Science.gov

Sample records for grounding agent sociality

  1. Space/ground systems as cooperating agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    Within NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) it is agreed that autonomy is an important goal for the design of future spacecraft and that this requires on-board artificial intelligence. NASA emphasizes deep space and planetary rover missions, while ESA considers on-board autonomy as an enabling technology for missions that must cope with imperfect communications. ESA's attention is on the space/ground system. A major issue is the optimal distribution of intelligent functions within the space/ground system. This paper describes the multi-agent architecture for space/ground systems (MAASGS) which would enable this issue to be investigated. A MAASGS agent may model a complete spacecraft, a spacecraft subsystem or payload, a ground segment, a spacecraft control system, a human operator, or an environment. The MAASGS architecture has evolved through a series of prototypes. The paper recommends that the MAASGS architecture should be implemented in the operational Dutch Utilization Center.

  2. Adolescents as Socialization Agents to Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, John F.

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the process of socialization that takes place in the parent, with the child and adolescent as the socialization agent. Results show adolescents to be effective agents of socialization to their parents in both attitude and behavior in such areas as sports, leisure, minority groups, youth, drug use, and sexuality. (Author/BL)

  3. Agent Frameworks for Discrete Event Social Simulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    of a general modeling approach to social simulation that embeds a multi - agent system within a DES framework, and propose several reusable agent... agent system to simulate changes in the beliefs, values, and interests (BVIs) of large social groups (Alt, Jackson, Hudak, & Steven Lieberman, 2010...to events from A. 2.3 Cultural Geography Model The Cultural Geography (CG) Model is an implementation of a DESS that uses an embedded multi

  4. The Social Studies Teacher: Agent of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Richard E.

    Can educators be effective change agents, and if so, how? Let's consider our opportunities from three viewpoints: 1) the social setting of the school; 2) the school systems themselves; and, 3) the teacher. Within the social setting, one of the most important limitations to change is the resistance of many parents. The new curricula and approaches…

  5. Monitoring Agents for Assisting NASA Engineers with Shuttle Ground Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Danil A.; Smith, Kevin E.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has designed, developed, and deployed a rule-based agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The NASA Engineering Shuttle Telemetry Agent increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during ground processing of the Shuttle's subsystems. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream and automatically alerts system engineers when user defined conditions are satisfied. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation. Sandia National Labs' Java Expert System Shell is employed as the agent's rule engine. The shell's predicate logic lends itself well to capturing the heuristics and specifying the engineering rules within this domain. The declarative paradigm of the rule-based agent yields a highly modular and scalable design spanning multiple subsystems of the Shuttle. Several hundred monitoring rules have been written thus far with corresponding notifications sent to Shuttle engineers. This chapter discusses the rule-based telemetry agent used for Space Shuttle ground processing. We present the problem domain along with design and development considerations such as information modeling, knowledge capture, and the deployment of the product. We also present ongoing work with other condition monitoring agents.

  6. Does Social Justice Ground Democracy in Education or Does Democracy Ground Social Justice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser-Burgess, Sheron

    2013-01-01

    The author examines one particular systematic and normative theorization of social justice in Barry Bull's "Social Justice in Education." Bull embarks on a timely and ambitious theory-to-practice project of grounding an educational theory of social justice in Rawls's seminal, liberal, distributive justice tome. The author…

  7. Socialization Agents and Activities of Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnon, Sara; Shamai, Shmuel; Ilatov, Zinaida

    2008-01-01

    Research examined the relative importance of peer groups for young adolescents as compared with diverse adult socialization agents--family, school, and community. The factors involved were teenagers' activities, preferences, feelings, and thoughts as to how they spend their leisure time, their preferences for help providers, and their sense of…

  8. Persistent agents in Axelrod's social dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reia, Sandro M.; Neves, Ubiraci P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Axelrod's model of social dynamics has been studied under the effect of external media. Here we study the formation of cultural domains in the model by introducing persistent agents. These are agents whose cultural traits are not allowed to change but may be spread through local neighborhood. In the absence of persistent agents, the system is known to present a transition from a monocultural to a multicultural regime at some critical Q (number of traits). Our results reveal a dependence of critical Q on the occupation probability p of persistent agents and we obtain the phase diagram of the model in the (p,Q) -plane. The critical locus is explained by the competition of two opposite forces named here barrier and bonding effects. Such forces are verified to be caused by non-persistent agents which adhere (adherent agents) to the set of traits of persistent ones. The adherence (concentration of adherent agents) as a function of p is found to decay for constant Q. Furthermore, adherence as a function of Q is found to decay as a power law with constant p.

  9. Social cognitive theory: an agentic perspective.

    PubMed

    Bandura, A

    2001-01-01

    The capacity to exercise control over the nature and quality of one's life is the essence of humanness. Human agency is characterized by a number of core features that operate through phenomenal and functional consciousness. These include the temporal extension of agency through intentionality and forethought, self-regulation by self-reactive influence, and self-reflectiveness about one's capabilities, quality of functioning, and the meaning and purpose of one's life pursuits. Personal agency operates within a broad network of sociostructural influences. In these agentic transactions, people are producers as well as products of social systems. Social cognitive theory distinguishes among three modes of agency: direct personal agency, proxy agency that relies on others to act on one's behest to secure desired outcomes, and collective agency exercised through socially coordinative and interdependent effort. Growing transnational embeddedness and interdependence are placing a premium on collective efficacy to exercise control over personal destinies and national life.

  10. Proceedings of the Agent 2002 Conference on Social Agents : Ecology, Exchange, and Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Macal, C., ed.; Sallach, D., ed.

    2003-04-10

    Welcome to the ''Proceedings'' of the third in a series of agent simulation conferences cosponsored by Argonne National Laboratory and The University of Chicago. The theme of this year's conference, ''Social Agents: Ecology, Exchange and Evolution'', was selected to foster the exchange of ideas on some of the most important social processes addressed by agent simulation models, namely: (1) The translation of ecology and ecological constraints into social dynamics; (2) The role of exchange processes, including the peer dependencies they create; and (3) The dynamics by which, and the attractor states toward which, social processes evolve. As stated in the ''Call for Papers'', throughout the social sciences, the simulation of social agents has emerged as an innovative and powerful research methodology. The promise of this approach, however, is accompanied by many challenges. First, modeling complexity in agents, environments, and interactions is non-trivial, and these representations must be explored and assessed systematically. Second, strategies used to represent complexities are differentially applicable to any particular problem space. Finally, to achieve sufficient generality, the design and experimentation inherent in agent simulation must be coupled with social and behavioral theory. Agent 2002 provides a forum for reviewing the current state of agent simulation scholarship, including research designed to address such outstanding issues. This year's conference introduces an extensive range of domains, models, and issues--from pre-literacy to future projections, from ecology to oligopolistic markets, and from design to validation. Four invited speakers highlighted major themes emerging from social agent simulation.

  11. Embodied artificial agents for understanding human social cognition

    PubMed Central

    Wykowska, Agnieszka; Chaminade, Thierry; Cheng, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose that experimental protocols involving artificial agents, in particular the embodied humanoid robots, provide insightful information regarding social cognitive mechanisms in the human brain. Using artificial agents allows for manipulation and control of various parameters of behaviour, appearance and expressiveness in one of the interaction partners (the artificial agent), and for examining effect of these parameters on the other interaction partner (the human). At the same time, using artificial agents means introducing the presence of artificial, yet human-like, systems into the human social sphere. This allows for testing in a controlled, but ecologically valid, manner human fundamental mechanisms of social cognition both at the behavioural and at the neural level. This paper will review existing literature that reports studies in which artificial embodied agents have been used to study social cognition and will address the question of whether various mechanisms of social cognition (ranging from lower- to higher-order cognitive processes) are evoked by artificial agents to the same extent as by natural agents, humans in particular. Increasing the understanding of how behavioural and neural mechanisms of social cognition respond to artificial anthropomorphic agents provides empirical answers to the conundrum ‘What is a social agent?’ PMID:27069052

  12. Embodied artificial agents for understanding human social cognition.

    PubMed

    Wykowska, Agnieszka; Chaminade, Thierry; Cheng, Gordon

    2016-05-05

    In this paper, we propose that experimental protocols involving artificial agents, in particular the embodied humanoid robots, provide insightful information regarding social cognitive mechanisms in the human brain. Using artificial agents allows for manipulation and control of various parameters of behaviour, appearance and expressiveness in one of the interaction partners (the artificial agent), and for examining effect of these parameters on the other interaction partner (the human). At the same time, using artificial agents means introducing the presence of artificial, yet human-like, systems into the human social sphere. This allows for testing in a controlled, but ecologically valid, manner human fundamental mechanisms of social cognition both at the behavioural and at the neural level. This paper will review existing literature that reports studies in which artificial embodied agents have been used to study social cognition and will address the question of whether various mechanisms of social cognition (ranging from lower- to higher-order cognitive processes) are evoked by artificial agents to the same extent as by natural agents, humans in particular. Increasing the understanding of how behavioural and neural mechanisms of social cognition respond to artificial anthropomorphic agents provides empirical answers to the conundrum 'What is a social agent?'

  13. Colleges and Universities as Agents of Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, W., John, Ed.; Thompason, Ian M., Ed.

    Papers of the Tenth Annual College Self-Study Institute, held in 1968, are presented. They include: "Colleges and Universities as Agents of Social Change: An Introduction," by T.R. McConnell; "Agent of Whom?" by Harris L. Wofford, Jr.; "The University as an Instrument of Social Action," by Roger W. Heyns; "The…

  14. Developmental and Evolutionary Lexicon Acquisition in Cognitive Agents/Robots with Grounding Principle: A Short Review

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Nadia; Amin, Shamsudin H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Grounded language acquisition is an important issue, particularly to facilitate human-robot interactions in an intelligent and effective way. The evolutionary and developmental language acquisition are two innovative and important methodologies for the grounding of language in cognitive agents or robots, the aim of which is to address current limitations in robot design. This paper concentrates on these two main modelling methods with the grounding principle for the acquisition of linguistic ability in cognitive agents or robots. This review not only presents a survey of the methodologies and relevant computational cognitive agents or robotic models, but also highlights the advantages and progress of these approaches for the language grounding issue. PMID:27069470

  15. Breaking New Ground? Reflections on Greening School Grounds as Sites of Ecological, Pedagogical, and Social Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyment, Janet E.; Reid, Alan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we explore greening initiatives in school grounds as sites where ecological, pedagogical, and social transformation might be promoted and take place. Reflecting on our evaluations of school ground greening initiatives in Canada and England, we note that these initiatives are often at the margins of young peoples' experiences in…

  16. Metareasoning and Social Evaluations in Cognitive Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinyol, Isaac; Sabater-Mir, Jordi

    Reputation mechanisms have been recognized one of the key technologies when designing multi-agent systems. They are specially relevant in complex open environments, becoming a non-centralized mechanism to control interactions among agents. Cognitive agents tackling such complex societies must use reputation information not only for selecting partners to interact with, but also in metareasoning processes to change reasoning rules. This is the focus of this paper. We argue about the necessity to allow, as a cognitive systems designers, certain degree of freedom in the reasoning rules of the agents. We also describes cognitive approaches of agency that support this idea. Furthermore, taking as a base the computational reputation model Repage, and its integration in a BDI architecture, we use the previous ideas to specify metarules and processes to modify at run-time the reasoning paths of the agent. In concrete we propose a metarule to update the link between Repage and the belief base, and a metarule and a process to update an axiom incorporated in the belief logic of the agent. Regarding this last issue we also provide empirical results that show the evolution of agents that use it.

  17. Smiling virtual agent in social context.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Magalie; Niewiadomski, Radoslaw; Brunet, Paul; Pelachaud, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    A smile may communicate different communicative intentions depending on subtle characteristics of the facial expression. In this article, we propose an algorithm to determine the morphological and dynamic characteristics of virtual agent's smiles of amusement, politeness, and embarrassment. The algorithm has been defined based on a virtual agent's smiles corpus constructed by users and analyzed with a decision tree classification technique. An evaluation, in different contexts, of the resulting smiles has enabled us to validate the proposed algorithm.

  18. Understanding Green Purchase Behavior: College Students and Socialization Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Ruoh-Nan; Xu, Huimin

    2010-01-01

    Taking the perspective of consumer socialization theory, this study examined the influences of different socialization agents on consumers' purchases of green products. A total of 224 surveys were distributed to students enrolled in a business-related course at a major university in the northeastern United States. The objectives were twofold. The…

  19. Agent 2003 Conference on Challenges in Social Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Margaret Clemmons, ed.

    2003-01-01

    Welcome to the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of agent simulation conferences cosponsored by Argonne National Laboratory and The University of Chicago. Agent 2003 is the second conference in which three Special Interest Groups from the North American Association for Computational Social and Organizational Science (NAACSOS) have been involved in planning the program--Computational Social Theory; Simulation Applications; and Methods, Toolkits and Techniques. The theme of Agent 2003, Challenges in Social Simulation, is especially relevant, as there seems to be no shortage of such challenges. Agent simulation has been applied with increasing frequency to social domains for several decades, and its promise is clear and increasingly visible. Like any nascent scientific methodology, however, it faces a number of problems or issues that must be addressed in order to progress. These challenges include: (1) Validating models relative to the social settings they are designed to represent; (2) Developing agents and interactions simple enough to understand but sufficiently complex to do justice to the social processes of interest; (3) Bridging the gap between empirically spare artificial societies and naturally occurring social phenomena; (4) Building multi-level models that span processes across domains; (5) Promoting a dialog among theoretical, qualitative, and empirical social scientists and area experts, on the one hand, and mathematical and computational modelers and engineers, on the other; (6) Using that dialog to facilitate substantive progress in the social sciences; and (7) Fulfilling the aspirations of users in business, government, and other application areas, while recognizing and addressing the preceding challenges. Although this list hardly exhausts the challenges the field faces, it does identify topics addressed throughout the presentations of Agent 2003. Agent 2003 is part of a much larger process in which new methods and techniques are applied to

  20. Social effects of an anthropomorphic help agent: humans versus computers.

    PubMed

    David, Prabu; Lu, Tingting; Kline, Susan; Cai, Li

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of fairness of a computer-administered quiz as a function of the anthropomorphic features of the help agent offered within the quiz environment. The addition of simple anthropomorphic cues to a computer help agent reduced the perceived friendliness of the agent, perceived intelligence of the agent, and the perceived fairness of the quiz. These differences were observed only for male anthropomorphic cues, but not for female anthropomorphic cues. The results were not explained by the social attraction of the anthropomorphic agents used in the quiz or by gender identification with the agents. Priming of visual cues provides the best account of the data. Practical implications of the study are discussed.

  1. Grounding language in action and perception: From cognitive agents to humanoid robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cangelosi, Angelo

    2010-06-01

    In this review we concentrate on a grounded approach to the modeling of cognition through the methodologies of cognitive agents and developmental robotics. This work will focus on the modeling of the evolutionary and developmental acquisition of linguistic capabilities based on the principles of symbol grounding. We review cognitive agent and developmental robotics models of the grounding of language to demonstrate their consistency with the empirical and theoretical evidence on language grounding and embodiment, and to reveal the benefits of such an approach in the design of linguistic capabilities in cognitive robotic agents. In particular, three different models will be discussed, where the complexity of the agent's sensorimotor and cognitive system gradually increases: from a multi-agent simulation of language evolution, to a simulated robotic agent model for symbol grounding transfer, to a model of language comprehension in the humanoid robot iCub. The review also discusses the benefits of the use of humanoid robotic platform, and specifically of the open source iCub platform, for the study of embodied cognition.

  2. Grounding language in action and perception: from cognitive agents to humanoid robots.

    PubMed

    Cangelosi, Angelo

    2010-06-01

    In this review we concentrate on a grounded approach to the modeling of cognition through the methodologies of cognitive agents and developmental robotics. This work will focus on the modeling of the evolutionary and developmental acquisition of linguistic capabilities based on the principles of symbol grounding. We review cognitive agent and developmental robotics models of the grounding of language to demonstrate their consistency with the empirical and theoretical evidence on language grounding and embodiment, and to reveal the benefits of such an approach in the design of linguistic capabilities in cognitive robotic agents. In particular, three different models will be discussed, where the complexity of the agent's sensorimotor and cognitive system gradually increases: from a multi-agent simulation of language evolution, to a simulated robotic agent model for symbol grounding transfer, to a model of language comprehension in the humanoid robot iCub. The review also discusses the benefits of the use of humanoid robotic platform, and specifically of the open source iCub platform, for the study of embodied cognition.

  3. School Counselors' Strategies for Social Justice Change: A Grounded Theory of What Works in the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Urbano, Alessandra; Haston, Meg; McMahon, Eleanor

    2010-01-01

    A qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to explore the strategies that 16 school counselors who self-identified as social justice agents used to advocate for systemic change within their school communities. Findings included seven overarching themes: (a) using political savvy to navigate power structures, (b) consciousness raising,…

  4. Preparing School Leaders to Serve as Agents for Social Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    The major priorities that should guide leadership education in preparing leaders for their work of leading schools in a democratic society are: (1) Teaching leaders to understand the inequities of society; (2) Teaching leaders to serve as agents for social transformation; and (3) Teaching leaders to help each and every student learn and succeed.…

  5. The School Counselor in Israel: An Agent of Social Justice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erhard, Rachel Lea; Sinai, Mirit

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, leaders in the school counseling profession worldwide have been calling on their colleagues to re-examine their role as "agents of social justice" in schools, with a view to promoting equal educational opportunities for all students. This research examines counselors' perceptions of the role, role behaviors, personal…

  6. Socialization Agents Influencing the Religious Identity of Religious Israeli Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisherman, Shraga

    2011-01-01

    Of all the dimensions of religiosity, where the Israeli religious adolescent is concerned, faith identity and religious behavior seem the most relevant. Research findings on the relative influence of various socialization agents on the religiosity of adolescents are ambiguous. The primary objective of this study was to compare the various agents…

  7. AGENT-BASED MODELS IN EMPIRICAL SOCIAL RESEARCH*

    PubMed Central

    Bruch, Elizabeth; Atwell, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Agent-based modeling has become increasingly popular in recent years, but there is still no codified set of recommendations or practices for how to use these models within a program of empirical research. This article provides ideas and practical guidelines drawn from sociology, biology, computer science, epidemiology, and statistics. We first discuss the motivations for using agent-based models in both basic science and policy-oriented social research. Next, we provide an overview of methods and strategies for incorporating data on behavior and populations into agent-based models, and review techniques for validating and testing the sensitivity of agent-based models. We close with suggested directions for future research. PMID:25983351

  8. An Agent Based Model for Social Class Emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoxiang; Rodriguez Segura, Daniel; Lin, Fei; Mazilu, Irina

    We present an open system agent-based model to analyze the effects of education and the society-specific wealth transactions on the emergence of social classes. Building on previous studies, we use realistic functions to model how years of education affect the income level. Numerical simulations show that the fraction of an individual's total transactions that is invested rather than consumed can cause wealth gaps between different income brackets in the long run. In an attempt to incorporate the network effects, we also explore how the probability of interactions among agents depending on the spread of their income brackets affects wealth distribution.

  9. Getting back to the rough ground: deception and 'social living'.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vasudevi

    2007-04-29

    At the heart of the social intelligence hypothesis is the central role of 'social living'. But living is messy and psychologists generally seek to avoid this mess in the interests of getting clean data and cleaner logical explanations. The study of deception as intelligent action is a good example of the dangers of such avoidance. We still do not have a full picture of the development of deceptive actions in human infants and toddlers or an explanation of why it emerges. This paper applies Byrne & Whiten's functional taxonomy of tactical deception to the social behaviour of human infants and toddlers using data from three previous studies. The data include a variety of acts, such as teasing, pretending, distracting and concealing, which are not typically considered in relation to human deception. This functional analysis shows the onset of non-verbal deceptive acts to be surprisingly early. Infants and toddlers seem to be able to communicate false information (about themselves, about shared meanings and about events) as early as true information. It is argued that the development of deception must be a fundamentally social and communicative process and that if we are to understand why deception emerges at all, the scientist needs to get 'back to the rough ground' as Wittgenstein called it and explore the messy social lives in which it develops.

  10. Embodied Gesture Processing: Motor-Based Integration of Perception and Action in Social Artificial Agents.

    PubMed

    Sadeghipour, Amir; Kopp, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    A close coupling of perception and action processes is assumed to play an important role in basic capabilities of social interaction, such as guiding attention and observation of others' behavior, coordinating the form and functions of behavior, or grounding the understanding of others' behavior in one's own experiences. In the attempt to endow artificial embodied agents with similar abilities, we present a probabilistic model for the integration of perception and generation of hand-arm gestures via a hierarchy of shared motor representations, allowing for combined bottom-up and top-down processing. Results from human-agent interactions are reported demonstrating the model's performance in learning, observation, imitation, and generation of gestures.

  11. On agent-based modeling and computational social science

    PubMed Central

    Conte, Rosaria; Paolucci, Mario

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, the field of agent-based modeling (ABM) is discussed focusing on the role of generative theories, aiming at explaining phenomena by growing them. After a brief analysis of the major strengths of the field some crucial weaknesses are analyzed. In particular, the generative power of ABM is found to have been underexploited, as the pressure for simple recipes has prevailed and shadowed the application of rich cognitive models. In the second part of the paper, the renewal of interest for Computational Social Science (CSS) is focused upon, and several of its variants, such as deductive, generative, and complex CSS, are identified and described. In the concluding remarks, an interdisciplinary variant, which takes after ABM, reconciling it with the quantitative one, is proposed as a fundamental requirement for a new program of the CSS. PMID:25071642

  12. On agent-based modeling and computational social science.

    PubMed

    Conte, Rosaria; Paolucci, Mario

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, the field of agent-based modeling (ABM) is discussed focusing on the role of generative theories, aiming at explaining phenomena by growing them. After a brief analysis of the major strengths of the field some crucial weaknesses are analyzed. In particular, the generative power of ABM is found to have been underexploited, as the pressure for simple recipes has prevailed and shadowed the application of rich cognitive models. In the second part of the paper, the renewal of interest for Computational Social Science (CSS) is focused upon, and several of its variants, such as deductive, generative, and complex CSS, are identified and described. In the concluding remarks, an interdisciplinary variant, which takes after ABM, reconciling it with the quantitative one, is proposed as a fundamental requirement for a new program of the CSS.

  13. Odometry for Ground Moving Agents by Optic Flow Recorded with Optical Mouse Chips

    PubMed Central

    Dahmen, Hansjürgen; Mallot, Hanspeter A.

    2014-01-01

    Optical mouse chips—equipped with adequate lenses—can serve as small, light, precise, fast, and cheap motion sensors monitoring optic flow induced by self motion of an agent in a contrasted environment. We present a device that extracts self motion parameters exclusively from flow in eight mouse sensors. Four pairs of sensors with opposite azimuth are mounted on a sensor head, each individual sensor looking down with −45° elevation. The head is mounted on a carriage and is moved at constant height above a textured planar ground. The calibration procedure and tests on the precision of self motion estimates are reported. PMID:25384010

  14. What does God know? Supernatural agents' access to socially strategic and non-strategic information.

    PubMed

    Purzycki, Benjamin G; Finkel, Daniel N; Shaver, John; Wales, Nathan; Cohen, Adam B; Sosis, Richard

    2012-07-01

    Current evolutionary and cognitive theories of religion posit that supernatural agent concepts emerge from cognitive systems such as theory of mind and social cognition. Some argue that these concepts evolved to maintain social order by minimizing antisocial behavior. If these theories are correct, then people should process information about supernatural agents' socially strategic knowledge more quickly than non-strategic knowledge. Furthermore, agents' knowledge of immoral and uncooperative social behaviors should be especially accessible to people. To examine these hypotheses, we measured response-times to questions about the knowledge attributed to four different agents--God, Santa Claus, a fictional surveillance government, and omniscient but non-interfering aliens--that vary in their omniscience, moral concern, ability to punish, and how supernatural they are. As anticipated, participants respond more quickly to questions about agents' socially strategic knowledge than non-strategic knowledge, but only when agents are able to punish.

  15. Agents.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2002-01-01

    Although health care is inherently an economic activity, it is inadequately described as a market process. An alternative, grounded in organizational economic theory, is to view professionals and many others as agents, contracted to advance the best interests of their principals (patients). This view untangles some of the ethical conflicts in dentistry. It also helps identify major controllable costs in dentistry and suggests that dentists can act as a group to increase or decrease agency costs, primarily by controlling the bad actors who damage the value of all dentists.

  16. Young People's and Children's Social Associations as Agents of Secondary Socialization: The Experience of a Regional Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guliaikhin, V. N.; Galkin, A. P.; Vasil'eva, E. N.

    2013-01-01

    A survey of opinions on the activity of young people's and children's social associations as agents of secondary socialization in Russia shows that socialization processes need to be more oriented toward coordinating personal and societal goals and interests. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  17. Mission Possible: Teachers Serving as Agents of Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel-Pottebaum, Holly E.

    2013-01-01

    A case study was conducted to learn about the formation of social justice teachers, and the methods used by radical educators to engage students in social change. Interviews conducted with eight junior and senior high school social studies teachers identified several types of formative experiences inspiring teachers to become radical educators.…

  18. Avatars, Pedagogical Agents, and Virtual Environments: Social Learning Systems Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausburn, Lynna J.; Martens, Jon; Dotterer, Gary; Calhoun, Pat

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a review of literature that introduces major concepts and issues in using avatars and pedagogical agents in first- and second-person virtual environments (VEs) for learning online. In these VEs, avatars and pedagogical agents represent self and other learners/participants or serve as personal learning "guides". The…

  19. Social control and strenuous exercise among late adolescent college students: parents versus peers as influence agents.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, John A; Okun, Morris A

    2014-07-01

    In the context of a model of health-related social control, we compared the associations among social control strategies, affective and behavioral reactions, and exercise for parental and peer influence agents. Late adolescent college students (n = 227) completed questionnaires that focused on social control from a parent or a peer who attempted to increase their exercising. Results from this cross-sectional study revealed that most relationships in the model were similar for parent and peer influence agents, however, (a) negative social control was a stronger predictor of reactance among parents than peers; (b) positive affect was a stronger predictor of attempts to change among peers than parents; and (c) positive affect predicted frequency of strenuous exercise only among parents. Decreasing parents' use of negative social control strategies and increasing adolescents' positive affective reactions to parental social control agents may be keys to promoting positive lifestyle changes in late adolescence.

  20. Roles of Interpersonal and Media Socialization Agents in Adolescent Self-Reported Health Literacy: A Health Socialization Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Reber, Bryan H.; Lariscy, Ruthann W.

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a health socialization model and applies it to examine direct, relative and mediating roles of interpersonal and media health socialization agents in predicting adolescent self-reported health literacy. We conducted a paper-and-pencil survey among 452 seventh graders in rural and urban school districts. Our regression analysis…

  1. A Grounded Theory of Counselor Educators Integrating Social Justice into Their Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odegard, Melissa A.; Vereen, Linwood G.

    2010-01-01

    The topic of social justice has received considerable attention in the counseling literature; however, little empirical research exists. This grounded theory study examined 4 counselor educators' process of integrating social justice constructs into their pedagogy. Data analysis revealed 4 primary experiences that emerged in the participants'…

  2. Teachers as Agents of Change: Promoting Peacebuilding and Social Cohesion in Schools in Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubagiza, Jolly; Umutoni, Jane; Kaleeba, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Education is seen to play a crucial role in the reconstruction of post-conflict countries, particularly in transforming people's mindsets and rebuilding social relations. In this regard, teachers are often perceived as key agents to bring about this transformative change through their role as agents of peace. This paper seeks to understand how…

  3. Preservice Teachers' Perspective Transformations as Social Change Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Kelli; Caruana, Vicki

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we investigate whether, and in what ways, the learning experiences in a capstone course in reflective teaching impact the perspective transformations (PT) of preservice teachers toward a diverse K-12 student population and the plans of preservice teachers to take future action as change agents. Using an adaptation of the Learning…

  4. Teachers as Agents of Sustainable Peace, Social Cohesion and Development: Theory, Practice & Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novelli, Mario; Sayed, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a "peace with social justice" framework for analysing the role of teachers as agents of sustainable peace, social cohesion and development and applies this to research evidence from Pakistan, Uganda, Myanmar and South Africa. The paper draws on evidence from a recently completed UNICEF and ESRC funded project on…

  5. What Does God Know? Supernatural Agents' Access to Socially Strategic and Non-Strategic Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purzycki, Benjamin G.; Finkel, Daniel N.; Shaver, John; Wales, Nathan; Cohen, Adam B.; Sosis, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Current evolutionary and cognitive theories of religion posit that supernatural agent concepts emerge from cognitive systems such as theory of mind and social cognition. Some argue that these concepts evolved to maintain social order by minimizing antisocial behavior. If these theories are correct, then people should process information about…

  6. Social influence, agent heterogeneity and the emergence of the urban informal sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Díaz, César; Moreno-Monroy, Ana I.

    2012-02-01

    We develop an agent-based computational model in which the urban informal sector acts as a buffer where rural migrants can earn some income while queuing for higher paying modern-sector jobs. In the model, the informal sector emerges as a result of rural-urban migration decisions of heterogeneous agents subject to social influence in the form of neighboring effects of varying strengths. Besides using a multinomial logit choice model that allows for agent idiosyncrasy, explicit agent heterogeneity is introduced in the form of socio-demographic characteristics preferred by modern-sector employers. We find that different combinations of the strength of social influence and the socio-economic composition of the workforce lead to very different urbanization and urban informal sector shares. In particular, moderate levels of social influence and a large proportion of rural inhabitants with preferred socio-demographic characteristics are conducive to a higher urbanization rate and a larger informal sector.

  7. An Agent-Based Model of Centralized Institutions, Social Network Technology, and Revolution

    PubMed Central

    Makowsky, Michael D.; Rubin, Jared

    2013-01-01

    This paper sheds light on the general mechanisms underlying large-scale social and institutional change. We employ an agent-based model to test the impact of authority centralization and social network technology on preference falsification and institutional change. We find that preference falsification is increasing with centralization and decreasing with social network range. This leads to greater cascades of preference revelation and thus more institutional change in highly centralized societies and this effect is exacerbated at greater social network ranges. An empirical analysis confirms the connections that we find between institutional centralization, social radius, preference falsification, and institutional change. PMID:24278280

  8. RCRA delisting of agent-decontaminated waste at Dugway Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.; Green, D.R.; Lopez, J.D.

    1995-04-01

    The State of Utah has declared residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, cleanup, testing of military chemical agents to be hazardous wastes. These residues are listed as hazardous waste in Utah and several other States, but are not listed under regulations established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) pursuant to the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the primary law governing management of hazardous waste in the US These residues are identified as hazardous waste due to corrosivity, reactivity, chronic toxicity, and acute toxicity, and are designated as Hazardous Waste No. F999. The RCRA regulations (40 CFR 260-280), the Utah Administrative Code (R-315), and other State hazardous waste programs list specific wastes as hazardous, but allow generators to petition the regulator to ``delist`` if it can be demonstrated that such wastes are not hazardous. The US Army Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) has initiated a project with the Argonne National Laboratory to demonstrate that certain categories of F999 residues are not hazardous waste and to achieve delisting. The initial focus is on delisting specific residues from decontamination of wastes generated during materials testing activities and contaminated soil at the US Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), Utah. This activity is referred to as Phase I of the delisting program. Subsequent phases of the delisting program will address additional waste streams at DPG and other Army installations. The purpose of this paper is to outline the Phase I TECOM delisting effort at DPG, identify some of the important technical issues associated with the delisting, and to discuss overall progress to date.

  9. Counselling lesbian couples: requests for donor insemination on social grounds.

    PubMed

    Baetens, P; Camus, M; Devroey, P

    2003-01-01

    Fertility centres are increasingly involved in dealing with requests from lesbian couples for donor insemination (DI). Data were collected on 95 Belgian lesbian couples who applied for DI. The majority of couples were well integrated in a social environment (family, friends and work) that consisted mainly of heterosexuals. They tended to be open about their homosexuality and most couples considered the social environment to be tolerant towards their homosexual orientation. Couples who considered alternatives to DI would have liked to have had more information on the donor and were more inclined to introduce a 'godfather' who would take special interest in the child. Couples who considered DI to be the best solution considered the absence of a father to be less of a problem for the child and wished to have no information at all as regards the donor. Approximately half the couples considered their family a two-mother unit. For the other couples, the family unit consisted of a mother and her partner who shared parental responsibility for the child equally. The issues that are considered important to cope with and on which lesbian couples should be counselled are presented in the discussion.

  10. Social conditioned place preference in the captive ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus): Social reward as a natural phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lahvis, Garet P; Panksepp, Jules B; Kennedy, Bruce C; Wilson, Clarinda R; Merriman, Dana K

    2015-08-01

    Social behaviors of wild animals are often considered within an ultimate framework of adaptive benefits versus survival risks. By contrast, studies of laboratory animals more typically focus on affective aspects of behavioral decisions, whether a rodent derives a rewarding experience from social encounter, and how this experience might be initiated and maintained by neural circuits. Artificial selection and inbreeding have rendered laboratory animals more affiliative and less aggressive than their wild conspecifics, leaving open the possibility that social reward is an artifact of domestication. We compared social behaviors of wild and captive population of juvenile 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), the latter being 2nd- and 3rd-generation descendants of wild individuals. At an age corresponding to emergence from the burrow, postnatal day (PD) 38, captive squirrels engaged in vigorous social approach and play and these juvenile behaviors declined significantly by PD 56. Similarly, young wild squirrels expressed social proximity and play; affiliative interactions declined with summer's progression and were replaced by agonistic chasing behaviors. Social conditioned place preference testing (conditioned PDs 40-50) indicated that adolescent squirrels derived a rewarding experience from social reunion. Our results support the contention that undomesticated rodents have the capacity for social reward and more generally suggest the possibility that positive affective experiences may support group cohesion, social cooperation, and altruism in the wild.

  11. Students as Tenuous Agents of Social Control of Professorial Misconduct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braxton, John M.; Bayer, Alan E.; Noseworthy, James A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes college students' role in the detection of teaching misconduct, providing results from a study suggesting that the role undergraduate students can play in detecting teaching wrongdoing is tenuous at best and asserting that the graduate school socialization process, institutional codes of conduct, and faculty peer sanctions must assume…

  12. Osofisan's New Hero: Women as Agents of Social Reconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwueme, Tess Akaeke

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the prominent portrayals of women as heroes and harbingers of social reconstruction in the dramas of Nigerian playwright Femi Osofisan. Juxtaposes the new class of women whose sound judgment and racial consciousness contrast with that of an older, reactionary class. (FMW)

  13. Connecting Volunteers and Agents: A Social Constructionist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillivan, K. D.

    2013-01-01

    Extension volunteers benefit from participation in training activities. Furthermore, Extension personnel are best positioned to provide volunteers with relevant training. However, trainers neglecting relationship building and failing to attend to the communicative process may achieve unsatisfactory results. Social constructionism, a theoretical…

  14. An Integrated Architecture for Grounded Intelligence in Its Development, Experimental, Environmental, and Social Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    namely robots . We have tested an early version of this architecture on two physical robot systems: Leonardo (a 65 degree of freedom humanoid robot ), and...with con-specifics & The system also operates in the social world, working with other agents, human and robotic * The system understands other agents in...corresponds to much of the work currently done in robotics , where sensory input is translated into semantic symbols, which are then operated upon for the

  15. Absolute, not relative brain size correlates with sociality in ground squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Matějů, Jan; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Pavelková, Zuzana; Pavelková Řičánková, Věra; Vohralík, Vladimír; Němec, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The social brain hypothesis (SBH) contends that cognitive demands associated with living in cohesive social groups favour the evolution of large brains. Although the correlation between relative brain size and sociality reported in various groups of birds and mammals provides broad empirical support for this hypothesis, it has never been tested in rodents, the largest mammalian order. Here, we test the predictions of the SBH in the ground squirrels from the tribe Marmotini. These rodents exhibit levels of sociality ranging from solitary and single-family female kin groups to egalitarian polygynous harems but feature similar ecologies and life-history traits. We found little support for the association between increase in sociality and increase in relative brain size. Thus, sociality does not drive the evolution of encephalization in this group of rodents, a finding inconsistent with the SBH. However, body mass and absolute brain size increase with sociality. These findings suggest that increased social complexity in the ground squirrels goes hand in hand with larger body mass and brain size, which are tightly coupled to each other. PMID:27009231

  16. The Process of Social Identity Development in Adolescent High School Choral Singers: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to describe the process of adolescent choral singers' social identity development within three midsized, midwestern high school mixed choirs. Forty-nine interviews were conducted with 36 different participants. Secondary data sources included memoing, observations, and interviews with the choir…

  17. Effects of Drying Condition and Binding Agent on the Quality Characteristics of Ground Dried-Pork Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Ju; Jang, Aera

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of processing conditions (temperature and time) and binding agent types (glutinous rice flour, potato starch, bean flour, and acorn flour) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ground dried-pork meat product. For this purpose, ground dried-pork meat product was produced by adding several binding agents at different drying temperatures and times. The drying time affected moisture content and water activity in all drying temperature. However, under the similar drying conditions, the extent of drying varied depending on the type of binding agents. The results of sensory evaluation for texture degree and overall acceptability indicated the following: overall, higher drying temperatures and longer drying time heightened the degree of texture, and the overall acceptability varied depending on binding agent type. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics were analyzed to determine any possible correlation. The results revealed a high correlation between moisture content, water activity, shear forces, and sensory evaluation (p<0.01). However, there was no correlation with respect to overall acceptability. PMID:26761886

  18. Grandparents as interactive and social support agents for families with young infants.

    PubMed

    Tinsley, B J; Parke, R D

    1987-01-01

    The role of grandparents in infancy was examined in a comparative analysis of grandparent-infant grandchild and parent-infant interaction patterns. A second focus of the study was an exploration of the extent to which grandparents function as social support agents for their adult children and infant grandchildren. Grandparents (30 grandmothers and 21 grandfathers) and parents (30 mothers and 30 fathers) of seven-month-old infants were observed in individual five-minute dyadic play sessions with the infant in the parents' homes, yielding twenty minutes of agent-infant interaction. The observations were scored using both time-sampling and global coding schemes. Information on grandparental support to the young parents and infants, relative to other social support sources, were also obtained from grandparents and parents. Results indicated that both grandmothers and grandfathers are active interactive and support agents, with a pattern of similarities and differences in interactive style across generation and gender. Although there was a high degree of overlap in parent and grandparent interaction styles, parents were rated as more competent. Gender consistencies were found between female agents (mothers and grandmothers) and male agents (fathers and grandfathers). High levels of intergenerational contact were reported, with both parents and grandparents highly satisfied with the contact. The results of this study support an expanded view of the effects of various agents in young children's social environment.

  19. Emergent Societal Effects of Crimino-Social Forces in an Animat Agent Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scogings, Chris J.; Hawick, Ken A.

    Societal behaviour can be studied at a causal level by perturbing a stable multi-agent model with new microscopic behaviours and observing the statistical response over an ensemble of simulated model systems. We report on the effects of introducing criminal and law-enforcing behaviours into a large scale animat agent model and describe the complex spatial agent patterns and population changes that result. Our well-established predator-prey substrate model provides a background framework against which these new microscopic behaviours can be trialled and investigated. We describe some quantitative results and some surprising conclusions concerning the overall societal health when individually anti-social behaviour is introduced.

  20. Supporting Teachers in Becoming Agents of Social Cohesion: Professional Development in Post- Apartheid South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogliacci, Rada Jancic; Raanhuis, Joyce; Howell, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Policy and research have been advocating the importance of teachers in achieving equity and teachers are called to act as agents of social justice. This issue remains central to the development of a post-apartheid South Africa, where a need for reconciliation and healing still dominates the society. Such a landscape requires adequate support…

  1. Parent and Adolescent Interaction in Television Advertisements as Consumer Socialization Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmete, Emine

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the interaction between parents and adolescents pertaining to television advertisements as a consumer socialization agent and the effects of advertisements on the purchasing decisions of adolescents. The effects of age and sex were also investigated. The sample included 240 high school students in grades 9, 10 and…

  2. Black Women as Scholars and Social Agents: Standing in the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Sherri L.; Moore, Sharon E.; Curtis, Carla M.

    2014-01-01

    The number of Black women in the academy is small. Further, that number decreases as the academic and administrative ranks increase. Yet, these scholars and social agents play roles vital to education. This reflective essay describes the experiences of three Black female scholars at Predominately White Institutions. Using personal narratives as an…

  3. Mixed Messages: How Primary Agents of Socialization Influence Adolescent Females Who Identify as Multiracial-Bisexual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Alissa R.

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to highlight the often stigmatized and invisible identities of six female participants who identify as multiracial/biracial-bisexual/pansexual, focusing on the pre-college context. Findings, using in-depth interviews, indicated that the primary socializing agents within the pre-college context strongly influenced…

  4. Fostering Social Agency in Multimedia Learning: Examining the Impact of an Animated Agent's Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Robert K.; Mayer, Richard E.; Merrill, Mary Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Consistent with social agency theory, we hypothesized that learners who studied a set of worked-out examples involving proportional reasoning narrated by an animated agent with a human voice would perform better on near and far transfer tests and rate the speaker more positively compared to learners who studied the same set of examples narrated by…

  5. Reverse engineering a social agent-based hidden markov model--visage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Ching Justin; Goldberg, Mark; Magdon-Ismail, Malik; Wallace, William A

    2008-12-01

    We present a machine learning approach to discover the agent dynamics that drives the evolution of the social groups in a community. We set up the problem by introducing an agent-based hidden Markov model for the agent dynamics: an agent's actions are determined by micro-laws. Nonetheless, We learn the agent dynamics from the observed communications without knowing state transitions. Our approach is to identify the appropriate micro-laws corresponding to an identification of the appropriate parameters in the model. The model identification problem is then formulated as a mixed optimization problem. To solve the problem, we develop a multistage learning process for determining the group structure, the group evolution, and the micro-laws of a community based on the observed set of communications among actors, without knowing the semantic contents. Finally, to test the quality of our approximations and the feasibility of the approach, we present the results of extensive experiments on synthetic data as well as the results on real communities, such as Enron email and Movie newsgroups. Insight into agent dynamics helps us understand the driving forces behind social evolution.

  6. "Social" robots are psychological agents for infants: a test of gaze following.

    PubMed

    Meltzoff, Andrew N; Brooks, Rechele; Shon, Aaron P; Rao, Rajesh P N

    2010-01-01

    Gaze following is a key component of human social cognition. Gaze following directs attention to areas of high information value and accelerates social, causal, and cultural learning. An issue for both robotic and infant learning is whose gaze to follow. The hypothesis tested in this study is that infants use information derived from an entity's interactions with other agents as evidence about whether that entity is a perceiver. A robot was programmed so that it could engage in communicative, imitative exchanges with an adult experimenter. Infants who saw the robot act in this social-communicative fashion were more likely to follow its line of regard than those without such experience. Infants use prior experience with the robot's interactions as evidence that the robot is a psychological agent that can see. Infants want to look at what the robot is seeing, and thus shift their visual attention to the external target.

  7. Recognizing social class in the psychotherapy relationship: a grounded theory exploration of low-income clients.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Mindi N; Cole, Odessa D; Nitzarim, Rachel S

    2012-04-01

    The process of psychotherapy among 16 low-income clients was explored using grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967) in order to understand and identify their unique experiences and needs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 women and 4 men who had attended at least 6 sessions of psychotherapy within 6 months of the interview. Our grounded theory that evolved depicted a tapestry of the dynamic process by which low-income clients experience social class within psychotherapy. Specific therapist behaviors that contribute to more and less positive experiences emerged from the data and pointed to the importance of acknowledging social class within the therapy room. The significance of therapists enhancing the 50-min hour via advocacy and meaningful moments within and outside of the therapy room was highlighted among all participants. Implications for practice with low-income clients and directions for future research are provided.

  8. Leveraging social influence to address overweight and obesity using agent-based models: the role of adolescent social networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Tong, L; Lamberson, P J; Durazo-Arvizu, R A; Luke, A; Shoham, D A

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity (hereafter, simply "overweight") in the US has increased over the past several decades. Individually-targeted prevention and treatment strategies targeting individuals have been disappointing, leading some to propose leveraging social networks to improve interventions. We hypothesized that social network dynamics (social marginalization; homophily on body mass index, BMI) and the strength of peer influence would increase or decrease the proportion of network member (agents) becoming overweight over a simulated year, and that peer influence would operate differently in social networks with greater overweight. We built an agent-based model (ABM) using results from R-SIENA. ABMs allow for the exploration of potential interventions using simulated agents. Initial model specifications were drawn from Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We focused on a single saturation school with complete network and BMI data over two waves (n = 624). The model was validated against empirical observations at Wave 2. We focused on overall overweight prevalence after a simulated year. Five experiments were conducted: (1) changing attractiveness of high-BMI agents; (2) changing homophily on BMI; (3) changing the strength of peer influence; (4) shifting the overall BMI distribution; and (5) targeting dietary interventions to highly connected individuals. Increasing peer influence showed a dramatic decrease in the prevalence of overweight; making peer influence negative (i.e., doing the opposite of friends) increased overweight. However, the effect of peer influence varied based on the underlying distribution of BMI; when BMI was increased overall, stronger peer influence increased proportion of overweight. Other interventions, including targeted dieting, had little impact. Peer influence may be a viable target in overweight interventions, but the distribution of body size in the population needs to

  9. Home range, social behavior, and dominance relationships in the African unstriped ground squirrel, Xerus rutilus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    A field study of home range, social behavior, and dominance relationships in the African unstriped ground squirrel, Xerus rutilus, was conducted in semi-arid bushland near Kibwezi, Kenya. Ground squirrels lived alone or in small groups in isolated burrow systems and had broadly overlapping home ranges. They were neither territorial or colonial. Home ranges were estimated by visual observation of marked animals and those of males were considerably larger (mean=7.01 hectares (ha); n=4) than those of females (mean=1.37 ha; n-6). A continuum of agonistic behavior ranging from threat to combat is described, although actual combat was rarely observed. Sexual behavior includes a stereotypical tail display by adult males. Dominance relationships, based on 542 observed encounters between marked individuals, include a consistent male dominance over females and a fairly constant linear hierarchy among all individuals with shared home ranges. Similarities in the behavior of African ground squirrels and tree squirrels (Sciurus) are discussed.

  10. [Effects of ground cover and water-retaining agent on winter wheat growth and precipitation utilization].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ji-Cheng; Guan, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Yong-Hui

    2011-01-01

    An investigation was made at a hilly upland in western Henan Province to understand the effects of water-retaining agent (0, 45, and 60 kg x hm(-2)), straw mulching (3000 and 6000 kg x hm(-2)), and plastic mulching (thickness < 0.005 mm) on winter wheat growth, soil moisture and nutrition conditions, and precipitation use. All the three measures promoted winter wheat growth, enhanced grain yield and precipitation use efficiency, and improved soil moisture and nutritional regimes. These positive effects were more obvious when the straw- or plastic mulching was combined with the use of water-retaining agent. Comparing with the control, all the measures increased the soil moisture content at different growth stages by 0.1%-6.5%. Plastic film mulching had the best water-retention effect before jointing stage, whereas water-retaining agent showed its best effect after jointing stage. Soil moisture content was the lowest at flowering and grain-filling stages. Land cover increased the grain yield by 2.6%-20.1%. The yield increment was the greatest (14.2%-20.1%) by the combined use of straw mulching and water-retaining agent, followed by plastic mulching combined with water-retaining agent (11.9% on average). Land cover also improved the precipitation use efficiency (0.4-3.2 kg x mm(-1) x hm(-2)) in a similar trend as the grain yield. This study showed that land cover and water-retaining agent improved soil moisture and nutrition conditions and precipitation utilization, which in turn, promoted the tillering of winter wheat, and increased the grain number per ear and the 1000-grain mass.

  11. Understanding animate agents: distinct roles for the social network and mirror system.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Thalia; Milleville, Shawn C; Martin, Alex

    2007-06-01

    How people understand the actions of animate agents has been vigorously debated. This debate has centered on two hypotheses focused on anatomically distinct neural substrates: The mirror-system hypothesis proposes that the understanding of others is achieved via action simulation, and the social-network hypothesis proposes that such understanding is achieved via the integration of critical biological properties (e.g., faces, affect). In this study, we assessed the areas of the brain that were engaged when people interpreted and imagined moving shapes as animate or inanimate. Although observing and imagining the moving shapes engaged the mirror system, only activation of the social network was modulated by animacy.

  12. Advancing complementary and alternative medicine through social network analysis and agent-based modeling.

    PubMed

    Frantz, Terrill L

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the contemporary perspectives and techniques of social network analysis (SNA) and agent-based modeling (ABM) and advocates applying them to advance various aspects of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). SNA and ABM are invaluable methods for representing, analyzing and projecting complex, relational, social phenomena; they provide both an insightful vantage point and a set of analytic tools that can be useful in a wide range of contexts. Applying these methods in the CAM context can aid the ongoing advances in the CAM field, in both its scientific aspects and in developing broader acceptance in associated stakeholder communities.

  13. Agents of Law: Psychoanalytic Perspective on Parenthood Practices as Socially Accepted Violence.

    PubMed

    Even-Tzur, Efrat; Hadar, Uri

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of parental authority from the vantage point of parental subjecthood, using a roughly Lacanian formulation of what it means to take a (parental) subject position. For Freud, the parental role involves the acceptance of social rules that may, at times, involve a socially acceptable degree of violence. Nevertheless, psychoanalytic discussions have disregarded the parents' subjective experience as agents of the Law and purveyors of threatening authority. The authors elaborate on Freud's and Lacan's ideas and delineate several prime types of parental identifications as agents of Law. The Lacanian theoretical constructs expanded in this discussion include two basic parental positions of authority, termed the Symbolic Father and the Imaginary Father, and one derivative position, called the Perverse Father, which are demonstrated through the story of Dr. Moritz Schreber. The paper discusses how these theoretical constructs bear upon the philosophical conceptualizations of law, violence, and legitimacy.

  14. Multi-agent social and organizational modeling of the electric power and natural gas markets.

    SciTech Connect

    North, M. J.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2001-12-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) can be applied to investigate large-scale socio-cognitive-technical systems. Viewing such systems from a multi-agent social and organizational perspective allows innovative computational policy analysis. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has taken such a perspective to produce an integrated model of the electric power and natural gas markets. This model focuses on the organizational interdependencies between these markets. These organizational interdependencies are being strained by fundamental market transformations.

  15. Education as an Agent of Social Evolution: The Educational Projects of Patrick Geddes in Late-Victorian Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the educational projects of Patrick Geddes in late-Victorian Scotland. Initially a natural scientist, Geddes drew on an eclectic mix of social theory to develop his own ideas on social evolution. For him education was a vital agent of social change which, he believed, had the potential to develop active citizens whose…

  16. Model reduction for agent-based social simulation: coarse-graining a civil violence model.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yu; Fonoberov, Vladimir A; Fonoberova, Maria; Mezic, Igor; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G

    2012-06-01

    Agent-based modeling (ABM) constitutes a powerful computational tool for the exploration of phenomena involving emergent dynamic behavior in the social sciences. This paper demonstrates a computer-assisted approach that bridges the significant gap between the single-agent microscopic level and the macroscopic (coarse-grained population) level, where fundamental questions must be rationally answered and policies guiding the emergent dynamics devised. Our approach will be illustrated through an agent-based model of civil violence. This spatiotemporally varying ABM incorporates interactions between a heterogeneous population of citizens [active (insurgent), inactive, or jailed] and a population of police officers. Detailed simulations exhibit an equilibrium punctuated by periods of social upheavals. We show how to effectively reduce the agent-based dynamics to a stochastic model with only two coarse-grained degrees of freedom: the number of jailed citizens and the number of active ones. The coarse-grained model captures the ABM dynamics while drastically reducing the computation time (by a factor of approximately 20).

  17. Model reduction for agent-based social simulation: Coarse-graining a civil violence model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yu; Fonoberov, Vladimir A.; Fonoberova, Maria; Mezic, Igor; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.

    2012-06-01

    Agent-based modeling (ABM) constitutes a powerful computational tool for the exploration of phenomena involving emergent dynamic behavior in the social sciences. This paper demonstrates a computer-assisted approach that bridges the significant gap between the single-agent microscopic level and the macroscopic (coarse-grained population) level, where fundamental questions must be rationally answered and policies guiding the emergent dynamics devised. Our approach will be illustrated through an agent-based model of civil violence. This spatiotemporally varying ABM incorporates interactions between a heterogeneous population of citizens [active (insurgent), inactive, or jailed] and a population of police officers. Detailed simulations exhibit an equilibrium punctuated by periods of social upheavals. We show how to effectively reduce the agent-based dynamics to a stochastic model with only two coarse-grained degrees of freedom: the number of jailed citizens and the number of active ones. The coarse-grained model captures the ABM dynamics while drastically reducing the computation time (by a factor of approximately 20).

  18. Dogs (Canis familiaris) adjust their social behaviour to the differential role of inanimate interactive agents.

    PubMed

    Petró, Eszter; Abdai, Judit; Gergely, Anna; Topál, József; Miklósi, Ádám

    2016-03-01

    Dogs are able to flexibly adjust their social behaviour to situation-specific characteristics of their human partner's behaviour in problem situations. However, dogs do not necessarily detect the specific role played by the human in a particular situation: they may form expectations about their partners' behaviour based on previous experiences with them. Utilising inanimate objects (UMO-unidentified moving object) as interacting agents offers new possibilities for investigating social behaviour, because in this way we can remove or control the influence of previous experience with the partner. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether dogs are able to recognise the different roles of two UMOs and are able to adjust their communicative behaviour towards them. In the learning phase of the experiment, dogs were presented with a two-way food-retrieval problem in which two UMOs, which differed in their physical appearance and abilities, helped the dog obtain a piece of food in their own particular manner. After a short experience with both UMOs, dogs in the test phase faced one of the problems in the presence of both inanimate agents. Overall, dogs displayed similar levels of gazing behaviour towards the UMOs, but in the first test they looked, approached and touched the relevant partner first. This rapid adjustment of social behaviour towards UMOs suggests that dogs may generalise their experiences with humans to unfamiliar agents and are able to select the appropriate partner when facing a problem situation.

  19. Foundations of "new" social science: institutional legitimacy from philosophy, complexity science, postmodernism, and agent-based modeling.

    PubMed

    Henrickson, Leslie; McKelvey, Bill

    2002-05-14

    Since the death of positivism in the 1970s, philosophers have turned their attention to scientific realism, evolutionary epistemology, and the Semantic Conception of Theories. Building on these trends, Campbellian Realism allows social scientists to accept real-world phenomena as criterion variables against which theories may be tested without denying the reality of individual interpretation and social construction. The Semantic Conception reduces the importance of axioms, but reaffirms the role of models and experiments. Philosophers now see models as "autonomous agents" that exert independent influence on the development of a science, in addition to theory and data. The inappropriate molding effects of math models on social behavior modeling are noted. Complexity science offers a "new" normal science epistemology focusing on order creation by self-organizing heterogeneous agents and agent-based models. The more responsible core of postmodernism builds on the idea that agents operate in a constantly changing web of interconnections among other agents. The connectionist agent-based models of complexity science draw on the same conception of social ontology as do postmodernists. These recent developments combine to provide foundations for a "new" social science centered on formal modeling not requiring the mathematical assumptions of agent homogeneity and equilibrium conditions. They give this "new" social science legitimacy in scientific circles that current social science approaches lack.

  20. Socio-inspired ICT. Towards a socially grounded society-ICT symbiosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferscha, A.; Farrahi, K.; van den Hoven, J.; Hales, D.; Nowak, A.; Lukowicz, P.; Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    Modern ICT (Information and Communication Technology) has developed a vision where the "computer" is no longer associated with the concept of a single device or a network of devices, but rather the entirety of situated services originating in a digital world, which are perceived through the physical world. It is observed that services with explicit user input and output are becoming to be replaced by a computing landscape sensing the physical world via a huge variety of sensors, and controlling it via a plethora of actuators. The nature and appearance of computing devices is changing to be hidden in the fabric of everyday life, invisibly networked, and omnipresent, with applications greatly being based on the notions of context and knowledge. Interaction with such globe spanning, modern ICT systems will presumably be more implicit, at the periphery of human attention, rather than explicit, i.e. at the focus of human attention.Socio-inspired ICT assumes that future, globe scale ICT systems should be viewed as social systems. Such a view challenges research to identify and formalize the principles of interaction and adaptation in social systems, so as to be able to ground future ICT systems on those principles. This position paper therefore is concerned with the intersection of social behaviour and modern ICT, creating or recreating social conventions and social contexts through the use of pervasive, globe-spanning, omnipresent and participative ICT.

  1. Ozone as a laundry agent on orbit and on the ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone (03), is the strongest commercial oxidizing agent for aqueous systems and may be ideal for space station laundering operations. It can be generated electronically from air in situ. It kills virtually all microorganisms, attacks many organics and inorganics, and breaks down stable ring structures of benzene and related oils when coupled with ultra violet radiation. It cleans and disinfects in cold water without the need for detergent. It leaves no residues. Ozone permits up to 90% wash water recycling and it eliminates wash time, water volume, and recycling problems of a detergent rinse. Ozone is self purging and converts spontaneously to oxygen. It can be rapidly purged by well established catalytic and thermal processes. Scaling of an ozone laundering system for space station may have commercial applications in a consumer model for home use.

  2. Ozone as a laundry agent on orbit and on the ground

    SciTech Connect

    Agosto, W.N.

    1994-05-01

    Ozone (O3), is the strongest commercial oxidizing agent for aqueous systems and may be ideal for space station laundering operations. It can be generated electronically from air in situ. It kills virtually all microorganisms, attacks many organics and inorganics, and breaks down stable ring structures of benzene and related oils when coupled with ultra violet radiation. It cleans and disinfects in cold water without the need for detergent. It leaves no residues. Ozone permits up to 90% wash water recycling and it eliminates wash time, water volume, and recycling problems of a detergent rinse. Ozone is self purging and converts spontaneously to oxygen. It can be rapidly purged by well established catalytic and thermal processes. Scaling of an ozone laundering system for space station may have commercial applications in a consumer model for home use.

  3. Dynamic impact of social stratification and social influence on smoking prevalence by gender: An agent-based model.

    PubMed

    Chao, Dingding; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kondo, Naoki

    2015-12-01

    Smoking behavior is tightly related to socioeconomic status and gender, though the dynamic and non-linear association of smoking prevalence across socioeconomic status and gender groups has not been fully examined. With a special focus on gender-bound differences in the susceptibility to social influence of surrounding others' behaviors, we developed an agent-based model to explore how socioeconomic disparity between and within gender groups affects changes in smoking prevalence. Our developed base model reasonably reproduced the actual trend changes by gender groups over the past 5 years in Japan. Counterfactual experiments with the developed model revealed that closing within- and between-gender disparities in socioeconomic status had a limited impact on reducing smoking prevalence. To the contrary, greater socioeconomic disparity facilitated the reduction in prevalence among males, but it impeded that reduction in females. The counterfactual scenario with equalizing gender-bound susceptibility to social influence among women to men's level showed a dramatic reduction in female prevalence without changing the reduction in male prevalence. Simulation results may provide alternative explanation of the growing disparity in smoking prevalence despite improved welfare equality observed in many developed countries, and suggest that redistribution policies may have side effects of widening health gap. Instead, social policy to reduce social pressures to smoking and support interventions to enhance resilience to the pressure targeting the vulnerable population (in this study, women) would be a more effective strategy in combating the tobacco epidemic and closing the health gap.

  4. Review of analytical results from the proposed agent disposal facility site, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, K.L.; Reed, L.L.; Myers, S.W.; Shepard, L.T.; Sydelko, T.G.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory reviewed the analytical results from 57 composite soil samples collected in the Bush River area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. A suite of 16 analytical tests involving 11 different SW-846 methods was used to detect a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants. One method (BTEX) was considered redundant, and two {open_quotes}single-number{close_quotes} methods (TPH and TOX) were found to lack the required specificity to yield unambiguous results, especially in a preliminary investigation. Volatile analytes detected at the site include 1, 1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, all of which probably represent residual site contamination from past activities. Other volatile analytes detected include toluene, tridecane, methylene chloride, and trichlorofluoromethane. These compounds are probably not associated with site contamination but likely represent cross-contamination or, in the case of tridecane, a naturally occurring material. Semivolatile analytes detected include three different phthalates and low part-per-billion amounts of the pesticide DDT and its degradation product DDE. The pesticide could represent residual site contamination from past activities, and the phthalates are likely due, in part, to cross-contamination during sample handling. A number of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives were detected and were probably naturally occurring compounds. 4 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  5. Humans as major geological and geomorphological agents in the Anthropocene: the significance of artificial ground in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Price, Simon J; Ford, Jonathan R; Cooper, Anthony H; Neal, Catherine

    2011-03-13

    Since the first prehistoric people started to dig for stone to make implements, rather than pick up loose material, humans have modified the landscape through excavation of rock and soil, generation of waste and creation of artificial ground. In Great Britain over the past 200 years, people have excavated, moved and built up the equivalent of at least six times the volume of Ben Nevis. It is estimated that the worldwide deliberate annual shift of sediment by human activity is 57,000 Mt (million tonnes) and exceeds that of transport by rivers to the oceans (22,000 Mt) almost by a factor of three. Humans sculpt and transform the landscape through the physical modification of the shape and properties of the ground. As such, humans are geological and geomorphological agents and the dominant factor in landscape evolution through settlement and widespread industrialization and urbanization. The most significant impact of this has been since the onset of the Industrial Revolution in the eighteenth century, coincident with increased release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The anthropogenic sedimentological record, therefore, provides a marker on which to characterize the Anthropocene.

  6. Temporal asymmetries in Interbank Market: an empirically grounded Agent-Based Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlatic, Vinko; Popovic, Marko; Abraham, Hrvoje; Caldarelli, Guido; Iori, Giulia

    2014-03-01

    We analyse the changes in the topology of the structure of the E-mid interbank market in the period from September 1st 1999 to September 1st 2009. We uncover a type of temporal irreversibility in the growth of the largest component of the interbank trading network, which is not common to any of the usual network growth models. Such asymmetry, which is also detected on the growth of the clustering and reciprocity coefficient, reveals that the trading mechanism is driven by different dynamics at the beginning and at the end of the day. We are able to recover the complexity of the system by means of a simple Agent Based Model in which the probability of matching between counter parties depends on a time varying vertex fitness (or attractiveness) describing banks liquidity needs. We show that temporal irreversibility is associated with heterogeneity in the banking system and emerges when the distribution of liquidity shocks across banks is broad. We acknowledge support from FET project FOC-II.

  7. Foundations of “new” social science: Institutional legitimacy from philosophy, complexity science, postmodernism, and agent-based modeling

    PubMed Central

    Henrickson, Leslie; McKelvey, Bill

    2002-01-01

    Since the death of positivism in the 1970s, philosophers have turned their attention to scientific realism, evolutionary epistemology, and the Semantic Conception of Theories. Building on these trends, Campbellian Realism allows social scientists to accept real-world phenomena as criterion variables against which theories may be tested without denying the reality of individual interpretation and social construction. The Semantic Conception reduces the importance of axioms, but reaffirms the role of models and experiments. Philosophers now see models as “autonomous agents” that exert independent influence on the development of a science, in addition to theory and data. The inappropriate molding effects of math models on social behavior modeling are noted. Complexity science offers a “new” normal science epistemology focusing on order creation by self-organizing heterogeneous agents and agent-based models. The more responsible core of postmodernism builds on the idea that agents operate in a constantly changing web of interconnections among other agents. The connectionist agent-based models of complexity science draw on the same conception of social ontology as do postmodernists. These recent developments combine to provide foundations for a “new” social science centered on formal modeling not requiring the mathematical assumptions of agent homogeneity and equilibrium conditions. They give this “new” social science legitimacy in scientific circles that current social science approaches lack. PMID:12011408

  8. A blasting agent having unusually low velocity and producing unusually low ground vibration and large burden displacement

    SciTech Connect

    Coursen, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Detonation propagates in the subject blasting agent at about 2.7 km/sec when it is heavily primed but explosion propagates in it at only about 0.43 km/sec when it is lightly primed. When propagating at 0.43 km/sec, it produces a borehole pressure that is slightly less than 1 kb, but no yellow fumes or other sign of incomplete reaction. It is a pumped AN/emulsion blend to which additional water is added by circumferential injection at the inlet of the hose through which it is pumped. This composition, when lightly primed, belongs to a new class of blasting agents which have promise for use in the following situations: where maximum throw of the burden at fixed powder factor is desired, as in coal stripping; where fixed throw at minimum powder factor is desired, as in quarry-blasting of well-jointed rock; where a clean and stable remaining face is required; where armor stone is to be produced from rock having large, competent blocks in place; or where heavy blasting is to be done at locations where ground vibration is a problem.

  9. RCRA delisting of agent-decontaminated waste and remediation waste at Dugway Proving Ground: A program update

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.; O`Neill, H.J.

    1996-03-01

    In July 1988, the state of Utah issued regulations that declared residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, and testing of military chemical agents to be hazardous wastes. These residues were designated as corrosive, reactive, toxic, and acute hazardous (Hazardous Waste No. F999). These residues are not listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), which is the primary law governing management of hazardous waste in the United States. The RCRAI regulations (40 CFR 260-280), the Utah Administrative Code (R-315), and other state hazardous waste programs list specific wastes as hazardous but allow generators to petition the regulator to {open_quotes}delist{close_quotes} if it can be demonstrated that such wastes are not hazardous. In 1994, the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command FECOM initiated a project with the Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to demonstrate that certain categories of F999 residues are not hazardous waste and to achieve delisting. The initial focus is on delisting agent-decontaminated residues and soil with a history of contamination at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), Utah. An overview of the DPG delisting program was presented at the 1995 American Defense Preparedness Association Environmental Symposium. Since that time, much progress has been made. The purpose of this paper is to review the DPG delisting program and discuss overall progress. Emphasis is placed on progress with regard to analytical methods that will be used to demonstrate that the target residues do not contain hazardous amounts of chemical agent.

  10. Network Interventions on Physical Activity in an Afterschool Program: An Agent-Based Social Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Shoham, David A.; Tesdahl, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We studied simulated interventions that leveraged social networks to increase physical activity in children. Methods. We studied a real-world social network of 81 children (average age = 7.96 years) who lived in low socioeconomic status neighborhoods, and attended public schools and 1 of 2 structured afterschool programs. The sample was ethnically diverse, and 44% were overweight or obese. We used social network analysis and agent-based modeling simulations to test whether implementing a network intervention would increase children’s physical activity. We tested 3 intervention strategies. Results. The intervention that targeted opinion leaders was effective in increasing the average level of physical activity across the entire network. However, the intervention that targeted the most sedentary children was the best at increasing their physical activity levels. Conclusions. Which network intervention to implement depends on whether the goal is to shift the entire distribution of physical activity or to influence those most adversely affected by low physical activity. Agent-based modeling could be an important complement to traditional project planning tools, analogous to sample size and power analyses, to help researchers design more effective interventions for increasing children’s physical activity. PMID:25689202

  11. A Comparative Toxidrome Analysis of Human Organophosphate and Nerve Agent Poisonings Using Social Media.

    PubMed

    Reddy, D S; Colman, E

    2017-02-26

    Here we utilized social media to compare the toxidrome of three lethal chemical exposures worldwide. YouTube videos were the main source from which the data were collected, but published reports and news were also utilized to fill in some gaps. All videos were organized in a database detailing symptoms and severity of each victim, along with demographics such as approximate age and gender. Each symptom was rated as mild, moderate, or severe and corresponding pie graphs for each incident were compared. The videos displayed symptoms ranging from mild to severe cholinergic toxicity and life-threatening convulsions. Social media may represent an important resource in developing a viable approach to the early detection and identification of chemical exposure, reinforce our preparedness for better antidotes, long-term follow up, and training about deadly chemical nerve agent attacks.

  12. Multi-Agent Inference in Social Networks: A Finite Population Learning Approach.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianqing; Tong, Xin; Zeng, Yao

    When people in a society want to make inference about some parameter, each person may want to use data collected by other people. Information (data) exchange in social networks is usually costly, so to make reliable statistical decisions, people need to trade off the benefits and costs of information acquisition. Conflicts of interests and coordination problems will arise in the process. Classical statistics does not consider people's incentives and interactions in the data collection process. To address this imperfection, this work explores multi-agent Bayesian inference problems with a game theoretic social network model. Motivated by our interest in aggregate inference at the societal level, we propose a new concept, finite population learning, to address whether with high probability, a large fraction of people in a given finite population network can make "good" inference. Serving as a foundation, this concept enables us to study the long run trend of aggregate inference quality as population grows.

  13. Multi-Agent Inference in Social Networks: A Finite Population Learning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xin; Zeng, Yao

    2016-01-01

    When people in a society want to make inference about some parameter, each person may want to use data collected by other people. Information (data) exchange in social networks is usually costly, so to make reliable statistical decisions, people need to trade off the benefits and costs of information acquisition. Conflicts of interests and coordination problems will arise in the process. Classical statistics does not consider people’s incentives and interactions in the data collection process. To address this imperfection, this work explores multi-agent Bayesian inference problems with a game theoretic social network model. Motivated by our interest in aggregate inference at the societal level, we propose a new concept, finite population learning, to address whether with high probability, a large fraction of people in a given finite population network can make “good” inference. Serving as a foundation, this concept enables us to study the long run trend of aggregate inference quality as population grows. PMID:27076691

  14. Agentic personality as mediator of social capital on developmental outcomes in the transition to adulthood: Evidence from Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Rui; Ngai, Steven Sek-yum

    2016-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 1153 young people in Shanghai, China, this study investigates how agentic personality mediates between social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (family, friendship, association, and linking connection) and developmental outcomes during the transition to adulthood. The results of a structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis provide a good fit for the sample as a whole. The overall findings support the hypotheses that a higher level of agentic personality, including resilience, self-efficacy, and self-esteem, is associated with higher levels of developmental outcomes. Agentic personality also mediates the effects of family, friendship, associational, and linking social capital on developmental outcomes. Family social capital is predictive of university students' identity achievement and academic achievement, but not of their mental health. Linking social capital is only predictive of identity achievement. Unexpectedly, friendship social capital and associational social capital are predictive of a lower level of academic achievement and mental health, respectively, despite their positive influences on all three developmental outcomes through their significant effects on agentic personality. The study provides empirical support for the importance of social capital in promoting young people's transition to adulthood. Implications for theory, practice, and policy are also discussed.

  15. An Agent-Based Epidemic Simulation of Social Behaviors Affecting HIV Transmission among Taiwanese Homosexuals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations are currently used to identify epidemic dynamics, to test potential prevention and intervention strategies, and to study the effects of social behaviors on HIV transmission. The author describes an agent-based epidemic simulation model of a network of individuals who participate in high-risk sexual practices, using number of partners, condom usage, and relationship length to distinguish between high- and low-risk populations. Two new concepts—free links and fixed links—are used to indicate tendencies among individuals who either have large numbers of short-term partners or stay in long-term monogamous relationships. An attempt was made to reproduce epidemic curves of reported HIV cases among male homosexuals in Taiwan prior to using the agent-based model to determine the effects of various policies on epidemic dynamics. Results suggest that when suitable adjustments are made based on available social survey statistics, the model accurately simulates real-world behaviors on a large scale. PMID:25815047

  16. An Agent-Based Model of Private Woodland Owner Management Behavior Using Social Interactions, Information Flow, and Peer-To-Peer Networks.

    PubMed

    Huff, Emily Silver; Leahy, Jessica E; Hiebeler, David; Weiskittel, Aaron R; Noblet, Caroline L

    2015-01-01

    Privately owned woodlands are an important source of timber and ecosystem services in North America and worldwide. Impacts of management on these ecosystems and timber supply from these woodlands are difficult to estimate because complex behavioral theory informs the owner's management decisions. The decision-making environment consists of exogenous market factors, internal cognitive processes, and social interactions with fellow landowners, foresters, and other rural community members. This study seeks to understand how social interactions, information flow, and peer-to-peer networks influence timber harvesting behavior using an agent-based model. This theoretical model includes forested polygons in various states of 'harvest readiness' and three types of agents: forest landowners, foresters, and peer leaders (individuals trained in conservation who use peer-to-peer networking). Agent rules, interactions, and characteristics were parameterized with values from existing literature and an empirical survey of forest landowner attitudes, intentions, and demographics. The model demonstrates that as trust in foresters and peer leaders increases, the percentage of the forest that is harvested sustainably increases. Furthermore, peer leaders can serve to increase landowner trust in foresters. Model output and equations will inform forest policy and extension/outreach efforts. The model also serves as an important testing ground for new theories of landowner decision making and behavior.

  17. An Agent-Based Model of Private Woodland Owner Management Behavior Using Social Interactions, Information Flow, and Peer-To-Peer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Huff, Emily Silver; Leahy, Jessica E.; Hiebeler, David; Weiskittel, Aaron R.; Noblet, Caroline L.

    2015-01-01

    Privately owned woodlands are an important source of timber and ecosystem services in North America and worldwide. Impacts of management on these ecosystems and timber supply from these woodlands are difficult to estimate because complex behavioral theory informs the owner’s management decisions. The decision-making environment consists of exogenous market factors, internal cognitive processes, and social interactions with fellow landowners, foresters, and other rural community members. This study seeks to understand how social interactions, information flow, and peer-to-peer networks influence timber harvesting behavior using an agent-based model. This theoretical model includes forested polygons in various states of ‘harvest readiness’ and three types of agents: forest landowners, foresters, and peer leaders (individuals trained in conservation who use peer-to-peer networking). Agent rules, interactions, and characteristics were parameterized with values from existing literature and an empirical survey of forest landowner attitudes, intentions, and demographics. The model demonstrates that as trust in foresters and peer leaders increases, the percentage of the forest that is harvested sustainably increases. Furthermore, peer leaders can serve to increase landowner trust in foresters. Model output and equations will inform forest policy and extension/outreach efforts. The model also serves as an important testing ground for new theories of landowner decision making and behavior. PMID:26562429

  18. Cultural neuroscience of the self: understanding the social grounding of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jiyoung

    2010-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field of research that investigates interrelations among culture, mind and the brain. Drawing on both the growing body of scientific evidence on cultural variation in psychological processes and the recent development of social and cognitive neuroscience, this emerging field of research aspires to understand how culture as an amalgam of values, meanings, conventions, and artifacts that constitute daily social realities might interact with the mind and its underlying brain pathways of each individual member of the culture. In this article, following a brief review of studies that demonstrate the surprising degree to which brain processes are malleably shaped by cultural tools and practices, the authors discuss cultural variation in brain processes involved in self-representations, cognition, emotion and motivation. They then propose (i) that primary values of culture such as independence and interdependence are reflected in the compositions of cultural tasks (i.e. daily routines designed to accomplish the cultural values) and further (ii) that active and sustained engagement in these tasks yields culturally patterned neural activities of the brain, thereby laying the ground for the embodied construction of the self and identity. Implications for research on culture and the brain are discussed. PMID:20592042

  19. Cultural neuroscience of the self: understanding the social grounding of the brain.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Shinobu; Park, Jiyoung

    2010-06-01

    Cultural neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field of research that investigates interrelations among culture, mind and the brain. Drawing on both the growing body of scientific evidence on cultural variation in psychological processes and the recent development of social and cognitive neuroscience, this emerging field of research aspires to understand how culture as an amalgam of values, meanings, conventions, and artifacts that constitute daily social realities might interact with the mind and its underlying brain pathways of each individual member of the culture. In this article, following a brief review of studies that demonstrate the surprising degree to which brain processes are malleably shaped by cultural tools and practices, the authors discuss cultural variation in brain processes involved in self-representations, cognition, emotion and motivation. They then propose (i) that primary values of culture such as independence and interdependence are reflected in the compositions of cultural tasks (i.e. daily routines designed to accomplish the cultural values) and further (ii) that active and sustained engagement in these tasks yields culturally patterned neural activities of the brain, thereby laying the ground for the embodied construction of the self and identity. Implications for research on culture and the brain are discussed.

  20. Social comparison and body image in adolescence: a grounded theory approach.

    PubMed

    Krayer, A; Ingledew, D K; Iphofen, R

    2008-10-01

    This study explored the use of social comparison appraisals in adolescents' lives with particular reference to enhancement appraisals which can be used to counter threats to the self. Social comparison theory has been increasingly used in quantitative research to understand the processes through which societal messages about appearance influence adolescents' body image. Little is known about the comparison processes used in their daily lives-to whom individuals compare (the target), on what individuals compare (the attribute) and how they compare (comparison appraisal). Based on the analysis of 20 in-depth grounded theory interviews with 12- to 14-year old boys and girls, we suggest that comparison processes are used for the purpose of identity development (core category). Given the opportunity, adolescents spontaneously describe a variety of targets, comparison attributes and comparison appraisals. Peers play an important part in making sense of media images and messages and provide comparison targets themselves. Adolescents are aware of societal standards and pressures and use a range of enhancement appraisals. The positive impact of these might depend on individual characteristics. Findings suggest that enhancement appraisals might have a protective function and should be considered in designing health promotion and prevention programmes.

  1. Different impressions of other agents obtained through social interaction uniquely modulate dorsal and ventral pathway activities in the social human brain.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Terada, Kazunori; Morita, Tomoyo; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Haji, Tomoki; Kozima, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Yoshio; Omori, Takashi; Asada, Minoru; Naito, Eiichi

    2014-09-01

    Internal (neuronal) representations in the brain are modified by our experiences, and this phenomenon is not unique to sensory and motor systems. Here, we show that different impressions obtained through social interaction with a variety of agents uniquely modulate activity of dorsal and ventral pathways of the brain network that mediates human social behavior. We scanned brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 16 healthy volunteers when they performed a simple matching-pennies game with a human, human-like android, mechanical robot, interactive robot, and a computer. Before playing this game in the scanner, participants experienced social interactions with each opponent separately and scored their initial impressions using two questionnaires. We found that the participants perceived opponents in two mental dimensions: one represented "mind-holderness" in which participants attributed anthropomorphic impressions to some of the opponents that had mental functions, while the other dimension represented "mind-readerness" in which participants characterized opponents as intelligent. Interestingly, this "mind-readerness" dimension correlated to participants frequently changing their game tactic to prevent opponents from envisioning their strategy, and this was corroborated by increased entropy during the game. We also found that the two factors separately modulated activity in distinct social brain regions. Specifically, mind-holderness modulated activity in the dorsal aspect of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and medial prefrontal and posterior paracingulate cortices, while mind-readerness modulated activity in the ventral aspect of TPJ and the temporal pole. These results clearly demonstrate that activity in social brain networks is modulated through pre-scanning experiences of social interaction with a variety of agents. Furthermore, our findings elucidated the existence of two distinct functional networks in the social human brain

  2. Developing school psychologists as agents of social justice: a qualitative analysis of student understanding across three years.

    PubMed

    Moy, Gregory E; Briggs, Alissa; Shriberg, David; Furrey, Katie Jackson; Smith, Portia; Tompkins, Nicole

    2014-06-01

    This study employed a cohort-sequential design with four cohorts over 3 years to investigate school psychology graduate trainees' (n=37) understanding of social justice. Using consensual qualitative research methods, participants' perspectives on social justice writ large, social justice as it applies to school psychology, and effective aspects of social justice training in their graduate training program were collected through semi-structured focus group interviews. Field-based training though service-learning in diverse communities provided trainees with exposure to experiences that were viewed as instrumental in their understanding of social justice in general and as it applies to school psychology. Trainees described aspects of the training program that were viewed as conducive to educating school psychologists as agents of social justice. Based on findings from the study, a descriptive model of school psychology training for social justice is proposed.

  3. A call to action: training public health students to be effective agents for social change.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Hilary; Heymann, S Jody

    2015-03-01

    In the 21st century, we face enormous public health challenges that differ fundamentally from those of the last century, because these challenges involve widespread societal change and complexity. To address these challenges, public health professionals need to be able to place their work in a larger social context, understand local and global perspectives on a deeper level, and effectively engage a wide variety of stakeholders. To confer these skills, we need to change the way we train our students. We present two examples of low-cost innovative approaches to teaching public health that promote active engagement with individuals across a wide range of backgrounds and fields and that train students to be effective agents for change.

  4. A Call to Action: Training Public Health Students to Be Effective Agents for Social Change

    PubMed Central

    Heymann, S. Jody

    2015-01-01

    In the 21st century, we face enormous public health challenges that differ fundamentally from those of the last century, because these challenges involve widespread societal change and complexity. To address these challenges, public health professionals need to be able to place their work in a larger social context, understand local and global perspectives on a deeper level, and effectively engage a wide variety of stakeholders. To confer these skills, we need to change the way we train our students. We present two examples of low-cost innovative approaches to teaching public health that promote active engagement with individuals across a wide range of backgrounds and fields and that train students to be effective agents for change. PMID:25706013

  5. Assisting Unemployed Adults Find Suitable Work: A Group Intervention Embedded in Community and Grounded in Social Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Christine Suniti

    2010-01-01

    Addressing unemployment, which is currently at the highest levels in recent times, is a social justice imperative. A 3-week (15-day) group intervention for long-term unemployed adults grounded in empowerment and advocacy is presented. The group incorporates the Job Club model with personal awareness and career self-efficacy. In addition to working…

  6. Proc. Agent 2004 Conf. on Social Dynamics : Interaction, Reflexivity and Emergence

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Macal, D. Sallach, M. J. North, eds.

    2004-01-01

    I'd like to welcome you to the Agent 2004 conference. As most of you are aware, this conference is the fifth in a series of meetings that began in 1999. A conference followed the next year in 2000. The 2001 conference was skipped because of some conflicts with other conferences, and the conferences have proceeded annually since then. We have the proceedings of the previous conferences available here on CDs. One CD has the proceedings from 1999, 2000, and 2002; the other contains last year's proceedings. The purpose of these conferences is to advance the state of the computational social sciences and to integrate the social sciences with the decision sciences and something that is traditionally known as the management sciences. Those of you in the operations/research area are familiar with the traditional school of modeling simulation that emerged from that scientific area. This conference will bring together a different group of people to talk about the topic of agent-based theories and simulations. This fifth agent conference is one of a group of conferences held annually around the country. Most of you are probably aware of the CASOS Conference held at Carnegie Mellon University, usually in July. UCLA holds the Arrowhead Conference, generally around May. The University of Michigan is now holding a conference as well. Of course everyone is aware of SwarmFest, which has been held annually for about a decade. The Swarm seems to 'swarm' in different locations each year. As you're well aware, this conference is organized into a three-day program. This is the first time we've used three days for the full conference setting. Last year, we held simultaneous sessions, and that didn't work well for most of those who attended. We had complaints from people who missed sessions and papers because of scheduling, so we decided to extend this year's conference by one day. As a result, we now have a program designed to present the papers in a serial sequence rather than in a

  7. Cultural and crew-ground differences in mood and social climate: results from two space station programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritsher, J. B.; Kanas, N. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Gushin, V. I.; Weiss, D. S.; Saylor, S. A.; Marmar, C. R.

    PURPOSE Cultural differences among crewmembers can jeopardize the safety and success of long-duration space station missions Differences between crewmembers and mission control personnel can strain the working relationship between these groups as well Our team has completed two large NASA-funded studies involving missions to the Mir and International Space Stations Combining these two datasets allows us to generalize across these two settings and maximize statistical power in testing our hypotheses This paper presents results from a set of hypotheses concerning Russian-American and crew-ground differences in mood and social climate Further it explores Russian-American and ISS-Mir differences among crewmembers alone METHODS The combined sample of 216 participants included 13 American astronauts 17 Russian cosmonauts and 150 U S and 36 Russian mission control personnel Using a general linear model procedure we tested the differences between groups on 20 subscales adjusting for the effects of multiple observations per person and multiple analyses We also examined individual items to determine the specific content underlying any observed Russian-American and crew-ground differences in subscale scores portrayed as least square means RESULTS Crewmembers reported better mood profiles than mission control personnel but similar social climate profiles There was one interaction effect where US ground and Russian crew reported stronger Supervisor Support than Russian ground or US crew Among crewmembers alone Americans described their social climate

  8. A Promising Partnership: Uncovering the Middle Ground between Social Innovation and Social Work: Response to Dr. Marilyn L. Flynn's Remarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensoy Bahar, Ozge

    2017-01-01

    This response article discusses opportunities to bridge social work and social innovation as a promising partnership to address the issues impacting vulnerable populations across the global context. It starts by revisiting the conceptualization of innovation in social work and continues by considering factors that contribute to the growing…

  9. The Effects of Social Cue Principles on Cognitive Load, Situational Interest, Motivation, and Achievement in Pedagogical Agent Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sanghoon

    2015-01-01

    Animated pedagogical agents have become popular in multimedia learning with combined delivery of verbal and non-verbal forms of information. In order to reduce unnecessary cognitive load caused by such multiple forms of information and also to foster generative cognitive processing, multimedia design principles with social cues are suggested…

  10. Neighborhood social environment and patterns of adherence to oral hypoglycemic agents among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    de Vries McClintock, Heather F; Wiebe, Douglas J; OʼDonnell, Alison J; Morales, Knashawn H; Small, Dylan S; Bogner, Hillary R

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether neighborhood social environment was related to patterns of adherence to oral hypoglycemic agents among primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Residents in neighborhoods with high social affluence, high residential stability, and high neighborhood advantage, compared to residents in neighborhoods with one or no high features present, were significantly more likely to have an adherent pattern compared to a nonadherent pattern. Neighborhood social environment may influence patterns of adherence. Reliance on a multilevel contextual framework, extending beyond the individual, to promote diabetic self-management activities may be essential for notable public health improvements.

  11. Linking Bayesian and Agent-Based Models to Simulate Complex Social-Ecological Systems in the Sonoran Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, A.; Gimblett, R.

    2013-12-01

    Interdependencies of ecologic, hydrologic, and social systems challenge traditional approaches to natural resource management in semi-arid regions. As a complex social-ecological system, water demands in the Sonoran Desert from agricultural and urban users often conflicts with water needs for its ecologically-significant riparian corridors. To explore this system, we developed an agent-based model to simulate complex feedbacks between human decisions and environmental conditions. Cognitive mapping in conjunction with stakeholder participation produced a Bayesian model of conditional probabilities of local human decision-making processes resulting to changes in water demand. Probabilities created in the Bayesian model were incorporated into the agent-based model, so that each agent had a unique probability to make a positive decision based on its perceived environment at each point in time and space. By using a Bayesian approach, uncertainty in the human decision-making process could be incorporated. The spatially-explicit agent-based model simulated changes in depth-to-groundwater by well pumping based on an agent's water demand. Depth-to-groundwater was then used as an indicator of unique vegetation guilds within the riparian corridor. Each vegetation guild provides varying levels of ecosystem services, the changes of which, along with changes in depth-to-groundwater, feedback to influence agent behavior. Using this modeling approach allowed us to examine resilience of semi-arid riparian corridors and agent behavior under various scenarios. The insight provided by the model contributes to understanding how specific interventions may alter the complex social-ecological system in the future.

  12. Incorporating Social Oriented Agent and Interactive Simulation in E-learning: Impact on Learning, Perceptions, Experiences to Non-Native English Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballera, Melvin; Elssaedi, Mosbah Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    There is an unrealized potential in the use of socially-oriented pedagogical agent and interactive simulation in e-learning system. In this paper, we investigate the impact of having a socially oriented tutor agent and the incorporation of interactive simulation in e-learning into student performances, perceptions and experiences for non-native…

  13. How Socialization Happens on the Ground: Narrative Practices as Alternate Socializing Pathways in Taiwanese and European-American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peggy J.; Fung, Heidi; Lin, Shumin; Chen, Eva Chian-Hui; Boldt, Benjamin R.

    2012-01-01

    This monograph builds upon our cumulative efforts to investigate personal storytelling as a medium of socialization in two disparate cultural worlds. Drawing upon interdisciplinary fields of study that take a discourse-centered approach to socialization, we combined ethnography, longitudinal home observations, and microlevel analysis of everyday…

  14. Toward an Agent-Based Model of Socially Optimal Water Rights Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlen, M. A.

    2004-12-01

    There has been considerable interest lately in using public markets for buying and selling the rights to local water usage. Such water rights markets, if designed correctly, should be socially optimal, that is, should sell rights at prices that reflect the true value of water in the region, taking into account that water rights buyers and sellers represent a disparate group of private industry, public authorities, and private users, each having different water needs and different priority to local government. Good market design, however, is hard. As was experienced in California short-run electric power markets, a market design that on paper looks reasonable but in practice is mal-constructed can have devastating effects: firms can learn to manipulate prices by `playing' both sides of the market, and sellers can under-provide so as to create exorbitant prices which buyers have no choice but to pay. Economic theory provides several frameworks for developing a good water rights market design; for example, the structure-conduct-performance paradigm (SCPP) suggests that, among other things, the number and types of buyers and sellers (structure), and transaction clearing rules and government policies (conduct) affect in very particular ways the prices and quantities (performance) in the market. In slow-moving or static markets, SCPP has been a useful predictor of market performance; in faster markets the market dynamics that endogenously develop over time are often too complex to predict with SCPP or other existing modeling techniques. New, more sophisticated combinations of modeling and simulation are needed. Toward developing a good (i.e., socially optimal) water rights market design that can take into account the dynamics inherent in the water sector, we are developing an agent-based model of water rights markets. The model serves two purposes: first, it provides an SCPP-based framework of water rights markets that takes into account the particular structure of

  15. Hope grounded in belief: Influences of reward for application and social cynicism on dispositional hope.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Allan B I

    2013-12-01

    Two studies explore whether general beliefs about the social world or social axioms may be antecedents of dispositional hope. Social axioms are generalized cognitive representations that provide frames for constructing individuals' hope-related cognitions. Considering social axioms' instrumental and ego-defensive functions, two social axioms, social cynicism and reward for application are hypothesized to be negative and positive predictors of hope, respectively. Study 1 used multiple regression analysis to test the hypothesis. Study 2 used structural equation modeling to test the model with a pathway linking reward for application with hope, and another pathway linking social cynicism and hope that is mediated by self-esteem. The results are discussed in terms of extending the range of psychological constructs and processes that foster the development of hope.

  16. The effects of social interactions on fertility decline in nineteenth-century France: an agent-based simulation experiment.

    PubMed

    González-Bailón, Sandra; Murphy, Tommy E

    2013-07-01

    We built an agent-based simulation, incorporating geographic and demographic data from nineteenth-century France, to study the role of social interactions in fertility decisions. The simulation made experimentation possible in a context where other empirical strategies were precluded by a lack of data. We evaluated how different decision rules, with and without interdependent decision-making, caused variations in population growth and fertility levels. The analyses show that incorporating social influence into the model allows empirically observed behaviour to be mimicked, especially at a national level. These findings shed light on individual-level mechanisms through which the French demographic transition may have developed.

  17. Background chemistry for chemical warfare agents and decontamination processes in support of delisting waste streams at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, D.H.; Small, M.J.; Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.

    1996-04-01

    The State of Utah, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (DSHW), has declared residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, cleanup, and testing of military chemical agents to be hazardous wastes. These residues have been designated as corrosive, reactive, toxic, and acute hazardous (Hazardous Waste No. F999). The RCRA regulations (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 260-280), the Utah Administrative Code (R-315), and other state hazardous waste programs list specific wastes as hazardous but allow generators to petition the regulator to {open_quotes}delist,{close_quotes} if it can be demonstrated that such wastes are not hazardous. The U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) believes that certain categories of F999 residues are not hazardous and has obtained assistance from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to make the delisting demonstration. The objective of this project is to delist chemical agent decontaminated residues resulting from materials testing activities and to delist a remediation residue (e.g., contaminated soil). To delist these residues, it must be demonstrated that the residues (1) do not contain hazardous quantities of the listed agents; (2) do not contain hazardous quantities of constituents listed in 40 CFR Part 261, Appendix VIII; (3) do not exhibit other characteristics that could define the residues as hazardous; and (4) do not fail a series of acute toxicity tests. The first phase will focus on a subset of the F999 wastes generated at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), where the Army tests the effects of military chemical agents and agent-decontamination procedures on numerous military items. This effort is identified as Phase I of the Delisting Program. Subsequent phases will address other DPG chemical agent decontaminated residues and remediation wastes and similar residues at other installations.

  18. Organized Agents: Canadian Teacher Unions as Alternative Sites for Social Justice Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rottmann, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    Historically teachers' federations have been some of the major organizational sites for social justice leadership in K-12 public education. Despite this history of activism, social justice teacher unionism remains a relatively underdeveloped concept. This article merges four philosophical conceptions of social justice in education: liberal…

  19. Grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  20. Social Comparison and Body Image in Adolescence: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krayer, A.; Ingledew, D. K.; Iphofen, R.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the use of social comparison appraisals in adolescents' lives with particular reference to enhancement appraisals which can be used to counter threats to the self. Social comparison theory has been increasingly used in quantitative research to understand the processes through which societal messages about appearance influence…

  1. Addict Life Stories: An Exploration of the Methodological Grounds for the Study of Social Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Charles D.

    1982-01-01

    Explores the use of sociological life histories to study social problems such as drug addiction. The factors influencing the fluctuating popularity of this research technique within the social sciences are examined. The impact of the researcher's direct exposure to the interviewee's problems on research results is discussed. (AM)

  2. An Empirical Agent-Based Model to Simulate the Adoption of Water Reuse Using the Social Amplification of Risk Framework.

    PubMed

    Kandiah, Venu; Binder, Andrew R; Berglund, Emily Z

    2017-01-11

    Water reuse can serve as a sustainable alternative water source for urban areas. However, the successful implementation of large-scale water reuse projects depends on community acceptance. Because of the negative perceptions that are traditionally associated with reclaimed water, water reuse is often not considered in the development of urban water management plans. This study develops a simulation model for understanding community opinion dynamics surrounding the issue of water reuse, and how individual perceptions evolve within that context, which can help in the planning and decision-making process. Based on the social amplification of risk framework, our agent-based model simulates consumer perceptions, discussion patterns, and their adoption or rejection of water reuse. The model is based on the "risk publics" model, an empirical approach that uses the concept of belief clusters to explain the adoption of new technology. Each household is represented as an agent, and parameters that define their behavior and attributes are defined from survey data. Community-level parameters-including social groups, relationships, and communication variables, also from survey data-are encoded to simulate the social processes that influence community opinion. The model demonstrates its capabilities to simulate opinion dynamics and consumer adoption of water reuse. In addition, based on empirical data, the model is applied to investigate water reuse behavior in different regions of the United States. Importantly, our results reveal that public opinion dynamics emerge differently based on membership in opinion clusters, frequency of discussion, and the structure of social networks.

  3. An Investigation on Social Representations: Inanimate Agent Can Mislead Dogs (Canis familiaris) in a Food Choice Task.

    PubMed

    Abdai, Judit; Gergely, Anna; Petró, Eszter; Topál, József; Miklósi, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    The nature of mental representation of others plays a crucial role in social interactions. Dogs present an ideal model species for the investigation of such mental representations because they develop social ties with both conspecifics and heterospecifics. Former studies found that dogs' preference for larger food quantity could be reversed by humans who indicate the smaller quantity. The question is whether this social bias is restricted to human partners. We suggest that after a short positive social experience, an unfamiliar moving inanimate agent (UMO) can also change dogs' choice between two food quantities. We tested four groups of dogs with different partners: In the (1) Helper UMO and (2) Helper UMO Control groups the partner was an interactive remote control car that helped the dog to obtain an otherwise unreachable food. In the (3) Non-helper UMO and (4) Human partner groups dogs had restricted interaction with the remote control car and the unfamiliar human partners. In the Human partner, Helper UMO and Helper UMO Control groups the partners were able to revert dogs' choice for the small amount by indicating the small one, but the Non-helper UMO was not. We suggest that dogs are able to generalize their wide range of experiences with humans to another type of agent as well, based on the recognition of similarities in simple behavioural patterns.

  4. Gendered Socialization with an Embodied Agent: Creating a Social and Affable Mathematics Learning Environment for Middle-Grade Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yanghee; Lim, Jae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether or not embodied-agent-based learning would help middle-grade females have more positive mathematics learning experiences. The study used an explanatory mixed methods research design. First, a classroom-based experiment was conducted with one hundred twenty 9th graders learning introductory algebra (53% male and 47%…

  5. Student as Active Agent: A Grounded Theory of the Postsecondary Transition Experiences for Students with Psychiatric Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liparini, Christina Garczynski

    2008-01-01

    Although research indicates a trend toward increased representation of students with psychiatric disabilities in postsecondary education, the experiences of these students tend to be marked by academic failure and social isolation. However, the existing qualitative and quantitative research on this student population largely excludes the…

  6. Recognizing Social Class in the Psychotherapy Relationship: A Grounded Theory Exploration of Low-Income Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Cole, Odessa D.; Nitzarim, Rachel S.

    2012-01-01

    The process of psychotherapy among 16 low-income clients was explored using grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967) in order to understand and identify their unique experiences and needs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 women and 4 men who had attended at least 6 sessions of psychotherapy within 6 months of the…

  7. "Our Garden Is Colour Blind, Inclusive and Warm": Reflections on Green School Grounds and Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyment, Janet E.; Bell, Anne C.

    2008-01-01

    In the interest of enhancing children's environments, communities around the world are "greening" school grounds, replacing asphalt and manicured grass with a diversity of design elements such as trees, shrubs, gardens, water features, artwork and gathering areas. Despite a growing body of research from a number of disciplines exploring…

  8. Becoming Therapeutic Agents: A Grounded Theory of Mothers' Process When Implementing Cognitive Behavioural Therapy at Home with an Anxious Child.

    PubMed

    Pishva, Rana

    2016-09-29

    The premise of parent-centred programmes for parents of anxious children is to educate and train caregivers in the sustainable implementation of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in the home. The existing operationalization of parent involvement, however, does not address the systemic, parent or child factors that could influence this process. The qualitative approach of grounded theory was employed to examine patterns of action and interaction involved in the complex process of carrying out CBT with one's child in one's home. A grounded theory goes beyond the description of a process, offering an explanatory theory that brings taken-for-granted meanings and processes to the surface. The theory that emerged from the analysis suggests that CBT implementation by mothers of anxious children is characterized by the evolution of mothers' perception of their child and mothers' perception of their role as well as a shift from reacting with emotion to responding pragmatically to the child. Changes occur as mothers recognize the crisis, make links between the treatment rationale, child's symptoms and their own parenting strategies, integrate tenets of CBT for anxiety and eventually focus on sustaining therapeutic gains through natural life transitions. The theory widens our understanding of mothers' role, therapeutic engagement, process, and decision-making. The theory also generates new hypotheses regarding parent involvement in the treatment of paediatric anxiety disorders and proposes novel research avenues that aim to maximize the benefits of parental involvement in the treatment of paediatric anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Shifting the Future? Teachers as Agents of Social Change in South African Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappy, Christina Lane

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has risen to the forefront of educational debates that claim schooling can promote social justice and social cohesion. By drawing on Freire's (1970) theory of critical pedagogy, this paper examines how South African teachers in rural and township schools encourage students to reflect critically upon their own lives and take action to…

  10. The New Student Activism: Supporting Students as Agents of Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The "new student activism," as it is often called, is a hot topic in higher education as well as in the popular press and social media. As a college student in the late '60s and early '70s, a long-time student affairs professional, a scholar and practitioner of service-learning, and an academic teaching a course on social change, the…

  11. Nonlinearity in Social Service Evaluation: A Primer on Agent-Based Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Nathaniel; Wolf-Branigin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of nonlinearity in social service research and evaluation relies primarily on spatial analysis and, to a lesser extent, social network analysis. Recent advances in geographic methods and computing power, however, allow for the greater use of simulation methods. These advances now enable evaluators and researchers to simulate complex…

  12. Semantic network mapping of religious material: testing multi-agent computer models of social theories against real-world data.

    PubMed

    Lane, Justin E

    2015-11-01

    Agent-based modeling allows researchers to investigate theories of complex social phenomena and subsequently use the model to generate new hypotheses that can then be compared to real-world data. However, computer modeling has been underutilized in regard to the understanding of religious systems, which often require very complex theories with multiple interacting variables (Braxton et al. in Method Theory Study Relig 24(3):267-290, 2012. doi: 10.1163/157006812X635709 ; Lane in J Cogn Sci Relig 1(2):161-180, 2013). This paper presents an example of how computer modeling can be used to explore, test, and further understand religious systems, specifically looking at one prominent theory of religious ritual. The process is continuous: theory building, hypothesis generation, testing against real-world data, and improving the model. In this example, the output of an agent-based model of religious behavior is compared against real-world religious sermons and texts using semantic network analysis. It finds that most religious materials exhibit unique scale-free small-world properties and that a concept's centrality in a religious schema best predicts its frequency of presentation. These results reveal that there adjustments need to be made to existing models of religious ritual systems and provide parameters for future models. The paper ends with a discussion of implications for a new multi-agent model of doctrinal ritual behaviors as well as propositions for further interdisciplinary research concerning the multi-agent modeling of religious ritual behaviors.

  13. A Social Capital Framework for the Study of Institutional Agents and Their Role in the Empowerment of Low-Status Students and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton-Salazar, Ricardo D.

    2011-01-01

    This article builds on a sociological account of working-class minority youth development and differential access to social capital--defined in terms of key resources and support provided by institutional agents (Stanton-Salazar, 1997, 2001, 2004). The article elaborates on the concept of "institutional agents"--specifically, high-status, non-kin,…

  14. Understanding Group/Party Affiliation Using Social Networks and Agent-Based Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Kenyth

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of group affiliation and group dispersion is a concept that is most often studied in order for political candidates to better understand the most efficient way to conduct their campaigns. While political campaigning in the United States is a very hot topic that most politicians analyze and study, the concept of group/party affiliation presents its own area of study that producers very interesting results. One tool for examining party affiliation on a large scale is agent-based modeling (ABM), a paradigm in the modeling and simulation (M&S) field perfectly suited for aggregating individual behaviors to observe large swaths of a population. For this study agent based modeling was used in order to look at a community of agents and determine what factors can affect the group/party affiliation patterns that are present. In the agent-based model that was used for this experiment many factors were present but two main factors were used to determine the results. The results of this study show that it is possible to use agent-based modeling to explore group/party affiliation and construct a model that can mimic real world events. More importantly, the model in the study allows for the results found in a smaller community to be translated into larger experiments to determine if the results will remain present on a much larger scale.

  15. Agent-based modeling of the effects of social norms on enrollment in payments for ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaodong; Lupi, Frank; An, Li; Sheely, Ryan; Viña, Andrés; Liu, Jianguo

    2012-03-24

    Conservation investments are increasingly being implemented through payments for ecosystem services (PES) for the protection and restoration of ecosystem services around the world. Previous studies suggested that social norms have substantial impacts on environmental behaviors of humans, including enrollment of PES programs. However, it is still not well understood how social norms are affected by the design of PES programs and how the evolution of social norms may affect the efficiency of conservation investments. In this paper, we developed an agent-based simulation model to demonstrate the evolution and impacts of social norms on the enrollment of agricultural land in a PES program. We applied the model to land plots that have been enrolled in China's Grain-to-Green Program (GTGP) to examine reenrollment in an alternative payment program when the current payments ceased. The study was conducted in Wolong Nature Reserve where several thousand plant and animal species, including giant pandas, may benefit from the reenrollment. We found that over 15% more GTGP land can be reenrolled at the same payment if social norms were leveraged by allowing more than ten rounds of interactions among landholders regarding their reenrollment decisions. With only three rounds of interactions, an additional 7.5% GTGP land was reenrolled at the same payment due to the effects of social norms. In addition, the effects of social norms were largest at intermediate payments and were smaller at much higher or much smaller payments. Even in circumstances where frequent interactions among landholders about their enrollment decisions are not feasible, policy arrangements that divide households into multiple waves for sequential enrollment can enroll over 11% more land at a given payment level. The approach presented in this paper can be used to improve the efficiency of existing PES programs and many other conservation investments worldwide.

  16. Lifting off the Ground to Return Anew: Mediated Praxis, Transformative Learning, and Social Design Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Kris D.; Vossoughi, Shirin

    2010-01-01

    This article examines a praxis model of teacher education and advances a new method for engaging novice teachers in reflective practice and robust teacher learning. Social design experiments--cultural historical formations designed to promote transformative learning for adults and children--are organized around expansive notions of learning and…

  17. Common Ground: Practical Ideas To Promote Interdisciplinary Cooperation between Social Studies and Second Language Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, Mike

    This document promotes teaching about foreign cultures through the combined efforts of school social studies and foreign language departments. Using the example of Germany and the German language, the document shows how instructors can take an interdisciplinary approach that broadens student exposure to, and thereby learning of, second cultures.…

  18. A Theoretically Grounded Exploration of the Social and Emotional Outcomes of Transition to Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Stacey K.; Lester, Leanne; Wenden, Elizabeth; Cross, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent development involves a complex interplay between genetics, biology, and social and emotional relationships within multiple contexts of home, school and the broader community. The transition from primary to secondary school, coupled with the onset of puberty, can therefore be a difficult period for young people to negotiate at a critical…

  19. Social support, burnout syndrome and occupational exhaustion among Mexican traffic police agents.

    PubMed

    Aranda Beltrán, Carolina; Pando Moreno, Manuel; Salazar Estrada, José G; Torres López, Teresa M; Aldrete Rodríguez, María Guadalupe

    2009-11-01

    The consequences of work-related stress on health are worrisome, and by the same token, so is Burnout Syndrome. However, it has been shown that social support can prevent, reduce or even combat individuals' responses to stress. A descriptive, transverse study was carried out with the objective of determining the prevalence of both Burnout Syndrome and receiving social support for traffic police in Mexico. 875 traffic police participated in the study, men and women alike, from all work shifts, day and night. Three questionnaires were administered: one to record sociodemographic and professional data, as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the modified Diaz Veiga Social Resources Inventory. Our data analysis obtained frequencies and percentages and also identified associations between the study's variables. The prevalence of Burnout Syndrome was found to be 54.9% among the study's participants. The social support networks designated as "low or poor" were shown to be associated with Burnout Syndrome, with p values less than .05, an odds ratio (OR) greater than 1 and a confidence interval that did not include the number one. In spite of the strong network of social support reported by participants, it seems that those social effects were not strong enough to combat Burnout Syndrome, and some resolution strategy ought to be implemented at the individual, group and organizational levels.

  20. The Role of Social Context and Agent in the Development of Abstract Rights Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helwig, Charles C.

    Research suggests that adolescents as young as 13 years old reason about such abstract rights as freedom of speech and religion. It is unclear whether such reasoning develops earlier. Also unclear is the role of adults as agents in inculating in children the adults' views on such rights. A study examined 184 Canadian students in the first, third,…

  1. Identifying and Exploring Factors Affecting Embodied Conversational Agent Social Presence for Interpersonal Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuah, Joon Hao

    2013-01-01

    Embodied conversational agents (ECAs) have been used as virtual conversational partners in interpersonal skills training applications such as medical interviews, military decision making, and cultural training. Ideally, in interpersonal skills training users will perceive and treat the ECAs the same as they would real people. The perception and…

  2. The Secret Agent Society Social Skills Program for Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparison of Two School Variants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, Renae; Rotolone, Cassie; Sofronoff, Kate

    2015-01-01

    School is often considered an ideal setting for child social skills training due to the opportunities it provides for skills teaching, modeling, and practice. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of two variants of the Secret Agent Society social skills program for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) in a…

  3. Social communication with virtual agents: The effects of body and gaze direction on attention and emotional responding in human observers.

    PubMed

    Marschner, Linda; Pannasch, Sebastian; Schulz, Johannes; Graupner, Sven-Thomas

    2015-08-01

    In social communication, the gaze direction of other persons provides important information to perceive and interpret their emotional response. Previous research investigated the influence of gaze by manipulating mutual eye contact. Therefore, gaze and body direction have been changed as a whole, resulting in only congruent gaze and body directions (averted or directed) of another person. Here, we aimed to disentangle these effects by using short animated sequences of virtual agents posing with either direct or averted body or gaze. Attention allocation by means of eye movements, facial muscle response, and emotional experience to agents of different gender and facial expressions were investigated. Eye movement data revealed longer fixation durations, i.e., a stronger allocation of attention, when gaze and body direction were not congruent with each other or when both were directed towards the observer. This suggests that direct interaction as well as incongruous signals increase the demands of attentional resources in the observer. For the facial muscle response, only the reaction of muscle zygomaticus major revealed an effect of body direction, expressed by stronger activity in response to happy expressions for direct compared to averted gaze when the virtual character's body was directed towards the observer. Finally, body direction also influenced the emotional experience ratings towards happy expressions. While earlier findings suggested that mutual eye contact is the main source for increased emotional responding and attentional allocation, the present results indicate that direction of the virtual agent's body and head also plays a minor but significant role.

  4. Particle Swarm Social Adaptive Model for Multi-Agent Based Insurgency Warfare Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui; Potok, Thomas E

    2009-12-01

    To better understand insurgent activities and asymmetric warfare, a social adaptive model for modeling multiple insurgent groups attacking multiple military and civilian targets is proposed and investigated. This report presents a pilot study using the particle swarm modeling, a widely used non-linear optimal tool to model the emergence of insurgency campaign. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of insurgent social adaptation for the dynamically changing environment and to provide insight and understanding of insurgency warfare. Our results show that unified leadership, strategic planning, and effective communication between insurgent groups are not the necessary requirements for insurgents to efficiently attain their objective.

  5. Identity in agent-based models : modeling dynamic multiscale social processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Ozik, J.; Sallach, D. L.; Macal, C. M.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Chicago

    2008-07-01

    Identity-related issues play central roles in many current events, including those involving factional politics, sectarianism, and tribal conflicts. Two popular models from the computational-social-science (CSS) literature - the Threat Anticipation Program and SharedID models - incorporate notions of identity (individual and collective) and processes of identity formation. A multiscale conceptual framework that extends some ideas presented in these models and draws other capabilities from the broader CSS literature is useful in modeling the formation of political identities. The dynamic, multiscale processes that constitute and transform social identities can be mapped to expressive structures of the framework

  6. The Accidental Change Agent: Using the Air Force in the Process of Social Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    context. Chapter 4 includes background information regarding the long-held belief that homosexuality is incompatible with military service. Stemming...accepted social norms. Long before President Clinton and Congress compromised on the policy regarding homosexuality in the military, there were...and homosexual activity, declaring those who engaged in such perverse sexual practices as unsuitable for military service.1 Although not formalized

  7. Engaging Adolescents in Politics: The Longitudinal Effect of Political Socialization Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintelier, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Starting from a political socialization perspective, this study examined the development of political participation during adolescence and early adulthood. We explore the effect of parents, peers, school media, and voluntary associations on political participation. Self-reported data were collected from 3,025 Belgian adolescents at three points in…

  8. Agents' Social Imagination: The "Invisible" Hand of Neoliberalism in Taiwan's Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Teng

    2012-01-01

    Neoliberalism has become the most dominant ideology in current world and educational researchers thus may need to disclose the ways in which neoliberalism affects education and curriculum and propose new strategies to cope with them. Through literature review, however, the author argues that perhaps because of the social and theoretical scope in…

  9. Commons problems, common ground: Earth-surface dynamics and the social-physical interdisciplinary frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, E.

    2015-12-01

    In the archetypal "tragedy of the commons" narrative, local farmers pasture their cows on the town common. Soon the common becomes crowded with cows, who graze it bare, and the arrangement of open access to a shared resource ultimately fails. The "tragedy" involves social and physical processes, but the denouement depends on who is telling the story. An economist might argue that the system collapses because each farmer always has a rational incentive to graze one more cow. An ecologist might remark that the rate of grass growth is an inherent control on the common's carrying capacity. And a geomorphologist might point out that processes of soil degradation almost always outstrip processes of soil production. Interdisciplinary research into human-environmental systems still tends to favor disciplinary vantages. In the context of Anthropocene grand challenges - including fundamental insight into dynamics of landscape resilience, and what the dominance of human activities means for processes of change and evolution on the Earth's surface - two disciplines in particular have more to talk about than they might think. Here, I use three examples - (1) beach nourishment, (2) upstream/downstream fluvial asymmetry, and (3) current and historical "land grabbing" - to illustrate a range of interconnections between physical Earth-surface science and common-pool resource economics. In many systems, decision-making and social complexity exert stronger controls on landscape expression than do physical geomorphological processes. Conversely, human-environmental research keeps encountering multi-scale, emergent problems of resource use made 'common-pool' by water, nutrient and sediment transport dynamics. Just as Earth-surface research can benefit from decades of work on common-pool resource systems, quantitative Earth-surface science can make essential contributions to efforts addressing complex problems in environmental sustainability.

  10. Empowering community settings: agents of individual development, community betterment, and positive social change.

    PubMed

    Maton, Kenneth I

    2008-03-01

    The pathways and processes through which empowering community settings influence their members, the surrounding community and the larger society are examined. To generate the proposed pathways and processes, a broad range of studies of community settings were reviewed, in the domains of adult well-being, positive youth development, locality development, and social change. A set of organizational characteristics and associated processes leading to member empowerment across domains were identified, as well as three pathways through which empowering settings in each domain contribute to community betterment and positive social change. The paper concludes with an examination of the ways that community psychology and allied disciplines can help increase the number and range of empowering settings, and enhance the community and societal impact of existing ones.

  11. On common ground: Social memory and the plaza at early Moundville

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jera Rollins

    The Moundville site of west-central Alabama featured one of the largest plazas in the Mississippian world. The construction of Moundville's plaza necessitated the destruction and burial of a prior landscape, obliterating symbols of a contested past at a time when emerging differences in rank and power threatened group cohesion. This dissertation employs landscape-scale geophysical data and targeted excavations to identify what remains of the former settlement and the community plan that replaced it. When the hundreds of previously undocumented buildings are sorted on the basis of architectural style and orientation into chronological categories, it is revealed that dramatic changes in the arrangement of architecture did indeed coincide with the construction of the plaza. Understood from a social memory perspective, this rapid shift is described as an effort to promote inclusivity by selectively reimagining and representing the past. Other conclusions pertain to the division of plaza space into habitation and activity zones and the spatial, historical, and ideological centrality of Moundville's Mound A.

  12. Incidence of intracranial hemorrhage and outcomes after ground-level falls in geriatric trauma patients taking preinjury anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Subhash; Sharma, Rohit; Grotts, Jonathan; Ferrigno, Lisa; Kaminski, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Antiplatelet and anticoagulant medication increases the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) after a fall in geriatric patients. We sought to determine whether there were differences in ICH rates and outcomes based on type of anticoagulant or antiplatelet agent after a ground-level fall (GLF). Our institutional trauma registry was used to identify patients 65 years old or older after a GLF while taking warfarin, clopidogrel, or aspirin over a 2-year period. Rates and types of ICH and patient outcomes were evaluated. Of 562 patients who met inclusion and exclusion criteria, 218 (38.8%) were on warfarin, 95 (16.9%) were on clopidogrel, and 249 (44.3%) were on aspirin. Overall ICH frequency was 15 per cent with no difference in ICH rate, type of ICH, need for craniotomy, mortality, or intensive care unit or hospital length of stay between groups. Patients with ICH were more likely to present with abnormal Glasgow Coma Score, history of hypertension, and/or loss of consciousness.

  13. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage does not impair the development and use of common ground in social interaction: implications for cognitive theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rupa; Tranel, Daniel; Duff, Melissa C

    2012-01-01

    During conversation, interactants draw on their shared communicative context and history ("common ground") to help decide what to say next, tailoring utterances based on their knowledge of what the listener knows. The use of common ground draws on an understanding of the thoughts and feelings of others to create and update a model of what is known by the other person, employing cognitive processes such as theory of mind. We tested the hypothesis that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), a neural region involved in processing and interpreting social and emotional information, would be critical for the development and use of common ground. We studied seven patients with bilateral vmPFC damage and seven age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy comparison participants, each interacting with a familiar partner. Across 24 trials, participants verbally directed their partners how to arrange a set of 12 abstract tangram cards. Our hypothesis was not supported: the vmPFC and healthy comparison groups showed similar development and use of common ground, evident in reduction in time and words used to describe the cards, similar increases in the use of definite references (e.g., the horse), and comparable use of verbal play (playful language) in their interactions. These results argue against the idea that the vmPFC is critical for the development and use of common ground in social interaction. We propose that a cognitive and neuroanatomical bifurcation in theory of mind processes may explain this outcome. The vmPFC may be important for affective theory of mind (the ability to understand another's feelings); however, the development and use of common ground in social interaction may place higher demands on the ability to understand another's knowledge, or cognitive theory of mind, which may not require the vmPFC.

  14. The Secret Agent Society Social-Emotional Skills Program for Children with a High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Parent-Directed Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofronoff, Kate; Silva, Jenni; Beaumont, Renae

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated a parent-delivered social and emotional skills intervention--the Secret Agent Society (SAS) for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HF-ASD). The study was a pre-post follow-up design with an 8-week baseline period and 6-week follow-up period. Participants were 38 parents and 41 children recruited from…

  15. Women in Development: We as Agents of Social Change. Proceedings of the International Forum on Intercultural Exchange (3rd, Saitama [Japan], December 17-19, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Women's Education Centre, Saitama (Japan).

    The third International Forum on Intercultural Exchange focused on four important issues for developing nations: literacy education, environmental protection, economic activities, and violence against women. In all of these areas, women are striving for social change as agents and beneficiaries of development. Following the conference agenda, the…

  16. Adolescents' Financial Literacy: The Role of Financial Socialization Agents, Financial Experiences, and Money Attitudes in Shaping Financial Literacy among South Korean Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Sang-Hee; Joo, So-Hyun; Grable, John E.; Lee, Seonglim; Kim, Minjeung

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the relationships between financial socialization agents, financial experiences, money attitudes, demographic characteristics, and the financial literacy of Korean adolescents. Using the 2006 Korean National Financial Literacy Test Survey for Adolescents (N = 1185), a series of regression analyses were…

  17. Utilizing remote sensing to supplement ground monitoring of Diorhabda elongata as a control agent for Tamarix ramosissima in Dinosaur National Monument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archambault, V.; Auch, J.; Landy, J.; Rudy, G.; Seifert, C.; Schmidt, C.; Skiles, J.

    2008-12-01

    The plant Tamarix ramosissima has invaded significant riparian habitat along the Green River in Dinosaur National Monument. Commonly known as salt cedar or tamarisk, it was introduced from Eurasia to the Southwestern United States to prevent soil erosion along riverbanks and as an ornamental plant. It has since come to affect water resources, recreation, wildlife, and ecosystem services. Various methods used to control tamarisk's spread have had moderate success but have drained National Park Service of human and monetary resources. In June 2006, the salt cedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) was released as a biological control agent within the park to defoliate and ultimately eradicate the invasive species. This study examines the efficacy of using Landsat TM imagery to supplement ground monitoring of the beetle's spread and its effects on tamarisk in Dinosaur National Monument, and discusses the development of a GIS model to predict annual change in tamarisk cover and beetle populations. Through fieldwork, we determined four areas of interest with favorable attributes for satellite detection. A change detection model was created by layering 2005-2008 data and quantifying mean NDVI. Results show that intra-year NDVI trends may be more effective for accurate detection than single-image year-to-year comparisons largely because intra-year environmental variability is significantly smaller. Additionally, our GIS model predicted significant growth of beetle population, implying that defoliation will become more apparent in future years. However, challenges to detecting this defoliation include the year-to-year variability of environmental factors, low spatial resolution of Landsat TM data, low visibility into parts of the Green River canyon, and the spectral mixing of tamarisk and native vegetation.

  18. Adolescent girls, illegal abortions and "sugar-daddies" in Dar es Salaam: vulnerable victims and active social agents.

    PubMed

    Silberschmidt, M; Rasch, V

    2001-06-01

    Adolescent girls' early sexual activity, early pregnancy, induced abortions and the increase in HIV infections have become major concerns in Sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts, though, to understand their sexual behaviour and to prevent reproductive health problems are almost non-existent. Adolescent girls are normally seen as victims and easy preys of (often older and married) men's sexual exploitation. This article, which is based on a qualitative study of 51 adolescent girls who had just had an illegal abortion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, reveals that these girls are not only victims but also willing preys and active social agents engaging in high-risk sexual behaviour. In order to get material benefits they expose themselves to serious health risks, including induced abortion - without realising their own vulnerability. In our study, one out of four girls had more than one partner at the time they became pregnant, and many counted on an illegally induced abortion if they got pregnant. Even if adolescents are now allowed free access to family planning information, education and services, our study shows that this remains in the realm of theory rather than practice. Moreover, most adolescent girls are not aware about their right to such services. The paper concludes that the vulnerability of adolescent girls increases without the recognition that sexuality education and contraceptive services do not constitute a licence to practice illicit sex - but rather a means to create more mature and responsible attitudes and to increase sexual and reproductive health.

  19. An architecture and protocol for communications satellite constellations regarded as multi-agent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindley, Craig A.

    1995-05-01

    This paper presents an architecture for satellites regarded as intercommunicating agents. The architecture is based upon a postmodern paradigm of artificial intelligence in which represented knowledge is regarded as text, inference procedures are regarded as social discourse and decision making conventions and the semantics of representations are grounded in the situated behaviour and activity of agents. A particular protocol is described for agent participation in distributed search and retrieval operations conducted as joint activities.

  20. An architecture and protocol for communications satellite constellations regarded as multi-agent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindley, Craig A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for satellites regarded as intercommunicating agents. The architecture is based upon a postmodern paradigm of artificial intelligence in which represented knowledge is regarded as text, inference procedures are regarded as social discourse and decision making conventions and the semantics of representations are grounded in the situated behaviour and activity of agents. A particular protocol is described for agent participation in distributed search and retrieval operations conducted as joint activities.

  1. Storytelling as Loving Praxis in Critical Peace Education: A Grounded Theory Study of Postsecondary Social Justice Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byron, Amanda Smith

    2011-01-01

    Looking through the philosophical lens of love, this study seeks a deeper understanding and appreciation of how postsecondary social justice educators use storytelling, in the context of critical peace education, to create social change. This research explores the guiding question of how storytelling is used to encourage social change and to…

  2. Support for the reproductive ground plan hypothesis of social evolution and major QTL for ovary traits of Africanized worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The reproductive ground plan hypothesis of social evolution suggests that reproductive controls of a solitary ancestor have been co-opted during social evolution, facilitating the division of labor among social insect workers. Despite substantial empirical support, the generality of this hypothesis is not universally accepted. Thus, we investigated the prediction of particular genes with pleiotropic effects on ovarian traits and social behavior in worker honey bees as a stringent test of the reproductive ground plan hypothesis. We complemented these tests with a comprehensive genome scan for additional quantitative trait loci (QTL) to gain a better understanding of the genetic architecture of the ovary size of honey bee workers, a morphological trait that is significant for understanding social insect caste evolution and general insect biology. Results Back-crossing hybrid European x Africanized honey bee queens to the Africanized parent colony generated two study populations with extraordinarily large worker ovaries. Despite the transgressive ovary phenotypes, several previously mapped QTL for social foraging behavior demonstrated ovary size effects, confirming the prediction of pleiotropic genetic effects on reproductive traits and social behavior. One major QTL for ovary size was detected in each backcross, along with several smaller effects and two QTL for ovary asymmetry. One of the main ovary size QTL coincided with a major QTL for ovary activation, explaining 3/4 of the phenotypic variance, although no simple positive correlation between ovary size and activation was observed. Conclusions Our results provide strong support for the reproductive ground plan hypothesis of evolution in study populations that are independent of the genetic stocks that originally led to the formulation of this hypothesis. As predicted, worker ovary size is genetically linked to multiple correlated traits of the complex division of labor in worker honey bees, known as

  3. Adaptive Agent Modeling of Distributed Language: Investigations on the Effects of Cultural Variation and Internal Action Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangelosi, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the "grounded adaptive agent" computational framework for studying the emergence of communication and language. This modeling framework is based on simulations of population of cognitive agents that evolve linguistic capabilities by interacting with their social and physical environment (internal and external symbol…

  4. Adolescents' financial literacy: the role of financial socialization agents, financial experiences, and money attitudes in shaping financial literacy among South Korean youth.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sang-Hee; Joo, So-Hyun; Grable, John E; Lee, Seonglim; Kim, Minjeung

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the relationships between financial socialization agents, financial experiences, money attitudes, demographic characteristics, and the financial literacy of Korean adolescents. Using the 2006 Korean National Financial Literacy Test Survey for Adolescents (N = 1185), a series of regression analyses were performed to determine the factors related to financial literacy. It was found that those who chose media as their primary financial socialization agent, and those who had a bank account, exhibited higher levels of financial literacy. Among the sample, those who saw money as good or as a reward for efforts tended to report higher levels of financial literacy, while those perceiving money in terms of avoidance or achievement had lower levels of financial literacy. Students with mid-range monthly allowances showed higher levels of financial literacy compared to the highest allowance group. Implications for financial educators, policy makers, and researchers are provided.

  5. Leadership for Social Justice and the Characteristics of Traditional Societies: Ponderings on the Application of Western-Grounded Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar; Arar, Khalid Husny

    2016-01-01

    Leadership for social justice has been receiving increasing attention in recent years as more and more scholars have explored the ways by which educational leaders can lead for social justice in schools (e.g. Arar, 2015; Ayers, Quin, & Stovall, 2009; Fua, 2007; Furman, 2012; Jean-Marie, Normore, & Brooks, 2009; Lindsey & Lindsey, 2011;…

  6. Introducing social cues in multimedia learning: The role of pedagogic agents' image and language in a scientific lesson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Roxana Arleen

    The present dissertation tested the hypothesis that software pedagogical agents can promote constructivist learning in a discovery-based multimedia environment. In a preliminary study, students who received a computer-based lesson on environmental science performed better on subsequent tests of problem solving and motivation when they learned with the mediation of a fictional agent compared to when they learned the same material from text. In order to investigate further the basis for this personal agent effect, I varied whether the agent's words were presented as speech or on-screen text and whether or not the agent's image appeared on the screen. Both with a fictional agent (Experiment 1) and a video of a human face (Experiment 2), students performed better on tests of retention, problem-solving transfer, and program ratings when words were presented as speech rather than on-screen text (producing a modality effect) but visual presence of the agent did not affect test performance (producing no image effect). Next, I varied whether or not the agent's words were presented in conversational style (i.e., as dialogue) or formal style (i.e., as monologue) both using speech (Experiment 3) and on-screen text (Experiment 4). In both experiments, there was a dialogue effect in which conversational-style produced better retention and transfer performance. Students who learned with conversational-style text rated the program more favorably than those who learned with monologue-style text. The results support cognitive principles of multimedia learning which underlie the understanding of a computer lesson about a complex scientific system.

  7. How will the greening of the Arctic affect an important prey species and disturbance agent? Vegetation effects on arctic ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, H C; Chipperfield, J D; Roland, C; Svenning, J-C

    2015-07-01

    Increases in terrestrial primary productivity across the Arctic and northern alpine ecosystems are leading to altered vegetation composition and stature. Changes in vegetation stature may affect predator-prey interactions via changes in the prey's ability to detect predators, changes in predation pressure, predator identity and predator foraging strategy. Changes in productivity and vegetation composition may also affect herbivores via effects on forage availability and quality. We investigated if height-dependent effects of forage and non-forage vegetation determine burrowing extent and activity of arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii). We collected data on burrow networks and activity of arctic ground squirrels across long-term vegetation monitoring sites in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska. The implications of height-specific cover of potential forage and non-forage vegetation on burrowing behaviour and habitat suitability for arctic ground squirrels were investigated using hierarchical Bayesian modelling. Increased cover of forbs was associated with more burrows and burrow systems, and higher activity of systems, for all forb heights. No other potential forage functional group was related to burrow distribution and activity. In contrast, height-dependent negative effects of non-forage vegetation were observed, with cover over 50-cm height negatively affecting the number of burrows, systems and system activity. Our results demonstrate that increases in vegetation productivity have dual, potentially counteracting effects on arctic ground squirrels via changes in forage and vegetation stature. Importantly, increases in tall-growing woody vegetation (shrubs and trees) have clear negative effects, whereas increases in forb should benefit arctic ground squirrels.

  8. Computational Grounded Cognition: a new alliance between grounded cognition and computational modeling

    PubMed Central

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Barsalou, Lawrence W.; Cangelosi, Angelo; Fischer, Martin H.; McRae, Ken; Spivey, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Grounded theories assume that there is no central module for cognition. According to this view, all cognitive phenomena, including those considered the province of amodal cognition such as reasoning, numeric, and language processing, are ultimately grounded in (and emerge from) a variety of bodily, affective, perceptual, and motor processes. The development and expression of cognition is constrained by the embodiment of cognitive agents and various contextual factors (physical and social) in which they are immersed. The grounded framework has received numerous empirical confirmations. Still, there are very few explicit computational models that implement grounding in sensory, motor and affective processes as intrinsic to cognition, and demonstrate that grounded theories can mechanistically implement higher cognitive abilities. We propose a new alliance between grounded cognition and computational modeling toward a novel multidisciplinary enterprise: Computational Grounded Cognition. We clarify the defining features of this novel approach and emphasize the importance of using the methodology of Cognitive Robotics, which permits simultaneous consideration of multiple aspects of grounding, embodiment, and situatedness, showing how they constrain the development and expression of cognition. PMID:23346065

  9. Holocaust Education and the Student Perspective: Toward a Grounded Theory of Student Engagement in Social Studies Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meliza, Evette

    2010-01-01

    Too often students perceive history as boring with no relevance to their lives. Although students describe history as boring, this does not seem to be the case with one aspect of social studies education--Holocaust studies. Courses about the Holocaust have grown in number in recent years; and classes are routinely full. Why do students choose to…

  10. Investigation of the Public Library as a Linking Agent to Major Scientific, Educational, Social, and Environmental Data Bases. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockheed Research Lab., Palo Alto, CA.

    The DIALIB Project was a 3-year experiment that investigated the potential of the public library as a "linking agent" between the public and the many machine-readable data bases currently accessible via the telephone using online terminals. The study investigated the following questions: (1) Is online search of use to the patrons of a…

  11. Results and Lessons Learned from a Coupled Social and Physical Hydrology Model: Testing Alternative Water Management Policies and Institutional Structures Using Agent-Based Modeling and Regional Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, J.; Lammers, R. B.; Prousevitch, A.; Ozik, J.; Altaweel, M.; Collier, N. T.; Kliskey, A. D.; Alessa, L.

    2015-12-01

    Water Management in the U.S. Southwest is under increasing scrutiny as many areas endure persistent drought. The impact of these prolonged dry conditions is a product of regional climate and hydrological conditions, but also of a highly engineered water management infrastructure and a complex web of social arrangements whereby water is allocated, shared, exchanged, used, re-used, and finally consumed. We coupled an agent-based model with a regional hydrological model to understand the dynamics in one richly studied and highly populous area: southern Arizona, U.S.A., including metropolitan Phoenix and Tucson. There, multiple management entities representing an array of municipalities and other water providers and customers, including private companies and Native American tribes are enmeshed in a complex legal and economic context in which water is bought, leased, banked, and exchanged in a variety of ways and on multiple temporal and physical scales. A recurrent question in the literature of adaptive management is the impact of management structure on overall system performance. To explore this, we constructed an agent-based model to capture this social complexity, and coupled this with a physical hydrological model that we used to drive the system under a variety of water stress scenarios and to assess the regional impact of the social system's performance. We report the outcomes of ensembles of runs in which varieties of alternative policy constraints and management strategies are considered. We hope to contribute to policy discussions in this area and connected and legislatively similar areas (such as California) as current conditions change and existing legal and policy structures are revised. Additionally, we comment on the challenges of integrating models that ostensibly are in different domains (physical and social) but that independently represent a system in which physical processes and human actions are closely intertwined and difficult to disentangle.

  12. How and why affective and reactive virtual agents will bring new insights on social cognitive disorders in schizophrenia? An illustration with a virtual card game paradigm.

    PubMed

    Oker, Ali; Prigent, Elise; Courgeon, Matthieu; Eyharabide, Victoria; Urbach, Mathieu; Bazin, Nadine; Amorim, Michel-Ange; Passerieux, Christine; Martin, Jean-Claude; Brunet-Gouet, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, many studies have shown that schizophrenia is associated with severe social cognitive impairments affecting key components, such as the recognition of emotions, theory of mind, attributional style, and metacognition. Most studies investigated each construct separately, precluding analysis of the interactive and immersive nature of real-life situation. Specialized batteries of tests are under investigation to assess social cognition, which is thought now as a link between neurocognitive disorders and impaired functioning. However, this link accounts for a limited part of the variance of real-life functioning. To fill this gap, advances in virtual reality and affective computing have made it possible to carry out experimental investigations of naturalistic social cognition, in controlled conditions, with good reproducibility. This approach is illustrated with the description of a new paradigm based on an original virtual card game in which subjects interpret emotional displays from a female virtual agent, and decipher her helping intentions. Independent variables concerning emotional expression in terms of valence and intensity were manipulated. We show how several useful dependant variables, ranging from classic experimental psychology data to metacognition or subjective experiences records, may be extracted from a single experiment. Methodological issues about the immersion into a simulated intersubjective situation are considered. The example of this new flexible experimental setting, with regards to the many constructs recognized in social neurosciences, constitutes a rationale for focusing on this potential intermediate link between standardized tests and real-life functioning, and also for using it as an innovative media for cognitive remediation.

  13. Style Shifts among Japanese Learners before and after Study Abroad in Japan: Becoming Active Social Agents in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwasaki, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on L2 Japanese sojourners often reported that learners overuse the plain style or haphazardly mix the plain and polite styles upon return. These styles, which are often associated with formal or informal contexts, also index complex social and situational meanings, and native speakers are reported to shift their styles to create…

  14. Agency, Identity, and Social Justice Education: Preservice Teachers' Thoughts on Becoming Agents of Change in Urban Elementary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Felicia M.

    2008-01-01

    Using multiple theoretical frameworks, reflective writings and interviews, this study explores preservice elementary teachers' emerging identities as science teachers and how this identity is connected to notions of critical agency and a stance toward social justice. The study addresses two central questions pertaining to preservice teachers'…

  15. [Real groups in the minimal group paradigm; does the group context work as corrective or catalysing agent for social discrimination?].

    PubMed

    Petersen, L E; Blank, H

    2001-01-01

    Studies applying the minimal group paradigm to analyze social discrimination processes have been analyzing for the most part the behavior of individuals. The present experiment extends the minimal group paradigm to the group level. The aim of the present study was to compare the decisions made by real groups (N = 3 persons) with those made by single persons. The analysis of the total points given to the in- or the outgroup as well as the strategy MIP + MDI on F revealed that groups are significantly more biased towards the ingroup than individuals. On the other hand, individuals use the strategy F on MIP + MDI significantly more than groups and thus show a greater amount of fairness. These conclusions are qualified by a new method of identifying dominant strategies which shows that the dominant strategy used by individuals and groups is fairness. A theoretical explanation of the results is offered based on social identity theory, the groupthink model and self-awareness theory.

  16. Finding Common Ground: Environmental Ethics, Social Justice, and a Sustainable Path for Nature-Based Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Viniece; Yun, Jessica; Larson, Lincoln

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research have documented continuous tension between anthropocentric needs and the environment’s capacity to accommodate those needs and support basic human welfare. The way in which society perceives, manages, and ultimately utilizes natural resources can be influenced by underlying environmental ethics, or the moral relationship that humans share with the natural world. This discourse often centers on the complex interplay between the tangible and intangible benefits associated with nonhuman nature (e.g., green space), both of which are relevant to public health. When ecosystem degradation is coupled with socio-demographic transitions, additional concerns related to distributional equity and justice can arise. In this commentary, we explore how environmental ethics can inform the connection between the ecosystem services from green space and socially just strategies of health promotion. PMID:27571114

  17. Finding Common Ground: Environmental Ethics, Social Justice, and a Sustainable Path for Nature-Based Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Viniece; Yun, Jessica; Larson, Lincoln

    2016-08-25

    Decades of research have documented continuous tension between anthropocentric needs and the environment's capacity to accommodate those needs and support basic human welfare. The way in which society perceives, manages, and ultimately utilizes natural resources can be influenced by underlying environmental ethics, or the moral relationship that humans share with the natural world. This discourse often centers on the complex interplay between the tangible and intangible benefits associated with nonhuman nature (e.g., green space), both of which are relevant to public health. When ecosystem degradation is coupled with socio-demographic transitions, additional concerns related to distributional equity and justice can arise. In this commentary, we explore how environmental ethics can inform the connection between the ecosystem services from green space and socially just strategies of health promotion.

  18. Control of odour nuisance in urban areas: the efficiency and social acceptance of the application of masking agents.

    PubMed

    Lazarova, Valentina; Abed, Brahim; Markovska, Gabriela; Dezenclos, Thierry; Amara, Aït

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the results of the project named 'Jasmin' implemented in Algiers to control the strong odours of the river named Oued El Harrach, one of the largest rivers in the centre of the city. Pending the achievement of curative solutions, a temporary option for mitigation of nuisance odour by masking agents was implemented in the vicinity of the main bridges. The efficiency of this technology has been followed by means of an odour panel with the participation of representatives of all stakeholders. A sociological study by means of 1,000 questionnaires and face-to-face interviews of the local population demonstrated the benefits and the positive outcomes of the attenuation of odour nuisance: 70% of the surveyed population is satisfied or very satisfied with the application of masking agents and 96% of respondents support the continuation of the project. In terms of size and public access, the project Jasmin is a world-first demonstration of odour control in urban areas in developing countries.

  19. Self-other's perspective taking: the use of therapeutic robot companions as social agents for reducing pain and anxiety in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Okita, Sandra Y

    2013-06-01

    Abstract The study examined whether complementary therapy using robotic companions as social agents reduced pain and emotional anxiety in pediatric patients. A total of 18 patients, aged 6-16, and 18 parents participated in the study. The study explored whether the use of robotic animals as companion animals could reduce pain and emotional anxiety in patients and their parents. The study identified when robot-assisted therapy was most effective (alone or together with parent). The study hypothesized that engaging in robot-assisted therapy together would enhance parents' perspective taking, thereby triggering strong empathic resonance and parental modeling to bolster the children's coping skills. The robotic companion was more successful in decreasing pain and negative emotional traits when children and parents were engaged together with the robotic companion. The parent's ability to acknowledge the patient's pain accurately through robot-assisted therapy seemed to reduce pain and emotional anxiety.

  20. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  1. Coordinating complex problem-solving among distributed intelligent agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Richard M.

    1992-01-01

    A process-oriented control model is described for distributed problem solving. The model coordinates the transfer and manipulation of information across independent networked applications, both intelligent and conventional. The model was implemented using SOCIAL, a set of object-oriented tools for distributing computing. Complex sequences of distributed tasks are specified in terms of high level scripts. Scripts are executed by SOCIAL objects called Manager Agents, which realize an intelligent coordination model that routes individual tasks to suitable server applications across the network. These tools are illustrated in a prototype distributed system for decision support of ground operations for NASA's Space Shuttle fleet.

  2. Improving access to health information for older migrants by using grounded theory and social network analysis to understand their information behaviour and digital technology use.

    PubMed

    Goodall, K T; Newman, L A; Ward, P R

    2014-11-01

    Migrant well-being can be strongly influenced by the migration experience and subsequent degree of mainstream language acquisition. There is little research on how older Culturally And Linguistically Diverse (CALD) migrants who have 'aged in place' find health information, and the role which digital technology plays in this. Although the research for this paper was not focused on cancer, we draw out implications for providing cancer-related information to this group. We interviewed 54 participants (14 men and 40 women) aged 63-94 years, who were born in Italy or Greece, and who migrated to Australia mostly as young adults after World War II. Constructivist grounded theory and social network analysis were used for data analysis. Participants identified doctors, adult children, local television, spouse, local newspaper and radio as the most important information sources. They did not generally use computers, the Internet or mobile phones to access information. Literacy in their birth language, and the degree of proficiency in understanding and using English, influenced the range of information sources accessed and the means used. The ways in which older CALD migrants seek and access information has important implications for how professionals and policymakers deliver relevant information to them about cancer prevention, screening, support and treatment, particularly as information and resources are moved online as part of e-health.

  3. The influence of maternal lineages on social affiliations among humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) on their feeding grounds in the southern gulf of Maine.

    PubMed

    Weinrich, Mason T; Rosenbaum, Howard; Scott Baker, C; Blackmer, Alexis L; Whitehead, Hal

    2006-01-01

    correlations and permutation analyses indicated that the skew toward within-haplotype associations could not be accounted for by short-term temporal co-occurrence or fine-scale spatial distributions of individuals with shared haplotypes. While the mechanism by which individuals with a common mtDNA haplotype assort remains unknown, our results strongly suggest an influence of maternal lineages on the social organization of humpback whales within a regional feeding ground.

  4. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  5. Grounds for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    Describes initiatives, including public private partnerships, in which existing schools are transforming their grounds into outdoor learning spaces. Discusses the recreational, social, academic, political, and environmental rationales for such efforts and how to get started. Also offers a list of additional resources. (EV)

  6. Building on the Positive in Children's Lives: A Co-Participatory Study on the Social Construction of Children's Sense of Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Lipponen, Lasse; Hilppö, Jaakko; Mikkola, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This study is grounded on the argument that agentic experiences and their reflection in supportive social contexts are crucial protective elements mediating children's socio-emotional well-being. Drawing on the socio-cultural perspective, we investigate the ways in which agency is manifested in children's social interactions while they reflect…

  7. Believable Social and Emotional Agents.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    characters that appear to be emotional and are believable. It would be fairly simple to create characters that just added emotional adverbs with every...users judge the characters to be emotional, but if these adverbs are not controlled, it is likely that the characters would not be very believable...Weizenbaum66] Weizenbaum, J. Eliza. In Communications of the ACM. Vol. 9. 1966. [Wish76] Wish, M., Deutsch , M., and Kaplan, S. Perceived Dimen- sions of

  8. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... Orange Parkinson’s Awareness Month Were you exposed to herbicides during service and have Parkinson’s disease? You may ...

  9. A Grounded Theory Study of the Risks and Benefits Associated with the Use of Online Social Networking Applications in a Military Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, James O., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    There is a perception that there are risks and benefits associated with the use of online social networking media within a military organization. This research study explored this perception by investigating how employees use social networking applications and their perceptions of the benefits they receive. The study also assessed the measures…

  10. The Agent of Change: The Agent of Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, C. R., Jr.

    This speech examines the role of change agents in third world societies and indicates that the change agent must, to some extent, manipulate the social situation, even if his view of society is a more optimistic one than he finds in reality. If he considers strains and stresses to be the lubricants of change, then his focus on conflict as a…

  11. Agent oriented programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoham, Yoav

    1994-01-01

    The goal of our research is a methodology for creating robust software in distributed and dynamic environments. The approach taken is to endow software objects with explicit information about one another, to have them interact through a commitment mechanism, and to equip them with a speech-acty communication language. System-level applications include software interoperation and compositionality. A government application of specific interest is an infrastructure for coordination among multiple planners. Daily activity applications include personal software assistants, such as programmable email, scheduling, and new group agents. Research topics include definition of mental state of agents, design of agent languages as well as interpreters for those languages, and mechanisms for coordination within agent societies such as artificial social laws and conventions.

  12. Conceptualizing the Influence of Social Agents of Behavior Change: A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of HIV-Prevention Interventionists for Different Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durantini, Marta R.; Albarracin, Dolores; Mitchell, Amy L.; Earl, Allison N.; Gillette, Jeffrey C.

    2006-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 166 HIV-prevention interventions tested theoretical predictions about the effects of experts, lay community members, and similar and dissimilar others, as agents of change. In general, expert interventionists produced greater behavior change than lay community members, and the demographic and behavioral similarity between the…

  13. Investigation of the Public Library as a Linking Agent to Major Scientific, Educational, Social and Environmental Data Bases. Two-Year Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summit, Roger K.; Firschein, Oscar

    Eight public libraries participated in a two-year experiment to investigate the potential of the public library as a "linking agent" between the public and the many machine-readable data bases currently accessible using on line computer terminals. The investigation covered users of the service, impact on the library, conditions for…

  14. Justifying Educational Acquaintance with the Moral Horrors of History on Psycho-Social Grounds: "Facing History and Ourselves" in Critical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    This paper challenges a pervasive curricular justification for educationally acquainting young people with stories of genocide and other moral horrors from history. According to this justification, doing so favours the development of psycho-social soft skills connected with interpersonal awareness and the establishment and maintenance of positive…

  15. A View from the Principal's Office: A Grounded-Theory Exploration of Principals' Perceptions of Non-Academic Barriers to Learning--Implications for School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prather, JoNataye Arnitra

    2010-01-01

    The importance of the principal has been found to be a critical factor in student and school success. School principal responsibilities traditionally encompass operations and management. However, many principals are unable to fulfill these expectations because of students' social and behavioral issues. Consequently, this qualitative study explored…

  16. "Breaking Ground" in the Use of Social Media: A Case Study of a University Earthquake Response to Inform Educational Design with Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabner, Nicki

    2012-01-01

    On September 4 2010, a massive 7.1 magnitude earthquake struck the Canterbury region in the South Island of New Zealand. The response from the University of Canterbury was immediate and carefully co-ordinated, with the university's web-based environment and a responsive site developed on the social media platform "Facebook" becoming…

  17. Antibiotic Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... producing ). Examples of this type are the alcohols, chlorine, peroxides, and aldehydes. The second group consists mostly ... viruses have some kind of antibacterial agent. Alcohols, chlorine and peroxides have been used for many decades ...

  18. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... eligible Veterans a free Agent Orange Registry health exam for possible long-term health problems related to ...

  19. Advanced Agent Methods in Adversarial Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-30

    scenario for investigating agents social behaviour in non-collaborative and adversarial environment. Deliverable 2: (month 12) Interim report...definition of measures and quantities of agents collective behaviour , adapted social knowledge model, meta-reasoning model and coalition formation...13 2.3 Examples of Adversarial Behaviour

  20. Beyond Butlers: Intelligent Agents as Mentors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Amy

    2000-01-01

    Discusses pedagogical issues for intelligent agents to successfully serve as mentors for educational purposes. Examines broader issues about the nature or persona necessary for an intelligent agent as mentor, incorporating usability and human-computer interaction issues such as the anthropomorphic qualities of the agent and the social relationship…

  1. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  2. Conference on the College and University as Agents of Social Change. (Working Title: Conference on Higher Education, July 8-11, 1968). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Center for Research and Development in Higher Education.

    Because complex social and political situations with far-reaching consequences increasingly call for swift administrative response from colleges and universities, the 10th Annual College and University Self-Study Institute addressed itself to the following questions: What kind of situation will the administrator face if he follows the course of…

  3. Actionable Capability for Social and Economic Systems (ACSES)

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Steven J; Brecke, Peter K; Carmichael, Theodore D; Eichelberger, Christopher N; Ganguly, Auroop R; Hadzikadic, Mirsad; Jiao, Yu; Khouja, Moutaz J; McLean, Angus L; Middleton, Erin J; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Saric, Amar; Sun, Min; Whitmeyer, Joseph M; Gilman, Paul; O'Maonaigh, Heather C

    2008-05-01

    The foundation of the Actionable Capability for Social and Economic Systems (ACSES) project is a useful regional-scale social-simulation system. This report is organized into five chapters that describe insights that were gained concerning the five key feasibility questions pertaining to such a system: (1) Should such a simulation system exist, would the current state of data sets or collectible data sets be adequate to support such a system? (2) By comparing different agent-based simulation systems, is it feasible to compare simulation systems and select one appropriate for a given application with agents behaving according to modern social theory rather than ad hoc rule sets? (3) Provided that a selected simulation system for a region of interest could be constructed, can the simulation system be updated with new and changing conditions so that the universe of potential outcomes are constrained by events on the ground as they evolve? (4) As these results are constrained by evolving events on the ground, is it feasible to still generate surprise and emerging behavior to suggest outcomes from novel courses of action? (5) As these systems may for the first time require large numbers (hundreds of millions) of agents operating with complexities demanded of modern social theories, can results still be generated within actionable decision cycles?

  4. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  5. Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1986-01-01

    Some water underlies the Earth's surface almost everywhere, beneath hills, mountains,plains, and deserts. It's not always accessible, or fresh enough for use without treatment, and it's sometimes difficult to locate or to measure and descri be. This water may occur close to the land surface, as in a marsh, or it may lie many hundreds of feet below the surface, as in some arid areas of the West. Water at very shallow depths might be just a few hours old ; at moderate depth, it may be 100 years old; and at great depth or after having flowed long distances from places of entry, water may be several thousands of years old . Water under the Earth's surface is called ground water.

  6. Conceptualizing the Influence of Social Agents of Behavior Change: A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of HIV-Prevention Interventionists for Different Groups

    PubMed Central

    Durantini, Marta R.; Albarracín, Dolores; Mitchell, Amy L.; Earl, Allison N.; Gillette, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 166 HIV-prevention interventions tested theoretical predictions about the effects of experts, lay community members, and similar and dissimilar others, as agents of change. In general, expert interventionists produced greater behavior change than lay community members, and the demographic and behavioral similarity between the interventionist and the recipients facilitated behavioral change. Equally importantly, there were differences across groups in the efficacy of various sources, especially among populations of low status and/or power. These findings support the hypothesis that unempowered populations are more sensitive to characteristics of the interventionists who can facilitate access to various resources. In addition, they suggest the need to ensure the availability of health professionals from diverse demographic and behavioral backgrounds. PMID:16536642

  7. Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met, identifies limit warnings and violations of launch commit criteria, aids Shuttle engineers through troubleshooting procedures, and provides additional insight to verify appropriate troubleshooting of problems by contractors. The agent has successfully detected launch commit criteria warnings and violations on a simulated playback data stream. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation.

  8. What's social about social learning?

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2012-05-01

    Research on social learning in animals has revealed a rich variety of cases where animals--from caddis fly larvae to chimpanzees--acquire biologically important information by observing the actions of others. A great deal is known about the adaptive functions of social learning, but very little about the cognitive mechanisms that make it possible. Even in the case of imitation, a type of social learning studied in both comparative psychology and cognitive science, there has been minimal contact between the two disciplines. Social learning has been isolated from cognitive science by two longstanding assumptions: that it depends on a set of special-purpose modules--cognitive adaptations for social living; and that these learning mechanisms are largely distinct from the processes mediating human social cognition. Recent research challenges these assumptions by showing that social learning covaries with asocial learning; occurs in solitary animals; and exhibits the same features in diverse species, including humans. Drawing on this evidence, I argue that social and asocial learning depend on the same basic learning mechanisms; these are adapted for the detection of predictive relationships in all natural domains; and they are associative mechanisms--processes that encode information for long-term storage by forging excitatory and inhibitory links between event representations. Thus, human and nonhuman social learning are continuous, and social learning is adaptively specialized--it becomes distinctively "social"--only when input mechanisms (perceptual, attentional, and motivational processes) are phylogenetically or ontogenetically tuned to other agents.

  9. Young Children's Understanding of Cultural Common Ground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human social interaction depends on individuals identifying the common ground they have with others, based both on personally shared experiences and on cultural common ground that all members of the group share. We introduced 3- and 5-year-old children to a culturally well-known object and a novel object. An experimenter then entered and asked,…

  10. Grounded cognition: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2010-10-01

    Thirty years ago, grounded cognition had roots in philosophy, perception, cognitive linguistics, psycholinguistics, cognitive psychology, and cognitive neuropsychology. During the next 20 years, grounded cognition continued developing in these areas, and it also took new forms in robotics, cognitive ecology, cognitive neuroscience, and developmental psychology. In the past 10 years, research on grounded cognition has grown rapidly, especially in cognitive neuroscience, social neuroscience, cognitive psychology, social psychology, and developmental psychology. Currently, grounded cognition appears to be achieving increased acceptance throughout cognitive science, shifting from relatively minor status to increasing importance. Nevertheless, researchers wonder whether grounded mechanisms lie at the heart of the cognitive system or are peripheral to classic symbolic mechanisms. Although grounded cognition is currently dominated by demonstration experiments in the absence of well-developed theories, the area is likely to become increasingly theory driven over the next 30 years. Another likely development is the increased incorporation of grounding mechanisms into cognitive architectures and into accounts of classic cognitive phenomena. As this incorporation occurs, much functionality of these architectures and phenomena is likely to remain, along with many original mechanisms. Future theories of grounded cognition are likely to be heavily influenced by both cognitive neuroscience and social neuroscience, and also by developmental science and robotics. Aspects from the three major perspectives in cognitive science-classic symbolic architectures, statistical/dynamical systems, and grounded cognition-will probably be integrated increasingly in future theories, each capturing indispensable aspects of intelligence.

  11. KGB agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    A short story is reported in which the activity of Communist Party of the USSR and secret KGB agents, which were payed by the State, in view of controlling of the conscience of population. The story reffers to the Physics Department of the Moscow University, Planing Institute of the Gosplan of Moldavian S.S.R. and Chishinau Technical University (actually: Technical University of Moldova), where the author has worked during Soviet times. Almost every 6-th citizen in the USSR was engaged in this activity, while actually the former communists rule in the Republic of Moldova.

  12. Social Awareness in Technical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Schloer, Christian; Pacher, Mathias; Bernard, Yvonne; Klejnowski, Lukas

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Self-Governing Institutions * Technical Agent Societies * Trusted communities * The social agent * From implicit to explicit trusted communities * No Society without Rules * Outlook

  13. Ground water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Ground water contamination and basic concepts of water law; Federal law governing water contamination and remediation; Ground water flow and contaminant migration; Ground water cleanup under CERCLA; Technical methods of remediation and prevention of contamination; Liability for ground water contamination; State constraints on contamination of ground water; Water quantity versus water quality; Prevention of use of contaminated ground water as an alternative to remediation; Economic considerations in liability for ground water contamination; and Contamination, extraction, and injection issues.

  14. What Influences Agents to Pursue a Career in Extension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Shannon; Place, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative study reported here explored why agricultural agents pursue an Extension career. A purposive sample was used to select twelve Florida agricultural agents. Interviews investigated positive and negative influences that affected agents' employment decisions. Grounded theory was used as the primary data analysis method (Strauss &…

  15. Sustainable Society Formed by Unselfish Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Toshiko

    It has been pointed out that if the social configuration of the three relations (market, communal and obligatory relations) is not balanced, a market based society as a total system fails. Using multi-agent simulations, this paper shows that a sustainable society is formed when all three relations are integrated and function respectively. When agent trades are based on the market mechanism (i.e., agents act in their own interest and thus only market relations exist), weak agents who cannot perform transactions die. If a compulsory tax is imposed to enable all weak agents to survive (i.e., obligatory relations exist), then the fiscal deficit increases. On the other hand, if agents who have excess income undertake the unselfish action of distributing their surplus to the weak agents (i.e., communal relations exist), then trade volume increases. It is shown that the existence of unselfish agents is necessary for the realization of a sustainable society. However, the survival of all agents is difficult in a communal society. In an artificial society, for all agents survive and fiscal balance to be maintained, all three social relations need to be fully integrated. These results show that adjusting the balance of the three social relations well lead to the realization of a sustainable society.

  16. Practice among Novice Change Agents in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blossing, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to understand practice as negotiation of meaning among novice and internal change agents in school organisations. The research question is as follows: What themes of participation and reification/management occur among the change agents? The study was qualitative in design using the social learning theory of community of…

  17. The Social Side of School: Why Teachers Need Social Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlbach, Hunter

    2010-01-01

    Teaching and learning are fundamentally social enterprises. In attempting to understand, explain, and predict social behavior, social psychologists have amassed scores of empirically grounded, fundamental principles. Yet, many such principles have yet to be applied to classrooms despite the social nature of these settings. This article illustrates…

  18. Health care agents

    MedlinePlus

    Durable power of attorney for health care; Health care proxy; End-of-life - health care agent; Life support treatment - ... Respirator - health care agent; Ventilator - health care agent; Power of attorney - health care agent; POA - health care ...

  19. Agent-based modelling of consumer energy choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Varun; Henry, Adam Douglas

    2016-06-01

    Strategies to mitigate global climate change should be grounded in a rigorous understanding of energy systems, particularly the factors that drive energy demand. Agent-based modelling (ABM) is a powerful tool for representing the complexities of energy demand, such as social interactions and spatial constraints. Unlike other approaches for modelling energy demand, ABM is not limited to studying perfectly rational agents or to abstracting micro details into system-level equations. Instead, ABM provides the ability to represent behaviours of energy consumers -- such as individual households -- using a range of theories, and to examine how the interaction of heterogeneous agents at the micro-level produces macro outcomes of importance to the global climate, such as the adoption of low-carbon behaviours and technologies over space and time. We provide an overview of ABM work in the area of consumer energy choices, with a focus on identifying specific ways in which ABM can improve understanding of both fundamental scientific and applied aspects of the demand side of energy to aid the design of better policies and programmes. Future research needs for improving the practice of ABM to better understand energy demand are also discussed.

  20. Detecting agents.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Susan C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as if they have perceptual/attentional abilities, communicative abilities and goal-directed behaviour. They will follow the attentional orientation of an amorphously shaped novel object if it interacts contingently with them or with another person. They also seem to use a novel object's environmentally directed behaviour to determine its perceptual/attentional orientation and object-oriented goals. Results from adults and children with autism are strikingly similar, despite adults' contradictory beliefs about the objects in question and the failure of children with autism to ultimately develop more advanced theory-of-mind reasoning. The implications for a general theory-of-mind development are discussed. PMID:12689380

  1. Transformation of Child Socialization in Korean Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Soon Hyung

    1993-01-01

    Examines agents of socialization, socialization skills, the influence of Confucian principles, gender socialization, and the differentiation of parental roles in traditional Korean families; and the value of children, the purpose of education, and family orientation in the modern family. (BC)

  2. Collaborating with Autonomous Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Cross, Charles D.; Fan, Henry; Hempley, Lucas E.; Motter, Mark A.; Neilan, James H.; Qualls, Garry D.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Tran, Loc D.; Allen, B. Danette

    2015-01-01

    With the anticipated increase of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) entering into the National Airspace System, it is highly likely that vehicle operators will be teaming with fleets of small autonomous vehicles. The small vehicles may consist of sUAS, which are 55 pounds or less that typically will y at altitudes 400 feet and below, and small ground vehicles typically operating in buildings or defined small campuses. Typically, the vehicle operators are not concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead they are concerned with the overall mission. In order for this vision of high-level mission operators working with fleets of vehicles to come to fruition, many human factors related challenges must be investigated and solved. First, the interface between the human operator and the autonomous agent must be at a level that the operator needs and the agents can understand. This paper details the natural language human factors e orts that NASA Langley's Autonomy Incubator is focusing on. In particular these e orts focus on allowing the operator to interact with the system using speech and gestures rather than a mouse and keyboard. With this ability of the system to understand both speech and gestures, operators not familiar with the vehicle dynamics will be able to easily plan, initiate, and change missions using a language familiar to them rather than having to learn and converse in the vehicle's language. This will foster better teaming between the operator and the autonomous agent which will help lower workload, increase situation awareness, and improve performance of the system as a whole.

  3. For whom will the Bayesian agents vote?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caticha, Nestor; Cesar, Jonatas; Vicente, Renato

    2015-04-01

    Within an agent-based model where moral classifications are socially learned, we ask if a population of agents behaves in a way that may be compared with conservative or liberal positions in the real political spectrum. We assume that agents first experience a formative period, in which they adjust their learning style acting as supervised Bayesian adaptive learners. The formative phase is followed by a period of social influence by reinforcement learning. By comparing data generated by the agents with data from a sample of 15000 Moral Foundation questionnaires we found the following. 1. The number of information exchanges in the formative phase correlates positively with statistics identifying liberals in the social influence phase. This is consistent with recent evidence that connects the dopamine receptor D4-7R gene, political orientation and early age social clique size. 2. The learning algorithms that result from the formative phase vary in the way they treat novelty and corroborative information with more conservative-like agents treating it more equally than liberal-like agents. This is consistent with the correlation between political affiliation and the Openness personality trait reported in the literature. 3. Under the increase of a model parameter interpreted as an external pressure, the statistics of liberal agents resemble more those of conservative agents, consistent with reports on the consequences of external threats on measures of conservatism. We also show that in the social influence phase liberal-like agents readapt much faster than conservative-like agents when subjected to changes on the relevant set of moral issues. This suggests a verifiable dynamical criterium for attaching liberal or conservative labels to groups.

  4. Agent-Based Mediation and Cooperative Information Systems

    SciTech Connect

    PHILLIPS, LAURENCE R.; LINK, HAMILTON E.; GOLDSMITH, STEVEN Y.

    2002-06-02

    This report describes the results of research and development in the area of communication among disparate species of software agents. The two primary elements of the work are the formation of ontologies for use by software agents and the means by which software agents are instructed to carry out complex tasks that require interaction with other agents. This work was grounded in the areas of commercial transport and cybersecurity.

  5. Agent Technology from a NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Hallock, Harold; Kurien, James

    1999-01-01

    NASA's drive toward realizing higher levels of autonomy, in both its ground and space systems, is supporting an active and growing interest in agent technology. This paper will address the expanding research in this exciting technology area. As examples of current work, the Lights-Out Ground Operations System (LOGOS), under prototyping at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and the spacecraft-oriented Remote Agent project under development at the Ames Research Center (ARC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) will be presented.

  6. Pooling the ground: understanding and coordination in collective sense making

    PubMed Central

    Rączaszek-Leonardi, Joanna; Dębska, Agnieszka; Sochanowicz, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Common ground is most often understood as the sum of mutually known beliefs, knowledge, and suppositions among the participants in a conversation. It explains why participants do not mention things that should be obvious to both. In some accounts of communication, reaching a mutual understanding, i.e., broadening the common ground, is posed as the ultimate goal of linguistic interactions. Yet, congruent with the more pragmatic views of linguistic behavior, in which language is treated as social coordination, understanding each other is not the purpose (or not the sole purpose) of linguistic interactions. This purpose is seen as at least twofold (e.g., Fusaroli et al., 2014): to maintain the systemic character of a conversing dyad and to organize it into a functional synergy in the face of tasks posed for a dyadic system as a whole. It seems that the notion of common ground is not sufficient to address the latter character of interaction. In situated communication, in which meaning is created in a distributed way in the very process of interaction, both common (sameness) and privileged (diversity) information must be pooled task-dependently across participants. In this paper, we analyze the definitions of common and privileged ground and propose a conceptual extension that may facilitate a theoretical account of agents that coordinate via linguistic communication. To illustrate the usefulness of this augmented framework, we apply it to one of the recurrent issues in psycholinguistic research, namely the problem of perspective-taking in dialog, and draw conclusions for the broader problem of audience design. PMID:25426087

  7. NESTA: NASA Engineering Shuttle Telemetry Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Smith, Kevin E.; Boloni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed an agent based tool to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the NASA Engineering Shuttle Telemetry Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during ground processing of the Shuttle's subsystems. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream and automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation. Sandia National Labs' Java Expert System Shell is employed as the rule engine. The shell's predicate logic lends itself well to capturing the heuristics and specifying the engineering rules of this spaceport domain. The declarative paradigm of the rule-based agent yields a highly modular and scalable design spanning multiple subsystems of the Shuttle. Several hundred monitoring rules have been written thus far with corresponding notifications sent to Shuttle engineers. This paper discusses the rule-based telemetry agent used for Space Shuttle ground processing and explains the problem domain, development of the agent software, benefits of AT technology, and deployment and sustaining engineering of the product.

  8. What makes virtual agents believable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanovych, Anton; Trescak, Tomas; Simoff, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the concept of believability and make an attempt to isolate individual characteristics (features) that contribute to making virtual characters believable. As the result of this investigation we have produced a formalisation of believability and based on this formalisation built a computational framework focused on simulation of believable virtual agents that possess the identified features. In order to test whether the identified features are, in fact, responsible for agents being perceived as more believable, we have conducted a user study. In this study we tested user reactions towards the virtual characters that were created for a simulation of aboriginal inhabitants of a particular area of Sydney, Australia in 1770 A.D. The participants of our user study were exposed to short simulated scenes, in which virtual agents performed some behaviour in two different ways (while possessing a certain aspect of believability vs. not possessing it). The results of the study indicate that virtual agents that appear resource bounded, are aware of their environment, own interaction capabilities and their state in the world, agents that can adapt to changes in the environment and exist in correct social context are those that are being perceived as more believable. Further in the paper we discuss these and other believability features and provide a quantitative analysis of the level of contribution for each such feature to the overall perceived believability of a virtual agent.

  9. Ground difference compensating system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2005-10-25

    A method of ground level compensation includes measuring a voltage of at least one signal with respect to a primary ground potential and measuring, with respect to the primary ground potential, a voltage level associated with a secondary ground potential. A difference between the voltage level associated with the secondary ground potential and an expected value is calculated. The measured voltage of the at least one signal is adjusted by an amount corresponding to the calculated difference.

  10. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  11. The Social Studies Teacher: Agent of Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Richard E.

    1976-01-01

    Schools have long resisted change due to community attitudes, bureaucratic school system structure, security from being subsidized, and apathetic teachers. A need is seen for attitudes that are receptive to creative change, for democratization of schools, and for a process-oriented emphasis. (Author/AV)

  12. Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, James R.

    Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

  13. Preparing Students for Future Learning with Teachable Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Doris B.; Dohmen, Ilsa M.; Cheng, Britte H.; Oppezzo, Marily A.; Chase, Catherine C.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    One valuable goal of instructional technologies in K-12 education is to prepare students for future learning. Two classroom studies examined whether Teachable Agents (TA) achieves this goal. TA is an instructional technology that draws on the social metaphor of teaching a computer agent to help students learn. Students teach their agent by…

  14. Computational social dynamic modeling of group recruitment.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Nina M.; Lee, Marinna; Pickett, Marc; Turnley, Jessica Glicken; Smrcka, Julianne D.; Ko, Teresa H.; Moy, Timothy David; Wu, Benjamin C.

    2004-01-01

    The Seldon software toolkit combines concepts from agent-based modeling and social science to create a computationally social dynamic model for group recruitment. The underlying recruitment model is based on a unique three-level hybrid agent-based architecture that contains simple agents (level one), abstract agents (level two), and cognitive agents (level three). This uniqueness of this architecture begins with abstract agents that permit the model to include social concepts (gang) or institutional concepts (school) into a typical software simulation environment. The future addition of cognitive agents to the recruitment model will provide a unique entity that does not exist in any agent-based modeling toolkits to date. We use social networks to provide an integrated mesh within and between the different levels. This Java based toolkit is used to analyze different social concepts based on initialization input from the user. The input alters a set of parameters used to influence the values associated with the simple agents, abstract agents, and the interactions (simple agent-simple agent or simple agent-abstract agent) between these entities. The results of phase-1 Seldon toolkit provide insight into how certain social concepts apply to different scenario development for inner city gang recruitment.

  15. Detection of chemical agent aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Jay A.; Ahl, Jeffrey L.; D'Amico, Francis M.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.; Moon, Raphael; Swim, Cynthia R.

    1999-05-01

    One of the major threats presented by a chemical agent attack is that of a munition exploding overhead and 'raining' aerosols which can contaminate surfaces when they impact. Since contact with these surfaces can be fatal, it is imperative to know when such an attack has taken place and the likely threat density and location. We present the results of an experiment designed to show the utility of a CO2 lidar in detecting such an attack. Testing occurred at Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah and involved the simulation of an explosive airburst chemical attack. Explosions occurred at a height of 30 m and liquid droplets from two chemicals, PEG-200 (polyethylene glycol 200) and TEP (triethylphosphate), were expelled and fell to the ground. The munition was the U.S. Army M9 Simulator, Projectile, Airburst, Liquid (SPAL) system that is designed for chemical warfare training exercises. The instrument that was used to detect the presence of the aerosols was the Laser Standoff Chemical Detector (LSCD) which is a light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system that utilizes a rapidly tunable, pulsed CO2 laser. The LIDAR scanned a horizontal path approximately 5 - 8 m above the ground in order to measure the concentration of liquid deposition. The LIDAR data were later correlated with card data to determine how well the system could predict the location and quantity of liquid deposition on the ground.

  16. Social responsibilities of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Jonsen, A R

    2001-03-01

    Urban bioethics can draw on elements of city life and view them under the moral perspective of social responsibility of creating the personal, cultural, social, and economic environment in which persons can be responsible personally as they interpret actions on themselves and creatively respond to them in an ongoing community of agents.

  17. Investigating Ground Swarm Robotics Using Agent Based Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    sensors and explosive detectors. These will be laid out further in Chapter II. Swarm robotics has attracted much attention because of the numerous key... attractive and repulsive force fields, which then control the dispersion and coverage of the swarm. Last but not least, Batalin and Sukhatme (2002) focused...of animals such as cockroaches , crickets, snakes and even lobsters (Ayers et al., 2002). Each of these species is highly efficient in mobility in

  18. Integrating Language and Cognition in Grounded Adaptive Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-21

    and Prof. Jose’ Fernando Fontanari. The special session consisted of 6 papers refereed through the standard IJCNN review procedure. 3. Site visit by...for follow-on research, which will be discussed soon between Dr. Cangelosi and Dr. Losiewicz. 4. Grant meeting and workshop in Joao Pessoa , Brazil

  19. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Calle

    2000-11-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements.

  20. GROUND WATER SAMPLING ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and
    remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  1. Ground Water Remediation Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) conducts research and provides technical assistance to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted by man-made and natural...

  2. Ground water: a review.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    There is growing documentation that a significant portion of the Nation's fresh ground water in the densely populated areas of the USA is contaminated. Because of the slow rates of ground-water movement, ground water once contaminated will remain so for decades, often longer. Cleanup of contaminated ground water is almost always expensive and often technically unfeasible; the expense is often prohibitive. -from Author

  3. Social Action: A Mandate for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Courtland C., Ed.; Walz, Garry R., Ed.

    An increasing number of counselors are becoming agents of social change. Ways in which counselors can enter the arena of social transformation are described in this collection of 18 articles. Following an introduction: (1) "Counselors as Agents of Social Change"--Part I, which focuses on promoting diversity and challenging oppression,…

  4. Low-Volatility Agent Permeation (LVAP) Verification and Validation Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Permeation Personal protective equipment (PPE) Low-volatility agent permeation (LVAP) Extraction efficiency Test development 16. SECURITY...Center (ECBC; Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD), West Desert Test Center (WDTC; Dugway Proving Ground, UT), Battelle Memorial Institute (Columbus, OH), Joint...Contact Weight Requirements .................................................................................... 32 3.7 Uptake and Extraction

  5. Opinion evolution influenced by informed agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Kangqi; Pedrycz, Witold

    2016-11-01

    Guiding public opinions toward a pre-set target by informed agents can be a strategy adopted in some practical applications. The informed agents are common agents who are employed or chosen to spread the pre-set opinion. In this work, we propose a social judgment based opinion (SJBO) dynamics model to explore the opinion evolution under the influence of informed agents. The SJBO model distinguishes between inner opinions and observable choices, and incorporates both the compromise between similar opinions and the repulsion between dissimilar opinions. Three choices (support, opposition, and remaining undecided) are considered in the SJBO model. Using the SJBO model, both the inner opinions and the observable choices can be tracked during the opinion evolution process. The simulation results indicate that if the exchanges of inner opinions among agents are not available, the effect of informed agents is mainly dependent on the characteristics of regular agents, including the assimilation threshold, decay threshold, and initial opinions. Increasing the assimilation threshold and decay threshold can improve the guiding effectiveness of informed agents. Moreover, if the initial opinions of regular agents are close to null, the full and unanimous consensus at the pre-set opinion can be realized, indicating that, to maximize the influence of informed agents, the guidance should be started when regular agents have little knowledge about a subject under consideration. If the regular agents have had clear opinions, the full and unanimous consensus at the pre-set opinion cannot be achieved. However, the introduction of informed agents can make the majority of agents choose the pre-set opinion.

  6. Mission Operations with an Autonomous Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pell, Barney; Sawyer, Scott R.; Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Benjamin; Bernard, Douglas E.

    1998-01-01

    The Remote Agent (RA) is an Artificial Intelligence (AI) system which automates some of the tasks normally reserved for human mission operators and performs these tasks autonomously on-board the spacecraft. These tasks include activity generation, sequencing, spacecraft analysis, and failure recovery. The RA will be demonstrated as a flight experiment on Deep Space One (DSI), the first deep space mission of the NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). As we moved from prototyping into actual flight code development and teamed with ground operators, we made several major extensions to the RA architecture to address the broader operational context in which PA would be used. These extensions support ground operators and the RA sharing a long-range mission profile with facilities for asynchronous ground updates; support ground operators monitoring and commanding the spacecraft at multiple levels of detail simultaneously; and enable ground operators to provide additional knowledge to the RA, such as parameter updates, model updates, and diagnostic information, without interfering with the activities of the RA or leaving the system in an inconsistent state. The resulting architecture supports incremental autonomy, in which a basic agent can be delivered early and then used in an increasingly autonomous manner over the lifetime of the mission. It also supports variable autonomy, as it enables ground operators to benefit from autonomy when L'@ey want it, but does not inhibit them from obtaining a detailed understanding and exercising tighter control when necessary. These issues are critical to the successful development and operation of autonomous spacecraft.

  7. A Brush with Research: Teaching Grounded Theory in the Art and Design Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Mike; Barrett, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Grounded Theory is a systematic approach to social research that allows for new concepts and theories to emerge from gathered data, as opposed to relying on either established theory or personal conjecture to interpret social processes. Although Grounded Theory is a well-known method within social science literature, it is relatively unknown in…

  8. The Social Climbing Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardoscia, Marco; De Luca, Giancarlo; Livan, Giacomo; Marsili, Matteo; Tessone, Claudio J.

    2013-05-01

    The structure of societies depends, to some extent, on the incentives of the individuals they are composed of. We study a stylized model of this interplay, that suggests that the more individuals aim at climbing the social hierarchy, the more society's hierarchy gets strong. Such a dependence is sharp, in the sense that a persistent hierarchical order emerges abruptly when the preference for social status gets larger than a threshold. This phase transition has its origin in the fact that the presence of a well defined hierarchy allows agents to climb it, thus reinforcing it, whereas in a "disordered" society it is harder for agents to find out whom they should connect to in order to become more central. Interestingly, a social order emerges when agents strive harder to climb society and it results in a state of reduced social mobility, as a consequence of ergodicity breaking, where climbing is more difficult.

  9. Agents That Negotiate Proficiently with People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Sarit

    Negotiation is a process by which interested parties confer with the aim of reaching agreements. The dissemination of technologies such as the Internet has created opportunities for computer agents to negotiate with people, despite being distributed geographically and in time. The inclusion of people presents novel problems for the design of autonomous agent negotiation strategies. People do not adhere to the optimal, monolithic strategies that can be derived analytically, as is the case in settings comprising computer agents alone. Their negotiation behavior is affected by a multitude of social and psychological factors, such as social attributes that influence negotiation deals (e.g., social welfare, inequity aversion) and traits of individual negotiators (e.g., altruism, trustworthiness, helpfulness). Furthermore, culture plays an important role in their decision making and people of varying cultures differ in the way they make offers and fulfill their commitments in negotiation.

  10. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  11. Spacecraft sanitation agent development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

  12. Using Photovoice as a Tool to Engage Social Work Students in Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peabody, Carolyn G.

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure that social workers graduating from social work programs embrace social justice's central role in their professional careers, educators must find creative, theoretically grounded, practice-relevant ways of conveying this value and socializing social work students. This article describes the use of Photovoice as one tool for…

  13. Chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.

  14. Social Dynamics of Science

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoling; Kaur, Jasleen; Milojević, Staša; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    The birth and decline of disciplines are critical to science and society. How do scientific disciplines emerge? No quantitative model to date allows us to validate competing theories on the different roles of endogenous processes, such as social collaborations, and exogenous events, such as scientific discoveries. Here we propose an agent-based model in which the evolution of disciplines is guided mainly by social interactions among agents representing scientists. Disciplines emerge from splitting and merging of social communities in a collaboration network. We find that this social model can account for a number of stylized facts about the relationships between disciplines, scholars, and publications. These results provide strong quantitative support for the key role of social interactions in shaping the dynamics of science. While several “science of science” theories exist, this is the first account for the emergence of disciplines that is validated on the basis of empirical data. PMID:23323212

  15. Grounded theory, feminist theory, critical theory: toward theoretical triangulation.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Kaysi Eastlick; Morrow, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Nursing and social science scholars have examined the compatibility between feminist and grounded theory traditions in scientific knowledge generation, concluding that they are complementary, yet not without certain tensions. This line of inquiry is extended to propose a critical feminist grounded theory methodology. The construction of symbolic interactionist, feminist, and critical feminist variants of grounded theory methodology is examined in terms of the presuppositions of each tradition and their interplay as a process of theoretical triangulation.

  16. Electrical grounding prong socket

    DOEpatents

    Leong, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a socket for a grounding prong used in a three prong electrical plug and a receptacle for the three prong plug. The socket being sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having a ridge to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket.

  17. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-30

    TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics Mr. Jim Parker, Associate Director Dr. Greg Hudas, Chief Engineer UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A (OPSEC...TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jim Parker; Greg Hudas 5d. PROJECT...Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned Ground Vehicles

  18. Proceedings of ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Lennon, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of Ground Water. Topics covered include: Practical use and pitfalls of numerical models; Reliability of predictions; Strengths and limitations of coupled flow/transport/geochemical models; Ground water management/water resources; The macrodispersion experiment (made-scale tracer test; Partially saturated models; Use of ground water flow/transport modeling for aquifer evaluation; Aquifer tests and tracer tests; Risk assessment for groundwater pollution control; and Groundwater quality management.

  19. Ground Vehicle Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-20

    Ground Vehicle Robotics Jim Parker Associate Director, Ground Vehicle Robotics UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...DATE 20 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2013 to 15-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a...Willing to take Risk on technology -User Evaluated -Contested Environments -Operational Data Applied Robotics for Installation & Base Ops -Low Risk

  20. Socialization Sequences and Student Attitudes Towards Non-Violent Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulding, Elise

    Examined is a general model of the socialization process based on Polak's theory of social change which identifies key agents of the process which shape perceptions of the possibility of creative change instead of defensiveness or aggression in situations where old behaviors are inadequate. Six agents of socialization are identified: family,…

  1. Integrating Social Work into Undergraduate Education through a Community Action and Social Change Multidisciplinary Minor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards-Schuster, Katie; Ruffolo, Mary C.; Nicoll, Kerri Leyda

    2015-01-01

    Social work education has a long and successful history of developing change agents through bachelor of social work, master's of social work, and PhD programs, but these programs often create boundaries limiting the reach and infusion of social work perspectives. With rapid changes in social, economic, and political contexts, students from all…

  2. Relational grounding facilitates development of scientifically useful multiscale models

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We review grounding issues that influence the scientific usefulness of any biomedical multiscale model (MSM). Groundings are the collection of units, dimensions, and/or objects to which a variable or model constituent refers. To date, models that primarily use continuous mathematics rely heavily on absolute grounding, whereas those that primarily use discrete software paradigms (e.g., object-oriented, agent-based, actor) typically employ relational grounding. We review grounding issues and identify strategies to address them. We maintain that grounding issues should be addressed at the start of any MSM project and should be reevaluated throughout the model development process. We make the following points. Grounding decisions influence model flexibility, adaptability, and thus reusability. Grounding choices should be influenced by measures, uncertainty, system information, and the nature of available validation data. Absolute grounding complicates the process of combining models to form larger models unless all are grounded absolutely. Relational grounding facilitates referent knowledge embodiment within computational mechanisms but requires separate model-to-referent mappings. Absolute grounding can simplify integration by forcing common units and, hence, a common integration target, but context change may require model reengineering. Relational grounding enables synthesis of large, composite (multi-module) models that can be robust to context changes. Because biological components have varying degrees of autonomy, corresponding components in MSMs need to do the same. Relational grounding facilitates achieving such autonomy. Biomimetic analogues designed to facilitate translational research and development must have long lifecycles. Exploring mechanisms of normal-to-disease transition requires model components that are grounded relationally. Multi-paradigm modeling requires both hyperspatial and relational grounding. PMID:21951817

  3. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Delta agent (Hepatitis D) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Delta agent is a type of virus called hepatitis ...

  4. Animal Capture Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    agents and delivery systems reviewed . Questionnaires were sent to 137 Air Force bases to obtain information about the chemical agents and delivery systems...used by animal control personnel. A literature review included chemical agents, delivery methods, toxicity information and emergency procedures from...34-like agent. Users should familiarize themselves with catatonia in general and particularly that its successful use as an immobilizer doesn’t necessarily

  5. Fostering Resilience: Protective Agents, Resources, and Mechanisms for Adolescent Refugees’ Psychosocial Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Weine, Stevan Merrill; Ware, Norma; Hakizimana, Leonce; Tugenberg, Toni; Currie, Madeleine; Dahnweih, Gonwo; Wagner, Maureen; Polutnik, Chloe; Wulu, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent refugees face many challenges but also have the potential to become resilient. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the protective agents, resources, and mechanisms that promote their psychosocial well-being. Methods Participants included a purposively sampled group of 73 Burundian and Liberian refugee adolescents and their families who had recently resettled in Boston and Chicago. The adolescents, families, and their service providers participated in a two-year longitudinal study using ethnographic methods and grounded theory analysis with Atlas/ti software. A grounded theory model was developed which describes those persons or entities who act to protect adolescents (Protective Agents), their capacities for doing so (Protective Resources), and how they do it (Protective Mechanisms). Protective agents are the individuals, groups, organizations, and systems that can contribute either directly or indirectly to promoting adolescent refugees’ psychosocial well-being. Protective resources are the family and community capacities that can promote psychosocial well-being in adolescent refugees. Protective mechanisms are the processes fostering adolescent refugees’ competencies and behaviors that can promote their psychosocial well-being. Results Eight family and community capacities were identified that appeared to promote psychosocial well-being in the adolescent refugees. These included 1) finances for necessities; 2) English proficiency; 3) social support networks; 4) engaged parenting; 5) family cohesion; 6) cultural adherence and guidance; 7) educational support; and 8) faith and religious involvement. Nine protective mechanisms identified were identified and grouped into three categories: 1) Relational (supporting, connecting, belonging); 2) Informational (informing, preparing), and; 3) Developmental (defending, promoting, adapting). Conclusions To further promote the psychosocial well-being of adolescent refugees

  6. The social life of cognition.

    PubMed

    Korman, Joanna; Voiklis, John; Malle, Bertram F

    2015-02-01

    We begin by illustrating that long before the cognitive revolution, social psychology focused on topics pertaining to what is now known as social cognition: people's subjective interpretations of social situations and the concepts and cognitive processes underlying these interpretations. We then examine two questions: whether social cognition entails characteristic concepts and cognitive processes, and how social processes might themselves shape and constrain cognition. We suggest that social cognition relies heavily on generic cognition but also on unique concepts (e.g., agent, intentionality) and unique processes (e.g., projection, imitation, joint attention). We further suggest that social processes play a prominent role in the development and unfolding of several generic cognitive processes, including learning, attention, and memory. Finally, we comment on the prospects of a recently developing approach to the study of social cognition (social neuroscience) and two potential future directions (computational social cognition and social-cognitive robotics).

  7. Hydroxypyridonate chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Scarrow, Robert C.; White, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Chelating agents having 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (HOPO) and related moieties incorporated within their structures, including polydentate HOPO-substituted polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and HOPO-substituted desferrioxamine. The chelating agents are useful in selectively removing certain cations from solution, and are particularly useful as ferric ion and actinide chelators. Novel syntheses of the chelating agents are provided.

  8. Intelligent Agents: A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Edmund; Feldman, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Provides an in-depth introduction to the various technologies that are bringing intelligent agents into the forefront of information technology, explaining how such agents work, the standards involved, and how agent-based applications can be developed. (Author/AEF)

  9. Ground characterization for JAPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attenborough, Keith; Taherzadeh, Shahram

    1993-01-01

    Above-ground propagation modelling at the JAPE (Joint Acoustic Propagation Experiment) site requires a reasonably accurate model for the acoustical properties of the ground. Various models for the JAPE site are offered based on theoretical fits to short range data and to longer range data obtained with random noise and pure tones respectively from a loudspeaker under approximately quiescent isothermal conditions.

  10. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  11. Standard Agent Framework 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4) Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.

  12. Structure Mapping for Social Learning.

    PubMed

    Christie, Stella

    2017-03-22

    Analogical reasoning is a foundational tool for human learning, allowing learners to recognize relational structures in new events and domains. Here I sketch some grounds for understanding and applying analogical reasoning in social learning. The social world is fundamentally characterized by relations between people, with common relational structures-such as kinships and social hierarchies-forming social units that dictate social behaviors. Just as young learners use analogical reasoning for learning relational structures in other domains-spatial relations, verbs, relational categories-analogical reasoning ought to be a useful cognitive tool for acquiring social relations and structures.

  13. NISAC Agent Based Laboratory for Economics

    SciTech Connect

    Downes, Paula; Davis, Chris; Eidson, Eric; Ehlen, Mark; Gieseler, Charles; Harris, Richard

    2006-10-11

    The software provides large-scale microeconomic simulation of complex economic and social systems (such as supply chain and market dynamics of businesses in the US economy) and their dependence on physical infrastructure systems. The system is based on Agent simulation, where each entity of inteest in the system to be modeled (for example, a Bank, individual firms, Consumer households, etc.) is specified in a data-driven sense to be individually repreented by an Agent. The Agents interact using rules of interaction appropriate to their roles, and through those interactions complex economic and social dynamics emerge. The software is implemented in three tiers, a Java-based visualization client, a C++ control mid-tier, and a C++ computational tier.

  14. The Timing of Social Comparison in Crowds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-18

    and second, it is inspired by social psychology theory. In particular, the model is based on Social Comparison Theory (SCT) ( Festinger , 1954), a...evaluate its own progress ( Festinger , 1954). This approach, in which the social comparison process is triggered only when the agent is uncertain as to how to...developing a model of social behavior inspired by Festinger’s social comparison theory ( Festinger , 1954). To the best of our knowl- edge, social

  15. Justice-based social assistance.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Armando

    2016-08-01

    What are the main objectives of social protection institutions in developing countries? What should be their scope and reach? What is the source of their legitimacy? Finding appropriate answers to these questions is essential to understanding, and shaping, the emergence of welfare institutions in low- and middle-income countries. Most available answers rely on instrumental arguments. Few make reference to normative principles. This article draws on three concepts from Rawls - social justice as regulating cooperation, the social minimum, and the need for a freestanding political notion of social justice - to develop a coherent argument for grounding social assistance on social justice. In line with this argument, it identifies some parameters for a justice-based social assistance. This article then discusses, with examples, the tensions existing between a social justice-based social minimum and 'real' social assistance institutions emerging in developing countries.

  16. Justice-based social assistance

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Armando

    2016-01-01

    What are the main objectives of social protection institutions in developing countries? What should be their scope and reach? What is the source of their legitimacy? Finding appropriate answers to these questions is essential to understanding, and shaping, the emergence of welfare institutions in low- and middle-income countries. Most available answers rely on instrumental arguments. Few make reference to normative principles. This article draws on three concepts from Rawls – social justice as regulating cooperation, the social minimum, and the need for a freestanding political notion of social justice – to develop a coherent argument for grounding social assistance on social justice. In line with this argument, it identifies some parameters for a justice-based social assistance. This article then discusses, with examples, the tensions existing between a social justice-based social minimum and ‘real’ social assistance institutions emerging in developing countries. PMID:27708544

  17. Multi-agent robotic systems and applications for satellite missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Miguel A.

    A revolution in the space sector is happening. It is expected that in the next decade there will be more satellites launched than in the previous sixty years of space exploration. Major challenges are associated with this growth of space assets such as the autonomy and management of large groups of satellites, in particular with small satellites. There are two main objectives for this work. First, a flexible and distributed software architecture is presented to expand the possibilities of spacecraft autonomy and in particular autonomous motion in attitude and position. The approach taken is based on the concept of distributed software agents, also referred to as multi-agent robotic system. Agents are defined as software programs that are social, reactive and proactive to autonomously maximize the chances of achieving the set goals. Part of the work is to demonstrate that a multi-agent robotic system is a feasible approach for different problems of autonomy such as satellite attitude determination and control and autonomous rendezvous and docking. The second main objective is to develop a method to optimize multi-satellite configurations in space, also known as satellite constellations. This automated method generates new optimal mega-constellations designs for Earth observations and fast revisit times on large ground areas. The optimal satellite constellation can be used by researchers as the baseline for new missions. The first contribution of this work is the development of a new multi-agent robotic system for distributing the attitude determination and control subsystem for HiakaSat. The multi-agent robotic system is implemented and tested on the satellite hardware-in-the-loop testbed that simulates a representative space environment. The results show that the newly proposed system for this particular case achieves an equivalent control performance when compared to the monolithic implementation. In terms on computational efficiency it is found that the multi-agent

  18. METHOD OF LOCATING GROUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Macleish, K.G.

    1958-02-11

    ABS>This patent presents a method for locating a ground in a d-c circult having a number of parallel branches connected across a d-c source or generator. The complete method comprises the steps of locating the ground with reference to the mildpoint of the parallel branches by connecting a potentiometer across the terminals of the circuit and connecting the slider of the potentiometer to ground through a current indicating instrument, adjusting the slider to right or left of the mildpoint so as to cause the instrument to indicate zero, connecting the terminal of the network which is farthest from the ground as thus indicated by the potentiometer to ground through a condenser, impressing a ripple voltage on the circuit, and then measuring the ripple voltage at the midpoint of each parallel branch to find the branch in which is the lowest value of ripple voltage, and then measuring the distribution of the ripple voltage along this branch to determine the point at which the ripple voltage drops off to zero or substantially zero due to the existence of a ground. The invention has particular application where a circuit ground is present which will disappear if the normal circuit voltage is removed.

  19. Agent-Based Modeling of Growth Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Growth processes abound in nature, and are frequently the target of modeling exercises in the sciences. In this article we illustrate an agent-based approach to modeling, in the case of a single example from the social sciences: bullying.

  20. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    PubMed

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  1. Fairness emergence from zero-intelligence agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wen-Qi; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-02-01

    Fairness plays a key role in explaining the emergence and maintenance of cooperation. Opponent-oriented social utility models were often proposed to explain the origins of fairness preferences in which agents take into account not only their own outcomes but are also concerned with the outcomes of their opponents. Here, we propose a payoff-oriented mechanism in which agents update their beliefs only based on the payoff signals of the previous ultimatum game, regardless of the behaviors and outcomes of the opponents themselves. Employing adaptive ultimatum game, we show that (1) fairness behaviors can emerge out even under such minimalist assumptions, provided that agents are capable of responding to their payoff signals, (2) the average game payoff per agent per round decreases with the increasing discrepancy rate between the average giving rate and the average asking rate, and (3) the belief update process will lead to 50%-50% fair split provided that there is no mutation in the evolutionary dynamics.

  2. Ground Water Modeling Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is supporting region, state, and tribal partners at Superfund sites and brownfields to develop new methods to better characterize, monitor, and treat ground water contamination; in order to protect drinking water, surface water, and indoor air.

  3. Electrical-ground monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, T. D.

    1979-01-01

    Instrument for detecting short circuits monitors ground connections and sounds alarm if out-of-limits condition occurs. Circuit includes electronics that prevent false triggering by high-resistance or capacitive paths and other noise.

  4. Designing Green School Grounds

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is helping Newport News, Virginia take steps to prevent flooding and control stormwater on school grounds – part of an overall effort by government agencies and other partners to address the city’s revitalization needs.

  5. Preparing Students for Future Learning with Teachable Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Doris B.; Dohmen, Ilsa M.; Cheng, Britte H.; Oppezzo, Marily A.; Chase, Catherine C.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several years, the authors have been developing an instructional technology, called Teachable Agents (TA), which draws on the social metaphor of teaching to help students learn. Students teach a computer character, their "agent," by creating a concept map of nodes connected by qualitative causal links. The authors hypothesize that…

  6. The Effects of Animated Agents on Students' Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unal-Colak, Figen; Ozan, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Animated agents are electronic agents that interact with learners through voice, visuals or text and that carry human-like characteristics such as gestures and facial expressions with the purpose of creating a social learning environment, and provide information and guidance and when required feedback and motivation to students during their…

  7. System design for robot agent team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Stuart H.; Nguyen, Hung M.

    2002-07-01

    Small air and ground physical agents (robots) will be ubiquitous on the battlefield of the 21st century, principally to lower the exposure to harm of our ground forces in urban and open terrain. Teams of small collaborating physical agents conducting tasks such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA), intelligence, chemical and biological agent detection, logistics, decoy, sentry, and communications relay will have advanced sensors, communications, and mobility characteristics. The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is conducting research in sensor fusion, communications, and processing on small mobile robotic platforms principally in the urban environment in support of Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT). This paper discusses on-going research at ARL that supports the development of multi-robot collaboration. Commercial ATRV-2 and Urban Robot platforms are being utilized along with advanced battlefield visualization tools and other tools to effectively command and control teams of collaborating physical agents and present the gathered information in a manner that is useful to the commander. The software architecture and the modular packaging designs will be the focus of the paper, which also consider mother ship concepts. Additionally, work that has been conducted with PM Soldier Systems to integrate robotic platforms (Robot Warrior) with the Land Warrior (LW) ensemble to create a Scout Warrior will be discussed.

  8. Ground Water in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is one of Hawaii's most important natural resources. It is used for drinking water, irrigation, and domestic, commercial, and industrial needs. Ground water provides about 99 percent of Hawaii's domestic water and about 50 percent of all freshwater used in the State. Total ground water pumped in Hawaii was about 500 million gallons per day during 1995, which is less than 3 percent of the average total rainfall (about 21 billion gallons per day) in Hawaii. From this perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample; however, much of the rainfall runs off to the ocean in streams or returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. Furthermore, ground-water resources can be limited because of water-quality, environmental, or economic concerns. Water beneath the ground surface occurs in two principal zones: the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone. In the unsaturated zone, the pore spaces in rocks contain both air and water, whereas in the saturated zone, the pore spaces are filled with water. The upper surface of the saturated zone is referred to as the water table. Water below the water table is referred to as ground water. Ground-water salinity can range from freshwater to that of seawater. Freshwater is commonly considered to be water with a chloride concentration less than 250 mg/L, and this concentration represents about 1.3 percent of the chloride concentration of seawater (19,500 mg/L). Brackish water has a chloride concentration between that of freshwater (250 mg/L) and saltwater (19,500 mg/L).

  9. Dynamic ground effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John W., Jr.; Kemmerly, Guy T.; Gilbert, William P.

    1990-01-01

    A research program is underway at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the effect of rate of descent on ground effects. A series of powered models were tested in the Vortex Research Facility under conditions with rate of descent and in the 14 x 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel under identical conditions but without rate of descent. These results indicate that the rate of descent can have a significant impact on ground effects particularly if vectored or reversed thrust is used.

  10. Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-14

    Mr. Jim Parker Associate Director Ground Vehicle Robotics Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...Briefing 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2012 to 01-08-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned

  11. Ground water in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindholm, Gerald F.; Norvitch, Ralph F.

    1976-01-01

    Although Minnesota is generally rich in ground-water resources, it is not without associated problems. In the western part of the State, ground-water quality is often a problem, especially in deep aquifers. Throughout the State, few buried outwash aquifers have been delineated or evaluated as to their water-yielding capabilities. Some aquifers are highly susceptible to pollution. Planned development and monitoring of water levels and water quality would be beneficial.

  12. Toward a Methodology for Conducting Social Impact Assessments Using Quality of Social Life Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Marvin E.; Merwin, Donna J.

    Broadly conceived, social impacts refer to all changes in the structure and functioning of patterned social ordering that occur in conjunction with an environmental, technological, or social innovation or alteration. Departing from the usual cost-benefit analysis approach, a new methodology proposes conducting social impact assessment grounded in…

  13. Autonomous Formations of Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhali, Sanjana; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous formation control of multi-agent dynamic systems has a number of applications that include ground-based and aerial robots and satellite formations. For air vehicles, formation flight ("flocking") has the potential to significantly increase airspace utilization as well as fuel efficiency. This presentation addresses two main problems in multi-agent formations: optimal role assignment to minimize the total cost (e.g., combined distance traveled by all agents); and maintaining formation geometry during flock motion. The Kuhn-Munkres ("Hungarian") algorithm is used for optimal assignment, and consensus-based leader-follower type control architecture is used to maintain formation shape despite the leader s independent movements. The methods are demonstrated by animated simulations.

  14. Agent Technology, Complex Adaptive Systems, and Autonomic Systems: Their Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Rouff, Chistopher; Hincheny, Mike

    2004-01-01

    To reduce the cost of future spaceflight missions and to perform new science, NASA has been investigating autonomous ground and space flight systems. These goals of cost reduction have been further complicated by nanosatellites for future science data-gathering which will have large communications delays and at times be out of contact with ground control for extended periods of time. This paper describes two prototype agent-based systems, the Lights-out Ground Operations System (LOGOS) and the Agent Concept Testbed (ACT), and their autonomic properties that were developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to demonstrate autonomous operations of future space flight missions. The paper discusses the architecture of the two agent-based systems, operational scenarios of both, and the two systems autonomic properties.

  15. Surfactants as blackbird stressing agents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lefebvre, P.W.; Seubert, J.L.

    1970-01-01

    Applications of wetting-agent solutions produce mortality in birds. The exact cause of death is undetermined but it is believed that destruction of the insulating qualities of the plumage permits ambient cold temperatures and evaporation to lower the body temperature to a lethal level. The original concept of using these materials as bird-control tools was developed in 1958 at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Laurel, Maryland. Early field trials by personnel of the Division of Wildlife Services and the Denver Wildlife Research Center indicated that ground-application techniques had promise but limitations of the equipment precluded successful large-scale roost treatments. In 1966, Patuxent Center personnel began using tanker-type aircraft to evaluate high-volume aerial applications of wetting agents. The success of these tests led to the use of small aircraft to make low-volume, high-concentration aerial applications just prior to expected rainfall. Recent trials of the low-volume method show that, with some limitations, it is effective, inexpensive, and safe to the environment. Current research emphasizes the screening of new candidate materials for efficacy, biodegradability, and toxicity to plants and non-target animals, as well as basic investigations of the avian physiological mechanisms involved. Field trials to develop more effective application techniques will continue.

  16. [Social order, legitimacy, and physical violence as a social fact].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Eddie

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses theoretical as well as methodological issues of a general sociology of violence which aims at focusing on the dynamic relationship between social order, legitimacy, and physical violence. The article argues in favor of a relational approach consisting of a realistic appraisal (in an epistemological sense) of the actors' place in a locally ordered setting of relationships among objectified forms of social order, collective identities, and social interaction. The author's long term research objective is to develop a general sociology of violence grounded in social action theory, to form a basis for exploring the phenomena of physical violence in the neo-Durkheimian sense as social facts.

  17. Who's your neighbor? neighbor identification for agent-based modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Macal, C. M.; Howe, T. R.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Chicago

    2006-01-01

    Agent-based modeling and simulation, based on the cellular automata paradigm, is an approach to modeling complex systems comprised of interacting autonomous agents. Open questions in agent-based simulation focus on scale-up issues encountered in simulating large numbers of agents. Specifically, how many agents can be included in a workable agent-based simulation? One of the basic tenets of agent-based modeling and simulation is that agents only interact and exchange locally available information with other agents located in their immediate proximity or neighborhood of the space in which the agents are situated. Generally, an agent's set of neighbors changes rapidly as a simulation proceeds through time and as the agents move through space. Depending on the topology defined for agent interactions, proximity may be defined by spatial distance for continuous space, adjacency for grid cells (as in cellular automata), or by connectivity in social networks. Identifying an agent's neighbors is a particularly time-consuming computational task and can dominate the computational effort in a simulation. Two challenges in agent simulation are (1) efficiently representing an agent's neighborhood and the neighbors in it and (2) efficiently identifying an agent's neighbors at any time in the simulation. These problems are addressed differently for different agent interaction topologies. While efficient approaches have been identified for agent neighborhood representation and neighbor identification for agents on a lattice with general neighborhood configurations, other techniques must be used when agents are able to move freely in space. Techniques for the analysis and representation of spatial data are applicable to the agent neighbor identification problem. This paper extends agent neighborhood simulation techniques from the lattice topology to continuous space, specifically R2. Algorithms based on hierarchical (quad trees) or non-hierarchical data structures (grid cells) are

  18. Social responsibility of nursing: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Nicholas, Patrice K; Corless, Inge B; Barry, Donna M; Hoyt, Pamela; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Davis, Sheila M

    2009-05-01

    This study addresses social responsibility in the discipline of nursing and implications for global health. The concept of social responsibility is explicated and its relevance for nursing is examined, grounded in the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics and the International Council of Nurses Code of Ethics. Social justice, human rights, nurse migration, and approaches to nursing education are discussed within the framework of nursing's social responsibility. Strategies for addressing nursing workforce issues and education within a framework of social responsibility are explored.

  19. Change Agent Survival Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  20. Detecting biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun; Walt, David R

    2005-10-01

    We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses after hybridization and response patterns of the multiplexed array.

  1. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  2. Detecting Biological Warfare Agents

    PubMed Central

    Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun

    2005-01-01

    We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses after hybridization and response patterns of the multiplexed array. PMID:16318712

  3. Naive Theories of Social Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined children's (ages 3-10, Total N = 235) naive theories of social groups, in particular, their expectations about how group memberships constrain social interactions. After introduction to novel groups of people, preschoolers (ages 3-5) reliably expected agents from one group to harm members of the other group (rather than…

  4. Reinventing Grounded Theory: Some Questions about Theory, Ground and Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gary; James, David

    2006-01-01

    Grounded theory's popularity persists after three decades of broad-ranging critique. In this article three problematic notions are discussed--"theory," "ground" and "discovery"--which linger in the continuing use and development of grounded theory procedures. It is argued that far from providing the epistemic security promised by grounded theory,…

  5. How do agents represent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Alex

    Representation is inherent to the concept of an agent, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some agent, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the agent with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes agents from non-representational objects: agents are objects capable of representation.

  6. Ground water in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, A.R.

    1960-01-01

    One of the first requisites for the intelligent planning of utilization and control of water and for the administration of laws relating to its use is data on the quantity, quality, and mode of occurrence of the available supplies. The collection, evaluation and interpretation, and publication of such data are among the primary functions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 1895 the Congress has made appropriations to the Survey for investigation of the water resources of the Nation. In 1929 the Congress adopted the policy of dollar-for-dollar cooperation with the States and local governmental agencies in water-resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey. In 1937 a program of ground-water investigations was started in cooperation with the Oklahoma Geological Survey, and in 1949 this program was expanded to include cooperation with the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board. In 1957 the State Legislature created the Oklahoma Water Resources Board as the principal State water agency and it became the principal local cooperator. The Ground Water Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey collects, analyzes, and evaluates basic information on ground-water resources and prepares interpretive reports based on those data. Cooperative ground-water work was first concentrated in the Panhandle counties. During World War II most work was related to problems of water supply for defense requirements. Since 1945 detailed investigations of ground-water availability have been made in 11 areas, chiefly in the western and central parts of the State. In addition, water levels in more than 300 wells are measured periodically, principally in the western half of the State. In Oklahoma current studies are directed toward determining the source, occurrence, and availability of ground water and toward estimating the quantity of water and rate of replenishment to specific areas and water-bearing formations. Ground water plays an important role in the economy of the State. It is

  7. Grounding of space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosela, P. A.; Fertis, D. G.; Shaker, F. J.

    1992-01-01

    Space structures, such as the Space Station solar arrays, must be extremely light-weight, flexible structures. Accurate prediction of the natural frequencies and mode shapes is essential for determining the structural adequacy of components, and designing a controls system. The tension pre-load in the 'blanket' of photovoltaic solar collectors, and the free/free boundary conditions of a structure in space, causes serious reservations on the use of standard finite element techniques of solution. In particular, a phenomenon known as 'grounding', or false stiffening, of the stiffness matrix occurs during rigid body rotation. This paper examines the grounding phenomenon in detail. Numerous stiffness matrices developed by others are examined for rigid body rotation capability, and found lacking. A force imbalance inherent in the formulations examined is the likely cause of the grounding problem, suggesting the need for a directed force formulation.

  8. Ground Safety Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    In the history of humankind, every space adventure, great or small, has begun on the ground. While this seems to be stating the obvious, mission and flight hardware designers who have overlooked this fact have paid a high price, either in loss or damage to the hardware pre-launch, or in mission failure or reduction. Designers may risk not only their flight hardware, but they may also risk their lives, their co-workers lives and even the general public by not heeding safety on the ground. Their eyes may be on the stars but their feet are on the ground! This discussion applies to all forms of flight hardware from the largest rockets to the smallest spare parts.

  9. [The actual Russian legislation in sphere of turn-over of drug agents and psychotropic substances].

    PubMed

    Abramov, A Yu; Kosolapova, N V; Mikhaiylova, Yu V

    2014-01-01

    The drug abuse is a social occurrence. Hence, the social economic methods are the first of all means of combating this evil. At the same time, measures of especially juridical character possess significant value since they develop corresponding legal base for applying another measures. In the Russian Federation, during fifteen years the new policy of public regulation and normative legal base in the area of legal turn-over of drug agents, psychotropic substances and their precursors were developed factually from zero ground. However, the current national legislation is not deprived of some flaws and contradictions. Frequently a uniform practice of interpretation and application of legal rules regulating the controlled turn-over is lacking. On the one hand, this circumstance decreases effectiveness of action of such rules and on the other hand favors development of situations for outflow of pharmaceuticals from legal turn-over to illegal traffic. The becoming of the Russian legislation in the area of turn-over of drug agents, precursors and psychotropic substances relates to the period of late 1990s when the Federal Law No 3 FZ "On drug agents and psychotropic substances" of January 8 1998 was developed and passed by the State Duma of the Russian Federation. The given law completely conforms to principles of legal regulation of turn-over of drug agents and psychotropic substances determined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation (provisions 76, 90, 104, 105) and federal laws ("On the government of the Russian Federation" of December 17 1997, "On the ombudsman in the Russian Federation" of February 26 1997). The main characteristic of legal rules included into given group of sources of law is that they contain regulations of general disposition as basic ones for inferior sources of law. The analysis of basic Federal law No 3 FZ "On drug agents and psychotropic substances" of January 8 1998 makes it possible to conclude that in in Russia the international legal

  10. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  11. Prioritizing Rights in the Social Justice Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, James Scott

    2009-01-01

    The biggest problem facing schools having social justice curricula, beyond implementation of a programme, I claim, is the problem of "justification": what grounds what in social justice and how do we make this manifest to ourselves and to the curricula? If we cannot address this, then social justice curricula are doomed to begging the question. I…

  12. Feasibility study of launch vehicle ground cloud neutralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderarend, P. C.; Stoy, S. T.; Kranyecz, T. E.

    1976-01-01

    The distribution of hydrogen chloride in the cloud was analyzed as a function of launch pad geometry and rate of rise of the vehicle during the first 24 sec of burn in order to define neutralization requirements. Delivery systems of various types were developed in order to bring the proposed chemical agents in close contact with the hydrogen chloride. Approximately one-third of the total neutralizing agent required can be delivered from a ground installed system at the launch pad; concentrated sodium carbonate solution is the preferred choice of agent for this launch pad system. Two-thirds of the neutralization requirement appears to need delivery by aircraft. Only one chemical agent (ammonia) may be reasonably considered for delivery by aircraft, because weight and bulk of all other agents are too large.

  13. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-07-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  14. Ground-water flow and the possible effects of remedial actions at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    J-Field, located in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md, has been used since World War II to test and dispose of explosives, chemical warfare agents, and industrial chemicals resulting in ground-water, surface-water, and soil contami- nation. The U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference model was used to better understand ground-water flow at the site and to simulate the effects of remedial actions. A surficial aquifer and a confined aquifer were simulated with the model. A confining unit separates these units and is represented by leakance between the layers. The area modeled is 3.65 mi2; the model was constructed with a variably spaced 40 X 38 grid. The horizontal and lower boundaries of the model are all no-flow boundaries. Steady-state conditions were used. Ground water at the areas under investigation flows from disposal pit areas toward discharge areas in adjacent estuaries or wetlands. Simulations indicate that capping disposal areas with an impermeable cover effectively slows advective ground water flow by 0.7 to 0.5 times. Barriers to lateral ground-water flow were simulated and effectively prevented the movement of ground water toward discharge areas. Extraction wells were simulated as a way to contain ground-water contamination and to extract ground water for treatment. Two wells pumping 5 gallons per minute each at the toxic-materials disposal area and a single well pumping 2.5 gallons per minute at the riot-control-agent disposal area effectively contained contamination at these sites. A combi- nation of barriers to horizontal flow east and south of the toxic-materials disposal area, and a single extraction well pumping at 5 gallons per minute can extract contaminated ground water and prevent pumpage of marsh water.

  15. The shaping of social perception by stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Richard; Liepelt, Roman; Prinz, Wolfgang; Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.

    2016-01-01

    Although robots are becoming an ever-growing presence in society, we do not hold the same expectations for robots as we do for humans, nor do we treat them the same. As such, the ability to recognize cues to human animacy is fundamental for guiding social interactions. We review literature that demonstrates cortical networks associated with person perception, action observation and mentalizing are sensitive to human animacy information. In addition, we show that most prior research has explored stimulus properties of artificial agents (humanness of appearance or motion), with less investigation into knowledge cues (whether an agent is believed to have human or artificial origins). Therefore, currently little is known about the relationship between stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy in terms of cognitive and brain mechanisms. Using fMRI, an elaborate belief manipulation, and human and robot avatars, we found that knowledge cues to human animacy modulate engagement of person perception and mentalizing networks, while stimulus cues to human animacy had less impact on social brain networks. These findings demonstrate that self–other similarities are not only grounded in physical features but are also shaped by prior knowledge. More broadly, as artificial agents fulfil increasingly social roles, a challenge for roboticists will be to manage the impact of pre-conceived beliefs while optimizing human-like design. PMID:26644594

  16. The shaping of social perception by stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy.

    PubMed

    Cross, Emily S; Ramsey, Richard; Liepelt, Roman; Prinz, Wolfgang; de C Hamilton, Antonia F

    2016-01-19

    Although robots are becoming an ever-growing presence in society, we do not hold the same expectations for robots as we do for humans, nor do we treat them the same. As such, the ability to recognize cues to human animacy is fundamental for guiding social interactions. We review literature that demonstrates cortical networks associated with person perception, action observation and mentalizing are sensitive to human animacy information. In addition, we show that most prior research has explored stimulus properties of artificial agents (humanness of appearance or motion), with less investigation into knowledge cues (whether an agent is believed to have human or artificial origins). Therefore, currently little is known about the relationship between stimulus and knowledge cues to human animacy in terms of cognitive and brain mechanisms. Using fMRI, an elaborate belief manipulation, and human and robot avatars, we found that knowledge cues to human animacy modulate engagement of person perception and mentalizing networks, while stimulus cues to human animacy had less impact on social brain networks. These findings demonstrate that self-other similarities are not only grounded in physical features but are also shaped by prior knowledge. More broadly, as artificial agents fulfil increasingly social roles, a challenge for roboticists will be to manage the impact of pre-conceived beliefs while optimizing human-like design.

  17. Finding the Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Dawn

    1980-01-01

    Describes an attempt to combine secondary English instruction emphasizing United States literature with science and history by finding "common ground" between these disciplines in (1) the separation of truth from falsehood and (2) logical thinking. Biographies combined history and literature, and science fiction combined science and English;…

  18. Horticulture: Grounds Maintenance Employee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, James; And Others

    The unit of individualized learning activities is designed to provide training in grounds maintenance. The materials in the unit are divided into two sections. The developmental or preliminary phase (15 pages) is for use by the instructor and includes brief descriptions of the job and of the student population, along with listings of the specific…

  19. Informed Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  20. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  1. Echoes at Ground Zero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    An excerpt from the opening piece in "Everything That Rises: A Book of Convergences" by Lawrence Weschler is presented where the author is talking with Joel Meyerowitz, the only photographer granted unimpeded access to the clean-up operations at ground zero after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The two discuss the parallels…

  2. Korea's School Grounds Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joohun

    2003-01-01

    This article describes two projects which Korea has undertaken to improve its school grounds: (1) the Green School Project; and (2) the School Forest Pilot Project. The Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOE&HRI) recently launched the Green School Project centred on existing urban schools with poor outdoor…

  3. Shadow of ground zero

    SciTech Connect

    Haaland, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The history of the development of nuclear weapons starting with the detonation of the A-bombs on Japan is reviewed. An overview of nuclear weapon effects is presented. The effects of electromagnetic pulse (EMP), initial nuclear radiation, thermal radiation and blast are discussed with reference to how people outside can survive when ground zero is only a few miles away. 8 references. (ACR)

  4. Social Cognition Unbound: Insights Into Anthropomorphism and Dehumanization.

    PubMed

    Waytz, Adam; Epley, Nicholas; Cacioppo, John T

    2010-02-01

    People conceive of wrathful gods, fickle computers, and selfish genes, attributing human characteristics to a variety of supernatural, technological, and biological agents. This tendency to anthropomorphize nonhuman agents figures prominently in domains ranging from religion to marketing to computer science. Perceiving an agent to be humanlike has important implications for whether the agent is capable of social influence, accountable for its actions, and worthy of moral care and consideration. Three primary factors-elicited agent knowledge, sociality motivation, and effectance motivation-appear to account for a significant amount of variability in anthropomorphism. Identifying these factors that lead people to see nonhuman agents as humanlike also sheds light on the inverse process of dehumanization, whereby people treat human agents as animals or objects. Understanding anthropomorphism can contribute to a more expansive view of social cognition that applies social psychological theory to a wide variety of both human and nonhuman agents.

  5. Emotional Multiagent Reinforcement Learning in Spatial Social Dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Zhang, Minjie; Ren, Fenghui; Tan, Guozhen

    2015-12-01

    Social dilemmas have attracted extensive interest in the research of multiagent systems in order to study the emergence of cooperative behaviors among selfish agents. Understanding how agents can achieve cooperation in social dilemmas through learning from local experience is a critical problem that has motivated researchers for decades. This paper investigates the possibility of exploiting emotions in agent learning in order to facilitate the emergence of cooperation in social dilemmas. In particular, the spatial version of social dilemmas is considered to study the impact of local interactions on the emergence of cooperation in the whole system. A double-layered emotional multiagent reinforcement learning framework is proposed to endow agents with internal cognitive and emotional capabilities that can drive these agents to learn cooperative behaviors. Experimental results reveal that various network topologies and agent heterogeneities have significant impacts on agent learning behaviors in the proposed framework, and under certain circumstances, high levels of cooperation can be achieved among the agents.

  6. Social Cognition Unbound: Insights Into Anthropomorphism and Dehumanization

    PubMed Central

    Waytz, Adam; Epley, Nicholas; Cacioppo, John T.

    2014-01-01

    People conceive of wrathful gods, fickle computers, and selfish genes, attributing human characteristics to a variety of supernatural, technological, and biological agents. This tendency to anthropomorphize nonhuman agents figures prominently in domains ranging from religion to marketing to computer science. Perceiving an agent to be humanlike has important implications for whether the agent is capable of social influence, accountable for its actions, and worthy of moral care and consideration. Three primary factors—elicited agent knowledge, sociality motivation, and effectance motivation—appear to account for a significant amount of variability in anthropomorphism. Identifying these factors that lead people to see nonhuman agents as humanlike also sheds light on the inverse process of dehumanization, whereby people treat human agents as animals or objects. Understanding anthropomorphism can contribute to a more expansive view of social cognition that applies social psychological theory to a wide variety of both human and nonhuman agents. PMID:24839358

  7. Topical hemostatic agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Palm, Melanie D; Altman, Jeffrey S

    2008-04-01

    Topical hemostatic agents play an important role in both common and specialized dermatologic procedures. These agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action and include physical or mechanical agents, caustic agents, biologic physical agents, and physiologic agents. Some agents induce protein coagulation and precipitation resulting in occlusion of small cutaneous vessels, while others take advantage of latter stages in the coagulation cascade, activating biologic responses to bleeding. Traditional and newer topical hemostatic agents are discussed in this review, and the benefits and costs of each agent will be provided.

  8. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, A.; Aihara, M.; Matsuda, M.; Suzuki, A.; Tsuya, A.

    1984-02-07

    A radioactive diagnostic agent for renal cortex, adrenal cortex, myocardium, brain stem, spinal nerve, etc., which comprises as an essential component monoiodoacetic acid wherein the iodine atom is radioactive.

  9. Agility: Agent - Ility Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    Figure 2: Overview of eGents 9 Specific scientific and engineering subgoals were: • develop a lightweight agent system that uses email- based ...applets makes them hard to operate over corporate firewalls. eGents e - mail based ACL bus imposes fewer requirements on agents that use it, and firewalls...do not pose a problem for an e - mail based ACL bus. While applets limit 35 JATLites range of applications, they also make JATlite easy to deploy

  10. Can Computers be Social?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekdahl, Bertil

    2002-09-01

    Of main concern in agent based computing is the conception that software agents can attain socially responsible behavior. This idea has its origin in the need for agents to interact with one another in a cooperating manner. Such interplay between several agents can be seen as a combinatorial play where the rules are fixed and the actors are supposed to closely analyze the play in order to behave rational. This kind of rationality has successfully being mathematically described. When the social behavior is extended beyond rational behavior, mere mathematical analysis falls short. For such behavior language is decisive for transferring concepts and language is a holistic entity that cannot be analyzed and defined mathematically. Accordingly, computers cannot be furnished with a language in the sense that meaning can be conveyed and consequently they lack all the necessary properties to be made social. The attempts to postulate mental properties to computer programs are a misconception that is blamed the lack of true understanding of language and especially the relation between formal system and its semantics.

  11. Verification of heterogeneous multi-agent system using MCMAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jiyoung; Kim, Seungkeun; Tsourdos, Antonios

    2015-03-01

    The focus of the paper is how to model autonomous behaviours of heterogeneous multi-agent systems such that it can be verified that they will always operate within predefined mission requirements and constraints. This is done by using formal methods with an abstraction of the behaviours modelling and model checking for their verification. Three case studies are presented to verify the decision-making behaviours of heterogeneous multi-agent system using a convoy mission scenario. The multi-agent system in a case study has been extended by increasing the number of agents and function complexity gradually. For automatic verification, model checker for multi-agent systems (MCMAS) is adopted due to its novel capability to accommodate the multi-agent system and successfully verifies the targeting behaviours of the team-level autonomous systems. The verification results help retrospectively the design of decision-making algorithms improved by considering additional agents and behaviours during three steps of scenario modification. Consequently, the last scenario deals with the system composed of a ground control system, two unmanned aerial vehicles, and four unmanned ground vehicles with fault-tolerant and communication relay capabilities.

  12. What Do Learners and Pedagogical Agents Discuss When Given Opportunities for Open-Ended Dialogue?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Russell, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers claim that pedagogical agents engender opportunities for social learning in digital environments. Prior literature, however, has not thoroughly examined the discourse between agents and learners. To address this gap, we analyzed a data corpus of interactions between agents and learners using open coding methods. Analysis revealed that:…

  13. Ground vortex flow field investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Richard E.; Delfrate, John H.; Eshleman, James E.

    1988-01-01

    Flow field investigations were conducted at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flow Visualization Facility (water tunnel) to investigate the ground effect produced by the impingement of jets from aircraft nozzles on a ground board in a STOL operation. Effects on the overall flow field with both a stationary and a moving ground board were photographed and compared with similar data found in other references. Nozzle jet impingement angles, nozzle and inlet interaction, side-by-side nozzles, nozzles in tandem, and nozzles and inlets mounted on a flat plate model were investigated. Results show that the wall jet that generates the ground effect is unsteady and the boundary between the ground vortex flow field and the free-stream flow is unsteady. Additionally, the forward projection of the ground vortex flow field with a moving ground board is one-third less than that measured over a fixed ground board. Results also showed that inlets did not alter the ground vortex flow field.

  14. Analysis of ground state in random bipartite matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Gui-Yuan; Kong, Yi-Xiu; Liao, Hao; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Bipartite matching problems emerge in many human social phenomena. In this paper, we study the ground state of the Gale-Shapley model, which is the most popular bipartite matching model. We apply the Kuhn-Munkres algorithm to compute the numerical ground state of the model. For the first time, we obtain the number of blocking pairs which is a measure of the system instability. We also show that the number of blocking pairs formed by each person follows a geometric distribution. Furthermore, we study how the connectivity in the bipartite matching problems influences the instability of the ground state.

  15. Social Structure and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.

    1971-01-01

    Drawing on examples and evidence from social science research on the diffusion of ideas, social movements, and several other related fields, nine propositions dealing with the interrelationships between social structure and social change are explored. (Author/MB)

  16. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-09-01

    As required by the terms of the above referenced grant, the following summary serves as the Final Report for that grant. The grant relates to work performed at two separate sites, the Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site south of Gillette, Wyoming, and the Rock Springs In-Situ Oil Shale Retort Site near Rock Springs, Wyoming. The primary concern to the State of Wyoming at each site is ground water contamination (the primary contaminants of concern are benzene and related compounds), and the purpose of the grant has been to provide tiding for a Geohydrologist at the appropriate State agency, specifically the Land Quality Division (LQD) of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality. The LQD Geohydrologist has been responsible for providing technical and regulatory support to DOE for ground water remediation and subsequent surface reclamation. Substantial progress has been made toward remediation of the sites, and continuation of LQD involvement in the remediation and reclamation efforts is addressed.

  17. Multimission unattended ground sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, Gervasio; Succi, George P.; Fitzgerald, James; Clapp, Daniel; Gampert, Robert; Martel, Philip O.

    2002-08-01

    Technological advances in a number of fields have allowed SenTech to develop a highly capable Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) able to perform a number of critical missions such as ground and air vehicle surveillance, personnel detection and tracking and sniper localization. These sensors have also been combined with electro-optic sensors to provide target images and improved tracking accuracy. Processing is done in a highly integrated processing module developed under DARPA's IUGS program. Acoustic sensors have been engineered to achieve a three-pound unit with a 15 day field life and long range VHF communications. These sensors will be delivered in early 2002 for testing during field exercises. Extensive testing of the algorithms and software has been conducted over the last few years at a variety of government-sponsored tests and demonstrations. A Gateway unit has been developed which can manage the operation of an eight-sensor field and perform two-dimensional sensor fusion.

  18. 50. Ground floor, looking northwest at former location of ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Ground floor, looking northwest at former location of ground floor (bottom) level of milk room - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  19. Goddard Ground System Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ben

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center's work in providing the Ground System Infrastructure to allow for standard interfaces, and allow for a mix of heritage and new components. This software has been used by NASA and other Government users. Telemetry and command services are also provided as are mission planning and scheduling systems. Other areas that the presentation covers are work on trending systems, and data management system.

  20. Unmanned Ground Systems Roadmap

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Unmanned Ground Systems Roadmap Robotic Systems Joint Project Office UNCLASSIFIED Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public... reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching...Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports , 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should

  1. The LOFT ground segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.; Barret, D.; Binko, Pavel; Brandt, S.; Cavazzuti, E.; Courvoisier, T.; den Herder, J. W.; Feroci, M.; Ferrigno, C.; Giommi, P.; Götz, D.; Guy, L.; Hernanz, M.; in't Zand, J. J. M.; Klochkov, D.; Kuulkers, Erik; Motch, C.; Lumb, D.; Papitto, A.; Pittori, Carlotta; Rohlfs, R.; Santangelo, A.; Schmid, C.; Schwope, A. D.; Smith, P. J.; Webb, N. A.; Wilms, J.; Zane, S.

    2014-07-01

    LOFT, the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing, was one of the ESA M3 mission candidates that completed their assessment phase at the end of 2013. LOFT is equipped with two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD) and the Wide Field Monitor (WFM). The LAD performs pointed observations of several targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book1. We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving and distribution. Despite LOFT was not selected for launch within the M3 call, its long assessment phase ( >2 years) led to a very solid mission design and an efficient planning of its ground operations.

  2. Sunscreening agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Latha, M S; Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B R

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents.

  3. Agent independent task planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  4. [Preparation of antineoplastic agents].

    PubMed

    Descoutures, J-M

    2006-01-01

    In the last fifteen years, the preparation of antineoplastic agents has tended to be centralized in the hospital pharmacy for two main reasons: to enable better protection for the staff, to enable better safety for the patient. The consequences of this organization have led to standardization of techniques, implementation of a quality system and also a better use of antineoplastic agents. After protocols have been standardized by the physician and validated by the pharmacist, four main steps are necessary: phamaceutical validation of the prescription, preparation of IV admixtures according to a production file, control of the final product, dispatching of the preparation to the patient. Computer-controlled processes guarantee the safety of these different steps. The centralized preparations are made either with a vertical laminar flow hood or with an isolator. With the implementation of the National Cancer Plan, antineoplastic agents for patients on home treatments will also be prepared in centralized hospital pharmacies.

  5. Polyphenols as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Daglia, Maria

    2012-04-01

    Polyphenols are secondary metabolites produced by higher plants, which play multiple essential roles in plant physiology and have potential healthy properties on human organism, mainly as antioxidants, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antihypertensive, and antimicrobial agents. In the present review the antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activities of the most active polyphenol classes are reported, highlighting, where investigated, the mechanisms of action and the structure-activity relationship. Moreover, considering that the microbial resistance has become an increasing global problem, and there is a compulsory need to find out new potent antimicrobial agents as accessories to antibiotic therapy, the synergistic effect of polyphenols in combination with conventional antimicrobial agents against clinical multidrug-resistant microorganisms is discussed.

  6. Cookies as agents for community membership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird

    2013-01-01

    When becoming a member of a community of practice, a novice must adopt certain community norms to participate, and these include the social norms of the group. Using the analytical perspective of Legitimate Peripheral Participation in a Community of Practice, this paper explores the social role of cookies as agents for community participation and membership in a physics research group. We analyze data from an ethnographic case study of a physics research group weekly research meeting. The mentors bring cookies to each meeting and view the cookies as a token of appreciation for the graduate students' work. These cookies take on a subtler role of initiating guests and students into scientific conversations and participation. Via the cookies, members also share personal histories and stories that help members strengthen their membership. The study of social norms in this research group is part of a larger study of physics expert identity development.

  7. The thermometer of social relations: mapping social proximity on temperature.

    PubMed

    Ijzerman, Hans; Semin, Gün R

    2009-10-01

    "Holding warm feelings toward someone" and "giving someone the cold shoulder" indicate different levels of social proximity. In this article, we show effects of temperature that go beyond these metaphors people live by. In three experiments, warmer conditions, compared with colder conditions, induced (a) greater social proximity, (b) use of more concrete language, and (c) a more relational focus. Different temperature conditions were created by either handing participants warm or cold beverages (Experiment 1) or placing them in comfortable warm or cold ambient conditions (Experiments 2 and 3). These studies corroborate recent findings in the field of grounded cognition revealing that concrete experiences ground abstract concepts with which they are coexperienced. Our studies show a systemic interdependence among language, perception, and social proximity: Environmentally induced conditions shape not only language use, but also the perception and construal of social relationships.

  8. MFIRE-2: A Multi Agent System for Flow-Based Intrusion Detection Using Stochastic Search

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    features. In the networking domain, if agents are required to be mobile, then all hosts in the network must have a generic agent platform installed...execution - surviving agents continue to operate when part of the IDS fails • Platform independence - agent platforms with standard interfaces may be...developed [25, 96, 79, 74, 43]. In all cases, electronics personas are created, which reflect the specific forum under evaluation ( ecommerce , social

  9. Agent Persuasion Mechanism of Acquaintance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    Agent persuasion can improve negotiation efficiency in dynamic environment based on its initiative and autonomy, and etc., which is being affected much more by acquaintance. Classification of acquaintance on agent persuasion is illustrated, and the agent persuasion model of acquaintance is also illustrated. Then the concept of agent persuasion degree of acquaintance is given. Finally, relative interactive mechanism is elaborated.

  10. Model Checking Normative Agent Organisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Louise; Tinnemeier, Nick; Meyer, John-Jules

    We present the integration of a normative programming language in the MCAPL framework for model checking multi-agent systems. The result is a framework facilitating the implementation and verification of multi-agent systems coordinated via a normative organisation. The organisation can be programmed in the normative language while the constituent agents may be implemented in a number of (BDI) agent programming languages.

  11. Uses of Agent-Based Modeling for Health Communication: the TELL ME Case Study.

    PubMed

    Barbrook-Johnson, Peter; Badham, Jennifer; Gilbert, Nigel

    2016-07-19

    Government communication is an important management tool during a public health crisis, but understanding its impact is difficult. Strategies may be adjusted in reaction to developments on the ground and it is challenging to evaluate the impact of communication separately from other crisis management activities. Agent-based modeling is a well-established research tool in social science to respond to similar challenges. However, there have been few such models in public health. We use the example of the TELL ME agent-based model to consider ways in which a non-predictive policy model can assist policy makers. This model concerns individuals' protective behaviors in response to an epidemic, and the communication that influences such behavior. Drawing on findings from stakeholder workshops and the results of the model itself, we suggest such a model can be useful: (i) as a teaching tool, (ii) to test theory, and (iii) to inform data collection. We also plot a path for development of similar models that could assist with communication planning for epidemics.

  12. GRC Ground Support Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SaintOnge, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    The ISS Program is conducting an "ISS Research Academy' at JSC the first week of August 2010. This Academy will be a tutorial for new Users of the International Space Station, focused primarily on the new ISS National Laboratory and its members including Non-Profit Organizations, other government agencies and commercial users. Presentations on the on-orbit research facilities accommodations and capabilities will be made, as well as ground based hardware development, integration and test facilities and capabilities. This presentation describes the GRC Hardware development, test and laboratory facilities.

  13. Ground demonstration of hypertelescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillet, S.; Riaud, P.; Lardière, O.; Dejonghe, J.; Labeyrie, A.; Borkowski, V.; Arnold, L.

    2002-10-01

    We have built a 10 cm diameter interferometer having 78 apertures of 1 mm diameter and using a direct snapshot imaging mode: the pupil densification also called hypertelescope. We have tested the direct snapshot performance of this hypertelescope with laboratory simulated multiple stars and on the sky. Characterizations of our hypertelescope limited science results but this test offers interesting perspectives for the future on the ground and in space. Densification may have applications in various fields such as providing a similar limiting magnitude but with a significantly increased angular resolution compared to a monolithic telescope with a same collecting surface.

  14. Social Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Ronald W.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that social forces and social pathologies figure prominently in the dynamics of suicide. Gives several examples of "social suicide," including mass suicide, organizational self-destruction, social analogues to individual suicide, and military suicide. Claims that suicide prevention requires social, economic, and cultural transformations at…

  15. Bayesian networks and agent-based modeling approach for urban land-use and population density change: a BNAS model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocabas, Verda; Dragicevic, Suzana

    2013-10-01

    Land-use change models grounded in complexity theory such as agent-based models (ABMs) are increasingly being used to examine evolving urban systems. The objective of this study is to develop a spatial model that simulates land-use change under the influence of human land-use choice behavior. This is achieved by integrating the key physical and social drivers of land-use change using Bayesian networks (BNs) coupled with agent-based modeling. The BNAS model, integrated Bayesian network-based agent system, presented in this study uses geographic information systems, ABMs, BNs, and influence diagram principles to model population change on an irregular spatial structure. The model is parameterized with historical data and then used to simulate 20 years of future population and land-use change for the City of Surrey, British Columbia, Canada. The simulation results identify feasible new urban areas for development around the main transportation corridors. The obtained new development areas and the projected population trajectories with the“what-if” scenario capabilities can provide insights into urban planners for better and more informed land-use policy or decision-making processes.

  16. Why social determinants?

    PubMed

    Halfon, Neal; Larson, Kandyce; Russ, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that social factors have profound influences on health. Children are particularly sensitive to social determinants, especially in the early years. Life course models view health as a developmental process, the product of multiple gene and environment interactions. Adverse early social exposures become programmed into biological systems, setting off chains of risk that can result in chronic illness in mid-life and beyond. Positive health-promoting influences can set in motion a more virtuous and health-affirming cycle, leading to more optimal health trajectories. Mounting an effective response to social determinants will involve both direct social policy initiatives designed to eliminate poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches focused on disrupting pathways between social risks and poor health outcomes. To be effective, these indirect strategies will require nothing short of a transformation of existing child health systems. Parents and professionals must work together from the ground up, raising public awareness about social determinants of health and implementing cross-sector place-based initiatives designed to promote positive health in childhood.

  17. Remote Agent Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Remote Agent (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.

  18. Can Subscription Agents Survive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Marcia

    1985-01-01

    With the saturation of traditional markets for their services, subscription agents have evolved from orders and invoices to serving customers by communicating with librarians and publishers and making automated and paper products available. Magazine fulfillment centers, publisher discounts, and electronic publishing will influence the subscription…

  19. E-Learning Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Dawn G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the advantages of using intelligent agents to facilitate the location and customization of appropriate e-learning resources and to foster collaboration in e-learning environments. Design/methodology/approach: This paper proposes an e-learning environment that can be used to provide customized…

  20. Harm Reduction: A Social Work Practice Model and Social Justice Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brocato, Jo; Wagner, Eric F.

    2003-01-01

    Examines how social workers may reduce ethical conflicts associated with efforts to address substance abuse by adopting a harm reduction approach to policy, practice, and research. Also examines current drug policies and their consequences and, in particular, how these policies affect social workers as practitioners, agents of social control, and…

  1. An Agent-Based Architecture for Generating Interactive Stories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    Mateas, 1997], [Blumberg, 1996], [Hayes-Roth et al., 1996] and [Rickel et al., 2001]. However, the body of work on developing systems where the...without detailed planning. The underlying agent architecture centers around a mind- body design. The mind is the implementation of a social-psychological...external inputs and stimuli, controls the agents decisions and provides input to the body . The body is the expression of the actions selected by

  2. Ground based infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic instrumentation has been developed for ground-based measurements of astrophysical objects in the intermediate infrared. A conventional Michelson interferometer is limited for astronomical applications in the intermediate infrared by quantum noise fluctuations in the radiation form the source and/or background incident on the detector, and the multiplex advantage is no longer available. One feasible approach to recovering the multiplex advantage is post-dispersion. The infrared signal after passing through telescope and interferometer, is dispersed by a low resolution grating spectrometer onto an array of detectors. The feasibility of the post-dispersion system has been demonstrated with observations of astrophysical objects in the 5 and 10 micrometer atmospheric windows from ground-based telescopes. During FY87/88 the post-disperser was used at the Kitt Peak 4-meter telescope and McMath telescope with facility Fourier transform spectrometers. Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, and Venus were observed. On Jupiter, the resolution at 12 micrometer was 0.01/cm, considerably higher than had been acheived previously. The spectrum contains Jovian ethane and acetylene emission. Construction was begun on the large cryogenic grating spectrometer.

  3. A thermal ground cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tianzhi; Wu, Qinghe; Xu, Weikai; Liu, Di; Huang, Lujun; Chen, Fei

    2016-02-01

    The thermal cloak has been a long-standing scientific dream of researchers and engineers. Recently thermal metamaterials with man-made micro-structure have been presented based on the principle of transformation optics (TO). This new concept has received considerable attention, which is a powerful tool for manipulating heat flux in thermal imaging systems. However, the inherent material singularity has long been a captivation of experimental realization. As an alternative method, the scattering-cancellation-based cloak (or bi-layer thermal cloak) has been presented to remove the singularity for achieving the same cloaking performance. Nevertheless, such strategy needs prerequisite knowledge (geometry and conductivity) of the object to be cloaked. In this paper, a new thermal ground cloak is presented to overcome the limitations. The device is designed, fabricated and measured to verify the thermal cloaking performance. We experimentally show that the remarkably low complexity of the device can fully and effectively be manipulated using realizable transformation thermal devices. More importantly, this thermal ground cloak is designed to exclude heat flux without knowing the information of the cloaked object.

  4. Mining of the social network extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasution, M. K. M.; Hardi, M.; Syah, R.

    2017-01-01

    The use of Web as social media is steadily gaining ground in the study of social actor behaviour. However, information in Web can be interpreted in accordance with the ability of the method such as superficial methods for extracting social networks. Each method however has features and drawbacks: it cannot reveal the behaviour of social actors, but it has the hidden information about them. Therefore, this paper aims to reveal such information in the social networks mining. Social behaviour could be expressed through a set of words extracted from the list of snippets.

  5. A New Way of Thinking about Social Location in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmaus, Warren

    2008-01-01

    The Durkheimian concept of the density of social relationships may prove more fruitful than the historical materialist notion of a social hierarchy for thinking about the social location of epistemic agents in science. To define a scientist's social location in terms of the density of her professional relationships with other scientists permits us…

  6. Social phobia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Social anxiety disorder is a persistent and irrational fear of situations that may involve scrutiny or judgment ... social events. Causes People with social anxiety disorder fear and avoid situations in which they may be ...

  7. The Use of Grounded Theory within "Feminist" Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brine, Jacky

    A four-stage feminist research project investigating European Social Fund (ESF)-funded vocational training for unemployed women used the grounded theory approach. Stage 1 involved the formation of the research questions and design. Steps included the ontological, epistemological, and methodological positioning of the researcher. Stage 2 was the…

  8. On the Spiritual Dimension of Education: Finding a Common Ground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Questions about the place of spirituality in publicly funded schools are made difficult in a multicultural secular society. I discuss the work of Paulus Geheeb and Rabindranath Tagore, two great 20th century educational innovators, to offer, by way of an argument from analogy with the social importance of moral education, a common ground for…

  9. Regaining a Foothold: A Grounded Theory Study of Immigrant Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Kara Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study of immigrants reestablishing their lives in a new country used classic, Glaserian grounded theory. The purpose of the study was to discover the main concerns of the participants as they engaged in the basic social process of changing their country of residence. Using the grand tour question of "Tell me about coming to the United…

  10. Empowerment in School Nursing Practice: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broussard, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Professional empowerment is vital to nurses' productivity and job satisfaction. A grounded theory study was conducted to describe the basic social process experienced by school nurses in relation to professional empowerment. Interviews with 10 school nurses led to the development of a situation-specific theory of school nurse empowerment,…

  11. Social security, social welfare and the aging population.

    PubMed

    Pecchenino, R A; Utendorf, K R

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the effects of pay-as-you-go social security programs under various demographic assumptions including physical capital accumulation, education of the youth, support of the elderly, social welfare, and economic growth of the community. An overlapping generations framework in which agents are three-period lived agents are analyzed in this study. Findings of the study revealed a positive relationship between educational attainment and economic growth. However, programs designed to benefit the elderly affect the youth both directly and indirectly. Furthermore, social welfare considerations of the beneficiaries may not be achieved due to the passage of time and adjustments in the plans. Thus, policy-makers must develop a more comprehensive program to promote greater social welfare.

  12. Social Indicators and Social Forecasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Denis F.

    The paper identifies major types of social indicators and explains how they can be used in social forecasting. Social indicators are defined as statistical measures relating to major areas of social concern and/or individual well being. Examples of social indicators are projections, forecasts, outlook statements, time-series statistics, and…

  13. Modeling and simulating human teamwork behaviors using intelligent agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaocong; Yen, John

    2004-12-01

    Among researchers in multi-agent systems there has been growing interest in using intelligent agents to model and simulate human teamwork behaviors. Teamwork modeling is important for training humans in gaining collaborative skills, for supporting humans in making critical decisions by proactively gathering, fusing, and sharing information, and for building coherent teams with both humans and agents working effectively on intelligence-intensive problems. Teamwork modeling is also challenging because the research has spanned diverse disciplines from business management to cognitive science, human discourse, and distributed artificial intelligence. This article presents an extensive, but not exhaustive, list of work in the field, where the taxonomy is organized along two main dimensions: team social structure and social behaviors. Along the dimension of social structure, we consider agent-only teams and mixed human-agent teams. Along the dimension of social behaviors, we consider collaborative behaviors, communicative behaviors, helping behaviors, and the underpinning of effective teamwork-shared mental models. The contribution of this article is that it presents an organizational framework for analyzing a variety of teamwork simulation systems and for further studying simulated teamwork behaviors.

  14. The Hydrolysis of Di-Isopropyl Methylphosphonate in Ground Water

    SciTech Connect

    Sega, G.A., Tomkins, B.A., Griest, W.H., Bayne, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    Di-isopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) is a byproduct from the manufacture of the nerve agent Sarin. The persistence of DIMP in the ground water is an important question in evaluating the potential environmental impacts of DIMP contamination. The half-life of DIMP in ground water at 10 deg C was estimated to be 500 years with a 95% confidence interval of 447 to 559 years from measurements of the hydrolysis rates at temperatures between 70 to 98 deg C.Extrapolation of the kinetics to 10 deg C used the Arrhenius equation, and calculation of the half-life assumed first-order kinetics. Inorganic phosphate was not detected.

  15. The Role of Agent Age and Gender for Middle-Grade Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yanghee

    2016-01-01

    Compared to boys, many girls are more aware of a social context in the learning process and perform better when the environment supports frequent interactions and social relationships. For these girls, embodied agents (animated on-screen characters acting as tutors) could afford simulated social interactions in computer-based learning and thereby…

  16. Agent Based Modeling Applications for Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    Agent-based modeling techniques have successfully been applied to systems in which complex behaviors or outcomes arise from varied interactions between individuals in the system. Each individual interacts with its environment, as well as with other individuals, by following a set of relatively simple rules. Traditionally this "bottom-up" modeling approach has been applied to problems in the fields of economics and sociology, but more recently has been introduced to various disciplines in the geosciences. This technique can help explain the origin of complex processes from a relatively simple set of rules, incorporate large and detailed datasets when they exist, and simulate the effects of extreme events on system-wide behavior. Some of the challenges associated with this modeling method include: significant computational requirements in order to keep track of thousands to millions of agents, methods and strategies of model validation are lacking, as is a formal methodology for evaluating model uncertainty. Challenges specific to the geosciences, include how to define agents that control water, contaminant fluxes, climate forcing and other physical processes and how to link these "geo-agents" into larger agent-based simulations that include social systems such as demographics economics and regulations. Effective management of limited natural resources (such as water, hydrocarbons, or land) requires an understanding of what factors influence the demand for these resources on a regional and temporal scale. Agent-based models can be used to simulate this demand across a variety of sectors under a range of conditions and determine effective and robust management policies and monitoring strategies. The recent focus on the role of biological processes in the geosciences is another example of an area that could benefit from agent-based applications. A typical approach to modeling the effect of biological processes in geologic media has been to represent these processes in

  17. Characterization of Finite Ground Coplanar Waveguide with Narrow Ground Planes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Tentzeris, Emmanouil M.; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    1997-01-01

    Coplanar waveguide with finite width ground planes is characterized through measurements, conformal mapping, and the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique for the purpose of determining the optimum ground plane width. The attenuation and effective permittivity of the lines are related to its geometry. It is found that the characteristics of the Finite Ground Coplanar line (FGC) are not dependent on the ground plane width if it is greater than twice the center conductor width, but less than lambda(sub d)/8. In addition, electromagnetic field plots are presented which show for the first time that electric fields in the plane of the substrate terminate on the outer edge of the ground plane, and that the magnitude of these fields is related to the ground plane width.

  18. Agent based modeling of the coevolution of hostility and pacifism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalmagro, Fermin; Jimenez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model based on a population of agents whose states represent either hostile or peaceful behavior. Randomly selected pairs of agents interact according to a variation of the Prisoners Dilemma game, and the probabilities that the agents behave aggressively or not are constantly updated by the model so that the agents that remain in the game are those with the highest fitness. We show that the population of agents oscillate between generalized conflict and global peace, without either reaching a stable state. We then use this model to explain some of the emergent behaviors in collective conflicts, by comparing the simulated results with empirical data obtained from social systems. In particular, using public data reports we show how the model precisely reproduces interesting quantitative characteristics of diverse types of armed conflicts, public protests, riots and strikes.

  19. Ground potential rise monitor

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Zachery W [Mandan, ND; Zevenbergen, Gary A [Arvada, CO

    2012-04-03

    A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising positioning a first electrode and a second electrode at a distance from each other into the earth. The voltage of the first electrode and second electrode is attenuated by an attenuation factor creating an attenuated voltage. The true RMS voltage of the attenuated voltage is determined creating an attenuated true RMS voltage. The attenuated true RMS voltage is then multiplied by the attenuation factor creating a calculated true RMS voltage. If the calculated true RMS voltage is greater than a first predetermined voltage threshold, a first alarm is enabled at a local location. If user input is received at a remote location acknowledging the first alarm, a first alarm acknowledgment signal is transmitted. The first alarm acknowledgment signal is then received at which time the first alarm is disabled.

  20. Autonomous docking ground demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamkin, Steve L.; Le, Thomas Quan; Othon, L. T.; Prather, Joseph L.; Eick, Richard E.; Baxter, Jim M.; Boyd, M. G.; Clark, Fred D.; Spehar, Peter T.; Teters, Rebecca T.

    1991-01-01

    The Autonomous Docking Ground Demonstration is an evaluation of the laser sensor system to support the docking phase (12 ft to contact) when operated in conjunction with the guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) software. The docking mechanism being used was developed for the Apollo/Soyuz Test Program. This demonstration will be conducted using the 6-DOF Dynamic Test System (DTS). The DTS simulates the Space Station Freedom as the stationary or target vehicle and the Orbiter as the active or chase vehicle. For this demonstration, the laser sensor will be mounted on the target vehicle and the retroflectors will be on the chase vehicle. This arrangement was chosen to prevent potential damage to the laser. The laser sensor system, GN&C, and 6-DOF DTS will be operated closed-loop. Initial conditions to simulate vehicle misalignments, translational and rotational, will be introduced within the constraints of the systems involved.

  1. Economical ground data delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, Richard W.; Byrne, Russell H.; Bromberg, Daniel E.

    1994-01-01

    Data delivery in the Deep Space Network (DSN) involves transmission of a small amount of constant, high-priority traffic and a large amount of bursty, low priority data. The bursty traffic may be initially buffered and then metered back slowly as bandwidth becomes available. Today both types of data are transmitted over dedicated leased circuits. The authors investigated the potential of saving money by designing a hybrid communications architecture that uses leased circuits for high-priority network communications and dial-up circuits for low-priority traffic. Such an architecture may significantly reduce costs and provide an emergency backup. The architecture presented here may also be applied to any ground station-to-customer network within the range of a common carrier. The authors compare estimated costs for various scenarios and suggest security safeguards that should be considered.

  2. Advanced ground station architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zillig, David; Benjamin, Ted

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a new station architecture for NASA's Ground Network (GN). The architecture makes efficient use of emerging technologies to provide dramatic reductions in size, operational complexity, and operational and maintenance costs. The architecture, which is based on recent receiver work sponsored by the Office of Space Communications Advanced Systems Program, allows integration of both GN and Space Network (SN) modes of operation in the same electronics system. It is highly configurable through software and the use of charged coupled device (CCD) technology to provide a wide range of operating modes. Moreover, it affords modularity of features which are optional depending on the application. The resulting system incorporates advanced RF, digital, and remote control technology capable of introducing significant operational, performance, and cost benefits to a variety of NASA communications and tracking applications.

  3. Pharmacology of antiplatelet agents.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Kiran; Franzese, Christopher J; Gesheff, Martin G; Lev, Eli I; Pandya, Shachi; Bliden, Kevin P; Tantry, Udaya S; Gurbel, Paul A

    2013-12-01

    Pharmacotherapies with agents that inhibit platelet function have proven to be effective in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes, and in the prevention of complications during and after percutaneous coronary intervention. Because of multiple synergetic pathways of platelet activation and their close interplay with coagulation, current treatment strategies are based not only on platelet inhibition, but also on the attenuation of procoagulant activity, inhibition of thrombin generation, and enhancement of clot dissolution. Current strategies can be broadly categorized as anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and fibrinolytics. This review focuses on the pharmacology of current antiplatelet therapy primarily targeting the inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase 1, the P2Y12 receptor, the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor, and protease-activated receptor 1.

  4. [The antiretroviral agent Fullevir].

    PubMed

    Nosik, D N; Lialina, I K; Kalnina, L B; Lobach, O A; Chataeva, M S; Rasnetsov, L D

    2009-01-01

    The antiretroviral properties of Fullevir (sodium salt of fullerenepolyhydropolyaminocaproic acid) manufactured by IntelFarm Co.) were studied in the human cell culture infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The agent was ascertained to be able to protect the cell from the cytopathic action of HIV. The 90% effective concentration (EF90) was 5 microg/ml. The 50% average toxic concentration was 400 microg/ml. Testing of different (preventive and therapeutic) Fullevir dosage regimens has shown that the drug is effective when used both an hour before and an hour after infection and when administered simultaneously with cell infection. The longer contact time for the agent with the cells increased the degree of antiviral defense. Co-administration of Fullevir and the HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor Retrovir (azidothymidine) showed a synergistic antiretroviral effect. Thus, Fullevir may be regarded as a new promising antiretroviral drug for the treatment of HIV infection.

  5. LISA Pathfinder ground testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, Felipe; LISA Pathfinder Team

    2010-01-01

    The space-based gravitational wave observatory LISA is a joint NASA-ESA mission that requires challenging technology to ensure pure geodetic trajectories of test masses and the interferometric measurement of distance variations between them. The LISA Pathfinder mission is an ESA-launched technology demonstrator of key LISA subsystems such as spacecraft control with micronewton thrusters, test mass drag-free control, and precision laser interferometry between free-flying test masses. Ground testing of pre-flight hardware of the Gravitational Reference Sensor and Optical Metrology subsystems is currently ongoing. Studies have been carried out on very sensitive torsion pendulums that effectively reproduce a free-fall condition for the test mass within a horizontal plane in the lab, down to frequencies < 0.1 mHz. Thermal gradient induced effects, impact of gas molecules, noisy charging, surface charge patches, and other effects have been investigated and their physical models consolidated. A final upper limit on non-modeled disturbances has also been obtained within one order of magnitude of LISA requirements at 1 mHz. The interferometry system has also been extensively studied to identify noise sources and develop approaches to mitigate them. Engineering models of the optical bench, laser head and laser modulators have been interconnected and tested for functionality and noise level in closed-loop operation, demonstrating the required optical metrology sensitivity to test mass displacement. This poster presents the current status in the development and implementation of LISA Pathfinder pre-flight systems and latest results of the ongoing ground testing efforts.

  6. Computational Spectrum of Agent Model Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2010-01-01

    The study of human social behavioral systems is finding renewed interest in military, homeland security and other applications. Simulation is the most generally applied approach to studying complex scenarios in such systems. Here, we outline some of the important considerations that underlie the computational aspects of simulation-based study of human social systems. The fundamental imprecision underlying questions and answers in social science makes it necessary to carefully distinguish among different simulation problem classes and to identify the most pertinent set of computational dimensions associated with those classes. We identify a few such classes and present their computational implications. The focus is then shifted to the most challenging combinations in the computational spectrum, namely, large-scale entity counts at moderate to high levels of fidelity. Recent developments in furthering the state-of-the-art in these challenging cases are outlined. A case study of large-scale agent simulation is provided in simulating large numbers (millions) of social entities at real-time speeds on inexpensive hardware. Recent computational results are identified that highlight the potential of modern high-end computing platforms to push the envelope with respect to speed, scale and fidelity of social system simulations. Finally, the problem of shielding the modeler or domain expert from the complex computational aspects is discussed and a few potential solution approaches are identified.

  7. Intelligent Agent Integration Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    and Manipulation Language (KQML) specification under the DARPA-sponsored Knowledge Sharing Initiative and the developing of a scaleable and an... Shared Communication Ontology ’$" 10.3 IMPLEMENTATION 151 10.3.1 Intelligent Resource Agent Architecture ^ 10.3.2 Application to K-12 Education 153...DARPA-sponsored Knowledge Sharing Initiative, the developing a scaleable and an efficient implementation of information system components for

  8. Pathophysiology of Anticholinesterase Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-07

    PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ANTICHOLINESTERASE AGENTS Annual and Final Report DTIC ! ELECTEI aohn E. Rash, Ph. D. ALCTRf Julie K. Elmund, Ph.D. July 7 , 1988...Ph.D. ..-,. July 7 , 1988 Dis t Supported by A __ U. S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21701-5012...samples for electron microscopic analysis from diaphragm, soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles at J hour and 1, 7 , 14, 21, and 56 days

  9. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, M.P.; Mease, R.C.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1998-07-21

    Bicyclo[2.2.2] octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1] heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  10. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, Mark P.; Mease, Ronnie C.; Srivastava, Suresh C.

    1998-07-21

    Bicyclo›2.2.2! octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo›2.2.1! heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  11. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, Mark P.; Mease, Ronnie C.; Srivastava, Suresh C.

    2000-02-08

    Bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  12. Vaporizing Fire Extinguishing Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-08-18

    the pro- ject under contract included: Dr. Earl T. McBee, Head, Chemistry Department; Dr. Zara D. Welch, Researbh Supervisor; and Dr’s T. R. Santelli...Aeronautics Authority kxperimental Station, Indianapolis, Indiana, which has supplied test data for inclusion in this report. The Medical Division of the...Development of sources of supply for agent anAL con- tainers. f. Service testing. This report oovers technical phases a, b, and a to 1 April 1950, and

  13. Agent Based Computing Machine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-09

    coordinates as in cellular automata systems. But using biology as a model suggests that the most general systems must provide for partial, but constrained...17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 118. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRA REPORT THIS PAGE ABSTRACT...system called an "agent based computing" machine (ABC Machine). The ABC Machine is motivated by cellular biochemistry and it is based upon a concept

  14. Surface polymerization agents

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.; Wilkerson, C.

    1996-12-01

    This is the final report of a 1-year, Laboratory-Directed R&D project at LANL. A joint technical demonstration was proposed between US Army Missile Command (Redstone Arsenal) and LANL. Objective was to demonstrate that an unmanned vehicle or missile could be used as a platform to deliver a surface polymerization agent in such a manner as to obstruct the filters of an air-breathing mechanism, resulting in operational failure.

  15. Agents Technology Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    62702F 6. AUTHOR(S) Robert Wright, Jeffrey Hudack, Nathaniel Gemelli, Steven Loscalzo, and Tsu Kong Lue 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 558S 5e. TASK...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Robert Wright a. REPORT U b. ABSTRACT U c. THIS PAGE U 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) N/A...avoided by the other agents removing the incentive to lie or free-load. This phenomenon is termed as the shadow of the future and was shown in Robert

  16. Embodiment in social psychology.

    PubMed

    Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A

    2012-10-01

    Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology.

  17. Trust and cooperation among economic agents

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Partha

    2009-01-01

    The units that are subject to selection pressure in evolutionary biology are ‘strategies’, which are conditional actions (‘Do P if X occurs, otherwise do Q’). In contrast, the units in economics select strategies from available menus so as to further their projects and purposes. As economic agents do not live in isolation, each agent's optimum choice, in general, depends on the choices made by others. Because their projects and purposes involve the future, not just the present, each agent reasons about the likely present and future consequences of their respective choices. That is why beliefs, about what others may do and what the consequences of those choices could be, are at the basis of strategy selection. A catalogue of social environments is constructed in which agents not only promise each other's cooperation, but also rationally believe that the promises will be kept. Unfortunately, non-cooperation arising from mistrust can be the outcome in those same environments: societies harbour multiple ‘equilibria’ and can skid from cooperation to non-cooperation. Moreover, a pre-occupation among analysts with the Prisoners' Dilemma game has obscured the fact that cooperative arrangements can harbour not only inequality, but also exploitation. The analysis is used to discuss why international cooperation over the use of global public goods has proved to be so elusive. PMID:19805436

  18. Newer antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Türel, Ozden

    2011-03-01

    The frequency and spectrum of fungal infections have been increasing steadily over the last several decades. The reason for this increase may be explained by the increase in the number of immunocompromised patients due to malignancies, AIDS, invasive surgical procedures and transplantation. In parallel with this increase, several therapeutic options have become available but problems such as intrinsic or acquired antifungal resistance have led researchers to develop new antifungal drugs with expanded effectiveness. Reduced toxicity, enhancement of bioavailability and counteraction of resistance are features desired by clinicians. The aim of this article is to summarize the studies involving isavuconazole, ravuconazole, albaconazole, aminocandin and some other investigational antifungal agents. Most data on the clinical use of ravuconazole, isavuconazole and albaconazole are mainly available as meeting abstracts or limited to animal studies or Phase I/II studies in humans. These new antifungal agents in development offer extended half-lives, possibly reduced drug interaction profiles and good tolerance. In addition to activity against Candida and Aspergillus spp., they have a broad spectrum of activity including activity against resistant and emerging pathogens. The real possibilities of these agents will only be fully understood after adequate randomized clinical trials.

  19. Advanced scale conditioning agents

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jeff; Battaglia, Philip J.

    2004-06-01

    A technical description of Advanced Scale Conditioning Agents (ASCA) technology was published in the May-June 2003 edition of the Nuclear Plant Journal. That article described the development of programs of advanced scale conditioning agents and specific types to maintain the secondary side of steam generators within a pressurized water reactor free of deposited corrosion products and corrosion-inducing contaminants to ensure their long-term operation. This article describes the first two plant applications of advanced scale conditioning agents implemented at Southern Nuclear Operating Company's Vogtle Units 1 and 2 during their 2002 scheduled outages to minimize tube degradation and maintain full power operation using the most effective techniques while minimizing outage costs. The goal was to remove three to four fuel cycles of deposits from each steam generator so that after future chemical cleaning activities, ASCAs could be used to maintain the cleanliness of the steam generators without the need for additional chemical cleaning efforts. The goal was achieved as well as several other benefits that resulted in cost savings to the plant.

  20. The value of less connected agents in Boolean networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Daniel; Bazzan, Ana L. C.

    2013-11-01

    In multiagent systems, agents often face binary decisions where one seeks to take either the minority or the majority side. Examples are minority and congestion games in general, i.e., situations that require coordination among the agents in order to depict efficient decisions. In minority games such as the El Farol Bar Problem, previous works have shown that agents may reach appropriate levels of coordination, mostly by looking at the history of past decisions. Not many works consider any kind of structure of the social network, i.e., how agents are connected. Moreover, when structure is indeed considered, it assumes some kind of random network with a given, fixed connectivity degree. The present paper departs from the conventional approach in some ways. First, it considers more realistic network topologies, based on preferential attachments. This is especially useful in social networks. Second, the formalism of random Boolean networks is used to help agents to make decisions given their attachments (for example acquaintances). This is coupled with a reinforcement learning mechanism that allows agents to select strategies that are locally and globally efficient. Third, we use agent-based modeling and simulation, a microscopic approach, which allows us to draw conclusions about individuals and/or classes of individuals. Finally, for the sake of illustration we use two different scenarios, namely the El Farol Bar Problem and a binary route choice scenario. With this approach we target systems that adapt dynamically to changes in the environment, including other adaptive decision-makers. Our results using preferential attachments and random Boolean networks are threefold. First we show that an efficient equilibrium can be achieved, provided agents do experimentation. Second, microscopic analysis show that influential agents tend to consider few inputs in their Boolean functions. Third, we have also conducted measurements related to network clustering and centrality

  1. Phase Transition in Opinion Diffusion in Social Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    the opinions of social agents diffuse in a network under a so-called hard-interaction model, in which the agents inter- act more strongly with...gent behavior. Index Terms— opinion diffusion , opinion dynamics, social net- works, phase transition, herding. 1. INTRODUCTION The study of the

  2. Today's ground source heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Ground source heat pumps are one of the nation's fastest growing businesses in terms of increased sales of equipment as reported by water source heat pump manufacturers. The success can be attributed in part to these heat pump's reputation as a cost saving system and more recently as an environmentally sound concept. Engineers having an interest in ground source technology come from a large and diverse audience consisting of those who have heard about ground source systems and are contemplating entering the business and those who are experienced and looking to broaden their application base. This article discusses the water source heat pump and its benefits, the commercial Water Loop Heat Pump (WLHP), the ground source heat pump, the commercial Closed Loop/Ground Coupled WLHP, designing a ground heat exchanger, information available for design, and successful systems.

  3. Multi-Agent Cooperative Target Search

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jinwen; Xie, Lihua; Xu, Jun; Xu, Zhao

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses a vision-based cooperative search for multiple mobile ground targets by a group of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with limited sensing and communication capabilities. The airborne camera on each UAV has a limited field of view and its target discriminability varies as a function of altitude. First, by dividing the whole surveillance region into cells, a probability map can be formed for each UAV indicating the probability of target existence within each cell. Then, we propose a distributed probability map updating model which includes the fusion of measurement information, information sharing among neighboring agents, information decay and transmission due to environmental changes such as the target movement. Furthermore, we formulate the target search problem as a multi-agent cooperative coverage control problem by optimizing the collective coverage area and the detection performance. The proposed map updating model and the cooperative control scheme are distributed, i.e., assuming that each agent only communicates with its neighbors within its communication range. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms is illustrated by simulation. PMID:24865884

  4. Multi-agent cooperative target search.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinwen; Xie, Lihua; Xu, Jun; Xu, Zhao

    2014-05-26

    This paper addresses a vision-based cooperative search for multiple mobile ground targets by a group of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with limited sensing and communication capabilities. The airborne camera on each UAV has a limited field of view and its target discriminability varies as a function of altitude. First, by dividing the whole surveillance region into cells, a probability map can be formed for each UAV indicating the probability of target existence within each cell. Then, we propose a distributed probability map updating model which includes the fusion of measurement information, information sharing among neighboring agents, information decay and transmission due to environmental changes such as the target movement. Furthermore, we formulate the target search problem as a multi-agent cooperative coverage control problem by optimizing the collective coverage area and the detection performance. The proposed map updating model and the cooperative control scheme are distributed, i.e., assuming that each agent only communicates with its neighbors within its communication range. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms is illustrated by simulation.

  5. Social Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slover-Linett, Cheryl; Stoner, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this year, CASE formed a social media task force to explore what educational institutions are trying to achieve with social media presence and learn about social media engagements at member institutions. CASE, in partnership with mStoner and Slover Linett Strategies, in June launched a benchmarking survey on social media in advancement by…

  6. Ground Ice on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martineau, N.; Pollard, W.

    2003-12-01

    On Mars, just like on Earth, water exists in various phases and participates in a broad range of key processes. Even though present surface conditions on Mars, as defined by climate and atmospheric pressure, prevents the occurrence of liquid water on the surface, there is strong evidence suggesting that water was an important land-forming agent in the past (Carr 1996). This naturally raises the question, "where has the water gone?" Surficial water reservoirs that are directly observable on Mars include seasonal water ice deposits and permanent water ice deposits at the polar caps (Kieffer and Zent 1992, Clifford et al. 2000). Due to the existence of permafrost landform systems, such as polygonal ground, rootless cones, and frost mounts, it also has been speculated that much more water may be preserved as ground ice (Lucchitta 1981, Squyres and Carr 1986, Lanagan et al. 2001). Nevertheless, comparison of the likely patterns of ground ice on Mars with terrestrial equivalents has been limited. Fortunately, NASA's 2001 Odyssey data lends support to this hypothesis by identifying significant shallow ice-rich sediments by means of flux characteristics of neutrons, and gamma radiation, and spatial correlations to regions where it has been predicted that subsurface ice is stable (Bell 2002). The ice contents and stratigraphic distribution of the subsurface sediments on Mars, derived by the Odyssey Science Team, is not unlike the upper layers of terrestrial permafrost. Terrestrial polar environments, in particular the more stable permafrost and ground ice features like ice wedges and massive ground ice, may thus provide valuable clues in the search for water and ice on Mars. Of importance is the fact that these features of the earth's surface do not owe their origin to the seasonal freezing and thawing of the active layer. Under the cold, dry polar climates of the Arctic and Antarctic, periglacial and permafrost landforms have evolved, giving rise to distinctive landscapes

  7. Social Class and Education: Global Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois, Ed.; Dolby, Nadine, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Social Class and Education: Global Perspectives" is the first empirically grounded volume to explore the intersections of class, social structure, opportunity, and education on a truly global scale. Fifteen essays from contributors representing the US, Europe, China, Latin America and other regions offer an unparralleled examination of…

  8. Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Gaughan , T.F.

    1999-02-26

    Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

  9. Method of locating ground faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Rose, Allen H.; Cull, Ronald C.

    1994-11-01

    The present invention discloses a method of detecting and locating current imbalances such as ground faults in multiwire systems using the Faraday effect. As an example, for 2-wire or 3-wire (1 ground wire) electrical systems, light is transmitted along an optical path which is exposed to magnetic fields produced by currents flowing in the hot and neutral wires. The rotations produced by these two magnetic fields cancel each other, therefore light on the optical path does not read the effect of either. However, when a ground fault occurs, the optical path is exposed to a net Faraday effect rotation due to the current imbalance thereby exposing the ground fault.

  10. Earthquake ground motion: Chapter 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luco, Nicolas; Valley, Michael; Crouse, C.B.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the effort in seismic design of buildings and other structures is focused on structural design. This chapter addresses another key aspect of the design process—characterization of earthquake ground motion. Section 3.1 describes the basis of the earthquake ground motion maps in the Provisions and in ASCE 7. Section 3.2 has examples for the determination of ground motion parameters and spectra for use in design. Section 3.3 discusses and provides an example for the selection and scaling of ground motion records for use in response history analysis.

  11. Liposome encapsulation of chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Rahman, Yueh Erh

    1976-01-13

    A method for transferring a chelating agent across a cellular membrane by encapsulating the charged chelating agent within liposomes and carrying the liposome-encapsulated chelating agent to the cellular membrane where the liposomes containing the chelating agent will be taken up by the cells, thereby transferring the chelating agent across the cellular membrane. A chelating agent can be introduced into the interior of a cell of a living organism wherein the liposomes will be decomposed, releasing the chelating agent to the interior of the cell. The released chelating agent will complex intracellularly deposited toxic heavy metals, permitting the more soluble metal complex to transfer across the cellular membrane from the cell and subsequently be removed from the living organism.

  12. Identification of Naegleria fowleri in warm ground water aquifers.

    PubMed

    Laseke, Ian; Korte, Jill; Lamendella, Regina; Kaneshiro, Edna S; Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Oerther, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    The free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri was identified as the etiological agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis that caused the deaths of two children in Peoria, Arizona, in autumn of 2002. It was suspected that the source of N. fowleri was the domestic water supply, which originates from ground water sources. In this study, ground water from the greater Phoenix Metropolitan area was tested for the presence of N. fowleri using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA sequences of bacterial populations in the ground water were performed to examine the potential link between the presence of N. fowleri and bacterial groups inhabiting water wells. The results showed the presence of N. fowleri in five out of six wells sampled and in 26.6% of all ground water samples tested. Phylogenetic analyses showed that beta- and gamma-proteobacteria were the dominant bacterial populations present in the ground water. Bacterial community analyses revealed a very diverse community structure in ground water samples testing positive for N. fowleri.

  13. 46 CFR 183.376 - Grounded distribution systems (neutral grounded).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.376... must be only one connection to ground, regardless of the number of power sources. This ground... propulsion, power, lighting, or distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the...

  14. SUPERFUND GROUND WATER ISSUE: GROUND WATER SAMPLING FOR METALS ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Filtration of ground-water samples for metals analysis is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers. Inconsistency in EPA Syperfund cleanup pracices occurs where one EPA Region implements a remedial action based on unfiltered ground-water samples,...

  15. 46 CFR 183.376 - Grounded distribution systems (neutral grounded).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grounded distribution systems (neutral grounded). 183.376 Section 183.376 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems §...

  16. Intelligent Software Agents: Sensor Integration and Response

    SciTech Connect

    Kulesz, James J; Lee, Ronald W

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In a post Macondo world the buzzwords are Integrity Management and Incident Response Management. The twin processes are not new but the opportunity to link the two is novel. Intelligent software agents can be used with sensor networks in distributed and centralized computing systems to enhance real-time monitoring of system integrity as well as manage the follow-on incident response to changing, and potentially hazardous, environmental conditions. The software components are embedded at the sensor network nodes in surveillance systems used for monitoring unusual events. When an event occurs, the software agents establish a new concept of operation at the sensing node, post the event status to a blackboard for software agents at other nodes to see , and then react quickly and efficiently to monitor the scale of the event. The technology addresses a current challenge in sensor networks that prevents a rapid and efficient response when a sensor measurement indicates that an event has occurred. By using intelligent software agents - which can be stationary or mobile, interact socially, and adapt to changing situations - the technology offers features that are particularly important when systems need to adapt to active circumstances. For example, when a release is detected, the local software agent collaborates with other agents at the node to exercise the appropriate operation, such as: targeted detection, increased detection frequency, decreased detection frequency for other non-alarming sensors, and determination of environmental conditions so that adjacent nodes can be informed that an event is occurring and when it will arrive. The software agents at the nodes can also post the data in a targeted manner, so that agents at other nodes and the command center can exercise appropriate operations to recalibrate the overall sensor network and associated intelligence systems. The paper describes the concepts and provides examples of real-world implementations

  17. Autopoiesis and socialization: on Luhmann's reconceptualization of communication and socialization.

    PubMed

    Vanderstraeten, R

    2000-09-01

    In 1984, Niklas Luhmann published Soziale Systeme in which he applies the idea of autopoiesis (= self-production) to social systems. Abstracted from its biological connotations, the concept of autopoiesis leads to a sharp distinction between different kinds of autopoietic organization, i.e. between life, consciousness and communication. According to Luhmann, the relationship between social systems and human beings cannot be adequately analysed except by taking into account that they are environments for one another. If this theoretical background is accepted, the concepts and theory of socialization need to be revised. Luhmann takes issues with classical notions such as internalization, inculcation, or 'socialization to the grounds of consensus' (Talcott Parsons). After a historical overview of social systems research and general systems theory, it is indicated how communications trigger further communications and realize the autopoiesis of social systems. In the second part of the article, the distinction between social systems and psychic systems is used to discuss issues crucial to socialization theory. Both a revision of the concept of socialization, and lines for an empirical research programme are proposed in accordance with Luhmann's theory of social systems.

  18. Toward a systems- and control-oriented agent framework.

    PubMed

    Fregene, Kingsley; Kennedy, Diane C; Wang, David W L

    2005-10-01

    This paper develops a systems- and control-oriented intelligent agent framework called the hybrid intelligent control agent (HICA), as well as its composition into specific kinds of multiagent systems. HICA is essentially developed around a hybrid control system core so that knowledge-based planning and coordination can be integrated with verified hybrid control primitives to achieve the coordinated control of multiple multimode dynamical systems. The scheme is applied to the control of teams of unmanned air and ground vehicles engaged in a pursuit-evasion war game. Results are demonstrated in simulation.

  19. A Cybernetic Approach to the Modeling of Agent Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Karlin, Jay

    2000-01-01

    In an earlier paper [1] examples of agent technology in a NASA context were presented. Both groundbased and space-based applications were addressed. This paper continues the discussion of one aspect of the Goddard Space Flight Center's continuing efforts to develop a community of agents that can support both ground-based and space-based systems autonomy. The paper focuses on an approach to agent-community modeling based on the theory of viable systems developed by Stafford Beer. It gives the status of an initial attempt to capture some of the agent-community behaviors in a viable system context. This paper is expository in nature and focuses on a discussion of the modeling of some of the underlying concepts and infrastructure that will serve as the basis of more detailed investigative work into the behavior of agent communities. The paper is organized as follows. First, a general introduction to agent community requirements is presented. Secondly, a brief introduction to the cybernetic concept of a viable system is given. This concept forms the foundation of the modeling approach. Then the concept of an agent community is modeled in the cybernetic context.

  20. PALSAR ground data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, Heinrich; Palsetia, Marzban; Carande, Richard; Curlander, James C.

    2002-02-01

    The upcoming launches of new satellites like ALOS, Envisat, Radarsat2 and ECHO will pose a significant challenge for many ground stations, namely to integrate new SAR processing software into their existing systems. Vexcel Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, has built a SAR processing system, named APEX -Suite, for spaceborne SAR satellites that can easily be expanded for the next generation of SAR satellites. APEX-Suite includes an auto-satellite-detecting Level 0 Processor that includes bit-error correction, data quality characterization, and as a unique feature, a sophisticated and very accurate Doppler centroid estimator. The Level 1 processing is divided into the strip mode processor FOCUST, based on the well-proven range-Doppler algorithm, and the SWATHT ScanSAR processor that uses the Chirp Z Trans-form algorithm. A high-accuracy ortho-rectification processor produces systematic and precision corrected Level 2 SAR image pro ducts. The PALSAR instrument is an L-band SAR with multiple fine and standard resolution beams in strip mode, and several wide-swath ScanSAR modes. We will address the adaptation process of Vexcel's APEX-Suite processing system for the PALSAR sensor and discuss image quality characteristics based on processed simulated point target phase history data.

  1. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for... will appoint or cause to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service... Fiscal Agent to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the...

  2. 13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial... financial markets to determine those factors that will minimize or reduce the cost of funding Debentures...) Agents. SBA may appoint or cause to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market...

  3. 13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial... financial markets to determine those factors that will minimize or reduce the cost of funding Debentures...) Agents. SBA may appoint or cause to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market...

  4. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for... will appoint or cause to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service... Fiscal Agent to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the...

  5. Hydroxypyridonate and hydroxypyrimidinone chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Doble, Daniel M.; Sunderland, Christopher J.; Thompson, Marlon

    2005-01-25

    The present invention provides hydroxypyridinone and hydroxypyrimidone chelating agents. Also provides are Gd(III) complexes of these agents, which are useful as contrast enhancing agents for magnetic resonance imaging. The invention also provides methods of preparing the compounds of the invention, as well as methods of using the compounds in magnetic resonance imaging applications.

  6. Chemical warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  7. Pharmacologic agents targeting autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg, Helin; Xia, Hong-guang; Yuan, Junying

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an important intracellular catabolic mechanism critically involved in regulating tissue homeostasis. The implication of autophagy in human diseases and the need to understand its regulatory mechanisms in mammalian cells have stimulated research efforts that led to the development of high-throughput screening protocols and small-molecule modulators that can activate or inhibit autophagy. Herein we review the current landscape in the development of screening technology as well as the molecules and pharmacologic agents targeting the regulatory mechanisms of autophagy. We also evaluate the potential therapeutic application of these compounds in different human pathologies. PMID:25654545

  8. Radiation-Neutralization of Stored Biological Warfare Agents with Low-Yield Nuclear Warheads

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, H.

    2000-08-21

    MCNP Monte Carlo radiation transport computations were performed exploring the capability of low-yield nuclear fusion and fission warheads to neutralize biological warfare agents with the radiation dose deposited in the agent by the prompt neutron output. The calculations were done for various typical storage configurations on the ground in the open air or in a warehouse building. This application of nuclear weapons is motivated by the observation that, for some military scenarios, the nuclear collateral effects area is much smaller than the area covered with unacceptable concentrations of biological agent dispersed by the use of conventional high explosive warheads. These calculations show that biological agents can be radiation-neutralized by low-yield nuclear warheads over areas that are sufficiently large to be useful for military strikes. This report provides the calculated doses within the stored agent for various ground ranges and heights-of-burst.

  9. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  10. Hitting the ground running

    SciTech Connect

    KEENEN,MARTHA JANE; NUSBAUM,ANNA W.

    2000-05-18

    Very few of us get to start clean: getting a new organization, new space, and hiring new people for a new information management program. In over 20 years in some aspect of this profession, the author has never faced that particular challenge. By far the majority of information management opportunities involve taking over from someone else. Sometimes, a predecessor has gone on to better things on his/her initiative; that is not always the case. Sometimes the group is one you were a part of yesterday. If the function functions, time moves on and changes may be needed to accommodate new technology, additional and/or changed tasks, and alterations in corporate missions. If the function does not, it is a good bet that you were hired or promoted as an agent of change. Each of these situations poses challenges. This presentation is about that first few months and first year in a new assignment. In other words, you have the job, now what?

  11. The Social Perceptual Salience Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inderbitzin, Martin P.; Betella, Alberto; Lanata, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo P.; Bernardet, Ulysses; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Affective processes appraise the salience of external stimuli preparing the agent for action. So far, the relationship between stimuli, affect, and action has been mainly studied in highly controlled laboratory conditions. In order to find the generalization of this relationship to social interaction, we assess the influence of the salience of…

  12. A Formal Environment Model for Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Paulo Salem; de Melo, Ana C. V.

    Multi-agent systems are employed to model complex systems which can be decomposed into several interacting pieces called agents. In such systems, agents exist, evolve and interact within an environment. In this paper we present a model for the specification of such environments. This Environment Model for Multi-Agent Systems (EMMAS), as we call it, defines both structural and dynamic aspects of environments. Structurally, EMMAS connects agents by a social network, in which the link between agents is specified as the capability that one agent has to act upon another. Dynamically, EMMAS provides operations that can be composed together in order to create a number of different environmental situations and to respond appropriately to agents' actions. These features are founded on a mathematical model that we provide and that defines rigorously what constitutes an environment. Formality is achieved by employing the π-calculus process algebra in order to give the semantics of this model. This allows, in particular, a simple characterization of the evolution of the environment structure. Moreover, owing to this formal semantics, it is possible to perform formal analyses on environments thus described. For the sake of illustration, a concrete example of environment specification using EMMAS is also given.

  13. Adolescents' Perceptions of National Identification and Socialization: A Grounded Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muldoon, Orla T.; McLaughlin, Katrina; Trew, Karen

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the perceived influence of parents and family and the construction of national and religious identification amongst adolescents theoretically sampled from along the border between the Irish Republic and the Northern Ireland. Two hundred and sixty-one young people wrote essays on the meaning of their national identity and the…

  14. Grounding Signs of Culture: Primary Intersubjectivity in Social Semiosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Stephen J.; Moodley, Sheshni; Fiori-Cowley, Agnese

    2004-01-01

    The article examines how infants are first permeated by culture. Building on Thibault (2000), semiogenesis is traced to the joint activity of primary intersubjectivity. Using an African example, analysis shows how--at 14 weeks--an infant already uses culturally specific indicators of "what a caregiver wants." Human predispositions and…

  15. Designing the Successful Grounds Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratto, Fred

    2011-01-01

    The most important component of any service organization is people. This is especially true of grounds management, because effective maintenance is dependent on good supervision and knowledgeable people. The grounds management function, therefore, must have personnel who are competent and committed. They must fully understand the scope of their …

  16. Ground water and climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food secu¬rity will probably intensify under climate chan...

  17. English for Airport Ground Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes part of a European Commission Leonardo project that aimed to design a multimedia course for English language learners seeking work as ground staff in European airports. The structural-functional analysis of the dialogues written from the course showed that, across the four trades explored (security guards, ground handlers,…

  18. Mechanistic models in computational social science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holme, Petter; Liljeros, Fredrik

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative social science is not only about regression analysis or, in general, data inference. Computer simulations of social mechanisms have an over 60 years long history. They have been used for many different purposes—to test scenarios, to test the consistency of descriptive theories (proof-of-concept models), to explore emergent phenomena, for forecasting, etc. In this essay, we sketch these historical developments, the role of mechanistic models in the social sciences and the influences from the natural and formal sciences. We argue that mechanistic computational models form a natural common ground for social and natural sciences, and look forward to possible future information flow across the social-natural divide.

  19. Agent Technologies in the Electronic Classroom: Some Pedagogical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Carolyn

    The use of intelligent software agents within computer mediated learning environments has become an important focus of research and development in both AI and educational contexts. Some of the roles envisaged and implemented for these electronic entities involve direct interactions with students, participating in the "social" dimension of the…

  20. Implicit Social Scaling from an Institutional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Epifanio, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    The methodological question concerns constructing a cardinal social index, in order to assess performances of social agents, taking into account implicit political judgments. Based on the formal structure of a Choquet's expected utility, index construction demands quantification of levels of a meaningful ordinal indicator of overall performance.…

  1. Friendship and the Socialization of Sadness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillery, Rachel; Cohen, Robert; Parra, Gilbert R.; Kitzmann, Katherine M.; Sharp, Katianne M. Howard

    2015-01-01

    Children's ability to manage the expression of sadness is critical to their development and adjustment. Although parents have been the primary focus of research examining sadness socialization, many acknowledge the influence of other agents such as children's peers. The present research evaluated one type of emotion socialization--reactions to…

  2. International Schools as Sites of Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Sandra; Edwards, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the potential of international schools to act as agents of social transformation in developing countries. The method comprises a case study at two international schools in the Philippines. The case study explored ways in which schools foster host-national students' sense of social responsibility, particularly through…

  3. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  4. [New agents for hypercholesterolemia].

    PubMed

    Pintó, Xavier; García Gómez, María Carmen

    2016-02-19

    An elevated proportion of high cardiovascular risk patients do not achieve the therapeutic c-LDL goals. This owes to physicians' inappropriate or insufficient use of cholesterol lowering medications or to patients' bad tolerance or therapeutic compliance. Another cause is an insufficient efficacy of current cholesterol lowering drugs including statins and ezetimibe. In addition, proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors are a new cholesterol lowering medications showing safety and high efficacy to reduce c-LDL in numerous already performed or underway clinical trials, potentially allowing an optimal control of hypercholesterolemia in most patients. Agents inhibiting apolipoprotein B synthesis and microsomal transfer protein are also providing a new potential to decrease cholesterol in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia and in particular in homozygote familial hypercholesterolemia. Last, cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have shown powerful effects on c-HDL and c-LDL, although their efficacy in cardiovascular prevention and safety has not been demonstrated yet. We provide in this article an overview of the main characteristics of therapeutic agents for hypercholesterolemia, which have been recently approved or in an advanced research stage.

  5. Model Checking Agent Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentahar, J.; Meyer, J.-J. Ch.; Wan, W.

    Model checking is a formal and automatic technique used to verify computational systems (e.g. communication protocols) against given properties. The purpose of this chapter is to describe a model checking algorithm to verify communication protocols used by autonomous agents interacting using dialogue games, which are governed by a set of logical rules. We use a variant of Extended Computation Tree Logic CTL* for specifying these dialogue games and the properties to be checked. This logic, called ACTL*, extends CTL* by allowing formulae to constrain actions as well as states. The verification method uses an on-the-fly efficient algorithm. It is based on translating formulae into a variant of alternating tree automata called Alternating Büchi Tableau Automata (ABTA). We present a tableau-based version of this algorithm and provide the soundness, completeness, termination and complexity results. Two case studies are discussed along with their respective implementations to illustrate the proposed approach. The first one is about an agent-based negotiation protocol and the second one considers a modified version of the NetBill protocol.

  6. Cleaning agents and asthma.

    PubMed

    Quirce, S; Barranco, P

    2010-01-01

    Although cleaners represent a significant part of the working population worldwide, they remain a relatively understudied occupational group. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between cleaning work and asthma, but the risk factors are uncertain. Cleaning workers are exposed to a large variety of cleaning products containing both irritants and sensitizers, as well as to common indoor allergens and pollutants. Thus, the onset or aggravation of asthma in this group could be related to an irritant-induced mechanism or to specific sensitization. The main sensitizers contained in cleaning products are disinfectants, quaternary ammonium compounds (such as benzalkonium chloride), amine compounds, and fragrances.The strongest airway irritants in cleaning products are bleach (sodium hypochlorite), hydrochloric acid, and alkaline agents (ammonia and sodium hydroxide), which are commonly mixed together. Exposure to the ingredients of cleaning products may give rise to both new-onset asthma, with or without a latency period, and work-exacerbated asthma. High-level exposure to irritants may induce reactive airways dysfunction syndrome. Cleaning workers may also have a greater relative risk of developing asthma due to prolonged low-to-moderate exposure to respiratory irritants. In addition, asthma-like symptoms without confirmed asthma are also common after exposure to cleaning agents. In many cleaners, airway symptoms induced by chemicals and odors cannot be explained by allergic or asthmatic reactions. These patients may have increased sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin, which is known to reflect sensory reactivity, and this condition is termed airway sensory hyperreactivity.

  7. [Bacteriophages as antibacterial agents].

    PubMed

    Shasha, Shaul M; Sharon, Nehama; Inbar, Michael

    2004-02-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that only infect bacteria. They have played an important role in the development of molecular biology and have been used as anti-bacterial agents. Since their independent discovery by Twort and d'Herelle, they have been extensively used to prevent and treat bacterial infections, mainly in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. In western countries this method has been sporadically employed on humans and domesticated animals. However, the discovery and widespread use of antibiotics, coupled with doubts about the efficacy of phage therapy, led to an eclipse in the use of phage in medicine. The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, especially strains that are multiply resistant, has resulted in a renewed interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One of the possible replacements for antibiotics is the use of bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents. This brief review aims to describe the history of bacteriophage and early clinical studies on their use in bacterial disease prophylaxis and therapy, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of bacteriophage in this regard.

  8. Electrochemical stabilization of clayey ground

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rzhanitzin, B.A.; Sokoloff, V.P.

    1947-01-01

    Recently developed new methods of stabilization of weak grounds (e.g. the silicate treatment) are based on injection of chemical solutions into the ground. Such methods are applicable accordingly only to the kinds of ground that have the coefficient of filtration higher than 2 meters per 24 hours and permit penetration of the chemical solutions under pressure. This limit, however, as it is shown by our experience in construction, excludes a numerous and an important class of grounds, stabilization of which is indispensable in many instances. For example, digging of trenches and pits in clayey, silty, or sandy ground shows that all these types act like typical "floaters" (sluds? -S) in the presence of the ground water pressure. There were several instances in the canalization of the city of Moskow where the laying of trenches below the ground water level has led to extreme difficulties with clayey and silty ground. Similar examples could be cited in mining, engineering hydrology, and railroad construction. For these reasons, the development of methods of stabilizing such difficult types of ground has become an urgent problem of our day. In 1936, the author began his investigations, at the ground Stabilization Laboratory of VODGEO Institute, with direct electrical current as the means of stabilization of grounds. Experiments had shown that a large number of clayey types, following passage of direct electrical current, undergoes a transformation of its physico-chemical properties. It was established that the (apparent -S) density of the ground is substantially increased in consequence of the application of direct electrical current. The ground loses also its capacity to swell and to soften in water. Later, after a more detailed study of the physico-chemical mechanism of the electrical stabilization, it became possible to develop the method so as to make it applicable to sandy and silty as well as to clayey ground. By this time (1941, S.), the method has already been

  9. Snowpack ground-truth manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E. B.

    1983-01-01

    As remote sensing increasingly becomes more of an operational tool in the field of snow management and snow hydrology, there is need for some degree of standardization of ""snowpack ground truth'' techniques. This manual provides a first step in standardizing these procedures and was prepared to meet the needs of remote sensing researchers in planning missions requiring ground truth as well as those providing the ground truth. Focus is on ground truth for remote sensors primarily operating in the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum; nevertheless, the manual should be of value to other types of sensor programs. This first edition of ground truth procedures must be updated as new or modified techniques are developed.

  10. Ground water: the hidden resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Ground water is water underground in saturated zones beneath the land surface. Contrary to popular belief, ground water does not form underground "rivers." It fills the pores and fractures in underground materials such as sand, gravel, and other rock. If ground water flows from rock materials or can be removed by pumping from the saturated rock materials In useful amounts, the rock materials are called aquifers. Ground water moves slowly, typically at rates of 7 to 60 centimeters per day in an aquifer. As a result, water could remain in an aquifer for hundreds or thousands of years. Ground water is the source of about 40 percent of water used for public supplies and about 38 percent of water used for agriculture in the United States.

  11. Agent-Based Automated Algorithm Generator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-12

    Detection and Isolation Agent (FDIA), Prognostic Agent (PA), Fusion Agent (FA), and Maintenance Mining Agent (MMA). FDI agents perform diagnostics...manner and loosely coupled). The library of D/P algorithms will be hosted in server-side agents, consisting of four types of major agents: Fault

  12. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States.

  13. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of Earth tempering as a practice and of specific Earth sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground are included. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 20 locations in the United States.

  14. LASRE ground hotfire #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    operation characteristics. The first of these flights occurred March 4, 1998. The SR-71 took off at 10:16 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty-seven minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.58 before landing at Edwards, California, at 12:13 p.m. PST. During further flights in the spring and summer of 1998, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. In addition, two engine hot firings were conducted on the ground. It was decided not to do a final hot-fire flight test as a result of the liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The ground firings and the airborne cryogenic gas flow tests provided enough information to predict the hot gas effects of an aerospike engine firing during flight. The experiment itself was a small, half-span model that contained eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium and instrumentation. The model, engine and canoe together were called the 'pod.' The entire pod was 41 feet in length and weighed 14,300 pounds. The experimental pod was mounted on NASA's SR-71, on loan to NASA from the U.S. Air Force. Lockheed Martin may use information gained from LASRE and the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator to develop a potential future reusable launch vehicle. NASA and Lockheed Martin are partners in the X-33 program through a cooperative agreement.The goal of the X-33 program, and a major goal for NASA's Office of Aero-Space Technology, has been to enable significant reductions in the cost of access to space, and to promote the creation and delivery of new space services and other activities that will improve U.S. economic competitiveness. The program implements the National Space Transportation Policy, which was designed to accelerate the development of new launch technologies and concepts that contribute to the continuing commercialization of the national space launch industry. Both the flagship X-33 and the smaller X-34 technology testbed

  15. Almost human: Anthropomorphism increases trust resilience in cognitive agents.

    PubMed

    de Visser, Ewart J; Monfort, Samuel S; McKendrick, Ryan; Smith, Melissa A B; McKnight, Patrick E; Krueger, Frank; Parasuraman, Raja

    2016-09-01

    We interact daily with computers that appear and behave like humans. Some researchers propose that people apply the same social norms to computers as they do to humans, suggesting that social psychological knowledge can be applied to our interactions with computers. In contrast, theories of human–automation interaction postulate that humans respond to machines in unique and specific ways. We believe that anthropomorphism—the degree to which an agent exhibits human characteristics—is the critical variable that may resolve this apparent contradiction across the formation, violation, and repair stages of trust. Three experiments were designed to examine these opposing viewpoints by varying the appearance and behavior of automated agents. Participants received advice that deteriorated gradually in reliability from a computer, avatar, or human agent. Our results showed (a) that anthropomorphic agents were associated with greater trust resilience, a higher resistance to breakdowns in trust; (b) that these effects were magnified by greater uncertainty; and c) that incorporating human-like trust repair behavior largely erased differences between the agents. Automation anthropomorphism is therefore a critical variable that should be carefully incorporated into any general theory of human–agent trust as well as novel automation design.

  16. Ground water investigations in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Leon V.

    1955-01-01

    Prior to 1937, ground-water work in Oklahoma consisted of broad scale early-day reconnaissance and a few brief investigations of local areas. The reconnaissance is distinguished by C. N. Gould's "Geology and Water Resources of Oklahoma" (Water-Supply Paper 148, 1905), which covers about half of the present State of Oklahoma. Among the shorter reports are two by Schwennesen for areas near Enid and Oklahoma City, one by Renick for Enid, and one by Thompson on irrigation possibilities near Gage. These reports are now inadequate by modern standards. Cooperative ground-water work in Oklahoma by the United States Geological Survey began in 1937, with the Oklahoma Geological Survey as cooperating agency. With the passage of the new ground-water law by the State Legislature in 1949, the need for more information on available ground waters and the safe yield of the various aquifers became very pressing. Accordingly, the Division of Water Resources of the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board, to which was delegated the responsibility of administering the Ground-Water Law, entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey, providing for an expansion of ground-water investigations. Both cooperators have consistently given full and enthusiastic cooperation, often beyond the requirements of the cooperative program. The first cooperative investigation was an evaluation of ground-water supplies available for irrigation in the Panhandle. In 1937 the Panhandle was still very much in the dust bowl, and it was hoped that irrigation would alleviate the drought. A bulletin on Texas County was published in 1939, and one on Cimarron County in 1943. Ground-water investigations during the World War II were restricted to the demands of Army and Navy installations, and to defense industries. Ground-water investigations since 1945 have included both country-wide and aquifer-type investigations. In Oklahoma it has been the policy for the State cooperator to publish the

  17. Flexible, secure agent development framework

    DOEpatents

    Goldsmith; Steven Y.

    2009-04-07

    While an agent generator is generating an intelligent agent, it can also evaluate the data processing platform on which it is executing, in order to assess a risk factor associated with operation of the agent generator on the data processing platform. The agent generator can retrieve from a location external to the data processing platform an open site that is configurable by the user, and load the open site into an agent substrate, thereby creating a development agent with code development capabilities. While an intelligent agent is executing a functional program on a data processing platform, it can also evaluate the data processing platform to assess a risk factor associated with performing the data processing function on the data processing platform.

  18. Learning models of intelligent agents

    SciTech Connect

    Carmel, D.; Markovitch, S.

    1996-12-31

    Agents that operate in a multi-agent system need an efficient strategy to handle their encounters with other agents involved. Searching for an optimal interactive strategy is a hard problem because it depends mostly on the behavior of the others. In this work, interaction among agents is represented as a repeated two-player game, where the agents` objective is to look for a strategy that maximizes their expected sum of rewards in the game. We assume that agents` strategies can be modeled as finite automata. A model-based approach is presented as a possible method for learning an effective interactive strategy. First, we describe how an agent should find an optimal strategy against a given model. Second, we present an unsupervised algorithm that infers a model of the opponent`s automaton from its input/output behavior. A set of experiments that show the potential merit of the algorithm is reported as well.

  19. Dynamics of social balance under temporal interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Ryosuke; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-08-01

    Real social contacts are often intermittent such that a link between a pair of nodes in a social network is only temporarily used. The effects of such temporal networks on social dynamics have been investigated for several phenomenological models such as epidemic spreading, linear diffusion processes, and nonlinear oscillations. Here, we numerically investigate nonlinear social balance dynamics in such a situation. Social balance is a classical psychological theory, which dictates that a triad is balanced if the three agents are mutual friends or if the two of them are the friends of each other and hostile to the other agent. We show that the social balance dynamics is slowed down on the temporal complete graph as compared to the corresponding static complete graph.

  20. The Evolution, Contributions, and Prospects of the Youth Development Study: An Investigation in Life Course Social Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    2012-01-01

    Grounded in social structure and personality, life course, and status attainment perspectives of social psychology, the Youth Development Study has followed a cohort of teenagers from the beginning of high school through their mid-thirties. Evidence for the effective exercise of agency derives from diverse adolescent work patterns leading to outcomes that are consistent with youth’s earlier goals, motivations, and resources. Thus, the socioeconomic career begins well before the completion of formal education. The YDS has revealed multiple pathways of contemporary transition to adulthood, the circumstances surrounding parental residential and financial support to their transitioning children, and the cessation of deviant behavior as adult roles are acquired. Agentic pathways during this period are significant precursors of success during subsequent economic downturn. The new YDS Second Generation Study is well poised to address the impacts of parental trajectories on the adjustment and well-being of children. PMID:22844173

  1. The Effects of Early Socialization Experiences on Content Mastery and Outcomes: A Mediational Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Howard J.; Fan, Jinyan; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2006-01-01

    This field study examined how early socialization experiences affect new employee mastery of socialization content and socialization outcomes. New employees reported the realism of their preentry knowledge and the helpfulness of socialization agents. A follow-up survey assessed mastery of socialization content along with role clarity, job…

  2. Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, J S; Hooper, D C

    1989-01-01

    The fluoroquinolones, a new class of potent orally absorbed antimicrobial agents, are reviewed, considering structure, mechanisms of action and resistance, spectrum, variables affecting activity in vitro, pharmacokinetic properties, clinical efficacy, emergence of resistance, and tolerability. The primary bacterial target is the enzyme deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase. Bacterial resistance occurs by chromosomal mutations altering deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase and decreasing drug permeation. The drugs are bactericidal and potent in vitro against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus spp., and Neisseria spp., have good activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococci, and (with several exceptions) are less potent against streptococci and have fair to poor activity against anaerobic species. Potency in vitro decreases in the presence of low pH, magnesium ions, or urine but is little affected by different media, increased inoculum, or serum. The effects of the drugs in combination with a beta-lactam or aminoglycoside are often additive, occasionally synergistic, and rarely antagonistic. The agents are orally absorbed, require at most twice-daily dosing, and achieve high concentrations in urine, feces, and kidney and good concentrations in lung, bone, prostate, and other tissues. The drugs are efficacious in treatment of a variety of bacterial infections, including uncomplicated and complicated urinary tract infections, bacterial gastroenteritis, and gonorrhea, and show promise for therapy of prostatitis, respiratory tract infections, osteomyelitis, and cutaneous infections, particularly when caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli. Fluoroquinolones have also proved to be efficacious for prophylaxis against travelers' diarrhea and infection with gram-negative bacilli in neutropenic patients. The drugs are effective in eliminating carriage of Neisseria meningitidis. Patient tolerability appears acceptable, with gastrointestinal or central nervous

  3. Hydrogeologic setting, hydraulic properties, and ground-water flow at the O-Field area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, W.S.; Smith, B.S.; Donnelly, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Army disposed chemical agents, laboratory materials, and unexploded ordnance at O-Field in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, from before World War II until at least the 1950's. Soil, ground water, surface water,and wetland sediments in the O-Field area were contaminated from the disposal activity. A ground-water-flow model of the O-Field area was constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1989 to simulate flow in the central and southern part of the Gunpowder Neck. The USGS began an additional study of the contamination in the O-Field area in cooperation with the U.S. Army in 1990 to (1) further define the hydrogeologic framework of the O-Field area, (2) characterize the hydraulic properties of the aquifers and confining units, and (3) define ground-water flow paths at O-Field based on the current data and simulations of ground-water flow. A water-table aquifer, an upper confining unit, and an upper confined aquifer comprise the shallow ground-water aquifer system of the O-Field area. A lower confining unit, through which ground-water movement is negligible, is considered a lower boundary to the shallow aquifer system. These units are all part of the Pleistocene Talbot Formation. The model developed in the previous study was redesigned using the data collected during this study and emphasized New O-Field. The current steady-state model was calibrated to water levels of June 1993. The rate of ground-water flow calculated by the model was approximately 0.48 feet per day (ft/d) and the rate determined from chlorofluorocarbon dates was approximately 0.39 ft/d.

  4. The dynamics of social innovation.

    PubMed

    Young, H Peyton

    2011-12-27

    Social norms and institutions are mechanisms that facilitate coordination between individuals. A social innovation is a novel mechanism that increases the welfare of the individuals who adopt it compared with the status quo. We model the dynamics of social innovation as a coordination game played on a network. Individuals experiment with a novel strategy that would increase their payoffs provided that it is also adopted by their neighbors. The rate at which a social innovation spreads depends on three factors: the topology of the network and in particular the extent to which agents interact in small local clusters, the payoff gain of the innovation relative to the status quo, and the amount of noise in the best response process. The analysis shows that local clustering greatly enhances the speed with which social innovations spread. It also suggests that the welfare gains from innovation are more likely to occur in large jumps than in a series of small incremental improvements.

  5. Social Support in Elderly Nursing Home Populations: Manifestations and Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rash, Elizabeth M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of social support and the influencing factors on social support in nursing home environments. Observations and staff questionnaires from two central Florida nursing homes were used in this grounded theory study to answer the following questions: (1) How is social support manifested? and…

  6. Peptide Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Håvard; Hamill, Pamela; Hancock, Robert E. W.

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial host defense peptides are produced by all complex organisms as well as some microbes and have diverse and complex antimicrobial activities. Collectively these peptides demonstrate a broad range of antiviral and antibacterial activities and modes of action, and it is important to distinguish between direct microbicidal and indirect activities against such pathogens. The structural requirements of peptides for antiviral and antibacterial activities are evaluated in light of the diverse set of primary and secondary structures described for host defense peptides. Peptides with antifungal and antiparasitic activities are discussed in less detail, although the broad-spectrum activities of such peptides indicate that they are important host defense molecules. Knowledge regarding the relationship between peptide structure and function as well as their mechanism of action is being applied in the design of antimicrobial peptide variants as potential novel therapeutic agents. PMID:16847082

  7. [Chemotherapeutic agents under study].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, S

    1998-12-01

    The development of new drugs with strong antituberculous activity and fewer side effects which are not cross-resistant to conventional antituberculosis drugs is urgently desired now. The chemotherapeutic agents under study which are considered a candidate for a new antituberculosis drug are listed below. 1) Rifamycin derivatives: rifabutin, rifapentin, KRM-1648, FCE-22250, 22807, CGP-7040, 27557, 29035, 29861, P-DEA, SPA-S-565, R-76-1. 2) New quinolones: ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, gatifloxacin, CS-940, Du-6859a. 3) Phenazines: clofazimine, B746, B4101, B4154, B4157. 4) Pyrazinamide derivatives: N-hydroxy pyrazinamide, N-hydroxy pyrazinamide-4-oxide. 5) Nitroimidazole derivatives: metronidazole et al.

  8. Ultrasound contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Ignee, Andre; Atkinson, Nathan S. S.; Schuessler, Gudrun; Dietrich, Christoph F.

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) plays an important role in imaging of the mediastinum and abdominal organs. Since the introduction of US contrast agents (UCA) for transabdominal US, attempts have been made to apply contrast-enhanced US techniques also to EUS. Since 2003, specific contrast-enhanced imaging was possible using EUS. Important studies have been published regarding contrast-enhanced EUS and the characterization of focal pancreatic lesions, lymph nodes, and subepithelial tumors. In this manuscript, we describe the relevant UCA, their application, and specific image acquisition as well as the principles of image tissue characterization using contrast-enhanced EUS. Safety issues, potential future developments, and EUS-specific issues are reviewed. PMID:27824024

  9. Agent-based modeling in ecological economics.

    PubMed

    Heckbert, Scott; Baynes, Tim; Reeson, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Interconnected social and environmental systems are the domain of ecological economics, and models can be used to explore feedbacks and adaptations inherent in these systems. Agent-based modeling (ABM) represents autonomous entities, each with dynamic behavior and heterogeneous characteristics. Agents interact with each other and their environment, resulting in emergent outcomes at the macroscale that can be used to quantitatively analyze complex systems. ABM is contributing to research questions in ecological economics in the areas of natural resource management and land-use change, urban systems modeling, market dynamics, changes in consumer attitudes, innovation, and diffusion of technology and management practices, commons dilemmas and self-governance, and psychological aspects to human decision making and behavior change. Frontiers for ABM research in ecological economics involve advancing the empirical calibration and validation of models through mixed methods, including surveys, interviews, participatory modeling, and, notably, experimental economics to test specific decision-making hypotheses. Linking ABM with other modeling techniques at the level of emergent properties will further advance efforts to understand dynamics of social-environmental systems.

  10. Social Intelligence in a Human-Machine Collaboration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Morishima, Yasunori; Yamada, Ryota; Brave, Scott; Maldonado, Heidy; Nass, Clifford; Kawaji, Shigeyasu

    In this information society of today, it is often argued that it is necessary to create a new way of human-machine interaction. In this paper, an agent with social response capabilities has been developed to achieve this goal. There are two kinds of information that is exchanged by two entities: objective and functional information (e.g., facts, requests, states of matters, etc.) and subjective information (e.g., feelings, sense of relationship, etc.). Traditional interactive systems have been designed to handle the former kind of information. In contrast, in this study social agents handling the latter type of information are presented. The current study focuses on sociality of the agent from the view point of Media Equation theory. This article discusses the definition, importance, and benefits of social intelligence as agent technology and argues that social intelligence has a potential to enhance the user's perception of the system, which in turn can lead to improvements of the system's performance. In order to implement social intelligence in the agent, a mind model has been developed to render affective expressions and personality of the agent. The mind model has been implemented in a human-machine collaborative learning system. One differentiating feature of the collaborative learning system is that it has an agent that performs as a co-learner with which the user interacts during the learning session. The mind model controls the social behaviors of the agent, thus making it possible for the user to have more social interactions with the agent. The experiment with the system suggested that a greater degree of learning was achieved when the students worked with the co-learner agent and that the co-learner agent with the mind model that expressed emotions resulted in a more positive attitude toward the system.

  11. Unsteady propulsion in ground effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung Goon; Kim, Boyoung; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2016-11-01

    Many animals in nature experience hydrodynamic benefits by swimming or flying near the ground, and this phenomenon is commonly called 'ground effect'. A flexible fin flapping near the ground was modelled, inspired by animals swimming. A transverse heaving motion was prescribed at the leading edge, and the posterior parts of the fin were passively fluttering by the fin-fluid interaction. The fin moved freely horizontally in a quiescent flow, by which the swimming speed was dynamically determined. The fin-fluid interaction was considered by using the penalty immersed boundary method. The kinematics of the flexible fin was altered by flapping near the ground, and the vortex structures generated in the wake were deflected upward, which was qualitatively analyzed by using the vortex dipole model. The swimming speed and the thrust force of the fin increased by the ground effects. The hydrodynamic changes from flapping near the ground affected the required power input in two opposite ways; the increased and decreased hydrodynamic pressures beneath the fin hindered the flapping motion, increasing the power input, while the transversely reduced flapping motion induced the decreased power input. The Froude propulsive efficiency was increased by swimming in the ground effects Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2016-004749) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP).

  12. Validating agent based models through virtual worlds.

    SciTech Connect

    Lakkaraju, Kiran; Whetzel, Jonathan H.; Lee, Jina; Bier, Asmeret Brooke; Cardona-Rivera, Rogelio E.; Bernstein, Jeremy Ray Rhythm

    2014-01-01

    As the US continues its vigilance against distributed, embedded threats, understanding the political and social structure of these groups becomes paramount for predicting and dis- rupting their attacks. Agent-based models (ABMs) serve as a powerful tool to study these groups. While the popularity of social network tools (e.g., Facebook, Twitter) has provided extensive communication data, there is a lack of ne-grained behavioral data with which to inform and validate existing ABMs. Virtual worlds, in particular massively multiplayer online games (MMOG), where large numbers of people interact within a complex environ- ment for long periods of time provide an alternative source of data. These environments provide a rich social environment where players engage in a variety of activities observed between real-world groups: collaborating and/or competing with other groups, conducting battles for scarce resources, and trading in a market economy. Strategies employed by player groups surprisingly re ect those seen in present-day con icts, where players use diplomacy or espionage as their means for accomplishing their goals. In this project, we propose to address the need for ne-grained behavioral data by acquiring and analyzing game data a commercial MMOG, referred to within this report as Game X. The goals of this research were: (1) devising toolsets for analyzing virtual world data to better inform the rules that govern a social ABM and (2) exploring how virtual worlds could serve as a source of data to validate ABMs established for analogous real-world phenomena. During this research, we studied certain patterns of group behavior to compliment social modeling e orts where a signi cant lack of detailed examples of observed phenomena exists. This report outlines our work examining group behaviors that underly what we have termed the Expression-To-Action (E2A) problem: determining the changes in social contact that lead individuals/groups to engage in a particular behavior

  13. Ground Control System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-31

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  14. LASRE ground hotfire #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    operation characteristics. The first of these flights occurred March 4, 1998. The SR-71 took off at 10:16 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty-seven minutes, reaching a maximum speed of Mach 1.58 before landing at Edwards, California, at 12:13 p.m. PST. During further flights in the spring and summer of 1998, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. In addition, two engine hot firings were conducted on the ground. It was decided not to do a final hot-fire flight test as a result of the liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The ground firings and the airborne cryogenic gas flow tests provided enough information to predict the hot gas effects of an aerospike engine firing during flight. The experiment itself was a small, half-span model that contained eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium and instrumentation. The model, engine and canoe together were called the 'pod.' The entire pod was 41 feet in length and weighed 14,300 pounds. The experimental pod was mounted on NASA's SR-71, on loan to NASA from the U.S. Air Force. Lockheed Martin may use information gained from LASRE and the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator to develop a potential future reusable launch vehicle. NASA and Lockheed Martin are partners in the X-33 program through a cooperative agreement.The goal of the X-33 program, and a major goal for NASA's Office of Aero-Space Technology, has been to enable significant reductions in the cost of access to space, and to promote the creation and delivery of new space services and other activities that will improve U.S. economic competitiveness. The program implements the National Space Transportation Policy, which was designed to accelerate the development of new launch technologies and concepts that contribute to the continuing commercialization of the national space launch industry. Both the flagship X-33 and the smaller X-34 technology testbed

  15. Consensus in networks of mobile communicating agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronchelli, Andrea; Díaz-Guilera, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Populations of mobile and communicating agents describe a vast array of technological and natural systems, ranging from sensor networks to animal groups. Here, we investigate how a group-level agreement may emerge in the continuously evolving network defined by the local interactions of the moving individuals. We adopt a general scheme of motion in two dimensions and we let the individuals interact through the minimal naming game, a prototypical scheme to investigate social consensus. We distinguish different regimes of convergence determined by the emission range of the agents and by their mobility, and we identify the corresponding scaling behaviors of the consensus time. In the same way, we rationalize also the behavior of the maximum memory used during the convergence process, which determines the minimum cognitive/storage capacity needed by the individuals. Overall, we believe that the simple and general model presented in this paper can represent a helpful reference for a better understanding of the behavior of populations of mobile agents.

  16. Consensus in evolving networks of mobile agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronchelli, Andrea; Díaz-Guilera, Albert

    2012-02-01

    Populations of mobile and communicating agents describe a vast array of technological and natural systems, ranging from sensor networks to animal groups. Here, we investigate how a group-level agreement may emerge in the continuously evolving networks defined by the local interactions of the moving individuals. We adopt a general scheme of motion in two dimensions and we let the individuals interact through the minimal naming game, a prototypical scheme to investigate social consensus. We distinguish different regimes of convergence determined by the emission range of the agents and by their mobility, and we identify the corresponding scaling behaviors of the consensus time. In the same way, we rationalize also the behavior of the maximum memory used during the convergence process, which determines the minimum cognitive/storage capacity needed by the individuals. Overall, we believe that the simple and general model presented in this talk can represent a helpful reference for a better understanding of the behavior of populations of mobile agents.

  17. The Primacy of the Social and Sociogenesis.

    PubMed

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2016-03-01

    It has become a truism to state that cultural characteristics (knowledge, identity, practices) are "socially constructed." However, critics point out that the social overwhelmingly is understood as a context-a trivial sense of the social-and that the real social nature of human practices tends not to be shown. The Russian social psychologist L. S. Vygotsky assumes in his late work a primacy of the social such that all higher psychological functions are social relations between people before they are functions. As a result, human development occurs in and as sociogenesis. Grounded in an ethnomethodological take on the social, the purpose of this article is to articulate and develop this unrecognized and unheeded, radical aspect of the late Vygotskian theory, thereby going beyond wrote and may have intended.

  18. Becoming Who We Are: A Theoretical Explanation of Gendered Social Structures and Social Networks that Shape Adolescent Interpersonal Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paige Hall; White, Jacquelyn W.; Moracco, Kathryn E.

    2009-01-01

    A conceptualization of gendered interpersonal aggression that is grounded in the social ecological framework is presented to explicate factors in adolescents' gendered environments that give rise to aggression and victimization. The focus is on gendered social structures and social networks. Our framework for prevention suggests that violence…

  19. Ground Effect - Theory and Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pistolesi, E

    1937-01-01

    The conclusion of a previous article by Pistolesi is that the increment of lift due to ground effect is largely attributable to the effect of induction of the free vortices, and is practically equivalent to a virtual increase in aspect ratio. The ground clearance was of the order of magnitude comparable to the wing chord. New reports by Le Seur and Datwyler treat the case of minimum distance from the ground and is confined to the plane problem only. The author briefly reviews these reports and also one by Timotika. References to all the reviewed reports are in the attached bibliography.

  20. Individual differences in fundamental social motives.

    PubMed

    Neel, Rebecca; Kenrick, Douglas T; White, Andrew Edward; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-06-01

    Motivation has long been recognized as an important component of how people both differ from, and are similar to, each other. The current research applies the biologically grounded fundamental social motives framework, which assumes that human motivational systems are functionally shaped to manage the major costs and benefits of social life, to understand individual differences in social motives. Using the Fundamental Social Motives Inventory, we explore the relations among the different fundamental social motives of Self-Protection, Disease Avoidance, Affiliation, Status, Mate Seeking, Mate Retention, and Kin Care; the relationships of the fundamental social motives to other individual difference and personality measures including the Big Five personality traits; the extent to which fundamental social motives are linked to recent life experiences; and the extent to which life history variables (e.g., age, sex, childhood environment) predict individual differences in the fundamental social motives. Results suggest that the fundamental social motives are a powerful lens through which to examine individual differences: They are grounded in theory, have explanatory value beyond that of the Big Five personality traits, and vary meaningfully with a number of life history variables. A fundamental social motives approach provides a generative framework for considering the meaning and implications of individual differences in social motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Measuring engagement effectiveness in social media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Sun, Tong; Peng, Wei; Li, Tao

    2012-03-01

    Social media is becoming increasingly prevalent with the advent of web 2.0 technologies. Popular social media websites, such as Twitter and Facebook, are attracting a gigantic number of online users to post and share information. An interesting phenomenon under this trend involves that more and more users share their experiences or issues with regard to a product, and then the product service agents use commercial social media listening and engagement tools (e.g. Radian6, Sysomos, etc.) to response to users' complaints or issues and help them tackle their problems. This is often called customer care in social media or social customer relationship management (CRM). However, all these existing commercial social media tools only provide an aggregated level of trends, patterns and sentiment analysis based on the keyword-centric brand relevant data, which have little insights for answering one of the key questions in social CRM system: how effective is our social customer care engagement? In this paper, we focus on addressing the problem of how to measure the effectiveness of engagement for service agents in customer care. Traditional CRM effectiveness measurements are defined under the scenario of the call center, where the effectiveness is mostly based on the duration time per call and/or number of answered calls per day. Different from customer care in a call center, we can obtain detailed conversations between agents and customers in social media, and therefore the effectiveness can be measured by analyzing the content of conversations and the sentiment of customers.

  2. Agent Model Development for Assessing Climate-Induced Geopolitical Instability.

    SciTech Connect

    Boslough, Mark B.; Backus, George A.

    2005-12-01

    We present the initial stages of development of new agent-based computational methods to generate and test hypotheses about linkages between environmental change and international instability. This report summarizes the first year's effort of an originally proposed three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project. The preliminary work focused on a set of simple agent-based models and benefited from lessons learned in previous related projects and case studies of human response to climate change and environmental scarcity. Our approach was to define a qualitative model using extremely simple cellular agent models akin to Lovelock's Daisyworld and Schelling's segregation model. Such models do not require significant computing resources, and users can modify behavior rules to gain insights. One of the difficulties in agent-based modeling is finding the right balance between model simplicity and real-world representation. Our approach was to keep agent behaviors as simple as possible during the development stage (described herein) and to ground them with a realistic geospatial Earth system model in subsequent years. This work is directed toward incorporating projected climate data--including various C02 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report--and ultimately toward coupling a useful agent-based model to a general circulation model.3

  3. 29 CFR 1926.1402 - Ground conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ground conditions. 1926.1402 Section 1926.1402 Labor... Ground conditions. (a) Definitions. (1) “Ground conditions” means the ability of the ground to support...) The equipment must not be assembled or used unless ground conditions are firm, drained, and graded...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.1402 - Ground conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ground conditions. 1926.1402 Section 1926.1402 Labor... Ground conditions. (a) Definitions. (1) “Ground conditions” means the ability of the ground to support...) The equipment must not be assembled or used unless ground conditions are firm, drained, and graded...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.1402 - Ground conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ground conditions. 1926.1402 Section 1926.1402 Labor... Ground conditions. (a) Definitions. (1) “Ground conditions” means the ability of the ground to support...) The equipment must not be assembled or used unless ground conditions are firm, drained, and graded...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1402 - Ground conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ground conditions. 1926.1402 Section 1926.1402 Labor... Ground conditions. (a) Definitions. (1) “Ground conditions” means the ability of the ground to support...) The equipment must not be assembled or used unless ground conditions are firm, drained, and graded...

  7. Completion and workover fluid for oil and gas wells comprising ground peanut hulls

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, G.T.

    1993-07-20

    A method is described of carrying out operations in a bore hole extending into the subsurface formations, comprising the steps of forming a slurry comprising a liquid fluid; a sealing agent of ground peanut hulls of particles of a size distribution such that at least 30% but no more than 80% of said particles will be retained on a 100 standard sieve mesh; and a viscosifier to carry and suspend said sealing agent, and circulating said slurry in said bore hole. A dry mixture is described for mixing with a fluid to be circulated in a bore hole, comprising: a sealing agent of ground peanut hulls of particles of a size distribution such that at least 30% but no more than 80% of said particles will retained on a 100 standard sieve mesh, and a viscosifier to carry and suspend said sealing agent.

  8. Youth and Evaluation: Empowered Social-Change Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetterman, David

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes the chapters of this theme issue on youth participatory evaluation. The overarching theme from this collection is the shift from a focus on youth as defective to a view of youth as assets in community development. (SLD)

  9. Are Children's Competitive Team Sports Socializing Agents for Corporate America?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlage, Gai Ingham

    In a study of the similarities between childrens' competitive team sports and the typical corporate or business environment, two research questions were posed: (1) Does the structural organization of childrens' soccer and ice hockey organizations resemble that of American corporations?; and (2) Are the values of childrens' competitive sports…

  10. Agent Orange at the Crossroads of Science and Social Concern

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    five major cate- gories of symptoms: psychiatric, dermatologic, reproductive, peripheral neuropathy , and cancer. The scientific data validate specific...exposure to the herbicides or to TCDD. But most of these symptoms, e.g., peripheral neuropathy , fatigue, weight loss, and some psychological disturbances...primarily from the HERBS tape (a computer listing of herbicide missions in South Vietnam from 1965 through 1971). Figure 1 shows the locations of all

  11. `Special agents' trigger social waves in giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelzer, Evelyn; Kastberger, Gerald

    2009-12-01

    Giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) nest in the open and have therefore evolved a variety of defence strategies. Against predatory wasps, they produce highly coordinated Mexican wavelike cascades termed ‘shimmering’, whereby hundreds of bees flip their abdomens upwards. Although it is well known that shimmering commences at distinct spots on the nest surface, it is still unclear how shimmering is generated. In this study, colonies were exposed to living tethered wasps that were moved in front of the experimental nest. Temporal and spatial patterns of shimmering were investigated in and after the presence of the wasp. The numbers and locations of bees that participated in the shimmering were assessed, and those bees that triggered the waves were identified. The findings reveal that the position of identified trigger cohorts did not reflect the experimental path of the tethered wasp. Instead, the trigger centres were primarily arranged in the close periphery of the mouth zone of the nest, around those parts where the main locomotory activity occurs. This favours the ‘special-agents’ hypothesis that suggest that groups of specialized bees initiate the shimmering.

  12. Social Exclusion, Social Inclusion and "Passing": The Experiences of Dalit Students at One Elite Indian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ovichegan, Samson

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold; first the paper explores and describes the complex ways in which social exclusion can (sometimes) be reconstituted within policy attempts at social inclusion: the quota policy in India. Second, the paper provides a grounded account of the connectedness of inclusion/exclusion and an illustration of how those…

  13. Learning to Teach Mathematics for Social Justice: Negotiating Social Justice and Mathematical Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Tonya Gau

    2013-01-01

    This article describes teachers' collective work aimed at learning to teach mathematics for social justice. Teacher interviews, discussions, lessons, and written reflections were analyzed using grounded theory methodology, and teachers' conversations were examined concerning the relationship between mathematical goals and social justice goals.…

  14. Contextually Relevant Pedagogical Agents: Visual Appearance, Stereotypes, and First Impressions and Their Impact on Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George

    2010-01-01

    Humans draw on their stereotypic beliefs to make assumptions about others. Even though prior research has shown that individuals respond socially to media, there is little evidence with regards to learners stereotyping and categorizing pedagogical agents. This study investigated whether learners stereotype a pedagogical agent as being…

  15. Social Mobility and Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, William H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines data related to social mobility and social participation of Americans. Topics include educational and occupational mobility; voting; volunteer work; charitable giving; community participation; views on religion; and anomie. For journal availability, see SO 506 144. (Author/DB)

  16. Characterization of plutonium in ground water near the idaho chemical processing plant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleveland, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Plutonium is present in very low concentrations in ground water near the disposal well at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant but was not detected in waters at greater distances. Because of the absence of strong complexing agents, the plutonium is present as an uncomplexed (perhaps hydrolyzed) tetravalent species, which is readily precipitated or sorbed by basalt or sediments along the ground-water flow path.

  17. [Social palliation].

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Holger; Langkilde, Lisbeth

    2007-10-29

    In the WHO's definition of palliative care, social support plays an important part. When a person is dying, social issues regarding the present and future wellbeing of his/her family will often be of great concern. Social aspects of palliation can be divided into two major areas--social counselling and psycho-social work. The first concerns help to maintain an income and to establish sufficient help to enable the dying person and his/her family to live as well as possible. The second involves help to deal with the new and difficult situation for both the dying person and his/her family.

  18. Social paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Nick; Colomer, Concha; Alperstein, Garth; Bouvier, Paul; Colomer, Julia; Duperrex, Olivier; Gokcay, Gulbin; Julien, Gilles; Kohler, Lennart; Lindström, Bengt; Macfarlane, Aidan; Mercer, Raul; Panagiotopoulos, Takis; Schulpen, Tom

    2005-02-01

    Social paediatrics is an approach to child health that focuses on the child, in illness and in health, within the context of their society, environment, school, and family. The glossary clarifies the range of terms used to describe aspects of paediatric practice that overlap or are subsumed under social paediatrics and defines key social paediatric concepts. The glossary was compiled by a process of consultation and consensus building among the authors who are all members of the European Society for Social Paediatrics. Social paediatricians from outside Europe were included giving a more international perspective.

  19. Social paediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, N.; Colomer, C.; Alperstein, G.; Bouvier, P.; Colomer, J.; Duperrex, O.; Gokcay, G.; Julien, G.; Kohler, L.; Lindstrom, B.; Macfarlane, A.; Mercer, R.; Panagiotopoulos, T.; Schulpen, T.; on, b

    2005-01-01

    Social paediatrics is an approach to child health that focuses on the child, in illness and in health, within the context of their society, environment, school, and family. The glossary clarifies the range of terms used to describe aspects of paediatric practice that overlap or are subsumed under social paediatrics and defines key social paediatric concepts. The glossary was compiled by a process of consultation and consensus building among the authors who are all members of the European Society for Social Paediatrics. Social paediatricians from outside Europe were included giving a more international perspective. PMID:15650140

  20. Software for Automation of Real-Time Agents, Version 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Estlin, Tara; Gaines, Daniel; Schaffer, Steve; Chouinard, Caroline; Engelhardt, Barbara; Wilklow, Colette; Mutz, Darren; Knight, Russell; Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Version 2 of Closed Loop Execution and Recovery (CLEaR) has been developed. CLEaR is an artificial intelligence computer program for use in planning and execution of actions of autonomous agents, including, for example, Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna ground stations, robotic exploratory ground vehicles (rovers), robotic aircraft (UAVs), and robotic spacecraft. CLEaR automates the generation and execution of command sequences, monitoring the sequence execution, and modifying the command sequence in response to execution deviations and failures as well as new goals for the agent to achieve. The development of CLEaR has focused on the unification of planning and execution to increase the ability of the autonomous agent to perform under tight resource and time constraints coupled with uncertainty in how much of resources and time will be required to perform a task. This unification is realized by extending the traditional three-tier robotic control architecture by increasing the interaction between the software components that perform deliberation and reactive functions. The increase in interaction reduces the need to replan, enables earlier detection of the need to replan, and enables replanning to occur before an agent enters a state of failure.