and validity techniques, which produced high-quality data. Weaknesses were limited use of ‘named’ methodologies and inadequate reporting of sampling procedures. Philosophical perspectives were rarely reported, and theory was used sparingly. Results of an inductive meta-data analysis produced three categories: PYD climate (adult relationships, peer relationships, and parental involvement), life skills program focus (life skill building activities and transfer activities), and PYD outcomes (in personal, social, and physical domains). A model that distinguishes between implicit and explicit processes to PYD is presented. PMID:27695511

  2. The Making of a CIO: A Grounded Theory Study of Professional Development of Information Technology Executives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    The CIO fulfills an important role for most business organizations by leading the information technology department and by aligning the firm's information technology assets with its corporate strategy. There is little research regarding the important components of CIO development and the relationships among these elements. This study examines…

  3. The Development of an International Student Advisor: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparaco, Kathleen Keenan

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the professional experience of international student advisors. The statement of problem for this research was that the professional role of international student advisors has not been clearly defined or understood within U.S. higher education. The research questions asked (1) what encompassed the lived experience of…

  4. Boundaries to Instructional Use of Facebook in Higher Education: A Grounded Theory Collective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Jodi Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The pervasive use of Facebook by college students has prompted educators in higher education to explore ways in which this social media platform could be used for instructional purposes. However, findings concerning Facebook in higher education instruction have been mixed. Furthermore, some studies have indicated significant boundaries to the…

  5. The Making of a CIO: A Grounded Theory Study of Professional Development of Information Technology Executives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    The CIO fulfills an important role for most business organizations by leading the information technology department and by aligning the firm's information technology assets with its corporate strategy. There is little research regarding the important components of CIO development and the relationships among these elements. This study examines…

  6. Boundaries to Instructional Use of Facebook in Higher Education: A Grounded Theory Collective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Jodi Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The pervasive use of Facebook by college students has prompted educators in higher education to explore ways in which this social media platform could be used for instructional purposes. However, findings concerning Facebook in higher education instruction have been mixed. Furthermore, some studies have indicated significant boundaries to the…

  7. Organizational Culture and Partnership Process: A Grounded Theory Study of Community-Campus Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman Kready, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Community engagement initiatives have experienced an increase in attention, appreciation, and participation among those in academic, nonprofit, and other community-based organizations over the past two decades. The purpose of this study is to explore the meanings of community-campus partnerships among stakeholders in the community and in academia…

  8. Negotiating Identity Development among Undocumented Immigrant College Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Lauren M.; Chen, Eric C.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the identity development process of 11 undocumented college students living in the United States, focusing on how undocumented college students negotiate the interplay of acculturation, ethnic identity, and educational and career pursuits. A semistructured interview protocol was used and data analysis was iterative,…

  9. Negotiating Identity Development among Undocumented Immigrant College Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Lauren M.; Chen, Eric C.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the identity development process of 11 undocumented college students living in the United States, focusing on how undocumented college students negotiate the interplay of acculturation, ethnic identity, and educational and career pursuits. A semistructured interview protocol was used and data analysis was iterative,…

  10. Maintaining equilibrium in professional role identity: a grounded theory study of health visitors' perceptions of their changing professional practice context.

    PubMed

    Machin, Alison I; Machin, Tony; Pearson, Pauline

    2012-07-01

    This article reports the study of a group of United Kingdom health visitors' interactions with their changing practice context, focusing on role identity and influences on its stability. United Kingdom policies have urged health visitors to refocus their role as key public health nurses. Reduced role identity clarity precipitated the emergence of different models of health visiting public health work. An inconsistent role standard can lead to role identity fragmentation and conflict across a group. It may precipitate individual role crisis, affecting optimum role performance. Seventeen health visitors in two United Kingdom community healthcare organizations participated in a grounded theory study, incorporating constant comparative analysis. Direct observations and individual interviews were undertaken between 2002 and 2008. Four interlinked categories emerged: professional role identity (core category); professional role in action; interprofessional working; and local micro-systems for practice; each influencing participants' sense of identity and self-worth. The Role Identity Equilibrium Process explains interactive processes occurring at different levels of participants' practice. Re-establishing equilibrium and consistency in health visiting identity is a priority. This study's findings have significance for other nurses and health professionals working in complex systems, affected by role change and challenges to role identity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Sanitation-related psychosocial stress: A grounded theory study of women across the life-course in Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Hulland, Kristyna R S; Caruso, Bethany A; Swain, Rojalin; Freeman, Matthew C; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2015-08-01

    While sanitation interventions have focused primarily on child health, women's unique health risks from inadequate sanitation are gaining recognition as a priority issue. This study examines the range of sanitation-related psychosocial stressors during routine sanitation practices in Odisha, India. Between August 2013 and March 2014, we conducted in-depth interviews with 56 women in four life stages: adolescent, newly married, pregnant and established adult women in three settings: urban slums, rural villages and indigenous villages. Using a grounded theory approach, the study team transcribed, translated, coded and discussed interviews using detailed analytic memos to identify and characterize stressors at each life stage and study site. We found that sanitation practices encompassed more than defecation and urination and included carrying water, washing, bathing, menstrual management, and changing clothes. During the course of these activities, women encountered three broad types of stressors-environmental, social, and sexual-the intensity of which were modified by the woman's life stage, living environment, and access to sanitation facilities. Environmental barriers, social factors and fears of sexual violence all contributed to sanitation-related psychosocial stress. Though women responded with small changes to sanitation practices, they were unable to significantly modify their circumstances, notably by achieving adequate privacy for sanitation-related behaviors. A better understanding of the range of causes of stress and adaptive behaviors is needed to inform context-specific, gender-sensitive sanitation interventions.

  12. Mechanisms which help explain implementation of evidence-based practice in residential aged care facilities: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Masso, Malcolm; McCarthy, Grace; Kitson, Alison

    2014-07-01

    The context for the study was a nation-wide programme in Australia to implement evidence-based practice in residential aged care, in nine areas of practice, using a wide range of implementation strategies and involving 108 facilities. The study drew on the experiences of those involved in the programme to answer the question: what mechanisms influence the implementation of evidence-based practice in residential aged care and how do those mechanisms interact? The methodology used grounded theory from a critical realist perspective, informed by a conceptual framework that differentiates between the context, process and content of change. People were purposively sampled and invited to participate in semi-structured interviews, resulting in 44 interviews involving 51 people during 2009 and 2010. Participants had direct experience of implementation in 87 facilities, across nine areas of practice, in diverse locations. Sampling continued until data saturation was reached. The quality of the research was assessed using four criteria for judging trustworthiness: credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. Data analysis resulted in the identification of four mechanisms that accounted for what took place and participants' experiences. The core category that provided the greatest understanding of the data was the mechanism On Common Ground, comprising several constructs that formed a 'common ground' for change to occur. The mechanism Learning by Connecting recognised the ability to connect new knowledge with existing practice and knowledge, and make connections between actions and outcomes. Reconciling Competing Priorities was an ongoing mechanism whereby new practices had to compete with an existing set of constantly shifting priorities. Strategies for reconciling priorities ranged from structured approaches such as care planning to more informal arrangements such as conversations during daily work. The mechanism Exercising Agency bridged the gap between

  13. Promoting survival: A grounded theory study of consequences of modern health practices in Ouramanat region of Iranian Kurdistan.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpur, Ahmad; Rezaei, Mehdi; Sadeghi, Rasoul

    2010-05-14

    The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the way people using modern health care perceive its consequences in Ouraman-e-Takht region of Iranian Kurdistan. Ouraman-e-Takht is a rural, highly mountainous and dry region located in the southwest Kurdistan province of Iran. Recently, modern health practices have been introduced to the region. The purpose of this study was to investigate, from the Ouramains' point of view, the impact that modern health services and practices have had on the Ouraman traditional way of life. Interview data from respondents were analyzed by using grounded theory. Promoting survival was the core category that explained the impact that modern health practices have had on the Ouraman region. The people of Ouraman interpreted modern health practices as increasing their quality of life and promoting their survival. Results are organized around this core category in a paradigm model consisting of conditions, interactions, and consequences. This model can be used to understand the impact of change from the introduction of modern health on a traditional society.

  14. Perception of quality of care among residents of public nursing-homes in Spain: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The quality of care in nursing homes is weakly defined, and has traditionally focused on quantify nursing homes outputs and on comparison of nursing homes’ resources. Rarely the point of view of clients has been taken into account. The aim of this study was to ascertain what means “quality of care” for residents of nursing homes. Methods Grounded theory was used to design and analyze a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with a theoretical sampling including 20 persons aged over 65 years with no cognitive impairment and eight proxy informants of residents with cognitive impairment, institutionalized at a public nursing home in Spain. Results Our analysis revealed that participants perceived the quality of care in two ways, as aspects related to the persons providing care and as institutional aspects of the care’s process. All participants agreed that aspects related to the persons providing care was a pillar of quality, something that, in turn, embodied a series of emotional and technical professional competences. Regarding the institutional aspects of the care’s process, participants laid emphasis on round-the-clock access to health care services and on professional’s job stability. Conclusions This paper includes perspectives of the nursing homes residents, which are largely absent. Incorporating residents’ standpoints as a complement to traditional institutional criteria would furnish health providers and funding agencies with key information when it came to designing action plans and interventions aimed at achieving excellence in health care. PMID:23809066

  15. Identifying and acquiring the contextual skills and knowledge for nursing practice in assisted reproductive technology: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Applegarth, Judith; Dwyer, Trudy; Moxham, Lorna; Happell, Brenda

    2013-06-01

    To identify the contextual knowledge and skills required for practice. Nursing practice in assisted reproductive technology (ART) makes a significant contribution to patient care. Despite this, the knowledge and skills integral to this area of practice have not been clearly articulated, particularly from an Australian perspective. A constructivist grounded theory design was used to gain the perspective of ART nurses in relation to how they understood their clinical practice as well as the issues and challenges that they faced. Individual in-depth interviews were undertaken with 15 registered nurses working in ART units across Australia. Constant comparative data analysis was used to determine the main categories. Contextual knowledge and skills was one category to emerge from this research, and this is the focus of this paper. The findings in respect of knowledge and skill included three main subcategories: required skills and knowledge; acquisition of skills and knowledge; and factors influencing acquisition. The role of the ART nurse which must be performed within the context and competency standards of nursing requires a framework that could define and contribute to specialised ART nursing practice standards. The nursing role is instrumental to effective ART treatment and care. The standard of clinical practice will depend in part on the ability of specialist nurses to articulate their practice, and their professional development needs to optimise quality and effectiveness. The results of this study demonstrate that contextual knowledge and skills are a key aspect of this specialised nursing role. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Men who batter intimate partners: a grounded theory study of the development of male violence in intimate partner relationships.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Donna Scott; Brackley, Margaret

    2005-04-01

    Intimate partner violence is a serious and pervasive problem in U.S. society, with 25% of women and 7.6% of men reporting physical abuse by an intimate partner each year. Understanding the risk factors for development of violence is essential toward the development of interventions to reduce partner violence. Much of the understanding about the development of partner violence is based on research with victims rather than perpetrators. The study was conducted with men convicted of assault on an intimate female partner. Grounded theory was the method used to analyze data from interviews with 16 men participating in a batterers' intervention and prevention program. From the data, the Violent Couples Model was developed. The primary elements of the Violent Couples Model are justifying violence, minimizing violence, childhood exposure to violence, ineffective anger management, childhood experience of violence, and ineffective conflict resolution. Social and familial factors serve as moderating elements. Contextual elements of the model include power and control, social isolation, desensitization, insecure maternal relationships, the view of violence as a private problem, ambivalent intimate relationships, objectification of women, immaturity, lack of awareness about what constitutes violence, mistrust, traditional views of the roles of women, financial issues, and jealousy. Interventions indicated in the model are primary, or preventive, in nature. The model focuses on prevention efforts with the family as a whole, rather than on batterers alone.

  17. Participation a Key Factor for Life Recovery After Disaster: A Grounded Theory Study in an Iranian Context.

    PubMed

    Nakhaei, Maryam; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Masoumi, Gholam Reza; Hosseini, Mohammad Ali; Parsa-Yekta, Zohreh

    2016-07-01

    Since life recovery after disasters is a subjective and multifaceted construct influenced by different factors, and survivors' main concerns and experiences are not clear, the researchers intended to explore this process. This study was conducted in 2011 - 2014 based on the grounded theory approach. Participants were selected by purposeful sampling followed by theoretical sampling to achieve conceptual and theoretical saturation. Data were collected through interviews, observation, focus group discussion, and document reviews. Data were analyzed by Strauss and Corbin's (2008) recommended approach. Transcribed data from 26 interviews (managers, health care providers, and receivers), field notes, and other documents were analyzed, and 1,652 open codes were identified. The codes were categorized, using constant comparative analysis, into five main categories including reactive exposure, subsiding emotions, need for comprehensive health recovery, improvement of normalization (new normality achievement), and contextual factors. The process of life recovery after disaster was also explored. The results clarified a deep perception of participants' experiences after disaster. The path of life recovery after disasters involves participants' striving to achieve a comprehensive health recovery, which starts with the need for all-inclusive health recovery as a main concern; this is the motivator for a responding strategy. This strategy is participatory, and the process is progressive; achievement of a new normality is the final goal, with new development and levels of empowerment.

  18. Participation a Key Factor for Life Recovery After Disaster: A Grounded Theory Study in an Iranian Context

    PubMed Central

    Nakhaei, Maryam; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Masoumi, Gholam Reza; Hosseini, Mohammad Ali; Parsa-Yekta, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background Since life recovery after disasters is a subjective and multifaceted construct influenced by different factors, and survivors’ main concerns and experiences are not clear, the researchers intended to explore this process. Materials and Methods This study was conducted in 2011 - 2014 based on the grounded theory approach. Participants were selected by purposeful sampling followed by theoretical sampling to achieve conceptual and theoretical saturation. Data were collected through interviews, observation, focus group discussion, and document reviews. Data were analyzed by Strauss and Corbin’s (2008) recommended approach. Results Transcribed data from 26 interviews (managers, health care providers, and receivers), field notes, and other documents were analyzed, and 1,652 open codes were identified. The codes were categorized, using constant comparative analysis, into five main categories including reactive exposure, subsiding emotions, need for comprehensive health recovery, improvement of normalization (new normality achievement), and contextual factors. The process of life recovery after disaster was also explored. Conclusions The results clarified a deep perception of participants’ experiences after disaster. The path of life recovery after disasters involves participants’ striving to achieve a comprehensive health recovery, which starts with the need for all-inclusive health recovery as a main concern; this is the motivator for a responding strategy. This strategy is participatory, and the process is progressive; achievement of a new normality is the final goal, with new development and levels of empowerment. PMID:27703797

  19. Resourcing the clinical complementary medicine information needs of Australian medical students: Results of a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Templeman, Kate; Robinson, Anske; McKenna, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify Australian medical students' complementary medicine information needs. Thirty medical students from 10 medical education faculties across Australian universities were recruited. Data were generated using in-depth semi-structured interviews and constructivist grounded theory method was used to analyze and construct data. Students sought complementary medicine information from a range of inadequate sources, such as pharmacological texts, Internet searches, peer-reviewed medical journals, and drug databases. The students identified that many complementary medicine resources may not be regarded as objective, reliable, differentiated, or comprehensive, leaving much that medical education needs to address. Most students sought succinct, easily accessible, evidence-based information to inform safe and appropriate clinical decisions about complementary medicines. A number of preferred resources were identified that can be recommended and actively promoted to medical students. Therefore, specific, evidence-based complementary medicine databases and secondary resources should be subscribed and recommended to medical schools and students, to assist meeting professional responsibilities regarding complementary medicines. These findings may help inform the development of appropriate medical information resources regarding complementary medicines. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Integrative Learning: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Jeannie Brown

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the findings from a study of undergraduate students in an academic program focused on integrative learning rather than interdisciplinarity. One aspect of this study included how students defined integrative learning. This participant-shaped understanding of integrative learning was broad and reflected a continuum of…

  1. Exploring Perspectives of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Histories of Challenging Behaviors about Family Relationships: An Emergent Topic in a Grounded Theory Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Julie F.; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie; Maramaldi, Peter; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    2016-01-01

    The perspectives of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) about family relationships are underrepresented in the literature. The topic of family relationships emerged in a grounded theory exploratory focus group study that involved thirty dually diagnosed participants with moderate or mild intellectual disabilities and histories of…

  2. A Grounded Theory Study of the Process of Accessing Information on the World Wide Web by People with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blodgett, Cynthia S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to examine the process by which people with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) access information on the web. Recent estimates include amateur sports and recreation injuries, non-hospital clinics and treatment facilities, private and public emergency department visits and admissions, providing…

  3. How Female Professionals Successfully Process and Negotiate Involuntary Job Loss at Faith-Based Colleges and Universities: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Debra Jayne

    2013-01-01

    Using a constructivist grounded theory approach (Charmaz, 2006), this qualitative study examined how 8 female senior-level professionals employed at faith-based colleges and universities processed and navigated the experience of involuntary job loss and successfully transitioned to another position. The purpose of this research was to contribute…

  4. How Female Professionals Successfully Process and Negotiate Involuntary Job Loss at Faith-Based Colleges and Universities: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Debra Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Using a constructivist grounded theory approach (Charmaz, 2006), this qualitative study examined how eight female senior-level professionals employed at faith-based colleges and universities processed and navigated the experience of involuntary job loss and successfully transitioned to another position. The theoretical framework of psychological…

  5. Exploring Perspectives of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Histories of Challenging Behaviors about Family Relationships: An Emergent Topic in a Grounded Theory Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Julie F.; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie; Maramaldi, Peter; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    2016-01-01

    The perspectives of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) about family relationships are underrepresented in the literature. The topic of family relationships emerged in a grounded theory exploratory focus group study that involved thirty dually diagnosed participants with moderate or mild intellectual disabilities and histories of…

  6. The Co-Teaching Journey: A Systematic Grounded Theory Study Investigating How Secondary School Teachers Resolve Challenges in Co-Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerst, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic grounded theory study was to explain how problems inherent in co-teaching relationships are resolved by secondary school special education and general education teachers at an urban school district in Eastern Iowa. The participants were general and special education secondary school teachers involved in effective…

  7. How Female Professionals Successfully Process and Negotiate Involuntary Job Loss at Faith-Based Colleges and Universities: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Debra Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Using a constructivist grounded theory approach (Charmaz, 2006), this qualitative study examined how eight female senior-level professionals employed at faith-based colleges and universities processed and navigated the experience of involuntary job loss and successfully transitioned to another position. The theoretical framework of psychological…

  8. How Female Professionals Successfully Process and Negotiate Involuntary Job Loss at Faith-Based Colleges and Universities: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Debra Jayne

    2013-01-01

    Using a constructivist grounded theory approach (Charmaz, 2006), this qualitative study examined how 8 female senior-level professionals employed at faith-based colleges and universities processed and navigated the experience of involuntary job loss and successfully transitioned to another position. The purpose of this research was to contribute…

  9. The Co-Teaching Journey: A Systematic Grounded Theory Study Investigating How Secondary School Teachers Resolve Challenges in Co-Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerst, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic grounded theory study was to explain how problems inherent in co-teaching relationships are resolved by secondary school special education and general education teachers at an urban school district in Eastern Iowa. The participants were general and special education secondary school teachers involved in effective…

  10. Empirical and pragmatic adequacy of grounded theory: Advancing nurse empowerment theory for nurses' practice.

    PubMed

    Udod, Sonia A; Racine, Louise

    2017-05-25

    To draw on the findings of a grounded theory study aimed at exploring how power is exercised in nurse-manager relationships in the hospital setting, this paper examines the empirical and pragmatic adequacy of grounded theory as a methodology to advance the concept of empowerment in the area of nursing leadership and management. The evidence on staff nurse empowerment has highlighted the magnitude of individual and organisational outcomes, but has not fully explicated the micro-level processes underlying how power is exercised, shared or created within the nurse-manager relationship. Although grounded theory is a widely adopted nursing research methodology, it remains less used in nursing leadership because of the dominance of quantitative approaches to research. Grounded theory methodology provides the empirical and pragmatic relevance to inform nursing practice and policy. Grounded theory is a relevant qualitative approach to use in leadership research as it provides a fine and detailed analysis of the process underlying complexity and bureaucracy. Discursive paper. A critical examination of the empirical and pragmatic relevance of grounded theory by (Corbin & Strauss, , ) as a method for analysing and solving problems in nurses' practice is provided. This paper provides evidence to support the empirical and pragmatic adequacy of grounded theory methodology. Although the application of the ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions of grounded theory is challenging, this methodology is useful to address real-life problems in nursing practice by developing theoretical explanations of nurse empowerment, or lack thereof, in the workplace. Grounded theory represents a relevant methodology to inform nursing leadership research. Grounded theory is anchored in the reality of practice. The strength of grounded theory is to provide results that can be readily applied to clinical practice and policy as they arise from problems that affect practice and that

  11. "Like a trip to McDonalds": a grounded theory study of patient experiences of day surgery.

    PubMed

    Mottram, Anne

    2011-02-01

    The amount and complexity of (ambulatory) day surgery is rapidly expanding internationally. Nurses have a responsibility to provide quality care for day surgery patients. To do this they must understand all aspects of the patient experience. There is dearth of research into day surgery using a sociological frame of reference. The study investigated patients' experiences of day surgery using a sociological frame of reference. A qualitative study using the grounded theory approach was used. The study was based in two day surgery units in two urban public hospitals in the United Kingdom. 145 patients aged 18-70 years and 100 carers were purposely selected from the orthopaedic, ear nose and throat and general surgical lists. They were all English speaking and were of varied socio-economic background. The data was collected from 2004 to 2006. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on three occasions: before surgery, 48 h following surgery and one month following discharge. Permission was received from the Local Research Ethics Committee. Analysis of the data involved line-by-line analysis, compilation of key words and phrases (codes) and constant comparison of the codes until categories emerged. Patients liked day surgery and placed it within the wider societal context of efficiency and speed. Time was a major issue for them. They wished surgery, like all other aspects of their life to be a speedy process. They likened it to a McDonald's experience with its emphasis on speed, predictability and control. This study throws new light on patient experiences and offers an understanding of day surgery against a western culture which emphasises the importance of speed and efficiency. It is a popular choice for patients but at times it can be seen to be a mechanistic way of providing care. The implications for nurses to provide education and information to add to the quality of the patient experience are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Grounded theory and feminist inquiry: revitalizing links to the past.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Marilyn; Young, Lynne E

    2010-04-01

    Grounded theory has served feminist research endeavors since the mid-1990s. Researchers from a variety of disciplines claim methodological compatibility and incorporate feminist principles into their grounded theory studies. This article seeks to demonstrate the epistemological affinity between feminist inquiry and grounded theory. Although this relationship is not necessarily unique, the authors contend that when combined, it loosens the androcentric moorings of the empirical processes underpinning grounded theory, enabling the researchers to design inquiry with greater potential to reveal issues particular to the lives and experiences of marginalized women. The article begins by retracing the roots of grounded theory and feminist inquiry to identify six key areas where the underpinnings of GT are enriched by a feminist perspective when working with women. In addition, the authors draw on the literature and their experience from a 2005 study of peer support and lone mothers' health to demonstrate the advantages of combining these theoretical perspectives. Finally, the authors recommend that nurse researchers draw on feminist principles to guide their use of grounded theory to better serve the interests of women by surfacing issues of gender and power that influence the health experience.

  13. From spouse to caregiver and back: a grounded theory study of post-intensive care unit spousal caregiving.

    PubMed

    Ågård, Anne Sophie; Egerod, Ingrid; Tønnesen, Else; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2015-08-01

    To explore the challenges and caring activities of spouses of intensive care unit survivors during the first year of patient recovery. Every year, millions of people globally are discharged from an intensive care unit after critical illness to continue treatment, care and rehabilitation in general hospital wards, rehabilitation facilities and at home. Consequently, millions of spouses become informal caregivers. Little is known, however, about the concrete challenges spouses face in post-intensive care unit everyday life. Explorative, qualitative grounded theory study. Participants were spouses of intensive care unit survivors. The study was undertaken in Denmark in 2009-2010. Data consisted of 35 semi-structured dyad interviews at 3 and 12 months post-intensive care unit discharge, two group interviews with patients and two with spouses. 'Shifting their role from spouse to caregiver and back' was identified as the core category of the study. The role shifts progressed in a dynamic process involving four elements: (1) committing to caregiving; (2) acquiring caregiving skills; (3) negotiating level of caregiving and (4) gradually leaving the caregiver role. Post-ICU caregiving comprised five patient dimensions: observing, assisting, coaching, advocating and managing activities. Spouses play a vital and multifaceted role in post-intensive care unit recovery. The findings can inform healthcare professionals in their efforts to prepare intensive care unit patients' families for the time following intensive care unit and hospital discharge. Hospital staff, rehabilitation experts and primary care professionals must acknowledge spouses' important contribution from intensive care unit admission throughout recovery. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Experiences of using information and communication technology within the first year after stroke - a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Martha; Ytterberg, Charlotte; Nabsen Marwaa, Mille; Tham, Kerstin; Guidetti, Susanne

    2016-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify how people 6-12 months after stroke were using and integrating information and communication technology (ICT) in their everyday lives. To capture the participants' experiences, one focus group and 14 individual interviews were carried out in Sweden and Denmark regarding the use of ICT in everyday life. The participants comprised 11 men and seven women aged 41-79 years. A grounded theory approach was used throughout the study and a constant comparative method was used in the analysis. Five categories were identified from the analysis of the interviews with the participants: 1) Using the mobile phone to feel safe, 2) Staying connected with others, 3) Recreating everyday life, 4) A tool for managing everyday life, and 5) Overcoming obstacles for using ICT. From these categories one core category emerged: The drive to integrate ICT in everyday life after stroke. People with stroke had a strong drive to integrate ICT in order to manage and bring meaning to their everyday lives, although sometimes they needed support and adaptations. It is not only possible but also necessary to start using ICT in rehabilitation in order to support people's recovery and promote participation in everyday life after stroke. Implications for rehabilitation People with stroke have a strong drive for using information and communication technology in their everyday lives, although support and adaptations are needed. The recovery process of people with stroke could benefit from the use of ICT in the rehabilitation and ICT could possibly contribute to independence and promote participation in everyday life. Knowledge from this study can be used in the development of an ICT-based stroke rehabilitation model.

  15. Finding common ground to achieve a "good death": family physicians working with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. A qualitative grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Amy; Manca, Donna

    2013-01-22

    Substitute decision-makers are integral to the care of dying patients and make many healthcare decisions for patients. Unfortunately, conflict between physicians and surrogate decision-makers is not uncommon in end-of-life care and this could contribute to a "bad death" experience for the patient and family. We aim to describe Canadian family physicians' experiences of conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the end-of-life decision-making process. This insight will help determine how to best manage these complex situations, ultimately improving the overall care of dying patients. Grounded Theory methodology was used with semi-structured interviews of family physicians in Edmonton, Canada, who experienced conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. Purposeful sampling included maximum variation and theoretical sampling strategies. Interviews were audio-taped, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts, field notes and memos were coded using the constant-comparative method to identify key concepts until saturation was achieved and a theoretical framework emerged. Eleven family physicians with a range of 3 to 40 years in clinical practice participated.The family physicians expressed a desire to achieve a "good death" and described their role in positively influencing the experience of death.Finding Common Ground to Achieve a "Good Death" for the Patient emerged as an important process which includes 1) Building Mutual Trust and Rapport through identifying key players and delivering manageable amounts of information, 2) Understanding One Another through active listening and ultimately, and 3) Making Informed, Shared Decisions. Facilitators and barriers to achieving Common Ground were identified. Barriers were linked to conflict. The inability to resolve an overt conflict may lead to an impasse at any point. A process for Resolving an Impasse is described. A novel framework for developing

  16. Finding common ground to achieve a “good death”: family physicians working with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. A qualitative grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Substitute decision-makers are integral to the care of dying patients and make many healthcare decisions for patients. Unfortunately, conflict between physicians and surrogate decision-makers is not uncommon in end-of-life care and this could contribute to a “bad death” experience for the patient and family. We aim to describe Canadian family physicians’ experiences of conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the end-of-life decision-making process. This insight will help determine how to best manage these complex situations, ultimately improving the overall care of dying patients. Methods Grounded Theory methodology was used with semi-structured interviews of family physicians in Edmonton, Canada, who experienced conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. Purposeful sampling included maximum variation and theoretical sampling strategies. Interviews were audio-taped, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts, field notes and memos were coded using the constant-comparative method to identify key concepts until saturation was achieved and a theoretical framework emerged. Results Eleven family physicians with a range of 3 to 40 years in clinical practice participated. The family physicians expressed a desire to achieve a “good death” and described their role in positively influencing the experience of death. Finding Common Ground to Achieve a “Good Death” for the Patient emerged as an important process which includes 1) Building Mutual Trust and Rapport through identifying key players and delivering manageable amounts of information, 2) Understanding One Another through active listening and ultimately, and 3) Making Informed, Shared Decisions. Facilitators and barriers to achieving Common Ground were identified. Barriers were linked to conflict. The inability to resolve an overt conflict may lead to an impasse at any point. A process for Resolving an Impasse is

  17. A Generalized Approach for the Interpretation of Geophysical Well Logs in Ground-Water Studies - Theory and Application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Crowder, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of geophysical logs in ground-water studies often involves at least as broad a range of applications and variation in lithology as is typically encountered in petroleum exploration, making such logs difficult to calibrate and complicating inversion problem formulation. At the same time, data inversion and analysis depend on inversion model formulation and refinement, so that log interpretation cannot be deferred to a geophysical log specialist unless active involvement with interpretation can be maintained by such an expert over the lifetime of the project. We propose a generalized log-interpretation procedure designed to guide hydrogeologists in the interpretation of geophysical logs, and in the integration of log data into ground-water models that may be systematically refined and improved in an iterative way. The procedure is designed to maximize the effective use of three primary contributions from geophysical logs: (1) The continuous depth scale of the measurements along the well bore; (2) The in situ measurement of lithologic properties and the correlation with hydraulic properties of the formations over a finite sample volume; and (3) Multiple independent measurements that can potentially be inverted for multiple physical or hydraulic properties of interest. The approach is formulated in the context of geophysical inversion theory, and is designed to be interfaced with surface geophysical soundings and conventional hydraulic testing. The step-by-step procedures given in our generalized interpretation and inversion technique are based on both qualitative analysis designed to assist formulation of the interpretation model, and quantitative analysis used to assign numerical values to model parameters. The approach bases a decision as to whether quantitative inversion is statistically warranted by formulating an over-determined inversion. If no such inversion is consistent with the inversion model, quantitative inversion is judged not

  18. Empowerment in School Nursing Practice: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broussard, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Professional empowerment is vital to nurses' productivity and job satisfaction. A grounded theory study was conducted to describe the basic social process experienced by school nurses in relation to professional empowerment. Interviews with 10 school nurses led to the development of a situation-specific theory of school nurse empowerment,…

  19. Empowerment in School Nursing Practice: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broussard, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Professional empowerment is vital to nurses' productivity and job satisfaction. A grounded theory study was conducted to describe the basic social process experienced by school nurses in relation to professional empowerment. Interviews with 10 school nurses led to the development of a situation-specific theory of school nurse empowerment,…

  20. A Grounded Theory of Counseling Students Who Report Problematic Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Lindy K.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Corthell, Kimere K.; Walsh, Maggie E.; Brack, Greg; Grubbs, Natalie K.

    2014-01-01

    All counselors, including students, are responsible for intervening when a colleague shows signs of impairment. This grounded theory study investigated experiences of 12 counseling students who reported problematic peers. An emergent theory of the peer reporting process is presented, along with implications for counselor educators and suggestions…

  1. Reconceptualising Moderation in Asynchronous Online Discussions Using Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachopoulos, Panos; Cowan, John

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a grounded theory study of the moderation of asynchronous online discussions, to explore the processes by which tutors in higher education decide when and how to moderate. It aims to construct a theory of e-moderation based on some key factors which appear to influence e-moderation. It discusses previous research on the…

  2. Experiences of non-progressive and augmented labour among nulliparous women: a qualitative interview study in a Grounded Theory approach

    PubMed Central

    Kjaergaard, Hanne; Foldgast, Anne Maria; Dykes, Anna-Karin

    2007-01-01

    Background Non-progressive labour is the most common complication in nulliparas and is primarily treated by augmentation. Augmented labour is often terminated by instrumental delivery. Little qualitative research has addressed experiences of non-progressive and augmented deliveries. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the experience of non-progressive and augmented labour among nulliparas and their experience of the care they received. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using individual interviews. Data was collected and analysed according to the Grounded Theory method. The participants were a purposive sample of ten women. The interviews were conducted 4–15 weeks after delivery. Results The women had contrasting experiences during the birth process. During labour there was a conflict between the expectation of having a natural delivery and actually having a medical delivery. The women experienced a feeling of separation between mind and body. Interacting with the midwife had a major influence on feelings of losing and regaining control. Reconciliation between the contrasting feelings during labour was achieved. The core category was named Dialectical Birth Process and comprised three categories: Balancing natural and medical delivery, Interacting, Losing and regaining control. Conclusion A dialectical process was identified in these women's experiences of non-progressive labour. The process is susceptible to interaction with the midwife; especially her support to the woman's feeling of being in control. Midwives should secure that the woman's recognition of the fact that the labour is non-progressive and augmentation is required is handled with respect for the dialectical process. Augmentation of labour should be managed as close to the course of natural labour and delivery as possible. PMID:17662152

  3. A grounded theory study of Swedish women's experiences of inflammatory symptoms of the breast during breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Kvist, Linda J; Larsson, Bodil Wilde; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise

    2006-06-01

    to gain an understanding of the experiences of women who have had an episode of inflammatory symptoms of the breast during lactation. a grounded theory approach, inspired by Glaser and Strauss, was used in an interview study. the study was carried out at a midwife-led breast-feeding clinic in Sweden. the strategic sample consisted of 14 mothers, all of whom had had an episode of breast inflammation between 10 and 22 weeks before the interview. Nine were primiparous. Ages ranged between 24 and 38 years. the analysis resulted in the emergence of one core category and five conceptual categories. The core category was 'the will to breast feed', and the five conceptual categories were 'perspectives on breast feeding', 'personal strategies', 'enduring and adjustment', 'support' and 'causal frameworks'. The core category was reflected in all the other categories and was dependent on them. an episode of breast inflammation is a possible threat to the maintenance of breast feeding, but the will to breast feed may make it possible for mothers to withstand physical and emotional difficulties caused by the illness. Breast-feeding mothers may have chosen a goal for the length of time they wish to breast feed, and the attainment of this goal is prestige-filled. Midwives, throughout the chain of care, could improve the amount and type of information given about the demands and possible complications of breast feeding. The availability of immediate clinical expertise for these mothers is an important factor, and health-care planners should be aware of this.

  4. [Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of computerized decision support systems in Italian hospitals: a grounded theory study].

    PubMed

    Liberati, Elisa Giulia; Galuppo, Laura; Gorli, Mara; Maraldi, Marco; Ruggiero, Francesca; Capobussi, Matteo; Banzi, Rita; Kwag, Koren; Scaratti, Giuseppe; Nanni, Oriana; Ruggieri, Pietro; Polo Friz, Hernan; Cimminiello, Claudio; Bosio, Marco; Mangia, Massimo; Moja, Lorenzo

    2015-04-01

    Computerized Decision Support Systems (CDSSs) connect health care professionals with high-quality, evidence-based information at the point-of-care to guide clinical decision-making. Current research shows the potential of CDSSs to improve the efficiency and quality of patient care. The mere provision of the technology, however, does not guarantee its uptake. This qualitative study aims to explore the barriers and facilitators to the use of CDSSs as identified by health providers. The study was performed in three Italian hospitals, each characterized by a different level of familiarity with the CDSS technology. We interviewed frontline physicians, nurses, information technology staff, and members of the hospital board of directors (n=24). A grounded theory approach informed our sampling criteria as well as the data collection and analysis. The adoption of CDSSs by health care professionals can be represented as a process that consists of six "positionings," each corresponding to an individual's use and perceived mastery of the technology. In conditions of low mastery, the CDSS is perceived as an object of threat, an unfamiliar tool that is difficult to control. On the other hand, individuals in conditions of high mastery view the CDSS as a helpful tool that can be locally adapted and integrated with clinicians' competences to fulfil their needs. In the first positionings, the uptake of CDSSs is hindered by representational obstacles. The last positionings, alternatively, featured technical obstacles to CDSS uptake. Our model of CDSS adoption can guide hospital administrators interested in the future integration of CDSSs to evaluate their organizational contexts, identify potential challenges to the implementation of the technology, and develop an effective strategy to address them. Our findings also allow reflections concerning the misalignment between most Italian hospitals and the current innovation trends toward the uptake of computerized decision support

  5. Family physicians' experiences when collaborating with district nurses in home care-based medical treatment. A grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This article concerns Swedish family physicians' (FPs) experiences collaborating with district nurses (DNs) when the DNs provide medical treatment for home care patients. The aim was to develop a model to illuminate this process from the FPs' perspective. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 FPs concerning one of their patients with home care by a DN. The interview focused on one patient's treatment and care by different care providers and the collaboration among them. Grounded theory methodology (GTM) was used in the analyses. Results It was essential for FPs to collaborate with and rely on DNs in the medical treatment of home care patients. According to the FPs, factors such as the disease, FPs' working conditions and attitude determined how much of the initiative in this treatment FPs retained or left to DNs. Depending on the circumstances, two different roles were adopted by the individual FPs: medical conductors who retain the initiative and medical consultants who leave the initiative to DNs. Factors as the disease, DNs' attitudes towards collaboration and DNs' working conditions influenced whether or not the FPs felt that grounds for relying on DNs were satisfactory. Regardless of the role of the FP, conditions for medical treatment were judged by the FPs to be good enough when the grounds for relying on the DN were satisfactory and problematic when they were not. Conclusions In the role of conductor, the FP will identify when the grounds for relying on the DN are unsatisfactory and be able to take action, but in the role of consultant the FP will not detect this, leaving home care patients without appropriate support. Only when there are satisfactory grounds for relying on the DN, will conditions for providing home care medical treatment be good enough when the FP adopts a consultative role. PMID:20979649

  6. Family physicians' experiences when collaborating with district nurses in home care-based medical treatment. A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Modin, Sonja; Törnkvist, Lena; Furhoff, Anna-Karin; Hylander, Ingrid

    2010-10-27

    This article concerns Swedish family physicians' (FPs) experiences collaborating with district nurses (DNs) when the DNs provide medical treatment for home care patients. The aim was to develop a model to illuminate this process from the FPs' perspective. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 FPs concerning one of their patients with home care by a DN. The interview focused on one patient's treatment and care by different care providers and the collaboration among them. Grounded theory methodology (GTM) was used in the analyses. It was essential for FPs to collaborate with and rely on DNs in the medical treatment of home care patients. According to the FPs, factors such as the disease, FPs' working conditions and attitude determined how much of the initiative in this treatment FPs retained or left to DNs. Depending on the circumstances, two different roles were adopted by the individual FPs: medical conductors who retain the initiative and medical consultants who leave the initiative to DNs. Factors as the disease, DNs' attitudes towards collaboration and DNs' working conditions influenced whether or not the FPs felt that grounds for relying on DNs were satisfactory. Regardless of the role of the FP, conditions for medical treatment were judged by the FPs to be good enough when the grounds for relying on the DN were satisfactory and problematic when they were not. In the role of conductor, the FP will identify when the grounds for relying on the DN are unsatisfactory and be able to take action, but in the role of consultant the FP will not detect this, leaving home care patients without appropriate support. Only when there are satisfactory grounds for relying on the DN, will conditions for providing home care medical treatment be good enough when the FP adopts a consultative role.

  7. Incentives and disincentives for treating of depression and anxiety in Ontario Family Health Teams: protocol for a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Menear, Matthew; Silveira, Jose; Dahrouge, Simone; McKenzie, Kwame

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is strong consensus that prevention and management of common mental disorders (CMDs) should occur in primary care and evidence suggests that treatment of CMDs in these settings can be effective. New interprofessional team-based models of primary care have emerged that are intended to address problems of quality and access to mental health services, yet many people continue to struggle to access care for CMDs in these settings. Insufficient attention directed towards the incentives and disincentives that influence care for CMDs in primary care, and especially in interprofessional team-based settings, may have resulted in missed opportunities to improve care quality and control healthcare costs. Our research is driven by the hypothesis that a stronger understanding of the full range of incentives and disincentives at play and their relationships with performance and other contextual factors will help stakeholders identify the critical levers of change needed to enhance prevention and management of CMDs in interprofessional primary care contexts. Participant recruitment began in May 2016. Methods and analysis An explanatory qualitative design, based on a constructivist grounded theory methodology, will be used. Our study will be conducted in the Canadian province of Ontario, a province that features a widely implemented interprofessional team-based model of primary care. Semistructured interviews will be conducted with a diverse range of healthcare professionals and stakeholders that can help us understand how various incentives and disincentives influence the provision of evidence-based collaborative care for CMDs. A final sample size of 100 is anticipated. The protocol was peer reviewed by experts who were nominated by the funding organisation. Ethics and dissemination The model we generate will shed light on the incentives and disincentives that are and should be in place to support high-quality CMD care and help stimulate more targeted

  8. The pathway of obstructed labour as perceived by communities in south-western Uganda: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Kabakyenga, Jerome K.; Östergren, Per-Olof; Emmelin, Maria; Kyomuhendo, Phionah; Odberg Pettersson, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Background Obstructed labour is still a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in Uganda, where many women give birth at home alone or assisted by non-skilled birth attendants. Little is known of how the community view obstructed labour, and what actions they take in cases where this complication occurs. Objective The objective of the study was to explore community members’ understanding of and actions taken in cases of obstructed labour in south-western Uganda. Design Grounded theory (GT) was used to analyse data from 20 focus group discussions (FGDs), 10 with women and 10 with men, which were conducted in eight rural and two urban communities. Results A conceptual model based on the community members’ understanding of obstructed labour and actions taken in response is presented as a pathway initiated by women's desire to ‘protecting own integrity’ (core category). The pathway consisted of six other categories closely linked to the core category, namely: (1) ‘taking control of own birth process’; (2) ‘reaching the limit – failing to give birth’ (individual level); (3) ‘exhausting traditional options’; (4) ‘partner taking charge’; (5) ‘facing challenging referral conditions’ (community level); and finally (6) ‘enduring a non-responsive healthcare system’ (healthcare system level). Conclusions There is a need to understand and acknowledge women's reluctance to involve others during childbirth. However, the healthcare system should provide acceptable care and a functional referral system closer to the community, thus supporting the community's ability to seek timely care as a response to obstructed labour. Easy access to mobile phones may improve referral systems. Upgrading of infrastructure in the region requires a multi-sectoral approach. Testing of the conceptual model through a quantitative questionnaire is recommended. PMID:22216018

  9. The pathway of obstructed labour as perceived by communities in south-western Uganda: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Kabakyenga, Jerome K; Östergren, Per-Olof; Emmelin, Maria; Kyomuhendo, Phionah; Odberg Pettersson, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Obstructed labour is still a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in Uganda, where many women give birth at home alone or assisted by non-skilled birth attendants. Little is known of how the community view obstructed labour, and what actions they take in cases where this complication occurs. The objective of the study was to explore community members' understanding of and actions taken in cases of obstructed labour in south-western Uganda. Grounded theory (GT) was used to analyse data from 20 focus group discussions (FGDs), 10 with women and 10 with men, which were conducted in eight rural and two urban communities. A conceptual model based on the community members' understanding of obstructed labour and actions taken in response is presented as a pathway initiated by women's desire to 'protecting own integrity' (core category). The pathway consisted of six other categories closely linked to the core category, namely: (1) 'taking control of own birth process'; (2) 'reaching the limit--failing to give birth' (individual level); (3) 'exhausting traditional options'; (4) 'partner taking charge'; (5) 'facing challenging referral conditions' (community level); and finally (6) 'enduring a non-responsive healthcare system' (healthcare system level). There is a need to understand and acknowledge women's reluctance to involve others during childbirth. However, the healthcare system should provide acceptable care and a functional referral system closer to the community, thus supporting the community's ability to seek timely care as a response to obstructed labour. Easy access to mobile phones may improve referral systems. Upgrading of infrastructure in the region requires a multi-sectoral approach. Testing of the conceptual model through a quantitative questionnaire is recommended.

  10. Physicians' communication with patients about adherence to HIV medication in San Francisco and Copenhagen: a qualitative study using Grounded Theory.

    PubMed

    Barfod, Toke S; Hecht, Frederick M; Rubow, Cecilie; Gerstoft, Jan

    2006-12-04

    Poor adherence is the main barrier to the effectiveness of HIV medication. The objective of this study was to explore and conceptualize patterns and difficulties in physicians' work with patients' adherence to HIV medication. No previous studies on this subject have directly observed physicians' behavior. This is a qualitative, cross-sectional study. We used a Grounded Theory approach to let the main issues in physicians' work with patients' adherence emerge without preconceiving the focus of the study. We included physicians from HIV clinics in San Francisco, U.S.A. as well as from Copenhagen, Denmark. Physicians were observed during their clinical work and subsequently interviewed with a semi-structured interview guide. Notes on observations and transcribed interviews were analyzed with NVivo software. We enrolled 16 physicians from San Francisco and 18 from Copenhagen. When we discovered that physicians and patients seldom discussed adherence issues in depth, we made adherence communication and its barriers the focus of the study. The main patterns in physicians' communication with patients about adherence were similar in both settings. An important barrier to in-depth adherence communication was that some physicians felt it was awkward to explore the possibility of non-adherence if there were no objective signs of treatment failure, because patients could feel "accused." To overcome this awkwardness, some physicians consciously tried to "de-shame" patients regarding non-adherence. However, a recurring theme was that physicians often suspected non-adherence even when patients did not admit to have missed any doses, and physicians had difficulties handling this low believability of patient statements. We here develop a simple four-step, three-factor model of physicians' adherence communication. The four steps are: deciding whether to ask about adherence or not, pre-questioning preparations, phrasing the question, and responding to the patient's answer. The three

  11. Health as expanding consciousness: a nursing perspective for grounded theory research.

    PubMed

    Brown, Janet Witucki

    2011-07-01

    Margaret Newman's theory of health as expanding consciousness provides an excellent nursing perspective for nursing grounded theory research studies. Application of this nursing theory to grounded theory research provides a unitary-transformative paradigm perspective to the sociological underpinnings of grounded theory methodology. The fit between this particular nursing theory and grounded theory methodology is apparent when purpose, timing, process, and health outcomes of the two are compared. In this column, the theory of health as expanding consciousness is described and the theory's research as praxis methodology is compared to grounded theory methodology. This is followed by a description of how the theory of health as expanding consciousness can be utilized as a perspective for nursing grounded theory research.

  12. A model of self-directed learning in internal medicine residency: a qualitative study using grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Sawatsky, Adam P; Ratelle, John T; Bonnes, Sara L; Egginton, Jason S; Beckman, Thomas J

    2017-02-02

    Existing theories of self-directed learning (SDL) have emphasized the importance of process, personal, and contextual factors. Previous medical education research has largely focused on the process of SDL. We explored the experience with and perception of SDL among internal medicine residents to gain understanding of the personal and contextual factors of SDL in graduate medical education. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, we conducted 7 focus group interviews with 46 internal medicine residents at an academic medical center. We processed the data by using open coding and writing analytic memos. Team members organized open codes to create axial codes, which were applied to all transcripts. Guided by a previous model of SDL, we developed a theoretical model that was revised through constant comparison with new data as they were collected, and we refined the theory until it had adequate explanatory power and was appropriately grounded in the experiences of residents. We developed a theoretical model of SDL to explain the process, personal, and contextual factors affecting SDL during residency training. The process of SDL began with a trigger that uncovered a knowledge gap. Residents progressed to formulating learning objectives, using resources, applying knowledge, and evaluating learning. Personal factors included motivations, individual characteristics, and the change in approach to SDL over time. Contextual factors included the need for external guidance, the influence of residency program structure and culture, and the presence of contextual barriers. We developed a theoretical model of SDL in medical education that can be used to promote and assess resident SDL through understanding the process, person, and context of SDL.

  13. Taiwanese women's experiences of becoming a mother to a very-low-birth-weight preterm infant: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shu-Nu Chang; Long, Ann; Boore, Jennifer

    2009-03-01

    Significant improvements have occurred in the survival rates of small preterm infants. As more infants survive their preterm birth, the number of parents associated with this experience has also increased. Clearly, the birth of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants poses considerable challenges for all mothers. These challenges are further compounded in Taiwan, where women are traditionally required to practise the cultural ritual (Zuo Yue Zi) which includes confinement to the house with a special balanced diet for the first month postnatally. Moreover, there is a deficit of information on mothers' experiences when their preterm infants are in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The aim of this study was to explore Taiwanese mothers' (n=26) parenting experiences when their preterm infants were in NICUs. A qualitative research approach, grounded theory, was used to explore the mothers' lived reality of these experiences. In-depth interviews and participant observations were conducted to gain insight into the experience of parenting. A theoretical model was formulated from the findings delineating Taiwanese mothers' parenting experiences during their preterm infants stay in hospital. The findings indicated that the preterm birth, together with the admission of their infants to a NICU, presented mothers with an unexpected crisis. The particular cultural postnatal ritual posed this group of Taiwanese mothers with an additional difficulty in establishing physical interactions. However, the Taiwanese mothers created alternative channels of contact with their hospitalised infants using emotional connections, while the physical interactions were certainly limited. Despite all the difficulties this group of Taiwanese mothers faced and resolved, they all gradually captured and embraced the parenting role. The finding of this study further indicated that the support the mothers received from the healthcare professionals and the social networks the mothers made

  14. On the Theory of Ground Anchors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    AD/A-O06 582 ON THE THEORY OF GROUND ANCHORS COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LABORATORY JANUARY 1975 DISTRIBUTED BY: National Tocnical -Intonal...ANCHORS Austin Kovacs, Scott Bicuin Bruce McKelvy and Herman Colligan January 1975 PREPARED FOR U.S. ARMY MATERIL’ COMMAND DA PROJECT IT062112A 130...applications as the tie-backs for retaining walls and bulkheads and in foundations subjected to wind, explosions, earthquakes and thermally induced lateral

  15. Taking-On: A Grounded Theory of Addressing Barriers in Task Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austinson, Julie Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study of taking-on was conducted using classical grounded theory methodology (Glaser, 1978, 1992, 1998, 2001, 2005; Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Classical grounded theory is inductive, empirical, and naturalistic; it does not utilize manipulation or constrained time frames. Classical grounded theory is a systemic research method used to generate…

  16. Taking-On: A Grounded Theory of Addressing Barriers in Task Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austinson, Julie Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study of taking-on was conducted using classical grounded theory methodology (Glaser, 1978, 1992, 1998, 2001, 2005; Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Classical grounded theory is inductive, empirical, and naturalistic; it does not utilize manipulation or constrained time frames. Classical grounded theory is a systemic research method used to generate…

  17. Factors Involved in Iranian Women Heads of Household’s Health Promotion Activities: A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Rafii, Forough; Seyedfatemi, Naima; Rezaei, Mahboubeh

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to explore and describe the factors involved in Iranian women heads of household’s health promotion activities. Grounded theory was used as the method. Sixteen women heads of household were recruited. Data were generated by semi structured interviews. Our findings indicated that remainder of resources (money, time and energy) alongside perceived severity of health risk were two main factors whereas women’s personal and socio-economic characteristics were two contextual factors involved in these women's health promotion activities. To help these women improve their health status, we recommended that the government, non-governmental organizations and health care professionals provide them with required resources and increase their knowledge by holding training sessions. PMID:24039645

  18. Social meanings and understandings in patient-nurse interaction in the community practice setting: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The patient-nurse relationship is a traditional concern of healthcare research. However, patient-nurse interaction is under examined from a social perspective. Current research focuses mostly on specific contexts of care delivery and experience related to medical condition or illness, or to nurses’ speciality. Consequentially, this paper is about the social meanings and understandings at play within situated patient-nurse interaction in the community practice setting in a transforming healthcare service. Methods Grounded theory methodology was used and the research process was characterised by principles of theoretical sensitivity and constant comparative analysis. The field of study was four health centres in the community. The participants were patients and nurses representative of those attending or working in the health centres and meeting there by scheduled appointment. Data collection methods were observations, informal interviews and semi-structured interviews. Results Key properties of ‘Being a good patient, being a good nurse’, ‘Institutional experiences’ and ‘Expectations about healthcare’ were associated with the construction of a category entitled ‘Experience’. Those key properties captured that in an evolving healthcare environment individuals continually re-constructed their reality of being a patient or nurse as they endeavoured to perform appropriately; articulation of past and present healthcare experiences was important in that process. Modus operandi in role as patient was influenced by past experiences in healthcare and by those in non-healthcare institutions in terms of engagement and involvement (or not) in interaction. Patients’ expectations about interaction in healthcare included some uncertainly as they strived to make sense of the changing roles and expertise of nurses and, differentiating between the roles and expertise of nurses and doctors. Conclusions The importance of social meanings and understandings

  19. Social meanings and understandings in patient-nurse interaction in the community practice setting: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Stoddart, Kathleen M

    2012-09-05

    The patient-nurse relationship is a traditional concern of healthcare research. However, patient-nurse interaction is under examined from a social perspective. Current research focuses mostly on specific contexts of care delivery and experience related to medical condition or illness, or to nurses' speciality. Consequentially, this paper is about the social meanings and understandings at play within situated patient-nurse interaction in the community practice setting in a transforming healthcare service. Grounded theory methodology was used and the research process was characterised by principles of theoretical sensitivity and constant comparative analysis. The field of study was four health centres in the community. The participants were patients and nurses representative of those attending or working in the health centres and meeting there by scheduled appointment. Data collection methods were observations, informal interviews and semi-structured interviews. Key properties of 'Being a good patient, being a good nurse', 'Institutional experiences' and 'Expectations about healthcare' were associated with the construction of a category entitled 'Experience'. Those key properties captured that in an evolving healthcare environment individuals continually re-constructed their reality of being a patient or nurse as they endeavoured to perform appropriately; articulation of past and present healthcare experiences was important in that process. Modus operandi in role as patient was influenced by past experiences in healthcare and by those in non-healthcare institutions in terms of engagement and involvement (or not) in interaction. Patients' expectations about interaction in healthcare included some uncertainly as they strived to make sense of the changing roles and expertise of nurses and, differentiating between the roles and expertise of nurses and doctors. The importance of social meanings and understandings in patient-nurse interaction is not fully apparent to

  20. Year 7 Students, Information Literacy, and Transfer: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, James E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the views of year 7 students, teacher librarians, and teachers in three state secondary schools in rural New South Wales, Australia, on information literacy and transfer. The aims of the study included the development of a grounded theory in relation to information literacy and transfer in these schools. The study's perspective…

  1. Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.

    PubMed

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2008-05-16

    We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range.

  2. Educational Administrative Inservice Training: An Outline of a Grounded Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krysinski, Patricia R.

    This outline of a grounded theory of educational administrative inservice training demonstrates the organizational characteristics and outcomes for participants as the results of a qualitative study. Focusing on high school principals, this study addresses two questions: What are the organizational characteristics of inservice training for school…

  3. Is the ground state of Yang-Mills theory Coulombic?

    SciTech Connect

    Heinzl, T.; Ilderton, A.; Langfeld, K.; Lavelle, M.; McMullan, D.; Lutz, W.

    2008-08-01

    We study trial states modelling the heavy quark-antiquark ground state in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. A state describing the flux tube between quarks as a thin string of glue is found to be a poor description of the continuum ground state; the infinitesimal thickness of the string leads to UV artifacts which suppress the overlap with the ground state. Contrastingly, a state which surrounds the quarks with non-Abelian Coulomb fields is found to have a good overlap with the ground state for all charge separations. In fact, the overlap increases as the lattice regulator is removed. This opens up the possibility that the Coulomb state is the true ground state in the continuum limit.

  4. Challenges to the practice of evidence-based medicine during residents' surgical training: a qualitative study using grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Mohit; Montori, Victor; Devereaux, P J; Dosanjh, Sonia; Sprague, Sheila; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2003-11-01

    To examine surgical trainees' barriers to implementing and adopting evidence-based medicine (EBM) in the day-to-day care of surgical patients. In 2000, 28 surgical residents from various subspecialties at a hospital affiliated with McMaster University Faculty of Health Sciences in Ontario, Canada, participated in a focus group (n = 8) and semistructured interviews (n = 20) to explore their perceptions of barriers to the practice of EBM during their training. Additional themes were explored, such as definitions of EBM and potential strategies to implement EBM during training. The canons and procedures of the grounded theory approach to qualitative research guided the coding and content analysis of the data derived from the focus group and semistructured interviews. Residents identified personal barriers, staff-surgeon barriers, and institutional barriers that limited their ability to apply EBM in their daily activities. Residents perceived their lack of education in EBM, time constraints, lack of priority, and fear of staff disapproval as major challenges to practicing EBM. Moreover, the lack of ready access to surgical EBM resource materials proved to be an important additional factor limiting EBM surgical practice. Residents identified several strategies to overcome these barriers to EBM, including hiring staff surgeons with EBM training, offering coursework in critical appraisal for all staff, improving interdepartmental communication, and providing greater flexibility for EBM training. Surgical residents identified a general lack of education, time constraints, lack of priority, and staff disapproval as important factors limiting incorporation of EBM. Curriculum reform and surgeon education may help overcome these barriers.

  5. Maintaining Healthy Behaviors Following Weight Loss: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Cox, Tiffany L.; Ard, Jamy D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Rutt, Candace D.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the process of how women maintained their healthy behaviors after a weight management program using a grounded theory approach. We conducted 2 focus groups and 23 interviews with a purposeful sample of African American and Caucasian women aged 30 and older who lost greater than 5% of their body weight during a weight management…

  6. Maintaining Healthy Behaviors Following Weight Loss: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Cox, Tiffany L.; Ard, Jamy D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Rutt, Candace D.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the process of how women maintained their healthy behaviors after a weight management program using a grounded theory approach. We conducted 2 focus groups and 23 interviews with a purposeful sample of African American and Caucasian women aged 30 and older who lost greater than 5% of their body weight during a weight management…

  7. Infusing Participants' Voices into Grounded Theory Research: A Poetic Anthology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Brianna L.

    2009-01-01

    This article augments the author's grounded theory study of student and teacher interactions in alternative education classrooms by presenting poetic transcription as a way to portray the essences and experiences of the participants. The author builds on the experimental writing traditions of other researchers to embrace her own experiences as a…

  8. Assessing Working Students' College Experiences: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, David X.; Alcantara, Lucia

    2007-01-01

    This study explores working students' college experiences using the grounded theory approach. Focus groups were conducted to allow working students to elaborate on their college experiences, clarifying issues not easily addressed through surveys. Two theoretical propositions are offered to describe how working students are constantly searching for…

  9. Transcendental phenomenology and classic grounded theory as mixed data collection methods in a study exploring fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Jenny; Buetow, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Despite the risk of 'method slurring', researchers have triangulated within a single qualitative study methods that are philosophically incongruent or in a limited context, are congruent, as with hermeneutic phenomenology and constructivist grounded theory. We aimed to make the case that what works best can be to mix two qualitative methods that are philosophically congruent. Thus, we used transcendental phenomenology (TP) and classic grounded theory (CGT) in synergetic sequence to answer our research question. These methods have not previously been used together and one method would not have sufficed. Using the same participant sample, we sought to explore and understand the daily challenges of living with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) since no study to date had addressed these issues within New Zealand. Our retrospective exploratory two-phase sequential design was framed by the meta-theory of pragmatism. It mixed qualitative strategies that are ontologically and epistemologically compatible (i.e. TP and CGT are ontologically realist, but epistemologically idealist). They are useful together for the aim of meaningfully studying the lived experiences of purposively selected participants. Empirical data, as secondary results, provide supportive evidence. The first paper from this study was published in J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol Vol 19(1):e41-e50 when the main findings were reported. This second paper gives greater focus to the methodologies employed and data analysis from the second phase.

  10. Where is the patient in models of patient-centred care: a grounded theory study of total joint replacement patients.

    PubMed

    Webster, Fiona; Perruccio, Anthony V; Jenkinson, Richard; Jaglal, Susan; Schemitsch, Emil; Waddell, James P; Bremner, Samantha; Mobilio, Melanie Hammond; Venkataramanan, Viji; Davis, Aileen M

    2013-12-23

    Patient-centered care ideally considers patient preferences, values and needs. However, it is unclear if policies such as wait time strategies for hip and knee replacement surgery (TJR) are patient-centred as they focus on an isolated episode of care. This paper describes the accounts of people scheduled to undergo TJR, focusing on their experience of (OA) as a chronic disease that has considerable impact on their everyday lives. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with participants scheduled to undergo TJR who were recruited from the practices of two orthopaedic surgeons. We first used maximum variation and then theoretical sampling based on age, sex and joint replaced. 33 participants (age 38-79 years; 17 female) were included in the analysis. 20 were scheduled for hip replacement and 13 for knee replacement. A constructivist approach to grounded theory guided sampling, data collection and analysis. While a specific hip or knee was the target for surgery, individuals experienced multiple-joint symptoms and comorbidities. Management of their health and daily lives was impacted by these combined experiences. Over time, they struggled to manage symptoms with varying degrees of access to and acceptance of pain medication, which was a source of constant concern. This was a multi-faceted issue with physicians reluctant to prescribe and many patients reluctant to take prescription pain medications due to their side effects. For patients, TJR surgery is an acute intervention in the experience of chronic disease, OA and other comorbidities. While policy has focused on wait time as patient/surgeon decision for surgery to surgery date, the patient's experience does not begin or end with surgery as they struggle to manage their pain. Our findings suggest that further work is needed to align the medical treatment of OA with the current policy emphasis on patient-centeredness. Patient-centred care may require a paradigm shift that is not always evident in

  11. Elder women's perceptions around optimal perinatal health: a constructivist grounded-theory study with an Indigenous community in southern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Sujane; Vanstone, Meredith; Oremus, Mark; Hill, Trista; Wahi, Gita; Wilson, Julie; Davis, A. Darlene; Jacobs, Ruby; Anglin, Rebecca; Anand, Sonia Savitri

    2017-01-01

    Background: Women play important roles in translating health knowledge, particularly around pregnancy and birth, in Indigenous societies. We investigated elder Indigenous women's perceptions around optimal perinatal health. Methods: Using a methodological framework that integrated a constructivist grounded-theory approach with an Indigenous epistemology, we conducted and analyzed in-depth interviews and focus groups with women from the Six Nations community in southern Ontario who self-identified as grandmothers. Our purposive sampling strategy was guided by a Six Nations advisory group and included researcher participation in a variety of local gatherings as well as personalized invitations to specific women, either face-to-face or via telephone. Results: Three focus groups and 7 individual interviews were conducted with 18 grandmothers. The participants' experiences converged on 3 primary beliefs: pregnancy is a natural phase, pregnancy is a sacred period for the woman and the unborn child, and the requirements of immunity, security (trust), comfort, social development and parental responsibility are necessary for optimal postnatal health. Participants also identified 6 communal responsibilities necessary for families to raise healthy children: access to healthy and safe food, assurance of strong social support networks for mothers, access to resources for postnatal support, increased opportunities for children to participate in physical activity, more teachings around the impact of maternal behaviours during pregnancy and more teachings around spirituality/positive thinking. We also worked with the Six Nations community on several integrated knowledge-translation elements, including collaboration with an Indigenous artist to develop a digital story (short film). Interpretation: Elder women are a trusted and knowledgeable group who are able to understand and incorporate multiple sources of knowledge and deliver it in culturally meaningful ways. Thus, tailoring

  12. Elder women's perceptions around optimal perinatal health: a constructivist grounded-theory study with an Indigenous community in southern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Sujane; Vanstone, Meredith; Oremus, Mark; Hill, Trista; Wahi, Gita; Wilson, Julie; Davis, A Darlene; Jacobs, Ruby; Anglin, Rebecca; Anand, Sonia Savitri

    2017-05-18

    Women play important roles in translating health knowledge, particularly around pregnancy and birth, in Indigenous societies. We investigated elder Indigenous women's perceptions around optimal perinatal health. Using a methodological framework that integrated a constructivist grounded-theory approach with an Indigenous epistemology, we conducted and analyzed in-depth interviews and focus groups with women from the Six Nations community in southern Ontario who self-identified as grandmothers. Our purposive sampling strategy was guided by a Six Nations advisory group and included researcher participation in a variety of local gatherings as well as personalized invitations to specific women, either face-to-face or via telephone. Three focus groups and 7 individual interviews were conducted with 18 grandmothers. The participants' experiences converged on 3 primary beliefs: pregnancy is a natural phase, pregnancy is a sacred period for the woman and the unborn child, and the requirements of immunity, security (trust), comfort, social development and parental responsibility are necessary for optimal postnatal health. Participants also identified 6 communal responsibilities necessary for families to raise healthy children: access to healthy and safe food, assurance of strong social support networks for mothers, access to resources for postnatal support, increased opportunities for children to participate in physical activity, more teachings around the impact of maternal behaviours during pregnancy and more teachings around spirituality/positive thinking. We also worked with the Six Nations community on several integrated knowledge-translation elements, including collaboration with an Indigenous artist to develop a digital story (short film). Elder women are a trusted and knowledgeable group who are able to understand and incorporate multiple sources of knowledge and deliver it in culturally meaningful ways. Thus, tailoring public health programming to include elder women

  13. Where is the patient in models of patient-centred care: a grounded theory study of total joint replacement patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient-centered care ideally considers patient preferences, values and needs. However, it is unclear if policies such as wait time strategies for hip and knee replacement surgery (TJR) are patient-centred as they focus on an isolated episode of care. This paper describes the accounts of people scheduled to undergo TJR, focusing on their experience of (OA) as a chronic disease that has considerable impact on their everyday lives. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with participants scheduled to undergo TJR who were recruited from the practices of two orthopaedic surgeons. We first used maximum variation and then theoretical sampling based on age, sex and joint replaced. 33 participants (age 38-79 years; 17 female) were included in the analysis. 20 were scheduled for hip replacement and 13 for knee replacement. A constructivist approach to grounded theory guided sampling, data collection and analysis. Results While a specific hip or knee was the target for surgery, individuals experienced multiple-joint symptoms and comorbidities. Management of their health and daily lives was impacted by these combined experiences. Over time, they struggled to manage symptoms with varying degrees of access to and acceptance of pain medication, which was a source of constant concern. This was a multi-faceted issue with physicians reluctant to prescribe and many patients reluctant to take prescription pain medications due to their side effects. Conclusions For patients, TJR surgery is an acute intervention in the experience of chronic disease, OA and other comorbidities. While policy has focused on wait time as patient/surgeon decision for surgery to surgery date, the patient’s experience does not begin or end with surgery as they struggle to manage their pain. Our findings suggest that further work is needed to align the medical treatment of OA with the current policy emphasis on patient-centeredness. Patient-centred care may require a

  14. The Erosion of a Method: Examples from Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greckhamer, Thomas; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2005-01-01

    Since its original inception in the 1960s grounded theory has been widely used by many qualitative researchers. However, recently epistemologically different versions of grounded theory have been presented and this epistemological diversity among grounded theorists and the erosion of the method will be the major focus of this paper. The first…

  15. The Erosion of a Method: Examples from Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greckhamer, Thomas; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2005-01-01

    Since its original inception in the 1960s grounded theory has been widely used by many qualitative researchers. However, recently epistemologically different versions of grounded theory have been presented and this epistemological diversity among grounded theorists and the erosion of the method will be the major focus of this paper. The first…

  16. Development of a conceptual framework for understanding financial barriers to care among patients with cardiovascular-related chronic disease: a protocol for a qualitative (grounded theory) study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, David J.T.; Manns, Braden J.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Sanmartin, Claudia; King-Shier, Kathryn M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases may face financial barriers to accessing health care, even in Canada, where universal health care insurance is in place. No current theory or framework is adequate for understanding the impact of financial barriers to care on these patients or how they experience financial barriers. The overall objective of this study is to develop a framework for understanding the role of financial barriers to care in the lives of patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases and the impact of such barriers on their health. Methods: We will perform an inductive qualitative grounded theory study to develop a framework to understand the effect of financial barriers to care on patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases. We will use semistructured interviews (face-to-face and telephone) with a purposive sample of adult patients from Alberta with at least 1 of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease or stroke. We will analyze interview transcripts in triplicate using grounded theory coding techniques, including open, focused and axial coding, following the principle of constant comparison. Interviews and analysis will be done iteratively to theoretical saturation. Member checking will be used to enhance rigour. Interpretation: A comprehensive framework for understanding financial barriers to accessing health care is instrumental for both researchers and clinicians who care for patients with chronic diseases. Such a framework would enable a better understanding of patient behaviour and nonadherence to recommended medical therapies and lifestyle modifications. PMID:27398378

  17. Reformulation of a methodological concept in grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Reed, Pamela G; Runquist, Jennifer J

    2007-04-01

    Although the grounded theory method was not designed with nursing science in mind, it is one of the most prevalent and theory-producing qualitative methods in nursing. Changes in the grounded theory methodology have been debated in numerous articles. What has not received much attention, however, is a central idea of the grounded theory method - the basic social process. The goal here is to raise for consideration the idea that change is needed in nurse researchers' understanding of the basic social process; there is a need to reformulate this substantive concept of the grounded theory method so as to render it more congruent with nursing ontology and productive of nursing knowledge.

  18. A grounded theory study on the academic success of undergraduate women in science, engineering, and mathematics fields at a private, research university

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hroch, Amber Michelle

    2011-12-01

    This grounded theory study revealed the common factors of backgrounds, strategies, and motivators in academically successful undergraduate women in science, engineering, and mathematics (SEM) fields at a private, research university in the West. Data from interviews with 15 women with 3.25 or better grade point averages indicated that current academic achievement in their college SEM fields can be attributed to previous academic success, self awareness, time management and organizational skills, and maintaining a strong support network. Participants were motivated by an internal drive to academically succeed and attend graduate school. Recommendations are provided for professors, advisors, and student affairs professionals.

  19. Wilson operator algebras and ground states of coupled BF theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Apoorv; Chen, Xiao; Ryu, Shinsei

    2017-06-01

    The multiflavor BF theories in (3+1) dimensions with cubic or quartic coupling are the simplest topological quantum field theories that can describe fractional braiding statistics between looplike topological excitations (three-loop or four-loop braiding statistics). In this paper, by canonically quantizing these theories, we study the algebra of Wilson loop and Wilson surface operators, and multiplets of ground states on the three-torus. In particular, by quantizing these coupled BF theories on the three-torus, we explicitly calculate the S and T matrices, which encode fractional braiding statistics and the topological spin of looplike excitations, respectively. In the coupled BF theories with cubic and quartic coupling, the Hopf link and Borromean ring of loop excitations, together with pointlike excitations, form composite particles.

  20. Grounded Theory as a "Family of Methods": A Genealogical Analysis to Guide Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babchuk, Wayne A.

    2011-01-01

    This study traces the evolution of grounded theory from a nuclear to an extended family of methods and considers the implications that decision-making based on informed choices throughout all phases of the research process has for realizing the potential of grounded theory for advancing adult education theory and practice. [This paper was…

  1. Space Theory and Strategy: War From the High Ground Down

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    SPACE THEORY AND STRATEGY: WAR FROM THE HIGH GROUND DOWN BY ANGELO FERNANDEZ A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE SCHOOL...OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES FOR COMPLETION OF GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES AIR UNIVERSITY MAXWELL...Air Force and space operations experience with various weapon systems. Major Fernandez’s operational experience includes force enhancement missions

  2. Passing through a rocky way to reach the pick of clinical competency: A grounded theory study on nursing students’ clinical learning

    PubMed Central

    Dadgaran, Seyedeh Ameneh; Parvizy, Soroor; Peyrovi, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Background: Clinical learning is one of the important issues that helps the perception of nursing students’ practice in a clinical setting and its effect on their professional development. The aim of this study is to describe and state the manner of clinical learning in nursing students. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was conducted as a grounded theory. The individual semi-structured interviews and participants’ observations were taken into account with a purposive and theoretical sample of 27 participants. The data were analyzed using the grounded theory approach and the constant comparison analysis method. Results: The results showed that students use two approaches of Micro- and Macrolearning. The first includes learning conditions and situations that act like a foundation for the second one (Macrolearning). Macrolearning is a continuous process including all categories of “Facing unfavorable clinical facts”, “Clinical situation and appropriate decision making”, “Bridging the gap between practice and theory”, “Struggle for clinical independence”, and “Dynamism” in a continuum reflecting the struggle to obtain clinical competency (core variable). Conclusions: Through provision of such conditions as students’ gradual acquaintance with real situations, selection of more resistant students, use of mentorship and preceptor ship in clinical learning, enhancement of educational standards in hospitals, handling collaborative learning methods to make a cooperation spirit in internship environment, and so on, students can be helped to obtain clinical competency. PMID:23853644

  3. Grounded Theory in Practice: Is It Inherently a Mixed Method?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. B.; McGowan, M. W.; Turner, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    We address 2 key points of contention in this article. First, we engage the debate concerning whether particular methods are necessarily linked to particular research paradigms. Second, we briefly describe a mixed methods version of grounded theory (MM-GT). Grounded theory can be tailored to work well in any of the 3 major forms of mixed methods…

  4. Reflecting on the challenges of choosing and using a grounded theory approach.

    PubMed

    Markey, Kathleen; Tilki, Mary; Taylor, Georgina

    2014-11-01

    To explore three different approaches to grounded theory and consider some of the possible philosophical assumptions underpinning them. Grounded theory is a comprehensive yet complex methodology that offers a procedural structure that guides the researcher. However, divergent approaches to grounded theory present dilemmas for novice researchers seeking to choose a suitable research method. This is a methodology paper. This is a reflexive paper that explores some of the challenges experienced by a PhD student when choosing and operationalising a grounded theory approach. Before embarking on a study, novice grounded theory researchers should examine their research beliefs to assist them in selecting the most suitable approach. This requires an insight into the approaches' philosophical assumptions, such as those pertaining to ontology and epistemology. Researchers need to be clear about the philosophical assumptions underpinning their studies and the effects that different approaches will have on the research results. This paper presents a personal account of the journey of a novice grounded theory researcher who chose a grounded theory approach and worked within its theoretical parameters. Novice grounded theory researchers need to understand the different philosophical assumptions that influence the various grounded theory approaches, before choosing one particular approach.

  5. Measured, opportunistic, unexpected and naïve quitting: a qualitative grounded theory study of the process of quitting from the ex-smokers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrea L; Carter, Stacy M; Dunlop, Sally M; Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2017-05-11

    To better understand the process of quitting from the ex-smokers' perspective, and to explore the role spontaneity and planning play in quitting. Qualitative grounded theory study using in-depth interviews with 37 Australian adult ex-smokers (24-68 years; 15 males, 22 females) who quit smoking in the past 6-24 months (26 quit unassisted; 11 used assistance). Based on participants' accounts of quitting, we propose a typology of quitting experiences: measured, opportunistic, unexpected and naïve. Two key features integral to participants' accounts of their quitting experiences were used as the basis of the typology: (1) the apparent onset of quitting (gradual through to sudden); and (2) the degree to which the smoker appeared to have prepared for quitting (no evidence through to clear evidence of preparation). The resulting 2 × 2 matrix of quitting experiences took into consideration three additional characteristics: (1) the presence or absence of a clearly identifiable trigger; (2) the amount of effort (cognitive and practical) involved in quitting; and (3) the type of cognitive process that characterised the quitting experience (reflective; impulsive; reflective and impulsive). Quitting typically included elements of spontaneity (impulsive behaviour) and preparation (reflective behaviour), and, importantly, the investment of time and cognitive effort by participants prior to quitting. Remarkably few participants quit completely out-of-the-blue with little or no preparation. Findings are discussed in relation to stages-of-change theory, catastrophe theory, and dual process theories, focusing on how dual process theories may provide a way of conceptualising how quitting can include elements of both spontaneity and preparation.

  6. Elementary School Teachers' Interpretation and Promotion of Creativity in the Learning of Mathematics: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Yinjing

    2014-01-01

    Creativity is important for young children learning mathematics. Comparing the investment theory of creativity and national standards and principles for early mathematics shows that doing mathematics is more than applying rules and procedures; rather, learning mathematics takes a lot of creativity. However, much literature claimed that creativity…

  7. ‘Engage me in taking care of my heart’: a grounded theory study on patient–cardiologist relationship in the hospital management of heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Barello, Serena; Graffigna, Guendalina; Vegni, Elena; Savarese, Mariarosaria; Lombardi, Federico; Bosio, A Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Objective In approaching the study and practice of heart failure (HF) management, authors recognise that the patient–doctor relationship has a central role in engaging patients in their care. This study aims at identifying the features and the levers of HF patient engagement and suggestions for orienting clinical encounters. Design Using a grounded theory approach, we conducted 22 in-depth interviews (13 patients with HF, 5 physicians and 4 caregivers). Data were collected and analysed using open, axial and selective coding procedures according to the grounded theory principles. Settings All interviews were conducted in an office in a university hospital located in a metropolitan area of Milan, Italy. Participants The data comprised a total of 22 patient, hospital cardiologist and caregiver interviews. Patients aged ≥18 years with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Class of II or III were eligible to take part. Patients were recruited primarily through their referral cardiologist. Results The HF patient engagement process develops in four main phases that are characterised by different patients’ emotional, cognitive and behavioural dynamics that contribute to shape the process of a patient's meaning making towards health and illness regarding their care. The emerging model illustrates that HF patient engagement entails a meaning-making process enacted by the patient after the critical event. This implies patients’ ability to give sense to their care experience and to their disease, symptomatology and treatments, and their changes along their illness course. Doctors are recognised as crucial in fostering patients’ engagement along all the phases of the process as they contribute to providing patients with self-continuity and give new meaning to their illness experience. Conclusions This study identifies the core experiential domains and the main levers involved in driving patients with HF to effectively engage in their disease management. The

  8. Investigating the dimension of time: findings from a modified grounded theory study about clients' experiences and descriptions of temporality or time within music therapy.

    PubMed

    Daveson, Barbara; O'Callaghan, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Many references to time or temporality are located within music therapy literature, however little research has been completed regarding this phenomenon. Findings from a modified grounded theory study about clients' experiences and descriptions of time within the context of music therapy are presented here. The study was informed by the constructivist-interpretive paradigm and a grounded-descriptive statement finding resulted. A 2-staged research methodology was used, comprising a deductive-inductive content analysis of information from the public domain, followed by data-mining of information from a minimum of 160 clients and analysis of data from at least 43 of these 160 clients. Information regarding memory experiences, the duration of music therapy effects, recall and retrieval, and experiences of time are identified. Implications for practice are emphasized, in particular the following is stressed (a) the importance of time orientation and temporal connectedness in relation to identity development, (b) temporal strategies within music experience to assist integration, recall, and retrieval of information, and (c) the importance of and the elements involved in time modification. New explanations for music therapy phenomena are shared, and areas for research highlighted. Benefits of using time dynamically to aid therapeutic process are proposed, and it is concluded that temporal experience within the context of music therapy is important in relation to both practice and research.

  9. A conflict of responsibilities: a grounded theory study of clinical psychologists' experience of client non-attendance within the British National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Tweed, A E; Salter, D P

    2000-12-01

    Within psychotherapy process research, the effects of client non-attendance upon therapists has been neglected. The present study interviewed six clinical psychologists concerning their experiences of client non-attendance in health service practice in the UK. Their accounts were analysed using a grounded theory method. A core category was identified and termed 'responsibility'. This highlighted conflicting relationships between participants' responsibilities in several areas. A process model pertaining to non-attendance was also developed. Client non-attendance was seen to produce a level of disruption, experienced as an affective reaction and often experienced in terms of negative affect. In response, re-organizational strategies were used to restore equilibrium. Reasons are suggested as to why negative affective reactions were experienced. These include factors concerning therapeutic competency, but also reflect upon the profession's espousal of an 'all-knowing' expert identity. This is seen to be incongruent to the complexities of clinical practice.

  10. "Negotiating, navigating, and networking": three strategies used by nursing leaders to shape the adoption and incorporation of simulation into nursing curricula-a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Taplay, Karyn; Jack, Susan M; Baxter, Pamela; Eva, Kevin; Martin, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Background. Implementing simulation requires a substantial commitment of human and financial resources. Despite this, little is known about the strategies used by academic nursing leaders to facilitate the implementation of a simulation program in nursing curricula. Methods. A constructivist grounded theory study was conducted within 13 nursing programs in Ontario, Canada. Perspectives of key stakeholders (n = 27) including nursing administrators (n = 6), simulation leaders (n = 9), and nursing faculty (n = 12) were analyzed using the constant comparison method. Results. Nursing leaders, specifically nursing administrators and simulation leaders who successfully led the adoption and incorporation of simulation into nursing curricula, worked together and utilized negotiating, navigating, and networking strategies that impacted the adoption and incorporation of simulation into nursing curricula. Conclusions. Strategies that were found to be useful when planning and executing the adoption and incorporation of an innovation, specifically simulation, into nursing curricula provide practical approaches that may be helpful to nurse leaders when embarking upon an organizational change.

  11. Exploring the development of sun-tanning behavior: a grounded theory study of adolescents' decision-making experiences with becoming a sun tanner.

    PubMed

    Shoveller, Jean A; Lovato, Chris Y; Young, Richard A; Moffat, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    A grounded theory study was undertaken to describe how adolescents make decisions about sunbathing during the transition from childhood to adolescence and to propose an explanation for the relationships among factors affecting the adoption of sun tanning. In-depth interviews (n = 40) were conducted separately with adolescents (aged 12 to 16 years) and their parents. Constant comparative analysis of adolescents' accounts identified two methods that adolescents described as a means of getting a suntan: intentional sun tanning and incidental sun tanning. The process of adolescents' decision-making about getting a suntan can be understood by examining the following sequence: becoming motivated to get a tan, experimenting with sun tanning, and establishing self as an intentional tanner or incidental tanner. Implications for developing strategies to prevent the adoption of sun-tanning habits among adolescents are presented.

  12. Keeping hope possible: a grounded theory study of the hope experience of parental caregivers who have children in treatment for cancer.

    PubMed

    Bally, Jill M G; Duggleby, Wendy; Holtslander, Lorraine; Mpofu, Christopher; Spurr, Shelley; Thomas, Roanne; Wright, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Hope has been found to support parents as they care for their child with a life-limiting or life-threatening illness. However, very little research focuses on the nursing care of parents of pediatric oncology patients, and therefore, nurses may have difficulty in understanding and supporting parental well-being. The purpose of this qualitative study was to gain an understanding of the experience of hope for parents who care for their child in treatment for cancer. Using purposive theoretical sampling, 16 parents participated in this study. Thirty-three open-ended, face-to-face interviews were conducted, and 14 parent journals were collected. Analysis of the data was conducted using Charmaz's constructivist grounded theory approach. A developing, substantive grounded theory was constructed. Parental hope was described as an essential, powerful, deliberate, life-sustaining, dynamic, cyclical process that was anchored in time; was calming and strengthening; and provided inner guidance through the challenging experience of preparing for the worst and hoping for the best. Parents' main concern was "fearing the loss of hope," which was ameliorated by the basic social process of "keeping hope possible" through accepting reality, establishing control, restructuring hope, and purposive positive thinking. Parents journeyed through numerous transitions related to the treatment of cancer that caused feelings of uncertainty, anxiety, stress, and loss of control. Hope was identified as vital to parents. To minimize these adverse experiences, nurses can support parents' ability to keep hope possible and thus to optimize their well-being by understanding, assessing, and supporting parental hope.

  13. Empowerment in school nursing practice: a grounded theory approach.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Lisa

    2007-12-01

    Professional empowerment is vital to nurses' productivity and job satisfaction. A grounded theory study was conducted to describe the basic social process experienced by school nurses in relation to professional empowerment. Interviews with 10 school nurses led to the development of a situation-specific theory of school nurse empowerment, Making a Difference: The Role of the School Nurse in the Health of Children in Schools. This theory was derived from four theoretical constructs: (a) enlisting support, (b) getting through the day, (c) maintaining control over practice, and (d) adjusting to challenges. Interviews revealed that knowing at the end of each school day that they made a difference in the health of children resulted in feelings of empowerment. Participants cited various areas in which their sense of empowerment was limited, including salaries and workload. Despite these issues, they believed they had a positive impact on the health of children, leading to job satisfaction and feelings of value.

  14. The roots and development of constructivist grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Higginbottom, Gina; Lauridsen, Erica I

    2014-05-01

    To deconstruct how Charmaz's constructivist grounded theory (CGT) evolved from the original ideas of Glaser and Strauss, and to explore how CGT is similar to and different from the original grounded theory (GT). The origins of GT date to 1967 with Glaser and Strauss's study of the treatment of dying individuals, applying an inductive method allowing for the development of theory without the guidance of a preconceived theory. CGT moves away from the positivism of the Glaserian and Straussian GT schools, approaching GT through a constructivist lens that addresses how realities are made. This article does not involve the collection and analysis of primary data; instead, academic literature written by leaders in the field of GT was reviewed to generate the ideas presented. Comprehensive literature review drawing on the 'integrative review' principles. When selecting a GT approach, the possibility of a congruence between the chosen methodology and the worldviews of the researcher's discipline and own outlook should be considered. The differences among the various schools of GT lie in their overarching goals and their perspectives of the nature of reality. Considering the alignment between the constructivist worldview and the field of nursing, CGT offers a valuable methodology for researchers in this area.

  15. Knowledge, Identity, & Professionalism: A Grounded Theory Analysis of How Urban Career Teachers Navigate Their Professional Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodeur, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    This grounded theory study highlights the words of urban career teachers who participated on a wikispace (wiki). The purpose of the investigation was to offer urban career teachers a space, outside of their daily work, in which to recognize and understand their professionalism. The grounded theory content analysis is carried out by way of a study…

  16. A Novel Method of Enhancing Grounded Theory Memos with Voice Recording

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Rachel; Close, Helen

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors present the recent discovery of a novel method of supplementing written grounded theory memos with voice recording, the combination of which may provide significant analytical advantages over solely the traditional written method. Memo writing is an essential component of a grounded theory study, however it is often…

  17. Knowledge, Identity, & Professionalism: A Grounded Theory Analysis of How Urban Career Teachers Navigate Their Professional Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodeur, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    This grounded theory study highlights the words of urban career teachers who participated on a wikispace (wiki). The purpose of the investigation was to offer urban career teachers a space, outside of their daily work, in which to recognize and understand their professionalism. The grounded theory content analysis is carried out by way of a study…

  18. Exploring Nurses’, Preschool Teachers’ and Parents’ Perspectives on Information Sharing Using SDQ in a Swedish Setting – A Qualitative Study Using Grounded Theory

    PubMed Central

    Sarkadi, Anna; Fabian, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Evidence-based methods to identify behavioural problems among children are not regularly used within the Swedish Child healthcare. A new procedure was therefore introduced to assess children through parent- and preschool teacher reports using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). This study aims to explore nurses’, preschool teachers’ and parents’ perspectives of this new information sharing model. Using the grounded theory methodology, semi-structured interviews with nurses (n = 10) at child health clinics, preschool teachers (n = 13) and parents (n = 11) of 3-, 4- and 5-year-old children were collected and analysed between March 2014 and June 2014. The analysis was conducted using constant comparative method. The participants were sampled purposively within a larger trial in Sweden. Results indicate that all stakeholders shared a desire to have a complete picture of the child's health. The perceptions that explain why the stakeholders were in favour of the new procedure—the ‘causal conditions’ in a grounded theory model—included: (1) Nurses thought that visits after 18-months were unsatisfactory, (2) Preschool teachers wanted to identify children with difficulties and (3) Parents viewed preschool teachers as being qualified to assess children. However, all stakeholders had doubts as to whether there was a reliable way to assess children’s behaviour. Although nurses found the SDQ to be useful for their clinical evaluation, they noticed that not all parents chose to participate. Both teachers and parents acknowledged benefits of information sharing. However, the former had concerns about parental reactions to their assessments and the latter about how personal information was handled. The theoretical model developed describes that the causal conditions and current context of child healthcare in many respects endorse the introduction of information sharing. However, successful implementation requires considerable work to address

  19. Exploring Nurses', Preschool Teachers' and Parents' Perspectives on Information Sharing Using SDQ in a Swedish Setting - A Qualitative Study Using Grounded Theory.

    PubMed

    Fält, Elisabet; Sarkadi, Anna; Fabian, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Evidence-based methods to identify behavioural problems among children are not regularly used within the Swedish Child healthcare. A new procedure was therefore introduced to assess children through parent- and preschool teacher reports using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). This study aims to explore nurses', preschool teachers' and parents' perspectives of this new information sharing model. Using the grounded theory methodology, semi-structured interviews with nurses (n = 10) at child health clinics, preschool teachers (n = 13) and parents (n = 11) of 3-, 4- and 5-year-old children were collected and analysed between March 2014 and June 2014. The analysis was conducted using constant comparative method. The participants were sampled purposively within a larger trial in Sweden. Results indicate that all stakeholders shared a desire to have a complete picture of the child's health. The perceptions that explain why the stakeholders were in favour of the new procedure-the 'causal conditions' in a grounded theory model-included: (1) Nurses thought that visits after 18-months were unsatisfactory, (2) Preschool teachers wanted to identify children with difficulties and (3) Parents viewed preschool teachers as being qualified to assess children. However, all stakeholders had doubts as to whether there was a reliable way to assess children's behaviour. Although nurses found the SDQ to be useful for their clinical evaluation, they noticed that not all parents chose to participate. Both teachers and parents acknowledged benefits of information sharing. However, the former had concerns about parental reactions to their assessments and the latter about how personal information was handled. The theoretical model developed describes that the causal conditions and current context of child healthcare in many respects endorse the introduction of information sharing. However, successful implementation requires considerable work to address barriers: the tension

  20. A qualitative grounded theory study of the conceptions of clinical practice in osteopathy - a continuum from technical rationality to professional artistry.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Oliver P; Petty, Nicola J; Moore, Ann P

    2014-02-01

    How practitioners conceive clinical practice influences many aspects of their clinical work including how they view knowledge, clinical decision-making, and their actions. Osteopaths have relied upon the philosophical and theoretical foundations upon which the profession was built to guide clinical practice. However, it is currently unknown how osteopaths conceive clinical practice, and how these conceptions develop and influence their clinical work. This paper reports the conceptions of practice of experienced osteopaths in the UK. A constructivist grounded theory approach was taken in this study. The constant comparative method of analysis was used to code and analyse data. Purposive sampling was employed to initially select participants. Subsequent theoretical sampling, informed by data analysis, allowed specific participants to be sampled. Data collection methods involved semi-structured interviews and non-participant observation of practitioners during a patient appointment, which was video-recorded and followed by a video-prompted reflective interview. Participants' conception of practice lay on a continuum, from technical rationality to professional artistry and the development of which was influenced by their educational experience, view of health and disease, epistemology of practice knowledge, theory-practice relationship and their perceived therapeutic role. The findings from this study provide the first theoretical insight of osteopaths' conceptions of clinical practice and the factors which influence such conceptions.

  1. Weighing up the costs of seeking health care for dengue symptoms: a grounded theory study of backpackers' decision-making processes.

    PubMed

    Vajta, Bálint; Holberg, Mette; Mills, Jane; McBride, William J H

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne virus, is an ongoing public health issue in North Queensland. Importation of dengue fever by travellers visiting or returning to Australia can lead to epidemics. The mosquito can acquire the virus in the symptomatic viraemic phase, so timely recognition of cases is important to prevent epidemics. There is a gap in the literature about backpackers' knowledge of dengue fever and the decision-making process they use when considering utilising the Australian health-care system. This study uses grounded theory methods to construct a theory that explains the process backpackers use when seeking health care. Fifty semi-structured interviews with backpackers, hostel receptionists, travel agents and pharmacists were analysed, resulting in identification of a core category: 'weighing up the costs of seeking health care'. This core category has three subcategories: 'self-assessment of health status', 'wait-and-see' and 'seek direction'. Findings from this study identified key areas where health promotion material and increased access to health-care professionals could reduce the risk of backpackers spreading dengue fever.

  2. Exploring the perception of aid organizations' staff about factors affecting management of mass casualty traffic incidents in Iran: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Bazeli, Javad; Aryankhesal, Aidin; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud

    2017-07-01

    Traffic incidents are of main health issues all around the world and cause countless deaths, heavy casualties, and considerable tangible and intangible damage. In this regard, mass casualty traffic incidents are worthy of special attention as, in addition to all losses and damage, they create challenges in the way of providing health services to the victims. The present study is an attempt to explore the challenges and facilitators in management of mass casualty traffic incidents in Iran. This qualitative grounded theory study was carried out with participation of 14 purposively selected experienced managers, paramedics and staff of aid organizations in different provinces of Iran in 2016. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in order to develop the theory. The transcribed interviews were analyzed through open, axial and selective coding. Despite the recent and relatively good improvements in facilities and management procedure of mass casualty traffic incidents in Iran, several problems such as lack of coordination, lack of centralized and integrated command system, large number of organizations participating in operations, duplicate attempts and parallel operations carried out by different organizations, intervention of lay people, and cultural factors halt provision of effective health services to the victims. It is necessary to improve the theoretical and practical knowledge of the relief personnel and paramedics, provide public with education about first aid and improve driving culture, prohibit laypeople from intervening in aid operations, and increase quality and quantity of aid facilities.

  3. Decision-making experiences of family members of older adults with moderate dementia towards community and residential care home services: a grounded theory study protocol.

    PubMed

    Le Low, Lisa Pau; Lam, Lai Wah; Fan, Kim Pong

    2017-06-05

    Caring and supporting older people with dementia have become a major public health priority. Recent reports have also revealed a diminishing number of family carers to provide dementia care in the future. Carers who are engaged in the caring role are known to bear significant psychological, practical and economic challenges as the disease advances over time. Seemingly, evidence indicates that the burden of care can be relieved by formal services. This study aims to explore decision-making experiences of family members of older adults with moderate dementia towards the use of community support (CS) and residential care home (RCH) services. A large multi-site constructivist grounded theory in a range of non-government organizations and a private aged home will frame this Hong Kong study. Purposive sampling will begin the recruitment of family members, followed by theoretical sampling. It is estimated that more than 100 family members using CS and RCH services will participate in an interview. The process of successive constant comparative analysis will be undertaken. The final product, a theory, will generate an integrated and comprehensive conceptual understanding which will explain the processes associated with decision-making of family members for dementia sufferers. Deeper understanding of issues including, but not exclusive to, service needs, expectations and hopes among family carers for improving service support to serve dementia sufferers in CS and RCH services will also be revealed. Importantly, this study seeks to illustrate the practical and strategic aspects of the theory and how it may be useful to transfer its applicability to various service settings to better support those who deliver formal and informal care to the dementia population.

  4. Toward a grounded theory of lesbians' recovery from addiction.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Connie R; Lorah, Peggy; Fenton, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of a qualitative study on lesbians' recovery from addiction. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 20 lesbians in recovery from addiction and was analyzed using grounded theory method. The central theme that emerged was self-acceptance, both as a lesbian and as a recovering alcoholic/addict, with considerable interaction between the two. Categories that contributed to this theme were learning to recover, relationships with other people, and relationship with something bigger than self. The discussion addresses how this information can be used to assist lesbians trying to recover from addiction.

  5. Women's decision-making about self-protection during sexual activity in the deep south of the USA: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Konkle-Parker, Deborah; Fouquier, Katherine; Portz, Kaitlin; Wheeless, Linnie; Arnold, Trisha; Harris, Courtney; Turan, Janet

    2017-06-16

    Many women continue to become infected with HIV, particularly in the Southeastern USA, despite widespread knowledge about methods to prevent its sexual transmission. This grounded theory investigation examined the decision-making process women use to guide their use or non-use of self-protective measures when engaging in sexual activity. Participants included women in the Mississippi cohort of the Women's Interagency HIV Study who were infected with or at high risk for HIV. Theoretical sampling was used to recruit a sample of 20 primarily African American women aged between 26 and 56 years, living in rural and urban areas. Data were analysed using constant comparative method to generate a theory of the process that guided women's self-protective decisions. Three key themes were identified: (1) sexual silence, an overall context of silence around sexuality in their communities and relationships; (2) the importance of relationships with male partners, including concepts of 'love and trust', 'filling the void' and 'don't rock the boat'; and (3) perceptions of risk, including 'it never crossed my mind', 'it couldn't happen to me' and 'assumptions about HIV'. These themes impacted on women's understandings of HIV-related risk, making it difficult to put self-protection above other interests and diminishing their motivation to protect themselves.

  6. Teaching Theory Construction With Initial Grounded Theory Tools: A Reflection on Lessons and Learning.

    PubMed

    Charmaz, Kathy

    2015-12-01

    This article addresses criticisms of qualitative research for spawning studies that lack analytic development and theoretical import. It focuses on teaching initial grounded theory tools while interviewing, coding, and writing memos for the purpose of scaling up the analytic level of students' research and advancing theory construction. Adopting these tools can improve teaching qualitative methods at all levels although doctoral education is emphasized here. What teachers cover in qualitative methods courses matters. The pedagogy presented here requires a supportive environment and relies on demonstration, collective participation, measured tasks, progressive analytic complexity, and accountability. Lessons learned from using initial grounded theory tools are exemplified in a doctoral student's coding and memo-writing excerpts that demonstrate progressive analytic development. The conclusion calls for increasing the number and depth of qualitative methods courses and for creating a cadre of expert qualitative methodologists. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Intentional partnering: a grounded theory study on developing effective partnerships among nurse and physician managers as they co-lead in an evolving healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Christina; Lavoie-Tremblay, Melanie; Purden, Margaret; Lamothe, Lise; Ezer, Héléne; McVey, Lynne

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the process of how nurse and physician managers in formalized dyads work together to address clinical management issues in the surgical division of one hospital setting. Nurse and physician managers are uniquely positioned to co-lead and transform healthcare delivery. However, little is known about how this management dyad functions in the healthcare setting. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to investigate the process of how nurse and physician managers work together in formalized dyads in an urban Canadian university affiliated teaching hospital. Data collection occurred from September 2013-August 2014. Data included participant observation (n = 142 hours) and intensive interviews (n = 36) with nurse-physician manager dyads (12 nurses, 9 physicians) collected in a surgical department. Theoretical sampling was used to elaborate on properties of emerging concepts and categories. A substantive theory on 'intentional partnering' was generated. Nurses' and physicians' professional agendas, which included their interests and purposes for working with each other served as the starting point of 'intentional partnering'. The theory explains how nurse and physician managers align their professional agendas through the processes of 'accepting mutual necessity', 'daring to risk (together)' and 'constructing a shared responsibility'. Being credible, earning trust and safeguarding respect were fundamental to communicating effectively. Intentional partnering elucidates the relational components of working together and the strategizing that occurs as each partner deliberates on what he or she is willing to accept, risk and put into place to reap the benefits of collaborating. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Accelerated baccalaureate nursing students use of emotional intelligence in nursing as "caring for a human being": a mixed methods grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Ball, Lisa Sherry

    2013-11-30

    Accelerated nursing students are ideal informants regarding abstract nursing concepts. How emotional intelligence (EI) is used in nursing remains a relatively elusive process that has yet to be empirically modeled. The purpose of this study was to generate a theoretical model that explains how EI is used in nursing by accelerated baccalaureate nursing students. Using a mixed methods grounded theory study design, theoretical sampling of EI scores directed sampling for individual interviews and focus groups. Caring for a human being emerged as the basic social process at the heart of which all other processes--Getting it; Being caring; The essence of professional nurse caring; Doing something to make someone feel better; and Dealing with difficulty--are interconnected. In addition to a theoretical explanation of the use of EI in nursing, this study corroborates findings from other qualitative studies in nursing and contributes a rich description of accelerated baccalaureate nursing students and an example of a mixed methods study design to the small but growing literature in these areas.

  9. Holocaust Education and the Student Perspective: Toward a Grounded Theory of Student Engagement in Social Studies Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meliza, Evette

    2010-01-01

    Too often students perceive history as boring with no relevance to their lives. Although students describe history as boring, this does not seem to be the case with one aspect of social studies education--Holocaust studies. Courses about the Holocaust have grown in number in recent years; and classes are routinely full. Why do students choose to…

  10. Research report: a grounded theory description of pastoral counseling.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Loren L

    2011-01-01

    Historically, clerical paradigms of ordained ministry have defined pastoral counseling. However, these fail to describe pastoral counselors in the complex social, theological and medical contexts in which they now work. This study asks the question: How do pastoral counselors in clinical practice describe what is uniquely "pastoral" about the counseling they offer clients? Grounded theory was used to propose a preliminary description and an intermediate theory of how pastoral counselors interpret "pastoral." Eighty-five pastoral counselors were selected for the study over a four year period using criteria to assure maximum variation. Interviews and pastoral identity statements were collected and coded, and theoretical models were organized using NVIVO, a computer assisted qualitative design and analysis software (CAQDAS) package. Results suggest that pastoral counselors share some common ideas regarding "pastoral identity" and clinical practice. How pastoral counselors interpret "pastoral" is highly context sensitive and varies widely.

  11. Grounded theory: a methodological spiral from positivism to postmodernism.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jane; Chapman, Ysanne; Bonner, Ann; Francis, Karen

    2007-04-01

    Our aim in this paper is to explain a methodological/methods package devised to incorporate situational and social world mapping with frame analysis, based on a grounded theory study of Australian rural nurses' experiences of mentoring. Situational analysis, as conceived by Adele Clarke, shifts the research methodology of grounded theory from being located within a postpositivist paradigm to a postmodern paradigm. Clarke uses three types of maps during this process: situational, social world and positional, in combination with discourse analysis. During our grounded theory study, the process of concurrent interview data generation and analysis incorporated situational and social world mapping techniques. An outcome of this was our increased awareness of how outside actors influenced participants in their constructions of mentoring. In our attempts to use Clarke's methodological package, however, it became apparent that our constructivist beliefs about human agency could not be reconciled with the postmodern project of discourse analysis. We then turned to the literature on symbolic interactionism and adopted frame analysis as a method to examine the literature on rural nursing and mentoring as secondary form of data. While we found situational and social world mapping very useful, we were less successful in using positional maps. In retrospect, we would argue that collective action framing provides an alternative to analysing such positions in the literature. This is particularly so for researchers who locate themselves within a constructivist paradigm, and who are therefore unwilling to reject the notion of human agency and the ability of individuals to shape their world in some way. Our example of using this package of situational and social worlds mapping with frame analysis is intended to assist other researchers to locate participants more transparently in the social worlds that they negotiate in their everyday practice.

  12. 'Engage me in taking care of my heart': a grounded theory study on patient-cardiologist relationship in the hospital management of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Barello, Serena; Graffigna, Guendalina; Vegni, Elena; Savarese, Mariarosaria; Lombardi, Federico; Bosio, A Claudio

    2015-03-16

    In approaching the study and practice of heart failure (HF) management, authors recognise that the patient-doctor relationship has a central role in engaging patients in their care. This study aims at identifying the features and the levers of HF patient engagement and suggestions for orienting clinical encounters. Using a grounded theory approach, we conducted 22 in-depth interviews (13 patients with HF, 5 physicians and 4 caregivers). Data were collected and analysed using open, axial and selective coding procedures according to the grounded theory principles. All interviews were conducted in an office in a university hospital located in a metropolitan area of Milan, Italy. The data comprised a total of 22 patient, hospital cardiologist and caregiver interviews. Patients aged ≥18 years with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Class of II or III were eligible to take part. Patients were recruited primarily through their referral cardiologist. The HF patient engagement process develops in four main phases that are characterised by different patients' emotional, cognitive and behavioural dynamics that contribute to shape the process of a patient's meaning making towards health and illness regarding their care. The emerging model illustrates that HF patient engagement entails a meaning-making process enacted by the patient after the critical event. This implies patients' ability to give sense to their care experience and to their disease, symptomatology and treatments, and their changes along their illness course. Doctors are recognised as crucial in fostering patients' engagement along all the phases of the process as they contribute to providing patients with self-continuity and give new meaning to their illness experience. This study identifies the core experiential domains and the main levers involved in driving patients with HF to effectively engage in their disease management. The model emerging from this study may help clinicians think in a fresh

  13. Nurses' decision-making in ethically relevant clinical situations using the example of breathlessness: study protocol of a reflexive grounded theory integrating Goffman's framework analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dunger, Christine; Schnell, Martin W; Bausewein, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Decision-making (DM) in healthcare can be understood as an interactive process addressing decision makers' reasoning as well as their visible behaviour after the decision is made. Other key elements of DM are ethical aspects and the role as well as the treatment options of the examined professions. Nurses' DM to choose interventions in situations of severe breathlessness is such interactions. They are also ethically relevant regarding the vulnerability of affected patients and possible restrictions or treatment options. The study aims to explore which factors influence nurses' DM to use nursing interventions in situations where patients suffer from severe breathlessness. Methods and analysis Qualitative study including nurses in German hospital wards and hospices. A triangulation of different methods of data collection—participant observation and qualitative expert interviews—and analysis merge in a reflexive grounded theory approach which integrates Goffman's framework analysis. It allows an analysis of nurses' self-statements about DM, their behaviour in relevant clinical situations and its influences. Data collection and analysis will be examined simultaneously. Ethics and dissemination Informed consent will be gained from all participants and the institutional stakeholders. Ongoing consent has to be ensured since observations will take place in healthcare institutions and many patients will be highly vulnerable. The study has been evaluated and approved by the Witten/Herdecke University Ethics Committee, Witten, Germany. Results of the study will be published at congresses and in journal papers. PMID:28399508

  14. A Qualitative Study of the Use of Sand for Counselor Interns in Group Supervision: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Helena Bohn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore sandtray as a group supervision method in counselor education programs. The research centered on the personal growth and development of counselor interns as they conceptualized and reflected on cases during group supervision. Research questions guiding the process included: What is the experience of…

  15. Storytelling as Loving Praxis in Critical Peace Education: A Grounded Theory Study of Postsecondary Social Justice Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byron, Amanda Smith

    2011-01-01

    Looking through the philosophical lens of love, this study seeks a deeper understanding and appreciation of how postsecondary social justice educators use storytelling, in the context of critical peace education, to create social change. This research explores the guiding question of how storytelling is used to encourage social change and to…

  16. Accessibility and Autonomy Preconditions to "Our" Inclusion: A Grounded Theory Study of the Experiences of Secondary Students with Vision Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitburn, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I report core findings of a small-scale qualitative study that I conducted with a group of young people with vision impairment who attended an inclusive secondary school in the Australian state of Queensland. My objective was to capture their voiced experiences of their schooling through face-to-face interviews and to develop a…

  17. A Qualitative Study of the Use of Sand for Counselor Interns in Group Supervision: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Helena Bohn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore sandtray as a group supervision method in counselor education programs. The research centered on the personal growth and development of counselor interns as they conceptualized and reflected on cases during group supervision. Research questions guiding the process included: What is the experience of…

  18. Toward a Grounded Theory for Residential Environmental Education: A Case Study of the New Jersey School of Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.; Walker, Lisa M.

    2005-01-01

    The authors present the findings of a study that explored student perceptions of the residential environmental education (EE) program at the New Jersey School of Conservation. The authors administered a 3-item instrument that was based on the minute paper/muddiest point techniques to 2,779 students from 31 schools. A qualitative methodology with a…

  19. Storytelling as Loving Praxis in Critical Peace Education: A Grounded Theory Study of Postsecondary Social Justice Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byron, Amanda Smith

    2011-01-01

    Looking through the philosophical lens of love, this study seeks a deeper understanding and appreciation of how postsecondary social justice educators use storytelling, in the context of critical peace education, to create social change. This research explores the guiding question of how storytelling is used to encourage social change and to…

  20. Accommodating interruptions: A grounded theory of young people with asthma.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Mary; Savage, Eileen; Andrews, Tom

    2017-05-11

    The aim of this study was to develop an explanatory theory on the lives of young people with asthma, issues affecting them and the impact of asthma on their day-to-day lives. Accommodating Interruptions is a theory that explains young people's concerns about living with asthma. Although national and international asthma management guidelines exist, it is accepted that the symptom control of asthma among the young people population is poor. This study was undertaken using Classic Grounded Theory. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and clinic consultations with young people aged 11-16 years who had asthma for over 1 year. Data were also collected from participant diaries. Constant comparative analysis, theoretical coding and memo writing were used to develop the substantive theory. The theory explains how young people resolve their main concern of being restricted by Accommodating Interruptions in their lives. They do this by assimilating behaviours in balance finding, moderating influence, fitting in and assuming control minimising the effects of asthma on their everyday lives. The theory of Accommodating Interruptions explains young people's asthma management behaviours in a new way. It allows us to understand how and why young people behave the way they do because they want to participate and be included in everyday activities, events and relationships. The theory adds to the body of knowledge on how young people with asthma live their day-to-day lives and it challenges some existing viewpoints in the literature regarding their behaviours. The findings have implications for developing services to support young people in a more meaningful way as they accommodate the interruptions associated with asthma in their lives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Interprofessional collaboration in nursing homes (interprof): a grounded theory study of general practitioner experiences and strategies to perform nursing home visits.

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Nina; Tetzlaff, Britta; Werle, Jochen; Geister, Christina; Scherer, Martin; Weyerer, Siegfried; Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Mueller, Christiane A

    2016-08-30

    Interprofessionalism, considered as collaboration between medical professionals, has gained prominence over recent decades and evidence for its impact has grown. The steadily increasing number of residents in nursing homes will challenge medical care and the interaction across professions, especially nurses and general practitioners (GPs). The nursing home visit, a key element of medical care, has been underrepresented in research. This study explores GP perspectives on interprofessional collaboration with a focus on their visits to nursing homes in order to understand their experiences and expectations. This research represents an aspect of the interprof study, which explores medical care needs as well as the perceived collaboration and communication by nursing home residents, their families, GPs and nurses. This paper focusses on GPs' views, investigating in particular their visits to nursing homes in order to understand their experiences. Open guideline-interviews covering interprofessional collaboration and the visit process were conducted with 30 GPs in three study centers and analyzed with grounded theory methodology. GPs were recruited via postal request and existing networks of the research partners. Four different types of nursing home visits were found: visits on demand, periodical visits, nursing home rounds and ad-hoc-decision based visits. We identified the core category "productive performance" of home visits in nursing homes which stands for the balance of GPs´ individual efforts and rewards. GPs used different strategies to perform a productive home visit: preparing strategies, on-site strategies and investing strategies. We compiled a theory of GPs home visits in nursing homes in Germany. The findings will be useful for research, and scientific and management purposes to generate a deeper understanding of GP perspectives and thereby improve interprofessional collaboration to ensure a high quality of care.

  2. Establishing a person-centred framework of self-identity after traumatic brain injury: a grounded theory study to inform measure development.

    PubMed

    Levack, William M M; Boland, Pauline; Taylor, William J; Siegert, Richard J; Kayes, Nicola M; Fadyl, Joanna K; McPherson, Kathryn M

    2014-05-15

    To develop a theoretically sound, client-derived framework to underpin development of a measure reflecting the impact of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on a person's self-identity. Grounded theory, based on transcription of audio recordings from focus group meetings with people who have experienced TBI, analysed with constant comparative methods. 8 different urban and rural communities in New Zealand. 49 people (34 men, 15 women), 6 months to 36 years after mild-to-severe TBI. The central concept emerging from the data was that of desiring to be or having lost a sense of being an integrated and valued person. The three main subthemes were: (1) having a coherent, satisfying and complete sense of oneself, (2) respect, validation and acceptance by others and (3) having a valued place in the world. This study reinforces the notion that change in self-identity is an important aspect of life after TBI, and provides information on what this concept means to people with TBI. In order to scientifically evaluate relationships between self-identity and other aspects of health (eg, depression, quality of life), and to test the effect of interventions to address problems with self-identity after TBI, a quantitative tool for evaluation of this construct is required. Themes from this research provide a foundation for the development of a measure of self-identity grounded in the language and experience of people with TBI. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. The critical factors that influence faculty attitudes and perceptions of teaching English as Second Language nursing students: A grounded theory research study.

    PubMed

    Starkey, Traci J

    2015-05-01

    As the demographics of the United States change, nursing will need to become more ethnically diverse in order to provide culturally responsive healthcare. Enrollment of English as Second Language nursing students is increasing; however, these students often encounter academic difficulties. The increase in English as Second Language nursing students in the classroom and clinical setting has posed challenges for nurse faculty. To explore the critical factors that influence faculty attitudes and perceptions of teaching English as Second Language nursing students. A grounded theory method based on the philosophical underpinnings of symbolic interactionism and pragmatism was used to explore the critical factors that influence faculty attitudes and perceptions of teaching English as Second Language nursing students. The study took place at various schools of nursing in the Southeast Florida area. Educators teaching in an associate, baccalaureate, and/or graduate nursing program at an accredited school of nursing. Semi-structured interviews and a focus group were conducted to collect data from nurse faculty. Data segments from interviews were coded, categorized, and analyzed. Theoretical sampling and a focus group interview were used to validate the concepts, themes, and categories identified during the individual interviews. A substantive level theory was developed. The core category that developed was conscientization. The three dominant categories that emerged from the data were overcoming, coming to know, and facilitating. The theoretical framework of conscientization provided an explanation of the social processes involved in teaching English as Second Language nursing students. The theoretical framework developed from this study can be used to increase the effectiveness of teaching English as Second Language nursing students, improve their chances of success, and enhance diversity in the nursing profession. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Grounded Theory of Master's-Level Counselor Research Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Maribeth F.; Duncan, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    A grounded theory approach was used to examine the research identity of 17 master's-level counseling trainees and practitioners. The emergent theory gave an understanding to sources of variation in the process and outcome of research identity. The authors provide recommendations for counselor educators to use with current and former students.

  5. Ground Movement Analysis Based on Stochastic Medium Theory

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Meng; Li-chun, Wu; Jia-sheng, Zhang; Guo-dong, Deng; Zhi-hui, Ni

    2014-01-01

    In order to calculate the ground movement induced by displacement piles driven into horizontal layered strata, an axisymmetric model was built and then the vertical and horizontal ground movement functions were deduced using stochastic medium theory. Results show that the vertical ground movement obeys normal distribution function, while the horizontal ground movement is an exponential function. Utilizing field measured data, parameters of these functions can be obtained by back analysis, and an example was employed to verify this model. Result shows that stochastic medium theory is suitable for calculating the ground movement in pile driving, and there is no need to consider the constitutive model of soil or contact between pile and soil. This method is applicable in practice. PMID:24701184

  6. Telling and Not-Telling: A Classic Grounded Theory of Sharing Life-Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Trudy Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study of "Telling and Not-Telling" was conducted using the classic grounded theory methodology (Glaser 1978, 1992, 1998; Glaser & Strauss, 1967). This unique methodology systematically and inductively generates conceptual theories from data. The goal is to discover theory that explains, predicts, and provides practical…

  7. Telling and Not-Telling: A Classic Grounded Theory of Sharing Life-Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Trudy Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study of "Telling and Not-Telling" was conducted using the classic grounded theory methodology (Glaser 1978, 1992, 1998; Glaser & Strauss, 1967). This unique methodology systematically and inductively generates conceptual theories from data. The goal is to discover theory that explains, predicts, and provides practical…

  8. 'I stayed with my illness': a grounded theory study of health seeking behaviour and treatment pathways of patients with obstetric fistula in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Khisa, Anne M; Omoni, Grace M; Nyamongo, Isaac K; Spitzer, Rachel F

    2017-09-29

    Obstetric fistula classic symptoms of faecal and urinary incontinence cause women to live with social stigma, isolation, psychological trauma and lose their source of livelihoods. There is a paucity of studies on the health seeking behaviour trajectories of women with fistula illness although women live with the illness for decades before surgery. We set out to establish the complete picture of women's health seeking behaviour using qualitative research. We sought to answer the question: what patterns of health seeking do women with obstetric fistula display in their quest for healing? We used grounded theory methodology to analyse data from narratives of women during inpatient stay after fistula surgery in 3 hospitals in Kenya. Emergent themes contributed to generation of substantive theory and a conceptual framework on the health seeking behaviour of fistula patients. We recruited 121 participants aged 17 to 62 years whose treatment pathways are presented. Participants delayed health seeking, living with fistula illness after their first encounter with unresponsive hospitals. The health seeking trajectory is characterized by long episodes of staying home with illness for decades and consulting multiple actors. Staying with fistula illness entailed health seeking through seven key actions of staying home, trying home remedies, consulting with private health care providers, Non-Governmental organisations, prayer, traditional medicine and formal hospitals and clinics. Long treatment trajectories at hospital resulted from multiple hospital visits and surgeries. Seeking treatment at hospital is the most popular step for most women after recognizing fistula symptoms. We conclude that the formal health system is not responsive to women's needs during fistula illness. Women suffer an illness with a chronic trajectory and seek alternative forms of care that are not ideally placed to treat fistula illness. The results suggest that a robust health system be provided with

  9. Method development at Nordic School of Public Health NHV: Phenomenology and Grounded Theory.

    PubMed

    Strandmark, Margaretha

    2015-08-01

    Qualitative methods such as phenomenology and grounded theory have been valuable tools in studying public health problems. A description and comparison of these methods. Phenomenology emphasises an inside perspective in form of consciousness and subjectively lived experiences, whereas grounded theory emanates from the idea that interactions between people create new insights and knowledge. Fundamental aspects of phenomenology include life world, consciousness, phenomenological reduction and essence. Significant elements in grounded theory are coding, categories and core categories, which develop a theory. There are differences in the philosophical approach, the name of the concept and the systematic tools between the methods. Thus, the phenomenological method is appropriate when studying emotional and existential research problems, and grounded theory is a method more suited to investigate processes. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  10. ["A Little Bit of Switzerland, a Little Bit of Kosovo". Swiss Immigrants from Former Yugoslavia with Type 2 Diabetes. A Qualitative Study' in Analogy to Grounded Theory].

    PubMed

    Wenger, A; Mischke, C

    2015-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes is on the increase among the Swiss immigrants. The cultural background of patients presents new linguistic and sociocultural barriers and gains in importance for health care. In order to develop patient-centred care, it is necessary to focus on different sociocultural aspects in everyday life and experiences of immigrants from the former republics of Yugoslavia with diabetes who have rarely been studied in Switzerland. Based on these insights the needs for counselling can be identified and nursing interventions can be designed accordingly. Using the Grounded Theory approach, 5 interviews were analysed according to the Corbin and Strauss coding paradigm. The central phenomenon found is the experience to live in 2 different cultures. The complexity arises from the tension living in 2 cultural backgrounds at the same time. It turns out that in the country of origin the immigrants adjust their disease management. The changing daily rhythm and the more traditional role model affect aspects of their disease management such as diet and/or drug therapy. The different strategies impact the person's roles, emotions, their everyday lives and their families. It provides an insight into the perspective of Swiss immigrants from the former republics of Yugoslavia suffering from diabetes. Many questions are still unanswered and further research will be required.

  11. Qualitative research in healthcare: an introduction to grounded theory using thematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, A L; Hadfield, M; Chapman, C J

    2015-01-01

    In today's NHS, qualitative research is increasingly important as a method of assessing and improving quality of care. Grounded theory has developed as an analytical approach to qualitative data over the last 40 years. It is primarily an inductive process whereby theoretical insights are generated from data, in contrast to deductive research where theoretical hypotheses are tested via data collection. Grounded theory has been one of the main contributors to the acceptance of qualitative methods in a wide range of applied social sciences. The influence of grounded theory as an approach is, in part, based on its provision of an explicit framework for analysis and theory generation. Furthermore the stress upon grounding research in the reality of participants has also given it credence in healthcare research. As with all analytical approaches, grounded theory has drawbacks and limitations. It is important to have an understanding of these in order to assess the applicability of this approach to healthcare research. In this review we outline the principles of grounded theory, and focus on thematic analysis as the analytical approach used most frequently in grounded theory studies, with the aim of providing clinicians with the skills to critically review studies using this methodology.

  12. A grounded theory of abstraction in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, Jean-Daniel

    2003-01-01

    In artificial intelligence, abstraction is commonly used to account for the use of various levels of details in a given representation language or the ability to change from one level to another while preserving useful properties. Abstraction has been mainly studied in problem solving, theorem proving, knowledge representation (in particular for spatial and temporal reasoning) and machine learning. In such contexts, abstraction is defined as a mapping between formalisms that reduces the computational complexity of the task at stake. By analysing the notion of abstraction from an information quantity point of view, we pinpoint the differences and the complementary role of reformulation and abstraction in any representation change. We contribute to extending the existing semantic theories of abstraction to be grounded on perception, where the notion of information quantity is easier to characterize formally. In the author's view, abstraction is best represented using abstraction operators, as they provide semantics for classifying different abstractions and support the automation of representation changes. The usefulness of a grounded theory of abstraction in the cartography domain is illustrated. Finally, the importance of explicitly representing abstraction for designing more autonomous and adaptive systems is discussed. PMID:12903672

  13. A grounded theory of abstraction in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Jean-Daniel

    2003-07-29

    In artificial intelligence, abstraction is commonly used to account for the use of various levels of details in a given representation language or the ability to change from one level to another while preserving useful properties. Abstraction has been mainly studied in problem solving, theorem proving, knowledge representation (in particular for spatial and temporal reasoning) and machine learning. In such contexts, abstraction is defined as a mapping between formalisms that reduces the computational complexity of the task at stake. By analysing the notion of abstraction from an information quantity point of view, we pinpoint the differences and the complementary role of reformulation and abstraction in any representation change. We contribute to extending the existing semantic theories of abstraction to be grounded on perception, where the notion of information quantity is easier to characterize formally. In the author's view, abstraction is best represented using abstraction operators, as they provide semantics for classifying different abstractions and support the automation of representation changes. The usefulness of a grounded theory of abstraction in the cartography domain is illustrated. Finally, the importance of explicitly representing abstraction for designing more autonomous and adaptive systems is discussed.

  14. Nurses' decision-making in ethically relevant clinical situations using the example of breathlessness: study protocol of a reflexive grounded theory integrating Goffman's framework analysis.

    PubMed

    Dunger, Christine; Schnell, Martin W; Bausewein, Claudia

    2017-02-22

    Decision-making (DM) in healthcare can be understood as an interactive process addressing decision makers' reasoning as well as their visible behaviour after the decision is made. Other key elements of DM are ethical aspects and the role as well as the treatment options of the examined professions. Nurses' DM to choose interventions in situations of severe breathlessness is such interactions. They are also ethically relevant regarding the vulnerability of affected patients and possible restrictions or treatment options. The study aims to explore which factors influence nurses' DM to use nursing interventions in situations where patients suffer from severe breathlessness. Qualitative study including nurses in German hospital wards and hospices. A triangulation of different methods of data collection-participant observation and qualitative expert interviews-and analysis merge in a reflexive grounded theory approach which integrates Goffman's framework analysis. It allows an analysis of nurses' self-statements about DM, their behaviour in relevant clinical situations and its influences. Data collection and analysis will be examined simultaneously. Informed consent will be gained from all participants and the institutional stakeholders. Ongoing consent has to be ensured since observations will take place in healthcare institutions and many patients will be highly vulnerable. The study has been evaluated and approved by the Witten/Herdecke University Ethics Committee, Witten, Germany. Results of the study will be published at congresses and in journal papers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. An exploration of how clinician attitudes and beliefs influence the implementation of lifestyle risk factor management in primary healthcare: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Laws, Rachel A; Kemp, Lynn A; Harris, Mark F; Davies, Gawaine Powell; Williams, Anna M; Eames-Brown, Rosslyn

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the effectiveness of brief lifestyle intervention delivered in primary healthcare (PHC), implementation in routine practice remains suboptimal. Beliefs and attitudes have been shown to be associated with risk factor management practices, but little is known about the process by which clinicians' perceptions shape implementation. This study aims to describe a theoretical model to understand how clinicians' perceptions shape the implementation of lifestyle risk factor management in routine practice. The implications of the model for enhancing practices will also be discussed. Methods The study analysed data collected as part of a larger feasibility project of risk factor management in three community health teams in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. This included journal notes kept through the implementation of the project, and interviews with 48 participants comprising 23 clinicians (including community nurses, allied health practitioners and an Aboriginal health worker), five managers, and two project officers. Data were analysed using grounded theory principles of open, focused, and theoretical coding and constant comparative techniques to construct a model grounded in the data. Results The model suggests that implementation reflects both clinician beliefs about whether they should (commitment) and can (capacity) address lifestyle issues. Commitment represents the priority placed on risk factor management and reflects beliefs about role responsibility congruence, client receptiveness, and the likely impact of intervening. Clinician beliefs about their capacity for risk factor management reflect their views about self-efficacy, role support, and the fit between risk factor management ways of working. The model suggests that clinicians formulate different expectations and intentions about how they will intervene based on these beliefs about commitment and capacity and their philosophical views about appropriate ways to intervene. These

  16. A qualitative exploration of key informant perspectives regarding the nature and impact of contemporary legislation on professional development: a grounded theory study of chiropractic in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Corrie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct a substantive framework of the manner in which the Danish government interacts with the Danish chiropractic profession and influences professional practice. An exploratory, qualitative study was performed using a substantive grounded theory (GT) approach. Unstructured, face-to-face, individual interviews were conducted during the years 2012 and 2013 and thematically analyzed. Six people were interviewed for this study including a gatekeeper and witness to legislative history, a previous chiropractic political representative and witness to legislative history, a previous Department of Health negotiator and previous administrator of chiropractic affairs and witness to legislative history, a current administrator of chiropractic affairs, an active chiropractic political representative and witness to legislative history, and a chief negotiator for Danish Regional Health Care Services. Open and axial coding yielded 2 themes centering on licensing chiropractors in Denmark and the resultant developmental issues encountered. Through further selective coding, the GT core construct, "chiropractic practice in the Danish heath care system" emerged. The GT highlights the tension between the strategic political importance of legislation and the restrictive nature of the overly specific act currently regulating chiropractic practice. Moreover, the GT also revealed the perceived negative effect that the National Board of Health may exert on clinical practice due to its conservative interpretation of the act. The Danish government is perceived to act as a countervailing power related to chiropractic practice. The derived substantive GT suggests that the Danish government's dualistic action relative to the Danish chiropractic community may inhibit the spontaneous evolution of contemporary Danish chiropractic practice. Although historically narrow legislation may limit chiropractic practice, conservative interpretations by the Danish

  17. Recovery of Sleep or Recovery of Self? A Grounded Theory Study of Residents' Decision Making Regarding How to Spend Their Nonclinical Postcall Time.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Taryn S; Nisker, Jeff; Teunissen, Pim W; Dornan, Tim; Lingard, Lorelei

    2016-03-01

    As resident work hours policies evolve, residents' off-duty time remains poorly understood. Despite assumptions about how residents should be using their postcall, off-duty time, there is little research on how residents actually use this time and the reasoning underpinning their activities. This study sought to understand residents' nonclinical postcall activities when they leave the hospital, their decision-making processes, and their perspectives on the relationship between these activities and their well-being or recovery. The study took place at a Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited Canadian medical school from 2012 to 2014. The authors recruited a purposive and convenience sample of postgraduate year 1-5 residents from six surgical and nonsurgical specialties at three hospitals affiliated with the medical school. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, semistructured interviews were conducted, audio-taped, transcribed, anonymized, and combined with field notes. The authors analyzed interview transcripts using constant comparative analysis and performed post hoc member checking. Twenty-four residents participated. Residents characterized their predominant approach to postcall decision making as one of making trade-offs between multiple, competing, seemingly incompatible, but equally valuable, activities. Participants exhibited two different trade-off orientations: being oriented toward maintaining a normal life or toward mitigating fatigue. The authors' findings on residents' trade-off orientations suggest a dual recovery model with postcall trade-offs motivated by the recovery of sleep or of self. This model challenges the dominant viewpoint in the current duty hours literature and suggests that the duty hours discussion must be broadened to include other recovery processes.

  18. Pressure and judgement within a dichotomous landscape of infant feeding: a grounded theory study to explore why breastfeeding women do not access peer support provision.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Louise; Thomson, Gill

    2017-04-01

    Lack of support is reported as a key reason for early breastfeeding cessation. While breastfeeding peer support (BPS) is a recommended intervention to increase breastfeeding rates, a number of studies identify that engagement with BPS is problematic. Due to paucity of research in this area, this study explores why breastfeeding women do not access BPS in South-West England. Utilising a constructionist grounded theory approach, 33 participants (women (n = 13), health professionals (n = 6) and peer supporters (n = 14)) participated in a semi-structured interview (n = 22) or focus group (n = 11). Analysis involved open coding, constant comparisons and focussed coding. One core category and three main themes explicating non-access were identified. The core category concerns women's experiences of pressure and judgement around their feeding decisions within a dichotomous landscape of infant feeding language and support. Theme one, 'place and space of support', describes the contrast between perceived pressure to breastfeed and a lack of adequate and appropriate support. Theme two, 'one way or no way', outlines the rules-based approach to breastfeeding adopted by some health professionals and how women avoided BPS due to anticipating a similar approach. Theme three, 'it must be me', concerns how lack of embodied insights could lead to 'breastfeeding failure' identities. A background of dichotomised language, pressure and moral judgement, combined with the organisation of post-natal care and the model of breastfeeding adopted by health professionals, may inhibit women's access to BPS. A socio-cultural model of breastfeeding support providing clear messages regarding the value and purpose of BPS should be adopted.

  19. The Decision-Making Process of Genetically At-Risk Couples Considering Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis: Initial Findings from a Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Hershberger, Patricia E.; Gallo, Agatha M.; Kavanaugh, Karen; Olshansky, Ellen; Schwartz, Alan; Tur-Kaspa, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    Exponential growth in genomics has led to public and private initiatives worldwide that have dramatically increased the number of procreative couples who are aware of their ability to transmit genetic disorders to their future children. Understanding how couples process the meaning of being genetically at risk for their procreative life lags far behind the advances in genomic and reproductive sciences. Moreover, society, policy makers, and clinicians are not aware of the experiences and nuances involved when modern couples are faced with using Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). The purpose of this study was to discover the decision-making process of genetically at-risk couples as they decide whether to use PGD to prevent the transmission of known single-gene or sex-linked genetic disorders to their children. A qualitative, grounded theory design guided the study in which 22 couples (44 individual partners) from the USA, who were actively considering PGD, participated. Couples were recruited from June 2009 to May 2010 from the Internet and from a large PGD center and a patient newsletter. In-depth semi-structured interviews were completed with each individual partner within the couple dyad, separate from their respective partner. We discovered that couples move through four phases (Identify, Contemplate, Resolve, Engage) of a complex, dynamic, and iterative decision-making process where multiple, sequential decisions are made. In the Identify phase, couples acknowledge the meaning of their at-risk status. Parenthood and reproductive options are explored in the Contemplate phase, where 41% of couples remained for up to 36 months before moving into the Resolve phase. In Resolve, one of three decisions about PGD use is reached, including: Accepting, Declining, or Oscillating. Actualizing decisions occur in the Engage phase. Awareness of the decision-making process among genetically at-risk couples provides foundational work for understanding critical processes

  20. Resisting Coherence: Trans Men's Experiences and the Use of Grounded Theory Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, D. Chase J.

    2017-01-01

    In this methodological reflective manuscript, I explore my decision to use a grounded theoretical approach to my dissertation study on trans* men in higher education. Specifically, I question whether grounded theory as a methodology is capable of capturing the complexity and capaciousness of trans*-masculine experiences. Through the lenses of…

  1. Resisting Coherence: Trans Men's Experiences and the Use of Grounded Theory Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, D. Chase J.

    2017-01-01

    In this methodological reflective manuscript, I explore my decision to use a grounded theoretical approach to my dissertation study on trans* men in higher education. Specifically, I question whether grounded theory as a methodology is capable of capturing the complexity and capaciousness of trans*-masculine experiences. Through the lenses of…

  2. Readying One's Self: A Grounded Theory Investigation of the LatinoJustice PRLDEF LawBound Program Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Angela Marie Banner

    2011-01-01

    This study was a grounded theory investigation of the LatinoJustice PRLDEF LawBound participants. The research was conducted using the grounded theory method developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967) and Glaser (1978, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1998, 2001, 2003, 2005) to discover an explanatory theory directly from the data. The discovery of the…

  3. Readying One's Self: A Grounded Theory Investigation of the LatinoJustice PRLDEF LawBound Program Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Angela Marie Banner

    2011-01-01

    This study was a grounded theory investigation of the LatinoJustice PRLDEF LawBound participants. The research was conducted using the grounded theory method developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967) and Glaser (1978, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1998, 2001, 2003, 2005) to discover an explanatory theory directly from the data. The discovery of the…

  4. The experience and impact of living with gout: a study of men with chronic gout using a qualitative grounded theory approach.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Karen; Gow, Peter; Vanderpyl, Jane; Logo, Phillip; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Gout is commonly undertreated and can lead to significant disability. Few data are available about the lived experience of gout or the barriers to effective urate-lowering therapy in men with gout. This study aims to understand the experience of men living with chronic gout using a qualitative grounded theory approach. Eleven English-speaking men with chronic gout participated in an in-depth semistructured interview about their experiences of living with gout. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. Consensus groups were used to analyze and validate the themes arising from the transcripts. Three major themes related to the experience of gout emerged from the interviews: the impact of disease (pain, dependency on family members during flares, isolation, work disability), the progressiveness of untreated gout (increasing number of affected joints and frequency of flares, increase in food type triggers, escalating treatment required to control flares due to reducing efficacy of anti-inflammatory medication), and the lack of knowledge of gout (a community wide lack of understanding of the causes or prevention of gout, stoicism/tolerance to symptoms and disability, personal and social stigma related to gout). Chronic gout has an important impact on both the patient and his family. This work provides previously hidden perspectives of the experience of gout, which may be generalized to other men with gout, suggesting that shame, embarrassment, and stigma lead to trivialization of the impact of disease despite its severity. These experiences may lead to undertreatment of gout because of lack of disclosure of symptom severity and lack of expectation of treatment effectiveness, which in turn could contribute to the development of progressive gout.

  5. Health-care encounters create both discontinuity and continuity in daily life when living with chronic heart failure-A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Östman, Malin; Ung, Eva Jakobsson; Falk, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Living with chronic heart failure (CHF) often involves lifelong contact with health care, more or less frequently, depending on fluctuating health-generating disruptions in everyday life. To reduce the influence on continuity in life, health-care professionals should preferably focus on supporting patients in managing their daily lives, based on their perspective. The aim of this study was to describe how the interaction in health-care encounters contributes to either continuity or discontinuity in the daily life for persons with CHF. Interviews with 18 participants were carried out, using the grounded theory method, through data collection and analysis. Two core concepts were constructed from data which reveal a model that illuminates the characteristics of the encounters, the actions of health-care professionals and the normative discourse. Patient-centred agenda consists of the categories: "Experiencing a subordinate approach," "Objectifying during the encounter" and "Expected to be compliant." This describes how health-care professionals enhance discontinuity in daily life by using a paternalistic approach in the encounter. Person-centred agenda consists of the categories: "Experiencing an empowering approach," "Person-centredness during the encounter" and "Expected to be capable." It describes how participants perceive that health-care professionals enable them to deal with everyday life which enhances continuity. The findings highlight the importance of health-care professionals' attitudes and communication in encounters with patients. Health care must be designed to support and promote patients' own strategic thinking by strengthening their self-image to enhance continuity in everyday life. The experience of discontinuity is based on the prevailing health-care culture which focuses on disease and medical treatment and regards it as superior to the illness experience in an everyday life context. We therefore strongly suggest a paradigm shift in the health

  6. The client-centred approach as experienced by male neurological rehabilitation clients in occupational therapy. A qualitative study based on a grounded theory tradition.

    PubMed

    Van de Velde, Dominique; Devisch, Ignaas; De Vriendt, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To explore the perspectives of male clients in a neurological rehabilitation setting with regard to the occupational therapy they have received and the client-centred approach. Method This study involved a qualitative research design based on the grounded theory tradition. Individual in-depth interviews were used to collect data. Data were analysed using a constant comparative method. Seven male participants from an inpatient neurological setting were included using a theoretical sampling technique. Results Three themes emerged to describe the approach of the therapists to client-centred practice: (a) a shared biomedical focus as the start of the rehabilitation process, (b) the un-simultaneous shift from a biomedical towards a psycho-social focus and (c) formal versus informal nature of gathering client information. Conclusion A client-centred approach entails a shift from the therapist focussing on recovery from the short-term neurological issues towards the long-term consequences of the disease. According to the client, this shift in reasoning must occur at a specific and highly subjective moment during the rehabilitation process. Identifying this moment could strengthen the client-centred approach. Implications for Rehabilitation Client-centred practice entails a shift from recovering the short-term neurological issues towards the long-term psycho-social consequences of the disease. To be effective in client-centred practice, the clients expect from the professional to be an authority with regard to biomedical issues and to be partner with regard to psycho-social issues. Client-centred practice is most likely to be successful when client is susceptible to discuss his psycho-social issues and finding this moment is a challenge for the professional. Using formal methods for goal setting do not necessarily cover all the information needed for a client-centred therapy programme. Rather, using informal methods could lead to a more valid image of the client.

  7. Adopting a constructivist approach to grounded theory: implications for research design.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jane; Bonner, Ann; Francis, Karen

    2006-02-01

    Grounded theory is a popular research methodology that is evolving to account for a range of ontological and epistemological underpinnings. Constructivist grounded theory has its foundations in relativism and an appreciation of the multiple truths and realities of subjectivism. Undertaking a constructivist enquiry requires the adoption of a position of mutuality between researcher and participant in the research process, which necessitates a rethinking of the grounded theorist's traditional role of objective observer. Key issues for constructivist grounded theorists to consider in designing their research studies are discussed in relation to developing a partnership with participants that enables a mutual construction of meaning during interviews and a meaningful reconstruction of their stories into a grounded theory model.

  8. Parochial Dissonance: A Grounded Theory of Wisconsin's New North Response to the Employability Skills Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baneck, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a theory that explained the beliefs and behaviors of participants from business, not-for-profit business, education, and government sectors when resolving the employability skills gap. Classical grounded theory was the inductive methodology applied to this study. The New North, an 18 county region located…

  9. Parochial Dissonance: A Grounded Theory of Wisconsin's New North Response to the Employability Skills Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baneck, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a theory that explained the beliefs and behaviors of participants from business, not-for-profit business, education, and government sectors when resolving the employability skills gap. Classical grounded theory was the inductive methodology applied to this study. The New North, an 18 county region located…

  10. Analyzing Literacy Practice: Grounded Theory to Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell-Gates, Victoria; Perry, Kristen H.; Briseno, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    In this methodological and theoretical article, we address the need for more cross-case work on studies of literacy in use within different social and cultural contexts. The Cultural Practices of Literacy Study (CPLS) project has been working on a methodology for cross-case analyses that are principled in that the qualitative nature of each case,…

  11. Ensemble Theory for Stealthy Hyperuniform Disordered Ground States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torquato, Salvatore

    Disordered hyperuniform many-particle systems have been receiving recent attention because they are distinguishable exotic states of matter poised between a crystal and liquid that are endowed with novel thermodynamic and physical properties. It has been shown numerically that systems of particles interacting with ``stealthy'' bounded, long-ranged pair potentials (similar to Friedel oscillations) have classical ground states that are, counterintuitively, disordered, hyperuniform and highly degenerate. The task of formulating an ensemble theory that yields analytical predictions for the structural characteristics and other properties of stealthy degenerate ground states in d-dimensional Euclidean space is highly nontrivial because the dimensionality of the configuration space depends on the number density and there is a multitude of ways of sampling the ground-state manifold, each with its own probability measure for finding a particular ground-state configuration. A new type of statistical-mechanical theory had to be invented to characterize these exotic states of matter. I report on some initial progress that we have made in this direction. We show that stealthy disordered ground states behave like ''pseudo''-equilibrium hard-sphere systems in Fourier space. Our theoretical predictions for the structure and thermodynamic properties of the stealthy disordered ground states and associated excited states are in excellent agreement with computer simulations across dimensions.

  12. A Grounded Theory of Future Talk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikesh, Coleen

    A study examined the ways that people talk to policy and decision makers about the future and constructed a model of future talk. Specifically, speeches given to government policy makers about science and technology were analyzed in order to discover how people communicate information about the future. Each incident was reviewed and assigned a…

  13. The Constant Comparative Analysis Method Outside of Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fram, Sheila M.

    2013-01-01

    This commentary addresses the gap in the literature regarding discussion of the legitimate use of Constant Comparative Analysis Method (CCA) outside of Grounded Theory. The purpose is to show the strength of using CCA to maintain the emic perspective and how theoretical frameworks can maintain the etic perspective throughout the analysis. My…

  14. The Use of Grounded Theory within "Feminist" Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brine, Jacky

    A four-stage feminist research project investigating European Social Fund (ESF)-funded vocational training for unemployed women used the grounded theory approach. Stage 1 involved the formation of the research questions and design. Steps included the ontological, epistemological, and methodological positioning of the researcher. Stage 2 was the…

  15. "Putting My Man Face on": A Grounded Theory of College Men's Gender Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith E.; Jones, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    The theory that emerged from this constructivist grounded theory study of 10 college men's experiences depicts their gender identity as developed through constant interaction with society's expectations of them as men. In order to try to meet these perceived expectations, participants described putting on a performance that was like wearing a mask…

  16. "Putting My Man Face on": A Grounded Theory of College Men's Gender Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith E.; Jones, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    The theory that emerged from this constructivist grounded theory study of 10 college men's experiences depicts their gender identity as developed through constant interaction with society's expectations of them as men. In order to try to meet these perceived expectations, participants described putting on a performance that was like wearing a mask…

  17. Identifying Barriers in Implementing Outcomes-Based Assessment Program Review: A Grounded Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresciani, Marilee J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to identify the typical barriers encountered by faculty and administrators when implementing outcomes-based assessment program review. An analysis of interviews with faculty and administrators at nine institutions revealed a theory that faculty and administrators' promotion, tenure (if applicable),…

  18. Health-care encounters create both discontinuity and continuity in daily life when living with chronic heart failure—A grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Östman, Malin; Ung, Eva Jakobsson; Falk, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Living with chronic heart failure (CHF) often involves lifelong contact with health care, more or less frequently, depending on fluctuating health-generating disruptions in everyday life. To reduce the influence on continuity in life, health-care professionals should preferably focus on supporting patients in managing their daily lives, based on their perspective. The aim of this study was to describe how the interaction in health-care encounters contributes to either continuity or discontinuity in the daily life for persons with CHF. Interviews with 18 participants were carried out, using the grounded theory method, through data collection and analysis. Two core concepts were constructed from data which reveal a model that illuminates the characteristics of the encounters, the actions of health-care professionals and the normative discourse. Patient-centred agenda consists of the categories: “Experiencing a subordinate approach,” “Objectifying during the encounter” and “Expected to be compliant.” This describes how health-care professionals enhance discontinuity in daily life by using a paternalistic approach in the encounter. Person-centred agenda consists of the categories: “Experiencing an empowering approach,” “Person-centredness during the encounter” and “Expected to be capable.” It describes how participants perceive that health-care professionals enable them to deal with everyday life which enhances continuity. The findings highlight the importance of health-care professionals’ attitudes and communication in encounters with patients. Health care must be designed to support and promote patients’ own strategic thinking by strengthening their self-image to enhance continuity in everyday life. The experience of discontinuity is based on the prevailing health-care culture which focuses on disease and medical treatment and regards it as superior to the illness experience in an everyday life context. We therefore strongly suggest a

  19. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Grounded Theory Research

    PubMed Central

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Al-Khattab, Halima; Hines, Dana D.; Mazurczyk, Jill; Russell, Anne C.; Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Draucker, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    National initiatives in the United States call for health research that addresses racial/ethnic disparities. Although grounded theory (GT) research has the potential to contribute much to the understanding of the health experiences of people of color, the extent to which it has contributed to health disparities research is unclear. In this article we describe a project in which we reviewed 44 GT studies published in Qualitative Health Research within the last five years. Using a framework proposed by Green, Creswell, Shope, and Clark (2007), we categorized the studies at one of four levels based on the status and significance afforded racial/ethnic diversity. Our results indicate that racial/ethnic diversity played a primary role in five studies, a complementary role in one study, a peripheral role in five studies, and an absent role in 33 studies. We suggest that GT research could contribute more to health disparities research if techniques were developed to better analyze the influence of race/ethnicity on health-related phenomena. PMID:26401523

  20. No theory of justice can ground health care reform.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Griffin

    2012-01-01

    This essay argues that no theory or single conception of justice can provide a fundamental grounding for health care reform in the United States. To provide such a grounding, (1) there would need to be widespread support among citizens for a particular conception of justice, (2) citizens would have to apprehend this common conception of justice as providing the strongest available rationale for health care reform, and (3) this rationale would have to overwhelm countervailing values. I argue that neither of the first two conditions is met. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  1. The importance of 'approaching' older people: a grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, Lise-Lotte; Berterö, Carina

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and describe the ethical values in caring encounters as experienced by older patients in their daily interaction with nurses in wards for older people. Ethical values and morals are important aspects that influence the quality of care. Empirical observational study including follow-up interviews. Twenty-two older patients participated voluntarily in this study. Constant comparative analysis, the core foundation of grounded theory was used. Five categories: being addressed, receiving respect, desiring to participate, increasing self-determination and gaining self-confidence formed the bases for the core category. APPROACHING: Approaching concerns how people become closer to each other in a physical space. It also includes how people become closer to each other in a dialogue, involving verbal or bodily communication. Approaching indicates the ethical values that guide nurses in their caring encounters with older patients. These values are noted by the patient and have an individual value as well as leading to improved quality of their care. The older patient will be confident and satisfied with the caring encounter if the desired components in the nurse's approaching are exhibited. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Evolving Grounded Theory Methodology: towards a discursive approach.

    PubMed

    McCreaddie, May; Payne, Sheila

    2010-06-01

    Grounded Theory Methodology (GTM) is a widely cited research approach based upon symbolic interaction with a focus on interaction, action and processes. Relatively recently, Discursive Psychology; a language-based interaction research approach also based on symbolic interaction, emerged. At present Discursive Psychology is principally cited in the social sciences literature. Given Discursive Psychology's symbolic interaction foundations, what relevance does this approach have for evolving GTM? A number of methodological challenges were posed by a study looking at humour in Clinical Nurse Specialist-patient interactions. This paper will use the phenomenon of spontaneous humour in healthcare interactions to illustrate the potential for a new form of GTM drawing on discursive approaches; Discursive GTM. First, the challenges presented by a study looking at spontaneous humour in Clinical Nurse Specialist-patient interactions are presented. Second, the research approach adopted to meet these challenges - Discursive GTM (DGTM) - is explicated and the results of the study are outlined. Third, the different GTM approaches and Discursive Psychology are compared and contrasted in relation to the DGTM approach adopted. Finally, the challenges and tensions of using DGTM as well as the opportunities afforded by the use of naturally occurring data are reviewed. The authors contend that a DGTM approach may be appropriate in analyzing certain phenomena. In particular, we highlight the potential contribution of naturally occurring data as an adjunct to researcher-elicited data. Thus, when exploring particular phenomena, a DGTM approach may address the potentially under-developed symbolic interaction tenet of language.

  3. Gambler Risk Perception: A Mental Model and Grounded Theory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Spurrier, Michael; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Rhodes, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have investigated how gamblers perceive risk or the role of risk perception in disordered gambling. The purpose of the current study therefore was to obtain data on lay gamblers' beliefs on these variables and their effects on decision-making, behaviour, and disordered gambling aetiology. Fifteen regular lay gamblers (non-problem/low risk, moderate risk and problem gamblers) completed a semi-structured interview following mental models and grounded theory methodologies. Gambler interview data was compared to an expert 'map' of risk-perception, to identify comparative gaps or differences associated with harmful or safe gambling. Systematic overlapping processes of data gathering and analysis were used to iteratively extend, saturate, test for exception, and verify concepts and themes emerging from the data. The preliminary findings suggested that gambler accounts supported the presence of expert conceptual constructs, and to some degree the role of risk perception in protecting against or increasing vulnerability to harm and disordered gambling. Gambler accounts of causality, meaning, motivation, and strategy were highly idiosyncratic, and often contained content inconsistent with measures of disordered gambling. Disordered gambling appears heavily influenced by relative underestimation of risk and overvaluation of gambling, based on explicit and implicit analysis, and deliberate, innate, contextual, and learned processing evaluations and biases.

  4. Confronting infertility in Iranian clients: a grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Zandi, Mitra; Mohammadi, Eesa; Vanaki, Zohreh; Shiva, Marziyeh; Bagheri Lankarani, Narges; Zarei, Faezeh

    2017-02-10

    The present study examined how infertile Iranian clients confront infertility. Research on infertility has confirmed the significance of a socio-cultural context in the formation of responses to infertility. This study used the grounded theory approach to explore the experiences of infertile individuals presenting at the Royan Institute in Iran from October 2013 to September 2014. Clients with infertility of at least two years in duration were recruited using purposive sampling followed by theoretical sampling. A total of 41 interviews were conducted with 36 people. Data were collected through in-depth unstructured interviews and field notes. Data analysis was performed using MAXQDA 2007. A sense of 'insecurity about personal and family identity' shaped in the context of 'facing the cultural-economic dilemmas' was identified as the main concern of infertile clients. The clients dealt with this concern through a series of strategies that included gradual acceptance of infertility, seeking information and consultation, pursuing treatment, focusing on saving the marriage, self-control and resilience and fighting inner turmoil. All these approaches suggest 'protecting personal and family identity' as the core concept. The findings highlight the need for the health care system to treat infertility as a broad concept than mere individual and biological dysfunction.

  5. Staying theoretically sensitive when conducting grounded theory research.

    PubMed

    Reay, Gudrun; Bouchal, Shelley Raffin; A Rankin, James

    2016-09-01

    Background Grounded theory (GT) is founded on the premise that underlying social patterns can be discovered and conceptualised into theories. The method and need for theoretical sensitivity are best understood in the historical context in which GT was developed. Theoretical sensitivity entails entering the field with no preconceptions, so as to remain open to the data and the emerging theory. Investigators also read literature from other fields to understand various ways to construct theories. Aim To explore the concept of theoretical sensitivity from a classical GT perspective, and discuss the ontological and epistemological foundations of GT. Discussion Difficulties in remaining theoretically sensitive throughout research are discussed and illustrated with examples. Emergence - the idea that theory and substance will emerge from the process of comparing data - and staying open to the data are emphasised. Conclusion Understanding theoretical sensitivity as an underlying guiding principle of GT helps the researcher make sense of important concepts, such as delaying the literature review, emergence and the constant comparative method (simultaneous collection, coding and analysis of data). Implications for practice Theoretical sensitivity and adherence to the GT research method allow researchers to discover theories that can bridge the gap between theory and practice.

  6. A Grounded Theory for Identifying Students with Emotional Disturbance: Promising Practices for Assessment, Intervention, and Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Dori

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative grounded theory study examined how practicing professionals involved in the ED identification process reconstructed the category of "emotional disturbance" as it applied to students in an alternative educational setting. A grounded theory integrates six emergent themes and essentially reframes the existing ED criteria in contemporary…

  7. A Grounded Theory for Identifying Students with Emotional Disturbance: Promising Practices for Assessment, Intervention, and Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Dori

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative grounded theory study examined how practicing professionals involved in the ED identification process reconstructed the category of "emotional disturbance" as it applied to students in an alternative educational setting. A grounded theory integrates six emergent themes and essentially reframes the existing ED criteria in contemporary…

  8. Ensemble Theory for Stealthy Hyperuniform Disordered Ground States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torquato, S.; Zhang, G.; Stillinger, F. H.

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown numerically that systems of particles interacting with isotropic "stealthy" bounded long-ranged pair potentials (similar to Friedel oscillations) have classical ground states that are (counterintuitively) disordered, hyperuniform, and highly degenerate. Disordered hyperuniform systems have received attention recently because they are distinguishable exotic states of matter poised between a crystal and liquid that are endowed with novel thermodynamic and physical properties. The task of formulating an ensemble theory that yields analytical predictions for the structural characteristics and other properties of stealthy degenerate ground states in d -dimensional Euclidean space Rd is highly nontrivial because the dimensionality of the configuration space depends on the number density ρ and there is a multitude of ways of sampling the ground-state manifold, each with its own probability measure for finding a particular ground-state configuration. The purpose of this paper is to take some initial steps in this direction. Specifically, we derive general exact relations for thermodynamic properties (energy, pressure, and isothermal compressibility) that apply to any ground-state ensemble as a function of ρ in any d , and we show how disordered degenerate ground states arise as part of the ground-state manifold. We also derive exact integral conditions that both the pair correlation function g2(r ) and structure factor S (k ) must obey for any d . We then specialize our results to the canonical ensemble (in the zero-temperature limit) by exploiting an ansatz that stealthy states behave remarkably like "pseudo"-equilibrium hard-sphere systems in Fourier space. Our theoretical predictions for g2(r ) and S (k ) are in excellent agreement with computer simulations across the first three space dimensions. These results are used to obtain order metrics, local number variance, and nearest-neighbor functions across dimensions. We also derive accurate analytical

  9. [A Grounded Theory Approach on Nurses' Experience with Workplace Bullying].

    PubMed

    Kang, Jiyeon; Yun, Seonyoung

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the workplace bullying experience of Korean nurses. Participants were twenty current or former hospital nurses who had experienced workplace bullying. Data were collected through focus group and individual in-depth interviews from February to May, 2015. Theoretical sampling method was applied to the point of theoretical saturation. Transcribed interview contents were analyzed using Corbin and Strauss's grounded theory method. A total of 110 concepts, 48 sub-categories, and 17 categories were identified through the open coding process. As a result of axial coding based on the paradigm model, the central phenomenon of nurses' workplace bullying experience was revealed as 'teaching that has become bullying', and the core category was extracted as 'surviving in love-hate teaching' consisting of a four-step process: confronting reality, trial and error, relationship formation, and settlement. The relationship formation was considered to be the key phase to proceed to the positive settlement phase, and the participants utilized various strategies such as having an open mind, developing human relationships, understanding each other in this phase. The in-depth understanding of the workplace bullying experience has highlighted the importance of effective communication for cultivating desirable human relationships between nurses.

  10. How does an increase in undergraduate teaching load affect GP teacher motivation? A grounded theory study using data from a new medical school.

    PubMed

    Harding, Alex; Sweeney, Grace

    2013-07-01

    The opening of a new medical school is a cause for celebration. Starting with a clean slate often gives the opportunity to adopt more modern teaching practices. However, encouraging large numbers of clinicians to start teaching and to adopt these new methods brings its own set of challenges. During the expansion phase of a new medical school, it was often noted that new teachers seemed to have considerable difficulties, and often expressed these as negativity towards student placements. This did not chime with much of the work from established schools, which seemed to evaluate expansion of teaching more positively. We wanted to better understand the issues involved. Semi-structured interviews were conducted involving GPs who had received medical students over the first four years of a newly established medical school. The aims were to assess the impact of the students on the new teachers, and to try to better understand why some teachers were experiencing difficulties. We collected qualitative and quantitative data at the interviews. The qualitative data were analysed using grounded theory which aims to link emerging themes together. The findings suggest that as the quantity of teaching medical students increases, the enjoyment and commitment to teaching may decrease. Concerns over the administration of teaching may begin to predominate. Two factors may help to reduce this: 1 Adequate investment in manpower and premises to reduce time and space constraints on teaching. 2 Practices considering themselves as teaching practices where education is a part of the practice identity.

  11. Being, knowing, and doing: a phronetic approach to constructing grounded theory with Aboriginal Australian partners.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Roxanne; Whiteside, Mary; McCalman, Janya

    2013-02-01

    Researchers working with Aboriginal Australian partners are confronted with an array of historical, social, and political complexities which make it difficult to come to theoretical and methodological decisions. In this article, we describe a culturally safe and respectful framework that maintains the intellectual and theoretical rigor expected of academic research. As an Aboriginal woman and two non-Aboriginal women, we discuss the arguments and some of the challenges of using grounded theory methods in Aboriginal Australian contexts, giving examples from our studies of Aboriginal empowerment processes. We argue that the ethics of care and responsibility embedded in Aboriginal research methodologies fit well with grounded theory studies of Aboriginal social processes. We maintain that theory development grounded in data provides useful insights into the processes for raising the health, well-being, and prosperity of Aboriginal Australians.

  12. Using Grounded Theory to Understand Resiliency in Pre-Teen Children of High-Conflict Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomrenke, Marlene

    2007-01-01

    Using grounded theory, this study identified factors that contributed to children's ability to utilize their resilient attributes. Children between the ages of 9 and 12 from high-conflict separated or divorced families participated in a study that examined how family and community interactions promote resilient behaviour. Substantive-level theory…

  13. Doing the Things We Do: A Grounded Theory of Academic Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraw, Gregory; Wadkins, Theresa; Olafson, Lori

    2007-01-01

    The authors conducted a grounded theory study of academic procrastination to explore adaptive and maladaptive aspects of procrastination and to help guide future empirical research. They discuss previous research on the definition and dimensionality of procrastination and describe the study in which interview data were collected in 4 stages,…

  14. Teachers' Perceived Influences on Technology Integration Decisions: A Grounded Theory on Instructional Decisions after Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhaus, Karen Larsen

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative grounded theory study explored teachers' instructional decisions around planning and practice for technology integration after participation in professional development. The purpose of this study was to determine how a long-term hybrid professional development experience influenced, if at all, math teachers' instructional…

  15. Doing the Things We Do: A Grounded Theory of Academic Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraw, Gregory; Wadkins, Theresa; Olafson, Lori

    2007-01-01

    The authors conducted a grounded theory study of academic procrastination to explore adaptive and maladaptive aspects of procrastination and to help guide future empirical research. They discuss previous research on the definition and dimensionality of procrastination and describe the study in which interview data were collected in 4 stages,…

  16. A Grounded Theory of Collaborative Synchronizing in Relation to Challenging Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multiprofessional collaboration as well as collaboration between professionals and challenging students and their parents in which the focus for these collaborations was on handling the challenging students' academic and social behavior. A grounded theory study of collaboration between a prereferral…

  17. Teachers' Perceived Influences on Technology Integration Decisions: A Grounded Theory on Instructional Decisions after Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhaus, Karen Larsen

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative grounded theory study explored teachers' instructional decisions around planning and practice for technology integration after participation in professional development. The purpose of this study was to determine how a long-term hybrid professional development experience influenced, if at all, math teachers' instructional…

  18. Residents' Interaction with Their College Living-Learning Peer Mentor: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Jonathan Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This study used Strauss and Corbin's (1998) grounded theory model to describe and explain the stories of residents' interactions with their peer mentor, in a health, education, and human development living-learning community (LLC). The question answered in this study was: What is the impact of the interaction between a peer mentor and…

  19. A Grounded Theory of Collaborative Synchronizing in Relation to Challenging Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multiprofessional collaboration as well as collaboration between professionals and challenging students and their parents in which the focus for these collaborations was on handling the challenging students' academic and social behavior. A grounded theory study of collaboration between a prereferral…

  20. Empowering families by engaging and relating Murri way: a grounded theory study of the implementation of the Cape York Baby Basket program.

    PubMed

    McCalman, Janya; Searles, Andrew; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Ham, Rachael; Mein, Jacki; Neville, Johanna; Campbell, Sandra; Tsey, Komla

    2015-05-21

    Evaluating program outcomes without considering how the program was implemented can cause misunderstandings and inefficiencies when initiating program improvements. In conjunction with a program evaluation, reported elsewhere, this paper theorises the process of implementing an Indigenous Australian maternal and child health program. The Baby Basket program was developed in 2009 for the remote Cape York region and aimed to improve the attendance and engagement of Indigenous women at antenatal and postnatal clinics through providing three baskets of maternal and baby goods and associated health education. Constructivist grounded theory methods were used to generate and analyse data from qualitative interviews and focus groups with Indigenous women who received the baskets, their extended family members, and healthcare workers who delivered them. Data was coded in NVivo with concepts iteratively compared until higher order constructs and their relationships could be modelled to explain the common purpose for participants, the process involved in achieving that purpose, key strategies, conditions and outcomes. Theoretical terms are italicised. Program implementation entailed empowering families through a process of engaging and relating Murri (Queensland Indigenous) way. Key influencing conditions of the social environment were the remoteness of communities, keeping up with demand, families' knowledge, skills and roles and organisational service approaches and capacities. Engaging and relating Murri way occurred through four strategies: connecting through practical support, creating a culturally safe practice, becoming informed and informing others, and linking at the clinic. These strategies resulted in women and families taking responsibility for health through making healthy choices, becoming empowered health consumers and advocating for community changes. The theoretical model was applied to improve and revise Baby Basket program implementation, including

  1. Quality of life in schizophrenia: A grounded theory approach

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Louise; Pearce, Emma; Jackson, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Background Research into health related quality of life (HRQoL) in schizophrenia has predominantly been conducted using lengthy interviewer administered questionnaires, many of which have not been validated for use with schizophrenic samples. The present study seeks to address the dearth of qualitative research by conducting a small-scale qualitative exploration of the impact of schizophrenia on HRQoL. Method The study was conducted using the qualitative approach of grounded theory. Six individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia participated (3 men, 3 women). Mean age of participants was 33.3 years (range 20–55), mean length of illness was 12 years (range 2–38 years) and average length of interviews was 47 minutes (range 20–70). Results Ten HRQoL domains were identified as being important: (1) barriers placed on relationships; (2) reduced control of behaviours and actions; (3) loss of opportunity to fulfil occupational roles; (4) financial constraints on activities and plans; (5) subjective experience of psychotic symptoms; (6) side effects and attitudes to medication; (7) psychological responses to living with schizophrenia; (8) labelling and attitudes from others; (9) concerns for the future and (10) positive outcomes from experiences. Conclusions Domains identified by participants encompassed a wide range of factors that may be expected to contribute generally to engaging in a positive quality of life. Participants identified that it was the loss of these things as a direct consequence of having schizophrenia that influenced their HRQoL. It would appear that in the main, factors that are secondary to the experience of schizophrenia are of most importance to participants. Suggestions are also made in the discussion for future research. PMID:12952542

  2. Sense of self and anorexia nervosa: A grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Williams, Karen; King, Jane; Fox, John R E

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the nature of the relationship between the self and the eating disorder in individuals with a lifetime history of anorexia nervosa (AN). A qualitative design was used, given the exploratory nature of the study and the need to gain rich and in-depth data regarding the topic under investigation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 women with a lifetime history of AN. Interview transcripts were analysed using constructivist grounded theory methodology. A theoretical framework of the nature of the relationship between the self and AN was developed, which included five related categories: AN taking over the self, AN protecting the self, sharing the self with AN, being no one without AN, and discovering the real me (accepting the fear). Participants described a process of the self being taken over by AN to the point where it was shared with the eating disorder. This led participants to fear being no one without AN and to be unable to let go of the disorder, appreciating AN's ability to protect the self. To recover from AN, participants had to discover the real self, by accepting the fear of the unknown and separating the self from AN. The findings have important implications for the target of therapeutic interventions to improve recovery rates. The self is shared with the eating disorder in AN, and separating the self from AN is crucial to recover from the disorder. Therapeutic interventions for AN need to target the enmeshed relationship between the self and the eating disorder, as opposed to focusing exclusively on weight and shape concerns. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  3. A Brush with Research: Teaching Grounded Theory in the Art and Design Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Mike; Barrett, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Grounded Theory is a systematic approach to social research that allows for new concepts and theories to emerge from gathered data, as opposed to relying on either established theory or personal conjecture to interpret social processes. Although Grounded Theory is a well-known method within social science literature, it is relatively unknown in…

  4. Methodological tools for the collection and analysis of participant observation data using grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, Heleena; Kaunonen, Marja; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2014-11-01

    To give clarity to the analysis of participant observation in nursing when implementing the grounded theory method. Participant observation (PO) is a method of collecting data that reveals the reality of daily life in a specific context. In grounded theory, interviews are the primary method of collecting data but PO gives a distinctive insight, revealing what people are really doing, instead of what they say they are doing. However, more focus is needed on the analysis of PO. An observational study carried out to gain awareness of nursing care and its electronic documentation in four acute care wards in hospitals in Finland. Discussion of using the grounded theory method and PO as a data collection tool. The following methodological tools are discussed: an observational protocol, jotting of notes, microanalysis, the use of questioning, constant comparison, and writing and illustrating. Each tool has specific significance in collecting and analysing data, working in constant interaction. Grounded theory and participant observation supplied rich data and revealed the complexity of the daily reality of acute care. In this study, the methodological tools provided a base for the study at the research sites and outside. The process as a whole was challenging. It was time-consuming and it required rigorous and simultaneous data collection and analysis, including reflective writing. Using these methodological tools helped the researcher stay focused from data collection and analysis to building theory. Using PO as a data collection method in qualitative nursing research provides insights. It is not commonly discussed in nursing research and therefore this study can provide insight, which cannot be seen or revealed by using other data collection methods. Therefore, this paper can produce a useful tool for those who intend to use PO and grounded theory in their nursing research.

  5. Theorizing Teachers' Perspectives on an EFL Textbook for Public High Schools of Iran: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namaghi, Seyyed Ali Ostovar; Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Saboor; Tajzad, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore language teachers' perspectives on Iranian third grade senior high school EFL textbook, which is prescribed by the Ministry of Education. In data collection and analysis, the researchers used theoretical sampling and the coding schemes presented in grounded theory. Final analysis yielded "Negative…

  6. Women's Bodies as a "Puzzle" for College Men: Grounded Theory Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Patricia Barthalow

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the level of college men's understanding about women's bodies (i.e., reproductive anatomy and physiology) in order to structure learning experiences of most relevance and interest to them. A grounded theory research design, using the constant comparative method, was used in order to gain a deeper…

  7. "Being the Faculty Face": A Grounded Theory of Living-Learning Program Faculty Motives and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drechsler Sharp, Marybeth

    2012-01-01

    Few evident incentives exist for faculty to become involved with living-learning programs. The purpose of this constructivist grounded theory study was to investigate the motives and experiences of faculty members working with living-learning programs at doctoral-granting research institutions. Illuminating the experiences of living-learning…

  8. How Robotics Programs Influence Young Women's Career Choices: A Grounded Theory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Cecilia Dosh-Bluhm

    2014-01-01

    The fields of engineering, computer science, and physics have a paucity of women despite decades of intervention by universities and organizations. Women's graduation rates in these fields continue to stagnate, posing a critical problem for society. This qualitative grounded theory (GT) study sought to understand how robotics programs influenced…

  9. "The Complexity of Experience": A Grounded Theory Exploration of Scholarly Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falciani-White, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This grounded theory study explores the ways in which scholars conduct their research, including how they find and organize resources, how they identify and work with collaborators, how they interact with technology during the course of their research, and how they disseminate the results of a research project. Nine scholars were interviewed…

  10. Perspectives on the Aetiology of ODD and CD: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Patrick; Sanders, James; Hagen, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are common reasons for youth to be seen for clinical intervention. The intent of this constructivist grounded theory study was to evaluate clinicians' perspectives on the aetiology of antisocial disorders. Six professionals from various professional…

  11. The First-Year University Experience for Sexual Minority Students: A Grounded Theory Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alessi, Edward J.; Sapiro, Beth; Kahn, Sarilee; Craig, Shelley L.

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study used grounded theory to understand the role of minority stress on the first-year experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning emerging adults attending a university in the Northeastern part of the United States. Twenty-one lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning sophomores participated in focus groups…

  12. A Grounded Theory of Counselor Educators Integrating Social Justice into Their Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odegard, Melissa A.; Vereen, Linwood G.

    2010-01-01

    The topic of social justice has received considerable attention in the counseling literature; however, little empirical research exists. This grounded theory study examined 4 counselor educators' process of integrating social justice constructs into their pedagogy. Data analysis revealed 4 primary experiences that emerged in the participants'…

  13. "Being the Faculty Face": A Grounded Theory of Living-Learning Program Faculty Motives and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drechsler Sharp, Marybeth

    2012-01-01

    Few evident incentives exist for faculty to become involved with living-learning programs. The purpose of this constructivist grounded theory study was to investigate the motives and experiences of faculty members working with living-learning programs at doctoral-granting research institutions. Illuminating the experiences of living-learning…

  14. School Counselors Walking the Walk and Talking the Talk: A Grounded Theory of Effective Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarborough, Janna L.; Luke, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive, developmental school counseling programming has been associated with numerous benefits for students and is considered current best practice. A qualitative, grounded theory study was conducted to investigate eight professional school counselors employed across grade level, geographic setting, and region within the United States. This…

  15. Applying Grounded Theory to Weight Management among Women: Making a Commitment to Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Ivankova, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    In this study we developed a theory grounded in data from women who continued healthy eating behaviors after a weight management program. Participant recruitment was guided by theoretical sampling strategies for focus groups and individual interviews. Inclusion criteria were: African American or Caucasian women aged 30+ who lost [greater than or…

  16. A Grounded Theory of Connectivity and Persistence in a Limited Residency Doctoral Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Steven R.; Snyder, Martha M.; Dringus, Laurie P.; Maddrey, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Limited-residency and online doctoral programs have an attrition rate significantly higher than traditional programs. This grounded-theory study focused on issues pertaining to communication between students, their peers and faculty and how interpersonal communication may affect persistence. Data were collected from 17 students actively working on…

  17. Conceptualization of Calling: A Grounded Theory Exploration of CCCU Women Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longman, Karen A.; Dahlvig, Jolyn; Wikkerink, Richard J.; Cunningham, Debra; O'Connor, Candy M.

    2011-01-01

    This grounded theory study provides a conceptualization of the role of calling in women's leadership development based on semistructured interviews with 16 female leaders in the Council for Christian Colleges & Universities. Centered in the participants knowing and using their unique talents and strengths, which were often viewed as being…

  18. Reading Comprehension Profiles of High-Functioning Students on the Autism Spectrum: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Pamela; Carnahan, Christina R.; Jacobs, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, this study sought to understand what influences reading comprehension and how meaning is made from text among high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a think-aloud procedure, 13 individuals ages 7-13 with ASD read 16 passages at their instructional reading level.…

  19. The First-Year University Experience for Sexual Minority Students: A Grounded Theory Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alessi, Edward J.; Sapiro, Beth; Kahn, Sarilee; Craig, Shelley L.

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study used grounded theory to understand the role of minority stress on the first-year experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning emerging adults attending a university in the Northeastern part of the United States. Twenty-one lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning sophomores participated in focus groups…

  20. "The Complexity of Experience": A Grounded Theory Exploration of Scholarly Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falciani-White, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This grounded theory study explores the ways in which scholars conduct their research, including how they find and organize resources, how they identify and work with collaborators, how they interact with technology during the course of their research, and how they disseminate the results of a research project. Nine scholars were interviewed…

  1. Executive Function and Reading Aptitude: A Grounded Theory Analysis of Teacher Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study investigated teacher perspectives on the relationship between executive function and reading aptitude. The influence of executive function may be underestimated in terms of its impact on reading aptitude, which could have significant implications on how reading aptitude is currently defined. The foundational…

  2. A Grounded Theory of Counselor Educators Integrating Social Justice into Their Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odegard, Melissa A.; Vereen, Linwood G.

    2010-01-01

    The topic of social justice has received considerable attention in the counseling literature; however, little empirical research exists. This grounded theory study examined 4 counselor educators' process of integrating social justice constructs into their pedagogy. Data analysis revealed 4 primary experiences that emerged in the participants'…

  3. Executive Function and Reading Aptitude: A Grounded Theory Analysis of Teacher Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study investigated teacher perspectives on the relationship between executive function and reading aptitude. The influence of executive function may be underestimated in terms of its impact on reading aptitude, which could have significant implications on how reading aptitude is currently defined. The foundational…

  4. Leading Effective Educational Technology in K-12 School Districts: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Lara Gillian C.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic grounded theory qualitative study was conducted investigating the process of effectively leading educational technology in New Jersey public K-12 school districts. Data were collected from educational technology district leaders (whether formal or non-formal administrators) and central administrators through a semi-structured online…

  5. Reading Comprehension Profiles of High-Functioning Students on the Autism Spectrum: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Pamela; Carnahan, Christina R.; Jacobs, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, this study sought to understand what influences reading comprehension and how meaning is made from text among high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a think-aloud procedure, 13 individuals ages 7-13 with ASD read 16 passages at their instructional reading level.…

  6. A Grounded Theory of Text Revision Processes Used by Young Adolescents Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuknis, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the revising processes used by 8 middle school students who are deaf or hard-of-hearing as they composed essays for their English classes. Using grounded theory, interviews with students and teachers in one middle school, observations of the students engaging in essay creation, and writing samples were collected for analysis.…

  7. How Robotics Programs Influence Young Women's Career Choices: A Grounded Theory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Cecilia Dosh-Bluhm

    2014-01-01

    The fields of engineering, computer science, and physics have a paucity of women despite decades of intervention by universities and organizations. Women's graduation rates in these fields continue to stagnate, posing a critical problem for society. This qualitative grounded theory (GT) study sought to understand how robotics programs influenced…

  8. Perspectives on the Aetiology of ODD and CD: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Patrick; Sanders, James; Hagen, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are common reasons for youth to be seen for clinical intervention. The intent of this constructivist grounded theory study was to evaluate clinicians' perspectives on the aetiology of antisocial disorders. Six professionals from various professional…

  9. The Process of Social Identity Development in Adolescent High School Choral Singers: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to describe the process of adolescent choral singers' social identity development within three midsized, midwestern high school mixed choirs. Forty-nine interviews were conducted with 36 different participants. Secondary data sources included memoing, observations, and interviews with the choir…

  10. The kaleidoscopic midwife: A conceptual metaphor illustrating first-time mothers' perspectives of a good midwife during childbirth. A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, Sara E; Spiby, Helen; Walsh, Denis

    2016-08-01

    The literature review reveals general information about a good midwife from a range of perspectives and what childbearing women generally value in a midwife, but there is a lack of information around mothers' perspectives of what makes a good midwife specifically during labour and birth, and even less in the context of different places of birth. To conceptualise first-time mothers' expectations and experiences of a good midwife during childbirth in the context of different birthplaces. Qualitative Straussian grounded theory methodology. Three National Health Service Trusts in England providing maternity care that offered women the possibility of giving birth in different settings (home, freestanding midwifery unit and obstetric unit). Fourteen first-time mothers in good general health with a straightforward singleton pregnancy anticipating a normal birth. Ethical approval was gained. Data were collected through two semi-structured interviews for each participant (before and after birth). Data analysis included the processes of coding and conceptualising data, with constant comparison between data, literature and memos. The model named 'The kaleidoscopic midwife: a conceptual metaphor illustrating first-time mothers' perspectives of a good midwife during childbirth' was developed. The model is dynamic and woman-centred, and is operationalised as the midwife adapts to each woman's individual needs in the context of each specific labour. Four pillars of intrapartum care were identified for a good midwife in the labour continuum: promoting individuality; supporting embodied limbo; helping to go with the flow; providing information and guidance. The metaphor of a kaleidoscopic figure is used to describe a midwife who is 'multi-coloured' and ever changing in the light of the woman's individual needs, expectations and labour journey, in order to create an environment that enables her to move forward despite the uncertainty and the expectations-experiences gap. The

  11. Multiconfiguration Pair-Density Functional Theory Outperforms Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory and Multireference Perturbation Theory for Ground-State and Excited-State Charge Transfer.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soumen; Sonnenberger, Andrew L; Hoyer, Chad E; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura

    2015-08-11

    The correct description of charge transfer in ground and excited states is very important for molecular interactions, photochemistry, electrochemistry, and charge transport, but it is very challenging for Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT). KS-DFT exchange-correlation functionals without nonlocal exchange fail to describe both ground- and excited-state charge transfer properly. We have recently proposed a theory called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), which is based on a combination of multiconfiguration wave function theory with a new type of density functional called an on-top density functional. Here we have used MC-PDFT to study challenging ground- and excited-state charge-transfer processes by using on-top density functionals obtained by translating KS exchange-correlation functionals. For ground-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT performs better than either the PBE exchange-correlation functional or CASPT2 wave function theory. For excited-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT (unlike KS-DFT) shows qualitatively correct behavior at long-range with great improvement in predicted excitation energies.

  12. Grounded theory in medical laboratory science expert practice development.

    PubMed

    Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer

    2011-01-01

    Grounded theory and methods related to expert practice development in medical laboratory science were described using data from a large national survey of medical laboratory scientists (MLS) overlaid on findings from analysis of expert practice domains reported in nursing literature. An extensive focus group/expert review iterative process followed by a survey of MLS practitioners produced 25 critical thinking (CT) behaviors important in expert practice. Factor analysis was applied to discern common threads or themes linking the CT behaviors. The 25 important CT behaviors were reduced to a 7-factor structure representing constructs underlying the individual, observable CT behaviors. This 7-factor structure in MLS was compared to the 7 practice domains identified in expert nursing practice. The comparison yielded commonality between MLS and nursing in CT behaviors observed in the 7 expert practice domains of both professions: professional techniques, caring communication, growing professionally, setting priorities, practicing with judgment, anticipating/revising, and creating unique meaning. Emergent grounded theory is that (1) critical thinking is a metaprocess that facilitates learning by interlinking the more basic processes associated with different learning orientations: cognitivist, behaviorist, humanist (affective), and situated/contextual learning, (2) CT behaviors are observable events following from the CT metaprocess, and (3) observations of CT behaviors increase as practice advances from novice to expert. Identification and definition of CT behaviors, i.e., practice competencies, along the continuum of novice to expert can serve as the foundation for MLS curriculum and instructional design as well as measurement and evaluation in both formal and continuing education settings.

  13. Recent ground motion studies at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.; Volk, J.; Singatulin, S.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2009-04-01

    Understanding slow and fast ground motion is important for the successful operation and design for present and future colliders. Since 2000 there have been several studies of ground motion at Fermilab. Several different types of HLS (hydro static level sensors) have been used to study slow ground motion (less than 1 hertz) seismometers have been used for fast (greater than 1 hertz) motions. Data have been taken at the surface and at locations 100 meters below the surface. Data of recent slow ground motion measurements with HLSs, many years of alignment data and results of the ATL-analysis are presented and discussed.

  14. A Lifespan Perspective on Cooperative Education Learning: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study sits at the intersection of two trends in vocational education. The first trend is a narrative approach to understanding cooperative education learning; the second is a movement away from career development theories toward the view that individuals use work experiences to help construct their lives. Both trends view learning…

  15. Understanding the Conceptual Development Phase of Applied Theory-Building Research: A Grounded Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a provisional grounded theory of conceptual development for applied theory-building research. The theory described here extends the understanding of the components of conceptual development and provides generalized relations among the components. The conceptual development phase of theory-building research has been widely…

  16. The Identification of Factors Affecting the Development and Practice of School-Based Counseling in Different National Contexts: A Grounded Theory Study Using a Worldwide Sample of Descriptive Journal Articles and Book Chapters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ian; Lauterbach, Alexandra; Carey, John

    2015-01-01

    A grounded theory methodology was used to analyze articles and book chapters describing the development and practice of school-based counseling in 25 different countries in order to identify the factors that affect development and practice. An 11-factor analytic framework was developed. Factors include: Cultural Factors, National Needs, Larger…

  17. The Identification of Factors Affecting the Development and Practice of School-Based Counseling in Different National Contexts: A Grounded Theory Study Using a Worldwide Sample of Descriptive Journal Articles and Book Chapters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ian; Lauterbach, Alexandra; Carey, John

    2015-01-01

    A grounded theory methodology was used to analyze articles and book chapters describing the development and practice of school-based counseling in 25 different countries in order to identify the factors that affect development and practice. An 11-factor analytic framework was developed. Factors include: Cultural Factors, National Needs, Larger…

  18. Containing acute childhood illness within family life: a substantive grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Neill, Sarah J

    2010-12-01

    Acute childhood illness is a universal experience for children and families. This paper presents the central process of a Glaserian grounded theory study which explored family management of acute childhood illness at home. Twenty-nine interviews were conducted with 15 families of children 0-9 years of age. Constant comparative analysis generated the substantive grounded theory 'Containing acute childhood illness within family life'. This informal social rule was identified from families' persistent desire to do the right thing, for their child and in the eyes of others in social life. Families perceived that they were expected to contain illnesses which are defined as minor and to seek medical help for 'real' illnesses. Considerable uncertainty was evident around defining the illness and the legitimacy of seeking medical help. Their concern with the latter indicates doctors' role as moral agents for parents' behaviour, directing the containment of acute childhood illness.

  19. Psychosocial Intervention Use in Long-Stay Dementia Care: A Classic Grounded Theory.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Andrew; Keady, John; Casey, Dympna; Grealish, Annmarie; Murphy, Kathy

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a substantive grounded theory of staff psychosocial intervention use with residents with dementia in long-stay care. "Becoming a person again" emerged as the core category accounting for staffs' psychosocial intervention use within long-stay care. Interview data were collected from participants in nine Irish long-stay settings: 14 residents with dementia, 19 staff nurses, one clinical facilitator, seven nurse managers, 21 nursing assistants, and five relatives. Constant comparative method guided the data collection and analysis. The researcher's theoretical memos, based on unstructured observation, and applicable extant literature were also included as data. By identifying the mutuality of the participants' experiences, this classic grounded theory explains staff motivation toward psychosocial intervention use within long-stay care. It also explains how institutional factors interact with those personal factors that incline individuals toward psychosocial intervention use.

  20. Grounded Theory: Managing the Challenge for Those Facing Institutional Review Board Oversight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary Katherine; Netting, F. Ellen; Thomas, M. Lori

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine one of the earliest systematic forms of qualitative inquiry to identify some of the boundaries needed in grounded theory designs to provide a small corner of clarity in the discourse about what is acceptable science from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) perspective. Beginning with an overview of grounded theory research as…

  1. The symbol-grounding problem in numerical cognition: A review of theory, evidence, and outstanding questions.

    PubMed

    Leibovich, Tali; Ansari, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    How do numerical symbols, such as number words, acquire semantic meaning? This question, also referred to as the "symbol-grounding problem," is a central problem in the field of numerical cognition. Present theories suggest that symbols acquire their meaning by being mapped onto an approximate system for the nonsymbolic representation of number (Approximate Number System or ANS). In the present literature review, we first asked to which extent current behavioural and neuroimaging data support this theory, and second, to which extent the ANS, upon which symbolic numbers are assumed to be grounded, is numerical in nature. We conclude that (a) current evidence that has examined the association between the ANS and number symbols does not support the notion that number symbols are grounded in the ANS and (b) given the strong correlation between numerosity and continuous variables in nonsymbolic number processing tasks, it is next to impossible to measure the pure association between symbolic and nonsymbolic numerosity. Instead, it is clear that significant cognitive control resources are required to disambiguate numerical from continuous variables during nonsymbolic number processing. Thus, if there exists any mapping between the ANS and symbolic number, then this process of association must be mediated by cognitive control. Taken together, we suggest that studying the role of both cognitive control and continuous variables in numerosity comparison tasks will provide a more complete picture of the symbol-grounding problem. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Building bridges to observational perspectives: a grounded theory of therapy processes in psychosis.

    PubMed

    Dilks, Sarah; Tasker, Fiona; Wren, Bernadette

    2008-06-01

    This study set out to explore therapy processes in psychosis with an initial focus on reflexivity and how this might be expressed in therapy conversations. Leiman's (2000) definition of reflexivity was used as a starting-point for an exploratory investigation of the use of language as reflective activity. Grounded theory was chosen as an appropriate methodology to distil an explanatory account across the qualitative data collected. Six psychologist-client pairs supplied three tapes of therapy sessions spread out across the course of therapy. Each participant was separately interviewed on two occasions to ascertain their views of therapy and of the emerging grounded theory. A grounded theory was developed conceptualizing the processes and activities in psychological therapy in psychosis. Building bridges to observational perspectives summarizes the core process in psychological therapy in psychosis. Therapy in psychosis is understood as intimately linking the social and internal world in a dialogical process aimed at enhancing the client's functioning in the social world rather than at specifically developing the private mental experience of reflexivity or mentalizing.

  3. 'Veiling sexualities': a grounded theory of mental health nurses responses to issues of sexuality.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Agnes; Barker, Phil; Begley, Cecily M

    2008-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study to develop a grounded theory explaining how mental health nurses respond to issues of sexuality in clinical practice. The history of sexuality and people with mental health problems has largely been a history shrouded in misunderstanding, stigma, myth and negativity. However, individuals with mental health problems may experience sexuality and relationship difficulties related to their life experiences, mental illness, or its treatment. Grounded theory was the methodology used for the study. Interviews were conducted in 2005-2006 with 27 mental health nurses working an urban area in the Republic of Ireland. Data were analysed using the concurrent processes of constant comparative analysis, data collection, theoretical sampling and memo writing. The core category to emerge from the data was 'veiling sexualities'. This refers to participants' accounts of how they responded to the sexuality dimension of clients' lives. Participants' main concerns about sexuality were related to feelings of personal and professional vulnerability, due to a lack of competence, comfort and confidence in this area. The theory highlights the manner in which nurses perpetuate practices that marginalize, discriminate and socially exclude clients as 'sexual citizens'. The theory of Veiled Sexualities may facilitate acknowledgement of the presence of sexuality in all nurse-client encounters, and promote a discourse on the sexual rights of people experiencing mental distress among mental health nurses and all involved in the delivery of mental health services.

  4. On the ground state of Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bakry, Ahmed S.; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > The ground state overlap for sets of meson potential trial states is measured. > Non-uniform gluonic distributions are probed via Wilson loop operator. > The locally UV-regulated flux-tube operators can optimize the ground state overlap. - Abstract: We investigate the overlap of the ground state meson potential with sets of mesonic-trial wave functions corresponding to different gluonic distributions. We probe the transverse structure of the flux tube through the creation of non-uniform smearing profiles for the string of glue connecting two color sources in Wilson loop operator. The non-uniformly UV-regulated flux-tube operators are found to optimize the overlap with the ground state and display interesting features in the ground state overlap.

  5. A Grounded Theory Study of the Risks and Benefits Associated with the Use of Online Social Networking Applications in a Military Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, James O., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    There is a perception that there are risks and benefits associated with the use of online social networking media within a military organization. This research study explored this perception by investigating how employees use social networking applications and their perceptions of the benefits they receive. The study also assessed the measures…

  6. A Grounded Theory Study of the Risks and Benefits Associated with the Use of Online Social Networking Applications in a Military Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, James O., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    There is a perception that there are risks and benefits associated with the use of online social networking media within a military organization. This research study explored this perception by investigating how employees use social networking applications and their perceptions of the benefits they receive. The study also assessed the measures…

  7. The game of science: A grounded theory of the Cafe Scientifique experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabe, Lisa A.

    Science Cafes are independent groups organized throughout the world for discussion of scientific topics. Little is known about the nature of this informal learning environment. A grounded-theory study was conducted to determine what attendees perceived as the essential qualities of the Cafe Scientifique experience in one science Cafe in the Western United States. Interviews with 12 attendees were transcribed and analyzed using ATLAS-ti. Concept maps and a grounded theory describing the essential characteristics were created. Member checking was used during theory generation. Findings are described in the context of a game metaphor, whereby scientific discussion at the Cafe is viewed as an intellectual game. The grounded theory describes the game of science being played at Cafe Scientifique involving attendees as players, social norms as rules for the game, an expert as the steward of truth, topics as the content for game play, interaction as playing of the game, and intellectual stimulation as the prize for playing. During the game, ideas were identified through a short presentation followed by a question-and-answer session. During this exchange, attendees heard about, analyzed, synthesized, and applied new information. As a result of the game play, players won a prize---intellectual stimulation. The Cafe Scientifique phenomenon provides insight into informal adult education. This study suggests the need for additional study of intellectual play in adult education, the role of curiosity and desire to explore new ways of thinking, and the developmental drive in adults to seek intellectual stimulation. The essential characteristics of Cafe Scientifique may be transferable to other informal adult-education settings.

  8. Developing the Art of Becoming a Couple: A Grounded Theory Study of the Positive Influence of "Married and Loving It!"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Barbara D.

    2010-01-01

    Couples can improve their marriages by implementing relationship building skills they learn while participating in a marriage education program. This study addresses how marriages improved as a result of participating in the marriage education program, Married and Loving It![R] and what specific components of the learning experience facilitated…

  9. Career preference theory: A grounded theory describing the effects of undergraduate career preferences on student persistence in engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettinger, Karen Marie

    This study used grounded theory in a case study at a large public research university to develop a theory about how the culture in engineering education affects students with varying interests and backgrounds. According to Career Preference Theory, the engineering education system has evolved to meet the needs of one type of student, the Physical Scientist. While this educational process serves to develop the next generation of engineering faculty members, the majority of engineering undergraduates go on to work as practicing engineers, and are far removed from working as physical scientists. According to Career Preference Theory, students with a history of success in mathematics and sciences, and a focus on career, enter engineering. These students, who actually have a wide range of interests and values, each begin seeking an identity as a practicing engineer. Career Preference Theory is developed around a concept, Career Identity Type, that describes five different types of engineering students: Pragmatic, Physical Scientist, "Social" Scientist, Designer, and Educator. According to the theory, each student must develop an identity within the engineering education system if they are to persist in engineering. However, the current undergraduate engineering education system has evolved in such a way that it meets only the needs of the Physical Scientist. Pragmatic students are also likely to succeed because they tend to be extremely goal-focused and maintain a focus on the rewards they will receive once they graduate with an engineering degree. However, "Social" Scientists, who value interpersonal relationships and giving back to society; Designers, who value integrating ideas across disciplines to create aesthetically pleasing and useful products; and Educators, who have a strong desire to give back to society by working with young people, must make some connection between these values and a future engineering career if they are to persist in engineering. According

  10. Women's journey of recovery from sexual assault trauma: a grounded theory--part 1.

    PubMed

    Duma, S E; Mekwa, J N; Denny, L D

    2007-12-01

    Thousands of women and children experience sexual assault trauma annually in South Africa. The challenge posed by recovery from sexual assault trauma is a reality that confronts the survivors of sexual assault, their families and the larger community of service providers. Yet, little research has been conducted on recovery from sexual assault as a phenomenon. The purpose of the study was to explore and analyse the journey of recovery which is undertaken by women who have been sexually assaulted, with the aim of discovering and developing the grounded theory of recovery from sexual assault trauma within the first six months following the event of rape. The main research question was: What constitutes the journey of recovery undertaken by women within the first six months following sexual assault? A longitudinal qualitative study was conducted using the principles of grounded theory methodology as proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1990, 1998). A series of in-depth one-to-one interviews were conducted with a sample of ten women. The participants were selected through open, purposive and theoretical sampling procedures. The study was conducted over a period of six months following the event of sexual assault. The substantive theory was discovered and constructed through the inductive and deductive analysis of data, grounded on the ten women's descriptions of their journey of recovery from sexual assault. The theory of women's journey of recovery that was discovered and developed consisted of eight theoretical concepts or categories. These included the following concepts: 1. Sexual assault trauma 2. Awakening 3. Pragmatic acceptance 4. Turning point 5. Reclaiming what was lost 6. Defining own landmarks of healing 7. Readiness for closure 8. Returning to self. The grounded theory of the journey of recovery from sexual assault is a contribution to the knowledge about women's journey of recovery from sexual assault. It provides a process and language for understanding women

  11. A common ground in clinical discussion groups: Intersubjective resonance and implicit operational theories.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Ricardo

    2017-03-20

    Clinical discussion groups based on the Three-Level Model for Observing Patient Transformations (3-LM) enable us to reflect on the clinical common ground shared by psychoanalysts who have different theoretical frameworks. The very existence of this common ground is controversial. While analysts such as Wallerstein support it, others, like Green, think it is just a myth. In their 2005 controversy Wallerstein and Green proposed an observation procedure that might clarify this matter. This procedure bears great similarity to the one used by clinical discussion groups that apply the 3-LM. The study of numerous theoretically heterogeneous groups that use this model shows that communication is possible in crucial areas. We may thus conclude that a partial and dynamic common ground exists. At a phenomenological level, certain fragments of material produce a shared resonance that enriches clinical understanding for the whole group. Communication is also possible with regard to the conceptualization of patient changes, although some controversial issues persist at this level. Finally, at the level of theoretical explanations, divergences concerning abstract theories do not prevent a fertile interaction among 'in vivo' personal implicit theories. The latter give rise to the actual operational frameworks underlying participants' approach to clinical problems.

  12. Studies in clustering theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stell, George

    In recent years the properties of percolation models have been studied intensively. The purpose of our project was to develop a general theory of percolation and clustering between particles of arbitrary size and shape, with arbitrary correlations between them. The goal of such a theory includes the treatment of continuum percolation as well as a novel treatment of lattice percolation. We made substantial progress toward this goal. The quantities basic to a description of clustering, the mean cluster size, mean number of clusters, etc., were developed. Concise formulas were given for the terms in such series, and proved, at least for sufficiently low densities, that the series are absolutely convergent. These series can now be used to construct Pade approximants that will allow one to probe the percolation transition. A scaled-particle theory of percolation was developed which gives analytic approximants for the mean number of clusters in a large class of two and three dimensional percolation models. Although this quantity is essential in many applications, e.g., explaining colligative properties, and interpreting low-angle light-scattering data, no systematic studies of it have been done before this work. Recently carried out detailed computer simulations show that the mean number of clusters is given to high accuracy by several of there approximations. Extensions of this work will allow calculation of the complete cluster size distribution.

  13. Ground Truth Studies. Teacher Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Jesse; And Others

    Ground Truth Studies is an interdisciplinary activity-based program that draws on the broad range of sciences that make up the study of global change and the complementary technology of remote sensing. It integrates local environmental issues with global change topics, such as the greenhouse effect, loss of biological diversity, and ozone…

  14. Ground Truth Studies. Teacher Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Jesse; And Others

    Ground Truth Studies is an interdisciplinary activity-based program that draws on the broad range of sciences that make up the study of global change and the complementary technology of remote sensing. It integrates local environmental issues with global change topics, such as the greenhouse effect, loss of biological diversity, and ozone…

  15. Grounded theory as a method for research in speech and language therapy.

    PubMed

    Skeat, J; Perry, A

    2008-01-01

    The use of qualitative methodologies in speech and language therapy has grown over the past two decades, and there is now a body of literature, both generally describing qualitative research, and detailing its applicability to health practice(s). However, there has been only limited profession-specific discussion of qualitative methodologies and their potential application to speech and language therapy. To describe the methodology of grounded theory, and to explain how it might usefully be applied to areas of speech and language research where theoretical frameworks or models are lacking. Grounded theory as a methodology for inductive theory-building from qualitative data is explained and discussed. Some differences between 'modes' of grounded theory are clarified and areas of controversy within the literature are highlighted. The past application of grounded theory to speech and language therapy, and its potential for informing research and clinical practice, are examined. This paper provides an in-depth critique of a qualitative research methodology, including an overview of the main difference between two major 'modes'. The article supports the application of a theory-building approach in the profession, which is sometimes complex to learn and apply, but worthwhile in its results. Grounded theory as a methodology has much to offer speech and language therapists and researchers. Although the majority of research and discussion around this methodology has rested within sociology and nursing, grounded theory can be applied by researchers in any field, including speech and language therapists. The benefit of the grounded theory method to researchers and practitioners lies in its application to social processes and human interactions. The resulting theory may support further research in the speech and language therapy profession.

  16. The role of appraisal distortion, contempt, and morality in couple conflict: a grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Jason B

    2008-01-01

    A common goal of couples' therapy is to help individuals modify their view of each other and the relationship. Distorted views and appraisals contribute to conflict, and these can be manifest by use of rationalization or denial. This study explored appraisal distortion as an evaluative and moral process that occurs during partner conflict, particularly when it becomes contemptuous and aggressive. Using a philosophical base that is grounded in the ethical relationship, a model of appraisal distortion and couple conflict was created using constructivist grounded theory methods. The theoretical concepts derived from the data show relationships between one's relational stance, appraisal distortion, and verbal and physical aggression. This model implies that helping individuals take responsibility for appraisals is important in treating conflict.

  17. Taking Root: a grounded theory on evidence-based nursing implementation in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Broome, M E; Feng, S; Hu, Y

    2017-08-02

    Evidence-based nursing is widely recognized as the critical foundation for quality care. To develop a middle-range theory on the process of evidence-based nursing implementation in Chinese context. A grounded theory study using unstructured in-depth individual interviews was conducted with 56 participants who were involved in 24 evidence-based nursing implementation projects in Mainland China from September 2015 to September 2016. A middle-range grounded theory of 'Taking Root' was developed. The theory describes the evidence implementation process consisting of four components (driving forces, process, outcome, sustainment/regression), three approaches (top-down, bottom-up and outside-in), four implementation strategies (patient-centred, nurses at the heart of change, reaching agreement, collaboration) and two patterns (transformational and adaptive implementation). Certain perspectives may have not been captured, as the retrospective nature of the interviewing technique did not allow for 'real-time' assessment of the actual implementation process. The transferability of the findings requires further exploration as few participants with negative experiences were recruited. This is the first study that explored evidence-based implementation process, strategies, approaches and patterns in the Chinese nursing practice context to inform international nursing and health policymaking. The theory of Taking Root described various approaches to evidence implementation and how the implementation can be transformational for the nurses and the setting in which they work. Nursing educators, managers and researchers should work together to improve nurses' readiness for evidence implementation. Healthcare systems need to optimize internal mechanisms and external collaborations to promote nursing practice in line with evidence and achieve clinical outcomes and sustainability. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  18. Getting to know a stranger--rural nurses' experiences of mentoring: a grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jane; Francis, Karen; Bonner, Ann

    2008-04-01

    Mentoring is often proposed as a solution to the problem of successfully recruiting and retaining nursing staff. The aim of this constructivist grounded theory study was to explore Australian rural nurses' experiences of mentoring. The research design used was reflexive in nature resulting in a substantive, constructivist grounded theory study. A national advertising campaign and snowball sampling were used to recruit nine participants from across Australia. Participants were rural nurses who had experience in mentoring others. Standard grounded theory methods of theoretical sampling, concurrent data collection and analysis using open, axial and theoretical coding and a story line technique to develop the core category and category saturation were used. To cultivate the reflexivity required of a constructivist study, we also incorporated reflective memoing, situational analysis mapping techniques and frame analysis. Data was generated through eleven interviews, email dialogue and shared situational mapping. Cultivating and growing new or novice rural nurses using supportive relationships such as mentoring was found to be an existing, integral part of experienced rural nurses' practice, motivated by living and working in the same communities. Getting to know a stranger is the first part of the process of cultivating and growing another. New or novice rural nurses gain the attention of experienced rural nurses through showing potential or experiencing a critical incidence. The problem of retaining nurses is a global issue. Experienced nurses engaged in clinical practice have the potential to cultivate and grow new or novice nurses-many already do so. Recognising this role and providing opportunities for development will help grow a positive, supportive work environment that nurtures the experienced nurses of tomorrow.

  19. A grounded theory: seeking relief from flatus as relevant client-nurse action and interaction.

    PubMed

    Annells, Merilyn

    2007-01-01

    Flatus problems are not uncommon among gastroenterological clients and those in other care settings. Yet what clients and nurses do productively about those problems in regard to their actions and interactions and why they do so has not previously been the focus of research. Holistic health management requires trustworthy qualitative evidence to guide best practice in this regard. This study systematically developed a substantive grounded theory that details and explains the trajectory of the basic social process: seeking relief from being discommoded (inconvenienced, troubled) by flatus in the situational context of client-nurse interactions. In the theory, there is also a focus on the context of nursing care situations, possible constraints, and likely outcomes. Grounded theory method was applied. Data were collected through semistructured individual interviews, nonparticipant observation, and document analysis regarding incidents and situations involving 38 participants-clients and registered nurses. The results show that clients, when trying to do something about the situation, can be severely discommoded by flatus problems and are hampered by embarrassment and the social taboo about admitting that one is bothered by flatus. The individual may or may not disclose the problem to a nurse, and nurses may or may not be attuned to these problems. There are ways for nurses to be helpful in these situations and possible remedies are identified in this article.

  20. Symmetry breaking in noncommutative finite temperature λphi4 theory with a nonuniform ground state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, J. M.; Ramírez, C.; Sánchez, M.

    2014-05-01

    We consider the CJT effective action at finite temperature for a noncommutative real scalar field theory, with noncommutativity among space and time variables. We study the solutions of a stripe type nonuniform background, which depends on space and time. The analysis in the first approximation shows that such solutions appear in the planar limit, but also under normal anisotropic noncommutativity. Further we show that the transition from the uniform ordered phase to the non uniform one is first order and that the critical temperature depends on the nonuniformity of the ground state.