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Sample records for groundnut bud necrosis

  1. Management of diseases caused by thrips-transmitted tospoviruses in subsistence agriculture: the case of Peanut bud necrosis virus in India

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among the tospoviruses (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) reported in India, Peanut bud necrosis virus is by far the most economically significant for tomato production in subsistence agriculture. Management of PBNV has been a challenge for farmers due to the broad host-range of PBNV and its ve...

  2. Groundnut Ringspot Virus in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tospoviruses in vegetable crops are difficult to manage due to a shortage of basic information about the viruses and their vectors. This is especially true for the recently detected Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV). This publication presents all current knowledge of GRSV in Florida....

  3. Survey of Aspergillus and Aflatoxin in Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Groundnut Cake in Eastern Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important cash and food crop in eastern Ethiopia. The lack of awareness and data on Aspergillus and aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and groundnut food products in the area are lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted to: i) assess major Aspergillus spec...

  4. Social Network Structures among Groundnut Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…

  5. Arenavirus Budding

    PubMed Central

    Urata, Shuzo; de la Torre, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and pose a significant public health concern in their endemic regions. On the other hand, the prototypic arenavirus LCMV is a superb workhorse for the investigation of virus-host interactions and associated disease. The arenavirus small RING finger protein called Z has been shown to be the main driving force of virus budding. The budding activity of Z is mediated by late (L) domain motifs, PT/SAP, and PPXY, located at the C-terminus of Z. This paper will present the current knowledge on arenavirus budding including the diversity of L domain motifs used by different arenaviruses. We will also discuss how improved knowledge of arenavirus budding may facilitate the development of novel antiviral strategies to combat human pathogenic arenaviruses. PMID:22312335

  6. Simultaneous detection of groundnut rosette assistor virus (GRAV), groundnut rosette virus (GRV) and satellite RNA (satRNA) in groundnuts using multiplex RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Anitha, S; Monyo, E S; Okori, P

    2014-11-01

    Groundnut rosette disease (GRD) is the most devastating disease of groundnuts in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by synergistic interactions between viruses and virus-like pathogens: groundnut rosette assistor virus (GRAV), groundnut rosette virus (GRV) and a satellite RNA (satRNA). The multi-pathogenic nature of GRD requires efficient diagnostic systems for plant breeding and pathology work. Currently, TAS-ELISA and RT-PCR are used to detect all three pathogens. This approach is time-consuming, expensive and not easily amenable to high throughput. A multiplex PCR-based approach was developed to detect all three pathogens at once, reducing diagnostics costs and time by two thirds. The technique is highly robust and amenable to high throughput, with sensitivity and specificity values of 88 % and 100 %, respectively. The positive predictive value for the technique is 100 %, and the negative predictive value is 90.6 %.

  7. Genomic Tools in Groundnut Breeding Program: Status and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Janila, P.; Variath, Murali T.; Pandey, Manish K.; Desmae, Haile; Motagi, Babu N.; Okori, Patrick; Manohar, Surendra S.; Rathnakumar, A. L.; Radhakrishnan, T.; Liao, Boshou; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2016-01-01

    Groundnut, a nutrient-rich food legume, is cultivated world over. It is valued for its good quality cooking oil, energy and protein rich food, and nutrient-rich fodder. Globally, groundnut improvement programs have developed varieties to meet the preferences of farmers, traders, processors, and consumers. Enhanced yield, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and quality parameters have been the target traits. Spurt in genetic information of groundnut was facilitated by development of molecular markers, genetic, and physical maps, generation of expressed sequence tags (EST), discovery of genes, and identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for some important biotic and abiotic stresses and quality traits. The first groundnut variety developed using marker assisted breeding (MAB) was registered in 2003. Since then, USA, China, Japan, and India have begun to use genomic tools in routine groundnut improvement programs. Introgression lines that combine foliar fungal disease resistance and early maturity were developed using MAB. Establishment of marker-trait associations (MTA) paved way to integrate genomic tools in groundnut breeding for accelerated genetic gain. Genomic Selection (GS) tools are employed to improve drought tolerance and pod yield, governed by several minor effect QTLs. Draft genome sequence and low cost genotyping tools such as genotyping by sequencing (GBS) are expected to accelerate use of genomic tools to enhance genetic gains for target traits in groundnut. PMID:27014312

  8. Genomic Tools in Groundnut Breeding Program: Status and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Janila, P; Variath, Murali T; Pandey, Manish K; Desmae, Haile; Motagi, Babu N; Okori, Patrick; Manohar, Surendra S; Rathnakumar, A L; Radhakrishnan, T; Liao, Boshou; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2016-01-01

    Groundnut, a nutrient-rich food legume, is cultivated world over. It is valued for its good quality cooking oil, energy and protein rich food, and nutrient-rich fodder. Globally, groundnut improvement programs have developed varieties to meet the preferences of farmers, traders, processors, and consumers. Enhanced yield, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and quality parameters have been the target traits. Spurt in genetic information of groundnut was facilitated by development of molecular markers, genetic, and physical maps, generation of expressed sequence tags (EST), discovery of genes, and identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for some important biotic and abiotic stresses and quality traits. The first groundnut variety developed using marker assisted breeding (MAB) was registered in 2003. Since then, USA, China, Japan, and India have begun to use genomic tools in routine groundnut improvement programs. Introgression lines that combine foliar fungal disease resistance and early maturity were developed using MAB. Establishment of marker-trait associations (MTA) paved way to integrate genomic tools in groundnut breeding for accelerated genetic gain. Genomic Selection (GS) tools are employed to improve drought tolerance and pod yield, governed by several minor effect QTLs. Draft genome sequence and low cost genotyping tools such as genotyping by sequencing (GBS) are expected to accelerate use of genomic tools to enhance genetic gains for target traits in groundnut.

  9. Groundnut improvement: use of genetic and genomic tools

    PubMed Central

    Janila, Pasupuleti; Nigam, S. N.; Pandey, Manish K.; Nagesh, P.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2013-01-01

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), a self-pollinated legume is an important crop cultivated in 24 million ha world over for extraction of edible oil and food uses. The kernels are rich in oil (48–50%) and protein (25–28%), and are source of several vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, biologically active polyphenols, flavonoids, and isoflavones. Improved varieties of groundnut with high yield potential were developed and released for cultivation world over. The improved varieties belong to different maturity durations and possess resistance to diseases, tolerance to drought, enhanced oil content, and improved quality traits for food uses. Conventional breeding procedures along with the tools for phenotyping were largely used in groundnut improvement programs. Mutations were used to induce variability and wide hybridization was attempted to tap variability from wild species. Low genetic variability has been a bottleneck for groundnut improvement. The vast potential of wild species, reservoir of new alleles remains under-utilized. Development of linkage maps of groundnut during the last decade was followed by identification of markers and quantitative trait loci for the target traits. Consequently, the last decade has witnessed the deployment of molecular breeding approaches to complement the ongoing groundnut improvement programs in USA, China, India, and Japan. The other potential advantages of molecular breeding are the feasibility to target multiple traits for improvement and provide tools to tap new alleles from wild species. The first groundnut variety developed through marker-assisted back-crossing is a root-knot nematode-resistant variety, NemaTAM in USA. The uptake of molecular breeding approaches in groundnut improvement programs by NARS partners in India and many African countries is slow or needs to be initiated in part due to inadequate infrastructure, high genotyping costs, and human capacities. Availability of draft genome sequence for diploid (AA and

  10. What Are Taste Buds?

    MedlinePlus

    ... taste buds all the credit for your favorite flavors, it's important to thank your nose . Olfactory (say: ... with your taste buds to create the true flavor of that yummy slice of pizza by telling ...

  11. Fat necrosis.

    PubMed

    Canteli, B; Saez, F; de los Ríos, A; Alvarez, C

    1996-04-01

    We report the MR appearance of a case of subcutaneous fat necrosis, which is a previously unreported etiology for knee mass. The role of MR imaging in differentiating fat necrosis from other causes of soft tissue masses is discussed. We conclude that MR characteristics of subcutaneous fat necrosis are typical and allow its differentiation from other types of soft tissue lesions.

  12. Corrosion inhibition property of polyester-groundnut shell biodegradable composite.

    PubMed

    Sounthari, P; Kiruthika, A; Saranya, J; Parameswari, K; Chitra, S

    2016-12-01

    The use of natural fibers as reinforcing materials in thermoplastics and thermoset matrix composites provide optimistic environmental profits with regard to ultimate disposability and better use of raw materials. The present work is focused on the corrosion inhibition property of a polymer matrix composite produced by the use of groundnut shell (GNS) waste. Polyester (PE) was synthesized by condensation polymerization of symmetrical 1,3,4-oxadiazole and pimelic acid using sodium lauryl sulfate as surfactant. The polyester-groundnut shell composite (PEGNS) was prepared by ultrasonication method. The synthesized polyester-groundnut shell composite was characterized by FT-IR, TGA and XRD analysis. The corrosion inhibitory effect of PEGNS on mild steel in 1M H2SO4 was investigated using gravimetric method, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization, atomic absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that PEGNS inhibited mild steel corrosion in acid solution and indicated that the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration and decrease with increasing temperature. The composite inhibited the corrosion of mild steel through adsorption following the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Changes in the impedance parameters Rt, Cdl, Icorr, Ecorr, ba and bc suggested the adsorption of PEGNS onto the mild steel surface, leading to the formation of protective film.

  13. Use of sunlight to partially detoxify groundnut (peanut) cake flour and casein contaminated with aflatoxin B1

    SciTech Connect

    Shantha, T.; Murthy, V.S.

    1981-03-01

    Sunlight destroyed 83 and 50% of the toxin added to casein and groundnut cake flour, respectively. Equilibrium dialysis revealed that both casein and groundnut protein bind aflatoxin but the toxin bound to casein appeared more photo-labile than that bound to groundnut protein.

  14. Assessment of Adoption Gaps in Management of Aflatoxin Contamination of Groundnut ("Arachis Hypogaea" L.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, G. D. S.; Popat, M. N.

    2010-01-01

    One of the major impediments for diversification of groundnut ("Arachis Hypogaea" L.) as food crop is aflatoxin contamination. The study was conducted with an objective to assess the adoption gaps in aflatoxin management practices of groundnut (AMPG) and the farmer's characteristics influencing these gaps. The study used an expost-facto…

  15. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and occupational health problems among groundnut farmers of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Banibrata; Ghosh, Tirthankar; Gangopadhyay, Somnath

    2013-12-01

    The main aim of the study was to determine the nature and extent of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and physiological and thermal working stress among the groundnut farmers. In the present investigation, eighty-five groundnut farmers were recruited from the villages of Tarakeswar of West Bengal, India. Eighty-five control office workers were also selected as a control group. The modified Nordic questionnaire and a posture analysis using the OWAS method were applied in the case of groundnut farmers. The working environment and physiological stress of the groundnut cultivators were also assessed. The analysis of working posture indicated that most of the groundnut cultivation activities needed corrective measures as soon as possible. Most of the groundnut farmers suffered from discomfort at different parts of the body, especially at the lower back (99%), knee (92%), ankle (66%), shoulder (61%) and hand (60%) regions. This study also showed that groundnut farmers suffered from excessive thermal (33.4 degrees C) and physiological stress (heart rate rose up to 121.5 beats/min, systolic and diastolic blood pressure up to 132 and 80 mm/Hg, respectively, PEFR values are 403 lit/min) which affects their health. From the observation and analysis of the results, it was concluded that the health of the groundnut farmers was highly affected by improper body postures and work-load. Twisting, bending, and awkward postures during work could lead to musculoskeletal disorders among them.

  16. What Are Taste Buds?

    MedlinePlus

    ... your taste buds for letting you appreciate the saltiness of pretzels and the sweetness of ice cream. ... allow you to experience tastes that are sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. How exactly do your taste ...

  17. Avascular Necrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood flow and leading to avascular necrosis. Excessive alcohol use. Consuming several alcoholic drinks a day for several years also can cause fatty deposits to form in your blood vessels. Bisphosphonate ...

  18. Effects of phosphorous fertilizer on growth and yield of groundnut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Mohammed; Ismail B., S.

    2016-11-01

    The level of phosphorus (P) and the time of application are considered as two of the most important factors affecting crop growth and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). A field experiment was carried out at the greenhouse of the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Malaysia, in 2014. The objective of the study was to find the best level and the timing of P application, with the aim of getting better growth and higher yield. A complete randomized design with three rates of P (27.5, 55 and 82.5 kg ha-1) were used. The dosage that gave the highest yield and growth was 82.5 kg ha-1 when P application was given at 7, 21, 42 and 60 days after sowing (DAS). The results show that the highest level of P (82.5 kg ha-1) at 7 DAS significantly increased plant height, number of nodules/plant, number of pods per plant, pod yield (kg ha-1), seed weight, oil content and shelling percentage. It can be concluded from the experiment that P fertilizer application at 82.5 kg ha-1 at 7 DAS was necessary for profitable groundnut production in the study area.

  19. Expansion of Groundnut ringspot virus host and geographic ranges in solanaceous vegetables in peninsular Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report provides a timely account of Groundnut ringspot virus infection of additional hosts (pepper, tomatillo and eggplant) and in additional locations to growers, Extension personnel, crop consultants, and state and Federal regulatory and research scientists....

  20. "Bud, Not Buddy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the award-winning book "Bud, Not Buddy" written by Christopher Paul Curtis. Lists different versions of the book; suggests learning activities; lists sources for biographical information and interviews with Curtis, teacher guides, professional articles, and other Depression era novels; and provides a citation for the author's…

  1. Strength Characteristics of Groundnut Leaf/Stem Ash (GLSA) Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oseni, O. W.; Audu, M. T.

    2016-09-01

    The compressive strength properties of concrete are substantial factors in the design and construction of concrete structures. Compressive strength directly affects the degree to which the concrete can be able to carry a load over time. These changes are complemented by deflections, cracks etc., in the structural elements of concrete. This research investigated the effect of groundnut leaf/stem ash (GLSA) on the compressive strength of concrete at 0%, 5 %, 10 % and 15 % replacements of cement. The effect of the water-cement ratio on properties such as the compressive strength, slump, flow and workability properties of groundnut leaf/stem ash (GLSA) mixes with OPC were evaluated to determine whether they are acceptable for use in concrete structural elements. A normal concrete mix with cement at 100 % (i.e., GLSA at 0%) with concrete grade C25 that can attain an average strength of 25 N/mm2 at 28 days was used as a control at design water-cement ratios of 0.65 and grading of (0.5-32) mm from fine to coarse aggregates was tested for: (1) compressive strength, and the (2) slump and flow Test. The results and observations showed that the concrete mixes from GLSA at 5 - 15 % ratios exhibit: pozzolanic properties and GLSA could be used as a partial replacement for cement at these percentage mix ratios compared with the control concrete; an increase in the water-cement ratio showed a significant decrease in the compressive strength and an increase in workability. Therefore, it is important that all concrete mixes exude an acceptably designed water-cement ratio for compressive strength characteristics for use in structures, water-cement ratio is a significant factor.

  2. Risks of ingestion of aflatoxin-contaminated groundnuts in Benin: scale measurements, beliefs, and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Jolly, C M; Bayard, B; Vodouhe, S

    2009-10-01

    This study evaluates farmers' beliefs and perceived risks of aflatoxin (AF) on the consumption, production, and marketing of groundnuts. A survey was conducted with 181 farmers in Benin to assess their beliefs of AF effects on the marketing of groundnuts, and finally human and animal health. Awareness and action factors were also evaluated. Relationships of the belief and action factors with socioeconomic variables were evaluated using multiple indicators and multiple causes (MIMIC) models within a socioeconomic framework using a health belief model (HBM). The results indicate that the scale of the various constructs is reliable and the validity conforms to expectations. The unifactorial models developed in this study provide a satisfactory fit with NFl, CFI, and GFI exceeding 0.90. The results reveal that gender, age, and years of experience in farming significantly impact farmers' action regarding the reduction of AF in groundnut production and marketing. Male farmers are more likely to be aware of AF problems in groundnuts and feel more susceptible to the problems than their female counterparts. Gender and education seem to be dominating factors in the perception of barriers to mitigating the effects of AF, and male and older farmers are more likely to perceive the benefits of producing and marketing good quality groundnuts.

  3. Transport via xylem and accumulation of aflatoxin in seeds of groundnut plant.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, M; Hariprasad, P; Venkateswaran, G

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin contamination in groundnut seeds in the absence of any aflatoxigenic fungi leads to a hypothesis that aflatoxins are present naturally in soil and is transferred to seeds through uptake by roots. A survey was conducted on the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in agricultural soils, among nine main groundnut-growing regions of Karnataka state, India. All 71 soil samples collected in this survey were contaminated with aflatoxins esp. AFB1. An in vitro xylem sap experiment proved the ability of groundnut plant roots to absorb AFB1, and transport to aerial plant parts via the xylem. Hydroponics experiment also proved the uptake of AFB1 by the roots and their translocation to shoot. Uptake was affected by the initial concentration of toxin and pH of the medium. Among the 14 varieties screened, GPBD4 and MLT.K.107 (III) recorded highest and least AFB1 uptake, respectively. The above results were validated using a greenhouse experiment. Here, the aflatoxin absorbed by root gradually transferred to shoot that was later found in seeds towards the end of experiment. Thus, the groundnut seeds can also get contaminated with aflatoxin by direct uptake of aflatoxin through conducting tissue in addition to fungal infection. The present study revealed the novel mode of aflatoxin contamination in groundnut seeds without fungal infection.

  4. Biosynthesis of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol: studies with groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.D.; Sastry, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    The biosynthetic pathway of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) was investigated using groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) leaf discs and /sup 35/S-labeled precursors. (/sup 35/S)SO/sub 4/(2-) was actively taken up by the leaf discs and rapidly incorporated into SQDG. After 2 h, 1.5% of the (/sup 35/S)SO4(2-) added to the incubation medium was taken up, of which 28% was incorporated into SQDG. The methanol-water phases of the lipid extracts of the leaf discs were analyzed for the /sup 35/S-labeled intermediates. Up to 2 h of incubation, cysteic acid, 3-sulfopyruvate, 3-sulfolactate, 3-sulfolactaldehyde, and sulfoquinovose (SQ) which have been proposed as intermediates were not labeled. Only a negligible amount of radioactivity was observed in these compounds after incubation for 4 h and more. Addition of sodium molybdate inhibited the uptake of (/sup 35/S)SO/sub 4/(2-) as well as its incorporation into SQDG by the leaf discs, suggesting that 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate may be involved in the biosynthesis of SQDG. Addition of unlabeled cysteic acid to the incubation medium enhanced the uptake of (/sup 35/S)SO/sub 4/(2-) but did not affect its incorporation into SQDG. /sup 35/S-labeled cysteic acid was taken up by the leaf discs and metabolized to sulfoacetic acid but not incorporated into SQ or SQDG. These results show that cysteic acid is not an intermediate in SQDG biosynthesis. (/sup 35/S)SQ was taken up by the leaf discs and incorporated into SQDG in a time-dependent manner. (/sup 35/S)Sulfoquinovosylglycerol was also taken up by the leaf discs but not incorporated into SQDG. It is concluded that SQDG is not biosynthesized by the proposed sulfoglycolytic pathway in higher plants.

  5. Emergence of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus in U.S. vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host and geographic ranges, genetic diversity and thrips transmission of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus isolates from the U.S. were characterized. This report provides an overview of these viruses for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory...

  6. Aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and maize in Zambia: observed and potential concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize and groundnut, important staples in Zambia, are susceptible to aflatoxin-producing fungi. Aflatoxins are potent human carcinogens also associated with stunting and immunosuppression. Although health and economic burdens of aflatoxins are well known, patterns of contamination in maize and grou...

  7. Groundnut ringspot virus and tomato spotted wilt virus – Tospoviruses in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growing number of solanaceous crop and weed species infected with groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) has been identified in Florida. Continuing geographic spread of GRSV into additional vegetable production areas of Florida has also been documented. Much has been learned about GRSV in Florida altho...

  8. Modification and improvement of nutritive quality of cornpap "Ogi" with cowpea and groundnut milk.

    PubMed

    Ojofeitimi, E O; Abiose, S; Ijadunola, K T; Pedro, T; Jinadu, M K

    2001-01-01

    The study aimed at improving the nutritive quality of cornpap, "Ogi", the most popular infant feed in Nigeria. Milk samples of cowpea, groundnut and soyabean and their complementations with cornpap were assessed chemically, organoleptically and anthropometrically. The protein contents of milk from cowpea, groundnut and soyabean were 1.18, 1.6, and 1.23% respectively. On separate complementation of the milk sources with cornpap, the low protein content of "ogi" was increased from 0.3% to 2.79% with cowpea; 3.0% with groundnut and 3.64% with soyabean. The fat content of the complementary feeds also increased remarkably. The anthropometric study revealed that there were significant differences P = 0.001 between the mean weight of children aged 13 to 18 (92 +/- 1.2) and 19 to 24 months (9.9 +/- 1.3) who were fed the three sources of milk with cornpap, and the control group of the same age groups (8.5 + 1.5; 9.3 + 1.11) who received nutrition education and no complementary feeds. Of the three sources of milk, groundnut milk was ranked as the most likeable, the easiest to prepare and the least costly by the nursing mothers. This study has shown that some of the deep rooted cultural food taboos that prohibit locally available and nutritious feeds to infants could be changed through practical food demonstrations.

  9. Optimization of food materials for development of nutritious pasta utilizing groundnut meal and beetroot.

    PubMed

    Mridula, D; Gupta, R K; Bhadwal, Sheetal; Khaira, Harjot; Tyagi, S K

    2016-04-01

    Present study was undertaken to optimize the level of food materials viz. groundnut meal, beetroot juice and refined wheat flour for development of nutritious pasta using response surface methodology. Box-benken design of experiments was used to design different experimental combinations considering 10 to 20 g groundnut meal, 6 to 18 mL beetroot juice and 80 to 90 g refined wheat flour. Quality attributes such as protein content, antioxidant activity, colour, cooking quality (solid loss, rehydration ratio and cooking time) and sensory acceptability of pasta samples were the dependent variables for the study. The results revealed that pasta samples with higher levels of groundnut meal and beetroot juice were high in antioxidant activity and overall sensory acceptability. The samples with higher content of groundnut meal indicated higher protein contents in them. On the other hand, the samples with higher beetroot juice content were high in rehydration ratio and lesser cooking time along with low solid loss in cooking water. The different level of studied food materials significantly affected the colour quality of pasta samples. Optimized combination for development of nutritious pasta consisted of 20 g groundnut meal, 18 mL beetroot juice and 83.49 g refined wheat flour with overall desirability as 0.905. This pasta sample required 5.5 min to cook and showed 1.37 % solid loss and rehydration ratio as 6.28. Pasta sample prepared following optimized formulation provided 19.56 % protein content, 23.95 % antioxidant activity and 125.89 mg/100 g total phenols with overall sensory acceptability scores 8.71.

  10. Modelling Bambara Groundnut Yield in Southern Africa: Towards a Climate-Resilient Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karunaratne, A. S.; Walker, S.; Ruane, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Current agriculture depends on a few major species grown as monocultures that are supported by global research underpinning current productivity. However, many hundreds of alternative crops have the potential to meet real world challenges by sustaining humanity, diversifying agricultural systems for food and nutritional security, and especially responding to climate change through their resilience to certain climate conditions. Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.), an underutilised African legume, is an exemplar crop for climate resilience. Predicted yield performances of Bambara groundnut by AquaCrop (a crop-water productivity model) were evaluated for baseline (1980-2009) and mid-century climates (2040-2069) under 20 downscaled Global Climate Models (CMIP5-RCP8.5), as well as for climate sensitivities (AgMIPC3MP) across 3 locations in Southern Africa (Botswana, South Africa, Namibia). Different land - races of Bambara groundnut originating from various semi-arid African locations showed diverse yield performances with diverse sensitivities to climate. S19 originating from hot-dry conditions in Namibia has greater future yield potential compared to the Swaziland landrace Uniswa Red-UN across study sites. South Africa has the lowest yield under the current climate, indicating positive future yield trends. Namibia reported the highest baseline yield at optimum current temperatures, indicating less yield potential in future climates. Bambara groundnut shows positive yield potential at temperatures of up to 31degC, with further warming pushing yields down. Thus, many regions in Southern Africa can utilize Bambara groundnut successfully in the coming decades. This modelling exercise supports decisions on genotypic suitability for present and future climates at specific locations.

  11. The biosynthesis of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol: studies with groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) leaves.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S D; Sastry, P S

    1988-01-01

    The biosynthetic pathway of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) was investigated using groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) leaf discs and 35S-labeled precursors. [35S]SO4(2-) was actively taken up by the leaf discs and rapidly incorporated into SQDG. After 2 h, 1.5% of the [35S]SO4(2-) added to the incubation medium was taken up, of which 28% was incorporated into SQDG. The methanol-water phases of the lipid extracts of the leaf discs were analyzed for the 35S-labeled intermediates. Up to 2 h of incubation, cysteic acid, 3-sulfopyruvate, 3-sulfolactate, 3-sulfolactaldehyde, and sulfoquinovose (SQ) which have been proposed as intermediates [Davies et al. (1966) Biochem. J. 98, 369-373] were not labeled. Only a negligible amount of radioactivity was observed in these compounds after incubation for 4 h and more. Addition of sodium molybdate inhibited the uptake of [35S]SO4(2-) as well as its incorporation into SQDG by the leaf discs, suggesting that 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate may be involved in the biosynthesis of SQDG. Addition of unlabeled cysteic acid to the incubation medium enhanced the uptake of [35S]SO4(2-) but did not affect its incorporation into SQDG. 35S-labeled cysteic acid was taken up by the leaf discs and metabolized to sulfoacetic acid but not incorporated into SQ or SQDG. These results show that cysteic acid is not an intermediate in SQDG biosynthesis. [35S]SQ was taken up by the leaf discs and incorporated into SQDG in a time-dependent manner. [35S]Sulfoquinovosylglycerol was also taken up by the leaf discs but not incorporated into SQDG. It is concluded that SQDG is not biosynthesized by the proposed sulfoglycolytic pathway in higher plants. Though [35S]SQ was converted to SQDG, the rates are much lower compared to [35S]SO4(2-) incorporation, which suggests that a more direct pathway involving sulfonation of a lipid precursor may exist in higher plants.

  12. Bud8p and Bud9p, Proteins That May Mark the Sites for Bipolar Budding in YeastV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Harkins, Heidi A.; Pagé, Nicolas; Schenkman, Laura R.; De Virgilio, Claudio; Shaw, Sidney; Bussey, Howard; Pringle, John R.

    2001-01-01

    The bipolar budding pattern of a/α Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells appears to depend on persistent spatial markers in the cell cortex at the two poles of the cell. Previous analysis of mutants with specific defects in bipolar budding identified BUD8 and BUD9 as potentially encoding components of the markers at the poles distal and proximal to the birth scar, respectively. Further genetic analysis reported here supports this hypothesis. Mutants deleted for BUD8 or BUD9 grow normally but bud exclusively from the proximal and distal poles, respectively, and the double-mutant phenotype suggests that the bipolar budding pathway has been totally disabled. Moreover, overexpression of these genes can cause either an increased bias for budding at the distal (BUD8) or proximal (BUD9) pole or a randomization of bud position, depending on the level of expression. The structures and localizations of Bud8p and Bud9p are also consistent with their postulated roles as cortical markers. Both proteins appear to be integral membrane proteins of the plasma membrane, and they have very similar overall structures, with long N-terminal domains that are both N- and O-glycosylated followed by a pair of putative transmembrane domains surrounding a short hydrophilic domain that is presumably cytoplasmic. The putative transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the two proteins are very similar in sequence. When Bud8p and Bud9p were localized by immunofluorescence and tagging with GFP, each protein was found predominantly in the expected location, with Bud8p at presumptive bud sites, bud tips, and the distal poles of daughter cells and Bud9p at the necks of large-budded cells and the proximal poles of daughter cells. Bud8p localized approximately normally in several mutants in which daughter cells are competent to form their first buds at the distal pole, but it was not detected in a bni1 mutant, in which such distal-pole budding is lost. Surprisingly, Bud8p localization to the presumptive bud

  13. The Anillin-Related Region of Bud4 Is the Major Functional Determinant for Bud4's Function in Septin Organization during Bud Growth and Axial Bud Site Selection in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huan; Guo, Jia; Zhou, Ya-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The anillin-related protein Bud4 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for axial bud site selection by linking the axial landmark to the septins, which localize at the mother bud neck. Recent studies indicate that Bud4 plays a role in septin organization during cytokinesis. Here we show that Bud4 is also involved in septin organization during bud growth prior to cytokinesis, as bud4Δ shs1Δ cells displayed an elongated bud morphology and defective septin organization at 18°C. Bud4 overexpression also affected septin organization during bud growth in shs1Δ cells at 30°C. Bud4 was previously thought to associate with the septins via its central region, while the C-terminal anillin-related region was not involved in septin association. Surprisingly, we found that the central region of Bud4 alone targets to the bud neck throughout the cell cycle, unlike full-length Bud4, which localizes to the bud neck only during G2/M phase. We identified the anillin-related region to be a second targeting domain that cooperates with the central region for proper septin association. In addition, the anillin-related region could largely mediate Bud4's function in septin organization during bud growth and bud site selection. We show that this region interacts with the C terminus of Bud3 and the two segments depend on each other for association with the septins. Moreover, like the bud4Δ mutant, the bud3Δ mutant genetically interacts with shs1Δ and cdc12-6 mutants in septin organization, suggesting that Bud4 and Bud3 may cooperate in septin organization during bud growth. These observations provide new insights into the interaction of Bud4 with the septins and Bud3. PMID:25576483

  14. The anillin-related region of Bud4 is the major functional determinant for Bud4's function in septin organization during bud growth and axial bud site selection in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huan; Guo, Jia; Zhou, Ya-Ting; Gao, Xiang-Dong

    2015-03-01

    The anillin-related protein Bud4 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for axial bud site selection by linking the axial landmark to the septins, which localize at the mother bud neck. Recent studies indicate that Bud4 plays a role in septin organization during cytokinesis. Here we show that Bud4 is also involved in septin organization during bud growth prior to cytokinesis, as bud4Δ shs1Δ cells displayed an elongated bud morphology and defective septin organization at 18°C. Bud4 overexpression also affected septin organization during bud growth in shs1Δ cells at 30°C. Bud4 was previously thought to associate with the septins via its central region, while the C-terminal anillin-related region was not involved in septin association. Surprisingly, we found that the central region of Bud4 alone targets to the bud neck throughout the cell cycle, unlike full-length Bud4, which localizes to the bud neck only during G2/M phase. We identified the anillin-related region to be a second targeting domain that cooperates with the central region for proper septin association. In addition, the anillin-related region could largely mediate Bud4's function in septin organization during bud growth and bud site selection. We show that this region interacts with the C terminus of Bud3 and the two segments depend on each other for association with the septins. Moreover, like the bud4Δ mutant, the bud3Δ mutant genetically interacts with shs1Δ and cdc12-6 mutants in septin organization, suggesting that Bud4 and Bud3 may cooperate in septin organization during bud growth. These observations provide new insights into the interaction of Bud4 with the septins and Bud3.

  15. Glycoconjugate in rat taste buds.

    PubMed

    Kano, K; Ube, M; Taniguchi, K

    2001-05-01

    The taste buds of the fungiform papillae, circumvallate papilla, foliate papillae, soft palate and epiglottis of the rat oral cavity were examined by lectin histochemistry to elucidate the relationships between expression of glycoconjugates and innervation. Seven out of 21 lectins showed moderate to intense staining in at least more than one taste bud. They were succinylated wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA). Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I (BSL-I), Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L). UEA-I and BSL-I showed moderate to intense staining in all of the taste buds examined. They strongly stained the taste buds of the epiglottis, which are innervated by the cranial nerve X. UEA-I intensely stained the taste buds of the fungiform papillae and soft palate, both of which are innervated by the cranial nerve VII. The taste buds of circumvallate papilla and foliate papillae were innervated by the cranial nerve IX and strongly stained by BSL-I. Thus, UEA-I and BSL-I binding glycoconjugates, probably alpha-linked fucose and alpha-D-galactose, respectively, might be specific for taste buds. Although the expression of these glycoconjugates would be related to the innervation of the cranial nerve X, the differential expression of alpha-linked fucose and alpha-D-galactose might be related to the innervation of the cranial nerve VII and IX, respectively.

  16. Effect of bambara groundnut flour (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) supplementation on chemical, physical, nutritional and sensory evaluation of wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Abdualrahman, Mohammed A Y; Ali, Ali O; Elkhalifa, Elamin A; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim E

    2012-09-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterrenea (L) Verdc) is a major source of vegetable protein in sub-Saharan Africa. And the aim of this study was to enhance the nutritional value of wheat bread through the addition of bambara groundnut flour to wheat four. For this, bambara groundnut seeds were soaked in tap water, manually decorticated, sun dried and milled into fine flour. Proximate analysis of flours of de-hulled bambara groundnut and wheat were conducted. Flour of de-hulled bambara groundnut was used for bread supplementation in ratios of 5, 10 and 15%. Rheological properties of the control flour and wheat flour supplemented with 10% of de-hulled bambara groundnut flour were conducted. The total area and dough development time increased. However, water absorption, stability and extensibility respectively decreased, from 71.3; 8.5; 190 in the control flour to 71.0; 5.5; 180 in the 10% supplemented flour. The increases in the resistance to extension and proportional number from 260 to 280 and 1.37 to 1.56, respectively resulted in stiff dough. The most important effect of wheat bread supplementation was the improvement of protein quantity from 13.74 +/- 0.02% for the control bread to 15.49 +/- 0.02, 17.00 +/- 0.05 and 18.98 +/- 0.02% for the 5, 10 and 15% blending ratios, respectively. The in-vitro protein digestibility progressively increased from 84.33 +/- 0.03 in the control bread to 85.42 +/- 0.04, 86.57 +/- 0.04 and 87.64 +/- 0.03 in breads containing 5, 10 and 15% bambara groundnut flour. The sensory attributes of different types of bread showed that, a significant difference was observed in texture, colour and overall acceptability. However, the panelists gave higher score for 10% de-hulled bambara groundnut flour bread than bread made from other blends. The loaf weights, loaf volume and specific volume increased. However, while the loaf weight increased with addition of 15% de-hulled bambara groundnut flour, both of loaf volume and specific volume decreased

  17. Potential negative consequences of geoengineering on crop production: A study of Indian groundnut

    PubMed Central

    Dobbie, Steven; Ramirez‐Villegas, Julian; Feng, Kuishuang; Challinor, Andrew J.; Chen, Bing; Gao, Yao; Lee, Lindsay; Yin, Yan; Sun, Laixiang; Watson, James; Koehler, Ann‐Kristin; Fan, Tingting; Ghosh, Sat

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Geoengineering has been proposed to stabilize global temperature, but its impacts on crop production and stability are not fully understood. A few case studies suggest that certain crops are likely to benefit from solar dimming geoengineering, yet we show that geoengineering is projected to have detrimental effects for groundnut. Using an ensemble of crop‐climate model simulations, we illustrate that groundnut yields in India undergo a statistically significant decrease of up to 20% as a result of solar dimming geoengineering relative to RCP4.5. It is somewhat reassuring, however, to find that after a sustained period of 50 years of geoengineering crop yields return to the nongeoengineered values within a few years once the intervention is ceased. PMID:28190903

  18. Potential negative consequences of geoengineering on crop production: A study of Indian groundnut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huiyi; Dobbie, Steven; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Feng, Kuishuang; Challinor, Andrew J.; Chen, Bing; Gao, Yao; Lee, Lindsay; Yin, Yan; Sun, Laixiang; Watson, James; Koehler, Ann-Kristin; Fan, Tingting; Ghosh, Sat

    2016-11-01

    Geoengineering has been proposed to stabilize global temperature, but its impacts on crop production and stability are not fully understood. A few case studies suggest that certain crops are likely to benefit from solar dimming geoengineering, yet we show that geoengineering is projected to have detrimental effects for groundnut. Using an ensemble of crop-climate model simulations, we illustrate that groundnut yields in India undergo a statistically significant decrease of up to 20% as a result of solar dimming geoengineering relative to RCP4.5. It is somewhat reassuring, however, to find that after a sustained period of 50 years of geoengineering crop yields return to the nongeoengineered values within a few years once the intervention is ceased.

  19. Potential negative consequences of geoengineering on crop production: A study of Indian groundnut.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huiyi; Dobbie, Steven; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Feng, Kuishuang; Challinor, Andrew J; Chen, Bing; Gao, Yao; Lee, Lindsay; Yin, Yan; Sun, Laixiang; Watson, James; Koehler, Ann-Kristin; Fan, Tingting; Ghosh, Sat

    2016-11-28

    Geoengineering has been proposed to stabilize global temperature, but its impacts on crop production and stability are not fully understood. A few case studies suggest that certain crops are likely to benefit from solar dimming geoengineering, yet we show that geoengineering is projected to have detrimental effects for groundnut. Using an ensemble of crop-climate model simulations, we illustrate that groundnut yields in India undergo a statistically significant decrease of up to 20% as a result of solar dimming geoengineering relative to RCP4.5. It is somewhat reassuring, however, to find that after a sustained period of 50 years of geoengineering crop yields return to the nongeoengineered values within a few years once the intervention is ceased.

  20. Mitochondrial inheritance in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Boldogh, I R; Yang, H C; Pon, L A

    2001-06-01

    During the past decade significant advances were made toward understanding the mechanism of mitochondrial inheritance in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A combination of genetics, cell-free assays and microscopy has led to the discovery of a great number of components. These fall into three major categories: cytoskeletal elements, mitochondrial membrane components and regulatory proteins. These proteins mediate activities, including movement of mitochondria from mother cells to buds, segregation of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA, and equal distribution of the organelle between mother cells and buds during yeast cell division.

  1. Trichoderma viride induces pathogenesis related defense response against rot pathogen infection in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Gajera, H P; Savaliya, Disha D; Patel, S V; Golakiya, B A

    2015-08-01

    The study examine induction of defense enzymes involved in phenylpropanoid pathway and accumulation of pathogenesis related proteins in rot pathogen (Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem) challenged groundnut seedlings in response to Trichoderma viride JAU60. Seeds of five groundnut varieties differing in collar rot susceptibility were sown under non-infested, pathogen infested and pathogen+T. viride JAU60 seed treatment. Collar rot disease evident between 31.0% (J-11, GG-2) and 67.4% (GG-20) in different groundnut varieties under pathogen infested which was significantly reduced from 58.1% (J-11, GG-2) to 51.6% (GG-20) by Trichoderma treatment. The specific activities of polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.14.18.1) and β-1,3 glucanase (EC 3.2.1.6) elevated 3.5 and 2.3-fold, respectively, at 3 days; phenylalanine ammonia lyase (EC 4.3.1.5) evident 1.6-fold higher at 6 days; and chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) sustained 2.3-2.8 folds up to 9 days in Trichoderma treated+pathogen infested seedlings of tolerant varieties (J-11, GG-2) compared with moderate and susceptible (GAUG-10, GG-13, GG-20). T. viride JAU60 induces defense enzymes in a different way for tolerant and susceptible varieties to combat the disease. This study indicates the synergism activation of defense enzymes under the pathogenic conditions or induced resistance by T. viride JAU60 in a different groundnut varieties susceptible to collar rot disease.

  2. First evidence on phloem transport of nanoscale calcium oxide in groundnut using solution culture technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepa, Manchala; Sudhakar, Palagiri; Nagamadhuri, Kandula Venkata; Balakrishna Reddy, Kota; Giridhara Krishna, Thimmavajjula; Prasad, Tollamadugu Naga Venkata Krishna Vara

    2015-06-01

    Nanoscale materials, whose size typically falls below 100 nm, exhibit novel chemical, physical and biological properties which are different from their bulk counterparts. In the present investigation, we demonstrated that nanoscale calcium oxide particles (n-CaO) could transport through phloem tissue of groundnut unlike the corresponding bulk materials. n-CaO particles are prepared using sol-gel method. The size of the as prepared n-CaO measured (69.9 nm) using transmission electron microscopic technique (TEM). Results of the hydroponics experiment using solution culture technique revealed that foliar application of n-CaO at different concentrations (10, 50, 100, 500, 1,000 ppm) on groundnut plants confirmed the entry of calcium into leaves and stems through phloem compared to bulk source of calcium sprayed (CaO and CaNO3). After spraying of n-CaO, calcium content in roots, shoots and leaves significantly increased. Based on visual scoring of calcium deficiency correction and calcium content in plant parts, we may establish the fact that nanoscale calcium oxide particles (size 69.9 nm) could move through phloem tissue in groundnut. This is the first report on phloem transport of nanoscale calcium oxide particles in plants and this result points to the use of nanoscale calcium oxide particles as calcium source to the plants through foliar application, agricultural crops in particular, as bulk calcium application through foliar nutrition is restricted due to its non-mobility in phloem.

  3. Evaluation of allium and its seasoning on toxigenic, nutritional, and sensorial profiles of groundnut oil.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kasi; Anandaraj, K; Al-Sohaibani, Saleh A

    2014-04-01

    Mitigation of xerophilic storage fungi-associated aflatoxin threat in culinary oil will be a new technology advantage to food industries. Groundnut oil isolate Aspergillus flavus MTCC 10680 susceptibility to Allium species (A. sativum L., A. cepa L., and A. cepa var. aggregatum) extracts, composition, and in silico confirmation of extract's phytoconstituent aflatoxin synthesis inhibition were determined. The behavior of seasoning carrier medium groundnut oil in the presence of Allium was also determined. All the Allium species extracts exhibited concentration dependent in vitro inhibition on mycelial biomass, radial growth, and toxin elaboration. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 28, 16, and 9 compounds in the extracts of A. sativum, A. cepa, A. cepa var. aggregatum, respectively. The Allium phytocostituents-like hexadecanoic acid, 5-Octanoyl-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione, Guanosine, and so on, showed higher binding energy with aflatoxin synthesis key enzyme ver1. Allium seasoning increased the typical nutty odor of the groundnut oil with sweet aroma note as well as intensification of pale yellow color. Allium seasoning exhibited the highest aflatoxin detoxification and aroma development without any nutritional loss. Culinary oil Allium seasoning has anti-aflatoxin and food additive potential for use in food industries.

  4. Foamy Virus Budding and Release

    PubMed Central

    Hütter, Sylvia; Zurnic, Irena; Lindemann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Like all other viruses, a successful egress of functional particles from infected cells is a prerequisite for foamy virus (FV) spread within the host. The budding process of FVs involves steps, which are shared by other retroviruses, such as interaction of the capsid protein with components of cellular vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) machinery via late domains identified in some FV capsid proteins. Additionally, there are features of the FV budding strategy quite unique to the spumaretroviruses. This includes secretion of non-infectious subviral particles and a strict dependence on capsid-glycoprotein interaction for release of infectious virions from the cells. Virus-like particle release is not possible since FV capsid proteins lack a membrane-targeting signal. It is noteworthy that in experimental systems, the important capsid-glycoprotein interaction could be bypassed by fusing heterologous membrane-targeting signals to the capsid protein, thus enabling glycoprotein-independent egress. Aside from that, other systems have been developed to enable envelopment of FV capsids by heterologous Env proteins. In this review article, we will summarize the current knowledge on FV budding, the viral components and their domains involved as well as alternative and artificial ways to promote budding of FV particle structures, a feature important for alteration of target tissue tropism of FV-based gene transfer systems. PMID:23575110

  5. Evaluating the skill of seasonal weather forecasts in predicting aflatoxin contamination of groundnut in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brak, B.; Challinor, A.

    2011-12-01

    Aflatoxins, a group of toxic secondary metabolites produced by some strains of a number of species within Aspergillus section Flavi, contaminate a range of crops grown at latitudes between 40N° and 40S° of the equator. Digestion of food products derived from aflatoxin-contaminated crops may result in acute and chronic health problems in human beings. Countries in sub-Saharan Africa in particular have seen large percentages of the human population exposed to aflatoxin. A recent study showed that over 98% of subjects in West Africa tested positive for aflatoxin biomarkers. According to other research, every year 250,000 people die from hepato-cellular carcinoma related causes due to aflatoxin ingestion in parts of West Africa. Strict aflatoxin levels set by importing countries in accordance with the WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) also impair the value of agricultural trade. Over the last thirty years this has led to a reduction of African exports of groundnut by 19% despite the consumption of groundnut derived food products going up by 209%. The occurrence of aflatoxin on crops is strongly influenced by weather. Empirical studies in the US have shown that pre-harvest, aflatoxin contamination of groundnuts is induced by conditions of drought stress in combination with soil temperatures between 25°C and 31°C. Post-harvest, aflatoxin production of stored, Aspergillus-contaminated groundnuts is exacerbated in conditions where relative humidity is above 83%. The GLAM crop model was extended to include a soil temperature subroutine and subroutines containing pre- and post-harvest aflatoxin algorithms. The algorithms used to estimate aflatoxin contamination indices are based on findings from multiple empirical studies and the pre-harvest aflatoxin model has been validated for Australian conditions. Hence, there was sufficient scope to use GLAM with these algorithms to answer the foremost research question: Is the

  6. Efficacy and insecticidal properties of some essential oils against Caryedon serratus (Oliver)-a storage pest of groundnut.

    PubMed

    Harish, G; Nataraja, M V; Holajjer, Prasanna; Thirumalaisamy, P P; Jadon, K S; Savaliya, S D; Padavi, R D; Koradia, V G; Gedia, M V

    2014-11-01

    During storage groundnut is attacked by number of stored grain pest and management of these insect pests particularly bruchid beetle, Caryedon serratus (Oliver) is of prime importance as they directly damage the pod and kernels. Hence, some essential oils were tested for their insecticidal and fungicidal properties. Highest total bruchid mortality was recorded with the application of neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) concentration and lowest in eucalyptus oil at 5% (v/w). Number of eggs laid was recorded 2.3 in neem oil 10% (v/w) which was lowest and significantly superior over untreated control and was at par with castor oil 10% (v/w) which recorded 2.5 eggs per 100 g of groundnut pods. There was no adult emergence in the groundnut pods treated with castor oil, eucalyptus oil, neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) concentration. Groundnut pods treated with castor oil, eucalyptus oil, neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) and neem oil at 5% (v/w) concentrations recorded no damage to pods and kernels and also zero per cent weight loss. These oils effectively influenced groundnut bruchid establishment and reduce damage besides reduction in aflatoxin contamination.

  7. Comparison of the protein nutritional value of food blends based on sorghum, bambara groundnut and sweet potatoes.

    PubMed

    Nnam, N M

    2001-01-01

    The protein quality of four blends based on sprouted sorghum, bambara groundnuts and fermented sweet potatoes had been evaluated by rat feeding experiments; casein served as a reference protein. The test proteins were incorporated to make up 1.6% total nitrogen. There was an inverse relationship between % nitrogen disgestibility and the proportion of sorghum protein in the blend; being highest (89.7%) in the diets based on sorghum:bambara groundnut:sweet potatoes with protein ratios of 52:46:2. This blend proved to be optimum when the biological value (93.6%) and the net protein utilization (84%) were used as protein indices. The findings imply that foods with good protein quality could be formulated from a blend of sorghum-bambara groundnut and sweet potatoes, provided appropriate processing and blending are taken into consideration.

  8. Tropical Storms Bud and Dera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Like dancers pirouetting in opposite directions, the rotational patterns of two different tropical storms are contrasted in this pair of MISR nadir-camera images.

    The left-hand image is of Tropical Storm Bud, acquired on June 17, 2000 (Terra orbit 2656) as the storm was dissipating. Bud was situated in the eastern Pacific Ocean between Socorro Island and the southern tip of Baja California. South of the storm's center is a vortex pattern caused by obstruction of the prevailing flow by tiny Socorro Island. Sonora, Mexico and Baja California are visible at the top of the image.

    The right-hand image is of Tropical Cyclone Dera, acquired on March 12, 2001 (Terra orbit 6552). Dera was located in the Indian Ocean, south of Madagascar. The southern end of this large island is visible in the top portion of this image.

    Northern hemisphere tropical storms, like Bud, rotate in a counterclockwise direction, whereas those in the southern hemisphere, such as Dera, rotate clockwise. The opposite spins are a consequence of Earth's rotation.

    Each image covers a swath approximately 380 kilometers wide.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  9. Tropical Storms Bud and Dera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Like dancers pirouetting in opposite directions, the rotational patterns of two different tropical storms are contrasted in this pair of Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) nadir-camera images. The left-hand image is of Tropical Storm Bud, acquired on June 17, 2000 (Terra orbit 2656) as the storm was dissipating. Bud was situated in the eastern Pacific Ocean between Socorro Island and the southern tip of Baja California. South of the storm's center is a vortex pattern caused by obstruction of the prevailing flow by tiny Socorro Island. Sonora, Mexico and Baja California are visible at the top of the image. The right-hand image is of Tropical Cyclone Dera, acquired on March 12, 2001. Dera was located in the Indian Ocean, south of Madagascar. The southern end of this large island is visible in the top portion of this image. Northern hemisphere tropical storms, like Bud, rotate in a counterclockwise direction, whereas those in the southern hemisphere, such as Dera, rotate clockwise. The opposite spins are a consequence of Earth's rotation. Each image covers a swath approximately 380 kilometers wide. Image courtesy NASA/JPL/GSFC/LaRC, MISR Team

  10. Identification of Gene Modules Associated with Low Temperatures Response in Bambara Groundnut by Network-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bonthala, Venkata Suresh; Mayes, Katie; Moreton, Joanna; Blythe, Martin; Wright, Victoria; May, Sean Tobias; Massawe, Festo; Mayes, Sean; Twycross, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an African legume and is a promising underutilized crop with good seed nutritional values. Low temperature stress in a number of African countries at night, such as Botswana, can effect the growth and development of bambara groundnut, leading to losses in potential crop yield. Therefore, in this study we developed a computational pipeline to identify and analyze the genes and gene modules associated with low temperature stress responses in bambara groundnut using the cross-species microarray technique (as bambara groundnut has no microarray chip) coupled with network-based analysis. Analyses of the bambara groundnut transcriptome using cross-species gene expression data resulted in the identification of 375 and 659 differentially expressed genes (p<0.01) under the sub-optimal (23°C) and very sub-optimal (18°C) temperatures, respectively, of which 110 genes are commonly shared between the two stress conditions. The construction of a Highest Reciprocal Rank-based gene co-expression network, followed by its partition using a Heuristic Cluster Chiseling Algorithm resulted in 6 and 7 gene modules in sub-optimal and very sub-optimal temperature stresses being identified, respectively. Modules of sub-optimal temperature stress are principally enriched with carbohydrate and lipid metabolic processes, while most of the modules of very sub-optimal temperature stress are significantly enriched with responses to stimuli and various metabolic processes. Several transcription factors (from MYB, NAC, WRKY, WHIRLY & GATA classes) that may regulate the downstream genes involved in response to stimulus in order for the plant to withstand very sub-optimal temperature stress were highlighted. The identified gene modules could be useful in breeding for low-temperature stress tolerant bambara groundnut varieties. PMID:26859686

  11. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Bloomquist, Ryan F.; Parnell, Nicholas F.; Phillips, Kristine A.; Fowler, Teresa E.; Yu, Tian Y.; Sharpe, Paul T.; Streelman, J. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium. PMID:26483492

  12. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds.

    PubMed

    Bloomquist, Ryan F; Parnell, Nicholas F; Phillips, Kristine A; Fowler, Teresa E; Yu, Tian Y; Sharpe, Paul T; Streelman, J Todd

    2015-11-03

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium.

  13. Adsorption of malachite green on groundnut shell waste based powdered activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, R.; Ramteke, D.S. Wate, S.R.

    2007-07-01

    In the present technologically fast changing situation related to waste management practices, it is desirable that disposal of plant waste should be done in a scientific manner by keeping in view economic and pollution considerations. This is only possible when the plant waste has the potential to be used as raw material for some useful product. In the present study, groundnut shell, an agricultural waste, was used for the preparation of an adsorbent by chemical activation using ZnCl{sub 2} under optimized conditions and its comparative characterisation was conducted with commercially available powdered activated carbon (CPAC) for its physical, chemical and adsorption properties. The groundnut shell based powdered activated carbon (GSPAC) has a higher surface area, iodine and methylene blue number compared to CPAC. Both of the carbons were used for the removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution and the effect of various operating variables, viz. adsorbent dose (0.1-1 g l{sup -1}), contact time (5-120 min) and adsorbate concentrations (100-200 mg l{sup -1}) on the removal of dye, has been studied. The experimental results indicate that at a dose of 0.5 g l{sup -1} and initial concentration of 100 mg l{sup -1}, GSPAC showed 94.5% removal of the dye in 30 min equilibrium time, while CPAC removed 96% of the dye in 15 min. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using the linearized forms of Freundlich, Langmuir and BET equations to determine maximum adsorptive capacities. The equilibrium data fit well to the Freundlich isotherm, although the BET isotherm also showed higher correlation for both of the carbons. The results of comparative adsorption capacity of both carbons indicate that groundnut shell can be used as a low-cost alternative to commercial powdered activated carbon in aqueous solution for dye removal.

  14. An efficient method of agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and regeneration in local Indian cultivar of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) using grafting.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an industrial crop used as a source of edible oil and nutrients. In this study, an efficient method of regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is reported for a local cultivar GG-20 using de-embryonated cotyledon explant. A high regeneration 52.69 ± 2.32 % was achieved by this method with 66.6 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), while the highest number of shoot buds per explant, 17.67 ± 3.51, was found with 20 μM BAP and 10 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The bacterial culture OD, acetosyringone and L-cysteine concentration were optimized as 1.8, 200 μM and 50 mg L(-1), respectively, in co-cultivation media. It was observed that the addition of 2,4-D in co-cultivation media induced accumulation of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The optimized protocol exhibited 85 % transformation efficiency followed by 14.65 ± 1.06 % regeneration, of which 3.82 ± 0.6 % explants were survived on hygromycin after selection. Finally, 14.58 ± 2.95 % shoots (regenerated on survived explants) were rooted on rooting media (RM3). In grafting method, regenerated shoots (after hygromycin selection) were grafted on the non-transformed stocks with 100 % survival and new leaves emerged in 3 weeks. The putative transgenic plants were then confirmed by PCR, Southern hybridization, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and β-glucuronidase (GUS) histochemical assay. The reported method is efficient and rapid and can also be applied to other crops which are recalcitrant and difficult in rooting.

  15. Experimental evolution in budding yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    I will discuss our progress in analyzing evolution in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We take two basic approaches. The first is to try and examine quantitative aspects of evolution, for example by determining how the rate of evolution depends on the mutation rate and the population size or asking whether the rate of mutation is uniform throughout the genome. The second is to try to evolve qualitatively novel, cell biologically interesting phenotypes and track the mutations that are responsible for the phenotype. Our efforts include trying to alter cell morphology, evolve multicellularity, and produce a biological oscillator.

  16. Effects of replacing groundnut cake with blood vegetable waste meal in the diets of weaner rabbits.

    PubMed

    Adeniji, Adedayo Abiodun

    2012-01-01

    A total of seventy-two weaner rabbits of eight weeks of age were used to assess the effects of replacing groundnut cake (GNC) with blood vegetable waste meal (BVWM) in the diets of rabbits. The BVWM was fed to replace dietary GNC at 0, 15, 30, and 45%, with GNC being 15% in the control diet. The four experimental diets were fed ad libitum for a period of eight weeks. BVWM was analyzed to contain a crude protein value of 62.35%. There were comparable feed intake values by rabbits on all the diets although the rabbits in the higher replacement levels of BVWM tended to have consumed more of the feed. There were significant increases (P < 0.05) in body weight gain by rabbits as the BVWM level increased in the diet. Similarly, the feed to gain ratio improved and nitrogen digestibility increased (P < 0.05) with higher levels of BVWM in the diet. This study shows that rabbits can tolerate the 45% BVWM replacement of groundnut cake effectively.

  17. Beyond landraces: developing improved germplasm resources for underutilized species - a case for Bambara groundnut.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Siise; Massawe, Festo; Mayes, Sean

    2014-10-01

    The potential for underutilized crops (also known as minor, neglected or orphan crops) to improve food and nutrition security has been gaining prominence within the research community in recent years. This is due to their significance for diversified agricultural systems which is a necessary component of future agriculture to address food and nutritional security concerns posed by changing climate and a growing world population. Developing workable value chain systems for underutilized crop species, coupled with comparative trait studies with major crops, potentially allows us to identify suitable agricultural modalities for such species. Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.), an underutilized leguminous species, is of interest for its reported high levels of drought tolerance in particular, which contributes to environmental resilience in semi-arid environments. Here, we present a synopsis of suitable strategies for the genetic improvement of Bambara groundnut as a guide to other underutilized crop species. Underutilized crops have often been adapted over thousands of years in particular regions by farmers and largely still exist as landraces with little or no genetic knowledge of key phenotypic traits. Breeding in these species is fundamentally different to breeding in major crops, where significant pedigree structures and history allow highly directed improvement. In this regard, deploying new integrated germplasm development approaches for variety development and genetic analysis, such as multi-parent advance generation inter-crosses (MAGIC), within breeding programmes of underutilized species will be important to be able to fully utilize such crops.

  18. [Impact of TDZ and NAA on adventitious bud induction and cluster bud multiplication in Tulipa edulis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Fang; Xu, Chao; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Yang, He-Tong; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Xu, Hong-jian; Ma, Hong-Jian; Zhao, Gui-Hua

    2014-08-01

    To explore the method of explants directly induced bud and establish the tissue culture system of mutiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis, core bud and daughter bulbs (the top of bud stem expanded to form daughter bulb) of T. edulis were used as explants and treated with thidiazuron (TDZ) and 1-naphthlcetic acid (NAA). The results showed that the optimal medium for bud inducted form core bud and daughter bulb were MS + TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 4.0 mg x L(-1) and MS +TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 2.0 mg x L(-1) respectively, both of them had a bud induction rate of 72.92%, 79.22%. The optimal medium for cluster buds multiplication was MS + TDZ 0.2 mg x L(-1) + NAA 0.2 mg x L(-1), and proliferation coefficient was 2.23. After proliferation, cluster buds rooting occurred on MS medium with IBA 1.0 mg x L(-1) and the rooting rate was 52.6%, three to five seedlings in each plant. Using core bud and daughter bulb of T. edulis, the optimum medium for adventitious bud directly inducted from daughter bulb, core bud and cluster bud multiplication were screened out and the tissue culture system of multiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis was established.

  19. A Cross-Species Gene Expression Marker-Based Genetic Map and QTL Analysis in Bambara Groundnut.

    PubMed

    Chai, Hui Hui; Ho, Wai Kuan; Graham, Neil; May, Sean; Massawe, Festo; Mayes, Sean

    2017-02-22

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an underutilised legume crop, which has long been recognised as a protein-rich and drought-tolerant crop, used extensively in Sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of the study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in agronomic and drought-related traits using an expression marker-based genetic map based on major crop resources developed in soybean. The gene expression markers (GEMs) were generated at the (unmasked) probe-pair level after cross-hybridisation of bambara groundnut leaf RNA to the Affymetrix Soybean Genome GeneChip. A total of 753 markers grouped at an LOD (Logarithm of odds) of three, with 527 markers mapped into linkage groups. From this initial map, a spaced expression marker-based genetic map consisting of 13 linkage groups containing 218 GEMs, spanning 982.7 cM (centimorgan) of the bambara groundnut genome, was developed. Of the QTL detected, 46% were detected in both control and drought treatment populations, suggesting that they are the result of intrinsic trait differences between the parental lines used to construct the cross, with 31% detected in only one of the conditions. The present GEM map in bambara groundnut provides one technically feasible route for the translation of information and resources from major and model plant species to underutilised and resource-poor crops.

  20. A novel M RNA reassortant of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus infecting vegetables in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) was recently identified using serology and nucleocapsid gene sequence from tomato plants with severe tospovirus symptoms in south Florida, which extends the geographic range of this virus from South America and South Africa to now include North America. Full genome s...

  1. Solanaceous vegetables in Florida infected with a novel M RNA reassortant of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We recently identified Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) using serology and nucleocapsid gene sequence from tomato plants with severe tospovirus symptoms in south Florida. This extends the geographic range of this virus from South America and South Africa to now include North America. Full genome se...

  2. A Cross-Species Gene Expression Marker-Based Genetic Map and QTL Analysis in Bambara Groundnut

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Hui Hui; Ho, Wai Kuan; Graham, Neil; May, Sean; Massawe, Festo; Mayes, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an underutilised legume crop, which has long been recognised as a protein-rich and drought-tolerant crop, used extensively in Sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of the study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in agronomic and drought-related traits using an expression marker-based genetic map based on major crop resources developed in soybean. The gene expression markers (GEMs) were generated at the (unmasked) probe-pair level after cross-hybridisation of bambara groundnut leaf RNA to the Affymetrix Soybean Genome GeneChip. A total of 753 markers grouped at an LOD (Logarithm of odds) of three, with 527 markers mapped into linkage groups. From this initial map, a spaced expression marker-based genetic map consisting of 13 linkage groups containing 218 GEMs, spanning 982.7 cM (centimorgan) of the bambara groundnut genome, was developed. Of the QTL detected, 46% were detected in both control and drought treatment populations, suggesting that they are the result of intrinsic trait differences between the parental lines used to construct the cross, with 31% detected in only one of the conditions. The present GEM map in bambara groundnut provides one technically feasible route for the translation of information and resources from major and model plant species to underutilised and resource-poor crops. PMID:28241413

  3. Iron and phosphorus utilization in rats fed soaked and dehulled bambara groundnut supplemented with sorghum or crayfish.

    PubMed

    Anyika, Juliana U

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-six adult Wistar albino male rats (75-128 g) of age 8 weeks were used to study the effect of dehulled and soaked bambara groundnut combined with sorghum or crayfish on iron and phosphorus balances of rats fed for 10 days. Three out of the ten days were for adjustment and the rest for the balance period. Six diets were formulated and fed to the rats. The mixed protein diets provided 10% protein daily for the entire study period. Casein (CA) served as a reference protein. Rats fed the CA diet had significant decreases (p<0.05) in food intake, maintenance body weight, phosphorus intake and phosphorus balance when compared with those of the test groups. As judged by iron nutriture, dehulled brown bambara groundnut (DBGB) appeared to be superior to the white variety. Soaking seriously affected iron utilization in brown variety. Dehulling produced significant increases (p<0.05) in phosphorus balance in animals fed the white variety of bambara groundnut compared with the brown variety. On the other hand, soaking produced positive phosphorus balance in rats consuming the brown variety. Addition of crayfish produced a slight nonsignificant decrease (p>0.05) in rodents eating the brown variety. These results suggested that varietal difference and treatment affected iron and phosphorus utilization in rats fed bambara groundnut in conjunction with sorghum and/or crayfish.

  4. Application of response surface methodology for studying the product characteristics of extruded rice-cowpea-groundnut blends.

    PubMed

    Asare, Emmanuel Kwasi; Sefa-Dedeh, Samuel; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther; Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene

    2004-08-01

    Response surface methodology (with central composite rotatable design for k=3) was used to investigate the product properties of extruded rice-cowpea-groundnut blends in a single screw extruder. The combined effect of cowpea (0-20%), groundnut (0-10%), and feed moisture (14-48%) levels were used for formulation of the products. The product moisture, expansion ratio, bulk density and total colour change were studied using standard analytical methods. Well-expanded rice-legume blend extrudates of less bulk density and lower moisture content were produced at low feed moisture. Increasing legume addition affected the various shades of colour in the product. Models developed for the indices gave R(2) values ranging from 52.8% (for the b-value) to 86.5% (for bulk density). The models developed suggested that the optimal process variables for the production of a puffed snack with an enhanced nutrition and spongy structure from a rice-cowpea-groundnut blend are low feed moisture of 14-20% and maximum additions of 20% cowpea and 10% groundnut. A lack-of-fit test showed no significance, indicating that the models adequately fitted the data.

  5. Study of disbudding goat kids following injection of clove oil essence in horn bud region.

    PubMed

    Molaei, Mohammad Mahdi; Mostafavi, Ali; Kheirandish, Reza; Azari, Omid; Shaddel, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of injection of essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata in the kid horn buds, as a new chemical technique for disbudding. Five-day-old healthy goat kids from both sexes (n = 16) were divided randomly into 4 equal groups. In groups 1, 2 and 3, 0.2 mL of clove essence and in group 4 (control) 0.2 mL of normal saline was injected into the left horn bud of goat kids. Right horn bud in all kids was considered to ensure that they are horned. During the study, the rate of horn growth were evaluated in determined time intervals between groups 1 and 4. Tissue samples were taken from right and left horn bud in groups 2 and 3, at five and ten days after clove essence injection, for microscopic study. The results of the study showed that the clove essence stopped horn growth, whereas there was no significant difference in horn growth rate between left and right horns after injection of normal saline, in group 4. Histopathological study showed that injection of clove essence caused complete necrosis of epidermis and underlying dermis with collagenolysis in horn bud tissues, 5 days after injection and then progress in healing process was observed after 10 days. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the injection of clove essence is an effective method to stop horn growth without any undesirable effects on clinical parameters in goat kids.

  6. Bud development in corydalis (Corydalis bracteata) requires low temperature: a study of developmental and carbohydrate changes

    PubMed Central

    Khodorova, Nadejda V.; Miroslavov, Evgeniy A.; Shavarda, Alexey L.; Laberche, Jean-Claude; Boitel-Conti, Michèle

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Spring geophytes require a period of low temperature for proper flower development but the mechanism that underlies the relationship between cold treatment and flowering remains unknown. The present study aims to compare the developmental anatomy and carbohydrate content of the tuberous geophyte Corydalis bracteata growing under natural winter conditions from 10 to −10 °C (field-grown) and under a mild temperature regime of 18 °C (indoor-grown plants). Methods Samples were studied under light and electron microscopy. A histochemical test (periodic acid – Schiff's) was employed to identify starch in sectioned material. Sugars were analysed by capillary gas chromatography. Apoplastic wash fluid was prepared. Key Results Under natural conditions, shoots were elongated, and buds gained in dry mass and developed normally. For indoor-grown plants, these parameters were lower in value and, from December, a progressive necrosis of flower buds was observed. The tuber consisted of the new developing one, which was connected to the bud, and the old tuber with its starch reserve. Due to the absence of plasmodesmata between new and old tuber cells, sugar transport cannot be through the symplast. Thus, a potential apoplastic route is proposed from old tuber phloem parenchyma cells to the adjacent new tuber cells. Sugar content in buds during the autumn months (September–November) was lower for indoor-grown plants than control plants, whereas the sugar content in tubers during the same period was similar for plants from both temperature treatments. However, the amount of apoplastic sugars in tubers of field-grown plants was almost 15-fold higher than in indoor-grown tubers. Conclusions The results suggest that low temperature activates the apoplastic route of sugar transport in C. bracteata tubers and a consequent carbohydrate delivery to the bud. In the absence of cold treatment, the carbohydrate reserve is locked in old tuber cells so the nutrient

  7. Renal papillary necrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... ureters. Causes Renal papillary necrosis often occurs with analgesic nephropathy . This is damage to one or both ... Treatment depends on the cause. For example, if analgesic nephropathy is the cause, your doctor will recommend ...

  8. Distinct Domains of Yeast Cortical Tag Proteins Bud8p and Bud9p Confer Polar Localization and Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Krappmann, Anne-Brit; Taheri, Naimeh; Heinrich, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, diploid yeast cells follow a bipolar budding program, which depends on the two transmembrane glycoproteins Bud8p and Bud9p that potentially act as cortical tags to mark the cell poles. Here, we have performed systematic structure-function analyses of Bud8p and Bud9p to identify functional domains. We find that polar transport of Bud8p and Bud9p does not depend on N-terminal sequences but instead on sequences in the median part of the proteins and on the C-terminal parts that contain the transmembrane domains. We show that the guanosine diphosphate (GDP)/guanosine triphosphate (GTP) exchange factor Bud5p, which is essential for bud site selection and physically interacts with Bud8p, also interacts with Bud9p. Regions of Bud8p and Bud9p predicted to reside in the extracellular space are likely to confer interaction with the N-terminal region of Bud5p, implicating indirect interactions between the cortical tags and the GDP/GTP exchange factor. Finally, we have identified regions of Bud8p and Bud9p that are required for interaction with the cortical tag protein Rax1p. In summary, our study suggests that Bud8p and Bud9p carry distinct domains for delivery of the proteins to the cell poles, for interaction with the general budding machinery and for association with other cortical tag proteins. PMID:17581861

  9. Potential of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc) milk as a probiotic beverage-a review.

    PubMed

    Murevanhema, Yvonne Y; Jideani, Victoria A

    2013-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterraenea (L.) verdc) (BGN) is a legume; its origin have been traced back to Africa, and it is the third important legume; however, it is one of the neglected crops. It is highly nutritious, and has been termed a complete food. Its seed consist of 49%-63.5% carbohydrate, 15%-25% protein, 4.5%-7.4% fat, 5.2%-6.4% fiber, 3.2%-4.4% ash and 2% mineral compared to whole fresh cow milk 88% moisture, 4.8% carbohydrate, 3.2% proteins, 3.4% fat, 0.7% ash, and 0.01% cholesterol. Its chemical composition is comparable to that of soy bean. Furthermore, BGN has been reported to be a potential crop, owing to its nutritional composition, functional properties, antioxidant potential, and a drought resistant crop. Bambara groundnut milk (BGNM) had been rated higher in acceptability than milk from other legumes like soybean and cowpea. Probiotics have been defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amount confer a health benefit on the host. These benefits have been reported to be therapeutic, suppressing the growth and activity in conditions like infectious diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. The nutritional profile of BGNM is high enough to sustain the growth of probiotics. BGNs are normally boiled and salted, eaten as a relish or roasted, and eaten as a snack. Hence, BGNM can also be fermented with lactic acid bacteria to make a probiotic beverage that not only increase the economic value of the nutritious legume but also help in addressing malnutrition.

  10. Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellite markers and their application for diversity assessment in cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea)

    PubMed Central

    Cuc, Luu M; Mace, Emma S; Crouch, Jonathan H; Quang, Vu D; Long, Tran D; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2008-01-01

    Background Cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is the fourth most important oilseed crop in the world, grown mainly in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate climates. Due to its origin through a single and recent polyploidization event, followed by successive selection during breeding efforts, cultivated groundnut has a limited genetic background. In such species, microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are very informative and useful for breeding applications. The low level of polymorphism in cultivated germplasm, however, warrants a need of larger number of polymorphic microsatellite markers for cultivated groundnut. Results A microsatellite-enriched library was constructed from the genotype TMV2. Sequencing of 720 putative SSR-positive clones from a total of 3,072 provided 490 SSRs. 71.2% of these SSRs were perfect type, 13.1% were imperfect and 15.7% were compound. Among these SSRs, the GT/CA repeat motifs were the most common (37.6%) followed by GA/CT repeat motifs (25.9%). The primer pairs could be designed for a total of 170 SSRs and were optimized initially on two genotypes. 104 (61.2%) primer pairs yielded scorable amplicon and 46 (44.2%) primers showed polymorphism among 32 cultivated groundnut genotypes. The polymorphic SSR markers detected 2 to 5 alleles with an average of 2.44 per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC) value for these markers varied from 0.12 to 0.75 with an average of 0.46. Based on 112 alleles obtained by 46 markers, a phenogram was constructed to understand the relationships among the 32 genotypes. Majority of the genotypes representing subspecies hypogaea were grouped together in one cluster, while the genotypes belonging to subspecies fastigiata were grouped mainly under two clusters. Conclusion Newly developed set of 104 markers extends the repertoire of SSR markers for cultivated groundnut. These markers showed a good level of PIC value in cultivated germplasm and therefore would be

  11. Apoptosis, oncosis, and necrosis. An overview of cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Majno, G.; Joris, I.

    1995-01-01

    The historical development of the cell death concept is reviewed, with special attention to the origin of the terms necrosis, coagulation necrosis, autolysis, physiological cell death, programmed cell death, chromatolysis (the first name of apoptosis in 1914), karyorhexis, karyolysis, and cell suicide, of which there are three forms: by lysosomes, by free radicals, and by a genetic mechanism (apoptosis). Some of the typical features of apoptosis are discussed, such as budding (as opposed to blebbing and zeiosis) and the inflammatory response. For cell death not by apoptosis the most satisfactory term is accidental cell death. Necrosis is commonly used but it is not appropriate, because it does not indicate a form of cell death but refers to changes secondary to cell death by any mechanism, including apoptosis. Abundant data are available on one form of accidental cell death, namely ischemic cell death, which can be considered an entity of its own, caused by failure of the ionic pumps of the plasma membrane. Because ischemic cell death (in known models) is accompanied by swelling, the name oncosis is proposed for this condition. The term oncosis (derived from ónkos, meaning swelling) was proposed in 1910 by von Reckling-hausen precisely to mean cell death with swelling. Oncosis leads to necrosis with karyolysis and stands in contrast to apoptosis, which leads to necrosis with karyorhexis and cell shrinkage. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7856735

  12. The dormant buds of Rhabdopleura compacta (Hemichordata).

    PubMed

    Dilly, P N

    1975-06-13

    Rhabdopleura has an overwintering stage that consists of two layers of cells surrounding a central yolk mass. This cellular part is surrounded by a thick electron dense capsule which is secreted by the bud itself. The capsule is probably impervious and protective to its contents. Blood vessels join the buds to the zooids of the colony. They form the probable route of transfer of yolk from the zooids to the dormant bud. The capsule of the dormant bud has some structural features in common with the black stolon of the adult zooids. The black stolon is probably formed in a manner similar to that which made the fusellar fabric of the periderm of fossil graptolities.

  13. Growth and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as influenced by weed management practices and Rhizobium inoculation.

    PubMed

    Jhala, A; Rathod, P H; Patel, K C; Van Damme, P

    2005-01-01

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) productivity in India is low, because of many problems beset in its cultivation. One of the serious problems are weeds. Groundnut yield losses due to weeds have been estimated as high as 24 to 70 percent. This has created a scope for using herbicides in groundnut crop. A field investigation was carried out during kharif (rainy) season of 2001-2002 on a sandy loam soil at College Agronomy Farm, B.A. College of Agriculture, Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand, India to study the effect of weed management practices and Rhizobium inoculation on growth and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Ten weed control treatments, comprising four treatments of sole application of fluchloralin, pendimethalin, butachlor and metolachlor, respectively each applied at 1.0 kg ha(-1); four treatments comprising of an application of the same herbicides at the same levels coupled with one hand weeding at 30 DAS; one weed-free treatment (hand weedings at 15, 30, 45 DAS); and one unweeded control. All 10 treatmets were combined with and without Rhizobium inoculation (i.e. a total of 20 treatment combinations) under a factorial randomized complete block design (FRBD) with four replications. Minimum weed dry matter accumulation (70 kg/ha) with higher weed control efficiency (90.70%) was recorded under an integrated method i.e. pendimethalin at 1.0 kg ha(-1) + hand weeding at 30 DAS, which also resulted in maximum pod yield (1773.50 kg ha(-1)). This treatment was comparable to fluchloralin applied at 1.0 kg ha(-1) combined with hand- weeding at 30 DAS. Weedy conditions in the unweeded control treatment reduced pod yield by 29.90-35.95% as compared to integrated method. Significantly higher pod yield was obtained with Rhizobium inoculation than the mean value of all treatments without inoculation. For most agronomical parameters examined, Rhizobium inoculation and weed control treatments were independent in their effect.

  14. Uncommon occurrence ratios of aflatoxin B1, B 2, G 1, and G 2 in maize and groundnuts from Malawi.

    PubMed

    Matumba, Limbikani; Sulyok, Michael; Njoroge, Samuel M C; Njumbe Ediage, Emmanuel; Van Poucke, Christof; De Saeger, Sarah; Krska, Rudolf

    2015-02-01

    We report an unusual aflatoxin profile in maize and groundnuts from Malawi, with aflatoxin G1 found routinely at equal or even higher levels than aflatoxin B1. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) ratio in a contaminated sample is generally greater than 50% of total aflatoxin (sum of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2). In Malawi, the aflatoxin occurrence ratios were determined by examining LC-MS/MS and HPLC fluorescence detection (FLD) data of 156 naturally contaminated raw maize and 80 groundnut samples collected in 2011 and 2012. Results showed that natural aflatoxin occurrence ratio differed. In 47% of the samples, the concentration of AFG1 was higher than that of AFB1. The mean concentration percentages of AFB1/AFB2/AFG1/AFG2 in reference to total aflatoxins were found to be 47:5:43:5%, respectively. The AFG1 and AFB1 50/50 trend was observed in maize and groundnuts and was consistent for samples collected in both years. If the AFB1 measurement was used to check compliance of total aflatoxin regulatory limit set at 10, 20, 100, and 200 μg/kg with an assumption that AFB1≥50% of the total aflatoxin content, 8, 13, 24, and 26% false negative rates would have occurred respectively. It is therefore important for legislation to consider total aflatoxins rather than AFB1 alone.

  15. Growth analysis and yield of two varieties of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as influenced by different weed control methods.

    PubMed

    Olayinka, Bolaji U; Etejere, Emmanuel O

    Field trials were carried out to evaluate the effects of seven weed management strategies on the growth and yield of two groundnut varieties (Samnut 10 and MK 373) for two successive seasons (2010-2011). The experimental layout was a split plot complete randomized block design with three replications. The two groundnut varieties showed identical pattern of results for leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and crop growth rate as well as yield. All the weed control treatments significantly enhanced the growth and yield compared with the weedy check. The weed free check had the highest growth but the highest yield was recorded from rice straw mulch at 0.1 m depth + one hand weeding at 6 weeks after sowing (WAS) due to increase in number of matured pods per plant, seed weight per plant and 100-seed weight. The results showed that rice straw mulch at 0.1 m depth + one hand weeding at 6 WAS was better agronomical practice for enhancing growth and yield of groundnut. This enhancement could be as a result of its positive influence on physiological parameters such as leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and crop growth rate. Its use is also ecofriendly as it limits the need for synthetic herbicide.

  16. PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF RESVERATROL AND COUMARIC ACID ON TWO MAJOR GROUNDNUT PESTS AND THEIR EGG PARASITOID BEHAVIOR.

    PubMed

    Sambangi, Pratyusha; Rani, Pathipati Usha

    2016-04-01

    Groundnut, Arachis hypogea L., is one of the plant species that synthesizes phenolic compounds, resveratrol and coumaric acid. They are induced as a defense strategy in plant in response to feeding lepidopterans. The present study investigated the role of resveratrol and coumaric acid in producing antiherbivore effects as a direct defense against two major groundnut pests, Spodoptera litura F. and Amsacta albistriga W., and in indirect defense by attracting the egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis Ishii under laboratory conditions. The phenolic compounds deterred the feeding of both pests and caused reduction in the larval weights in a dose-dependent manner in leaf disk bioassays. Antioxidant mechanisms of larvae fed with these phenols were measured by estimating the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX), and catalase (CAT). Enzyme activities increased significantly in experimental larvae, more so in resveratrol-treated than in coumaric acid treated larvae. Feeding larvae with resveratrol and coumaric acid resulted in enhanced activities of detoxifying enzymes, carboxyl esterase (EST), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the midgut tissues of both species, indicating the toxic nature of these compounds. Trichogramma chilonis was more attracted toward coumaric acid treatments in Y-olfactometer tests than to resveratrol. This study contributes to the understanding of the roles of resveratrol and coumaric acid in direct as well as indirect defense, we infer a possible utilization of these compounds in alternate measures of groundnut pest control in future.

  17. Intraspecific and interspecific competition in Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Pic) on stored bambara groundnut, Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt.

    PubMed

    Lale, N E.S.; Vidal, S

    2001-10-01

    Intraspecific competition was studied in Callosobruchus maculatus and Callosobruchus subinnotatus. Interspecific competition between the two bruchids was also studied to determine which of these species is likely to cause more damage to stored bambara groundnuts, Vigna subterranea in cases of joint infestation. Results showed that increasing the adult density up to 8 females per 10g of bambara groundnut seeds did not significantly reduce the mean number of eggs laid per female, the number of eggs developing to the adult stage, or the weight of emerged adults of either species. The developmental period of the two species was also not significantly affected. The adult emergence curve of C. maculatus was similar to that of C. subinnotatus and was of the scramble type. C. maculatus performed better than C. subinnotatus in interspecific competition and it achieved this through a higher egg-laying ability and a higher rate of progeny production coupled with a shorter life-cycle. The implications of these findings with respect to damage and possible loss of stored bambara groundnut are discussed.

  18. Tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wen-Ming

    2013-01-28

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a critical cytokine, which contributes to both physiological and pathological processes. This mini-review will briefly touch the history of TNF discovery, its family members and its biological and pathological functions. Then, it will focus on new findings on the molecular mechanisms of how TNF triggers activation of the NF-κB and AP-1 pathways, which are critical for expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as the MLKL cascade, which is critical for the generation of ROS in response to TNF. Finally, this review will briefly summarize recent advances in understanding TNF-induced cell survival, apoptosis and necrosis (also called necroptosis). Understanding new findings and emerging concepts will impact future research on the molecular mechanisms of TNF signaling in immune disorders and cancer-related inflammation.

  19. Preformation in vegetative buds of Prunus persica: factors influencing number of leaf primordia in overwintering buds.

    PubMed

    Gordon, D; Damiano, C; DeJong, T M

    2006-04-01

    We investigated the influence of bud position, cultivar, tree age, tree carbohydrate status, sampling date, drought and light exposure on the number of leaf primordia formed in dormant vegetative peach buds (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) relative to the number of primordia formed after bud break (neoformed). During winter dormancy, vegetative peach buds from California and Italy were dissected and the number of leaf primordia recorded. Between leaf drop and bud break, the number of leaf primordia doubled from about five to about 10. Parent shoot length, number of nodes on the parent shoot, cross-sectional area of the parent shoot, bud position along the parent shoot and bud cross-sectional area were correlated with the number of leaf primordia. Previous season light exposure, drought and tree carbohydrate status did not affect the number of leaf primordia present. The number of leaf primordia differed significantly among peach varieties and tree ages at leaf drop, but not at bud break. Our results indicate that neoformation accounted for all shoot growth beyond about 10 nodes. The predominance of neoformed shoot growth in peach allows this species great plasticity in its response to current-season conditions.

  20. Necrosis in yeast.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Tobias; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Büttner, Sabrina; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Madeo, Frank

    2010-03-01

    Necrosis was long regarded as an accidental cell death process resulting from overwhelming cellular injury such as chemical or physical disruption of the plasma membrane. Such a definition, however, proved to be inapplicable to many necrotic scenarios. The discovery that genetic manipulation of several proteins either protected or enhanced necrotic cell death argued in favor of a regulated and hence programmed process, as it is the case for apoptosis. For more than a decade, yeast has served as a model for apoptosis research; recently, evidence accumulated that it also harbors a necrotic program. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about factors that control necrotic cell death in yeast. Mitochondria, aging and a low pH are positive regulators of this process while cellular polyamines (e.g. spermidine) and endonuclease G as well as homeostatic organelles like the vacuole or peroxisomes are potent inhibitors of necrosis. Physiological necrosis may stimulate intercellular signaling via the release of necrotic factors that promote viability of healthy cells and, thus, assure survival of the clone. Together, the data obtained in yeast argue for the existence of a necrotic program, which controls longevity and whose physiological function may thus be aging.

  1. Photoperiod and temperature responses of bud swelling and bud burst in four temperate forest tree species.

    PubMed

    Basler, David; Körner, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Spring phenology of temperate forest trees is optimized to maximize the length of the growing season while minimizing the risk of freezing damage. The release from winter dormancy is environmentally mediated by species-specific responses to temperature and photoperiod. We investigated the response of early spring phenology to temperature and photoperiod at different stages of dormancy release in cuttings from four temperate tree species in controlled environments. By tracking bud development, we were able to identify the onset of bud swelling and bud growth in Acer pseudoplatanus L., Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. and Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. At a given early stage of dormancy release, the onset and duration of the bud swelling prior to bud burst are driven by concurrent temperature and photoperiod, while the maximum growth rate is temperature dependent only, except for Fagus, where long photoperiods also increased bud growth rates. Similarly, the later bud burst was controlled by temperature and photoperiod (in the photoperiod sensitive species Fagus, Quercus and Picea). We conclude that photoperiod is involved in the release of dormancy during the ecodormancy phase and may influence bud burst in trees that have experienced sufficient chilling. This study explored and documented the early bud swelling period that precedes and defines later phenological stages such as canopy greening in conventional phenological works. It is the early bud growth resumption that needs to be understood in order to arrive at a causal interpretation and modelling of tree phenology at a large scale. Classic spring phenology events mark visible endpoints of a cascade of processes as evidenced here.

  2. Development and Evaluation of a High Density Genotyping ‘Axiom_Arachis’ Array with 58 K SNPs for Accelerating Genetics and Breeding in Groundnut

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Manish K.; Agarwal, Gaurav; Kale, Sandip M.; Clevenger, Josh; Nayak, Spurthi N.; Sriswathi, Manda; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Chavarro, Carolina; Chen, Xiaoping; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Vishwakarma, Manish K.; Leal-Bertioli, Soraya; Liang, Xuanqiang; Bertioli, David J.; Guo, Baozhu; Jackson, Scott A.; Ozias-Akins, Peggy; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2017-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant DNA sequence variation in the genomes which can be used to associate genotypic variation to the phenotype. Therefore, availability of a high-density SNP array with uniform genome coverage can advance genetic studies and breeding applications. Here we report the development of a high-density SNP array ‘Axiom_Arachis’ with 58 K SNPs and its utility in groundnut genetic diversity study. In this context, from a total of 163,782 SNPs derived from DNA resequencing and RNA-sequencing of 41 groundnut accessions and wild diploid ancestors, a total of 58,233 unique and informative SNPs were selected for developing the array. In addition to cultivated groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea), fair representation was kept for other diploids (A. duranensis, A. stenosperma, A. cardenasii, A. magna and A. batizocoi). Genotyping of the groundnut ‘Reference Set’ containing 300 genotypes identified 44,424 polymorphic SNPs and genetic diversity analysis provided in-depth insights into the genetic architecture of this material. The availability of the high-density SNP array ‘Axiom_Arachis’ with 58 K SNPs will accelerate the process of high resolution trait genetics and molecular breeding in cultivated groundnut. PMID:28091575

  3. (22)Na influx is significantly lower in salt tolerant groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) varieties.

    PubMed

    Smitharani, J A; Sowmyashree, M L; Vasantha, K M; Srivastava, M; Sashidhar, V R

    2014-01-01

    Distinct varieties differing in salt tolerance were initially identified from two separate green house experiments using two systems; solution as well as soil culture. The first screening involved a diverse group of 27 cultivars. Several physiological traits; Chlorophyll Stability Index (CSI), Salt Tolerance Index (STI) and ion content were determined to screen the cultivars for differences in salt tolerance using solution culture in the first experiment. A set of six varieties (three tolerant and three susceptible) were selected from this experiment and then subjected again to salt stress adopting a natural soil system in the second experiment which involved a screening approach essentially similar to that of the first experiment. In the third experiment using two distinct cultivars differing in salt tolerance selected from experiment II, (22)Na influx rate was determined in the root and shoot at the end of a 24 h salt imposition in Hoagland's nutrient system containing 180 KBq of (22)Na. The results suggested that there were distinct differences in (22)Na influx rate into root and concurrently in the shoot. The salt tolerant Spanish improved and one of the moderately tolerant Trombay variety TAG 24, showed good regulation of (22)Na influx resulting in low (22)Na concentration. The salt susceptible variety JSP39 had nearly 7-8 fold higher root (22)Na content as compared to the tolerant and moderately tolerant cultivars. The results have highlighted the importance of Na exclusion as an important determinant of salt tolerance in groundnut.

  4. In Vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae))

    PubMed Central

    Koné, Mongomaké; Koné, Tchoa; Silué, Nakpalo; Soumahoro, André Brahima; Kouakou, Tanoh Hilaire

    2015-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous grain legume. It occupies a prominent place in the strategies to ensure food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration system, a prerequisite for genetic transformation application, requires the establishment of optimal conditions for seeds germination and plantlets development. Three types of seeds were inoculated on different basal media devoid of growth regulators. Various strengths of the medium of choice and the type and concentration of carbon source were also investigated. Responses to germination varied with the type of seed. Embryonic axis (EA) followed by seeds without coat (SWtC) germinated rapidly and expressed a high rate of germination. The growth performances of plantlets varied with the basal medium composition and the seeds type. The optimal growth performances of plants were displayed on half strength MS basal medium with SWtC and EA as source of seeds. Addition of 3% sucrose in the culture medium was more suitable for a maximum growth of plantlets derived from EA. PMID:26550604

  5. In Vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)).

    PubMed

    Koné, Mongomaké; Koné, Tchoa; Silué, Nakpalo; Soumahoro, André Brahima; Kouakou, Tanoh Hilaire

    2015-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous grain legume. It occupies a prominent place in the strategies to ensure food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration system, a prerequisite for genetic transformation application, requires the establishment of optimal conditions for seeds germination and plantlets development. Three types of seeds were inoculated on different basal media devoid of growth regulators. Various strengths of the medium of choice and the type and concentration of carbon source were also investigated. Responses to germination varied with the type of seed. Embryonic axis (EA) followed by seeds without coat (SWtC) germinated rapidly and expressed a high rate of germination. The growth performances of plantlets varied with the basal medium composition and the seeds type. The optimal growth performances of plants were displayed on half strength MS basal medium with SWtC and EA as source of seeds. Addition of 3% sucrose in the culture medium was more suitable for a maximum growth of plantlets derived from EA.

  6. Relative efficacy of different distillery effluents on growth, nitrogen fixation and yield of groundnut.

    PubMed

    Ramana, S; Biswas, A K; Singh, A B; Yadava, R B R

    2002-01-01

    A field experiment with groundnut as test crop was conducted to evaluate the manurial potential of three distillery effluents: raw spent wash (RSW), biomethanated spent wash (BSW) and lagoon sludge (LS) vis-à-vis recommended fertilizers (NPK + farm yard manure (FYM)) and a control (no fertilizer or distillery effluent). It was found that all the three distillery effluents increased total chlorophyll content, crop growth rate (CGR), total dry matter, nutrient uptake (N, P and K) and finally seed yield compared to the control but inhibited nodulation and decreased nitrogen fixation. Among the three distillery effluents, BSW produced the highest seed yield (619 kg ha(-1)) twice that of control (3.10 kg ha(-1)), followed by RSW (557 kg ha(-1)) and LS (472 kg ha(-1)). However, the distillery effluents did not influence protein and oil contents. It was concluded that these distillery effluents because of their high manurial potential could supply nutrients, particularly potassium, nitrogen and sulphur, to the crops and thus reduce the fertilizer requirement of crops. Nevertheless, the crop performance and yield with three distillery effluents were overall less than that produced by recommended NPK + FYM probably on account of failure of the effluents to supply balanced nutrition to the plants for achieving their potential growth capacity.

  7. Combining Ability of Pod Yield and Related Traits of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Shah-E-Alam, Md.; Hamid, Md. Abdul; Rafii, Mohd Y.; Malek, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    A study was performed using 6 × 6 F1 diallel population without reciprocals to assess the mode of inheritance of pod yield and related traits in groundnut with imposed salinity stress. Heterosis was found for pod number and yield. Data on general and specific combining ability (gca and sca) indicated additive and nonadditive gene actions. The gca: sca ratios were much less than unity suggesting predominant role of nonadditive gene effects. Cultivars “Binachinabadam-2” and “Dacca-1” and mutant M6/25/64-82 had the highest, second highest, and third highest pod number, as well as gca values, respectively. These two cultivars and another mutant M6/15/70-19 also had the highest, second highest, and third highest pod yield, as well as gca values, respectively. Therefore, “Dacca-1”, “Binachinabadam-2”, M6/25/64-82, and M6/15/70-19 could be used as source of salinity tolerance. Cross combinations showing high sca effects arising from parents with high and low gca values for any trait indicate the influence of nonadditive genes on their expression. Parents of these crosses can be used for biparental mating or reciprocal recurrent selection for developing high yielding varieties. Crosses with high sca effects having both parents with good gca effects could be exploited by pedigree breeding to get transgressive segregants. PMID:24737982

  8. Live confocal imaging of Arabidopsis flower buds.

    PubMed

    Prunet, Nathanaël; Jack, Thomas P; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances in confocal microscopy, coupled with the development of numerous fluorescent reporters, provide us with a powerful tool to study the development of plants. Live confocal imaging has been used extensively to further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the formation of roots, shoots and leaves. However, it has not been widely applied to flowers, partly because of specific challenges associated with the imaging of flower buds. Here, we describe how to prepare and grow shoot apices of Arabidopsis in vitro, to perform both single-point and time-lapse imaging of live, developing flower buds with either an upright or an inverted confocal microscope.

  9. Bud Necrosis of Green Ash Nursery Trees is Influenced by Nitrogen Availability and Fertilizer Type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine whether nitrogen (N) status of nursery-grown green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica ‘Summit’) trees in the autumn is related to tip die back during the following spring. In 2005, different rates of N from either urea formaldehyde (UF) or a controlled release fertilizer ...

  10. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin from maize and groundnut in young children from Benin and Togo, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Egal, S; Hounsa, A; Gong, Y Y; Turner, P C; Wild, C P; Hall, A J; Hell, K; Cardwell, K F

    2005-10-15

    impact of groundnut consumption on aflatoxin exposure was limited in this population. High AF-alb adduct levels were correlated with high prevalence of A. flavus and aflatoxin in groundnut, but significance was weak after adjustment for weaning status, agro-ecological zone and maternal socio-economic status (resp. p=0.091 and p=0.083). Ingestion of A. flavus and aflatoxin was high in certain agro-ecological zones (SS and SGS) and among the higher socio-economic strata due to higher frequencies of groundnut consumption. Contamination of groundnuts was similar across socio-economic and agro-ecological boundaries. In conclusion, dietary exposure to aflatoxin from groundnut was less than from maize in young children from Benin and Togo. Intervention strategies that aim to reduce dietary exposure in this population need to focus on maize consumption in particular, but they should not ignore consumption of groundnuts.

  11. Cryopreservation of Salix sp. dormant winter buds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cryopreservation, using dormant winter buds (DB) as source plant materials is economically advantageous over tissue culture options (TC). Processing DB does not require aseptic conditions and elaborate cryopreservation procedures. However, the DB approach is only feasible for cryopreserving a sel...

  12. Radiation effects on bovine taste bud membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Shatzman, A.R.; Mossman, K.L.

    1982-11-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of radiation-induced taste loss, the effects of radiation on preparations of enriched bovine taste bud membranes were studied. Taste buds containing circumvallate papilae, and surrounding control epithelial tissues devoid of taste buds, were obtained from steers and given radiation doses of 0-7000 cGy (rad). Tissue fractions were isolated into membrane-enriched and heterogeneous components using differential and sucrose gradient centrifugation of tissue homogenates. The yield of membranes, as measured by protein content in the buoyant membrane-enriched fractions, was reduced in quantity with increasing radiation dose. The relation between radiation dose and membrane quantity in membrane-enriched fractions could be fit by a simple exponential model with taste bud-derived membranes twice as radiosensitive as membranes from control epithelial tissue. Binding of sucrose, sodium, and acetate and fluoride stimulation of adenylate cyclase were nearly identical in both irradiated and nonirradiated intact membranes. Radiation had no effect on fractions of heterogeneous components. While it is not clear what changes are occurring in enriched taste cell membranes, damage to membranes may play an important role in the taste loss observed in patients following radiotherapy.

  13. Bilingual Buds: The Evolution of a Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The impetus to begin Bilingual Buds came about six years ago when the author, pregnant with twins and commuting into New York City, was reading about the numerous cognitive benefits for children of acquiring a second language early in their lives. She was surprised to learn that even by the age of six months, children begin to lose the ability to…

  14. Arthroscopic assessment of avascular necrosis.

    PubMed

    Bain, Gregory I; Durrant, Adam W

    2011-08-01

    Avascular necrosis of the lunate is a process that is not well understood. The cause is uncertain, but a common theory persists that it is caused by disruption of the vascular supply to the lunate. This article discusses an approach to assessment that respects the articular cartilage and places at the front of the decision-making process the pathoanatomic components of the articular cartilage. It primarily respects the articular cartilage in the patient with avascular necrosis. This approach was developed for avascular necrosis of the lunate, but in principle applies to other joints with avascular necrosis as well.

  15. Programmed Cell Death Initiation and Execution in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Strich, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death (PCD) was initially described in metazoans as a genetically controlled process leading to intracellular breakdown and engulfment by a neighboring cell . This process was distinguished from other forms of cell death like necrosis by maintenance of plasma membrane integrity prior to engulfment and the well-defined genetic system controlling this process. Apoptosis was originally described as a mechanism to reshape tissues during development. Given this context, the assumption was made that this process would not be found in simpler eukaryotes such as budding yeast. Although basic components of the apoptotic pathway were identified in yeast, initial observations suggested that it was devoid of prosurvival and prodeath regulatory proteins identified in mammalian cells. However, as apoptosis became extensively linked to the elimination of damaged cells, key PCD regulatory proteins were identified in yeast that play similar roles in mammals. This review highlights recent discoveries that have permitted information regarding PCD regulation in yeast to now inform experiments in animals. PMID:26272996

  16. Rhizobium pakistanensis sp. nov., isolated from groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) nodules grown in rainfed Pothwar, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Rabia; Zhang, Yu Jing; Ali, Safdar; Sui, Xin Hua; Zhang, Xiao Xia; Amara, Ummay; Chen, Wen Xin; Hayat, Rifat

    2015-01-01

    A Gram-negative, white, non-motile, rod shaped bacterial strain BN-19(T) was isolated from a root nodule of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) in Pakistan. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain BN-19(T) formed a subclade in the genus Rhizobium together with Rhizobium alkalisoli CCBAU 01393(T), Rhizobium vignae CCBAU 05176(T), Rhizobium huautlense SO2(T) and Rhizobium tarimense PL-41(T) with sequence similarities of 97.5, 97.3, 97.2 and 97.1 % respectively. Sequence analysis of housekeeping genes atpD, glnII and recA (with sequence similarities of ≤92 %) confirmed the unique position of BN-19(T) in the genus Rhizobium. DNA-DNA relatedness between the strain BN-19(T) and R. alkalisoli CCBAU 01393(T), R. vignae CCBAU 05176(T), R. huautlense SO2(T) and R. tarimense PL-41(T) were 20.6, 22.5, 15.9 and 20.5 % respectively, further confirming that BN-19(T) represents a novel species in the genus Rhizobium. The DNA G + C content was 60.1 mol%. The dominant fatty acids of strain BN-19(T) were C19:0 cyclo ω8c, summed feature 2 (C14:0 3OH and/or C16:1 iso I) and summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c). Some phenotypic features also differentiate the strain BN-19(T) from the related species. On the basis of these results, strain BN-19(T) is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium pakistanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BN-19(T) (=LMG 27895(T) = CCBAU 101086(T)).

  17. Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Insoluble Dietary Fiber Isolated from Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea [L.] Verdc.).

    PubMed

    Diedericks, Claudine F; Jideani, Victoria A

    2015-09-01

    Bambara groundnut (BGN) is a widely cultivated legume with a rich nutritional profile, yet despite its many benefits it still remains underutilized. To highlight its potential value, 4 BGN varieties-brown, red, black eye, and brown eye were subjected to sequential enzymatic treatments followed by centrifugation to obtain the insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) fraction. The IDFs were vacuum-dried and evaluated for color, hydration properties, fat absorption, polyphenolic compounds, neutral sugars, and uronic acids. An optimized white bread formulation was also determined using brown BGN-IDF in an optimal (IV) mixture design. Three mixture components constrained at lower and upper limits (water: 57% to 60%, yeast: 2.3% to 5.3%, and BGN-IDF: 7% to 10%) were evaluated for their effects on responses of specific loaf volume, gumminess, chewiness, and resilience of the loaves. All BGN-IDFs differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) across all color parameters. Polyphenols were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest in red and brown BGN-IDFs. Arabinose/galactose (31.04% to 37.12%), xylose (16.53% to 27.30%), and mannose (14.48% to 22.24%) were the major sugars identified. Swelling capacity was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest for brown eye BGN-IDF (7.72 ± 0.49 mL/g). Water retention capacity ranged from 1.63 to 2.01 g water/g dry weight. Fat absorption for red BGN-IDF differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the best optimal white bread formulation enriched with brown BGN-IDF was established with numerical optimization at 59.5% water, 4.3% yeast, and 8.5% BGN-IDF. Overall positive physicochemical and functional properties were observed for BGN-IDFs, and it was shown that an optimal white bread enriched with BGN-IDF could be produced.

  18. Taste Bud-Derived BDNF Is Required to Maintain Normal Amounts of Innervation to Adult Taste Buds.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingbin; Ohman-Gault, Lisa; Ma, Liqun; Krimm, Robin F

    2015-01-01

    Gustatory neurons transmit chemical information from taste receptor cells, which reside in taste buds in the oral cavity, to the brain. As adult taste receptor cells are renewed at a constant rate, nerve fibers must reconnect with new taste receptor cells as they arise. Therefore, the maintenance of gustatory innervation to the taste bud is an active process. Understanding how this process is regulated is a fundamental concern of gustatory system biology. We speculated that because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for taste bud innervation during development, it might function to maintain innervation during adulthood. If so, taste buds should lose innervation when Bdnf is deleted in adult mice. To test this idea, we first removed Bdnf from all cells in adulthood using transgenic mice with inducible CreERT2 under the control of the Ubiquitin promoter. When Bdnf was removed, approximately one-half of the innervation to taste buds was lost, and taste buds became smaller because of the loss of taste bud cells. Individual taste buds varied in the amount of innervation each lost, and those that lost the most innervation also lost the most taste bud cells. We then tested the idea that that the taste bud was the source of this BDNF by reducing Bdnf levels specifically in the lingual epithelium and taste buds. Taste buds were confirmed as the source of BDNF regulating innervation. We conclude that BDNF expressed in taste receptor cells is required to maintain normal levels of innervation in adulthood.

  19. Localization of Bud2p, a GTPase-activating protein necessary for programming cell polarity in yeast to the presumptive bud site

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hay-Oak; Sanson, Anthony; Herskowitz, Ira

    1999-01-01

    Yeast cells of different cell type exhibit distinct budding patterns that reflect the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Bud1p (Rsr1p), a Ras-like GTPase, and Bud2p, a GTPase-activating protein for Bud1p, are essential for proper budding pattern. We show that Bud2p is localized at the presumptive bud site in G1 cells in all cell types and that this localization is independent of Bud1p. Bud2p subsequently localizes to the mother-bud neck after bud emergence; this localization depends on the integrity of the septins. These observations indicate that Bud2p becomes positioned in G1 cells by recognizing cell type-specific landmarks at the presumptive bud site. PMID:10444589

  20. Processing umami and other tastes in mammalian taste buds.

    PubMed

    Roper, Stephen D; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2009-07-01

    Neuroscientists are now coming to appreciate that a significant degree of information processing occurs in the peripheral sensory organs of taste prior to signals propagating to the brain. Gustatory stimulation causes taste bud cells to secrete neurotransmitters that act on adjacent taste bud cells (paracrine transmitters) as well as on primary sensory afferent fibers (neurocrine transmitters). Paracrine transmission, representing cell-cell communication within the taste bud, has the potential to shape the final signal output that taste buds transmit to the brain. The following paragraphs summarize current thinking about how taste signals generally, and umami taste in particular, are processed in taste buds.

  1. Enhanced expression of AtNHX1, in transgenic groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) improves salt and drought tolerence.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad Ahsan; Zafar, Yusuf; Iqbal, Javaid; Iqbal, Muhammad Munir; Rashid, Umer; Ali, Ghulam Muhammad; Arif, Anjuman; Nazir, Farhat

    2011-11-01

    Salinity and drought are main threat to agriculture productivity, to avoid further losses it is necessary to improve the genetic material of crops against these stresses In this present study, AtNHX1, a vacuolar type Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene driven by 35S promoter was introduced into groundnut using Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation system. The stable integration of the AtNHX1 gene was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and southern blot analysis. It was found that transgenic plants having AtNHX1 gene are more resistant to high concentration of salt and water deprivation than the wild type plants. Salt and proline level in the leaves of the transgenic plants were also much higher than that of wild type plants. The results showed that overexpression of AtNHX1 gene not only improved salt tolerance but also drought tolerance in transgenic groundnut. Our results suggest that these plants could be cultivated in salt and drought-affected soils.

  2. Antioxidant defense response induced by Trichoderma viride against Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem causing collar rot in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Gajera, H P; Katakpara, Zinkal A; Patel, S V; Golakiya, B A

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to examine the antioxidant enzymes induced by Trichoderma viride JAU60 as initial defense response during invasion of rot pathogen Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem in five groundnut varieties under pot culture. Seed treatment of T. viride JAU60 reduced 51-58% collar rot disease incidence in different groundnut varieties under pathogen infected soil culture. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), elevated in response to pathogen infection, in higher rate by tolerant varieties (J-11 and GG-2) compared with susceptible (GAUG-10, GG-13, GG-20) and further induced by T. viride treatment. Trichoderma treatment remarkably increased the 2.3 fold SOD, 5 fold GPX and 2.5 fold APX activities during disease development in tolerant varieties and the same was found about 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 folds, respectively, in susceptible varieties. Overall, T. viride JAU60 treated seedlings (T3) witnessed higher activities of SOD (1.5 fold), GPX (3.25 fold) and APX (1.25 fold) than pathogen treatment (T2) possibly suggest the induction of antioxidant defense response by Trichoderma bio-controller to combat oxidative burst produced by invading pathogen.

  3. Synchronization of the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Foltman, Magdalena; Molist, Iago; Sanchez-Diaz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    A number of model organisms have provided the basis for our understanding of the eukaryotic cell cycle. These model organisms are generally much easier to manipulate than mammalian cells and as such provide amenable tools for extensive genetic and biochemical analysis. One of the most common model organisms used to study the cell cycle is the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This model provides the ability to synchronise cells efficiently at different stages of the cell cycle, which in turn opens up the possibility for extensive and detailed study of mechanisms regulating the eukaryotic cell cycle. Here, we describe methods in which budding yeast cells are arrested at a particular phase of the cell cycle and then released from the block, permitting the study of molecular mechanisms that drive the progression through the cell cycle.

  4. Eukaryotic-Like Virus Budding in Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Quemin, Emmanuelle R. J.; Chlanda, Petr; Sachse, Martin; Forterre, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Similar to many eukaryotic viruses (and unlike bacteriophages), viruses infecting archaea are often encased in lipid-containing envelopes. However, the mechanisms of their morphogenesis and egress remain unexplored. Here, we used dual-axis electron tomography (ET) to characterize the morphogenesis of Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 (SSV1), the prototype of the family Fuselloviridae and representative of the most abundant archaea-specific group of viruses. Our results show that SSV1 assembly and egress are concomitant and occur at the cellular cytoplasmic membrane via a process highly reminiscent of the budding of enveloped viruses that infect eukaryotes. The viral nucleoprotein complexes are extruded in the form of previously unknown rod-shaped intermediate structures which have an envelope continuous with the host membrane. Further maturation into characteristic spindle-shaped virions takes place while virions remain attached to the cell surface. Our data also revealed the formation of constricted ring-like structures which resemble the budding necks observed prior to the ESCRT machinery-mediated membrane scission during egress of various enveloped viruses of eukaryotes. Collectively, we provide evidence that archaeal spindle-shaped viruses contain a lipid envelope acquired upon budding of the viral nucleoprotein complex through the host cytoplasmic membrane. The proposed model bears a clear resemblance to the egress strategy employed by enveloped eukaryotic viruses and raises important questions as to how the archaeal single-layered membrane composed of tetraether lipids can undergo scission. PMID:27624130

  5. Singularity in polarization: rewiring yeast cells to make two buds.

    PubMed

    Howell, Audrey S; Savage, Natasha S; Johnson, Sam A; Bose, Indrani; Wagner, Allison W; Zyla, Trevin R; Nijhout, H Frederik; Reed, Michael C; Goryachev, Andrew B; Lew, Daniel J

    2009-11-13

    For budding yeast to ensure formation of only one bud, cells must polarize toward one, and only one, site. Polarity establishment involves the Rho family GTPase Cdc42, which concentrates at polarization sites via a positive feedback loop. To assess whether singularity is linked to the specific Cdc42 feedback loop, we disabled the yeast cell's endogenous amplification mechanism and synthetically rewired the cells to employ a different positive feedback loop. Rewired cells violated singularity, occasionally making two buds. Even cells that made only one bud sometimes initiated two clusters of Cdc42, but then one cluster became dominant. Mathematical modeling indicated that, given sufficient time, competition between clusters would promote singularity. In rewired cells, competition occurred slowly and sometimes failed to develop a single "winning" cluster before budding. Slowing competition in normal cells also allowed occasional formation of two buds, suggesting that singularity is enforced by rapid competition between Cdc42 clusters.

  6. Estimation of population effects in synchronized budding yeast experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemistoe, Antti; Aho, Tommi; Thesleff, Henna; Tiainen, Mikko; Marjanen, Kalle; Linne, Marja-Leena; Yli-Harja, Olli P.

    2003-05-01

    An approach for estimating the distribution of a synchronized budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell population is discussed. This involves estimation of the phase of the cell cycle for each cell. The approach is based on counting the number of buds of different sizes in budding yeast images. An image processing procedure is presented for the bud-counting task. The procedure employs clustering of the local mean-variance space for segmentation of the images. The subsequent bud-detection step is based on an object separation method which utilizes the chain code representation of objects as well as labeling of connected components. The procedure is tested with microscopic images that were obtained in a time-series experiment of a synchronized budding yeast cell population. The use of the distribution estimate of the cell population for inverse filtering of signals that are obtained in time-series microarray measurements is discussed as well.

  7. Identification of an Amphipathic Helix Important for the Formation of Ectopic Septin Spirals and Axial Budding in Yeast Axial Landmark Protein Bud3p

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jia; Gong, Ting; Gao, Xiang-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Correct positioning of polarity axis in response to internal or external cues is central to cellular morphogenesis and cell fate determination. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bud3p plays a key role in the axial bud-site selection (axial budding) process in which cells assemble the new bud next to the preceding cell division site. Bud3p is thought to act as a component of a spatial landmark. However, it is not clear how Bud3p interacts with other components of the landmark, such as the septins, to control axial budding. Here, we report that overexpression of Bud3p causes the formation of small septin rings (∼1 µm in diameter) and arcs aside from previously reported spiral-like septin structures. Bud3p closely associates with the septins in vivo as Bud3p colocalizes with these aberrant septin structures and forms a complex with two septins, Cdc10p and Cdc11p. The interaction of Bud3p with the septins may involve multiple regions of Bud3p including 1–858, 850–1220, and 1221–1636 a.a. since they all target to the bud neck but exhibit different effects on septin organization when overexpressed. In addition, our study reveals that the axial budding function of Bud3p is mediated by the N-terminal region 1–858. This region shares an amphipathic helix (850–858) crucial for bud neck targeting with the middle portion 850–1103 involved in the formation of ectopic septin spirals and rings. Interestingly, the Dbl-homology domain located in 1–858 is dispensable for axial bud-site selection. Our findings suggest that multiple regions of Bud3p ensure efficient targeting of Bud3p to the bud neck in the assembly of the axial landmark and distinct domains of Bud3p are involved in axial bud-site selection and other cellular processes. PMID:21408200

  8. Genetic evidence for the roles of the bud-site-selection genes BUD5 and BUD2 in control of the Rsr1p (Bud1p) GTPase in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Bender, A

    1993-01-01

    Yeast cells normally display either an axial (for MATa or MAT alpha cells) or bipolar (for MATa/alpha cells) pattern of bud-site selection. The RSR1 gene, which was previously identified as a multicopy suppressor of Ts- mutations in the bud-emergence gene CDC24, encodes a GTPase of the Ras family that is required for both budding patterns. Mutations in Rsr1p that presumably block its ability to bind or hydrolyze GTP cause a randomized budding phenotype, suggesting that regulators of Rsr1p will prove to be required for proper bud positioning. The BUD5 gene product is required for proper bud-site selection and contains similarity to GDP-dissociation stimulators (GDS) for Ras-type proteins, suggesting that Bud5p may be a GDS for Rsr1p. Here I report that BUD5 is required for wild-type RSR1, but not for mutationally activated rsr1val12, to serve as a multicopy suppressor of cdc24, indicating that Bud5p functions as a GDS for Rsr1p in vivo. To identify the GAP (GTPase-activating protein) for Rsr1p, a genetic selection was designed based on the observation that mutationally activated rsr1val12, but not wild-type RSR1, can serve as a multicopy suppressor of yeast RAS2(Ts) mutants. Mutants were selected that allowed wild-type RSR1 to act as a multicopy suppressor of RAS2(Ts). Two such mutations proved to be in the BUD2 gene, suggesting that Bud2p functions as a GAP for Rsr1p in vivo. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8234337

  9. Molecular mechanism of arenavirus assembly and budding.

    PubMed

    Urata, Shuzo; Yasuda, Jiro

    2012-10-10

    Arenaviruses have a bisegmented negative-strand RNA genome, which encodes four viral proteins: GP and NP by the S segment and L and Z by the L segment. These four viral proteins possess multiple functions in infection, replication and release of progeny viruses from infected cells. The small RING finger protein, Z protein is a matrix protein that plays a central role in viral assembly and budding. Although all arenaviruses encode Z protein, amino acid sequence alignment showed a huge variety among the species, especially at the C-terminus where the L-domain is located. Recent publications have demonstrated the interactions between viral protein and viral protein, and viral protein and host cellular protein, which facilitate transportation and assembly of viral components to sites of virus egress. This review presents a summary of current knowledge regarding arenavirus assembly and budding, in comparison with other enveloped viruses. We also refer to the restriction of arenavirus production by the antiviral cellular factor, Tetherin/BST-2.

  10. Functional Diversity of Silencers in Budding Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Sjöstrand, Jimmy O. O.; Kegel, Andreas; Åström, Stefan U.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the silencing of the cryptic mating-type loci HMLα and HMRa in the budding yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. A 102-bp minimal silencer fragment was defined that was both necessary and sufficient for silencing of HMLα. Mutagenesis of the silencer revealed three distinct regions (A, B, and C) that were important for silencing. Recombinant K. lactis ribosomal DNA enhancer binding protein 1 (Reb1p) could bind the silencer in vitro, and point mutations in the B box abolished both Reb1p binding and silencer function. Furthermore, strains carrying temperature-sensitive alleles of the REB1 gene derepressed the transcription of the HMLα1 gene at the nonpermissive temperature. A functional silencer element from the K. lactis cryptic HMRa locus was also identified, which contained both Reb1p binding sites and A boxes, strongly suggesting a general role for these sequences in K. lactis silencing. Our data indicate that different proteins bind to Kluyveromyces silencers than to Saccharomyces silencers. We suggest that the evolution of silencers is rapid in budding yeasts and discuss the similarities and differences between silencers in Saccharomyces and Kluyveromyces. PMID:12456003

  11. Electrochemical Regulation of Budding Yeast Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Piel, Matthieu; Chang, Fred; Minc, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Cells are naturally surrounded by organized electrical signals in the form of local ion fluxes, membrane potential, and electric fields (EFs) at their surface. Although the contribution of electrochemical elements to cell polarity and migration is beginning to be appreciated, underlying mechanisms are not known. Here we show that an exogenous EF can orient cell polarization in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells, directing the growth of mating projections towards sites of hyperpolarized membrane potential, while directing bud emergence in the opposite direction, towards sites of depolarized potential. Using an optogenetic approach, we demonstrate that a local change in membrane potential triggered by light is sufficient to direct cell polarization. Screens for mutants with altered EF responses identify genes involved in transducing electrochemical signals to the polarity machinery. Membrane potential, which is regulated by the potassium transporter Trk1p, is required for polarity orientation during mating and EF response. Membrane potential may regulate membrane charges through negatively charged phosphatidylserines (PSs), which act to position the Cdc42p-based polarity machinery. These studies thus define an electrochemical pathway that directs the orientation of cell polarization. PMID:25548923

  12. Molecular Mechanism of Arenavirus Assembly and Budding

    PubMed Central

    Urata, Shuzo; Yasuda, Jiro

    2012-01-01

    Arenaviruses have a bisegmented negative-strand RNA genome, which encodes four viral proteins: GP and NP by the S segment and L and Z by the L segment. These four viral proteins possess multiple functions in infection, replication and release of progeny viruses from infected cells. The small RING finger protein, Z protein is a matrix protein that plays a central role in viral assembly and budding. Although all arenaviruses encode Z protein, amino acid sequence alignment showed a huge variety among the species, especially at the C-terminus where the L-domain is located. Recent publications have demonstrated the interactions between viral protein and viral protein, and viral protein and host cellular protein, which facilitate transportation and assembly of viral components to sites of virus egress. This review presents a summary of current knowledge regarding arenavirus assembly and budding, in comparison with other enveloped viruses. We also refer to the restriction of arenavirus production by the antiviral cellular factor, Tetherin/BST-2. PMID:23202453

  13. Tritrichomonas foetus: budding from multinucleated pseudocysts.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Neves, Antonio; Benchimol, Marlene

    2009-11-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus is a flagellated protozoan parasite that causes trichomoniasis, a major sexually transmitted disease in cattle. T. foetus presents a simple life cycle, exhibiting only the trophozoitic form. However, under unfavorable growth conditions, the trophozoites, which are polar and flagellated, can round up and internalize their flagella forming pseudocysts. In this form no cyst wall surrounds the cell and it also displays a distinct mitosis when compared with the trophozoite form. In pseudocyst mitosis, the cell proceeds with duplication of cytoskeletal and mastigont structures; nuclear division occurs but without the corresponding cytoplasm division. Thus, giant multinucleated cells which present many mastigont structures are formed (approximately 62% of the population). These polymastigont/multinucleated cells are maintained when the cells are under stress conditions. When environmental conditions become favorable, the flagella are externalized and new flagellated trophozoites one by one, gradually bud from the multinucleated cell. Thus, in order to better understand the pseudocyst mitosis, the polymastigont formation and the generation of new cells by this budding process, video microscopy and other complementary techniques, such as immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy were used.

  14. Spontaneous Necrosis of Choroidal Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Thareja, Shalini; Rashid, Alia; Grossniklaus, Hans E.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical presentations and pathological features of spontaneously necrotic choroidal melanomas. Methods The clinical and histological features of patients who underwent enucleation for uveal melanoma from 1989 to 2012 at Emory University and were found to have spontaneously necrotic choroidal melanomas were retrospectively analyzed. Results A total of 6 cases were identified. All cases had 90-100% tumor necrosis and also exhibited marked ischemic necrosis of the iris and ciliary body; 5 of 6 cases exhibited marked ischemic necrosis of the retina. The tumor consisted of melanoma ghost cells often surrounded by a zone of pigmented macrophages. Thrombi were not found in any of the cases. All of the tumors in our cases were centered around the equatorial choroid and 2 extended into the ciliary body. One of the cases exhibited a wedge-shaped infarct in a lateral aspect of the tumor. In most of the cases, microscopic areas of intact tumor cells were present in the peripheries of the tumors. Conclusions Spontaneous necrosis may occur in uveal melanoma. We believe that this occurs secondary to tumor hypoxia in the center of the tumor, followed by secondary inflammation, generalized ischemia and finally complete tumor necrosis. PMID:27175363

  15. Therapy for acute retinal necrosis.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Tatsushi; Spencer, Doran B; Mochizuki, Manabu

    2008-01-01

    Acute retinal necrosis is a progressive necrotizing retinopathy caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella zoster virus (VZV). The mainstay of its treatment is antiviral therapy against these pathogenic organisms, such as intravenous acyclovir or oral valacyclovir. Systemic and topical corticosteroids together with antiviral therapy are used as an anti-inflammatory treatment to minimize damages to the optic nerve and retinal blood vessels. Because the majority of severe cases of the disease show occlusive retinal vasculitis, a low dosage of aspirin is used as anti-thrombotic treatment. Vitreo-retinal surgery is useful to repair rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, one of the main late-stage complications. Moreover, recent articles have reported some encouraging results of prophylactic vitrectomy before rhegmatogenous retinal detachment occurs. The efficacy of laser photocoagulation to prevent the development or extension of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is controversial. Despite these treatments, the visual prognosis of acute retinal necrosis is still poor, in particular VZV-induced acute retinal necrosis.

  16. [Nephrocalcinosis and subcutaneous fat necrosis].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Cláudia; Lobo, Luísa; Azevedo, António Siborro; Simão, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn is an uncommon, transient and self-healing panniculits. This entity generally follows an uncomplicated course, however there are rare and important complications. The authors present a case of a newborn with subcutaneous fat necrosis complicated by hypercalcemia and nephrocalcinosis. The pathogenesis of hypercalcemia is not fully understood and the nephrocalcinosis can evolve to chronic kidney disease. Clinicians should be aware of subcutaneous fat necrosis as a possible risk factor for hypercalcemia and patients should have serial serum and urinary calcium determinations for up to 6 months after the appearance of the skin lesions. The early diagnosis and prompt treatment of hypercalcemia are essential to prevent severe complications.

  17. Avascular necrosis of carpal bones.

    PubMed

    Golimbu, C N; Firooznia, H; Rafii, M

    1995-05-01

    MR imaging is extremely well suited to detection of early phases of avascular necrosis, permitting diagnosis before collapse of the carpal bones has occurred. The sensitivity of this imaging modality allows differentiation of subtle changes in the bone marrow signal. This is used as criteria for a new stage classification of Kienböck's disease based on MR imaging appearance. The prognosis of scaphoid fractures and estimation of likelihood of avascular necrosis of the proximal fragment can be inferred by using gadolinium enhancement to evaluate the bone marrow vascularity.

  18. Anatomy and morphology in developing vegetative buds on detached Norway spruce branches in controlled conditions before bud burst.

    PubMed

    Sutinen, Sirkka; Partanen, Jouni; Viherä-Aarnio, Anneli; Häkkinen, Risto

    2009-11-01

    We studied the light and stereomicroscopic structure of developing vegetative buds from a 16-year-old Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] of southern Finnish origin in relation to temperature sum and to externally visible changes in the buds before and during bud burst in forcing conditions. Branches were collected on 17 January and transferred to the greenhouse where they were first subjected to preforcing conditions (darkness, +4 degrees C) for 7 days and then to the forcing conditions (day length 12 h, +20 degrees C). Buds were sampled 20 times between 17 January and 13 February. Air temperature was recorded hourly throughout the study period. The first microscopic change was a temporary increase in the size and number of lipid droplets before the onset of temperature sum (T > or = +5 degrees C) accumulation. From the 4th to the 9th day under the forcing conditions, tracheids started to develop from the base up to the top of the bud. This was closely synchronized with an observed morphological change in the shape of needle tip from rounded to pointed ones. Development from the first visible change in the bud scales on the 12th forcing day to bud burst took 9 days when the temperature sum was 313 d.d. The temperature sums in our experiment overestimated the requirements of temperature sum for bud development phases measured in the field. Bud development could be divided into four structural phases. The first two phases, i.e., morphological changes in the primary needles, occurred without any externally visible changes in the buds. Thus, these phases have a potential for testing and improving the phenological models, which, up to now, have mainly been based on the bud burst observation by the naked eye.

  19. Genetic and serological characterization of chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus, a member of the genus Tospovirus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Ru; Chien, Wan-Chu; Okuda, Mitsuru; Takeshita, Minoru; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Wang, Yun-Chi; Chen, Tsung-Chi

    2015-02-01

    Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV) is a member of a tentative tospovirus species. In this study, the complete genomic sequence of the Japanese CSNV isolate TcCh07A was determined. The L RNA is 8960 nt long and encodes the 331.0-kDa RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The M RNA is 4828 nt long and encodes the 34.1-kDa movement protein (NSm) and the 127.7-kDa glycoprotein precursor (Gn/Gc). The S RNA is 2949 nt long and encodes the 52.4-kDa silencing suppressor protein (NSs) and the 29.3-kDa nucleocapsid (N) protein. The N protein of CSNV-TcCh07A was purified from virus-infected plant tissues and used for production of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum (RAs) and a monoclonal antibody (MAb). Results of serological tests by indirect ELISA and western blotting using the prepared RAs and MAb and a previously produced RAs against the N protein of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) indicated that CSNV-TcCh07A, TSWV, tomato chlorotic spot virus, groundnut ringspot virus, alstroemeria necrotic streak virus and impatiens necrotic spot virus are serologically related.

  20. Effect of feeding different proportions of groundnut haulms (Arachis hypogaea) and cluster bean straw (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) on nutrient utilisation and serum biochemical parameters in dromedary camels.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Lokesh; Kumar, Roy Ashwani; Ghanshyam, Tiwari; Rajesh, Dhuria; Garg, Rajeev

    2012-10-01

    The effect of feeding different proportions of groundnut haulms (Arachis hypogaea) and cluster bean straw (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) on nutrient digestibility, nutritive value, nutrient intake and serum biochemical parameters was studied using nine male dromedary camels of Bikaneri breeds (637.5 kg average body weight; 8-9 years of age). Groundnut haulms (GNH) and cluster bean straw (CBS) were fed in one of three ratios, 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 in treatments T(1), T(2) and T(3), respectively. In all treatments, concentrate mixture was fed as per requirement of the camels. The groundnut haulms were more nutritive as compared to the cluster bean straw. The nutrient digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein (CP), crude fibre and acid detergent fibre was better in T(1) than T(2) and T(3). Likewise, the CP, digestible crude protein and total digestible nutrient contents were significantly higher in T(1) followed by T(2) and T(3). There was non-significant affect on average daily gain of camels. However, dry matter intake, digestible crude protein intake and total digestible nutrients were better in T(1) as compared to T(2) and T(3). The total water intake per kilogram of dry matter intake (litres) was 2.98, 2.89 and 2.68, respectively, in T(1), T(2) and T(3). The camels in all the treatments were in positive nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balance. The treatments had a significant effect on serum biochemical parameters like glucose, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase and creatinine. The results may conclude that feeding of higher proportion of groundnut haulms as compared to cluster bean straw has pronounced improvement in nutritional utilisation by the camels.

  1. Biofilm/Mat assays for budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Paul J

    2015-02-02

    Many microbial species form biofilms/mats under nutrient-limiting conditions, and fungal pathogens rely on this social behavior for virulence. In budding yeast, mat formation is dependent on the mucin-like flocculin Flo11, which promotes cell-to-cell and cell-to-substrate adhesion in mats. The biofilm/mat assays described here allow the evaluation of the role of Flo11 in the formation of mats. Cells are grown on surfaces with different degrees of rigidity to assess their expansion and three-dimensional architecture, and the cells are also exposed to plastic surfaces to quantify their adherence. These assays are broadly applicable to studying biofilm/mat formation in microbial species.

  2. Mitochondrial movement and inheritance in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Boldogh, Istvan R; Fehrenbacher, Kammy L; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol; Pon, Liza A

    2005-07-18

    Mitochondria are essential organelles that perform fundamental cellular functions including aerobic energy mobilization, fatty acid oxidation, amino acid metabolism, heme biosynthesis and apoptosis. Mitochondria cannot be synthesized de novo. Therefore, the inheritance of this organelle is an essential part of the cell cycle; that is, daughter cells that do not inherit mitochondria will not survive. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a facultative aerobe that can tolerate mitochondrial mutations that would be lethal in other organisms. Therefore, yeast has been used extensively to study inheritance and segregation of mitochondria. As a result, much of what we know regarding mitochondrial inheritance has been uncovered using yeast as a model system. Here, we describe the latest developments in mitochondrial motility and inheritance.

  3. Budding Yeast for Budding Geneticists: A Primer on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model System

    PubMed Central

    Duina, Andrea A.; Miller, Mary E.; Keeney, Jill B.

    2014-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful model organism for studying fundamental aspects of eukaryotic cell biology. This Primer article presents a brief historical perspective on the emergence of this organism as a premier experimental system over the course of the past century. An overview of the central features of the S. cerevisiae genome, including the nature of its genetic elements and general organization, is also provided. Some of the most common experimental tools and resources available to yeast geneticists are presented in a way designed to engage and challenge undergraduate and graduate students eager to learn more about the experimental amenability of budding yeast. Finally, a discussion of several major discoveries derived from yeast studies highlights the far-reaching impact that the yeast system has had and will continue to have on our understanding of a variety of cellular processes relevant to all eukaryotes, including humans. PMID:24807111

  4. Budding yeast for budding geneticists: a primer on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system.

    PubMed

    Duina, Andrea A; Miller, Mary E; Keeney, Jill B

    2014-05-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful model organism for studying fundamental aspects of eukaryotic cell biology. This Primer article presents a brief historical perspective on the emergence of this organism as a premier experimental system over the course of the past century. An overview of the central features of the S. cerevisiae genome, including the nature of its genetic elements and general organization, is also provided. Some of the most common experimental tools and resources available to yeast geneticists are presented in a way designed to engage and challenge undergraduate and graduate students eager to learn more about the experimental amenability of budding yeast. Finally, a discussion of several major discoveries derived from yeast studies highlights the far-reaching impact that the yeast system has had and will continue to have on our understanding of a variety of cellular processes relevant to all eukaryotes, including humans.

  5. Response surface methodology for studying the effect of processing conditions on some nutritional and textural properties of bambara groundnuts (Voandzei subterranea) during canning.

    PubMed

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Budu, Agnes Simpson; Merson, Alan Bullock

    2007-06-01

    The response surface methodology and central composite rotatable design for K=3 was used to study the combined effect of blanching, soaking and sodium hexametaphosphate salt concentration on moisture, ash, leached solids, phytates, tannins and hardness of bambara groundnut during canning. Regression models were developed to predict the effects of the processing parameters on the studied indices. Significant interactions were observed between all the factors with high regression coefficients (64.4-82.6%). Blanching and soaking of the seeds prior to canning led to increases in moisture content and leached solids, while significant decreases were observed for phytates, tannins and hardness of the canned bambara groundnuts. Increasing the concentration of sodium salt added during soaking caused significant (Pgroundnuts.

  6. Exciting journey of 10 years from genomes to fields and markets: Some success stories of genomics-assisted breeding in chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Rajeev K

    2016-01-01

    Legume crops such as chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut, mostly grown in marginal environments, are the major source of nutrition and protein to the human population in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. These crops, however, have a low productivity, mainly due to their exposure to several biotic and abiotic stresses in the marginal environments. Until 2005, these crops had limited genomics resources and molecular breeding was very challenging. During the last decade (2005-2015), ICRISAT led demand-driven innovations in genome science and translated the massive genome information in breeding. For instance, large-scale genomic resources including draft genome assemblies, comprehensive genetic and physical maps, thousands of SSR markers, millions of SNPs, several high-throughput as well as low cost marker genotyping platforms have been developed in these crops. After mapping several breeding related traits, several success stories of translational genomics have become available in these legumes. These include development of superior lines with enhanced drought tolerance in chickpea, enhanced and pyramided resistance to Fusarium wilt and Ascochyta blight in chickpea, enhanced resistance to leaf rust in groundnut, improved oil quality in groundnut and utilization of markers for assessing purity of hybrids/parental lines in pigeonpea. Some of these stories together with future prospects have been discussed.

  7. Decellularized Tooth Bud Scaffolds for Tooth Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Vazquez, B; Oreadi, D; Yelick, P C

    2017-01-01

    Whole tooth regeneration approaches currently are limited by our inability to bioengineer full-sized, living replacement teeth. Recently, decellularized organ scaffolds have shown promise for applications in regenerative medicine by providing a natural extracellular matrix environment that promotes cell attachment and tissue-specific differentiation leading to full-sized organ regeneration. We hypothesize that decellularized tooth buds (dTBs) created from unerupted porcine tooth buds (TBs) can be used to guide reseeded dental cell differentiation to form whole bioengineered teeth, thereby providing a potential off-the-shelf scaffold for whole tooth regeneration. Porcine TBs were harvested from discarded 6-mo-old pig jaws, and decellularized by successive sodium dodecyl sulfate/Triton-X cycles. Four types of replicate implants were used in this study: 1) acellular dTBs; 2) recellularized dTBs seeded with porcine dental epithelial cells, human dental pulp cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (recell-dTBs); 3) dTBs seeded with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 (dTB-BMPs); and 4) freshly isolated nondecellularized natural TBs (nTBs). Replicate samples were implanted into the mandibles of host Yucatan mini-pigs and grown for 3 or 6 mo. Harvested mandibles with implanted TB constructs were fixed in formalin, decalcified, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and analyzed via histological methods. Micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis was performed on harvested 6-mo samples prior to decalcification. All harvested constructs exhibited a high degree of cellularity. Significant production of organized dentin and enamel-like tissues was observed in dTB-recell and nTB implants, but not in dTB or dTB-BMP implants. Micro-CT analyses of 6-mo implants showed the formation of organized, bioengineered teeth of comparable size to natural teeth. To our knowledge, these results are the first to describe the potential use of dTBs for functional whole tooth regeneration.

  8. Measuring mitotic spindle dynamics in budding yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumb, Kemp

    In order to carry out its life cycle and produce viable progeny through cell division, a cell must successfully coordinate and execute a number of complex processes with high fidelity, in an environment dominated by thermal noise. One important example of such a process is the assembly and positioning of the mitotic spindle prior to chromosome segregation. The mitotic spindle is a modular structure composed of two spindle pole bodies, separated in space and spanned by filamentous proteins called microtubules, along which the genetic material of the cell is held. The spindle is responsible for alignment and subsequent segregation of chromosomes into two equal parts; proper spindle positioning and timing ensure that genetic material is appropriately divided amongst mother and daughter cells. In this thesis, I describe fluorescence confocal microscopy and automated image analysis algorithms, which I have used to observe and analyze the real space dynamics of the mitotic spindle in budding yeast. The software can locate structures in three spatial dimensions and track their movement in time. By selecting fluorescent proteins which specifically label the spindle poles and cell periphery, mitotic spindle dynamics have been measured in a coordinate system relevant to the cell division. I describe how I have characterised the accuracy and precision of the algorithms by simulating fluorescence data for both spindle poles and the budding yeast cell surface. In this thesis I also describe the construction of a microfluidic apparatus that allows for the measurement of long time-scale dynamics of individual cells and the development of a cell population. The tools developed in this thesis work will facilitate in-depth quantitative analysis of the non-equilibrium processes in living cells.

  9. Inflammatory duodenal necrosis complicating gastroschisis

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Dina; Lee, Geraint J.; Upadhyaya, Manasvi; Drake, David

    2016-01-01

    Babies with gastroschisis have an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) that can lead to short bowel syndrome, a long-term parenteral nutrition requirement, and its associated complications. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of recurrent duodenal ischemia and necrosis associated with gastroschisis in the absence of NEC totalis. PMID:27695214

  10. The mother-bud neck as a signaling platform for the coordination between spindle position and cytokinesis in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Merlini, Laura; Piatti, Simonetta

    2011-08-01

    During asymmetric cell division, spindle positioning is critical for ensuring the unequal inheritance of polarity factors. In budding yeast, the mother-bud neck determines the cleavage plane and a correct nuclear division between mother and daughter cell requires orientation of the mitotic spindle along the mother-bud axis. A surveillance device called the spindle position/orientation checkpoint (SPOC) oversees this process and delays mitotic exit and cytokinesis until the spindle is properly oriented along the division axis, thus ensuring genome stability. Cytoskeletal proteins called septins form a ring at the bud neck that is essential for cytokinesis. Furthermore, septins and septin-associated proteins are implicated in spindle positioning and SPOC. In this review, we discuss the emerging connections between septins and the SPOC and the role of the mother-bud neck as a signaling platform to couple proper chromosome segregation to cytokinesis.

  11. Taste bud homeostasis in health, disease, and aging.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pu; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50-100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8-12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging.

  12. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    PubMed

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste.

  13. Taste Bud Homeostasis in Health, Disease, and Aging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50–100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8–12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging. PMID:24287552

  14. Characterization of Septin Ultrastructure in Budding Yeast Using Electron Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aurélie; Nogales, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Summary Septins are essential for the completion of cytokinesis. In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, septins are located at the bud neck during mitosis and are closely connected to the inner plasma membrane. In vitro, yeast septins have been shown to self-assemble into a variety of filamentous structures, including rods, paired filaments, bundles and rings [1–3]. Using electron tomography of freeze-substituted section and cryo-electron tomography of frozen sections, we determined the three dimensional organization of the septin cytoskeleton in dividing budding yeast with molecular resolution [4,5]. Here we describe the detailed procedures used for our characterization of the septin cellular ultrastructure. PMID:26519309

  15. Minimally invasive treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cebulski, Włodzimierz; Słodkowski, Maciej; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz W.

    2014-01-01

    Infected pancreatic necrosis is a challenging complication that worsens prognosis in acute pancreatitis. For years, open necrosectomy has been the mainstay treatment option in infected pancreatic necrosis, although surgical debridement still results in high morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, many reports on minimally invasive treatment in infected pancreatic necrosis have been published. This paper presents a review of minimally invasive techniques and attempts to define their role in the management of infected pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25653725

  16. Interleukin-10 Is Produced by a Specific Subset of Taste Receptor Cells and Critical for Maintaining Structural Integrity of Mouse Taste Buds

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jinghua; Zhou, Minliang; Simon, Nirvine; Huang, Liquan

    2014-01-01

    Although inflammatory responses are a critical component in defense against pathogens, too much inflammation is harmful. Mechanisms have evolved to regulate inflammation, including modulation by the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). Previously we have shown that taste buds express various molecules involved in innate immune responses, including the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Here, using a reporter mouse strain, we show that taste cells also express the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Remarkably, IL-10 is produced by only a specific subset of taste cells, which are different from the TNF-producing cells in mouse circumvallate and foliate taste buds: IL-10 expression was found exclusively in the G-protein gustducin-expressing bitter receptor cells, while TNF was found in sweet and umami receptor cells as reported previously. In contrast, IL-10R1, the ligand-binding subunit of the IL-10 receptor, is predominantly expressed by TNF-producing cells, suggesting a novel cellular hierarchy for regulating TNF production and effects in taste buds. In response to inflammatory challenges, taste cells can increase IL-10 expression both in vivo and in vitro. These findings suggest that taste buds use separate populations of taste receptor cells that coincide with sweet/umami and bitter taste reception to modulate local inflammatory responses, a phenomenon that has not been previously reported. Furthermore, IL-10 deficiency in mice leads to significant reductions in the number and size of taste buds, as well as in the number of taste receptor cells per taste bud, suggesting that IL-10 plays critical roles in maintaining structural integrity of the peripheral gustatory system. PMID:24523558

  17. Regulation of bitter taste responses by tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Kim, Agnes; Chai, Jinghua; Simon, Nirvine; Zhou, Minliang; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are important regulators of metabolism and food intake. Over production of inflammatory cytokines during bacterial and viral infections leads to anorexia and reduced food intake. However, it remains unclear whether any inflammatory cytokines are involved in the regulation of taste reception, the sensory mechanism governing food intake. Previously, we showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a potent proinflammatory cytokine, is preferentially expressed in a subset of taste bud cells. The level of TNF in taste cells can be further induced by inflammatory stimuli. To investigate whether TNF plays a role in regulating taste responses, in this study, we performed taste behavioral tests and gustatory nerve recordings in TNF knockout mice. Behavioral tests showed that TNF-deficient mice are significantly less sensitive to the bitter compound quinine than wild-type mice, while their responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are comparable to those of wild-type controls. Furthermore, nerve recording experiments showed that the chorda tympani nerve in TNF knockout mice is much less responsive to bitter compounds than that in wild-type mice. Chorda tympani nerve responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are similar between TNF knockout and wild-type mice, consistent with the results from behavioral tests. We further showed that taste bud cells express the two known TNF receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 and, therefore, are potential targets of TNF. Together, our results suggest that TNF signaling preferentially modulates bitter taste responses. This mechanism may contribute to taste dysfunction, particularly taste distortion, associated with infections and some chronic inflammatory diseases.

  18. Regulation of bitter taste responses by tumor necrosis factor

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Pu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Kim, Agnes; Chai, Jinghua; Simon, Nirvine; Zhou, Minliang; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are important regulators of metabolism and food intake. Over production of inflammatory cytokines during bacterial and viral infections leads to anorexia and reduced food intake. However, it remains unclear whether any inflammatory cytokines are involved in the regulation of taste reception, the sensory mechanism governing food intake. Previously, we showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a potent proinflammatory cytokine, is preferentially expressed in a subset of taste bud cells. The level of TNF in taste cells can be further induced by inflammatory stimuli. To investigate whether TNF plays a role in regulating taste responses, in this study, we performed taste behavioral tests and gustatory nerve recordings in TNF knockout mice. Behavioral tests showed that TNF-deficient mice are significantly less sensitive to the bitter compound quinine than wild-type mice, while their responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are comparable to those of wild-type controls. Furthermore, nerve recording experiments showed that the chorda tympani nerve in TNF knockout mice is much less responsive to bitter compounds than that in wild-type mice. Chorda tympani nerve responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are similar between TNF knockout and wild-type mice, consistent with the results from behavioral tests. We further showed that taste bud cells express the two known TNF receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 and, therefore, are potential targets of TNF. Together, our results suggest that TNF signaling preferentially modulates bitter taste responses. This mechanism may contribute to taste dysfunction, particularly taste distortion, associated with infections and some chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25911043

  19. Mechanical feedback stabilizes budding yeast morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banavar, Samhita; Trogdon, Michael; Petzold, Linda; Campas, Otger

    Walled cells have the ability to remodel their shape while sustaining an internal turgor pressure that can reach values up to 10 atmospheres. This requires a tight and simultaneous regulation of cell wall assembly and mechanochemistry, but the underlying mechanisms by which this is achieved remain unclear. Using the growth of mating projections in budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) as a motivating example, we have developed a theoretical description that couples the mechanics of cell wall expansion and assembly via a mechanical feedback. In the absence of a mechanical feedback, cell morphogenesis is inherently unstable. The presence of a mechanical feedback stabilizes changes in cell shape and growth, and provides a mechanism to prevent cell lysis in a wide range of conditions. We solve for the dynamics of the system and obtain the different dynamical regimes. In particular, we show that several parameters affect the stability of growth, including the strength of mechanical feedback in the system. Finally, we compare our results to existing experimental data.

  20. Micropropagation of Helleborus through axillary budding.

    PubMed

    Beruto, Margherita; Viglione, Serena; Bisignano, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Helleborus genus, belonging to the Ranunculaceae family, has 20 species of herbaceous perennial flowering plants. The commercial exploitation of this plant is dependent on the selection and propagation of appropriate lines. High propagation rate could be accomplished by using a suitable tissue culture method enabling the rapid introduction of valuable selections in the market. However, in vitro cultivation of Helleborus is still very difficult. Thereby the development of reliable in vitro propagation procedures is crucial for future production systems. Axillary buds cultured on agar-solidified Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1 mg/L benzyladenine, 0.1 mg/L β-naphthoxyacetic acid, and 2 mg/L isopentenyl adenine develop shoots after 16 weeks of culture under 16 h light regime, 50-60 μmol/s/m(2), and 19 ± 1°C. The multiplication rate ranges from 1.4 to 2.1. However, the genotype and the number of subcultures affect the efficiency of the micropropagation process. The rooting of shoots is about 80% in solidified MS medium containing 1 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 3 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid. The described protocol provides information which can contribute to the commercial production of Helleborus plants.

  1. Effect of feeding varying levels of groundnut haulms on feed intake and growth performance in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ribadiya, N. K.; Savsani, H. H.; Patil, S. S.; Garg, D. D.; Gadariya, M. R.; Karangiya, V. K.; Gajera, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate groundnut haulms (GNH) as alternate feed source by its incorporation and assessment in terms of feed intake and growth performance in the diets of broilers. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 1-day-old Cobb-400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each with three replicates (n=60). Experimental Birds in group T1 were fed with conventional feed while birds in T2, T3, T4 were fed containing 2%, 4%, and 6% of GNH replacing maize and soyabean on iso-nitrogenous basis. Results: Feed intake increases significantly (p>0.05) with increasing level of GNH in the diets of experimental birds. Highest feed intake was recorded in T4 (6% GNH), followed by T3 (4% GNH) than T2 (2% GNH) and T1 (control). Birds fed GNH gained significantly (p<0.05) higher body weight than birds fed the control diet. Birds in T4 [6% GNH] gained highest body weight, followed by T3 (4% GNH) than T2 (2% GNH) and T1 (control). However, feed conversion ratio (FCR) remained non-significant for all treatment groups. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of this study, it is concluded that supplementation of GNH can successfully replace costly ingredients like maize and soybean meal in the diets of broiler birds up to the level of 6 percent of concentrate mixture without any harmful effects on feed intake, growth and FCR. PMID:27047062

  2. Enterobacter arachidis sp. nov., a plant-growth-promoting diazotrophic bacterium isolated from rhizosphere soil of groundnut.

    PubMed

    Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Lee, Jung-Sook; Saravanan, Venkatakrishnan Sivaraj; Lee, Keun-Chul; Santhanakrishnan, Palani

    2010-07-01

    A methylotrophic nitrogen-fixing bacterial strain, Ah-143(T), isolated from the rhizosphere soil of field-grown groundnut was analysed by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis combined with rpoB gene sequence analysis allocated strain Ah-143(T) to the family Enterobacteriaceae, with Enterobacter radicincitans and Enterobacter cowanii as the closest relatives. The strain is Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, aerobic and motile, having straight rod-shaped cells with a DNA G+C content of approximately 53.2 mol%. The strain utilizes methanol as a carbon source and the mxaF gene was closely related to the mxaF gene of members of the genus Methylobacterium. The fatty acid profile consisted of C(16 : 0), C(17 : 0) cyclo, C(18 : 1)omega7c, summed feature 2 (iso-C(16 : 1) I and/or C(14 : 0) 3-OH) and summed feature 3 (iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)omega7c) as the major components. DNA-DNA relatedness of strain Ah-143(T) with its close relatives was less than 20 %. On the basis of the phylogenetic analyses, DNA-DNA hybridization data, and unique physiological and biochemical characteristics, it is proposed that the strain represents a novel species of the genus Enterobacter and should be named Enterobacter arachidis sp. nov. The type strain is Ah-143(T) (=NCIMB 14469(T) =KCTC 22375(T)).

  3. Influence of varying levels of supplemental cassava root meal without or with groundnut cake on performance of growing Laisind cattle.

    PubMed

    Trung, Nguyen Thanh; Berg, Jan; Cuong, Vu Chi; Kjos, Nils Petter

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of varying levels of cassava root meal (CRM, 300 and 1,000 g), without or with 700 g groundnut cake (GNC) on intake and performance of growing Laisind cattle fed with a basal diet of urea-treated rice straw (URTRS). Twenty-four male cattle of crossbred Laisind (50% Red Sindhi and 50 % local Yellow, both Bos indicus), from 15 to 17 months of age, 165-175 kg body weight, were used. They were assigned to a completely randomized block design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (two CRM levels and two GNC levels). Intake of URTRS (interaction, P < 0.01) and digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (interaction, P < 0.05) decreased as CRM level increased on the diets without GNC but was not affected by CRM level on the diets with GNC. The total dry matter intake (interaction, P < 0.05) and live weight gain (LWG) (interaction, P < 0.001) increased as CRM level increased on the diets with GNC, but no difference was observed on the diets without GNC. In conclusion, supplementation of 1,000 g CRM should be in combination with 700 g GNC to avoid the negative effects on URTRS intake and digestibility, therefore improving LWG of growing Laisind cattle fed on a URTRS-based diet.

  4. Use of microsatellite markers for the assessment of bambara groundnut breeding system and varietal purity before genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ho, Wai Kuan; Muchugi, Alice; Muthemba, Samuel; Kariba, Robert; Mavenkeni, Busiso Olga; Hendre, Prasad; Song, Bo; Van Deynze, Allen; Massawe, Festo; Mayes, Sean

    2016-06-01

    Maximizing the research output from a limited investment is often the major challenge for minor and underutilized crops. However, such crops may be tolerant to biotic and abiotic stresses and are adapted to local, marginal, and low-input environments. Their development through breeding will provide an important resource for future agricultural system resilience and diversification in the context of changing climates and the need to achieve food security. The African Orphan Crops Consortium recognizes the values of genomic resources in facilitating the improvement of such crops. Prior to beginning genome sequencing there is a need for an assessment of line varietal purity and to estimate any residual heterozygosity. Here we present an example from bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.), an underutilized drought tolerant African legume. Two released varieties from Zimbabwe, identified as potential genotypes for whole genome sequencing (WGS), were genotyped with 20 species-specific SSR markers. The results indicate that the cultivars are actually a mix of related inbred genotypes, and the analysis allowed a strategy of single plant selection to be used to generate non-heterogeneous DNA for WGS. The markers also confirmed very low levels of heterozygosity within individual plants. The application of a pre-screen using co-dominant microsatellite markers is expected to substantially improve the genome assembly, compared to a cultivar bulking approach that could have been adopted.

  5. Grapevine bud break prediction for cool winter climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nendel, Claas

    2010-05-01

    Statistical analysis of bud break data for grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L. cvs. Riesling and Müller-Thurgau) at 13 sites along the northern boundary of commercial grapevine production in Europe revealed that, for all investigated sites, the heat summation method for bud break prediction can be improved if the starting date for the accumulation of heat units is specifically determined. Using the coefficient of variance as a criterion, a global minimum for each site can be identified, marking the optimum starting date. Furthermore, it was shown that the application of a threshold temperature for the heat summation method does not lead to an improved prediction of bud break. Using site-specific parameters, bud break of grapevine can be predicted with an accuracy of ± 2.5 days. Using average parameters, the prediction accuracy is reduced to ± 4.5 days, highlighting the sensitivity of the heat summation method to the quality and the representativeness of the driving temperature data.

  6. Oriented cell motility and division underlie early limb bud morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wyngaarden, Laurie A; Vogeli, Kevin M; Ciruna, Brian G; Wells, Mathew; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Hopyan, Sevan

    2010-08-01

    The vertebrate limb bud arises from lateral plate mesoderm and its overlying ectoderm. Despite progress regarding the genetic requirements for limb development, morphogenetic mechanisms that generate early outgrowth remain relatively undefined. We show by live imaging and lineage tracing in different vertebrate models that the lateral plate contributes mesoderm to the early limb bud through directional cell movement. The direction of cell motion, longitudinal cell axes and bias in cell division planes lie largely parallel to one another along the rostrocaudal (head-tail) axis in lateral plate mesoderm. Transition of these parameters from a rostrocaudal to a mediolateral (outward from the body wall) orientation accompanies early limb bud outgrowth. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Wnt5a acts as a chemoattractant in the emerging limb bud where it contributes to the establishment of cell polarity that is likely to underlie the oriented cell behaviours.

  7. Studies on Cytokinin-Controlled Bud Formation in Moss Protonemata

    PubMed Central

    Brandes, H.; Kende, H.

    1968-01-01

    Application of cytokinins to moss protonemata of the proper physiological age causes bud formation on specific cells (caulonema). During the early stages of their development, buds revert to protonemal filaments if the cytokinin has been removed by washing the protonemata. This indicates that the hormone is not acting as a “trigger” but has to be present during a critical period of time until differentiation is stabilized. Autoradiographs of protonemata treated with a labeled cytokinin, benzyladenine-benzyl-7-14C, show a striking accumulation of the radioactivity in caulonema cells which are in the stage of bud formation, and in the buds themselves. Cells which did not react to the hormone contained very little radioactivity. The accumulation of benzyladenine in the “target cells” may be due to the presence of binding sites which, in turn, may distinguish responding cells from non-responding ones. Images PMID:16656847

  8. Polarity-Driven Geometrical Cluster Growth Model of Budding Yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Reniel B.; Lim, May T.

    We present a polarity-driven activator-inhibitor model of budding yeast in a two-dimensional medium wherein impeding metabolites secretion (or growth inhibitors) and growth directionality are determined by the local nutrient level. We found that colony size and morphological features varied with nutrient concentration. A branched-type morphology is associated with high impeding metabolite concentration together with a high fraction of distal budding, while opposite conditions (low impeding metabolite concentration, high fraction of proximal budding) promote Eden-type patterns. Increasing the anisotropy factor (or polarity) produced other spatial patterns akin to the electrical breakdown under varying electric field. Rapid changes in the colony morphology, which we conjecture to be equivalent to a transition from an inactive quiescent state to an active budding state, appeared when nutrients were limited.

  9. Innervation of the undifferentiated limb bud in rabbit embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, J; McCredie, J

    1982-01-01

    The concept that there are no nerves in the limb bud of mammalian embryos prior to differentiation has been re-examined. Rabbit embryos were collected at 260 and 290 hours gestation, which is prior to cartilage formation in the forelimb at 320 hours. Forelimb buds and adjacent neural tube were excised, fixed and embedded for light and electron microscopy. The limb buds were sectioned in two planes by serial 1 micrometer sections and inspected by light microscopy. Bundles of nerve fibres were seen within the proximal third of the limb bud, with distal ramification into adjacent zones of condensing mesenchyme. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of axons and associated immature Schwann cells. These results demonstrate the existence of an anatomical framework through which a neurotrophic influence might be brought to bear upon mesenchyme prior to early differentiation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7130041

  10. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, M.; Torigoe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takizawa, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Ono, F.

    2014-05-01

    Our studies on the tolerance of plants and animals against very high pressure of several GPa have been extended to a smaller sized fungus, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate, and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar. It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for longer than 12 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is a little weaker than that of tardigrades.

  11. Real Life Science with Dandelions and Project BudBurst.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Katherine A

    2016-03-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen-science project that tracks bloom times and other phenological data for plants across the country. Data from Project BudBurst are being used to measure the effects of climate change. Students can participate in this project by watching any of the plants on the list, including the common dandelion, which makes the program easy and accessible to everyone. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.

  12. Real Life Science with Dandelions and Project BudBurst

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen-science project that tracks bloom times and other phenological data for plants across the country. Data from Project BudBurst are being used to measure the effects of climate change. Students can participate in this project by watching any of the plants on the list, including the common dandelion, which makes the program easy and accessible to everyone. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27047605

  13. Tumor Budding: The Name is EMT. Partial EMT.

    PubMed Central

    Grigore, Alexandru Dan; Jolly, Mohit Kumar; Jia, Dongya; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Levine, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Tumor budding is a histological phenomenon encountered in various cancers, whereby individual malignant cells and/or small clusters of malignant cells are seen in the tumor stroma. Postulated to be mirror epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor budding has been associated with poor cancer outcomes. However, the vast heterogeneity in its exact definition, methodology of assessment, and patient stratification need to be resolved before it can be routinely used as a standardized prognostic feature. Here, we discuss the heterogeneity in defining and assessing tumor budding, its clinical significance across multiple cancer types, and its prospective implementation in clinical practice. Next, we review the emerging evidence about partial, rather than complete, epithelial-mesenchymal phenotype at the tumor bud level, and its connection with tumor proliferation, quiescence, and stemness. Finally, based on recent literature, indicating a co-expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers in many tumor buds, we posit tumor budding to be a manifestation of this hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype displaying collective cell migration. PMID:27136592

  14. Dielectric modelling of cell division for budding and fission yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asami, Koji; Sekine, Katsuhisa

    2007-02-01

    The frequency dependence of complex permittivity or the dielectric spectrum of a system including a cell in cell division has been simulated by a numerical technique based on the three-dimensional finite difference method. Two different types of cell division characteristic of budding and fission yeast were examined. The yeast cells are both regarded as a body of rotation, and thus have anisotropic polarization, i.e. the effective permittivity of the cell depends on the orientation of the cell to the direction of an applied electric field. In the perpendicular orientation, where the rotational axis of the cell is perpendicular to the electric field direction, the dielectric spectra for both yeast cells included one dielectric relaxation and its intensity depended on the cell volume. In the parallel orientation, on the other hand, two dielectric relaxations appeared with bud growth for budding yeast and with septum formation for fission yeast. The low-frequency relaxation was shifted to a lower frequency region by narrowing the neck between the bud and the mother cell for budding yeast and by increasing the degree of septum formation for fission yeast. After cell separation, the low-frequency relaxation disappeared. The simulations well interpreted the oscillation of the relative permittivity of culture broth found for synchronous cell growth of budding yeast.

  15. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape. PMID:27610363

  16. Early epithelial signaling center governs tooth budding morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Thesleff, Irma

    2016-01-01

    During organogenesis, cell fate specification and patterning are regulated by signaling centers, specialized clusters of morphogen-expressing cells. In many organs, initiation of development is marked by bud formation, but the cellular mechanisms involved are ill defined. Here, we use the mouse incisor tooth as a model to study budding morphogenesis. We show that a group of nonproliferative epithelial cells emerges in the early tooth primordium and identify these cells as a signaling center. Confocal live imaging of tissue explants revealed that although these cells reorganize dynamically, they do not reenter the cell cycle or contribute to the growing tooth bud. Instead, budding is driven by proliferation of the neighboring cells. We demonstrate that the activity of the ectodysplasin/Edar/nuclear factor κB pathway is restricted to the signaling center, and its inactivation leads to fewer quiescent cells and a smaller bud. These data functionally link the signaling center size to organ size and imply that the early signaling center is a prerequisite for budding morphogenesis. PMID:27621364

  17. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant.

    PubMed

    Guo, Da-Long; Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape.

  18. Inflammation and taste disorders: mechanisms in taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Minliang; Brand, Joseph; Huang, Liquan

    2009-01-01

    Taste disorders, including taste distortion and taste loss, negatively impact general health and quality of life. To understand the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms, we set out to identify inflammation-related molecules in taste tissue and to assess their role in the development of taste dysfunctions. We found that 10 out of 12 mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs), type I and II interferon (IFN) receptors and their downstream signaling components are present in taste tissue. Some TLRs appear to be selectively or more abundantly expressed in taste buds than in non-gustatory lingual epithelium. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies against TLRs 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7 confirmed the presence of these receptor proteins in taste bud cells, of which TLRs 2, 3 and 4 are expressed in the gustducin-expressing type II taste bud cells. Administration of TLR receptor ligands, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) that mimics bacterial or viral infection, activates the IFN signaling pathways, up-regulates the expression of IFN-inducible genes but down-regulates the expression of c-fos in taste buds. Finally, systemic administration of IFNs augments apoptosis of taste bud cells in mice. Taken together, these data suggest that TLR and IFN pathways function collaboratively in recognizing pathogens and mediating inflammatory responses in taste tissue. This process, however, may interfere with normal taste transduction and taste bud cell turnover and contributes to the development of taste disorders. PMID:19686199

  19. Crosslinks in the cell wall of budding yeast control morphogenesis at the mother–bud neck

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Noelia; Reidy, Michael; Arroyo, Javier; Cabib, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Summary Previous work has shown that, in cla4Δ cells of budding yeast, where septin ring organization is compromised, the chitin ring at the mother–daughter neck becomes essential for prevention of neck widening and for cytokinesis. Here, we show that it is not the chitin ring per se, but its linkage to β(1-3)glucan that is required for control of neck growth. When in a cla4Δ background, crh1Δ crh2Δ mutants, in which the chitin ring is not connected to β(1-3)glucan, grew very slowly and showed wide and growing necks, elongated buds and swollen cells with large vacuoles. A similar behavior was elicited by inhibition of the Crh proteins. This aberrant morphology matched that of cla4Δ chs3Δ cells, which have no chitin at the neck. Thus, this is a clear case in which a specific chemical bond between two substances, chitin and glucan, is essential for the control of morphogenesis. This defines a new paradigm, in which chemistry regulates growth. PMID:23077181

  20. Developing a biomimetic tooth bud model.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elizabeth E; Zhang, Weibo; Schiele, Nathan R; Khademhosseini, Ali; Kuo, Catherine K; Yelick, Pamela C

    2017-01-08

    A long-term goal is to bioengineer, fully functional, living teeth for regenerative medicine and dentistry applications. Biologically based replacement teeth would avoid insufficiencies of the currently used dental implants. Using natural tooth development as a guide, a model was fabricated using post-natal porcine dental epithelial (pDE), porcine dental mesenchymal (pDM) progenitor cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) encapsulated within gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels. Previous publications have shown that post-natal DE and DM cells seeded onto synthetic scaffolds exhibited mineralized tooth crowns composed of dentin and enamel. However, these tooth structures were small and formed within the pores of the scaffolds. The present study shows that dental cell-encapsulated GelMA constructs can support mineralized dental tissue formation of predictable size and shape. Individually encapsulated pDE or pDM cell GelMA constructs were analysed to identify formulas that supported pDE and pDM cell attachment, spreading, metabolic activity, and neo-vasculature formation with co-seeded endothelial cells (HUVECs). GelMa constructs consisting of pDE-HUVECS in 3% GelMA and pDM-HUVECs within 5% GelMA supported dental cell differentiation and vascular mineralized dental tissue formation in vivo. These studies are the first to demonstrate the use of GelMA hydrogels to support the formation of post-natal dental progenitor cell-derived mineralized and functionally vascularized tissues of specified size and shape. These results introduce a novel three-dimensional biomimetic tooth bud model for eventual bioengineered tooth replacement teeth in humans. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Acute oesophageal necrosis (black oesophagus).

    PubMed

    Galtés, Ignasi; Gallego, María Ángeles; Esgueva, Raquel; Martin-Fumadó, Carles

    2016-03-01

    A 54-year-old man was admitted to hospital after being found unconscious in his home. He had a history of alcoholism, multiple drug addictions, and type I diabetes mellitus. At admission, he had hyperglycaemia (550 mg/dL) with glucosuria and ketone bodies in the urine, along with septic shock refractory to bilateral alveolar infiltrates and severe respiratory failure. The patient died 24 hours post admission due to multiple organ failure, with diabetic ketoacidosis decompensated by possible respiratory infection in a patient with polytoxicomania. The autopsy confirmed the presence of acute bilateral bronchopneumonia, chronic pancreatitis, severe hepatic steatosis, and generalized congestive changes. At the oesophagus, acute oesophageal necrosis was evident.

  2. The Roles of Bud-Site-Selection Proteins during Haploid Invasive Growth in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Paul J.; Sprague, George F.

    2002-01-01

    In haploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glucose depletion causes invasive growth, a foraging response that requires a change in budding pattern from axial to unipolar-distal. To begin to address how glucose influences budding pattern in the haploid cell, we examined the roles of bud-site-selection proteins in invasive growth. We found that proteins required for bipolar budding in diploid cells were required for haploid invasive growth. In particular, the Bud8p protein, which marks and directs bud emergence to the distal pole of diploid cells, was localized to the distal pole of haploid cells. In response to glucose limitation, Bud8p was required for the localization of the incipient bud site marker Bud2p to the distal pole. Three of the four known proteins required for axial budding, Bud3p, Bud4p, and Axl2p, were expressed and localized appropriately in glucose-limiting conditions. However, a fourth axial budding determinant, Axl1p, was absent in filamentous cells, and its abundance was controlled by glucose availability and the protein kinase Snf1p. In the bud8 mutant in glucose-limiting conditions, apical growth and bud site selection were uncoupled processes. Finally, we report that diploid cells starved for glucose also initiate the filamentous growth response. PMID:12221111

  3. Analysis of the coding-complete genomic sequence of groundnut ringspot virus suggests a common ancestor with tomato chlorotic spot virus.

    PubMed

    de Breuil, Soledad; Cañizares, Joaquín; Blanca, José Miguel; Bejerman, Nicolás; Trucco, Verónica; Giolitti, Fabián; Ziarsolo, Peio; Lenardon, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) share biological and serological properties, so their identification is carried out by molecular methods. Their genomes consist of three segmented RNAs: L, M and S. The finding of a reassortant between these two viruses may complicate correct virus identification and requires the characterization of the complete genome. Therefore, we present for the first time the complete sequences of all the genes encoded by a GRSV isolate. The high level of sequence similarity between GRSV and TCSV (over 90 % identity) observed in the genes and proteins encoded in the M RNA support previous results indicating that these viruses probably have a common ancestor.

  4. [Bud population dynamics of Phragmites australis in heterogeneous habitats of Northeast grassland, China].

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    To adapt ecological environment, typical clonal plants can occur continuously by means of buds. The changes in the bud bank and bud flow in the heterogeneous habitats become the foundation for deep understanding the characteristics of vegetative propagation. By sampling soil from the unit area, a comparative analysis was performed for rhizome bud population dynamics of Phragmites australis community in both meadow soil and saline-alkali soil habitats in meadow grassland of Northeast China. The one-age class rhizome buds formed in the current year were used as input, with the other age classes rhizome buds as output, counting the dormancy buds and death buds. The results showed that the storage, input, output, dormancy, death and the input rates of P. australis rhizome bud populations in meadow soil habitat were significantly higher than that in saline-alkali habitat. There was no significant difference in output rate between the two habitats. The dormant rate in saline-alkali habitat was significantly greater than that in meadow soil habitat. The death rates remained at relatively low levels in both, less than 2%. With the going of growing season, the input buds and input rate of bud bank increased in the two habitats, while the output buds remained relatively stable. The output rate increased first and decreased later, the dormancy buds and dormant rate decreased. Bud bank and bud flow were positively related to soil moisture, soil organic matter and soil available nitrogen content. However, they were negatively related to soil pH value and soil available phosphorus content. Bud bank and bud flow had a similar seasonal variation. Constantly for both habitats, P. australis populations generated new rhizome buds supplied to the bud bank and kept a stable output to maintain their vegetative propagation.

  5. Genetic analysis of the bipolar pattern of bud site selection in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Zahner, J E; Harkins, H A; Pringle, J R

    1996-01-01

    Previous analysis of the bipolar budding pattern of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has suggested that it depends on persistent positional signals that mark the region of the division site and the tip of the distal pole on a newborn daughter cell, as well as each previous division site on a mother cell. In an attempt to identify genes encoding components of these signals or proteins involved in positioning or responding to them, we identified 11 mutants with defects in bipolar but not in axial budding. Five mutants displaying a bipolar budding-specific randomization of budding pattern had mutations in four previously known genes (BUD2, BUD5, SPA2, and BNI1) and one novel gene (BUD6), respectively. As Bud2p and Bud5p are known to be required for both the axial and bipolar budding patterns, the alleles identified here probably encode proteins that have lost their ability to interact with the bipolar positional signals but have retained their ability to interact with the distinct positional signal used in axial budding. The function of Spa2p is not known, but previous work has shown that its intracellular localization is similar to that postulated for the bipolar positional signals. BNI1 was originally identified on the basis of genetic interaction with CDC12, which encodes one of the neck-filament-associated septin proteins, suggesting that these proteins may be involved in positioning the bipolar signals. One mutant with a heterogeneous budding pattern defines a second novel gene (BUD7). Two mutants budding almost exclusively from the proximal pole carry mutations in a fourth novel gene (BUD9). A bud8 bud9 double mutant also buds almost exclusively from the proximal pole, suggesting that Bud9p is involved in positioning the proximal pole signal rather than being itself a component of this signal. PMID:8657162

  6. Are there efferent synapses in fish taste buds?

    PubMed

    Reutter, Klaus; Witt, Martin

    2004-12-01

    In fish, nerve fibers of taste buds are organized within the bud's nerve fiber plexus. It is located between the sensory epithelium consisting of light and dark elongated cells and the basal cells. It comprises the basal parts and processes of light and dark cells that intermingle with nerve fibers, which are the dendritic endings of the taste sensory neurons belonging to the cranial nerves VII, IX or X. Most of the synapses at the plexus are afferent; they have synaptic vesicles on the light (or dark) cells side, which is presynaptic. In contrast, the presumed efferent synapses may be rich in synaptic vesicles on the nerve fibers (presynaptic) side, whereas the cells (postsynaptic) side may contain a subsynaptic cistern; a flat compartment of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. This structure is regarded as a prerequisite of a typical efferent synapse, as occurring in cochlear and vestibular hair cells. In fish taste buds, efferent synapses are rare and were found only in a few species that belong to different taxa. The significance of efferent synapses in fish taste buds is not well understood, because efferent connections between the gustatory nuclei of the medulla with taste buds are not yet proved.

  7. Electron Tomography Reveals the Steps in Filovirus Budding

    PubMed Central

    Welsch, Sonja; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Krähling, Verena; Riches, James D.; Becker, Stephan; Briggs, John A. G.

    2010-01-01

    The filoviruses, Marburg and Ebola, are non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses causing severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates in humans and nonhuman primates. The sequence of events that leads to release of filovirus particles from cells is poorly understood. Two contrasting mechanisms have been proposed, one proceeding via a “submarine-like” budding with the helical nucleocapsid emerging parallel to the plasma membrane, and the other via perpendicular “rocket-like” protrusion. Here we have infected cells with Marburg virus under BSL-4 containment conditions, and reconstructed the sequence of steps in the budding process in three dimensions using electron tomography of plastic-embedded cells. We find that highly infectious filamentous particles are released at early stages in infection. Budding proceeds via lateral association of intracellular nucleocapsid along its whole length with the plasma membrane, followed by rapid envelopment initiated at one end of the nucleocapsid, leading to a protruding intermediate. Scission results in local membrane instability at the rear of the virus. After prolonged infection, increased vesiculation of the plasma membrane correlates with changes in shape and infectivity of released viruses. Our observations demonstrate a cellular determinant of virus shape. They reconcile the contrasting models of filovirus budding and allow us to describe the sequence of events taking place during budding and release of Marburg virus. We propose that this represents a general sequence of events also followed by other filamentous and rod-shaped viruses. PMID:20442788

  8. Multiple pathways influence mitochondrial inheritance in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Rebecca L; Okamoto, Koji; Shaw, Janet M

    2008-02-01

    Yeast mitochondria form a branched tubular network. Mitochondrial inheritance is tightly coupled with bud emergence, ensuring that daughter cells receive mitochondria from mother cells during division. Proteins reported to influence mitochondrial inheritance include the mitochondrial rho (Miro) GTPase Gem1p, Mmr1p, and Ypt11p. A synthetic genetic array (SGA) screen revealed interactions between gem1Delta and deletions of genes that affect mitochondrial function or inheritance, including mmr1Delta. Synthetic sickness of gem1Delta mmr1Delta double mutants correlated with defective mitochondrial inheritance by large buds. Additional studies demonstrated that GEM1, MMR1, and YPT11 each contribute to mitochondrial inheritance. Mitochondrial accumulation in buds caused by overexpression of either Mmr1p or Ypt11p did not depend on Gem1p, indicating these three proteins function independently. Physical linkage of mitochondria with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has led to speculation that distribution of these two organelles is coordinated. We show that yeast mitochondrial inheritance is not required for inheritance or spreading of cortical ER in the bud. Moreover, Ypt11p overexpression, but not Mmr1p overexpression, caused ER accumulation in the bud, revealing a potential role for Ypt11p in ER distribution. This study demonstrates that multiple pathways influence mitochondrial inheritance in yeast and that Miro GTPases have conserved roles in mitochondrial distribution.

  9. A Role for the Actin Cytoskeleton of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Bipolar Bud-Site Selection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shirley; Ayscough, Kathryn R.; Drubin, David G.

    1997-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells select bud sites according to one of two predetermined patterns. MATa and MATα cells bud in an axial pattern, and MATa/α cells bud in a bipolar pattern. These budding patterns are thought to depend on the placement of spatial cues at specific sites in the cell cortex. Because cytoskeletal elements play a role in organizing the cytoplasm and establishing distinct plasma membrane domains, they are well suited for positioning bud-site selection cues. Indeed, the septin-containing neck filaments are crucial for establishing the axial budding pattern characteristic of MATa and MATα cells. In this study, we determined the budding patterns of cells carrying mutations in the actin gene or in genes encoding actin-associated proteins: MATa/α cells were defective in the bipolar budding pattern, but MATa and MATα cells still exhibit a normal axial budding pattern. We also observed that MATa/α actin cytoskeleton mutant daughter cells correctly position their first bud at the distal pole of the cell, but mother cells position their buds randomly. The actin cytoskeleton therefore functions in generation of the bipolar budding pattern and is required specifically for proper selection of bud sites in mother MATa/α cells. These observations and the results of double mutant studies support the conclusion that different rules govern bud-site selection in mother and daughter MATa/α cells. A defective bipolar budding pattern did not preclude an sla2-6 mutant from undergoing pseudohyphal growth, highlighting the central role of daughter cell bud-site selection cues in the formation of pseudohyphae. Finally, by examining the budding patterns of mad2-1 mitotic checkpoint mutants treated with benomyl to depolymerize their microtubules, we confirmed and extended previous evidence indicating that microtubules do not function in axial or bipolar bud-site selection. PMID:9008707

  10. Budding and vesiculation induced by conical membrane inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auth, Thorsten; Gompper, Gerhard

    2009-09-01

    Conical inclusions in a lipid bilayer generate an overall spontaneous curvature of the membrane that depends on concentration and geometry of the inclusions. Examples are integral and attached membrane proteins, viruses, and lipid domains. We propose an analytical model to study budding and vesiculation of the lipid bilayer membrane, which is based on the membrane bending energy and the translational entropy of the inclusions. If the inclusions are placed on a membrane with similar curvature radius, their repulsive membrane-mediated interaction is screened. Therefore, for high inclusion density the inclusions aggregate, induce bud formation, and finally vesiculation. Already with the bending energy alone our model allows the prediction of bud radii. However, in case the inclusions induce a single large vesicle to split into two smaller vesicles, bending energy alone predicts that the smaller vesicles have different sizes whereas the translational entropy favors the formation of equal-sized vesicles. Our results agree well with those of recent computer simulations.

  11. Light Signaling in Bud Outgrowth and Branching in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Nathalie; Roman, Hanaé; Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Huché-Thélier, Lydie; Lothier, Jérémy; Demotes-Mainard, Sabine; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2014-01-01

    Branching determines the final shape of plants, which influences adaptation, survival and the visual quality of many species. It is an intricate process that includes bud outgrowth and shoot extension, and these in turn respond to environmental cues and light conditions. Light is a powerful environmental factor that impacts multiple processes throughout plant life. The molecular basis of the perception and transduction of the light signal within buds is poorly understood and undoubtedly requires to be further unravelled. This review is based on current knowledge on bud outgrowth-related mechanisms and light-mediated regulation of many physiological processes. It provides an extensive, though not exhaustive, overview of the findings related to this field. In parallel, it points to issues to be addressed in the near future. PMID:27135502

  12. Budding yeast colony growth study based on circular granular cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprianti, Devi; Khotimah, S. N.; Viridi, S.

    2016-08-01

    Yeast colony growth can be modelled by using circular granular cells, which can grow and produce buds. The bud growth angle can be set to regulate cell budding pattern. Cohesion force, contact force and Stokes force were adopted to accommodate the behaviour and interactions among cells. Simulation steps are divided into two steps, the explicit step is due to cell growing and implicit step for the cell rearrangement. Only in explicit step that time change was performed. In this study, we examine the influence of cell diameter growth time and reproduction time combination toward the growth of cell number and colony formation. We find a commutative relation between the cell diameter growth time and reproduction time to the specific growth rate. The greater value of the multiplication of the parameters, the smaller specific growth rate is obtained. It also shows a linear correlation between the specific growth rate and colony diameter growth rate.

  13. EARLY BUD-BREAK1 (EBB1) defines a conserved mechanism for control of bud-break in woody perennials

    PubMed Central

    Busov, Victor; Carneros, Elena; Yakovlev, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Bud-break is an environmentally and economically important trait in trees, shrubs and vines from temperate latitudes. Poor synchronization of bud-break timing with local climates can lead to frost injuries, susceptibility to pests and pathogens and poor crop yields in fruit trees and vines. The rapid climate changes outpace the adaptive capacities of plants to respond through natural selection. This is particularly true for trees which have long generation cycle and thus the adaptive changes are significantly delayed. Therefore, to devise appropriate breeding and conservation strategies, it is imperative to understand the molecular underpinnings that govern dormancy mechanisms. We have recently identified and characterized the poplar EARLY BUD-BREAK 1 (EBB1) gene. EBB1 is a positive regulator of bud-break and encodes a transcription factor from the AP2/ERF family. Here, using comparative and functional genomics approaches we show that EBB1 function in regulation of bud-break is likely conserved across wide range of woody perennial species with importance to forestry and agriculture. PMID:26317150

  14. EARLY BUD-BREAK1 (EBB1) defines a conserved mechanism for control of bud-break in woody perennials.

    PubMed

    Busov, Victor; Carneros, Elena; Yakovlev, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Bud-break is an environmentally and economically important trait in trees, shrubs and vines from temperate latitudes. Poor synchronization of bud-break timing with local climates can lead to frost injuries, susceptibility to pests and pathogens and poor crop yields in fruit trees and vines. The rapid climate changes outpace the adaptive capacities of plants to respond through natural selection. This is particularly true for trees which have long generation cycle and thus the adaptive changes are significantly delayed. Therefore, to devise appropriate breeding and conservation strategies, it is imperative to understand the molecular underpinnings that govern dormancy mechanisms. We have recently identified and characterized the poplar EARLY BUD-BREAK 1 (EBB1) gene. EBB1 is a positive regulator of bud-break and encodes a transcription factor from the AP2/ERF family. Here, using comparative and functional genomics approaches we show that EBB1 function in regulation of bud-break is likely conserved across wide range of woody perennial species with importance to forestry and agriculture.

  15. Overexpression of horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam.Verdc.) NAC transcriptional factor (MuNAC4) in groundnut confers enhanced drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Pandurangaiah, Merum; Lokanadha Rao, G; Sudhakarbabu, O; Nareshkumar, A; Kiranmai, K; Lokesh, U; Thapa, Ganesh; Sudhakar, Chinta

    2014-08-01

    The NAC family being the largest plant-specific transcription factors functions in diverse and vital physiological processes during development. NAC proteins are known to be crucial in imparting tolerance to plants against abiotic stresses, such as drought and salinity, but the functions of most of them are still elusive. In this study, we report for the first time expression of the MuNAC4, a member of NAC transcription factor from horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) conferring drought tolerance. The groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) transgenics were generated using recombinant MuNAC4 binary vector transformation approach. Molecular analysis of these transgenic lines confirmed the stable gene integration and expression of the MuNAC4 gene. Twelve lines of T5 generation exhibited significantly enhanced tolerance to drought stress with proliferated lateral root growth as compared to wild types. Transgenics exposed to long-term desiccation stress assays showed increased lateral roots and greenish growth. The physiological parameters analysis also suggests that overexpression of MuNAC4 plays a significant role in improving the water stress tolerance of transgenic groundnut, reducing the damage to membrane structures and enhancing osmotic adjustment and antioxidative enzyme regulation under stress. This study validates MuNAC4 as an important candidate gene for future phytoengineering approaches for drought tolerance in crop plants.

  16. Supplementations of Hyparrhenia rufa -dominated hay with groundnut cake- wheat bran mix: effects on feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance of Somali goats.

    PubMed

    Betsha, Simret; Melaku, Solomon

    2009-08-01

    A digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance experiment was conducted using twenty yearling male Somali goats weighing 23.4 +/- 2.02 (mean+/-SD). The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of supplementation with graded levels of mixture of groundnut cake and wheat bran at a ratio of 3:1 on DM basis on feed intake, apparent digestibility and N balance in Somali goats. The experimental design was a completely randomized design consisting of five animals in each treatment. The dietary treatments included ad libitum feeding of hay (T1, control), and daily supplementation with 200 (T2, low) 300 (T3, medium) and 400 g DM (T4, high) of the concentrate mix. Increased level of supplementation reduced (P < 0.001) daily hay DM intake. Digestibility of crude protein (CP) was higher (P < 0.001) for the supplemented goats. Urinary nitrogen, total nitrogen excretion and retention increased (P < 0.01) with the level of supplementation. It was concluded that supplementation with groundnut -wheat bran mixture promoted feed intake and digestibility of DM, CP, and N retention in Somali goats fed hay. However, supplementation at the medium level appeared to be more effective since it promoted similar N balance with the high level of supplementation.

  17. Nutritive Evaluation of the Bambara Groundnut Ci12 Landrace [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)] Produced in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yao, Denis N'Dri; Kouassi, Kouakou Nestor; Erba, Daniela; Scazzina, Francesca; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina

    2015-09-07

    The nutritional evaluation of the Bambara groundnut Ci12 landrace (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds produced in Côte d'Ivoire shows a 19% content of protein, containing all the essential amino acids with tryptophan as the limiting amino acid, a total dietary fiber level of 10%, with a low soluble fraction content, and a fat content of 1.4%, with a high proportion of total unsaturated fatty acids (61%) of which 36% were n-6 fatty acids. This legume contains phosphorus, as the major mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium, and trace elements (iron, copper and zinc). It is characterized by the same amount of α-tocopherol and antioxidant capacity as common legumes. The high concentration of essential amino acids, n-6 fatty acids and minerals, mainly Fe, in the Ci12 landrace of Bambara groundnut indicates that this local legume has the potentiality to improve the nutritional status in Côte d'Ivoire and it could be regarded as a nutrient dense food.

  18. Nutritive Evaluation of the Bambara Groundnut Ci12 Landrace [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)] Produced in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    N’Dri Yao, Denis; Kouassi, Kouakou Nestor; Erba, Daniela; Scazzina, Francesca; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional evaluation of the Bambara groundnut Ci12 landrace (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds produced in Côte d’Ivoire shows a 19% content of protein, containing all the essential amino acids with tryptophan as the limiting amino acid, a total dietary fiber level of 10%, with a low soluble fraction content, and a fat content of 1.4%, with a high proportion of total unsaturated fatty acids (61%) of which 36% were n-6 fatty acids. This legume contains phosphorus, as the major mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium, and trace elements (iron, copper and zinc). It is characterized by the same amount of α-tocopherol and antioxidant capacity as common legumes. The high concentration of essential amino acids, n-6 fatty acids and minerals, mainly Fe, in the Ci12 landrace of Bambara groundnut indicates that this local legume has the potentiality to improve the nutritional status in Côte d’Ivoire and it could be regarded as a nutrient dense food. PMID:26370971

  19. Mycotoxin Contamination in Stored Maize and Groundnuts Based on Storage Practices and Conditions in Subhumid Tropical Africa: The Case of Kilosa District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Magembe, K S; Mwatawala, M W; Mamiro, D P

    2016-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the influence of storage practices on mycotoxin incidences in stored maize and groundnuts in Kilosa District, Eastern Central Tanzania. Factorial experiments were used to test the effects of processing, storage conditions, and protectants at 3-month intervals for 12 weeks. Temperature and relative humidity data were recorded by using data loggers. The differences among the treatment means were compared using Tukey's honestly significant difference test at 5% probability level. The log-linear model was used to determine the influence of weather on mycotoxin. Dried neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaves significantly reduced fumonisin B1 (FB1) in stored maize. Levels of FB1 were significantly higher in maize heaped on the floor than in the other tested storage methods (P < 0.001). Similarly, aflatoxin levels were significantly higher in groundnuts stored in nylon bags than in the other tested methods (P < 0.001). The high concentration of mycotoxins at the study villages suggests that storage practices and weather conditions play major roles in mycotoxin production.

  20. Project BudBurst: Citizen Science for All Seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Brewer, C.; Havens, K.; Meymaris, K.

    2007-12-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. Project BudBurst launched a pilot program in the Spring of 2007. The goals of Project BudBurst were to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From April through mid-June 2007, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of ~60 easily identifiable, broadly distributed wild and cultivated species found across the continent. We will report on the results of the pilot project and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst as it becomes a year round event beginning in 2008. A broad consortium of collaborators, representing the Chicago Botanic Garden, Plant Conservation Alliance, ESRI, the USA-National Phenology Network, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, University of Arizona, University of Montana, University of California-Santa Barbara, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, came together to design and implement Project BudBurst with seed funding from the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, the National Phenology Network (through a RCN grant from the NSF), and the Plant Conservation Alliance.

  1. Project BudBurst: People, Plants, and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Ward, D.; Havens, K.; Gardiner, L. S.; Alaback, P.

    2010-12-01

    Providing opportunities for individuals to contribute to a better understanding of climate change is the hallmark of Project BudBurst (www.budburst.org). This highly successful, national citizen science program, now in its third year, is bringing climate change education outreach to thousands of individuals. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. Project BudBurst has been the subject of almost 200 media outlets including NPR, national and regional television broadcasts, and most of the major national and regional newspapers. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst and will report on the results of the 2009 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2010 including the use of mobile phones applications for data collection and reporting from the field. Project BudBurst co managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and

  2. Thermal inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosting, L.; Gould, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A plaque assay was used to follow the inactivation kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in cell culture media at various temperatures. Inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in a visceral organ slurry was compared with that in culture media.

  3. Renal papillary necrosis: an update.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, G; Qunibi, W Y; Grissom, R T; Tuma, S N; Ayus, J C

    1982-03-01

    The clinical and diagnostic features of renal papillary necrosis (RPN) of 27 patients were studied. Diabetes mellitus was the most frequent (56%) condition associated with RPN. Analgesic abuse, sickle hemoglobinopathy and urinary tract obstruction were present in 4 patients each; in 6 of these 12 patients these conditions were present as a coexistent disease with diabetes mellitus. There was evidence of an acute or chronic infection of the urinary tract in 18 patients, as a coexistent condition with another underlying disease that itself can cause RPN in 14 patients and as the only cause of RPN in another 4. Thus, the presence of more than one diagnostic condition which might be implicated in the causation of RPN was present in 15 patients or 55% of the cases in this series. When infection was excluded, six patients or 22% of the cases had two coexisting diseases, each of which has been implicated as a cause of RPN. This observation underlines the multifactorial nature of this entity and might explain why RPN is not encountered more frequently in each of the various primary diseases with which it has been associated. The average age of the patients at the time of diagnosis was 53 years for women and 56 years for men. Only six of the patients were younger than 40 years, and three of these had sickle hemoglobinopathy. The diagnosis of RPN was based on x-ray findings in eight patients, on the histologic examination of papillary tissue in urine in one, and on autopsy findings in the rest. Papillary necrosis was bilateral in three-fourths of the cases. The clinical picture varied. Most of the patients (67%) presented with chills and fever. Flank pain and dysuria were present in 11 patients (41%). As a rule oliguria was rare and progressive uremia was uncommon. In cases diagnosed at post-mortem, the patients had succumbed to infection or to a primary severe extrarenal disorder with the possibility of RPN having been entertained clinically in only half these cases prior

  4. Mapping Water Stress Incidence and Intensity, Optimal Plant Populations, and Cultivar Duration for African Groundnut Productivity Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Vadez, Vincent; Halilou, Oumarou; Hissene, Halime M.; Sibiry-Traore, Pierre; Sinclair, Thomas R.; Soltani, Afshin

    2017-01-01

    Groundnut production is limited in Sub-Saharan Africa and water deficit or “drought,” is often considered as the main yield-limiting factor. However, no comprehensive study has assessed the extent and intensity of “drought”-related yield decreases, nor has it explored avenues to enhance productivity. Hence, crop simulation modeling with SSM (Simple Simulation Modeling) was used to address these issues. To palliate the lack of reliable weather data as input to the model, the validity of weather data generated by Marksim, a weather generator, was tested. Marksim provided good weather representation across a large gradient of rainfall, representative of the region, and although rainfall generated by Marksim was above observations, run-off from Marksim data was also higher, and consequently simulations using observed or Marksim weather agreed closely across this gradient of weather conditions (root mean square of error = 99 g m-2; R2 = 0.81 for pod yield). More importantly, simulation of yield changes upon agronomic or genetic alterations in the model were equally predicted with Marksim weather. A 1° × 1° grid of weather data was generated. “Drought”-related yield reduction were limited to latitudes above 12–13° North in West Central Africa (WCA) and to the Eastern fringes of Tanzania and Mozambique in East South Africa (ESA). Simulation and experimental trials also showed that doubling the sowing density of Spanish cultivars from 20 to 40 plants m-2 would increase yield dramatically in both WCA and ESA. However, increasing density would require growers to invest in more seeds and likely additional labor. If these trade-offs cannot be alleviated, genetic improvement would then need to re-focus on a plant type that is adapted to the current low sowing density, like a runner rather than a bush plant type, which currently receives most of the genetic attention. Genetic improvement targeting “drought” adaptation should also be restricted to areas

  5. Extensive transcriptome changes during natural onset and release of vegetative bud dormancy in Populus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To survive winter conditions, axillary buds of poplar transition from paradormancy to endodormancy. Following sufficient chilling, endodormant axillary buds will transition from endodormancy to ecodormancy. We utilized the near whole genome NimbleGen poplar microarrays to follow transcriptome diff...

  6. Extending the dormant bud cryopreservation method to new tree species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cryopreservation of germplasm, using dormant winter buds (DB) as source plant material is economically favorable over tissue culture options. Although the DB cryopreservation method has been known for many years, the approach is feasible only for cryopreserving a select number of temperate tree s...

  7. Science Shorts: Project BudBurst--Analyzing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kimberly J.; Coskie, Tracy L.

    2008-01-01

    Project BudBurst is a national program intended to get students and other "citizen scientists" to participate in a real study about plants, the environment, and climate change. It also provides an excellent opportunity for students to build data-analysis skills. A collaboration of several agencies and universities, the program began last year and…

  8. Mechanisms of Budding of Nanoscale Particles through Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Herrero, Teresa; Velasco, Enrique; Hagan, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the budding of a nanoscale particle through a lipid bilayer using molecular dynamics simulations, free energy calculations, and an elastic theory, with the aim of determining the extent to which equilibrium elasticity theory can describe the factors that control the mechanism and efficiency of budding. The particle is a smooth sphere which experiences attractive interactions to the lipid head groups. Depending on the parameters, we observe four classes of dynamical trajectories: particle adhesion to the membrane, stalled partially wrapped states, budding followed by scission, and membrane rupture. In most regions of parameter space we find that the elastic theory agrees nearly quantitatively with the simulated phase behavior as a function of adhesion strength, membrane bending rigidity, and particle radius. However, at parameter values near the transition between particle adhesion and budding, we observe long-lived partially wrapped states which are not captured by existing elastic theories. These states could constrain the accessible system parameters for those enveloped viruses or drug delivery vehicles which rely on exo- or endocytosis for membrane transport. PMID:22803595

  9. Intracellular and extracellular regulation of ureteric bud morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    DAVIES, JAMIE

    2001-01-01

    The urinary collecting duct system of the permanent kidney develops by growth and branching of an initially unbranched epithelial tubule, the ureteric bud. Formation of the ureteric bud as an outgrowth of the wolffian duct is induced by signalling molecules (such as GDNF) that emanate from the adjacent metanephrogenic mesenchyme. Once it has invaded the mesenchyme, growth and branching of the bud is controlled by a variety of molecules, such as the growth factors GDNF, HGF, TGFβ, activin, BMP-2, BMP-7, and matrix molecules such as heparan sulphate proteoglycans and laminins. These various influences are integrated by signal transduction systems inside ureteric bud cells, with the MAP kinase, protein kinase A and protein kinase C pathways appearing to play major roles. The mechanisms of morphogenetic change that produce branching remain largely obscure, but matrix metalloproteinases are known to be necessary for the process, and there is preliminary evidence for the involvement of the actin/myosin contractile cytoskeleton in creating branch points. PMID:11322719

  10. Teacher's Guide for Budding Twigs. Elementary Science Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Rose Lea; And Others

    This teaching guide supplements a science unit concerned with bud maturation recommended for use in fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms. The first section describes possible activities for children to explore, such as field study, collections, dissecting, and experiments. The second section offers a few brief suggestions for teaching the unit. The…

  11. Geographic trend of bud hardiness response in Vitis riparia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major goal of grapevine breeding efforts for production outside of Mediterranean climates is the production of varieties that have cold tolerance phenotypes. Typically, grapevine breeders use midwinter bud hardiness measures as the descriptive phenotype for cold tolerance. Historical practices of...

  12. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Fumihisa; Shibata, Michiko; Torigoe, Motoki; Matsumoto, Yuta; Yamamoto, Shinsuke; Takizawa, Noboru; Hada, Yoshio; Mori, Yoshihisa; Takarabe, Kenichi

    2013-06-01

    In our previous studies on the tolerance of small plants and animals to the high hydrostatic pressure of 7.5 GPa, it was shown that all the living samples could be borne at this high pressure, which is more than one order of magnitude higher than the proteinic denaturation pressure. To make this inconsistency clear, we have extended these studies to a smaller sized fungus, budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate (PC72, Sumitomo 3M), and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar (PDA). It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for 12 and 24 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is weaker than that of tardigrades.

  13. Project BudBurst: Citizen Science for All Seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Alaback, P.; Havens, K.

    2008-12-01

    Providing opportunities for individuals to contribute to a better understanding of climate change is the hallmark of Project BudBurst (www.budburst.org). This highly successful, national citizen science program, now in its second year, is bringing climate change education outreach to thousands of individuals. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, participants from 49 states have submitted data that is being submitted to the USA National Phenology Network (www.usanpn.org) database. Project BudBurst has been the subject of almost 200 media outlets including NPR, national and regional television broadcasts, and most of the major national and regional newspapers. This presentation will provide an overview of Project Budburst and will report on the results of the 2008 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2009. Project BudBurst is a Windows to the Universe Citizen Science program managed by the University

  14. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium.

    PubMed

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D; Barlow, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation.

  15. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Klein, Ophir D.; Barlow, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. PMID:24993944

  16. Molecular events of apical bud formation in white spruce, Picea glauca.

    PubMed

    El Kayal, Walid; Allen, Carmen C G; Ju, Chelsea J-T; Adams, Eri; King-Jones, Susanne; Zaharia, L Irina; Abrams, Suzanne R; Cooke, Janice E K

    2011-03-01

    Bud formation is an adaptive trait that temperate forest trees have acquired to facilitate seasonal synchronization. We have characterized transcriptome-level changes that occur during bud formation of white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss], a primarily determinate species in which preformed stem units contained within the apical bud constitute most of next season's growth. Microarray analysis identified 4460 differentially expressed sequences in shoot tips during short day-induced bud formation. Cluster analysis revealed distinct temporal patterns of expression, and functional classification of genes in these clusters implied molecular processes that coincide with anatomical changes occurring in the developing bud. Comparing expression profiles in developing buds under long day and short day conditions identified possible photoperiod-responsive genes that may not be essential for bud development. Several genes putatively associated with hormone signalling were identified, and hormone quantification revealed distinct profiles for abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinins, auxin and their metabolites that can be related to morphological changes to the bud. Comparison of gene expression profiles during bud formation in different tissues revealed 108 genes that are differentially expressed only in developing buds and show greater transcript abundance in developing buds than other tissues. These findings provide a temporal roadmap of bud formation in white spruce.

  17. Fire and nitrogen alter axillary bud number and activity in purple threeawn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Belowground accumulation of vegetative buds provides a reservoir of meristems that can be utilized following disturbance. Perennial grass bud banks are the primary source of nearly all tiller growth, yet understanding of fire and nitrogen effects on bud banks is limited. We tested effects of fire ...

  18. Post-pancreatitis Fat Necrosis Mimicking Carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua P; Arnoletti, J Pablo; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Morgan, Desiree E

    2008-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis can result in retroperitoneal fat necrosis, typically occurring in the peripancreatic region, with extension into the transverse mesocolon, omentum and mesenteric root. When evaluated with contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT), acute peripancreatic post necrotic collections typically become lower in attenuation over time, and often appear as homogeneous fluid collections. Saponification as a complication of fat necrosis in patients with acute pancreatitis is a well recognized clinical entity. While retroperitonal fat necrosis is commonly seen on CECT, saponification is not a prominent imaging feature. We present a case of acute pancreatitis complicated by extensive saponification of fat throughout the retroperitoneum and peritoneal lining, mimicking carcinomatosis.

  19. Acute Necrotizing Esophagitis Followed by Duodenal Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Del Hierro, Piedad Magdalena

    2011-12-01

    Acute Necrotizing Esophagitis is an uncommon pathology, characterized by endoscopic finding of diffuse black coloration in esophageal mucosa and histological presence of necrosis in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The first case of acute necrotizing esophagitis followed by duodenal necrosis, in 81 years old woman with a positive history of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, and usual intake of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs, is reported. Although its etiology remains unknown, the duodenal necrosis suggests that ischemia could be the main cause given that the branches off the celiac axis provide common blood supply to the distal esophageal and duodenal tissue. The massive gastroesophagic reflux and NSAID intake could be involved.

  20. Experimental Papillary Necrosis of the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Solez, K.; Miller, M.; Quarles, P. A.; Finer, P. M.; Heptinstall, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    To test the thesis that vasoconstriction plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of papillary necrosis caused by bromoethylamine hydrobromide (BEA), medullary plasma flow was determined in rats treated with BEA. Medullary blood flow was normal ½ to 1 hour after BEA treatment, and was actually elevated 6 hours after BEA. There was no increase in plasma levels of prostaglandins A and E, which would have been expected if there had been medullary ischemia. Pretreatment with reserpine, which inhibited the development of papillary necrosis, had little effect on medullary plasma flow. These observations do not support the notion that vasoconstriction is the mechanism by which BEA causes papillary necrosis. PMID:4472110

  1. A Genomic Study of the Bipolar Bud Site Selection Pattern in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Li; Snyder, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A genome-wide screen of 4168 homozygous diploid yeast deletion strains has been performed to identify nonessential genes that participate in the bipolar budding pattern. By examining bud scar patterns representing the sites of previous cell divisions, 127 mutants representing three different phenotypes were found: unipolar, axial-like, and random. From this screen, 11 functional classes of known genes were identified, including those involved in actin-cytoskeleton organization, general bud site selection, cell polarity, vesicular transport, cell wall synthesis, protein modification, transcription, nuclear function, translation, and other functions. Four characterized genes that were not known previously to participate in bud site selection were also found to be important for the haploid axial budding pattern. In addition to known genes, we found 22 novel genes (20 are designated BUD13-BUD32) important for bud site selection. Deletion of one resulted in unipolar budding exclusively from the proximal pole, suggesting that this gene plays an important role in diploid distal budding. Mutations in 20 other novel BUD genes produced a random budding phenotype and one produced an axial-like budding defect. Several of the novel Bud proteins were fused to green fluorescence protein; two proteins were found to localize to sites of polarized cell growth (i.e., the bud tip in small budded cells and the neck in cells undergoing cytokinesis), similar to that postulated for the bipolar signals and proteins that target cell division site tags to their proper location in the cell. Four others localized to the nucleus, suggesting that they play a role in gene expression. The bipolar distal marker Bud8 was localized in a number of mutants; many showed an altered Bud8-green fluorescence protein localization pattern. Through the genome-wide identification and analysis of different mutants involved in bipolar bud site selection, an integrated pathway for this process is presented in

  2. Cortical necrosis in a renal transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Blumhardt, R.; Growcock, G.; Lasher, J.C.

    1983-07-01

    The /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA renogram is a well extabished noninvasive method for evaluating and following transplanted kidneys. The examination is useful in distinguishing rejection from acute tubular necrosis as well as demonstrating several less common complications such as vascular occlusion, urinary extravasation, obstruction, and lymphocele. A previously unreported condition involving a transplant kidney (i.e., renal cortical necrosis) is described which was diagnosed with renal scintigraphy in combination with sonography.

  3. Intracellular serpins, firewalls and tissue necrosis.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Stefan J; Lomas, David A

    2008-02-01

    Luke and colleagues have recently attributed a new role to a member of the serpin superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors. They have used Caenorhabditis elegans to show that an intracellular serpin is crucial for maintaining lysosomal integrity. We examine the role of this firewall in preventing necrosis and attempt to integrate this with current theories of stress-induced protein degradation. We discuss how mutant serpins cause disease either through polymerization or now, perhaps, by unleashing necrosis.

  4. Experimental evidence that ptarmigan regulate willow bud production to their own advantage.

    PubMed

    Christie, Katie S; Ruess, R W

    2015-07-01

    In some ecosystems, vertebrate herbivores increase the nutritional quality and biomass of their food source through repeated grazing, thereby manipulating their environment to support higher densities of animals. We tested whether ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus and L. muta) are capable of regulating the nutritional quality, abundance, and availability of feltleaf willow (Salix alaxensis) buds using a simulated browsing experiment and a feeding preference study with wild birds. Simulated ptarmigan browsing resulted in smaller buds, but greater numbers of buds per shoot. Furthermore, browsing altered the morphology of willow branches such that buds were at higher densities and closer to snow level compared to unbrowsed controls. Browsing increased the number of willows with accessible buds (buds within 50 cm of snow level) from 55 to 89%, and increased total accessible bud biomass from 113 ± 30 to 129 ± 50 mg/ramet. Browsing did not affect bud nitrogen or carbon concentration and slightly reduced protein precipitation capacity (tannins) in buds the following winter, indicating that ptarmigan browsing does not induce a defensive response in this species. When branches of broomed (previously browsed) and unbroomed willows were placed in the snow at equal heights, ptarmigan showed no preference for either type; however, they obtained more buds from broomed willows. Increased accessibility and density of willow buds caused by browsing has the potential to increase habitat carrying capacity, thereby supporting higher densities of ptarmigan.

  5. Membrane-elasticity model of Coatless vesicle budding induced by ESCRT complexes.

    PubMed

    Różycki, Bartosz; Boura, Evzen; Hurley, James H; Hummer, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    The formation of vesicles is essential for many biological processes, in particular for the trafficking of membrane proteins within cells. The Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) directs membrane budding away from the cytosol. Unlike other vesicle formation pathways, the ESCRT-mediated budding occurs without a protein coat. Here, we propose a minimal model of ESCRT-induced vesicle budding. Our model is based on recent experimental observations from direct fluorescence microscopy imaging that show ESCRT proteins colocalized only in the neck region of membrane buds. The model, cast in the framework of membrane elasticity theory, reproduces the experimentally observed vesicle morphologies with physically meaningful parameters. In this parameter range, the minimum energy configurations of the membrane are coatless buds with ESCRTs localized in the bud neck, consistent with experiment. The minimum energy configurations agree with those seen in the fluorescence images, with respect to both bud shapes and ESCRT protein localization. On the basis of our model, we identify distinct mechanistic pathways for the ESCRT-mediated budding process. The bud size is determined by membrane material parameters, explaining the narrow yet different bud size distributions in vitro and in vivo. Our membrane elasticity model thus sheds light on the energetics and possible mechanisms of ESCRT-induced membrane budding.

  6. Labeling and analysis of chicken taste buds using molecular markers in oral epithelial sheets

    PubMed Central

    Rajapaksha, Prasangi; Wang, Zhonghou; Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Tehrani, Kayvan F.; Payne, Jason; Swetenburg, Raymond L.; Kawabata, Fuminori; Tabata, Shoji; Mortensen, Luke J.; Stice, Steven L.; Beckstead, Robert; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    In chickens, the sensory organs for taste are the taste buds in the oral cavity, of which there are ~240–360 in total number as estimated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There is not an easy way to visualize all taste buds in chickens. Here, we report a highly efficient method for labeling chicken taste buds in oral epithelial sheets using the molecular markers Vimentin and α-Gustducin. Immediate tissue fixation following incubation with sub-epithelially injected proteases enabled us to peel off whole epithelial sheets, leaving the shape and integrity of the tissue intact. In the peeled epithelial sheets, taste buds labeled with antibodies against Vimentin and α-Gustducin were easily identified and counted under a light microscope and many more taste buds, patterned in rosette-like clusters, were found than previously reported with SEM. Broiler-type, female-line males have more taste buds than other groups and continue to increase the number of taste buds over stages after hatch. In addition to ovoid-shaped taste buds, big tube-shaped taste buds were observed in the chicken using 2-photon microscopy. Our protocol for labeling taste buds with molecular markers will factilitate future mechanistic studies on the development of chicken taste buds in association with their feeding behaviors. PMID:27853250

  7. Tumor budding is an independent adverse prognostic factor in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Kate; Li-Chang, Hector H; Kalloger, Steven E; Peixoto, Renata D; Webber, Douglas L; Owen, David A; Driman, David K; Kirsch, Richard; Serra, Stefano; Scudamore, Charles H; Renouf, Daniel J; Schaeffer, David F

    2015-04-01

    Tumor budding is a well-established adverse prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. However, the significance and diagnostic reproducibility of budding in pancreatic carcinoma requires further study. We aimed to assess the prognostic significance of tumor budding in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, determine its relationship with other clinicopathologic features, and assess interobserver variability in its diagnosis. Tumor budding was assessed in 192 archival cases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) sections; tumor buds were defined as single cells or nonglandular clusters composed of <5 cells. The presence of budding was determined through assessment of all tumor-containing slides, and associations with clinicopathologic features and outcomes were analyzed. Six gastrointestinal pathologists participated in an interobserver variability study of 120 images of consecutive tumor slides stained with H&E and cytokeratin. Budding was present in 168 of 192 cases and was associated with decreased overall survival (P=0.001). On multivariable analysis, tumor budding was prognostically significantly independent of stage, grade, tumor size, nodal status, lymphovascular invasion, and perineural invasion. There was substantial agreement among pathologists in assessing the presence of tumor budding using both H&E (K=0.63) and cytokeratin (K=0.63) stains. The presence of tumor budding is an independent adverse prognostic factor in pancreatic ductal carcinoma. The assessment of budding with H&E is reliable and could be used to better risk stratify patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

  8. Auxin flow-mediated competition between axillary buds to restore apical dominance

    PubMed Central

    Balla, Jozef; Medveďová, Zuzana; Kalousek, Petr; Matiješčuková, Natálie; Friml, Jiří; Reinöhl, Vilém; Procházka, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Apical dominance is one of the fundamental developmental phenomena in plant biology, which determines the overall architecture of aerial plant parts. Here we show apex decapitation activated competition for dominance in adjacent upper and lower axillary buds. A two-nodal-bud pea (Pisum sativum L.) was used as a model system to monitor and assess auxin flow, auxin transport channels, and dormancy and initiation status of axillary buds. Auxin flow was manipulated by lateral stem wounds or chemically by auxin efflux inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), 1-N-naphtylphtalamic acid (NPA), or protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) treatments, which served to interfere with axillary bud competition. Redirecting auxin flow to different points influenced which bud formed the outgrowing and dominant shoot. The obtained results proved that competition between upper and lower axillary buds as secondary auxin sources is based on the same auxin canalization principle that operates between the shoot apex and axillary bud. PMID:27824063

  9. Membrane budding and scission by the ESCRT machinery: it's all in the neck

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, James H.; Hanson, Phyllis I.

    2010-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) catalyze one of the most unusual membrane remodelling events in cell biology. ESCRT-I and ESCRT-II direct membrane budding away from the cytosol by stabilizing bud necks without coating the bud and without being consumed in the buds. ESCRT-III cleaves the bud necks from their cytosolic face. ESCRT-III-mediated membrane neck cleavage is crucial for many processes, including the biogenesis of multivesicular bodies, viral budding, cytokinesis, and probably autophagy. Recent studies of ultrastructures induced by ESCRT-III overexpression in cells and the in vitro reconstitution of the budding and scission reactions have led to breakthroughs in understanding these remarkable membrane reactions. PMID:20588296

  10. Influences of polar auxin transport on polarity of adventitious bud formation in hybrid populas

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Myung Won ); Hackett, W. )

    1989-04-01

    The role of auxin and cytokinin distribution of polar regeneration of adventitious bud has been investigated. Explants from leaf midvein were labelled with {sup 14}C-NAA and {sup 14}C-BA and the radioactivity in proximal, mid, and distal portions was counted after 24h and 48h. Explants showing polar regeneration of buds on the proximal end showed a clear polar distribution of {sup 14}CNAA. Auxin transport inhibitors (NPA, TIBA) eliminated polar distribution of auxin and reduced polarity of bud formation and the total number of buds formed, but did not reduce callus formation. Increased concentration of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} decreased polarity of bud formation and increased the number of buds formed but did not affect the distribution of auxin of cytokinin. Some factor in addition to polar distribution of auxin or cytokinin-auxin ratio appears to influence the polarity of adventitious bud formation.

  11. How to halve ploidy: lessons from budding yeast meiosis.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Gary William; Sarkar, Sourav; Arumugam, Prakash

    2012-09-01

    Maintenance of ploidy in sexually reproducing organisms requires a specialized form of cell division called meiosis that generates genetically diverse haploid gametes from diploid germ cells. Meiotic cells halve their ploidy by undergoing two rounds of nuclear division (meiosis I and II) after a single round of DNA replication. Research in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) has shown that four major deviations from the mitotic cell cycle during meiosis are essential for halving ploidy. The deviations are (1) formation of a link between homologous chromosomes by crossover, (2) monopolar attachment of sister kinetochores during meiosis I, (3) protection of centromeric cohesion during meiosis I, and (4) suppression of DNA replication following exit from meiosis I. In this review we present the current understanding of the above four processes in budding yeast and examine the possible conservation of molecular mechanisms from yeast to humans.

  12. Budding transition of asymmetric two-component lipid domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Jean; Komura, Shigeyuki; Andelman, David

    2016-09-01

    We propose a model that accounts for the budding transition of asymmetric two-component lipid domains, where the two monolayers (leaflets) have different average compositions controlled by independent chemical potentials. Assuming a coupling between the local curvature and local lipid composition in each of the leaflets, we discuss the morphology and thermodynamic behavior of asymmetric lipid domains. The membrane free-energy contains three contributions: the bending energy, the line tension, and a Landau free-energy for a lateral phase separation. Within a mean-field treatment, we obtain various phase diagrams containing fully budded, dimpled, and flat states as a function of the two leaflet compositions. The global phase behavior is analyzed, and depending on system parameters, the phase diagrams include one-phase, two-phase, and three-phase regions. In particular, we predict various phase coexistence regions between different morphologies of domains, which may be observed in multicomponent membranes or vesicles.

  13. Nuclear envelope fission is linked to cytokinesis in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Lippincott, J; Li, R

    2000-11-01

    We have investigated the relationship between nuclear envelope fission and cytokinesis during mitotic cell division in budding yeast. By carrying out time-lapse and optical sectioning video microscopy analysis of cells that express green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged nuclear envelope and actomyosin ring components, we found that nuclear division is temporally coupled to cytokinesis. Light and electron microscopy analysis also showed that nuclear envelope fission and the division of the nucleoplasm are severely delayed in cytokinesis mutants, resulting in discoupling between the nuclear division cycle and the budding cycle. These results suggest that homotypic membrane fusion may be activated by components or the mechanical action of cytokinetic structures and presents a mechanism for the equal partitioning of the nucleus and the temporal coordination of this event with chromosome segregation during mitosis.

  14. Patterns of bud-site selection in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae select bud sites in either of two distinct spatial patterns, known as axial (expressed by a and alpha cells) and bipolar (expressed by a/alpha cells). Fluorescence, time-lapse, and scanning electron microscopy have been used to obtain more precise descriptions of these patterns. From these descriptions, we conclude that in the axial pattern, the new bud forms directly adjacent to the division site in daughter cells and directly adjacent to the immediately preceding division site (bud site) in mother cells, with little influence from earlier sites. Thus, the division site appears to be marked by a spatial signal(s) that specifies the location of the new bud site and is transient in that it only lasts from one budding event to the next. Consistent with this conclusion, starvation and refeeding of axially budding cells results in the formation of new buds at nonaxial sites. In contrast, in bipolar budding cells, both poles are specified persistently as potential bud sites, as shown by the observations that a pole remains competent for budding even after several generations of nonuse and that the poles continue to be used for budding after starvation and refeeding. It appears that the specification of the two poles as potential bud sites occurs before a daughter cell forms its first bud, as a daughter can form this bud near either pole. However, there is a bias towards use of the pole distal to the division site. The strength of this bias varies from strain to strain, is affected by growth conditions, and diminishes in successive cell cycles. The first bud that forms near the distal pole appears to form at the very tip of the cell, whereas the first bud that forms near the pole proximal to the original division site (as marked by the birth scar) is generally somewhat offset from the tip and adjacent to (or overlapping) the birth scar. Subsequent buds can form near either pole and appear almost always to be adjacent either to

  15. The protein machinery of vesicle budding and fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    A general protein machinery that buds and fuses transport vesicles is harnessed to generate the complex web of intracellular transport pathways critical for such diverse processes as cell growth, endocytosis, hormone release, and neurotransmission. With this appreciation, the challenge of understanding the precise molecular mechanisms of these many facets of cell biology has been reduced to a series of problems in protein structure and chemistry. PMID:8745395

  16. Arenavirus budding: a common pathway with mechanistic differences.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Svenja; Ebihara, Hideki; Groseth, Allison

    2013-01-31

    The Arenaviridae is a diverse and growing family of viruses that includes several agents responsible for important human diseases. Despite the importance of this family for public health, particularly in Africa and South America, much of its biology remains poorly understood. However, in recent years significant progress has been made in this regard, particularly relating to the formation and release of new enveloped virions, which is an essential step in the viral lifecycle. While this process is mediated chiefly by the viral matrix protein Z, recent evidence suggests that for some viruses the nucleoprotein (NP) is also required to enhance the budding process. Here we highlight and compare the distinct budding mechanisms of different arenaviruses, concentrating on the role of the matrix protein Z, its known late domain sequences, and the involvement of cellular endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway components. Finally we address the recently described roles for the nucleoprotein NP in budding and ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) incorporation, as well as discussing possible mechanisms related to its involvement.

  17. Leptin's effect on taste bud calcium responses and transmitter secretion.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Tricia L; Corcoran, Alan; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-05-01

    Leptin, a peptide hormone released by adipose tissue, acts on the hypothalamus to control cravings and appetite. Leptin also acts to decrease taste responses to sweet substances, though there is little detailed information regarding where leptin acts in the taste transduction cascade. The present study examined the effects of leptin on sweet-evoked responses and neuro transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Our results indicate that leptin moderately decreased sweet-evoked calcium mobilization in isolated mouse taste buds. We also employed Chinese hamster ovary biosensor cells to examine taste transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Leptin reduced ATP and increased serotonin release in response to sweet stimulation. However, leptin has no effect on bitter-evoked transmitter release, further showing that the action of leptin is sweet specific. Our results support those of previous studies, which state that leptin acts on taste tissue via the leptin receptor, most likely on Type II (Receptor) cells, but also possibly on Type III (Presynaptic) cells.

  18. Lectins influence chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in limb bud mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Talaei-Khozani, Tahereh; Monsefi, Malihezaman; Ghasemi, Mansoureh

    2011-02-01

    The role of cell surface glycoproteins in cell behavior can be characterized by their interactions with plant lectins. This study was designed to identify the effects of lectins on chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in limb bud mesenchymal cells in vitro. Limb bud mesenchymal cells from mouse embryos were cultured in high-density micromass culture. Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), concanavalin A (ConA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) and Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA) were added separately to the culture media. Cells were cultured for 5 or 9 days, and cell viability was assayed by neutral red on day 5. The micromasses were stained with alcian blue, alizarin red S and Von Kossa stains, and alkaline phosphatase assays were also done. Dolichos biflorus agglutinin induced an increase in chondrogenesis, calcium precipitation and proteoglycan production. ConA and PNA did not affect chondrocyte differentiation but induced chondrocytes to produce more proteoglycan. Wheat germ agglutinin reduced chondrification and ossification but induced mesenchymal cells to store lipid droplets. Ricinus communis agglutinin 1 was toxic and significantly reduced cell survival. In conclusion, DBA was the most effective inducer of ossification and chondrification. Wheat germ agglutinin induced adipogenesis instead. These assays showed that lectins play important roles in limb bud development.

  19. Trichomes control flower bud shape by linking together young petals.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jiafu; Walford, Sally-Anne; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Llewellyn, Danny

    2016-06-20

    Trichomes are widespread in plants and develop from surface cells on different tissues(1). They have many forms and functions, from defensive spines to physical barriers that trap layers of air to insulate against desiccation, but there is growing evidence that trichomes can also have developmental roles in regulating flower structure(2,3). We report here that the trichomes on petals of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., are essential for correct flower bud shape through a mechanical entanglement of the trichomes on adjacent petals that anchor the edges to counter the opposing force generated by asymmetric expansion of overlapping petals. Silencing a master regulator of petal trichomes, GhMYB-MIXTA-Like10 (GhMYBML10), by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed petal trichome growth and resulted in flower buds forming into abnormal corkscrew shapes that exposed developing anthers and stigmas to desiccation damage. Artificially gluing petal edges together could partially restore correct bud shape and fertility. Such petal 'Velcro' is present in other Malvaceae and perhaps more broadly in other plant families, although it is not ubiquitous. This mechanism for physical association between separate organs to regulate flower shape and function is different from the usual organ shape control(4) exerted through cell-to-cell communication and differential cell expansion within floral tissues(5,6).

  20. Automated Sensing of Douglas Fir Bud-Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lintz, H. E.; Kruger, A.; Wagner, D. A.; Tenney, I. J.

    2011-12-01

    The timing of plant biological events such as budburst in the spring can have major impacts on plant productivity and ecosystem carbon balance. While research efforts that address the timing of events is gaining considerable momentum, the technology available for sensing and recording the timing of events is limited, especially for trees. Thus, researchers often perform manual measurements, which can be time-consuming and labor-intensive. This has resulted in efforts such as Project BudBurst, a network of professional and volunteer observers across the United States that monitor plants as seasons change. Access to forest trees can be difficult during periods of greatest interest, such as when buds open in the spring. For example, high elevation, snow, and melting snow during the spring hamper access to trees in alpine regions. Researchers at Oregon State University and The University of Iowa are developing instrumentation for automating sensing of budburst in Douglas firs. While the instrumentation targets Douglas firs, it can find application in studying budburst in other species. We present an initial bud-burst sensor that uses optical techniques to sense bud opening. An optical fiber illuminates a target bud with modulated light, a second fiber detects, and guides reflect light to a photodetector and signal processing electronics. Changes in the reflected light indicate the budburst. The instrumentation exploits advances in microelectronics, particularly miniaturization and low power consumption, and uses advanced signal processing techniques such as lock-in detection. The instrumentation records the reflected light every 15 minutes on high-capacity, non-volatile Flash media. Power consumption is very low and sensors have an extrapolated, continuous operating time more than 9 months, suggesting their deployment in the fall, and retrieval in the following spring. We believe the sensor will enable a caliber of research not yet achievable owing to the difficulty of

  1. Differentiation of Apical Bud Cells in a Newly Developed Apical Bud Transplantation Model Using GFP Transgenic Mice as Donor

    PubMed Central

    Sakagami, Ryuji; Yoshinaga, Yasunori; Okamura, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Rodent mandibular incisors have a unique anatomical structure that allows teeth to grow throughout the lifetime of the rodent. This report presents a novel transplantation technique for studying the apical bud differentiation of rodent mandibular incisors. Incisal apical end tissue with green fluorescent protein from transgenic mouse was transplanted to wild type mice, and the development of the transplanted cells were immunohistologically observed for 12 weeks after the transplantation. Results indicate that the green fluorescent apical end tissue replaced the original tissue, and cells from the apical bud differentiated and extended toward the incisal edge direction. The immunostaining with podoplanin also showed that the characteristics of the green fluorescent tissue were identical to those of the original. The green fluorescent cells were only found in the labial side of the incisor up to 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, however, they were also found in the lingual side. Here the green fluorescent cementocyte-like cells were only present in the cementum close to the dentin surface. This study suggests that some of the cells that form the cellular cementum come from the apical tissue including the apical bud in rodent incisors. PMID:26978064

  2. NAP1 acts with Clb1 to perform mitotic functions and to suppress polar bud growth in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    NAP1 is a 60-kD protein that interacts specifically with mitotic cyclins in budding yeast and frogs. We have examined the ability of the yeast mitotic cyclin Clb2 to function in cells that lack NAP1. Our results demonstrate that Clb2 is unable to carry out its full range of functions without NAP1, even though Clb2/p34CDC28-associated kinase activity rises to normal levels. In the absence of NAP1, Clb2 is unable to efficiently induce mitotic events, and cells undergo a prolonged delay at the short spindle stage with normal levels of Clb2/p34CDC28 kinase activity. NAP1 is also required for the ability of Clb2 to induce the switch from polar to isotropic bud growth. As a result, polar bud growth continues during mitosis, giving rise to highly elongated cells. Our experiments also suggest that NAP1 is required for the ability of the Clb2/p34CDC28 kinase complex to amplify its own production, and that NAP1 plays a role in regulation of microtubule dynamics during mitosis. Together, these results demonstrate that NAP1 is required for the normal function of the activated Clb2/p34CDC28 kinase complex, and provide a step towards understanding how cyclin- dependent kinase complexes induce specific events during the cell cycle. PMID:7622567

  3. Renal Papillary Necrosis: Role of Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Vaidehi K.

    2016-01-01

    Renal Papillary Necrosis (RPN) is idefined as Ischemic necrobiosis of the papilla in the medulla of the kidneys. Variety of etiological factors are recognized which cause papillary necrosis, such as analgesic nephropathy, diabetes mellitus, urinary obstruction and sickle cell haemoglobinopathy. The early diagnosis of RPN is important to improve prognosis and reduce morbidity. Radiological Imaging offers early diagnosis and can guide prompt treatment of papillary necrosis and can minimize a decline in renal function. Here we report three cases of RPN with typical imaging findings. One of them was diabetic and hypertensive female with recurrent Urinary tract Infections and other was a male with no known co-morbidity. Both of them were diagnosed to have renal papillary necrosis on CT scan and were managed operatively and conservatively, respectively. Third case was a healthy female being investigated to be renal donor for her son. Here RPN was an incidental finding and was treated conservatively. Thus CT scan could detect it pre-operatively and complications due to transplantation of a kidney with papillary necrosis were avoided. So, we want to emphasize the importance of Radiology, particularly CT scanning in detection of RPN and to guide early and prompt treatment. PMID:26894147

  4. Ice nucleation activity in various tissues of Rhododendron flower buds: their relevance to extraorgan freezing

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Masaya; Ishikawa, Mikiko; Toyomasu, Takayuki; Aoki, Takayuki; Price, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Wintering flower buds of cold hardy Rhododendron japonicum cooled slowly to subfreezing temperatures are known to undergo extraorgan freezing, whose mechanisms remain obscure. We revisited this material to demonstrate why bud scales freeze first in spite of their lower water content, why florets remain deeply supercooled and how seasonal adaptive responses occur in regard to extraorgan freezing in flower buds. We determined ice nucleation activity (INA) of various flower bud tissues using a test tube-based assay. Irrespective of collection sites, outer and inner bud scales that function as ice sinks in extraorgan freezing had high INA levels whilst florets that remain supercooled and act as a water source lacked INA. The INA level of bud scales was not high in late August when flower bud formation was ending, but increased to reach the highest level in late October just before the first autumnal freeze. The results support the following hypothesis: the high INA in bud scales functions as the subfreezing sensor, ensuring the primary freezing in bud scales at warmer subzero temperatures, which likely allows the migration of floret water to the bud scales and accumulation of icicles within the bud scales. The low INA in the florets helps them remain unfrozen by deep supercooling. The INA in the bud scales was resistant to grinding and autoclaving at 121∘C for 15 min, implying the intrinsic nature of the INA rather than of microbial origin, whilst the INA in stem bark was autoclaving-labile. Anti-nucleation activity (ANA) was implicated in the leachate of autoclaved bud scales, which suppresses the INA at millimolar levels of concentration and likely differs from the colligative effects of the solutes. The tissue INA levels likely contribute to the establishment of freezing behaviors by ensuring the order of freezing in the tissues: from the primary freeze to the last tissue remaining unfrozen. PMID:25859249

  5. Polarized Growth Controls Cell Shape and Bipolar Bud Site Selection in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Yi-Jun; Barral, Yves; Snyder, Michael

    2000-01-01

    We examined the relationship between polarized growth and division site selection, two fundamental processes important for proper development of eukaryotes. Diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells exhibit an ellipsoidal shape and a specific division pattern (a bipolar budding pattern). We found that the polarity genes SPA2, PEA2, BUD6, and BNI1 participate in a crucial step of bud morphogenesis, apical growth. Deleting these genes results in round cells and diminishes bud elongation in mutants that exhibit pronounced apical growth. Examination of distribution of the polarized secretion marker Sec4 demonstrates that spa2Δ, pea2Δ, bud6Δ, and bni1Δ mutants fail to concentrate Sec4 at the bud tip during apical growth and at the division site during repolarization just prior to cytokinesis. Moreover, cell surface expansion is not confined to the distal tip of the bud in these mutants. In addition, we found that the p21-activated kinase homologue Ste20 is also important for both apical growth and bipolar bud site selection. We further examined how the duration of polarized growth affects bipolar bud site selection by using mutations in cell cycle regulators that control the timing of growth phases. The grr1Δ mutation enhances apical growth by stabilizing G1 cyclins and increases the distal-pole budding in diploids. Prolonging polarized growth phases by disrupting the G2/M cyclin gene CLB2 enhances the accuracy of bud site selection in wild-type, spa2Δ, and ste20Δ cells, whereas shortening the polarized growth phases by deleting SWE1 decreases the fidelity of bipolar budding. This study reports the identification of components required for apical growth and demonstrates the critical role of polarized growth in bipolar bud site selection. We propose that apical growth and repolarization at the site of cytokinesis are crucial for establishing spatial cues used by diploid yeast cells to position division planes. PMID:10866679

  6. [Dynamics of bud flow and bud bank of Phragmites communis population in dry land habitat of alkalinized meadow in the Songnen Plains of China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunfei; Wei, Chunyan; Zhang, Baotian; Liu, Bao

    2005-05-01

    In the dry land habitat of alkalinized meadow in Songnen Plains, the rhizomes of Phragmites communis population are distributed in different depths of one meter soil layer, which usually live for 6 years and a few for 7-9 years or even longer. Based on the investigation of their buds, a "bud flow" model of the population was established, and the method for estimating the dynamics of its bud bank storage, i.e., adding the input rate of 1st year age-class rhizome buds to the storage rate of other age-classes dormant buds in the bank, was put forward. The results showed that the input rate of the bud bank increased with plant growth seasons while the burgeoned output rate exhibited a decreasing trend, whereas the output rate of the dead remained at a low level on the whole. By the end of September in the early dormant period, the input rate of the bud bank was as 2.04 times as its output rate, and the dormant buds of each age-class manifested a steady burgeoned output. Quantitative analysis indicated that the burgeoned output rate of dormant buds increased by 11% each year. In another word, 11% of different age-classes dormant buds would germinate and form one-year class new rhizomes. The top of one-year class new rhizomes would develop to ramets in the next year, which would transport nutrients to nearby old-age rhizomes, and thus, maintain the vitality of old-age class rhizomes.

  7. Involvement of EARLY BUD-BREAK, an AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Gene, in Bud Break in Japanese Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) Lateral Flower Buds: Expression, Histone Modifications and Possible Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Anh Tuan, Pham; Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-05-01

    In the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) 'Kosui', three developmental stages of lateral flower buds have been proposed to occur during ecodormancy to the flowering phase, i.e. rapid enlargement, sprouting and flowering. Here, we report an APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor gene, named pear EARLY BUD-BREAK (PpEBB), which was highly expressed during the rapid enlargement stage occurring prior to the onset of bud break in flower buds. Gene expression analysis revealed that PpEBB expression was dramatically increased during the rapid enlargement stage in three successive growing seasons. PpEBB transcript levels peaked 1 week prior to onset of bud break in 'Kosui' potted plants treated with hydrogen cyanamide or water under forcing conditions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR showed that higher levels of active histone modifications (trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at Lys4) in the 5'-upstream and start codon regions of the PpEBB gene were associated with the induced expression level of PpEBB during the rapid enlargement stage. In addition, we provide evidence that PpEBB may interact with and regulate pear four D-type cyclin (PpCYCD3) genes during bud break in 'Kosui' lateral flower buds. PpEBB significantly increased the promoter activities of four PpCYCD3 genes in a dual-luciferase assay using tobacco leaves. Taken together, our findings uncovered aspects of the bud break regulatory mechanism in the Japanese pear and provided further evidence that the EBB family plays an important role in bud break in perennial plants.

  8. Development and validation of multiresidue analytical method in cotton and groundnut oil for 87 pesticides using low temperature and dispersive cleanup on gas chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Suchi; Patel, Hemlatta K; Vaghela, Kiran M; Pathan, Firoz Khan; Gor, Hetal N; Patel, Anil R; Shah, Paresh G

    2016-01-01

    A method was developed and validated for the analysis of 87 pesticides in cotton and groundnut oil by GC with ECD and FPD detectors and LC-MS/MS. The extraction procedure based on QuEChERS followed by low-temperature freezing and dispersive cleanup steps was validated in two oil matrices for 87 pesticides of different classes. Linearity, expressed as coefficient of variation, was within the acceptable range. Of those tested, 77-83 and 77-89% pesticides showed recoveries within the acceptable range of 70-120% on LC-MS/MS in cottonseed oil and groundnut oil, respectively, at different spiking levels. In case of GC analysis, 63-65 and 53-82% pesticides showed recoveries within the acceptable range of 70-120% on GC in cottonseed oil and groundnut oil, respectively, at different spiking levels. The exceptions to these recoveries were the few organochlorines which consistently gave lower recoveries. Recovery factors can be employed while analysing these pesticides by this method as the results obtained were consistent in both oils. RSD was less than 20% for most of the pesticides. The calculated limit of quantitation (LOQ) for most of the pesticides satisfies the maximum residue level (MRL) requirements as per European Union (EU) guidelines and Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI).

  9. [Micrococcus sp.--the pathogen of leaf necrosis of horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.) in Kiev].

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, L M; Makhinia, L V; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E

    2013-01-01

    A group of phytopathogenic bacteria was isolated from patterns of drying horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.), which grow in Kyiv. The properties of slowly growing, highly aggressive microorganisms have been described in the paper. They grow up on the 8-10th day after sowing. The investigated microorganisms form very small (0.5-1 mm in diameter) colonies on the potato agar. Bacteria are protuberant, shining, smooth with flat edges, they are pale yellow, yellow, or pink. The bacteria are Gram-positive, spherical, are disposed in smears singly, in pairs, as accumulations, or netting. They are aerobes, do not form spores, are not mobile. They are inert in respect of different sources of carbon. They reduce nitrates, do not dilute gelatin, do not hydrolyze starch, do not release hydrogen sulphide and indole. The bacteria are catalase-positive, oxidase-negative. They do not cause potato and carrot rot. They lose quickly their viability under the laboratory conditions. The saturated acids C 14:0; C 15:0; C16:0; C18:0 have been revealed in the composition of cellular fatty acids. Microorganisms are identified as Micrococcus sp. Under artificial inoculation this highly aggressive pathogen causes drying of the horse-chestnut buds and necrosis, which occupies 1/3-1/2 of the leaf plate. A wide zone of chlorosis, surrounding necrosis, may occupy the whole leaf surface. The infected leaves use to twist up from the top (apex) or along a midrib and to dry.

  10. Reconstituting ring-rafts in bud-mimicking topography of model membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Yong-Sang; Lee, In-Ho; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Park, Seung Chul; Oh, Soojung; Jordan, Luke R.; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Jeon, Noo Li; Lee, Byoungho; Parikh, Atul N.; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2014-07-01

    During vesicular trafficking and release of enveloped viruses, the budding and fission processes dynamically remodel the donor cell membrane in a protein- or a lipid-mediated manner. In all cases, in addition to the generation or relief of the curvature stress, the buds recruit specific lipids and proteins from the donor membrane through restricted diffusion for the development of a ring-type raft domain of closed topology. Here, by reconstituting the bud topography in a model membrane, we demonstrate the preferential localization of cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains in the collar band of the bud-neck interfaced with the donor membrane. The geometrical approach to the recapitulation of the dynamic membrane reorganization, resulting from the local radii of curvatures from nanometre-to-micrometre scales, offers important clues for understanding the active roles of the bud topography in the sorting and migration machinery of key signalling proteins involved in membrane budding.

  11. Tsg101 and the vacuolar protein sorting pathway are essential for HIV-1 budding.

    PubMed

    Garrus, J E; von Schwedler, U K; Pornillos, O W; Morham, S G; Zavitz, K H; Wang, H E; Wettstein, D A; Stray, K M; Côté, M; Rich, R L; Myszka, D G; Sundquist, W I

    2001-10-05

    Like other enveloped viruses, HIV-1 uses cellular machinery to bud from infected cells. We now show that Tsg101 protein, which functions in vacuolar protein sorting (Vps), is required for HIV-1 budding. The UEV domain of Tsg101 binds to an essential tetrapeptide (PTAP) motif within the p6 domain of the structural Gag protein and also to ubiquitin. Depletion of cellular Tsg101 by small interfering RNA arrests HIV-1 budding at a late stage, and budding is rescued by reintroduction of Tsg101. Dominant negative mutant Vps4 proteins that inhibit vacuolar protein sorting also arrest HIV-1 and MLV budding. These observations suggest that retroviruses bud by appropriating cellular machinery normally used in the Vps pathway to form multivesicular bodies.

  12. Reconstituting ring-rafts in bud-mimicking topography of model membranes

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Yong-Sang; Lee, In-Ho; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Park, Seung Chul; Oh, Soojung; Jordan, Luke R.; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Jeon, Noo Li; Lee, Byoungho; Parikh, Atul N.; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2014-01-01

    During vesicular trafficking and release of enveloped viruses, the budding and fission processes dynamically remodel the donor cell membrane in a protein- or a lipid-mediated manner. In all cases, in addition to the generation or relief of the curvature stress, the buds recruit specific lipids and proteins from the donor membrane through restricted diffusion for the development of a ring-type raft domain of closed topology. Here, by reconstituting the bud topography in a model membrane, we demonstrate the preferential localization of cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains in the collar band of the bud-neck interfaced with the donor membrane. The geometrical approach to the recapitulation of the dynamic membrane reorganization, resulting from the local radii of curvatures from nanometre-to-micrometre scales, offers important clues for understanding the active roles of the bud topography in the sorting and migration machinery of key signalling proteins involved in membrane budding. PMID:25058275

  13. The mode of origin of root buds and root sprouts in the clonal tree Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Bosela, M; Ewers, F

    1997-11-01

    The developmental anatomy of root buds and root sprouts was examined in the clonal tree Sassafras albidum. Root samples from 13 clones that varied widely in age and vigor were sectioned and two types of buds were found, "additional" buds and "reparative" buds. Additional buds form during the early growth of uninjured roots and they perennate by growing outwards in concert with the vascular cambium such that bud traces are produced in the secondary xylem. Reparative buds form de novo in response to senescence, injuries, or other types of disturbance. Reparative buds were found on the roots of seven of the clones, whereas additional buds were found on the roots of all 13 clones. The reparative buds had originated in the proliferated pericycle, where they were subtended by sphaeroblasts, or spherical nodules of wood. Few of the reparative buds were vascularized and none were connected with the vasculature of their parent roots. In contrast, most of the additional buds were vascularized, and the leaf traces of several of the additional buds appeared to be contiguous with the conducting xylem of their parent roots. To determine whether both bud types were functional, 82 field-collected root sprouts and 44 incubation-induced sprouts were sectioned at the root-sprout junction and examined for evidence relating to their mode of origin. None of the sprouts were subtended by sphaeroblasts, but 98% were subtended by bud traces, which indicated that they had originated from additional buds. Although reparative buds were more common than additional buds on some of the root samples, they appear to be dysfunctional at sprouting. Additional buds, on the other hand, are able to sprout both as a normal part of clonal spread and from root cuttings.

  14. Comparison of chemoreceptions of terminal buds and pit organs of the carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Marui, T; Funakoshi, M

    1980-07-14

    Neural responses to several chemicals of the pit organs and terminal buds on the facial skin of the carp were compared electrophysiologically. Nerve inpulses from the pit organs were larger than those from the terminal buds. The pit organs were more sensitive to salts and especially acids than the terminal buds. The former did not respond to sucrose, silk worm pupa extract, betaine and amino acids except acidic ones. The latter, however, responded well to them.

  15. Identification of budding yeast using a fiber-optic imaging bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschwanez, John; Holl, Mark; Marquardt, Brian; Dragavon, Joe; Burgess, Lloyd; Meldrum, Deirdre

    2004-05-01

    A successful imaging system has been designed and built for yeast pedigree analysis. The system uses a fiber-optic imaging bundle to recognize single yeast cells. Image processing software has been developed to accurately classify the cells as either budding or not budding a daughter cell. This system is intended to replace the body of a microscope for the detection of budding in a microfluidic system.

  16. Sucrose is an early modulator of the key hormonal mechanisms controlling bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida

    PubMed Central

    Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Lecerf, Marion; Perez-Garcia, Maria-Dolores; Barrière, Quentin; Rolčík, Jakub; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Citerne, Sylvie; Lemoine, Remi; Porcheron, Benoît; Roman, Hanaé; Leduc, Nathalie; Le Gourrierec, José; Bertheloot, Jessica; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Sugar has only recently been identified as a key player in triggering bud outgrowth, while hormonal control of bud outgrowth is already well established. To get a better understanding of sugar control, the present study investigated how sugar availability modulates the hormonal network during bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida. Other plant models, for which mutants are available, were used when necessary. Buds were grown in vitro to manipulate available sugars. The temporal patterns of the hormonal regulatory network were assessed in parallel with bud outgrowth dynamics. Sucrose determined bud entrance into sustained growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Sustained growth was accompanied by sustained auxin production in buds, and sustained auxin export in a DR5::GUS-expressing pea line. Several events occurred ahead of sucrose-stimulated bud outgrowth. Sucrose upregulated early auxin synthesis genes (RhTAR1, RhYUC1) and the auxin efflux carrier gene RhPIN1, and promoted PIN1 abundance at the plasma membrane in a pPIN1::PIN1-GFP-expressing tomato line. Sucrose downregulated both RwMAX2, involved in the strigolactone-transduction pathway, and RhBRC1, a repressor of branching, at an early stage. The presence of sucrose also increased stem cytokinin content, but sucrose-promoted bud outgrowth was not related to that pathway. In these processes, several non-metabolizable sucrose analogues induced sustained bud outgrowth in R. hybrida, Pisum sativum, and Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that sucrose was involved in a signalling pathway. In conclusion, we identified potential hormonal candidates for bud outgrowth control by sugar. They are central to future investigations aimed at disentangling the processes that underlie regulation of bud outgrowth by sugar. PMID:25873679

  17. Sucrose is an early modulator of the key hormonal mechanisms controlling bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida.

    PubMed

    Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Lecerf, Marion; Perez-Garcia, Maria-Dolores; Barrière, Quentin; Rolčík, Jakub; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Citerne, Sylvie; Lemoine, Remi; Porcheron, Benoît; Roman, Hanaé; Leduc, Nathalie; Le Gourrierec, José; Bertheloot, Jessica; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-05-01

    Sugar has only recently been identified as a key player in triggering bud outgrowth, while hormonal control of bud outgrowth is already well established. To get a better understanding of sugar control, the present study investigated how sugar availability modulates the hormonal network during bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida. Other plant models, for which mutants are available, were used when necessary. Buds were grown in vitro to manipulate available sugars. The temporal patterns of the hormonal regulatory network were assessed in parallel with bud outgrowth dynamics. Sucrose determined bud entrance into sustained growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Sustained growth was accompanied by sustained auxin production in buds, and sustained auxin export in a DR5::GUS-expressing pea line. Several events occurred ahead of sucrose-stimulated bud outgrowth. Sucrose upregulated early auxin synthesis genes (RhTAR1, RhYUC1) and the auxin efflux carrier gene RhPIN1, and promoted PIN1 abundance at the plasma membrane in a pPIN1::PIN1-GFP-expressing tomato line. Sucrose downregulated both RwMAX2, involved in the strigolactone-transduction pathway, and RhBRC1, a repressor of branching, at an early stage. The presence of sucrose also increased stem cytokinin content, but sucrose-promoted bud outgrowth was not related to that pathway. In these processes, several non-metabolizable sucrose analogues induced sustained bud outgrowth in R. hybrida, Pisum sativum, and Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that sucrose was involved in a signalling pathway. In conclusion, we identified potential hormonal candidates for bud outgrowth control by sugar. They are central to future investigations aimed at disentangling the processes that underlie regulation of bud outgrowth by sugar.

  18. Spaceflight enhances cell aggregation and random budding in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Crabbé, Aurélie; Nielsen-Preiss, Sheila M; Woolley, Christine M; Barrila, Jennifer; Buchanan, Kent; McCracken, James; Inglis, Diane O; Searles, Stephen C; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra A; Ott, C Mark; Wilson, James W; Pierson, Duane L; Stefanyshyn-Piper, Heidemarie M; Hyman, Linda E; Nickerson, Cheryl A

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the first global transcriptional profiling and phenotypic characterization of the major human opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, grown in spaceflight conditions. Microarray analysis revealed that C. albicans subjected to short-term spaceflight culture differentially regulated 452 genes compared to synchronous ground controls, which represented 8.3% of the analyzed ORFs. Spaceflight-cultured C. albicans-induced genes involved in cell aggregation (similar to flocculation), which was validated by microscopic and flow cytometry analysis. We also observed enhanced random budding of spaceflight-cultured cells as opposed to bipolar budding patterns for ground samples, in accordance with the gene expression data. Furthermore, genes involved in antifungal agent and stress resistance were differentially regulated in spaceflight, including induction of ABC transporters and members of the major facilitator family, downregulation of ergosterol-encoding genes, and upregulation of genes involved in oxidative stress resistance. Finally, downregulation of genes involved in actin cytoskeleton was observed. Interestingly, the transcriptional regulator Cap1 and over 30% of the Cap1 regulon was differentially expressed in spaceflight-cultured C. albicans. A potential role for Cap1 in the spaceflight response of C. albicans is suggested, as this regulator is involved in random budding, cell aggregation, and oxidative stress resistance; all related to observed spaceflight-associated changes of C. albicans. While culture of C. albicans in microgravity potentiates a global change in gene expression that could induce a virulence-related phenotype, no increased virulence in a murine intraperitoneal (i.p.) infection model was observed under the conditions of this study. Collectively, our data represent an important basis for the assessment of the risk that commensal flora could play during human spaceflight missions. Furthermore, since the low fluid

  19. Metabolite changes in conifer buds and needles during forced bud break in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European silver fir (Abies alba)

    PubMed Central

    Dhuli, Priyanka; Rohloff, Jens; Strimbeck, G. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Environmental changes such as early spring and warm spells induce bud burst and photosynthetic processes in cold-acclimated coniferous trees and consequently, cellular metabolism in overwintering needles and buds. The purpose of the study was to examine metabolism in conifers under forced deacclimation (artificially induced spring) by exposing shoots of Picea abies (boreal species) and Abies alba (temperate species) to a greenhouse environment (22°C, 16/8 h D/N cycle) over a 9 weeks period. Each week, we scored bud opening and collected samples for GC/MS–based metabolite profiling. We detected a total of 169 assigned metabolites and 80 identified metabolites, comprising compounds such as mono- and disaccharides, Krebs cycle acids, amino acids, polyols, phenolics, and phosphorylated structures. Untargeted multivariate statistical analysis based on PCA and cluster analysis segregated samples by species, tissue type, and stage of tissue deacclimations. Similar patterns of metabolic regulation in both species were observed in buds (amino acids, Krebs cycle acids) and needles (hexoses, pentoses, and Krebs cycle acids). Based on correlation of bud opening score with compound levels, distinct metabolites could be associated with bud and shoot development, including amino acids, sugars, and acids with known osmolyte function, and secondary metabolites. This study has shed light on how elevated temperature affects metabolism in buds and needles of conifer species during the deacclimation phase, and contributes to the discussion about how phenological characters in conifers may respond to future global warming. PMID:25566281

  20. γ-Lactam alkaloids from the flower buds of daylily.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takahiro; Nakamura, Seikou; Nakashima, Souichi; Ohta, Tomoe; Yano, Mamiko; Tsujihata, Junichiro; Tsukioka, Junko; Ogawa, Keiko; Fukaya, Masashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2016-07-01

    Four new alkaloids, hemerocallisamines IV-VII, were isolated from the methanol extract of flower buds of daylily. The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The absolute stereochemistry of the hemerocallisamines IV-VI was elucidated by the application of the modified Mosher's method, HPLC analysis, and optical rotation. In the present study, the isolated alkaloids significantly inhibited the aggregation of Aβ42 in vitro. This is the first report about bioactive alkaloids with a γ-lactam ring from daylily. In addition, isolated nucleosides showed accelerative effects on neurite outgrowth under the non-fasting condition.

  1. [Iridoid glycosides from buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gui-qin; Yin, Zhi-feng; Liu, Yu-cui; Li, Hong-bo

    2011-10-01

    The study on the buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum was carried out to look for anti-HBV constituents. The isolation and purification were performed by HPLC and chromatography on silica gel, polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 column. The structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six iridoid glycosides were identified as jasgranoside B (1), 6-O-methy-catalpol (2), deacetyl asperulosidic acid (3), aucubin (4), 8-dehydroxy shanzhiside (5), and loganin (6). Jasgranoside B (1) is a new compound. Compounds 2-6 were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  2. Analysis of Assembly and Budding of Lujo Virus

    PubMed Central

    Urata, Shuzo; Weyer, Jacqueline; Storm, Nadia; Miyazaki, Yukiko; van Vuren, Petrus Jansen; Paweska, Janusz Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    The recently identified arenavirus Lujo virus (LUJV) causes fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans. We analyzed its mechanism of viral release driven by matrix protein Z and the cell surface glycoprotein precursor GPC. The L domains in Z are required for efficient virus-like particle release, but Tsg101, ALIX/AIP1, and Vps4A/B are unnecessary for budding. LUJV GPC is cleaved by site 1 protease (S1P) at the RKLM motif, and treatment with the S1P inhibitor PF-429242 reduced LUJV production. PMID:26719243

  3. Bud protection: a key trait for species sorting in a forest-savanna mosaic.

    PubMed

    Charles-Dominique, Tristan; Beckett, Heath; Midgley, Guy F; Bond, William J

    2015-09-01

    Contrasting fire regimes maintain patch mosaics of savanna, thicket and forest biomes in many African subtropical landscapes. Species dominating each biome are thus expected to display distinct fire-related traits, commonly thought to be bark related. Recent Australian savanna research suggests that bud position, not bark protection alone, determines fire resilience via resprouting. We tested first how bud position influences resprouting ability in 17 tree species. We then compared the effect of both bark-related protection and bud position on the distribution of 63 tree species in 253 transects in all three biomes. Tree species with buds positioned deep under bark had a higher proportion of post-fire aboveground shoot resprouting. Species with low bud protection occurred in fire-prone biomes only if they could root-sucker. The effect of bud protection was supported by a good relationship between species bud protection and distribution across a gradient of fire frequency. Bud protection and high bark production are required to survive frequent fires in savanna. Forests are fire refugia hosting species with little or no bud protection and thin bark. Root-suckering species occur in the three biomes, suggesting that fire is not the only factor filtering this functional type.

  4. β-Catenin signaling regulates temporally discrete phases of anterior taste bud development

    PubMed Central

    Thirumangalathu, Shoba; Barlow, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    The sense of taste is mediated by multicellular taste buds located within taste papillae on the tongue. In mice, individual taste buds reside in fungiform papillae, which develop at mid-gestation as epithelial placodes in the anterior tongue. Taste placodes comprise taste bud precursor cells, which express the secreted factor sonic hedgehog (Shh) and give rise to taste bud cells that differentiate around birth. We showed previously that epithelial activation of β-catenin is the primary inductive signal for taste placode formation, followed by taste papilla morphogenesis and taste bud differentiation, but the degree to which these later elements were direct or indirect consequences of β-catenin signaling was not explored. Here, we define discrete spatiotemporal functions of β-catenin in fungiform taste bud development. Specifically, we show that early epithelial activation of β-catenin, before taste placodes form, diverts lingual epithelial cells from a taste bud fate. By contrast, β-catenin activation a day later within Shh+ placodes, expands taste bud precursors directly, but enlarges papillae indirectly. Further, placodal activation of β-catenin drives precocious differentiation of Type I glial-like taste cells, but not other taste cell types. Later activation of β-catenin within Shh+ precursors during papilla morphogenesis also expands taste bud precursors and accelerates Type I cell differentiation, but papilla size is no longer enhanced. Finally, although Shh regulates taste placode patterning, we find that it is dispensable for the accelerated Type I cell differentiation induced by β-catenin. PMID:26525674

  5. The Race against Protease Activation Defines the Role of ESCRTs in HIV Budding

    PubMed Central

    Bendjennat, Mourad; Saffarian, Saveez

    2016-01-01

    HIV virions assemble on the plasma membrane and bud out of infected cells using interactions with endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs). HIV protease activation is essential for maturation and infectivity of progeny virions, however, the precise timing of protease activation and its relationship to budding has not been well defined. We show that compromised interactions with ESCRTs result in delayed budding of virions from host cells. Specifically, we show that Gag mutants with compromised interactions with ALIX and Tsg101, two early ESCRT factors, have an average budding delay of ~75 minutes and ~10 hours, respectively. Virions with inactive proteases incorporated the full Gag-Pol and had ~60 minutes delay in budding. We demonstrate that during budding delay, activated proteases release critical HIV enzymes back to host cytosol leading to production of non-infectious progeny virions. To explain the molecular mechanism of the observed budding delay, we modulated the Pol size artificially and show that virion release delays are size-dependent and also show size-dependency in requirements for Tsg101 and ALIX. We highlight the sensitivity of HIV to budding “on-time” and suggest that budding delay is a potent mechanism for inhibition of infectious retroviral release. PMID:27280284

  6. Aip3p/Bud6p, a yeast actin-interacting protein that is involved in morphogenesis and the selection of bipolar budding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Amberg, D C; Zahner, J E; Mulholland, J W; Pringle, J R; Botstein, D

    1997-01-01

    A search for Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins that interact with actin in the two-hybrid system and a screen for mutants that affect the bipolar budding pattern identified the same gene, AIP3/BUD6. This gene is not essential for mitotic growth but is necessary for normal morphogenesis. MATa/alpha daughter cells lacking Aip3p place their first buds normally at their distal poles but choose random sites for budding in subsequent cell cycles. This suggests that actin and associated proteins are involved in placing the bipolar positional marker at the division site but not at the distal tip of the daughter cell. In addition, although aip3 mutant cells are not obviously defective in the initial polarization of the cytoskeleton at the time of bud emergence, they appear to lose cytoskeletal polarity as the bud enlarges, resulting in the formation of cells that are larger and rounder than normal. aip3 mutant cells also show inefficient nuclear migration and nuclear division, defects in the organization of the secretory system, and abnormal septation, all defects that presumably reflect the involvement of Aip3p in the organization and/or function of the actin cytoskeleton. The sequence of Aip3p is novel but contains a predicted coiled-coil domain near its C terminus that may mediate the observed homo-oligomerization of the protein. Aip3p shows a distinctive localization pattern that correlates well with its likely sites of action: it appears at the presumptive bud site prior to bud emergence, remains near the tips of small bund, and forms a ring (or pair of rings) in the mother-bud neck that is detectable early in the cell cycle but becomes more prominent prior to cytokinesis. Surprisingly, the localization of Aip3p does not appear to require either polarized actin or the septin proteins of the neck filaments. Images PMID:9247651

  7. Infectious pancreatic necrosis: its detection and identification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, K.

    1965-01-01

    Ultimate control of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in hatcheries depends largely upon learning where the virus occurs. To detect the presence of virus either susceptible fish or susceptible fish cell cultures may be used as test systems. In modern virology, it is generally agreed that cell cultures are more convenient, are usually a much more sensitive test system, and allow more rapid determinations.

  8. [Acral necrosis as a complication of urosepsis].

    PubMed

    Blarer, J; Pfister, D; Jandali, A R; Gutzeit, A; John, H; Horstmann, M

    2014-06-01

    Sepsis is the third most common cause of death in Germany. Every fourth patient with sepsis has urosepsis. Even if substantial therapeutic progress has been made, sepsis remains a severe condition with high morbidity and mortality that requires rapid interdisciplinary measures. Besides life-threatening complications, acral necrosis as presented here can occur as a result of disseminated intravascular coagulation and severe microcirculatory disorders.

  9. Oligodendroglial degeneration in distemper: apoptosis or necrosis?

    PubMed

    Schobesberger, M; Zurbriggen, A; Summerfield, A; Vandevelde, M; Griot, C

    1999-03-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes a multifocal demyelinating disease in dogs. It was previously shown that the initial demyelinating lesions are directly virus induced since a correlation between the occurrence of demyelination and CDV replication in white matter cells was observed. During the course of infection oligodendrocytes undergo distinct morphological alterations, partly due to a restricted CDV infection of these cells, and eventually disappear from the lesions. This phenomenon has been described in vivo as well as in vitro. However, the reason for the morphological alterations and the following oligodendroglial depletion remained unclear. Since virus infection can induce cell death, it was investigated whether apoptosis or necrosis plays a role in the pathogenesis of demyelination in canine distemper. In brain tissue sections from dogs with acute distemper apoptotic cells were not detected within the demyelinating lesions using morphological and biochemical cell death criteria. In chronic distemper, apoptotic cells - presumably inflammatory cells - were seen within the perivascular cuffs. These in vivo findings were correlated to the in vitro situation using CDV-infected primary dog brain cell cultures as well as Vero cells. Infection with culture-adapted CDV lead to massive necrosis but not to apoptosis. After infection with virulent CDV neither apoptosis nor necrosis was a predominant feature in either culture system. These findings suggest that virus-induced demyelination in canine distemper is not the direct consequence of apoptosis or necrosis. It is speculated that another mechanism must be responsible for the observed morphological alterations of oligodendrocytes, ultimately leading to demyelination.

  10. Excitotoxins in neuronal apoptosis and necrosis.

    PubMed

    Nicotera, P; Lipton, S A

    1999-06-01

    Neuronal loss is common to many neurodegenerative diseases. Although necrosis is a common histopathologic feature observed in neuropathologic conditions, evidence is increasing that apoptosis can significantly contribute to neuronal demise. The prevalence of either type of cell death, apoptosis or necrosis, and the relevance for the progression of disease is still unclear. The debate on the occurrence and prevalence of one or the other type of death in pathologic conditions such as stroke or neurotoxic injury may in part be resolved by the proposal that different types of cell death within a tissue reflect either partial or complete execution of a common death program. Apoptosis is an active process of cell destruction, characterized morphologically by cell shrinkage, chromatin aggregation with extensive genomic fragmentation, and nuclear pyknosis. In contrast, necrosis is characterized by cell swelling, linked to rapid energy loss, and generalized disruption of ionic and internal homeostasis. This swiftly leads to membrane lysis, release of intracellular constituents that evoke a local inflammatory reaction, edema, and injury to the surrounding tissue. During the past few years, our laboratories have studied the signals and mechanisms responsible for induction or prevention of apoptosis/necrosis in neuronal injury and this is the subject of this review.

  11. Snapshot in surgery: intraperitoneal encapsulated fat necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Han Boon; Arab, Nahlah; Teo, Lynette; Lieske, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A 66-year-old man with rectal cancer was found to have an incidental ring-like lesion in the left rectovesical pouch. Histology revealed an encapsulated fat necrosis. Intraperitoneal encapsulated fat necroses are postulated to be a result of infarcted epiploic appendages resulting in a free-floating lesion. PMID:25767714

  12. Hepatic necrosis following halothane anesthesia in goats.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, T D; Raffe, M R; Cox, V S; Stevens, D L; O'Leary, T P

    1986-12-15

    One goat anesthetized with thiamylal sodium, xylazine, and halothane for repair of an abominal hernia, and 7 of 29 goats similarly anesthetized for an experiment unrelated to considerations of anesthesia, developed signs of hepatic failure within 24 hours of anesthesia. Affected goats had high values for serum aspartate transaminase and serum total bilirubin by 12 to 24 hours after induction of anesthesia. Necropsy of the 8 affected goats revealed centrilobular to massive hepatic necrosis (8 of 8), brain lesions consistent with hepatic encephalopathy (3 of 4), and acute renal tubular necrosis (6 of 6). Two unaffected goats had no hepatic necrosis. Causes of hepatic necrosis other than those related to anesthesia (eg, infectious agents, toxins) were ruled out by lack of supporting necropsy findings or were considered unlikely because of lack of opportunity for exposure. Hepatic lesions in these goats closely resembled those described in human beings with halothane-associated hepatic injury, although in both species these lesions are nonspecific at the gross and light microscopic levels. The pathogenesis of halothane-associated hepatic injury in goats, as in human beings, remains to be determined.

  13. Protein quality, hematological properties and nutritional status of albino rats fed complementary foods with fermented popcorn, African locust bean, and bambara groundnut flour blends

    PubMed Central

    Keshinro, Oluremi Olufunke

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine protein quality and hematological properties of infant diets formulated from local food materials. The food materials were obtained locally, fermented, and milled into flour. The flours were mixed as 70% popcorn and 30% African locust bean (FPA), 70% popcorn and 30% bambara groundnut (FPB), and 70% popcorn, 20% bambara groundnut, and 10% African locust bean (FPAB). Proximate analysis, protein quality, hematological properties, and anthropometric measurements of the animals fed with the formulations were investigated. The protein contents of the formulated diets were significantly higher than that of Cerelac (a commercial preparation) (15.75 ± 0.01 g/100 g) and ogi (traditional complementary food) (6.52 ± 0.31 g/100 g). The energy value of FPAB (464.94 ± 1.22 kcal) was higher than those of FPA (441.41 ± 3.05 kcal) and FPB (441.48 ± 3.05 kcal). The biological value (BV) of FPAB (60.20%) was the highest followed by FPB (44.24%) and FPA (41.15%); however, BV of the diets was higher than that of ogi (10.03%) but lower than that of Cerelac (70.43%). Net protein utilization (NPU) of the formulations was 41.16-60.20%, whereas true protein digestibility was 41.05-60.05%. Metabolizable energy (232.98 kcal) and digestible energy (83.69 kcal) of FPAB were the highest, whereas that of FPA had the lowest values. The protein digestibility values corrected for amino acid score of the diets (0.22-0.44) were lower than that of Cerelac (0.52), but higher than that of ogi (0.21). The growth patterns and hematological properties (packed cell volume, red blood cells, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular volume) of the formulated diets were higher than those of ogi, but lower than those of Cerelac. In conclusion, we established that the FPAB food sample was rated best in terms of protein quality over the other formulated diets. Therefore, a FPAB blend may be used as a

  14. Systematic identification of cell size regulators in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Soifer, Ilya; Barkai, Naama

    2014-01-01

    Cell size is determined by a complex interplay between growth and division, involving multiple cellular pathways. To identify systematically processes affecting size control in G1 in budding yeast, we imaged and analyzed the cell cycle of millions of individual cells representing 591 mutants implicated in size control. Quantitative metric distinguished mutants affecting the mechanism of size control from the majority of mutants that have a perturbed size due to indirect effects modulating cell growth. Overall, we identified 17 negative and dozens positive size control regulators, with the negative regulators forming a small network centered on elements of mitotic exit network. Some elements of the translation machinery affected size control with a notable distinction between the deletions of parts of small and large ribosomal subunit: parts of small ribosomal subunit tended to regulate size control, while parts of the large subunit affected cell growth. Analysis of small cells revealed additional size control mechanism that functions in G2/M, complementing the primary size control in G1. Our study provides new insights about size control mechanisms in budding yeast. PMID:25411401

  15. Budding Yeast: An Ideal Backdrop for In vivo Lipid Biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pushpendra

    2016-01-01

    Biological membranes are non-covalent assembly of lipids and proteins. Lipids play critical role in determining membrane physical properties and regulate the function of membrane associated proteins. Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae offers an exceptional advantage to understand the lipid-protein interactions since lipid metabolism and homeostasis are relatively simple and well characterized as compared to other eukaryotes. In addition, a vast array of genetic and cell biological tools are available to determine and understand the role of a particular lipid in various lipid metabolic disorders. Budding yeast has been instrumental in delineating mechanisms related to lipid metabolism, trafficking and their localization in different subcellular compartments at various cell cycle stages. Further, availability of tools and enormous potential for the development of useful reagents and novel technologies to localize a particular lipid in different subcellular compartments in yeast makes it a formidable system to carry out lipid biology. Taken together, yeast provides an outstanding backdrop to characterize lipid metabolic changes under various physiological conditions.

  16. Gene expression analysis of bud and leaf color in tea.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kang; Zhang, Yazhen; Wu, Liyun; Li, Hailin; Ruan, Li; Bai, Peixian; Zhang, Chengcai; Zhang, Fen; Xu, Liyi; Wang, Liyuan; Cheng, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Purple shoot tea attributing to the high anthocyanin accumulation is of great interest for its wide health benefits. To better understand potential mechanisms involved in purple buds and leaves formation in tea plants, we performed transcriptome analysis of six green or purple shoot tea individuals from a F1 population using the Illumina sequencing method. Totally 292 million RNA-Seq reads were obtained and assembled into 112,233 unigenes, with an average length of 759 bp and an N50 of 1081 bp. Moreover, totally 2193 unigenes showed significant differences in expression levels between green and purple tea samples, with 1143 up- and 1050 down-regulated in the purple teas. Further real time PCR analysis confirmed RNA-Seq results. Our study identified 28 differentially expressed transcriptional factors and A CsMYB gene was found to be highly similar to AtPAP1 in Arabidopsis. Further analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and transportation showed that the late biosynthetic genes and genes involved in anthocyanin transportation were largely affected but the early biosynthetic genes were less or none affected. Overall, the identification of a large number of differentially expressed genes offers a global view of the potential mechanisms associated with purple buds and leaves formation, which will facilitate molecular breeding in tea plants.

  17. Budding Yeast: An Ideal Backdrop for In vivo Lipid Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pushpendra

    2017-01-01

    Biological membranes are non-covalent assembly of lipids and proteins. Lipids play critical role in determining membrane physical properties and regulate the function of membrane associated proteins. Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae offers an exceptional advantage to understand the lipid-protein interactions since lipid metabolism and homeostasis are relatively simple and well characterized as compared to other eukaryotes. In addition, a vast array of genetic and cell biological tools are available to determine and understand the role of a particular lipid in various lipid metabolic disorders. Budding yeast has been instrumental in delineating mechanisms related to lipid metabolism, trafficking and their localization in different subcellular compartments at various cell cycle stages. Further, availability of tools and enormous potential for the development of useful reagents and novel technologies to localize a particular lipid in different subcellular compartments in yeast makes it a formidable system to carry out lipid biology. Taken together, yeast provides an outstanding backdrop to characterize lipid metabolic changes under various physiological conditions. PMID:28119915

  18. Replication-Associated Recombinational Repair: Lessons from Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Jaclyn N.; Zhao, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    Recombinational repair processes multiple types of DNA lesions. Though best understood in the repair of DNA breaks, recombinational repair is intimately linked to other situations encountered during replication. As DNA strands are decorated with many types of blocks that impede the replication machinery, a great number of genomic regions cannot be duplicated without the help of recombinational repair. This replication-associated recombinational repair employs both the core recombination proteins used for DNA break repair and the specialized factors that couple replication with repair. Studies from multiple organisms have provided insights into the roles of these specialized factors, with the findings in budding yeast being advanced through use of powerful genetics and methods for detecting DNA replication and repair intermediates. In this review, we summarize recent progress made in this organism, ranging from our understanding of the classical template switch mechanisms to gap filling and replication fork regression pathways. As many of the protein factors and biological principles uncovered in budding yeast are conserved in higher eukaryotes, these findings are crucial for stimulating studies in more complex organisms. PMID:27548223

  19. Morphological Characterization and Gene Expression Profiling during Bud Development in a Tropical Perennial, Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huifen; Li, Hua; Lai, Biao; Xia, Haoqiang; Wang, Huicong; Huang, Xuming

    2016-01-01

    Tropical evergreen perennials undergo recurrent flush growth, and their terminal buds alternate between growth and dormancy. In sharp contrast to the intensive studies on bud development in temperate deciduous trees, there is little information about bud development regulation in tropical trees. In this study, litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) was used as a model tropical perennial for morphological characterization and transcriptomic analysis of bud development. Litchi buds are naked with apical meristem embraced by rudimentary leaves, which are brown at dormant stage (Stage I). They swell and turn greenish as buds break (Stage II), and as growth accelerates, the rudimentary leaves elongate and open exposing the inner leaf primodia. With the outgrowth of the needle-like leaflets, bud growth reaches a maximum (Stage III). When leaflets expand, bud growth cease with the abortion of the rudimentary leaves at upper positions (Stage IV). Then buds turn brown and reenter dormant status. Budbreak occurs again when new leaves become hard green. Buds at four stages (Stage I to IV) were collected for respiration measurements and in-depth RNA sequencing. Respiration rate was the lowest at Stage I and highest at Stage II, decreasing toward growth cessation. RNA sequencing obtained over 5 Gb data from each of the bud samples and de novo assembly generated a total of 59,999 unigenes, 40,119 of which were annotated. Pair-wise comparison of gene expression between stages, gene profiling across stages, GO/KEGG enrichment analysis, and the expression patterns of 17 major genes highlighted by principal component (PC) analysis displayed significant changes in stress resistance, hormone signal pathways, circadian rhythm, photosynthesis, cell division, carbohydrate metabolism, programmed cell death during bud development, which might be under epigenetic control involving chromatin methylation. The qPCR results of 8 selected unigenes with high PC scores agreed with the RPKM values

  20. BudBurst Buddies: Introducing Young Citizen Scientists to Plants and Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D.; Gardiner, L. S.; Henderson, S.

    2011-12-01

    As part of Project BudBurst, the BudBurst Buddies recently moved to the National Ecological Network (NEON) as part of its Education and Public Engagement efforts. The BudBurst Buddies (www.budburstbuddies.org) were created to engage elementary school age children in the science of observing plants and the timing of phenological (life cycle) events. BudBurst Buddies is a part of the Project BudBurst national citizen science initiative (www.budburst.org), which allows individuals to engage in the scientific process, contributing to a better understanding of climate change while increasing public awareness of phenology and the impacts of climate change on plants. As a first step towards engaging the next generation of citizen scientists, BudBurst Buddies provides the opportunity for children to gain experience with scientific research and increases awareness of how plants change throughout the year. Hundreds of young students have participated in the inaugural year of BudBurst Buddies. Children can participate in BudBurst Buddies on their own, with their families, or in formal or informal education settings. The program was recently highlighted by education staff at the New York Hall of Science and numerous classrooms have been implementing this resource as part of their curriculum. Each child who participates creates a journal about a plant of his or her choosing, makes observations of the plant over the growing season and submits findings online, earning an official BudBurst Buddies certificate. An online storybook for kids tells how two children, Lily and Sage, observed plants in their neighborhood and became BudBurst Buddies. This presentation will provide an overview of the BudBurst Buddies resources including a new implementation guide and will also share feedback from the first year of implementation.

  1. GATA6 Is a Crucial Regulator of Shh in the Limb Bud

    PubMed Central

    Kozhemyakina, Elena; Ionescu, Andreia; Lassar, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    In the limb bud, patterning along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis is controlled by Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), a signaling molecule secreted by the “Zone of Polarizing Activity”, an organizer tissue located in the posterior margin of the limb bud. We have found that the transcription factors GATA4 and GATA6, which are key regulators of cell identity, are expressed in an anterior to posterior gradient in the early limb bud, raising the possibility that GATA transcription factors may play an additional role in patterning this tissue. While both GATA4 and GATA6 are expressed in an A-P gradient in the forelimb buds, the hindlimb buds principally express GATA6 in an A-P gradient. Thus, to specifically examine the role of GATA6 in limb patterning we generated Prx1-Cre; GATA6fl/fl mice, which conditionally delete GATA6 from their developing limb buds. We found that these animals display ectopic expression of both Shh and its transcriptional targets specifically in the anterior mesenchyme of the hindlimb buds. Loss of GATA6 in the developing limbs results in the formation of preaxial polydactyly in the hindlimbs. Conversely, forced expression of GATA6 throughout the limb bud represses expression of Shh and results in hypomorphic limbs. We have found that GATA6 can bind to chromatin (isolated from limb buds) encoding either Shh or Gli1 regulatory elements that drive expression of these genes in this tissue, and demonstrated that GATA6 works synergistically with FOG co-factors to repress expression of luciferase reporters driven by these sequences. Most significantly, we have found that conditional loss of Shh in limb buds lacking GATA6 prevents development of hindlimb polydactyly in these compound mutant embryos, indicating that GATA6 expression in the anterior region of the limb bud blocks hindlimb polydactyly by repressing ectopic expression of Shh. PMID:24415953

  2. Reducing age at first calving in N'Dama heifers using groundnut cake as a supplement to grazed natural pasture in The Gambia.

    PubMed

    Tanner, J C; Little, D A; Holden, S J; Dampha, K

    1995-05-01

    N'Dama heifers, initially weighing 129 kg at approximately 30 months of age, were supplemented with 250, 500 or 1000 g/head/day groundnut cake for 3 or 6 months during the dry or dry and wet seasons. Highly significant improvements in rates of liveweight gain and reproductive performance were obtained. Supplementation during the dry season only, approximately trebled the proportion of animals calving within 2 years of the beginning of the trial (6 vs 20%, P < 0.05), while this increase was around eight-fold in the animals that continued to receive supplement during the wet season (6 vs 50%, P < 0.05). Conceptions occurred at an overall mean liveweight of 185 kg, and a "target" liveweight of 200 kg for the first conception of N'Dama heifers is proposed as the basis for husbandry recommendations concerning these animals. It is concluded that such intervention can reduce the usually observed age at first calving of village based N'Dama heifers by 12 months, in a fashion that is both practicable and financially advantageous.

  3. Phytase production by solid-state fermentation of groundnut oil cake by Aspergillus niger: A bioprocess optimization study for animal feedstock applications.

    PubMed

    Buddhiwant, Priyanka; Bhavsar, Kavita; Kumar, V Ravi; Khire, Jayant M

    2016-08-17

    This investigation deals with the use of agro-industrial waste, namely groundnut oil cake (GOC), for phytase production by the fungi Aspergillus niger NCIM 563. Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was used to evaluate the effect of 11 process variables and studies here showed that phytase production was significantly influenced by glucose, dextrin, distilled water, and MgSO4 · 7H2O. The use of response surface methodology (RSM) by Box-Behnken design (BBD) of experiments further enhanced the production by a remarkable 36.67-fold from the original finding of 15 IU/gds (grams of dry substrate) to 550 IU/gds. This is the highest solid-state fermentation (SSF) phytase production reported when compared to other microorganisms and in fact betters the best known by a factor of 2. Experiments carried out using dried fermented koji for phosphorus and mineral release and also thermal stability have shown the phytase to be as efficient as the liquid enzyme extract. Also, the enzyme, while exhibiting optimal activity under acidic conditions, was found to have significant activity in a broad range of pH values (1.5-6.5). The studies suggest the suitability of the koji supplemented with phytase produced in an SSF process by the "generally regarded as safe" (GRAS) microorganism A. niger as a cost-effective value-added livestock feed when compared to that obtained by submerged fermentation (SmF).

  4. Development and growth of primordial shoots in Norway spruce buds before visible bud burst in relation to time and temperature in the field.

    PubMed

    Sutinen, Sirkka; Partanen, Jouni; Viherä-Aarnio, Anneli; Häkkinen, Risto

    2012-08-01

    The timing of bud development in ecodormancy is critical for trees in boreal and temperate regions with seasonally alternating climates. The development of vegetative buds and the growth of primordial shoots (the primordial shoot ratio) in Norway spruce were followed by the naked eye and at stereo and light microscopic levels in fresh-cut and fixed buds obtained by regular field samplings during the spring of 2007, 2008 and 2009. Buds were collected from 15 randomly selected trees (all 16 years old in 2007) of one southern Finnish half-sib family. The air temperature was recorded hourly throughout the observation period. In 2008 and 2009, initial events in the buds, seen as accumulation of lipid droplets in the cortex area, started in mid-March and were depleted in late April, simultaneously with the early development of vascular tissue and primordial needles. In mid-April 2007, however, the development of the buds was at least 10 days ahead as a result of warm spells in March and early April. Variation in the timing of different developmental phases within and among the sample trees was negligible. There was no clear one-to-one correspondence between the externally visible and the internal development of the buds. The dependence of the primordial shoot ratio on different types of temperature sum was studied by means of regression analysis. High coefficients of determination (R(2) ≈ 95%) were attained with several combinations of the starting time (beginning of the year/vernal equinox), the threshold value (from -3 to +5 °C), and the time step (hour/day) used in the temperature summation, i.e., the prediction power of the primordial shoot ratio models turned out to be high, but the parameter estimate values were not unambiguous. According to our results, temperature sums describe the growth of the primordial shoot inside the bud before bud burst. Thus, the results provide a realistic interpretation for the present phenological models of bud development that

  5. Have NEC Coat, Will Travel: Structural Basis of Membrane Budding During Nuclear Egress in Herpesviruses.

    PubMed

    Bigalke, J M; Heldwein, E E

    2017-01-01

    Herpesviruses are unusual among enveloped viruses because they bud twice yet acquire a single envelope. Furthermore, unlike other DNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus, herpesviruses do not exit it by passing through the nuclear pores or by rupturing the nuclear envelope. Instead, herpesviruses have a complex mechanism of nuclear escape whereby nascent capsids bud at the inner nuclear membrane to form perinuclear virions that subsequently fuse with the outer nuclear membrane, releasing capsids into the cytosol. This makes them some of the very few known viruses that bud into the nuclear envelope. The envelope acquired during nuclear budding does not end up in the mature viral particle but instead allows the capsid to translocate from the nucleus into the cytosol. The viral nuclear egress complex (NEC) is a critical player in the nuclear egress, yet its function and mechanism have remained enigmatic. Recent studies have demonstrated that the NEC buds membranes without the help of other proteins by forming a honeycomb coat, which established the NEC as the first virally encoded budding machine that operates at the nuclear, as opposed to cytoplasmic, membrane. This review discusses our current understanding of the NEC budding mechanism, with the emphasis on studies that illuminated the structure of the NEC coat and its role in capsid budding during herpesvirus nuclear escape.

  6. Light controls shoot meristem organogenic activity and leaf primordia growth during bud burst in Rosa sp.

    PubMed

    Girault, Tiffanie; Bergougnoux, Veronique; Combes, Didier; Viemont, Jean-Daniel; Leduc, Nathalie

    2008-11-01

    Light controls bud burst in many plants, which subsequently affects their architecture. Nevertheless, very little is known about this photomorphogenic process. This study ascertains the effects of light on bud burst and on two of its components, i.e. growth of preformed leaves and meristem organogenesis in six cultivars from three Rosa species (R. hybrida L., R. chinensis L., R. wichurana L.). Defoliated plants were severed above the third basal bud and exposed, either to darkness or to different intensities of white light, to blue, red or to FR, at constant temperature. Bud bursting was inhibited in darkness in the six cultivars of Rosa, but not in Arabidopsis, tomato and poplar plants under the same condition. In all Rosa cultivars, bud burst, growth of preformed leaves and meristem organogenesis were triggered by blue and red lights, and extended by increasing light intensities. FR was inhibitory of bud burst. Partial shading experiments demonstrated that bud and not stem was the active site for light perception in bud burst.

  7. Symplastic connection is required for bud outgrowth following dormancy in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    PubMed

    Viola, Roberto; Pelloux, Jérôme; van der Ploeg, Anke; Gillespie, Trudi; Marquis, Nicola; Roberts, Alison G; Hancock, Robert D

    2007-08-01

    To gain greater insight into the mechanism of dormancy release in the potato tuber, an investigation into physiological and biochemical changes in tuber and bud tissues during the transition from bud dormancy (immediately after harvest) to active bud growth was undertaken. Within the tuber, a rapid shift from storage metabolism (starch synthesis) to reserve mobilization within days of detachment from the mother plant suggested transition from sink to source. Over the same period, a shift in the pattern of [U-(14)C]sucrose uptake by tuber discs from diffuse to punctate accumulation was consistent with a transition from phloem unloading to phloem loading within the tuber parenchyma. There were no gross differences in metabolic capacity between resting and actively growing tuber buds as determined by [U-(14)C]glucose labelling. However, marked differences in metabolite pools were observed with large increases in starch and sucrose, and the accumulation of several organic acids in growing buds. Carboxyfluorescein labelling of tubers clearly demonstrated strong symplastic connection in actively growing buds and symplastic isolation in resting buds. It is proposed that potato tubers rapidly undergo metabolic transitions consistent with bud outgrowth; however, growth is initially prevented by substrate limitation mediated via symplastic isolation.

  8. Colonization of Dormant Walnut Buds by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis Is Predictive of Subsequent Disease.

    PubMed

    Lindow, Steven; Olson, William; Buchner, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The potential role of walnut buds as a driver of walnut blight disease, caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis, was addressed by quantifying its temporal dynamics in a large number of orchards in California. The abundance of X. arboricola pv. juglandis on individual dormant and developing buds and shoots of walnut trees varied by >10(6)-fold at any sample time and within a given tree. X. arboricola pv. juglandis population size in shoots was often no larger than that in the buds from which the shoots were derived but was strongly correlated with prior pathogen population sizes in buds. X. arboricola pv. juglandis populations on developing nuts were strongly related to that on the shoots on which they were borne. The incidence of disease of nuts in June was strongly correlated with the logarithm of the population size of X. arboricola pv. juglandis in dormant buds in March. Inoculum efficiency, the slope of this linear relationship, varied between years but was strongly related to the number of rain events following bud break in each year. Thus, inoculum of X. arboricola pv. juglandis present on dormant buds is the primary determinant of nut infections and the risk of disease can be predicted from both the numbers of X. arboricola pv. juglandis in buds and the incidence of early spring rain.

  9. 48 CFR 1419.202-70 - Acquisition screening and BUDS recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BUDS recommendations. 1419.202-70 Section 1419.202-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... screening and BUDS recommendations. (a) For open market acquisitions estimated to exceed the SAT, the DI... document the rationale for not accepting a SBS recommendation on DI Form 1886, under “Notes.” (See FAR...

  10. 48 CFR 1419.202-70 - Acquisition screening and BUDS recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... BUDS recommendations. 1419.202-70 Section 1419.202-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... screening and BUDS recommendations. (a) For open market acquisitions estimated to exceed the SAT, the DI... document the rationale for not accepting a SBS recommendation on DI Form 1886, under “Notes.” (See FAR...

  11. 48 CFR 1419.202-70 - Acquisition screening and BUDS recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... BUDS recommendations. 1419.202-70 Section 1419.202-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... screening and BUDS recommendations. (a) For open market acquisitions estimated to exceed the SAT, the DI... document the rationale for not accepting a SBS recommendation on DI Form 1886, under “Notes.” (See FAR...

  12. Proteomic study of 'Moncada' mandarin buds from on- versus off-crop trees.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Fambuena, Natalia; Mesejo, Carlos; Reig, Carmina; Agustí, Manuel; Tárraga, Susana; Lisón, Purificación; Iglesias, Domingo J; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; González-Mas, M Carmen

    2013-12-01

    A proteomic analysis of buds from mandarin trees with contrasting fruit load (on- and off-crop trees) was carried out during the onset of low-temperature induction. The aim of the study was to find out more about the molecular mechanism relating to alternate bearing in Citrus and its relationship with flowering. The 'Moncada' variety (Clementine 'Oroval'x'Kara' mandarin), displaying remarkable behaviour in alternate production, was used in this study. From 2D DIGE gel, 192 spots were isolated: 97 showed increased expression in the off-crop buds as compared to the on-crop buds, while 95 exhibited enhanced expression in the on-crop buds versus the off-crop buds. These spots were identified by MALDI-MS or LC-MS-MS. The largest groups of proteins up-expressed in the off-crop buds were the proteins involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and the proteins expressed in response to stimuli such as reactive oxygen species. The largest groups of proteins up-expressed in the on-crop buds were related to primary metabolism, oxidative stress and defence responses. Depending on their function, some of these proteins can stimulate the flowering, such as fructose-bisphosphate aldolase or leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein kinase, while others can inhibit it, such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit II. Twenty-two other proteins with unknown functions were up-expressed in the on- or off-crop buds.

  13. Differential expression of carbohydrate metabolism genes during bud dormancy changes in leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge undergo three well-defined phases of dormancy, para-, endo-, and ecodormancy, throughout the year. In this study, relationships between carbohydrate metabolism and bud dormancy were examined and real-time PCR was used to determine if shifts in carbohydra...

  14. Differential Expression of Carbohydrate Metabolism Genes Associated with Bud Dormancy Changes in Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia esula)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge undergo three well-defined phases of dormancy, para-, endo-, and ecodormancy, throughout the year. In this study, relationships between carbohydrate metabolism and bud dormancy were examined and real-time PCR was used to determine if shifts in carbohydra...

  15. An actin-binding protein, CAP, is expressed in a subset of rat taste bud cells.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Y; Yasuoka, A; Asano-Miyoshi, M; Abe, K; Emori, Y

    2001-02-12

    Single cell cDNA libraries were constructed from taste bud cells of rat circumvallate papillae. Using three steps of screening, including differential hybridization, sequence analyses and in situ hybridization, a clone encoding a rat homolog of yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (CAP) was identified to be highly expressed in a subset of taste bud cells.

  16. Key stages in mammary gland development: the mammary end bud as a motile organ.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Lindsay; Silberstein, Gary B

    2005-01-01

    In the rodent, epithelial end buds define the tips of elongating mammary ducts. These highly motile structures undergo repeated dichotomous branching as they aggressively advance through fatty stroma and, turning to avoid other ducts, they finally cease growth leaving behind the open, tree-like framework on which secretory alveoli develop during pregnancy. This review identifies the motility of end buds as a unique developmental marker that represents the successful integration of systemic and local mammotrophic influences, and covers relevant advances in ductal growth regulation, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, and cell adhesion in the inner end bud. An unexpected growth-promoting synergy between insulin-like growth factor-1 and progesterone, in which ducts elongate without forming new end buds, is described as well as evidence strongly supporting self-inhibition of ductal elongation by end-bud-secreted transforming growth factor-beta acting on stromal targets. The influence of the matrix metalloproteinase ECM-remodeling enzymes, notably matrix metalloproteinase-2, on end bud growth is discussed in the broader context of enzymes that regulate the polysaccharide-rich glycosaminoglycan elements of the ECM. Finally, a critical, motility-enabling role for the cellular architecture of the end bud is identified and the contribution of cadherins, the netrin/neogenin system, and ErbB2 to the structure and motility of end buds is discussed.

  17. New technique for more rapid cryopreservation of dormant vegetative tree buds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation of dormant buds of temperate trees in liquid nitrogen can provide a safe backup of field germplasm collections. However the process requires several months of preparation before buds can be cryopreserved. Cryopreservation at the natural moisture content (MC) would greatly accelerate...

  18. Size Does Matter: Staging of Silene latifolia Floral Buds for Transcriptome Studies

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Su San; Perlin, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Dioecious plants in the Caryophyllaceae family are susceptible to infection by members of the anthericolous smut fungi. In our studies of the Silene latifolia/Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae pathosystem, we were interested in characterizing the plant-pathogen interaction at the molecular level before and during teliosporogenesis. This takes place during floral bud development, and we hoped to capture the interaction by Illumina Next-Gen RNA-Sequencing. Using previous literature that documented the stages of the floral buds for S. latifolia, we examined the floral buds from plants grown and infected under growth chamber conditions, using the disserting microscope to determine the stage of floral buds based on the morphology. We compiled the information and determined the size of floral buds that correspond to the desired stages of development for tissue collection, for the purpose of RNA-sequencing. This offers a practical approach for researchers who require a large number of floral buds/tissue categorized by stages of development, ascertaining whether infected/uninfected buds are at comparable stages of development and whether this also holds true for male vs. female buds. We also document our experience in infecting the plants and some of the unusual morphologies we observed after infection. PMID:26378529

  19. Generation of bioengineered feather buds on a reconstructed chick skin from dissociated epithelial and mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kentaro; Mitsui, Toshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    Various kinds of in vitro culture systems of tissues and organs have been developed, and applied to understand multicellular systems during embryonic organogenesis. In the research field of feather bud development, tissue recombination assays using an intact epithelial tissue and mesenchymal tissue/cells have contributed to our understanding the mechanisms of feather bud formation and development. However, there are few methods to generate a skin and its appendages from single cells of both epithelium and mesenchyme. In this study, we have developed a bioengineering method to reconstruct an embryonic dorsal skin after completely dissociating single epithelial and mesenchymal cells from chick skin. Multiple feather buds can form on the reconstructed skin in a single row in vitro. The bioengineered feather buds develop into long feather buds by transplantation onto a chorioallantoic membrane. The bioengineered bud sizes were similar to those of native embryo. The number of bioengineered buds was increased linearly with the initial contact length of epithelial and mesenchymal cell layers where the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions occur. In addition, the bioengineered bud formation was also disturbed by the inhibition of major signaling pathways including FGF (fibroblast growth factor), Wnt/β-catenin, Notch and BMP (bone morphogenetic protein). We expect that our bioengineering technique will motivate further extensive research on multicellular developmental systems, such as the formation and sizing of cutaneous appendages, and their regulatory mechanisms.

  20. Have NEC Coat, Will Travel: Structural Basis of Membrane Budding During Nuclear Egress in Herpesviruses

    PubMed Central

    Bigalke, J.M.; Heldwein, E.E.

    2017-01-01

    Herpesviruses are unusual among enveloped viruses because they bud twice yet acquire a single envelope. Furthermore, unlike other DNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus, herpesviruses do not exit it by passing through the nuclear pores or by rupturing the nuclear envelope. Instead, herpesviruses have a complex mechanism of nuclear escape whereby nascent capsids bud at the inner nuclear membrane to form perinuclear virions that subsequently fuse with the outer nuclear membrane, releasing capsids into the cytosol. This makes them some of the very few known viruses that bud into the nuclear envelope. The envelope acquired during nuclear budding does not end up in the mature viral particle but instead allows the capsid to translocate from the nucleus into the cytosol. The viral nuclear egress complex (NEC) is a critical player in the nuclear egress, yet its function and mechanism have remained enigmatic. Recent studies have demonstrated that the NEC buds membranes without the help of other proteins by forming a honeycomb coat, which established the NEC as the first virally encoded budding machine that operates at the nuclear, as opposed to cytoplasmic, membrane. This review discusses our current understanding of the NEC budding mechanism, with the emphasis on studies that illuminated the structure of the NEC coat and its role in capsid budding during herpesvirus nuclear escape. PMID:28057257

  1. Giant cell arteritis presenting as scalp necrosis.

    PubMed

    Maidana, Daniel E; Muñoz, Silvia; Acebes, Xènia; Llatjós, Roger; Jucglà, Anna; Alvarez, Alba

    2011-07-07

    The differential of scalp ulceration in older patients should include several causes, such as herpes zoster, irritant contact dermatitis, ulcerated skin tumors, postirradiation ulcers, microbial infections, pyoderma gangrenosum, and giant cell arteritis. Scalp necrosis associated with giant cell arteritis was first described in the 1940s. The presence of this dermatological sign within giant cell arteritis represents a severity marker of this disease, with a higher mean age at diagnosis, an elevated risk of vision loss and tongue gangrene, as well as overall higher mortality rates, in comparison to patients not presenting this manifestation. Even though scalp necrosis due to giant cell arteritis is exceptional, a high level of suspicion must be held for this clinical finding, in order to initiate prompt and proper treatment and avoid blindness.

  2. Imaging Manifestations of Mediastinal Fat Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Malay Y.; Martínez-Jiménez, Santiago; Rosado-de-Christenson, Melissa L.; Watson, Kenneth R.; Walker, Christopher M.; Kunin, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Mediastinal fat necrosis (MFN) or epipericardial fat necrosis, as it is commonly referred to in the literature, is a rare self-limiting cause of chest pain of unclear etiology. MFN affects previously healthy individuals who present with acute pleuritic chest pain. Characteristic computed tomography (CT) findings include a fat attenuation lesion with intrinsic and surrounding increased attenuation stranding. There is often associated thickening of the adjacent pericardium and/or pleural effusions. We present two cases of MFN manifesting as ovoid fat attenuation lesions demarcated by a soft tissue attenuation rim with intrinsic and surrounding soft tissue attenuation stranding and review the clinical and pathologic features of these lesions. Knowledge of the clinical presentation of patients with MFN and familiarity with the characteristic imaging findings of these lesions should allow radiologists to prospectively establish the correct diagnosis and suggest conservative management and follow-up. PMID:24369521

  3. Budding yeast dma proteins control septin dynamics and the spindle position checkpoint by promoting the recruitment of the Elm1 kinase to the bud neck.

    PubMed

    Merlini, Laura; Fraschini, Roberta; Boettcher, Barbara; Barral, Yves; Lucchini, Giovanna; Piatti, Simonetta

    2012-01-01

    The first step towards cytokinesis in budding yeast is the assembly of a septin ring at the future site of bud emergence. Integrity of this ring is crucial for cytokinesis, proper spindle positioning, and the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC). This checkpoint delays mitotic exit and cytokinesis as long as the anaphase spindle does not properly align with the division axis. SPOC signalling requires the Kin4 protein kinase and the Kin4-regulating Elm1 kinase, which also controls septin dynamics. Here, we show that the two redundant ubiquitin-ligases Dma1 and Dma2 control septin dynamics and the SPOC by promoting the efficient recruitment of Elm1 to the bud neck. Indeed, dma1 dma2 mutant cells show reduced levels of Elm1 at the bud neck and Elm1-dependent activation of Kin4. Artificial recruitment of Elm1 to the bud neck of the same cells is sufficient to re-establish a normal septin ring, proper spindle positioning, and a proficient SPOC response in dma1 dma2 cells. Altogether, our data indicate that septin dynamics and SPOC function are intimately linked and support the idea that integrity of the bud neck is crucial for SPOC signalling.

  4. Glucosinolate composition of young shoots and flower buds of capers (Capparis species) growing wild in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Ozcan, Musa

    2002-12-04

    The content and glucosinolate composition of young shoots and raw flower buds of Capparis spinosa var. spinosa and Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens at three different sizes (x 13 mm) were investigated by HPLC with UV detection. Samples were harvested in August 2001 in Turkey. Twelve different glucosinolates were identified in the young shoots and buds of both species. Total content of glucosinolates ranged from 6.55 micromol/g (large buds of C. spinosa) to 45.56 micromol/g (young shoots of C. ovata). The main glucosinolate was glucocapperin, which amounted to approximately 90% of the total glucosinolates. In both species the total glucosinolate content varied in dependence on the bud size, whereas a greater variability was given for buds from C. spinosa.

  5. Influenza virus budding from the tips of cellular microvilli in differentiated human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kolesnikova, Larissa; Heck, Sonja; Matrosovich, Tatyana; Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Becker, Stephan; Matrosovich, Mikhail

    2013-05-01

    The epithelium of conducting airways represents the main target for influenza virus in mammals. However, the peculiarities of virus interactions with differentiated airway epithelial cells remain largely unknown. Here, influenza virus budding was studied in differentiated cultures of human tracheobronchial epithelial cells using transmission electron microscopy. Budding of spherical and filamentous virions was observed on the apical surfaces of cells with no association with cilia and secretory granules. Quantitative analysis of the distribution of viral buds on the cell surface indicated that the tips of the microvilli represented a prominent site of influenza virus budding in the human airway epithelium. As the microvilli of differentiated cells are involved in many fundamental cell functions, these data will prompt further studies on the biological significance of microvilli-associated budding for virus replication, transmission and pathogenicity.

  6. Computational model of polarized actin cables and cytokinetic actin ring formation in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Haosu; Bidone, Tamara C.

    2015-01-01

    The budding yeast actin cables and contractile ring are important for polarized growth and division, revealing basic aspects of cytoskeletal function. To study these formin-nucleated structures, we built a 3D computational model with actin filaments represented as beads connected by springs. Polymerization by formins at the bud tip and bud neck, crosslinking, severing, and myosin pulling, are included. Parameter values were estimated from prior experiments. The model generates actin cable structures and dynamics similar to those of wild type and formin deletion mutant cells. Simulations with increased polymerization rate result in long, wavy cables. Simulated pulling by type V myosin stretches actin cables. Increasing the affinity of actin filaments for the bud neck together with reduced myosin V pulling promotes the formation of a bundle of antiparallel filaments at the bud neck, which we suggest as a model for the assembly of actin filaments to the contractile ring. PMID:26538307

  7. The ureteric bud epithelium: morphogenesis and roles in metanephric kidney patterning.

    PubMed

    Nagalakshmi, Vidya K; Yu, Jing

    2015-03-01

    The mammalian metanephric kidney is composed of two epithelial components, the collecting duct system and the nephron epithelium, that differentiate from two different tissues -the ureteric bud epithelium and the nephron progenitors, respectively-of intermediate mesoderm origin. The collecting duct system is generated through reiterative ureteric bud branching morphogenesis, whereas the nephron epithelium is formed in a process termed nephrogenesis, which is initiated with the mesenchymal-epithelial transition of the nephron progenitors. Ureteric bud branching morphogenesis is regulated by nephron progenitors, and in return, the ureteric bud epithelium regulates nephrogenesis. The metanephric kidney is physiologically divided along the corticomedullary axis into subcompartments that are enriched with specific segments of these two epithelial structures. Here, we provide an overview of the major molecular and cellular processes underlying the morphogenesis and patterning of the ureteric bud epithelium and its roles in the cortico-medullary patterning of the metanephric kidney.

  8. Chirality-Induced Budding: A Raft-Mediated Mechanism for Endocytosis and Morphology of Caveolae?

    PubMed Central

    Sarasij, R. C.; Mayor, Satyajit; Rao, Madan

    2007-01-01

    The formation of transport carriers (spherical vesicles and tubules) involves membrane budding, growth, and ultimately fission. We propose a mechanism of membrane budding, wherein the tilt and chirality of constituent molecules, confined to a patch of area A, induces buds of ∼50–100 nm that are comparable to vesicles involved in endocytosis. Because such chiral and tilted lipid molecules are likely to exist in “rafts”, we suggest the involvement of this mechanism in generating membrane buds in the clathrin and dynamin-independent, raft-component mediated endocytosis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins. We argue that caveolae, permanent cell surface structures with characteristic morphology and enriched in raft constituents, are also likely to be formed by this mechanism. Thus, molecular chirality and tilt, and its expression over large spatial scales may be a common organizing principle in membrane budding of transport carriers. PMID:17237196

  9. Peripheral fat necrosis after penetrating pancreatic trauma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Adams, D B

    1993-11-01

    Peripheral fat necrosis (PFN), a rare complication of pancreatitis, has been reported previously in association with blunt pancreatic trauma. A patient who developed peripheral fat necrosis after penetrating pancreatic trauma and needed bilateral above-the-knee amputations to treat complications of lower extremity fat necrosis is reported.

  10. Requirements for budding of paramyxovirus simian virus 5 virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Anthony P; Leser, George P; Waning, David L; Lamb, Robert A

    2002-04-01

    Enveloped viruses are released from infected cells after coalescence of viral components at cellular membranes and budding of membranes to release particles. For some negative-strand RNA viruses (e.g., vesicular stomatitis virus and Ebola virus), the viral matrix (M) protein contains all of the information needed for budding, since virus-like particles (VLPs) are efficiently released from cells when the M protein is expressed from cDNA. To investigate the requirements for budding of the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 (SV5), its M protein was expressed in mammalian cells, and it was found that SV5 M protein alone could not induce vesicle budding and was not secreted from cells. Coexpression of M protein with the viral hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) or fusion (F) glycoproteins also failed to result in significant VLP release. It was found that M protein in the form of VLPs was only secreted from cells, with an efficiency comparable to authentic virus budding, when M protein was coexpressed with one of the two glycoproteins, HN or F, together with the nucleocapsid (NP) protein. The VLPs appeared similar morphologically to authentic virions by electron microscopy. CsCl density gradient centrifugation indicated that almost all of the NP protein in the cells had assembled into nucleocapsid-like structures. Deletion of the F and HN cytoplasmic tails indicated an important role of these cytoplasmic tails in VLP budding. Furthermore, truncation of the HN cytoplasmic tail was found to be inhibitory toward budding, since it prevented coexpressed wild-type (wt) F protein from directing VLP budding. Conversely, truncation of the F protein cytoplasmic tail was not inhibitory and did not affect the ability of coexpressed wt HN protein to direct the budding of particles. Taken together, these data suggest that multiple viral components, including assembled nucleocapsids, have important roles in the paramyxovirus budding process.

  11. Breaking-bud pollination: a new pollination process in partially opened flowers by small bees.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Futa; Ohsawa, Takeshi A

    2015-09-01

    Plant-pollinator interactions have usually been researched in flowers that have fully opened. However, some pollinators can visit flowers before full opening and contribute to fruit and seed sets. In this paper, we researched the pollination biology of flowers just starting to open in four field experiments. We observed the insect visitors to Lycoris sanguinea var. sanguinea for 3 years at five sites. These observations revealed that only small bees, Lasioglossum japonicum, often entered through tiny spaces between the tepals of 'breaking buds' (i.e. partially opened flowers) and collected pollen. We hypothesized that they can pollinate this species at the breaking-bud stage, when the stigma is located near the anthers. To measure the pollination effect of small bees at the breaking-bud stage, we bagged several breaking buds after small bees had visited them and examined whether these buds were pollinated. In bagging experiments, 30% of the breaking buds set fruit and seeds. Fruit-set ratios of the breaking buds did not differ significantly from those of the fully opened flowers, which had been visited by several insect species. We also counted the pollen grain numbers on the body of L. japonicum and on the anthers of randomly-selected and manipulated flowers. These experiments revealed that all of the captured bees had some pollen of target plants and that L. japonicum collected most of the pollen grains at the breaking-bud stage. Our results showed that the new pollination process, breaking-bud pollination, happened in breaking buds by L. japonicum, although there is no evidence to reveal that this is the most effective pollination method for L. sanguinea var. sanguinea. In principle, this new pollination process can occur in other flowering plants and our results are a major contribution to studies of plant-pollinator interactions.

  12. Novel Features of the Prenatal Horn Bud Development in Cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Wiener, Dominique Judith; Wiedemar, Natalie; Welle, Monika Maria; Drögemüller, Cord

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the genetic background of horn growth in cattle has been studied extensively, little is known about the morphological changes in the developing fetal horn bud. In this study we histologically analyzed the development of horn buds of bovine fetuses between ~70 and ~268 days of pregnancy and compared them with biopsies taken from the frontal skin of the same fetuses. In addition we compared the samples from the wild type (horned) fetuses with samples taken from the horn bud region of age-matched genetically hornless (polled) fetuses. In summary, the horn bud with multiple layers of vacuolated keratinocytes is histologically visible early in fetal life already at around day 70 of gestation and can be easily differentiated from the much thinner epidermis of the frontal skin. However, at the gestation day (gd) 212 the epidermis above the horn bud shows a similar morphology to the epidermis of the frontal skin and the outstanding layers of vacuolated keratinocytes have disappeared. Immature hair follicles are seen in the frontal skin at gd 115 whereas hair follicles below the horn bud are not present until gd 155. Interestingly, thick nerve bundles appear in the dermis below the horn bud at gd 115. These nerve fibers grow in size over time and are prominent shortly before birth. Prominent nerve bundles are not present in the frontal skin of wild type or in polled fetuses at any time, indicating that the horn bud is a very sensitive area. The samples from the horn bud region from polled fetuses are histologically equivalent to samples taken from the frontal skin in horned species. This is the first study that presents unique histological data on bovine prenatal horn bud differentiation at different developmental stages which creates knowledge for a better understanding of recent molecular findings.

  13. Spatial Variability of Grapevine Bud Burst Percentage and Its Association with Soil Properties at Field Scale.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Hao, Xinmei; Kang, Shaozhong

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in precision viticulture with the development of global positioning system and geographical information system technologies. Limited information is available on spatial variation of bud behavior and its possible association with soil properties. The objective of this study was to investigate spatial variability of bud burst percentage and its association with soil properties based on 2-year experiments at a vineyard of arid northwest China. Geostatistical approach was used to describe the spatial variation in bud burst percentage within the vineyard. Partial least square regressions (PLSRs) of bud burst percentage with soil properties were used to evaluate the contribution of soil properties to overall spatial variability in bud burst percentage for the high, medium and low bud burst percentage groups. Within the vineyard, the coefficient of variation (CV) of bud burst percentage was 20% and 15% for 2012 and 2013 respectively. Bud burst percentage within the vineyard showed moderate spatial variability, and the overall spatial pattern of bud burst percentage was similar between the two years. Soil properties alone explained 31% and 37% of the total spatial variation respectively for the low group of 2012 and 2013, and 16% and 24% for the high group of 2012 and 2013 respectively. For the low group, the fraction of variations explained by soil properties was found similar between the two years, while there was substantial difference for the high group. The findings are expected to lay a good foundation for developing remedy measures in the areas with low bud burst percentage, thus in turn improving the overall grape yield and quality.

  14. BudBurst Buddies: A New Tool for Engaging the Youngest Citizen Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, L. S.; Henderson, S.; Ward, D.

    2010-12-01

    BudBurst Buddies (www.budburstbuddies.org) introduces elementary school age children to the science of observing plants and the timing of phenological (life cycle) events. BudBurst Buddies is a new part of the Project BudBurst national citizen science initiative (www.budburst.org), which allows individuals to engage in the scientific process, contributing to a better understanding of climate change while increasing public awareness of phenology and the impacts of climate change on plants. As a first step towards engaging the next generation of citizen scientists, BudBurst Buddies provides the opportunity for children to gain experience with scientific research and increases awareness of how plants change throughout the year. Children can participate in BudBurst Buddies on their own, with their families, or in formal or informal education settings. Each child who participates creates a journal about a plant of his or her choosing, makes observations of the plant over the growing season and submits findings online, earning an official BudBurst Buddies certificate. An online storybook for kids tells how two children, Lily and Sage, observed plants in their neighborhood and became BudBurst Buddies. This presentation will provide an overview of the BudBurst Buddies newly developed resources. BudBurst Buddies is a part of Project BudBurst, a national citizen science program coordinated by the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and the Chicago Botanic Garden. Funding for this resource was provided by NEON, NSF, NASA, and the National Geographic Education Foundation.

  15. Spatial Variability of Grapevine Bud Burst Percentage and Its Association with Soil Properties at Field Scale

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Hao, Xinmei; Kang, Shaozhong

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in precision viticulture with the development of global positioning system and geographical information system technologies. Limited information is available on spatial variation of bud behavior and its possible association with soil properties. The objective of this study was to investigate spatial variability of bud burst percentage and its association with soil properties based on 2-year experiments at a vineyard of arid northwest China. Geostatistical approach was used to describe the spatial variation in bud burst percentage within the vineyard. Partial least square regressions (PLSRs) of bud burst percentage with soil properties were used to evaluate the contribution of soil properties to overall spatial variability in bud burst percentage for the high, medium and low bud burst percentage groups. Within the vineyard, the coefficient of variation (CV) of bud burst percentage was 20% and 15% for 2012 and 2013 respectively. Bud burst percentage within the vineyard showed moderate spatial variability, and the overall spatial pattern of bud burst percentage was similar between the two years. Soil properties alone explained 31% and 37% of the total spatial variation respectively for the low group of 2012 and 2013, and 16% and 24% for the high group of 2012 and 2013 respectively. For the low group, the fraction of variations explained by soil properties was found similar between the two years, while there was substantial difference for the high group. The findings are expected to lay a good foundation for developing remedy measures in the areas with low bud burst percentage, thus in turn improving the overall grape yield and quality. PMID:27798692

  16. Taste bud leptin: sweet dampened at initiation site.

    PubMed

    Travers, Susan P; Frank, Marion E

    2015-05-01

    The intriguing observation that leptin decreases sweet-evoked peripheral gustatory responses has aroused much interest (Kawai K, Sugimoto K, Nakashima K, Miura H, Ninomiya Y. 2000. Leptin as a modulator of sweet taste sensitivities in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97(20):11044-11049.) due to its implied importance in controlling appetite. The effects of this anorexic hormone, however, appear more conditional than originally believed. In this issue of Chemical Senses, a careful study by Glendinning and colleagues, find no effects of leptin on sweet-evoked chorda tympani responses, whereas an equally careful study by Meredith and colleagues, find decreased release of ATP and increased release of 5-HT from taste buds in response to sweet stimuli.

  17. The Terminal End Bud: the Little Engine that Could.

    PubMed

    Paine, Ingrid S; Lewis, Michael T

    2017-02-06

    The mammary gland is one of the most regenerative organs in the body, with the majority of development occurring postnatally and in the adult mammal. Formation of the ductal tree is orchestrated by a specialized structure called the terminal end bud (TEB). The TEB is responsible for the production of mature cell types leading to the elongation of the subtending duct. The TEB is also the regulatory control point for basement membrane deposition, branching, angiogenesis, and pattern formation. While the hormonal control of TEB growth is well characterized, the local regulatory factors are less well understood. Recent studies of pubertal outgrowth and ductal elongation have yielded surprising details in regards to ongoing processes in the TEB. Here we summarize the current understanding of TEB biology, discuss areas of future study, and discuss the use of the TEB as a model for the study of breast cancer.

  18. A comprehensive model to predict mitotic division in budding yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Sutradhar, Sabyasachi; Yadav, Vikas; Sridhar, Shreyas; Sreekumar, Lakshmi; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Ghosh, Santanu Kumar; Paul, Raja; Sanyal, Kaustuv

    2015-01-01

    High-fidelity chromosome segregation during cell division depends on a series of concerted interdependent interactions. Using a systems biology approach, we built a robust minimal computational model to comprehend mitotic events in dividing budding yeasts of two major phyla: Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. This model accurately reproduces experimental observations related to spindle alignment, nuclear migration, and microtubule (MT) dynamics during cell division in these yeasts. The model converges to the conclusion that biased nucleation of cytoplasmic microtubules (cMTs) is essential for directional nuclear migration. Two distinct pathways, based on the population of cMTs and cortical dyneins, differentiate nuclear migration and spindle orientation in these two phyla. In addition, the model accurately predicts the contribution of specific classes of MTs in chromosome segregation. Thus we present a model that offers a wider applicability to simulate the effects of perturbation of an event on the concerted process of the mitotic cell division. PMID:26310442

  19. Exogenous folates stimulate growth and budding of Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Porzoor, Afsaneh; Macreadie, Ian G.

    2015-01-01

    Folate, vitamin B9, is well recognized as being essential for cell growth. The utilization of folate is common to all cells, but the source of it may be quite different. For example, mammalian cells depend on exogenous uptake of folates, while plants and microbes can synthesize them. There has been little consideration of uptake of folate in microbial cells, and studies on the effects of folates in mammalian cells, where conditions are restricted. This study shows that exogenous folates (folic acid or folinic acid), causes Candida glabrata cells suspended in water alone to undergo two cycles of cell division and to form multiple buds. The effect was limited to cells in the stationary phase and more profound in quiescent cells. These data indicate a novel response of yeast to folates that may increase the utility of yeast as a model to study folate transport and signaling. PMID:28357288

  20. Mitochondrial inheritance in budding yeasts: towards an integrated understanding.

    PubMed

    Solieri, Lisa

    2010-11-01

    Recent advances in yeast mitogenomics have significantly contributed to our understanding of the diversity of organization, structure and topology in the mitochondrial genome of budding yeasts. In parallel, new insights on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) inheritance in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae highlighted an integrated scenario where recombination, replication and segregation of mtDNA are intricately linked to mitochondrial nucleoid (mt-nucleoid) structure and organelle sorting. In addition to this, recent discoveries of bifunctional roles of some mitochondrial proteins have interesting implications on mito-nuclear genome interactions and the relationship between mtDNA inheritance, yeast fitness and speciation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on yeast mitogenomics, mtDNA inheritance with regard to mt-nucleoid structure and organelle dynamics, and mito-nuclear genome interactions.

  1. The physics of lipid droplet nucleation, growth and budding.

    PubMed

    Thiam, Abdou Rachid; Forêt, Lionel

    2016-08-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular oil-in-water emulsion droplets, covered by a phospholipid monolayer and mainly present in the cytosol. Despite their important role in cellular metabolism and growing number of newly identified functions, LD formation mechanism from the endoplasmic reticulum remains poorly understood. To form a LD, the oil molecules synthesized in the ER accumulate between the monolayer leaflets and induce deformation of the membrane. This formation process works through three steps: nucleation, growth and budding, exactly as in phase separation and dewetting phenomena. These steps involve sequential biophysical membrane remodeling mechanisms for which we present basic tools of statistical physics, membrane biophysics, and soft matter science underlying them. We aim to highlight relevant factors that could control LD formation size, site and number through this physics description. An emphasis will be given to a currently underestimated contribution of the molecular interactions between lipids to favor an energetically costless mechanism of LD formation.

  2. Characterization of dependencies between growth and division in budding yeast

    DOE PAGES

    Mayhew, Michael B.; Iversen, Edwin S.; Hartemink, Alexander J.

    2017-02-01

    Cell growth and division are processes vital to the proliferation and development of life. Coordination between these two processes has been recognized for decades in a variety of organisms. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this coordination or ‘size control’ appears as an inverse correlation between cell size and the rate of cell-cycle progression, routinely observed in G1 prior to cell division commitment. Beyond this point, cells are presumed to complete S/G2/M at similar rates and in a size-independent manner. As such, studies of dependence between growth and division have focused on G1. Moreover, in unicellular organisms, coordination between growthmore » and division has commonly been analyzed within the cycle of a single cell without accounting for correlations in growth and division characteristics between cycles of related cells. In a comprehensive analysis of three published time-lapse microscopy datasets, we analyze both intra- and inter-cycle dependencies between growth and division, revisiting assumptions about the coordination between these two processes. Interestingly, we find evidence (1) that S/G2/M durations are systematically longer in daughters than in mothers, (2) of dependencies between S/G2/M and size at budding that echo the classical G1 dependencies, and, (3) in contrast with recent bacterial studies, of negative dependencies between size at birth and size accumulated during the cell cycle. In addition, we develop a novel hierarchical model to uncover inter-cycle dependencies, and we find evidence for such dependencies in cells growing in sugar-poor environments. Our analysis highlights the need for experimentalists and modelers to account for new sources of cell-to-cell variation in growth and division, and our model provides a formal statistical framework for the continued study of dependencies between biological processes.« less

  3. Characterization of dependencies between growth and division in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Michael B; Iversen, Edwin S; Hartemink, Alexander J

    2017-02-01

    Cell growth and division are processes vital to the proliferation and development of life. Coordination between these two processes has been recognized for decades in a variety of organisms. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this coordination or 'size control' appears as an inverse correlation between cell size and the rate of cell-cycle progression, routinely observed in G1 prior to cell division commitment. Beyond this point, cells are presumed to complete S/G2/M at similar rates and in a size-independent manner. As such, studies of dependence between growth and division have focused on G1 Moreover, in unicellular organisms, coordination between growth and division has commonly been analysed within the cycle of a single cell without accounting for correlations in growth and division characteristics between cycles of related cells. In a comprehensive analysis of three published time-lapse microscopy datasets, we analyse both intra- and inter-cycle dependencies between growth and division, revisiting assumptions about the coordination between these two processes. Interestingly, we find evidence (i) that S/G2/M durations are systematically longer in daughters than in mothers, (ii) of dependencies between S/G2/M and size at budding that echo the classical G1 dependencies, and (iii) in contrast with recent bacterial studies, of negative dependencies between size at birth and size accumulated during the cell cycle. In addition, we develop a novel hierarchical model to uncover inter-cycle dependencies, and we find evidence for such dependencies in cells growing in sugar-poor environments. Our analysis highlights the need for experimentalists and modellers to account for new sources of cell-to-cell variation in growth and division, and our model provides a formal statistical framework for the continued study of dependencies between biological processes.

  4. The formation of premuscle masses during chick wing bud development.

    PubMed

    Schramm, C; Solursh, M

    1990-01-01

    The skeletal musculature of chick limb buds is derived from somitic cells that migrate into the somatopleure of the future limb regions. These cells become organized into the earliest muscle primordia, the dorsal and ventral premuscle masses, prior to myogenic differentiation. Therefore, skeletal-muscle specific markers cannot be used to observe myogenic cells during the process of premuscle mass formation. In this study, an alternative marking method was used to determine the specific stages during which this process occurs. Quail somite strips were fluorescently labeled and implanted into chick hosts. Paraffin sections of the resulting chimeric wing buds were stained with the monoclonal antibody QH1 in order to identify graft-derived endothelium. Non-endothelial graft-derived cells present in the wing mesenchyme were assumed to be myogenic. At Hamburger and Hamilton stage 20, myogenic cells were distributed throughout the central region of the limb, including the future dorsal and ventral premuscle mass regions and the prechondrogenic core region. By stage 21, the myogenic cells were present at greater density in dorsal and ventral regions than in the core. By stage 23, nearly all myogenic cells were located in the dorsal and ventral premuscle masses. Therefore, the two premuscle masses become established by stage 21 and premuscle mass formation is not complete until stage 23 or later. Premuscle mass formation occurs concurrently with early chondrogenic events, as observed with the marker peanut agglutinin. To facilitate the investigation of possible underlying mechanisms of premuscle mass formation, the micromass culture system was evaluated, to determine whether or not it can serve as an accurate in vitro model system. The initially randomly distributed myogenic cells were observed to segregate from prechondrogenic regions prior to myogenic differentiation. This is similar to myogenic patterning in vivo.

  5. Changes in well-defined phases of bud dormancy associated with shifts in carbohydrate metabolism may involve beta-amylases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge is a noxious perennial weed that infests range lands in the Northern Great Plains. It is being used as a model to investigate dormancy in underground adventitious buds, i.e., root and crown buds. Underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) are 1) maintained in a quie...

  6. Carbohydrate uptake from xylem vessels and its distribution among stem tissues and buds in walnut (Juglans regia L.).

    PubMed

    Bonhomme, Marc; Peuch, Médéric; Ameglio, Thierry; Rageau, Rémy; Guilliot, Agnès; Decourteix, Mélanie; Alves, Georges; Sakr, Soulaiman; Lacointe, André

    2010-01-01

    Bud break pattern is a key determinant of tree architecture. The mechanisms leading to the precedence of certain buds over the others are not yet fully explained, but the availability of soluble sugars may play a significant role, especially those in the xylem sap at the onset of the growing period. Here, we measured carbon availability in the different tissues (bud, xylem and bark). To assess the capacity of buds to use the xylem sap carbohydrates, the fluxes between xylem vessels and parenchyma cells, bark and buds of walnut (Juglans regia cv 'Franquette') were measured during the rest period until bud break. This uptake capacity varies according to the temperature, the sugar and the position on the branch of the fragment studied. Between December and March, in xylem tissues, the active component of sucrose uptake was predominant compared with diffusion (90% of the total uptake), whereas the active component accounted for more moderate amounts in buds (50% of the uptake). The active uptake of hexoses took place belatedly (April) in xylem. The flow rates between xylem vessels and buds increased 1 month before bud break and reached 2000 microg sucrose h(-)(1) g DW(-)(1). Fluxes seemed to depend on bud position on the branch. However, this study strongly suggests that they were mainly dependent on the sink strength of the buds and on the sink competition between bud, xylem parenchyma and bark.

  7. Sugars are under light control during bud burst in Rosa sp.

    PubMed

    Girault, Tiffanie; Abidi, Farouk; Sigogne, Monique; Pelleschi-Travier, Sandrine; Boumaza, Rachid; Sakr, Soulaiman; Leduc, Nathalie

    2010-08-01

    Bud burst in certain species is conditioned by the luminous environment. With roses, the requirement for light is absolute, and darkness totally inhibits bud burst. Few studies have looked into understanding the action of light on the physiological bud burst processes. Here, we show the impact of light on certain components of glucidic metabolism during bud burst. Measurements were taken on decapitated plants of Rosa hybrida L. 'Radrazz' exposed either to darkness, white, blue or R light. Results show that a mobilization of bud and the carrying stem sucrose reserves only takes place in light and accompanies the bud burst. Furthermore, the activity of the RhVI vacuolar acid invertase which contributes to the breakdown of sucrose in the buds, as well as the transcription of the RhVI gene, is reduced in darkness, although it is strongly stimulated by light. The same analysis concerning the RhNAD-SDH gene, coding an NAD-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase, shows, on the contrary, a strong induction of its transcription in darkness that could reflect the use of survival mechanisms in this condition.

  8. Variations of metabolites and proteome in Lonicera japonica Thunb. buds and flowers under UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Zheng, Wen; Hu, Xingjiang; Xu, Xiaobao; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Jingkui

    2017-04-01

    Lonicera japonica Thunb., also known as Jin Yin Hua and Japanese honeysuckle, is used as a herbal medicine in Asian countries. Its flowers have been used in folk medicine in the clinic and in making food or healthy beverages for over 1500years in China. To investigate the molecular processes involved in L. japonica development from buds to flowers exposed to UV radiation, a comparative proteomics analysis was performed. Fifty-four proteins were identified as differentially expressed, including 42 that had increased expression and 12 that had decreased expression. The levels of the proteins related to glycolysis, TCA/organic acid transformation, major carbohydrate metabolism, oxidative pentose phosphate, stress, secondary metabolism, hormone, and mitochondrial electron transport were increased during flower opening process after exposure to UV radiation. Six metabolites in L. japonica buds and flowers were identified and relatively quantified using LC-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity was performed using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, which revealed that L. japonica buds had more activity than the UV irradiated flowers. This suggests that UV-B radiation induces production of endogenous ethylene in L. japonica buds, thus facilitating blossoming of the buds and activating the antioxidant system. Additionally, the higher metabolite contents and antioxidant properties of L. japonica buds indicate that the L. japonica bud stage may be a more optimal time to harvest than the flower stage when using for medicinal properties.

  9. Inhibitory effect of a rhizobitoxine analog on bud growth after release from dormancy.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, R H; Lieberman, M; Broome, O C

    1977-02-01

    Application of the ethoxy analog of rhizobitoxine (l-2-amino-4-[2'-aminoethoxy]-trans-3-butenoic acid), an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, inhibited growth of apple, crabapple, and apricot buds released from dormancy by chilling or by treatment with benzyladenine. When tea crabapple (Malus hupehensis [Pamp.] Rehd.) buds were sprayed once with 8.8 x 10(-3)m benzyladenine, ethylene production by the buds increased significantly 24 to 48 hours after benzyladenine treatment. Application of the rhizobitoxine analog to the buds at the time of benzyladenine treatment reduced ethylene evolution to the level of the controls for up to 2 weeks after treatment. Increase in bud weight was inhibited also but to a lesser extent. These data suggest that growth of buds is accompanied by ethylene production and that the inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis also inhibits bud growth. Since additional metabolic effects result from the action of the rhizobitoxine analog, no firm conclusions on its role can be drawn at this time.

  10. Automated quantification of budding Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a novel image cytometry method.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Daniel J; Kury, Alexandria L; Kuksin, Dmitry; Pirani, Alnoor; Flanagan, Kevin; Chan, Leo Li-Ying

    2013-06-01

    The measurements of concentration, viability, and budding percentages of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are performed on a routine basis in the brewing and biofuel industries. Generation of these parameters is of great importance in a manufacturing setting, where they can aid in the estimation of product quality, quantity, and fermentation time of the manufacturing process. Specifically, budding percentages can be used to estimate the reproduction rate of yeast populations, which directly correlates with metabolism of polysaccharides and bioethanol production, and can be monitored to maximize production of bioethanol during fermentation. The traditional method involves manual counting using a hemacytometer, but this is time-consuming and prone to human error. In this study, we developed a novel automated method for the quantification of yeast budding percentages using Cellometer image cytometry. The automated method utilizes a dual-fluorescent nucleic acid dye to specifically stain live cells for imaging analysis of unique morphological characteristics of budding yeast. In addition, cell cycle analysis is performed as an alternative method for budding analysis. We were able to show comparable yeast budding percentages between manual and automated counting, as well as cell cycle analysis. The automated image cytometry method is used to analyze and characterize corn mash samples directly from fermenters during standard fermentation. Since concentration, viability, and budding percentages can be obtained simultaneously, the automated method can be integrated into the fermentation quality assurance protocol, which may improve the quality and efficiency of beer and bioethanol production processes.

  11. Increased IAA transport in axillary buds upon release from apical dominance

    SciTech Connect

    Tamas, I.A.; Reimels, A.J. )

    1989-04-01

    To investigate the transport of indoleacetic acid (IAA) simultaneously in the stem and the axillary bud, bud-bearing nodal stem segments of Phaseolus vulgaris L. were excised and agar blocks containing {sup 14}C-IAA or {sup 3}H-IAA were placed on the apical cut surface and the bud stump respectively. A plain receiver block was placed on the basal end. After a period of transport, the stem segment and the attached bud stump were sectioned, and the activity of sections and agar blocks was counted. We found that the transport of {sup 3}H-IAA from the bud stump to the receiver was greatly accelerated in plants decapitated one or two days prior to the experiment, compared to the intact controls. Decapitation also caused a decrease in the ability of the stem axis to transport {sup 14}C-IAA from the apical to the basal end of the stem segment. The increased ability of the axillary bud to transport IAA, relative to that of the stem axis, may play a role int he release of the bud from apical dominance.

  12. Using dielectrophoresis to study the dynamic response of single budding yeast cells to Lyticase.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Yi, Pyshar; Soffe, Rebecca; Nahavandi, Sofia; Shukla, Ravi; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2015-05-01

    Budding yeast cells are quick and easy to grow and represent a versatile model of eukaryotic cells for a variety of cellular studies, largely because their genome has been widely studied and links can be drawn with higher eukaryotes. Therefore, the efficient separation, immobilization, and conversion of budding yeasts into spheroplast or protoplast can provide valuable insight for many fundamentals investigations in cell biology at a single cell level. Dielectrophoresis, the induced motion of particles in non-uniform electric fields, possesses a great versatility for manipulation of cells in microfluidic platforms. Despite this, dielectrophoresis has been largely utilized for studying of non-budding yeast cells and has rarely been used for manipulation of budding cells. Here, we utilize dielectrophoresis for studying the dynamic response of budding cells to different concentrations of Lyticase. This involves separation of the budding yeasts from a background of non-budding cells and their subsequent immobilization onto the microelectrodes at desired densities down to single cell level. The immobilized yeasts are then stimulated with Lyticase to remove the cell wall and convert them into spheroplasts, in a highly dynamic process that depends on the concentration of Lyticase. We also introduce a novel method for immobilization of the cell organelles released from the lysed cells by patterning multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) between the microelectrodes.

  13. Hormonal Regulation of Lateral Bud (Tiller) Release in Oats (Avena sativa L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Marcia A.; Kaufman, Peter B.

    1980-01-01

    Stem segments containing a single node and quiescent lateral bud (tiller) were excised from the bases of oat shoots (cv. `Victory') and used to study the effects of plant hormones on release of lateral buds and development of adventitious root primordia. Kinetin (10−5 and 10−6 molar) stimulates development of tillers and inhibits development of root primordia, whereas indoleacetic acid (IAA) (10−5 and 10−6 molar) causes the reverse effects. Abscisic acid strongly inhibits kinetin-induced tiller bud release and elon-gation and IAA-induced adventitious root development. IAA, in combination with kinetin, also inhibits kinetin-induced bud prophyll (outermost leaf of the axillary bud) elongation. The IAA oxidase cofactor p-coumaric acid stimulates lateral bud release; the auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodo-benzoic acid and the antiauxin α (p-chlorophenoxy)-isobutyric acid inhibit IAA-induced adventitious root formation. Gibberellic acid is synergistic with kinetin in the elongation of the bud prophyll. In intact oat plants, tiller release is induced by shoot decapitation, geostimulation, or the emergence of the inflorescence. Results shown support the apical dominance theory, namely, that the cytokinin to auxin ratio plays a decisive role in determining whether tillers are released or adventitious roots develop. They also indicate that abscisic acid and possibly gibberellin may act as modulator hormones in this system. PMID:16661589

  14. Carbohydrate concentrations and freezing stress resistance of silver birch buds grown under elevated temperature and ozone.

    PubMed

    Riikonen, Johanna; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Vapaavuori, Elina; Tervahauta, Arja; Tuomainen, Marjo; Oksanen, Elina

    2013-03-01

    The effects of slightly elevated temperature (+0.8 °C), ozone (O3) concentration (1.3 × ambient O3 concentration) and their combination on over-wintering buds of Betula pendula Roth were studied after two growing seasons of exposure in the field. Carbohydrate concentrations, freezing stress resistance (FSR), bud dry weight to fresh weight ratio, and transcript levels of cytochrome oxidase (COX), alternative oxidase (AOX) and dehydrin (LTI36) genes were studied in two clones (clones 12 and 25) in December. Elevated temperature increased the bud dry weight to fresh weight ratio and the ratio of raffinose family oligosaccharides to sucrose and the transcript levels of the dehydrin (LTI36) gene (in clone 12 only), but did not alter the FSR of the buds. Genotype-specific alterations in carbohydrate metabolism were found in the buds grown under elevated O3. The treatments did not significantly affect the transcript level of the COX or AOX genes. No clear pattern of an interactive effect between elevated temperature and O3 concentration was found. According to these data, the increase in autumnal temperatures and slightly increasing O3 concentrations do not increase the risk for freeze-induced damage in winter in silver birch buds, although some alterations in bud physiology occur.

  15. Apoptosis and Necrosis in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Guicciardi, Maria Eugenia; Malhi, Harmeet; Mott, Justin L.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Because of its unique function and anatomical location, the liver is exposed to a multitude of toxins and xenobiotics, including medications and alcohol, as well as to infection by hepatotropic viruses, and therefore, is highly susceptible to tissue injury. Cell death in the liver occurs mainly by apoptosis or necrosis, with apoptosis also being the physiologic route to eliminate damaged or infected cells and to maintain tissue homeostasis. Liver cells, especially hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, are particularly susceptible to death receptor-mediated apoptosis, given the ubiquitous expression of the death receptors in the organ. In a quite unique way, death receptor-induced apoptosis in these cells is mediated by both mitochondrial and lysosomal permeabilization. Signaling between the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria promotes hepatocyte apoptosis in response to excessive free fatty acid generation during the metabolic syndrome. These cell death pathways are partially regulated by microRNAs. Necrosis in the liver is generally associated with acute injury (i.e., ischemia/reperfusion injury) and has been long considered an unregulated process. Recently, a new form of “programmed” necrosis (named necroptosis) has been described: the role of necroptosis in the liver has yet to be explored. However, the minimal expression of a key player in this process in the liver suggests this form of cell death may be uncommon in liver diseases. Because apoptosis is a key feature of so many diseases of the liver, therapeutic modulation of liver cell death holds promise. An updated overview of these concepts is given in this article. PMID:23720337

  16. Cystic avascular necrosis of the triquetrum.

    PubMed

    Albtoush, Omar M; Esmadi, Mohammad; Al-Omari, Mamoon H

    2013-01-01

    Carpal bones are rarely affected by avascular necrosis (AVN) in the absence of fractures. The lunate is the most frequently affected carpal bone, followed by the scaphoid and the capitate. The triquetrum is rarely affected by AVN. We report a case of multiple cystic changes in the triquetrum in a patient with a history of trauma. He was treated by below elbow Colles plaster cast for 3 months, with no improvement. Cystic changes resulted from irreversible AVN of the triquetrum. This is the first case to be reported in the literature with cystic AVN changes in the triquetrum.

  17. Cytokinins Are Initial Targets of Light in the Control of Bud Outgrowth1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Girault, Tiffanie; Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Pěnčík, Aleš; Sakr, Soulaiman; Lothier, Jérémy

    2016-01-01

    Bud outgrowth is controlled by environmental and endogenous factors. Through the use of the photosynthesis inhibitor norflurazon and of masking experiments, evidence is given here that light acts mainly as a morphogenic signal in the triggering of bud outgrowth and that initial steps in the light signaling pathway involve cytokinins (CKs). Indeed, in rose (Rosa hybrida), inhibition of bud outgrowth by darkness is suppressed solely by the application of CKs. In contrast, application of sugars has a limited effect. Exposure of plants to white light (WL) induces a rapid (after 3–6 h of WL exposure) up-regulation of CK synthesis (RhIPT3 and RhIPT5), of CK activation (RhLOG8), and of CK putative transporter RhPUP5 genes and to the repression of the CK degradation RhCKX1 gene in the node. This leads to the accumulation of CKs in the node within 6 h and in the bud at 24 h and to the triggering of bud outgrowth. Molecular analysis of genes involved in major mechanisms of bud outgrowth (strigolactone signaling [RwMAX2], metabolism and transport of auxin [RhPIN1, RhYUC1, and RhTAR1], regulation of sugar sink strength [RhVI, RhSUSY, RhSUC2, and RhSWEET10], and cell division and expansion [RhEXP and RhPCNA]) reveal that, when supplied in darkness, CKs up-regulate their expression as rapidly and as intensely as WL. Additionally, up-regulation of CKs by WL promotes xylem flux toward the bud, as evidenced by Methylene Blue accumulation in the bud after CK treatment in the dark. Altogether, these results suggest that CKs are initial components of the light signaling pathway that controls the initiation of bud outgrowth. PMID:27462085

  18. Contribution of Underlying Connective Tissue Cells to Taste Buds in Mouse Tongue and Soft Palate.

    PubMed

    Boggs, Kristin; Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Mederacke, Ingmar; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Stice, Steve; Schwabe, Robert F; Mistretta, Charlotte M; Mishina, Yuji; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Taste buds, the sensory organs for taste, have been described as arising solely from the surrounding epithelium, which is in distinction from other sensory receptors that are known to originate from neural precursors, i.e., neural ectoderm that includes neural crest (NC). Our previous study suggested a potential contribution of NC derived cells to early immature fungiform taste buds in late embryonic (E18.5) and young postnatal (P1-10) mice. In the present study we demonstrated the contribution of the underlying connective tissue (CT) to mature taste buds in mouse tongue and soft palate. Three independent mouse models were used for fate mapping of NC and NC derived connective tissue cells: (1) P0-Cre/R26-tdTomato (RFP) to label NC, NC derived Schwann cells and derivatives; (2) Dermo1-Cre/RFP to label mesenchymal cells and derivatives; and (3) Vimentin-CreER/mGFP to label Vimentin-expressing CT cells and derivatives upon tamoxifen treatment. Both P0-Cre/RFP and Dermo1-Cre/RFP labeled cells were abundant in mature taste buds in lingual taste papillae and soft palate, but not in the surrounding epithelial cells. Concurrently, labeled cells were extensively distributed in the underlying CT. RFP signals were seen in the majority of taste buds and all three types (I, II, III) of differentiated taste bud cells, with the neuronal-like type III cells labeled at a greater proportion. Further, Vimentin-CreER labeled cells were found in the taste buds of 3-month-old mice whereas Vimentin immunoreactivity was only seen in the CT. Taken together, our data demonstrate a previously unrecognized origin of taste bud cells from the underlying CT, a conceptually new finding in our knowledge of taste bud cell derivation, i.e., from both the surrounding epithelium and the underlying CT that is primarily derived from NC.

  19. Insight into the role of sugars in bud burst under light in the rose.

    PubMed

    Rabot, Amelie; Henry, Clemence; Ben Baaziz, Khaoula; Mortreau, Eric; Azri, Wassim; Lothier, Jeremy; Hamama, Latifa; Boummaza, Rachid; Leduc, Nathalie; Pelleschi-Travier, Sandrine; Le Gourrierec, José; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2012-06-01

    Bud burst is a decisive process in plant architecture that requires light in Rosa sp. This light effect was correlated with stimulation of sugar transport and metabolism in favor of bud outgrowth. We investigated whether sugars could act as signaling entities in the light-mediated regulation of vacuolar invertases and bud burst. Full-length cDNAs encoding two vacuolar invertases (RhVI1 and RhVI2) were isolated from buds. Unlike RhVI2, RhVI1 was preferentially expressed in bursting buds, and was up-regulated in buds of beheaded plants exposed to light. To assess the importance of sugars in this process, the expression of RhVI1 and RhVI2 and the total vacuolar invertase activity were further characterized in buds cultured in vitro on 100 mM sucrose or mannitol under light or in darkness for 48 h. Unlike mannitol, sucrose promoted the stimulatory effect of light on both RhVI1 expression and vacuolar invertase activity. This up-regulation of RhVI1 was rapid (after 6 h incubation) and was induced by as little as 10 mM sucrose or fructose. No effect of glucose was found. Interestingly, both 30 mM palatinose (a non-metabolizable sucrose analog) and 5 mM psicose (a non-metabolizable fructose analog) promoted the light-induced expression of RhVI1 and total vacuolar invertase activity. Sucrose, fructose, palatinose and psicose all promoted bursting of in vitro cultured buds under light. These findings indicate that soluble sugars contribute to the light effect on bud burst and vacuolar invertases, and can function as signaling entities.

  20. Project BudBurst: Continental-scale citizen science for all seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Newman, S. J.; Ward, D.; Havens-Young, K.; Alaback, P.; Meymaris, K.

    2011-12-01

    Project BudBurst's (budburst.org) recent move to the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) has benefitted both programs. NEON has been able to use Project BudBurst as a testbed to learn best practices, network with experts in the field, and prototype potential tools for engaging people in continental-scale ecology as NEON develops its citizen science program. Participation in Project BudBurst has grown significantly since the move to NEON. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants at a continental-scale; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst and will report on the results of the 2010 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2012 including the use of mobile phones applications for data collection and reporting from the field. Project BudBurst is co-managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and the Chicago

  1. Contribution of Underlying Connective Tissue Cells to Taste Buds in Mouse Tongue and Soft Palate

    PubMed Central

    Mederacke, Ingmar; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Stice, Steve; Schwabe, Robert F.; Mistretta, Charlotte M.; Mishina, Yuji; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Taste buds, the sensory organs for taste, have been described as arising solely from the surrounding epithelium, which is in distinction from other sensory receptors that are known to originate from neural precursors, i.e., neural ectoderm that includes neural crest (NC). Our previous study suggested a potential contribution of NC derived cells to early immature fungiform taste buds in late embryonic (E18.5) and young postnatal (P1-10) mice. In the present study we demonstrated the contribution of the underlying connective tissue (CT) to mature taste buds in mouse tongue and soft palate. Three independent mouse models were used for fate mapping of NC and NC derived connective tissue cells: (1) P0-Cre/R26-tdTomato (RFP) to label NC, NC derived Schwann cells and derivatives; (2) Dermo1-Cre/RFP to label mesenchymal cells and derivatives; and (3) Vimentin-CreER/mGFP to label Vimentin-expressing CT cells and derivatives upon tamoxifen treatment. Both P0-Cre/RFP and Dermo1-Cre/RFP labeled cells were abundant in mature taste buds in lingual taste papillae and soft palate, but not in the surrounding epithelial cells. Concurrently, labeled cells were extensively distributed in the underlying CT. RFP signals were seen in the majority of taste buds and all three types (I, II, III) of differentiated taste bud cells, with the neuronal-like type III cells labeled at a greater proportion. Further, Vimentin-CreER labeled cells were found in the taste buds of 3-month-old mice whereas Vimentin immunoreactivity was only seen in the CT. Taken together, our data demonstrate a previously unrecognized origin of taste bud cells from the underlying CT, a conceptually new finding in our knowledge of taste bud cell derivation, i.e., from both the surrounding epithelium and the underlying CT that is primarily derived from NC. PMID:26741369

  2. Gravity-induced buds formation from protonemata apical cells in the mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyyak, Natalia; Khorkavtsiv, Yaroslava

    The acceleration of moss protonemata development after the exit it to light from darkness is important gravidependent morphogenetic manifestation of the moss protonemata. The accelerated development of mosses shows in transformation of apical protonemata cells into the gametophores buds (Ripetskyj et al., 1999). In order to establish, that such reaction on gravitation is general property of gravisensity species, or its typical only for single moss species, experiments with the following moss species - Bryum intermedium (Ludw.) Brig., Bryum caespiticium Hedw., Bryum argenteum Hedw., Dicranodontium denudatum (Brid.) Britt. were carried out. All these species in response to influence of gravitation were capable to form rich bunches of gravitropical protonemata in darkness, that testified to their gravisensity. After the transference of Petri dishes with gravitropical protonemata from darkness on light was revealed, that in 3 of the investigated species the gametophores buds were absent. Only B. argenteum has reacted to action of gravitation by buds formation from apical cells of the gravitropical protonemata. With the purpose of strengthening of buds formation process, the experiments with action of exogenous kinetin (in concentration of 10 (-6) M) were carried out. Kinetin essentially stimulated apical buds formation of B. argenteum. The quantity of apical buds has increased almost in three times in comparison with the control. Besides, on separate stolons a few (3-4) buds from one apical cell were formed. Experimentally was established, that the gametophores buds formation in mosses is controlled by phytohormones (Bopp, 1985; Demkiv et al., 1991). In conditions of gravity influence its essentially accelerated. Probably, gravity essentially strengthened acropetal transport of phytohormones and formation of attractive center in the protonemata apical cell. Our investigations have allowed to make the conclusion, that gravi-dependent formation of the apical buds is

  3. Analysis of Cell Cycle Progression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using the Budding Index and Tubulin Staining.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Barrera, Marta; Monje-Casas, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The budding index and the morphology of the spindle and the nucleus are excellent markers for the analysis of the progression through the different stages of the cell cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we describe a protocol to evaluate the budding index in this model organism using phase contrast microscopy. We also describe an indirect immunofluorescence method designed for the visualization of microtubules and the nucleus in S. cerevisiae. Finally, we explain how both methodologies can be used in order to analyze cell cycle progression in the budding yeast.

  4. [Investigation on formation mechanism of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of Lonicera japonica].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ai-Li; Gao, Hui-Min; Chen, Liang-Mian; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Min

    2014-05-01

    To investigate formation mechanism of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of Lonicera japonica, secologanic acid was enriched and purified from the sun-dried buds of L. japonica by various column chromatography on macroporus resin HPD-100, silica gel and ODS. The stimulation experiments of sulfur-fumigation process were carried out using secologanic acid reacted with SO2 in the aqueous solution. The reaction mechanism could be involved in the esterification or addition reaction. The present investigation provides substantial evidences for interpreting formation pathway of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of L. japonica.

  5. Mastectomy skin flap necrosis: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Stuart A; Jeevaratnam, Johann A; Agrawal, Avi; Cutress, Ramsey I

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mastectomy skin flap necrosis (MSFN) has a reported incidence of 5%–30% in the literature. It is often a significant and underappreciated problem. The aim of this article was to review the associated challenges and possible solutions. Methods A MEDLINE search was performed using the search term “mastectomy skin flap necrosis”. Titles and abstracts from peer-reviewed publications were screened for relevance. Results MSFN is a common complication and may present as partial- or full-thickness necrosis. Predictive patient risk factors include smoking, diabetes, obesity, radiotherapy, previous scars and severe medical comorbidity. MSFN leads to a number of challenges, including wound management problems, delays to adjuvant therapy, esthetic compromise, implant extrusion, patient distress and financial loss. Careful preoperative planning and meticulous surgical technique may reduce the incidence of MSFN. A number of intraoperative techniques are available to try and predict skin flaps at risk of MSFN. MSFN may be managed operatively or nonoperatively. Early intervention may reduce the morbidity of MSFN in selected cases. Topical nitroglycerin ointment may be beneficial in reducing MSFN following immediate reconstruction, but the evidence base is still limited. Conclusion MSFN can result in considerable challenges for the patient and the health care service. This review discusses the management options for this problem. PMID:28331365

  6. Epipericardial fat necrosis: an underdiagnosed condition

    PubMed Central

    Costa, A N; Bachion, G H; Apanavicius, A; Filho, J R P; Kairalla, R A; Lynch, D A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Epipericardial fat necrosis (EFN) is an uncommon benign and self-limited condition that leads patients to the emergency department (ED) owing to the onset of acute pleuritic chest pain. The aim of this study was to describe the cases of this disease in our institution and to illustrate the associated clinical and radiological findings. Methods: We reviewed 3604 chest scans referred by the ED from November 2011 to July 2013. Patients diagnosed with epipericardial necrosis had their medical records and original tomography reports analysed. Results: Chest pain was the primary complaint in 426 patients; 11 of them had definitive EFN findings characterized by a round soft-tissue attenuation lesion with a varying degree of strands. All patients presented with pleuritic chest pain on the same side as the lesion. Pericardial thickening, pleural effusion and mild atelectasis were the associated tomography findings. Cardiac enzyme and D-dimer tests performed during the episode were normal in all cases. 27% of the cases only were correctly diagnosed with EFN at the time of presentation. Conclusion: EFN is a benign inflammatory condition frequently overlooked in the ED by physicians and radiologists but is an important factor in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute chest pain. Advances in knowledge: The article adds clinically and radiologically useful information about the condition and displays the importance of making the correct diagnosis to avoid unnecessary examinations. PMID:24707937

  7. Mitochondrial anchorage and fusion contribute to mitochondrial inheritance and quality control in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Higuchi-Sanabria, Ryo; Charalel, Joseph K; Viana, Matheus P; Garcia, Enrique J; Sing, Cierra N; Koenigsberg, Andrea; Swayne, Theresa C; Vevea, Jason D; Boldogh, Istvan R; Rafelski, Susanne M; Pon, Liza A

    2016-03-01

    Higher-functioning mitochondria that are more reduced and have less ROS are anchored in the yeast bud tip by the Dsl1-family protein Mmr1p. Here we report a role for mitochondrial fusion in bud-tip anchorage of mitochondria. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) and network analysis experiments revealed that mitochondria in large buds are a continuous reticulum that is physically distinct from mitochondria in mother cells. FLIP studies also showed that mitochondria that enter the bud can fuse with mitochondria that are anchored in the bud tip. In addition, loss of fusion and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by deletion of mitochondrial outer or inner membrane fusion proteins (Fzo1p or Mgm1p) leads to decreased accumulation of mitochondria at the bud tip and inheritance of fitter mitochondria by buds compared with cells with no mtDNA. Conversely, increasing the accumulation and anchorage of mitochondria in the bud tip by overexpression of MMR1 results in inheritance of less-fit mitochondria by buds and decreased replicative lifespan and healthspan. Thus quantity and quality of mitochondrial inheritance are ensured by two opposing processes: bud-tip anchorage by mitochondrial fusion and Mmr1p, which favors bulk inheritance; and quality control mechanisms that promote segregation of fitter mitochondria to the bud.

  8. Mitochondrial anchorage and fusion contribute to mitochondrial inheritance and quality control in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi-Sanabria, Ryo; Charalel, Joseph K.; Viana, Matheus P.; Garcia, Enrique J.; Sing, Cierra N.; Koenigsberg, Andrea; Swayne, Theresa C.; Vevea, Jason D.; Boldogh, Istvan R.; Rafelski, Susanne M.; Pon, Liza A.

    2016-01-01

    Higher-functioning mitochondria that are more reduced and have less ROS are anchored in the yeast bud tip by the Dsl1-family protein Mmr1p. Here we report a role for mitochondrial fusion in bud-tip anchorage of mitochondria. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) and network analysis experiments revealed that mitochondria in large buds are a continuous reticulum that is physically distinct from mitochondria in mother cells. FLIP studies also showed that mitochondria that enter the bud can fuse with mitochondria that are anchored in the bud tip. In addition, loss of fusion and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by deletion of mitochondrial outer or inner membrane fusion proteins (Fzo1p or Mgm1p) leads to decreased accumulation of mitochondria at the bud tip and inheritance of fitter mitochondria by buds compared with cells with no mtDNA. Conversely, increasing the accumulation and anchorage of mitochondria in the bud tip by overexpression of MMR1 results in inheritance of less-fit mitochondria by buds and decreased replicative lifespan and healthspan. Thus quantity and quality of mitochondrial inheritance are ensured by two opposing processes: bud-tip anchorage by mitochondrial fusion and Mmr1p, which favors bulk inheritance; and quality control mechanisms that promote segregation of fitter mitochondria to the bud. PMID:26764088

  9. Necrosis Avidity: A Newly Discovered Feature of Hypericin and its Preclinical Applications in Necrosis Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Binghu; Wang, Jichen; Ni, Yicheng; Chen, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Hypericin has been widely studied as a potent photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy in both preclinical and clinical settings. Recently, hypericin has also been discovered to have a specific avidity for necrotic tissue. This affinity is also observed in a series of radiolabeled derivatives of hypericin, including [123I]iodohypericin, [124I]iodohypericin, and [131I]iodohypericin. Hypericin, along with other necrosis-avid contrast agents, has been investigated for use in noninvasively targeting necrotic tissues in numerous disorders. Potential clinical applications of hypericin include the identification of acute myocardial infarction, evaluation of tissue viability, assessment of therapeutic responses to treatments, and interventional procedures for solid tumors. The mechanisms of necrosis avidity in hypericin remain to be fully elucidated, although several hypotheses have been suggested. In particular, it has been proposed that the necrosis avidity of hypericin is compound specific; for instance, cholesterol, phosphatidylserine, or phosphatidylethanolamine components in the phospholipid bilayer of cellular membranes may be the major targets for its observed selectivity. Further investigations are needed to identify the specific binding moiety that is responsible for the necrosis avidity of hypericin. PMID:24052807

  10. Tumor Budding in Colorectal Carcinoma: Confirmation of Prognostic Significance and Histologic Cutoff in a Population-based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Rondell P.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Tillmans, Lori S.; Wang, Alice H.; Laird, Peter W; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Lynch, Charles F.; French, Amy J.; Slager, Susan L.; Raissian, Yassaman; Garcia, Joaquin J.; Kerr, Sarah E.; Lee, Hee Eun; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Cerhan, James R.; Limburg, Paul J.; Smyrk, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor budding in colorectal carcinoma has been associated with poor outcome in multiple studies, but the absence of an established histologic cutoff for “high” tumor budding, heterogeneity in study populations and varying methods for assessing tumor budding have hindered widespread incorporation of this parameter in clinical reports. We used an established scoring system in a population-based cohort to determine a histologic cutoff for “high” tumor budding and confirm its prognostic significance. We retrieved hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections from 553 incident colorectal carcinoma cases. Each case was previously characterized for select molecular alterations and survival data. Interobserver agreement was assessed between two GI pathologists and a group of four general surgical pathologists. High budding (≥10 tumor buds in a 20× objective field) was present in 32% of cases, low budding in 46% and no budding in 22%. High tumor budding was associated with advanced pathologic stage (p<0.001), microsatellite stability (p=0.005), KRAS mutation (p=0.010) and on multivariate analysis with a greater than two times risk of cancer-specific death (HR=2.57 (1.27, 5.19)). After multivariate adjustment, via penalized smoothing splines, we found increasing tumor bud counts from 5 upward to be associated with an increasingly shortened cancer-specific survival. By this method, a tumor bud count of 10 corresponded to approximately 2.5 times risk of cancer –specific death. The interobserver agreement was good with weighted kappa of 0.70 for two GI pathologists over 121 random cases and 0.72 between all six pathologists for 20 random cases. Using an established method to assess budding on routine histologic stains, we have shown a cutoff of 10 for high tumor budding is independently associated with a significantly worse prognosis. The reproducibility data provide support for the routine widespread implementation of tumor budding in clinical reports. PMID:26200097

  11. Asymmetric nucleosomes flank promoters in the budding yeast genome.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Srinivas; Zentner, Gabriel E; Henikoff, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Nucleosomes in active chromatin are dynamic, but whether they have distinct structural conformations is unknown. To identify nucleosomes with alternative structures genome-wide, we used H4S47C-anchored cleavage mapping, which revealed that 5% of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) nucleosome positions have asymmetric histone-DNA interactions. These asymmetric interactions are enriched at nucleosome positions that flank promoters. Micrococcal nuclease (MNase) sequence-based profiles of asymmetric nucleosome positions revealed a corresponding asymmetry in MNase protection near the dyad axis, suggesting that the loss of DNA contacts around H4S47 is accompanied by protection of the DNA from MNase. Chromatin immunoprecipitation mapping of selected nucleosome remodelers indicated that asymmetric nucleosomes are bound by the RSC chromatin remodeling complex, which is required for maintaining nucleosomes at asymmetric positions. These results imply that the asymmetric nucleosome-RSC complex is a metastable intermediate representing partial unwrapping and protection of nucleosomal DNA on one side of the dyad axis during chromatin remodeling.

  12. A taste for ATP: neurotransmission in taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Not only is ATP a ubiquitous source of energy but it is also used widely as an intercellular signal. For example, keratinocytes release ATP in response to numerous external stimuli including pressure, heat, and chemical insult. The released ATP activates purinergic receptors on nerve fibers to generate nociceptive signals. The importance of an ATP signal in epithelial-to-neuronal signaling is nowhere more evident than in the taste system. The receptor cells of taste buds release ATP in response to appropriate stimulation by tastants and the released ATP then activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on the taste nerves. Genetic ablation of the relevant P2X receptors leaves an animal without the ability to taste any primary taste quality. Of interest is that release of ATP by taste receptor cells occurs in a non-vesicular fashion, apparently via gated membrane channels. Further, in keeping with the crucial role of ATP as a neurotransmitter in this system, a subset of taste cells expresses a specific ectoATPase, NTPDase2, necessary to clear extracellular ATP which otherwise will desensitize the P2X receptors on the taste nerves. The unique utilization of ATP as a key neurotransmitter in the taste system may reflect the epithelial rather than neuronal origins of the receptor cells. PMID:24385952

  13. Consider the workhorse: Nonhomologous end joining in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Charlene H.; Bertuch, Alison A.

    2017-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are dangerous sources of genome instability and must be repaired by the cell. Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is an evolutionarily conserved pathway to repair DSBs by direct ligation of the ends, with no requirement for a homologous template. While NHEJ is the primary DSB repair pathway in mammalian cells, conservation of the core NHEJ factors throughout eukaryotes make the pathway attractive for study in model organisms. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been used extensively to develop a functional picture of NHEJ. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of NHEJ in S. cerevisiae. Topics include canonical end-joining, alternative end-joining, and pathway regulation. Particular attention will be paid to the NHEJ mechanism involving core factors, including Yku70/80, Dnl4, Lif1, and Nej1, as well as the various factors implicated in the processing of the broken ends. The relevance of chromatin dynamics to NHEJ will also be discussed. This review illustrates the use of S. cerevisiae as a powerful system to understand the principles of NHEJ, as well as in pioneering the direction of the field. PMID:27240172

  14. Actin and Septin Ultrastructures at the Budding Yeast Cell Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rodal, Avital A.; Kozubowski, Lukasz; Goode, Bruce L.; Drubin, David G.; Hartwig, John H.

    2005-01-01

    Budding yeast has been a powerful model organism for studies of the roles of actin in endocytosis and septins in cell division and in signaling. However, the depth of mechanistic understanding that can be obtained from such studies has been severely hindered by a lack of ultrastructural information about how actin and septins are organized at the cell cortex. To address this problem, we developed rapid-freeze and deep-etch techniques to image the yeast cell cortex in spheroplasted cells at high resolution. The cortical actin cytoskeleton assembles into conical or mound-like structures composed of short, cross-linked filaments. The Arp2/3 complex localizes near the apex of these structures, suggesting that actin patch assembly may be initiated from the apex. Mutants in cortical actin patch components with defined defects in endocytosis disrupted different stages of cortical actin patch assembly. Based on these results, we propose a model for actin function during endocytosis. In addition to actin structures, we found that septin-containing filaments assemble into two kinds of higher order structures at the cell cortex: rings and ordered gauzes. These images provide the first high-resolution views of septin organization in cells. PMID:15525671

  15. A simple biophysical model emulates budding yeast chromosome condensation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tammy MK; Heeger, Sebastian; Chaleil, Raphaël AG; Matthews, Nik; Stewart, Aengus; Wright, Jon; Lim, Carmay; Bates, Paul A; Uhlmann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Mitotic chromosomes were one of the first cell biological structures to be described, yet their molecular architecture remains poorly understood. We have devised a simple biophysical model of a 300 kb-long nucleosome chain, the size of a budding yeast chromosome, constrained by interactions between binding sites of the chromosomal condensin complex, a key component of interphase and mitotic chromosomes. Comparisons of computational and experimental (4C) interaction maps, and other biophysical features, allow us to predict a mode of condensin action. Stochastic condensin-mediated pairwise interactions along the nucleosome chain generate native-like chromosome features and recapitulate chromosome compaction and individualization during mitotic condensation. Higher order interactions between condensin binding sites explain the data less well. Our results suggest that basic assumptions about chromatin behavior go a long way to explain chromosome architecture and are able to generate a molecular model of what the inside of a chromosome is likely to look like. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05565.001 PMID:25922992

  16. Regulation of the divalent metal ion transporter via membrane budding

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, KimberlyD; Foot, Natalie J; Anand, Sushma; Dalton, Hazel E; Chaudhary, Natasha; Collins, Brett M; Mathivanan, Suresh; Kumar, Sharad

    2016-01-01

    The release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is important for both normal physiology and disease. However, a basic understanding of the targeting of EV cargoes, composition and mechanism of release is lacking. Here we present evidence that the divalent metal ion transporter (DMT1) is unexpectedly regulated through release in EVs. This process involves the Nedd4-2 ubiquitin ligase, and the adaptor proteins Arrdc1 and Arrdc4 via different budding mechanisms. We show that mouse gut explants release endogenous DMT1 in EVs. Although we observed no change in the relative amount of DMT1 released in EVs from gut explants in Arrdc1 or Arrdc4 deficient mice, the extent of EVs released was significantly reduced indicating an adaptor role in biogenesis. Furthermore, using Arrdc1 or Arrdc4 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we show that both Arrdc1 and Arrdc4 are non-redundant positive regulators of EV release. Our results suggest that DMT1 release from the plasma membrane into EVs may represent a novel mechanism for the maintenance of iron homeostasis, which may also be important for the regulation of other membrane proteins. PMID:27462458

  17. Tanshinones extend chronological lifespan in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ziyun; Song, Lixia; Liu, Shao Quan; Huang, Dejian

    2014-10-01

    Natural products with anti-aging property have drawn great attention recently but examples of such compounds are exceedingly scarce. By applying a high-throughput assay based on yeast chronological lifespan measurement, we screened the anti-aging activity of 144 botanical materials and found that dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge have significant anti-aging activity. Tanshinones isolated from the plant including cryptotanshione, tanshinone I, and tanshinone IIa, are the active components. Among them, cryptotanshinone can greatly extend the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chronological lifespan (up to 2.5 times) in a dose- and the-time-of-addition-dependent manner at nanomolar concentrations without disruption of cell growth. We demonstrate that cryptotanshinone prolong chronological lifespan via a nutrient-dependent regime, especially essential amino acid sensing, and three conserved protein kinases Tor1, Sch9, and Gcn2 are required for cryptotanshinone-induced lifespan extension. In addition, cryptotanshinone significantly increases the lifespan of SOD2-deleted mutants. Altogether, those data suggest that cryptotanshinone might be involved in the regulation of, Tor1, Sch9, Gcn2, and Sod2, these highly conserved longevity proteins modulated by nutrients from yeast to humans.

  18. Consider the workhorse: Nonhomologous end-joining in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Charlene H; Bertuch, Alison A

    2016-10-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are dangerous sources of genome instability and must be repaired by the cell. Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) is an evolutionarily conserved pathway to repair DSBs by direct ligation of the ends, with no requirement for a homologous template. While NHEJ is the primary DSB repair pathway in mammalian cells, conservation of the core NHEJ factors throughout eukaryotes makes the pathway attractive for study in model organisms. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been used extensively to develop a functional picture of NHEJ. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of NHEJ in S. cerevisiae. Topics include canonical end-joining, alternative end-joining, and pathway regulation. Particular attention will be paid to the NHEJ mechanism involving core factors, including Yku70/80, Dnl4, Lif1, and Nej1, as well as the various factors implicated in the processing of the broken ends. The relevance of chromatin dynamics to NHEJ will also be discussed. This review illustrates the use of S. cerevisiae as a powerful system to understand the principles of NHEJ, as well as in pioneering the direction of the field.

  19. Good Bud, Bad Bud

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus cultivars produce branches that can be characterized as “floral” and “vegetative”. Both types of mother branches produce the same number of daughter shoots, but floral mother branches produce a greater proportion of inflorescences (>95%) compared to vegetative shoots. In contrast, vegetative ...

  20. Luminal mitosis drives epithelial cell dispersal within the branching ureteric bud

    PubMed Central

    Packard, Adam; Georgas, Kylie; Michos, Odyssé; Riccio, Paul; Cebrian, Cristina; Combes, Alexander N.; Ju, Adler; Ferrer-Vaquer, Anna; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Zong, Hui; Little, Melissa H.; Costantini, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Summary The ureteric bud is an epithelial tube that undergoes branching morphogenesis to form the renal collecting system. Though development of a normal kidney depends on proper ureteric bud morphogenesis, the cellular events underlying this process remain obscure. Here, we used time-lapse microscopy together with several genetic labeling methods to observe ureteric bud cell behaviors in developing mouse kidneys. We observed an unexpected cell behavior in the branching tips of the ureteric bud, which we term “mitosis-associated cell dispersal”. Pre-mitotic ureteric tip cells delaminate from the epithelium and divide within the lumen; while one daughter cell retains a basal process, allowing it to reinsert into the epithelium at the site of origin, the other daughter cell reinserts at a position one to three cell diameters away. Given the high rate of cell division in ureteric tips, this cellular behavior causes extensive epithelial cell rearrangements that may contribute to renal branching morphogenesis. PMID:24183650

  1. HIV Assembly and Budding: Ca(2+) Signaling and Non-ESCRT Proteins Set the Stage.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Lorna S; Carter, Carol A

    2012-01-01

    More than a decade has elapsed since the link between the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery and HIV-1 protein trafficking and budding was first identified. L domains in HIV-1 Gag mediate recruitment of ESCRT which function in bud abscission releasing the viral particle from the host cell. Beyond virus budding, the ESCRT machinery is also involved in the endocytic pathway, cytokinesis, and autophagy. In the past few years, the number of non-ESCRT host proteins shown to be required in the assembly process has also grown. In this paper, we highlight the role of recently identified cellular factors that link ESCRT machinery to calcium signaling machinery and we suggest that this liaison contributes to setting the stage for productive ESCRT recruitment and mediation of abscission. Parallel paradigms for non-ESCRT roles in virus budding and cytokinesis will be discussed.

  2. Automatic nuclear bud detection using ellipse fitting, moving sticks or top-hat transformation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Sun, C; Vallotton, P; Fenech, M; Pham, T D

    2013-11-01

    Micronucleus assays are extensively used by biologists to assess genotoxicity and to monitor human exposure to genotoxic materials. As recent studies suggested that nuclear buds can be a new source of micronuclei formed in interphase, the quantification of nuclear buds, which are micronucleus like objects that are attached to the nuclei in interphase, in normal and control group is needed. Three automatic nuclear bud detection algorithms fit for different situations are proposed in this paper. One is based on ellipse fitting, one is based on a stick model and the other is based on the top-hat transform. Comparison of the three methods is also given in this paper. Experimental results showed that the proposed algorithms are all effective and efficient for nuclear bud detection.

  3. Selective Entrapment of Extrachromosomally Amplified DNA by Nuclear Budding and Micronucleation during S Phase

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Noriaki; Itoh, Nobuo; Utiyama, Hiroyasu; Wahl, Geoffrey M.

    1998-01-01

    Acentric, autonomously replicating extrachromosomal structures called double-minute chromosomes (DMs) frequently mediate oncogene amplification in human tumors. We show that DMs can be removed from the nucleus by a novel micronucleation mechanism that is initiated by budding of the nuclear membrane during S phase. DMs containing c-myc oncogenes in a colon cancer cell line localized to and replicated at the nuclear periphery. Replication inhibitors increased micronucleation; cell synchronization and bromodeoxyuridine–pulse labeling demonstrated de novo formation of buds and micronuclei during S phase. The frequencies of S-phase nuclear budding and micronucleation were increased dramatically in normal human cells by inactivating p53, suggesting that an S-phase function of p53 minimizes the probability of producing the broken chromosome fragments that induce budding and micronucleation. These data have implications for understanding the behavior of acentric DNA in interphase nuclei and for developing chemotherapeutic strategies based on this new mechanism for DM elimination. PMID:9508765

  4. Avascular necrosis of bone complicating corticosteroid replacement therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, P L; Corbett, M

    1983-01-01

    Two patients who developed widespread severe avascular necrosis of bone while on steroid replacement therapy are described. One, a diabetic, underwent yttrium-90 pituitary ablation for retinopathy and developed avascular necrosis within 18 months of starting prednisolone. The other, who had Addison's disease, developed avascular necrosis within 14 months of starting cortisol replacement therapy. Both cases came to bilateral total hip replacement. Images PMID:6859959

  5. q-deformations and the dynamics of the larch bud-moth population cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyengar, Sudharsana V.; Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    The concept of q-deformation of numbers is applied here to improve and modify a tritrophic population dynamics model to understand defoliation of the coniferous larch trees due to outbreaks of the larch bud-moth insect population. The results are in qualitative agreement with observed behavior, with the larch needle lengths, bud-moth population and parasitoid populations all showing 9-period cycles which are mutually synchronized.

  6. Ultrastructural and physiological analysis of cytokinin-induced bud formation in the moss Funaria hygrometrica

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    The author proposes that the morphological events associated with Fumaria budding are due to cytokinin activating the Ca/sup 2 +/-CAM branch of the Ca/sup 2 +/ messenger system to initiate the response, and the protein kinase C branch to maintain the response. Several lines of evidence support this hypothesis. (1) 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) ligands, which alter Ca/sup 2 +/ flux through voltage-operated channels, vary the budding response. The DHP antagonists, (-) 202-791 and nifedipine, block cytokinin-induced bud formation, while the agonists, (+)202-791 and CGP 28392, in the absence of hormone, stimulate initial formation of every cell. These initials rarely develop further, suggesting that increasing Ca/sup 2 +/ flux can initiate the response but is inadequate to maintain the response. (2) The amount of /sup 3/-H label incorporated into inositol phosphates increases with cytokinin treatment, suggesting that cytokinin stimulates the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP/sub 2/), and event that triggers both branches of the Ca/sup 2 +/ messenger system. (3) TPA activates protein kinase C and works synergistically with the Ca/sup 2 +/ ionophore A23187 to bypass the hormone-receptor mediated events and directly activate both arms of the Ca/sup 2 +/ messenger system. In Funaria these agents, when used separately, cause a slight increase in the number of buds; when used simultaneously they stimulate budding 9 fold. (4) 5-hydroxytryptamine, a stimulator of PIP/sub 2/ hydrolysis, increases the number of caulonemata. When used in conjunction with (+) 202-791, the early stages of budding are enhanced. Neomycin, used in concentrations that block PIP/sub 2/ hydrolysis (blocks IP/sub 3/ but not DG formation) increases the number of cytokinin-induced buds. These data suggest that protein kinase C activation is operating during sustained bud formation.

  7. Sydowia polyspora associated with current season needle necrosis (CSNN) on true fir (Abies spp.).

    PubMed

    Talgø, Venche; Chastagner, Gary; Thomsen, Iben Margrete; Cech, Thomas; Riley, Kathy; Lange, Kurt; Klemsdal, Sonja Sletner; Stensvand, Arne

    2010-07-01

    Current season needle necrosis (CSNN) has been a serious foliage disorder on true fir Christmas trees and bough material in Europe and North America for more than 25y. Approximately 2-4 weeks after bud break, needles develop chlorotic spots or bands that later turn necrotic. The symptoms have been observed on noble fir (Abies procera), Nordmann fir (A. nordmanniana) and grand fir (A. grandis) on both continents. CSNN was reported as a physiological disorder with unknown aetiology from USA, Denmark, and Ireland, but was associated with the fungus Kabatina abietis in Germany, Austria and Norway. In 2007, a fungus that morphologically resembled K. abietis was isolated from symptomatic needle samples from Nordmann fir from Austria, Denmark, Germany, Norway, and USA. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA of these cultures, plus a K. abietis reference culture from Germany (CBS 248.93), resulted in Hormonema dematioides, the imperfect stage of Sydowia polyspora, and thus the taxonomy is further discussed. Inoculation tests on Nordmann fir seedlings and transplants with isolates of S. polyspora from all five countries resulted in the development of CSNN symptoms. In 2009, S. polyspora was also isolated from symptomatic needles from Nordmann fir collected in Slovakia.

  8. Concomitant avascular necrosis of the scaphoid and lunate.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Praveen; Sharma, Chetna; Sabapathy, S Raja

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous avascular necrosis of multiple carpal bones is rare. Concomitant avascular necrosis of scaphoid and lunate has been reported only once. We report one more case of this rare condition which can be a cause of wrist pain. Steroid intake is a known risk factor for avascular necrosis but in our case the patient had been taking herbal medicines for joint pain the composition of which was not known. Probably the presence of steroid in these medicines was the cause of avascular necrosis in this case.

  9. Passion fruit flowers: Kunitz trypsin inhibitors and cystatin differentially accumulate in developing buds and floral tissues.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Keitty R B; Botelho-Júnior, Sylvio; Domingues, Dalvania P; Machado, Olga L T; Oliveira, Antônia E A; Fernandes, Kátia V S; Madureira, Herika C; Pereira, Telma N S; Jacinto, Tânia

    2011-11-01

    In order to better understand the physiological functions of protease inhibitors (PIs) the PI activity in buds and flower organs of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) was investigated. Trypsin and papain inhibitory activities were analyzed in soluble protein extracts from buds at different developmental stages and floral tissues in anthesis. These analyses identified high levels of inhibitory activity against both types of enzymes at all bud stages. Intriguingly, the inhibitory activity against both proteases differed remarkably in some floral tissues. While all organs tested were very effective against trypsin, only sepal and petal tissues exhibited strong inhibitory activity against papain. The sexual reproductive tissues (ovary, stigma-style and stamen) showed either significantly lower activity against papain or practically none. Gelatin-SDS-PAGE assay established that various trypsin inhibitors (TIs) homogenously accumulated in developing buds, although some were differentially present in floral organs. The N-terminal sequence analysis of purified inhibitors from stamen demonstrated they had homology to the Kunitz family of serine PIs. Western-blot analysis established presence of a ∼60 kDa cystatin, whose levels progressively increased during bud development. A positive correlation between this protein and strong papain inhibitory activity was observed in buds and floral tissues, except for the stigma-style. Differences in temporal and spatial accumulation of both types of PIs in passion fruit flowers are thus discussed in light of their potential roles in defense and development.

  10. Molecular anatomy of tunicate senescence: reversible function of mitochondrial and nuclear genes associated with budding cycles.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kaz; Kitamura, Seigo; Sekida, Satoko; Tsuda, Masayuki; Sunanaga, Takeshi

    2012-11-01

    Zooids of the asexual strain of Polyandrocarpa misakiensis have a lifespan of 4-5 months; before dying, they produce many buds, enabling continuation of the strain. This study was designed to investigate the nature of gene inactivation and reactivation during this continuous process of senescence and budding. During senescence, the zooidal epidermis showed acid β-galactosidase activity, lost proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunoreactivity and became ultrastructurally worn, indicating that the epidermis is a major tissue affected by the ageing process. Semi-quantitative PCR analysis showed that the genes encoding mitochondrial respiratory chains (MRCs) engaged in decreased transcriptional activity in senescent adults compared with younger adults. The results of in situ hybridization showed that the epidermis dramatically attenuates MRC expression during ageing but restores gene activity when budding commences. During budding and ageing, the nuclear gene Eed (a polycomb group component) was activated and inactivated in a pattern similar to that observed in MRCs. In buds, RNA interference (RNAi) of Eed attenuated Eed transcripts but did not affect the gene expression of pre-activated MRCs. A tunicate humoral factor, TC14-3, could induce Eed, accompanying the reactivation of MRC in adult zooids. When RNAi of Eed and Eed induction were performed simultaneously, zooidal cells and tissues failed to engage in MRC reactivation, indicating the involvement of Eed in MRC activation. Results of this study provide evidence that the mitochondrial gene activities of Polyandrocarpa can be reversed during senescence and budding, suggesting that they are regulated by nuclear polycomb group genes.

  11. Circulating cytokeratin-positive cells and tumor budding in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Märkl, Bruno; Wilhelms, Narjes; Anthuber, Matthias; Schenkirsch, Gerhard; Schlimok, Günter; Oruzio, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate whether circulating cytokeratin-positive (CK+) cells in the mesenteric blood of resected colorectal specimens are prognostic and correlate with tumor budding. METHODS Fifty-six colorectal specimens were collected between 9/2007 and 7/2008. Blood from the mesenteric vein was drawn immediately after receiving the fresh and unfixed specimens in the pathology department. After separation of the mononuclear cells by Ficoll-Hypaque density-gradient centrifugation, cytological smears were immunocytochemically stained for CK18. Tumor budding was evaluated on slides stained for pan-cytokeratin. The identification of ≥ 30 buds/1.3 mm2 was defined as high grade budding. RESULTS CK+ cells and clusters were identified in 29 (48%) and 14 (25%) of the samples, respectively. Two cells were identified in one of three non-malignant cases. Clusters were found exclusively in malignant cases. The occurrence of CK+ cells or clusters was not associated with any of the evaluated clinicopathological factors, including surgical technique and tumor budding. Moreover, the occurrence of CK+ cells or clusters had no influence on the cancer-specific survival [75 mo (CI: 61; 88) vs 83 mo (CI: 72; 95) and 80 mo (CI: 63; 98) vs 79 mo (CI: 69; 89), respectively]. CONCLUSION CK+ cells and showed neither prognostic significance nor an association with tumor budding. It is very likely that CK18-staining is not specific enough to identify the relevant cells. PMID:28008384

  12. Taste Bud Labeling in Whole Tongue Epithelial Sheet in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Boggs, Kristin; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Molecular labeling in whole-mount tissues provides an efficient way to obtain general information about the formation, maintenance, degeneration, and regeneration of many organs and tissues. However, labeling of lingual taste buds in whole tongue tissues in adult mice has been problematic because of the strong permeability barrier of the tongue epithelium. In this study, we present a simple method for labeling taste buds in the intact tongue epithelial sheet of an adult mouse. Following intralingual protease injection and incubation, immediate fixation of the tongue on mandible in 4% paraformaldehyde enabled the in situ shape of the tongue epithelium to be well maintained after peeling. The peeled epithelium was accessible to taste bud labeling with a pan-taste cell marker, keratin 8, and a type II taste cell marker, α-gustducin, in all three types of taste papillae, that is, fungiform, foliate, and circumvallate. Overnight incubation of tongue epithelial sheets with primary and secondary antibodies was sufficient for intense labeling of taste buds with both fluorescent and DAB visualizations. Labeled individual taste buds were easy to identify and quantify. This protocol provides an efficient way for phenotypic analyses of taste buds, especially regarding distribution pattern and number.

  13. Cryopreservation of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) in vitro buds using vitrification-based techniques.

    PubMed

    Ozudogru, E A; Kirdok, E; Kaya, E; Capuana, M; Benelli, C; Engelmann, E

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the efficiency of three vitrification-based cryopreservation techniques, i.e. vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification and droplet-vitrification were compared for cryopreserving Sequoia sempervirens apical and basal buds sampled from in vitro shoot cultures. The effect of cold-hardening of mother-plants and of bud culture medium and sucrose preculture was also investigated. Culture of apical and basal buds sampled from cold-hardened mother-plants on Quoirin and Lepoivre medium with activated charcoal had a positive effect on regrowth. Only droplet-vitrification ensured survival and regrowth after cryopreservation. After cryopreservation, regeneration of apical buds was possible for PVS2 exposure durations between 90 and 180 min but it remained low, with a maximum of 18 percent after 135 min treatment. With basal buds, regeneration after cryopreservation was possible over a larger range of PVS2 treatment durations, between 30 and 180 min. The highest regeneration percentage was slightly higher (22 percent) than that measured with apical buds, and was also achieved after 135 min PVS2 exposure.

  14. High-Grade Tumor Budding Stratifies Early-Stage Cervical Cancer with Recurrence Risk

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xia; Guo, Shuang; Wang, Zehua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated prognostic significance of tumor budding in early-stage cervical cancer (ESCC) following radical surgery and its contribution to improve the stratification of patients with recurrence risk. Methods The archival medical records and H&E-stained slides of 643 patients with IA2-IIA stage cervical cancer who underwent radical surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Clinicopathological parameters were noted, and tumor buds were counted using immunohistochemistry for each case. The prognostic significance of tumor budding was analyzed. Prediction models that comprised tumor budding were established, and the performance was compared between the novel models and classic criteria via log-rank test and receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results Tumors with high-grade tumor budding (HTB) exhibited a substantially increased risk of recurrence (hazard ratio = 4.287, P < 0.001). Nine predictive models for recurrence were established, in which HTB was combined with recognized risk factors. The model using of at least two risk factors of HTB, tumor size ≥ 4 cm, deep stromal invasion of outer 1/3, and lymphovascular space invasion to stratify patients with an intermediate risk was most predictive of recurrence compared with the classic criteria. Conclusions Tumor budding is an independent, unfavorable, prognostic factor for ESCC patients following radical surgery and holds promise for improved recurrence risk stratification. PMID:27861522

  15. Resprouting as a key functional trait: how buds, protection and resources drive persistence after fire.

    PubMed

    Clarke, P J; Lawes, M J; Midgley, J J; Lamont, B B; Ojeda, F; Burrows, G E; Enright, N J; Knox, K J E

    2013-01-01

    Resprouting as a response to disturbance is now widely recognized as a key functional trait among woody plants and as the basis for the persistence niche. However, the underlying mechanisms that define resprouting responses to disturbance are poorly conceptualized. Resprouting ability is constrained by the interaction of the disturbance regime that depletes the buds and resources needed to fund resprouting, and the environment that drives growth and resource allocation. We develop a buds-protection-resources (BPR) framework for understanding resprouting in fire-prone ecosystems, based on bud bank location, bud protection, and how buds are resourced. Using this framework we go beyond earlier emphases on basal resprouting and highlight the importance of apical, epicormic and below-ground resprouting to the persistence niche. The BPR framework provides insights into: resprouting typologies that include both fire resisters (i.e. survive fire but do not resprout) and fire resprouters; the methods by which buds escape fire effects, such as thick bark; and the predictability of community assembly of resprouting types in relation to site productivity, disturbance regime and competition. Furthermore, predicting the consequences of global change is enhanced by the BPR framework because it potentially forecasts the retention or loss of above-ground biomass.

  16. Structural Characterization of Ginsenosides from Flower Buds of Panax ginseng by RRLC-Q-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Lu, Ziyan; Teng, Yaran; Guo, Yingying; Liu, Shuying

    2016-02-01

    Ginseng flower bud as a part of Panax ginseng has received much attention as a valuable functional food with medicinal potential. A few studies focused on systematic and comprehensive studies on its major ingredients. This study aims to rapidly characterize ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds and provide scientific basis for developing functional food, exploiting pharmaceutical effects and making full use of ginseng resources. A rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) method was developed for rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds. The compounds were identified by comparing retention time of the reference standards, accurate mass measurement and the fragment ions obtained from RRLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analyses. A total of 14 kinds of ginsenosides were identified and 5 kinds of malonyl-ginsenosides were first tentatively identified in ginseng flower buds. Ten kinds of main ginsenosides were quantitatively analyzed. The developed RRLC-Q-TOF-MS method was demonstrated as an effective analytical means for rapid characterization of the ginsenosides in flower buds of P. ginseng. The research result is valuable for quality control, assessment of authenticity and stability evaluation of ginseng flower buds.

  17. Definition of bone necrosis by the pathologist

    PubMed Central

    Fondi, Cristina; Franchi, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Osteonecrosis is a common disorder that may go clinically unrecognized or may result in the collapse of the architecture of bone, determining severe anatomic alterations of the involved site. Osteonecrosis is not a specific disease entity, but rather the result of a number of conditions ultimately leading to an impairment of blood supply to the bone tissue, although there is evidence that modifications of bone remodelling activity and weakening of bone structure with formation of microfractures are implicated as well. According to the site involved and to the factors promoting its development, the morbid anatomy and histopathology of osteonecrosis show a different appearance. This review discusses the main skeletal manifestations of osteonecrosis, including subarticular avascular necrosis of the femoral head and of the knee, as well as osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:22460748

  18. Cortical bone allografting in femoral head necrosis.

    PubMed

    Delloye, C; Cornu, O

    1999-01-01

    Ten femoral heads (six patients) with avascular necrosis were operated on using a fibular allograft. The procedure included core decompression followed by insertion of a cortical bone graft in order to relieve mechanical stresses from the overlying subchondral bone. The presence of the supporting graft should avoid an expected collapse or prevent its worsening if already present. A freeze-dried and processed cortical bone allograft was preferred to an autograft. Weightbearing was normally and fully resumed at the second postoperative month. There were three failures within the first year, four satisfactory results, in which the hip was replaced after 4 years while there are still 3 hips that have been preserved from arthroplasty in young patients after 5 years. The technique is easy and able to substantially delay an arthroplasty in an active patient.

  19. Consequences of Repeated Defoliation on Belowground Bud Banks of Carex brevicuspis (Cyperaceae) in the Dongting Lake Wetlands, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin-Sheng; Deng, Zheng-Miao; Xie, Yong-Hong; Li, Feng; Hou, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Despite the predominant role of bud banks in the regeneration of clonal macrophyte populations, few studies have examined the way in which clonal macrophytes adjust the demographic features of bud banks to regulate population dynamics in response to defoliation in wetlands. We investigated the density and composition of bud banks under repeated defoliation in the wetland sedge Carex brevicuspis C. B. Clarke in the Dongting Lake wetlands, China. The density and biomass of rhizome buds and shoots did not decrease significantly in response to repeated defoliation over two consecutive years. The composition of bud banks, which consisted of long and short rhizome buds, also did not change significantly in response to repeated defoliation. Nevertheless, the ramet height and the shoot, root, and rhizome mass of C. brevicuspis declined significantly under repeated defoliation. Our findings suggest that bud banks are a conservative reproductive strategy that enables C. brevicuspis to tolerate a certain amount of defoliation. The maintenance of large bud banks after repeated defoliation may enable C. brevicuspis populations to regenerate and persist in disturbed habitats. However, bud bank density of C. brevicuspis might decline in the long term because the amount of carbon stored in rhizome buds and plants is reduced by frequent defoliation.

  20. Consequences of Repeated Defoliation on Belowground Bud Banks of Carex brevicuspis (Cyperaceae) in the Dongting Lake Wetlands, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin-Sheng; Deng, Zheng-Miao; Xie, Yong-Hong; Li, Feng; Hou, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Despite the predominant role of bud banks in the regeneration of clonal macrophyte populations, few studies have examined the way in which clonal macrophytes adjust the demographic features of bud banks to regulate population dynamics in response to defoliation in wetlands. We investigated the density and composition of bud banks under repeated defoliation in the wetland sedge Carex brevicuspis C. B. Clarke in the Dongting Lake wetlands, China. The density and biomass of rhizome buds and shoots did not decrease significantly in response to repeated defoliation over two consecutive years. The composition of bud banks, which consisted of long and short rhizome buds, also did not change significantly in response to repeated defoliation. Nevertheless, the ramet height and the shoot, root, and rhizome mass of C. brevicuspis declined significantly under repeated defoliation. Our findings suggest that bud banks are a conservative reproductive strategy that enables C. brevicuspis to tolerate a certain amount of defoliation. The maintenance of large bud banks after repeated defoliation may enable C. brevicuspis populations to regenerate and persist in disturbed habitats. However, bud bank density of C. brevicuspis might decline in the long term because the amount of carbon stored in rhizome buds and plants is reduced by frequent defoliation. PMID:27524993

  1. Origin of irreversibility of cell cycle start in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Charvin, Gilles; Oikonomou, Catherine; Siggia, Eric D; Cross, Frederick R

    2010-01-19

    Budding yeast cells irreversibly commit to a new division cycle at a regulatory transition called Start. This essential decision-making step involves the activation of the SBF/MBF transcription factors. SBF/MBF promote expression of the G1 cyclins encoded by CLN1 and CLN2. Cln1,2 can activate their own expression by inactivating the Whi5 repressor of SBF/MBF. The resulting transcriptional positive feedback provides an appealing, but as yet unproven, candidate for generating irreversibility of Start. Here, we investigate the logic of the Start regulatory module by quantitative single-cell time-lapse microscopy, using strains in which expression of key regulators is efficiently controlled by changes of inducers in a microfluidic chamber. We show that Start activation is ultrasensitive to G1 cyclin. In the absence of CLN1,2-dependent positive feedback, we observe that Start transit is reversible, due to reactivation of the Whi5 transcriptional repressor. Introduction of the positive feedback loop makes Whi5 inactivation and Start activation irreversible, which therefore guarantees unidirectional entry into S phase. A simple mathematical model to describe G1 cyclin turn on at Start, entirely constrained by empirically measured parameters, shows that the experimentally measured ultrasensitivity and transcriptional positive feedback are necessary and sufficient dynamical characteristics to make the Start transition a bistable and irreversible switch. Our study thus demonstrates that Start irreversibility is a property that arises from the architecture of the system (Whi5/SBF/Cln2 loop), rather than the consequence of the regulation of a single component (e.g., irreversible protein degradation).

  2. Proteomics of the Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus budded virions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ranran; Deng, Fei; Hou, Dianhai; Zhao, Yong; Guo, Lin; Wang, Hualin; Hu, Zhihong

    2010-07-01

    Baculoviruses produce two progeny phenotypes during their replication cycles. The occlusion-derived virus (ODV) is responsible for initiating primary infection in the larval midgut, and the budded virus (BV) phenotype is responsible for the secondary infection. The proteomics of several baculovirus ODVs have been revealed, but so far, no extensive analysis of BV-associated proteins has been conducted. In this study, the protein composition of the BV of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), the type species of baculoviruses, was analyzed by various mass spectrometry (MS) techniques, including liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole linear ion trap (LC-Qtrap), liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight (LC-Q-TOF), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF). SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analyses showed that the three most abundant proteins of the AcMNPV BV were GP64, VP39, and P6.9. A total of 34 viral proteins associated with the AcMNPV BV were identified by the indicated methods. Thirteen of these proteins, PP31, AC58/59, AC66, IAP-2, AC73, AC74, AC114, AC124, chitinase, polyhedron envelope protein (PEP), AC132, ODV-E18, and ODV-E56, were identified for the first time to be BV-associated proteins. Western blot analyses showed that ODV-E18 and ODV-E25, which were previously thought to be ODV-specific proteins, were also present in the envelop fraction of BV. In addition, 11 cellular proteins were found to be associated with the AcMNPV BV by both LC-Qtrap and LC-Q-TOF analyses. Interestingly, seven of these proteins were also identified in other enveloped viruses, suggesting that many enveloped viruses may commonly utilize certain conserved cellular pathways.

  3. Cowpea and Groundnut Haulms Fodder Trading and Its Lessons for Multidimensional Cowpea Improvement for Mixed Crop Livestock Systems in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Samireddypalle, Anandan; Boukar, Ousmane; Grings, Elaine; Fatokun, Christian A; Kodukula, Prasad; Devulapalli, Ravi; Okike, Iheanacho; Blümmel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Cowpea is an important legume crop in Africa, valued highly for its grain and also haulms, which are a tradable commodity in fodder markets. Fodder market surveys in Northern Nigeria showed that groundnut haulms were priced higher than cowpea haulms, probably because of their superior nutritive value. The economic value of haulms has prompted cowpea breeders and livestock nutritionists to explore haulm fodder traits as additional selection and breeding criteria. Fifty cowpea genotypes cultivated across five locations in Nigeria in 2013 and 2014 were evaluated for food fodder traits. Significant (P < 0.05) genotypic dependent variations were observed in yields (kg/ha) of grains (537-1082) and haulms (1173-3368), though significant (P < 0.05) effects of location and year were observed. Grain and fodder yield had a tendency to be positively correlated (r = 0.26, P = 0.07). Haulms were analyzed for nitrogen (N), fiber fractions, in vitro digestibility, and metabolizable energy content. Highly significant variations were observed in all genotypic and livestock nutrition traits, although location and year had significant effects. Trade-offs between grain yield and haulm fodder quality traits were largely absent and haulm acid detergent lignin and grain yield were even inversely correlated (r = -0.28, P = 0.05), that is high grain yielders had decreased haulm lignin. However, haulm N and grain yield also tended to be negatively associated (r = -0.26, P = 0.07). Haulm fodder quality traits and haulm yield were mostly positively correlated (P < 0.05). Broad sense heritabilities for grain and fodder yield were 0.50 and 0.29, respectively, while heritability for haulm fodder quality traits ranged from 0.61 to 0.67, providing opportunities for concomitant increase in grain yield and haulm fodder quality traits. Selection of the 10 highest ranking genotypes for grain yield, haulm yield, haulm N, and haulm in vitro organic matter digestibility showed selection groups overlapping

  4. Cowpea and Groundnut Haulms Fodder Trading and Its Lessons for Multidimensional Cowpea Improvement for Mixed Crop Livestock Systems in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Samireddypalle, Anandan; Boukar, Ousmane; Grings, Elaine; Fatokun, Christian A.; Kodukula, Prasad; Devulapalli, Ravi; Okike, Iheanacho; Blümmel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Cowpea is an important legume crop in Africa, valued highly for its grain and also haulms, which are a tradable commodity in fodder markets. Fodder market surveys in Northern Nigeria showed that groundnut haulms were priced higher than cowpea haulms, probably because of their superior nutritive value. The economic value of haulms has prompted cowpea breeders and livestock nutritionists to explore haulm fodder traits as additional selection and breeding criteria. Fifty cowpea genotypes cultivated across five locations in Nigeria in 2013 and 2014 were evaluated for food fodder traits. Significant (P < 0.05) genotypic dependent variations were observed in yields (kg/ha) of grains (537–1082) and haulms (1173–3368), though significant (P < 0.05) effects of location and year were observed. Grain and fodder yield had a tendency to be positively correlated (r = 0.26, P = 0.07). Haulms were analyzed for nitrogen (N), fiber fractions, in vitro digestibility, and metabolizable energy content. Highly significant variations were observed in all genotypic and livestock nutrition traits, although location and year had significant effects. Trade-offs between grain yield and haulm fodder quality traits were largely absent and haulm acid detergent lignin and grain yield were even inversely correlated (r = -0.28, P = 0.05), that is high grain yielders had decreased haulm lignin. However, haulm N and grain yield also tended to be negatively associated (r = -0.26, P = 0.07). Haulm fodder quality traits and haulm yield were mostly positively correlated (P < 0.05). Broad sense heritabilities for grain and fodder yield were 0.50 and 0.29, respectively, while heritability for haulm fodder quality traits ranged from 0.61 to 0.67, providing opportunities for concomitant increase in grain yield and haulm fodder quality traits. Selection of the 10 highest ranking genotypes for grain yield, haulm yield, haulm N, and haulm in vitro organic matter digestibility showed selection groups

  5. Protein and hematological evaluations of infant formulated from cooking banana fruits (Musa spp, ABB genome) and fermented bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean L. Verdc) seeds

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is regarded as one of the public health problems in developing countries as a result of poor feeding practices due to poverty. This study, therefore, aimed at evaluating nutritional quality of a potential weaning food formulated from locally available food materials. The cooking banana fruit (CB) and bambara groundnut seeds (BG) were purchased from local market in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. The CB and BG were processed into flours, mixed in ratios of 90:10, 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40 and subjected into proximate, sensory and biochemical analyses using standard procedures. Nutrend (a commercial formula) and ogi (corn gruel, a traditional weaning food) were used as control. The nutritient composition (g/100 g) of the food samples were ranged as follows: moisture 2.94-6.94, protein 7.02-16.0, ash 1.76-2.99, fat 0.76-8.45, fibre 1.52-3.75, carbohydrate 63.84-88.43 and energy 1569.8-1665.7 kcal. The biological value (BV), net protein retention (NPR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) of the experimental food samples were significantly (p<0.05) lower than nutrend, but higher than ogi. The haematological variables of rats fed with formulated food samples, commercial formula (nutrend) and traditional weaning food (ogi) were not significantly (p>0.05) influenced by the dietary treatment. However, the values obtained for red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), pack cell volume (PCV) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were higher in the experimental food samples than the commercial food. The growth rate of animals fed with experimental food samples were lower than those fed with the nutrend, but higher than those fed with ogi. In conclusion, the nutritional quality of CB and fermented BG mix of 60:40 ratio was better than ogi; and comparable to the nutrend. This implies that it can be used to replace low quality traditional weaning food and the expensive commercial weaning formula. PMID:20126602

  6. Vascular budding in Symplegma brakenhielmi and the evolution of coloniality in styelid ascidians.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Stefania; Brown, Federico D

    2017-03-15

    Individuals of colonial animals (e.g. zooids) are in continuous turnover. In ascidians colonial or solitary species have evolved by convergence multiple times. Colonial Botryllus and Botrylloides are well-studied genera that exhibit colony-wide developmental mechanisms that regulate synchronous and orchestrated cycles of budding and turnover of zooids. The origins of modular developmental mechanisms that facilitated the evolution of coloniality in this group remain unclear. To reconstruct ancestral states of coloniality we studied Symplegma brakenhielmi, a sister taxon of the botryllids. S. brakenhielmi zooids are embedded in a common tunic and present a similar vascular system as the botrylloides, however development and turnover of zooids occurs asynchronously and in a more independent manner. We generated a table of common stages of budding in Symplegma and Botryllus for comparative studies of asexual development. We tested dependent processes of budding among individuals of the colony by systemic bud or zooid removals. Although our results showed a higher degree of independence in bud development in S. brakenhielmi, we found a subtle colony-wide regulatory mechanism of modular development, i.e. new buds expedited development after the removal of all buds in the colony. Next, we characterized external morphology, ultrastructure, and abundance of circulatory blood cells in the vascular system of S. brakenhielmi. Macrophage-like cells (MLCs) are involved in zooid resorption and turnover. Proportions of MLCs in the blood of S. brakenhielmi corresponded to the peak of occurrence of this cell type during the budding cycle of B. schlosseri. We found several new blood cell types in S. brakenhielmi, including two cell types that resemble circulatory progenitor stem cells of other botryllid colonial ascidians. These cells showed features of undifferentiated cells and expressed mitotic marker Phospho-histone H3. Comparative studies of S. brakenhielmi and B. schlosseri

  7. Sugar binding to purified fractions from bovine taste buds and epithelial tissue. Relationships to bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Lum, C K; Henkin, R I

    1976-02-24

    Binding of various sugars was compared in purified subfractions of taste buds isolated from bovine circumvallate papillae and of non-taste bud-bearing epithelium isolated from tissue surrounding these papillae. Binding of 14C-labeled sugars was greater in purified subfractions obtained from taste bud than from non-taste bud-bearing tissue and was, in general, greater in those taste bud subfractions in which a greater membrane purification was achieved. Binding specificity of the 14C-labeled sugars sucrose, fructose, glucose and of 14C-labeled cyclamate and saccharine was measured by competition of each 14C-labeled sugar or synthetic sweetener with its unlabeled homologous sugar in P4(B) taste bud subfractions; this binding, as shown for sucrose, was reversible and temperature dependent. Essentially no competition of the 14C-lageled sugars sucrose, fructose, glucose or 14C-labeled cyclamate and saccharine by their respective unlabeled homologues occurred in epithelial tissue P4(B) subfractions; this binding was not reversible. Binding specificity was further observed by the competition of 14C-labeled sucrose, fructose and glucose with each unlabeled sugar for binding sites on P4(B) taste bud subfractions; unlabeled sucrose was more effective in competing with each 14C-labeled surgar than was unlabeled fructose or glucose. The relatively non-sweet sugar lactose did not compete with 14C-labeled lactose in P4(B) subfractions from either taste bud or non-taste bud-bearing epithelial tissue. Binding of 14C-labeled sucrose in purified P4(B) bud subfractions was inhibited by increased concentrations of unlabeled sucrose, phospholipase C, neuraminidase, EDTA, NaCl and urea. Dissociation constants for sugar or synthetic sweetener binding were low (approx. 10(-3) M) but in a rank order (sucrose greater than fructose greater than glucose greater than saccharine) consistent with preference and electrophysiological responses in cow. The cow is behaviorally indifferent to

  8. Espin cytoskeletal proteins in the sensory cells of rodent taste buds.

    PubMed

    Sekerková, Gabriella; Freeman, David; Mugnaini, Enrico; Bartles, James R

    2005-09-01

    Espins are multifunctional actin-bundling proteins that are highly enriched in the microvilli of certain chemosensory and mechanosensory cells, where they are believed to regulate the integrity and/or dimensions of the parallel-actin-bundle cytoskeletal scaffold. We have determined that, in rats and mice, affinity purified espin antibody intensely labels the lingual and palatal taste buds of the oral cavity and taste buds in the pharyngo-laryngeal region. Intense immunolabeling was observed in the apical, microvillar region of taste buds, while the level of cytoplasmic labeling in taste bud cells was considerably lower. Taste buds contain tightly packed collections of sensory cells (light, or type II plus type III) and supporting cells (dark, or type I), which can be distinguished by microscopic features and cell type-specific markers. On the basis of results obtained using an antigen-retrieval method in conjunction with double immunofluorescence for espin and sensory taste cell-specific markers, we propose that espins are expressed predominantly in the sensory cells of taste buds. In confocal images of rat circumvallate taste buds, we counted 21.5 +/- 0.3 espin-positive cells/taste bud, in agreement with a previous report showing 20.7 +/- 1.3 light cells/taste bud when counted at the ultrastructural level. The espin antibody labeled spindle-shaped cells with round nuclei and showed 100% colocalization with cell-specific markers recognizing all type II [inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type III (IP(3)R(3))(,) alpha-gustducin, protein-specific gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5)] and a subpopulation of type III (IP(3)R(3), PGP9.5) taste cells. On average, 72%, 50%, and 32% of the espin-positive taste cells were labeled with antibodies to IP(3)R(3), alpha-gustducin, and PGP9.5, respectively. Upon sectional analysis, the taste buds of rat circumvallate papillae commonly revealed a multi-tiered, espin-positive apical cytoskeletal apparatus. One espin-positive zone, a

  9. Differentiated dynamics of bud dormancy and growth in temperate fruit trees relating to bud phenology adaptation, the case of apple and almond trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Yaacoubi, Adnane; Malagi, Gustavo; Oukabli, Ahmed; Citadin, Idemir; Hafidi, Majida; Bonhomme, Marc; Legave, Jean-Michel

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have focused on the characterization of bud dormancy and growth dynamics for temperate fruit species in temperate and mild cropping areas, although this is an appropriate framework to anticipate phenology adaptation facing future warming contexts which would potentially combine chill declines and heat increases. To examine this issue, two experimental approaches and field observations were used for high- and low-chill apple cultivars in temperate climate of southern France and in mild climates of northern Morocco and southern Brazil. Low-chill almond cultivars offered an additional relevant plant material for comparison with apple in northern Morocco. Divergent patterns of dormancy and growth dynamics were clearly found in apple tree between southern France and southern Brazil. Divergences were less pronounced between France and Morocco. A global view outlined main differences in the dormancy chronology and intensity, the transition between endordormancy and ecodormancy and the duration of ecodormancy. A key role of bud rehydration in the transition period was shown. High-chill cultivars would be submitted in mild conditions to heterogeneous rehydration capacities linked to insufficient chill fulfillment and excessive forcing linked to high temperatures. This would favor bud competitions and consequently excessive flowering durations and weak flowering. Low chilling requirements in apple and almond would conversely confer biological capacities to tolerate superficial dormancy and abrupt transition from endordormancy to ecodormancy without important heterogeneous rehydration states within buds. It may also assume that low-chill cultivars can also tolerate high temperatures during ecodormancy as well as extended flowering durations.

  10. Peripancreatic fat necrosis worsens acute pancreatitis independent of pancreatic necrosis via unsaturated fatty acids increased in human pancreatic necrosis collections

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Pawan; Patel, Krutika; Durgampudi, Chandra; Trivedi, Ram N; de Oliveira, Cristiane; Crowell, Michael D; Pannala, Rahul; Lee, Kenneth; Brand, Randall; Chennat, Jennifer; Slivka, Adam; Papachristou, Georgios I; Khalid, Asif; Whitcomb, David C; DeLany, James P; Cline, Rachel A; Acharya, Chathur; Jaligama, Deepthi; Murad, Faris M; Yadav, Dhiraj; Navina, Sarah; Singh, Vijay P

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Peripancreatic fat necrosis occurs frequently in necrotising pancreatitis. Distinguishing markers from mediators of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is important since targeting mediators may improve outcomes. We evaluated potential agents in human pancreatic necrotic collections (NCs), pseudocysts (PCs) and pancreatic cystic neoplasms and used pancreatic acini, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and an acute pancreatitis (AP) model to determine SAP mediators. Methods We measured acinar and PBMC injury induced by agents increased in NCs and PCs. Outcomes of caerulein pancreatitis were studied in lean rats coadministered interleukin (IL)-1β and keratinocyte chemoattractant/growth-regulated oncogene, triolein alone or with the lipase inhibitor orlistat. Results NCs had higher fatty acids, IL-8 and IL-1β versus other fluids. Lipolysis of unsaturated triglyceride and resulting unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) oleic and linoleic acids induced necro-apoptosis at less than half the concentration in NCs but other agents did not do so at more than two times these concentrations. Cytokine coadministration resulted in higher pancreatic and lung inflammation than caerulein alone, but only triolein coadministration caused peripancreatic fat stranding, higher cytokines, UFAs, multisystem organ failure (MSOF) and mortality in 97% animals, which were prevented by orlistat. Conclusions UFAs, IL-1β and IL-8 are elevated in NCs. However, UFAs generated via peripancreatic fat lipolysis causes worse inflammation and MSOF, converting mild AP to SAP. PMID:25500204

  11. Avascular necrosis of multiple carpal bones. A case report.

    PubMed

    De Smet, L

    1999-01-01

    A case of a 66-year-old female patient with hyperlipaemia, corticosteroid osteoporosis and chronic obstructive lung disease with avascular necrosis of the proximal row of the carpus and hamate is described. No other sites of avascular bone necrosis were found. A proximal row carpectomy was performed with an excellent outcome.

  12. [Myocellular necrosis by cathecolamines in pheochromocytoma (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Thiene, G; Valente, M; Cecchetto, A; Giordano, R; Pennelli, N

    1975-01-01

    A case of myocellular necrosis by cathecholamines in a patient presenting pheocromocytoma is reported. Death was due to cerbral apoplexy. The histological findings are quite specific and show myofibrillar degeneration with substitution of the normal striation by coarse sarcomeric transversal bands. The possible role of necrosis by catecholamines in sudden deaths and non-coronary myocardiosclerosis is emphasized.

  13. Black esophagus (acute esophageal necrosis) after spinal anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Román Fernández, A; López Álvarez, A; Fossati Puertas, S; Areán González, I; Varela García, O; Viaño López, P M

    2014-01-01

    Acute esophagic necrosis or black esophagus is an uncommon clinical entity that owes its name to the endoscopic view of the necrotic esophageal mucosa. It is always related with a critical medical condition and usually has an ischemic etiology. We report the first case of acute esophageal necrosis after a spinal anesthetic for partial hip joint arthroplasty. We discuss the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.

  14. Pseudotumoral encapsulated fat necrosis with diffuse pseudomembranous degeneration.

    PubMed

    Felipo, F; Vaquero, M; del Agua, C

    2004-09-01

    An extraordinary case of encapsulated fat necrosis characterized by its large size, diffuse formation of pseudomembranes, and tendency to recur after excision is reported. A 67-year-old Caucasian woman suffering from morbid obesity was admitted for diagnosis and surgical treatment of a soft tissue mass showing a longest diameter of 14 cm and lying adjacently to the scar from previous appendicectomy. Histopathologic features were consistent with a nodular-cystic encapsulated fat necrosis with diffuse pseudomembranous transformation. Eight months after surgery, a new larger mass (longest diameter of 18 cm) sharing identical histopathologic features appeared in the same location. Encapsulated fat necrosis is a well-defined entity even though several names have been proposed for this condition, including mobile encapsulated lipoma, encapsulated necrosis, or nodular-cystic fat necrosis. Its pathogenesis seems to be related to ischemic changes secondary to previous trauma. It may occasionally show degenerative changes, including dystrophic calcifications and presence of pseudomembranes. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of encapsulated fat necrosis presenting as lesions of such size and showing diffuse formation of pseudomembranes; these particular features made diagnosis difficult and led to consideration of a wide range of potential diagnostic possibilities. This case expands the clinico-pathologic spectrum of membranocystic fat necrosis, including the potential ability of this subcutaneous fatty tissue abnormality to recur after surgical excision. Felipo F, Vaquero M, del Agua C. Pseudotumoral encapsulated fat necrosis with diffuse pseudomembranous degeneration.

  15. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and acute myocardial necrosis caused by lightning.

    PubMed

    Ekoé, J M; Cunningham, M; Jaques, O; Balague, F; Baumann, R P; Humair, L; de Torrenté, A

    1985-01-01

    A 24-year-old woman was struck by lightning and suffered 20% second degree burns. She was admitted after cardiac and respiratory arrest. Despite intensive supportive care she died 24 h later of cardiogenic shock complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation. At autopsy there was myocardial necrosis. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and myocardial necrosis are only rarely described as complications of lightning.

  16. Prognostic significance of differentiating necrosis from fluid collection on endoscopic ultrasound in patients with presumed isolated extrapancreatic necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Surinder S.; Chhabra, Puneet; Sharma, Ravi; Sharma, Vishal; Gupta, Rajesh; Bhasin, Deepak K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Extrapancreatic necrosis is diagnosed on computed tomography (CT) as extrapancreatic changes that are more than fat stranding; both fluid collections and necrosis would have a similar appearance. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of differentiating peripancreatic necrosis from fluid collection on endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in patients with presumed isolated extrapancreatic necrosis. Methods We carried out a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from 36 patients (25 males; age range 19-65 years) with acute pancreatitis (AP) and isolated extrapancreatic necrosis. On EUS, peripancreatic anechoic areas were labeled as peripancreatic fluid collections and peripancreatic heterogeneously echotextured areas as peripancreatic necrosis. Results The etiology of AP was alcohol in 16 (44.4%) patients, gallstone disease in 13 (36.1%), and other in 7 (19.4%). On EUS, 25 (69.4%) patients had peripancreatic necrosis and 11 (30.6%) patients had peripancreatic fluid collections. Compared with patients who had peripancreatic fluid collections, patients with peripancreatic necrosis had a significantly higher frequency of pleural effusion (88% vs. 55%; P=0.04), organ failure (OF) (68% vs. 27%; P=0.03), and persistent OF (48% vs. 9%; P=0.03). The patients with peripancreatic necrosis also had a higher frequency of ascites (20% vs. 9%), need for intervention (20% vs. nil), surgery (8% vs. nil) and mortality (8% vs. nil), but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion Isolated extrapancreatic necrosis on contrast-enhanced CT comprises a heterogeneous group, with patients who show peripancreatic fluid collections on EUS having a less severe disease course compared to patients with peripancreatic necrosis. PMID:28243045

  17. Twilight far-red treatment advances leaf bud burst of silver birch (Betula pendula).

    PubMed

    Linkosalo, Tapio; Lechowicz, Martin J

    2006-10-01

    Bud development of boreal trees in spring, once initiated, is driven by ambient air temperature, but the mechanism triggering bud development remains unclear. We determined if some aspect of the diurnal or seasonal light regime influences initiation of bud burst once the chilling requirement is met. We grew 3-year-old birch plantlets cloned from a mature tree of boreal origin in light conditions realistically simulating the lengthening days of spring at 60 degrees N. To emulate the reduction in red to far-red light (R:FR) ratio between daylight and twilight, one group of plantlets was subjected to reduced R:FR ratio in the morning and evening in addition to progressively lengthening days, whereas the other group was subjected to the same R:FR ratio throughout the day. The reduced R:FR ratio of twilight advanced bud burst by 4 days compared with the reference group (P = 0.04). To assess the interplay between the fulfillment of the chilling requirement and the subsequent response to warming, we fitted a thermal time model to the data with separate parameterizations for the starting dates of heat sum accumulation in each treatment. Least-squares fitting suggested that bud development started in light regimes corresponding to late March, almost two months after the chilling requirement for dormancy release was satisfied. Therefore, shortening night length or increasing day length, or both, appears to be the cue enabling bud development in spring, with twilight quality having an effect on the photoperiodic response. If twilight alone were the cue, the difference in bud burst dates between the experimental groups would have been greater than 4 days. The result gives experimental support for the use of thermal-time models in phenological modeling.

  18. Neural crest contribution to lingual mesenchyme, epithelium and developing taste papillae and taste buds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Mishina, Yuji; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2012-08-15

    The epithelium of mammalian tongue hosts most of the taste buds that transduce gustatory stimuli into neural signals. In the field of taste biology, taste bud cells have been described as arising from "local epithelium", in distinction from many other receptor organs that are derived from neurogenic ectoderm including neural crest (NC). In fact, contribution of NC to both epithelium and mesenchyme in the developing tongue is not fully understood. In the present study we used two independent, well-characterized mouse lines, Wnt1-Cre and P0-Cre that express Cre recombinase in a NC-specific manner, in combination with two Cre reporter mouse lines, R26R and ZEG, and demonstrate a contribution of NC-derived cells to both tongue mesenchyme and epithelium including taste papillae and taste buds. In tongue mesenchyme, distribution of NC-derived cells is in close association with taste papillae. In tongue epithelium, labeled cells are observed in an initial scattered distribution and progress to a clustered pattern between papillae, and within papillae and early taste buds. This provides evidence for a contribution of NC to lingual epithelium. Together with previous reports for the origin of taste bud cells from local epithelium in postnatal mouse, we propose that NC cells migrate into and reside in the epithelium of the tongue primordium at an early embryonic stage, acquire epithelial cell phenotypes, and undergo cell proliferation and differentiation that is involved in the development of taste papillae and taste buds. Our findings lead to a new concept about derivation of taste bud cells that include a NC origin.

  19. Local adaptations and climate change: converging sensitivity of bud break in black spruce provenances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Species with transcontinental distribution or spread over wide geographical regions develop populations with growth traits genetically adapted to the local climate. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecotypic sensitivity of bud break, a strong adaptive trait, to a changing environment. Six phenological phases of bud break were monitored daily on black spruce [ Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] seedlings submitted to different temperatures (12, 16 and 20 °C) and photoperiods (14, 18 and 22 h). Six provenances were tested in growth chambers, produced from seeds collected along the whole latitudinal range of the closed boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. Bud break lasted 13.3 days on average and occurred earlier in seedlings from colder sites. The annual temperature of the sites suitably tracked the clinal variation among ecotypes, providing a clear biological explanation for the environmental signal driving the adaptive divergence of populations to the local climate. Increasing temperature induced an earlier bud break according to a non-linear pattern with greater advancements observed between 12 and 16 °C. Photoperiod was significant, but sensitivity analysis indicated that its effect on bud break was marginal with respect to temperature. No interaction of provenance × treatment was observed, demonstrating an ecotypic convergence of the responses to both factors. Changes in the growing conditions could substantially modify the synchronization between bud phenology and climate, thus exposing the developing meristems of black spruce to frost damage. However, similar advancements of bud break could be expected in the different ecotypes subjected to warmer temperatures or longer day lengths.

  20. High biological variability of plastids, photosynthetic pigments and pigment forms of leaf primordia in buds.

    PubMed

    Solymosi, Katalin; Morandi, Dominique; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla; Schoefs, Benoît

    2012-05-01

    To study the formation of the photosynthetic apparatus in nature, the carotenoid and chlorophyllous pigment compositions of differently developed leaf primordia in closed and opening buds of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) as well as in closed buds of tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima P. Mill.) were analyzed with HPLC. The native organization of the chlorophyllous pigments was studied using 77 K fluorescence spectroscopy, and plastid ultrastructure was investigated with electron microscopy. Complete etiolation, i.e., accumulation of protochlorophyllide, and absence of chlorophylls occurred in the innermost leaf primordia of common ash buds. The other leaf primordia were partially etiolated in the buds and contained protochlorophyllide (0.5-1 μg g(-1) fresh mass), chlorophyllides (0.2-27 μg g(-1) fresh mass) and chlorophylls (0.9-643 μg g(-1) fresh mass). Etio-chloroplasts with prolamellar bodies and either regular or only low grana were found in leaves having high or low amounts of chlorophyll a and b, respectively. After bud break, etioplast-chloroplast conversion proceeded and the pigment contents increased in the leaves, similarly to the greening processes observed in illuminated etiolated seedlings under laboratory conditions. The pigment contents and the ratio of the different spectral forms had a high biological variability that could be attributed to (i) various light conditions due to light filtering in the buds resulting in differently etiolated leaf primordia, (ii) to differences in the light-exposed and inner regions of the same primordia in opening buds due to various leaf folding, and (iii) to tissue-specific slight variations of plastid ultrastructure.

  1. Prognostic significance of tumor budding and single cell invasion in gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Che, Keying; Zhao, Yang; Qu, Xiao; Pang, Zhaofei; Ni, Yang; Zhang, Tiehong; Du, Jiajun; Shen, Hongchang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Gastric carcinoma (GC) is a highly aggressive cancer and one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Histopathological evaluation pertaining to invasiveness is likely to provide additional information in relation to patient outcome. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of tumor budding and single cell invasion in gastric adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides generated from 296 gastric adenocarcinoma patients with full clinical and pathological and follow-up information were systematically reviewed. The patients were grouped on the basis of tumor budding, single cell invasion, large cell invasion, mitotic count, and fibrosis. The association between histopathological parameters, different classification systems, and overall survival (OS) was statistically analyzed. Results Among the 296 cases that were analyzed, high-grade tumor budding was observed in 49.0% (145) of them. Single cell invasion and large cell invasion were observed in 62.8% (186) and 16.9% (50) of the cases, respectively. Following univariate analysis, patients with high-grade tumor budding had shorter OS than those with low-grade tumor budding (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.260, P<0.001). Similarly, the OS of patients with single cell invasion and large cell invasion was reduced (single cell invasion, HR: 3.553, P<0.001; large cell invasion, HR: 2.466, P<0.001). Following multivariate analysis, tumor budding and single cell invasion were observed to be independent risk factors for gastric adenocarcinoma (P<0.05). According to the Lauren classification, patients with intestinal-type adenocarcinoma had better outcomes than those with diffuse-type adenocarcinoma (HR: 2.563, P<0.001). Conclusion Tumor budding and single cell invasion in gastric adenocarcinoma are associated with an unfavorable prognosis. PMID:28255247

  2. Development of flower buds in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) from late autumn to early spring.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takanori; Tuan, Pham Anh; Katsumi-Horigane, Akemi; Bai, Songling; Ito, Akiko; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Ono, Hiroshi; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2015-06-01

    We periodically investigated the lateral flower bud morphology of 1-year shoots of 'Kosui' pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) in terms of dormancy progression, using magnetic resonance imaging. The size of flower buds did not change significantly during endodormancy, but rapid enlargement took place at the end of the ecodormancy stage. To gain insight into the physiological status during this period, we analyzed gene expression related to cell cycle-, cell expansion- and water channel-related genes, namely cyclin (CYC), expansin (EXPA), tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIP) and plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP). Constant but low expression of pear cyclin genes (PpCYCD3s) was observed in the transition phase from endodormancy to ecodormancy. The expression levels of PpCYCD3s were consistent with few changes in flower bud size, but up-regulated before the sprouting stage. In contrast, the expression of pear expansin and water channel-related genes (PpEXPA2, PpPIP2A, PpPIP2B, PpIδTIP1A and PpIδTIP1B) were low until onset of the rapid enlargement stage of flower buds. However, expression of these genes rapidly increased during sprouting along with a gradual increase of free water content in the floral primordia of buds. Taken together, these results suggest that flower bud size tends to stay constant until the endodormancy phase transition. Rapid enlargement of flower buds observed in March is partly due to the enhancement of the cell cycle. Then, sprouting takes place concomitant with the increase in cell expansion and free water movement.

  3. Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of radiation necrosis in the brain.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Nonoguchi, Noasuke; Furuse, Motomasa; Yoritsune, Erina; Miyata, Tomo; Kawabata, Shinji; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    New radiation modalities have made it possible to prolong the survival of individuals with malignant brain tumors, but symptomatic radiation necrosis becomes a serious problem that can negatively affect a patient's quality of life through severe and lifelong effects. Here we review the relevant literature and introduce our original concept of the pathophysiology of brain radiation necrosis following the treatment of brain, head, and neck tumors. Regarding the pathophysiology of radiation necrosis, we introduce two major hypotheses: glial cell damage or vascular damage. For the differential diagnosis of radiation necrosis and tumor recurrence, we focus on the role of positron emission tomography. Finally, in accord with our hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology, we describe the promising effects of the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody bevacizumab on symptomatic radiation necrosis in the brain.

  4. Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Radiation Necrosis in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Nonoguchi, Noasuke; Furuse, Motomasa; Yoritsune, Erina; Miyata, Tomo; Kawabata, Shinji; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    New radiation modalities have made it possible to prolong the survival of individuals with malignant brain tumors, but symptomatic radiation necrosis becomes a serious problem that can negatively affect a patient’s quality of life through severe and lifelong effects. Here we review the relevant literature and introduce our original concept of the pathophysiology of brain radiation necrosis following the treatment of brain, head, and neck tumors. Regarding the pathophysiology of radiation necrosis, we introduce two major hypotheses: glial cell damage or vascular damage. For the differential diagnosis of radiation necrosis and tumor recurrence, we focus on the role of positron emission tomography. Finally, in accord with our hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology, we describe the promising effects of the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody bevacizumab on symptomatic radiation necrosis in the brain.

  5. Acute Bladder Necrosis after Pelvic Arterial Embolization for Pelvic Trauma: Lessons Learned from Two Cases of Immediate Postembolization Bladder Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Osterberg, E. Charles; Elliott, Sean P.; Hittelman, Adam B.

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of acute bladder injury with bladder neck necrosis identified during the initial operative evaluation and within the early postprocedural period in patients with significant pelvic trauma requiring pelvic vascular embolization. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bladder neck necrosis found during the initial intraoperative surgical evaluation or early postoperative setting. PMID:27656309

  6. Immunization with viral antigens: Infectious haematopoietic necrosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) is one of the most important viral diseases of salmonids, especially among juvenile fish where losses can be high. For over 20 years, researchers have tested a variety of preparations for control of IHN. Early vaccines consisted of killed virus and were effective when delivered by injection, but too costly to be practical on a large scale. Attenuated vaccines were developed by serial passage in cell culture and by monoclonal antibody selection. These offered excellent protection and were cost-effective, but residual virulence and uncertainty about their effects on other aquatic species made them poor candidates for licensing. Subunit vaccines using part of the IHNV glycoprotein gene cloned into E. coli or into an attenuated strain of A. salmonicida have been tested, appeared safe and were inexpensive. These vaccines were reported to provide some protection when delivered by immersion. Information on the location of antigenic sites on the glycoprotein led to trials using synthetic peptides, but these did not seem to be economically viable. Recently, plasmid vectors encoding the glycoprotein gene under control of a cytomegalovirus promoter were developed for genetic immunization. The constructs were highly protective when delivered by injection, but a more practical delivery system is needed. Thus, while several vaccine strategies have been tried in order to stimulate specific immunity against IHN, more research is needed to develop a commercially viable product for control of this important disease.

  7. Stimulation of neutrophils by tumor necrosis factor

    SciTech Connect

    Klebanoff, S.J.; Vadas, M.A.; Harlan, J.M.; Sparks, L.H.; Gamble, J.R.; Agosti, J.M.; Waltersdorph, A.M.

    1986-06-01

    Human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was shown to be a weak direct stimulus of the neutrophil respiratory burst and degranulation. The stimulation, as measured by iodination, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production, and lysozyme release, was considerably increased by the presence of unopsonized zymosan in the reaction mixture, an effect which was associated with the increased ingestion of the zymosan. TNF does not act as an opsonin but, rather, reacts with the neutrophil to increase its phagocytic activity. TNF-dependent phagocytosis, as measured indirectly by iodination, is inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (Mab) 60.1 and 60.3, which recognize different epitopes on the C3bi receptor/adherence-promoting surface glycoprotein of neutrophils. Other neutrophil stimulants, namely N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, and phorbol myristic acetate, also increase iodination in the presence of zymosan; as with TNF, the effect of these stimulants is inhibited by Mab 60.1 and 60.3, whereas, in contrast to that of TNF, their stimulation of iodination is unaffected by an Mab directed against TNF. TNF may be a natural stimulant of neutrophils which promotes adherence to endothelial cells and to particles, leading to increased phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity, and degranulation.

  8. Immunization with viral antigens: infectious haematopoietic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Winton, J R

    1997-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) is one of the most important viral diseases of salmonids, especially among juvenile fish where losses can be high. For over 20 years, researchers have tested a variety of preparations for control of IHN. Early vaccines consisted of killed virus and were effective when delivered by injection, but too costly to be practical on a large scale. Attenuated vaccines were developed by serial passage in cell culture and by monoclonal antibody selection. These offered excellent protection and were cost-effective, but residual virulence and uncertainty about their effects on other aquatic species made them poor candidates for licensing. Subunit vaccines using part of the IHNV glycoprotein gene cloned into E. coli or into an attenuated strain of A. salmonicida have been tested, appeared safe and were inexpensive. These vaccines were reported to provide some protection when delivered by immersion. Information on the location of antigenic sites on the glycoprotein led to trials using synthetic peptides, but these did not seem to be economically viable. Recently, plasmid vectors encoding the glycoprotein gene under control of a cytomegalovirus promoter were developed for genetic immunization. The constructs were highly protective when delivered by injection, but a more practical delivery system is needed. Thus, while several vaccine strategies have been tried in order to stimulate specific immunity against IHN, more research is needed to develop a commercially viable product for control of this important disease.

  9. Inactivated infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) vaccines.

    PubMed

    Anderson, E; Clouthier, S; Shewmaker, W; Weighall, A; LaPatra, S

    2008-10-01

    The inactivation dynamics of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) by b-propiolactone (BPL), binary ethylenimine (BEI), formaldehyde or heat and the antigenic and immunogenic properties of the inactivated vaccines were evaluated. Chemical treatment of IHNV with 2.7 mm BPL, 1.5 mm BEI or 50 mm formaldehyde abolished virus infectivity within 48 h whereas heat treatment at 50 or 100 degrees C rendered the virus innocuous within 30 min. The inactivated IHNV vaccines were recognized by rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, IHNV-specific antibodies and were differentially recognized by antigenic site I or antigenic site II IHNV glycoprotein-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The BPL inactivated whole virus vaccine was highly efficacious in vaccinated rainbow trout challenged by waterborne exposure to IHNV 7, 28, 42 or 56 days (15 degrees C) after immunization. The formaldehyde inactivated whole virus vaccine was efficacious 7 or 11 days after vaccination of rainbow trout but performed inconsistently when tested at later time points. The other vaccines tested were not efficacious.

  10. The spindle position checkpoint: how to deal with spindle misalignment during asymmetric cell division in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Fraschini, Roberta; Venturetti, Marianna; Chiroli, Elena; Piatti, Simonetta

    2008-06-01

    During asymmetric cell division, spindle positioning is critical to ensure the unequal segregation of polarity factors and generate daughter cells with different sizes or fates. In budding yeast the boundary between mother and daughter cell resides at the bud neck, where cytokinesis takes place at the end of the cell cycle. Since budding and bud neck formation occur much earlier than bipolar spindle formation, spindle positioning is a finely regulated process. A surveillance device called the SPOC (spindle position checkpoint) oversees this process and delays mitotic exit and cytokinesis until the spindle is properly oriented along the division axis, thus ensuring genome stability.

  11. Yap1, transcription regulator in the Hippo signaling pathway, is required for Xenopus limb bud regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shinichi; Tamura, Koji; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

    2014-04-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway is conserved from insects to mammals and is important for multiple processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis and tissue homeostasis. Hippo signaling is also crucial for regeneration, including intercalary regeneration, of the whole body in the flatworm and of the leg in the cricket. However, its role in vertebrate epimorphic regeneration is unknown. Therefore, to identify principles of regeneration that are conserved among bilaterians, we investigated the role of Hippo signaling in the limb bud regeneration of an anuran amphibian, Xenopus laevis. We found that a transcription factor, Yap1, an important downstream effector of Hippo signaling, is upregulated in the regenerating limb bud. To evaluate Yap1׳s function in limb bud regeneration, we made transgenic animals that expressed a dominant-negative form of Yap under a heat-shock promoter. Overexpression of a dominant-negative form of Yap in tadpoles reduced cell proliferation, induced ectopic apoptosis, perturbed the expression domains of limb-patterning genes including hoxa13, hoxa11, and shh in the regenerating limb bud. Transient expression of a dominant-negative Yap in transgenic tadpoles also caused limb bud regeneration defects, and reduced intercalary regeneration. These results indicate that Yap1 has a crucial role in controlling the limb regenerative capacity in Xenopus, and suggest that the involvement of Hippo signaling in regeneration is conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates. This finding provides molecular evidence that common principles underlie regeneration across phyla, and may contribute to the development of new therapies in regenerative medicine.

  12. Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin-1 Is a Reliable Taste Bud Marker for In Situ Hybridization Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Joto; Okada, Shinji; Kishi, Mikiya; Misaka, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Taste signals are received by taste buds. To better understand the taste reception system, expression patterns of taste-related molecules are determined by in situ hybridization (ISH) analyses at the histological level. Nevertheless, even though ISH is essential for determining mRNA expression, few taste bud markers can be applied together with ISH. Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1) appears to be a reliable murine taste bud marker based on immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses. However, there is no evidence as to whether UEA-1 can be used for ISH. Thus, the present study evaluated UEA-1 using various histochemical methods, especially ISH. When lectin staining was performed after ISH procedures, UEA-1 clearly labeled taste cellular membranes and distinctly indicated boundaries between taste buds and the surrounding epithelial cells. Additionally, UEA-1 was determined as a taste bud marker not only when used in single-colored ISH but also when employed with double-labeled ISH or during simultaneous detection using IHC and ISH methods. These results suggest that UEA-1 is a useful marker when conducting analyses based on ISH methods. To clarify UEA-1 staining details, multi-fluorescent IHC (together with UEA-1 staining) was examined, resulting in more than 99% of cells being labeled by UEA-1 and overlapping with KCNQ1-expressing cells. PMID:26718243

  13. Arenavirus budding resulting from viral-protein-associated cell membrane curvature.

    PubMed

    Schley, David; Whittaker, Robert J; Neuman, Benjamin W

    2013-09-06

    Viral replication occurs within cells, with release (and onward infection) primarily achieved through two alternative mechanisms: lysis, in which virions emerge as the infected cell dies and bursts open; or budding, in which virions emerge gradually from a still living cell by appropriating a small part of the cell membrane. Virus budding is a poorly understood process that challenges current models of vesicle formation. Here, a plausible mechanism for arenavirus budding is presented, building on recent evidence that viral proteins embed in the inner lipid layer of the cell membrane. Experimental results confirm that viral protein is associated with increased membrane curvature, whereas a mathematical model is used to show that localized increases in curvature alone are sufficient to generate viral buds. The magnitude of the protein-induced curvature is calculated from the size of the amphipathic region hypothetically removed from the inner membrane as a result of translation, with a change in membrane stiffness estimated from observed differences in virion deformation as a result of protein depletion. Numerical results are based on experimental data and estimates for three arenaviruses, but the mechanisms described are more broadly applicable. The hypothesized mechanism is shown to be sufficient to generate spontaneous budding that matches well both qualitatively and quantitatively with experimental observations.

  14. [Compensation effect of cotton growth and development after soil salt content reduction at bud stage].

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Qi; Zhang, Pei-Tong; Li, Chun-Hong; Yin, Jian-Mei; Han, Xiao-Yong

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the dynamic characteristics of cotton growth and development after soil salt content reduction (SD) at bud stage and its effect on yield formation, a pot experiment was conducted in which soil salt content was declined from 5 per thousand level to 2 per thousand level at cotton bud stage. The results showed that the plant height, biomass, total fruit branch and fruit node number, boll number, boll mass of cotton plants increased after soil salt content reduction at bud stage. The distribution proportions of biomass in root and boll decreased after soil salt content reduction, however, the distribution proportions of biomass in leaf, main stem and fruit branch were on the rise. The growth rate of cotton plant increased after soil salt content reduction. Plant dry matter accumulation rate of SD cotton exceeded CK cotton at 22 days after soil salt content reduction. The response of different organs of cotton plant were different to soil salt content reduction, the plant height was the earliest, followed by the fruit branch and fruit node formation, and the bud and boll were the latest, which indicated that the compensation effect of cotton growth and development after soil salt content reduction at bud stage firstly appeared on the formation and growth of new leaf, fruit branch and fruit node, and on this basis, gradually brought out yield compensation.

  15. A2BR Adenosine Receptor Modulates Sweet Taste in Circumvallate Taste Buds

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields. PMID:22253866

  16. Arenavirus budding resulting from viral-protein-associated cell membrane curvature

    PubMed Central

    Schley, David; Whittaker, Robert J.; Neuman, Benjamin W.

    2013-01-01

    Viral replication occurs within cells, with release (and onward infection) primarily achieved through two alternative mechanisms: lysis, in which virions emerge as the infected cell dies and bursts open; or budding, in which virions emerge gradually from a still living cell by appropriating a small part of the cell membrane. Virus budding is a poorly understood process that challenges current models of vesicle formation. Here, a plausible mechanism for arenavirus budding is presented, building on recent evidence that viral proteins embed in the inner lipid layer of the cell membrane. Experimental results confirm that viral protein is associated with increased membrane curvature, whereas a mathematical model is used to show that localized increases in curvature alone are sufficient to generate viral buds. The magnitude of the protein-induced curvature is calculated from the size of the amphipathic region hypothetically removed from the inner membrane as a result of translation, with a change in membrane stiffness estimated from observed differences in virion deformation as a result of protein depletion. Numerical results are based on experimental data and estimates for three arenaviruses, but the mechanisms described are more broadly applicable. The hypothesized mechanism is shown to be sufficient to generate spontaneous budding that matches well both qualitatively and quantitatively with experimental observations. PMID:23864502

  17. The essential function of Rrs1 in ribosome biogenesis is conserved in budding and fission yeasts.

    PubMed

    Wan, Kun; Kawara, Haruka; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Kume, Kazunori; Yabuki, Yukari; Goshima, Tetsuya; Kitamura, Kenji; Ueno, Masaru; Kanai, Muneyoshi; Hirata, Dai; Funato, Kouichi; Mizuta, Keiko

    2015-09-01

    The Rrs1 protein plays an essential role in the biogenesis of 60S ribosomal subunits in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Here, we examined whether the fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) homologue of Rrs1 also plays a role in ribosome biogenesis. To this end, we constructed two temperature-sensitive fission yeast strains, rrs1-D14/22G and rrs1-L51P, which had amino acid substitutions corresponding to those of the previously characterized budding yeast rrs1-84 (D22/30G) and rrs1-124 (L61P) strains, respectively. The fission yeast mutants exhibited severe defects in growth and 60S ribosomal subunit biogenesis at high temperatures. In addition, expression of the Rrs1 protein of fission yeast suppressed the growth defects of the budding yeast rrs1 mutants at high temperatures. Yeast two-hybrid analyses revealed that the interactions of Rrs1 with the Rfp2 and Ebp2 proteins were conserved in budding and fission yeasts. These results suggest that the essential function of Rrs1 in ribosome biogenesis may be conserved in budding and fission yeasts.

  18. Cytoskeletal impairment during isoamyl alcohol-induced cell elongation in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Wakae; Kinpara, Satoko; Kitahara, Nozomi; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Ogita, Akira; Tanaka, Toshio; Fujita, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Isoamyl alcohol (IAA) induces pseudohyphae including cell elongation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Detailed regulation of microtubules and actin in developmental transition during cell elongation is poorly understood. Here, we show that although IAA did not affect the intracellular actin level, it reduced the levels of both α- and β-tubulins. In budding yeast, cytoplasmic microtubules are linked to actin via complexes consisting of at least Kar9, Bim1, and Myo2, and reach from the spindle pole body to the cortical attachment site at the bud tip. However, IAA did not affect migration of Myo2 to the bud tip and kept Kar9 in the interior portion of the cell. In addition, bud elongation was observed in Kar9-overexpressing cells in the absence of IAA. These results indicate that impairment of the link between cytoplasmic microtubules and actin is possibly involved in the lowered interaction of Myo2 with Kar9. Our study might explain the reason for delayed cell cycle during IAA-induced cell elongation. PMID:27507042

  19. Coordinated Spindle Assembly and Orientation Requires Clb5p-Dependent Kinase in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Marisa; Clarke, Duncan J.; Maddox, Paul; Salmon, E.D.; Bloom, Kerry; Reed, Steven I.

    2000-01-01

    The orientation of the mitotic spindle along a polarity axis is critical in asymmetric cell divisions. In the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, loss of the S-phase B-type cyclin Clb5p under conditions of limited cyclin-dependent kinase activity (cdc28-4 clb5Δ cells) causes a spindle positioning defect that results in an undivided nucleus entering the bud. Based on time-lapse digital imaging microscopy of microtubules labeled with green fluorescent protein fusions to either tubulin or dynein, we observed that the asymmetric behavior of the spindle pole bodies during spindle assembly was lost in the cdc28-4 clb5Δ cells. As soon as a spindle formed, both poles were equally likely to interact with the bud cell cortex. Persistent dynamic interactions with the bud ultimately led to spindle translocation across the bud neck. Thus, the mutant failed to assign one spindle pole body the task of organizing astral microtubules towards the mother cell. Our data suggest that Clb5p-associated kinase is required to confer mother-bound behavior to one pole in order to establish correct spindle polarity. In contrast, B-type cyclins, Clb3p and Clb4p, though partially redundant with Clb5p for an early role in spindle morphogenesis, preferentially promote spindle assembly. PMID:10662771

  20. Antibiofilm and Antioxidant Activity of Propolis and Bud Poplar Resins versus Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Stefania; Piccioni, Miranda; Pagiotti, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common biofilm-forming bacterial pathogen implicated in lung, skin, and systemic infections. Biofilms are majorly associated with chronic lung infection, which is the most severe complication in cystic fibrosis patients characterized by drug-resistant biofilms in the bronchial mucus with zones, where reactive oxygen species concentration is increased mainly due to neutrophil activity. Aim of this work is to verify the anti-Pseudomonas property of propolis or bud poplar resins extracts. The antimicrobial activity of propolis and bud poplar resins extracts was determined by MIC and biofilm quantification. Moreover, we tested the antioxidant activity by DPPH and neutrophil oxidative burst assays. In the end, both propolis and bud poplar resins extracts were able to inhibit P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and to influence both swimming and swarming motility. Moreover, the extracts could inhibit proinflammatory cytokine production by human PBMC and showed both direct and indirect antioxidant activity. This work is the first to demonstrate that propolis and bud poplar resins extracts can influence biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa contrasting the inflammation and the oxidation state typical of chronic infection suggesting that propolis or bud poplar resins can be used along with antibiotic as adjuvant in the therapy against P. aeruginosa infections related to biofilm. PMID:28127379

  1. Latitudinal variation in sensitivity of flower bud formation to high temperature in Japanese Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Yoshie, Fumio

    2014-05-01

    Control of flowering time plays a key role in the successful range expansion of plants. Taraxacum officinale has expanded throughout Japan during the 110 years after it was introduced into a cool temperate region. The present study tested a hypothesis that there is a genetic difference in the bud formation time in relation to temperature along latitudinal gradient of T. officinale populations. In Experiment 1, plants from three populations at different latitudes (26, 36, and 43°N) were grown at three temperatures. Time to flower bud appearance did not significantly differ among the three populations when plants were grown at 14 °C, whereas it increased with increasing latitude when grown at 19 and 24 °C. Rosette diameter was not different among the populations, indicating that the variation in bud formation time reflected a difference in genetic control rather than size variation. The latitudinal variation in bud appearance time was confirmed by Experiment 2 in which plants from 17 population were used. In Experiment 3, the size of plants that exhibited late-flowering was studied to test a hypothesis that the variation in flowering time reflects dormancy of vegetative growth, but the late-flowering plants were found to continue growth, indicating that vegetative dormancy was not the cause of the variation. The results clearly indicate that the degree of suppression of flower bud formation at high temperature decreases with latitude from north to south, which is under genetic control.

  2. Study of budding yeast colony formation and its characterizations by using circular granular cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprianti, D.; Haryanto, F.; Purqon, A.; Khotimah, S. N.; Viridi, S.

    2016-03-01

    Budding yeast can exhibit colony formation in solid substrate. The colony of pathogenic budding yeast can colonize various surfaces of the human body and medical devices. Furthermore, it can form biofilm that resists drug effective therapy. The formation of the colony is affected by the interaction between cells and with its growth media. The cell budding pattern holds an important role in colony expansion. To study this colony growth, the molecular dynamic method was chosen to simulate the interaction between budding yeast cells. Every cell was modelled by circular granular cells, which can grow and produce buds. Cohesion force, contact force, and Stokes force govern this model to mimic the interaction between cells and with the growth substrate. Characterization was determined by the maximum (L max) and minimum (L min) distances between two cells within the colony and whether two lines that connect the two cells in the maximum and minimum distances intersect each other. Therefore, it can be recognized the colony shape in circular, oval, and irregular shapes. Simulation resulted that colony formation are mostly in oval shape with little branch. It also shows that greater cohesion strength obtains more compact colony formation.

  3. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a model for aging research: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Gershon, H; Gershon, D

    2000-12-01

    In this review we discuss the yeast as a paradigm for the study of aging. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which can proliferate in both haploid and diploid states, has been used extensively in aging research. The budding yeast divides asymmetrically to form a 'mother' cell and a bud. Two major approaches, 'budding life span' and 'stationary phase' have been used to determine 'senescence' and 'life span' in yeast. Discrepancies observed in metabolic behavior and longevity between cells studied by these two systems raise questions of how 'life span' in yeast is defined and measured. Added to this variability in experimental approach and results is the variety of yeast strains with different genetic make up used as 'wild type' and experimental organisms. Another problematic genetic point in the published studies on yeast is the use of both diploid and haploid strains. We discuss the inherent, advantageous attributes that make the yeast an attractive choice for modern biological research as well as certain pitfalls in the choice of this model for the study of aging. The significance of the purported roles of the Sir2 gene, histone deacetylases, gene silencing, rDNA circles and stress genes in determination of yeast 'life span' and aging is evaluated. The relationship between cultivation conditions and longevity are assessed. Discrepancies between the yeast and mammalian systems with regard to aging are pointed out. We discuss unresolved problems concerning the suitability of the budding yeast for the study of basic aging phenomena.

  4. Tumor Budding, uPA, and PAI-1 in Colorectal Cancer: Update of a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Hardt, Jochen; Franz, Simon; Schaller, Tina; Schenkirsch, Gerhard; Kriening, Bernadette; Hoffmann, Reinhard; Rüth, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Aims. The prognostic role of the proteases uPA and PAI-1, as well as tumor budding, in colon cancer, has been investigated previously. Methods. We provide 6-year follow-up data and results of the validation set. The initial test set and validation set consisted of 55 colon cancers and 68 colorectal cancers, respectively. Tissue samples were analyzed for uPA and PAI-1 using a commercially available Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Tumor budding was analyzed on cytokeratin-stained slides. Survival analyses were performed using cut-offs that were determined previously. Results. uPA was not prognostic for outcome. PAI-1 showed a trend towards reduced cancer specific survival in PAI-1 high-grade cases (68 versus 83 months; P = 0.091). The combination of high-grade PAI-1 and tumor budding was associated with significantly reduced cancer specific survival (60 versus 83 months; P = 0.021). After pooling the data from both sets, multivariate analyses revealed that the factors pN-stage, V-stage, and a combination of tumor budding and PAI-1 were independently prognostic for the association with distant metastases. Conclusions. A synergistic adverse effect of PAI-1 and tumor budding in uni- and multivariable analyses was found. PAI-1 could serve as a target for anticancer therapy. PMID:28286517

  5. Biphasic effect of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud on reproductive physiology of male mice.

    PubMed

    Mishra, R K; Singh, S K

    2016-11-01

    The flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) have been used for the treatment of male sexual disorders in indigenous medicines of Indian subcontinent. Therefore to evaluate the efficacy of Syzygium aromaticum on the male reproductive health, chronic oral exposure of aqueous extract of flower buds of Syzygium in three doses (15 mg, 30 mg and 60 mg kg(-1) BW) were studied for a single spermatogenic cycle (35 days) in Parkes (P) strain mice. Lower dose (15 mg) of Syzygium aromaticum flower buds increased serum testosterone level and testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) activities and improved sperm motility, sperm morphology, secretory activity of epididymis and seminal vesicle, and number of litters per female. On the other hand, higher doses (30 and 60 mg) of the treatment adversely affected above parameters. Further, higher doses of the extract also had adverse effects on daily sperm production, 1C cell population and on histology of testis. In conclusion, Syzygium aromaticum flower buds extract exhibits biphasic effect on reproductive physiology of male mice. Lower dose of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud extract is androgenic in nature and may have a viable future as an indigenous sexual rejuvenator, while higher doses adversely affected functional physiology of reproductive organs.

  6. Making continental-scale environmental programs relevant locally for educators with Project BudBurst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, L.; Henderson, S.; Wasser, L.; Newman, S. J.; Ward, D.

    2012-12-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage non professionals in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide excellent opportunities for educators and their students to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants at a continental-scale; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch, this on-line program has engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent, and in contemplating the meaning of such data in their local environments. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst educational resources and share lessons learned from educators in implementing the program in formal and informal education settings. Lesson plans and tips from educators will be highlighted. Project BudBurst is co-managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and the Chicago Botanic Garden.

  7. Mapping of Candidate Genes Involved in Bud Dormancy and Flowering Time in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium).

    PubMed

    Castède, Sophie; Campoy, José Antonio; Le Dantec, Loïck; Quero-García, José; Barreneche, Teresa; Wenden, Bénédicte; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The timing of flowering in perennial plants is crucial for their survival in temperate climates and is regulated by the duration of bud dormancy. Bud dormancy release and bud break depend on the perception of cumulative chilling during endodormancy and heat during the bud development. The objectives of this work were to identify candidate genes involved in dormancy and flowering processes in sweet cherry, their mapping in two mapping progenies 'Regina' × 'Garnet' and 'Regina' × 'Lapins', and to select those candidate genes which co-localized with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with temperature requirements for bud dormancy release and flowering. Based on available data on flowering processes in various species, a list of 79 candidate genes was established. The peach and sweet cherry orthologs were identified and primers were designed to amplify sweet cherry candidate gene fragments. Based on the amplified sequences of the three parents of the mapping progenies, SNPs segregations in the progenies were identified. Thirty five candidate genes were genetically mapped in at least one of the two progenies and all were in silico mapped. Co-localization between candidate genes and QTLs associated with temperature requirements and flowering date were identified for the first time in sweet cherry. The allelic composition of the candidate genes located in the major QTL for heat requirements and flowering date located on linkage group 4 have a significant effect on these two traits indicating their potential use for breeding programs in sweet cherry to select new varieties adapted to putative future climatic conditions.

  8. Two active states of the Ras-related Bud1/Rsr1 protein bind to different effectors to determine yeast cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hay-Oak; Bi, Erfei; Pringle, John R.; Herskowitz, Ira

    1997-01-01

    Cells of budding yeast organize their cytoskeleton in a highly polarized manner during vegetative growth. Selection of a site for polarization requires a group of proteins including a Ras-like GTPase, Bud1, and its regulators. Another group of proteins, which includes a Rho-like GTPase (Cdc42), its guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Cdc24), and Bem1, is necessary for organization of the actin cytoskeleton and for cell polarization. We have proposed previously that the Bud1 protein, through its GTPase cycle, determines the localization of one or more of the cell polarity proteins to the bud site. Herein we demonstrate that Bud1 directly interacts with Cdc24 and Bem1: Bud1 in its GTP-bound form associates preferentially with Cdc24, whereas the GDP-bound form of Bud1 associates with Bem1. We also present subcellular fractionation data for Bud1 that is consistent with the idea that Bud1 can travel between the site for budding on the plasma membrane and the cytosol. We propose that Bud1 can exist in two active states for association with different partners and that the switch from Bud1–GTP to Bud1–GDP provides a regulatory device for ordered assembly of a macromolecular complex at the bud site. PMID:9114012

  9. Great Toe Necrosis Predicts an Unfavorable Limb Salvage Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Ichioka, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Summary: The initial location of necrosis may affect the limb salvage rate. This study of 130 patients with chronic toe ulcers or gangrene was performed to assess whether the location of initial necrosis in the toes affected limb salvage prognosis. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to whether the initial necrosis was in the great toe or in other toes. Limb salvage prognosis was determined retrospectively. In the great toe group, the rates of total toe loss and major amputation were 50.0% and 24.4%, respectively. When the initial necrosis was in other toes, these rates were 27.3% and 9.3%, respectively. Great toe necrosis is associated with significantly higher rates of total toe loss (odds ratio = 3.10; P = 0.003; 95% confidence interval, 1.43−6.68) and major amputation (odds ratio = 3.66; P = 0.007; 95% confidence interval, 1.37−9.79). The great toe is supplied by 3 source arteries, whereas the lesser toes are fed by 1 or 2 arteries. Therefore, necrosis initiating from the great toe may reflect the presence of severe vascular disorders. The great toe is also anatomically connected to much of the foot via the tendons. Infection is more likely to spread along these tendons, which may reduce limb prognosis. Thus, the initial location of necrosis may be predictive of limb prognosis. PMID:25426399

  10. [Torsion and necrosis of epiploic appendices of the large bowel].

    PubMed

    Timofeev, M E; Fedorov, E D; Krechetova, A P; Shapoval'iants, S G

    2014-01-01

    The features of the clinical symptoms was studied, the possibility of laparoscopy in modern diagnosis and treatment of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis of the large bowel was assessed in the article. It was done the retrospective analysis of the medical records of 87 patients with a diagnosis of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis of the large bowel. The patients had laparoscopic operations in our hospital in the period from January 1995 to December 2012. The clinical picture, laboratory and instrumental datas in cases of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis were scarce and nonspecific. An abdominal pain preferentially localized in the lower divisions was the main symptom (97.7%). The instrumental methods did not allow to diagnose the torsion and necrosis of epiploic appendices in the majority of cases and all these techniques were used for the differential diagnosis with other diseases. The assumption of the presence of appendices torsion and necrosis occured just in 34.5% of cases before the operation. Diagnosis of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis present significant difficulties on prehospital and preoperative stages. The diagnostic laparoscopy is the method of choice in unclear situations and it allows to diagnose the torsion and necrosis of epiploic appendices in 96.6% of cases. Successful surgical treatment by using laparoscopic approach is possible in 90.8% of cases.

  11. Tumor necrosis factor interaction with gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, De-Hao; Elzey, Sherrie; Delrio, Frank W.; Keene, Athena M.; Tyner, Katherine M.; Clogston, Jeffrey D.; Maccuspie, Robert I.; Guha, Suvajyoti; Zachariah, Michael R.; Hackley, Vincent A.

    2012-05-01

    We report on a systematic investigation of molecular conjugation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) protein onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the subsequent binding behavior to its antibody (anti-TNF). We employ a combination of physical and spectroscopic characterization methods, including electrospray-differential mobility analysis, dynamic light scattering, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The native TNF used in this study exists in the active homotrimer configuration prior to conjugation. After binding to AuNPs, the maximum surface density of TNF is (0.09 +/- 0.02) nm-2 with a binding constant of 3 × 106 (mol L-1)-1. Dodecyl sulfate ions induce desorption of monomeric TNF from the AuNP surface, indicating a relatively weak intermolecular binding within the AuNP-bound TNF trimers. Anti-TNF binds to both TNF-conjugated and citrate-stabilized AuNPs, showing that non-specific binding is significant. Based on the number of anti-TNF molecules adsorbed, a substantially higher binding affinity was observed for the TNF-conjugated surface. The inclusion of thiolated polyethylene glycol (SH-PEG) on the AuNPs inhibits the binding of anti-TNF, and the amount of inhibition is related to the number ratio of surface bound SH-PEG to TNF and the way in which the ligands are introduced. This study highlights the challenges in quantitatively characterizing complex hybrid nanoscale conjugates, and provides insight on TNF-AuNP formation and activity.We report on a systematic investigation of molecular conjugation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) protein onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the subsequent binding behavior to its antibody (anti-TNF). We employ a combination of physical and spectroscopic characterization methods, including electrospray-differential mobility analysis, dynamic light scattering, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

  12. Plaquing procedure for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, J.A.; Mulcahy, D.

    1980-01-01

    A single overlay plaque assay was designed and evaluated for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Epithelioma papillosum carpio cells were grown in normal atmosphere with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane- or HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid)-buffered media. Plaques were larger and formed more quickly on 1- to 3-day-old cell monolayers than on older monolayers. Cell culture medium with a 10% addition of fetal calf serum (MEM 10) or without serum (MEM 0) were the most efficient virus diluents. Dilution with phosphate-buffered saline, saline, normal broth, or deionized water reduced plaque numbers. Variations in the pH (7.0 to 8.0) of a MEM 0 diluent did not affect plaque numbers. Increasing the volume of viral inoculum above 0.15 ml (15- by 60-mm plate) decreased plaquing efficiency. Significantly more plaques occurred under gum tragacanth and methylcellulose than under agar or agarose overlays. Varying the pH (6.8 to 7.4) of methylcellulose overlays did not significantly change plaque numbers. More plaques formed under the thicker overlays of both methylcellulose and gum tragacanth. Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and HEPES performed equally well, buffering either medium or overlay. Plaque numbers were reduced when cells were rinsed after virus adsorption or less than 1 h was allowed for adsorption. Variation in adsorption time between 60 and 180 min did not change plaque numbers. The mean plaque formation time was 7 days at 16 degrees C. The viral dose response was linear when the standardized assay was used.

  13. Progress and renewal in gustation: new insights into taste bud development

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    The sense of taste, or gustation, is mediated by taste buds, which are housed in specialized taste papillae found in a stereotyped pattern on the surface of the tongue. Each bud, regardless of its location, is a collection of ∼100 cells that belong to at least five different functional classes, which transduce sweet, bitter, salt, sour and umami (the taste of glutamate) signals. Taste receptor cells harbor functional similarities to neurons but, like epithelial cells, are rapidly and continuously renewed throughout adult life. Here, I review recent advances in our understanding of how the pattern of taste buds is established in embryos and discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing taste cell turnover. I also highlight how these findings aid our understanding of how and why many cancer therapies result in taste dysfunction. PMID:26534983

  14. Malformation of gynoecia impedes fertilisation in bud-flowering Calluna vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Behrend, A; Borchert, T; Müller, A; Tänzer, J; Hohe, A

    2013-01-01

    In Calluna vulgaris, a common bedding plant during autumn in the northern hemisphere, the bud-blooming mutation of flower morphology is of high economic importance. Breeding of new bud-blooming cultivars suffers from poor seed set in some of the desirable bud-flowering crossing partners. In the current study, fertilisation and seed development in genotypes with good or poor seed set were monitored in detail in order to examine pre- and post-zygotic cross breeding incompatibilities. Whereas no distinct differences were detected in seed development, pollen tube growth was impeded in the pistils of genotypes characterised by poor seed set. Detailed microscopic analysis revealed malformations of the gynoecia due to imperfect fusion of carpels. Hence, a pre-zygotic mechanism hindering pollen tube growth due to malformation of gynoecia was deduced. An interaction of putative candidate genes involved in malformation of gynoecia with floral organ identity genes controlling the flower architecture is discussed.

  15. Progress and renewal in gustation: new insights into taste bud development.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Linda A

    2015-11-01

    The sense of taste, or gustation, is mediated by taste buds, which are housed in specialized taste papillae found in a stereotyped pattern on the surface of the tongue. Each bud, regardless of its location, is a collection of ∼100 cells that belong to at least five different functional classes, which transduce sweet, bitter, salt, sour and umami (the taste of glutamate) signals. Taste receptor cells harbor functional similarities to neurons but, like epithelial cells, are rapidly and continuously renewed throughout adult life. Here, I review recent advances in our understanding of how the pattern of taste buds is established in embryos and discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing taste cell turnover. I also highlight how these findings aid our understanding of how and why many cancer therapies result in taste dysfunction.

  16. Ferrite-Cored Solenoidal Induction Coil Sensor for BUD (MM-1667)

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, F.; Becker, A.; Conti, U.; Gasperikova, E.

    2011-06-15

    We have designed and lab tested a new ferrite cored induction coil sensor for measuring the secondary fields from metallic UXO with the BUD system. The objective was to replace the 5-inch diameter air-cored coils in the BUD system with smaller sensors that would allow the placement of multiple sensors in the smaller package of the new BUD hand-held system. A ferrite-cored solenoidal coil of length L can easily be made to have sensitivity and noise level roughly the same as an air-cored coil of a diameter on the same order as L. A ferrite-cored solenoidal coil can easily have a feedback configuration to achieve critical damping. The feedback configuration leads to a very stable response. Feedback ferrite-cored solenoidal coils show very little interaction as long as they are separated by one half their length.

  17. Acaricidal activities of clove bud oil and red thyme oil using microencapsulation against HDMs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Ran; Sharma, Suraj

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a safer microcapsule loaded with clove bud oil and red thyme oil to reduce the population of house dust mites (HDMs). Gelatin-based microcapsules 4-85 µm in size were created, with agitation speed and type of oil playing a critical role in governing their size. Microcapsules made up of single spherical units less than 30 µm in diameter remained separate on the fibre, whereas larger microcapsules of over 30 µm ruptured or aggregated. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated that microcapsules containing red thyme oil showed a more consistent range of oil loading, from 50 to 80%, than microcapsules containing clove bud oil, which ranged from 30 to 80% (more deviated). Mortality tests on Dermatophagoides farinae conducted on fabric with attached microcapsules showed that clove bud oil, containing a more phenolic monoterpenoid (eugenol), was more effective at reducing the live HDMs (94% mortality).

  18. Challenges With the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cerebral Radiation Necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Samuel T.; Ahluwalia, Manmeet S.; Barnett, Gene H.; Stevens, Glen H.J.; Murphy, Erin S.; Stockham, Abigail L.; Shiue, Kevin; Suh, John H.

    2013-11-01

    The incidence of radiation necrosis has increased secondary to greater use of combined modality therapy for brain tumors and stereotactic radiosurgery. Given that its characteristics on standard imaging are no different that tumor recurrence, it is difficult to diagnose without use of more sophisticated imaging and nuclear medicine scans, although the accuracy of such scans is controversial. Historically, treatment had been limited to steroids, hyperbaric oxygen, anticoagulants, and surgical resection. A recent prospective randomized study has confirmed the efficacy of bevacizumab in treating radiation necrosis. Novel therapies include using focused interstitial laser thermal therapy. This article will review the diagnosis and treatment of radiation necrosis.

  19. Mandibular bone necrosis after use of paraformaldehyde-containing paste

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-hwan; Choi, Yoorina

    2016-01-01

    Paraformaldehyde has been used in the past as a pulpotomy agent. However, it has a severe cytotoxic effect and may cause alveolar bone necrosis. Depulpin, a devitalizing agent containing 49% paraformaldehyde, is no longer used frequently due to its severe side effects. In the two cases described in the present study, Depulpin was used as a devitalizing agent during root canal treatment. It caused a gradual loss of sensibility in adjacent teeth, gingival necrosis, and osteomyelitis. This case report demonstrates the serious side effects of using a paraformaldehyde-containing paste as a devitalizing agent for pulp, particularly mandibular bone necrosis. PMID:27847756

  20. Breast lipoma with central fat necrosis: case report

    PubMed Central

    Bouroumane, Mohamed Reda; Khalil, Reda; Khalil, Hind; Jalal, Hicham

    2016-01-01

    Fat necrosis of the breast is a benign non-suppurative inflammatory process of adipose tissue that most commonly occurs as the result of minor breast trauma. We present a case of a 40-years-old female with fat necrosis in a breast lipoma. She presented with an overlapping mass on the lateral quadrants. Mammography showed Well delineated radiolucent mass with peripheral “egg-shell” calcifications, that appeared an hypoechoic mass with posterior shadowing on ultrasonography. A history of accidental trauma raises the suspicion of fat necrosis. Pathology is necessary when radiological findings simulate malignancy.

  1. Introgression of the SbASR-1 Gene Cloned from a Halophyte Salicornia brachiata Enhances Salinity and Drought Endurance in Transgenic Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and Acts as a Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    The SbASR-1 gene, cloned from a halophyte Salicornia brachiata, encodes a plant-specific hydrophilic and stress responsive protein. The genome of S. brachiata has two paralogs of the SbASR-1 gene (2549 bp), which is comprised of a single intron of 1611 bp, the largest intron of the  abscisic acid stress ripening [ASR] gene family yet reported. In silico analysis of the 843-bp putative promoter revealed the presence of ABA, biotic stress, dehydration, phytohormone, salinity, and sugar responsive cis-regulatory motifs. The SbASR-1 protein belongs to Group 7 LEA protein family with different amino acid composition compared to their glycophytic homologs. Bipartite Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS) was found on the C-terminal end of protein and localization study confirmed that SbASR-1 is a nuclear protein. Furthermore, transgenic groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants over-expressing the SbASR-1 gene constitutively showed enhanced salinity and drought stress tolerance in the T1 generation. Leaves of transgenic lines exhibited higher chlorophyll and relative water contents and lower electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content, proline, sugars, and starch accumulation under stress treatments than wild-type (Wt) plants. Also, lower accumulation of H2O2 and O2.- radicals was detected in transgenic lines compared to Wt plants under stress conditions. Transcript expression of APX (ascorbate peroxidase) and CAT (catalase) genes were higher in Wt plants, whereas the SOD (superoxide dismutase) transcripts were higher in transgenic lines under stress. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) confirmed that the SbASR-1 protein binds at the consensus sequence (C/G/A)(G/T)CC(C/G)(C/G/A)(A/T). Based on results of the present study, it may be concluded that SbASR-1 enhances the salinity and drought stress tolerance in transgenic groundnut by functioning as a LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) protein and a transcription factor. PMID:26158616

  2. Rapid Phytochrome-mediated Changes in Adenosine 5'-Triphosphate Content of Etiolated Bean Buds.

    PubMed

    White, J M; Pike, C S

    1974-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of red and far red irradiation on ATP metabolism in etiolated bean buds (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Red Kidney). Compared to dark controls, red irradiated buds show an initial decline in ATP content at 15 seconds following a 5-minute irradiation. ATP content then rapidly rises to a peak at 1 minute, and then slowly returns to the baseline. The 1-minute promotion of ATP content is red/far red reversible. Acetylcholine does not appear to mimic red light in this system; it causes a marked decrease in ATP content.

  3. Organogenesis during budding and lophophoral morphology of Hislopia malayensis Annandale, 1916 (Bryozoa, Ctenostomata)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bryozoans represent a large lophotrochozoan phylum with controversially discussed phylogenetic position and in group relationships. Developmental processes during the budding of bryozoans are in need for revision. Just recently a study on a phylactolaemate bryozoan gave a comprehensive basis for further comparisons among bryozoans. The aim of this study is to gain more insight into developmental patterns during polypide formation in the budding process of bryozoans. Particular focus is laid upon the lophophore, also its condition in adults. For this purpose we studied organogenesis during budding and lophophoral morphology of the ctenostome bryozoan Hislopia malayensis. Results Polypide buds develop on the frontal side of the developing cystid as proliferation of the epidermal and peritoneal layer. Early buds develop a lumen bordered by the inner budding layer resulting in the shape of a two-layered sac or vesicle. The hind- and midgut anlagen are first to develop as outpocketing of the prospective anal area. These grow towards the prospective mouth area where a comparatively small invagination marks the formation of the foregut. In between the prospective mouth and anus the ganglion develops as an invagination protruding in between the developing gut loop. Lophophore development starts with two lateral ridges which form tentacles very early. At the lophophoral base, intertentacular pits, previously unknown for ctenostomes, develop. The ganglion develops a circum-oral nerve ring from which the tentacle nerves branch off in adult zooids. Tentacles are innervated by medio-frontal nerves arising directly from the nerve ring, and medio-frontal and abfrontal nerves which originate both from an intertentacular fork. Conclusions We are able to show distinct similarities among bryozoans in the formation of the different organ systems: a two-layered vesicle-like early bud, the ganglion forming as an invagination of the epidermal layer in between the prospective

  4. Managing a massacre: savagery, civility, and gender in Moro Province in the wake of Bud Dajo.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the delicate ideological maneuverings that shaped American colonial constructions of savagery, civility, and gender in the wake of the Bud Dajo massacre in the Philippines's Muslim south in 1906. It looks particularly at shifting notions of femininity and masculinity as these related to episodes of violence and colonial control. The article concludes that, while the Bud Dajo massacre was a terrible black mark on the American military's record in Mindanao and Sulu, colonial officials ultimately used the event to positively affirm existing discourses of power and justification, which helped to sustain and guide military rule in the Muslim south for another seven years.

  5. Pulmonary metastatic microangiopathy of colon cancer presenting as a "tree in bud" pattern.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, S; Weynand, B; Coche, E

    2008-01-01

    The authors report an unusual case of a "tree in bud" pattern of vascular origin caused by colon cancer metastases. A 60-year-old man presented for routine follow-up of a colon tumour resected surgically 15 years previously. Clinical examination, laboratory tests, including carcino-embryonic antigen and inflammatory parameters, and chest radiograph were normal. Multislice CT of the lungs revealed the presence of several "tree in bud" opacities. The connection to the pulmonary arteries was well depicted by reformatted maximal intensity projection images. Biopsy of some of the nodules was characterized by mucinous material and neoplastic cells within the small vessels, consistent with metastases from the known colon adenocarcinoma.

  6. Project BudBurst - Meeting the Needs of Climate Change Educators and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.

    2015-12-01

    It is challenging for many to get a sense of what climate change means as long periods of time are involved - like decades - which can be difficult to grasp. However, there are a number of citizen science based projects, including NEON's Project BudBurst, that provide the opportunity for both learning about climate change and advancing scientific knowledge. In this presentation, we will share lessons learned from Project BudBurst. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events and to increase climate literacy. Project BudBurst is important from an educational perspective, but also because it enables scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants at a continental-scale; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. It was important to better understand if and how Project BudBurst is meeting its goals. Specifically, does participation by non-experts advance scientific knowledge? Does participation advance educational goals and outcomes? Is participation an effective approach to advance/enhance science education in both formal and informal settings? Critical examination of Project BudBurst supports advancement of scientific knowledge and realization of educational objectives. Citizen science collected observations and measurements are being used by scientists as evidenced by the increase of such data in scientific publication. In addition, we found that there is a significant increase in educators utilizing citizen science as part of their instruction. Part of this increase is due to the resources and professional development materials available to educators. Working with partners also demonstrated that the needs of both science and

  7. The role of budABC on 1,3-propanediol and 2,3-butanediol production from glycerol in Klebsiella pneumoniae CICIM B0057.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinyao; Ji, Guangjian; Zong, Hong; Zhuge, Bin

    2016-11-01

    1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) is an important compound from which many others can be synthesized. 2,3-butanediol (BDO) is the key by-product in the biosynthesis of 1,3-PD from glycerol, but it impedes its downstream purification. In Klebsiella, the budA, budB and budC genes encode enzymes that are responsible for the synthesis of BDO. In this study, 3 individual antisense RNAs were designed to repress the expression and hence activity of BudA-C. Compared with the parent strains, the activities of BudB and BudC were reduced by 60.5% and 70.5%, respectively, and the mRNA level of budA was reduced by 70%. Decreased BudC activity had no effect on cell growth or carbon distribution. However, reduced BudA and BudB activity decreased the BDO concentration by 35% and led to a 10% increase in the yield of 1,3-PD. This result suggests the activities of BudA and BudB could be key factors in the production of BDO from glycerol in Klebsiella. This study provides a deeper understanding of the role of budABC in glycerol metabolism in Klebsiella.

  8. Toe Necrosis, Etiologies and Management, a Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Abdelfatah Abou; Newman, Mackenzie; Simman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Toe necrosis may have vast different etiologies. These include ischemia, embolus, and others. (1) The most common etiology is ischemia. It is a reduction in blood supply to a viable tissue that can lead to susceptibility to infection and tissue death. Peripheral ischemia, which is rooted in the lower limbs, is a major risk factor for toe necrosis because the basal metabolic requirements of tissue are not being sufficiently met. As a result, pain, ulcers, and gangrene commonly occur. (2) Other causes of direct and indirect toe necrosis and related lower limb gangrene include mechanical trauma, infectious, pharmacological sensitivity, cancer, blue toe syndrome, and other granulomatous diseases, such as Churg-Strauss syndrome. We present a case series of toes necrosis which resulted from different etiologies and their management. PMID:26199887

  9. Cerebral radiation necrosis: diagnostic challenge and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Eisele, S C; Dietrich, J

    2015-09-01

    Cerebral radiation is an indispensable cornerstone in the treatment of many primary and metastatic brain tumors. However, besides its desired therapeutic effect on tumor cells, a significant proportion of patients will experience neurotoxic side effects as the consequence of radiotherapy. Radiation necrosis can result in progressive neurological symptoms and radiographic changes. To differentiate radiation necrosis from progressive tumor based on imaging can pose a diagnostic challenge because the MRI characteristics may be similar in both situations. Therefore, surgical biopsy and pathological confirmation is sometimes necessary to guide further management. Effective treatment options for cerebral radiation necrosis exist and should be offered to symptomatic patients. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular processes underlying the development of radiation necrosis is necessary to prevent and minimize radiation-associated morbidity and to improve treatment strategies.

  10. Renal papillary necrosis and pyelonephritis accompanying fenoprofen therapy.

    PubMed

    Husserl, F E; Lange, R K; Kantrow, C M

    1979-10-26

    Renal papillary necrosis occurred after fenoprofen calcium administration in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and urinary tract infection. Possible mechanisms of renal damage may be hypersensitivity, decreased blood flow, and decreased production of a prostaglandin E-like substance.

  11. Recommendations from the INHAND Apoptosis/Necrosis Working Group.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Susan A; Dixon, Darlene; Hailey, James R; Harada, Takanori; Herbert, Ronald A; Maronpot, Robert R; Nolte, Thomas; Rehg, Jerold E; Rittinghausen, Susanne; Rosol, Thomas J; Satoh, Hiroshi; Vidal, Justin D; Willard-Mack, Cynthia L; Creasy, Dianne M

    2016-02-01

    Historically, there has been confusion relating to the diagnostic nomenclature for individual cell death. Toxicologic pathologists have generally used the terms "single cell necrosis" and "apoptosis" interchangeably. Increased research on the mechanisms of cell death in recent years has led to the understanding that apoptosis and necrosis involve different cellular pathways and that these differences can have important implications when considering overall mechanisms of toxicity, and, for these reasons, the separate terms of apoptosis and necrosis should be used whenever differentiation is possible. However, it is also recognized that differentiation of the precise pathway of cell death may not be important, necessary, or possible in routine toxicity studies and so a more general term to indicate cell death is warranted in these situations. Morphological distinction between these two forms of cell death can sometimes be straightforward but can also be challenging. This article provides a brief discussion of the cellular mechanisms and morphological features of apoptosis and necrosis as well as guidance on when the pathologist should use these terms. It provides recommended nomenclature along with diagnostic criteria (in hematoxylin and eosin [H&E]-stained sections) for the most common forms of cell death (apoptosis and necrosis). This document is intended to serve as current guidance for the nomenclature of cell death for the International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria Organ Working Groups and the toxicologic pathology community at large. The specific recommendations are:Use necrosis and apoptosis as separate diagnostic terms.Use modifiers to denote the distribution of necrosis (e.g., necrosis, single cell; necrosis, focal; necrosis, diffuse; etc.).Use the combined term apoptosis/single cell necrosis whenThere is no requirement or need to split the processes, orWhen the nature of cell death cannot be determined with certainty, orWhen both

  12. Detection of Intracellular Bacteria in the Buds of Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Laukkanen, Hanna; Pospiech, Helmut; Myllylä, Raili; Hohtola, Anja

    2000-01-01

    Bacterial isolates were obtained from pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tissue cultures and identified as Methylobacterium extorquens and Pseudomonas synxantha. The existence of bacteria in pine buds was investigated by 16S rRNA in situ hybridization. Bacteria inhabited the buds of every tree examined, primarily colonizing the cells of scale primordia and resin ducts. PMID:10877808

  13. Changes in the Expression of Carbohydrate Metabolism Genes during Three Phases of Bud Dormancy in Leafy Spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) undergo three well-defined phases of dormancy, para-, endo-, and ecodormancy. In this study, relationships among genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and bud dormancy were examined after paradormancy release (growth induction) by d...

  14. A septin from the filamentous fungus A. nidulans induces atypical pseudohyphae in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Septins were first discovered in Saccharomyces cerevisiae where they form a scaffold that organizes the bud site and are a component of the morphogenesis checkpoint that coordinates budding with mitosis. Five of the seven S. cerevisiae septins (Cdc3, Cdc10, Cdc11, Cdc12 and Shs1) colocalize as a rin...

  15. Decreased miR-320a promotes invasion and metastasis of tumor budding cells in tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zehang; Hou, Jinson; Liu, Xiqiang; Wu, Yue; Liu, Haichao; Huang, Hongzhang

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine the specific miRNA profile of tumor budding cells and investigate the potential role of miR-320a in invasion and metastasis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). We collected tumor budding cells and paired central tumor samples from five TSCC specimens with laser capture microdissection and examined the specimens using a miRNA microarray. The specific miRNA signature of tumor budding cells was identified. We found that miR-320a was dramatically decreased in tumor budding cells. Knockdown of miR-320a significantly enhanced migration and invasion of TSCC cell lines. Suz12 was shown to be a direct target of miR-320a. Similar results were also observed in nude mouse models. Multivariate analysis indicated that miR-320a was an independent prognostic factor. Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated that decreased miR-320a and high intensity of tumor budding were correlated with poor survival rate, especially in the subgroup with high-intensity tumor budding and low expression of miR-320a. We concluded that decreased expression of miR-320a could promote invasion and metastasis of tumor budding cells by targeting Suz12 in TSCC. A combination of tumor budding and miR-320a may serve as an index to identify an aggressive sub-population of TSCC cells with high metastatic potential. PMID:27582550

  16. Synchronisms between bud and cambium phenology in black spruce: early-flushing provenances exhibit early xylem formation.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Magali; Rossi, Sergio; Isabel, Nathalie

    2017-03-03

    Bud and cambial phenology represent the adaptation of species to the local environment that allows the growing season to be maximized while minimizing the risk of frost for the developing tissues. The temporal relationship between the apical and radial meristems can help in the understanding of tree growth as a whole process. The aim of this study was to compare cambial phenology in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) provenances classified as early and late bud flushing. The different phases of cambial phenology were assessed on wood microcores sampled weekly from April to October in 2014 and 2015 from 61 trees growing in a provenance trial in Quebec, Canada. Trees showing an early bud flush also exhibited early reactivation of xylem differentiation, although an average difference of 12 days for buds corresponded to small although significant differences of 4 days for xylem. Provenances with early bud flush had an early bud set and completed xylem formation earlier than late bud flush provenances. No significant difference in the period of xylem formation and total growth was observed between the flushing classes. Our results demonstrate that the ecotype differentiation of black spruce provenances represented by the phenological adaptation of buds to the local climate corresponds to specific growth dynamics of the xylem.

  17. Coexisting avascular necrosis of the scaphoid and lunate.

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Jung; Lee, Sang-Uk; Kim, Hyoung-Min

    2010-11-01

    Reports of coexisting avascular necrosis of more than one carpal bone are rare. We report coexisting avascular necrosis of the scaphoid and lunate in a 56-year-old woman with no history of using steroids or injury. We treated her with a radioscapholunate fusion with two angled 2.4 mm distal radius plates to stabilise the locking plate. At her 12-month follow up there was no evidence of non-union.

  18. [The asterisk sign and adult ischemic femur head necrosis].

    PubMed

    Dihlmann, W; Heller, M

    1985-04-01

    The asterisk sign is a stellate density, which is seen normally in the femoral head on computed tomography. It is due to the demonstration of the trabeculae in the femoral head. In adult ischaemic necrosis of the femoral head, there are characteristic changes in the asterisk sign at an early stage, even before there is collapse of the head. The changes are described and the indications for performing CT of the hip for diagnosing adult ischaemic necrosis are discussed.

  19. Renal cortical necrosis: A rare complication of Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Bansal, N; Jhorawat, R; Kimmatkar, P D; Malhotra, V

    2014-11-01

    A young female with Plasmodium vivax malaria presented with anemia, hyperbilirubinemia, thrombocytopenia, and advanced renal failure. She remained anuric for more than 3 weeks. Kidney biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of acute cortical necrosis. During follow-up, she became dialysis independent, but remained in stage 4 chronic kidney disease (CKD) at 3 month. P. vivax is supposed to be benign in nature, but can lead to rare and severe complication like renal cortical necrosis and progress to CKD.

  20. Relationship between dental disease and radiation necrosis of the mandible

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, C.G.; Daly, T.E.; Zimmerman, S.O.

    1980-02-01

    Preirradiation panoramic radiographs of forty-six dentate patients were examined for the presence of significant dental disease. Evidence of a positive association between dental disease present before radiation therapy and subsequent necrosis of the mandible was found leading to a recommendation that significant disease be eradicated before irradiation of oral tissues. Considerable suffering results from bone necrosis, which can be reduced by careful and rational dental diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Intestinal Necrosis due to Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate (Kayexalate) in Sorbitol

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, C. E.; Saha, S.; Chu, G.; Resnick, M. B.; Moss, S. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS, Kayexalate) has been implicated in the development of intestinal necrosis. Sorbitol, added as a cathartic agent, may be primarily responsible. Previous studies have documented bowel necrosis primarily in postoperative, dialysis, and transplant patients. We sought to identify additional clinical characteristics among patients with probable SPS-induced intestinal necrosis. Methods Rhode Island Hospital surgical pathology records were reviewed to identify all gastrointestinal specimens reported as containing SPS crystals from December 1998 to June 2007. Patient demographics, medical comorbidities, and hospital courses of histologically verified cases of intestinal necrosis were extracted from the medical records. Results Twenty-nine patients with reports of SPS crystals were identified. Nine cases were excluded as incidental findings with normal mucosa. Nine patients were excluded as their symptoms began before SPS administration or because an alternate etiology for bowel ischemia was identified. Eleven patients had confirmed intestinal necrosis and a temporal relationship with SPS administration suggestive of SPS-induced necrosis. Only 2 patients were postoperative, and only 4 had end-stage renal disease (ESRD). All patients had documented hyperkalemia, received oral SPS, and developed symptoms of intestinal injury between 3 hours and 11 days after SPS administration. Four patients died. Conclusion Intestinal ischemia is a recognized risk of SPS in sorbitol. Our series highlights that patients may be susceptible even in the absence of ESRD, surgical intervention, or significant comorbidity. PMID:19373153

  2. Serum transaminase levels after experimental paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, M F; Fulker, M J; Walker, B E; Kelleher, J; Losowsky, M S

    1975-01-01

    The relationship between serum transaminase levels and the extent of paracetamol-induced liver necrosis has been investigated in the rat. Three methods of histological quantitation were used to assess of necrosis--arbitrary grading, point counting, and the image-analysis computer. Highly significant correlations were obtained between the three methods and all were found to be reproducible. A close correlation was found between the extent of hepatic necrosis and the serum ASAT and ALAT 24 hours after a large dose (4 g/kg) of paracetamol. Likewise, the mean grade of necrosis correlated reasonably well with the serum enzyme levels in the recovery phase at 36 and 72 hours, although the transaminase level for a given degree of necrosis was considerably lower at 72 hours than at 24 hours. These findings suggest that serum transaminase levels gives a reliable indication of the severity of hepatic necrosis if the time of ingestion of the paracetamol is known and taken into account. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:1205274

  3. Dehydration and osmotic adjustment in apple stem tissue during winter as it relates to the frost resistance of buds.

    PubMed

    Pramsohler, Manuel; Neuner, Gilbert

    2013-08-01

    In deciduous trees, measurement of stem water potential can be difficult during the leafless period in winter. By using thermocouple psychrometry, osmotic water potentials (Ψo; actual Ψo: Ψo(act); Ψo at full saturation: Ψo(sat)) of expressed sap of bark and bud tissue were measured in order to test if the severity of winter desiccation in apple stems could be sufficiently assessed with Ψo. Water potentials were related to frost resistance and freezing behaviour of buds. The determination of Ψo reliably allowed winter desiccation and osmotic adjustments in apple stem tissue to be assessed. In winter in bark tissue, a pronounced decrease in Ψo(act) and Ψo(sat) was found. Decreased Ψo(sat) indicates active osmotic adjustment in the bark as observed earlier in the leaves of evergreen woody plants. In terminal bud meristems, no significant osmotic adjustments occurred and dehydration during winter was much less. Osmotic water potentials, Ψo(act) and Ψo(sat), of bud tissue were always less negative than in the bark. To prevent water movement and dehydration of the bud tissue via this osmotic gradient, it must be compensated for either by a sufficiently high turgor pressure (Ψp) in bark tissue or by the isolation of the bud tissue from the bark during midwinter. During freezing of apple buds, freeze dehydration and extra-organ freezing could be demonstrated by significantly reduced Ψo(act) values of bud meristems that had been excised in the frozen state. Infrared video thermography was used to monitor freezing patterns in apple twigs. During extracellular freezing of intact and longitudinally dissected stems, infrared differential thermal analysis (IDTA) images showed that the bud meristem remains ice free. Even if cooled to temperatures below the frost-killing temperature, no freezing event could be detected in bud meristems during winter. In contrast, after bud break, terminal buds showed a second freezing at the frost-killing temperature that indicates

  4. The yeast prefoldin-like URI-orthologue Bud27 associates with the RSC nucleosome remodeler and modulates transcription

    PubMed Central

    Mirón-García, María Carmen; Garrido-Godino, Ana Isabel; Martínez-Fernández, Verónica; Fernández-Pevida, Antonio; Cuevas-Bermúdez, Abel; Martín-Expósito, Manuel; Chávez, Sebastián; de la Cruz, Jesús; Navarro, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Bud27, the yeast orthologue of human URI/RMP, is a member of the prefoldin-like family of ATP-independent molecular chaperones. It has recently been shown to mediate the assembly of the three RNA polymerases in an Rpb5-dependent manner. In this work, we present evidence of Bud27 modulating RNA pol II transcription elongation. We show that Bud27 associates with RNA pol II phosphorylated forms (CTD-Ser5P and CTD-Ser2P), and that its absence affects RNA pol II occupancy of transcribed genes. We also reveal that Bud27 associates in vivo with the Sth1 component of the chromatin remodeling complex RSC and mediates its association with RNA pol II. Our data suggest that Bud27, in addition of contributing to Rpb5 folding within the RNA polymerases, also participates in the correct assembly of other chromatin-associated protein complexes, such as RSC, thereby modulating their activity. PMID:25081216

  5. Abscisic acid form, concentration, and application timing influence phenology and bud cold hardiness in Merlot grapevines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of abscisic acid (ABA) form, concentration and application timing on bud cold hardiness, phenology and fruiting performance on ‘Merlot’ grapevines (Vitis vinifera) were evaluated in a three year field trial with site locations in British Columbia Canada, Ontario Canada, Washington U.S. ...

  6. Woody tissue photosynthesis and its contribution to trunk growth and bud development in young plants.

    PubMed

    Saveyn, An; Steppe, Kathy; Ubierna, Nerea; Dawson, Todd E

    2010-11-01

    Stem photosynthesis can contribute significantly to woody plant carbon balance, particularly in times when leaves are absent or in 'open' crowns with sufficient light penetration. We explored the significance of woody tissue (stem) photosynthesis for the carbon income in three California native plant species via measurements of chlorophyll concentrations, radial stem growth, bud biomass and stable carbon isotope composition of sugars in different plant organs. Young plants of Prunus ilicifolia, Umbellularia californica and Arctostaphylos manzanita were measured and subjected to manipulations at two levels: trunk light exclusion (100 and 50%) and complete defoliation. We found that long-term light exclusion resulted in a reduction in chlorophyll concentration and radial growth, demonstrating that trunk assimilates contributed to trunk carbon income. In addition, bud biomass was lower in covered plants compared to uncovered plants. Excluding 100% of the ambient light from trunks on defoliated plants led to an enrichment in ¹³C of trunk phloem sugars. We attributed this effect to a reduction in photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination against ¹³C that in turn resulted in an enrichment in ¹³C of bud sugars. Taken together our results reveal that stem photosynthesis contributes to the total carbon income of all species including the buds in defoliated plants.

  7. Increase in ACC oxidase levels and activities during paradormancy release of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) buds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant hormone ethylene is known to affect various developmental processes including dormancy and growth. Yet, little information is available about ethylene’s role during paradormancy break in adventitious buds of leafy spurge. In this study, we examined changes in ethylene evolution and the eth...

  8. Dynamics of the peptidoglycan biosynthetic machinery in the stalked budding bacterium Hyphomonas neptunium.

    PubMed

    Cserti, Emöke; Rosskopf, Sabine; Chang, Yi-Wei; Eisheuer, Sabrina; Selter, Lars; Shi, Jian; Regh, Christina; Koert, Ulrich; Jensen, Grant J; Thanbichler, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Most commonly studied bacteria grow symmetrically and divide by binary fission, generating two siblings of equal morphology. An exception to this rule are budding bacteria, in which new offspring emerges de novo from a morphologically invariant mother cell. Although this mode of proliferation is widespread in diverse bacterial lineages, the underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. Here, we report the first molecular-level analysis of growth and morphogenesis in the stalked budding alphaproteobacterium Hyphomonas neptunium. Peptidoglycan labeling shows that, in this species, buds originate from a stalk-like extension of the mother cell whose terminal segment is gradually remodeled into a new cell compartment. As a first step toward identifying the machinery mediating the budding process, we performed comprehensive mutational and localization studies of predicted peptidoglycan biosynthetic proteins in H. neptunium. These analyses identify factors that localize to distinct zones of dispersed and zonal growth, and they suggest a critical role of the MreB-controlled elongasome in cell morphogenesis. Collectively, our work shows that the mechanism of growth in H. neptunium is distinct from that in related, polarly growing members of the order Rhizobiales, setting the stage for in-depth analyses of the molecular principles regulating the fascinating developmental cycle of this species.

  9. Dehydration and vernalization treatments identify overlapping molecular networks impacting endodormancy maintenance in leafy spurge crown buds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is an herbaceous perennial weed that reproduces vegetatively from an abundance of underground adventitious buds (UABs), which undergo well-defined phases of seasonal dormancy (para-, endo- and eco-dormancy). In this study, the effects of dehydration-stress on vegeta...

  10. Progress in cryopreservation of dormant winter buds of selected tree species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cryopreservation of germplasm, using dormant winter buds (DB) as source plant materials is economically favorable over tissue culture options (TC). Processing DB does not require aseptic conditions and involved cryopreservation procedures. Although, the DB cryopreservation method has been known f...

  11. Using "Bud World Party" Attendance to Predict Adolescent Alcohol Use and Beliefs about Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Steven R.; Rekve, Dag; Lindsay, Gordon B.

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the association between attendance at the "Bud World Party," a family entertainment venue created by Anheuser-Busch for the 2002 Winter Olympics, and alcohol-related beliefs and current drinking behaviors for a group of 7th and 8th graders who attend a middle school in close proximity to the downtown Salt Lake City plaza where…

  12. Regularity in budding mode and resultant growth morphology of the azooxanthellate colonial scleractinian Tubastraea coccinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentoku, A.; Ezaki, Y.

    2012-03-01

    Scleractinia exhibit a variety of growth forms, whether zooxanthellate or azooxanthellate, according to factors that control asexual reproduction and ensuing coral growth. The azooxanthellate branching scleractinian Dendrophyllia arbuscula shows regular modes of budding in terms of the locations of budding sites, the orientations of directive septa, and the inclination angle of budding throughout colonial growth. This study reports that such regularities are also found in the apparently different growth form of the massive dendrophylliid Tubastraea coccinea, which shows the following growth features: (1) the offsets (lateral corallites) always occur near four primary septa, except the two directive primary septa, meaning that the lateral corallites do not appear in the sectors of the two directive septa; (2) the two directive septa in lateral corallites tend to be oriented subperpendicular to the growth direction of the parental corallites; (3) the lateral corallites grow approximately diagonally upwards; and (4) these regularities are seen in the axial and derived lateral corallites among all generations during colony growth. Large differences in growth form are found between the branching D. arbuscula and massive T. coccinea, irrespective of the presence of specific regularities. It is likely that subtle modifications of certain parameters (e.g., budding interval, branch length, corallite size, and inclination angle of lateral corallites) have a strong effect on the overall growth morphology. A precise understanding of such regularities, which occur regardless of generation or taxonomic position, would contribute to understanding the "shape-controlling mechanism" of corals, which are an archetypal modular organism.

  13. Perception of photoperiod in individual buds of mature trees regulates leaf-out.

    PubMed

    Zohner, Constantin M; Renner, Susanne S

    2015-12-01

    Experimental data on the perception of day length and temperature in dormant temperate zone trees are surprisingly scarce. In order to investigate when and where these environmental signals are perceived, we carried out bagging experiments in which buds on branches of Fagus sylvatica, Aesculus hippocastanum and Picea abies trees were exposed to natural light increase or kept at constant 8-h days from December until June. Parallel experiments used twigs cut from the same trees, harvesting treated and control twigs seven times and then exposing them to 8- or 16-h days in a glasshouse. Under 8-h days, budburst in Fagus outdoors was delayed by 41 d and in Aesculus by 4 d; in Picea, day length had no effect. Buds on nearby branches reacted autonomously, and leaf primordia only reacted to light cues in late dormancy after accumulating warm days. Experiments applying different wavelength spectra and high-resolution spectrometry to buds indicate a phytochrome-mediated photoperiod control. By demonstrating local photoperiodic control of buds, revealing the time when these signals are perceived, and showing the interplay between photoperiod and chilling, this study contributes to improved modelling of the impact of climate warming on photosensitive species.

  14. Reproductive effects of lipid soluble components of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Raghav Kumar; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: The flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) have been used in indigenous medicines for the treatment of male sexual disorders in Indian subcontinent. Objective: To evaluate the effect of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud on male reproduction, using Parkes (P) strain mice as animal model. Materials and Methods: Mice were orally administered lipid soluble components of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud in doses of 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg body weight for 35 days, and several male reproductive endpoints were evaluated. Results: Treatment with lower dose (15 mg) of Syzygium increased the motility of sperm and stimulated the secretory activities of epididymis and seminal vesicle, while higher doses (30 and 60 mg) had adverse effects on sperm dynamics of cauda epididymidis and on the secretory activities of epididymis and seminal vesicle. Libido was not affected in treated males; however, a significant decrease in litter in females sired by males treated with higher doses of Syzygium was recorded. Conclusion: Treatment with Syzygium aromaticum flower bud causes dose-dependent biphasic effect on male reproductive indices in P mice; lower dose of Syzygium appears stimulatory, while the higher doses have adverse effect on male reproduction. The results suggest that the lower dose of Syzygium may have androgenic effect, but further studies are needed to support this contention. PMID:23930041

  15. Cell size and budding during starvation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, G C

    1977-01-01

    When starved for nitrogen, cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced abnormally small cells. Nonetheless, during starvation, only cells of a size characteristic of growing cells were capable of initiating a bud. Even when growth was severely limited, some event(s) in G1 required growth to a critical size for completion. PMID:334753

  16. Buds of Parenting in Emerging Adult Males: What We Learned from Our Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra

    2011-01-01

    The authors examine the precursors of parenting buds (representations regarding parenting before actual parenting) by following 60 men from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Quality of relationships with parents, and attachment representations (state of mind with respect to attachment and attachment styles) assessed in adolescence, contribute to…

  17. Evolution and development of budding by stem cells: ascidian coloniality as a case study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Federico D; Swalla, Billie J

    2012-09-15

    The evolution of budding in metazoans is not well understood on a mechanistic level, but is an important developmental process. We examine the evolution of coloniality in ascidians, contrasting the life histories of solitary and colonial forms with a focus on the cellular and developmental basis of the evolution of budding. Tunicates are an excellent group to study colonial transitions, as all solitary larvae develop with determinant and invariant cleavage patterns, but colonial species show robust developmental flexibility during larval development. We propose that acquiring new stem cell lineages in the larvae may be a preadaptation necessary for the evolution of budding. Brooding in colonial ascidians allows increased egg size, which in turn allows greater flexibility in the specification of cells and cell numbers in late embryonic and pre-metamorphic larval stages. We review hypotheses for changes in stem cell lineages in colonial species, describe what the current data suggest about the evolution of budding, and discuss where we believe further studies will be most fruitful.

  18. [Effects of flower bud removal and artificial pollination on growth and yield of Tulipa edulis].

    PubMed

    Miao, Yuan-Yuan; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Ma, Hong-Liang; Yang, Ying; Zhu, Li-Fang

    2014-06-01

    The study was conducted to explore the response of growth and yield of Tulipa edulis to flower bud removal and artificial pollination. And flower bud removal and artificial pollination were carried out in the squaring period and bloom stage respectively. The morphological index and biomass indicators were determined and the yield was counted in harvest time. Result showed that flower bud removal was beneficial to the growth of T. edulis, resulting in increasing growth index, biomass as well as the yield of bulb. The diameter and dry weight of T. edulis fruit by artificial pollination were increased significantly compared with the control. Seed setting percentage increased to 100%, and the number of seed as well as the single grain weight increased by 69.03% and 16.48%, respectively, which did not significantly affect the bulb production. In conclusion, Flower bud removal treatment accelerates bulb biomass increase, so as to improve its yield. Artificial pollination raised significantly seed setting percentage, seed number as well as the single grain weight.

  19. Mechanisms of taste bud cell loss after head and neck irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ha M.; Reyland, Mary E.; Barlow, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    Taste loss in human patients following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer is a common and significant problem, but the cellular mechanisms underlying this loss are not understood. Taste stimuli are transduced by receptor cells within taste buds, and like epidermal cells, taste cells are regularly replaced throughout adult life. This renewal relies on a progenitor cells adjacent to taste buds, which continually supply new cells to each bud. Here we treated adult mice with a single 8 Gy dose of X-ray irradiation to the head and neck, and analyzed taste epithelium at 1–21 days post-irradiation (dpi). We found irradiation targets the taste progenitor cells, which undergo cell cycle arrest (1–3 dpi) and apoptosis (within 1 dpi). Taste progenitors resume proliferation at 5–7 dpi, with the proportion of cells in S and M phase exceeding control levels at 5–6 and 6 dpi, respectively, suggesting that proliferation is accelerated and/or synchronized following radiation damage. Using BrdU birthdating to identify newborn cells, we found that the decreased proliferation following irradiation reduces the influx of cells at 1–2 dpi, while the robust proliferation detected at 6 dpi accelerates entry of new cells into taste buds. By contrast, the number of differentiated taste cells was not significantly reduced until 7 dpi. These data suggest a model where continued natural taste cell death, paired with temporary interruption of cell replacement underlies taste loss after irradiation. PMID:22399770

  20. Acid-sensing ion channels and transient-receptor potential ion channels in zebrafish taste buds.

    PubMed

    Levanti, M; Randazzo, B; Viña, E; Montalbano, G; Garcia-Suarez, O; Germanà, A; Vega, J A; Abbate, F

    2016-09-01

    Sensory information from the environment is required for life and survival, and it is detected by specialized cells which together make up the sensory system. The fish sensory system includes specialized organs that are able to detect mechanical and chemical stimuli. In particular, taste buds are small organs located on the tongue in terrestrial vertebrates that function in the perception of taste. In fish, taste buds occur on the lips, the flanks, and the caudal (tail) fins of some species and on the barbels of others. In fish taste receptor cells, different classes of ion channels have been detected which, like in mammals, presumably participate in the detection and/or transduction of chemical gustatory signals. However, since some of these ion channels are involved in the detection of additional sensory modalities, it can be hypothesized that taste cells sense stimuli other than those specific for taste. This mini-review summarizes current knowledge on the presence of transient-receptor potential (TRP) and acid-sensing (ASIC) ion channels in the taste buds of teleosts, especially adult zebrafish. Up to now ASIC4, TRPC2, TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPV4 ion channels have been found in the sensory cells, while ASIC2 was detected in the nerves supplying the taste buds.

  1. Conservation of the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System Apple Collection using dormant bud cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System maintains a grafted collection of apple accessions representing 49 taxa in Geneva, NY. Since 1993, dormant buds of many of these accessions have been routinely cryopreserved at the USDA-ARS National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) in For...

  2. Chorio-Allantoic Membrane Grafting of Chick Limb Buds as a Class Practical.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, John C.

    1981-01-01

    A new method of carrying out grafts of early embryonic chick limb buds to the chick chorio-allantoic membrane and a processing schedule which renders cartilage elements visible in whole mount are discussed, including implications for the procedures and their results. (Author/DC)

  3. DNA methylation/demethylation programming during peach flower bud dormancy release, development and blooming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peach flower bud development undergoes a long, complex and temperature-dependent regulation process with cessation of growth in response to cool temperatures in late fall, a slow but gradual development during the chilling period in winter, and eventually blooming in early spring. It has been demon...

  4. Components required for cytokinesis are important for bud site selection in yeast

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Polarized cell division is a fundamental process that occurs in a variety of organisms; it is responsible for the proper positioning of daughter cells and the correct segregation of cytoplasmic components. The SPA2 gene of yeast encodes a nonessential protein that localizes to sites of cell growth and to the site of cytokinesis. spa2 mutants exhibit slightly altered budding patterns. In this report, a genetic screen was used to isolate a novel ochre allele of CDC10, cdc10-10; strains containing this mutation require the SPA2 gene for growth. CDC10 encodes a conserved potential GTP-binding protein that previously has been shown to localize to the bud neck and to be important for cytokinesis. The genetic interaction of cdc10-10 and spa2 suggests a role for SPA2 in cytokinesis. Most importantly, strains that contain a cdc10-10 mutation and those containing mutations affecting other putative neck filament proteins do not form buds at their normal proximal location. The finding that a component involved in cytokinesis is also important in bud site selection provides strong evidence for the cytokinesis tag model; i.e., critical components at the site of cytokinesis are involved in determining the next site of polarized growth and division. PMID:8320260

  5. Kenny, Bud, and Now Luther! Using Curtis' Books in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Beck, Sharon M.

    2005-01-01

    Christopher Paul Curtis is an internationally known author of books loved by young adult readers. "The Watsons Go to Birmingham--1963" and "Bud, Not Buddy" have now been joined by "Bucking the Sarge," Curtis' newest book. This article will share information about each of the texts, as well as how they can be used in…

  6. Safety assessment of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud (clove) extract with respect to testicular function in mice.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Raghav Kumar; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2008-10-01

    The flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (clove), a common food flavor, have been used as indigenous medicine for the treatment of male sexual disorders in Asian countries. However, the possible mechanism(s) by which it acts at testicular level remain obscure. Therefore, to investigate its effect on testicular function, chronic oral exposure of hexane extract of flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum in three doses (15 mg, 30 mg, and 60 mg/kg BW) were evaluated for a single spermatogenic cycle (35 days) in Parkes (P) strain mice. The treatment did not induce systemic toxicity at the doses tested. Lower dose (15 mg) of the extract increased the activities of Delta(5) 3 beta-HSD and 17 beta-HSD, and serum level of testosterone. The higher doses (30 and 60 mg) of extract inhibited these parameters and induced non-uniform degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules associated with decrease in daily sperm production and depletion of 1C (round and elongated spermatids) population. Taken together these results suggest biphasic action of hexane extract of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud on testicular function, thereby advocating a cautious use of the flower bud as an aphrodisiac in indigenous systems of medicine in Asian countries.

  7. DNA extraction protocols from dormant buds of twelve woody plant genera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard plant DNA extraction protocols call for samples of newly expanding leaves and shoots yet analysis is sometimes needed when plants are dormant. We evaluated three DNA extraction protocols using dormant buds from 40 species and four hybrids of 12 genera. Two protocols were from ready-to-use ...

  8. Meta-analysis identifies potential molecular markers for endodormancy in crown buds of leafy spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetative shoot growth originating from underground adventitious buds (UABs) of herbaceous perennials such as leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is critical for survival after episodes of severe abiotic stress. Although leafy spurge is considered an invasive weed in North American ecosystems, it ha...

  9. Visualization of Assembly Intermediates and Budding Vacuoles of Singapore Grouper Iridovirus in Grouper Embryonic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Tran, Bich Ngoc; Wang, Fan; Ounjai, Puey; Wu, Jinlu; Hew, Choy L.

    2016-01-01

    Iridovirid infection is associated with the catastrophic loss in aquaculture industry and the population decline of wild amphibians and reptiles, but none of the iridovirid life cycles have been well explored. Here, we report the detailed visualization of the life cycle of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) in grouper cells by cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) and tomography (ET). EM imaging revealed that SGIV viral particles have an outer capsid layer, and the interaction of this layer with cellular plasma membrane initiates viral entry. Subsequent viral replication leads to formation of a viral assembly site (VAS), where membranous structures emerge as precursors to recruit capsid proteins to form an intermediate, double-shell, crescent-shaped structure, which curves to form icosahedral capsids. Knockdown of the major capsid protein eliminates the formation of viral capsids. As capsid formation progresses, electron-dense materials known to be involved in DNA encapsidation accumulate within the capsid until it is fully occupied. Besides the well-known budding mechanism through the cell periphery, we demonstrate a novel budding process in which viral particles bud into a tubular-like structure within vacuoles. This budding process may denote a new strategy used by SGIV to disseminate viral particles into neighbor cells while evading host immune response. PMID:26727547

  10. HAND2 Targets Define a Network of Transcriptional Regulators that Compartmentalize the Early Limb Bud Mesenchyme

    PubMed Central

    Osterwalder, Marco; Speziale, Dario; Shoukry, Malak; Mohan, Rajiv; Ivanek, Robert; Kohler, Manuel; Beisel, Christian; Wen, Xiaohui; Scales, Suzie J.; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Visel, Axel; Lopez-Rios, Javier; Zeller, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Summary The genetic networks that govern vertebrate development are well studied, but how the interactions of trans-acting factors with cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) are integrated into spatio-temporal regulation of gene expression is not clear. The transcriptional regulator HAND2 is required during limb, heart and branchial arch development. Here, we identify the genomic regions enriched in HAND2 chromatin complexes from mouse embryos and limb buds. Then, we analyze the HAND2 target CRMs in the genomic landscapes encoding transcriptional regulators required in early limb buds. HAND2 controls the expression of genes functioning in the proximal limb bud and orchestrates the establishment of anterior and posterior polarity of the nascent limb bud mesenchyme by impacting on Gli3 and Tbx3 expression. TBX3 is required downstream of HAND2 to refine the posterior Gli3 expression boundary. Our analysis uncovers the transcriptional circuits that function in establishing distinct mesenchymal compartments downstream of HAND2 and upstream of SHH signaling. PMID:25453830

  11. Assessment of regeneration potential in the clonal macrophyte Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Poaceae) after burial disturbance based on bud bank size and sprouting capacity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinsheng; Cao, Chenshu; Deng, Zhengmiao; Xie, Yonghong; Li, Feng; Hou, Zhiyong; Li, Xu

    2015-01-01

    The demography of the bud bank and its sprouting capacity are important for understanding the population dynamics of clonal plants and their potential responses to disturbances. To this end, we investigated the size and composition of the bud bank of Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Hack. immediately after flooding (November), in winter (January), in spring (March), and before flooding (May) in the wetlands of Dongting Lake. We then examined the sprouting capacity of axillary buds after sediment burial at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm. Total bud density of M. sacchariflorus ranged from 2524 buds m(-2) in November to 4293 buds m(-2) in March. Rhizome segments with inactive axillary buds, which represented the majority of the bud population (88.7% in November, 93.3% in May), did not sprout during the 140 days of the experiment (n = 250). The sprouting ratio was the highest for active axillary buds buried at 0 cm (64%) and decreased when buried at 10-20 cm (34%-40%). Due to the large number of active axillary buds in the bud bank (211-277 buds m(-2) from November to the following March), M. sacchariflorus could completely replace its aboveground shoot population, except in May (142 buds m(-2)). Increasing burial depth delayed bud emergence and reduced the growth period of shoots; however, burial depth did not affect the resulting plant height and only reduced the accumulated biomass at 20 cm. Therefore, the belowground bud bank and its strong sprouting capacity are important factors in the maintenance of local populations and colonization of new habitats for M. sacchariflorus after burial disturbances. The present methodology, which combined measurements of bud bank demography and sprouting capacity, may reflect the regeneration potential of clonal plants after burial disturbances.

  12. Dehydration improves cryopreservation of mat rush (Juncus decipiens Nakai) basal stem buds on cryo-plates.

    PubMed

    Niino, T; Yamamoto, S I; Fukui, K; Castillo Martinez, C R; Arizaga, M V; Matsumoto, T; Engelmann, F

    2013-01-01

    Two cryopreservation procedures using aluminium cryo-plates, termed V-Cryo-plate and D-Cryo-plate, were successfully developed for in vitro mat rush (Juncus decipiens Nakai) basal stem buds. Multiple stems induced in liquid MS medium containing 8.9 μM BA by roller culture were cut into small clumps, plated on solid MS medium and cultured for 1 week at 25 degree C. Clumps that had produced many buds were cold-hardened at 5 degree C for 1-2 months. The buds with basal stems were dissected from small clumps and precultured overnight at 25 degree C on solid MS medium containing 0.3 M sucrose. Precultured buds were placed on aluminium cryo-plates and embedded in calcium alginate gel. Osmoprotection was performed by immersing the cryo-plates for 30 min at 25 degree C in loading solution (2 M glycerol + 1.0 M sucrose). In the D-Cryo-plate procedure, the buds were dehydrated to 27-25% moisture content (fresh weight) by placing the cryo-plates in the air current of a laminar flow cabinet for 2 to 3 h. In the V-Cryo-plate procedure, buds were dehydrated by immersing the cryo-plates in PVS2 vitrification solution for 40 min at 25 degree C. In both procedures, cooling was performed by placing the cryo-plates in uncapped cryotubes, which were immersed in liquid nitrogen. For rewarming, cryo-plates were immersed in medium with 1.0 M sucrose for 20 min at room temperature. Regrowth of cryopreserved buds of line 'Kitakei 2' using D-Cryo-plate and V-Cryo-plate procedures, was 90% and 80%, respectively. The two procedures were applied to 20 additional mat rush lines. Using the V-Cryo-plate procedure resulted in regrowth ranging between 13.3 and 86.7%, with an average of 52.5%. The D-Cryo-plate led to regrowth ranging between 73.3 and 96.7%, with an average of 86.3%. The D-Cryo-plate procedure will facilitate cryostorage of mat rush germplasm.

  13. The bud break process and its variation among local populations of boreal black spruce

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Sergio; Bousquet, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Phenology of local populations can exhibit adaptations to the current environmental conditions resulting from a close interaction between climate and genotype. The bud break process and its variations among populations were analyzed in greenhouse by monitoring the growth resumption in black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] seedlings originating from seeds of five stands across the closed boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. Bud break lasted 15 days and occurred earlier and quicker in northern provenances. Provenance explained between 10.2 and 32.3% of the variance in bud break, while the families accounted for a smaller but still significant part of the variance. The late occurrence of one phenological phase corresponded to a delayed occurrence of the others according to linear relationships. A causal model was proposed in the form of a chain of events with each phase of bud break being related to the previous and successive one, while no link was observed between non-adjacent phases. The adaptation of black spruce populations along the latitudinal gradient points toward a strategy based on rapid physiological processes triggered by temperature increase inducing high metabolic activity. The variation observed in bud break reflects an evolutionary trade-off between maximization of security and taking advantage of the short growing season. This work provides evidence of the phenological adaptations of black spruce to its local environmental conditions while retaining sizeable genetic diversity within populations. Because of the multigenic nature of phenology, this diversity should provide some raw material for adaptation to changing local environmental conditions. PMID:25389430

  14. Daughter Cells and Erythroid Cells Budding from PGCCs and Their Clinicopathological Significances in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan; Yang, Xiaoyun; Yang, Zhengduo; Fei, Fei; Li, Shuyuan; Qu, Jie; Zhang, Mingqing; Li, Yuwei; Zhang, Xipeng; Zhang, Shiwu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We previously reported that polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) induced by cobalt chloride (CoCl2) exhibit cancer stem cell properties. Daughter cells generated by PGCCs possess epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype changes and EMT plays an important role in cancer development and progression. This study investigated the characteristics of PGCCs from LoVo and HCT116 induced by CoCl2 and the clinicopathological significances of PGCCs in colorectal cancer (CRC). Materials and Methods: Western blotting and immunocytochemical staining were used to compare the expression levels of EMT-related proteins between PGCCs with budding daughter cells and the control cells. In addition, tissue samples were collected from 159 patients with CRC for analysis of PGCCs, vasculogenic mimicry (VM), and single stromal PGCCs with budding, as well as immunohistochemical staining for cathepsin B, vimentin, and hemoglobin A. Results: Single PGCCs induced by CoCl2 formed spheroids in vitro. Poorly differentiated CRCs showed the highest numbers of PGCCs and VM, and expression of cathepsin B. There was greater expression of EMT-related proteins in PGCCs with budding daughter cells than in control cells. The expression of vimentin located in PGCC nuclei. Single stomal PGCCs with budding were detected in 27.45% of well differentiated, 50% of moderately differentiated, and 90.20% of poorly differentiated CRC samples. PGCCs can generate erythroid cells that express delta-hemoglobin to form VM. Erythroid cells generated by PGCCs were positive for hemoglobin A immunocytochemical staining. Conclusion: PGCCs from LoVo and HCT116 treated by CoCl2 exhibited cancer stem cell properties. The number of PGCCs and VM were associated with CRC differentiation and daughter cells budded from PGCCs may promote the lymph node metastasis via expression of EMT-related proteins. PGCCs and their newly generated erythroid cells form VM structures. PMID:28261349

  15. Vismodegib, an antagonist of hedgehog signaling, directly alters taste molecular signaling in taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hyekyung; Cong, Wei-na; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Egan, Josephine M

    2015-01-01

    Vismodegib, a highly selective inhibitor of hedgehog (Hh) pathway, is an approved treatment for basal-cell carcinoma. Patients on treatment with vismodegib often report profound alterations in taste sensation. The cellular mechanisms underlying the alterations have not been studied. Sonic Hh (Shh) signaling is required for cell growth and differentiation. In taste buds, Shh is exclusively expressed in type IV taste cells, which are undifferentiated basal cells and the precursors of the three types of taste sensing cells. Thus, we investigated if vismodegib has an inhibitory effect on taste cell turnover because of its known effects on Hh signaling. We gavaged C57BL/6J male mice daily with either vehicle or 30 mg/kg vismodegib for 15 weeks. The gustatory behavior and immunohistochemical profile of taste cells were examined. Vismodegib-treated mice showed decreased growth rate and behavioral responsivity to sweet and bitter stimuli, compared to vehicle-treated mice. We found that vismodegib-treated mice had significant reductions in taste bud size and numbers of taste cells per taste bud. Additionally, vismodegib treatment resulted in decreased numbers of Ki67- and Shh-expressing cells in taste buds. The numbers of phospholipase Cβ2- and α-gustducin-expressing cells, which contain biochemical machinery for sweet and bitter sensing, were reduced in vismodegib-treated mice. Furthermore, vismodegib treatment resulted in reduction in numbers of T1R3, glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucagon-expressing cells, which are known to modulate sweet taste sensitivity. These results suggest that inhibition of Shh signaling by vismodegib treatment directly results in alteration of taste due to local effects in taste buds. PMID:25354792

  16. Cold acclimation and floral development in almond bud break: insights into the regulatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Barros, Pedro M; Gonçalves, Nuno; Saibo, Nelson J M; Oliveira, M Margarida

    2012-07-01

    In temperate fruit trees, seasonal dormancy and cold acclimation have a major impact on blooming time and, consequently, fruit production. To gain insight into the still unclear molecular processes underlying blooming, expression of genes putatively involved in the cold response was studied in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), which is the earliest fruit tree in the family Rosaceae to bloom. The transcript levels of two C-repeat binding factor (PdCBF) genes and one of their putative targets, PdDehydrin1 (PdDHN1), were analysed in flower buds and shoot internodes during seasonal dormancy up to bud break. In parallel, expression of candidate genes related to flower development was also followed. In a 2-year study, PdCBF2 showed a progressive increase in transcript abundance during the autumn in close correlation with cold acclimation, while high transcript levels of PdCBF1 and PdDHN1 were already found by summer. After bud break, with temperatures still within the chilling range, both PdCBF genes and PdDHN1 were found to sharply reduce transcription in flower buds and internodes, suggesting damping of CBF-mediated cold signalling during growth resumption, in correlation with cold hardiness decline. Flower bud break was also followed by a decrease in the expression of PdGA20OX, a candidate gene involved in gibberellin biosynthesis, and an increase in the expression of two homeotic genes related to floral organ development, PdMADS1 and -3. These genes may also be relevant players in the regulation of anthesis in this model Rosaceae species.

  17. Vismodegib, an antagonist of hedgehog signaling, directly alters taste molecular signaling in taste buds.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyekyung; Cong, Wei-Na; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Egan, Josephine M

    2015-02-01

    Vismodegib, a highly selective inhibitor of hedgehog (Hh) pathway, is an approved treatment for basal-cell carcinoma. Patients on treatment with vismodegib often report profound alterations in taste sensation. The cellular mechanisms underlying the alterations have not been studied. Sonic Hh (Shh) signaling is required for cell growth and differentiation. In taste buds, Shh is exclusively expressed in type IV taste cells, which are undifferentiated basal cells and the precursors of the three types of taste sensing cells. Thus, we investigated if vismodegib has an inhibitory effect on taste cell turnover because of its known effects on Hh signaling. We gavaged C57BL/6J male mice daily with either vehicle or 30 mg/kg vismodegib for 15 weeks. The gustatory behavior and immunohistochemical profile of taste cells were examined. Vismodegib-treated mice showed decreased growth rate and behavioral responsivity to sweet and bitter stimuli, compared to vehicle-treated mice. We found that vismodegib-treated mice had significant reductions in taste bud size and numbers of taste cells per taste bud. Additionally, vismodegib treatment resulted in decreased numbers of Ki67- and Shh-expressing cells in taste buds. The numbers of phospholipase Cβ2- and α-gustducin-expressing cells, which contain biochemical machinery for sweet and bitter sensing, were reduced in vismodegib-treated mice. Furthermore, vismodegib treatment resulted in reduction in numbers of T1R3, glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucagon-expressing cells, which are known to modulate sweet taste sensitivity. These results suggest that inhibition of Shh signaling by vismodegib treatment directly results in alteration of taste due to local effects in taste buds.

  18. RACK1 regulates mesenchymal cell recruitment during sexual and asexual reproduction of budding tunicates.

    PubMed

    Tatzuke, Yuki; Sunanaga, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Shigeki; Kawamura, Kaz

    2012-08-15

    A homolog of receptor for activated protein kinase C1 (RACK1) was cloned from the budding tunicate Polyandrocarpa misakiensis. By RT-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses, PmRACK1 showed biphasic gene expression during asexual and sexual reproduction. In developing buds, the signal was exclusively observed in the multipotent atrial epithelium and undifferentiated mesenchymal cells that contributed to morphogenesis by the mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). In juvenile zooids, the signal was first observable in germline precursor cells that arose as mesenchymal cell aggregated in the ventral hemocoel. In mature zooids, the germinal epithelium in the ovary and the pharynx were the most heavily stained parts. GFP reporter assay indicated that the ovarian expression of PmRACK1 was constitutive from germline precursor cells to oocytes. To elucidate the in vivo function of PmRACK1, RNA interference was challenged. When growing buds were incubated with 5 nmol/mL siRNA, most mesenchymal cells remained round and appeared to have no interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM), causing lower activity of MET without any apparent effects on cell proliferation. The resultant zooids became growth-deficient. The dwarf zooids did not form buds or mature gonads. Prior to RNAi, buds were treated with human BMP4 that could induce PmRACK1 expression, which resulted in MET activity. We conclude that in P. misakiensis, PmRACK1 plays roles in mesenchymal cell recruitment during formation of somatic and gonad tissues, which contributes to zooidal growth and sexual and asexual reproduction.

  19. From buds to follicles: matrix metalloproteinases in developmental tissue remodeling during feather morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ting-Xin; Tuan, Tai Lan; Wu, Ping; Widelitz, Randall B; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Organogenesis involves a series of dynamic morphogenesis and remodeling processes. Since feathers exhibit complex forms, we have been using the feather as a model to analyze how molecular pathways and cellular events are used. While several major molecular pathways have been studied, the roles of matrix degrading proteases and inhibitors in feather morphogenesis are unknown. Here we addressed this knowledge gap by studying the temporal and spatial expression of proteases and inhibitors in developing feathers using mammalian antibodies that cross react with chicken proteins. We also investigated the effect of protease inhibitors on feather development employing an in vitro feather bud culture system. The results show that antibodies specific for mammalian MMP2 and TIMP2 stained positive in both feather epithelium and mesenchyme. The staining co-localized in structures of E10-E13 developing feathers. Interestingly, MMP2 and TIMP2 exhibited a complementary staining pattern in developing E15 and E20 feathers and in maturing feather filaments. Although they exhibited a slight delay in feather bud development, similar patterns of MMP2 and TIMP2 staining were observed in in vitro culture explants. The broad spectrum pharmacological inhibitors AG3340 and BB103 (MMP inhibitors) but not Aprotinin (a plasmin inhibitor) showed a reversible effect on epithelium invagination and feather bud elongation. TIMP2, a physiological inhibitor to MMPs, exhibited a similar effect. Markers of feather morphogenesis showed that MMP activity was required for both epithelium invagination and mesenchymal cell proliferation. Inhibition of MMP activity led to an overall delay in the expression of molecules that regulate either early feather bud growth and/or differentiation and thereby produced abnormal buds with incomplete follicle formation. This work demonstrates that MMPs and their inhibitors are not only important in injury repair, but also in development tissue remodeling as demonstrated

  20. Phase I study of intermittent intravenous bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) with conventional fractionated irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, T.J.; Russo, A.; Mitchell, J.B.; Rowland, J.; Jenkins, J.; Schwade, J.; Myers, C.E.; Collins, J.M.; Speyer, J.; Kornblith, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    A Phase I trial of intravenous bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) and conventional fractionated radiation therapy was performed in 14 patients with glioblastoma multiforme and 7 patients with other poorly radioresponsive tumors. The BUdR was given as a constant intravenous infusion for 12 hr/day for up to 14 days. Local toxicity (within the radiation field) was minor, with 7 of the 21 patients requiring a brief treatment break for moist skin desquamation. There was no significant CNS toxicity noted clinically nor by autopsy examination. Additionally, no significant enhancement of radiation injury was noted to bowel or liver. Dose-dependent systemic toxicity occurred in bone marrow and skin. Moderate myelosuppression, especially thrombocytopenia, was found following a 14 day cycle of BUdR at and above 650 mg/m/sup 2//12 hr infusion. Approximately one-third of patients developed a maculo-papular erythematous rash to the scalp, neck and upper chest. Pharmacology studies revealed steady-state arterial plasma levels of 2 x 10/sup -6/M/1 during the 12 hr infusion of 650 to 700 mg/m/sup 2/. Radiosensitization was measured by a change in the D/sub 0/ of radiation survival curves of human bone marrow CFUc prior to and following the 14 day infusion in 4 patients. A trend of increasing radiosensitization was noted in most patients as the infusion rate of BUdR was increased from 500 to 870 mg/m/sup 2//12 hr. It is concluded that the maximum tolerable dose of BUdR is 650 to 700 mg/m/sup 2//12 hrs when given as a 2 week intermittent intravenous infusion. Local toxicity is acceptable. The major systemic toxicities are myelosuppression and a maculopapular skin rash.

  1. Morphology of certain viruses of Salmonid Fishes. I. in vitro studies of some viruses causing Hematopoietic Necrosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, Donald F.; Chambers, Velma C.

    1970-01-01

    An electron microscope study was performed on three virus isolates that caused hematopoietic necrosis in salmonid fishes: infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN), Oregon Sockeye Disease (OSD), and Sacramento River Chinook Salmon Disease (SRCD). All three isolates were examined by negative staining of fathead minnow (FHM) monolayer tissue culture concentrates and IHN virus was also examined in thin sections of FHM cells. Viruslike particles were observed in infected tissues, but similar structures were not found in uninfected cultures. All three isolates were bullet-shaped, but oval and truncated forms were also observed. Mean measurements of particles from IHN-virus-infected tissue were 158 × 90 mμ. They consisted of an outer coat 15 mμ thick, a core 60 mμ in diameter, subunits about 5 mμ, and an axial pore about 20 mμ in diameter. These particles also were seen budding from the cytoplasmic membrane. Similar particles from SRCD were 159 × 90 mμ and isolates from OSD were 181 × 91 mμ. The three isolates were morphologically indistinguishable from one another and the greater length of OSD was considered insignificant. IHN, SRCD, and OSD viruses were tentatively placed in the rhabdovirus group, but serological studies are needed to determine if they are antigenically identical or should be included as separate members. Biochemical and physical characteristics of these viruses and a comparison with other salmonid viruses is also discussed.

  2. The Extracellular Matrix Regulates Granuloma Necrosis in Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Al Shammari, Basim; Shiomi, Takayuki; Tezera, Liku; Bielecka, Magdalena K; Workman, Victoria; Sathyamoorthy, Tarangini; Mauri, Francesco; Jayasinghe, Suwan N; Robertson, Brian D; D'Armiento, Jeanine; Friedland, Jon S; Elkington, Paul T

    2015-08-01

    A central tenet of tuberculosis pathogenesis is that caseous necrosis leads to extracellular matrix destruction and bacterial transmission. We reconsider the underlying mechanism of tuberculosis pathology and demonstrate that collagen destruction may be a critical initial event, causing caseous necrosis as opposed to resulting from it. In human tuberculosis granulomas, regions of extracellular matrix destruction map to areas of caseous necrosis. In mice, transgenic expression of human matrix metalloproteinase 1 causes caseous necrosis, the pathological hallmark of human tuberculosis. Collagen destruction is the principal pathological difference between humanised mice and wild-type mice with tuberculosis, whereas the release of proinflammatory cytokines does not differ, demonstrating that collagen breakdown may lead to cell death and caseation. To investigate this hypothesis, we developed a 3-dimensional cell culture model of tuberculosis granuloma formation, using bioelectrospray technology. Collagen improved survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected cells analyzed on the basis of a lactate dehydrogenase release assay, propidium iodide staining, and measurement of the total number of viable cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that collagen destruction is an initial event in tuberculosis immunopathology, leading to caseous necrosis and compromising the immune response, revealing a previously unappreciated role for the extracellular matrix in regulating the host-pathogen interaction.

  3. Effect of bevacizumab on radiation necrosis of the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Javier; Kumar, Ashok J.; Conrad, Charles A.; Levin, Victor A. . E-mail: vlevin@mdanderson.org

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: Because blocking vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from reaching leaky capillaries is a logical strategy for the treatment of radiation necrosis, we reasoned that bevacizumab might be an effective treatment of radiation necrosis. Patients and Methods: Fifteen patients with malignant brain tumors were treated with bevacizumab or bevacizumab combination for their tumor on either a 5 mg/kg/2-week or 7.5 mg/kg/3-week schedule. Radiation necrosis was diagnosed in 8 of these patients on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biopsy. MRI studies were obtained before treatment and at 6-week to 8-week intervals. Results: Of the 8 patients with radiation necrosis, posttreatment MRI performed an average of 8.1 weeks after the start of bevacizumab therapy showed a reduction in all 8 patients in both the MRI fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) abnormalities and T1-weighted post-Gd-contrast abnormalities. The average area change in the T1-weighted post-Gd-contrast abnormalities was 48% ({+-}22 SD), and the average change in the FLAIR images was 60% ({+-}18 SD). The average reduction in daily dexamethasone requirements was 8.6 mg ({+-}3.6). Conclusion: Bevacizumab, alone and in combination with other agents, can reduce radiation necrosis by decreasing capillary leakage and the associated brain edema. Our findings will need to be confirmed in a randomized trial to determine the optimal duration of treatment.

  4. Proteomic Analysis of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Immature Flower Buds Using Combinatorial Peptide Ligand Libraries and Polyethylene Glycol Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Xu, Xiaobao; Tian, Jingkui; Zhang, Lin; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-01-04

    Lonicera japonica Thunb. flower is a well-known medicinal plant that has been widely used for the treatment of human disease. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological activities of L. japonica immature flower buds, a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique was used in combination with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) fractionation for the enrichment of low-abundance proteins and removal of high-abundance proteins, respectively. A total of 177, 614, and 529 proteins were identified in crude protein extraction, CPLL fractions, and PEG fractions, respectively. Among the identified proteins, 283 and 239 proteins were specifically identified by the CPLL and PEG methods, respectively. In particular, proteins related to the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, signaling, hormone metabolism, and transport were highly enriched by CPLL and PEG fractionation compared to crude protein extraction. A total of 28 secondary metabolism-related proteins and 25 metabolites were identified in L. japonica immature flower buds. To determine the specificity of the identified proteins and metabolites for L. japonica immature flower buds, Cerasus flower buds were used, which resulted in the abundance of hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase in L. japonica immature flower buds being 10-fold higher than that in Cerasus flower buds. These results suggest that proteins related to secondary metabolism might be responsible for the biological activities of L. japonica immature flower buds.

  5. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling provides insights into floral bud development of summer-flowering Camellia azalea.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhengqi; Li, Jiyuan; Li, Xinlei; Wu, Bin; Wang, Jiangying; Liu, Zhongchi; Yin, Hengfu

    2015-05-15

    The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth in woody perennials involves pathways controlling flowering timing, bud dormancy and outgrowth in responses to seasonal cues. However little is known about the mechanism governing the adaptation of signaling pathways to environmental conditions in trees. Camellia azalea is a rare species in this genus flowering during summer, which provides a unique resource for floral timing breeding. Here we reported a comprehensive transcriptomics study to capture the global gene profiles during floral bud development in C. azalea. We examined the genome-wide gene expression between three developmental stages including floral bud initiation, floral organ differentiation and bud outgrowth, and identified nine co-expression clusters with distinctive patterns. Further, we identified the differential expressed genes (DEGs) during development and characterized the functional properties of DEGs by Gene Ontology analysis. We showed that transition from floral bud initiation to floral organ differentiation required changes of genes in flowering timing regulation, while transition to floral bud outgrowth was regulated by various pathways such as cold and light signaling, phytohormone pathways and plant metabolisms. Further analyses of dormancy associated MADS-box genes revealed that SVP- and AGL24- like genes displayed distinct expression patterns suggesting divergent roles during floral bud development.

  6. Control of head morphogenesis in an invertebrate asexually produced larva-like bud ( Cassiopea andromeda; Cnidaria: Scyphozoa).

    PubMed

    Thieme, Claudia; Hofmann, Dietrich Kurt

    2003-04-01

    Scyphopolyps of Cassiopea andromeda propagate asexually by forming larva-like buds which separate from the parent in a developmentally quiescent state. These buds metamorphose into sessile polyps when exposed to specific biogenic, chemical inducers. Morphogenesis of transversely dissected buds indicates the presence of pattern-determining signals; whereas the basal bud fragments may still form a complete scyphistoma the apical bud fragments develop spontaneously in the absence of an inducer into a polyp head without stalk and foot. Based on these findings Neumann (dissertation, Cologne University, 1980) postulated a head-inhibiting signal which is released at the basal pole and inhibits head formation at the apical end. Contrary to this hypothesis dissection itself might induce the development of head structures. The present study deals with the control of polyp head formation in C. andromeda. It concentrates on two points, namely the postulated head inhibitor and the involvement of compounds known to act during metamorphosis (the enzyme protein kinase C and the specific metamorphosis inducer Z-GPGGPA). We found that compared to intact buds and apical bud fragments transversely incised buds reached an intermediate stage of head development. This confirms Neumann's hypothesis. Consequently we focused on the mode of action and the chemical nature of the head-inhibiting signal in C. andromeda. Our results indicate that the head inhibitor may be included in one of six pooled fractions isolated from bud homogenate via gel filtration on a Sephadex G-50 column. The inhibitor is supposed to be water-soluble and to have a molecular weight of 850-1,500 Da. Furthermore we prove that head formation is not promoted by the metamorphosis-inducer Z-GPGGPA but is prevented by the inhibitors psychosine, chelerythrine and RO-32-0432 showing the involvement of protein kinase C in this process.

  7. Antioxidant effects of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) extract used with different extenders on ram spermatozoa during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Baghshahi, H; Riasi, A; Mahdavi, A H; Shirazi, A

    2014-12-01

    Clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) extract was added at concentrations of 0, 35, 75, and 115 μg/ml to ovine semen extenders in order to investigate the antioxidant activities of clove bud extract and its effects on semen quality parameters after cryopreservation of ram spermatozoa. The basic extender was composed of Tris, egg yolk, and glycerol. Two other extenders were prepared by substitution of egg yolk with either LDL or egg yolk+SDS. The DPPH inhibition test was employed to assess the antioxidant activity of clove bud extract. Results showed that, compared to vitamin E, clove bud extract had a higher antioxidant activity. Better sperm motility and movement characteristics (P<0.05) were observed in the semen diluted with medium containing egg yolk+SDS than in that containing egg yolk and LDL. Progressive motility and movement characteristics of the sperm were significantly improved (P<0.05) by adding 35 and/or 75 μg/ml of clove bud extract to semen extenders. Sperm viability and plasma membrane integrity were also higher (P<0.05) in the semen exposed to medium containing egg yolk+SDS and 75 μg of clove buds extract after cryopreservation processes. Higher levels of clove bud extract, however, had adverse effects on all the sperm quality parameters and significantly reduced (P<0.05) the motility, movement parameters, viability, and plasma membrane integrity of ovine sperm. It was concluded that the clove bud extract had an antioxidant potential that makes it useful for addition to semen extenders and that the best results are obtained with a maximum clove bud extract of 75 μg/ml. Moreover, the combination of egg yolk and a detergent was found to improve sperm quality after the cooling and freeze-thawing processes.

  8. Polarization of Diploid Daughter Cells Directed by Spatial Cues and GTP Hydrolysis of Cdc42 in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Monisha; Chou, Ching-Shan; Park, Hay-Oak

    2013-01-01

    Cell polarization occurs along a single axis that is generally determined by a spatial cue. Cells of the budding yeast exhibit a characteristic pattern of budding, which depends on cell-type-specific cortical markers, reflecting a genetic programming for the site of cell polarization. The Cdc42 GTPase plays a key role in cell polarization in various cell types. Although previous studies in budding yeast suggested positive feedback loops whereby Cdc42 becomes polarized, these mechanisms do not include spatial cues, neglecting the normal patterns of budding. Here we combine live-cell imaging and mathematical modeling to understand how diploid daughter cells establish polarity preferentially at the pole distal to the previous division site. Live-cell imaging shows that daughter cells of diploids exhibit dynamic polarization of Cdc42-GTP, which localizes to the bud tip until the M phase, to the division site at cytokinesis, and then to the distal pole in the next G1 phase. The strong bias toward distal budding of daughter cells requires the distal-pole tag Bud8 and Rga1, a GTPase activating protein for Cdc42, which inhibits budding at the cytokinesis site. Unexpectedly, we also find that over 50% of daughter cells lacking Rga1 exhibit persistent Cdc42-GTP polarization at the bud tip and the distal pole, revealing an additional role of Rga1 in spatiotemporal regulation of Cdc42 and thus in the pattern of polarized growth. Mathematical modeling indeed reveals robust Cdc42-GTP clustering at the distal pole in diploid daughter cells despite random perturbation of the landmark cues. Moreover, modeling predicts different dynamics of Cdc42-GTP polarization when the landmark level and the initial level of Cdc42-GTP at the division site are perturbed by noise added in the model. PMID:23437206

  9. Flap Necrosis after Palatoplasty in Patients with Cleft Palate

    PubMed Central

    Rossell-Perry, Percy

    2015-01-01

    Palatal necrosis after palatoplasty in patients with cleft palate is a rare but significant problem encountered by any cleft surgeon. Few studies have addressed this disastrous complication and the prevalence of this problem remains unknown. Failure of a palatal flap may be attributed to different factors like kinking or section of the pedicle, anatomical variations, tension, vascular thrombosis, type of cleft, used surgical technique, surgeon's experience, infection, and malnutrition. Palatal flap necrosis can be prevented through identification of the risk factors and a careful surgical planning should be done before any palatoplasty. Management of severe fistulas observed as a consequence of palatal flap necrosis is a big challenge for any cleft surgeon. Different techniques as facial artery flaps, tongue flaps, and microvascular flaps have been described with this purpose. This review article discusses the current status of this serious complication in patients with cleft palate. PMID:26273624

  10. Synovial fat necrosis associated with ischemic pancreatic disease.

    PubMed

    Smukler, N M; Schumacher, H R; Pascual, E; Brown, S; Ryan, W E; Sadeghian, M R

    1979-05-01

    A 59-year-old man with ischemic pancreatic disease, polyarthritis, and cutaneous nodules has shown histopathologic findings indicative of disseminated fat necrosis in a percutaneous biopsy specimen from the right knee. The histopathologic findings in the synovium included necrotic fat cells, distorted fat cells and adjacent lymphocytes, lipid laden histiocytes, and giant cells. In prior histopathologic studies of the joint involvement associated with this disorder, fat cell necrosis has been found only in the periarticular tissues, and the synovium has appeared normal or showed nonspecific inflammation. However, the present study shows that the synovial membrane may also be the site of fat necrosis and an associated inflammatory reaction; thus patients with this disorder may manifest arthritis in addition to periarthritis.

  11. Tongue necrosis as first symptom of giant cell arteritis (GCA).

    PubMed

    Brodmann, M; Dorr, A; Hafner, F; Gary, T; Pilger, E

    2009-06-01

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common systemic vasculitis affecting people over the age of 50 years, especially in the western world. Nevertheless, the initial diagnosis can be tricky, as some of the patients present at first time with a real unusual initial manifestation. One of these can be tongue necrosis, which is according to the literature in accordance with scalp necrosis, the rarest initial manifestation form of GCA. We describe two patients who presented with tongue necrosis as initial symptom of GCA. The diagnosis was made by the American College of Rheumatology criteria, biopsy and duplex sonography of their temporal arteries. A typical halo was seen as a sign of intimal edema. The patients were put on corticosteroids immediately after diagnosis was proven and their symptoms improved quickly.

  12. Cannabinoids act as necrosis-inducing factors in Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Shoyama, Yoshinari; Sugawa, Chitomi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2008-12-01

    Cannabis sativa is well known to produce unique secondary metabolites called cannabinoids. We recently discovered that Cannabis leaves induce cell death by secreting tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) into leaf tissues. Examinations using isolated Cannabis mitochondria demonstrated that THCA causes mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) though opening of MPT pores, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction (the important feature of necrosis). Although Ca(2+) is known to cause opening of animal MPT pores, THCA directly opened Cannabis MPT pores in the absence of Ca(2+). Based on these results, we conclude that THCA has the ability to induce necrosis though MPT in Cannabis leaves, independently of Ca(2+). We confirmed that other cannabinoids (cannabidiolic acid and cannabigerolic acid) also have MPT-inducing activity similar to that of THCA. Moreover, mitochondria of plants which do not produce cannabinoids were shown to induce MPT by THCA treatment, thus suggesting that many higher plants may have systems to cause THCA-dependent necrosis.

  13. Imaging of cavitary necrosis in complicated childhood pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Hodina, M; Hanquinet, S; Cotting, J; Schnyder, P; Gudinchet, F

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the chest radiographs (CR) and CT imaging features and sequential findings of cavitary necrosis in complicated childhood pneumonia. Among 30 children admitted in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit for persistent or progressive pneumonia, respiratory distress or sepsis despite adequate antibiotic therapy, a study group of 9 children (5 girls and 4 boys; mean age 4 years) who had the radiographic features and CT criteria for cavitary necrosis complicated pneumonia was identified. The pathogens identified were Streptococcus pneumoniae( n=4), Aspergillus( n=2), Legionella( n=1), and Staphylococcus aureus( n=1). Sequential CR and CT scans were retrospectively reviewed. Follow-up CR and CT were evaluated for persistent abnormalities. Chest radiographs showed consolidations in 8 of the 9 patients. On CT examination, cavitary necrosis was localized to 1 lobe in 2 patients and 7 patients showed multilobar or bilateral areas of cavitary necrosis. In 3 patients of 9, the cavitary necrosis was initially shown on CT and visualization by CR was delayed by a time span varying from 5 to 9 days. In all patients with cavities, a mean number of five cavities were seen on antero-posterior CR, contrasting with the multiple cavities seen on CT. Parapneumonic effusions were shown by CR in 3 patients and in 5 patients by CT. Bronchopleural fistulae were demonstrated by CT alone ( n=3). No purulent pericarditis was demonstrated. The CT scan displayed persistent residual pneumatoceles of the left lower lobe in 2 patients. Computed tomography is able to define a more specific pattern of abnormalities than conventional CR in children with necrotizing pneumonia and allows an earlier diagnosis of this rapidly progressing condition. Lung necrosis and cavitation may also be associated with Aspergillus or Legionella pneumonia in the pediatric population.

  14. A new geographic and host record for infectious pancreatic necrosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parisot, T.J.; Yasutake, W.T.; Bressler, V.

    1963-01-01

    The occurrence of infectious pancreatic necrosis in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), and cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki) has been experimentally authenticated for the first time in the western United States. The cutthroat trout represents a new host. Brook trout fin tissue culture inoculated with bacteria-free filtrate from the diseased fish tissue showed marked degenerative changes after 24 hours. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), kokanee (O. nerka), and silver salmon (O. kisutch) were not susceptible to the virus when inoculated. Histologically, extensive pancreatic necrosis was observed in the original and experimental materials, but striated muscle hyalinization was detected only in the original material.

  15. Possible Mechanism of Liver Necrosis Caused by Aromatic Organic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Brodie, Bernard B.; Reid, Watson D.; Cho, Arthur K.; Sipes, Glenn; Krishna, Gopal; Gillette, James R.

    1971-01-01

    Treatment of rats with phenobarbital, which stimulates the activity of the drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver, potentiates hepatic necrosis elicited by bromobenzene and a number of other chemically inert halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Radioautographic studies indicate that [14C]bromobenzene is covalently bound at the sites of necrosis. From these results, it is inferred that the hepatotoxic effects of the halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons are mediated by chemically active metabolites formed in hepatocytes. In accord with this view, a number of aromatic halogenated hydrocarbons are converted by microsomes in vitro to active intermediates which form covalent complexes with glutathione (GSH). Images PMID:4395686

  16. PSII photochemistry in vegetative buds and needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) probed by OJIP chlorophyll a fluorescence measurement.

    PubMed

    Katanić, Zorana; Atić, Lejla; Ferhatović, Dž; Cesar, Vera; Lepeduš, H

    2012-06-01

    Vegetative buds represent developmental stage of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) needles where chloroplast biogenesis and photosynthetic activity begin. We used the analyses of polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence rise (OJIP) to compare photosystem II (PSII) functioning in vegetative buds and fully photosynthetically active mature current-year needles. Considerably decreased performance index (PIABS) in vegetative buds compared to needles pointed to their low photosynthetic efficiency. Maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) in buds was slightly decreased but above limited value for functionality indicating that primary photochemistry of PSII is not holdback of vegetative buds photosynthetic activity. The most significant difference observed between investigated developmental stages was accumulation of reduced primary quinine acceptor of PSII (QA-) in vegetative buds, as a result of its limited re-oxidation by passing electrons to secondary quinone acceptor, QB. We suggest that reduced electron transfer from QA- to QB could be the major limiting factor of photosynthesis in vegetative buds.

  17. Genes expressed in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) buds isolated with a subtractive library.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, M P N; Batista, V G L; Martins, N F; Santos, R C; Melo Filho, P A; Silva, C R C; Lima, L M

    2013-01-16

    A subtractive cDNA library from cotton buds was constructed to prospect for differentially expressed genes related to early bud development. A library was constructed and 768 cDNA sequences were obtained, comprising 168 clusters, with 126 contigs and 42 singlets. Both the Gossypium as well as Arabidopsis databases were utilized for the in silico analysis, since some genes identified in cotton have not yet been studied for functionality, although they have homology with genes from other species. The transcriptome revealed a large number of transcripts, some of them with unknown function, and others related to pollen development, pollen tubes, ovules, and fibers at different stages. The most populated contig was identified as fiber from 0-10 days after anthesis, with 12 reads. The success and novelty rates generated from the library were 67 and 51%, respectively. The information obtained here will provide a framework for research on functional cotton genomics.

  18. Zeatin modulates flower bud development and tocopherol levels in Cistus albidus (L.) plants as they age.

    PubMed

    Hernández, I; Miret, J A; Van Der Kelen, K; Rombaut, D; Van Breusegem, F; Munné-Bosch, S

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study we showed that Cistus albidus (L.) experiences an age-dependent decay in flower vigour correlated with a decline in trans-zeatin (tZ) levels. In the present study we aimed to establish a causal relationship between these two phenomena. Exogenous tZ applied to plants grown under semi-controlled conditions did not rescue flower vigour; however, it accelerated flower development, but only in younger individuals. Older plants showed lower tocopherol levels in flower buds, which were restored by exogenous tZ, suggesting that a loss of antioxidant defences may underlie the age-dependent decay in flower vigour. We conclude that declining tZ levels may not be directly responsible for the age-associated loss of floral vigour; that tZ modulates the speed of flower development as plants age; and that flower buds alter their sensitivity to tZ as plants age.

  19. What is the role of metabolic hormones in taste buds of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huan; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2014-01-01

    Gustation is one of the important chemical senses that guides the organism to identify nutrition while avoiding toxic chemicals. An increasing number of metabolic hormones and/or hormone receptors have been identified in the taste buds of the tongue and are involved in modulating taste perception. The gustatory system constitutes an additional endocrine regulatory locus that affects food intake, and in turn whole-body energy homeostasis. Here we provide an overview of the main metabolic hormones known to be present in the taste buds of the tongue; discuss their potential functional roles in taste perception and energy homeostasis and how their functional integrity is altered in the metabolic imbalance status (obesity and diabetes) and aging process. Better understanding of the functional roles of metabolic hormones in flavor perception as well as the link between taste perception and peripheral metabolism may be vital for developing strategies to promote healthier eating and prevent obesity or lifestyle-related disorders.

  20. Benzyladenine metabolism and temporal competence of Pinus pinea cotyledons to form buds in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cortizo, Millán; Cuesta, Candela; Centeno, María Luz; Rodríguez, Ana; Fernández, Belén; Ordás, Ricardo

    2009-07-01

    Germination negatively affects adventitious shoot formation induced by cytokinins in pine cotyledons. To investigate the causes of this decrease in the organogenic response, uptake and metabolism of benzyladenine (BA) were studied in stone pine cotyledons (Pinus pinea) isolated from in vitro germinating embryos and cultured in bud induction medium. As embryos grew, cotyledons showed a progressive decrease in the amount of BA taken up from the medium. BA was barely metabolized; however, a BA metabolite previously undescribed in conifers was found. It was identified as a glucoside of the BA riboside, a type of metabolite recently described in other gymnosperms. Data revealed that differences in the organogenic capacity of P. pinea cotyledons associated with embryo germination are related primarily to their ability to absorb BA from the bud induction medium.