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Sample records for groundnut bud necrosis

  1. Survey of Aspergillus and Aflatoxin in Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Groundnut Cake in Eastern Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important cash and food crop in eastern Ethiopia. The lack of awareness and data on Aspergillus and aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and groundnut food products in the area are lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted to: i) assess major Aspergillus spec...

  2. Social Network Structures among Groundnut Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…

  3. Genomic Tools in Groundnut Breeding Program: Status and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Janila, P.; Variath, Murali T.; Pandey, Manish K.; Desmae, Haile; Motagi, Babu N.; Okori, Patrick; Manohar, Surendra S.; Rathnakumar, A. L.; Radhakrishnan, T.; Liao, Boshou; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2016-01-01

    Groundnut, a nutrient-rich food legume, is cultivated world over. It is valued for its good quality cooking oil, energy and protein rich food, and nutrient-rich fodder. Globally, groundnut improvement programs have developed varieties to meet the preferences of farmers, traders, processors, and consumers. Enhanced yield, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and quality parameters have been the target traits. Spurt in genetic information of groundnut was facilitated by development of molecular markers, genetic, and physical maps, generation of expressed sequence tags (EST), discovery of genes, and identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for some important biotic and abiotic stresses and quality traits. The first groundnut variety developed using marker assisted breeding (MAB) was registered in 2003. Since then, USA, China, Japan, and India have begun to use genomic tools in routine groundnut improvement programs. Introgression lines that combine foliar fungal disease resistance and early maturity were developed using MAB. Establishment of marker-trait associations (MTA) paved way to integrate genomic tools in groundnut breeding for accelerated genetic gain. Genomic Selection (GS) tools are employed to improve drought tolerance and pod yield, governed by several minor effect QTLs. Draft genome sequence and low cost genotyping tools such as genotyping by sequencing (GBS) are expected to accelerate use of genomic tools to enhance genetic gains for target traits in groundnut. PMID:27014312

  4. Groundnut improvement: use of genetic and genomic tools

    PubMed Central

    Janila, Pasupuleti; Nigam, S. N.; Pandey, Manish K.; Nagesh, P.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2013-01-01

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), a self-pollinated legume is an important crop cultivated in 24 million ha world over for extraction of edible oil and food uses. The kernels are rich in oil (48–50%) and protein (25–28%), and are source of several vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, biologically active polyphenols, flavonoids, and isoflavones. Improved varieties of groundnut with high yield potential were developed and released for cultivation world over. The improved varieties belong to different maturity durations and possess resistance to diseases, tolerance to drought, enhanced oil content, and improved quality traits for food uses. Conventional breeding procedures along with the tools for phenotyping were largely used in groundnut improvement programs. Mutations were used to induce variability and wide hybridization was attempted to tap variability from wild species. Low genetic variability has been a bottleneck for groundnut improvement. The vast potential of wild species, reservoir of new alleles remains under-utilized. Development of linkage maps of groundnut during the last decade was followed by identification of markers and quantitative trait loci for the target traits. Consequently, the last decade has witnessed the deployment of molecular breeding approaches to complement the ongoing groundnut improvement programs in USA, China, India, and Japan. The other potential advantages of molecular breeding are the feasibility to target multiple traits for improvement and provide tools to tap new alleles from wild species. The first groundnut variety developed through marker-assisted back-crossing is a root-knot nematode-resistant variety, NemaTAM in USA. The uptake of molecular breeding approaches in groundnut improvement programs by NARS partners in India and many African countries is slow or needs to be initiated in part due to inadequate infrastructure, high genotyping costs, and human capacities. Availability of draft genome sequence for diploid (AA and

  5. Bud Dormancy and Growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly all land plants produce ancillary meristems in the form of axillary or adventitious buds in addition to the shoot apical meristem. Outgrowth of these buds has a significant impact on plant architecture and the ability of plants to compete with neighboring plants, as well as to respond to and ...

  6. Tropical Storm Bud

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  A Strengthening Eastern Pacific Storm     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) show then Tropical Storm Bud as it was intensifying toward hurricane status, which it acquired ...

  7. Use of sunlight to partially detoxify groundnut (peanut) cake flour and casein contaminated with aflatoxin B1

    SciTech Connect

    Shantha, T.; Murthy, V.S.

    1981-03-01

    Sunlight destroyed 83 and 50% of the toxin added to casein and groundnut cake flour, respectively. Equilibrium dialysis revealed that both casein and groundnut protein bind aflatoxin but the toxin bound to casein appeared more photo-labile than that bound to groundnut protein.

  8. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and occupational health problems among groundnut farmers of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Banibrata; Ghosh, Tirthankar; Gangopadhyay, Somnath

    2013-12-01

    The main aim of the study was to determine the nature and extent of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and physiological and thermal working stress among the groundnut farmers. In the present investigation, eighty-five groundnut farmers were recruited from the villages of Tarakeswar of West Bengal, India. Eighty-five control office workers were also selected as a control group. The modified Nordic questionnaire and a posture analysis using the OWAS method were applied in the case of groundnut farmers. The working environment and physiological stress of the groundnut cultivators were also assessed. The analysis of working posture indicated that most of the groundnut cultivation activities needed corrective measures as soon as possible. Most of the groundnut farmers suffered from discomfort at different parts of the body, especially at the lower back (99%), knee (92%), ankle (66%), shoulder (61%) and hand (60%) regions. This study also showed that groundnut farmers suffered from excessive thermal (33.4 degrees C) and physiological stress (heart rate rose up to 121.5 beats/min, systolic and diastolic blood pressure up to 132 and 80 mm/Hg, respectively, PEFR values are 403 lit/min) which affects their health. From the observation and analysis of the results, it was concluded that the health of the groundnut farmers was highly affected by improper body postures and work-load. Twisting, bending, and awkward postures during work could lead to musculoskeletal disorders among them.

  9. Assessment of Adoption Gaps in Management of Aflatoxin Contamination of Groundnut ("Arachis Hypogaea" L.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, G. D. S.; Popat, M. N.

    2010-01-01

    One of the major impediments for diversification of groundnut ("Arachis Hypogaea" L.) as food crop is aflatoxin contamination. The study was conducted with an objective to assess the adoption gaps in aflatoxin management practices of groundnut (AMPG) and the farmer's characteristics influencing these gaps. The study used an expost-facto research…

  10. Laboratory evaluation of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae for the control of the groundnut bruchid, Caryedon serratus on groundnut.

    PubMed

    Ekesi, S; Egwurube, E A.; Akpa, A D.; Onu, I

    2001-10-01

    The pathogenicity of five isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae to adult Caryedon serratus was evaluated in the laboratory. All the isolates tested were virulent to the beetle but pathogenicity varied among the isolates. One isolate, CPD 4 was consistently superior to all other isolates in terms of mortality of the beetle, protection of groundnut pods from damage, reduction in progeny production and repellency to the beetle. At 10 days post-treatment, adult mortality treated with 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0g of dry conidia equivalent to 3.6x10(8), 1.8x10(9) and 3.6x10(9) conidia of isolate CPD 4 per 50g of groundnut pods was 100% which did not differ significantly from pirimiphos-methyl-treated pods at 10ppm. At the lowest dosage of 0.1g of conidia per 50g of pods, damage in pods protected with isolate CPD 4 was 5% which did not differ significantly from the 2% damage in pods protected by pirimiphos-methyl at 10ppm but significantly differed from damage in untreated pods which was 26%. Isolate CPD 4 caused complete reduction in progeny emergence at all dosages tested. It also exhibited some degree of repellency to the beetle with percentage repellency values of between 40-79% at concentrations of 0.1-1.0g of conidia per 50g of groundnut pods. These combined virulence and repellency characteristics of this isolate may increase its protectant potential against C. serratus.

  11. "Bud, Not Buddy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the award-winning book "Bud, Not Buddy" written by Christopher Paul Curtis. Lists different versions of the book; suggests learning activities; lists sources for biographical information and interviews with Curtis, teacher guides, professional articles, and other Depression era novels; and provides a citation for the author's Newberry…

  12. Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD)

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J. Torquil; Morrison, H. Frank; Becker, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) is an optimally designed active electromagnetic system that not only detects but also characterizes UXO. The system incorporates three orthogonal transmitters and eight pairs of differenced receivers. it has two modes of operation: (1) search mode, in which BUD moves along a profile and exclusively detects targets in its vicinity, providing target depth and horizontal location, and (2) discrimination mode, in which BUD, stationary above a target, from a single position, determines three discriminating polarizability responses together with the object location and orientation. The performance of the system is governed by a target size-depth curve. Maximum detection depth is 1.5 m. While UXO objects have a single major polarizability coincident with the long axis of the object and two equal transverse polarizabilities, scrap metal has three different principal polarizabilities. The results clearly show that there are very clear distinctions between symmetric intact UXO and irregular scrap metal, and that BUD can resolve the intrinsic polarizabilities of the target. The field survey at the Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona showed excellent results within the predicted size-depth range.

  13. Expansion of Groundnut ringspot virus host and geographic ranges in solanaceous vegetables in peninsular Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report provides a timely account of Groundnut ringspot virus infection of additional hosts (pepper, tomatillo and eggplant) and in additional locations to growers, Extension personnel, crop consultants, and state and Federal regulatory and research scientists....

  14. Quality of products containing defatted groundnut cake flour.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Chitra; Rajyalakshmi, Peram

    2011-02-01

    Defatted groundnut cake obtained from commercial oil processing units and that prepared in laboratory oil expeller (LOE) were analyzed for quality parameters. Defatted groundnut cake flour (DGCF) was incorporated at 15-100% levels in laddoo, chutney powder, fryums (deep fried crisp and crunchy item), biscuits, noodles and extruded snacks. The products were studied for sensory, physico-chemical and shelf-life quality. DGCF was creamish white with bulk density of 0.55 ± 0.03 g/ml, water absorption capacity 135.6 ± 1.97 ml %, oil absorption capacity 100.3 ± 1.16 ml % and foam capacity 33 ± 1%. Protein, fat and ash contents were 51.6 ± 0.06, 4.5 ± 0.05 and 4.2 ± 0.11%, respectively. Tannins and aflatoxin B1 were not detected. The increase of protein due to incorporation of DGCF into the products ranged from 5.5 to 21.9%. Shelf-life studies indicated the maximum storability for 90 days for all the products except laddoo, which could be stored for 30 days at ambient temperature (28 ± 2°C). All the products were acceptable and the order of preference for the products as indicated by adults (fryums, chutney powder, extruded snacks, noodles, biscuits and laddoo) and children (biscuits, laddoo, extruded snacks, fryums, noodles and chutney powder) varied.

  15. Intensifying groundnut production in the Sudan savanna zone of Nigeria: including groundnut in the irrigated cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, A A

    2011-11-15

    Inadequate and erratic rainfall pattern and extreme temperature variations induced by climate change being experienced in Sudan savanna areas have compromised the cropping systems of these areas. A change in the cropping patterns is required to maintain and improve upon crop output levels. The pod yield ha(-1) and other growth and yield components of three varieties of groundnut grown under irrigated conditions were measured in a field experiment conducted at the Irrigation Research Station of the Institute for Agricultural Research, Zaria, from 2003 to 2006 dry seasons. Treatments consisted of three plant populations (50,000, 100,000 and 200,000 plants ha(-1)), three varieties (Samnut 23, Samnut 21 and Samnut 11) and three basin sizes (3 x 3, 3 x 4 and 3 x 5 m) arranged in a split plot design with population and variety as main plot and basin size as sub plot. Treatments were randomly assigned and replicated three times. Plant populations significantly affected plant height and canopy spread but had no effect on number of branches plant. Plants grew significantly taller at 200,000 plants ha(-1) while plant canopy spread was significantly widest at 50,000 plants ha(-1). Samnut 23 grew significantly taller than Samnut 21 and 11 although they exhibited wider canopies. Pod yield ha(-1) and 100 seed weight were significantly highest at 200,000 plants ha(-1). Samnut 23 produced the significantly highest pod yield ha(-1) and number of pods plant(-1). Samnut 11 produced significantly highest 100 seed weight. Samnut 23 planted at 200,000 plants ha(-1) in 3 x 4 m basins is most promising for irrigated groundnut cultivation in the Sudan savanna of Nigeria. PMID:22514881

  16. Transport via xylem and accumulation of aflatoxin in seeds of groundnut plant.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, M; Hariprasad, P; Venkateswaran, G

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin contamination in groundnut seeds in the absence of any aflatoxigenic fungi leads to a hypothesis that aflatoxins are present naturally in soil and is transferred to seeds through uptake by roots. A survey was conducted on the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in agricultural soils, among nine main groundnut-growing regions of Karnataka state, India. All 71 soil samples collected in this survey were contaminated with aflatoxins esp. AFB1. An in vitro xylem sap experiment proved the ability of groundnut plant roots to absorb AFB1, and transport to aerial plant parts via the xylem. Hydroponics experiment also proved the uptake of AFB1 by the roots and their translocation to shoot. Uptake was affected by the initial concentration of toxin and pH of the medium. Among the 14 varieties screened, GPBD4 and MLT.K.107 (III) recorded highest and least AFB1 uptake, respectively. The above results were validated using a greenhouse experiment. Here, the aflatoxin absorbed by root gradually transferred to shoot that was later found in seeds towards the end of experiment. Thus, the groundnut seeds can also get contaminated with aflatoxin by direct uptake of aflatoxin through conducting tissue in addition to fungal infection. The present study revealed the novel mode of aflatoxin contamination in groundnut seeds without fungal infection.

  17. Transport via xylem and accumulation of aflatoxin in seeds of groundnut plant.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, M; Hariprasad, P; Venkateswaran, G

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin contamination in groundnut seeds in the absence of any aflatoxigenic fungi leads to a hypothesis that aflatoxins are present naturally in soil and is transferred to seeds through uptake by roots. A survey was conducted on the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in agricultural soils, among nine main groundnut-growing regions of Karnataka state, India. All 71 soil samples collected in this survey were contaminated with aflatoxins esp. AFB1. An in vitro xylem sap experiment proved the ability of groundnut plant roots to absorb AFB1, and transport to aerial plant parts via the xylem. Hydroponics experiment also proved the uptake of AFB1 by the roots and their translocation to shoot. Uptake was affected by the initial concentration of toxin and pH of the medium. Among the 14 varieties screened, GPBD4 and MLT.K.107 (III) recorded highest and least AFB1 uptake, respectively. The above results were validated using a greenhouse experiment. Here, the aflatoxin absorbed by root gradually transferred to shoot that was later found in seeds towards the end of experiment. Thus, the groundnut seeds can also get contaminated with aflatoxin by direct uptake of aflatoxin through conducting tissue in addition to fungal infection. The present study revealed the novel mode of aflatoxin contamination in groundnut seeds without fungal infection. PMID:25112578

  18. Aflatoxin B1 levels in groundnut and sunflower oils in different Sudanese states.

    PubMed

    Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam; Idris, Yousif Mohamed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the level of contamination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in groundnut and sunflower oils was determined. The 241 oil samples were collected from Khartoum, Gezira, Kordofan and Algadarif states of Sudan and assessed for AFB1 using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). AFB1 levels in groundnut oil samples ranged from 0.5 to 70 µg/kg and were 0.7 to 35 µg/kg in sunflower oil samples. High contamination was found in unrefined samples. It was concluded that AFB1 levels in oil samples indicated that growing, harvesting, handling and storage of the crops were not done properly.

  19. Aflatoxin B1 levels in groundnut and sunflower oils in different Sudanese states.

    PubMed

    Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam; Idris, Yousif Mohamed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the level of contamination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in groundnut and sunflower oils was determined. The 241 oil samples were collected from Khartoum, Gezira, Kordofan and Algadarif states of Sudan and assessed for AFB1 using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). AFB1 levels in groundnut oil samples ranged from 0.5 to 70 µg/kg and were 0.7 to 35 µg/kg in sunflower oil samples. High contamination was found in unrefined samples. It was concluded that AFB1 levels in oil samples indicated that growing, harvesting, handling and storage of the crops were not done properly. PMID:26472622

  20. Thermal degradation of groundnut oil during continuous and intermittent frying.

    PubMed

    Das, Amit K; Babylatha, R; Pavithra, A S; Khatoon, Sakina

    2013-12-01

    The quality of refined groundnut oil, as affected by frying Poori, was assessed with respect to two types of frying operations viz., continuous frying and intermittent frying. Continuous frying was carried out consistently for 8 h, whereas intermittent frying was performed for 2 h everyday for 4 days for a total of 8 frying hours. The purpose of the study was to compare the level of deterioration that occurred during the two operations. Among the parameters studied, peroxide value (11.3 ± 0.26 meqO2/kg), anisidine value (172.4 ± 2.71), diene value (1.57 ± 0.095), oxidized fatty acid (2.6 ± 0.17%) and viscosity (103.8 ± 2.5 mPa s(-1)), were found to be higher after 8 h due to intermittent frying. The corresponding values 4.9 ± 0.15, 133.3 ± 0.49, 0.811 ± 0.04, 0.38 ± 0.023 and 81.8 ± 2.02 were observed in continuous frying. Parameters such as iodine value, unsaturated fatty acids, saponification value and smoke point decreased significantly (P < 0.5) due to intermittent frying. Results showed that intermittent frying caused more quality degradation to GNO than continuous frying.

  1. Paenibacillus arachidis sp. nov., isolated from groundnut seeds.

    PubMed

    Sadaf, K; Tushar, L; Nirosha, P; Podile, A R; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2016-08-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, endospore-forming, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated as strain E3T, was isolated from groundnut seeds. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain E3T belongs to the genus Paenibacillus with Paenibacillus thailandensis S3-4AT (96.0 %), Paenibacillus xanthinilyticus 11N27T (95.7 %), Paenibacillus mendelii C/2T (95.7 %) and other members of the genus Paenibacillus (<95.5 %) as its closest phylogenetic neighbours. The DNA G+C content of strain E3T was 53 mol%. Strain E3T was positive for gelatin hydrolysis, ammonification, catalase, chitinase production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity, HCN production, siderophore production, biofilm formation, and urea and starch hydrolysis. Strain E3T had phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphotidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, an unidentified aminophospholipid, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids as polar lipids. Strain E3T had diploptene, deplopterol and bacteriohopaneterol as major hopanoids. anteiso-C15 : 0 was the predominant cellular fatty acid with significant proportions of iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 0, C17 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and iso-C14 : 0. Strain E3T had meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. On the basis of physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and molecular analysis, strain E3T represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus arachidis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is E3T (=KCTC 33574T=LMG 28417T).

  2. Emergence of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus in U.S. vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host and geographic ranges, genetic diversity and thrips transmission of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus isolates from the U.S. were characterized. This report provides an overview of these viruses for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory...

  3. The anillin-related region of Bud4 is the major functional determinant for Bud4's function in septin organization during bud growth and axial bud site selection in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huan; Guo, Jia; Zhou, Ya-Ting; Gao, Xiang-Dong

    2015-03-01

    The anillin-related protein Bud4 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for axial bud site selection by linking the axial landmark to the septins, which localize at the mother bud neck. Recent studies indicate that Bud4 plays a role in septin organization during cytokinesis. Here we show that Bud4 is also involved in septin organization during bud growth prior to cytokinesis, as bud4Δ shs1Δ cells displayed an elongated bud morphology and defective septin organization at 18°C. Bud4 overexpression also affected septin organization during bud growth in shs1Δ cells at 30°C. Bud4 was previously thought to associate with the septins via its central region, while the C-terminal anillin-related region was not involved in septin association. Surprisingly, we found that the central region of Bud4 alone targets to the bud neck throughout the cell cycle, unlike full-length Bud4, which localizes to the bud neck only during G2/M phase. We identified the anillin-related region to be a second targeting domain that cooperates with the central region for proper septin association. In addition, the anillin-related region could largely mediate Bud4's function in septin organization during bud growth and bud site selection. We show that this region interacts with the C terminus of Bud3 and the two segments depend on each other for association with the septins. Moreover, like the bud4Δ mutant, the bud3Δ mutant genetically interacts with shs1Δ and cdc12-6 mutants in septin organization, suggesting that Bud4 and Bud3 may cooperate in septin organization during bud growth. These observations provide new insights into the interaction of Bud4 with the septins and Bud3.

  4. Renal papillary necrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... your provider. Alternative Names Necrosis - renal papillae; Renal medullary necrosis Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Ruggenenti P, Cravedi P, Remuzzi G. Microvascular and macrovascular diseases of the kidney. In: Taal MW, Chertow GM, ...

  5. Modelling Bambara Groundnut Yield in Southern Africa: Towards a Climate-Resilient Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karunaratne, A. S.; Walker, S.; Ruane, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Current agriculture depends on a few major species grown as monocultures that are supported by global research underpinning current productivity. However, many hundreds of alternative crops have the potential to meet real world challenges by sustaining humanity, diversifying agricultural systems for food and nutritional security, and especially responding to climate change through their resilience to certain climate conditions. Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.), an underutilised African legume, is an exemplar crop for climate resilience. Predicted yield performances of Bambara groundnut by AquaCrop (a crop-water productivity model) were evaluated for baseline (1980-2009) and mid-century climates (2040-2069) under 20 downscaled Global Climate Models (CMIP5-RCP8.5), as well as for climate sensitivities (AgMIPC3MP) across 3 locations in Southern Africa (Botswana, South Africa, Namibia). Different land - races of Bambara groundnut originating from various semi-arid African locations showed diverse yield performances with diverse sensitivities to climate. S19 originating from hot-dry conditions in Namibia has greater future yield potential compared to the Swaziland landrace Uniswa Red-UN across study sites. South Africa has the lowest yield under the current climate, indicating positive future yield trends. Namibia reported the highest baseline yield at optimum current temperatures, indicating less yield potential in future climates. Bambara groundnut shows positive yield potential at temperatures of up to 31degC, with further warming pushing yields down. Thus, many regions in Southern Africa can utilize Bambara groundnut successfully in the coming decades. This modelling exercise supports decisions on genotypic suitability for present and future climates at specific locations.

  6. Optimization of food materials for development of nutritious pasta utilizing groundnut meal and beetroot.

    PubMed

    Mridula, D; Gupta, R K; Bhadwal, Sheetal; Khaira, Harjot; Tyagi, S K

    2016-04-01

    Present study was undertaken to optimize the level of food materials viz. groundnut meal, beetroot juice and refined wheat flour for development of nutritious pasta using response surface methodology. Box-benken design of experiments was used to design different experimental combinations considering 10 to 20 g groundnut meal, 6 to 18 mL beetroot juice and 80 to 90 g refined wheat flour. Quality attributes such as protein content, antioxidant activity, colour, cooking quality (solid loss, rehydration ratio and cooking time) and sensory acceptability of pasta samples were the dependent variables for the study. The results revealed that pasta samples with higher levels of groundnut meal and beetroot juice were high in antioxidant activity and overall sensory acceptability. The samples with higher content of groundnut meal indicated higher protein contents in them. On the other hand, the samples with higher beetroot juice content were high in rehydration ratio and lesser cooking time along with low solid loss in cooking water. The different level of studied food materials significantly affected the colour quality of pasta samples. Optimized combination for development of nutritious pasta consisted of 20 g groundnut meal, 18 mL beetroot juice and 83.49 g refined wheat flour with overall desirability as 0.905. This pasta sample required 5.5 min to cook and showed 1.37 % solid loss and rehydration ratio as 6.28. Pasta sample prepared following optimized formulation provided 19.56 % protein content, 23.95 % antioxidant activity and 125.89 mg/100 g total phenols with overall sensory acceptability scores 8.71. PMID:27413210

  7. Foamy Virus Budding and Release

    PubMed Central

    Hütter, Sylvia; Zurnic, Irena; Lindemann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Like all other viruses, a successful egress of functional particles from infected cells is a prerequisite for foamy virus (FV) spread within the host. The budding process of FVs involves steps, which are shared by other retroviruses, such as interaction of the capsid protein with components of cellular vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) machinery via late domains identified in some FV capsid proteins. Additionally, there are features of the FV budding strategy quite unique to the spumaretroviruses. This includes secretion of non-infectious subviral particles and a strict dependence on capsid-glycoprotein interaction for release of infectious virions from the cells. Virus-like particle release is not possible since FV capsid proteins lack a membrane-targeting signal. It is noteworthy that in experimental systems, the important capsid-glycoprotein interaction could be bypassed by fusing heterologous membrane-targeting signals to the capsid protein, thus enabling glycoprotein-independent egress. Aside from that, other systems have been developed to enable envelopment of FV capsids by heterologous Env proteins. In this review article, we will summarize the current knowledge on FV budding, the viral components and their domains involved as well as alternative and artificial ways to promote budding of FV particle structures, a feature important for alteration of target tissue tropism of FV-based gene transfer systems. PMID:23575110

  8. Bud-Neck Scaffolding as a Possible Driving Force in ESCRT-Induced Membrane Budding

    PubMed Central

    Mercker, Moritz; Marciniak-Czochra, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Membrane budding is essential for processes such as protein sorting and transport. Recent experimental results with ESCRT proteins reveal a novel budding mechanism, with proteins emerging in bud necks but separated from the entire bud surface. Using an elastic model, we show that ESCRT protein shapes are sufficient to spontaneously create experimentally observed structures, with protein-membrane interactions leading to protein scaffolds in bud-neck regions. Furthermore, the model reproduces experimentally observed budding directions and bud sizes. Finally, our results reveal that membrane-mediated sorting has the capability of creating structures more complicated than previously assumed. PMID:25692588

  9. Trichoderma viride induces pathogenesis related defense response against rot pathogen infection in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Gajera, H P; Savaliya, Disha D; Patel, S V; Golakiya, B A

    2015-08-01

    The study examine induction of defense enzymes involved in phenylpropanoid pathway and accumulation of pathogenesis related proteins in rot pathogen (Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem) challenged groundnut seedlings in response to Trichoderma viride JAU60. Seeds of five groundnut varieties differing in collar rot susceptibility were sown under non-infested, pathogen infested and pathogen+T. viride JAU60 seed treatment. Collar rot disease evident between 31.0% (J-11, GG-2) and 67.4% (GG-20) in different groundnut varieties under pathogen infested which was significantly reduced from 58.1% (J-11, GG-2) to 51.6% (GG-20) by Trichoderma treatment. The specific activities of polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.14.18.1) and β-1,3 glucanase (EC 3.2.1.6) elevated 3.5 and 2.3-fold, respectively, at 3 days; phenylalanine ammonia lyase (EC 4.3.1.5) evident 1.6-fold higher at 6 days; and chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) sustained 2.3-2.8 folds up to 9 days in Trichoderma treated+pathogen infested seedlings of tolerant varieties (J-11, GG-2) compared with moderate and susceptible (GAUG-10, GG-13, GG-20). T. viride JAU60 induces defense enzymes in a different way for tolerant and susceptible varieties to combat the disease. This study indicates the synergism activation of defense enzymes under the pathogenic conditions or induced resistance by T. viride JAU60 in a different groundnut varieties susceptible to collar rot disease. PMID:26160540

  10. Biological control of collar rot disease with broad-spectrum antifungal bacteria associated with groundnut.

    PubMed

    Kishore, G Krishna; Pande, S; Podile, A R

    2005-02-01

    Bacteria associated with 6 habitats of groundnut were evaluated for their broad-spectrum antifungal activity and suppression of collar rot (Aspergillus niger) of groundnut. Three hundred and ninety-three strains were tested against 8 fungal pathogens of groundnut including 5 necrotrophic fungi, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Rhizoctonia bataticola, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotium rolfsii, and 3 biotrophic fungi, Cercospora arachidicola, Phaeoisariopsis personata, and Puccinia arachidis. Pseudomonas sp. GRS 175, Pseudomonas aeruginosa GPS 21, GSE 18, GSE 19, and GSE 30, and their cell-free culture filtrates were highly antagonistic to all the test fungi. The cell-free culture filtrates of these bacteria were fungicidal and induced mycelial deformations including hyphal bulging and vacuolization in necrotrophic fungi. The cell-free culture filtrates at 10% (v/v) concentration significantly inhibited the spore germination of biotrophic fungi. In the greenhouse, P. aeruginosa GSE 18 emerged as an effective biocontrol agent of collar rot closely followed by P. aeruginosa GSE 19. The bacterium applied as a seed treatment reduced the pre-emergence rotting and postemergence wilting by > 60%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa GSE 18 effectively colonized the groundnut rhizosphere, both in native and in A. niger infested potting mixtures. Ninety-day-old peat formulation of P. aeruginosa GSE 18 had biocontrol ability comparable with the midlog-phase cells. Pseudomonas aeruginosa GSE 18, tolerant to thiram, in combination with the fungicide had an improved collar rot control. The present study was a successful attempt in selection of broad-spectrum and fungicide tolerant biocontrol agents that can be a useful component of integrated management of collar rot.

  11. First evidence on phloem transport of nanoscale calcium oxide in groundnut using solution culture technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepa, Manchala; Sudhakar, Palagiri; Nagamadhuri, Kandula Venkata; Balakrishna Reddy, Kota; Giridhara Krishna, Thimmavajjula; Prasad, Tollamadugu Naga Venkata Krishna Vara

    2015-06-01

    Nanoscale materials, whose size typically falls below 100 nm, exhibit novel chemical, physical and biological properties which are different from their bulk counterparts. In the present investigation, we demonstrated that nanoscale calcium oxide particles (n-CaO) could transport through phloem tissue of groundnut unlike the corresponding bulk materials. n-CaO particles are prepared using sol-gel method. The size of the as prepared n-CaO measured (69.9 nm) using transmission electron microscopic technique (TEM). Results of the hydroponics experiment using solution culture technique revealed that foliar application of n-CaO at different concentrations (10, 50, 100, 500, 1,000 ppm) on groundnut plants confirmed the entry of calcium into leaves and stems through phloem compared to bulk source of calcium sprayed (CaO and CaNO3). After spraying of n-CaO, calcium content in roots, shoots and leaves significantly increased. Based on visual scoring of calcium deficiency correction and calcium content in plant parts, we may establish the fact that nanoscale calcium oxide particles (size 69.9 nm) could move through phloem tissue in groundnut. This is the first report on phloem transport of nanoscale calcium oxide particles in plants and this result points to the use of nanoscale calcium oxide particles as calcium source to the plants through foliar application, agricultural crops in particular, as bulk calcium application through foliar nutrition is restricted due to its non-mobility in phloem.

  12. Evaluation of allium and its seasoning on toxigenic, nutritional, and sensorial profiles of groundnut oil.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kasi; Anandaraj, K; Al-Sohaibani, Saleh A

    2014-04-01

    Mitigation of xerophilic storage fungi-associated aflatoxin threat in culinary oil will be a new technology advantage to food industries. Groundnut oil isolate Aspergillus flavus MTCC 10680 susceptibility to Allium species (A. sativum L., A. cepa L., and A. cepa var. aggregatum) extracts, composition, and in silico confirmation of extract's phytoconstituent aflatoxin synthesis inhibition were determined. The behavior of seasoning carrier medium groundnut oil in the presence of Allium was also determined. All the Allium species extracts exhibited concentration dependent in vitro inhibition on mycelial biomass, radial growth, and toxin elaboration. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 28, 16, and 9 compounds in the extracts of A. sativum, A. cepa, A. cepa var. aggregatum, respectively. The Allium phytocostituents-like hexadecanoic acid, 5-Octanoyl-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione, Guanosine, and so on, showed higher binding energy with aflatoxin synthesis key enzyme ver1. Allium seasoning increased the typical nutty odor of the groundnut oil with sweet aroma note as well as intensification of pale yellow color. Allium seasoning exhibited the highest aflatoxin detoxification and aroma development without any nutritional loss. Culinary oil Allium seasoning has anti-aflatoxin and food additive potential for use in food industries.

  13. Evaluating the skill of seasonal weather forecasts in predicting aflatoxin contamination of groundnut in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brak, B.; Challinor, A.

    2011-12-01

    Aflatoxins, a group of toxic secondary metabolites produced by some strains of a number of species within Aspergillus section Flavi, contaminate a range of crops grown at latitudes between 40N° and 40S° of the equator. Digestion of food products derived from aflatoxin-contaminated crops may result in acute and chronic health problems in human beings. Countries in sub-Saharan Africa in particular have seen large percentages of the human population exposed to aflatoxin. A recent study showed that over 98% of subjects in West Africa tested positive for aflatoxin biomarkers. According to other research, every year 250,000 people die from hepato-cellular carcinoma related causes due to aflatoxin ingestion in parts of West Africa. Strict aflatoxin levels set by importing countries in accordance with the WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) also impair the value of agricultural trade. Over the last thirty years this has led to a reduction of African exports of groundnut by 19% despite the consumption of groundnut derived food products going up by 209%. The occurrence of aflatoxin on crops is strongly influenced by weather. Empirical studies in the US have shown that pre-harvest, aflatoxin contamination of groundnuts is induced by conditions of drought stress in combination with soil temperatures between 25°C and 31°C. Post-harvest, aflatoxin production of stored, Aspergillus-contaminated groundnuts is exacerbated in conditions where relative humidity is above 83%. The GLAM crop model was extended to include a soil temperature subroutine and subroutines containing pre- and post-harvest aflatoxin algorithms. The algorithms used to estimate aflatoxin contamination indices are based on findings from multiple empirical studies and the pre-harvest aflatoxin model has been validated for Australian conditions. Hence, there was sufficient scope to use GLAM with these algorithms to answer the foremost research question: Is the

  14. Tropical Storms Bud and Dera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Like dancers pirouetting in opposite directions, the rotational patterns of two different tropical storms are contrasted in this pair of Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) nadir-camera images. The left-hand image is of Tropical Storm Bud, acquired on June 17, 2000 (Terra orbit 2656) as the storm was dissipating. Bud was situated in the eastern Pacific Ocean between Socorro Island and the southern tip of Baja California. South of the storm's center is a vortex pattern caused by obstruction of the prevailing flow by tiny Socorro Island. Sonora, Mexico and Baja California are visible at the top of the image. The right-hand image is of Tropical Cyclone Dera, acquired on March 12, 2001. Dera was located in the Indian Ocean, south of Madagascar. The southern end of this large island is visible in the top portion of this image. Northern hemisphere tropical storms, like Bud, rotate in a counterclockwise direction, whereas those in the southern hemisphere, such as Dera, rotate clockwise. The opposite spins are a consequence of Earth's rotation. Each image covers a swath approximately 380 kilometers wide. Image courtesy NASA/JPL/GSFC/LaRC, MISR Team

  15. Tropical Storms Bud and Dera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Like dancers pirouetting in opposite directions, the rotational patterns of two different tropical storms are contrasted in this pair of MISR nadir-camera images.

    The left-hand image is of Tropical Storm Bud, acquired on June 17, 2000 (Terra orbit 2656) as the storm was dissipating. Bud was situated in the eastern Pacific Ocean between Socorro Island and the southern tip of Baja California. South of the storm's center is a vortex pattern caused by obstruction of the prevailing flow by tiny Socorro Island. Sonora, Mexico and Baja California are visible at the top of the image.

    The right-hand image is of Tropical Cyclone Dera, acquired on March 12, 2001 (Terra orbit 6552). Dera was located in the Indian Ocean, south of Madagascar. The southern end of this large island is visible in the top portion of this image.

    Northern hemisphere tropical storms, like Bud, rotate in a counterclockwise direction, whereas those in the southern hemisphere, such as Dera, rotate clockwise. The opposite spins are a consequence of Earth's rotation.

    Each image covers a swath approximately 380 kilometers wide.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  16. Efficacy and insecticidal properties of some essential oils against Caryedon serratus (Oliver)-a storage pest of groundnut.

    PubMed

    Harish, G; Nataraja, M V; Holajjer, Prasanna; Thirumalaisamy, P P; Jadon, K S; Savaliya, S D; Padavi, R D; Koradia, V G; Gedia, M V

    2014-11-01

    During storage groundnut is attacked by number of stored grain pest and management of these insect pests particularly bruchid beetle, Caryedon serratus (Oliver) is of prime importance as they directly damage the pod and kernels. Hence, some essential oils were tested for their insecticidal and fungicidal properties. Highest total bruchid mortality was recorded with the application of neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) concentration and lowest in eucalyptus oil at 5% (v/w). Number of eggs laid was recorded 2.3 in neem oil 10% (v/w) which was lowest and significantly superior over untreated control and was at par with castor oil 10% (v/w) which recorded 2.5 eggs per 100 g of groundnut pods. There was no adult emergence in the groundnut pods treated with castor oil, eucalyptus oil, neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) concentration. Groundnut pods treated with castor oil, eucalyptus oil, neem oil and pongamia oil at 10% (v/w) and neem oil at 5% (v/w) concentrations recorded no damage to pods and kernels and also zero per cent weight loss. These oils effectively influenced groundnut bruchid establishment and reduce damage besides reduction in aflatoxin contamination. PMID:26396354

  17. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Bloomquist, Ryan F.; Parnell, Nicholas F.; Phillips, Kristine A.; Fowler, Teresa E.; Yu, Tian Y.; Sharpe, Paul T.; Streelman, J. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium. PMID:26483492

  18. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds.

    PubMed

    Bloomquist, Ryan F; Parnell, Nicholas F; Phillips, Kristine A; Fowler, Teresa E; Yu, Tian Y; Sharpe, Paul T; Streelman, J Todd

    2015-11-01

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium.

  19. Fat Necrosis and Oil Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Previous Topic Granular cell tumors Next Topic Mastitis Fat necrosis and oil cysts Fat necrosis happens when ... lumpy area if it becomes bothersome. How do fat necrosis and oil cysts affect your risk for ...

  20. Comparison of the protein nutritional value of food blends based on sorghum, bambara groundnut and sweet potatoes.

    PubMed

    Nnam, N M

    2001-01-01

    The protein quality of four blends based on sprouted sorghum, bambara groundnuts and fermented sweet potatoes had been evaluated by rat feeding experiments; casein served as a reference protein. The test proteins were incorporated to make up 1.6% total nitrogen. There was an inverse relationship between % nitrogen disgestibility and the proportion of sorghum protein in the blend; being highest (89.7%) in the diets based on sorghum:bambara groundnut:sweet potatoes with protein ratios of 52:46:2. This blend proved to be optimum when the biological value (93.6%) and the net protein utilization (84%) were used as protein indices. The findings imply that foods with good protein quality could be formulated from a blend of sorghum-bambara groundnut and sweet potatoes, provided appropriate processing and blending are taken into consideration.

  1. Cotton buds, momentum, and impulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Ed; Nuñez, Jover; Guirit, Alfredo; van Huis, Cor

    2000-01-01

    Here is a simple experiment demonstrating impulse and momentum that was picked up from a Japanese presenter at a physics teacher conference held in Cebu City. We have not been able to trace the experiment farther and have never seen it in print. After student-author Nuñez demonstrated it during an exam on conducting demonstrations, we converted the qualitative idea into a quanitative experiment and even discovered some possibilities for student research. The lab is also suitable as homework, since it uses universally available "equipment" — cotton buds (swabs), drinking straws, and a ruler.

  2. Whole-Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in the Vegetative Buds, Floral Buds and Buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua; Sun, Ming; Du, Dongliang; Pan, Huitang; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Chrysanthemum morifolium is an important floral crop that is cultivated worldwide. However, due to a lack of genomic resources, very little information is available concerning the molecular mechanisms of flower development in chrysanthemum. Results The transcriptomes of chrysanthemum vegetative buds, floral buds and buds were sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. A total of 15.4 Gb of reads were assembled into 91,367 unigenes with an average length of 739 bp. A total of 43,137 unigenes showed similarity to known proteins in the Swissprot or NCBI non-redundant protein databases. Additionally, 25,424, 24,321 and 13,704 unigenes were assigned to 56 gene ontology (GO) categories, 25 EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) categories, and 285 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, respectively. A total of 1,876 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (1,516 up-regulated, 360 down-regulated) were identified between vegetative buds and floral buds, and 3,300 DEGs (1,277 up-regulated, 1,706 down-regulated) were identified between floral buds and buds. Many genes encoding important transcription factors (e.g., AP2, MYB, MYC, WRKY, NAC and CRT) as well as proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, protein kinase activity, plant hormone signal transduction, and the defense responses, among others, were considerably up-regulated in floral buds. Genes involved in the photoperiod pathway and flower organ determination were also identified. These genes represent important candidate genes for molecular cloning and functional analysis to study flowering regulation in chrysanthemum. Conclusion This comparative transcriptome analysis revealed significant differences in gene expression and signaling pathway components between the vegetative buds, floral buds and buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium. A wide range of genes was implicated in regulating the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. These results should aid

  3. Identification of Gene Modules Associated with Low Temperatures Response in Bambara Groundnut by Network-Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bonthala, Venkata Suresh; Mayes, Katie; Moreton, Joanna; Blythe, Martin; Wright, Victoria; May, Sean Tobias; Massawe, Festo; Mayes, Sean; Twycross, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an African legume and is a promising underutilized crop with good seed nutritional values. Low temperature stress in a number of African countries at night, such as Botswana, can effect the growth and development of bambara groundnut, leading to losses in potential crop yield. Therefore, in this study we developed a computational pipeline to identify and analyze the genes and gene modules associated with low temperature stress responses in bambara groundnut using the cross-species microarray technique (as bambara groundnut has no microarray chip) coupled with network-based analysis. Analyses of the bambara groundnut transcriptome using cross-species gene expression data resulted in the identification of 375 and 659 differentially expressed genes (p<0.01) under the sub-optimal (23°C) and very sub-optimal (18°C) temperatures, respectively, of which 110 genes are commonly shared between the two stress conditions. The construction of a Highest Reciprocal Rank-based gene co-expression network, followed by its partition using a Heuristic Cluster Chiseling Algorithm resulted in 6 and 7 gene modules in sub-optimal and very sub-optimal temperature stresses being identified, respectively. Modules of sub-optimal temperature stress are principally enriched with carbohydrate and lipid metabolic processes, while most of the modules of very sub-optimal temperature stress are significantly enriched with responses to stimuli and various metabolic processes. Several transcription factors (from MYB, NAC, WRKY, WHIRLY & GATA classes) that may regulate the downstream genes involved in response to stimulus in order for the plant to withstand very sub-optimal temperature stress were highlighted. The identified gene modules could be useful in breeding for low-temperature stress tolerant bambara groundnut varieties. PMID:26859686

  4. Identification of Gene Modules Associated with Low Temperatures Response in Bambara Groundnut by Network-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bonthala, Venkata Suresh; Mayes, Katie; Moreton, Joanna; Blythe, Martin; Wright, Victoria; May, Sean Tobias; Massawe, Festo; Mayes, Sean; Twycross, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an African legume and is a promising underutilized crop with good seed nutritional values. Low temperature stress in a number of African countries at night, such as Botswana, can effect the growth and development of bambara groundnut, leading to losses in potential crop yield. Therefore, in this study we developed a computational pipeline to identify and analyze the genes and gene modules associated with low temperature stress responses in bambara groundnut using the cross-species microarray technique (as bambara groundnut has no microarray chip) coupled with network-based analysis. Analyses of the bambara groundnut transcriptome using cross-species gene expression data resulted in the identification of 375 and 659 differentially expressed genes (p<0.01) under the sub-optimal (23°C) and very sub-optimal (18°C) temperatures, respectively, of which 110 genes are commonly shared between the two stress conditions. The construction of a Highest Reciprocal Rank-based gene co-expression network, followed by its partition using a Heuristic Cluster Chiseling Algorithm resulted in 6 and 7 gene modules in sub-optimal and very sub-optimal temperature stresses being identified, respectively. Modules of sub-optimal temperature stress are principally enriched with carbohydrate and lipid metabolic processes, while most of the modules of very sub-optimal temperature stress are significantly enriched with responses to stimuli and various metabolic processes. Several transcription factors (from MYB, NAC, WRKY, WHIRLY & GATA classes) that may regulate the downstream genes involved in response to stimulus in order for the plant to withstand very sub-optimal temperature stress were highlighted. The identified gene modules could be useful in breeding for low-temperature stress tolerant bambara groundnut varieties. PMID:26859686

  5. Adsorption of malachite green on groundnut shell waste based powdered activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, R.; Ramteke, D.S. Wate, S.R.

    2007-07-01

    In the present technologically fast changing situation related to waste management practices, it is desirable that disposal of plant waste should be done in a scientific manner by keeping in view economic and pollution considerations. This is only possible when the plant waste has the potential to be used as raw material for some useful product. In the present study, groundnut shell, an agricultural waste, was used for the preparation of an adsorbent by chemical activation using ZnCl{sub 2} under optimized conditions and its comparative characterisation was conducted with commercially available powdered activated carbon (CPAC) for its physical, chemical and adsorption properties. The groundnut shell based powdered activated carbon (GSPAC) has a higher surface area, iodine and methylene blue number compared to CPAC. Both of the carbons were used for the removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution and the effect of various operating variables, viz. adsorbent dose (0.1-1 g l{sup -1}), contact time (5-120 min) and adsorbate concentrations (100-200 mg l{sup -1}) on the removal of dye, has been studied. The experimental results indicate that at a dose of 0.5 g l{sup -1} and initial concentration of 100 mg l{sup -1}, GSPAC showed 94.5% removal of the dye in 30 min equilibrium time, while CPAC removed 96% of the dye in 15 min. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using the linearized forms of Freundlich, Langmuir and BET equations to determine maximum adsorptive capacities. The equilibrium data fit well to the Freundlich isotherm, although the BET isotherm also showed higher correlation for both of the carbons. The results of comparative adsorption capacity of both carbons indicate that groundnut shell can be used as a low-cost alternative to commercial powdered activated carbon in aqueous solution for dye removal.

  6. Adsorption of malachite green on groundnut shell waste based powdered activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Malik, R; Ramteke, D S; Wate, S R

    2007-01-01

    In the present technologically fast changing situation related to waste management practices, it is desirable that disposal of plant waste should be done in a scientific manner by keeping in view economic and pollution considerations. This is only possible when the plant waste has the potential to be used as raw material for some useful product. In the present study, groundnut shell, an agricultural waste, was used for the preparation of an adsorbent by chemical activation using ZnCl2 under optimized conditions and its comparative characterisation was conducted with commercially available powdered activated carbon (CPAC) for its physical, chemical and adsorption properties. The groundnut shell based powdered activated carbon (GSPAC) has a higher surface area, iodine and methylene blue number compared to CPAC. Both of the carbons were used for the removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution and the effect of various operating variables, viz. adsorbent dose (0.1-1 g l(-1)), contact time (5-120 min) and adsorbate concentrations (100-200 mg l(-1)) on the removal of dye, has been studied. The experimental results indicate that at a dose of 0.5 g l(-1) and initial concentration of 100 mg l(-1), GSPAC showed 94.5% removal of the dye in 30 min equilibrium time, while CPAC removed 96% of the dye in 15 min. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using the linearized forms of Freundlich, Langmuir and BET equations to determine maximum adsorptive capacities. The equilibrium data fit well to the Freundlich isotherm, although the BET isotherm also showed higher correlation for both of the carbons. The results of comparative adsorption capacity of both carbons indicate that groundnut shell can be used as a low-cost alternative to commercial powdered activated carbon in aqueous solution for dye removal.

  7. Study of disbudding goat kids following injection of clove oil essence in horn bud region.

    PubMed

    Molaei, Mohammad Mahdi; Mostafavi, Ali; Kheirandish, Reza; Azari, Omid; Shaddel, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of injection of essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata in the kid horn buds, as a new chemical technique for disbudding. Five-day-old healthy goat kids from both sexes (n = 16) were divided randomly into 4 equal groups. In groups 1, 2 and 3, 0.2 mL of clove essence and in group 4 (control) 0.2 mL of normal saline was injected into the left horn bud of goat kids. Right horn bud in all kids was considered to ensure that they are horned. During the study, the rate of horn growth were evaluated in determined time intervals between groups 1 and 4. Tissue samples were taken from right and left horn bud in groups 2 and 3, at five and ten days after clove essence injection, for microscopic study. The results of the study showed that the clove essence stopped horn growth, whereas there was no significant difference in horn growth rate between left and right horns after injection of normal saline, in group 4. Histopathological study showed that injection of clove essence caused complete necrosis of epidermis and underlying dermis with collagenolysis in horn bud tissues, 5 days after injection and then progress in healing process was observed after 10 days. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the injection of clove essence is an effective method to stop horn growth without any undesirable effects on clinical parameters in goat kids. PMID:25992247

  8. Study of disbudding goat kids following injection of clove oil essence in horn bud region

    PubMed Central

    Molaei, Mohammad Mahdi; Mostafavi, Ali; Kheirandish, Reza; Azari, Omid; Shaddel, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of injection of essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata in the kid horn buds, as a new chemical technique for disbudding. Five-day-old healthy goat kids from both sexes (n = 16) were divided randomly into 4 equal groups. In groups 1, 2 and 3, 0.2 mL of clove essence and in group 4 (control) 0.2 mL of normal saline was injected into the left horn bud of goat kids. Right horn bud in all kids was considered to ensure that they are horned. During the study, the rate of horn growth were evaluated in determined time intervals between groups 1 and 4. Tissue samples were taken from right and left horn bud in groups 2 and 3, at five and ten days after clove essence injection, for microscopic study. The results of the study showed that the clove essence stopped horn growth, whereas there was no significant difference in horn growth rate between left and right horns after injection of normal saline, in group 4. Histopathological study showed that injection of clove essence caused complete necrosis of epidermis and underlying dermis with collagenolysis in horn bud tissues, 5 days after injection and then progress in healing process was observed after 10 days. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the injection of clove essence is an effective method to stop horn growth without any undesirable effects on clinical parameters in goat kids. PMID:25992247

  9. Study of disbudding goat kids following injection of clove oil essence in horn bud region.

    PubMed

    Molaei, Mohammad Mahdi; Mostafavi, Ali; Kheirandish, Reza; Azari, Omid; Shaddel, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of injection of essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata in the kid horn buds, as a new chemical technique for disbudding. Five-day-old healthy goat kids from both sexes (n = 16) were divided randomly into 4 equal groups. In groups 1, 2 and 3, 0.2 mL of clove essence and in group 4 (control) 0.2 mL of normal saline was injected into the left horn bud of goat kids. Right horn bud in all kids was considered to ensure that they are horned. During the study, the rate of horn growth were evaluated in determined time intervals between groups 1 and 4. Tissue samples were taken from right and left horn bud in groups 2 and 3, at five and ten days after clove essence injection, for microscopic study. The results of the study showed that the clove essence stopped horn growth, whereas there was no significant difference in horn growth rate between left and right horns after injection of normal saline, in group 4. Histopathological study showed that injection of clove essence caused complete necrosis of epidermis and underlying dermis with collagenolysis in horn bud tissues, 5 days after injection and then progress in healing process was observed after 10 days. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the injection of clove essence is an effective method to stop horn growth without any undesirable effects on clinical parameters in goat kids.

  10. [Impact of TDZ and NAA on adventitious bud induction and cluster bud multiplication in Tulipa edulis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Fang; Xu, Chao; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Yang, He-Tong; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Xu, Hong-jian; Ma, Hong-Jian; Zhao, Gui-Hua

    2014-08-01

    To explore the method of explants directly induced bud and establish the tissue culture system of mutiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis, core bud and daughter bulbs (the top of bud stem expanded to form daughter bulb) of T. edulis were used as explants and treated with thidiazuron (TDZ) and 1-naphthlcetic acid (NAA). The results showed that the optimal medium for bud inducted form core bud and daughter bulb were MS + TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 4.0 mg x L(-1) and MS +TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 2.0 mg x L(-1) respectively, both of them had a bud induction rate of 72.92%, 79.22%. The optimal medium for cluster buds multiplication was MS + TDZ 0.2 mg x L(-1) + NAA 0.2 mg x L(-1), and proliferation coefficient was 2.23. After proliferation, cluster buds rooting occurred on MS medium with IBA 1.0 mg x L(-1) and the rooting rate was 52.6%, three to five seedlings in each plant. Using core bud and daughter bulb of T. edulis, the optimum medium for adventitious bud directly inducted from daughter bulb, core bud and cluster bud multiplication were screened out and the tissue culture system of multiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis was established. PMID:25509282

  11. [Impact of TDZ and NAA on adventitious bud induction and cluster bud multiplication in Tulipa edulis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Fang; Xu, Chao; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Yang, He-Tong; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Xu, Hong-jian; Ma, Hong-Jian; Zhao, Gui-Hua

    2014-08-01

    To explore the method of explants directly induced bud and establish the tissue culture system of mutiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis, core bud and daughter bulbs (the top of bud stem expanded to form daughter bulb) of T. edulis were used as explants and treated with thidiazuron (TDZ) and 1-naphthlcetic acid (NAA). The results showed that the optimal medium for bud inducted form core bud and daughter bulb were MS + TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 4.0 mg x L(-1) and MS +TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 2.0 mg x L(-1) respectively, both of them had a bud induction rate of 72.92%, 79.22%. The optimal medium for cluster buds multiplication was MS + TDZ 0.2 mg x L(-1) + NAA 0.2 mg x L(-1), and proliferation coefficient was 2.23. After proliferation, cluster buds rooting occurred on MS medium with IBA 1.0 mg x L(-1) and the rooting rate was 52.6%, three to five seedlings in each plant. Using core bud and daughter bulb of T. edulis, the optimum medium for adventitious bud directly inducted from daughter bulb, core bud and cluster bud multiplication were screened out and the tissue culture system of multiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis was established.

  12. Bud development in corydalis (Corydalis bracteata) requires low temperature: a study of developmental and carbohydrate changes

    PubMed Central

    Khodorova, Nadejda V.; Miroslavov, Evgeniy A.; Shavarda, Alexey L.; Laberche, Jean-Claude; Boitel-Conti, Michèle

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Spring geophytes require a period of low temperature for proper flower development but the mechanism that underlies the relationship between cold treatment and flowering remains unknown. The present study aims to compare the developmental anatomy and carbohydrate content of the tuberous geophyte Corydalis bracteata growing under natural winter conditions from 10 to −10 °C (field-grown) and under a mild temperature regime of 18 °C (indoor-grown plants). Methods Samples were studied under light and electron microscopy. A histochemical test (periodic acid – Schiff's) was employed to identify starch in sectioned material. Sugars were analysed by capillary gas chromatography. Apoplastic wash fluid was prepared. Key Results Under natural conditions, shoots were elongated, and buds gained in dry mass and developed normally. For indoor-grown plants, these parameters were lower in value and, from December, a progressive necrosis of flower buds was observed. The tuber consisted of the new developing one, which was connected to the bud, and the old tuber with its starch reserve. Due to the absence of plasmodesmata between new and old tuber cells, sugar transport cannot be through the symplast. Thus, a potential apoplastic route is proposed from old tuber phloem parenchyma cells to the adjacent new tuber cells. Sugar content in buds during the autumn months (September–November) was lower for indoor-grown plants than control plants, whereas the sugar content in tubers during the same period was similar for plants from both temperature treatments. However, the amount of apoplastic sugars in tubers of field-grown plants was almost 15-fold higher than in indoor-grown tubers. Conclusions The results suggest that low temperature activates the apoplastic route of sugar transport in C. bracteata tubers and a consequent carbohydrate delivery to the bud. In the absence of cold treatment, the carbohydrate reserve is locked in old tuber cells so the nutrient

  13. An efficient method of agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and regeneration in local Indian cultivar of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) using grafting.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an industrial crop used as a source of edible oil and nutrients. In this study, an efficient method of regeneration and Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is reported for a local cultivar GG-20 using de-embryonated cotyledon explant. A high regeneration 52.69 ± 2.32 % was achieved by this method with 66.6 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), while the highest number of shoot buds per explant, 17.67 ± 3.51, was found with 20 μM BAP and 10 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The bacterial culture OD, acetosyringone and L-cysteine concentration were optimized as 1.8, 200 μM and 50 mg L(-1), respectively, in co-cultivation media. It was observed that the addition of 2,4-D in co-cultivation media induced accumulation of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The optimized protocol exhibited 85 % transformation efficiency followed by 14.65 ± 1.06 % regeneration, of which 3.82 ± 0.6 % explants were survived on hygromycin after selection. Finally, 14.58 ± 2.95 % shoots (regenerated on survived explants) were rooted on rooting media (RM3). In grafting method, regenerated shoots (after hygromycin selection) were grafted on the non-transformed stocks with 100 % survival and new leaves emerged in 3 weeks. The putative transgenic plants were then confirmed by PCR, Southern hybridization, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and β-glucuronidase (GUS) histochemical assay. The reported method is efficient and rapid and can also be applied to other crops which are recalcitrant and difficult in rooting.

  14. Embryonic origin of amphibian taste buds.

    PubMed

    Barlow, L A; Northcutt, R G

    1995-05-01

    Despite numerous descriptive studies, the embryonic origin of vertebrate taste buds has never been experimentally determined. A number of different alternatives have been suggested for taste bud origins, including epibranchial placodes, the neural crest, and the local epithelium of the oropharyngeal cavity. The role of a series of epibranchial placodes and the cephalic neural crest, which together give rise to the cranial nerves innervating taste buds, was examined with regard to the development of oropharyngeal taste buds in an ambystomatid salamander, the axolotl. When pigmented placodal ectoderm or neural folds were grafted isotopically and isochronically into nonpigmented host embryos, known derivatives of each tissue contained pigmented cells, but labeled taste buds were never encountered. Thus, neither epibranchial placodes nor neural crest contribute cells to taste buds during embryogenesis. The majority of the oropharyngeal cavity of ambystomatid salamanders is lined by an endodermal epithelium. In order to demonstrate conclusively that taste buds arise from this local epithelium, the presumptive cephalic endoderm of early axolotl gastrulae was microinjected with the lipophilic dye, DiI. In the oropharyngeal epithelium of all larvae examined, both taste buds and general epithelial cells were labeled with DiI, indicating their common endodermal origin. Our findings are novel in that this is the first experimental demonstration of the endodermal origin of a vertebrate sensory receptor cell class. PMID:7750643

  15. Beyond landraces: developing improved germplasm resources for underutilized species - a case for Bambara groundnut.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Siise; Massawe, Festo; Mayes, Sean

    2014-10-01

    The potential for underutilized crops (also known as minor, neglected or orphan crops) to improve food and nutrition security has been gaining prominence within the research community in recent years. This is due to their significance for diversified agricultural systems which is a necessary component of future agriculture to address food and nutritional security concerns posed by changing climate and a growing world population. Developing workable value chain systems for underutilized crop species, coupled with comparative trait studies with major crops, potentially allows us to identify suitable agricultural modalities for such species. Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.), an underutilized leguminous species, is of interest for its reported high levels of drought tolerance in particular, which contributes to environmental resilience in semi-arid environments. Here, we present a synopsis of suitable strategies for the genetic improvement of Bambara groundnut as a guide to other underutilized crop species. Underutilized crops have often been adapted over thousands of years in particular regions by farmers and largely still exist as landraces with little or no genetic knowledge of key phenotypic traits. Breeding in these species is fundamentally different to breeding in major crops, where significant pedigree structures and history allow highly directed improvement. In this regard, deploying new integrated germplasm development approaches for variety development and genetic analysis, such as multi-parent advance generation inter-crosses (MAGIC), within breeding programmes of underutilized species will be important to be able to fully utilize such crops. PMID:25603880

  16. Differential Induction of Flavonoids in Groundnut in Response to Helicoverpa armigera and Aphis craccivora Infestation

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul Rashid; Sharma, Suraj Prasad; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are important plant secondary metabolites, which protect plants from various stresses, including herbivory. Plants differentially respond to insects with different modes of action. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting of phenols of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants with differential levels of resistance was carried out in response to Helicoverpa armigera (chewing insect) and Aphis craccivora (sucking pest) infestation. The genotypes used were ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271 (NCAc 343), ICG 1697 (NCAc 17090), and JL 24. Most of the identified compounds were present in H. armigera- and A. craccivora-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Syringic acid was observed in all the genotypes across the treatments, except in the uninfested control plants of ICG 2271 and aphid-infested plants of ICG 1697. Caffeic acid and umbelliferone were observed only in the H. armigera-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Similarly, dihydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid were observed in H. armigera- and aphid-infested plants of ICG 2271 and JL 24, respectively. The peak areas were transformed into the amounts of compounds by using internal standard peak areas and were expressed in nanograms. Quantities of the identified compounds varied across genotypes and treatments. The common compounds observed were chlorogenic, syringic, quercetin, and ferulic acids. These results suggest that depending on the mode of feeding, flavonoids are induced differentially in groundnut plants. PMID:27398031

  17. Effects of Replacing Groundnut Cake with Blood Vegetable Waste Meal in the Diets of Weaner Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Adeniji, Adedayo Abiodun

    2012-01-01

    A total of seventy-two weaner rabbits of eight weeks of age were used to assess the effects of replacing groundnut cake (GNC) with blood vegetable waste meal (BVWM) in the diets of rabbits. The BVWM was fed to replace dietary GNC at 0, 15, 30, and 45%, with GNC being 15% in the control diet. The four experimental diets were fed ad libitum for a period of eight weeks. BVWM was analyzed to contain a crude protein value of 62.35%. There were comparable feed intake values by rabbits on all the diets although the rabbits in the higher replacement levels of BVWM tended to have consumed more of the feed. There were significant increases (P < 0.05) in body weight gain by rabbits as the BVWM level increased in the diet. Similarly, the feed to gain ratio improved and nitrogen digestibility increased (P < 0.05) with higher levels of BVWM in the diet. This study shows that rabbits can tolerate the 45% BVWM replacement of groundnut cake effectively. PMID:23738121

  18. Chemical composition and functional properties of blends of maize and bambara groundnut flours for cookie production.

    PubMed

    Akpapunam, M A; Darbe, J W

    1994-09-01

    Chemical composition and functional properties of flour blends containing various levels of maize (100-0%) and bambara groundnut (0-100%) were studied. The resultant blends were high in protein, carbohydrate and caloric value. The blends contained fair amounts of Ca, P and K but were low in Na and Fe. The oil and water absorption capacities of the blends were fairly high ranging from 3.65 to 3.81 g oil/g sample and 3.40 to 3.80 g water/g sample, respectively. The gelation concentration of the blends tended to increase with increase in amount of maize flour in the blend. On the other hand, increasing the level of maize flour in the blends considerably reduced the foaming capacities of the blends. The flour blends had good emulsifying properties. Cookies prepared from the blends contained proteins ranging from 10.9 to 21.65% The cookies had good spread and were significantly lighter than the wheat control cookies. Sensory evaluation scores for cookies showed that the best level of combination was 75% maize flour and 25% bambara groundnut flour.

  19. Differential Induction of Flavonoids in Groundnut in Response to Helicoverpa armigera and Aphis craccivora Infestation.

    PubMed

    War, Abdul Rashid; Sharma, Suraj Prasad; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are important plant secondary metabolites, which protect plants from various stresses, including herbivory. Plants differentially respond to insects with different modes of action. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting of phenols of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants with differential levels of resistance was carried out in response to Helicoverpa armigera (chewing insect) and Aphis craccivora (sucking pest) infestation. The genotypes used were ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271 (NCAc 343), ICG 1697 (NCAc 17090), and JL 24. Most of the identified compounds were present in H. armigera- and A. craccivora-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Syringic acid was observed in all the genotypes across the treatments, except in the uninfested control plants of ICG 2271 and aphid-infested plants of ICG 1697. Caffeic acid and umbelliferone were observed only in the H. armigera-infested plants of ICGV 86699. Similarly, dihydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid were observed in H. armigera- and aphid-infested plants of ICG 2271 and JL 24, respectively. The peak areas were transformed into the amounts of compounds by using internal standard peak areas and were expressed in nanograms. Quantities of the identified compounds varied across genotypes and treatments. The common compounds observed were chlorogenic, syringic, quercetin, and ferulic acids. These results suggest that depending on the mode of feeding, flavonoids are induced differentially in groundnut plants. PMID:27398031

  20. Preharvest aflatoxin contamination of groundnuts subjected to terminal drought stress in postrainy season.

    PubMed

    Mehan, V K; Ramakrishna, N; Rao, R C; McDonald, D

    1995-09-01

    Groundnuts grown in the postrainy season under terminal drought stress imposed by withholding irrigation, or under a water-deficit gradient created by line-source sprinkler irrigation, were examined for preharvest aflatoxin contamination. High levels of aflatoxin B1 were found in damaged seeds in both situations. When grown under continuous drought-stress, toxin levels in damaged seed samples ranged from 1480 to 2467 [Symbol: see text]g/kg in the 1990/91, and 1.3 to 2000 [Symbol: see text]g/kg in the 1991/92 postrainy seasons. Aflatoxin B1 contamination in all damaged seed samples increased with increasing water deficit; toxin levels ranged from 26 to 850 [Symbol: see text]g/kg across the water deficit gradient. Aflatoxin was either absent or almost negligible (1-2 [Symbol: see text]g/kg) in apparently undamaged seed samples. Low risk of aflatoxin contamination in apparently undamaged seeds of groundnuts grown in postrainy seasons is indicated, even when there is terminal drought stress. PMID:23606118

  1. Ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis-enhanced mineral phosphate solubilization by groundnut-associated Serratia marcescens GPS-5.

    PubMed

    Tripura, Chaturvedula; Sashidhar, Burla; Podile, Appa Rao

    2007-02-01

    Twenty-three bacterial isolates were screened for their mineral phosphate-solubilizing (MPS) ability on Pikovskaya and National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate (NBRIP) agar. The majority of the isolates exhibited a strong ability to solubilize hydroxyapatite in both solid and liquid media. The solubilization in liquid medium corresponded with a decrease in the pH of the medium. Serratia marcescens GPS-5, known for its biocontrol of late leaf spot in groundnut, emerged as the best solubilizer. S. marcescens GPS-5 was subjected to ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis, and a total of 1700 mutants, resulting after 45 minutes of exposure, were screened on buffered NBRIP medium for alterations in MPS ability compared with that of the wild type. Seven mutants with increased (increased-MPS mutants) and 6 mutants with decreased (decreased-MPS mutants) MPS ability were isolated. All seven increased-MPS mutants were efficient at solubilizing phosphate in both solid and liquid NBRIP medium. Among the increased-MPS mutants, EMS XVIII Sm-35 showed the maximum (40%) increase in the amount of phosphate released in liquid medium compared with wild-type S. marcescens GPS-5, therefore, it would be a useful microbial inoculant in groundnut cultivation. EMS III Sm W, a nonpigmented mutant, showed the lowest solubilization of phosphate among the 6 decreased-MPS mutants. PMID:17200805

  2. Acetylated H4 histone and genomic DNA methylation patterns during bud set and bud burst in Castanea sativa.

    PubMed

    Santamaría, Ma Estrella; Hasbún, Rodrigo; Valera, Ma José; Meijón, Mónica; Valledor, Luis; Rodríguez, Jose L; Toorop, Peter E; Cañal, Ma Jesús; Rodríguez, Roberto

    2009-09-01

    The relationships between genomic DNA cytosine methylation, histone H4 acetylation and bud dormancy in Castanea sativa are described. Acetylated H4 histone and genomic DNA methylation patterns showed opposite abundance patterns during bud set and bud burst. Increased and decreased methylation levels in the apical buds coincided with bud set and bud burst, respectively. Intermediate axillary buds were characterized by constant levels of DNA methylation during burst of apical buds and reduced fluctuation in DNA methylation throughout the year, which coincided with the absence of macro-morphological changes. Furthermore, acetylated histone H4 (AcH4) levels from apical buds were higher during bud burst than during bud set, as was demonstrated by immunodetection. Results were validated with three additional C. sativa provenances. Thus, global DNA methylation and AcH4 levels showed opposite patterns and coincided with changes in bud dormancy in C. sativa.

  3. Beneficial effects of fluorescent pseudomonads on seed germination, growth promotion, and suppression of charcoal rot in groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.).

    PubMed

    Shweta, Bhatia; Maheshwari, Dinesh Kumar; Dubey, Ramesh Chand; Arora, Daljit Singh; Bajpai, Vivek K; Kang, Sun Chul

    2008-09-01

    Rhizobacteria are used as inoculants to enhance crop yield and for biological control of fungal pathogens. Fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from the rhizosphere of groundnut showed suppression of the phytopathogen Macrophomina phaseolina that causes charcoal rot of groundnut, an economically important agroproduct. Two strains of fluorescent pseudomonads, designated as PS1 and PS2, were selected as a result of in vitro antifungal activity. After 5 days of incubation at 28+/-1 degrees , both PS1 and PS2 caused clear inhibition zones in dual cultures, restricting the growth of M. phaseolina by 71% and 74%, respectively. Both the strains were capable of producing siderophores, indole acetic acid, and hydrocyanic acid, and causing phosphate solubilization under normal growth conditions. These strains, when used as inoculants in groundnut, enhanced germination up to 15% and 30% with subsequent increase in grain yield by 66% and 77%, respectively. Conversely, when the pathogen alone was testeds 57% decrease in yield was recorded. Thus the studies revealed the potential of the two pseudomonads not only as biocontrol agents against M. phaseolina, but also as a good growth promoter for groundnut. PMID:18852515

  4. Application of response surface methodology for studying the product characteristics of extruded rice-cowpea-groundnut blends.

    PubMed

    Asare, Emmanuel Kwasi; Sefa-Dedeh, Samuel; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther; Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene

    2004-08-01

    Response surface methodology (with central composite rotatable design for k=3) was used to investigate the product properties of extruded rice-cowpea-groundnut blends in a single screw extruder. The combined effect of cowpea (0-20%), groundnut (0-10%), and feed moisture (14-48%) levels were used for formulation of the products. The product moisture, expansion ratio, bulk density and total colour change were studied using standard analytical methods. Well-expanded rice-legume blend extrudates of less bulk density and lower moisture content were produced at low feed moisture. Increasing legume addition affected the various shades of colour in the product. Models developed for the indices gave R(2) values ranging from 52.8% (for the b-value) to 86.5% (for bulk density). The models developed suggested that the optimal process variables for the production of a puffed snack with an enhanced nutrition and spongy structure from a rice-cowpea-groundnut blend are low feed moisture of 14-20% and maximum additions of 20% cowpea and 10% groundnut. A lack-of-fit test showed no significance, indicating that the models adequately fitted the data.

  5. Apoptosis, oncosis, and necrosis. An overview of cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Majno, G.; Joris, I.

    1995-01-01

    The historical development of the cell death concept is reviewed, with special attention to the origin of the terms necrosis, coagulation necrosis, autolysis, physiological cell death, programmed cell death, chromatolysis (the first name of apoptosis in 1914), karyorhexis, karyolysis, and cell suicide, of which there are three forms: by lysosomes, by free radicals, and by a genetic mechanism (apoptosis). Some of the typical features of apoptosis are discussed, such as budding (as opposed to blebbing and zeiosis) and the inflammatory response. For cell death not by apoptosis the most satisfactory term is accidental cell death. Necrosis is commonly used but it is not appropriate, because it does not indicate a form of cell death but refers to changes secondary to cell death by any mechanism, including apoptosis. Abundant data are available on one form of accidental cell death, namely ischemic cell death, which can be considered an entity of its own, caused by failure of the ionic pumps of the plasma membrane. Because ischemic cell death (in known models) is accompanied by swelling, the name oncosis is proposed for this condition. The term oncosis (derived from ónkos, meaning swelling) was proposed in 1910 by von Reckling-hausen precisely to mean cell death with swelling. Oncosis leads to necrosis with karyolysis and stands in contrast to apoptosis, which leads to necrosis with karyorhexis and cell shrinkage. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7856735

  6. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-04-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help future surgeons to establish the diagnosis peroperatively. PMID:27099753

  7. Mitochondrial network size scaling in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Rafelski, Susanne M; Viana, Matheus P; Zhang, Yi; Chan, Yee-Hung M; Thorn, Kurt S; Yam, Phoebe; Fung, Jennifer C; Li, Hao; Costa, Luciano da F; Marshall, Wallace F

    2012-11-01

    Mitochondria must grow with the growing cell to ensure proper cellular physiology and inheritance upon division. We measured the physical size of mitochondrial networks in budding yeast and found that mitochondrial network size increased with increasing cell size and that this scaling relation occurred primarily in the bud. The mitochondria-to-cell size ratio continually decreased in aging mothers over successive generations. However, regardless of the mother's age or mitochondrial content, all buds attained the same average ratio. Thus, yeast populations achieve a stable scaling relation between mitochondrial content and cell size despite asymmetry in inheritance.

  8. Death by necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Syntichaki, Popi; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2002-01-01

    Cells suffer necrotic death when exposed to extreme environmental conditions, adverse and excessive stimuli, or when deleterious mutations are encoded in their genetic material. Unlike apoptosis, which involves a highly regulated and elaborate network of biochemical events and cascades, necrosis has been considered generally to be a chaotic decadence process that effects the inexorable demise of cells otherwise not destined to die. This grim prospect is now slowly being overturned, mostly by exciting new findings in two simple model organisms, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Despite the wide spectrum of necrosis-initiating conditions, evidence is accumulating that execution of necrotic or neurodegenerative cell death may be carried out by a finite common set of mechanisms. PMID:12101090

  9. The dormant buds of Rhabdopleura compacta (Hemichordata).

    PubMed

    Dilly, P N

    1975-06-13

    Rhabdopleura has an overwintering stage that consists of two layers of cells surrounding a central yolk mass. This cellular part is surrounded by a thick electron dense capsule which is secreted by the bud itself. The capsule is probably impervious and protective to its contents. Blood vessels join the buds to the zooids of the colony. They form the probable route of transfer of yolk from the zooids to the dormant bud. The capsule of the dormant bud has some structural features in common with the black stolon of the adult zooids. The black stolon is probably formed in a manner similar to that which made the fusellar fabric of the periderm of fossil graptolities. PMID:1149105

  10. Supercooling in Overwintering Azalea Flower Buds 1

    PubMed Central

    George, Milon F.; Burke, Michael J.; Weiser, Conrad J.

    1974-01-01

    Differential thermal analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments on whole flower buds and excised floral primordia of azalea (Rhododendron kosterianum, Schneid.) proved that supercooling is the mode of freezing resistance (avoidance) of azalea flower primordia. Increase in the linewidth of nuclear magnetic resonance spectra for water upon thawing supports the view that injury to the primordia occurs at the moment of freezing. Nonliving primordia freeze at the same temperatures as living primordia, indicating that morphological features of primordial tissues are a key factor in freezing avoidance of dormant azalea flower primordia. Differential thermal analyses was used to study the relationship of cooling rate to the freezing points of floral primordia in whole flower buds. At a cooling rate of 8.5 C per hour, primordia in whole buds froze at about the same subfreezing temperatures as did excised primordia cooled at 37 C per hour. At more rapid cooling rates primordia in intact buds froze at higher temperatures. PMID:16658832

  11. The dormant buds of Rhabdopleura compacta (Hemichordata).

    PubMed

    Dilly, P N

    1975-06-13

    Rhabdopleura has an overwintering stage that consists of two layers of cells surrounding a central yolk mass. This cellular part is surrounded by a thick electron dense capsule which is secreted by the bud itself. The capsule is probably impervious and protective to its contents. Blood vessels join the buds to the zooids of the colony. They form the probable route of transfer of yolk from the zooids to the dormant bud. The capsule of the dormant bud has some structural features in common with the black stolon of the adult zooids. The black stolon is probably formed in a manner similar to that which made the fusellar fabric of the periderm of fossil graptolities.

  12. Paralongidorus bullatus n. sp. from Groundnut Soils in Niger and Comments on Xiphinema parasetariae Luc.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S B; Siddiqi, M R

    1990-10-01

    Paralongidorus bullatus n. sp. from groundnut soils in Sador'é Niger is described and illustrated. It is distinguishable from most species of the genus by its body and odontostyle lengths, knob-like head, and digitate ending of the protoplasmic region of the tail. Length of the female body is 4.4-5.5 mm, of the odontostyle 132-156 mum, and of the tail 32-44 mum. Tail terminus is conoid to broadly rounded. Uteri are well developed, without sperms. Males are not found. Xiphinema parasetariae Luc 1958, a species inquirenda, is validated and, based on measurements and tail structures, X. attorodorum Luc 1961 is proposed as a synonym of X. parasetariae. Additional measurements are given for its females and juveniles.

  13. Properties of peach flower buds which facilitate supercooling.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, E N

    1982-11-01

    Water in dormant peach (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch. var. ;Harbrite') flower buds deep supercooled. Both supercooling and the freezing of water within the bud axis and primordium as distinct components depended on the viability of the bud axis tissue. The viability of the primordium was not critical. Supercooling was prevented by wounding buds with a dissecting needle, indicating that bud structural features were important. Bud morphological features appeared to prevent the propagation of ice through the vascular tissue and into the primordium. In dormant buds, procambial cells had not yet differentiated into xylem vessel elements. Xylem continuity between the bud primordium and adjacent tissues did not appear to be established until buds had deacclimated. It was concluded that structural, morphological, and physiological features of the bud facilitated supercooling.

  14. Potential of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc) milk as a probiotic beverage-a review.

    PubMed

    Murevanhema, Yvonne Y; Jideani, Victoria A

    2013-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterraenea (L.) verdc) (BGN) is a legume; its origin have been traced back to Africa, and it is the third important legume; however, it is one of the neglected crops. It is highly nutritious, and has been termed a complete food. Its seed consist of 49%-63.5% carbohydrate, 15%-25% protein, 4.5%-7.4% fat, 5.2%-6.4% fiber, 3.2%-4.4% ash and 2% mineral compared to whole fresh cow milk 88% moisture, 4.8% carbohydrate, 3.2% proteins, 3.4% fat, 0.7% ash, and 0.01% cholesterol. Its chemical composition is comparable to that of soy bean. Furthermore, BGN has been reported to be a potential crop, owing to its nutritional composition, functional properties, antioxidant potential, and a drought resistant crop. Bambara groundnut milk (BGNM) had been rated higher in acceptability than milk from other legumes like soybean and cowpea. Probiotics have been defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amount confer a health benefit on the host. These benefits have been reported to be therapeutic, suppressing the growth and activity in conditions like infectious diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. The nutritional profile of BGNM is high enough to sustain the growth of probiotics. BGNs are normally boiled and salted, eaten as a relish or roasted, and eaten as a snack. Hence, BGNM can also be fermented with lactic acid bacteria to make a probiotic beverage that not only increase the economic value of the nutritious legume but also help in addressing malnutrition.

  15. Budded baculovirus particle structure revisited.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiushi; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Vlak, Just M; van Oers, Monique M; Rottier, Peter J; van Lent, Jan W M

    2016-02-01

    Baculoviruses are a group of enveloped, double-stranded DNA insect viruses with budded (BV) and occlusion-derived (ODV) virions produced during their infection cycle. BVs are commonly described as rod shaped particles with a high apical density of protein extensions (spikes) on the lipid envelope surface. However, due to the fragility of BVs the conventional purification and electron microscopy (EM) staining methods considerably distort the native viral structure. Here, we use cryo-EM analysis to reveal the near-native morphology of two intensively studied baculoviruses, Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and Spodoptera exigua MNPV (SeMNPV), as models for BVs carrying GP64 and F as envelope fusion protein on the surface. The now well-preserved AcMNPV and SeMNPV BV particles have a remarkable elongated, ovoid shape leaving a large, lateral space between nucleocapsid (NC) and envelope. Consistent with previous findings the NC has a distinctive cap and base structure interacting tightly with the envelope. This tight interaction may explain the partial retaining of the envelope on both ends of the NC and the disappearance of the remainder of the BV envelope in the negative-staining EM images. Cryo-EM also reveals that the viral envelope contains two layers with a total thickness of ≈ 6-7 nm, which is significantly thicker than a usual biological membrane (<4 nm) as measured by X-ray scanning. Most spikes are densely clustered at the two apical ends of the virion although some envelope proteins are also found more sparsely on the lateral regions. The spikes on the surface of AcMNPV BVs appear distinctly different from those of SeMNPV. Based on our observations we propose a new near-native structural model of baculovirus BVs.

  16. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Ke; Yang, Juan-Mei; Huang, Yi-Bo; Ren, Dong-Dong; Chi, Fang-Lu

    2015-06-01

    The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  17. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-ke; Yang, Juan-mei; Huang, Yi-bo; Ren, Dong-dong; Chi, Fang-lu

    2015-01-01

    The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds. PMID:26199619

  18. Ubiquitin depletion and dominant-negative VPS4 inhibit rhabdovirus budding without affecting alphavirus budding.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Gwen M; Hanson, Phyllis I; Kielian, Margaret

    2007-12-01

    The budding reactions of a number of enveloped viruses use the cellular machinery involved in the formation of the luminal vesicles of endosomal multivesicular bodies (MVB). Budding of these viruses is dependent on the presence of specific late-domain motifs in membrane-associated viral proteins. Such budding reactions usually involve ubiquitin and are blocked by expression of an ATPase-deficient form of VPS4, a cellular AAA+ ATPase believed to be required late in the MVB pathway for the disassembly/release of the MVB machinery. Here we examined the role of the MVB pathway in the budding of the late-domain-containing rhabdovirus vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and the alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV). We tested early and late steps in the MVB pathway by depleting ubiquitin with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 and by using cell lines inducibly expressing VPS4A or VPS4B protein. As previously shown, VSV budding was strongly dependent on ubiquitin. In contrast to the findings of previous studies with VPS4A, expression of ATPase-deficient mutants of either VPS4A or VPS4B inhibited VSV budding. Inhibition by VPS4 required the presence of the PPPY late domain on the VSV matrix protein and resulted in the accumulation of nonreleased VSV particles at the plasma membrane. In contrast, SFV budding was independent of both ubiquitin and the activity of VPS4, perhaps reflecting the important role of the highly organized envelope protein lattice during alphavirus budding.

  19. Preformation in vegetative buds of Prunus persica: factors influencing number of leaf primordia in overwintering buds.

    PubMed

    Gordon, D; Damiano, C; DeJong, T M

    2006-04-01

    We investigated the influence of bud position, cultivar, tree age, tree carbohydrate status, sampling date, drought and light exposure on the number of leaf primordia formed in dormant vegetative peach buds (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) relative to the number of primordia formed after bud break (neoformed). During winter dormancy, vegetative peach buds from California and Italy were dissected and the number of leaf primordia recorded. Between leaf drop and bud break, the number of leaf primordia doubled from about five to about 10. Parent shoot length, number of nodes on the parent shoot, cross-sectional area of the parent shoot, bud position along the parent shoot and bud cross-sectional area were correlated with the number of leaf primordia. Previous season light exposure, drought and tree carbohydrate status did not affect the number of leaf primordia present. The number of leaf primordia differed significantly among peach varieties and tree ages at leaf drop, but not at bud break. Our results indicate that neoformation accounted for all shoot growth beyond about 10 nodes. The predominance of neoformed shoot growth in peach allows this species great plasticity in its response to current-season conditions. PMID:16414932

  20. Effects of malting on the milling performance and acceptability of bambara groundnut (Voandzeia subterranea Thouars) seeds and products.

    PubMed

    Uvere, P O; Uwaegbute, A C; Adedeji, E M

    1999-01-01

    Germinated bambara groundnut was dried by three methods--oven-drying at 50 degrees C, in a solar drier at 38-42 degrees C, and sun drying at 28 +/- 2 degrees C. The samples were milled into flour, and made into 'okpa', a steamed gel. Flour yield increased only in oven-dried malts. The quality of the 'okpa' based on appearance and taste decreased with malting time; solar drying resulted in the poorest product because of its dark color. PMID:10646629

  1. Effects of malting on the milling performance and acceptability of bambara groundnut (Voandzeia subterranea Thouars) seeds and products.

    PubMed

    Uvere, P O; Uwaegbute, A C; Adedeji, E M

    1999-01-01

    Germinated bambara groundnut was dried by three methods--oven-drying at 50 degrees C, in a solar drier at 38-42 degrees C, and sun drying at 28 +/- 2 degrees C. The samples were milled into flour, and made into 'okpa', a steamed gel. Flour yield increased only in oven-dried malts. The quality of the 'okpa' based on appearance and taste decreased with malting time; solar drying resulted in the poorest product because of its dark color.

  2. Photoperiod and temperature responses of bud swelling and bud burst in four temperate forest tree species.

    PubMed

    Basler, David; Körner, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Spring phenology of temperate forest trees is optimized to maximize the length of the growing season while minimizing the risk of freezing damage. The release from winter dormancy is environmentally mediated by species-specific responses to temperature and photoperiod. We investigated the response of early spring phenology to temperature and photoperiod at different stages of dormancy release in cuttings from four temperate tree species in controlled environments. By tracking bud development, we were able to identify the onset of bud swelling and bud growth in Acer pseudoplatanus L., Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. and Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. At a given early stage of dormancy release, the onset and duration of the bud swelling prior to bud burst are driven by concurrent temperature and photoperiod, while the maximum growth rate is temperature dependent only, except for Fagus, where long photoperiods also increased bud growth rates. Similarly, the later bud burst was controlled by temperature and photoperiod (in the photoperiod sensitive species Fagus, Quercus and Picea). We conclude that photoperiod is involved in the release of dormancy during the ecodormancy phase and may influence bud burst in trees that have experienced sufficient chilling. This study explored and documented the early bud swelling period that precedes and defines later phenological stages such as canopy greening in conventional phenological works. It is the early bud growth resumption that needs to be understood in order to arrive at a causal interpretation and modelling of tree phenology at a large scale. Classic spring phenology events mark visible endpoints of a cascade of processes as evidenced here. PMID:24713858

  3. Photoperiod and temperature responses of bud swelling and bud burst in four temperate forest tree species.

    PubMed

    Basler, David; Körner, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Spring phenology of temperate forest trees is optimized to maximize the length of the growing season while minimizing the risk of freezing damage. The release from winter dormancy is environmentally mediated by species-specific responses to temperature and photoperiod. We investigated the response of early spring phenology to temperature and photoperiod at different stages of dormancy release in cuttings from four temperate tree species in controlled environments. By tracking bud development, we were able to identify the onset of bud swelling and bud growth in Acer pseudoplatanus L., Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. and Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. At a given early stage of dormancy release, the onset and duration of the bud swelling prior to bud burst are driven by concurrent temperature and photoperiod, while the maximum growth rate is temperature dependent only, except for Fagus, where long photoperiods also increased bud growth rates. Similarly, the later bud burst was controlled by temperature and photoperiod (in the photoperiod sensitive species Fagus, Quercus and Picea). We conclude that photoperiod is involved in the release of dormancy during the ecodormancy phase and may influence bud burst in trees that have experienced sufficient chilling. This study explored and documented the early bud swelling period that precedes and defines later phenological stages such as canopy greening in conventional phenological works. It is the early bud growth resumption that needs to be understood in order to arrive at a causal interpretation and modelling of tree phenology at a large scale. Classic spring phenology events mark visible endpoints of a cascade of processes as evidenced here.

  4. Virus Budding and the ESCRT Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Votteler, Jörg; Sundquist, Wesley I.

    2013-01-01

    Enveloped viruses escape infected cells by budding through limiting membranes. In the decade since the discovery that the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) recruits cellular ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport) machinery to facilitate viral budding, this pathway has emerged as the major escape route for enveloped viruses. In cells, the ESCRT pathway catalyzes the analogous membrane fission events required for the abscission stage of cytokinesis and for a series of “reverse topology” vesiculation events. Studies of enveloped virus budding are therefore providing insights into the complex cellular mechanisms of cell division and membrane protein trafficking (and vice versa). Here, we review how viruses mimic cellular recruiting signals to usurp the ESCRT pathway, discuss mechanistic models for ESCRT pathway functions, and highlight important research frontiers. PMID:24034610

  5. Dental cell sheet biomimetic tooth bud model.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Nelson; Smith, Elizabeth E; Angstadt, Shantel; Zhang, Weibo; Khademhosseini, Ali; Yelick, Pamela C

    2016-11-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine technologies offer promising therapies for both medicine and dentistry. Our long-term goal is to create functional biomimetic tooth buds for eventual tooth replacement in humans. Here, our objective was to create a biomimetic 3D tooth bud model consisting of dental epithelial (DE) - dental mesenchymal (DM) cell sheets (CSs) combined with biomimetic enamel organ and pulp organ layers created using GelMA hydrogels. Pig DE or DM cells seeded on temperature-responsive plates at various cell densities (0.02, 0.114 and 0.228 cells 10(6)/cm(2)) and cultured for 7, 14 and 21 days were used to generate DE and DM cell sheets, respectively. Dental CSs were combined with GelMA encapsulated DE and DM cell layers to form bioengineered 3D tooth buds. Biomimetic 3D tooth bud constructs were cultured in vitro, or implanted in vivo for 3 weeks. Analyses were performed using micro-CT, H&E staining, polarized light (Pol) microscopy, immunofluorescent (IF) and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses. H&E, IHC and IF analyses showed that in vitro cultured multilayered DE-DM CSs expressed appropriate tooth marker expression patterns including SHH, BMP2, RUNX2, tenascin and syndecan, which normally direct DE-DM interactions, DM cell condensation, and dental cell differentiation. In vivo implanted 3D tooth bud constructs exhibited mineralized tissue formation of specified size and shape, and SHH, BMP2 and RUNX2and dental cell differentiation marker expression. We propose our biomimetic 3D tooth buds as models to study optimized DE-DM cell interactions leading to functional biomimetic replacement tooth formation.

  6. Dental cell sheet biomimetic tooth bud model.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Nelson; Smith, Elizabeth E; Angstadt, Shantel; Zhang, Weibo; Khademhosseini, Ali; Yelick, Pamela C

    2016-11-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine technologies offer promising therapies for both medicine and dentistry. Our long-term goal is to create functional biomimetic tooth buds for eventual tooth replacement in humans. Here, our objective was to create a biomimetic 3D tooth bud model consisting of dental epithelial (DE) - dental mesenchymal (DM) cell sheets (CSs) combined with biomimetic enamel organ and pulp organ layers created using GelMA hydrogels. Pig DE or DM cells seeded on temperature-responsive plates at various cell densities (0.02, 0.114 and 0.228 cells 10(6)/cm(2)) and cultured for 7, 14 and 21 days were used to generate DE and DM cell sheets, respectively. Dental CSs were combined with GelMA encapsulated DE and DM cell layers to form bioengineered 3D tooth buds. Biomimetic 3D tooth bud constructs were cultured in vitro, or implanted in vivo for 3 weeks. Analyses were performed using micro-CT, H&E staining, polarized light (Pol) microscopy, immunofluorescent (IF) and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses. H&E, IHC and IF analyses showed that in vitro cultured multilayered DE-DM CSs expressed appropriate tooth marker expression patterns including SHH, BMP2, RUNX2, tenascin and syndecan, which normally direct DE-DM interactions, DM cell condensation, and dental cell differentiation. In vivo implanted 3D tooth bud constructs exhibited mineralized tissue formation of specified size and shape, and SHH, BMP2 and RUNX2and dental cell differentiation marker expression. We propose our biomimetic 3D tooth buds as models to study optimized DE-DM cell interactions leading to functional biomimetic replacement tooth formation. PMID:27565550

  7. Interaction between bud-site selection and polarity-establishment machineries in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chi-Fang; Savage, Natasha S.; Lew, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells polarize in order to form a single bud in each cell cycle. Distinct patterns of bud-site selection are observed in haploid and diploid cells. Genetic approaches have identified the molecular machinery responsible for positioning the bud site: during bud formation, specific locations are marked with immobile landmark proteins. In the next cell cycle, landmarks act through the Ras-family GTPase Rsr1 to promote local activation of the conserved Rho-family GTPase, Cdc42. Additional Cdc42 accumulates by positive feedback, creating a concentrated patch of GTP-Cdc42, which polarizes the cytoskeleton to promote bud emergence. Using time-lapse imaging and mathematical modelling, we examined the process of bud-site establishment. Imaging reveals unexpected effects of the bud-site-selection system on the dynamics of polarity establishment, raising new questions about how that system may operate. We found that polarity factors sometimes accumulate at more than one site among the landmark-specified locations, and we suggest that competition between clusters of polarity factors determines the final location of the Cdc42 cluster. Modelling indicated that temporally constant landmark-localized Rsr1 would weaken or block competition, yielding more than one polarity site. Instead, we suggest that polarity factors recruit Rsr1, effectively sequestering it from other locations and thereby terminating landmark activity. PMID:24062579

  8. Bud Necrosis of Green Ash Nursery Trees is Influenced by Nitrogen Availability and Fertilizer Type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine whether nitrogen (N) status of nursery-grown green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica ‘Summit’) trees in the autumn is related to tip die back during the following spring. In 2005, different rates of N from either urea formaldehyde (UF) or a controlled release fertilizer ...

  9. Competitive canalization of PIN-dependent auxin flow from axillary buds controls pea bud outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Balla, Jozef; Kalousek, Petr; Reinöhl, Vilém; Friml, Jiří; Procházka, Stanislav

    2011-02-01

    Shoot branching is one of the major determinants of plant architecture. Polar auxin transport in stems is necessary for the control of bud outgrowth by a dominant apex. Here, we show that following decapitation in pea (Pisum sativum L.), the axillary buds establish directional auxin export by subcellular polarization of PIN auxin transporters. Apical auxin application on the decapitated stem prevents this PIN polarization and canalization of laterally applied auxin. These results support a model in which the apical and lateral auxin sources compete for primary channels of auxin transport in the stem to control the outgrowth of axillary buds. PMID:21219506

  10. Identification and Quality Assessment of Chrysanthemum Buds by CE Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xiaoping; Li, Dan

    2015-01-01

    A simple and efficient fingerprinting method for chrysanthemum buds was developed with the aim of establishing a quality control protocol based on biochemical makeup. Chrysanthemum bud samples were successively extracted by water and alcohol. The fingerprints of the chrysanthemum buds samples were obtained using capillary electrophoresis and electrochemical detection (CE-ED) employing copper and carbon working electrodes to capture all of the chemical information. 10 batches of chrysanthemum buds were collected from different regions and various factories to establish the baseline fingerprint. The experimental data of 10 batches electropherogram buds by CE were analyzed by correlation coefficient and the included angle cosine methods. A standard chrysanthemum bud fingerprint including 24 common peaks was established, 12 from each electrode, which was successfully applied to identify and distinguish between chrysanthemum buds from 2 other chrysanthemum species. These results demonstrate that fingerprint analysis can be used as an important criterion for chrysanthemum buds quality control. PMID:26064777

  11. Bilingual Buds: The Evolution of a Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The impetus to begin Bilingual Buds came about six years ago when the author, pregnant with twins and commuting into New York City, was reading about the numerous cognitive benefits for children of acquiring a second language early in their lives. She was surprised to learn that even by the age of six months, children begin to lose the ability to…

  12. Radiation effects on bovine taste bud membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Shatzman, A.R.; Mossman, K.L.

    1982-11-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of radiation-induced taste loss, the effects of radiation on preparations of enriched bovine taste bud membranes were studied. Taste buds containing circumvallate papilae, and surrounding control epithelial tissues devoid of taste buds, were obtained from steers and given radiation doses of 0-7000 cGy (rad). Tissue fractions were isolated into membrane-enriched and heterogeneous components using differential and sucrose gradient centrifugation of tissue homogenates. The yield of membranes, as measured by protein content in the buoyant membrane-enriched fractions, was reduced in quantity with increasing radiation dose. The relation between radiation dose and membrane quantity in membrane-enriched fractions could be fit by a simple exponential model with taste bud-derived membranes twice as radiosensitive as membranes from control epithelial tissue. Binding of sucrose, sodium, and acetate and fluoride stimulation of adenylate cyclase were nearly identical in both irradiated and nonirradiated intact membranes. Radiation had no effect on fractions of heterogeneous components. While it is not clear what changes are occurring in enriched taste cell membranes, damage to membranes may play an important role in the taste loss observed in patients following radiotherapy.

  13. Dormant bud preservation for germplasm conservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The suitability of dormant buds (DB) for cryopreservation of different plant species has been demonstrated in several reports. For the majority of the species, processing DB for long-term liquid nitrogen storage does not involve establishing tissue cultures and the time for growing out post-cryo mat...

  14. Impact of Fungicides Chlorothalonil and Propiconazole on Microbial Activities in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Soils

    PubMed Central

    Ramudu, A. C.; Mohiddin, G. Jaffer; Srinivasulu, M.; Madakka, M.; Rangaswamy, V.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of agrochemicals (fungicides) into soil may have lasting effects on soil microbial activities and thus affect soil health. In order to determine the changes in microbial activity in a black clay and red sandy loam soils of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivated fields, a case study was conducted with propiconazole and chlorothalonil to evaluate its effects on soil enzymes (cellulase and invertase) throughout 40 days of incubation under laboratory conditions with different concentrations (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 kg ha−1). Individual application of the two fungicides at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 kg ha−1 to the soil distinctly enhanced the activities of cellulase and invertase but at higher concentrations of 7.5 and 10 kg ha−1 was toxic or innocuous to both cellulase and invertase activities. In soil samples receiving 2.5–5.0 kg ha−1 of the fungicides, the accumulation of reducing sugar was pronounced more at 20 days, and the activity of the cellulase and invertase was drastically decreased with increasing period of incubation up to 30 and 40 days. PMID:23724306

  15. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of Spanish and Virginia groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Mahatma, M K; Thawait, L K; Bishi, S K; Khatediya, N; Rathnakumar, A L; Lalwani, H B; Misra, J B

    2016-05-01

    Kernels of sixty groundnut genotypes comprising thirty each of Spanish and Virginia groups were characterized and compared for the content of oil, protein, phenols and antioxidant activity along with their fatty acid and sugars profiles. The antioxidant activity for Virginia genotypes was ranged from 12.5 to 16.5 μM Trolox equivalent activity for Spanish genotypes ranged from 6.8-15.2 μM. Amongst Virginia types, the highest oleic acid/linoleic acid (O/L) ratio of 2.38 was observed for NRCG 12312 while from Spanish group the highest O/L ratio of 1.24 was observed for NRCG 12731. The sucrose content for Virginia genotypes ranged from 38.5 to 69.0 mg/g while it was 27.9 to 53.3 mg/g for Spanish genotypes. Average myo-inositol content was higher for Spanish genotypes (0.8-2.1 mg/g) compared to Virginia (0.4-1.8 mg/g) while the reverse was true for stachayose content (Spanish: 3.5-7.9 mg/g; Virginia: 4.6-10.3 mg/g). Thus, Virginia genotypes could be preferred to Spanish genotypes for better oil stability and antioxidant activity. PMID:27407194

  16. In Vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae))

    PubMed Central

    Koné, Mongomaké; Koné, Tchoa; Silué, Nakpalo; Soumahoro, André Brahima; Kouakou, Tanoh Hilaire

    2015-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous grain legume. It occupies a prominent place in the strategies to ensure food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration system, a prerequisite for genetic transformation application, requires the establishment of optimal conditions for seeds germination and plantlets development. Three types of seeds were inoculated on different basal media devoid of growth regulators. Various strengths of the medium of choice and the type and concentration of carbon source were also investigated. Responses to germination varied with the type of seed. Embryonic axis (EA) followed by seeds without coat (SWtC) germinated rapidly and expressed a high rate of germination. The growth performances of plantlets varied with the basal medium composition and the seeds type. The optimal growth performances of plants were displayed on half strength MS basal medium with SWtC and EA as source of seeds. Addition of 3% sucrose in the culture medium was more suitable for a maximum growth of plantlets derived from EA. PMID:26550604

  17. In Vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)).

    PubMed

    Koné, Mongomaké; Koné, Tchoa; Silué, Nakpalo; Soumahoro, André Brahima; Kouakou, Tanoh Hilaire

    2015-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous grain legume. It occupies a prominent place in the strategies to ensure food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration system, a prerequisite for genetic transformation application, requires the establishment of optimal conditions for seeds germination and plantlets development. Three types of seeds were inoculated on different basal media devoid of growth regulators. Various strengths of the medium of choice and the type and concentration of carbon source were also investigated. Responses to germination varied with the type of seed. Embryonic axis (EA) followed by seeds without coat (SWtC) germinated rapidly and expressed a high rate of germination. The growth performances of plantlets varied with the basal medium composition and the seeds type. The optimal growth performances of plants were displayed on half strength MS basal medium with SWtC and EA as source of seeds. Addition of 3% sucrose in the culture medium was more suitable for a maximum growth of plantlets derived from EA.

  18. Impact of Fungicides Chlorothalonil and Propiconazole on Microbial Activities in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Soils.

    PubMed

    Ramudu, A C; Mohiddin, G Jaffer; Srinivasulu, M; Madakka, M; Rangaswamy, V

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of agrochemicals (fungicides) into soil may have lasting effects on soil microbial activities and thus affect soil health. In order to determine the changes in microbial activity in a black clay and red sandy loam soils of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivated fields, a case study was conducted with propiconazole and chlorothalonil to evaluate its effects on soil enzymes (cellulase and invertase) throughout 40 days of incubation under laboratory conditions with different concentrations (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 kg ha(-1)). Individual application of the two fungicides at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 kg ha(-1) to the soil distinctly enhanced the activities of cellulase and invertase but at higher concentrations of 7.5 and 10 kg ha(-1) was toxic or innocuous to both cellulase and invertase activities. In soil samples receiving 2.5-5.0 kg ha(-1) of the fungicides, the accumulation of reducing sugar was pronounced more at 20 days, and the activity of the cellulase and invertase was drastically decreased with increasing period of incubation up to 30 and 40 days.

  19. Programmed Cell Death Initiation and Execution in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Strich, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death (PCD) was initially described in metazoans as a genetically controlled process leading to intracellular breakdown and engulfment by a neighboring cell . This process was distinguished from other forms of cell death like necrosis by maintenance of plasma membrane integrity prior to engulfment and the well-defined genetic system controlling this process. Apoptosis was originally described as a mechanism to reshape tissues during development. Given this context, the assumption was made that this process would not be found in simpler eukaryotes such as budding yeast. Although basic components of the apoptotic pathway were identified in yeast, initial observations suggested that it was devoid of prosurvival and prodeath regulatory proteins identified in mammalian cells. However, as apoptosis became extensively linked to the elimination of damaged cells, key PCD regulatory proteins were identified in yeast that play similar roles in mammals. This review highlights recent discoveries that have permitted information regarding PCD regulation in yeast to now inform experiments in animals. PMID:26272996

  20. Taste Bud-Derived BDNF Is Required to Maintain Normal Amounts of Innervation to Adult Taste Buds.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingbin; Ohman-Gault, Lisa; Ma, Liqun; Krimm, Robin F

    2015-01-01

    Gustatory neurons transmit chemical information from taste receptor cells, which reside in taste buds in the oral cavity, to the brain. As adult taste receptor cells are renewed at a constant rate, nerve fibers must reconnect with new taste receptor cells as they arise. Therefore, the maintenance of gustatory innervation to the taste bud is an active process. Understanding how this process is regulated is a fundamental concern of gustatory system biology. We speculated that because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for taste bud innervation during development, it might function to maintain innervation during adulthood. If so, taste buds should lose innervation when Bdnf is deleted in adult mice. To test this idea, we first removed Bdnf from all cells in adulthood using transgenic mice with inducible CreERT2 under the control of the Ubiquitin promoter. When Bdnf was removed, approximately one-half of the innervation to taste buds was lost, and taste buds became smaller because of the loss of taste bud cells. Individual taste buds varied in the amount of innervation each lost, and those that lost the most innervation also lost the most taste bud cells. We then tested the idea that that the taste bud was the source of this BDNF by reducing Bdnf levels specifically in the lingual epithelium and taste buds. Taste buds were confirmed as the source of BDNF regulating innervation. We conclude that BDNF expressed in taste receptor cells is required to maintain normal levels of innervation in adulthood.

  1. Taste Bud-Derived BDNF Is Required to Maintain Normal Amounts of Innervation to Adult Taste Buds123

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lingbin; Ohman-Gault, Lisa; Ma, Liqun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gustatory neurons transmit chemical information from taste receptor cells, which reside in taste buds in the oral cavity, to the brain. As adult taste receptor cells are renewed at a constant rate, nerve fibers must reconnect with new taste receptor cells as they arise. Therefore, the maintenance of gustatory innervation to the taste bud is an active process. Understanding how this process is regulated is a fundamental concern of gustatory system biology. We speculated that because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for taste bud innervation during development, it might function to maintain innervation during adulthood. If so, taste buds should lose innervation when Bdnf is deleted in adult mice. To test this idea, we first removed Bdnf from all cells in adulthood using transgenic mice with inducible CreERT2 under the control of the Ubiquitin promoter. When Bdnf was removed, approximately one-half of the innervation to taste buds was lost, and taste buds became smaller because of the loss of taste bud cells. Individual taste buds varied in the amount of innervation each lost, and those that lost the most innervation also lost the most taste bud cells. We then tested the idea that that the taste bud was the source of this BDNF by reducing Bdnf levels specifically in the lingual epithelium and taste buds. Taste buds were confirmed as the source of BDNF regulating innervation. We conclude that BDNF expressed in taste receptor cells is required to maintain normal levels of innervation in adulthood. PMID:26730405

  2. Taste Bud-Derived BDNF Is Required to Maintain Normal Amounts of Innervation to Adult Taste Buds.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingbin; Ohman-Gault, Lisa; Ma, Liqun; Krimm, Robin F

    2015-01-01

    Gustatory neurons transmit chemical information from taste receptor cells, which reside in taste buds in the oral cavity, to the brain. As adult taste receptor cells are renewed at a constant rate, nerve fibers must reconnect with new taste receptor cells as they arise. Therefore, the maintenance of gustatory innervation to the taste bud is an active process. Understanding how this process is regulated is a fundamental concern of gustatory system biology. We speculated that because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for taste bud innervation during development, it might function to maintain innervation during adulthood. If so, taste buds should lose innervation when Bdnf is deleted in adult mice. To test this idea, we first removed Bdnf from all cells in adulthood using transgenic mice with inducible CreERT2 under the control of the Ubiquitin promoter. When Bdnf was removed, approximately one-half of the innervation to taste buds was lost, and taste buds became smaller because of the loss of taste bud cells. Individual taste buds varied in the amount of innervation each lost, and those that lost the most innervation also lost the most taste bud cells. We then tested the idea that that the taste bud was the source of this BDNF by reducing Bdnf levels specifically in the lingual epithelium and taste buds. Taste buds were confirmed as the source of BDNF regulating innervation. We conclude that BDNF expressed in taste receptor cells is required to maintain normal levels of innervation in adulthood. PMID:26730405

  3. Single-cell phenomics in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ohya, Yoshikazu; Kimori, Yoshitaka; Okada, Hiroki; Ohnuki, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    The demand for phenomics, a high-dimensional and high-throughput phenotyping method, has been increasing in many fields of biology. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a unicellular model organism, provides an invaluable system for dissecting complex cellular processes using high-resolution phenotyping. Moreover, the addition of spatial and temporal attributes to subcellular structures based on microscopic images has rendered this cell phenotyping system more reliable and amenable to analysis. A well-designed experiment followed by appropriate multivariate analysis can yield a wealth of biological knowledge. Here we review recent advances in cell imaging and illustrate their broad applicability to eukaryotic cells by showing how these techniques have advanced our understanding of budding yeast. PMID:26543200

  4. Synchronization of the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Foltman, Magdalena; Molist, Iago; Sanchez-Diaz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    A number of model organisms have provided the basis for our understanding of the eukaryotic cell cycle. These model organisms are generally much easier to manipulate than mammalian cells and as such provide amenable tools for extensive genetic and biochemical analysis. One of the most common model organisms used to study the cell cycle is the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This model provides the ability to synchronise cells efficiently at different stages of the cell cycle, which in turn opens up the possibility for extensive and detailed study of mechanisms regulating the eukaryotic cell cycle. Here, we describe methods in which budding yeast cells are arrested at a particular phase of the cell cycle and then released from the block, permitting the study of molecular mechanisms that drive the progression through the cell cycle.

  5. Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Insoluble Dietary Fiber Isolated from Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea [L.] Verdc.).

    PubMed

    Diedericks, Claudine F; Jideani, Victoria A

    2015-09-01

    Bambara groundnut (BGN) is a widely cultivated legume with a rich nutritional profile, yet despite its many benefits it still remains underutilized. To highlight its potential value, 4 BGN varieties-brown, red, black eye, and brown eye were subjected to sequential enzymatic treatments followed by centrifugation to obtain the insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) fraction. The IDFs were vacuum-dried and evaluated for color, hydration properties, fat absorption, polyphenolic compounds, neutral sugars, and uronic acids. An optimized white bread formulation was also determined using brown BGN-IDF in an optimal (IV) mixture design. Three mixture components constrained at lower and upper limits (water: 57% to 60%, yeast: 2.3% to 5.3%, and BGN-IDF: 7% to 10%) were evaluated for their effects on responses of specific loaf volume, gumminess, chewiness, and resilience of the loaves. All BGN-IDFs differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) across all color parameters. Polyphenols were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest in red and brown BGN-IDFs. Arabinose/galactose (31.04% to 37.12%), xylose (16.53% to 27.30%), and mannose (14.48% to 22.24%) were the major sugars identified. Swelling capacity was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) highest for brown eye BGN-IDF (7.72 ± 0.49 mL/g). Water retention capacity ranged from 1.63 to 2.01 g water/g dry weight. Fat absorption for red BGN-IDF differed significantly (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the best optimal white bread formulation enriched with brown BGN-IDF was established with numerical optimization at 59.5% water, 4.3% yeast, and 8.5% BGN-IDF. Overall positive physicochemical and functional properties were observed for BGN-IDFs, and it was shown that an optimal white bread enriched with BGN-IDF could be produced.

  6. Bradyrhizobium subterraneum sp. nov., a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium from root nodules of groundnuts.

    PubMed

    Grönemeyer, Jann Lasse; Chimwamurombe, Percy; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Seven strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of local races of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) grown on subsistence farmers' fields in the Kavango region, Namibia, were previously characterized and identified as a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To corroborate their taxonomic status, these strains were further characterized using a polyphasic approach. All strains possessed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences with Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense CCBAU 10071T being the most closely related type strain in the 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis, and Bradyrhizobium daqingense CCBAU 15774T in the ITS sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated glnII-recA-rpoB-dnaK placed the strains in a highly supported lineage distinct from named species of the genus Bradyrhizobium, most closely related to Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense CCBAU 10071T. The species status was validated by results of DNA–DNA hybridization. Phylogenetic analysis of nifH genes placed the novel strains in a group with nifH of ‘Bradyrhizobium arachidis’ CCBAU 051107 that also nodulates peanuts. The combination of phenotypic characteristics from several tests including carbon source utilization and antibiotic resistance could be used to differentiate representative strains from recognized species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Novel strain 58 2-1T induced effective nodules on V. subterranea, Vigna unguiculata and A. hypogaea, and some strains on Lablab purpureus. Based on the data presented, we conclude that our strains represent a novel species for which the name Bradyrhizobium subterraneum sp. nov. is proposed, with 58 2-1T [ = DSM 100298T = LMG 28792T = NTCCM0016T (Windhoek)] as the type strain. The DNA G+C content of strain 58 2-1T was 64.7 mol% (T m).

  7. Bradyrhizobium subterraneum sp. nov., a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium from root nodules of groundnuts.

    PubMed

    Grönemeyer, Jann Lasse; Chimwamurombe, Percy; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Seven strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of local races of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) grown on subsistence farmers' fields in the Kavango region, Namibia, were previously characterized and identified as a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To corroborate their taxonomic status, these strains were further characterized using a polyphasic approach. All strains possessed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences with Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense CCBAU 10071T being the most closely related type strain in the 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis, and Bradyrhizobium daqingense CCBAU 15774T in the ITS sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated glnII-recA-rpoB-dnaK placed the strains in a highly supported lineage distinct from named species of the genus Bradyrhizobium, most closely related to Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense CCBAU 10071T. The species status was validated by results of DNA–DNA hybridization. Phylogenetic analysis of nifH genes placed the novel strains in a group with nifH of ‘Bradyrhizobium arachidis’ CCBAU 051107 that also nodulates peanuts. The combination of phenotypic characteristics from several tests including carbon source utilization and antibiotic resistance could be used to differentiate representative strains from recognized species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. Novel strain 58 2-1T induced effective nodules on V. subterranea, Vigna unguiculata and A. hypogaea, and some strains on Lablab purpureus. Based on the data presented, we conclude that our strains represent a novel species for which the name Bradyrhizobium subterraneum sp. nov. is proposed, with 58 2-1T [ = DSM 100298T = LMG 28792T = NTCCM0016T (Windhoek)] as the type strain. The DNA G+C content of strain 58 2-1T was 64.7 mol% (T m). PMID:26198108

  8. Walled-off pancreatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Ramia, J M; de la Plaza, R; Quiñones-Sampedro, J E; Ramiro, C; Veguillas, P; García-Parreño, J

    2012-05-01

    Acute severe pancreatitits may be complicated by the development of 'walled-off pancreatic necrosis' (WOPN), which is characterised by a mixture of solid components and fluids on imaging studies as a consequence of organised pancreatic tissue necrosis. We present here an overview of the definition, clinical features, and diagnostic and therapeutic management of this clinical condition, which is mostly based on consensus as adequate clinical trials are lacking. PMID:22641624

  9. Eukaryotic-Like Virus Budding in Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Quemin, Emmanuelle R. J.; Chlanda, Petr; Sachse, Martin; Forterre, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Similar to many eukaryotic viruses (and unlike bacteriophages), viruses infecting archaea are often encased in lipid-containing envelopes. However, the mechanisms of their morphogenesis and egress remain unexplored. Here, we used dual-axis electron tomography (ET) to characterize the morphogenesis of Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 (SSV1), the prototype of the family Fuselloviridae and representative of the most abundant archaea-specific group of viruses. Our results show that SSV1 assembly and egress are concomitant and occur at the cellular cytoplasmic membrane via a process highly reminiscent of the budding of enveloped viruses that infect eukaryotes. The viral nucleoprotein complexes are extruded in the form of previously unknown rod-shaped intermediate structures which have an envelope continuous with the host membrane. Further maturation into characteristic spindle-shaped virions takes place while virions remain attached to the cell surface. Our data also revealed the formation of constricted ring-like structures which resemble the budding necks observed prior to the ESCRT machinery-mediated membrane scission during egress of various enveloped viruses of eukaryotes. Collectively, we provide evidence that archaeal spindle-shaped viruses contain a lipid envelope acquired upon budding of the viral nucleoprotein complex through the host cytoplasmic membrane. The proposed model bears a clear resemblance to the egress strategy employed by enveloped eukaryotic viruses and raises important questions as to how the archaeal single-layered membrane composed of tetraether lipids can undergo scission. PMID:27624130

  10. Antioxidant defense response induced by Trichoderma viride against Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem causing collar rot in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Gajera, H P; Katakpara, Zinkal A; Patel, S V; Golakiya, B A

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to examine the antioxidant enzymes induced by Trichoderma viride JAU60 as initial defense response during invasion of rot pathogen Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem in five groundnut varieties under pot culture. Seed treatment of T. viride JAU60 reduced 51-58% collar rot disease incidence in different groundnut varieties under pathogen infected soil culture. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), elevated in response to pathogen infection, in higher rate by tolerant varieties (J-11 and GG-2) compared with susceptible (GAUG-10, GG-13, GG-20) and further induced by T. viride treatment. Trichoderma treatment remarkably increased the 2.3 fold SOD, 5 fold GPX and 2.5 fold APX activities during disease development in tolerant varieties and the same was found about 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 folds, respectively, in susceptible varieties. Overall, T. viride JAU60 treated seedlings (T3) witnessed higher activities of SOD (1.5 fold), GPX (3.25 fold) and APX (1.25 fold) than pathogen treatment (T2) possibly suggest the induction of antioxidant defense response by Trichoderma bio-controller to combat oxidative burst produced by invading pathogen.

  11. Antioxidant defense response induced by Trichoderma viride against Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem causing collar rot in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Gajera, H P; Katakpara, Zinkal A; Patel, S V; Golakiya, B A

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to examine the antioxidant enzymes induced by Trichoderma viride JAU60 as initial defense response during invasion of rot pathogen Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem in five groundnut varieties under pot culture. Seed treatment of T. viride JAU60 reduced 51-58% collar rot disease incidence in different groundnut varieties under pathogen infected soil culture. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), elevated in response to pathogen infection, in higher rate by tolerant varieties (J-11 and GG-2) compared with susceptible (GAUG-10, GG-13, GG-20) and further induced by T. viride treatment. Trichoderma treatment remarkably increased the 2.3 fold SOD, 5 fold GPX and 2.5 fold APX activities during disease development in tolerant varieties and the same was found about 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 folds, respectively, in susceptible varieties. Overall, T. viride JAU60 treated seedlings (T3) witnessed higher activities of SOD (1.5 fold), GPX (3.25 fold) and APX (1.25 fold) than pathogen treatment (T2) possibly suggest the induction of antioxidant defense response by Trichoderma bio-controller to combat oxidative burst produced by invading pathogen. PMID:26620080

  12. Physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of plain yoghurt from bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and soybeans (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Falade, Kolawole O; Ogundele, Opeolu M; Ogunshe, Adenike O; Fayemi, Olanrewaju E; Ocloo, Fidelis C K

    2015-09-01

    Physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of plain yoghurt from bambara groundnut and soybean milks were studied. Milks were prepared from bambara and soybean and then fermented using Lactobacillus delbruieckii subspp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarus subspp. thermophilus to produce yoghurt. The yoghurts were stored at 7 °C and 27 °C for 9 days and their quality monitored. Results showed that pH of soy and bambara yoghurts decreased during the storage period for both storage temperatures. This decrease in pH was accompanied by simultaneous increase in titratable acidity. Total solids and apparent viscosities of soy and bambara yoghurts increased at 7 °C, but decreased at 27 °C during storage period. Bambara yoghurt received higher sensory acceptability than soy yoghurt. Predominant microorganisms in the stored yoghurts were lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The LAB count in the yoghurts stored at 7 °C decreased but increased at 27 °C during the storage period. Similar trends were followed by total aerobic bacteria, yeast and moulds counts. Pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella, Coliform and E. coli were absent in all the yogurt samples. Yoghurts of acceptable quality and safety were produced from bambara groundnut and soybeans. PMID:26345001

  13. [A case report of progressive penile necrosis].

    PubMed

    Haba, Tomomi; Koike, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    The penis is provided with blood by multiple arteries. Penile necrosis is uncommon. Penile necrosis sporadically occurs in patients with progressive diabetes mellitus and/or end stage renal failure. Penile necrosis is often considered a poor prognostic feature. We present a case of penile necrosis in a patient with mild diabetes mellitus.

  14. [Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head in young adults].

    PubMed

    Vasey, H M

    1984-01-01

    Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head is a well-defined entity. The underlying diseases originate from very different types of pathological conditions. Alcoholism, cortisone therapy, gout or hyperuricemia, sickle cell anaemia and others all lead, through various pathways, to the impairment of the medullary blood flow. In many instances, a compartment syndrome can be demonstrated in the femoral head. Death of the osteocytes follows bone marrow necrosis. Revascularisation originates in the periphery of the necrotic segment. Vascular buds and fibroblasts invade the medullary space. New bone is laid over the necrotic trabeculae. Mechanical failure results from changes in the bony framework at three different levels. The subchondral boneplate may be weakened by the process of revascularisation, the necrotic trabeculae may fail because of diminished stiffness and strength, and overloading has been demonstrated at the junction between dead and living bone. Elevation of the intramedullary pressure is the first objective sign of impending or established bone necrosis. Scintigraphy with Technetium 99 m - Sulphur colloid can now show the early stages of marrow necrosis. Roentgenographic changes only appear in a later phase of the disease. Aseptic necrosis must be considered as involving both hips, unless proven otherwise. Attention given to the "silent hip" may allow salvage and prevent the occurrence of osteo-arthritic changes leaving merely unilateral disease. As long as the geometrical shape of the femoral head is maintained operation may well prove useful. The aim at this stage is to prevent collapse. It is impossible to know in the early stages whether mechanical failure will occur, but there is general agreement that the femoral head will eventually undergo deformation. A spherical epiphysis is therefore considered a success. All the conservative methods aim to decompress the medullary cavity. Core biopsy, curettage, bone grafting and intertrochanteric osteotomy all have

  15. An international reference consensus genetic map with 897 marker loci based on 11 mapping populations for tetraploid groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Only a few genetic maps based on recombinant inbred line (RIL) and backcross (BC) populations have been developed for tetraploid groundnut. The marker density, however, is not very satisfactory especially in the context of large genome size (2800 Mb/1C) and 20 linkage groups (LGs). Therefore, using ...

  16. Induced resistance in groundnut by jasmonic acid and salicylic acid through alteration of trichome density and oviposition by Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul Rashid; Hussain, Barkat; Sharma, Hari C.

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are important phytohormones involved in plant resistance against insect herbivory and pathogen infection. Application of JA and SA induces several defensive traits in plants. Here we investigated the effect of JA and SA on trichome density in five groundnut genotypes [ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271, ICG 1697 (resistant) and JL 24 (susceptible)]. The effect of JA- and SA-induced resistance on the oviposition behaviour of Helicoverpa armigera on different groundnut genotypes was also studied. Pre-treatment with JA increased numbers of trichomes in the insect-resistant genotypes, ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271, and ICG 1697. The induction was greater at 10 days after treatment. Jasmonic acid- and SA-treated plants showed a substantial effect on the oviposition behaviour of H. armigera. Jasmonic acid application and herbivory reduced the number of eggs laid by H. armigera in all the groundnut genotypes tested. However, a greater reduction was recorded on plants pre-treated with JA. More egg laying was recorded in JL 24 in all the treatments as compared to the insect-resistant genotypes. These results suggested that pre-treatment with JA increased trichome density in groundnut plants, which conferred antixenosis for oviposition by H. armigera.

  17. Differential regional expression of multiple ADAMs during feather bud formation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Juntang; Luo, Jiankai; Redies, Christoph

    2011-09-01

    The expression of seven members of the ADAM family was investigated by in situ hybridization in the developing feather buds of chicken. The expression profiles of the ADAMs in the cells and tissues of the feather buds differ from each other. ADAM9, ADAM10, and ADAM17 are expressed in the epidermis of the feather bud, whereas ADAM23 expression is restricted to the bud crest, with a distribution similar to that of sonic hedgehog. ADAM13 is not only expressed in the epidermis, but also in restricted regions of the dermis. Both ADAM12 and ADAM22 are expressed in the dermis of the feather bud, with an opposite mediolateral and anteroposterior polarity. Furthermore, the mRNAs of all investigated ADAMs show regional differences in their expression, for example, in the neck and in the roots of the leg and wing. These results suggest that ADAMs play a variety of roles during avian feather bud formation.

  18. Cell Polarization and Cytokinesis in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Erfei; Park, Hay-Oak

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division, which includes cell polarization and cytokinesis, is essential for generating cell diversity during development. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reproduces by asymmetric cell division, and has thus served as an attractive model for unraveling the general principles of eukaryotic cell polarization and cytokinesis. Polarity development requires G-protein signaling, cytoskeletal polarization, and exocytosis, whereas cytokinesis requires concerted actions of a contractile actomyosin ring and targeted membrane deposition. In this chapter, we discuss the mechanics and spatial control of polarity development and cytokinesis, emphasizing the key concepts, mechanisms, and emerging questions in the field. PMID:22701052

  19. Black Anal Canal: Acute Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Catarina; Gonçalves, Cláudia; Alves, Paulo; Gil, Inês; Canhoto, Manuela; Silva, Filipe; Cotrim, Isabel; Amado, Cristina; Eliseu, Liliana; Vasconcelos, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemia of the rectum or anal canal resulting in necrosis is extremely uncommon because both the rectum and the anal canal have excellent blood supplies. We present a case with spontaneous necrosis of the anal canal without rectal involvement. Surgical debridement was accomplished, and the recovery was uneventful. The patient was elderly, with probable atherosclerotic arterial disease, and presented with hypotension. Due to the lack of other precipitating factors, the hypoperfusion hypothesis seems to be the most suitable in this case. To the best of our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in the literature on this subject.

  20. Black Anal Canal: Acute Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Barbeiro, Sandra; Martins, Catarina; Gonçalves, Cláudia; Alves, Paulo; Gil, Inês; Canhoto, Manuela; Silva, Filipe; Cotrim, Isabel; Amado, Cristina; Eliseu, Liliana; Vasconcelos, Helena

    2016-08-01

    Acute ischemia of the rectum or anal canal resulting in necrosis is extremely uncommon because both the rectum and the anal canal have excellent blood supplies. We present a case with spontaneous necrosis of the anal canal without rectal involvement. Surgical debridement was accomplished, and the recovery was uneventful. The patient was elderly, with probable atherosclerotic arterial disease, and presented with hypotension. Due to the lack of other precipitating factors, the hypoperfusion hypothesis seems to be the most suitable in this case. To the best of our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in the literature on this subject. PMID:27626027

  1. Black Anal Canal: Acute Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Catarina; Gonçalves, Cláudia; Alves, Paulo; Gil, Inês; Canhoto, Manuela; Silva, Filipe; Cotrim, Isabel; Amado, Cristina; Eliseu, Liliana; Vasconcelos, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemia of the rectum or anal canal resulting in necrosis is extremely uncommon because both the rectum and the anal canal have excellent blood supplies. We present a case with spontaneous necrosis of the anal canal without rectal involvement. Surgical debridement was accomplished, and the recovery was uneventful. The patient was elderly, with probable atherosclerotic arterial disease, and presented with hypotension. Due to the lack of other precipitating factors, the hypoperfusion hypothesis seems to be the most suitable in this case. To the best of our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in the literature on this subject. PMID:27626027

  2. Electrochemical Regulation of Budding Yeast Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Piel, Matthieu; Chang, Fred; Minc, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Cells are naturally surrounded by organized electrical signals in the form of local ion fluxes, membrane potential, and electric fields (EFs) at their surface. Although the contribution of electrochemical elements to cell polarity and migration is beginning to be appreciated, underlying mechanisms are not known. Here we show that an exogenous EF can orient cell polarization in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells, directing the growth of mating projections towards sites of hyperpolarized membrane potential, while directing bud emergence in the opposite direction, towards sites of depolarized potential. Using an optogenetic approach, we demonstrate that a local change in membrane potential triggered by light is sufficient to direct cell polarization. Screens for mutants with altered EF responses identify genes involved in transducing electrochemical signals to the polarity machinery. Membrane potential, which is regulated by the potassium transporter Trk1p, is required for polarity orientation during mating and EF response. Membrane potential may regulate membrane charges through negatively charged phosphatidylserines (PSs), which act to position the Cdc42p-based polarity machinery. These studies thus define an electrochemical pathway that directs the orientation of cell polarization. PMID:25548923

  3. Glutamate: Tastant and Neuromodulator in Taste Buds.

    PubMed

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2016-07-01

    In taste buds, glutamate plays a double role as a gustatory stimulus and neuromodulator. The detection of glutamate as a tastant involves several G protein-coupled receptors, including the heterodimer taste receptor type 1, member 1 and 3 as well as metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR4). Both receptor types participate in the detection of glutamate as shown with knockout animals and selective antagonists. At the basal part of taste buds, ionotropic glutamate receptors [N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA] are expressed and participate in the modulation of the taste signal before its transmission to the brain. Evidence suggests that glutamate has an efferent function on taste cells and modulates the release of other neurotransmitters such as serotonin and ATP. This short article reviews the recent developments in the field with regard to glutamate receptors involved in both functions as well as the influence of glutamate on the taste signal. PMID:27422519

  4. Inflammatory duodenal necrosis complicating gastroschisis

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Dina; Lee, Geraint J.; Upadhyaya, Manasvi; Drake, David

    2016-01-01

    Babies with gastroschisis have an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) that can lead to short bowel syndrome, a long-term parenteral nutrition requirement, and its associated complications. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of recurrent duodenal ischemia and necrosis associated with gastroschisis in the absence of NEC totalis. PMID:27695214

  5. Inflammatory duodenal necrosis complicating gastroschisis

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Dina; Lee, Geraint J.; Upadhyaya, Manasvi; Drake, David

    2016-01-01

    Babies with gastroschisis have an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) that can lead to short bowel syndrome, a long-term parenteral nutrition requirement, and its associated complications. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of recurrent duodenal ischemia and necrosis associated with gastroschisis in the absence of NEC totalis.

  6. An elastic model of partial budding of retroviruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Nguyen, Toan

    2008-03-01

    Retroviruses are characterized by their unique infection strategy of reverse transcription, in which the genetic information flows from RNA back to DNA. The most well known representative is the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Unlike budding of traditional enveloped viruses, retrovirus budding happens together with the formation of spherical virus capsids at the cell membrane. Led by this unique budding mechanism, we proposed an elastic model of retrovirus budding in this work. We found that if the lipid molecules of the membrane are supplied fast enough from the cell interior, the budding always proceeds to completion. In the opposite limit, there is an optimal size of partially budded virions. The zenith angle of these partially spherical capsids, α, is given by α˜(2̂/κσ)^1/4, where κ is the bending modulus of the membrane, σ is the surface tension of the membrane, and τ characterizes the strength of capsid protein interaction. If τ is large enough such that α˜π, the budding is complete. Our model explained many features of retrovirus partial budding observed in experiments.

  7. Kinetics of human immunodeficiency virus budding and assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Nguyen, Toan

    2009-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) belongs to a large family of RNA viruses, retroviruses. Unlike budding of regular enveloped viruses, retroviruses bud concurrently with the assembly of retroviral capsids on the cell membrane. The kinetics of HIV (and other retroviruses) budding and assembly is therefore strongly affected by the elastic energy of the membrane and fundamentally different from regular viruses. The main result of this work shows that the kinetics is tunable from a fast budding process to a slow and effectively trapped partial budding process, by varying the attractive energy of retroviral proteins (call Gags), relative to the membrane elastic energy. When the Gag-Gag attraction is relatively high, the membrane elastic energy provides a kinetic barrier for the two pieces of the partial capsids to merge. This energy barrier determines the slowest step in the kinetics and the budding time. In the opposite limit, the membrane elastic energy provides not only a kinetic energy barrier, but a free energy barrier. The budding and assembly is effectively trapped at local free energy minimum, corresponding to a partially budded state. The time scale to escape from this metastable state is exponentially large. In both cases, our result fit with experimental measurements pretty well.

  8. Dormancy induction and release in buds and seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dormancy is a complex trait in both buds and seeds, which is an important mechanism for survival during the life cycle of plants. Over the years, a vast wealth of information has been generated on how environmental and developmental signals impact dormancy in buds and seeds. At the molecular level, ...

  9. Photosynthetic leaf area modulates tiller bud outgrowth in sorghum.

    PubMed

    Kebrom, Tesfamichael H; Mullet, John E

    2015-08-01

    Shoot branches or tillers develop from axillary buds. The dormancy versus outgrowth fates of buds depends on genetic, environmental and hormonal signals. Defoliation inhibits bud outgrowth indicating the role of leaf-derived metabolic factors such as sucrose in bud outgrowth. In this study, the sensitivity of bud outgrowth to selective defoliation was investigated. At 6 d after planting (6 DAP), the first two leaves of sorghum were fully expanded and the third was partially emerged. Therefore, the leaves were selectively defoliated at 6 DAP and the length of the bud in the first leaf axil was measured at 8 DAP. Bud outgrowth was inhibited by defoliation of only 2 cm from the tip of the second leaf blade. The expression of dormancy and sucrose-starvation marker genes was up-regulated and cell cycle and sucrose-inducible genes was down-regulated during the first 24 h post-defoliation of the second leaf. At 48 h, the expression of these genes was similar to controls as the defoliated plant recovers. Our results demonstrate that small changes in photosynthetic leaf area affect the propensity of tiller buds for outgrowth. Therefore, variation in leaf area and photosynthetic activity should be included when integrating sucrose into models of shoot branching.

  10. Season of fire manipulates bud bank dynamics in northern mixed-grass prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In perennial grassland dominated systems, belowground bud banks regulate plant community dynamics. Plant community responses to disturbance are largely driven by the ability to generate future aboveground growth originating from belowground axillary buds. This study examined bud bank dynamics for...

  11. Genetic and serological characterization of chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus, a member of the genus Tospovirus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Ru; Chien, Wan-Chu; Okuda, Mitsuru; Takeshita, Minoru; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Wang, Yun-Chi; Chen, Tsung-Chi

    2015-02-01

    Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV) is a member of a tentative tospovirus species. In this study, the complete genomic sequence of the Japanese CSNV isolate TcCh07A was determined. The L RNA is 8960 nt long and encodes the 331.0-kDa RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The M RNA is 4828 nt long and encodes the 34.1-kDa movement protein (NSm) and the 127.7-kDa glycoprotein precursor (Gn/Gc). The S RNA is 2949 nt long and encodes the 52.4-kDa silencing suppressor protein (NSs) and the 29.3-kDa nucleocapsid (N) protein. The N protein of CSNV-TcCh07A was purified from virus-infected plant tissues and used for production of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum (RAs) and a monoclonal antibody (MAb). Results of serological tests by indirect ELISA and western blotting using the prepared RAs and MAb and a previously produced RAs against the N protein of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) indicated that CSNV-TcCh07A, TSWV, tomato chlorotic spot virus, groundnut ringspot virus, alstroemeria necrotic streak virus and impatiens necrotic spot virus are serologically related. PMID:25427981

  12. Purification, characterization, and antifungal activity of chitinase from Fusarium chlamydosporum, a mycoparasite to groundnut rust, Puccinia arachidis.

    PubMed

    Mathivanan, N; Kabilan, V; Murugesan, K

    1998-07-01

    Chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) was isolated from the culture filtrate of Fusarium chlamydosporum and purified by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The molecular mass of purified chitinase was 40 kDa as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Chitinase was optimally active at a pH of 5 and stable from pH 4 to 6 and up to 40 degrees C. Among the metals and inhibitors tested, mercuric chloride completely inhibited the enzyme activity. The activity of chitinase was high on colloidal and pure chitin. The purified chitinase inhibited the germination of uredospores of Puccinia arachidis and also lysed the walls of uredospores and germ tubes. The results from these experiments indicated that chitinase of F. chlamydosporum plays an important role in the biocontrol of groundnut rust.

  13. Rabies virus inactivates cofilin to facilitate viral budding and release.

    PubMed

    Zan, Jie; An, Shu-Ting; Mo, Kai-Kun; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Liu, Juan; Wang, Hai-Long; Yan, Yan; Liao, Min; Zhou, Ji-Yong

    2016-09-01

    Cytoplasmic actin and actin-associated proteins have been identified in RABV particles. Although actin is involved in RABV entry into cells, the specific role of actin in RABV budding and release remains unknown. Our study found that RABV M protein-mediated virion budding depends on intact actin filaments. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a block to virions budding, with a number of M protein-mediated budding vesicles detained in the cell cytoplasm. Furthermore, RABV infection resulted in inactivation of cofilin and upregulation of phosphorylated cofilin. Knockdown of cofilin reduced RABV release. These results for the first time indicate that RABV infection resulted in upregulation of phosphorylated cofilin to facililtate actin polymerization for virus budding. PMID:27396619

  14. This bud's for you: mechanisms of cellular nucleocytoplasmic trafficking via nuclear envelope budding.

    PubMed

    Fradkin, Lee G; Budnik, Vivian

    2016-08-01

    The nuclear envelope (NE) physically separates the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. While this barrier provides advantages, it also presents a challenge for the nuclear export of large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. Decades-old dogma holds that all such border-crossing is via the nuclear pore complex (NPC). However, the diameter of the NPC central channel limits the passage of large cargos. Here, we review evidence that such large RNPs employ an endogenous NE-budding pathway, previously thought to be exclusive to the nuclear egress of Herpes viruses. We discuss this and other models proposed, the likelihood that this pathway is conserved, and the consequences of disrupting NE-budding for synapse development, localized translation of synaptic mRNAs, and laminopathies inducing accelerated aging. PMID:27236823

  15. Budding yeast for budding geneticists: a primer on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system.

    PubMed

    Duina, Andrea A; Miller, Mary E; Keeney, Jill B

    2014-05-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful model organism for studying fundamental aspects of eukaryotic cell biology. This Primer article presents a brief historical perspective on the emergence of this organism as a premier experimental system over the course of the past century. An overview of the central features of the S. cerevisiae genome, including the nature of its genetic elements and general organization, is also provided. Some of the most common experimental tools and resources available to yeast geneticists are presented in a way designed to engage and challenge undergraduate and graduate students eager to learn more about the experimental amenability of budding yeast. Finally, a discussion of several major discoveries derived from yeast studies highlights the far-reaching impact that the yeast system has had and will continue to have on our understanding of a variety of cellular processes relevant to all eukaryotes, including humans.

  16. Budding Yeast for Budding Geneticists: A Primer on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model System

    PubMed Central

    Duina, Andrea A.; Miller, Mary E.; Keeney, Jill B.

    2014-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful model organism for studying fundamental aspects of eukaryotic cell biology. This Primer article presents a brief historical perspective on the emergence of this organism as a premier experimental system over the course of the past century. An overview of the central features of the S. cerevisiae genome, including the nature of its genetic elements and general organization, is also provided. Some of the most common experimental tools and resources available to yeast geneticists are presented in a way designed to engage and challenge undergraduate and graduate students eager to learn more about the experimental amenability of budding yeast. Finally, a discussion of several major discoveries derived from yeast studies highlights the far-reaching impact that the yeast system has had and will continue to have on our understanding of a variety of cellular processes relevant to all eukaryotes, including humans. PMID:24807111

  17. Calling Card Analysis in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, David; Mitra, Robi D

    2016-02-01

    Calling card analysis is a high-throughput method for identifying the genomic binding sites of multiple transcription factors in a single experiment in budding yeast. By tagging a DNA-binding protein with a targeting domain that directs the insertion of the Ty5 retrotransposon, the genomic binding sites for that transcription factor are marked. The transposition locations are then identified en masse by Illumina sequencing. The calling card protocol allows for simultaneous analysis of multiple transcription factors. By cloning barcodes into the Ty5 transposon, it is possible to pair a unique barcode with every transcription factor in the experiment. The method presented here uses expression of transcription factors from their native loci; however, it can also be altered to measure binding sites of transcription factors overexpressed from a plasmid. PMID:26832687

  18. Measuring mitotic spindle dynamics in budding yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumb, Kemp

    In order to carry out its life cycle and produce viable progeny through cell division, a cell must successfully coordinate and execute a number of complex processes with high fidelity, in an environment dominated by thermal noise. One important example of such a process is the assembly and positioning of the mitotic spindle prior to chromosome segregation. The mitotic spindle is a modular structure composed of two spindle pole bodies, separated in space and spanned by filamentous proteins called microtubules, along which the genetic material of the cell is held. The spindle is responsible for alignment and subsequent segregation of chromosomes into two equal parts; proper spindle positioning and timing ensure that genetic material is appropriately divided amongst mother and daughter cells. In this thesis, I describe fluorescence confocal microscopy and automated image analysis algorithms, which I have used to observe and analyze the real space dynamics of the mitotic spindle in budding yeast. The software can locate structures in three spatial dimensions and track their movement in time. By selecting fluorescent proteins which specifically label the spindle poles and cell periphery, mitotic spindle dynamics have been measured in a coordinate system relevant to the cell division. I describe how I have characterised the accuracy and precision of the algorithms by simulating fluorescence data for both spindle poles and the budding yeast cell surface. In this thesis I also describe the construction of a microfluidic apparatus that allows for the measurement of long time-scale dynamics of individual cells and the development of a cell population. The tools developed in this thesis work will facilitate in-depth quantitative analysis of the non-equilibrium processes in living cells.

  19. Minimally invasive treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cebulski, Włodzimierz; Słodkowski, Maciej; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz W.

    2014-01-01

    Infected pancreatic necrosis is a challenging complication that worsens prognosis in acute pancreatitis. For years, open necrosectomy has been the mainstay treatment option in infected pancreatic necrosis, although surgical debridement still results in high morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, many reports on minimally invasive treatment in infected pancreatic necrosis have been published. This paper presents a review of minimally invasive techniques and attempts to define their role in the management of infected pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25653725

  20. Acute Esophageal Necrosis: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Inayat, Faisal; Hurairah, Abu; Virk, Hafeez Ul Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) or “black esophagus” is a rare clinical entity with an unclear etiology. It is diagnosed at upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with the presence of strikingly black necrotic esophagus. The treatment is primarily medical, but the prognosis is generally poor due to advanced age and comorbid illnesses in patients who develop AEN. Herein, we discussed the implications of poor glycemic control in regards with AEN and undertook a literature review of this rare diagnosis. PMID:27583242

  1. Acute Esophageal Necrosis: An Update.

    PubMed

    Inayat, Faisal; Hurairah, Abu; Virk, Hafeez Ul Hassan

    2016-07-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) or "black esophagus" is a rare clinical entity with an unclear etiology. It is diagnosed at upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with the presence of strikingly black necrotic esophagus. The treatment is primarily medical, but the prognosis is generally poor due to advanced age and comorbid illnesses in patients who develop AEN. Herein, we discussed the implications of poor glycemic control in regards with AEN and undertook a literature review of this rare diagnosis. PMID:27583242

  2. [Talus necrosis and its treatment].

    PubMed

    Trauth, J; Bläsius, K

    1988-08-01

    Aetiopathogenesis of the necrosis of the talus has not yet been definitely clarified, and neither has that of the other aseptic necroses. We were able to study the aetiopathogenesis, course of the disease and therapy in 20 of our own patients by follow-up; two of these developed necrosis of the talus in both feet. We definitely excluded patients suffering from osteochondrosis dissecans. Even though fracture of the talus is on the whole relatively rare, it remains the most frequent cause of necrosis of the talus. We also found talonecrosis after surgical correction of clubfoot, after Sudeck's disease (Sudeck-Leriche syndrome, Sudeck's atrophy or dystrophy), suppurative arthritis of the ankle joint, subtalar luxation and haematogenic osteomyelitis. Only few patients required surgery. In most cases a special boot constructed for arthrodesis patients proved sufficient. Each patient developed arthrodesis to a different degree. Depending upon the complaints and stiffening of the ankle joint or of the talo-calcanonavicular joint, the capacity of the patients to be gainfully employed was reduced by an amount between 20 and 30 per cent. PMID:2905578

  3. Transcriptome analysis of chestnut (Castanea sativa) tree buds suggests a putative role for epigenetic control of bud dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Santamaría, María Estrella; Rodríguez, Roberto; Cañal, María Jesús; Toorop, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent papers indicated that epigenetic control is involved in transitions in bud dormancy, purportedly controlling gene expression. The present study aimed to identify genes that are differentially expressed in dormant and non-dormant Castanea sativa buds. Methods Two suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA libraries were constructed to characterize the transcriptomes of dormant apical buds of C. sativa, and buds in which dormancy was released. Key Results A total of 512 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated in a forward and reverse subtractive hybridization experiment. Classification of these ESTs into functional groups demonstrated that dormant buds were predominantly characterized by genes associated with stress response, while non-dormant buds were characterized by genes associated with energy, protein synthesis and cellular components for development and growth. ESTs for a few genes involved in different forms of epigenetic modification were found in both libraries, suggesting a role for epigenetic control in bud dormancy different from that in growth. Genes encoding histone mono-ubiquitinase HUB2 and histone acetyltransferase GCN5L were associated with dormancy, while a gene encoding histone H3 kinase AUR3 was associated with growth. Real-time RT-PCR with a selection of genes involved in epigenetic modification and stress tolerance confirmed the expression of the majority of investigated genes in various stages of bud development, revealing a cyclical expression pattern concurring with the growth seasons for most genes. However, senescing leaves also showed an increased expression of several of the genes associated with dormancy, implying pleiotropy. Furthermore, a comparison between these subtraction cDNA libraries and the poplar bud dormancy transcriptome and arabidopsis transcriptomes for seed dormancy and non-dormancy indicated a common basis for dormancy in all three systems. Conclusions Bud dormancy and non-dormancy in C

  4. Taste bud homeostasis in health, disease, and aging.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pu; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50-100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8-12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging.

  5. Molecular and Pathogenetic Aspects of Tumor Budding in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Heather; Lugli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, tumor budding in colorectal cancer has gained much attention as an indicator of lymph node metastasis, distant metastatic disease, local recurrence, worse overall and disease-free survival, and as an independent prognostic factor. Tumor buds, defined as the presence of single tumor cells or small clusters of up to five tumor cells at the peritumoral invasive front (peritumoral buds) or within the main tumor body (intratumoral buds), are thought to represent the morphological correlate of cancer cells having undergone epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), an important mechanism for the progression of epithelial cancers. In contrast to their undisputed prognostic power and potential to influence clinical management, our current understanding of the biological background of tumor buds is less established. Most studies examining tumor buds have attempted to recapitulate findings of mechanistic EMT studies using immunohistochemical markers. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of studies examining protein expression profiles of tumor buds and to illustrate the molecular pathways and crosstalk involved in their formation and maintenance. PMID:25806371

  6. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003–1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste. PMID:25209263

  7. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    PubMed

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste.

  8. Taste bud homeostasis in health, disease, and aging.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pu; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50-100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8-12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging. PMID:24287552

  9. Regulation of bitter taste responses by tumor necrosis factor

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Pu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Kim, Agnes; Chai, Jinghua; Simon, Nirvine; Zhou, Minliang; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are important regulators of metabolism and food intake. Over production of inflammatory cytokines during bacterial and viral infections leads to anorexia and reduced food intake. However, it remains unclear whether any inflammatory cytokines are involved in the regulation of taste reception, the sensory mechanism governing food intake. Previously, we showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a potent proinflammatory cytokine, is preferentially expressed in a subset of taste bud cells. The level of TNF in taste cells can be further induced by inflammatory stimuli. To investigate whether TNF plays a role in regulating taste responses, in this study, we performed taste behavioral tests and gustatory nerve recordings in TNF knockout mice. Behavioral tests showed that TNF-deficient mice are significantly less sensitive to the bitter compound quinine than wild-type mice, while their responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are comparable to those of wild-type controls. Furthermore, nerve recording experiments showed that the chorda tympani nerve in TNF knockout mice is much less responsive to bitter compounds than that in wild-type mice. Chorda tympani nerve responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are similar between TNF knockout and wild-type mice, consistent with the results from behavioral tests. We further showed that taste bud cells express the two known TNF receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 and, therefore, are potential targets of TNF. Together, our results suggest that TNF signaling preferentially modulates bitter taste responses. This mechanism may contribute to taste dysfunction, particularly taste distortion, associated with infections and some chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25911043

  10. Regulation of bitter taste responses by tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Kim, Agnes; Chai, Jinghua; Simon, Nirvine; Zhou, Minliang; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are important regulators of metabolism and food intake. Over production of inflammatory cytokines during bacterial and viral infections leads to anorexia and reduced food intake. However, it remains unclear whether any inflammatory cytokines are involved in the regulation of taste reception, the sensory mechanism governing food intake. Previously, we showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a potent proinflammatory cytokine, is preferentially expressed in a subset of taste bud cells. The level of TNF in taste cells can be further induced by inflammatory stimuli. To investigate whether TNF plays a role in regulating taste responses, in this study, we performed taste behavioral tests and gustatory nerve recordings in TNF knockout mice. Behavioral tests showed that TNF-deficient mice are significantly less sensitive to the bitter compound quinine than wild-type mice, while their responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are comparable to those of wild-type controls. Furthermore, nerve recording experiments showed that the chorda tympani nerve in TNF knockout mice is much less responsive to bitter compounds than that in wild-type mice. Chorda tympani nerve responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are similar between TNF knockout and wild-type mice, consistent with the results from behavioral tests. We further showed that taste bud cells express the two known TNF receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 and, therefore, are potential targets of TNF. Together, our results suggest that TNF signaling preferentially modulates bitter taste responses. This mechanism may contribute to taste dysfunction, particularly taste distortion, associated with infections and some chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25911043

  11. Regulation of bitter taste responses by tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Kim, Agnes; Chai, Jinghua; Simon, Nirvine; Zhou, Minliang; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are important regulators of metabolism and food intake. Over production of inflammatory cytokines during bacterial and viral infections leads to anorexia and reduced food intake. However, it remains unclear whether any inflammatory cytokines are involved in the regulation of taste reception, the sensory mechanism governing food intake. Previously, we showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a potent proinflammatory cytokine, is preferentially expressed in a subset of taste bud cells. The level of TNF in taste cells can be further induced by inflammatory stimuli. To investigate whether TNF plays a role in regulating taste responses, in this study, we performed taste behavioral tests and gustatory nerve recordings in TNF knockout mice. Behavioral tests showed that TNF-deficient mice are significantly less sensitive to the bitter compound quinine than wild-type mice, while their responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are comparable to those of wild-type controls. Furthermore, nerve recording experiments showed that the chorda tympani nerve in TNF knockout mice is much less responsive to bitter compounds than that in wild-type mice. Chorda tympani nerve responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are similar between TNF knockout and wild-type mice, consistent with the results from behavioral tests. We further showed that taste bud cells express the two known TNF receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 and, therefore, are potential targets of TNF. Together, our results suggest that TNF signaling preferentially modulates bitter taste responses. This mechanism may contribute to taste dysfunction, particularly taste distortion, associated with infections and some chronic inflammatory diseases.

  12. Characterization of Septin Ultrastructure in Budding Yeast Using Electron Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aurélie; Nogales, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Summary Septins are essential for the completion of cytokinesis. In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, septins are located at the bud neck during mitosis and are closely connected to the inner plasma membrane. In vitro, yeast septins have been shown to self-assemble into a variety of filamentous structures, including rods, paired filaments, bundles and rings [1–3]. Using electron tomography of freeze-substituted section and cryo-electron tomography of frozen sections, we determined the three dimensional organization of the septin cytoskeleton in dividing budding yeast with molecular resolution [4,5]. Here we describe the detailed procedures used for our characterization of the septin cellular ultrastructure. PMID:26519309

  13. Investigation of deaths in an area of groundnut plantations in Casamance, South of Senegal after exposure to Carbofuran, Thiram and Benomyl.

    PubMed

    Gomes Do Espirito Santo, Maria Eugênia; Marrama, Laurence; Ndiaye, Kader; Coly, Malan; Faye, Oumar

    2002-09-01

    Between May and October 2000, the Regional Health Office of Kolda Region in the south of Senegal, West Africa, reported an epidemic of an unknown illness characterized by thoracic pain, dyspnea and edemas of limb and face. The epidemic covered a radius of approximately 40 km (24 miles) between the districts of Kolda and Sedhiou in Kolda Region. Cases were mostly men whose age ranged between 12 and 60 years old. Investigation revealed that they had been exposed to pesticides distributed by the government to groundnut farmers. The signs and symptoms suggested intoxication with carbamates, carbofurans, and possibly thiram, contained in the pesticides distributed with the groundnut seeds. Government distribution created an excessive use of pesticides in the farms, and consequently an overexposure of the subjects who handled the seeders, especially young males but also a small proportion of women who worked in the groundnut fields. Many of these subjects, not accustomed to handle pesticides, came to overestimate the quantity of product to fill the seeder. It should be noted that the policy of distribution of pesticides in Senegal, which presents risk of poisoning, was not systematically accompanied by sufficient information on the danger of the products and of certain precautions that should be taken during their use.

  14. Exciting journey of 10 years from genomes to fields and markets: Some success stories of genomics-assisted breeding in chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Rajeev K

    2016-01-01

    Legume crops such as chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut, mostly grown in marginal environments, are the major source of nutrition and protein to the human population in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. These crops, however, have a low productivity, mainly due to their exposure to several biotic and abiotic stresses in the marginal environments. Until 2005, these crops had limited genomics resources and molecular breeding was very challenging. During the last decade (2005-2015), ICRISAT led demand-driven innovations in genome science and translated the massive genome information in breeding. For instance, large-scale genomic resources including draft genome assemblies, comprehensive genetic and physical maps, thousands of SSR markers, millions of SNPs, several high-throughput as well as low cost marker genotyping platforms have been developed in these crops. After mapping several breeding related traits, several success stories of translational genomics have become available in these legumes. These include development of superior lines with enhanced drought tolerance in chickpea, enhanced and pyramided resistance to Fusarium wilt and Ascochyta blight in chickpea, enhanced resistance to leaf rust in groundnut, improved oil quality in groundnut and utilization of markers for assessing purity of hybrids/parental lines in pigeonpea. Some of these stories together with future prospects have been discussed.

  15. Exciting journey of 10 years from genomes to fields and markets: Some success stories of genomics-assisted breeding in chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Rajeev K

    2016-01-01

    Legume crops such as chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut, mostly grown in marginal environments, are the major source of nutrition and protein to the human population in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. These crops, however, have a low productivity, mainly due to their exposure to several biotic and abiotic stresses in the marginal environments. Until 2005, these crops had limited genomics resources and molecular breeding was very challenging. During the last decade (2005-2015), ICRISAT led demand-driven innovations in genome science and translated the massive genome information in breeding. For instance, large-scale genomic resources including draft genome assemblies, comprehensive genetic and physical maps, thousands of SSR markers, millions of SNPs, several high-throughput as well as low cost marker genotyping platforms have been developed in these crops. After mapping several breeding related traits, several success stories of translational genomics have become available in these legumes. These include development of superior lines with enhanced drought tolerance in chickpea, enhanced and pyramided resistance to Fusarium wilt and Ascochyta blight in chickpea, enhanced resistance to leaf rust in groundnut, improved oil quality in groundnut and utilization of markers for assessing purity of hybrids/parental lines in pigeonpea. Some of these stories together with future prospects have been discussed. PMID:26566828

  16. Chemical, sensory and rheological properties of porridges from processed sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) flours.

    PubMed

    Nnam, N M

    2001-01-01

    The chemical, sensory and rheological properties of porridges made from blends of sprouted sorghum, bambara groundnuts and fermented sweet potatoes were examined. Sorghum and bambara groundnuts were sprouted for 48 h while sweet potatoes were fermented for the same period. Blends were formulated from the processed ingredients in the ratio of 60:40:0, 57:42:1, 55:44:1 and 52:46:2 (protein basis) of sorghum, bambara groundnuts and sweet potatoes. Porridges were prepared from the composite flours and the traditional sorghum complementary food. Standard assay methods were used to evaluate the flours for nutrient composition. The porridges were also tested for sensory properties and viscosity. Processing increased the levels of most of the nutrients evaluated. Relative to the sorghum traditional complementary food, the composite flours had higher levels of lipids, protein, ash, crude fiber and minerals (p < 0.05). The porridges from the composite flours were generally liked slightly by the panelists and were about seven times less viscous than the porridge from the traditional sorghum complementary food. Use of the composite flours, particularly the 52:46:2 blend, as a traditional complementary food should be encouraged in Nigeria especially with the increasing cost of commercial complementary foods.

  17. Interleukin-10 is produced by a specific subset of taste receptor cells and critical for maintaining structural integrity of mouse taste buds.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pu; Chai, Jinghua; Zhou, Minliang; Simon, Nirvine; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2014-02-12

    Although inflammatory responses are a critical component in defense against pathogens, too much inflammation is harmful. Mechanisms have evolved to regulate inflammation, including modulation by the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). Previously we have shown that taste buds express various molecules involved in innate immune responses, including the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Here, using a reporter mouse strain, we show that taste cells also express the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Remarkably, IL-10 is produced by only a specific subset of taste cells, which are different from the TNF-producing cells in mouse circumvallate and foliate taste buds: IL-10 expression was found exclusively in the G-protein gustducin-expressing bitter receptor cells, while TNF was found in sweet and umami receptor cells as reported previously. In contrast, IL-10R1, the ligand-binding subunit of the IL-10 receptor, is predominantly expressed by TNF-producing cells, suggesting a novel cellular hierarchy for regulating TNF production and effects in taste buds. In response to inflammatory challenges, taste cells can increase IL-10 expression both in vivo and in vitro. These findings suggest that taste buds use separate populations of taste receptor cells that coincide with sweet/umami and bitter taste reception to modulate local inflammatory responses, a phenomenon that has not been previously reported. Furthermore, IL-10 deficiency in mice leads to significant reductions in the number and size of taste buds, as well as in the number of taste receptor cells per taste bud, suggesting that IL-10 plays critical roles in maintaining structural integrity of the peripheral gustatory system. PMID:24523558

  18. Micropropagation of Helleborus through axillary budding.

    PubMed

    Beruto, Margherita; Viglione, Serena; Bisignano, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Helleborus genus, belonging to the Ranunculaceae family, has 20 species of herbaceous perennial flowering plants. The commercial exploitation of this plant is dependent on the selection and propagation of appropriate lines. High propagation rate could be accomplished by using a suitable tissue culture method enabling the rapid introduction of valuable selections in the market. However, in vitro cultivation of Helleborus is still very difficult. Thereby the development of reliable in vitro propagation procedures is crucial for future production systems. Axillary buds cultured on agar-solidified Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1 mg/L benzyladenine, 0.1 mg/L β-naphthoxyacetic acid, and 2 mg/L isopentenyl adenine develop shoots after 16 weeks of culture under 16 h light regime, 50-60 μmol/s/m(2), and 19 ± 1°C. The multiplication rate ranges from 1.4 to 2.1. However, the genotype and the number of subcultures affect the efficiency of the micropropagation process. The rooting of shoots is about 80% in solidified MS medium containing 1 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 3 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid. The described protocol provides information which can contribute to the commercial production of Helleborus plants.

  19. Mechanical feedback stabilizes budding yeast morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banavar, Samhita; Trogdon, Michael; Petzold, Linda; Campas, Otger

    Walled cells have the ability to remodel their shape while sustaining an internal turgor pressure that can reach values up to 10 atmospheres. This requires a tight and simultaneous regulation of cell wall assembly and mechanochemistry, but the underlying mechanisms by which this is achieved remain unclear. Using the growth of mating projections in budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) as a motivating example, we have developed a theoretical description that couples the mechanics of cell wall expansion and assembly via a mechanical feedback. In the absence of a mechanical feedback, cell morphogenesis is inherently unstable. The presence of a mechanical feedback stabilizes changes in cell shape and growth, and provides a mechanism to prevent cell lysis in a wide range of conditions. We solve for the dynamics of the system and obtain the different dynamical regimes. In particular, we show that several parameters affect the stability of growth, including the strength of mechanical feedback in the system. Finally, we compare our results to existing experimental data.

  20. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, M.; Torigoe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takizawa, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Ono, F.

    2014-05-01

    Our studies on the tolerance of plants and animals against very high pressure of several GPa have been extended to a smaller sized fungus, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate, and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar. It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for longer than 12 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is a little weaker than that of tardigrades.

  1. Innervation of the undifferentiated limb bud in rabbit embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, J; McCredie, J

    1982-01-01

    The concept that there are no nerves in the limb bud of mammalian embryos prior to differentiation has been re-examined. Rabbit embryos were collected at 260 and 290 hours gestation, which is prior to cartilage formation in the forelimb at 320 hours. Forelimb buds and adjacent neural tube were excised, fixed and embedded for light and electron microscopy. The limb buds were sectioned in two planes by serial 1 micrometer sections and inspected by light microscopy. Bundles of nerve fibres were seen within the proximal third of the limb bud, with distal ramification into adjacent zones of condensing mesenchyme. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of axons and associated immature Schwann cells. These results demonstrate the existence of an anatomical framework through which a neurotrophic influence might be brought to bear upon mesenchyme prior to early differentiation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:7130041

  2. Polarity-Driven Geometrical Cluster Growth Model of Budding Yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Reniel B.; Lim, May T.

    We present a polarity-driven activator-inhibitor model of budding yeast in a two-dimensional medium wherein impeding metabolites secretion (or growth inhibitors) and growth directionality are determined by the local nutrient level. We found that colony size and morphological features varied with nutrient concentration. A branched-type morphology is associated with high impeding metabolite concentration together with a high fraction of distal budding, while opposite conditions (low impeding metabolite concentration, high fraction of proximal budding) promote Eden-type patterns. Increasing the anisotropy factor (or polarity) produced other spatial patterns akin to the electrical breakdown under varying electric field. Rapid changes in the colony morphology, which we conjecture to be equivalent to a transition from an inactive quiescent state to an active budding state, appeared when nutrients were limited.

  3. Real Life Science with Dandelions and Project BudBurst.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Katherine A

    2016-03-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen-science project that tracks bloom times and other phenological data for plants across the country. Data from Project BudBurst are being used to measure the effects of climate change. Students can participate in this project by watching any of the plants on the list, including the common dandelion, which makes the program easy and accessible to everyone. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education. PMID:27047605

  4. Real Life Science with Dandelions and Project BudBurst.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Katherine A

    2016-03-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen-science project that tracks bloom times and other phenological data for plants across the country. Data from Project BudBurst are being used to measure the effects of climate change. Students can participate in this project by watching any of the plants on the list, including the common dandelion, which makes the program easy and accessible to everyone. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.

  5. Real Life Science with Dandelions and Project BudBurst

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen-science project that tracks bloom times and other phenological data for plants across the country. Data from Project BudBurst are being used to measure the effects of climate change. Students can participate in this project by watching any of the plants on the list, including the common dandelion, which makes the program easy and accessible to everyone. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27047605

  6. Impact of peritumoral and intratumoral budding in esophageal adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Thies, Svenja; Guldener, Lars; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Zlobec, Inti; Koelzer, Viktor H; Lugli, Alessandro; Kröll, Dino; Seiler, Christian A; Feith, Marcus; Langer, Rupert

    2016-06-01

    Tumor budding has prognostic significance in many carcinomas and is defined as the presence of detached isolated single cells or small cell clusters up to 5 cells at the invasion front (peritumoral budding [PTB]) or within the tumor (intratumoral budding [ITB]). For esophageal adenocarcinomas (EACs), there are currently only few data about the impact of this morphological feature. We investigated tumor budding in a large collective of 200 primarily resected EACs. Pancytokeratin staining was demonstrated to be superior to hematoxylin and eosin staining for the detection of buds with substantial to excellent interobserver agreement and used for subsequent analysis. PTB and ITB were scored across 10 high-power fields (HPFs). The median count of tumor buds was 130/10 HPFs for PTB (range, 2-593) and 80/10 HPFs for ITB (range, 1-656). PTB and ITB correlated significantly with each other (r = 0.9; P < .001). High PTB and ITB rates were seen in more advanced tumor categories (P < .001 each); tumors with lymph node metastases (P < .001/P = .002); and lymphatic, vascular, and perineural invasion and higher tumor grading (P < .001 each). Survival analysis showed an association with worse survival for high-grade ITB (P = .029) but not PTB (P = .385). However, in multivariate analysis, lymph node and resection status, but not ITB, were independent prognostic parameters. In conclusion, PTB and ITB can be observed in EAC to various degrees. High-grade budding is associated with aggressive tumor phenotype. Assessment of tumor budding, especially ITB, may provide additional prognostic information about tumor behavior and may be useful in specific cases for risk stratification of EAC patients. PMID:26980046

  7. Tumor Budding: The Name is EMT. Partial EMT.

    PubMed

    Grigore, Alexandru Dan; Jolly, Mohit Kumar; Jia, Dongya; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Levine, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Tumor budding is a histological phenomenon encountered in various cancers, whereby individual malignant cells and/or small clusters of malignant cells are seen in the tumor stroma. Postulated to be mirror epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor budding has been associated with poor cancer outcomes. However, the vast heterogeneity in its exact definition, methodology of assessment, and patient stratification need to be resolved before it can be routinely used as a standardized prognostic feature. Here, we discuss the heterogeneity in defining and assessing tumor budding, its clinical significance across multiple cancer types, and its prospective implementation in clinical practice. Next, we review the emerging evidence about partial, rather than complete, epithelial-mesenchymal phenotype at the tumor bud level, and its connection with tumor proliferation, quiescence, and stemness. Finally, based on recent literature, indicating a co-expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers in many tumor buds, we posit tumor budding to be a manifestation of this hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype displaying collective cell migration.

  8. Early epithelial signaling center governs tooth budding morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ahtiainen, Laura; Uski, Isa; Thesleff, Irma; Mikkola, Marja L

    2016-09-12

    During organogenesis, cell fate specification and patterning are regulated by signaling centers, specialized clusters of morphogen-expressing cells. In many organs, initiation of development is marked by bud formation, but the cellular mechanisms involved are ill defined. Here, we use the mouse incisor tooth as a model to study budding morphogenesis. We show that a group of nonproliferative epithelial cells emerges in the early tooth primordium and identify these cells as a signaling center. Confocal live imaging of tissue explants revealed that although these cells reorganize dynamically, they do not reenter the cell cycle or contribute to the growing tooth bud. Instead, budding is driven by proliferation of the neighboring cells. We demonstrate that the activity of the ectodysplasin/Edar/nuclear factor κB pathway is restricted to the signaling center, and its inactivation leads to fewer quiescent cells and a smaller bud. These data functionally link the signaling center size to organ size and imply that the early signaling center is a prerequisite for budding morphogenesis. PMID:27621364

  9. Tumor Budding: The Name is EMT. Partial EMT.

    PubMed Central

    Grigore, Alexandru Dan; Jolly, Mohit Kumar; Jia, Dongya; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Levine, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Tumor budding is a histological phenomenon encountered in various cancers, whereby individual malignant cells and/or small clusters of malignant cells are seen in the tumor stroma. Postulated to be mirror epithelial-mesenchymal transition, tumor budding has been associated with poor cancer outcomes. However, the vast heterogeneity in its exact definition, methodology of assessment, and patient stratification need to be resolved before it can be routinely used as a standardized prognostic feature. Here, we discuss the heterogeneity in defining and assessing tumor budding, its clinical significance across multiple cancer types, and its prospective implementation in clinical practice. Next, we review the emerging evidence about partial, rather than complete, epithelial-mesenchymal phenotype at the tumor bud level, and its connection with tumor proliferation, quiescence, and stemness. Finally, based on recent literature, indicating a co-expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers in many tumor buds, we posit tumor budding to be a manifestation of this hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype displaying collective cell migration. PMID:27136592

  10. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant.

    PubMed

    Guo, Da-Long; Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape. PMID:27610363

  11. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape.

  12. Cryotolerance of apple tree bud is independent of endodormancy.

    PubMed

    Bilavcik, Alois; Zamecnik, Jiri; Faltus, Milos

    2015-01-01

    Increasing interest in cryopreservation of dormant buds reveals the need for better understanding of the role of dormancy in cryotolerance. Dormancy stage and low-temperature survival of vegetative apple buds (Malus domestica Borkh.), cultivars 'Sampion' and 'Spartan', collected from orchard were evaluated during three seasons contrasting in temperature and precipitation throughout the arrested plant growth period. During each season, the cultivars differed either in the onset of the endodormancy or in the length of the endodormant period. A simple relation between endodormancy of the buds and their water content was not detected. The cryosurvival of vegetative apple buds of both cultivars correlated with their cold hardening without direct regard to their particular phase of dormancy. The period of the highest bud cryotolerance after low-temperature exposure overlapped with the endodormant period in some evaluated seasons. Both cultivars had the highest cryosurvival in December and January. The presented data were compared with our previous results from a dormancy study of in vitro apple culture. Endodormancy coincided with the period of successful cryosurvival of apple buds after liquid nitrogen exposure, but as such, it was not decisive for their survival and did not limit their successful cryopreservation.

  13. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape. PMID:27610363

  14. Effect of annealing and heat moisture conditioning on the physicochemical characteristics of Bambarra groundnut (Voandzeia subterranea) starch.

    PubMed

    Adebowale, K O; Lawal, O S

    2002-10-01

    Isolated starch of Bambarra groundnut (Voandzeia subterranean) was subjected to hydrothermal modifications through annealing and heat moisture conditioning. Both annealing and heat moisture conditioning reduced the swelling power and solubility of the starch. Water binding capacity reduced after annealing heat moisture conditioning at 18% moisture level (HMB18) and heat moisture conditioning at 21% moisture level (HMB21). Both heat moisture conditioning at 24% moisture level (HMB24) and heat moisture conditioning at 27% moisture level (HMB27) increased the water binding capacity. Hydrothermal modifications reduced the oil absorption capacity of the raw starch. Annealing and heat moisture conditioning reduced the peak viscosity (Pv), viscosity at 95 degrees C (Hv) and viscosity at 95 degrees C after 30 min holding (Hv30). However, viscosity increased on cooling down to 50 degrees C after annealing. Annealing and heat moisture treatments as revealed by scanning electron micrograph and light micrograph did not alter the shape and size of the raw starch. The results indicate a rearrangement within the starch granule following hydrothermal treatments.

  15. Use of microsatellite markers for the assessment of bambara groundnut breeding system and varietal purity before genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ho, Wai Kuan; Muchugi, Alice; Muthemba, Samuel; Kariba, Robert; Mavenkeni, Busiso Olga; Hendre, Prasad; Song, Bo; Van Deynze, Allen; Massawe, Festo; Mayes, Sean

    2016-06-01

    Maximizing the research output from a limited investment is often the major challenge for minor and underutilized crops. However, such crops may be tolerant to biotic and abiotic stresses and are adapted to local, marginal, and low-input environments. Their development through breeding will provide an important resource for future agricultural system resilience and diversification in the context of changing climates and the need to achieve food security. The African Orphan Crops Consortium recognizes the values of genomic resources in facilitating the improvement of such crops. Prior to beginning genome sequencing there is a need for an assessment of line varietal purity and to estimate any residual heterozygosity. Here we present an example from bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.), an underutilized drought tolerant African legume. Two released varieties from Zimbabwe, identified as potential genotypes for whole genome sequencing (WGS), were genotyped with 20 species-specific SSR markers. The results indicate that the cultivars are actually a mix of related inbred genotypes, and the analysis allowed a strategy of single plant selection to be used to generate non-heterogeneous DNA for WGS. The markers also confirmed very low levels of heterozygosity within individual plants. The application of a pre-screen using co-dominant microsatellite markers is expected to substantially improve the genome assembly, compared to a cultivar bulking approach that could have been adopted. PMID:27244454

  16. Emergence of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus in Vegetables in Florida and the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Webster, Craig G; Frantz, Galen; Reitz, Stuart R; Funderburk, Joseph E; Mellinger, H Charles; McAvoy, Eugene; Turechek, William W; Marshall, Spencer H; Tantiwanich, Yaowapa; McGrath, Margaret T; Daughtrey, Margery L; Adkins, Scott

    2015-03-01

    Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) are two emerging tospoviruses in Florida. In a survey of the southeastern United States, GRSV and TCSV were frequently detected in solanaceous crops and weeds with tospovirus-like symptoms in south Florida, and occurred sympatrically with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in tomato and pepper in south Florida. TSWV was the only tospovirus detected in other survey locations, with the exceptions of GRSV from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in South Carolina and New York, both of which are first reports. Impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were the only non-solanaceous GRSV and/or TCSV hosts identified in experimental host range studies. Little genetic diversity was observed in GRSV and TCSV sequences, likely due to the recent introductions of both viruses. All GRSV isolates characterized were reassortants with the TCSV M RNA. In laboratory transmission studies, Frankliniella schultzei was a more efficient vector of GRSV than F. occidentalis. TCSV was acquired more efficiently than GRSV by F. occidentalis but upon acquisition, transmission frequencies were similar. Further spread of GRSV and TCSV in the United States is possible and detection of mixed infections highlights the opportunity for additional reassortment of tospovirus genomic RNAs. PMID:25317844

  17. Use of microsatellite markers for the assessment of bambara groundnut breeding system and varietal purity before genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ho, Wai Kuan; Muchugi, Alice; Muthemba, Samuel; Kariba, Robert; Mavenkeni, Busiso Olga; Hendre, Prasad; Song, Bo; Van Deynze, Allen; Massawe, Festo; Mayes, Sean

    2016-06-01

    Maximizing the research output from a limited investment is often the major challenge for minor and underutilized crops. However, such crops may be tolerant to biotic and abiotic stresses and are adapted to local, marginal, and low-input environments. Their development through breeding will provide an important resource for future agricultural system resilience and diversification in the context of changing climates and the need to achieve food security. The African Orphan Crops Consortium recognizes the values of genomic resources in facilitating the improvement of such crops. Prior to beginning genome sequencing there is a need for an assessment of line varietal purity and to estimate any residual heterozygosity. Here we present an example from bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.), an underutilized drought tolerant African legume. Two released varieties from Zimbabwe, identified as potential genotypes for whole genome sequencing (WGS), were genotyped with 20 species-specific SSR markers. The results indicate that the cultivars are actually a mix of related inbred genotypes, and the analysis allowed a strategy of single plant selection to be used to generate non-heterogeneous DNA for WGS. The markers also confirmed very low levels of heterozygosity within individual plants. The application of a pre-screen using co-dominant microsatellite markers is expected to substantially improve the genome assembly, compared to a cultivar bulking approach that could have been adopted.

  18. Acute oesophageal necrosis (black oesophagus).

    PubMed

    Galtés, Ignasi; Gallego, María Ángeles; Esgueva, Raquel; Martin-Fumadó, Carles

    2016-03-01

    A 54-year-old man was admitted to hospital after being found unconscious in his home. He had a history of alcoholism, multiple drug addictions, and type I diabetes mellitus. At admission, he had hyperglycaemia (550 mg/dL) with glucosuria and ketone bodies in the urine, along with septic shock refractory to bilateral alveolar infiltrates and severe respiratory failure. The patient died 24 hours post admission due to multiple organ failure, with diabetic ketoacidosis decompensated by possible respiratory infection in a patient with polytoxicomania. The autopsy confirmed the presence of acute bilateral bronchopneumonia, chronic pancreatitis, severe hepatic steatosis, and generalized congestive changes. At the oesophagus, acute oesophageal necrosis was evident. PMID:26949146

  19. [Bud population dynamics of Phragmites australis in heterogeneous habitats of Northeast grassland, China].

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    To adapt ecological environment, typical clonal plants can occur continuously by means of buds. The changes in the bud bank and bud flow in the heterogeneous habitats become the foundation for deep understanding the characteristics of vegetative propagation. By sampling soil from the unit area, a comparative analysis was performed for rhizome bud population dynamics of Phragmites australis community in both meadow soil and saline-alkali soil habitats in meadow grassland of Northeast China. The one-age class rhizome buds formed in the current year were used as input, with the other age classes rhizome buds as output, counting the dormancy buds and death buds. The results showed that the storage, input, output, dormancy, death and the input rates of P. australis rhizome bud populations in meadow soil habitat were significantly higher than that in saline-alkali habitat. There was no significant difference in output rate between the two habitats. The dormant rate in saline-alkali habitat was significantly greater than that in meadow soil habitat. The death rates remained at relatively low levels in both, less than 2%. With the going of growing season, the input buds and input rate of bud bank increased in the two habitats, while the output buds remained relatively stable. The output rate increased first and decreased later, the dormancy buds and dormant rate decreased. Bud bank and bud flow were positively related to soil moisture, soil organic matter and soil available nitrogen content. However, they were negatively related to soil pH value and soil available phosphorus content. Bud bank and bud flow had a similar seasonal variation. Constantly for both habitats, P. australis populations generated new rhizome buds supplied to the bud bank and kept a stable output to maintain their vegetative propagation.

  20. Thermal inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosting, L.; Gould, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A plaque assay was used to follow the inactivation kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in cell culture media at various temperatures. Inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in a visceral organ slurry was compared with that in culture media.

  1. Electron Tomography Reveals the Steps in Filovirus Budding

    PubMed Central

    Welsch, Sonja; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Krähling, Verena; Riches, James D.; Becker, Stephan; Briggs, John A. G.

    2010-01-01

    The filoviruses, Marburg and Ebola, are non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses causing severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates in humans and nonhuman primates. The sequence of events that leads to release of filovirus particles from cells is poorly understood. Two contrasting mechanisms have been proposed, one proceeding via a “submarine-like” budding with the helical nucleocapsid emerging parallel to the plasma membrane, and the other via perpendicular “rocket-like” protrusion. Here we have infected cells with Marburg virus under BSL-4 containment conditions, and reconstructed the sequence of steps in the budding process in three dimensions using electron tomography of plastic-embedded cells. We find that highly infectious filamentous particles are released at early stages in infection. Budding proceeds via lateral association of intracellular nucleocapsid along its whole length with the plasma membrane, followed by rapid envelopment initiated at one end of the nucleocapsid, leading to a protruding intermediate. Scission results in local membrane instability at the rear of the virus. After prolonged infection, increased vesiculation of the plasma membrane correlates with changes in shape and infectivity of released viruses. Our observations demonstrate a cellular determinant of virus shape. They reconcile the contrasting models of filovirus budding and allow us to describe the sequence of events taking place during budding and release of Marburg virus. We propose that this represents a general sequence of events also followed by other filamentous and rod-shaped viruses. PMID:20442788

  2. Are there efferent synapses in fish taste buds?

    PubMed

    Reutter, Klaus; Witt, Martin

    2004-12-01

    In fish, nerve fibers of taste buds are organized within the bud's nerve fiber plexus. It is located between the sensory epithelium consisting of light and dark elongated cells and the basal cells. It comprises the basal parts and processes of light and dark cells that intermingle with nerve fibers, which are the dendritic endings of the taste sensory neurons belonging to the cranial nerves VII, IX or X. Most of the synapses at the plexus are afferent; they have synaptic vesicles on the light (or dark) cells side, which is presynaptic. In contrast, the presumed efferent synapses may be rich in synaptic vesicles on the nerve fibers (presynaptic) side, whereas the cells (postsynaptic) side may contain a subsynaptic cistern; a flat compartment of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. This structure is regarded as a prerequisite of a typical efferent synapse, as occurring in cochlear and vestibular hair cells. In fish taste buds, efferent synapses are rare and were found only in a few species that belong to different taxa. The significance of efferent synapses in fish taste buds is not well understood, because efferent connections between the gustatory nuclei of the medulla with taste buds are not yet proved.

  3. Are there efferent synapses in fish taste buds?

    PubMed

    Reutter, Klaus; Witt, Martin

    2004-12-01

    In fish, nerve fibers of taste buds are organized within the bud's nerve fiber plexus. It is located between the sensory epithelium consisting of light and dark elongated cells and the basal cells. It comprises the basal parts and processes of light and dark cells that intermingle with nerve fibers, which are the dendritic endings of the taste sensory neurons belonging to the cranial nerves VII, IX or X. Most of the synapses at the plexus are afferent; they have synaptic vesicles on the light (or dark) cells side, which is presynaptic. In contrast, the presumed efferent synapses may be rich in synaptic vesicles on the nerve fibers (presynaptic) side, whereas the cells (postsynaptic) side may contain a subsynaptic cistern; a flat compartment of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. This structure is regarded as a prerequisite of a typical efferent synapse, as occurring in cochlear and vestibular hair cells. In fish taste buds, efferent synapses are rare and were found only in a few species that belong to different taxa. The significance of efferent synapses in fish taste buds is not well understood, because efferent connections between the gustatory nuclei of the medulla with taste buds are not yet proved. PMID:16217620

  4. Budding yeast colony growth study based on circular granular cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprianti, Devi; Khotimah, S. N.; Viridi, S.

    2016-08-01

    Yeast colony growth can be modelled by using circular granular cells, which can grow and produce buds. The bud growth angle can be set to regulate cell budding pattern. Cohesion force, contact force and Stokes force were adopted to accommodate the behaviour and interactions among cells. Simulation steps are divided into two steps, the explicit step is due to cell growing and implicit step for the cell rearrangement. Only in explicit step that time change was performed. In this study, we examine the influence of cell diameter growth time and reproduction time combination toward the growth of cell number and colony formation. We find a commutative relation between the cell diameter growth time and reproduction time to the specific growth rate. The greater value of the multiplication of the parameters, the smaller specific growth rate is obtained. It also shows a linear correlation between the specific growth rate and colony diameter growth rate.

  5. Budding and vesiculation induced by conical membrane inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auth, Thorsten; Gompper, Gerhard

    2009-09-01

    Conical inclusions in a lipid bilayer generate an overall spontaneous curvature of the membrane that depends on concentration and geometry of the inclusions. Examples are integral and attached membrane proteins, viruses, and lipid domains. We propose an analytical model to study budding and vesiculation of the lipid bilayer membrane, which is based on the membrane bending energy and the translational entropy of the inclusions. If the inclusions are placed on a membrane with similar curvature radius, their repulsive membrane-mediated interaction is screened. Therefore, for high inclusion density the inclusions aggregate, induce bud formation, and finally vesiculation. Already with the bending energy alone our model allows the prediction of bud radii. However, in case the inclusions induce a single large vesicle to split into two smaller vesicles, bending energy alone predicts that the smaller vesicles have different sizes whereas the translational entropy favors the formation of equal-sized vesicles. Our results agree well with those of recent computer simulations.

  6. Light Signaling in Bud Outgrowth and Branching in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Nathalie; Roman, Hanaé; Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Huché-Thélier, Lydie; Lothier, Jérémy; Demotes-Mainard, Sabine; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2014-01-01

    Branching determines the final shape of plants, which influences adaptation, survival and the visual quality of many species. It is an intricate process that includes bud outgrowth and shoot extension, and these in turn respond to environmental cues and light conditions. Light is a powerful environmental factor that impacts multiple processes throughout plant life. The molecular basis of the perception and transduction of the light signal within buds is poorly understood and undoubtedly requires to be further unravelled. This review is based on current knowledge on bud outgrowth-related mechanisms and light-mediated regulation of many physiological processes. It provides an extensive, though not exhaustive, overview of the findings related to this field. In parallel, it points to issues to be addressed in the near future. PMID:27135502

  7. Molecular mechanisms of regulated necrosis.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Krautwald, Stefan; Kroemer, Guido; Linkermann, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    It is now clear that apoptosis does not constitute the sole genetically encoded form of cell death. Rather, cells can spontaneously undertake or exogenously be driven into a cell death subroutine that manifests with necrotic features, yet can be inhibited by pharmacological and genetic interventions. As regulated necrosis (RN) plays a major role in both physiological scenarios (e.g., embryonic development) and pathological settings (e.g., ischemic disorders), consistent efforts have been made throughout the last decade toward the characterization of the molecular mechanisms that underlie this cell death modality. Contrarily to initial beliefs, RN does not invariably result from the activation of a receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3)-dependent signaling pathway, but may be ignited by distinct molecular networks. Nowadays, various types of RN have been characterized, including (but not limited to) necroptosis, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)-dependent RN and parthanatos. Of note, the inhibition of only one of these modules generally exerts limited cytoprotective effects in vivo, underscoring the degree of interconnectivity that characterizes RN. Here, we review the signaling pathways, pathophysiological relevance and therapeutic implications of the major molecular cascades that underlie RN. PMID:24582829

  8. Project BudBurst: People, Plants, and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Ward, D.; Havens, K.; Gardiner, L. S.; Alaback, P.

    2010-12-01

    Providing opportunities for individuals to contribute to a better understanding of climate change is the hallmark of Project BudBurst (www.budburst.org). This highly successful, national citizen science program, now in its third year, is bringing climate change education outreach to thousands of individuals. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. Project BudBurst has been the subject of almost 200 media outlets including NPR, national and regional television broadcasts, and most of the major national and regional newspapers. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst and will report on the results of the 2009 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2010 including the use of mobile phones applications for data collection and reporting from the field. Project BudBurst co managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and

  9. Activation of the Retroviral Budding Factor ALIX▿†

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Qianting; Landesman, Michael B.; Chung, Hyo-Young; Dierkers, Adam; Jeffries, Cy M.; Trewhella, Jill; Hill, Christopher P.; Sundquist, Wesley I.

    2011-01-01

    The cellular ALIX protein functions within the ESCRT pathway to facilitate intralumenal endosomal vesicle formation, the abscission stage of cytokinesis, and enveloped virus budding. Here, we report that the C-terminal proline-rich region (PRR) of ALIX folds back against the upstream domains and auto-inhibits V domain binding to viral late domains. Mutations designed to destabilize the closed conformation of the V domain opened the V domain, increased ALIX membrane association, and enhanced virus budding. These observations support a model in which ALIX activation requires dissociation of the autoinhibitory PRR and opening of the V domain arms. PMID:21715492

  10. Transpapillary drainage of pancreatic parenchymal necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Smoczyński, Marian; Adrych, Krystian

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades the strategy of treatment of necrotizing pancreatitis has changed. Endoscopic therapy of patients with symptomatic walled-off pancreatic necrosis has a high rate of efficiency. Here we present a description of a patient with parenchymal limited necrosis of the pancreas and a disruption of the main pancreatic duct. In the treatment, active transpapillary drainage of the pancreatic necrosis (through the major duodenal papilla) was performed and insertion of an endoprosthesis into the main pancreatic duct (through the minor duodenal papilla) was applied, which enabled a bypass over the infiltration and resulted in complete resolution. PMID:26649102

  11. Post-pancreatitis Fat Necrosis Mimicking Carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua P; Arnoletti, J Pablo; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Morgan, Desiree E

    2008-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis can result in retroperitoneal fat necrosis, typically occurring in the peripancreatic region, with extension into the transverse mesocolon, omentum and mesenteric root. When evaluated with contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT), acute peripancreatic post necrotic collections typically become lower in attenuation over time, and often appear as homogeneous fluid collections. Saponification as a complication of fat necrosis in patients with acute pancreatitis is a well recognized clinical entity. While retroperitonal fat necrosis is commonly seen on CECT, saponification is not a prominent imaging feature. We present a case of acute pancreatitis complicated by extensive saponification of fat throughout the retroperitoneum and peritoneal lining, mimicking carcinomatosis.

  12. Role of the Mitochondrion in Programmed Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Baines, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the “programmed” nature of apoptosis and autophagy, necrotic cell death has always been believed to be a random, uncontrolled process that leads to the “accidental” death of the cell. This dogma, however, is being challenged and the concept of necrosis also being “programmed” is gaining ground. In particular, mitochondria appear to play a pivotal role in the mediation of programmed necrosis. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to appraise the current concepts regarding the signaling mechanisms of programmed necrosis, with specific attention to the contribution of mitochondria to this process. PMID:21423395

  13. Extensive transcriptome changes during natural onset and release of vegetative bud dormancy in Populus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To survive winter conditions, axillary buds of poplar transition from paradormancy to endodormancy. Following sufficient chilling, endodormant axillary buds will transition from endodormancy to ecodormancy. We utilized the near whole genome NimbleGen poplar microarrays to follow transcriptome diff...

  14. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Fumihisa; Shibata, Michiko; Torigoe, Motoki; Matsumoto, Yuta; Yamamoto, Shinsuke; Takizawa, Noboru; Hada, Yoshio; Mori, Yoshihisa; Takarabe, Kenichi

    2013-06-01

    In our previous studies on the tolerance of small plants and animals to the high hydrostatic pressure of 7.5 GPa, it was shown that all the living samples could be borne at this high pressure, which is more than one order of magnitude higher than the proteinic denaturation pressure. To make this inconsistency clear, we have extended these studies to a smaller sized fungus, budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate (PC72, Sumitomo 3M), and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar (PDA). It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for 12 and 24 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is weaker than that of tardigrades.

  15. Intracellular and extracellular regulation of ureteric bud morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    DAVIES, JAMIE

    2001-01-01

    The urinary collecting duct system of the permanent kidney develops by growth and branching of an initially unbranched epithelial tubule, the ureteric bud. Formation of the ureteric bud as an outgrowth of the wolffian duct is induced by signalling molecules (such as GDNF) that emanate from the adjacent metanephrogenic mesenchyme. Once it has invaded the mesenchyme, growth and branching of the bud is controlled by a variety of molecules, such as the growth factors GDNF, HGF, TGFβ, activin, BMP-2, BMP-7, and matrix molecules such as heparan sulphate proteoglycans and laminins. These various influences are integrated by signal transduction systems inside ureteric bud cells, with the MAP kinase, protein kinase A and protein kinase C pathways appearing to play major roles. The mechanisms of morphogenetic change that produce branching remain largely obscure, but matrix metalloproteinases are known to be necessary for the process, and there is preliminary evidence for the involvement of the actin/myosin contractile cytoskeleton in creating branch points. PMID:11322719

  16. Science Shorts: Project BudBurst--Analyzing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kimberly J.; Coskie, Tracy L.

    2008-01-01

    Project BudBurst is a national program intended to get students and other "citizen scientists" to participate in a real study about plants, the environment, and climate change. It also provides an excellent opportunity for students to build data-analysis skills. A collaboration of several agencies and universities, the program began last year and…

  17. Massive tongue necrosis secondary to temporal arteritis.

    PubMed

    Roseman, B B; Granite, E

    1984-10-01

    A case of unusually massive necrosis of the tongue secondary to temporal arteritis is presented. The clinician must include temporal arteritis in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with signs and symptoms of tongue ischemia.

  18. Retroperitoneal fat necrosis producing ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Ross, J S; Prout, G R

    1976-05-01

    We present 3 cases of a rare syndrome of extrinsic ureteral obstruction produced by retroperitoneal fat necrosis and compare the medical records and histopathology to 19 cases of classic idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis. Clinical similarities include average age of onset in the fourth and fifth decades, male preponderance, abdominal or back pain as the presenting symptom, elevation of the blood urea concentration prior to diagnosis and tendency toward bilateral involvement. Histologically, the 2 conditions were different. Retroperitoneal fat necrosis is characterized by coalescence of fat cells into fat cysts bordered by foreign body giant cell granulomas, foam cells, light chronic inflammatory infiltrate and unimpressive fibrosis. The microscopic pathology of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis is dominated by densely collagenized fibrous tissue of varying cellularity without evidence of fat necrosis. Of the 3 cases of retroperitoneal fat necrosis 2 featured prior ischiorectal abscesses and this is considered in a discussion of the etiology of this unusual cause of ureteral compression.

  19. Postnatal development of the vallate papilla and taste buds in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosley, M A; Oakley, B

    1987-06-01

    The postnatal maturation of the vallate papilla and its taste buds was quantitatively investigated in rats by ligh microscopy. Specifically, we measured postnatal increases in the size of mature vallate taste buds and the vallate papilla, increases in the thickness of the gustatory epidermis, and increases in the number of mature taste buds and taste cells per bud. Mature taste buds, defined as those having a taste pore, are rare at birth but proliferate rapidly during the first postnatal month until an average of 610 mature taste buds has accumulated by 90 days. Throughout this postnatal period, mature taste buds adjust to the developmental thickening of the epidermis by continuously increasing in length. Mature taste buds also increase in width, in part due to a threefold increase from 10 and 45 days in the number of taste cells per bud. From 10 to 21 days there is an average daily net increase of three cells per mature taste bud. The maturational increase in taste buds and cells may contribute to the functional changes in taste nerve responses known to occur over the course of several generations of taste receptor cells. The dimensions of the vallate papilla and the surface area of the gustatory epithelium increase logarithmically with age. Although mature taste buds continue to increase in number until 90 days, both taste bud density (178/mm2) and the number of cells per mature taste bud (70-75 cells) reach ceilings by 45 days. Thus, density-dependent factors appear to control vallate taste bud maturation. The immaturity of lingual taste buds in newborn rats supports the view that odor, rather than taste, is the chemosensory signal that guides suckling in altricial rodents. PMID:3619089

  20. Nutritive Evaluation of the Bambara Groundnut Ci12 Landrace [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)] Produced in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    N’Dri Yao, Denis; Kouassi, Kouakou Nestor; Erba, Daniela; Scazzina, Francesca; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional evaluation of the Bambara groundnut Ci12 landrace (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds produced in Côte d’Ivoire shows a 19% content of protein, containing all the essential amino acids with tryptophan as the limiting amino acid, a total dietary fiber level of 10%, with a low soluble fraction content, and a fat content of 1.4%, with a high proportion of total unsaturated fatty acids (61%) of which 36% were n-6 fatty acids. This legume contains phosphorus, as the major mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium, and trace elements (iron, copper and zinc). It is characterized by the same amount of α-tocopherol and antioxidant capacity as common legumes. The high concentration of essential amino acids, n-6 fatty acids and minerals, mainly Fe, in the Ci12 landrace of Bambara groundnut indicates that this local legume has the potentiality to improve the nutritional status in Côte d’Ivoire and it could be regarded as a nutrient dense food. PMID:26370971

  1. Quantification of vitamin A in fortified rapeseed, groundnut and soya oils using a simple portable device: comparison to high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Cécile; Berger, Jacques; Laillou, Arnaud; Avallone, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is still one of the major public health problems in least developed countries. Fortification of vegetable oils is a strategy implemented worldwide to prevent this deficiency. For a fortification program to be effective, regular monitoring is necessary to control food quality in the producing units. The reference methods for vitamin A quantification are expensive and time-consuming. A rapid method should be useful for regular assessment of vitamin A in the oil industry. A portable device was compared to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for three plant oils (rapeseed, groundnut, and soya). The device presented a good linearity from 3 to 30 mg retinol equivalents per kg (mg RE.kg- 1). Its limits of detection and quantification were 3 mg RE.kg- 1 for groundnut and rapeseed oils and 4 mg RE.kg- 1 for soya oil. The intra-assay precision ranged from 1.48 % to 3.98 %, considered satisfactory. Accuracy estimated by the root mean squares error ranged from 3.99 to 5.49 and revealed a lower precision than HPLC (0.4 to 2.25). Although it offers less precision than HPLC, the device estimates quickly the vitamin A content of the tested oils from 3 or 4 to 15 mg RE.kg- 1.

  2. Nutritive Evaluation of the Bambara Groundnut Ci12 Landrace [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)] Produced in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yao, Denis N'Dri; Kouassi, Kouakou Nestor; Erba, Daniela; Scazzina, Francesca; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional evaluation of the Bambara groundnut Ci12 landrace (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds produced in Côte d'Ivoire shows a 19% content of protein, containing all the essential amino acids with tryptophan as the limiting amino acid, a total dietary fiber level of 10%, with a low soluble fraction content, and a fat content of 1.4%, with a high proportion of total unsaturated fatty acids (61%) of which 36% were n-6 fatty acids. This legume contains phosphorus, as the major mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium, and trace elements (iron, copper and zinc). It is characterized by the same amount of α-tocopherol and antioxidant capacity as common legumes. The high concentration of essential amino acids, n-6 fatty acids and minerals, mainly Fe, in the Ci12 landrace of Bambara groundnut indicates that this local legume has the potentiality to improve the nutritional status in Côte d'Ivoire and it could be regarded as a nutrient dense food. PMID:26370971

  3. Quantification of vitamin A in fortified rapeseed, groundnut and soya oils using a simple portable device: comparison to high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Cécile; Berger, Jacques; Laillou, Arnaud; Avallone, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is still one of the major public health problems in least developed countries. Fortification of vegetable oils is a strategy implemented worldwide to prevent this deficiency. For a fortification program to be effective, regular monitoring is necessary to control food quality in the producing units. The reference methods for vitamin A quantification are expensive and time-consuming. A rapid method should be useful for regular assessment of vitamin A in the oil industry. A portable device was compared to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for three plant oils (rapeseed, groundnut, and soya). The device presented a good linearity from 3 to 30 mg retinol equivalents per kg (mg RE.kg- 1). Its limits of detection and quantification were 3 mg RE.kg- 1 for groundnut and rapeseed oils and 4 mg RE.kg- 1 for soya oil. The intra-assay precision ranged from 1.48 % to 3.98 %, considered satisfactory. Accuracy estimated by the root mean squares error ranged from 3.99 to 5.49 and revealed a lower precision than HPLC (0.4 to 2.25). Although it offers less precision than HPLC, the device estimates quickly the vitamin A content of the tested oils from 3 or 4 to 15 mg RE.kg- 1. PMID:24491885

  4. Nutritive Evaluation of the Bambara Groundnut Ci12 Landrace [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)] Produced in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yao, Denis N'Dri; Kouassi, Kouakou Nestor; Erba, Daniela; Scazzina, Francesca; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina

    2015-09-07

    The nutritional evaluation of the Bambara groundnut Ci12 landrace (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds produced in Côte d'Ivoire shows a 19% content of protein, containing all the essential amino acids with tryptophan as the limiting amino acid, a total dietary fiber level of 10%, with a low soluble fraction content, and a fat content of 1.4%, with a high proportion of total unsaturated fatty acids (61%) of which 36% were n-6 fatty acids. This legume contains phosphorus, as the major mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium, and trace elements (iron, copper and zinc). It is characterized by the same amount of α-tocopherol and antioxidant capacity as common legumes. The high concentration of essential amino acids, n-6 fatty acids and minerals, mainly Fe, in the Ci12 landrace of Bambara groundnut indicates that this local legume has the potentiality to improve the nutritional status in Côte d'Ivoire and it could be regarded as a nutrient dense food.

  5. Project BudBurst: Citizen Science for All Seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Alaback, P.; Havens, K.

    2008-12-01

    Providing opportunities for individuals to contribute to a better understanding of climate change is the hallmark of Project BudBurst (www.budburst.org). This highly successful, national citizen science program, now in its second year, is bringing climate change education outreach to thousands of individuals. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, participants from 49 states have submitted data that is being submitted to the USA National Phenology Network (www.usanpn.org) database. Project BudBurst has been the subject of almost 200 media outlets including NPR, national and regional television broadcasts, and most of the major national and regional newspapers. This presentation will provide an overview of Project Budburst and will report on the results of the 2008 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2009. Project BudBurst is a Windows to the Universe Citizen Science program managed by the University

  6. Intracellular serpins, firewalls and tissue necrosis.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Stefan J; Lomas, David A

    2008-02-01

    Luke and colleagues have recently attributed a new role to a member of the serpin superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors. They have used Caenorhabditis elegans to show that an intracellular serpin is crucial for maintaining lysosomal integrity. We examine the role of this firewall in preventing necrosis and attempt to integrate this with current theories of stress-induced protein degradation. We discuss how mutant serpins cause disease either through polymerization or now, perhaps, by unleashing necrosis. PMID:18215520

  7. Retroperitoneal endoscopic debridement for infected peripancreatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Seifert, H; Wehrmann, T; Schmitt, T; Zeuzem, S; Caspary, W F

    2000-08-19

    Standard management of infected peripancreatic necrosis consists of open surgical debridement and lavage--a traumatic intervention with substantial morbidity and mortality. As an alternative and novel approach with minimum invasiveness, we present fenestration of the gastric wall and debridement of infected necrosis by direct retroperitoneal endoscopy. In three patients, this strategy led to rapid clinical improvement and no serious complications. Transgastric endoscopic therapy may be a less traumatic alternative to surgery and should be further assessed in prospective studies.

  8. Imaging Tumor Necrosis with Ferumoxytol

    PubMed Central

    Aghighi, Maryam; Golovko, Daniel; Ansari, Celina; Marina, Neyssa M.; Pisani, Laura; Kurlander, Lonnie; Klenk, Christopher; Bhaumik, Srabani; Wendland, Michael; Daldrup-Link, Heike E.

    2015-01-01

    showed similar findings with high T1 signal in areas of tumor necrosis and low signal in areas of intracellularly compartmentalized iron. Conclusion Differential T1- and T2-enhancement patterns of USPIO in tumors enable conclusions about their intracellular and extracellular location. This information can be used to characterize the composition of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26569397

  9. Molecular events of apical bud formation in white spruce, Picea glauca.

    PubMed

    El Kayal, Walid; Allen, Carmen C G; Ju, Chelsea J-T; Adams, Eri; King-Jones, Susanne; Zaharia, L Irina; Abrams, Suzanne R; Cooke, Janice E K

    2011-03-01

    Bud formation is an adaptive trait that temperate forest trees have acquired to facilitate seasonal synchronization. We have characterized transcriptome-level changes that occur during bud formation of white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss], a primarily determinate species in which preformed stem units contained within the apical bud constitute most of next season's growth. Microarray analysis identified 4460 differentially expressed sequences in shoot tips during short day-induced bud formation. Cluster analysis revealed distinct temporal patterns of expression, and functional classification of genes in these clusters implied molecular processes that coincide with anatomical changes occurring in the developing bud. Comparing expression profiles in developing buds under long day and short day conditions identified possible photoperiod-responsive genes that may not be essential for bud development. Several genes putatively associated with hormone signalling were identified, and hormone quantification revealed distinct profiles for abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinins, auxin and their metabolites that can be related to morphological changes to the bud. Comparison of gene expression profiles during bud formation in different tissues revealed 108 genes that are differentially expressed only in developing buds and show greater transcript abundance in developing buds than other tissues. These findings provide a temporal roadmap of bud formation in white spruce.

  10. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium.

    PubMed

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D; Barlow, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. PMID:24993944

  11. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium.

    PubMed

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D; Barlow, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation.

  12. Fire and nitrogen alter axillary bud number and activity in purple threeawn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Belowground accumulation of vegetative buds provides a reservoir of meristems that can be utilized following disturbance. Perennial grass bud banks are the primary source of nearly all tiller growth, yet understanding of fire and nitrogen effects on bud banks is limited. We tested effects of fire ...

  13. Painful fat necrosis resulting from insulin injections

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, M; Menon, V; Roberts, S; Barber, T M

    2014-01-01

    Summary The case is a 34-year-old woman with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus with existing follow-up in the outpatient clinic at the Warwickshire Institute for the Study of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, UHCW. She had maintained good glycaemic control and glycaemic stability with basal bolus regimen for many years. She had not developed any diabetes-related complications and had no other co-morbidities. Six months ago, she presented to A&E with sudden-onset, well-localised and severe pain in the right iliac fossa, just lateral to the para-umbilical area. Her biochemistry was normal. Ultrasound scan, however, revealed a right-sided ovarian cyst, which was thought to have caused pain to her. She was discharged from A&E with simple analgesia. On subsequent gynaecological follow-up 4 weeks later, her pain remained severe and examination revealed an exquisitely tender subcutaneous nodule at the same location measuring 2 cm in diameter. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan at the time revealed a 1 cm mass in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, which co-localised to her pain. The mass demonstrated a central fat signal surrounded by a peripheral ring: observations consistent with fat necrosis. There were other smaller subcutaneous nodules also observed in the left para-umbilical area. Subsequent surgical resection of the main area of fat necrosis was performed. The patient made an excellent recovery and her pain resolved post-operatively. Histology confirmed the presence of fat necrosis. Fat necrosis is a rare complication of s.c. insulin injection. This case illustrates the importance of considering this diagnosis in patients who inject insulin and develop localised injection-site pain. Learning points Fat necrosis is a rare complication of insulin injections that can manifest with severe, persistent and well-localised pain.Fat necrosis can masquerade as other pathologies causing diagnostic confusion.The imaging modality of choice for accurate diagnosis

  14. Sensing a bud in the yeast morphogenesis checkpoint: a role for Elm1

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hui; Tsygankov, Denis; Lew, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Bud formation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae must be coordinated with the nuclear cycle to enable successful proliferation. Many environmental stresses temporarily disrupt bud formation, and in such circumstances, the morphogenesis checkpoint halts nuclear division until bud formation can resume. Bud emergence is essential for degradation of the mitotic inhibitor, Swe1. Swe1 is localized to the septin cytoskeleton at the bud neck by the Swe1-binding protein Hsl7. Neck localization of Swe1 is required for Swe1 degradation. Although septins form a ring at the presumptive bud site before bud emergence, Hsl7 is not recruited to the septins until after bud emergence, suggesting that septins and/or Hsl7 respond to a “bud sensor.” Here we show that recruitment of Hsl7 to the septin ring depends on a combination of two septin-binding kinases: Hsl1 and Elm1. We elucidate which domains of these kinases are needed and show that artificial targeting of those domains suffices to recruit Hsl7 to septin rings even in unbudded cells. Moreover, recruitment of Elm1 is responsive to bud emergence. Our findings suggest that Elm1 plays a key role in sensing bud emergence. PMID:27053666

  15. Sensing a bud in the yeast morphogenesis checkpoint: a role for Elm1.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hui; Tsygankov, Denis; Lew, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Bud formation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae must be coordinated with the nuclear cycle to enable successful proliferation. Many environmental stresses temporarily disrupt bud formation, and in such circumstances, the morphogenesis checkpoint halts nuclear division until bud formation can resume. Bud emergence is essential for degradation of the mitotic inhibitor, Swe1. Swe1 is localized to the septin cytoskeleton at the bud neck by the Swe1-binding protein Hsl7. Neck localization of Swe1 is required for Swe1 degradation. Although septins form a ring at the presumptive bud site before bud emergence, Hsl7 is not recruited to the septins until after bud emergence, suggesting that septins and/or Hsl7 respond to a "bud sensor." Here we show that recruitment of Hsl7 to the septin ring depends on a combination of two septin-binding kinases: Hsl1 and Elm1. We elucidate which domains of these kinases are needed and show that artificial targeting of those domains suffices to recruit Hsl7 to septin rings even in unbudded cells. Moreover, recruitment of Elm1 is responsive to bud emergence. Our findings suggest that Elm1 plays a key role in sensing bud emergence. PMID:27053666

  16. Influences of polar auxin transport on polarity of adventitious bud formation in hybrid populas

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Myung Won ); Hackett, W. )

    1989-04-01

    The role of auxin and cytokinin distribution of polar regeneration of adventitious bud has been investigated. Explants from leaf midvein were labelled with {sup 14}C-NAA and {sup 14}C-BA and the radioactivity in proximal, mid, and distal portions was counted after 24h and 48h. Explants showing polar regeneration of buds on the proximal end showed a clear polar distribution of {sup 14}CNAA. Auxin transport inhibitors (NPA, TIBA) eliminated polar distribution of auxin and reduced polarity of bud formation and the total number of buds formed, but did not reduce callus formation. Increased concentration of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} decreased polarity of bud formation and increased the number of buds formed but did not affect the distribution of auxin of cytokinin. Some factor in addition to polar distribution of auxin or cytokinin-auxin ratio appears to influence the polarity of adventitious bud formation.

  17. Renal Papillary Necrosis: Role of Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Vaidehi K.

    2016-01-01

    Renal Papillary Necrosis (RPN) is idefined as Ischemic necrobiosis of the papilla in the medulla of the kidneys. Variety of etiological factors are recognized which cause papillary necrosis, such as analgesic nephropathy, diabetes mellitus, urinary obstruction and sickle cell haemoglobinopathy. The early diagnosis of RPN is important to improve prognosis and reduce morbidity. Radiological Imaging offers early diagnosis and can guide prompt treatment of papillary necrosis and can minimize a decline in renal function. Here we report three cases of RPN with typical imaging findings. One of them was diabetic and hypertensive female with recurrent Urinary tract Infections and other was a male with no known co-morbidity. Both of them were diagnosed to have renal papillary necrosis on CT scan and were managed operatively and conservatively, respectively. Third case was a healthy female being investigated to be renal donor for her son. Here RPN was an incidental finding and was treated conservatively. Thus CT scan could detect it pre-operatively and complications due to transplantation of a kidney with papillary necrosis were avoided. So, we want to emphasize the importance of Radiology, particularly CT scanning in detection of RPN and to guide early and prompt treatment. PMID:26894147

  18. Tumor budding correlates with poor prognosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Huang, Hongzhang; Huang, Zhiquan; Wang, Anxun; Chen, Xiaohua; Huang, Lei; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Liu, Xiqiang

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tumor budding is a readily detectable histopathological feature and has been recognized as an adverse prognostic factor in several human cancers. However, the prognostic value of tumor budding in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) has not been reported. The purpose of this study is to assess the correlation of tumor budding with the clinicopathologic features, and the known molecular biomarkers (E-cadherin and Vimentin), as well as to evaluate its prognostic significance for TSCC. METHODS Archival clinical samples of 230 patients with TSCC were examined for tumor budding. Immunohistochemistry analyses were performed to examine the expression of E-cadherin and Vimentin. Statistical analyses were carried out to assess the correlation of tumor budding with clinicopathologic parameters and patient survival. The potential association between tumor budding and alterations of E-cadherin and Vimentin expression was also assessed. RESULTS Of the 230 TSCC cases examined, tumor budding was observed in 165 cases (71.7%), with a mean tumor bud count of 7.5 (range from 1 to 48 buds). High-intensity budding (≥ 5 tumor buds) was observed in 111 cases (48.3%). Statistical analysis revealed that tumor budding was associated with tumor size (P<0.05), differentiation (P<0.05), clinical stage (P<0.05), lymph node metastasis (P<0.01), and correlated with reduced overall survival. In addition, significant associations were observed among tumor budding and the deregulation of E-cadherin (P<0.001) and Vimentin (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Tumor budding, which associates with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is a frequent event and appears to be an independent prognostic factor in TSCC. PMID:21481005

  19. Cell Biology of Yeast Zygotes, from Genesis to Budding

    PubMed Central

    Tartakoff, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    The zygote is the essential intermediate that allows interchange of nuclear, mitochondrial and cytosolic determinants between cells. Zygote formation in S. cerevisiae is accomplished by mechanisms that are not characteristic of mitotic cells. These include shifting the axis of growth away from classical cortical landmarks, dramatically reorganizing the cell cortex, remodeling the cell wall in preparation for cell fusion, fusing with an adjacent partner, accomplishing nuclear fusion, orchestrating two steps of septin morphogenesis that account for a delay in fusion of mitochondria, and implementing new norms for bud site selection. This essay emphasizes the sequence of dependent relationships that account for this progression from cell encounters through to zygote budding. It briefly summarizes classical studies of signal transduction and polarity specification and then focuses on downstream events. PMID:25862405

  20. Cell biology of yeast zygotes, from genesis to budding.

    PubMed

    Tartakoff, Alan M

    2015-07-01

    The zygote is the essential intermediate that allows interchange of nuclear, mitochondrial and cytosolic determinants between cells. Zygote formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is accomplished by mechanisms that are not characteristic of mitotic cells. These include shifting the axis of growth away from classical cortical landmarks, dramatically reorganizing the cell cortex, remodeling the cell wall in preparation for cell fusion, fusing with an adjacent partner, accomplishing nuclear fusion, orchestrating two steps of septin morphogenesis that account for a delay in fusion of mitochondria, and implementing new norms for bud site selection. This essay emphasizes the sequence of dependent relationships that account for this progression from cell encounters through zygote budding. It briefly summarizes classical studies of signal transduction and polarity specification and then focuses on downstream events. PMID:25862405

  1. Recurrent peripheral odontogenic fibroma associated with basal cell budding.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Vezhavendan, N; Shabana, F; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Arunakiry, N

    2014-07-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm. It represents the soft tissue counterpart of central odontogenic fibroma. The embryonic source of POdF has been suggested by many as arising from the rest of dental lamina that has persisted in the gingiva following its disintegration. It presents clinically as a firm, slow growing and sessile gingival mass, which is difficult to distinguish with more common inflammatory lesions. Very few cases of recurrence have been documented. It has been stated that histological budding of basal cell layer of the surface squamous epithelium is associated with higher recurrence and the presence of calcification in direct apposition to the epithelial rest is associated with lower recurrence. Hereby, we present a case which histologically exhibited budding of the basal cell layer, which could have been the reason for its recurrence. PMID:25210375

  2. Recurrent peripheral odontogenic fibroma associated with basal cell budding

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Vezhavendan, N.; Shabana, F.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Arunakiry, N.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm. It represents the soft tissue counterpart of central odontogenic fibroma. The embryonic source of POdF has been suggested by many as arising from the rest of dental lamina that has persisted in the gingiva following its disintegration. It presents clinically as a firm, slow growing and sessile gingival mass, which is difficult to distinguish with more common inflammatory lesions. Very few cases of recurrence have been documented. It has been stated that histological budding of basal cell layer of the surface squamous epithelium is associated with higher recurrence and the presence of calcification in direct apposition to the epithelial rest is associated with lower recurrence. Hereby, we present a case which histologically exhibited budding of the basal cell layer, which could have been the reason for its recurrence. PMID:25210375

  3. Endogenous peripheral neuromodulators of the mammalian taste bud.

    PubMed

    Dando, Robin

    2010-10-01

    The sensitivity of the mammalian taste system displays a degree of plasticity based on short-term nutritional requirements. Deficiency in a particular substance may lead to a perceived increase in palatability of this substance, providing an additional drive to redress this nutritional imbalance through modification of intake. This alteration occurs not only in the brain but also, before any higher level processing has occurred, in the taste buds themselves. A brief review of recent advances is offered.

  4. The progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Holland, G N

    1994-01-01

    The progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a recently described clinical variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is caused by varicellazoster virus infection of the retina. Its course and clinical features distinguish it from the acute retinal necrosis syndrome and CMV retinopathy. Early disease is characterized by multifocal deep retinal opacification. Lesions rapidly coalesce and progress to total retinal necrosis over a short period of time. Despite aggressive therapy with intravenous antivirial drugs, prognosis is poor; disease progression and/or recurrence is common, and the majority of patients develop no light perception vision. Total retinal detachments are common. Prophylaxis against retinal detachment using laser retinopexy has not been useful in most cases. PORN syndrome is an uncommon, but devastating complication of AIDS.

  5. The progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Holland, G N

    1994-01-01

    The progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a recently described clinical variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is caused by varicellazoster virus infection of the retina. Its course and clinical features distinguish it from the acute retinal necrosis syndrome and CMV retinopathy. Early disease is characterized by multifocal deep retinal opacification. Lesions rapidly coalesce and progress to total retinal necrosis over a short period of time. Despite aggressive therapy with intravenous antivirial drugs, prognosis is poor; disease progression and/or recurrence is common, and the majority of patients develop no light perception vision. Total retinal detachments are common. Prophylaxis against retinal detachment using laser retinopexy has not been useful in most cases. PORN syndrome is an uncommon, but devastating complication of AIDS. PMID:7852023

  6. Leptin's effect on taste bud calcium responses and transmitter secretion.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Tricia L; Corcoran, Alan; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-05-01

    Leptin, a peptide hormone released by adipose tissue, acts on the hypothalamus to control cravings and appetite. Leptin also acts to decrease taste responses to sweet substances, though there is little detailed information regarding where leptin acts in the taste transduction cascade. The present study examined the effects of leptin on sweet-evoked responses and neuro transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Our results indicate that leptin moderately decreased sweet-evoked calcium mobilization in isolated mouse taste buds. We also employed Chinese hamster ovary biosensor cells to examine taste transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Leptin reduced ATP and increased serotonin release in response to sweet stimulation. However, leptin has no effect on bitter-evoked transmitter release, further showing that the action of leptin is sweet specific. Our results support those of previous studies, which state that leptin acts on taste tissue via the leptin receptor, most likely on Type II (Receptor) cells, but also possibly on Type III (Presynaptic) cells.

  7. A cellular lineage analysis of the chick limb bud

    PubMed Central

    Pearse, R.V.; Scherz, P. J.; Campbell, J. K.; Tabin, C. J.

    2009-01-01

    The chick limb bud has been used as a model system for studying pattern formation and tissue development for more than 50 years. However, the lineal relationships among the different cell types and the migrational boundaries of individual cells within the limb mesenchyme have not been explored. We have used a retroviral lineage analysis system to track the fate of single limb bud mesenchymal cells at different times in early limb development. We find that progenitor cells labeled at stage 19–22 can give rise to multiple cell types including clones containing cells of all five of the major lateral plate mesoderm-derived tissues (cartilage, perichondrium, tendon, muscle connective tissue, and dermis). There is a bias, however, such that clones are more likely to contain the cell types of spatially adjacent tissues such as cartilage/perichondrium and tendon/muscle connective tissue. It has been recently proposed that distinct proximodistal segments are established early in limb development; however our analysis suggests that there is not a strict barrier to cellular migration along the proximodistal axis in the early stage 19–22 limb buds. Finally, our data indicate the presence of a dorsal/ventral boundary established by stage 16 that is inhibitory to cellular mixing. This boundary is demarcated by the expression of the LIM-homeodomain factor lmx1b. PMID:17888899

  8. Leptin's effect on taste bud calcium responses and transmitter secretion.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Tricia L; Corcoran, Alan; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-05-01

    Leptin, a peptide hormone released by adipose tissue, acts on the hypothalamus to control cravings and appetite. Leptin also acts to decrease taste responses to sweet substances, though there is little detailed information regarding where leptin acts in the taste transduction cascade. The present study examined the effects of leptin on sweet-evoked responses and neuro transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Our results indicate that leptin moderately decreased sweet-evoked calcium mobilization in isolated mouse taste buds. We also employed Chinese hamster ovary biosensor cells to examine taste transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Leptin reduced ATP and increased serotonin release in response to sweet stimulation. However, leptin has no effect on bitter-evoked transmitter release, further showing that the action of leptin is sweet specific. Our results support those of previous studies, which state that leptin acts on taste tissue via the leptin receptor, most likely on Type II (Receptor) cells, but also possibly on Type III (Presynaptic) cells. PMID:25537017

  9. The Inside-Out Mechanism of Dicers from Budding Yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, David E.; Nakanishi, Kotaro; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Bartel, David P.

    2011-09-20

    The Dicer ribonuclease III (RNase III) enzymes process long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that direct RNA interference. Here, we describe the structure and activity of a catalytically active fragment of Kluyveromyces polysporus Dcr1, which represents the noncanonical Dicers found in budding yeasts. The crystal structure revealed a homodimer resembling that of bacterial RNase III but extended by a unique N-terminal domain, and it identified additional catalytic residues conserved throughout eukaryotic RNase III enzymes. Biochemical analyses showed that Dcr1 dimers bind cooperatively along the dsRNA substrate such that the distance between consecutive active sites determines the length of the siRNA products. Thus, unlike canonical Dicers, which successively remove siRNA duplexes from the dsRNA termini, budding-yeast Dicers initiate processing in the interior and work outward. The distinct mechanism of budding-yeast Dicers establishes a paradigm for natural molecular rulers and imparts substrate preferences with ramifications for biological function.

  10. The Inside-Out Mechanism of Dicers from Budding Yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    D Weinberg; K Nakanishi; D Patel; D Bartel

    2011-12-31

    The Dicer ribonuclease III (RNase III) enzymes process long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that direct RNA interference. Here, we describe the structure and activity of a catalytically active fragment of Kluyveromyces polysporus Dcr1, which represents the noncanonical Dicers found in budding yeasts. The crystal structure revealed a homodimer resembling that of bacterial RNase III but extended by a unique N-terminal domain, and it identified additional catalytic residues conserved throughout eukaryotic RNase III enzymes. Biochemical analyses showed that Dcr1 dimers bind cooperatively along the dsRNA substrate such that the distance between consecutive active sites determines the length of the siRNA products. Thus, unlike canonical Dicers, which successively remove siRNA duplexes from the dsRNA termini, budding-yeast Dicers initiate processing in the interior and work outward. The distinct mechanism of budding-yeast Dicers establishes a paradigm for natural molecular rulers and imparts substrate preferences with ramifications for biological function.

  11. Ecological Conditions Favoring Budding in Colonial Organisms under Environmental Disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Nakamaru, Mayuko; Takada, Takenori; Ohtsuki, Akiko; Suzuki, Sayaki U.; Miura, Kanan; Tsuji, Kazuki

    2014-01-01

    Dispersal is a topic of great interest in ecology. Many organisms adopt one of two distinct dispersal tactics at reproduction: the production of small offspring that can disperse over long distances (such as seeds and spawned eggs), or budding. The latter is observed in some colonial organisms, such as clonal plants, corals and ants, in which (super)organisms split their body into components of relatively large size that disperse to a short distance. Contrary to the common dispersal viewpoint, short-dispersal colonial organisms often flourish even in environments with frequent disturbances. In this paper, we investigate the conditions that favor budding over long-distance dispersal of small offspring, focusing on the life history of the colony growth and the colony division ratio. These conditions are the relatively high mortality of very small colonies, logistic growth, the ability of dispersers to peacefully seek and settle unoccupied spaces, and small spatial scale of environmental disturbance. If these conditions hold, budding is advantageous even when environmental disturbance is frequent. These results suggest that the demography or life history of the colony underlies the behaviors of the colonial organisms. PMID:24621824

  12. Epigenetic regulation of bud dormancy events in perennial plants

    PubMed Central

    Ríos, Gabino; Leida, Carmen; Conejero, Ana; Badenes, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Release of bud dormancy in perennial plants resembles vernalization in Arabidopsis thaliana and cereals. In both cases, a certain period of chilling is required for accomplishing the reproductive phase, and several transcription factors with the MADS-box domain perform a central regulatory role in these processes. The expression of DORMANCY-ASSOCIATED MADS-box (DAM)-related genes has been found to be up-regulated in dormant buds of numerous plant species, such as poplar, raspberry, leafy spurge, blackcurrant, Japanese apricot, and peach. Moreover, functional evidence suggests the involvement of DAM genes in the regulation of seasonal dormancy in peach. Recent findings highlight the presence of genome-wide epigenetic modifications related to dormancy events, and more specifically the epigenetic regulation of DAM-related genes in a similar way to FLOWERING LOCUS C, a key integrator of vernalization effectors on flowering initiation in Arabidopsis. We revise the most relevant molecular and genomic contributions in the field of bud dormancy, and discuss the increasing evidence for chromatin modification involvement in the epigenetic regulation of seasonal dormancy cycles in perennial plants. PMID:24917873

  13. Trichomes control flower bud shape by linking together young petals.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jiafu; Walford, Sally-Anne; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Llewellyn, Danny

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes are widespread in plants and develop from surface cells on different tissues(1). They have many forms and functions, from defensive spines to physical barriers that trap layers of air to insulate against desiccation, but there is growing evidence that trichomes can also have developmental roles in regulating flower structure(2,3). We report here that the trichomes on petals of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., are essential for correct flower bud shape through a mechanical entanglement of the trichomes on adjacent petals that anchor the edges to counter the opposing force generated by asymmetric expansion of overlapping petals. Silencing a master regulator of petal trichomes, GhMYB-MIXTA-Like10 (GhMYBML10), by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed petal trichome growth and resulted in flower buds forming into abnormal corkscrew shapes that exposed developing anthers and stigmas to desiccation damage. Artificially gluing petal edges together could partially restore correct bud shape and fertility. Such petal 'Velcro' is present in other Malvaceae and perhaps more broadly in other plant families, although it is not ubiquitous. This mechanism for physical association between separate organs to regulate flower shape and function is different from the usual organ shape control(4) exerted through cell-to-cell communication and differential cell expansion within floral tissues(5,6). PMID:27322517

  14. Chemotransduction in Necturus taste buds, a model for taste processing.

    PubMed

    Roper, S D

    1990-01-01

    The taste bud in Necturus serves as a good model for taste mechanisms in vertebrates. The large size of taste cells and relative accessibility of the tissue for detailed electrophysiological and ultrastructural studies makes this species well-suited for studying taste transduction. Important features of taste transduction that have been learned from investigations in Necturus are that voltage-gated potassium channels are preferentially distributed on the apical membrane of taste cells; voltage-gated potassium channels allow K ions to enter the cell when taste buds are stimulated with K salts; some chemical stimuli act by closing K channels, thereby eliciting depolarizing receptor potentials in taste cells. Many of these findings have been confirmed and extended in other animals, including mammals. Furthermore, recent evidence from experiments in Necturus suggests that there is a considerable degree of synaptic coupling among taste cells. This synaptic coupling could form the basis for signal processing and integration in the peripheral sensory organs of taste, the taste buds. PMID:1700850

  15. Development of the human tail bud and splanchnic mesenchyme.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ryozo

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to shed some light on anorectal development from a viewpoint of the tail bud and splanchnic mesenchyme for better understanding of the morphogenesis of the human anorectum. Human embryos ranging from Carnegie stage 11 to 23 (CS 11 to 23) were adopted in this study. Seventeen embryos preserved at the Congenital Anomaly Research Center of Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine were histologically examined. The cloaca, extending caudally to the hindgut, was dramatically enlarged, particularly both its dorsal portion and membrane, that is, the cloacal membrane resulting from the development of the tailgut derived from the tail bud. The splanchnic mesenchyme surrounding the hindgut was spread out in the direction of the urorectal septum ventrally, suggesting that it participated in the formation of the septum. No fusion of the urorectal septum and the cloacal membrane was found. The splanchnic mesenchyme proliferated and developed into smooth muscle (circular and longitudinal) layers from cranial to caudal along the hindgut. The tail bud seems to cause both the adequate dilation of the dorsal cloaca and the elongation of the cloacal membrane; its dorsal portion in particular will be necessary for normal anorectal development. The splanchnic mesenchyme developed and descended toward the pectinate line and formed the internal sphincter muscle at the terminal bowel.

  16. Extensive hepatic necrosis in a premature infant.

    PubMed

    Bemmel, L A; Hack, W W; Seldenrijk, C A; Kneepkens, C M

    1992-02-01

    A fatal case of fulminant hepatic failure that occurred in the neonatal period is reported in a premature infant born after 27 4/7-weeks' gestation. Immediately after birth the infant had severe hypoxia and hypotension resulting from birth asphyxia, hypovolemic shock, and septicemia. At autopsy, histological appearance of the liver showed virtually total hepatocellular necrosis without features of fibrosis. Although the exact cause of hepatocellular injury cannot be fully ascertained, it is assumed that hypoxia and hypotension must have been the predominant factors leading to massive hepatic necrosis.

  17. [Micrococcus sp.--the pathogen of leaf necrosis of horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.) in Kiev].

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, L M; Makhinia, L V; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E

    2013-01-01

    A group of phytopathogenic bacteria was isolated from patterns of drying horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.), which grow in Kyiv. The properties of slowly growing, highly aggressive microorganisms have been described in the paper. They grow up on the 8-10th day after sowing. The investigated microorganisms form very small (0.5-1 mm in diameter) colonies on the potato agar. Bacteria are protuberant, shining, smooth with flat edges, they are pale yellow, yellow, or pink. The bacteria are Gram-positive, spherical, are disposed in smears singly, in pairs, as accumulations, or netting. They are aerobes, do not form spores, are not mobile. They are inert in respect of different sources of carbon. They reduce nitrates, do not dilute gelatin, do not hydrolyze starch, do not release hydrogen sulphide and indole. The bacteria are catalase-positive, oxidase-negative. They do not cause potato and carrot rot. They lose quickly their viability under the laboratory conditions. The saturated acids C 14:0; C 15:0; C16:0; C18:0 have been revealed in the composition of cellular fatty acids. Microorganisms are identified as Micrococcus sp. Under artificial inoculation this highly aggressive pathogen causes drying of the horse-chestnut buds and necrosis, which occupies 1/3-1/2 of the leaf plate. A wide zone of chlorosis, surrounding necrosis, may occupy the whole leaf surface. The infected leaves use to twist up from the top (apex) or along a midrib and to dry.

  18. Analysis of the coding-complete genomic sequence of groundnut ringspot virus suggests a common ancestor with tomato chlorotic spot virus.

    PubMed

    de Breuil, Soledad; Cañizares, Joaquín; Blanca, José Miguel; Bejerman, Nicolás; Trucco, Verónica; Giolitti, Fabián; Ziarsolo, Peio; Lenardon, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) share biological and serological properties, so their identification is carried out by molecular methods. Their genomes consist of three segmented RNAs: L, M and S. The finding of a reassortant between these two viruses may complicate correct virus identification and requires the characterization of the complete genome. Therefore, we present for the first time the complete sequences of all the genes encoded by a GRSV isolate. The high level of sequence similarity between GRSV and TCSV (over 90 % identity) observed in the genes and proteins encoded in the M RNA support previous results indicating that these viruses probably have a common ancestor. PMID:27260536

  19. Strigolactone acts downstream of auxin to regulate bud outgrowth in pea and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Philip B; Dun, Elizabeth A; Ferguson, Brett J; Rameau, Catherine; Beveridge, Christine A

    2009-05-01

    During the last century, two key hypotheses have been proposed to explain apical dominance in plants: auxin promotes the production of a second messenger that moves up into buds to repress their outgrowth, and auxin saturation in the stem inhibits auxin transport from buds, thereby inhibiting bud outgrowth. The recent discovery of strigolactone as the novel shoot-branching inhibitor allowed us to test its mode of action in relation to these hypotheses. We found that exogenously applied strigolactone inhibited bud outgrowth in pea (Pisum sativum) even when auxin was depleted after decapitation. We also found that strigolactone application reduced branching in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) auxin response mutants, suggesting that auxin may act through strigolactones to facilitate apical dominance. Moreover, strigolactone application to tiny buds of mutant or decapitated pea plants rapidly stopped outgrowth, in contrast to applying N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), an auxin transport inhibitor, which significantly slowed growth only after several days. Whereas strigolactone or NPA applied to growing buds reduced bud length, only NPA blocked auxin transport in the bud. Wild-type and strigolactone biosynthesis mutant pea and Arabidopsis shoots were capable of instantly transporting additional amounts of auxin in excess of endogenous levels, contrary to predictions of auxin transport models. These data suggest that strigolactone does not act primarily by affecting auxin transport from buds. Rather, the primary repressor of bud outgrowth appears to be the auxin-dependent production of strigolactones. PMID:19321710

  20. Differentiation of Apical Bud Cells in a Newly Developed Apical Bud Transplantation Model Using GFP Transgenic Mice as Donor

    PubMed Central

    Sakagami, Ryuji; Yoshinaga, Yasunori; Okamura, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Rodent mandibular incisors have a unique anatomical structure that allows teeth to grow throughout the lifetime of the rodent. This report presents a novel transplantation technique for studying the apical bud differentiation of rodent mandibular incisors. Incisal apical end tissue with green fluorescent protein from transgenic mouse was transplanted to wild type mice, and the development of the transplanted cells were immunohistologically observed for 12 weeks after the transplantation. Results indicate that the green fluorescent apical end tissue replaced the original tissue, and cells from the apical bud differentiated and extended toward the incisal edge direction. The immunostaining with podoplanin also showed that the characteristics of the green fluorescent tissue were identical to those of the original. The green fluorescent cells were only found in the labial side of the incisor up to 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, however, they were also found in the lingual side. Here the green fluorescent cementocyte-like cells were only present in the cementum close to the dentin surface. This study suggests that some of the cells that form the cellular cementum come from the apical tissue including the apical bud in rodent incisors. PMID:26978064

  1. Ice nucleation activity in various tissues of Rhododendron flower buds: their relevance to extraorgan freezing.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masaya; Ishikawa, Mikiko; Toyomasu, Takayuki; Aoki, Takayuki; Price, William S

    2015-01-01

    Wintering flower buds of cold hardy Rhododendron japonicum cooled slowly to subfreezing temperatures are known to undergo extraorgan freezing, whose mechanisms remain obscure. We revisited this material to demonstrate why bud scales freeze first in spite of their lower water content, why florets remain deeply supercooled and how seasonal adaptive responses occur in regard to extraorgan freezing in flower buds. We determined ice nucleation activity (INA) of various flower bud tissues using a test tube-based assay. Irrespective of collection sites, outer and inner bud scales that function as ice sinks in extraorgan freezing had high INA levels whilst florets that remain supercooled and act as a water source lacked INA. The INA level of bud scales was not high in late August when flower bud formation was ending, but increased to reach the highest level in late October just before the first autumnal freeze. The results support the following hypothesis: the high INA in bud scales functions as the subfreezing sensor, ensuring the primary freezing in bud scales at warmer subzero temperatures, which likely allows the migration of floret water to the bud scales and accumulation of icicles within the bud scales. The low INA in the florets helps them remain unfrozen by deep supercooling. The INA in the bud scales was resistant to grinding and autoclaving at 121(∘)C for 15 min, implying the intrinsic nature of the INA rather than of microbial origin, whilst the INA in stem bark was autoclaving-labile. Anti-nucleation activity (ANA) was implicated in the leachate of autoclaved bud scales, which suppresses the INA at millimolar levels of concentration and likely differs from the colligative effects of the solutes. The tissue INA levels likely contribute to the establishment of freezing behaviors by ensuring the order of freezing in the tissues: from the primary freeze to the last tissue remaining unfrozen.

  2. Ice nucleation activity in various tissues of Rhododendron flower buds: their relevance to extraorgan freezing.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masaya; Ishikawa, Mikiko; Toyomasu, Takayuki; Aoki, Takayuki; Price, William S

    2015-01-01

    Wintering flower buds of cold hardy Rhododendron japonicum cooled slowly to subfreezing temperatures are known to undergo extraorgan freezing, whose mechanisms remain obscure. We revisited this material to demonstrate why bud scales freeze first in spite of their lower water content, why florets remain deeply supercooled and how seasonal adaptive responses occur in regard to extraorgan freezing in flower buds. We determined ice nucleation activity (INA) of various flower bud tissues using a test tube-based assay. Irrespective of collection sites, outer and inner bud scales that function as ice sinks in extraorgan freezing had high INA levels whilst florets that remain supercooled and act as a water source lacked INA. The INA level of bud scales was not high in late August when flower bud formation was ending, but increased to reach the highest level in late October just before the first autumnal freeze. The results support the following hypothesis: the high INA in bud scales functions as the subfreezing sensor, ensuring the primary freezing in bud scales at warmer subzero temperatures, which likely allows the migration of floret water to the bud scales and accumulation of icicles within the bud scales. The low INA in the florets helps them remain unfrozen by deep supercooling. The INA in the bud scales was resistant to grinding and autoclaving at 121(∘)C for 15 min, implying the intrinsic nature of the INA rather than of microbial origin, whilst the INA in stem bark was autoclaving-labile. Anti-nucleation activity (ANA) was implicated in the leachate of autoclaved bud scales, which suppresses the INA at millimolar levels of concentration and likely differs from the colligative effects of the solutes. The tissue INA levels likely contribute to the establishment of freezing behaviors by ensuring the order of freezing in the tissues: from the primary freeze to the last tissue remaining unfrozen. PMID:25859249

  3. Ice nucleation activity in various tissues of Rhododendron flower buds: their relevance to extraorgan freezing

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Masaya; Ishikawa, Mikiko; Toyomasu, Takayuki; Aoki, Takayuki; Price, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Wintering flower buds of cold hardy Rhododendron japonicum cooled slowly to subfreezing temperatures are known to undergo extraorgan freezing, whose mechanisms remain obscure. We revisited this material to demonstrate why bud scales freeze first in spite of their lower water content, why florets remain deeply supercooled and how seasonal adaptive responses occur in regard to extraorgan freezing in flower buds. We determined ice nucleation activity (INA) of various flower bud tissues using a test tube-based assay. Irrespective of collection sites, outer and inner bud scales that function as ice sinks in extraorgan freezing had high INA levels whilst florets that remain supercooled and act as a water source lacked INA. The INA level of bud scales was not high in late August when flower bud formation was ending, but increased to reach the highest level in late October just before the first autumnal freeze. The results support the following hypothesis: the high INA in bud scales functions as the subfreezing sensor, ensuring the primary freezing in bud scales at warmer subzero temperatures, which likely allows the migration of floret water to the bud scales and accumulation of icicles within the bud scales. The low INA in the florets helps them remain unfrozen by deep supercooling. The INA in the bud scales was resistant to grinding and autoclaving at 121∘C for 15 min, implying the intrinsic nature of the INA rather than of microbial origin, whilst the INA in stem bark was autoclaving-labile. Anti-nucleation activity (ANA) was implicated in the leachate of autoclaved bud scales, which suppresses the INA at millimolar levels of concentration and likely differs from the colligative effects of the solutes. The tissue INA levels likely contribute to the establishment of freezing behaviors by ensuring the order of freezing in the tissues: from the primary freeze to the last tissue remaining unfrozen. PMID:25859249

  4. Pancreatic necrosis in progressive systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, A A; Joos, A

    1980-01-01

    Fatal pancreatic necrosis, secondary to extensive acute arteritic changes, is reported in a case of progressive systemic sclerosis. The patient presented first with hypertension and renal involvement, with active vascular lesions demonstrated by biopsy. The renal lesion at necropsy was inactive, showing the characteristic concentric fibrosis only, while the pancreatic vascular lesions were both chronic proliferative and acute in type. Images PMID:7436566

  5. Infectious pancreatic necrosis: its detection and identification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, K.

    1965-01-01

    Ultimate control of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in hatcheries depends largely upon learning where the virus occurs. To detect the presence of virus either susceptible fish or susceptible fish cell cultures may be used as test systems. In modern virology, it is generally agreed that cell cultures are more convenient, are usually a much more sensitive test system, and allow more rapid determinations.

  6. Groundnut (Peanut) Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut oil is valued worldwide, primarily as a cooking medium and food ingredient. This chapter provides timely summaries and discussions on the latest compositional, physical and nutritional data for peanut oil....

  7. Involvement of EARLY BUD-BREAK, an AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Gene, in Bud Break in Japanese Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) Lateral Flower Buds: Expression, Histone Modifications and Possible Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Anh Tuan, Pham; Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-05-01

    In the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) 'Kosui', three developmental stages of lateral flower buds have been proposed to occur during ecodormancy to the flowering phase, i.e. rapid enlargement, sprouting and flowering. Here, we report an APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor gene, named pear EARLY BUD-BREAK (PpEBB), which was highly expressed during the rapid enlargement stage occurring prior to the onset of bud break in flower buds. Gene expression analysis revealed that PpEBB expression was dramatically increased during the rapid enlargement stage in three successive growing seasons. PpEBB transcript levels peaked 1 week prior to onset of bud break in 'Kosui' potted plants treated with hydrogen cyanamide or water under forcing conditions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR showed that higher levels of active histone modifications (trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at Lys4) in the 5'-upstream and start codon regions of the PpEBB gene were associated with the induced expression level of PpEBB during the rapid enlargement stage. In addition, we provide evidence that PpEBB may interact with and regulate pear four D-type cyclin (PpCYCD3) genes during bud break in 'Kosui' lateral flower buds. PpEBB significantly increased the promoter activities of four PpCYCD3 genes in a dual-luciferase assay using tobacco leaves. Taken together, our findings uncovered aspects of the bud break regulatory mechanism in the Japanese pear and provided further evidence that the EBB family plays an important role in bud break in perennial plants. PMID:26940832

  8. Involvement of EARLY BUD-BREAK, an AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Gene, in Bud Break in Japanese Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) Lateral Flower Buds: Expression, Histone Modifications and Possible Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Anh Tuan, Pham; Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-05-01

    In the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) 'Kosui', three developmental stages of lateral flower buds have been proposed to occur during ecodormancy to the flowering phase, i.e. rapid enlargement, sprouting and flowering. Here, we report an APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor gene, named pear EARLY BUD-BREAK (PpEBB), which was highly expressed during the rapid enlargement stage occurring prior to the onset of bud break in flower buds. Gene expression analysis revealed that PpEBB expression was dramatically increased during the rapid enlargement stage in three successive growing seasons. PpEBB transcript levels peaked 1 week prior to onset of bud break in 'Kosui' potted plants treated with hydrogen cyanamide or water under forcing conditions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR showed that higher levels of active histone modifications (trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at Lys4) in the 5'-upstream and start codon regions of the PpEBB gene were associated with the induced expression level of PpEBB during the rapid enlargement stage. In addition, we provide evidence that PpEBB may interact with and regulate pear four D-type cyclin (PpCYCD3) genes during bud break in 'Kosui' lateral flower buds. PpEBB significantly increased the promoter activities of four PpCYCD3 genes in a dual-luciferase assay using tobacco leaves. Taken together, our findings uncovered aspects of the bud break regulatory mechanism in the Japanese pear and provided further evidence that the EBB family plays an important role in bud break in perennial plants.

  9. Decline of wildcelery buds in the lower Detroit River, 1950-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Manny, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    American wildcelery buds (Vallisneria americana), an abundant food eaten by diving ducks (Aythini) during migrations, decreased in the lower Detroit River of the Great Lakes from 1950 to 1985. Bud densities decreased at 2 (-14 and -18 buds/mA?) of 5 locations and were similar at 3 (-2, +2, and +3 buds/mA?) of 5 locations. Net change in all 5 areas combined, however, was a decrease of 36,720,000 buds, a 72% decline. Estimated potential losses of waterfowl feeding days caused by the decreased bud densities were 147,000 for canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria), 241,000 for redhead ducks (A. americana), or 664,000 for lesser scaup (A. affinis). Thus, the decline of wildcelery in the Detroit River may have contributed to decreased use of Michigan migration routes by some waterfowl species between 1950 and 1985.

  10. Reconstituting ring-rafts in bud-mimicking topography of model membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Yong-Sang; Lee, In-Ho; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Park, Seung Chul; Oh, Soojung; Jordan, Luke R.; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Jeon, Noo Li; Lee, Byoungho; Parikh, Atul N.; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2014-07-01

    During vesicular trafficking and release of enveloped viruses, the budding and fission processes dynamically remodel the donor cell membrane in a protein- or a lipid-mediated manner. In all cases, in addition to the generation or relief of the curvature stress, the buds recruit specific lipids and proteins from the donor membrane through restricted diffusion for the development of a ring-type raft domain of closed topology. Here, by reconstituting the bud topography in a model membrane, we demonstrate the preferential localization of cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-enriched microdomains in the collar band of the bud-neck interfaced with the donor membrane. The geometrical approach to the recapitulation of the dynamic membrane reorganization, resulting from the local radii of curvatures from nanometre-to-micrometre scales, offers important clues for understanding the active roles of the bud topography in the sorting and migration machinery of key signalling proteins involved in membrane budding.

  11. The mode of origin of root buds and root sprouts in the clonal tree Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Bosela, M; Ewers, F

    1997-11-01

    The developmental anatomy of root buds and root sprouts was examined in the clonal tree Sassafras albidum. Root samples from 13 clones that varied widely in age and vigor were sectioned and two types of buds were found, "additional" buds and "reparative" buds. Additional buds form during the early growth of uninjured roots and they perennate by growing outwards in concert with the vascular cambium such that bud traces are produced in the secondary xylem. Reparative buds form de novo in response to senescence, injuries, or other types of disturbance. Reparative buds were found on the roots of seven of the clones, whereas additional buds were found on the roots of all 13 clones. The reparative buds had originated in the proliferated pericycle, where they were subtended by sphaeroblasts, or spherical nodules of wood. Few of the reparative buds were vascularized and none were connected with the vasculature of their parent roots. In contrast, most of the additional buds were vascularized, and the leaf traces of several of the additional buds appeared to be contiguous with the conducting xylem of their parent roots. To determine whether both bud types were functional, 82 field-collected root sprouts and 44 incubation-induced sprouts were sectioned at the root-sprout junction and examined for evidence relating to their mode of origin. None of the sprouts were subtended by sphaeroblasts, but 98% were subtended by bud traces, which indicated that they had originated from additional buds. Although reparative buds were more common than additional buds on some of the root samples, they appear to be dysfunctional at sprouting. Additional buds, on the other hand, are able to sprout both as a normal part of clonal spread and from root cuttings.

  12. Sucrose is an early modulator of the key hormonal mechanisms controlling bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida.

    PubMed

    Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Lecerf, Marion; Perez-Garcia, Maria-Dolores; Barrière, Quentin; Rolčík, Jakub; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Citerne, Sylvie; Lemoine, Remi; Porcheron, Benoît; Roman, Hanaé; Leduc, Nathalie; Le Gourrierec, José; Bertheloot, Jessica; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-05-01

    Sugar has only recently been identified as a key player in triggering bud outgrowth, while hormonal control of bud outgrowth is already well established. To get a better understanding of sugar control, the present study investigated how sugar availability modulates the hormonal network during bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida. Other plant models, for which mutants are available, were used when necessary. Buds were grown in vitro to manipulate available sugars. The temporal patterns of the hormonal regulatory network were assessed in parallel with bud outgrowth dynamics. Sucrose determined bud entrance into sustained growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Sustained growth was accompanied by sustained auxin production in buds, and sustained auxin export in a DR5::GUS-expressing pea line. Several events occurred ahead of sucrose-stimulated bud outgrowth. Sucrose upregulated early auxin synthesis genes (RhTAR1, RhYUC1) and the auxin efflux carrier gene RhPIN1, and promoted PIN1 abundance at the plasma membrane in a pPIN1::PIN1-GFP-expressing tomato line. Sucrose downregulated both RwMAX2, involved in the strigolactone-transduction pathway, and RhBRC1, a repressor of branching, at an early stage. The presence of sucrose also increased stem cytokinin content, but sucrose-promoted bud outgrowth was not related to that pathway. In these processes, several non-metabolizable sucrose analogues induced sustained bud outgrowth in R. hybrida, Pisum sativum, and Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that sucrose was involved in a signalling pathway. In conclusion, we identified potential hormonal candidates for bud outgrowth control by sugar. They are central to future investigations aimed at disentangling the processes that underlie regulation of bud outgrowth by sugar.

  13. Model of human immunodeficiency virus budding and self-assembly: Role of the cell membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Nguyen, Toan T.

    2008-11-01

    Budding from the plasma membrane of the host cell is an indispensable step in the life cycle of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which belongs to a large family of enveloped RNA viruses, retroviruses. Unlike regular enveloped viruses, retrovirus budding happens concurrently with the self-assembly of the main retrovirus protein subunits (called Gag protein after the name of the genetic material that codes for this protein: Group-specific AntiGen) into spherical virus capsids on the cell membrane. Led by this unique budding and assembly mechanism, we study the free energy profile of retrovirus budding, taking into account the Gag-Gag attraction energy and the membrane elastic energy. We find that if the Gag-Gag attraction is strong, budding always proceeds to completion. During early stage of budding, the zenith angle of partial budded capsids, α , increases with time as α∝t1/2 . However, if the Gag-Gag attraction is weak, a metastable state of partial budding appears. The zenith angle of these partially spherical capsids is given by α0≃(τ2/κσ)1/4 in a linear approximation, where κ and σ are the bending modulus and the surface tension of the membrane, and τ is a line tension of the capsid proportional to the strength of Gag-Gag attraction. Numerically, we find α0<0.3π without any approximations. Using experimental parameters, we show that HIV budding and assembly always proceed to completion in normal biological conditions. On the other hand, by changing Gag-Gag interaction strength or membrane rigidity, it is relatively easy to tune it back and forth between complete budding and partial budding. Our model agrees reasonably well with experiments observing partial budding of retroviruses including HIV.

  14. Sucrose is an early modulator of the key hormonal mechanisms controlling bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida.

    PubMed

    Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Lecerf, Marion; Perez-Garcia, Maria-Dolores; Barrière, Quentin; Rolčík, Jakub; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Citerne, Sylvie; Lemoine, Remi; Porcheron, Benoît; Roman, Hanaé; Leduc, Nathalie; Le Gourrierec, José; Bertheloot, Jessica; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-05-01

    Sugar has only recently been identified as a key player in triggering bud outgrowth, while hormonal control of bud outgrowth is already well established. To get a better understanding of sugar control, the present study investigated how sugar availability modulates the hormonal network during bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida. Other plant models, for which mutants are available, were used when necessary. Buds were grown in vitro to manipulate available sugars. The temporal patterns of the hormonal regulatory network were assessed in parallel with bud outgrowth dynamics. Sucrose determined bud entrance into sustained growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Sustained growth was accompanied by sustained auxin production in buds, and sustained auxin export in a DR5::GUS-expressing pea line. Several events occurred ahead of sucrose-stimulated bud outgrowth. Sucrose upregulated early auxin synthesis genes (RhTAR1, RhYUC1) and the auxin efflux carrier gene RhPIN1, and promoted PIN1 abundance at the plasma membrane in a pPIN1::PIN1-GFP-expressing tomato line. Sucrose downregulated both RwMAX2, involved in the strigolactone-transduction pathway, and RhBRC1, a repressor of branching, at an early stage. The presence of sucrose also increased stem cytokinin content, but sucrose-promoted bud outgrowth was not related to that pathway. In these processes, several non-metabolizable sucrose analogues induced sustained bud outgrowth in R. hybrida, Pisum sativum, and Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that sucrose was involved in a signalling pathway. In conclusion, we identified potential hormonal candidates for bud outgrowth control by sugar. They are central to future investigations aimed at disentangling the processes that underlie regulation of bud outgrowth by sugar. PMID:25873679

  15. Spaceflight enhances cell aggregation and random budding in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Crabbé, Aurélie; Nielsen-Preiss, Sheila M; Woolley, Christine M; Barrila, Jennifer; Buchanan, Kent; McCracken, James; Inglis, Diane O; Searles, Stephen C; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra A; Ott, C Mark; Wilson, James W; Pierson, Duane L; Stefanyshyn-Piper, Heidemarie M; Hyman, Linda E; Nickerson, Cheryl A

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the first global transcriptional profiling and phenotypic characterization of the major human opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, grown in spaceflight conditions. Microarray analysis revealed that C. albicans subjected to short-term spaceflight culture differentially regulated 452 genes compared to synchronous ground controls, which represented 8.3% of the analyzed ORFs. Spaceflight-cultured C. albicans-induced genes involved in cell aggregation (similar to flocculation), which was validated by microscopic and flow cytometry analysis. We also observed enhanced random budding of spaceflight-cultured cells as opposed to bipolar budding patterns for ground samples, in accordance with the gene expression data. Furthermore, genes involved in antifungal agent and stress resistance were differentially regulated in spaceflight, including induction of ABC transporters and members of the major facilitator family, downregulation of ergosterol-encoding genes, and upregulation of genes involved in oxidative stress resistance. Finally, downregulation of genes involved in actin cytoskeleton was observed. Interestingly, the transcriptional regulator Cap1 and over 30% of the Cap1 regulon was differentially expressed in spaceflight-cultured C. albicans. A potential role for Cap1 in the spaceflight response of C. albicans is suggested, as this regulator is involved in random budding, cell aggregation, and oxidative stress resistance; all related to observed spaceflight-associated changes of C. albicans. While culture of C. albicans in microgravity potentiates a global change in gene expression that could induce a virulence-related phenotype, no increased virulence in a murine intraperitoneal (i.p.) infection model was observed under the conditions of this study. Collectively, our data represent an important basis for the assessment of the risk that commensal flora could play during human spaceflight missions. Furthermore, since the low fluid

  16. Spaceflight Enhances Cell Aggregation and Random Budding in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Christine M.; Barrila, Jennifer; Buchanan, Kent; McCracken, James; Inglis, Diane O.; Searles, Stephen C.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra A.; Ott, C. Mark; Wilson, James W.; Pierson, Duane L.; Stefanyshyn-Piper, Heidemarie M.; Hyman, Linda E.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the first global transcriptional profiling and phenotypic characterization of the major human opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, grown in spaceflight conditions. Microarray analysis revealed that C. albicans subjected to short-term spaceflight culture differentially regulated 452 genes compared to synchronous ground controls, which represented 8.3% of the analyzed ORFs. Spaceflight-cultured C. albicans–induced genes involved in cell aggregation (similar to flocculation), which was validated by microscopic and flow cytometry analysis. We also observed enhanced random budding of spaceflight-cultured cells as opposed to bipolar budding patterns for ground samples, in accordance with the gene expression data. Furthermore, genes involved in antifungal agent and stress resistance were differentially regulated in spaceflight, including induction of ABC transporters and members of the major facilitator family, downregulation of ergosterol-encoding genes, and upregulation of genes involved in oxidative stress resistance. Finally, downregulation of genes involved in actin cytoskeleton was observed. Interestingly, the transcriptional regulator Cap1 and over 30% of the Cap1 regulon was differentially expressed in spaceflight-cultured C. albicans. A potential role for Cap1 in the spaceflight response of C. albicans is suggested, as this regulator is involved in random budding, cell aggregation, and oxidative stress resistance; all related to observed spaceflight-associated changes of C. albicans. While culture of C. albicans in microgravity potentiates a global change in gene expression that could induce a virulence-related phenotype, no increased virulence in a murine intraperitoneal (i.p.) infection model was observed under the conditions of this study. Collectively, our data represent an important basis for the assessment of the risk that commensal flora could play during human spaceflight missions. Furthermore, since the low fluid

  17. Metabolite changes in conifer buds and needles during forced bud break in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European silver fir (Abies alba)

    PubMed Central

    Dhuli, Priyanka; Rohloff, Jens; Strimbeck, G. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Environmental changes such as early spring and warm spells induce bud burst and photosynthetic processes in cold-acclimated coniferous trees and consequently, cellular metabolism in overwintering needles and buds. The purpose of the study was to examine metabolism in conifers under forced deacclimation (artificially induced spring) by exposing shoots of Picea abies (boreal species) and Abies alba (temperate species) to a greenhouse environment (22°C, 16/8 h D/N cycle) over a 9 weeks period. Each week, we scored bud opening and collected samples for GC/MS–based metabolite profiling. We detected a total of 169 assigned metabolites and 80 identified metabolites, comprising compounds such as mono- and disaccharides, Krebs cycle acids, amino acids, polyols, phenolics, and phosphorylated structures. Untargeted multivariate statistical analysis based on PCA and cluster analysis segregated samples by species, tissue type, and stage of tissue deacclimations. Similar patterns of metabolic regulation in both species were observed in buds (amino acids, Krebs cycle acids) and needles (hexoses, pentoses, and Krebs cycle acids). Based on correlation of bud opening score with compound levels, distinct metabolites could be associated with bud and shoot development, including amino acids, sugars, and acids with known osmolyte function, and secondary metabolites. This study has shed light on how elevated temperature affects metabolism in buds and needles of conifer species during the deacclimation phase, and contributes to the discussion about how phenological characters in conifers may respond to future global warming. PMID:25566281

  18. γ-Lactam alkaloids from the flower buds of daylily.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takahiro; Nakamura, Seikou; Nakashima, Souichi; Ohta, Tomoe; Yano, Mamiko; Tsujihata, Junichiro; Tsukioka, Junko; Ogawa, Keiko; Fukaya, Masashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2016-07-01

    Four new alkaloids, hemerocallisamines IV-VII, were isolated from the methanol extract of flower buds of daylily. The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The absolute stereochemistry of the hemerocallisamines IV-VI was elucidated by the application of the modified Mosher's method, HPLC analysis, and optical rotation. In the present study, the isolated alkaloids significantly inhibited the aggregation of Aβ42 in vitro. This is the first report about bioactive alkaloids with a γ-lactam ring from daylily. In addition, isolated nucleosides showed accelerative effects on neurite outgrowth under the non-fasting condition. PMID:26849229

  19. A rare glutamine derivative from the flower buds of daylily.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takahiro; Nakamura, Seikou; Ohta, Tomoe; Fujimoto, Katsuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Ogawa, Keiko; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2014-06-01

    A rare glutamine derivative, hemerocallisamine I (1), was isolated from the methanolic extract of the flower buds of daylily, together with a new pyrrole alkaloid hemerocallisamine II (2) and a new γ-lactam derivative, hemerocallisamine III (3). The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. For hemerocallisamine I (1), the absolute configuration was determined by Mo-Kα X-ray crystallographic analysis. This is the first report of a glutamine derivative with a pyrrole ring from natural plants. PMID:24835438

  20. Post-transcriptional regulation in budding yeast meiosis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Liang; Neiman, Aaron M

    2016-05-01

    The precise regulation of gene expression is essential for developmental processes in eukaryotic organisms. As an important post-transcriptional regulatory point, translational control is complementary to transcriptional regulation. Sporulation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a developmental process controlled by a well-studied transcriptional cascade that drives the cell through the events of DNA replication, meiotic chromosome segregation, and spore assembly. Recent studies have revealed that as cells begin the meiotic divisions, translational regulation of gene expression fine tunes this transcriptional cascade. The significance and mechanisms of this translational regulation are beginning to emerge. These studies may also provide insights into translational regulation in germ cell development of multicellular organisms.

  1. γ-Lactam alkaloids from the flower buds of daylily.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takahiro; Nakamura, Seikou; Nakashima, Souichi; Ohta, Tomoe; Yano, Mamiko; Tsujihata, Junichiro; Tsukioka, Junko; Ogawa, Keiko; Fukaya, Masashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2016-07-01

    Four new alkaloids, hemerocallisamines IV-VII, were isolated from the methanol extract of flower buds of daylily. The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The absolute stereochemistry of the hemerocallisamines IV-VI was elucidated by the application of the modified Mosher's method, HPLC analysis, and optical rotation. In the present study, the isolated alkaloids significantly inhibited the aggregation of Aβ42 in vitro. This is the first report about bioactive alkaloids with a γ-lactam ring from daylily. In addition, isolated nucleosides showed accelerative effects on neurite outgrowth under the non-fasting condition.

  2. Chemical composition of volatile oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum buds.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Rao, Lingamallu Jaganmohan; Sakariah, Kunnumpurath K

    2002-01-01

    The hydro-distilled volatile oil of the Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum) buds was analyzed using GC and GC-MS for the first time. Thirty-four compounds representing approximately 98% of the oil was characterized. It consists of terpene hydrocarbons (78%) and oxygenated terpenoids (9%). alpha-Bergamotene (27.38%) and alpha-copaene (23.05%) are found to be the major compounds. A comparison of the chemical composition of the oil was made with that of flowers and fruits.

  3. Balsacones D-I, dihydrocinnamoyl flavans from Populus balsamifera buds.

    PubMed

    Simard, François; Legault, Jean; Lavoie, Serge; Pichette, André

    2014-04-01

    A phytochemical investigation of an ethanolic extract from Populus balsamifera L. buds resulted in the isolation and characterization of twelve new flavan derivatives consisting of six pairs of enantiomers. Structures of (+) and (-)-balsacones D-I were elucidated based on spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR, MS) and their absolute configurations were established using X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis and ECD computational calculations. Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of all purified enantiomers were evaluated in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus and human skin fibroblast cells, respectively.

  4. UXO Detection and Characterization using new Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperikova, E.; Morrison, H. F.; Smith, J. T.; Becker, A.

    2006-05-01

    An optimally designed active electromagnetic system (AEM), Berkeley UXO Discriminator, BUD, has been developed for detection and characterization of UXO in the 20 mm to 150 mm size range. The system incorporates three orthogonal transmitters, and eight pairs of differenced receivers. The transmitter-receiver assembly together with the acquisition box, as well as the battery power and GPS receiver, is mounted on a small cart to assure system mobility. BUD not only detects the object itself but also quantitatively determines its size, shape, orientation, and metal content (ferrous or non-ferrous, mixed metals). Moreover, the principal polarizabilities and size of a metallic target can be determined from a single position of the BUD platform. The search for UXO is a two-step process. The object must first be detected and its location determined then the parameters of the object must be defined. A satisfactory classification scheme is one that determines the principal dipole polarizabilities of a target. While UXO objects have a single major polarizability (principal moment) coincident with the long axis of the object and two equal transverse polarizabilities, the scrap metal has all three principal moments entirely different. This description of the inherent polarizabilities of a target is a major advance in discriminating UXO from irregular scrap metal. Our results clearly show that BUD can resolve the intrinsic polarizabilities of a target and that there are very clear distinctions between symmetric intact UXO and irregular scrap metal. Target properties are determined by an inversion algorithm, which at any given time inverts the response to yield the location (x, y, z) of the target, its attitude and its principal polarizabilities (yielding an apparent aspect ratio). Signal-to-noise estimates (or measurements) are interpreted in this inversion to yield error estimates on the location, attitude and polarizabilities. This inversion at a succession of times provides

  5. Vesicular transport: the core machinery of COPI recruitment and budding.

    PubMed

    Nickel, Walter; Brügger, Britta; Wieland, Felix T

    2002-08-15

    Vesicular transport is the predominant mechanism for exchange of proteins and lipids between membrane-bound organelles in eukaryotic cells. Golgi-derived COPI-coated vesicles are involved in several vesicular transport steps, including bidirectional transport within the Golgi and recycling to the ER. Recent work has shed light on the mechanism of COPI vesicle biogenesis, in particular the machinery required for vesicle formation. The new findings have allowed us to generate a model that covers the cycle of coat recruitment, coat polymerization, vesicle budding and uncoating. PMID:12140255

  6. Analysis of Assembly and Budding of Lujo Virus

    PubMed Central

    Urata, Shuzo; Weyer, Jacqueline; Storm, Nadia; Miyazaki, Yukiko; van Vuren, Petrus Jansen; Paweska, Janusz Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    The recently identified arenavirus Lujo virus (LUJV) causes fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans. We analyzed its mechanism of viral release driven by matrix protein Z and the cell surface glycoprotein precursor GPC. The L domains in Z are required for efficient virus-like particle release, but Tsg101, ALIX/AIP1, and Vps4A/B are unnecessary for budding. LUJV GPC is cleaved by site 1 protease (S1P) at the RKLM motif, and treatment with the S1P inhibitor PF-429242 reduced LUJV production. PMID:26719243

  7. Bud protection: a key trait for species sorting in a forest-savanna mosaic.

    PubMed

    Charles-Dominique, Tristan; Beckett, Heath; Midgley, Guy F; Bond, William J

    2015-09-01

    Contrasting fire regimes maintain patch mosaics of savanna, thicket and forest biomes in many African subtropical landscapes. Species dominating each biome are thus expected to display distinct fire-related traits, commonly thought to be bark related. Recent Australian savanna research suggests that bud position, not bark protection alone, determines fire resilience via resprouting. We tested first how bud position influences resprouting ability in 17 tree species. We then compared the effect of both bark-related protection and bud position on the distribution of 63 tree species in 253 transects in all three biomes. Tree species with buds positioned deep under bark had a higher proportion of post-fire aboveground shoot resprouting. Species with low bud protection occurred in fire-prone biomes only if they could root-sucker. The effect of bud protection was supported by a good relationship between species bud protection and distribution across a gradient of fire frequency. Bud protection and high bark production are required to survive frequent fires in savanna. Forests are fire refugia hosting species with little or no bud protection and thin bark. Root-suckering species occur in the three biomes, suggesting that fire is not the only factor filtering this functional type.

  8. The Race against Protease Activation Defines the Role of ESCRTs in HIV Budding

    PubMed Central

    Bendjennat, Mourad; Saffarian, Saveez

    2016-01-01

    HIV virions assemble on the plasma membrane and bud out of infected cells using interactions with endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs). HIV protease activation is essential for maturation and infectivity of progeny virions, however, the precise timing of protease activation and its relationship to budding has not been well defined. We show that compromised interactions with ESCRTs result in delayed budding of virions from host cells. Specifically, we show that Gag mutants with compromised interactions with ALIX and Tsg101, two early ESCRT factors, have an average budding delay of ~75 minutes and ~10 hours, respectively. Virions with inactive proteases incorporated the full Gag-Pol and had ~60 minutes delay in budding. We demonstrate that during budding delay, activated proteases release critical HIV enzymes back to host cytosol leading to production of non-infectious progeny virions. To explain the molecular mechanism of the observed budding delay, we modulated the Pol size artificially and show that virion release delays are size-dependent and also show size-dependency in requirements for Tsg101 and ALIX. We highlight the sensitivity of HIV to budding “on-time” and suggest that budding delay is a potent mechanism for inhibition of infectious retroviral release. PMID:27280284

  9. Quick detection of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in chestnut dormant buds by nested PCR.

    PubMed

    Sartor, C; Marinoni, D Torello; Quacchia, A; Botta, R

    2012-06-01

    Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) develops in chestnut buds that remain asymptomatic from oviposition (June-July) until budburst; it is, thus, easily spread by plant material used in propagation. Therefore, it is particularly interesting to identify infested plant batches before their movement. Unfortunately, a non-destructive method for checking buds has not yet been developed, and the only technique available is the screening of a bud sample. The visual investigation is long and requires highly skilled and trained staff. The purpose of this work was to set up an effective and fast method able to identify the presence of first instar larvae of D. kuriphilus in a large number of chestnut buds by PCR. Four primer pairs were designed on nuclear and mitochondrial sequences of a set of seven gall wasp taxa and tested on five different cynipid's DNA. Nested diagnostic PCR was carried out on DNA extracted from samples of 2 g buds simulating four levels of infestation (larvae were added to uninfested buds); 320 bp amplicon of 28S sequence was chosen as a marker to detect one larva out of 2 g buds. The method showed a potential efficiency of 5000 to 15,000 buds per week, depending on bud size.

  10. Distribution of vimentin in the developing chick taste bud during the perihatching period.

    PubMed

    Witt, M; Ganchrow, J R; Ganchrow, D

    1999-05-01

    The tissue environment within which taste bud cells develop has not been wholly elaborated. Previous studies of taste bud development in vertebrates, including the avian chick, have suggested that taste bud cells could arise from one, or several tissue sources (e.g. crest-mesenchyme, local ectoderm or endoderm). Thus, molecular markers which are present in gemmal as well as interfacing (peribud epithelium; mesenchyme-epithelium) regions, and their degree of expression during stages of taste bud development, are of special interest. The intermediate filament protein, vimentin, occurs in mesenchymal and mesodermally-derived (e.g. endothelial, fibroblast) cells as well as highly proliferating epithelium (e.g. tumors). The present study in chick gustatory tissue utilized antibodies against vimentin and the avidin-biotin-peroxidase technique to evaluate vimentin immunoreactivity (IR) within a timeframe which includes: 1) early stages of the taste bud primordium [embryonic days (E)17-E18)]; 2) the beginning of an accelerated bud cell proliferation at the time of initial, taste bud pore opening [around E19]; 3) attaining the adult complement of taste buds [around posthatch (H) day 1], and 4) completed organogenesis (H 17). During this time span, vimentin-IR was characterized in a region including and sometimes bridging taste bud and subepithelial connective tissue, whereas non-gustatory surrounding epithelium and salivary glands were vimentin-immuno-negative. Intragemmally, the proportion of vimentin-IR cells as related to total taste bud cells peaked at E19. These results indicate that vimentin expression, in part, is related to the onset of taste bud cell proliferation and suggest that mesenchyme could be one source of taste bud cells. Secondly, fibronectin, an extracellular matrix component of the epithelial basement membrane interface with mesenchyme, was expressed at or near the apical surfaces of taste bud cells projecting into the bud lumen, and in the basal gemmal

  11. Bud protection: a key trait for species sorting in a forest-savanna mosaic.

    PubMed

    Charles-Dominique, Tristan; Beckett, Heath; Midgley, Guy F; Bond, William J

    2015-09-01

    Contrasting fire regimes maintain patch mosaics of savanna, thicket and forest biomes in many African subtropical landscapes. Species dominating each biome are thus expected to display distinct fire-related traits, commonly thought to be bark related. Recent Australian savanna research suggests that bud position, not bark protection alone, determines fire resilience via resprouting. We tested first how bud position influences resprouting ability in 17 tree species. We then compared the effect of both bark-related protection and bud position on the distribution of 63 tree species in 253 transects in all three biomes. Tree species with buds positioned deep under bark had a higher proportion of post-fire aboveground shoot resprouting. Species with low bud protection occurred in fire-prone biomes only if they could root-sucker. The effect of bud protection was supported by a good relationship between species bud protection and distribution across a gradient of fire frequency. Bud protection and high bark production are required to survive frequent fires in savanna. Forests are fire refugia hosting species with little or no bud protection and thin bark. Root-suckering species occur in the three biomes, suggesting that fire is not the only factor filtering this functional type. PMID:25856385

  12. Finger necrosis after accidental radial artery puncture

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun Sik; Lee, Tae Rim; Cha, Won Chul; Shin, Tae Gun; Sim, Min Seob; Jo, Ik Joon; Song, Keun Jeong; Rhee, Joong Eui; Jeong, Yeon Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Radial artery puncture, an invasive procedure, is frequently used for critical patients. Although considered safe, severe complications such as finger necrosis can occur. Herein, we review the clinical course of finger necrosis after accidental radial artery puncture. A 63-year-old woman visited the emergency department (ED) with left second and third finger pain after undergoing intravenous (IV) access in her wrist for procedural sedation. During the IV access, she experienced wrist pain, which increased during the 12 hours prior to her ED presentation. Emergency angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm in her left radial artery and absence of blood flow to the proper palmar digital artery. Subsequent angiointervention and urokinase thrombolysis failed. The second finger was eventually amputated owing to gangrene. Radial artery puncture can occur accidentally during IV wrist access, resulting in severe morbidity. Providers should carefully examine the puncture site and collateral flow, followed by multiple examinations to ensure distal circulation.

  13. Programmed necrosis in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Linkermann, Andreas; De Zen, Federica; Weinberg, Joel; Kunzendorf, Ulrich; Krautwald, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) had been widely used synonymously to caspase-mediated apoptosis until caspase-independent cell death was described. Identification of necrosis as a regulated process in ischaemic conditions has recently changed our understanding of PCD. At least three pathways of programmed necrosis (PN) have been identified. First, receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3)-dependent necroptosis causes organ failure following stroke, myocardial infarction and renal ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Necroptosis can be mediated either by a large intracellular caspase-8-containing signalling complex called the ripoptosome or by the RIP1-/RIP3-containing necroptosome and is controlled by a caspase-8/FLICE inhibitory protein(long) heterodimer at least in the latter case. Second, mitochondrial permeability transition mediates apoptotic or necrotic stimuli and depends on the mitochondrial protein cyclophilin D. The third PN pathway involves the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-calpain axis that contributes to acute kidney injury (AKI). Preclinical interference with the PN pathways therefore raises expectations for the future treatment of ischaemic conditions. In this brief review, we aim to summarize the clinically relevant PCD pathways and to transfer the basic science data to settings of AKI. We conclude that pathologists were quite right to refer to ischaemic kidney injury as 'acute tubular necrosis'. PMID:22942173

  14. Signal transduction and information processing in mammalian taste buds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The molecular machinery for chemosensory transduction in taste buds has received considerable attention within the last decade. Consequently, we now know a great deal about sweet, bitter, and umami taste mechanisms and are gaining ground rapidly on salty and sour transduction. Sweet, bitter, and umami tastes are transduced by G-protein-coupled receptors. Salty taste may be transduced by epithelial Na channels similar to those found in renal tissues. Sour transduction appears to be initiated by intracellular acidification acting on acid-sensitive membrane proteins. Once a taste signal is generated in a taste cell, the subsequent steps involve secretion of neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin. It is now recognized that the cells responding to sweet, bitter, and umami taste stimuli do not possess synapses and instead secrete the neurotransmitter ATP via a novel mechanism not involving conventional vesicular exocytosis. ATP is believed to excite primary sensory afferent fibers that convey gustatory signals to the brain. In contrast, taste cells that do have synapses release serotonin in response to gustatory stimulation. The postsynaptic targets of serotonin have not yet been identified. Finally, ATP secreted from receptor cells also acts on neighboring taste cells to stimulate their release of serotonin. This suggests that there is important information processing and signal coding taking place in the mammalian taste bud after gustatory stimulation. PMID:17468883

  15. Micropropagation of Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig through rhizome bud.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Pritam; Behera, Shashikanta; Swain, Swasti S; Barik, Durga P; Naik, Soumendra K

    2013-10-01

    An optimized protocol was developed for in vitro plant regeneration of a medicinally important herb Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig using sprouted buds of rhizomes. The rhizomes with sprouted bud were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962) medium (MS) supplemented with either N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) alone (1.0-4.0 mg L(-1)) or in combination with 0.5 mg L(-1) naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Of these combinations, MS supplemented with a combination of 2.0 mg L(-1) BA and 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA was most effective. In this medium, best shoots (3.6) and roots (4.0) regeneration was observed simultaneously with an average shoot and root length of 4.7 cm and 4.2 cm respectively. Regeneration of shoots and roots in the same medium at the same time (One step shoot and root regeneration) reduced the time for production of in vitro plantlets and eliminates the media cost of rooting. Cent-percent (100 %) success in plant establishment was observed in both gradual acclimatization process as well as when plants were directly transferred to outdoor in clay pots containing a mixture of garden soil and sand (2:1) without any sequential acclimatization stage.

  16. Replication-Associated Recombinational Repair: Lessons from Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Jaclyn N.; Zhao, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    Recombinational repair processes multiple types of DNA lesions. Though best understood in the repair of DNA breaks, recombinational repair is intimately linked to other situations encountered during replication. As DNA strands are decorated with many types of blocks that impede the replication machinery, a great number of genomic regions cannot be duplicated without the help of recombinational repair. This replication-associated recombinational repair employs both the core recombination proteins used for DNA break repair and the specialized factors that couple replication with repair. Studies from multiple organisms have provided insights into the roles of these specialized factors, with the findings in budding yeast being advanced through use of powerful genetics and methods for detecting DNA replication and repair intermediates. In this review, we summarize recent progress made in this organism, ranging from our understanding of the classical template switch mechanisms to gap filling and replication fork regression pathways. As many of the protein factors and biological principles uncovered in budding yeast are conserved in higher eukaryotes, these findings are crucial for stimulating studies in more complex organisms. PMID:27548223

  17. A computational clonal analysis of the developing mouse limb bud.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Luciano; Arqués, Carlos G; Torres, Miguel S; Sharpe, James

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive spatio-temporal description of the tissue movements underlying organogenesis would be an extremely useful resource to developmental biology. Clonal analysis and fate mappings are popular experiments to study tissue movement during morphogenesis. Such experiments allow cell populations to be labeled at an early stage of development and to follow their spatial evolution over time. However, disentangling the cumulative effects of the multiple events responsible for the expansion of the labeled cell population is not always straightforward. To overcome this problem, we develop a novel computational method that combines accurate quantification of 2D limb bud morphologies and growth modeling to analyze mouse clonal data of early limb development. Firstly, we explore various tissue movements that match experimental limb bud shape changes. Secondly, by comparing computational clones with newly generated mouse clonal data we are able to choose and characterize the tissue movement map that better matches experimental data. Our computational analysis produces for the first time a two dimensional model of limb growth based on experimental data that can be used to better characterize limb tissue movement in space and time. The model shows that the distribution and shapes of clones can be described as a combination of anisotropic growth with isotropic cell mixing, without the need for lineage compartmentalization along the AP and PD axis. Lastly, we show that this comprehensive description can be used to reassess spatio-temporal gene regulations taking tissue movement into account and to investigate PD patterning hypothesis.

  18. Gene expression analysis of bud and leaf color in tea.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kang; Zhang, Yazhen; Wu, Liyun; Li, Hailin; Ruan, Li; Bai, Peixian; Zhang, Chengcai; Zhang, Fen; Xu, Liyi; Wang, Liyuan; Cheng, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Purple shoot tea attributing to the high anthocyanin accumulation is of great interest for its wide health benefits. To better understand potential mechanisms involved in purple buds and leaves formation in tea plants, we performed transcriptome analysis of six green or purple shoot tea individuals from a F1 population using the Illumina sequencing method. Totally 292 million RNA-Seq reads were obtained and assembled into 112,233 unigenes, with an average length of 759 bp and an N50 of 1081 bp. Moreover, totally 2193 unigenes showed significant differences in expression levels between green and purple tea samples, with 1143 up- and 1050 down-regulated in the purple teas. Further real time PCR analysis confirmed RNA-Seq results. Our study identified 28 differentially expressed transcriptional factors and A CsMYB gene was found to be highly similar to AtPAP1 in Arabidopsis. Further analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and transportation showed that the late biosynthetic genes and genes involved in anthocyanin transportation were largely affected but the early biosynthetic genes were less or none affected. Overall, the identification of a large number of differentially expressed genes offers a global view of the potential mechanisms associated with purple buds and leaves formation, which will facilitate molecular breeding in tea plants. PMID:27362295

  19. Cdc28 Activates Exit from Mitosis in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Rudner, Adam D.; Hardwick, Kevin G.; Murray, Andrew W.

    2000-01-01

    The activity of the cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), Cdc28, inhibits the transition from anaphase to G1 in budding yeast. CDC28-T18V, Y19F (CDC28-VF), a mutant that lacks inhibitory phosphorylation sites, delays the exit from mitosis and is hypersensitive to perturbations that arrest cells in mitosis. Surprisingly, this behavior is not due to a lack of inhibitory phosphorylation or increased kinase activity, but reflects reduced activity of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), a defect shared with other mutants that lower Cdc28/Clb activity in mitosis. CDC28-VF has reduced Cdc20- dependent APC activity in mitosis, but normal Hct1- dependent APC activity in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The defect in Cdc20-dependent APC activity in CDC28-VF correlates with reduced association of Cdc20 with the APC. The defects of CDC28-VF suggest that Cdc28 activity is required to induce the metaphase to anaphase transition and initiate the transition from anaphase to G1 in budding yeast. PMID:10871278

  20. Novel features of ARS selection in budding yeast Lachancea kluyveri

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The characterization of DNA replication origins in yeast has shed much light on the mechanisms of initiation of DNA replication. However, very little is known about the evolution of origins or the evolution of mechanisms through which origins are recognized by the initiation machinery. This lack of understanding is largely due to the vast evolutionary distances between model organisms in which origins have been examined. Results In this study we have isolated and characterized autonomously replicating sequences (ARSs) in Lachancea kluyveri - a pre-whole genome duplication (WGD) budding yeast. Through a combination of experimental work and rigorous computational analysis, we show that L. kluyveri ARSs require a sequence that is similar but much longer than the ARS Consensus Sequence well defined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover, compared with S. cerevisiae and K. lactis, the replication licensing machinery in L. kluyveri seems more tolerant to variations in the ARS sequence composition. It is able to initiate replication from almost all S. cerevisiae ARSs tested and most Kluyveromyces lactis ARSs. In contrast, only about half of the L. kluyveri ARSs function in S. cerevisiae and less than 10% function in K. lactis. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate a replication initiation system with novel features and underscore the functional diversity within the budding yeasts. Furthermore, we have developed new approaches for analyzing biologically functional DNA sequences with ill-defined motifs. PMID:22204614

  1. Receptosecretory nature of type III cells in the taste bud.

    PubMed

    Yoshie, Sumio

    2009-01-01

    Type III cells in taste buds form chemical synapses with intragemmal afferent nerve fibers and are characterized by the presence of membrane-bound vesicles in the cytoplasm. Although the vesicles differ in shape and size among species, they are primarily categorized into small clear (40 nm in diameter) and large dense-cored (90-200 nm) types. As such vesicles tend to be closely juxtaposed to the synaptic membrane of the cells, it is reasonable to consider that the vesicles include transmitter(s) towards the gustatory nerve. In the guinea-pig taste bud, stimulation with various taste substances (sucrose, sodium chloride, quinine hydrochloride, or monosodium L-glutamate) causes ultrastructural alterations of the type III cells. At the synapse, the presynaptic plasma membrane often displays invaginations of 90 nm in a mean diameter towards the cytoplasm, which indicates the dense-cored vesicles opening into the synaptic cleft by means of exocytosis. The vesicles are also exocytosed at the non-synaptic region into the intercellular space. These findings strongly suggest that the transmitters presumably contained in the vesicles are released to conduct the excitement of the type III cells to the nerves and also to exert their paracrine effects upon the surroundings, such as the Ebner's salivary gland, acting as local hormones. PMID:20224182

  2. BudBurst Buddies: Introducing Young Citizen Scientists to Plants and Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D.; Gardiner, L. S.; Henderson, S.

    2011-12-01

    As part of Project BudBurst, the BudBurst Buddies recently moved to the National Ecological Network (NEON) as part of its Education and Public Engagement efforts. The BudBurst Buddies (www.budburstbuddies.org) were created to engage elementary school age children in the science of observing plants and the timing of phenological (life cycle) events. BudBurst Buddies is a part of the Project BudBurst national citizen science initiative (www.budburst.org), which allows individuals to engage in the scientific process, contributing to a better understanding of climate change while increasing public awareness of phenology and the impacts of climate change on plants. As a first step towards engaging the next generation of citizen scientists, BudBurst Buddies provides the opportunity for children to gain experience with scientific research and increases awareness of how plants change throughout the year. Hundreds of young students have participated in the inaugural year of BudBurst Buddies. Children can participate in BudBurst Buddies on their own, with their families, or in formal or informal education settings. The program was recently highlighted by education staff at the New York Hall of Science and numerous classrooms have been implementing this resource as part of their curriculum. Each child who participates creates a journal about a plant of his or her choosing, makes observations of the plant over the growing season and submits findings online, earning an official BudBurst Buddies certificate. An online storybook for kids tells how two children, Lily and Sage, observed plants in their neighborhood and became BudBurst Buddies. This presentation will provide an overview of the BudBurst Buddies resources including a new implementation guide and will also share feedback from the first year of implementation.

  3. Ontogeny and innervation of taste buds in mouse palatal gustatory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Rashwan, Ahmed; Konishi, Hiroyuki; El-Sharaby, Ashraf; Kiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between mouse taste bud development and innervation of the soft palate. We employed scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry using antibodies against protein gene product 9.5 and peripherin to detect sensory nerves, and cytokeratin 8 and α-gustducin to stain palatal taste buds. At E14, nerve fibers were observed along the medial border of the palatal shelves that tracked toward the epithelium. At E15.5, primordial stages of taste buds in the basal lamina of the soft palate first appeared. At E16, the taste buds became large spherical masses of columnar cells scattered in the soft palate basal lamina. At E17, the morphology and also the location of taste buds changed. At E18-19, some taste buds acquired a more elongated shape with a short neck, extending a variable distance from the soft palate basal lamina toward the surface epithelium. At E18, mature taste buds with taste pores and perigemmal nerve fibers were observed on the surface epithelium of the soft palate. The expression of α-gustducin was demonstrated at postnatal day 1 and the number of pored taste buds increased with age and they became pear-shaped at 8 weeks. The percent of pored fungiform-like papillae at birth was 58.3% of the whole palate; this increased to 83.8% at postnatal day 8 and reached a maximum of 95.7% at 12 weeks. The innervation of the soft palate was classified into three types of plexuses in relation to taste buds: basal nerve plexus, intragemmal and perigemmal nerve fibers. This study reveals that the nerve fibers preceded the development of taste buds in the palate of mice, and therefore the nerve fibers have roles in the initial induction of taste buds in the soft palate.

  4. GATA6 Is a Crucial Regulator of Shh in the Limb Bud

    PubMed Central

    Kozhemyakina, Elena; Ionescu, Andreia; Lassar, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    In the limb bud, patterning along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis is controlled by Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), a signaling molecule secreted by the “Zone of Polarizing Activity”, an organizer tissue located in the posterior margin of the limb bud. We have found that the transcription factors GATA4 and GATA6, which are key regulators of cell identity, are expressed in an anterior to posterior gradient in the early limb bud, raising the possibility that GATA transcription factors may play an additional role in patterning this tissue. While both GATA4 and GATA6 are expressed in an A-P gradient in the forelimb buds, the hindlimb buds principally express GATA6 in an A-P gradient. Thus, to specifically examine the role of GATA6 in limb patterning we generated Prx1-Cre; GATA6fl/fl mice, which conditionally delete GATA6 from their developing limb buds. We found that these animals display ectopic expression of both Shh and its transcriptional targets specifically in the anterior mesenchyme of the hindlimb buds. Loss of GATA6 in the developing limbs results in the formation of preaxial polydactyly in the hindlimbs. Conversely, forced expression of GATA6 throughout the limb bud represses expression of Shh and results in hypomorphic limbs. We have found that GATA6 can bind to chromatin (isolated from limb buds) encoding either Shh or Gli1 regulatory elements that drive expression of these genes in this tissue, and demonstrated that GATA6 works synergistically with FOG co-factors to repress expression of luciferase reporters driven by these sequences. Most significantly, we have found that conditional loss of Shh in limb buds lacking GATA6 prevents development of hindlimb polydactyly in these compound mutant embryos, indicating that GATA6 expression in the anterior region of the limb bud blocks hindlimb polydactyly by repressing ectopic expression of Shh. PMID:24415953

  5. The role of innervation in the development of taste buds: insights from studies of amphibian embryos.

    PubMed

    Barlow, L A; Northcutt, R G

    1998-11-30

    Amphibian embryos have long been model organisms for studies of development because of their hardiness and large size, as well as the ease with which they can be experimentally manipulated. These particular advantages have allowed us recently to test the role of innervation in the development of vertebrate taste buds using embryos of an aquatic salamander, the axolotl. The predominant model of taste bud genesis has been one of neural induction, in which ingrowing sensory neurites induce taste bud differentiation in the epithelium that lines the mouth and pharynx. However, when we prevented embryonic sensory neurons from contacting the oropharyngeal epithelium by using transplantation or tissue culture techniques, we found that taste bud differentiation was independent of nerve contact. Additionally, using similar types of experimental manipulations, we have recently shown that taste bud differentiation is not a result of interactions of the oropharyngeal epithelium with craniofacial mesenchyme. Surprisingly, we found that although taste bud genesis occurs very late in embryonic development, it is an intrinsic feature of the presumptive oropharyngeal epithelium extremely early, in fact as early as the completion of gastrulation. These data have prompted us to propose a new model for the development of amphibian taste buds: (i) The presumptive oropharyngeal epithelium is specified by the time gastrulation is complete; (ii) Subsequently, a distributed population of taste bud progenitors is set up within this epithelium via local cell-cell interactions. These progenitor cells give rise to taste buds, which are distributed throughout the mouth and pharynx. How widely applicable this model might be for the genesis of taste buds in other vertebrates remains to be seen. However, since it is likely that the taste system of axolotls more closely resembles the ancestral state from which both the amphibian and mammalian taste systems have evolved, it is possible that many of

  6. The effects of sialoadenectomy and exogenous EGF on taste bud morphology and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Morris-Wiman, J; Sego, R; Brinkley, L; Dolce, C

    2000-02-01

    Taste buds on the dorsal tongue surface are continually bathed in saliva rich in epidermal growth factor (EGF). In the following experiment, taste bud number and morphology were monitored following submandibular and sublingual salivary gland removal (sialoadenectomy), to determine if EGF plays a role in the maintenance and formation of taste buds. Adult male rats were divided into four groups: sialoadenectomized (SX, n = 4); sialoadenectomized with EGF replacement (SX + EGF, n = 5); sham-operated (SH, n = 4); and sham-operated with exogenous EGF (SH + EGF, n = 5). After a 3 week recovery, SX + EGF and SH + EGF animals were given 50 microg/day EGF in their drinking water for 14 days. At day 14, saliva was collected, the animals were killed and the presence of EGF determined by radioligand-binding assay. Tongues were removed and histologically examined for the presence and morphology of taste buds on fungiform and circumvallate papillae, or immunostained for the presence of EGF, TGFalpha (transforming growth factor alpha) and EGFR (EGF receptor). The removal of submandibular and sublingual salivary glands resulted in the loss of fungiform taste buds and normal fungiform papillae morphology. These effects were reversed by EGF supplementation, indicating a role for EGF in fungiform taste bud maintenance. In addition, supplementation of EGF to sham-operated animals increased the size of fungiform taste buds. In contrast, removal of salivary glands had no effect on the size, numbers, or morphology of circumvallate taste buds, suggesting that the formation and maintenance of taste buds in fungiform and circumvallate papillae may involve different and distinct processes. EGF, TGFalpha and EGFR were localized to distinct layers of the dorsal epithelium and to within both fungiform and circumvallate taste buds. Their expression within the epithelium or taste buds was not altered with sialoadenectomy, indicating that the actions of endogenous EGF and TGFalpha are distinct and

  7. Abscisic Acid Is a General Negative Regulator of Arabidopsis Axillary Bud Growth1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Chi; Finlayson, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Branching is an important process controlled by intrinsic programs and by environmental signals transduced by a variety of plant hormones. Abscisic acid (ABA) was previously shown to mediate Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) branching responses to the ratio of red light (R) to far-red light (FR; an indicator of competition) by suppressing bud outgrowth from lower rosette positions under low R:FR. However, the role of ABA in regulating branching more generally was not investigated. This study shows that ABA restricts lower bud outgrowth and promotes correlative inhibition under both high and low R:FR. ABA was elevated in buds exhibiting delayed outgrowth resulting from bud position and low R:FR and decreased in elongating buds. ABA was reduced in lower buds of hyperbranching mutants deficient in auxin signaling (AUXIN RESISTANT1), MORE AXILLARY BRANCHING (MAX) signaling (MAX2), and BRANCHED1 (BRC1) function, and partial suppression of branch elongation in these mutants by exogenous ABA suggested that ABA may act downstream of these components. Bud BRC1 expression was not altered by exogenous ABA, consistent with a downstream function for ABA. However, the expression of genes encoding the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis enzyme TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS1, the auxin transporter PIN-FORMED1, and the cell cycle genes CYCLIN A2;1 and PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN1 in buds was suppressed by ABA, suggesting that it may inhibit bud growth in part by suppressing elements of the cell cycle machinery and bud-autonomous IAA biosynthesis and transport. ABA was found to suppress bud IAA accumulation, thus confirming this aspect of its action. PMID:26149576

  8. Development and growth of primordial shoots in Norway spruce buds before visible bud burst in relation to time and temperature in the field.

    PubMed

    Sutinen, Sirkka; Partanen, Jouni; Viherä-Aarnio, Anneli; Häkkinen, Risto

    2012-08-01

    The timing of bud development in ecodormancy is critical for trees in boreal and temperate regions with seasonally alternating climates. The development of vegetative buds and the growth of primordial shoots (the primordial shoot ratio) in Norway spruce were followed by the naked eye and at stereo and light microscopic levels in fresh-cut and fixed buds obtained by regular field samplings during the spring of 2007, 2008 and 2009. Buds were collected from 15 randomly selected trees (all 16 years old in 2007) of one southern Finnish half-sib family. The air temperature was recorded hourly throughout the observation period. In 2008 and 2009, initial events in the buds, seen as accumulation of lipid droplets in the cortex area, started in mid-March and were depleted in late April, simultaneously with the early development of vascular tissue and primordial needles. In mid-April 2007, however, the development of the buds was at least 10 days ahead as a result of warm spells in March and early April. Variation in the timing of different developmental phases within and among the sample trees was negligible. There was no clear one-to-one correspondence between the externally visible and the internal development of the buds. The dependence of the primordial shoot ratio on different types of temperature sum was studied by means of regression analysis. High coefficients of determination (R(2) ≈ 95%) were attained with several combinations of the starting time (beginning of the year/vernal equinox), the threshold value (from -3 to +5 °C), and the time step (hour/day) used in the temperature summation, i.e., the prediction power of the primordial shoot ratio models turned out to be high, but the parameter estimate values were not unambiguous. According to our results, temperature sums describe the growth of the primordial shoot inside the bud before bud burst. Thus, the results provide a realistic interpretation for the present phenological models of bud development that

  9. Development and growth of primordial shoots in Norway spruce buds before visible bud burst in relation to time and temperature in the field.

    PubMed

    Sutinen, Sirkka; Partanen, Jouni; Viherä-Aarnio, Anneli; Häkkinen, Risto

    2012-08-01

    The timing of bud development in ecodormancy is critical for trees in boreal and temperate regions with seasonally alternating climates. The development of vegetative buds and the growth of primordial shoots (the primordial shoot ratio) in Norway spruce were followed by the naked eye and at stereo and light microscopic levels in fresh-cut and fixed buds obtained by regular field samplings during the spring of 2007, 2008 and 2009. Buds were collected from 15 randomly selected trees (all 16 years old in 2007) of one southern Finnish half-sib family. The air temperature was recorded hourly throughout the observation period. In 2008 and 2009, initial events in the buds, seen as accumulation of lipid droplets in the cortex area, started in mid-March and were depleted in late April, simultaneously with the early development of vascular tissue and primordial needles. In mid-April 2007, however, the development of the buds was at least 10 days ahead as a result of warm spells in March and early April. Variation in the timing of different developmental phases within and among the sample trees was negligible. There was no clear one-to-one correspondence between the externally visible and the internal development of the buds. The dependence of the primordial shoot ratio on different types of temperature sum was studied by means of regression analysis. High coefficients of determination (R(2) ≈ 95%) were attained with several combinations of the starting time (beginning of the year/vernal equinox), the threshold value (from -3 to +5 °C), and the time step (hour/day) used in the temperature summation, i.e., the prediction power of the primordial shoot ratio models turned out to be high, but the parameter estimate values were not unambiguous. According to our results, temperature sums describe the growth of the primordial shoot inside the bud before bud burst. Thus, the results provide a realistic interpretation for the present phenological models of bud development that

  10. Non-structural carbohydrate status in Norway spruce buds in the context of annual bud structural development as affected by acidic pollution.

    PubMed

    Svobodová; Lipavská; Albrechtová

    2000-06-01

    The present study focused on changes in the annual dynamics of the contents of non-structural saccharides (NSS) of Norway spruce vegetative buds related to their structural development under the effect of acidic pollution during the year 1995. Two types of material were analysed: (1) 4-year-old trees treated for 2 years by simulated acid rain (SAR; pH 2.9 and 3.9), and (2) 40-60-year-old trees growing in natural mountain stands exhibiting different degrees of macroscopic damage. Our study revealed that the dynamics of the NSS content reflected the major morphogenetic and developmental changes occurring during the annual bud developmental cycle. No systematic changes in the annual dynamics of NSS content were observed in buds from both mountain sites, or as a consequence of the SAR. The total sugar content of bud tissues was composed of a combination of five main sugar components: sucrose, glucose, fructose, raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO; combination of raffinose and stachyose), and a pinitol fraction (PF) probably of cyclitols with pinitol as a main member. The dynamics of individual sugar components also reflected possible carbohydrate mediated bud frost protection. Interesting results were obtained from buds in dormant state. In dormant buds of the SAR experiment the higher value of the ratio PF:RFO of the pinitol fraction and raffinose family oligosaccharides followed the higher dose of SAR treatment. When evaluating the ratio from both types of material we assumed that changes in PF:RFO ratio corresponded to early stages of damage or acute metabolic reaction. Thus, we suggest the ratio PF:RFO as a possible non-specific metabolic marker of early bud stress reaction which is, among other stress factors, sensitive to increasing load of acidic pollutants.

  11. Ketoconazole attenuates radiation-induction of tumor necrosis factor

    SciTech Connect

    Hallahan, D.E.; Virudachalam, S.; Kufe, D.W.; Weichselbaum, R.R.

    1994-07-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that inhibitors of phospholipase A2 attenuate ionizing radiation-induced arachidonic acid production, protein kinase C activation, and prevent subsequent induction of the tumor necrosis factor gene. Because arachidonic acid contributes to radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor expression, the authors analyzed the effects of agents which alter arachidonate metabolism on the regulation of this gene. Phospholipase A2 inhibitors quinicrine, bromphenyl bromide, and pentoxyfylline or the inhibitor of lipoxygenase (ketoconazole) or the inhibitor of cycloxygenase (indomethacine) were added to cell culture 1 h prior to irradiation. Radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression was attenuated by each of the phospholipase A2 inhibitors (quinicrine, bromphenylbromide, and pentoxyfylline). Furthermore, ketoconazole attenuated X ray induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression. Conversely, indomethacin enhanced tumor necrosis factor expression following irradiation. The finding that radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression was attenuated by ketoconazole suggests that the lipoxygenase pathway participates in signal transduction preceding tumor necrosis factor induction. Enhancement of tumor necrosis factor expression by indomethacin following irradiation suggests that prostaglandins produced by cyclooxygenase act as negative regulators of tumor necrosis factor expression. Inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor induction ameliorate acute and subacute sequelae of radiotherapy. The authors propose therefore, that ketoconazole may reduce acute radiation sequelae such as mucositis and esophagitis through a reduction in tumor necrosis factor induction or inhibition of phospholipase A2 in addition to its antifungal activity. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Proteomic study of 'Moncada' mandarin buds from on- versus off-crop trees.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Fambuena, Natalia; Mesejo, Carlos; Reig, Carmina; Agustí, Manuel; Tárraga, Susana; Lisón, Purificación; Iglesias, Domingo J; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; González-Mas, M Carmen

    2013-12-01

    A proteomic analysis of buds from mandarin trees with contrasting fruit load (on- and off-crop trees) was carried out during the onset of low-temperature induction. The aim of the study was to find out more about the molecular mechanism relating to alternate bearing in Citrus and its relationship with flowering. The 'Moncada' variety (Clementine 'Oroval'x'Kara' mandarin), displaying remarkable behaviour in alternate production, was used in this study. From 2D DIGE gel, 192 spots were isolated: 97 showed increased expression in the off-crop buds as compared to the on-crop buds, while 95 exhibited enhanced expression in the on-crop buds versus the off-crop buds. These spots were identified by MALDI-MS or LC-MS-MS. The largest groups of proteins up-expressed in the off-crop buds were the proteins involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and the proteins expressed in response to stimuli such as reactive oxygen species. The largest groups of proteins up-expressed in the on-crop buds were related to primary metabolism, oxidative stress and defence responses. Depending on their function, some of these proteins can stimulate the flowering, such as fructose-bisphosphate aldolase or leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein kinase, while others can inhibit it, such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit II. Twenty-two other proteins with unknown functions were up-expressed in the on- or off-crop buds.

  13. Size Does Matter: Staging of Silene latifolia Floral Buds for Transcriptome Studies

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Su San; Perlin, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Dioecious plants in the Caryophyllaceae family are susceptible to infection by members of the anthericolous smut fungi. In our studies of the Silene latifolia/Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae pathosystem, we were interested in characterizing the plant-pathogen interaction at the molecular level before and during teliosporogenesis. This takes place during floral bud development, and we hoped to capture the interaction by Illumina Next-Gen RNA-Sequencing. Using previous literature that documented the stages of the floral buds for S. latifolia, we examined the floral buds from plants grown and infected under growth chamber conditions, using the disserting microscope to determine the stage of floral buds based on the morphology. We compiled the information and determined the size of floral buds that correspond to the desired stages of development for tissue collection, for the purpose of RNA-sequencing. This offers a practical approach for researchers who require a large number of floral buds/tissue categorized by stages of development, ascertaining whether infected/uninfected buds are at comparable stages of development and whether this also holds true for male vs. female buds. We also document our experience in infecting the plants and some of the unusual morphologies we observed after infection. PMID:26378529

  14. New technique for more rapid cryopreservation of dormant vegetative tree buds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation of dormant buds of temperate trees in liquid nitrogen can provide a safe backup of field germplasm collections. However the process requires several months of preparation before buds can be cryopreserved. Cryopreservation at the natural moisture content (MC) would greatly accelerate...

  15. A molecular timetable for apical bud formation and dormancy induction in poplar.

    PubMed

    Ruttink, Tom; Arend, Matthias; Morreel, Kris; Storme, Véronique; Rombauts, Stephane; Fromm, Jörg; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P; Boerjan, Wout; Rohde, Antje

    2007-08-01

    The growth of perennial plants in the temperate zone alternates with periods of dormancy that are typically initiated during bud development in autumn. In a systems biology approach to unravel the underlying molecular program of apical bud development in poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba), combined transcript and metabolite profiling were applied to a high-resolution time course from short-day induction to complete dormancy. Metabolite and gene expression dynamics were used to reconstruct the temporal sequence of events during bud development. Importantly, bud development could be dissected into bud formation, acclimation to dehydration and cold, and dormancy. To each of these processes, specific sets of regulatory and marker genes and metabolites are associated and provide a reference frame for future functional studies. Light, ethylene, and abscisic acid signal transduction pathways consecutively control bud development by setting, modifying, or terminating these processes. Ethylene signal transduction is positioned temporally between light and abscisic acid signals and is putatively activated by transiently low hexose pools. The timing and place of cell proliferation arrest (related to dormancy) and of the accumulation of storage compounds (related to acclimation processes) were established within the bud by electron microscopy. Finally, the identification of a large set of genes commonly expressed during the growth-to-dormancy transitions in poplar apical buds, cambium, or Arabidopsis thaliana seeds suggests parallels in the underlying molecular mechanisms in different plant organs.

  16. Complete genome sequence and construction of infectious full-length cDNA clones of tobacco ringspot Nepovirus, a viral pathogen causing bud blight in soybean.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fumei; Hwang, Un Sun; Lim, Seungmo; Yoo, Ran Hee; Igori, Davaajargal; Lee, Su-Heon; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun

    2015-08-01

    Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV, genus Nepovirus), causes severe diseases in soybean and tobacco plants. TRSV-induced bud blight disease significantly reduced both the yield and quality of soybeans. The function of the encoded viral gene product involved in TRSV infection was unclear due to the limitation of reverse genetics studies on the viral genome. Here, we represent the successful construction of infectious full-length cDNA clones of TRSV genome (RNA1 and RNA2). The cDNAs of TRSV RNA1 and RNA2 were cloned into the binary vector pPZP211 immediately downstream of a double cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and upstream of the nopaline synthase terminator. Seven days after agrobacterium-mediated co-inoculation of these two constructs, Nicotiana benthamiana plants developed a systemic infection with necrotic ringspot symptoms and weak stunting of the leaves, similar to that induced by natural TRSV. The systemic infection was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Western blot analysis. Simultaneously, soybean, tomato, and Arabidopsis ecotype Estland were mechanically inoculated with sap prepared from TRSV-agroinfiltrated N. benthamiana leaves, showing typical symptoms of bud blight, necrotic spots, and lethal systemic necrosis, respectively. The system developed herein will be an appealing way to determine TRSV viral gene functions and study host-TRSV interactions. PMID:26159876

  17. Isolation and partial characterization of a novel virus from different carp species suffering gill necrosis - ultrastructure and morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Granzow, H; Fichtner, D; Schütze, H; Lenk, M; Dresenkamp, B; Nieper, H; Mettenleiter, T C

    2014-06-01

    Two isolates of a novel enveloped RNA virus were obtained from carp and koi carp with gill necrosis. Both isolates behaved identically and could be propagated in different cyprinid cell lines forming large syncytia. The virus was sensitive to lipid solvents and neither exhibited haemadsorption/haemagglutination nor reverse transcriptase activity. Mature virus particles displayed a spherical shape with diameter of 100-350 nm after negative staining and 100-300 nm in ultrathin sections, covered by short projections of 8-10 nm in length. Maturation of virus progeny was shown to occur by budding and envelopment of the filamentous helical nucleocapsids at the cell surface. A detailed comparison of ultrastructure and morphogenesis of the novel virus isolates with selected arena-, ortho- and paramyxoviruses as possible candidates for evaluation of taxonomic classification yielded no consistency in all phenotypic features. Thus, on the basis of ultrastructure the novel virus isolates could not be assigned unequivocally to any established virus family. PMID:23865968

  18. Computational model of polarized actin cables and cytokinetic actin ring formation in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Haosu; Bidone, Tamara C.

    2015-01-01

    The budding yeast actin cables and contractile ring are important for polarized growth and division, revealing basic aspects of cytoskeletal function. To study these formin-nucleated structures, we built a 3D computational model with actin filaments represented as beads connected by springs. Polymerization by formins at the bud tip and bud neck, crosslinking, severing, and myosin pulling, are included. Parameter values were estimated from prior experiments. The model generates actin cable structures and dynamics similar to those of wild type and formin deletion mutant cells. Simulations with increased polymerization rate result in long, wavy cables. Simulated pulling by type V myosin stretches actin cables. Increasing the affinity of actin filaments for the bud neck together with reduced myosin V pulling promotes the formation of a bundle of antiparallel filaments at the bud neck, which we suggest as a model for the assembly of actin filaments to the contractile ring. PMID:26538307

  19. Glyphosate effects on the gene expression of the apical bud in soybean (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling-Xue; Jin, Long-Guo; Guo, Yong; Tao, Bo; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2013-08-01

    Glyphosate is a broad spectrum, non-selective herbicide which has been widely used for weed control. Much work has focused on elucidating the high accumulation of glyphosate in shoot apical bud (shoot apex). However, to date little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the sensitivity of shoot apical bud to glyphosate. Global gene expression profiling of the soybean apical bud response to glyphosate treatment was performed in this study. The results revealed that the glyphosate inhibited tryptophan biosynthesis of the shikimic acid pathway in the soybean apical bud, which was the target site of glyphosate. Glyphosate inhibited the expression of most of the target herbicide site genes. The promoter sequence analysis of key target genes revealed that light responsive elements were important regulators in glyphosate induction. These results will facilitate further studies of cloning genes and molecular mechanisms of glyphosate on soybean shoot apical bud.

  20. The ureteric bud epithelium: Morphogenesis and roles in metanephric kidney patterning

    PubMed Central

    Nagalakshmi, Vidya K.; Yu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian metanephric kidney is composed of two epithelial components –the collecting duct system and the nephron epithelium– that differentiate from two different tissues –the ureteric bud epithelium and the nephron progenitors, respectively– of intermediate mesoderm origin. The collecting duct system is generated through reiterative ureteric bud branching morphogenesis whereas the nephron epithelium is formed in a process termed nephrogenesis, which is initiated with the mesenchymal-epithelial transition of the nephron progenitors. Ureteric bud branching morphogenesis is regulated by nephron progenitors, and in return the ureteric bud epithelium regulates nephrogenesis. The metanephric kidney is also physiologically divided along the cortico-medullary axis into subcompartments that are enriched with specific segments of these two epithelial structures. Here we provide an overview of the major molecular and cellular processes underlying the morphogenesis and patterning of the ureteric bud epithelium and its roles in the cortical-medullary patterning of the metanephric kidney. PMID:25783232

  1. Novel Features of the Prenatal Horn Bud Development in Cattle (Bos taurus)

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Dominique Judith; Wiedemar, Natalie; Welle, Monika Maria; Drögemüller, Cord

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the genetic background of horn growth in cattle has been studied extensively, little is known about the morphological changes in the developing fetal horn bud. In this study we histologically analyzed the development of horn buds of bovine fetuses between ~70 and ~268 days of pregnancy and compared them with biopsies taken from the frontal skin of the same fetuses. In addition we compared the samples from the wild type (horned) fetuses with samples taken from the horn bud region of age-matched genetically hornless (polled) fetuses. In summary, the horn bud with multiple layers of vacuolated keratinocytes is histologically visible early in fetal life already at around day 70 of gestation and can be easily differentiated from the much thinner epidermis of the frontal skin. However, at the gestation day (gd) 212 the epidermis above the horn bud shows a similar morphology to the epidermis of the frontal skin and the outstanding layers of vacuolated keratinocytes have disappeared. Immature hair follicles are seen in the frontal skin at gd 115 whereas hair follicles below the horn bud are not present until gd 155. Interestingly, thick nerve bundles appear in the dermis below the horn bud at gd 115. These nerve fibers grow in size over time and are prominent shortly before birth. Prominent nerve bundles are not present in the frontal skin of wild type or in polled fetuses at any time, indicating that the horn bud is a very sensitive area. The samples from the horn bud region from polled fetuses are histologically equivalent to samples taken from the frontal skin in horned species. This is the first study that presents unique histological data on bovine prenatal horn bud differentiation at different developmental stages which creates knowledge for a better understanding of recent molecular findings. PMID:25993643

  2. Breaking-bud pollination: a new pollination process in partially opened flowers by small bees.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Futa; Ohsawa, Takeshi A

    2015-09-01

    Plant-pollinator interactions have usually been researched in flowers that have fully opened. However, some pollinators can visit flowers before full opening and contribute to fruit and seed sets. In this paper, we researched the pollination biology of flowers just starting to open in four field experiments. We observed the insect visitors to Lycoris sanguinea var. sanguinea for 3 years at five sites. These observations revealed that only small bees, Lasioglossum japonicum, often entered through tiny spaces between the tepals of 'breaking buds' (i.e. partially opened flowers) and collected pollen. We hypothesized that they can pollinate this species at the breaking-bud stage, when the stigma is located near the anthers. To measure the pollination effect of small bees at the breaking-bud stage, we bagged several breaking buds after small bees had visited them and examined whether these buds were pollinated. In bagging experiments, 30% of the breaking buds set fruit and seeds. Fruit-set ratios of the breaking buds did not differ significantly from those of the fully opened flowers, which had been visited by several insect species. We also counted the pollen grain numbers on the body of L. japonicum and on the anthers of randomly-selected and manipulated flowers. These experiments revealed that all of the captured bees had some pollen of target plants and that L. japonicum collected most of the pollen grains at the breaking-bud stage. Our results showed that the new pollination process, breaking-bud pollination, happened in breaking buds by L. japonicum, although there is no evidence to reveal that this is the most effective pollination method for L. sanguinea var. sanguinea. In principle, this new pollination process can occur in other flowering plants and our results are a major contribution to studies of plant-pollinator interactions.

  3. BudBurst Buddies: A New Tool for Engaging the Youngest Citizen Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, L. S.; Henderson, S.; Ward, D.

    2010-12-01

    BudBurst Buddies (www.budburstbuddies.org) introduces elementary school age children to the science of observing plants and the timing of phenological (life cycle) events. BudBurst Buddies is a new part of the Project BudBurst national citizen science initiative (www.budburst.org), which allows individuals to engage in the scientific process, contributing to a better understanding of climate change while increasing public awareness of phenology and the impacts of climate change on plants. As a first step towards engaging the next generation of citizen scientists, BudBurst Buddies provides the opportunity for children to gain experience with scientific research and increases awareness of how plants change throughout the year. Children can participate in BudBurst Buddies on their own, with their families, or in formal or informal education settings. Each child who participates creates a journal about a plant of his or her choosing, makes observations of the plant over the growing season and submits findings online, earning an official BudBurst Buddies certificate. An online storybook for kids tells how two children, Lily and Sage, observed plants in their neighborhood and became BudBurst Buddies. This presentation will provide an overview of the BudBurst Buddies newly developed resources. BudBurst Buddies is a part of Project BudBurst, a national citizen science program coordinated by the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and the Chicago Botanic Garden. Funding for this resource was provided by NEON, NSF, NASA, and the National Geographic Education Foundation.

  4. Tracheal necrosis with surgical emphysema following thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, A; Ganguly, M; Saidha, N; Gulia, P

    2009-01-01

    Tracheal necrosis after thyroidectomy is an extremely rare event with only a few published reports. We present a case of a 65-year-old male who developed rapidly progressive surgical emphysema of face and upper thorax on the seventh day following total thyroidectomy. Prompt surgical exploration of neck revealed a tracheal rent at the level of the second tracheal ring. This hole was then refashioned into a formal tracheostomy. Patient had an eventful recovery. Tracheostomy was closed by the 14th day. The complication was probably related to tracheal injury sustained due to electro-coagulation and subsequent secondary infection. PMID:19884745

  5. Tracheal necrosis with surgical emphysema following thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, A; Ganguly, M; Saidha, N; Gulia, P

    2009-01-01

    Tracheal necrosis after thyroidectomy is an extremely rare event with only a few published reports. We present a case of a 65-year-old male who developed rapidly progressive surgical emphysema of face and upper thorax on the seventh day following total thyroidectomy. Prompt surgical exploration of neck revealed a tracheal rent at the level of the second tracheal ring. This hole was then refashioned into a formal tracheostomy. Patient had an eventful recovery. Tracheostomy was closed by the 14th day. The complication was probably related to tracheal injury sustained due to electro-coagulation and subsequent secondary infection.

  6. The physics of lipid droplet nucleation, growth and budding.

    PubMed

    Thiam, Abdou Rachid; Forêt, Lionel

    2016-08-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular oil-in-water emulsion droplets, covered by a phospholipid monolayer and mainly present in the cytosol. Despite their important role in cellular metabolism and growing number of newly identified functions, LD formation mechanism from the endoplasmic reticulum remains poorly understood. To form a LD, the oil molecules synthesized in the ER accumulate between the monolayer leaflets and induce deformation of the membrane. This formation process works through three steps: nucleation, growth and budding, exactly as in phase separation and dewetting phenomena. These steps involve sequential biophysical membrane remodeling mechanisms for which we present basic tools of statistical physics, membrane biophysics, and soft matter science underlying them. We aim to highlight relevant factors that could control LD formation size, site and number through this physics description. An emphasis will be given to a currently underestimated contribution of the molecular interactions between lipids to favor an energetically costless mechanism of LD formation.

  7. Knowing when to grow: signals regulating bud dormancy.

    PubMed

    Horvath, David P; Anderson, James V; Chao, Wun S; Foley, Michael E

    2003-11-01

    Dormancy regulation in vegetative buds is a complex process necessary for plant survival, development and architecture. Our understanding of and ability to manipulate these processes are crucial for increasing the yield and availability of much of the world's food. In many cases, release of dormancy results in increased cell division and changes in developmental programs. Much can be learned about dormancy regulation by identifying interactions of signals in these crucial processes. Internal signals such as hormones and sugar, and external signals such as light act through specific, overlapping signal transduction pathways to regulate endo-, eco- and paradormancy. Epigenetic-like regulation of endodormancy suggests a possible role for chromatin remodeling similar to that known for the vernalization responses during flowering.

  8. Anisotropic stress orients remodelling of mammalian limb bud ectoderm

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Kimberly; Tao, Hirotaka; Liu, Haijiao; Wen, Jun; Sturgeon, Kendra; Sorfazlian, Natalie; Lazic, Savo; Burrows, Jeffrey T. A.; Wong, Michael D.; Li, Danyi; Deimling, Steven; Ciruna, Brian; Scott, Ian; Simmons, Craig; Henkelman, R. Mark; Williams, Trevor; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Sun, Yu; Hopyan, Sevan

    2016-01-01

    The physical forces that drive morphogenesis are not well characterized in vivo, especially among vertebrates. In the early limb bud, dorsal and ventral ectoderm converge to form the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. By live imaging mouse embryos, we show that prospective AER progenitors intercalate at the dorsoventral boundary and that ectoderm remodels by concomitant cell division and neighbour exchange. Mesodermal expansion and ectodermal tension together generate a dorsoventrally biased stress pattern that orients ectodermal remodelling. Polarized distribution of cortical actin reflects this stress pattern in a β-catenin- and Fgfr2-dependent manner. Intercalation of AER progenitors generates a tensile gradient that reorients resolution of multicellular rosettes on adjacent surfaces, a process facilitated by β-catenin-dependent attachment of cortex to membrane. Therefore, feedback between tissue stress pattern and cell intercalations remodels mammalian ectoderm. PMID:25893915

  9. Mitochondrial inheritance in budding yeasts: towards an integrated understanding.

    PubMed

    Solieri, Lisa

    2010-11-01

    Recent advances in yeast mitogenomics have significantly contributed to our understanding of the diversity of organization, structure and topology in the mitochondrial genome of budding yeasts. In parallel, new insights on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) inheritance in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae highlighted an integrated scenario where recombination, replication and segregation of mtDNA are intricately linked to mitochondrial nucleoid (mt-nucleoid) structure and organelle sorting. In addition to this, recent discoveries of bifunctional roles of some mitochondrial proteins have interesting implications on mito-nuclear genome interactions and the relationship between mtDNA inheritance, yeast fitness and speciation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on yeast mitogenomics, mtDNA inheritance with regard to mt-nucleoid structure and organelle dynamics, and mito-nuclear genome interactions.

  10. Taste bud leptin: sweet dampened at initiation site.

    PubMed

    Travers, Susan P; Frank, Marion E

    2015-05-01

    The intriguing observation that leptin decreases sweet-evoked peripheral gustatory responses has aroused much interest (Kawai K, Sugimoto K, Nakashima K, Miura H, Ninomiya Y. 2000. Leptin as a modulator of sweet taste sensitivities in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97(20):11044-11049.) due to its implied importance in controlling appetite. The effects of this anorexic hormone, however, appear more conditional than originally believed. In this issue of Chemical Senses, a careful study by Glendinning and colleagues, find no effects of leptin on sweet-evoked chorda tympani responses, whereas an equally careful study by Meredith and colleagues, find decreased release of ATP and increased release of 5-HT from taste buds in response to sweet stimuli.

  11. Saccharomyces Genome Database: the genomics resource of budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, J. Michael; Hong, Eurie L.; Amundsen, Craig; Balakrishnan, Rama; Binkley, Gail; Chan, Esther T.; Christie, Karen R.; Costanzo, Maria C.; Dwight, Selina S.; Engel, Stacia R.; Fisk, Dianna G.; Hirschman, Jodi E.; Hitz, Benjamin C.; Karra, Kalpana; Krieger, Cynthia J.; Miyasato, Stuart R.; Nash, Rob S.; Park, Julie; Skrzypek, Marek S.; Simison, Matt; Weng, Shuai; Wong, Edith D.

    2012-01-01

    The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD, http://www.yeastgenome.org) is the community resource for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The SGD project provides the highest-quality manually curated information from peer-reviewed literature. The experimental results reported in the literature are extracted and integrated within a well-developed database. These data are combined with quality high-throughput results and provided through Locus Summary pages, a powerful query engine and rich genome browser. The acquisition, integration and retrieval of these data allow SGD to facilitate experimental design and analysis by providing an encyclopedia of the yeast genome, its chromosomal features, their functions and interactions. Public access to these data is provided to researchers and educators via web pages designed for optimal ease of use. PMID:22110037

  12. Saccharomyces Genome Database: the genomics resource of budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Cherry, J Michael; Hong, Eurie L; Amundsen, Craig; Balakrishnan, Rama; Binkley, Gail; Chan, Esther T; Christie, Karen R; Costanzo, Maria C; Dwight, Selina S; Engel, Stacia R; Fisk, Dianna G; Hirschman, Jodi E; Hitz, Benjamin C; Karra, Kalpana; Krieger, Cynthia J; Miyasato, Stuart R; Nash, Rob S; Park, Julie; Skrzypek, Marek S; Simison, Matt; Weng, Shuai; Wong, Edith D

    2012-01-01

    The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD, http://www.yeastgenome.org) is the community resource for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The SGD project provides the highest-quality manually curated information from peer-reviewed literature. The experimental results reported in the literature are extracted and integrated within a well-developed database. These data are combined with quality high-throughput results and provided through Locus Summary pages, a powerful query engine and rich genome browser. The acquisition, integration and retrieval of these data allow SGD to facilitate experimental design and analysis by providing an encyclopedia of the yeast genome, its chromosomal features, their functions and interactions. Public access to these data is provided to researchers and educators via web pages designed for optimal ease of use. PMID:22110037

  13. A comprehensive model to predict mitotic division in budding yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Sutradhar, Sabyasachi; Yadav, Vikas; Sridhar, Shreyas; Sreekumar, Lakshmi; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Ghosh, Santanu Kumar; Paul, Raja; Sanyal, Kaustuv

    2015-01-01

    High-fidelity chromosome segregation during cell division depends on a series of concerted interdependent interactions. Using a systems biology approach, we built a robust minimal computational model to comprehend mitotic events in dividing budding yeasts of two major phyla: Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. This model accurately reproduces experimental observations related to spindle alignment, nuclear migration, and microtubule (MT) dynamics during cell division in these yeasts. The model converges to the conclusion that biased nucleation of cytoplasmic microtubules (cMTs) is essential for directional nuclear migration. Two distinct pathways, based on the population of cMTs and cortical dyneins, differentiate nuclear migration and spindle orientation in these two phyla. In addition, the model accurately predicts the contribution of specific classes of MTs in chromosome segregation. Thus we present a model that offers a wider applicability to simulate the effects of perturbation of an event on the concerted process of the mitotic cell division. PMID:26310442

  14. A comprehensive model to predict mitotic division in budding yeasts.

    PubMed

    Sutradhar, Sabyasachi; Yadav, Vikas; Sridhar, Shreyas; Sreekumar, Lakshmi; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Ghosh, Santanu Kumar; Paul, Raja; Sanyal, Kaustuv

    2015-11-01

    High-fidelity chromosome segregation during cell division depends on a series of concerted interdependent interactions. Using a systems biology approach, we built a robust minimal computational model to comprehend mitotic events in dividing budding yeasts of two major phyla: Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. This model accurately reproduces experimental observations related to spindle alignment, nuclear migration, and microtubule (MT) dynamics during cell division in these yeasts. The model converges to the conclusion that biased nucleation of cytoplasmic microtubules (cMTs) is essential for directional nuclear migration. Two distinct pathways, based on the population of cMTs and cortical dyneins, differentiate nuclear migration and spindle orientation in these two phyla. In addition, the model accurately predicts the contribution of specific classes of MTs in chromosome segregation. Thus we present a model that offers a wider applicability to simulate the effects of perturbation of an event on the concerted process of the mitotic cell division.

  15. Actin Depolymerization Drives Actomyosin Ring Contraction during Budding Yeast Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Inês Mendes; Rubinstein, Boris; Kucharavy, Andrei; Unruh, Jay R.; Li, Rong

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Actin filaments and myosin-II are evolutionarily conserved force generating components of the contractile ring during cytokinesis. Here we show that in budding yeast actin filament depolymerization plays a major role in actomyosin ring constriction. Cofilin mutation or chemically stabilizing actin filaments attenuates actomyosin ring constriction. Deletion of myosin-II motor domain or the myosin regulatory light chain reduced the contraction rate and also the rate of actin depolymerization in the ring. We constructed a quantitative microscopic model of actomyosin ring constriction via filament sliding driven by both actin depolymerization and myosin-II motor activity. Model simulations based on experimental measurements supports the notion that actin depolymerization is the predominant mechanism for ring constriction. The model predicts invariability of total contraction time irrespective of the initial ring size as originally reported for C elegans embryonic cells. This prediction was validated in yeast cells of different sizes due to having different ploidies. PMID:22698284

  16. The Composition, Functions, and Regulation of the Budding Yeast Kinetochore

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of all organisms depends on the accurate and orderly segregation of chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis. Budding yeast has long served as an outstanding model organism to identify the components and underlying mechanisms that regulate chromosome segregation. This review focuses on the kinetochore, the macromolecular protein complex that assembles on centromeric chromatin and maintains persistent load-bearing attachments to the dynamic tips of spindle microtubules. The kinetochore also serves as a regulatory hub for the spindle checkpoint, ensuring that cell cycle progression is coupled to the achievement of proper microtubule–kinetochore attachments. Progress in understanding the composition and overall architecture of the kinetochore, as well as its properties in making and regulating microtubule attachments and the spindle checkpoint, is discussed. PMID:23908374

  17. Phytase production by solid-state fermentation of groundnut oil cake by Aspergillus niger: A bioprocess optimization study for animal feedstock applications.

    PubMed

    Buddhiwant, Priyanka; Bhavsar, Kavita; Kumar, V Ravi; Khire, Jayant M

    2016-08-17

    This investigation deals with the use of agro-industrial waste, namely groundnut oil cake (GOC), for phytase production by the fungi Aspergillus niger NCIM 563. Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was used to evaluate the effect of 11 process variables and studies here showed that phytase production was significantly influenced by glucose, dextrin, distilled water, and MgSO4 · 7H2O. The use of response surface methodology (RSM) by Box-Behnken design (BBD) of experiments further enhanced the production by a remarkable 36.67-fold from the original finding of 15 IU/gds (grams of dry substrate) to 550 IU/gds. This is the highest solid-state fermentation (SSF) phytase production reported when compared to other microorganisms and in fact betters the best known by a factor of 2. Experiments carried out using dried fermented koji for phosphorus and mineral release and also thermal stability have shown the phytase to be as efficient as the liquid enzyme extract. Also, the enzyme, while exhibiting optimal activity under acidic conditions, was found to have significant activity in a broad range of pH values (1.5-6.5). The studies suggest the suitability of the koji supplemented with phytase produced in an SSF process by the "generally regarded as safe" (GRAS) microorganism A. niger as a cost-effective value-added livestock feed when compared to that obtained by submerged fermentation (SmF).

  18. Phytase production by solid-state fermentation of groundnut oil cake by Aspergillus niger: A bioprocess optimization study for animal feedstock applications.

    PubMed

    Buddhiwant, Priyanka; Bhavsar, Kavita; Kumar, V Ravi; Khire, Jayant M

    2016-08-17

    This investigation deals with the use of agro-industrial waste, namely groundnut oil cake (GOC), for phytase production by the fungi Aspergillus niger NCIM 563. Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was used to evaluate the effect of 11 process variables and studies here showed that phytase production was significantly influenced by glucose, dextrin, distilled water, and MgSO4 · 7H2O. The use of response surface methodology (RSM) by Box-Behnken design (BBD) of experiments further enhanced the production by a remarkable 36.67-fold from the original finding of 15 IU/gds (grams of dry substrate) to 550 IU/gds. This is the highest solid-state fermentation (SSF) phytase production reported when compared to other microorganisms and in fact betters the best known by a factor of 2. Experiments carried out using dried fermented koji for phosphorus and mineral release and also thermal stability have shown the phytase to be as efficient as the liquid enzyme extract. Also, the enzyme, while exhibiting optimal activity under acidic conditions, was found to have significant activity in a broad range of pH values (1.5-6.5). The studies suggest the suitability of the koji supplemented with phytase produced in an SSF process by the "generally regarded as safe" (GRAS) microorganism A. niger as a cost-effective value-added livestock feed when compared to that obtained by submerged fermentation (SmF). PMID:26176365

  19. Effect of insecticides alone and in combination with fungicides on nitrification and phosphatase activity in two groundnut (Arachis hypogeae L.) soils.

    PubMed

    Srinivasulu, M; Jaffer Mohiddin, G; Subramanyam, K; Rangaswamy, V

    2012-06-01

    The effect of selected pesticides, monocrotophos, chlorpyrifos alone and in combination with mancozeb and carbendazim, respectively, was tested on nitrification and phosphatase activity in two groundnut (Arachis hypogeae L.) soils. The oxidation of ammonical nitrogen was significantly enhanced under the impact of selected pesticides alone and in combinations at 2.5 kg ha(-1) in black soil, and furthermore, increase in concentration of pesticides decreased the rate of nitrification, whereas in the case of red soil, the nitrification was increased up to 5.0 kg ha(-1) after 4 weeks, and then decline phase was started gradually from 6 to 8 weeks of incubation. The activity of phosphatase was increased in soils, which received the monocrotophos alone and in combination with mancozeb up to 2.5 and 5.0 kg ha(-1), whereas the application of chlorpyrifos singly and in combination with carbendazim at 2.5 kg ha(-1) profoundly increased the phosphatase activity after 20 days of incubation, in both soils. But higher concentrations of pesticides were either innocuous or inhibitory to the phosphatase activity.

  20. Carbohydrate uptake from xylem vessels and its distribution among stem tissues and buds in walnut (Juglans regia L.).

    PubMed

    Bonhomme, Marc; Peuch, Médéric; Ameglio, Thierry; Rageau, Rémy; Guilliot, Agnès; Decourteix, Mélanie; Alves, Georges; Sakr, Soulaiman; Lacointe, André

    2010-01-01

    Bud break pattern is a key determinant of tree architecture. The mechanisms leading to the precedence of certain buds over the others are not yet fully explained, but the availability of soluble sugars may play a significant role, especially those in the xylem sap at the onset of the growing period. Here, we measured carbon availability in the different tissues (bud, xylem and bark). To assess the capacity of buds to use the xylem sap carbohydrates, the fluxes between xylem vessels and parenchyma cells, bark and buds of walnut (Juglans regia cv 'Franquette') were measured during the rest period until bud break. This uptake capacity varies according to the temperature, the sugar and the position on the branch of the fragment studied. Between December and March, in xylem tissues, the active component of sucrose uptake was predominant compared with diffusion (90% of the total uptake), whereas the active component accounted for more moderate amounts in buds (50% of the uptake). The active uptake of hexoses took place belatedly (April) in xylem. The flow rates between xylem vessels and buds increased 1 month before bud break and reached 2000 microg sucrose h(-)(1) g DW(-)(1). Fluxes seemed to depend on bud position on the branch. However, this study strongly suggests that they were mainly dependent on the sink strength of the buds and on the sink competition between bud, xylem parenchyma and bark.

  1. Tumor necrosis factor alpha and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Luster, M I; Simeonova, P P; Gallucci, R; Matheson, J

    1999-09-01

    The molecular cloning of a group of proteins, collectively referred to as cytokines, and including interleukins, chemokines, growth factors, colony stimulating factors, and tumor necrosis factors, has allowed for the increased understanding of the mechanisms for many disease processes as well as provided strategies for the development of novel therapies. Conceptually similar to hormones and peptides, this group of phylogenetically related molecules are also involved in various toxicological processes, including apoptosis, cell repair, and in particular inflammation. In this review, we offer a description of what many believe represents the primary regulatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha and its role in toxicological processes. For over a decade it has been suspected that this molecule helps mediate the shock state induced by bacterial endotoxin and the wasting diathesis that typifies chronic diseases. Advances in molecular biology that have provided tools to modulate TNFalpha regulation and synthesis have allowed for the identification of additional roles for TNFalpha in homeostasis, cellular damage, and repair. This review provides a brief summary of our understanding of TNFalpha biology followed by a discussion of its role in toxicological responses. This is followed by specific examples of organ-specific and tissue-specific responses to chemical damage where TNFalpha has been implicated. The review concludes with a review of its implication in human risk assessment, particularly as it relates to genetic polymorphisms of TNFalpha expression and disease susceptibility.

  2. Mechanisms of Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Dean W.; James, Laura P.

    2010-01-01

    Although considered safe at therapeutic doses, at higher doses, acetaminophen produces a centrilobular hepatic necrosis that can be fatal. Acetaminophen poisoning accounts for approximately one-half of all cases of acute liver failure in the United States and Great Britain today. The mechanism occurs by a complex sequence of events. These events include: (1) CYP metabolism to a reactive metabolite which depletes glutathione and covalently binds to proteins; (2) loss of glutathione with an increased formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in hepatocytes undergoing necrotic changes; (3) increased oxidative stress, associated with alterations in calcium homeostasis and initiation of signal transduction responses, causing mitochondrial permeability transition; (4) mitochondrial permeability transition occurring with additional oxidative stress, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and loss of the ability of the mitochondria to synthesize ATP; and (5) loss of ATP which leads to necrosis. Associated with these essential events there appear to be a number of inflammatory mediators such as certain cytokines and chemokines that can modify the toxicity. Some have been shown to alter oxidative stress, but the relationship of these modulators to other critical mechanistic events has not been well delineated. In addition, existing data support the involvement of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in the initiation of regenerative processes leading to the reestablishment of hepatic structure and function. PMID:20020268

  3. [Micrococcus sp.--the pathogen of leaf necrosis of horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.) in Kiev].

    PubMed

    Iakovleva, L M; Makhinia, L V; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E

    2013-01-01

    A group of phytopathogenic bacteria was isolated from patterns of drying horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.), which grow in Kyiv. The properties of slowly growing, highly aggressive microorganisms have been described in the paper. They grow up on the 8-10th day after sowing. The investigated microorganisms form very small (0.5-1 mm in diameter) colonies on the potato agar. Bacteria are protuberant, shining, smooth with flat edges, they are pale yellow, yellow, or pink. The bacteria are Gram-positive, spherical, are disposed in smears singly, in pairs, as accumulations, or netting. They are aerobes, do not form spores, are not mobile. They are inert in respect of different sources of carbon. They reduce nitrates, do not dilute gelatin, do not hydrolyze starch, do not release hydrogen sulphide and indole. The bacteria are catalase-positive, oxidase-negative. They do not cause potato and carrot rot. They lose quickly their viability under the laboratory conditions. The saturated acids C 14:0; C 15:0; C16:0; C18:0 have been revealed in the composition of cellular fatty acids. Microorganisms are identified as Micrococcus sp. Under artificial inoculation this highly aggressive pathogen causes drying of the horse-chestnut buds and necrosis, which occupies 1/3-1/2 of the leaf plate. A wide zone of chlorosis, surrounding necrosis, may occupy the whole leaf surface. The infected leaves use to twist up from the top (apex) or along a midrib and to dry. PMID:23866588

  4. Using dielectrophoresis to study the dynamic response of single budding yeast cells to Lyticase.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Yi, Pyshar; Soffe, Rebecca; Nahavandi, Sofia; Shukla, Ravi; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2015-05-01

    Budding yeast cells are quick and easy to grow and represent a versatile model of eukaryotic cells for a variety of cellular studies, largely because their genome has been widely studied and links can be drawn with higher eukaryotes. Therefore, the efficient separation, immobilization, and conversion of budding yeasts into spheroplast or protoplast can provide valuable insight for many fundamentals investigations in cell biology at a single cell level. Dielectrophoresis, the induced motion of particles in non-uniform electric fields, possesses a great versatility for manipulation of cells in microfluidic platforms. Despite this, dielectrophoresis has been largely utilized for studying of non-budding yeast cells and has rarely been used for manipulation of budding cells. Here, we utilize dielectrophoresis for studying the dynamic response of budding cells to different concentrations of Lyticase. This involves separation of the budding yeasts from a background of non-budding cells and their subsequent immobilization onto the microelectrodes at desired densities down to single cell level. The immobilized yeasts are then stimulated with Lyticase to remove the cell wall and convert them into spheroplasts, in a highly dynamic process that depends on the concentration of Lyticase. We also introduce a novel method for immobilization of the cell organelles released from the lysed cells by patterning multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) between the microelectrodes. PMID:25701421

  5. Increased IAA transport in axillary buds upon release from apical dominance

    SciTech Connect

    Tamas, I.A.; Reimels, A.J. )

    1989-04-01

    To investigate the transport of indoleacetic acid (IAA) simultaneously in the stem and the axillary bud, bud-bearing nodal stem segments of Phaseolus vulgaris L. were excised and agar blocks containing {sup 14}C-IAA or {sup 3}H-IAA were placed on the apical cut surface and the bud stump respectively. A plain receiver block was placed on the basal end. After a period of transport, the stem segment and the attached bud stump were sectioned, and the activity of sections and agar blocks was counted. We found that the transport of {sup 3}H-IAA from the bud stump to the receiver was greatly accelerated in plants decapitated one or two days prior to the experiment, compared to the intact controls. Decapitation also caused a decrease in the ability of the stem axis to transport {sup 14}C-IAA from the apical to the basal end of the stem segment. The increased ability of the axillary bud to transport IAA, relative to that of the stem axis, may play a role int he release of the bud from apical dominance.

  6. Neuronal Nuclear Membrane Budding Occurs during a Developmental Window Modulated by Torsin Paralogs.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Lauren M; Liang, Chun-Chi; Dauer, William T

    2016-09-20

    DYT1 dystonia is a neurodevelopmental disease that manifests during a discrete period of childhood. The disease is caused by impaired function of torsinA, a protein linked to nuclear membrane budding. The relationship of NE budding to neural development and CNS function is unclear, however, obscuring its potential role in dystonia pathogenesis. We find NE budding begins and resolves during a discrete neurodevelopmental window in torsinA null neurons in vivo. The developmental resolution of NE budding corresponds to increased torsinB protein, while ablating torsinB from torsinA null neurons prevents budding resolution and causes lethal neural dysfunction. Developmental changes in torsinB also correlate with NE bud formation in differentiating DYT1 embryonic stem cells, and overexpression of torsinA or torsinB rescues NE bud formation in this system. These findings identify a torsinA neurodevelopmental window that is essential for normal CNS function and have important implications for dystonia pathogenesis and therapeutics. PMID:27653693

  7. Auxin dynamics after decapitation are not correlated with the initial growth of axillary buds.

    PubMed

    Morris, Suzanne E; Cox, Marjolein C H; Ross, John J; Krisantini, Santi; Beveridge, Christine A

    2005-07-01

    One of the first and most enduring roles identified for the plant hormone auxin is the mediation of apical dominance. Many reports have claimed that reduced stem indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels and/or reduced basipetal IAA transport directly or indirectly initiate bud growth in decapitated plants. We have tested whether auxin inhibits the initial stage of bud release, or subsequent stages, in garden pea (Pisum sativum) by providing a rigorous examination of the dynamics of auxin level, auxin transport, and axillary bud growth. We demonstrate that after decapitation, initial bud growth occurs prior to changes in IAA level or transport in surrounding stem tissue and is not prevented by an acropetal supply of exogenous auxin. We also show that auxin transport inhibitors cause a similar auxin depletion as decapitation, but do not stimulate bud growth within our experimental time-frame. These results indicate that decapitation may trigger initial bud growth via an auxin-independent mechanism. We propose that auxin operates after this initial stage, mediating apical dominance via autoregulation of buds that are already in transition toward sustained growth. PMID:15965021

  8. Carbohydrate concentrations and freezing stress resistance of silver birch buds grown under elevated temperature and ozone.

    PubMed

    Riikonen, Johanna; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Vapaavuori, Elina; Tervahauta, Arja; Tuomainen, Marjo; Oksanen, Elina

    2013-03-01

    The effects of slightly elevated temperature (+0.8 °C), ozone (O3) concentration (1.3 × ambient O3 concentration) and their combination on over-wintering buds of Betula pendula Roth were studied after two growing seasons of exposure in the field. Carbohydrate concentrations, freezing stress resistance (FSR), bud dry weight to fresh weight ratio, and transcript levels of cytochrome oxidase (COX), alternative oxidase (AOX) and dehydrin (LTI36) genes were studied in two clones (clones 12 and 25) in December. Elevated temperature increased the bud dry weight to fresh weight ratio and the ratio of raffinose family oligosaccharides to sucrose and the transcript levels of the dehydrin (LTI36) gene (in clone 12 only), but did not alter the FSR of the buds. Genotype-specific alterations in carbohydrate metabolism were found in the buds grown under elevated O3. The treatments did not significantly affect the transcript level of the COX or AOX genes. No clear pattern of an interactive effect between elevated temperature and O3 concentration was found. According to these data, the increase in autumnal temperatures and slightly increasing O3 concentrations do not increase the risk for freeze-induced damage in winter in silver birch buds, although some alterations in bud physiology occur. PMID:23425688

  9. Automated quantification of budding Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a novel image cytometry method.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Daniel J; Kury, Alexandria L; Kuksin, Dmitry; Pirani, Alnoor; Flanagan, Kevin; Chan, Leo Li-Ying

    2013-06-01

    The measurements of concentration, viability, and budding percentages of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are performed on a routine basis in the brewing and biofuel industries. Generation of these parameters is of great importance in a manufacturing setting, where they can aid in the estimation of product quality, quantity, and fermentation time of the manufacturing process. Specifically, budding percentages can be used to estimate the reproduction rate of yeast populations, which directly correlates with metabolism of polysaccharides and bioethanol production, and can be monitored to maximize production of bioethanol during fermentation. The traditional method involves manual counting using a hemacytometer, but this is time-consuming and prone to human error. In this study, we developed a novel automated method for the quantification of yeast budding percentages using Cellometer image cytometry. The automated method utilizes a dual-fluorescent nucleic acid dye to specifically stain live cells for imaging analysis of unique morphological characteristics of budding yeast. In addition, cell cycle analysis is performed as an alternative method for budding analysis. We were able to show comparable yeast budding percentages between manual and automated counting, as well as cell cycle analysis. The automated image cytometry method is used to analyze and characterize corn mash samples directly from fermenters during standard fermentation. Since concentration, viability, and budding percentages can be obtained simultaneously, the automated method can be integrated into the fermentation quality assurance protocol, which may improve the quality and efficiency of beer and bioethanol production processes.

  10. Carbohydrate concentrations and freezing stress resistance of silver birch buds grown under elevated temperature and ozone.

    PubMed

    Riikonen, Johanna; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Vapaavuori, Elina; Tervahauta, Arja; Tuomainen, Marjo; Oksanen, Elina

    2013-03-01

    The effects of slightly elevated temperature (+0.8 °C), ozone (O3) concentration (1.3 × ambient O3 concentration) and their combination on over-wintering buds of Betula pendula Roth were studied after two growing seasons of exposure in the field. Carbohydrate concentrations, freezing stress resistance (FSR), bud dry weight to fresh weight ratio, and transcript levels of cytochrome oxidase (COX), alternative oxidase (AOX) and dehydrin (LTI36) genes were studied in two clones (clones 12 and 25) in December. Elevated temperature increased the bud dry weight to fresh weight ratio and the ratio of raffinose family oligosaccharides to sucrose and the transcript levels of the dehydrin (LTI36) gene (in clone 12 only), but did not alter the FSR of the buds. Genotype-specific alterations in carbohydrate metabolism were found in the buds grown under elevated O3. The treatments did not significantly affect the transcript level of the COX or AOX genes. No clear pattern of an interactive effect between elevated temperature and O3 concentration was found. According to these data, the increase in autumnal temperatures and slightly increasing O3 concentrations do not increase the risk for freeze-induced damage in winter in silver birch buds, although some alterations in bud physiology occur.

  11. Cytokinins Are Initial Targets of Light in the Control of Bud Outgrowth1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Girault, Tiffanie; Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Pěnčík, Aleš; Sakr, Soulaiman; Lothier, Jérémy

    2016-01-01

    Bud outgrowth is controlled by environmental and endogenous factors. Through the use of the photosynthesis inhibitor norflurazon and of masking experiments, evidence is given here that light acts mainly as a morphogenic signal in the triggering of bud outgrowth and that initial steps in the light signaling pathway involve cytokinins (CKs). Indeed, in rose (Rosa hybrida), inhibition of bud outgrowth by darkness is suppressed solely by the application of CKs. In contrast, application of sugars has a limited effect. Exposure of plants to white light (WL) induces a rapid (after 3–6 h of WL exposure) up-regulation of CK synthesis (RhIPT3 and RhIPT5), of CK activation (RhLOG8), and of CK putative transporter RhPUP5 genes and to the repression of the CK degradation RhCKX1 gene in the node. This leads to the accumulation of CKs in the node within 6 h and in the bud at 24 h and to the triggering of bud outgrowth. Molecular analysis of genes involved in major mechanisms of bud outgrowth (strigolactone signaling [RwMAX2], metabolism and transport of auxin [RhPIN1, RhYUC1, and RhTAR1], regulation of sugar sink strength [RhVI, RhSUSY, RhSUC2, and RhSWEET10], and cell division and expansion [RhEXP and RhPCNA]) reveal that, when supplied in darkness, CKs up-regulate their expression as rapidly and as intensely as WL. Additionally, up-regulation of CKs by WL promotes xylem flux toward the bud, as evidenced by Methylene Blue accumulation in the bud after CK treatment in the dark. Altogether, these results suggest that CKs are initial components of the light signaling pathway that controls the initiation of bud outgrowth. PMID:27462085

  12. Cytokinins Are Initial Targets of Light in the Control of Bud Outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Roman, Hanaé; Girault, Tiffanie; Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Brouard, Nathalie; Pěnčík, Aleš; Novák, Ondřej; Vian, Alain; Sakr, Soulaiman; Lothier, Jérémy; Le Gourrierec, José; Leduc, Nathalie

    2016-09-01

    Bud outgrowth is controlled by environmental and endogenous factors. Through the use of the photosynthesis inhibitor norflurazon and of masking experiments, evidence is given here that light acts mainly as a morphogenic signal in the triggering of bud outgrowth and that initial steps in the light signaling pathway involve cytokinins (CKs). Indeed, in rose (Rosa hybrida), inhibition of bud outgrowth by darkness is suppressed solely by the application of CKs. In contrast, application of sugars has a limited effect. Exposure of plants to white light (WL) induces a rapid (after 3-6 h of WL exposure) up-regulation of CK synthesis (RhIPT3 and RhIPT5), of CK activation (RhLOG8), and of CK putative transporter RhPUP5 genes and to the repression of the CK degradation RhCKX1 gene in the node. This leads to the accumulation of CKs in the node within 6 h and in the bud at 24 h and to the triggering of bud outgrowth. Molecular analysis of genes involved in major mechanisms of bud outgrowth (strigolactone signaling [RwMAX2], metabolism and transport of auxin [RhPIN1, RhYUC1, and RhTAR1], regulation of sugar sink strength [RhVI, RhSUSY, RhSUC2, and RhSWEET10], and cell division and expansion [RhEXP and RhPCNA]) reveal that, when supplied in darkness, CKs up-regulate their expression as rapidly and as intensely as WL Additionally, up-regulation of CKs by WL promotes xylem flux toward the bud, as evidenced by Methylene Blue accumulation in the bud after CK treatment in the dark. Altogether, these results suggest that CKs are initial components of the light signaling pathway that controls the initiation of bud outgrowth. PMID:27462085

  13. Project BudBurst: Continental-scale citizen science for all seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Newman, S. J.; Ward, D.; Havens-Young, K.; Alaback, P.; Meymaris, K.

    2011-12-01

    Project BudBurst's (budburst.org) recent move to the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) has benefitted both programs. NEON has been able to use Project BudBurst as a testbed to learn best practices, network with experts in the field, and prototype potential tools for engaging people in continental-scale ecology as NEON develops its citizen science program. Participation in Project BudBurst has grown significantly since the move to NEON. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide the opportunity for students and interested laypersons to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants at a continental-scale; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch in February, this on-line educational and data-entry program, engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst and will report on the results of the 2010 field campaign and discuss plans to expand Project BudBurst in 2012 including the use of mobile phones applications for data collection and reporting from the field. Project BudBurst is co-managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and the Chicago

  14. Contribution of Underlying Connective Tissue Cells to Taste Buds in Mouse Tongue and Soft Palate

    PubMed Central

    Mederacke, Ingmar; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Stice, Steve; Schwabe, Robert F.; Mistretta, Charlotte M.; Mishina, Yuji; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Taste buds, the sensory organs for taste, have been described as arising solely from the surrounding epithelium, which is in distinction from other sensory receptors that are known to originate from neural precursors, i.e., neural ectoderm that includes neural crest (NC). Our previous study suggested a potential contribution of NC derived cells to early immature fungiform taste buds in late embryonic (E18.5) and young postnatal (P1-10) mice. In the present study we demonstrated the contribution of the underlying connective tissue (CT) to mature taste buds in mouse tongue and soft palate. Three independent mouse models were used for fate mapping of NC and NC derived connective tissue cells: (1) P0-Cre/R26-tdTomato (RFP) to label NC, NC derived Schwann cells and derivatives; (2) Dermo1-Cre/RFP to label mesenchymal cells and derivatives; and (3) Vimentin-CreER/mGFP to label Vimentin-expressing CT cells and derivatives upon tamoxifen treatment. Both P0-Cre/RFP and Dermo1-Cre/RFP labeled cells were abundant in mature taste buds in lingual taste papillae and soft palate, but not in the surrounding epithelial cells. Concurrently, labeled cells were extensively distributed in the underlying CT. RFP signals were seen in the majority of taste buds and all three types (I, II, III) of differentiated taste bud cells, with the neuronal-like type III cells labeled at a greater proportion. Further, Vimentin-CreER labeled cells were found in the taste buds of 3-month-old mice whereas Vimentin immunoreactivity was only seen in the CT. Taken together, our data demonstrate a previously unrecognized origin of taste bud cells from the underlying CT, a conceptually new finding in our knowledge of taste bud cell derivation, i.e., from both the surrounding epithelium and the underlying CT that is primarily derived from NC. PMID:26741369

  15. Avascular necrosis of bone complicating corticosteroid replacement therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, P L; Corbett, M

    1983-01-01

    Two patients who developed widespread severe avascular necrosis of bone while on steroid replacement therapy are described. One, a diabetic, underwent yttrium-90 pituitary ablation for retinopathy and developed avascular necrosis within 18 months of starting prednisolone. The other, who had Addison's disease, developed avascular necrosis within 14 months of starting cortisol replacement therapy. Both cases came to bilateral total hip replacement. Images PMID:6859959

  16. [Acaricidal activity of clove bud oil against Dermatophagoides farinae (Acari: Pyroglyphidae)].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wu, Hai-Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Gang

    2009-12-01

    Volatile oil from the clove bud was extracted by petroleum ether using Soxhlet Extractor. The acaricidal activity was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays. In a filter paper contact toxicity bio-assay, at 2.5 h after treatment, clove bud oil at a dose of 12.20 microg/cm2 killed all dust mites. As judged by 24-h LD50 values, potent fumigant action was observed with clove bud oil (12.20 microg/cm2), showing an adequate acaricidal activity against indoor Dermatophagoides farinae. PMID:20232631

  17. Phenotypic plasticity, QTL mapping and genomic characterization of bud set in black poplar

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genetic control of important adaptive traits, such as bud set, is still poorly understood in most forest trees species. Poplar is an ideal model tree to study bud set because of its indeterminate shoot growth. Thus, a full-sib family derived from an intraspecific cross of P. nigra with 162 clonally replicated progeny was used to assess the phenotypic plasticity and genetic variation of bud set in two sites of contrasting environmental conditions. Results Six crucial phenological stages of bud set were scored. Night length appeared to be the most important signal triggering the onset of growth cessation. Nevertheless, the effect of other environmental factors, such as temperature, increased during the process. Moreover, a considerable role of genotype × environment (G × E) interaction was found in all phenological stages with the lowest temperature appearing to influence the sensitivity of the most plastic genotypes. Descriptors of growth cessation and bud onset explained the largest part of phenotypic variation of the entire process. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits were detected. For the four selected traits (the onset of growth cessation (date2.5), the transition from shoot to bud (date1.5), the duration of bud formation (subproc1) and bud maturation (subproc2)) eight and sixteen QTL were mapped on the maternal and paternal map, respectively. The identified QTL, each one characterized by small or modest effect, highlighted the complex nature of traits involved in bud set process. Comparison between map location of QTL and P. trichocarpa genome sequence allowed the identification of 13 gene models, 67 bud set-related expressional and six functional candidate genes (CGs). These CGs are functionally related to relevant biological processes, environmental sensing, signaling, and cell growth and development. Some strong QTL had no obvious CGs, and hold great promise to identify unknown genes that affect bud set. Conclusions This study

  18. Gravity-induced buds formation from protonemata apical cells in the mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyyak, Natalia; Khorkavtsiv, Yaroslava

    The acceleration of moss protonemata development after the exit it to light from darkness is important gravidependent morphogenetic manifestation of the moss protonemata. The accelerated development of mosses shows in transformation of apical protonemata cells into the gametophores buds (Ripetskyj et al., 1999). In order to establish, that such reaction on gravitation is general property of gravisensity species, or its typical only for single moss species, experiments with the following moss species - Bryum intermedium (Ludw.) Brig., Bryum caespiticium Hedw., Bryum argenteum Hedw., Dicranodontium denudatum (Brid.) Britt. were carried out. All these species in response to influence of gravitation were capable to form rich bunches of gravitropical protonemata in darkness, that testified to their gravisensity. After the transference of Petri dishes with gravitropical protonemata from darkness on light was revealed, that in 3 of the investigated species the gametophores buds were absent. Only B. argenteum has reacted to action of gravitation by buds formation from apical cells of the gravitropical protonemata. With the purpose of strengthening of buds formation process, the experiments with action of exogenous kinetin (in concentration of 10 (-6) M) were carried out. Kinetin essentially stimulated apical buds formation of B. argenteum. The quantity of apical buds has increased almost in three times in comparison with the control. Besides, on separate stolons a few (3-4) buds from one apical cell were formed. Experimentally was established, that the gametophores buds formation in mosses is controlled by phytohormones (Bopp, 1985; Demkiv et al., 1991). In conditions of gravity influence its essentially accelerated. Probably, gravity essentially strengthened acropetal transport of phytohormones and formation of attractive center in the protonemata apical cell. Our investigations have allowed to make the conclusion, that gravi-dependent formation of the apical buds is

  19. Sydowia polyspora associated with current season needle necrosis (CSNN) on true fir (Abies spp.).

    PubMed

    Talgø, Venche; Chastagner, Gary; Thomsen, Iben Margrete; Cech, Thomas; Riley, Kathy; Lange, Kurt; Klemsdal, Sonja Sletner; Stensvand, Arne

    2010-07-01

    Current season needle necrosis (CSNN) has been a serious foliage disorder on true fir Christmas trees and bough material in Europe and North America for more than 25y. Approximately 2-4 weeks after bud break, needles develop chlorotic spots or bands that later turn necrotic. The symptoms have been observed on noble fir (Abies procera), Nordmann fir (A. nordmanniana) and grand fir (A. grandis) on both continents. CSNN was reported as a physiological disorder with unknown aetiology from USA, Denmark, and Ireland, but was associated with the fungus Kabatina abietis in Germany, Austria and Norway. In 2007, a fungus that morphologically resembled K. abietis was isolated from symptomatic needle samples from Nordmann fir from Austria, Denmark, Germany, Norway, and USA. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA of these cultures, plus a K. abietis reference culture from Germany (CBS 248.93), resulted in Hormonema dematioides, the imperfect stage of Sydowia polyspora, and thus the taxonomy is further discussed. Inoculation tests on Nordmann fir seedlings and transplants with isolates of S. polyspora from all five countries resulted in the development of CSNN symptoms. In 2009, S. polyspora was also isolated from symptomatic needles from Nordmann fir collected in Slovakia.

  20. Definition of bone necrosis by the pathologist

    PubMed Central

    Fondi, Cristina; Franchi, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Osteonecrosis is a common disorder that may go clinically unrecognized or may result in the collapse of the architecture of bone, determining severe anatomic alterations of the involved site. Osteonecrosis is not a specific disease entity, but rather the result of a number of conditions ultimately leading to an impairment of blood supply to the bone tissue, although there is evidence that modifications of bone remodelling activity and weakening of bone structure with formation of microfractures are implicated as well. According to the site involved and to the factors promoting its development, the morbid anatomy and histopathology of osteonecrosis show a different appearance. This review discusses the main skeletal manifestations of osteonecrosis, including subarticular avascular necrosis of the femoral head and of the knee, as well as osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:22460748

  1. Tumour necrosis factor in synovial exudates.

    PubMed Central

    Di Giovine, F S; Nuki, G; Duff, G W

    1988-01-01

    The actions of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) include resorption of bone and cartilage, suggesting a potential role in the pathogenesis of arthritis. TNF activity was looked for in synovial fluids from 137 patients with different rheumatic diseases. Unfractionated samples were tested in the L929 bioassay. Significant TNF activity that was neutralised by monoclonal antibody to TNF alpha occurred in 13 (30%) of 44 samples. Raised TNF levels were not associated with any particular disease type or routine laboratory markers of inflammation but were related to disease duration in osteoarthritis. The finding of biologically active TNF in symptomatic joints of arthritic patients supports the idea that it may contribute to the pathogenesis of joint damage in chronic rheumatic diseases. PMID:3263088

  2. Nicolau Syndrome: An Iatrogenic Cutaneous Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Nischal, KC; Basavaraj, HB; Swaroop, MR; Agrawal, DP; Sathyanarayana, BD; Umashankar, NP

    2009-01-01

    Nicolau syndrome is an uncommon complication of intramuscular injection leading to variable degrees of necrosis of skin and the underlying tissues. We report here two cases of this syndrome. Our first case was a 25 year-old male who developed intense pain and purplish discoloration of the skin in the right hip after intramuscular diclofenac injection. The second case was a 60 year-old male who developed intense pain and discoloration of skin, not only at the injection site, but also on the left scapular area and left elbow after receiving chlorpheniramine maleate injection intramuscularly. These cases highlight the need for awareness about this condition and the need to exercise utmost care during the administration of any parenteral injections by dermatologists. PMID:20808597

  3. Mitochondrial anchorage and fusion contribute to mitochondrial inheritance and quality control in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Higuchi-Sanabria, Ryo; Charalel, Joseph K; Viana, Matheus P; Garcia, Enrique J; Sing, Cierra N; Koenigsberg, Andrea; Swayne, Theresa C; Vevea, Jason D; Boldogh, Istvan R; Rafelski, Susanne M; Pon, Liza A

    2016-03-01

    Higher-functioning mitochondria that are more reduced and have less ROS are anchored in the yeast bud tip by the Dsl1-family protein Mmr1p. Here we report a role for mitochondrial fusion in bud-tip anchorage of mitochondria. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) and network analysis experiments revealed that mitochondria in large buds are a continuous reticulum that is physically distinct from mitochondria in mother cells. FLIP studies also showed that mitochondria that enter the bud can fuse with mitochondria that are anchored in the bud tip. In addition, loss of fusion and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by deletion of mitochondrial outer or inner membrane fusion proteins (Fzo1p or Mgm1p) leads to decreased accumulation of mitochondria at the bud tip and inheritance of fitter mitochondria by buds compared with cells with no mtDNA. Conversely, increasing the accumulation and anchorage of mitochondria in the bud tip by overexpression of MMR1 results in inheritance of less-fit mitochondria by buds and decreased replicative lifespan and healthspan. Thus quantity and quality of mitochondrial inheritance are ensured by two opposing processes: bud-tip anchorage by mitochondrial fusion and Mmr1p, which favors bulk inheritance; and quality control mechanisms that promote segregation of fitter mitochondria to the bud. PMID:26764088

  4. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of bud development as related to climate in two coexisting Mediterranean Quercus species

    PubMed Central

    Alla, Arben Q.; Camarero, J. Julio; Montserrat-Martí, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims In trees, bud development is driven by endogenous and exogenous factors such as species and climate, respectively. However, knowledge is scarce on how these factors drive changes in bud size across different time scales. Methods The seasonal patterns of apical bud enlargement are related to primary and secondary growth in two coexisting Mediterranean oaks with contrasting leaf habit (Quercus ilex, evergreen; Quercus faginea, deciduous) over three years. In addition, the climatic factors driving changes in bud size of the two oak species were determined by correlating bud mass with climatic variables at different time scales (from 5 to 30 d) over a 15-year period. Key Results The maximum enlargement rate of buds was reached between late July and mid-August in both species. Moreover, apical bud size increased with minimum air temperatures during the period of maximum bud enlargement rates. Conclusions The forecasted rising minimum air temperatures predicted by climatic models may affect bud size and consequently alter crown architecture differentially in sympatric Mediterranean oaks. However, the involvement of several drivers controlling the final size of buds makes it difficult to predict the changes in bud size as related to ongoing climate warming. PMID:23179859

  5. Evidence for cohesin sliding along budding yeast chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Ocampo-Hafalla, Maria; Muñoz, Sofía; Samora, Catarina P.; Uhlmann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The ring-shaped cohesin complex is thought to topologically hold sister chromatids together from their synthesis in S phase until chromosome segregation in mitosis. How cohesin stably binds to chromosomes for extended periods, without impeding other chromosomal processes that also require access to the DNA, is poorly understood. Budding yeast cohesin is loaded onto DNA by the Scc2–Scc4 cohesin loader at centromeres and promoters of active genes, from where cohesin translocates to more permanent places of residence at transcription termination sites. Here we show that, at the GAL2 and MET17 loci, pre-existing cohesin is pushed downstream along the DNA in response to transcriptional gene activation, apparently without need for intermittent dissociation or reloading. We observe translocation intermediates and find that the distribution of most chromosomal cohesin is shaped by transcription. Our observations support a model in which cohesin is able to slide laterally along chromosomes while maintaining topological contact with DNA. In this way, stable cohesin binding to DNA and enduring sister chromatid cohesion become compatible with simultaneous underlying chromosomal activities, including but maybe not limited to transcription. PMID:27278645

  6. Antidiabetic activity of flower buds of Michelia champaca Linn

    PubMed Central

    Jarald, E. Edwin; Joshi, S.B.; Jain, D.C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To identify the antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts, petroleum ether (60-80°), chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous and crude aqueous, of the flower buds of Michelia champaca, and to identify the antidiabetic activity of active antihyperglycemic extract. Materials and Methods: Plant extracts were tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose overloaded hyperglycemic rats. The effective antihyperglycemic extract was tested for its hypoglycemic activity at two-dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively. To confirm its utility in the higher model, the effective extract of M. champaca was subjected to antidiabetic study in alloxan induced diabetic model at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively. The biochemical parameters, glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin were also assessed in the experimental animals. Results: The ethanolic extract of M. champaca exhibited significant antihyperglycemic activity but did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats. Apart from this extract, the crude aqueous and petroleum ether extracts were found active only at the end of the first hour. Treatment of diabetic rats with ethanolic extract of this plant restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05) (P<0.01) and the activity was found dose dependent. Conclusion: This study supports the traditional claim and the ethanolic extract of this plant could be added in traditional preparations for the ailment of various diabetes-associated complications. PMID:21279181

  7. A simple biophysical model emulates budding yeast chromosome condensation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tammy MK; Heeger, Sebastian; Chaleil, Raphaël AG; Matthews, Nik; Stewart, Aengus; Wright, Jon; Lim, Carmay; Bates, Paul A; Uhlmann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Mitotic chromosomes were one of the first cell biological structures to be described, yet their molecular architecture remains poorly understood. We have devised a simple biophysical model of a 300 kb-long nucleosome chain, the size of a budding yeast chromosome, constrained by interactions between binding sites of the chromosomal condensin complex, a key component of interphase and mitotic chromosomes. Comparisons of computational and experimental (4C) interaction maps, and other biophysical features, allow us to predict a mode of condensin action. Stochastic condensin-mediated pairwise interactions along the nucleosome chain generate native-like chromosome features and recapitulate chromosome compaction and individualization during mitotic condensation. Higher order interactions between condensin binding sites explain the data less well. Our results suggest that basic assumptions about chromatin behavior go a long way to explain chromosome architecture and are able to generate a molecular model of what the inside of a chromosome is likely to look like. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05565.001 PMID:25922992

  8. Asymmetric nucleosomes flank promoters in the budding yeast genome.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Srinivas; Zentner, Gabriel E; Henikoff, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Nucleosomes in active chromatin are dynamic, but whether they have distinct structural conformations is unknown. To identify nucleosomes with alternative structures genome-wide, we used H4S47C-anchored cleavage mapping, which revealed that 5% of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) nucleosome positions have asymmetric histone-DNA interactions. These asymmetric interactions are enriched at nucleosome positions that flank promoters. Micrococcal nuclease (MNase) sequence-based profiles of asymmetric nucleosome positions revealed a corresponding asymmetry in MNase protection near the dyad axis, suggesting that the loss of DNA contacts around H4S47 is accompanied by protection of the DNA from MNase. Chromatin immunoprecipitation mapping of selected nucleosome remodelers indicated that asymmetric nucleosomes are bound by the RSC chromatin remodeling complex, which is required for maintaining nucleosomes at asymmetric positions. These results imply that the asymmetric nucleosome-RSC complex is a metastable intermediate representing partial unwrapping and protection of nucleosomal DNA on one side of the dyad axis during chromatin remodeling.

  9. Genetically Engineered Transvestites Reveal Novel Mating Genes in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Huberman, Lori B.; Murray, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    Haploid budding yeast has two mating types, defined by the alleles of the MAT locus, MATa and MATα. Two haploid cells of opposite mating types mate by signaling to each other using reciprocal pheromones and receptors, polarizing and growing toward each other, and eventually fusing to form a single diploid cell. The pheromones and receptors are necessary and sufficient to define a mating type, but other mating-type-specific proteins make mating more efficient. We examined the role of these proteins by genetically engineering “transvestite” cells that swap the pheromone, pheromone receptor, and pheromone processing factors of one mating type for another. These cells mate with each other, but their mating is inefficient. By characterizing their mating defects and examining their transcriptomes, we found Afb1 (a-factor barrier), a novel MATα-specific protein that interferes with a-factor, the pheromone secreted by MATa cells. Strong pheromone secretion is essential for efficient mating, and the weak mating of transvestites can be improved by boosting their pheromone production. Synthetic biology can characterize the factors that control efficiency in biological processes. In yeast, selection for increased mating efficiency is likely to have continually boosted pheromone levels and the ability to discriminate between partners who make more and less pheromone. This discrimination comes at a cost: weak mating in situations where all potential partners make less pheromone. PMID:24121774

  10. Tanshinones extend chronological lifespan in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ziyun; Song, Lixia; Liu, Shao Quan; Huang, Dejian

    2014-10-01

    Natural products with anti-aging property have drawn great attention recently but examples of such compounds are exceedingly scarce. By applying a high-throughput assay based on yeast chronological lifespan measurement, we screened the anti-aging activity of 144 botanical materials and found that dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge have significant anti-aging activity. Tanshinones isolated from the plant including cryptotanshione, tanshinone I, and tanshinone IIa, are the active components. Among them, cryptotanshinone can greatly extend the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chronological lifespan (up to 2.5 times) in a dose- and the-time-of-addition-dependent manner at nanomolar concentrations without disruption of cell growth. We demonstrate that cryptotanshinone prolong chronological lifespan via a nutrient-dependent regime, especially essential amino acid sensing, and three conserved protein kinases Tor1, Sch9, and Gcn2 are required for cryptotanshinone-induced lifespan extension. In addition, cryptotanshinone significantly increases the lifespan of SOD2-deleted mutants. Altogether, those data suggest that cryptotanshinone might be involved in the regulation of, Tor1, Sch9, Gcn2, and Sod2, these highly conserved longevity proteins modulated by nutrients from yeast to humans.

  11. Regulation of the divalent metal ion transporter via membrane budding

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, KimberlyD; Foot, Natalie J; Anand, Sushma; Dalton, Hazel E; Chaudhary, Natasha; Collins, Brett M; Mathivanan, Suresh; Kumar, Sharad

    2016-01-01

    The release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is important for both normal physiology and disease. However, a basic understanding of the targeting of EV cargoes, composition and mechanism of release is lacking. Here we present evidence that the divalent metal ion transporter (DMT1) is unexpectedly regulated through release in EVs. This process involves the Nedd4-2 ubiquitin ligase, and the adaptor proteins Arrdc1 and Arrdc4 via different budding mechanisms. We show that mouse gut explants release endogenous DMT1 in EVs. Although we observed no change in the relative amount of DMT1 released in EVs from gut explants in Arrdc1 or Arrdc4 deficient mice, the extent of EVs released was significantly reduced indicating an adaptor role in biogenesis. Furthermore, using Arrdc1 or Arrdc4 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we show that both Arrdc1 and Arrdc4 are non-redundant positive regulators of EV release. Our results suggest that DMT1 release from the plasma membrane into EVs may represent a novel mechanism for the maintenance of iron homeostasis, which may also be important for the regulation of other membrane proteins. PMID:27462458

  12. Septin Filament Formation is Essential in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Michael A.; Bertin, Aurelie; Garcia, Galo; Lam, Lisa; Nogales, Eva; Thorner, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Septins are GTP-binding proteins that form ordered, rod-like multimeric complexes and polymerize into filaments, but how such supramolecular structure is related to septin function was unclear. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, four septins form an apolar hetero-octamer (Cdc11–Cdc12–Cdc3–Cdc10–Cdc10–Cdc3–Cdc12–Cdc11) that associates end-to-end to form filaments. We show that septin filament assembly displays previously unanticipated plasticity. Cells lacking Cdc10 or Cdc11 are able to divide because the now-exposed subunits (Cdc3 or Cdc12, respectively) retain an ability to homodimerize via their so-called G interface, thereby allowing for filament assembly. In such cdc10Δ and cdc11Δ cells, the remaining septins, like wild-type complexes, localize to the cortex at the bud neck and compartmentalize non-septin factors, consistent with a diffusion barrier composed of continuous filaments in intimate contact with the plasma membrane. Conversely, Cdc10 or Cdc11 mutants that cannot self-associate, but “cap” Cdc3 or Cdc12, respectively, prevent filament formation, block cortical localization, and kill cells. PMID:21497764

  13. Regulation of myogenic differentiation in the developing limb bud

    PubMed Central

    Francis-West, Philippa H; Antoni, Laurent; Anakwe, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    The limb myogenic precursors arise by delamination from the lateral dermomyotome in response to signals from the lateral plate mesoderm. They subsequently migrate into the developing limb bud where they switch on the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD and Myf5, and coalese to form the dorsal and ventral muscle masses. The myogenic cells subsequently undergo terminal differentiation into slow or fast fibres which have distinct contractile properties determining how a muscle will function. In general, fast fibres contract rapidly with high force and are characterized by the expression of fast myosin heavy chains (MyHC). These fibres are needed for movement. In contrast, slow fibres express slow MyHC, contract slowly and are required for maintenance of posture. This review focuses on the molecular signals that control limb myogenic development from the initial delamination and migration of the premyogenic cells to the ultimate formation of the complex muscle pattern and differentiation of slow and fast fibres. PMID:12587922

  14. Molecular cytotoxicity mechanisms of allyl alcohol (acrolein) in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Golla, Upendarrao; Bandi, Goutham; Tomar, Raghuvir S

    2015-06-15

    Allyl alcohol (AA) is one of the environmental pollutants used as a herbicide and industrial chemical. AA undergoes enzymatic oxidation in vivo to form Acrolein (Acr), a highly reactive and ubiquitous environmental toxicant. The exposure to AA/Acr has detrimental effects on cells and is highly fatal. In corroboration to the current literature describing AA/Acr toxicity, this study aimed to investigate the molecular cytotoxicity mechanisms of AA/Acr using budding yeast as a eukaryotic model organism. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of cells treated with a sublethal dose of AA (0.4 mM) showed differential regulation of approximately 30% of the yeast genome. Functional enrichment analysis of the AA transcriptome revealed that genes belong to diverse cellular processes including the cell cycle, DNA damage repair, metal homeostasis, stress response genes, ribosomal biogenesis, metabolism, meiosis, ubiquitination, cell morphogenesis, and transport. Moreover, we have identified novel molecular targets of AA/Acr through genetic screening, which belongs to oxidative stress, DNA damage repair, iron homeostasis, and cell wall integrity. This study also demonstrated the epigenetic basis of AA/Acr toxicity mediated through histone tails and chromatin modifiers. Interestingly, our study disclosed the use of pyrazole and ethanol as probable antidotes for AA intoxication. For the first time, this study also demonstrated the reproductive toxicity of AA/Acr using the yeast gametogenesis (spermatogenesis) model. Altogether, this study unravels the molecular mechanisms of AA/Acr cytotoxicity and facilitates the prediction of biomarkers for toxicity assessment and therapeutic approaches. PMID:25919230

  15. Regulation of the divalent metal ion transporter via membrane budding.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, KimberlyD; Foot, Natalie J; Anand, Sushma; Dalton, Hazel E; Chaudhary, Natasha; Collins, Brett M; Mathivanan, Suresh; Kumar, Sharad

    2016-01-01

    The release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is important for both normal physiology and disease. However, a basic understanding of the targeting of EV cargoes, composition and mechanism of release is lacking. Here we present evidence that the divalent metal ion transporter (DMT1) is unexpectedly regulated through release in EVs. This process involves the Nedd4-2 ubiquitin ligase, and the adaptor proteins Arrdc1 and Arrdc4 via different budding mechanisms. We show that mouse gut explants release endogenous DMT1 in EVs. Although we observed no change in the relative amount of DMT1 released in EVs from gut explants in Arrdc1 or Arrdc4 deficient mice, the extent of EVs released was significantly reduced indicating an adaptor role in biogenesis. Furthermore, using Arrdc1 or Arrdc4 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we show that both Arrdc1 and Arrdc4 are non-redundant positive regulators of EV release. Our results suggest that DMT1 release from the plasma membrane into EVs may represent a novel mechanism for the maintenance of iron homeostasis, which may also be important for the regulation of other membrane proteins. PMID:27462458

  16. Regulation of Bud Rest in Tubers of Potato, Solanum tuberosum L

    PubMed Central

    Shih, C. Y.; Rappaport, Lawrence

    1971-01-01

    Using the electron microscope, we compared the effects of abscisic acid and gibberellin A3 on excised buds from resting potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers. Cells of abscisic acid-treated buds became progressively more vacuolated during a 12-hour time course study as compared with control (water) and gibberellin A3-treated buds. Concentric configurations of endoplasmic reticulum were present in apical cells of freshly excised buds. After about 6 hours these configurations began to open and disperse, and after 12 hours, intact concentric configurations were no longer evident. Both abscisic acid and gibberellin A3 induced opening and dispersal of the concentric configurations, sometimes as early as 0.5 hour after excision and treatment with hormones. Images PMID:16657728

  17. [The growth and form development of the limb buds in vertebrate animals].

    PubMed

    Borkhvardt, V G

    2000-01-01

    The development of the fin and limb buds involves a balance of centrifugal (active) and centripetal (passive) mechanical forces, the first of which acts to move the walls of these structures away from each other and the second holds them together. When the volume of the mesodermal core increases, the generated force meets with the resistance of the basal membrane, and as a result, the limb bud has a tendency to acquire cylindrical shape. Collagen fibers, individual mesenchymal cells, and their groups hold together the dorsal and the ventral wall of the limb bud, prevent the movement of these walls away from each other, and in this way direct bud growth along the proximodistal and the anteroposterior axes. The balance of the forces, which stretch the ectodermal layer, and those, which constrain it, have also been observed in the development of other body parts. PMID:10867933

  18. Dystonin deficiency reduces taste buds and fungiform papillae in the anterior part of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, H; Terayama, R; Yamaai, T; De Repentigny, Y; Kothary, R; Sugimoto, T

    2007-01-19

    The anterior part of the tongue was examined in wild type and dystonia musculorum mice to assess the effect of dystonin loss on fungiform papillae. In the mutant mouse, the density of fungiform papillae and their taste buds was severely decreased when compared to wild type littermates (papilla, 67% reduction; taste bud, 77% reduction). The mutation also reduced the size of these papillae (17% reduction) and taste buds (29% reduction). In addition, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the dystonin mutation reduced the number of PGP 9.5 and calbindin D28k-containing nerve fibers in fungiform papillae. These data together suggest that dystonin is required for the innervation and development of fungiform papillae and taste buds. PMID:17156752

  19. A conserved family of proteins facilitates nascent lipid droplet budding from the ER

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Vineet; Ojha, Namrata; Golden, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are found in all cells and play critical roles in lipid metabolism. De novo LD biogenesis occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but is not well understood. We imaged early stages of LD biogenesis using electron microscopy and found that nascent LDs form lens-like structures that are in the ER membrane, raising the question of how these nascent LDs bud from the ER as they grow. We found that a conserved family of proteins, fat storage-inducing transmembrane (FIT) proteins, is required for proper budding of LDs from the ER. Elimination or reduction of FIT proteins in yeast and higher eukaryotes causes LDs to remain in the ER membrane. Deletion of the single FIT protein in Caenorhabditis elegans is lethal, suggesting that LD budding is an essential process in this organism. Our findings indicated that FIT proteins are necessary to promote budding of nascent LDs from the ER. PMID:26504167

  20. Automatic nuclear bud detection using ellipse fitting, moving sticks or top-hat transformation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Sun, C; Vallotton, P; Fenech, M; Pham, T D

    2013-11-01

    Micronucleus assays are extensively used by biologists to assess genotoxicity and to monitor human exposure to genotoxic materials. As recent studies suggested that nuclear buds can be a new source of micronuclei formed in interphase, the quantification of nuclear buds, which are micronucleus like objects that are attached to the nuclei in interphase, in normal and control group is needed. Three automatic nuclear bud detection algorithms fit for different situations are proposed in this paper. One is based on ellipse fitting, one is based on a stick model and the other is based on the top-hat transform. Comparison of the three methods is also given in this paper. Experimental results showed that the proposed algorithms are all effective and efficient for nuclear bud detection. PMID:23961938

  1. q-deformations and the dynamics of the larch bud-moth population cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyengar, Sudharsana V.; Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    The concept of q-deformation of numbers is applied here to improve and modify a tritrophic population dynamics model to understand defoliation of the coniferous larch trees due to outbreaks of the larch bud-moth insect population. The results are in qualitative agreement with observed behavior, with the larch needle lengths, bud-moth population and parasitoid populations all showing 9-period cycles which are mutually synchronized.

  2. Pseudotumoral encapsulated fat necrosis with diffuse pseudomembranous degeneration.

    PubMed

    Felipo, F; Vaquero, M; del Agua, C

    2004-09-01

    An extraordinary case of encapsulated fat necrosis characterized by its large size, diffuse formation of pseudomembranes, and tendency to recur after excision is reported. A 67-year-old Caucasian woman suffering from morbid obesity was admitted for diagnosis and surgical treatment of a soft tissue mass showing a longest diameter of 14 cm and lying adjacently to the scar from previous appendicectomy. Histopathologic features were consistent with a nodular-cystic encapsulated fat necrosis with diffuse pseudomembranous transformation. Eight months after surgery, a new larger mass (longest diameter of 18 cm) sharing identical histopathologic features appeared in the same location. Encapsulated fat necrosis is a well-defined entity even though several names have been proposed for this condition, including mobile encapsulated lipoma, encapsulated necrosis, or nodular-cystic fat necrosis. Its pathogenesis seems to be related to ischemic changes secondary to previous trauma. It may occasionally show degenerative changes, including dystrophic calcifications and presence of pseudomembranes. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of encapsulated fat necrosis presenting as lesions of such size and showing diffuse formation of pseudomembranes; these particular features made diagnosis difficult and led to consideration of a wide range of potential diagnostic possibilities. This case expands the clinico-pathologic spectrum of membranocystic fat necrosis, including the potential ability of this subcutaneous fatty tissue abnormality to recur after surgical excision. Felipo F, Vaquero M, del Agua C. Pseudotumoral encapsulated fat necrosis with diffuse pseudomembranous degeneration.

  3. Black esophagus (acute esophageal necrosis) after spinal anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Román Fernández, A; López Álvarez, A; Fossati Puertas, S; Areán González, I; Varela García, O; Viaño López, P M

    2014-01-01

    Acute esophagic necrosis or black esophagus is an uncommon clinical entity that owes its name to the endoscopic view of the necrotic esophageal mucosa. It is always related with a critical medical condition and usually has an ischemic etiology. We report the first case of acute esophageal necrosis after a spinal anesthetic for partial hip joint arthroplasty. We discuss the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.

  4. The vegetative buds of Salix myrsinifolia are responsive to elevated UV-B and temperature.

    PubMed

    Sivadasan, Unnikrishnan; Randriamanana, Tendry R; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Nybakken, Line

    2015-08-01

    The predicted rise in temperature and variable changes in ultraviolet-B radiation will have marked effects on plant growth and metabolism. Different vegetative parts of trees have been studied to detect the impacts of enhanced temperature and UV-B, but the effects on buds have rarely been considered. In the present study, Salix myrsinifolia clones were subjected to enhanced UV-B and temperature over two growing seasons starting from 2009, and measured springtime bud development and concentrations of phenolic compounds. In 2010 and 2011 the buds under increased temperature were up to 30% longer than those in control plots. On the other hand, UV-B combined with elevated temperature significantly decreased bud length by 4-5% in 2010. This effect was stronger in males than in females. The vegetative buds contained high constitutive amounts of chlorogenic acid derivatives, which may explain the weak increase in hyperin and chlorogenic acid that are usual UV-B sheltering compounds. The elevated temperature treatment significantly increased salicin content (about 18% in males and 22% in females), while triandrin concentration decreased by only 50% in females. Our results indicate that vegetative bud size is highly affected by seasonal temperature, while UV-B induced a weaker and transient effect. PMID:25749271

  5. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in the taste buds of adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Viña, E; Parisi, V; Cabo, R; Laurà, R; López-Velasco, S; López-Muñiz, A; García-Suárez, O; Germanà, A; Vega, J A

    2013-03-01

    In detecting chemical properties of food, different molecules and ion channels are involved including members of the acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) family. Consistently ASICs are present in sensory cells of taste buds of mammals. In the present study the presence of ASICs (ASIC1, ASIC2, ASIC3 and ASIC4) was investigated in the taste buds of adult zebrafish (zASICs) using Western blot and immunohistochemistry. zASIC1 and zASIC3 were regularly absent from taste buds, whereas faint zASIC2 and robust zASIC4 immunoreactivities were detected in sensory cells. Moreover, zASIC2 also immunolabelled nerves supplying taste buds. The present results demonstrate for the first time the presence of zASICs in taste buds of teleosts, with different patterns to that occurring in mammals, probably due to the function of taste buds in aquatic environment and feeding. Nevertheless, the role of zASICs in taste remains to be demonstrated.

  6. Kinetic Analysis of a Molecular Model of the Budding Yeast Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Katherine C.; Csikasz-Nagy, Attila; Gyorffy, Bela; Val, John; Novak, Bela; Tyson, John J.

    2000-01-01

    The molecular machinery of cell cycle control is known in more detail for budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, than for any other eukaryotic organism. In recent years, many elegant experiments on budding yeast have dissected the roles of cyclin molecules (Cln1–3 and Clb1–6) in coordinating the events of DNA synthesis, bud emergence, spindle formation, nuclear division, and cell separation. These experimental clues suggest a mechanism for the principal molecular interactions controlling cyclin synthesis and degradation. Using standard techniques of biochemical kinetics, we convert the mechanism into a set of differential equations, which describe the time courses of three major classes of cyclin-dependent kinase activities. Model in hand, we examine the molecular events controlling “Start” (the commitment step to a new round of chromosome replication, bud formation, and mitosis) and “Finish” (the transition from metaphase to anaphase, when sister chromatids are pulled apart and the bud separates from the mother cell) in wild-type cells and 50 mutants. The model accounts for many details of the physiology, biochemistry, and genetics of cell cycle control in budding yeast. PMID:10637314

  7. Characterization of stem/progenitor cell cycle using murine circumvallate papilla taste bud organoid

    PubMed Central

    Aihara, Eitaro; Mahe, Maxime M.; Schumacher, Michael A.; Matthis, Andrea L.; Feng, Rui; Ren, Wenwen; Noah, Taeko K.; Matsu-ura, Toru; Moore, Sean R.; Hong, Christian I.; Zavros, Yana; Herness, Scott; Shroyer, Noah F.; Iwatsuki, Ken; Jiang, Peihua; Helmrath, Michael A.; Montrose, Marshall H.

    2015-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-expressing (Lgr5+) cells have been identified as stem/progenitor cells in the circumvallate papillae, and single cultured Lgr5+ cells give rise to taste cells. Here we use circumvallate papilla tissue to establish a three-dimensional culture system (taste bud organoids) that develops phenotypic characteristics similar to native tissue, including a multilayered epithelium containing stem/progenitor in the outer layers and taste cells in the inner layers. Furthermore, characterization of the cell cycle of the taste bud progenitor niche reveals striking dynamics of taste bud development and regeneration. Using this taste bud organoid culture system and FUCCI2 transgenic mice, we identify the stem/progenitor cells have at least 5 distinct cell cycle populations by tracking within 24-hour synchronized oscillations of proliferation. Additionally, we demonstrate that stem/progenitor cells have motility to form taste bud organoids. Taste bud organoids provides a system for elucidating mechanisms of taste signaling, disease modeling, and taste tissue regeneration. PMID:26597788

  8. Taste Bud Labeling in Whole Tongue Epithelial Sheet in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Boggs, Kristin; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Molecular labeling in whole-mount tissues provides an efficient way to obtain general information about the formation, maintenance, degeneration, and regeneration of many organs and tissues. However, labeling of lingual taste buds in whole tongue tissues in adult mice has been problematic because of the strong permeability barrier of the tongue epithelium. In this study, we present a simple method for labeling taste buds in the intact tongue epithelial sheet of an adult mouse. Following intralingual protease injection and incubation, immediate fixation of the tongue on mandible in 4% paraformaldehyde enabled the in situ shape of the tongue epithelium to be well maintained after peeling. The peeled epithelium was accessible to taste bud labeling with a pan-taste cell marker, keratin 8, and a type II taste cell marker, α-gustducin, in all three types of taste papillae, that is, fungiform, foliate, and circumvallate. Overnight incubation of tongue epithelial sheets with primary and secondary antibodies was sufficient for intense labeling of taste buds with both fluorescent and DAB visualizations. Labeled individual taste buds were easy to identify and quantify. This protocol provides an efficient way for phenotypic analyses of taste buds, especially regarding distribution pattern and number. PMID:26701416

  9. Structural Characterization of Ginsenosides from Flower Buds of Panax ginseng by RRLC-Q-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Lu, Ziyan; Teng, Yaran; Guo, Yingying; Liu, Shuying

    2016-02-01

    Ginseng flower bud as a part of Panax ginseng has received much attention as a valuable functional food with medicinal potential. A few studies focused on systematic and comprehensive studies on its major ingredients. This study aims to rapidly characterize ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds and provide scientific basis for developing functional food, exploiting pharmaceutical effects and making full use of ginseng resources. A rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) method was developed for rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds. The compounds were identified by comparing retention time of the reference standards, accurate mass measurement and the fragment ions obtained from RRLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analyses. A total of 14 kinds of ginsenosides were identified and 5 kinds of malonyl-ginsenosides were first tentatively identified in ginseng flower buds. Ten kinds of main ginsenosides were quantitatively analyzed. The developed RRLC-Q-TOF-MS method was demonstrated as an effective analytical means for rapid characterization of the ginsenosides in flower buds of P. ginseng. The research result is valuable for quality control, assessment of authenticity and stability evaluation of ginseng flower buds.

  10. Structural Characterization of Ginsenosides from Flower Buds of Panax ginseng by RRLC-Q-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Lu, Ziyan; Teng, Yaran; Guo, Yingying; Liu, Shuying

    2016-02-01

    Ginseng flower bud as a part of Panax ginseng has received much attention as a valuable functional food with medicinal potential. A few studies focused on systematic and comprehensive studies on its major ingredients. This study aims to rapidly characterize ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds and provide scientific basis for developing functional food, exploiting pharmaceutical effects and making full use of ginseng resources. A rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) method was developed for rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds. The compounds were identified by comparing retention time of the reference standards, accurate mass measurement and the fragment ions obtained from RRLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analyses. A total of 14 kinds of ginsenosides were identified and 5 kinds of malonyl-ginsenosides were first tentatively identified in ginseng flower buds. Ten kinds of main ginsenosides were quantitatively analyzed. The developed RRLC-Q-TOF-MS method was demonstrated as an effective analytical means for rapid characterization of the ginsenosides in flower buds of P. ginseng. The research result is valuable for quality control, assessment of authenticity and stability evaluation of ginseng flower buds. PMID:26270079

  11. The vegetative buds of Salix myrsinifolia are responsive to elevated UV-B and temperature.

    PubMed

    Sivadasan, Unnikrishnan; Randriamanana, Tendry R; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Nybakken, Line

    2015-08-01

    The predicted rise in temperature and variable changes in ultraviolet-B radiation will have marked effects on plant growth and metabolism. Different vegetative parts of trees have been studied to detect the impacts of enhanced temperature and UV-B, but the effects on buds have rarely been considered. In the present study, Salix myrsinifolia clones were subjected to enhanced UV-B and temperature over two growing seasons starting from 2009, and measured springtime bud development and concentrations of phenolic compounds. In 2010 and 2011 the buds under increased temperature were up to 30% longer than those in control plots. On the other hand, UV-B combined with elevated temperature significantly decreased bud length by 4-5% in 2010. This effect was stronger in males than in females. The vegetative buds contained high constitutive amounts of chlorogenic acid derivatives, which may explain the weak increase in hyperin and chlorogenic acid that are usual UV-B sheltering compounds. The elevated temperature treatment significantly increased salicin content (about 18% in males and 22% in females), while triandrin concentration decreased by only 50% in females. Our results indicate that vegetative bud size is highly affected by seasonal temperature, while UV-B induced a weaker and transient effect.

  12. Characterization of stem/progenitor cell cycle using murine circumvallate papilla taste bud organoid.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Eitaro; Mahe, Maxime M; Schumacher, Michael A; Matthis, Andrea L; Feng, Rui; Ren, Wenwen; Noah, Taeko K; Matsu-ura, Toru; Moore, Sean R; Hong, Christian I; Zavros, Yana; Herness, Scott; Shroyer, Noah F; Iwatsuki, Ken; Jiang, Peihua; Helmrath, Michael A; Montrose, Marshall H

    2015-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-expressing (Lgr5(+)) cells have been identified as stem/progenitor cells in the circumvallate papillae, and single cultured Lgr5(+) cells give rise to taste cells. Here we use circumvallate papilla tissue to establish a three-dimensional culture system (taste bud organoids) that develops phenotypic characteristics similar to native tissue, including a multilayered epithelium containing stem/progenitor in the outer layers and taste cells in the inner layers. Furthermore, characterization of the cell cycle of the taste bud progenitor niche reveals striking dynamics of taste bud development and regeneration. Using this taste bud organoid culture system and FUCCI2 transgenic mice, we identify the stem/progenitor cells have at least 5 distinct cell cycle populations by tracking within 24-hour synchronized oscillations of proliferation. Additionally, we demonstrate that stem/progenitor cells have motility to form taste bud organoids. Taste bud organoids provides a system for elucidating mechanisms of taste signaling, disease modeling, and taste tissue regeneration. PMID:26597788

  13. Expression and function of myc during asexual reproduction of the budding ascidian Polyandrocarpa misakiensis.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Shigeki; Isozaki, Takaomi; Mori, Kyoko; Kawamura, Kazuo

    2011-12-01

    The budding ascidian Polyandrocarpa misakiensis proliferates asexually by budding. The atrial epithelium is a multipotent but differentiated tissue, which transdifferentiates into various tissues and organs after the bud separates from the parental body. We isolated cDNA clones homologous to the myc proto-oncogene from P. misakiensis. The cDNA, named Pm-myc, encoded a polypeptide of 639 amino acid residues, containing Myc-specific functional motifs, Myc box I and Myc box II, and the basic helix-loop-helix domain. Expression of Pm-myc was observed in the atrial epithelium in the organ-forming region of the developing bud, where the epithelial cells dedifferentiate and re-enter the cell cycle. The expression was also observed in fibroblast-like cells, which are known to participate in the organogenesis together with the epithelial cells. Unexpectedly, the atrial epithelium expressed Pm-myc more than one day before the dedifferentiation. The organogenesis was disturbed by Pm-myc-specific double-stranded RNA. In situ hybridization revealed that Pm-myc-positive fibroblast-like cells disappeared around the organ primordium of the dsRNA-treated bud. The results suggest that the mesenchymal-epithelial transition of fibroblast-like cells is important for the organogenesis in this budding ascidian species.

  14. [Programmed necrosis: a new target for
ischemia reperfusion injury].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Ming, Yingzi; Niu, Ying; Liu, Qianwen; Ye, Qifa

    2016-07-01

    Recent years, the researchers have found a new type of cell death, referred to programmed necrosis or necroptosis, which involves the death receptor and the ligand binds and is initiated under the inhibition of apoptosis pathway. Programmed necrosis possesses the morphological features of typical necrosis accompanied by inflammation. The receptor interacting protein kinase 1/3(RIPK1/3) can be inhibited by the specific inhibitors, such as necrostatin-1. RIPK1/3 could regulate programmed necrosis and play a key role in the process. The significance of programmed necrosis in ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) has been attracted great attention at present. Simultaneously, a series of studies have found it also involves in the IRI of heart, kidney, brain and retina. PMID:27592584

  15. Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Radiation Necrosis in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    MIYATAKE, Shin-Ichi; NONOGUCHI, Noasuke; FURUSE, Motomasa; YORITSUNE, Erina; MIYATA, Tomo; KAWABATA, Shinji; KUROIWA, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    New radiation modalities have made it possible to prolong the survival of individuals with malignant brain tumors, but symptomatic radiation necrosis becomes a serious problem that can negatively affect a patient’s quality of life through severe and lifelong effects. Here we review the relevant literature and introduce our original concept of the pathophysiology of brain radiation necrosis following the treatment of brain, head, and neck tumors. Regarding the pathophysiology of radiation necrosis, we introduce two major hypotheses: glial cell damage or vascular damage. For the differential diagnosis of radiation necrosis and tumor recurrence, we focus on the role of positron emission tomography. Finally, in accord with our hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology, we describe the promising effects of the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody bevacizumab on symptomatic radiation necrosis in the brain. PMID:25744350

  16. Consequences of Repeated Defoliation on Belowground Bud Banks of Carex brevicuspis (Cyperaceae) in the Dongting Lake Wetlands, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin-Sheng; Deng, Zheng-Miao; Xie, Yong-Hong; Li, Feng; Hou, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Despite the predominant role of bud banks in the regeneration of clonal macrophyte populations, few studies have examined the way in which clonal macrophytes adjust the demographic features of bud banks to regulate population dynamics in response to defoliation in wetlands. We investigated the density and composition of bud banks under repeated defoliation in the wetland sedge Carex brevicuspis C. B. Clarke in the Dongting Lake wetlands, China. The density and biomass of rhizome buds and shoots did not decrease significantly in response to repeated defoliation over two consecutive years. The composition of bud banks, which consisted of long and short rhizome buds, also did not change significantly in response to repeated defoliation. Nevertheless, the ramet height and the shoot, root, and rhizome mass of C. brevicuspis declined significantly under repeated defoliation. Our findings suggest that bud banks are a conservative reproductive strategy that enables C. brevicuspis to tolerate a certain amount of defoliation. The maintenance of large bud banks after repeated defoliation may enable C. brevicuspis populations to regenerate and persist in disturbed habitats. However, bud bank density of C. brevicuspis might decline in the long term because the amount of carbon stored in rhizome buds and plants is reduced by frequent defoliation. PMID:27524993

  17. Consequences of Repeated Defoliation on Belowground Bud Banks of Carex brevicuspis (Cyperaceae) in the Dongting Lake Wetlands, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin-Sheng; Deng, Zheng-Miao; Xie, Yong-Hong; Li, Feng; Hou, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Despite the predominant role of bud banks in the regeneration of clonal macrophyte populations, few studies have examined the way in which clonal macrophytes adjust the demographic features of bud banks to regulate population dynamics in response to defoliation in wetlands. We investigated the density and composition of bud banks under repeated defoliation in the wetland sedge Carex brevicuspis C. B. Clarke in the Dongting Lake wetlands, China. The density and biomass of rhizome buds and shoots did not decrease significantly in response to repeated defoliation over two consecutive years. The composition of bud banks, which consisted of long and short rhizome buds, also did not change significantly in response to repeated defoliation. Nevertheless, the ramet height and the shoot, root, and rhizome mass of C. brevicuspis declined significantly under repeated defoliation. Our findings suggest that bud banks are a conservative reproductive strategy that enables C. brevicuspis to tolerate a certain amount of defoliation. The maintenance of large bud banks after repeated defoliation may enable C. brevicuspis populations to regenerate and persist in disturbed habitats. However, bud bank density of C. brevicuspis might decline in the long term because the amount of carbon stored in rhizome buds and plants is reduced by frequent defoliation. PMID:27524993

  18. Consequences of Repeated Defoliation on Belowground Bud Banks of Carex brevicuspis (Cyperaceae) in the Dongting Lake Wetlands, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin-Sheng; Deng, Zheng-Miao; Xie, Yong-Hong; Li, Feng; Hou, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Despite the predominant role of bud banks in the regeneration of clonal macrophyte populations, few studies have examined the way in which clonal macrophytes adjust the demographic features of bud banks to regulate population dynamics in response to defoliation in wetlands. We investigated the density and composition of bud banks under repeated defoliation in the wetland sedge Carex brevicuspis C. B. Clarke in the Dongting Lake wetlands, China. The density and biomass of rhizome buds and shoots did not decrease significantly in response to repeated defoliation over two consecutive years. The composition of bud banks, which consisted of long and short rhizome buds, also did not change significantly in response to repeated defoliation. Nevertheless, the ramet height and the shoot, root, and rhizome mass of C. brevicuspis declined significantly under repeated defoliation. Our findings suggest that bud banks are a conservative reproductive strategy that enables C. brevicuspis to tolerate a certain amount of defoliation. The maintenance of large bud banks after repeated defoliation may enable C. brevicuspis populations to regenerate and persist in disturbed habitats. However, bud bank density of C. brevicuspis might decline in the long term because the amount of carbon stored in rhizome buds and plants is reduced by frequent defoliation.

  19. Acute Bladder Necrosis after Pelvic Arterial Embolization for Pelvic Trauma: Lessons Learned from Two Cases of Immediate Postembolization Bladder Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Osterberg, E. Charles; Elliott, Sean P.; Hittelman, Adam B.

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of acute bladder injury with bladder neck necrosis identified during the initial operative evaluation and within the early postprocedural period in patients with significant pelvic trauma requiring pelvic vascular embolization. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bladder neck necrosis found during the initial intraoperative surgical evaluation or early postoperative setting.

  20. Acute Bladder Necrosis after Pelvic Arterial Embolization for Pelvic Trauma: Lessons Learned from Two Cases of Immediate Postembolization Bladder Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Osterberg, E. Charles; Elliott, Sean P.; Hittelman, Adam B.

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of acute bladder injury with bladder neck necrosis identified during the initial operative evaluation and within the early postprocedural period in patients with significant pelvic trauma requiring pelvic vascular embolization. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bladder neck necrosis found during the initial intraoperative surgical evaluation or early postoperative setting. PMID:27656309

  1. Immunization with viral antigens: infectious haematopoietic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Winton, J R

    1997-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) is one of the most important viral diseases of salmonids, especially among juvenile fish where losses can be high. For over 20 years, researchers have tested a variety of preparations for control of IHN. Early vaccines consisted of killed virus and were effective when delivered by injection, but too costly to be practical on a large scale. Attenuated vaccines were developed by serial passage in cell culture and by monoclonal antibody selection. These offered excellent protection and were cost-effective, but residual virulence and uncertainty about their effects on other aquatic species made them poor candidates for licensing. Subunit vaccines using part of the IHNV glycoprotein gene cloned into E. coli or into an attenuated strain of A. salmonicida have been tested, appeared safe and were inexpensive. These vaccines were reported to provide some protection when delivered by immersion. Information on the location of antigenic sites on the glycoprotein led to trials using synthetic peptides, but these did not seem to be economically viable. Recently, plasmid vectors encoding the glycoprotein gene under control of a cytomegalovirus promoter were developed for genetic immunization. The constructs were highly protective when delivered by injection, but a more practical delivery system is needed. Thus, while several vaccine strategies have been tried in order to stimulate specific immunity against IHN, more research is needed to develop a commercially viable product for control of this important disease. PMID:9270850

  2. Immunization with viral antigens: infectious haematopoietic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Winton, J R

    1997-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) is one of the most important viral diseases of salmonids, especially among juvenile fish where losses can be high. For over 20 years, researchers have tested a variety of preparations for control of IHN. Early vaccines consisted of killed virus and were effective when delivered by injection, but too costly to be practical on a large scale. Attenuated vaccines were developed by serial passage in cell culture and by monoclonal antibody selection. These offered excellent protection and were cost-effective, but residual virulence and uncertainty about their effects on other aquatic species made them poor candidates for licensing. Subunit vaccines using part of the IHNV glycoprotein gene cloned into E. coli or into an attenuated strain of A. salmonicida have been tested, appeared safe and were inexpensive. These vaccines were reported to provide some protection when delivered by immersion. Information on the location of antigenic sites on the glycoprotein led to trials using synthetic peptides, but these did not seem to be economically viable. Recently, plasmid vectors encoding the glycoprotein gene under control of a cytomegalovirus promoter were developed for genetic immunization. The constructs were highly protective when delivered by injection, but a more practical delivery system is needed. Thus, while several vaccine strategies have been tried in order to stimulate specific immunity against IHN, more research is needed to develop a commercially viable product for control of this important disease.

  3. Stimulation of neutrophils by tumor necrosis factor

    SciTech Connect

    Klebanoff, S.J.; Vadas, M.A.; Harlan, J.M.; Sparks, L.H.; Gamble, J.R.; Agosti, J.M.; Waltersdorph, A.M.

    1986-06-01

    Human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was shown to be a weak direct stimulus of the neutrophil respiratory burst and degranulation. The stimulation, as measured by iodination, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production, and lysozyme release, was considerably increased by the presence of unopsonized zymosan in the reaction mixture, an effect which was associated with the increased ingestion of the zymosan. TNF does not act as an opsonin but, rather, reacts with the neutrophil to increase its phagocytic activity. TNF-dependent phagocytosis, as measured indirectly by iodination, is inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (Mab) 60.1 and 60.3, which recognize different epitopes on the C3bi receptor/adherence-promoting surface glycoprotein of neutrophils. Other neutrophil stimulants, namely N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, and phorbol myristic acetate, also increase iodination in the presence of zymosan; as with TNF, the effect of these stimulants is inhibited by Mab 60.1 and 60.3, whereas, in contrast to that of TNF, their stimulation of iodination is unaffected by an Mab directed against TNF. TNF may be a natural stimulant of neutrophils which promotes adherence to endothelial cells and to particles, leading to increased phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity, and degranulation.

  4. [An infected necrosis of the chin].

    PubMed

    Muller, B S; van Goor, H F; Rosenberg, A J W P

    2016-01-01

    A 51-year-old man was referred by his dentist to a maxillofacial surgeon with complaints of illness and pain in the mandible, associated with a rapidly expanding area of black gingiva and mucosa surrounding the lower front teeth. Clinically and radiographically there was evidence of an infected necrosis of the chin and floor of mouth. Following debridement at the operating room, the patient was treated at the intensive care unit for septic shock leading to prolonged hospitalisation. Investigation of the bone marrow did not provide an explanation for pancytopenia or the severity of the illness. In addition, genetic investigation of thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene showed no mutations. This gene codes for an identically named protein enzyme that contributes in the metabolising of the medicine azathioprine, used daily for an autoimmune disease. A combination of the use of azathioprine, a folic acid deficiency and sepsis led to this exceptional course of illness. Therapeutic intervention consisted of surgical debridement and treatment of the bacteraemia. Afterwards several corrective surgeries were necessary to restore oral functions.

  5. Paraphyly and budding speciation in the hairy snail (Pulmonata, Hygromiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kruckenhauser, Luise; Duda, Michael; Bartel, Daniela; Sattmann, Helmut; Harl, Josef; Kirchner, Sandra; Haring, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Delimitation of species is often complicated by discordance of morphological and genetic data. This may be caused by the existence of cryptic or polymorphic species. The latter case is particularly true for certain snail species showing an exceptionally high intraspecific genetic diversity. The present investigation deals with the Trochulus hispidus complex, which has a complicated taxonomy. Our analyses of the COI sequence revealed that individuals showing a T. hispidus phenotype are distributed in nine highly differentiated mitochondrial clades (showing p-distances up to 19%). The results of a parallel morphometric investigation did not reveal any differentiation between these clades, although the overall variability is quite high. The phylogenetic analyses based on 12S, 16S and COI sequences show that the T. hispidus complex is paraphyletic with respect to several other morphologically well-defined Trochulus species (T. clandestinus, T. villosus, T. villosulus and T. striolatus) which form well-supported monophyletic groups. The nc marker sequence (5.8S–ITS2–28S) shows only a clear separation of T. o. oreinos and T. o. scheerpeltzi, and a weakly supported separation of T. clandestinus, whereas all other species and the clades of the T. hispidus complex appear within one homogeneous group. The paraphyly of the T. hispidus complex reflects its complicated history, which was probably driven by geographic isolation in different glacial refugia and budding speciation. At our present state of knowledge, it cannot be excluded that several cryptic species are embedded within the T. hispidus complex. However, the lack of morphological differentiation of the T. hispidus mitochondrial clades does not provide any hints in this direction. Thus, we currently do not recommend any taxonomic changes. The results of the current investigation exemplify the limitations of barcoding attempts in highly diverse species such as T. hispidus. PMID:25170185

  6. Differentiated dynamics of bud dormancy and growth in temperate fruit trees relating to bud phenology adaptation, the case of apple and almond trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Yaacoubi, Adnane; Malagi, Gustavo; Oukabli, Ahmed; Citadin, Idemir; Hafidi, Majida; Bonhomme, Marc; Legave, Jean-Michel

    2016-04-01

    Few studies have focused on the characterization of bud dormancy and growth dynamics for temperate fruit species in temperate and mild cropping areas, although this is an appropriate framework to anticipate phenology adaptation facing future warming contexts which would potentially combine chill declines and heat increases. To examine this issue, two experimental approaches and field observations were used for high- and low-chill apple cultivars in temperate climate of southern France and in mild climates of northern Morocco and southern Brazil. Low-chill almond cultivars offered an additional relevant plant material for comparison with apple in northern Morocco. Divergent patterns of dormancy and growth dynamics were clearly found in apple tree between southern France and southern Brazil. Divergences were less pronounced between France and Morocco. A global view outlined main differences in the dormancy chronology and intensity, the transition between endordormancy and ecodormancy and the duration of ecodormancy. A key role of bud rehydration in the transition period was shown. High-chill cultivars would be submitted in mild conditions to heterogeneous rehydration capacities linked to insufficient chill fulfillment and excessive forcing linked to high temperatures. This would favor bud competitions and consequently excessive flowering durations and weak flowering. Low chilling requirements in apple and almond would conversely confer biological capacities to tolerate superficial dormancy and abrupt transition from endordormancy to ecodormancy without important heterogeneous rehydration states within buds. It may also assume that low-chill cultivars can also tolerate high temperatures during ecodormancy as well as extended flowering durations.

  7. Jacalin and peanut agglutinin (PNA) bindings in the taste bud cells of the rat: new reliable markers for type IV cells of the rat taste buds.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Ryo; Shi, Lei; Fujii, Masae; Ueda, Katsura; Honma, Shiho; Wakisaka, Satoshi

    2005-12-01

    Lectin histochemistry of Jacalin (Artocarpus integrifolia) and peanut agglutinin (PNA), specific lectins for galactosyl (beta-1, 3) N-acetylgalactosamine (galactosyl (beta-1, 3) GalNAc), was applied to the gustatory epithelium of the adult rat. In the ordinary lingual epithelium, Jacalin and PNA labeled the cell membrane from the basal to granular cell layer. They also bound membranes of rounded-cells at the basal portion of taste buds, but the number of PNA labeled cells was smaller than that of Jacalin labeled cells. There was no apparent difference in the binding patterns of Jacalin and PNA among the taste buds of the lingual papillae and those of the palatal epithelium. Occasionally, a few spindle-shaped cells were labeled with Jacalin, but not with PNA. Double labeling of Jacalin and alpha-gustducin, a specific marker for type II cells, revealed that Jacalin-labeled spindle-shaped taste cells were immunonegative for alpha-gustducin. Spindle-shaped cells expressing protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) immunoreactivity lacked Jacalin labeling. During the development of taste buds in circumvallate papillae, the binding pattern of Jacalin became almost identical from postnatal day 5. The present results indicate that rounded cells at the basal portion of the taste buds cells (type IV cells) bind to Jacalin and PNA, and these lectins are specific markers for type IV cells of the rat taste cells.

  8. [Torsion and necrosis of epiploic appendices of the large bowel].

    PubMed

    Timofeev, M E; Fedorov, E D; Krechetova, A P; Shapoval'iants, S G

    2014-01-01

    The features of the clinical symptoms was studied, the possibility of laparoscopy in modern diagnosis and treatment of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis of the large bowel was assessed in the article. It was done the retrospective analysis of the medical records of 87 patients with a diagnosis of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis of the large bowel. The patients had laparoscopic operations in our hospital in the period from January 1995 to December 2012. The clinical picture, laboratory and instrumental datas in cases of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis were scarce and nonspecific. An abdominal pain preferentially localized in the lower divisions was the main symptom (97.7%). The instrumental methods did not allow to diagnose the torsion and necrosis of epiploic appendices in the majority of cases and all these techniques were used for the differential diagnosis with other diseases. The assumption of the presence of appendices torsion and necrosis occured just in 34.5% of cases before the operation. Diagnosis of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis present significant difficulties on prehospital and preoperative stages. The diagnostic laparoscopy is the method of choice in unclear situations and it allows to diagnose the torsion and necrosis of epiploic appendices in 96.6% of cases. Successful surgical treatment by using laparoscopic approach is possible in 90.8% of cases.

  9. Development of flower buds in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) from late autumn to early spring.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takanori; Tuan, Pham Anh; Katsumi-Horigane, Akemi; Bai, Songling; Ito, Akiko; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Ono, Hiroshi; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2015-06-01

    We periodically investigated the lateral flower bud morphology of 1-year shoots of 'Kosui' pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) in terms of dormancy progression, using magnetic resonance imaging. The size of flower buds did not change significantly during endodormancy, but rapid enlargement took place at the end of the ecodormancy stage. To gain insight into the physiological status during this period, we analyzed gene expression related to cell cycle-, cell expansion- and water channel-related genes, namely cyclin (CYC), expansin (EXPA), tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIP) and plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP). Constant but low expression of pear cyclin genes (PpCYCD3s) was observed in the transition phase from endodormancy to ecodormancy. The expression levels of PpCYCD3s were consistent with few changes in flower bud size, but up-regulated before the sprouting stage. In contrast, the expression of pear expansin and water channel-related genes (PpEXPA2, PpPIP2A, PpPIP2B, PpIδTIP1A and PpIδTIP1B) were low until onset of the rapid enlargement stage of flower buds. However, expression of these genes rapidly increased during sprouting along with a gradual increase of free water content in the floral primordia of buds. Taken together, these results suggest that flower bud size tends to stay constant until the endodormancy phase transition. Rapid enlargement of flower buds observed in March is partly due to the enhancement of the cell cycle. Then, sprouting takes place concomitant with the increase in cell expansion and free water movement.

  10. Local adaptations and climate change: converging sensitivity of bud break in black spruce provenances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Species with transcontinental distribution or spread over wide geographical regions develop populations with growth traits genetically adapted to the local climate. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecotypic sensitivity of bud break, a strong adaptive trait, to a changing environment. Six phenological phases of bud break were monitored daily on black spruce [ Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] seedlings submitted to different temperatures (12, 16 and 20 °C) and photoperiods (14, 18 and 22 h). Six provenances were tested in growth chambers, produced from seeds collected along the whole latitudinal range of the closed boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. Bud break lasted 13.3 days on average and occurred earlier in seedlings from colder sites. The annual temperature of the sites suitably tracked the clinal variation among ecotypes, providing a clear biological explanation for the environmental signal driving the adaptive divergence of populations to the local climate. Increasing temperature induced an earlier bud break according to a non-linear pattern with greater advancements observed between 12 and 16 °C. Photoperiod was significant, but sensitivity analysis indicated that its effect on bud break was marginal with respect to temperature. No interaction of provenance × treatment was observed, demonstrating an ecotypic convergence of the responses to both factors. Changes in the growing conditions could substantially modify the synchronization between bud phenology and climate, thus exposing the developing meristems of black spruce to frost damage. However, similar advancements of bud break could be expected in the different ecotypes subjected to warmer temperatures or longer day lengths.

  11. Tumor necrosis factor interaction with gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, De-Hao; Elzey, Sherrie; Delrio, Frank W.; Keene, Athena M.; Tyner, Katherine M.; Clogston, Jeffrey D.; Maccuspie, Robert I.; Guha, Suvajyoti; Zachariah, Michael R.; Hackley, Vincent A.

    2012-05-01

    We report on a systematic investigation of molecular conjugation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) protein onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the subsequent binding behavior to its antibody (anti-TNF). We employ a combination of physical and spectroscopic characterization methods, including electrospray-differential mobility analysis, dynamic light scattering, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The native TNF used in this study exists in the active homotrimer configuration prior to conjugation. After binding to AuNPs, the maximum surface density of TNF is (0.09 +/- 0.02) nm-2 with a binding constant of 3 × 106 (mol L-1)-1. Dodecyl sulfate ions induce desorption of monomeric TNF from the AuNP surface, indicating a relatively weak intermolecular binding within the AuNP-bound TNF trimers. Anti-TNF binds to both TNF-conjugated and citrate-stabilized AuNPs, showing that non-specific binding is significant. Based on the number of anti-TNF molecules adsorbed, a substantially higher binding affinity was observed for the TNF-conjugated surface. The inclusion of thiolated polyethylene glycol (SH-PEG) on the AuNPs inhibits the binding of anti-TNF, and the amount of inhibition is related to the number ratio of surface bound SH-PEG to TNF and the way in which the ligands are introduced. This study highlights the challenges in quantitatively characterizing complex hybrid nanoscale conjugates, and provides insight on TNF-AuNP formation and activity.We report on a systematic investigation of molecular conjugation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) protein onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the subsequent binding behavior to its antibody (anti-TNF). We employ a combination of physical and spectroscopic characterization methods, including electrospray-differential mobility analysis, dynamic light scattering, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

  12. Challenges With the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cerebral Radiation Necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Samuel T.; Ahluwalia, Manmeet S.; Barnett, Gene H.; Stevens, Glen H.J.; Murphy, Erin S.; Stockham, Abigail L.; Shiue, Kevin; Suh, John H.

    2013-11-01

    The incidence of radiation necrosis has increased secondary to greater use of combined modality therapy for brain tumors and stereotactic radiosurgery. Given that its characteristics on standard imaging are no different that tumor recurrence, it is difficult to diagnose without use of more sophisticated imaging and nuclear medicine scans, although the accuracy of such scans is controversial. Historically, treatment had been limited to steroids, hyperbaric oxygen, anticoagulants, and surgical resection. A recent prospective randomized study has confirmed the efficacy of bevacizumab in treating radiation necrosis. Novel therapies include using focused interstitial laser thermal therapy. This article will review the diagnosis and treatment of radiation necrosis.

  13. Incus and stapes necrosis associated with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tüz, M; Doğru, H; Yasan, H; Döner, F; Yariktaş, M

    2006-07-01

    Chronic otitis media is often associated with ossicular defects, the most frequent being necrosis of the long process of incus. Except for infection and cholesteatoma; trauma and local pressure by chorda tympani are uncommon causes leading to incus erosion. In the literature, no case of incus necrosis has been reported associated with type II diabetes mellitus (DM). A patient is presented in this report with incus and stapes suprastructure necrosis and associated type II DM who was admitted to the out-patient clinic with complaints of conductive hearing loss. PMID:16834796

  14. Practical quantification of necrosis in histological whole-slide images.

    PubMed

    Homeyer, André; Schenk, Andrea; Arlt, Janine; Dahmen, Uta; Dirsch, Olaf; Hahn, Horst K

    2013-06-01

    Since the histological quantification of necrosis is a common task in medical research and practice, we evaluate different image analysis methods for quantifying necrosis in whole-slide images. In a practical usage scenario, we assess the impact of different classification algorithms and feature sets on both accuracy and computation time. We show how a well-chosen combination of multiresolution features and an efficient postprocessing step enables the accurate quantification necrosis in gigapixel images in less than a minute. The results are general enough to be applied to other areas of histological image analysis as well. PMID:23796718

  15. Plaquing procedure for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, J.A.; Mulcahy, D.

    1980-01-01

    A single overlay plaque assay was designed and evaluated for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Epithelioma papillosum carpio cells were grown in normal atmosphere with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane- or HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid)-buffered media. Plaques were larger and formed more quickly on 1- to 3-day-old cell monolayers than on older monolayers. Cell culture medium with a 10% addition of fetal calf serum (MEM 10) or without serum (MEM 0) were the most efficient virus diluents. Dilution with phosphate-buffered saline, saline, normal broth, or deionized water reduced plaque numbers. Variations in the pH (7.0 to 8.0) of a MEM 0 diluent did not affect plaque numbers. Increasing the volume of viral inoculum above 0.15 ml (15- by 60-mm plate) decreased plaquing efficiency. Significantly more plaques occurred under gum tragacanth and methylcellulose than under agar or agarose overlays. Varying the pH (6.8 to 7.4) of methylcellulose overlays did not significantly change plaque numbers. More plaques formed under the thicker overlays of both methylcellulose and gum tragacanth. Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and HEPES performed equally well, buffering either medium or overlay. Plaque numbers were reduced when cells were rinsed after virus adsorption or less than 1 h was allowed for adsorption. Variation in adsorption time between 60 and 180 min did not change plaque numbers. The mean plaque formation time was 7 days at 16 degrees C. The viral dose response was linear when the standardized assay was used.

  16. The glossopharyngeal nerve controls epithelial expression of Sprr2a and Krt13 around taste buds in the circumvallate papilla.

    PubMed

    Miura, Hirohito; Kusakabe, Yuko; Hashido, Kento; Hino, Akihiro; Ooki, Makoto; Harada, Shuitsu

    2014-09-19

    Tastants reach the tip of taste bud cells through taste pores which are openings in the epithelium. We found Sprr2a is selectively expressed in the upper layer of the epithelium surrounding taste buds in the circumvallate papilla (CV) where the epithelium is organized into taste pores. Sprr2a is a member of a small proline-rich protein family, which is suggested to be involved in the restitution/migration phase of epithelial wound healing. The expression of Sprr2a was restricted to the upper layer and largely segregated with Ptch1 expression that is restricted to the basal side of the epithelium around the taste buds. Denervation resulted in the gradual loss of Sprr2a-expressing cells over 10 days similarly to that of taste bud cells which is in contrast to the rapid loss of Ptch1 expression. We also found that denervation caused an increase of Keratin (Krt)13 expression around taste buds that corresponded with the disappearance of Sprr2a and Ptch1 expression. Taste buds were surrounded by Krt13-negative cells in the CV in control mice. However, at 6 days post-denervation, taste buds were tightly surrounded by Krt13-positive cells. During taste bud development, taste bud cells emerged together with Krt13-negtive cells, and Sprr2a expression was increased along with the progress of taste bud development. These results demonstrate that regional gene expression surrounding taste buds is associated with taste bud formation and controlled by the innervating taste nerve. PMID:25123441

  17. Spatio-temporal relief from hypoxia and production of reactive oxygen species during bud burst in grapevine (Vitis vinifera)

    PubMed Central

    Meitha, Karlia; Konnerup, Dennis; Colmer, Timothy D.; Considine, John A.; Foyer, Christine H.; Considine, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants regulate cellular oxygen partial pressures (pO2), together with reduction/oxidation (redox) state in order to manage rapid developmental transitions such as bud burst after a period of quiescence. However, our understanding of pO2 regulation in complex meristematic organs such as buds is incomplete and, in particular, lacks spatial resolution. Methods The gradients in pO2 from the outer scales to the primary meristem complex were measured in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) buds, together with respiratory CO2 production rates and the accumulation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, from ecodormancy through the first 72 h preceding bud burst, triggered by the transition from low to ambient temperatures. Key Results Steep internal pO2 gradients were measured in dormant buds with values as low as 2·5 kPa found in the core of the bud prior to bud burst. Respiratory CO2 production rates increased soon after the transition from low to ambient temperatures and the bud tissues gradually became oxygenated in a patterned process. Within 3 h of the transition to ambient temperatures, superoxide accumulation was observed in the cambial meristem, co-localizing with lignified cellulose associated with pro-vascular tissues. Thereafter, superoxide accumulated in other areas subtending the apical meristem complex, in the absence of significant hydrogen peroxide accumulation, except in the cambial meristem. By 72 h, the internal pO2 gradient showed a biphasic profile, where the minimum pO2 was external to the core of the bud complex. Conclusions Spatial and temporal control of the tissue oxygen environment occurs within quiescent buds, and the transition from quiescence to bud burst is accompanied by a regulated relaxation of the hypoxic state and accumulation of reactive oxygen species within the developing cambium and vascular tissues of the heterotrophic grapevine buds. PMID:26337519

  18. Cell contact-dependent mechanisms specify taste bud pattern during a critical period early in embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Parker, Mark A; Bell, Melanie L; Barlow, Linda A

    2004-08-01

    After gastrulation, the pharyngeal endoderm is specified to give rise to taste receptor organs without further signaling from other embryonic tissues. We hypothesized that intercellular signaling might be responsible for the specification of taste buds. To test if and when this signaling was occurring, intercellular contacts were transiently disrupted in cultures of pharyngeal endoderm from axolotl embryos, and the number, size, and distribution of taste buds analyzed. Disruption of cell contacts at progressive time points, from neurula to late tail bud stages, revealed a critical period, during mid-tail bud stages, when disruption of cell contacts resulted in a significant increase in taste bud number and size. The spatial distribution of taste buds was also altered; taste buds were more clustered in explants disrupted during the critical period. These effects were not due to general alterations in mitosis and apoptosis. Rather, at least three aspects of taste bud patterning, i.e., number, size, and distribution, are governed by mechanisms dependent on normal cell contacts during a concise time window. Furthermore, our findings are consistent with specification of taste buds by means of lateral inhibitory signaling, which we hypothesize results from cell contact-dependent or short-range diffusible signals. PMID:15254897

  19. Arenavirus budding resulting from viral-protein-associated cell membrane curvature

    PubMed Central

    Schley, David; Whittaker, Robert J.; Neuman, Benjamin W.

    2013-01-01

    Viral replication occurs within cells, with release (and onward infection) primarily achieved through two alternative mechanisms: lysis, in which virions emerge as the infected cell dies and bursts open; or budding, in which virions emerge gradually from a still living cell by appropriating a small part of the cell membrane. Virus budding is a poorly understood process that challenges current models of vesicle formation. Here, a plausible mechanism for arenavirus budding is presented, building on recent evidence that viral proteins embed in the inner lipid layer of the cell membrane. Experimental results confirm that viral protein is associated with increased membrane curvature, whereas a mathematical model is used to show that localized increases in curvature alone are sufficient to generate viral buds. The magnitude of the protein-induced curvature is calculated from the size of the amphipathic region hypothetically removed from the inner membrane as a result of translation, with a change in membrane stiffness estimated from observed differences in virion deformation as a result of protein depletion. Numerical results are based on experimental data and estimates for three arenaviruses, but the mechanisms described are more broadly applicable. The hypothesized mechanism is shown to be sufficient to generate spontaneous budding that matches well both qualitatively and quantitatively with experimental observations. PMID:23864502

  20. The benefits of bathing buds: water calyces protect flowers from a microlepidopteran herbivore.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Jane E; Harms, Kyle E

    2007-08-22

    Protective floral structures may evolve in response to the negative effects of floral herbivores. For example, water calyces--liquid-filled, cup-like structures resulting from the fusion of sepals--may reduce floral herbivory by submerging buds during their development. Our observations of a water-calyx plant, Chrysothemis friedrichsthaliana (Gesneriaceae), revealed that buds were frequently attacked by ovipositing moths (Alucitidae), whose larvae consumed anthers and stigmas before corollas opened. Almost 25% of per-plant flower production was destroyed by alucitid larvae over two seasons, far exceeding the losses to all other floral herbivores combined. Experimental manipulation of water levels in calyces showed that a liquid barrier over buds halved per-flower alucitid egg deposition and subsequent herbivory, relative to buds in calyces without water. Thus, C. friedrichsthaliana's water calyx helps protect buds from a highly detrimental floral herbivore. Our findings support claims that sepal morphology is largely influenced by selection to reduce floral herbivory, and that these pressures can result in novel morphological adaptations.

  1. Study of budding yeast colony formation and its characterizations by using circular granular cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprianti, D.; Haryanto, F.; Purqon, A.; Khotimah, S. N.; Viridi, S.

    2016-03-01

    Budding yeast can exhibit colony formation in solid substrate. The colony of pathogenic budding yeast can colonize various surfaces of the human body and medical devices. Furthermore, it can form biofilm that resists drug effective therapy. The formation of the colony is affected by the interaction between cells and with its growth media. The cell budding pattern holds an important role in colony expansion. To study this colony growth, the molecular dynamic method was chosen to simulate the interaction between budding yeast cells. Every cell was modelled by circular granular cells, which can grow and produce buds. Cohesion force, contact force, and Stokes force govern this model to mimic the interaction between cells and with the growth substrate. Characterization was determined by the maximum (L max) and minimum (L min) distances between two cells within the colony and whether two lines that connect the two cells in the maximum and minimum distances intersect each other. Therefore, it can be recognized the colony shape in circular, oval, and irregular shapes. Simulation resulted that colony formation are mostly in oval shape with little branch. It also shows that greater cohesion strength obtains more compact colony formation.

  2. Latitudinal variation in sensitivity of flower bud formation to high temperature in Japanese Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Yoshie, Fumio

    2014-05-01

    Control of flowering time plays a key role in the successful range expansion of plants. Taraxacum officinale has expanded throughout Japan during the 110 years after it was introduced into a cool temperate region. The present study tested a hypothesis that there is a genetic difference in the bud formation time in relation to temperature along latitudinal gradient of T. officinale populations. In Experiment 1, plants from three populations at different latitudes (26, 36, and 43°N) were grown at three temperatures. Time to flower bud appearance did not significantly differ among the three populations when plants were grown at 14 °C, whereas it increased with increasing latitude when grown at 19 and 24 °C. Rosette diameter was not different among the populations, indicating that the variation in bud formation time reflected a difference in genetic control rather than size variation. The latitudinal variation in bud appearance time was confirmed by Experiment 2 in which plants from 17 population were used. In Experiment 3, the size of plants that exhibited late-flowering was studied to test a hypothesis that the variation in flowering time reflects dormancy of vegetative growth, but the late-flowering plants were found to continue growth, indicating that vegetative dormancy was not the cause of the variation. The results clearly indicate that the degree of suppression of flower bud formation at high temperature decreases with latitude from north to south, which is under genetic control.

  3. Bud set in poplar--genetic dissection of a complex trait in natural and hybrid populations.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Antje; Storme, Véronique; Jorge, Véronique; Gaudet, Muriel; Vitacolonna, Nicola; Fabbrini, Francesco; Ruttink, Tom; Zaina, Giusi; Marron, Nicolas; Dillen, Sophie; Steenackers, Marijke; Sabatti, Maurizio; Morgante, Michele; Boerjan, Wout; Bastien, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    • The seasonal timing of growth events is crucial to tree distribution and conservation. The seasonal growth cycle is strongly adapted to the local climate that is changing because of global warming. We studied bud set as one cornerstone of the seasonal growth cycle in an integrative approach. • Bud set was dissected at the phenotypic level into several components, and phenotypic components with most genetic variation were identified. While phenotypic variation resided in the timing of growth cessation, and even so more in the duration from growth cessation to bud set, the timing of growth cessation had a stronger genetic component in both natural and hybrid populations. • Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for the most discriminative phenotypic bud-set components across four poplar pedigrees. The QTL from different pedigrees were recurrently detected in six regions of the poplar genome. • These regions of 1.83-4.25 Mbp in size, containing between 202 and 394 genes, form the basis for further molecular-genetic dissection of bud set.

  4. Making continental-scale environmental programs relevant locally for educators with Project BudBurst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, L.; Henderson, S.; Wasser, L.; Newman, S. J.; Ward, D.

    2012-12-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage non professionals in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events that raise awareness of climate change, and create a cadre of informed citizen scientists. Citizen science programs such as Project BudBurst provide excellent opportunities for educators and their students to actively participate in scientific research. Such programs are important not only from an educational perspective, but because they also enable scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants at a continental-scale; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. From its 2008 launch, this on-line program has engaged participants of all ages and walks of life in recording the timing of the leafing and flowering of wild and cultivated species found across the continent, and in contemplating the meaning of such data in their local environments. Thus far, thousands of participants from all 50 states have submitted data. This presentation will provide an overview of Project BudBurst educational resources and share lessons learned from educators in implementing the program in formal and informal education settings. Lesson plans and tips from educators will be highlighted. Project BudBurst is co-managed by the National Ecological Observatory Network and the Chicago Botanic Garden.

  5. The essential function of Rrs1 in ribosome biogenesis is conserved in budding and fission yeasts.

    PubMed

    Wan, Kun; Kawara, Haruka; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Kume, Kazunori; Yabuki, Yukari; Goshima, Tetsuya; Kitamura, Kenji; Ueno, Masaru; Kanai, Muneyoshi; Hirata, Dai; Funato, Kouichi; Mizuta, Keiko

    2015-09-01

    The Rrs1 protein plays an essential role in the biogenesis of 60S ribosomal subunits in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Here, we examined whether the fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) homologue of Rrs1 also plays a role in ribosome biogenesis. To this end, we constructed two temperature-sensitive fission yeast strains, rrs1-D14/22G and rrs1-L51P, which had amino acid substitutions corresponding to those of the previously characterized budding yeast rrs1-84 (D22/30G) and rrs1-124 (L61P) strains, respectively. The fission yeast mutants exhibited severe defects in growth and 60S ribosomal subunit biogenesis at high temperatures. In addition, expression of the Rrs1 protein of fission yeast suppressed the growth defects of the budding yeast rrs1 mutants at high temperatures. Yeast two-hybrid analyses revealed that the interactions of Rrs1 with the Rfp2 and Ebp2 proteins were conserved in budding and fission yeasts. These results suggest that the essential function of Rrs1 in ribosome biogenesis may be conserved in budding and fission yeasts.

  6. [Compensation effect of cotton growth and development after soil salt content reduction at bud stage].

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Qi; Zhang, Pei-Tong; Li, Chun-Hong; Yin, Jian-Mei; Han, Xiao-Yong

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the dynamic characteristics of cotton growth and development after soil salt content reduction (SD) at bud stage and its effect on yield formation, a pot experiment was conducted in which soil salt content was declined from 5 per thousand level to 2 per thousand level at cotton bud stage. The results showed that the plant height, biomass, total fruit branch and fruit node number, boll number, boll mass of cotton plants increased after soil salt content reduction at bud stage. The distribution proportions of biomass in root and boll decreased after soil salt content reduction, however, the distribution proportions of biomass in leaf, main stem and fruit branch were on the rise. The growth rate of cotton plant increased after soil salt content reduction. Plant dry matter accumulation rate of SD cotton exceeded CK cotton at 22 days after soil salt content reduction. The response of different organs of cotton plant were different to soil salt content reduction, the plant height was the earliest, followed by the fruit branch and fruit node formation, and the bud and boll were the latest, which indicated that the compensation effect of cotton growth and development after soil salt content reduction at bud stage firstly appeared on the formation and growth of new leaf, fruit branch and fruit node, and on this basis, gradually brought out yield compensation.

  7. Using "Bud World Party" attendance to predict adolescent alcohol use and beliefs about drinking.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Steven R; Rekve, Dag; Lindsay, Gordon B

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the association between attendance at the "Bud World Party," a family entertainment venue created by Anheuser-Busch for the 2002 Winter Olympics, and alcohol-related beliefs and current drinking behaviors for a group of 7th and 8th graders who attend a middle school in close proximity to the downtown Salt Lake City plaza where the exhibit and related events were located. Data were collected via a questionnaire administered to 283 students 30 days after the closing ceremonies.. Logistic regression was used to predict recent alcohol consumption. Significant predictors were race (non-white) (OR = 3.9), religiosity (OR = .72), having a parent who drinks (OR = 4.8), the number of best friends who drink (OR = 2.5), and the interaction for "Bud World Party" attendance and gender (OR = 33.2). Post-hoc analysis of the interaction effect indicated that the relationship between "Bud World Party" attendance and recent alcohol consumption is moderated by gender. Girls who visited "Bud World Party" were more likely than the boys to have consumed alcohol in the past 30 days. In addition, the girls who visited "Bud World Party" were more likely to believe that drinking would increase their chances of popularity at school than the students who did not.

  8. Cytoskeletal impairment during isoamyl alcohol-induced cell elongation in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Wakae; Kinpara, Satoko; Kitahara, Nozomi; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Ogita, Akira; Tanaka, Toshio; Fujita, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Isoamyl alcohol (IAA) induces pseudohyphae including cell elongation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Detailed regulation of microtubules and actin in developmental transition during cell elongation is poorly understood. Here, we show that although IAA did not affect the intracellular actin level, it reduced the levels of both α- and β-tubulins. In budding yeast, cytoplasmic microtubules are linked to actin via complexes consisting of at least Kar9, Bim1, and Myo2, and reach from the spindle pole body to the cortical attachment site at the bud tip. However, IAA did not affect migration of Myo2 to the bud tip and kept Kar9 in the interior portion of the cell. In addition, bud elongation was observed in Kar9-overexpressing cells in the absence of IAA. These results indicate that impairment of the link between cytoplasmic microtubules and actin is possibly involved in the lowered interaction of Myo2 with Kar9. Our study might explain the reason for delayed cell cycle during IAA-induced cell elongation. PMID:27507042

  9. NOGGIN IS REQUIRED FOR NORMAL LOBE PATTERNING AND DUCTAL BUDDING IN THE MOUSE PROSTATE

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Crist; Vezina, Chad M.; Hicks, Sarah M.; Shaw, Aubie; Yu, Min; Peterson, Richard E.; Bushman, Wade

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal expression of the BMP antagonist NOGGIN during prostate development plays a critical role in pre-natal ventral prostate development and opposes BMP4-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation during postnatal ductal development. Morphologic examination of newborn Noggin-/- male fetuses revealed genitourinary anomalies including cryptorchidism, incomplete separation of the hindgut from the urogenital sinus (UGS), absence of the ventral mesenchymal pad and a complete loss of ventral prostate (VP) budding. Examination of lobe-specific marker expression in the E14 Noggin-/- UGS rescued by transplantation under the renal capsule of a male nude mouse confirmed a complete loss of VP determination. More modest effects were observed in the other lobes, including decreased number of ductal buds in the dorsal and lateral prostates of newborn Noggin-/- males. BMP4 and BMP7 have been shown to inhibit ductal budding and outgrowth by negatively regulating epithelial cell proliferation. We show here that NOGGIN can neutralize budding inhibition by BMP4 and rescues branching morphogenesis of BMP4-exposed UGS in organ culture and show that the effects of BMP4 and NOGGIN activities converge on P63+ epithelial cells located at nascent duct tips. Together, these studies show that the BMP-NOGGIN axis regulates patterning of the ventral prostate, regulates ductal budding, and controls proliferation of P63+ epithelial cells in the nascent ducts of developing mouse prostate. PMID:18028901

  10. Effects of the F-actin inhibitor latrunculin A on the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kopecká, Marie; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Kawamoto, Susumu

    2015-07-01

    Our basic cell biology research was aimed at investigating the effect on eukaryotic cells of the sudden loss of the F-actin cytoskeleton. Cells treated with latrunculin A (LA) in yeast extract peptone dextrose (YEPD) medium were examined using phase-contrast and fluorescent microscopy, freeze-substitution, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, counted using a Bürker chamber and their absorbance measured. The cells responded to the presence of LA, an F-actin inhibitor, with the disappearance of actin patches, actin cables and actin rings. This resulted in the formation of larger spherical cells with irregular morphology in the cell walls and ultrastructural disorder of the cell organelles and secretory vesicles. Instead of buds, LA-inhibited cells formed only 'table-mountain-like' wide flattened swellings without apical growth with a thinner glucan cell-wall layer containing β-1,3-glucan microfibrils. The LA-inhibited cells lysed. Actin cables and patches were required for bud formation and bud growth. In addition, actin patches were required for the formation of β-1,3-glucan microfibrils in the bud cell wall. LA has fungistatic, fungicidal and fungilytic effects on the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  11. Actin dynamics affect mitochondrial quality control and aging in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Ryo; Vevea, Jason D; Swayne, Theresa C; Chojnowski, Robert; Hill, Vanessa; Boldogh, Istvan R; Pon, Liza A

    2013-12-01

    Actin cables of budding yeast are bundles of F-actin that extend from the bud tip or neck to the mother cell tip, serve as tracks for bidirectional cargo transport, and undergo continuous movement from buds toward mother cells [1]. This movement, retrograde actin cable flow (RACF), is similar to retrograde actin flow in lamellipodia, growth cones, immunological synapses, dendritic spines, and filopodia [2-5]. In all cases, actin flow is driven by the push of actin polymerization and assembly at the cell cortex, and myosin-driven pulling forces deeper within the cell [6-10]. Therefore, for movement and inheritance from mothers to buds, mitochondria must "swim upstream" against the opposing force of RACF [11]. We find that increasing RACF rates results in increased fitness of mitochondria inherited by buds and that the increase in mitochondrial fitness leads to extended replicative lifespan and increased cellular healthspan. The sirtuin SIR2 is required for normal RACF and mitochondrial fitness, and increasing RACF rates in sir2Δ cells increases mitochondrial fitness and cellular healthspan but does not affect replicative lifespan. These studies support the model that RACF serves as a filter for segregation of fit from less-fit mitochondria during inheritance, which controls cellular lifespan and healthspan. They also support a role for Sir2p in these processes.

  12. Post-facelift flap necrosis treatment using charged polystyrene microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Oren; Farber, Nimrod; Remer, Eric; Tessone, Ariel; Trivizki, Omer; Bank, Jonathan; Winkler, Eyal; Zilinsky, Isaac; Haik, Josef

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Flap necrosis following facial rhytidectomy constitutes a vexing and grievous complication to the patient and the surgeon. Treatment modalities that can expedite wound healing and re-epithelialization rates are highly desired. OBJECTIVES: To assess wound healing and re-epithelialization rates of open wounds following postrhytidectomy flap necrosis treated with commercially available charged polystyrene microspheres (Polyheal-1, Polyheal Ltd, Israel). METHODS: Flap necrosis following rhytidectomy with open wounds in three female patients were treated using dressings soaked with Polyheal-1. Wound closure rates were documented. RESULTS: The wounds demonstrated both accelerated granulation tissue formation and rapid re-epithelialization rates. No complications or side effects were encountered. CONCLUSIONS: Charged polystyrene microspheres may offer a new and efficacious way to treat open wounds due to flap necrosis following facial rhytidectomy. Further research with larger patient numbers is still needed to verify these findings. PMID:24431937

  13. Toe Necrosis, Etiologies and Management, a Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Abdelfatah Abou; Newman, Mackenzie; Simman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Toe necrosis may have vast different etiologies. These include ischemia, embolus, and others. (1) The most common etiology is ischemia. It is a reduction in blood supply to a viable tissue that can lead to susceptibility to infection and tissue death. Peripheral ischemia, which is rooted in the lower limbs, is a major risk factor for toe necrosis because the basal metabolic requirements of tissue are not being sufficiently met. As a result, pain, ulcers, and gangrene commonly occur. (2) Other causes of direct and indirect toe necrosis and related lower limb gangrene include mechanical trauma, infectious, pharmacological sensitivity, cancer, blue toe syndrome, and other granulomatous diseases, such as Churg-Strauss syndrome. We present a case series of toes necrosis which resulted from different etiologies and their management. PMID:26199887

  14. Renal papillary necrosis and pyelonephritis accompanying fenoprofen therapy.

    PubMed

    Husserl, F E; Lange, R K; Kantrow, C M

    1979-10-26

    Renal papillary necrosis occurred after fenoprofen calcium administration in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and urinary tract infection. Possible mechanisms of renal damage may be hypersensitivity, decreased blood flow, and decreased production of a prostaglandin E-like substance.

  15. Cerebral radiation necrosis: diagnostic challenge and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Eisele, S C; Dietrich, J

    2015-09-01

    Cerebral radiation is an indispensable cornerstone in the treatment of many primary and metastatic brain tumors. However, besides its desired therapeutic effect on tumor cells, a significant proportion of patients will experience neurotoxic side effects as the consequence of radiotherapy. Radiation necrosis can result in progressive neurological symptoms and radiographic changes. To differentiate radiation necrosis from progressive tumor based on imaging can pose a diagnostic challenge because the MRI characteristics may be similar in both situations. Therefore, surgical biopsy and pathological confirmation is sometimes necessary to guide further management. Effective treatment options for cerebral radiation necrosis exist and should be offered to symptomatic patients. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular processes underlying the development of radiation necrosis is necessary to prevent and minimize radiation-associated morbidity and to improve treatment strategies.

  16. Chronic renal insufficiency from cortical necrosis induced by arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, R E; Hudson, J B; Rao, R N; Sobel, R E

    1978-08-01

    A 39-year-old man had anuria and azotemia and was found to be suffering from acute arsenic poisoning. After two peritoneal dialyses, partial renal function returned, and the patient has survived for five years without dialysis. Renal cortical necrosis was demonstrated by renal biopsy and renal calcification. We suggest that arsenic be added to the list of substances capable of causing renal cortical necrosis and recommend consideration of this complication in cases of arsenical poisoning.

  17. Skin and Neourethral Necrosis in Staged Hypospadias Repair

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Alireza; Sarafi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Complications in hypospadias surgery are not uncommon however penile skin or flap necrosis is rarely reported. Ischemia of the flap or graft is a major complication in two stage repair of hypospadias. A 2-year old boy with proximal penile hypospadias, operated earlier for chordee correction and urethral plate formation with a preputial flap, presented for stage 2 repair. Ten days after surgery patient developed skin and neourethral necrosis. Early debridement was done followed by coverage with scrotal flaps. PMID:27398320

  18. Robotic cystogastrostomy and debridement of walled-off pancreatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Nassour, Ibrahim; Ramzan, Zeeshan; Kukreja, Sachin

    2016-09-01

    Walled-off pancreatic necrosis is a known complication of acute pancreatitis and requires intervention if symptomatic or complicated. Laparoscopic cystogastrostomy as a minimally invasive surgical intervention has been well-described in surgical literature but data on a robotic approach is limited. Here we report a case of robotic cystogastrostomy and debridement of walled-off pancreatic necrosis in a patient with a history of severe biliary pancreatitis. PMID:27039191

  19. Erythromelalgia with subsequent digital necrosis, glomerulonephritis, and antiphospholipid antibodies.

    PubMed

    Paira, Sergio; Cassano, Gustavo; Korol, Virginia; Ortiz, Alberto; Roverano, Susana

    2005-08-01

    Erythromelalgia is a condition of extremities characterized by redness, increased temperature, and burning pain. We describe the first reported case of erythromelalgia in a young woman with digital necrosis and mesangial nephritis associated with antiphospholipid antibodies. The symptoms and necrosis completely resolved with treatment with corticosteroids. We discuss the differential diagnosis of this entity and highlight the importance of a follow up of these patients, because erythromelalgia may precede a myeloproliferative disorder or systemic lupus erythematosus by months or years.

  20. Tumour necrosis factors in childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Najam, F I; Giasuddin, A S; Shembesh, A H

    2001-03-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) and TNF beta levels in serum were measured by enzyme immunoassays in 64 Libyan children (age: 1-12 years, sex: 39 males, 25 females) with mild to moderately severe asthma (Group A). Among these patients, 35 had active disease (AA) and 29 had inactive disease (NA). According to age range, 20, 21 and 23 patients were between 1-3 years (A1), > 3-5 years (A2) and > 5-12 years (A3) respectively. A1 had 9 and 11 patients with active (AA1) and inactive (NA1) disease; A2 had 10 and 11 patients with active (AA2) and inactive (NA2) disease; A3 had 16 and 7 patients with active (AA3) and inactive (NA3) disease respectively. Age-matched comparisons was made with 57 healthy children (age: 1-12 years; sex: 30 males, 27 females) (Group B). Among the controls, 15, 19 and 23 children were between 1-3 years (B1), > 3-5 years (B2) and > 5-12 years (B3) respectively. It was observed that serum mean TNF alpha level was significantly higher in patients, while TNF beta levels was normal (A vs B-TNF alpha P < 0.001, TNF beta: P > 0.1). The TNF alpha level was elevated significantly in active disease, while it was normal in inactive disease (AA, NA, B: P = 0.0001; AA vs NA; P < 0.0001; NA vs B: P > 0.05) and TNF beta levels were normal in both groups (AA, NA, B: P = 0.25). Further, TNF alpha levels were significantly higher in all age ranges but in patients with active disease only (AA1, NA1, B: P = 0.0008; AA2, NA2, B: P = 0.0003; AA3, NA3, B: P = 0.0396). TNF alpha may therefore be involved in the pathophysiology of asthma possibly through various proinflammatory mechanisms.

  1. Progress and renewal in gustation: new insights into taste bud development.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Linda A

    2015-11-01

    The sense of taste, or gustation, is mediated by taste buds, which are housed in specialized taste papillae found in a stereotyped pattern on the surface of the tongue. Each bud, regardless of its location, is a collection of ∼100 cells that belong to at least five different functional classes, which transduce sweet, bitter, salt, sour and umami (the taste of glutamate) signals. Taste receptor cells harbor functional similarities to neurons but, like epithelial cells, are rapidly and continuously renewed throughout adult life. Here, I review recent advances in our understanding of how the pattern of taste buds is established in embryos and discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing taste cell turnover. I also highlight how these findings aid our understanding of how and why many cancer therapies result in taste dysfunction.

  2. Malformation of gynoecia impedes fertilisation in bud-flowering Calluna vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Behrend, A; Borchert, T; Müller, A; Tänzer, J; Hohe, A

    2013-01-01

    In Calluna vulgaris, a common bedding plant during autumn in the northern hemisphere, the bud-blooming mutation of flower morphology is of high economic importance. Breeding of new bud-blooming cultivars suffers from poor seed set in some of the desirable bud-flowering crossing partners. In the current study, fertilisation and seed development in genotypes with good or poor seed set were monitored in detail in order to examine pre- and post-zygotic cross breeding incompatibilities. Whereas no distinct differences were detected in seed development, pollen tube growth was impeded in the pistils of genotypes characterised by poor seed set. Detailed microscopic analysis revealed malformations of the gynoecia due to imperfect fusion of carpels. Hence, a pre-zygotic mechanism hindering pollen tube growth due to malformation of gynoecia was deduced. An interaction of putative candidate genes involved in malformation of gynoecia with floral organ identity genes controlling the flower architecture is discussed.

  3. Multiple shoot-bud formation and plantlet regeneration on Castanea sativa Mill. seeds in culture.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, R

    1982-06-01

    Primordial initiation and development of shoot-buds has been accomplished by using shoots derived from chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) seedlings cultured with added 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Germination of chestnut seeds in the presence of BAP (4 - 40 μM) stimulated varying numbers of shoot-buds in those areas of the main axis that were favorably altered. When excised single shoots from these treated seeds were subcultured on a fresh medium containing BAP (4 - 40 μM) continual shoot production was observed. Bud growth and shoot elongation were stimulated by transferring cultures to a reduced concentration of BAP (2 μM) plus indole-3-butyric acid (IBA 0.4 μM). Plant regeneration occurred in the presence of IBA (0.8 μM) after a preconditioning treatment in which naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA 50 μM) and kinetin (k 2 μM) were applied to the tissue culture shoots for 7 days in light.

  4. Acaricidal activities of clove bud oil and red thyme oil using microencapsulation against HDMs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Ran; Sharma, Suraj

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a safer microcapsule loaded with clove bud oil and red thyme oil to reduce the population of house dust mites (HDMs). Gelatin-based microcapsules 4-85 µm in size were created, with agitation speed and type of oil playing a critical role in governing their size. Microcapsules made up of single spherical units less than 30 µm in diameter remained separate on the fibre, whereas larger microcapsules of over 30 µm ruptured or aggregated. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated that microcapsules containing red thyme oil showed a more consistent range of oil loading, from 50 to 80%, than microcapsules containing clove bud oil, which ranged from 30 to 80% (more deviated). Mortality tests on Dermatophagoides farinae conducted on fabric with attached microcapsules showed that clove bud oil, containing a more phenolic monoterpenoid (eugenol), was more effective at reducing the live HDMs (94% mortality).

  5. Progress and renewal in gustation: new insights into taste bud development.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Linda A

    2015-11-01

    The sense of taste, or gustation, is mediated by taste buds, which are housed in specialized taste papillae found in a stereotyped pattern on the surface of the tongue. Each bud, regardless of its location, is a collection of ∼100 cells that belong to at least five different functional classes, which transduce sweet, bitter, salt, sour and umami (the taste of glutamate) signals. Taste receptor cells harbor functional similarities to neurons but, like epithelial cells, are rapidly and continuously renewed throughout adult life. Here, I review recent advances in our understanding of how the pattern of taste buds is established in embryos and discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing taste cell turnover. I also highlight how these findings aid our understanding of how and why many cancer therapies result in taste dysfunction. PMID:26534983

  6. Existence of subtypes of gustducin-immunoreactive cells in the vallate taste bud of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Yasuhiro; Yokosuka, Hiroyuki; Kumakura, Masahiko; Yoshie, Sumio

    2007-12-01

    Vallate taste buds in the guinea-pig tongue were immunohistochemically investigated with regard to the colocalization of gustducin with calbindin-D28K (=spot 35 protein) and type III inositol triphosphate receptor (IP(3)R-3) in order to characterize gustducin-immunoreactive cells. Individual taste bud cells ranged from totally immunopositive to totally immunonegative for these three molecules. Among the immunoreactive cells, gustducin-immunoreactive cells were divided into two cell populations: one immunopositive and the other immunonegative for calbindin-D28K. Applying our previous data to the present results, the former cells should belong to Type III cells designated by electron microscopy. This finding provides new evidence regarding the taste bud types of cells expressing gustducin in the guinea pig. PMID:18431029

  7. Ferrite-Cored Solenoidal Induction Coil Sensor for BUD (MM-1667)

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, F.; Becker, A.; Conti, U.; Gasperikova, E.

    2011-06-15

    We have designed and lab tested a new ferrite cored induction coil sensor for measuring the secondary fields from metallic UXO with the BUD system. The objective was to replace the 5-inch diameter air-cored coils in the BUD system with smaller sensors that would allow the placement of multiple sensors in the smaller package of the new BUD hand-held system. A ferrite-cored solenoidal coil of length L can easily be made to have sensitivity and noise level roughly the same as an air-cored coil of a diameter on the same order as L. A ferrite-cored solenoidal coil can easily have a feedback configuration to achieve critical damping. The feedback configuration leads to a very stable response. Feedback ferrite-cored solenoidal coils show very little interaction as long as they are separated by one half their length.

  8. Lamin Mutations Accelerate Aging via Defective Export of Mitochondrial mRNAs through Nuclear Envelope Budding.

    PubMed

    Li, Yihang; Hassinger, Linda; Thomson, Travis; Ding, Baojin; Ashley, James; Hassinger, William; Budnik, Vivian

    2016-08-01

    Defective RNA metabolism and transport are implicated in aging and degeneration [1, 2], but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. A prevalent feature of aging is mitochondrial deterioration [3]. Here, we link a novel mechanism for RNA export through nuclear envelope (NE) budding [4, 5] that requires A-type lamin, an inner nuclear membrane-associated protein, to accelerated aging observed in Drosophila LaminC (LamC) mutations. These LamC mutations were modeled after A-lamin (LMNA) mutations causing progeroid syndromes (PSs) in humans. We identified mitochondrial assembly regulatory factor (Marf), a mitochondrial fusion factor (mitofusin), as well as other transcripts required for mitochondrial integrity and function, in a screen for RNAs that exit the nucleus through NE budding. PS-modeled LamC mutations induced premature aging in adult flight muscles, including decreased levels of specific mitochondrial protein transcripts (RNA) and progressive mitochondrial degradation. PS-modeled LamC mutations also induced the accelerated appearance of other phenotypes associated with aging, including a progressive accumulation of polyubiquitin aggregates [6, 7] and myofibril disorganization [8, 9]. Consistent with these observations, the mutants had progressive jumping and flight defects. Downregulating marf alone induced the above aging defects. Nevertheless, restoring marf was insufficient for rescuing the aging phenotypes in PS-modeled LamC mutations, as other mitochondrial RNAs are affected by inhibition of NE budding. Analysis of NE budding in dominant and recessive PS-modeled LamC mutations suggests a mechanism by which abnormal lamina organization prevents the egress of these RNAs via NE budding. These studies connect defects in RNA export through NE budding to progressive loss of mitochondrial integrity and premature aging. PMID:27451905

  9. RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis of dormant flower buds of Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Youyin; Li, Yongqiang; Xin, Dedong; Chen, Wenrong; Shao, Xu; Wang, Yue; Guo, Weidong

    2015-01-25

    Bud dormancy is a critical biological process allowing Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus) to survive in winter. Due to the lake of genomic information, molecular mechanisms triggering endodormancy release in flower buds have remained unclear. Hence, we used Illumina RNA-Seq technology to carry out de novo transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression profiling of flower buds. Approximately 47million clean reads were assembled into 50,604 sequences with an average length of 837bp. A total of 37,650 unigene sequences were successfully annotated. 128 pathways were annotated by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, and metabolic, biosynthesis of second metabolite and plant hormone signal transduction accounted for higher percentage in flower bud. In critical period of endodormancy release, 1644, significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from expression profile. DEGs related to oxidoreductase activity were especially abundant in Gene Ontology (GO) molecular function category. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis demonstrated that DEGs were involved in various metabolic processes, including phytohormone metabolism. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that levels of DEGs for abscisic acid and gibberellin biosynthesis decreased while the abundance of DEGs encoding their degradation enzymes increased and GID1 was down-regulated. Concomitant with endodormancy release, MADS-box transcription factors including P. pseudocerasus dormancy-associated MADS-box (PpcDAM), Agamous-like2, and APETALA3-like genes, shown remarkably epigenetic roles. The newly generated transcriptome and gene expression profiling data provide valuable genetic information for revealing transcriptomic variation during bud dormancy in Chinese cherry. The uncovered data should be useful for future studies of bud dormancy in Prunus fruit trees lacking genomic information.

  10. Dormancy release and chilling requirement of buds of latitudinal ecotypes of Betula pendula and B. pubescens.

    PubMed

    Myking, T; Heide, O M

    1995-11-01

    Bud burst and dormancy release of latitudinal ecotypes of Betula pendula Roth and B. pubescens Ehrh. from Denmark ( approximately 56 degrees N), mid-Norway ( approximately 64 degrees N) and northern Norway ( approximately 69 degrees N) were studied in controlled environments. Dormant seedlings were chilled at 0, 5 or 10 degrees C from October 4 onward and then, at monthly intervals from mid-November to February, batches of seedlings were held at 15 degrees C in an 8-h (SD) or 24-h (LD) photoperiod to permit flushing. A decline in days to bud burst occurred with increasing chilling time in all ecotypes. In November, after 44 chilling days, time to bud burst was least in plants chilled at 0 and 5 degrees C. The difference diminished with increasing chilling time, and in February, after 136 chilling days, bud burst was earliest in plants chilled at 10 degrees C. Long photoperiods during flushing significantly reduced thermal time after short chilling periods (44 and 74 days), but had no effect when the chilling requirement was fully met after 105 or more chilling days. No significant difference in these responses was found between the two species. In both species, chilling requirement decreased significantly with increasing latitude of origin. Bud burst was normal in seedlings overwintered at 12 degrees C, but was erratic and delayed in seedlings overwintered at 15 and especially at 21 degrees C, indicating that the critical overwintering temperature is between 12 and 15 degrees C. We conclude that there is little risk of a chilling deficit in birch under Scandinavian winter conditions even with a climatic warming of 7-8 degrees C. The likely effects of a climatic warming include earlier bud burst, a longer growing season and increased risk of spring frost injury, especially in high latitude ecotypes. PMID:14965987

  11. TCDD inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling disrupts prostatic bud formation in mouse urogenital sinus.

    PubMed

    Branam, Amanda M; Davis, Nicole M; Moore, Robert W; Schneider, Andrew J; Vezina, Chad M; Peterson, Richard E

    2013-05-01

    In mice, in utero exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p- dioxin (TCDD) reduces the number of dorsolateral prostatic buds resulting in a smaller dorsolateral prostate and prevents formation of ventral buds culminating in ventral prostate agenesis. The genes and signaling pathways affected by TCDD that are responsible for disrupting prostate development are largely unknown. Here we show that treatment of urogenital sinus (UGS) organ cultures with known inhibitors of canonical Wnt signaling also inhibits prostatic bud formation. In support of the hypothesis that TCDD decreases canonical Wnt signaling, we identify inhibitory effects of TCDD on multiple components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in the UGS that temporally coincide with the inhibitory effect of TCDD on prostatic bud formation: (1) expression of R-spondins (Rspo2 and Rspo3) that promote canonical Wnt signaling is reduced; (2) expression of Lef1, Tcf1, and Wif1, established canonical Wnt target genes, is decreased; (3) expression of Lgr5, a RSPO receptor that activates canonical Wnt signaling, is reduced; and (4) expression of Dickkopfs (Dkks), inhibitors of canonical Wnt signaling, is not increased by TCDD. Thus, the TCDD-induced reduction in canonical Wnt signaling is associated with a decrease in activators (Rspo2 and Rspo3) rather than an increase in inhibitors (Dkk1 and Dkk2) of the pathway. This study focuses on determining whether treatment of TCDD-exposed UGS organ cultures with RSPO2 and/or RSPO3 is capable of rescuing the inhibitory effects of TCDD on canonical Wnt signaling and prostatic bud formation. We discovered that each RSPO alone or in combination partially rescues TCDD inhibition of both canonical Wnt signaling and prostatic bud formation.

  12. Expression of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the taste buds of rats.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xun; Zhou, Xiao; Cao, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhou, Li-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Nesfatin-1, an anorexigenic peptide derived from nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), is closely involved in feeding behavior, glycometabolism, and satiety regulation. Some studies show that NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is highly expressed and interacts with many appetite-regulating peptides that are co-expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. However, it remains unclear whether nesfatin-1 is expressed and interacts similarly in taste buds. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a well-known appetite down-regulating peptide, is associated with changes in the expression of nesfatin-1. Therefore, we measured the expression of the NUCB2 gene and the distribution of nesfatin-1-immunoreactive cells and investigated whether these variables change in taste buds of circumvallate papillae (CV) from rats with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) after treatment with liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist. The results showed that nesfatin-1 immunoreactive cells were localized in the taste buds of rat CV. Quantitative RT-PCR showed a significantly lower expression of NUCB2 mRNA in the taste buds of diabetic control rats (T2DM-C) than in those of the normal control group (NC) and a higher level of NUCB2 in the liraglutide treated group (T2DM + LIR) than either the T2DM-C or the NC groups. Changes in the expression of NUCB2 in the rat hypothalamus were opposite to those in CV taste buds. In summary, we found that rat CV taste buds express NUCB2/nesfatin-1, and that this expression decreases significantly in T2DM and increases after treatment with liraglutide in rat CV. This indicates that nesfatin-1 could be an important factor in the regulation of gustatory function, feeding and perhaps energy homeostasis. PMID:26522144

  13. Dual Function of CD81 in Influenza Virus Uncoating and Budding

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiang; Sun, Eileen; Bujny, Miriam V.; Kim, Doory; Davidson, Michael W.; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    As an obligatory pathogen, influenza virus co-opts host cell machinery to harbor infection and to produce progeny viruses. In order to characterize the virus-host cell interactions, several genome-wide siRNA screens and proteomic analyses have been performed recently to identify host factors involved in influenza virus infection. CD81 has emerged as one of the top candidates in two siRNA screens and one proteomic study. The exact role played by CD81 in influenza infection, however, has not been elucidated thus far. In this work, we examined the effect of CD81 depletion on the major steps of the influenza infection. We found that CD81 primarily affected virus infection at two stages: viral uncoating during entry and virus budding. CD81 marked a specific endosomal population and about half of the fused influenza virus particles underwent fusion within the CD81-positive endosomes. Depletion of CD81 resulted in a substantial defect in viral fusion and infection. During virus assembly, CD81 was recruited to virus budding site on the plasma membrane, and in particular, to specific sub-viral locations. For spherical and slightly elongated influenza virus, CD81 was localized at both the growing tip and the budding neck of the progeny viruses. CD81 knockdown led to a budding defect and resulted in elongated budding virions with a higher propensity to remain attached to the plasma membrane. Progeny virus production was markedly reduced in CD81-knockdown cells even when the uncoating defect was compensated. In filamentous virus, CD81 was distributed at multiple sites along the viral filament. Taken together, these results demonstrate important roles of CD81 in both entry and budding stages of the influenza infection cycle. PMID:24130495

  14. GC-MS analysis of compounds extracted from buds of Populus balsamifera and Populus nigra.

    PubMed

    Isidorov, Valery A; Vinogorova, Vera T

    2003-01-01

    The composition of hexane and ether extracts from buds of two poplar species (Populus balsamifera and P. nigra) was investigated by GC-MS method. In hexane extracts, 54 "neutral" compounds were recorded. The greatest amounts of them are sesquiterpenes and n-alkanes. Among 56 components of ether extracts, many aliphatic acids and hydroxyacids were detected. However, the main fraction consists of phenolcarboxylic acids, substituted cinnamic acids, and their esters. It was established that chemotaxonomic differences between Populus balsamifera and P. nigra are observed in the case of both hexane and ether bud extracts.

  15. Project BudBurst - Meeting the Needs of Climate Change Educators and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.

    2015-12-01

    It is challenging for many to get a sense of what climate change means as long periods of time are involved - like decades - which can be difficult to grasp. However, there are a number of citizen science based projects, including NEON's Project BudBurst, that provide the opportunity for both learning about climate change and advancing scientific knowledge. In this presentation, we will share lessons learned from Project BudBurst. Project BudBurst is a national citizen science initiative designed to engage the public in observations of phenological (plant life cycle) events and to increase climate literacy. Project BudBurst is important from an educational perspective, but also because it enables scientists to broaden the geographic and temporal scale of their observations. The goals of Project BudBurst are to 1) increase awareness of phenology as an area of scientific study; 2) Increase awareness of the impacts of changing climates on plants at a continental-scale; and 3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. It was important to better understand if and how Project BudBurst is meeting its goals. Specifically, does participation by non-experts advance scientific knowledge? Does participation advance educational goals and outcomes? Is participation an effective approach to advance/enhance science education in both formal and informal settings? Critical examination of Project BudBurst supports advancement of scientific knowledge and realization of educational objectives. Citizen science collected observations and measurements are being used by scientists as evidenced by the increase of such data in scientific publication. In addition, we found that there is a significant increase in educators utilizing citizen science as part of their instruction. Part of this increase is due to the resources and professional development materials available to educators. Working with partners also demonstrated that the needs of both science and

  16. Organogenesis during budding and lophophoral morphology of Hislopia malayensis Annandale, 1916 (Bryozoa, Ctenostomata)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bryozoans represent a large lophotrochozoan phylum with controversially discussed phylogenetic position and in group relationships. Developmental processes during the budding of bryozoans are in need for revision. Just recently a study on a phylactolaemate bryozoan gave a comprehensive basis for further comparisons among bryozoans. The aim of this study is to gain more insight into developmental patterns during polypide formation in the budding process of bryozoans. Particular focus is laid upon the lophophore, also its condition in adults. For this purpose we studied organogenesis during budding and lophophoral morphology of the ctenostome bryozoan Hislopia malayensis. Results Polypide buds develop on the frontal side of the developing cystid as proliferation of the epidermal and peritoneal layer. Early buds develop a lumen bordered by the inner budding layer resulting in the shape of a two-layered sac or vesicle. The hind- and midgut anlagen are first to develop as outpocketing of the prospective anal area. These grow towards the prospective mouth area where a comparatively small invagination marks the formation of the foregut. In between the prospective mouth and anus the ganglion develops as an invagination protruding in between the developing gut loop. Lophophore development starts with two lateral ridges which form tentacles very early. At the lophophoral base, intertentacular pits, previously unknown for ctenostomes, develop. The ganglion develops a circum-oral nerve ring from which the tentacle nerves branch off in adult zooids. Tentacles are innervated by medio-frontal nerves arising directly from the nerve ring, and medio-frontal and abfrontal nerves which originate both from an intertentacular fork. Conclusions We are able to show distinct similarities among bryozoans in the formation of the different organ systems: a two-layered vesicle-like early bud, the ganglion forming as an invagination of the epidermal layer in between the prospective

  17. Live-Cell Imaging of Mitochondria and the Actin Cytoskeleton in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Higuchi-Sanabria, Ryo; Swayne, Theresa C; Boldogh, Istvan R; Pon, Liza A

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance and regulation of proper mitochondrial dynamics and functions are necessary for cellular homeostasis. Numerous diseases, including neurodegeneration and muscle myopathies, and overall cellular aging are marked by declining mitochondrial function and subsequent loss of multiple other cellular functions. For these reasons, optimized protocols are needed for visualization and quantification of mitochondria and their function and fitness. In budding yeast, mitochondria are intimately associated with the actin cytoskeleton and utilize actin for their movement and inheritance. This chapter describes optimal approaches for labeling mitochondria and the actin cytoskeleton in living budding yeast cells, for imaging the labeled cells, and for analyzing the resulting images. PMID:26498778

  18. Primary culture of rat taste bud cells that retain molecular markers for taste buds and permit functional expression of foreign genes.

    PubMed

    Kishi, M; Emori, Y; Tsukamoto, Y; Abe, K

    2001-01-01

    Taste buds are constituted of several kinds of cells which have distinct characteristics and play different roles. In this study, we have established an in vitro culture system by optimizing the method for isolating the cells and by selecting culture media and reagents effective for cell viability and adhesion. As a result, the taste bud cells were adhesive and viable for over 3 days when cultured onto Matrigel-coated dishes in medium based on keratinocyte growth medium. The cells retained molecular markers for both the cytoskeleton and intracellular signaling such as cytokeratin 8 and phospholipase Cbeta2. In addition, three intracellular signaling molecules, gustducin, phospholipase Cbeta2, and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3, are expressed in the same correlation as those in vivo, although the ratio of signaling molecule-positive cells vs. total cells was somewhat lower in the culture than in vivo. Next, we tried several methods to introduce foreign genes into the cells, and obtained a greater than 90% efficiency of introduction using an adenovirus vector. Finally, we show that an exogenously expressed myc-tagged alpha1A-adrenoceptor sorts into the plasma membrane, and transduces a ligand-dependent signal resulting in intracellular [Ca(2+)] increase in about half of the infected cells. These results suggest that taste bud cells after 3 days of culture retain characteristic molecular markers, and may prove useful for describing the molecular and physiological features of taste bud cells, and that these cells can be further manipulated by adenovirus-mediated gene introduction. PMID:11564431

  19. Structure of a Bud6/actin complex reveals a novel WH2-like actin monomer recruitment motif

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eunyoung; Graziano, Brian R.; Zheng, Wei; Garabedian, Mikael; Goode, Bruce L.; Eck, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In budding yeast, the actin-binding protein Bud6 cooperates with formins Bni1 and Bnr1 to catalyze the assembly of actin filaments. The nucleation-enhancing activity of Bud6 requires both a “core” domain that binds to the formin and a “flank” domain that binds monomeric actin. Here we describe the structure of the Bud6 flank domain in complex with actin. Two helices in Bud6flank interact with actin; one binds in a groove at the barbed-end of the actin monomer in a manner closely resembling the helix of WH2 domains, a motif found in many actin nucleation factors. The second helix rises along the face of actin. Mutational analysis verifies the importance of these Bud6-actin contacts for nucleation-enhancing activity. The Bud6 binding site on actin overlaps with that of the formin FH2 domain and is also incompatible with inter-subunit contacts in F-actin, suggesting that Bud6 interacts only transiently with actin monomers during filament nucleation. PMID:26118535

  20. Structure of a Bud6/Actin Complex Reveals a Novel WH2-like Actin Monomer Recruitment Motif.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunyoung; Graziano, Brian R; Zheng, Wei; Garabedian, Mikael; Goode, Bruce L; Eck, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    In budding yeast, the actin-binding protein Bud6 cooperates with formins Bni1 and Bnr1 to catalyze the assembly of actin filaments. The nucleation-enhancing activity of Bud6 requires both a "core" domain that binds to the formin and a "flank" domain that binds monomeric actin. Here, we describe the structure of the Bud6 flank domain in complex with actin. Two helices in Bud6(flank) interact with actin; one binds in a groove at the barbed end of the actin monomer in a manner closely resembling the helix of WH2 domains, a motif found in many actin nucleation factors. The second helix rises along the face of actin. Mutational analysis verifies the importance of these Bud6-actin contacts for nucleation-enhancing activity. The Bud6 binding site on actin overlaps with that of the formin FH2 domain and is also incompatible with inter-subunit contacts in F-actin, suggesting that Bud6 interacts only transiently with actin monomers during filament nucleation.

  1. Neurturin-GFRalpha2 signaling controls liver bud migration along the ductus venosus in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Norifumi; Miki, Rika; Katsu, Kenjiro; Yokouchi, Yuji

    2007-07-01

    During chick liver development, the liver bud arises from the foregut, invaginates into the septum transversum, and elongates along and envelops the ductus venosus. However, the mechanism of liver bud migration is only poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that a GDNF family ligand involved in neuronal outgrowth and migration, neurturin (NRTN), and its receptor, GFRalpha2, are essential for liver bud migration. In the chick embryo, we found that GFRalpha2 was expressed in the liver bud and that NRTN was expressed in the endothelial cells of the ductus venosus. Inhibition of GFRalpha2 signaling suppressed liver bud elongation along the ductus venous without affecting cell proliferation and apoptosis. Moreover, ectopic expression of NRTN perturbed the directional migration along the ductus venosus, leading to splitting or ectopic branching of the liver. We showed that liver buds selectively migrated toward an NRTN-soaked bead in vitro. These data represent a new model for liver bud migration: NRTN secreted from endothelial cells functions as a chemoattractant to direct the migration of the GFRalpha2-expressing liver bud in early liver development.

  2. Effect of geographical location, year and cultivar on survival of Malus sp. dormant buds stored in vapors of liquid nitrogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Woody plant crop germplasm is often grown in different geographical locations with various climatic conditions. One of the methods of a secure back-up of tree crop is storing winter buds in liquid nitrogen. It was thought that dormant buds from colder climates would have a higher post storage surviv...

  3. A septin from the filamentous fungus A. nidulans induces atypical pseudohyphae in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Septins were first discovered in Saccharomyces cerevisiae where they form a scaffold that organizes the bud site and are a component of the morphogenesis checkpoint that coordinates budding with mitosis. Five of the seven S. cerevisiae septins (Cdc3, Cdc10, Cdc11, Cdc12 and Shs1) colocalize as a rin...

  4. Dehydration and osmotic adjustment in apple stem tissue during winter as it relates to the frost resistance of buds.

    PubMed

    Pramsohler, Manuel; Neuner, Gilbert

    2013-08-01

    In deciduous trees, measurement of stem water potential can be difficult during the leafless period in winter. By using thermocouple psychrometry, osmotic water potentials (Ψo; actual Ψo: Ψo(act); Ψo at full saturation: Ψo(sat)) of expressed sap of bark and bud tissue were measured in order to test if the severity of winter desiccation in apple stems could be sufficiently assessed with Ψo. Water potentials were related to frost resistance and freezing behaviour of buds. The determination of Ψo reliably allowed winter desiccation and osmotic adjustments in apple stem tissue to be assessed. In winter in bark tissue, a pronounced decrease in Ψo(act) and Ψo(sat) was found. Decreased Ψo(sat) indicates active osmotic adjustment in the bark as observed earlier in the leaves of evergreen woody plants. In terminal bud meristems, no significant osmotic adjustments occurred and dehydration during winter was much less. Osmotic water potentials, Ψo(act) and Ψo(sat), of bud tissue were always less negative than in the bark. To prevent water movement and dehydration of the bud tissue via this osmotic gradient, it must be compensated for either by a sufficiently high turgor pressure (Ψp) in bark tissue or by the isolation of the bud tissue from the bark during midwinter. During freezing of apple buds, freeze dehydration and extra-organ freezing could be demonstrated by significantly reduced Ψo(act) values of bud meristems that had been excised in the frozen state. Infrared video thermography was used to monitor freezing patterns in apple twigs. During extracellular freezing of intact and longitudinally dissected stems, infrared differential thermal analysis (IDTA) images showed that the bud meristem remains ice free. Even if cooled to temperatures below the frost-killing temperature, no freezing event could be detected in bud meristems during winter. In contrast, after bud break, terminal buds showed a second freezing at the frost-killing temperature that indicates

  5. Dehydration and osmotic adjustment in apple stem tissue during winter as it relates to the frost resistance of buds.

    PubMed

    Pramsohler, Manuel; Neuner, Gilbert

    2013-08-01

    In deciduous trees, measurement of stem water potential can be difficult during the leafless period in winter. By using thermocouple psychrometry, osmotic water potentials (Ψo; actual Ψo: Ψo(act); Ψo at full saturation: Ψo(sat)) of expressed sap of bark and bud tissue were measured in order to test if the severity of winter desiccation in apple stems could be sufficiently assessed with Ψo. Water potentials were related to frost resistance and freezing behaviour of buds. The determination of Ψo reliably allowed winter desiccation and osmotic adjustments in apple stem tissue to be assessed. In winter in bark tissue, a pronounced decrease in Ψo(act) and Ψo(sat) was found. Decreased Ψo(sat) indicates active osmotic adjustment in the bark as observed earlier in the leaves of evergreen woody plants. In terminal bud meristems, no significant osmotic adjustments occurred and dehydration during winter was much less. Osmotic water potentials, Ψo(act) and Ψo(sat), of bud tissue were always less negative than in the bark. To prevent water movement and dehydration of the bud tissue via this osmotic gradient, it must be compensated for either by a sufficiently high turgor pressure (Ψp) in bark tissue or by the isolation of the bud tissue from the bark during midwinter. During freezing of apple buds, freeze dehydration and extra-organ freezing could be demonstrated by significantly reduced Ψo(act) values of bud meristems that had been excised in the frozen state. Infrared video thermography was used to monitor freezing patterns in apple twigs. During extracellular freezing of intact and longitudinally dissected stems, infrared differential thermal analysis (IDTA) images showed that the bud meristem remains ice free. Even if cooled to temperatures below the frost-killing temperature, no freezing event could be detected in bud meristems during winter. In contrast, after bud break, terminal buds showed a second freezing at the frost-killing temperature that indicates

  6. The yeast prefoldin-like URI-orthologue Bud27 associates with the RSC nucleosome remodeler and modulates transcription.

    PubMed

    Mirón-García, María Carmen; Garrido-Godino, Ana Isabel; Martínez-Fernández, Verónica; Fernández-Pevida, Antonio; Cuevas-Bermúdez, Abel; Martín-Expósito, Manuel; Chávez, Sebastián; de la Cruz, Jesús; Navarro, Francisco

    2014-09-01

    Bud27, the yeast orthologue of human URI/RMP, is a member of the prefoldin-like family of ATP-independent molecular chaperones. It has recently been shown to mediate the assembly of the three RNA polymerases in an Rpb5-dependent manner. In this work, we present evidence of Bud27 modulating RNA pol II transcription elongation. We show that Bud27 associates with RNA pol II phosphorylated forms (CTD-Ser5P and CTD-Ser2P), and that its absence affects RNA pol II occupancy of transcribed genes. We also reveal that Bud27 associates in vivo with the Sth1 component of the chromatin remodeling complex RSC and mediates its association with RNA pol II. Our data suggest that Bud27, in addition of contributing to Rpb5 folding within the RNA polymerases, also participates in the correct assembly of other chromatin-associated protein complexes, such as RSC, thereby modulating their activity.

  7. The yeast prefoldin-like URI-orthologue Bud27 associates with the RSC nucleosome remodeler and modulates transcription

    PubMed Central

    Mirón-García, María Carmen; Garrido-Godino, Ana Isabel; Martínez-Fernández, Verónica; Fernández-Pevida, Antonio; Cuevas-Bermúdez, Abel; Martín-Expósito, Manuel; Chávez, Sebastián; de la Cruz, Jesús; Navarro, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Bud27, the yeast orthologue of human URI/RMP, is a member of the prefoldin-like family of ATP-independent molecular chaperones. It has recently been shown to mediate the assembly of the three RNA polymerases in an Rpb5-dependent manner. In this work, we present evidence of Bud27 modulating RNA pol II transcription elongation. We show that Bud27 associates with RNA pol II phosphorylated forms (CTD-Ser5P and CTD-Ser2P), and that its absence affects RNA pol II occupancy of transcribed genes. We also reveal that Bud27 associates in vivo with the Sth1 component of the chromatin remodeling complex RSC and mediates its association with RNA pol II. Our data suggest that Bud27, in addition of contributing to Rpb5 folding within the RNA polymerases, also participates in the correct assembly of other chromatin-associated protein complexes, such as RSC, thereby modulating their activity. PMID:25081216

  8. Direct adventitious shoot bud formation on hypocotyls explants in Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi- a biodiesel producing medicinal tree species.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Durga Singh; Jha, Suman Kumar; Jani, Jigar

    2015-04-01

    A reproducible protocol developed for in vitro regeneration of Milletia pinnata using hypocotyl segments. Multiple shoots were induced from hypocotyl explants through direct adventitious shoot bud regeneration. The proximal end of hypocotyls was responsive for shoot bud induction. Silver nitrate and adenine sulphate had a positive effect on shoot bud induction and elongation. The maximum response and number of shoot bud produced in media supplemented with 8.88 μM BAP with 108.6 μM adenine sulphate and 11.84 μM silver nitrate. Elongated shoots were harvested and successful rooting of microshoots achieved on MS media supplemented with 9.84 μM IBA, with 81.1 % rooting. Remaining shoot buds sub-cultured for further multiplication and elongation. Each subculture produced eight to nine elongated microshoots up to four subcultures. The rooted microshoots were successfully hardened and transferred to field. PMID:25964721

  9. Morphology of certain viruses of Salmonid Fishes. I. in vitro studies of some viruses causing Hematopoietic Necrosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, Donald F.; Chambers, Velma C.

    1970-01-01

    An electron microscope study was performed on three virus isolates that caused hematopoietic necrosis in salmonid fishes: infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN), Oregon Sockeye Disease (OSD), and Sacramento River Chinook Salmon Disease (SRCD). All three isolates were examined by negative staining of fathead minnow (FHM) monolayer tissue culture concentrates and IHN virus was also examined in thin sections of FHM cells. Viruslike particles were observed in infected tissues, but similar structures were not found in uninfected cultures. All three isolates were bullet-shaped, but oval and truncated forms were also observed. Mean measurements of particles from IHN-virus-infected tissue were 158 × 90 mμ. They consisted of an outer coat 15 mμ thick, a core 60 mμ in diameter, subunits about 5 mμ, and an axial pore about 20 mμ in diameter. These particles also were seen budding from the cytoplasmic membrane. Similar particles from SRCD were 159 × 90 mμ and isolates from OSD were 181 × 91 mμ. The three isolates were morphologically indistinguishable from one another and the greater length of OSD was considered insignificant. IHN, SRCD, and OSD viruses were tentatively placed in the rhabdovirus group, but serological studies are needed to determine if they are antigenically identical or should be included as separate members. Biochemical and physical characteristics of these viruses and a comparison with other salmonid viruses is also discussed.

  10. Effect of bevacizumab on radiation necrosis of the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Javier; Kumar, Ashok J.; Conrad, Charles A.; Levin, Victor A. . E-mail: vlevin@mdanderson.org

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: Because blocking vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from reaching leaky capillaries is a logical strategy for the treatment of radiation necrosis, we reasoned that bevacizumab might be an effective treatment of radiation necrosis. Patients and Methods: Fifteen patients with malignant brain tumors were treated with bevacizumab or bevacizumab combination for their tumor on either a 5 mg/kg/2-week or 7.5 mg/kg/3-week schedule. Radiation necrosis was diagnosed in 8 of these patients on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biopsy. MRI studies were obtained before treatment and at 6-week to 8-week intervals. Results: Of the 8 patients with radiation necrosis, posttreatment MRI performed an average of 8.1 weeks after the start of bevacizumab therapy showed a reduction in all 8 patients in both the MRI fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) abnormalities and T1-weighted post-Gd-contrast abnormalities. The average area change in the T1-weighted post-Gd-contrast abnormalities was 48% ({+-}22 SD), and the average change in the FLAIR images was 60% ({+-}18 SD). The average reduction in daily dexamethasone requirements was 8.6 mg ({+-}3.6). Conclusion: Bevacizumab, alone and in combination with other agents, can reduce radiation necrosis by decreasing capillary leakage and the associated brain edema. Our findings will need to be confirmed in a randomized trial to determine the optimal duration of treatment.

  11. The Extracellular Matrix Regulates Granuloma Necrosis in Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Al Shammari, Basim; Shiomi, Takayuki; Tezera, Liku; Bielecka, Magdalena K; Workman, Victoria; Sathyamoorthy, Tarangini; Mauri, Francesco; Jayasinghe, Suwan N; Robertson, Brian D; D'Armiento, Jeanine; Friedland, Jon S; Elkington, Paul T

    2015-08-01

    A central tenet of tuberculosis pathogenesis is that caseous necrosis leads to extracellular matrix destruction and bacterial transmission. We reconsider the underlying mechanism of tuberculosis pathology and demonstrate that collagen destruction may be a critical initial event, causing caseous necrosis as opposed to resulting from it. In human tuberculosis granulomas, regions of extracellular matrix destruction map to areas of caseous necrosis. In mice, transgenic expression of human matrix metalloproteinase 1 causes caseous necrosis, the pathological hallmark of human tuberculosis. Collagen destruction is the principal pathological difference between humanised mice and wild-type mice with tuberculosis, whereas the release of proinflammatory cytokines does not differ, demonstrating that collagen breakdown may lead to cell death and caseation. To investigate this hypothesis, we developed a 3-dimensional cell culture model of tuberculosis granuloma formation, using bioelectrospray technology. Collagen improved survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected cells analyzed on the basis of a lactate dehydrogenase release assay, propidium iodide staining, and measurement of the total number of viable cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that collagen destruction is an initial event in tuberculosis immunopathology, leading to caseous necrosis and compromising the immune response, revealing a previously unappreciated role for the extracellular matrix in regulating the host-pathogen interaction. PMID:25676469

  12. ACUTE HEPATIC NECROSIS INDUCED BY BRUCELLA INFECTION IN HYPERTHYROID MICE

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, G. Mary; Spink, Wesley W.

    1959-01-01

    When small numbers of Brucella melitensis were inoculated into ABC mice, occasional hepatic granulomas without necrosis were demonstrated. The greatest multiplication of brucellae was detected in the spleens. Because it had been previously observed that ACTH or cortisone markedly accelerated the multiplication of brucellae in the livers of infected mice with destruction of liver cells, it was considered that triiodothyronine might likewise exaggerate a brucella infection by stimulating endogenous adrenal secretion. Although adrenal hypertrophy was produced, infection of mice treated with triiodothyronine resulted in severe hepatic necrosis or infarcts without the multiplication of brucellae in either the livers or spleens. The lesions were not encountered in untreated infected mice or in control mice treated with triiodothyronine. The necrosis was associated with minimal inflammatory reaction. The necrosis was not induced in mice treated with triiodothyronine and given brucella endotoxin. The precise genesis of the acute hepatic necrosis cited in these experiments remains undefined. Triiodothyronine did not cause deaths in mice infected with Br. melitensis. The infection was neither enhanced nor suppressed. PMID:13803714

  13. Cell death by necrosis, a regulated way to go.

    PubMed

    Henriquez, Mauricio; Armisén, Ricardo; Stutzin, Andrés; Quest, Andrew F G

    2008-05-01

    Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death with well-defined morphological traits that are often associated with activation of caspases. More recently evidence has become available demonstrating that upon caspase inhibition alternative programs of cell death are executed, including ones with features characteristic of necrosis. These findings have changed our view of necrosis as a passive and essentially accidental form of cell death to that of an active, regulated and controllable process. Also necrosis has now been observed in parallel with, rather than as an alternative pathway to, apoptosis. Thus, cell death responses are extremely flexible despite being programmed. In this review, some of the hallmarks of different programmed cell death modes have been highlighted before focusing the discussion on necrosis. Obligatory events associated with this form of cell death include uncompensated cell swelling and related changes at the plasma membrane. In this context, representatives of the transient receptor channel family and their regulation are discussed. Also mechanisms that lead to execution of the necrotic cell death program are highlighted. Emphasis is laid on summarizing our understanding of events that permit switching between cell death modes and how they connect to necrosis. Finally, potential implications for the treatment of some disease states are mentioned. PMID:18473819

  14. Introgression of the SbASR-1 Gene Cloned from a Halophyte Salicornia brachiata Enhances Salinity and Drought Endurance in Transgenic Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and Acts as a Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    The SbASR-1 gene, cloned from a halophyte Salicornia brachiata, encodes a plant-specific hydrophilic and stress responsive protein. The genome of S. brachiata has two paralogs of the SbASR-1 gene (2549 bp), which is comprised of a single intron of 1611 bp, the largest intron of the  abscisic acid stress ripening [ASR] gene family yet reported. In silico analysis of the 843-bp putative promoter revealed the presence of ABA, biotic stress, dehydration, phytohormone, salinity, and sugar responsive cis-regulatory motifs. The SbASR-1 protein belongs to Group 7 LEA protein family with different amino acid composition compared to their glycophytic homologs. Bipartite Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS) was found on the C-terminal end of protein and localization study confirmed that SbASR-1 is a nuclear protein. Furthermore, transgenic groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants over-expressing the SbASR-1 gene constitutively showed enhanced salinity and drought stress tolerance in the T1 generation. Leaves of transgenic lines exhibited higher chlorophyll and relative water contents and lower electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content, proline, sugars, and starch accumulation under stress treatments than wild-type (Wt) plants. Also, lower accumulation of H2O2 and O2.- radicals was detected in transgenic lines compared to Wt plants under stress conditions. Transcript expression of APX (ascorbate peroxidase) and CAT (catalase) genes were higher in Wt plants, whereas the SOD (superoxide dismutase) transcripts were higher in transgenic lines under stress. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) confirmed that the SbASR-1 protein binds at the consensus sequence (C/G/A)(G/T)CC(C/G)(C/G/A)(A/T). Based on results of the present study, it may be concluded that SbASR-1 enhances the salinity and drought stress tolerance in transgenic groundnut by functioning as a LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) protein and a transcription factor. PMID:26158616

  15. Introgression of the SbASR-1 gene cloned from a halophyte Salicornia brachiate enhances salinity and drought endurance in transgenic groundnut (arachis hypogaea)and acts as a transcription factor [corrected].

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    The SbASR-1 gene, cloned from a halophyte Salicornia brachiata, encodes a plant-specific hydrophilic and stress responsive protein. The genome of S. brachiata has two paralogs of the SbASR-1 gene (2549 bp), which is comprised of a single intron of 1611 bp, the largest intron of the  abscisic acid stress ripening [ASR] gene family yet reported. In silico analysis of the 843-bp putative promoter revealed the presence of ABA, biotic stress, dehydration, phytohormone, salinity, and sugar responsive cis-regulatory motifs. The SbASR-1 protein belongs to Group 7 LEA protein family with different amino acid composition compared to their glycophytic homologs. Bipartite Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS) was found on the C-terminal end of protein and localization study confirmed that SbASR-1 is a nuclear protein. Furthermore, transgenic groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants over-expressing the SbASR-1 gene constitutively showed enhanced salinity and drought stress tolerance in the T1 generation. Leaves of transgenic lines exhibited higher chlorophyll and relative water contents and lower electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content, proline, sugars, and starch accumulation under stress treatments than wild-type (Wt) plants. Also, lower accumulation of H2O2 and O2.- radicals was detected in transgenic lines compared to Wt plants under stress conditions. Transcript expression of APX (ascorbate peroxidase) and CAT (catalase) genes were higher in Wt plants, whereas the SOD (superoxide dismutase) transcripts were higher in transgenic lines under stress. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) confirmed that the SbASR-1 protein binds at the consensus sequence (C/G/A)(G/T)CC(C/G)(C/G/A)(A/T). Based on results of the present study, it may be concluded that SbASR-1 enhances the salinity and drought stress tolerance in transgenic groundnut by functioning as a LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) protein and a transcription factor. PMID:26158616

  16. The Prefoldin Bud27 Mediates the Assembly of the Eukaryotic RNA Polymerases in an Rpb5-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Mirón-García, María Carmen; Garrido-Godino, Ana Isabel; García-Molinero, Varinia; Hernández-Torres, Francisco; Rodríguez-Navarro, Susana; Navarro, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The unconventional prefoldin URI/RMP, in humans, and its orthologue in yeast, Bud27, have been proposed to participate in the biogenesis of the RNA polymerases. However, this role of Bud27 has not been confirmed and is poorly elucidated. Our data help clarify the mechanisms governing biogenesis of the three eukaryotic RNA pols. We show evidence that Bud27 is the first example of a protein that participates in the biogenesis of the three eukaryotic RNA polymerases and the first example of a protein modulating their assembly instead of their nuclear transport. In addition we demonstrate that the role of Bud27 in RNA pols biogenesis depends on Rpb5. In fact, lack of BUD27 affects growth and leads to a substantial accumulation of the three RNA polymerases in the cytoplasm, defects offset by the overexpression of RPB5. Supporting this, our data demonstrate that the lack of Bud27 affects the correct assembly of Rpb5 and Rpb6 to the three RNA polymerases, suggesting that this process occurs in the cytoplasm and is a required step prior to nuclear import. Also, our data support the view that Rpb5 and Rpb6 assemble somewhat later than the rest of the complexes. Furthermore, Bud27 Rpb5-binding but not PFD-binding domain is necessary for RNA polymerases biogenesis. In agreement, we also demonstrate genetic interactions between BUD27, RPB5, and RPB6. Bud27 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in an Xpo1-independent manner, and also independently of microtubule polarization and possibly independently of its association with the RNA pols. Our data also suggest that the role of Bud27 in RNA pols biogenesis is independent of the chaperone prefoldin (PFD) complex and of Iwr1. Finally, the role of URI seems to be conserved in humans, suggesting conserved mechanisms in RNA pols biogenesis. PMID:23459708

  17. Transcriptome Profiling of Tiller Buds Provides New Insights into PhyB Regulation of Tillering and Indeterminate Growth in Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Kebrom, Tesfamichael H; Mullet, John E

    2016-04-01

    Phytochrome B (phyB) enables plants to modify shoot branching or tillering in response to varying light intensities and ratios of red and far-red light caused by shading and neighbor proximity. Tillering is inhibited in sorghum genotypes that lack phytochrome B (58M, phyB-1) until after floral initiation. The growth of tiller buds in the first leaf axil of wild-type (100M, PHYB) and phyB-1 sorghum genotypes is similar until 6 d after planting when buds of phyB-1 arrest growth, while wild-type buds continue growing and develop into tillers. Transcriptome analysis at this early stage of bud development identified numerous genes that were up to 50-fold differentially expressed in wild-type/phyB-1 buds. Up-regulation of terminal flower1, GA2oxidase, and TPPI could protect axillary meristems in phyB-1 from precocious floral induction and decrease bud sensitivity to sugar signals. After bud growth arrest in phyB-1, expression of dormancy-associated genes such as DRM1, GT1, AF1, and CKX1 increased and ENOD93, ACCoxidase, ARR3/6/9, CGA1, and SHY2 decreased. Continued bud outgrowth in wild-type was correlated with increased expression of genes encoding a SWEET transporter and cell wall invertases. The SWEET transporter may facilitate Suc unloading from the phloem to the apoplast where cell wall invertases generate monosaccharides for uptake and utilization to sustain bud outgrowth. Elevated expression of these genes was correlated with higher levels of cytokinin/sugar signaling in growing buds of wild-type plants. PMID:26893475

  18. Short-term dynamics of nonstructural carbohydrates and hemicelluloses in young branches of temperate forest trees during bud break.

    PubMed

    Schädel, Christina; Blöchl, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Hoch, Günter

    2009-07-01

    Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) are the most important C reserves in the tissues of deciduous and evergreen tree species. Besides NSC, cell-wall hemicelluloses as the second most abundant polysaccharides in plants have often been discussed to serve as additional mobile carbon (C) reserves during periods of enhanced carbon-sink activities. To assess the significance of hemicelluloses as mobile carbon reserves, branches of two deciduous (Carpinus betulus L. and Fagus sylvatica L.) and two evergreen (Picea abies L. and Pinus sylvestris L.) tree species were sampled in a mature mixed forest stand in short intervals before and during bud break to assess NSC and hemicellulose concentrations in response to the increased carbon demand during bud break. Starch concentrations in branch sapwood of deciduous trees strongly decreased immediately before bud break and increased after bud break. In both evergreen species, only small changes of NSC were found in branch sapwood. However, 1-year-old needles exhibited a significant increase in starch concentration shortly before bud break which declined again after flushing. Hemicellulose concentrations (on an NSC-free dry matter basis) in branch sapwood of Carpinus decreased significantly shortly before bud break, but increased again after bud break. Contrarily, in Fagus branch sapwood, hemicellulose concentrations remained constant during bud break. Moderate increases of total hemicellulose concentrations before bud break were found in 1-year-old needles of both conifers, which could be explained by an accumulation of glucose units within the hemicellulose fraction. Overall, cell-wall hemicelluloses appeared to respond in a species-specific manner to the enhanced carbon demand during bud break. Hemicelluloses in branch sapwood of Carpinus and in 1-year-old needles of conifers likely act as additional carbon reserves similar to starch.

  19. Distinct requirements for intra-ER sorting and budding of peroxisomal membrane proteins from the ER.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Gaurav; Fassas, Scott N; Xia, Zhi-Jie; Subramani, Suresh

    2016-02-01

    During de novo peroxisome biogenesis, importomer complex proteins sort via two preperoxisomal vesicles (ppVs). However, the sorting mechanisms segregating peroxisomal membrane proteins to the preperoxisomal endoplasmic reticulum (pER) and into ppVs are unknown. We report novel roles for Pex3 and Pex19 in intra-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) sorting and budding of the RING-domain peroxins (Pex2, Pex10, and Pex12). Pex19 bridged the interaction at the ER between Pex3 and RING-domain proteins, resulting in a ternary complex that was critical for the intra-ER sorting and subsequent budding of the RING-domain peroxins. Although the docking subcomplex proteins (Pex13, Pex14, and Pex17) also required Pex19 for budding from the ER, they sorted to the pER independently of Pex3 and Pex19 and were spatially segregated from the RING-domain proteins. We also discovered a unique role for Pex3 in sorting Pex10 and Pex12, but with the docking subcomplex. Our study describes an intra-ER sorting process that regulates segregation, packaging, and budding of peroxisomal importomer subcomplexes, thereby preventing their premature assembly at the ER. PMID:26833788

  20. Using "Bud World Party" Attendance to Predict Adolescent Alcohol Use and Beliefs about Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Steven R.; Rekve, Dag; Lindsay, Gordon B.

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the association between attendance at the "Bud World Party," a family entertainment venue created by Anheuser-Busch for the 2002 Winter Olympics, and alcohol-related beliefs and current drinking behaviors for a group of 7th and 8th graders who attend a middle school in close proximity to the downtown Salt Lake City plaza where…

  1. Abscisic acid form, concentration, and application timing influence phenology and bud cold hardiness in Merlot grapevines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of abscisic acid (ABA) form, concentration and application timing on bud cold hardiness, phenology and fruiting performance on ‘Merlot’ grapevines (Vitis vinifera) were evaluated in a three year field trial with site locations in British Columbia Canada, Ontario Canada, Washington U.S. ...

  2. The Clathrin Adaptor Complex AP-1 Binds HIV-1 and MLV Gag and Facilitates Their Budding

    PubMed Central

    Camus, Grégory; Segura-Morales, Carolina; Molle, Dorothee; Lopez-Vergès, Sandra; Begon-Pescia, Christina; Cazevieille, Chantal; Schu, Peter; Bertrand, Edouard

    2007-01-01

    Retroviral assembly is driven by Gag, and nascent viral particles escape cells by recruiting the machinery that forms intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular bodies. In this study, we show that the clathrin adaptor complex AP-1 is involved in retroviral release. The absence of AP-1μ obtained by genetic knock-out or by RNA interference reduces budding of murine leukemia virus (MLV) and HIV-1, leading to a delay of viral propagation in cell culture. In contrast, overexpression of AP-1μ enhances release of HIV-1 Gag. We show that the AP-1 complex facilitates retroviral budding through a direct interaction between the matrix and AP-1μ. Less MLV Gag is found associated with late endosomes in cells lacking AP-1, and our results suggest that AP-1 and AP-3 could function on the same pathway that leads to Gag release. In addition, we find that AP-1 interacts with Tsg101 and Nedd4.1, two cellular proteins known to be involved in HIV-1 and MLV budding. We propose that AP-1 promotes Gag release by transporting it to intracellular sites of active budding, and/or by facilitating its interactions with other cellular partners. PMID:17538020

  3. BRANCHED1 Promotes Axillary Bud Dormancy in Response to Shade in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    González-Grandío, Eduardo; Poza-Carrión, César; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S.; Cubas, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Plants interpret a decrease in the red to far-red light ratio (R:FR) as a sign of impending shading by neighboring vegetation. This triggers a set of developmental responses known as shade avoidance syndrome. One of these responses is reduced branching through suppression of axillary bud outgrowth. The Arabidopsis thaliana gene BRANCHED1 (BRC1), expressed in axillary buds, is required for branch suppression in response to shade. Unlike wild-type plants, brc1 mutants develop several branches after a shade treatment. BRC1 transcription is positively regulated 4 h after exposure to low R:FR. Consistently, BRC1 is negatively regulated by phytochrome B. Transcriptional profiling of wild-type and brc1 buds of plants treated with simulated shade has revealed groups of genes whose mRNA levels are dependent on BRC1, among them a set of upregulated abscisic acid response genes and two networks of cell cycle– and ribosome-related downregulated genes. The downregulated genes have promoters enriched in TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, and PCF (TCP) binding sites, suggesting that they could be transcriptionally regulated by TCP factors. Some of these genes respond to BRC1 in seedlings and buds, supporting their close relationship with BRC1 activity. This response may allow the rapid adaptation of plants to fluctuations in the ratio of R:FR light. PMID:23524661

  4. 48 CFR 1419.202-70 - Acquisition screening and BUDS recommendations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... screening and BUDS recommendations. (a) For open market acquisitions estimated to exceed the SAT, the DI... greater than the micro-purchase threshold and less than the SAT that are not reserved for small business... purchaser. (d) For Federal Supply Schedule competitions estimated to exceed the SAT and for which the...

  5. Reproductive effects of lipid soluble components of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Raghav Kumar; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: The flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) have been used in indigenous medicines for the treatment of male sexual disorders in Indian subcontinent. Objective: To evaluate the effect of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud on male reproduction, using Parkes (P) strain mice as animal model. Materials and Methods: Mice were orally administered lipid soluble components of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud in doses of 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg body weight for 35 days, and several male reproductive endpoints were evaluated. Results: Treatment with lower dose (15 mg) of Syzygium increased the motility of sperm and stimulated the secretory activities of epididymis and seminal vesicle, while higher doses (30 and 60 mg) had adverse effects on sperm dynamics of cauda epididymidis and on the secretory activities of epididymis and seminal vesicle. Libido was not affected in treated males; however, a significant decrease in litter in females sired by males treated with higher doses of Syzygium was recorded. Conclusion: Treatment with Syzygium aromaticum flower bud causes dose-dependent biphasic effect on male reproductive indices in P mice; lower dose of Syzygium appears stimulatory, while the higher doses have adverse effect on male reproduction. The results suggest that the lower dose of Syzygium may have androgenic effect, but further studies are needed to support this contention. PMID:23930041

  6. Surface disinfection procedure and in vitro regeneration of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) axillary buds.

    PubMed

    Lazo-Javalera, M F; Troncoso-Rojas, R; Tiznado-Hernández, M E; Martínez-Tellez, M A; Vargas-Arispuro, I; Islas-Osuna, M A; Rivera-Domínguez, M

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of an efficient explants surface disinfection protocol is essential for in vitro cell and tissue culture as well as germplasm conservation, such as the case of Grapevine (Vitis spp.) culture. In this research, different procedures for disinfection and regeneration of field-grown grapevine cv. 'Flame seedless' axillary buds were evaluated. The buds were disinfected using either NaOCl or allyl, benzyl, phenyl and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanates. Two different media for shooting and four media for rooting were tested. Shoot and root development per buds were registered. The best disinfection procedure with 90 % of tissue survival involved shaking for 60 min in a solution containing 20 % Clorox with 50 drops/L Triton(®) X-100. These tissues showed the potential to regenerate a complete plant. Plant regeneration was conducted using full strength Murashigue and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 8 µM benzyl aminopurine for shoot induction and multiplication, whereas rooting was obtained on half strength MS supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) of indole-3-butyric acid and 200 mg L(-1) of activated charcoal. In this work, it was designed the protocols for obtaining sterile field-grown grapevine buds and in vitro plant development. This methodology showed potential to produce vigorous and healthy plants in 5 weeks for clonal grapevine propagation. Regenerated plants were successfully established in soil. PMID:27119057

  7. [Effects of flower bud removal and artificial pollination on growth and yield of Tulipa edulis].

    PubMed

    Miao, Yuan-Yuan; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Ma, Hong-Liang; Yang, Ying; Zhu, Li-Fang

    2014-06-01

    The study was conducted to explore the response of growth and yield of Tulipa edulis to flower bud removal and artificial pollination. And flower bud removal and artificial pollination were carried out in the squaring period and bloom stage respectively. The morphological index and biomass indicators were determined and the yield was counted in harvest time. Result showed that flower bud removal was beneficial to the growth of T. edulis, resulting in increasing growth index, biomass as well as the yield of bulb. The diameter and dry weight of T. edulis fruit by artificial pollination were increased significantly compared with the control. Seed setting percentage increased to 100%, and the number of seed as well as the single grain weight increased by 69.03% and 16.48%, respectively, which did not significantly affect the bulb production. In conclusion, Flower bud removal treatment accelerates bulb biomass increase, so as to improve its yield. Artificial pollination raised significantly seed setting percentage, seed number as well as the single grain weight. PMID:25272833

  8. Meta-analysis identifies potential molecular markers for endodormancy in crown buds of leafy spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetative shoot growth originating from underground adventitious buds (UABs) of herbaceous perennials such as leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is critical for survival after episodes of severe abiotic stress. Although leafy spurge is considered an invasive weed in North American ecosystems, it ha...

  9. Dehydration and vernalization treatments identify overlapping molecular networks impacting endodormancy maintenance in leafy spurge crown buds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is an herbaceous perennial weed that reproduces vegetatively from an abundance of underground adventitious buds (UABs), which undergo well-defined phases of seasonal dormancy (para-, endo- and eco-dormancy). In this study, the effects of dehydration-stress on vegeta...

  10. Foliage influences forced convection heat transfer in conifer branches and buds.

    PubMed

    Michaletz, S T; Johnson, E A

    2006-01-01

    Conifer foliage structures affect branch and bud temperature by altering the development and convective resistance of the thermal boundary layer. This paper examines foliage effects on forced convection in branches and buds of Picea glauca (Moench) Voss and Pinus contorta Dougl. Ex. Loud., two species that represent the range of variation in foliage structure among conifers. Forced convection is characterized by a power law relating Nusselt (heat transfer) and Reynolds (boundary layer development) numbers. Data were collected in a laminar flow wind tunnel for free stream velocities of 0.16-6.95 m s(-1). Scaling parameters were compared against literature values for silver cast branch replicas, a bed of real foliage, cylinders, and tube banks. Foliage structures reduced Nusselt numbers (heat transfer) relative to cylinders, which are typically used to approximate leafless branches and buds. Significantly different scaling relationships were observed for all foliage structures considered. Forced convection scaling relationships varied with foliage structure. The scaling relationships reported here account for variation within populations of branches and buds and can be used to characterize forced convection in a forest canopy.

  11. Buds of Parenting in Emerging Adult Males: What We Learned from Our Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra

    2011-01-01

    The authors examine the precursors of parenting buds (representations regarding parenting before actual parenting) by following 60 men from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Quality of relationships with parents, and attachment representations (state of mind with respect to attachment and attachment styles) assessed in adolescence, contribute to…

  12. Visualization of Assembly Intermediates and Budding Vacuoles of Singapore Grouper Iridovirus in Grouper Embryonic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Tran, Bich Ngoc; Wang, Fan; Ounjai, Puey; Wu, Jinlu; Hew, Choy L.

    2016-01-01

    Iridovirid infection is associated with the catastrophic loss in aquaculture industry and the population decline of wild amphibians and reptiles, but none of the iridovirid life cycles have been well explored. Here, we report the detailed visualization of the life cycle of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) in grouper cells by cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) and tomography (ET). EM imaging revealed that SGIV viral particles have an outer capsid layer, and the interaction of this layer with cellular plasma membrane initiates viral entry. Subsequent viral replication leads to formation of a viral assembly site (VAS), where membranous structures emerge as precursors to recruit capsid proteins to form an intermediate, double-shell, crescent-shaped structure, which curves to form icosahedral capsids. Knockdown of the major capsid protein eliminates the formation of viral capsids. As capsid formation progresses, electron-dense materials known to be involved in DNA encapsidation accumulate within the capsid until it is fully occupied. Besides the well-known budding mechanism through the cell periphery, we demonstrate a novel budding process in which viral particles bud into a tubular-like structure within vacuoles. This budding process may denote a new strategy used by SGIV to disseminate viral particles into neighbor cells while evading host immune response. PMID:26727547

  13. Reducing boll weevil populations by clipping terminal buds and removing abscised fruiting bodies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) punctures cotton squares and young bolls during feeding and oviposition, causing abscission of flower buds (squares) in the instance of oviposition. Fallen squares are a source of next generation adult boll weevils that...

  14. Autocrine and paracrine roles for ATP and serotonin in mouse taste buds.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yijen A; Dando, Robin; Roper, Stephen D

    2009-11-01

    Receptor (type II) taste bud cells secrete ATP during taste stimulation. In turn, ATP activates adjacent presynaptic (type III) cells to release serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE). The roles of these neurotransmitters in taste buds have not been fully elucidated. Here we tested whether ATP or 5-HT exert feedback onto receptor (type II) cells during taste stimulation. Our previous studies showed NE does not appear to act on adjacent taste bud cells, or at least on receptor cells. Our data show that 5-HT released from presynaptic (type III) cells provides negative paracrine feedback onto receptor cells by activating 5-HT(1A) receptors, inhibiting taste-evoked Ca(2+) mobilization in receptor cells, and reducing ATP secretion. The findings also demonstrate that ATP exerts positive autocrine feedback onto receptor (type II) cells by activating P2Y1 receptors and enhancing ATP secretion. These results begin to sort out how purinergic and aminergic transmitters function within the taste bud to modulate gustatory signaling in these peripheral sensory organs.

  15. Autocrine and paracrine roles for ATP and Serotonin in mouse taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yijen A.; Dando, Robin; Roper, Stephen D.

    2009-01-01

    Receptor (Type II) taste bud cells secrete ATP during taste stimulation. In turn, ATP activates adjacent Presynaptic (Type III) cells to release serotonin (5 hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE). The roles of these neurotransmitters in taste buds have not been fully elucidated. Here we tested whether ATP or 5-HT exert feedback onto Receptor (Type II) cells during taste stimulation. Our previous studies showed NE does not appear to act on adjacent taste bud cells, or at least on Receptor cells. Our data show that 5-HT released from Presynaptic (Type III) cells provides negative paracrine feedback onto Receptor cells by activating 5-HT1A receptors, inhibiting taste-evoked Ca2+ mobilization in Receptor cells and reducing ATP secretion. The findings also demonstrate that ATP exerts positive autocrine feedback onto Receptor (Type II) cells by activating P2Y1 receptors and enhancing ATP secretion. These results begin to sort out how purinergic and aminergic transmitters function within the taste bud to modulate gustatory signalling in these peripheral sensory organs. PMID:19890001

  16. Sex specific retinoic acid signaling is required for the initiation of urogenital sinus bud development.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Sarah L; Francis, Jeffrey C; Lokody, Isabel B; Wang, Hong; Risbridger, Gail P; Loveland, Kate L; Swain, Amanda

    2014-11-15

    The mammalian urogenital sinus (UGS) develops in a sex specific manner, giving rise to the prostate in the male and the sinus vagina in the embryonic female. Androgens, produced by the embryonic testis, have been shown to be crucial to this process. In this study we show that retinoic acid signaling is required for the initial stages of bud development from the male UGS. Enzymes involved in retinoic acid synthesis are expressed in the UGS mesenchyme in a sex specific manner and addition of ligand to female tissue is able to induce prostate-like bud formation in the absence of androgens, albeit at reduced potency. Functional studies in mouse organ cultures that faithfully reproduce the initiation of prostate development indicate that one of the roles of retinoic acid signaling in the male is to inhibit the expression of Inhba, which encodes the βA subunit of Activin, in the UGS mesenchyme. Through in vivo genetic analysis and culture studies we show that inhibition of Activin signaling in the female UGS leads to a similar phenotype to that of retinoic acid treatment, namely bud formation in the absence of androgens. Our data also reveals that both androgens and retinoic acid have extra independent roles to that of repressing Activin signaling in the development of the prostate during fetal stages. This study identifies a novel role for retinoic acid as a mesenchymal factor that acts together with androgens to determine the position and initiation of bud development in the male UGS epithelia. PMID:25261715

  17. Conservation of the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System Apple Collection using dormant bud cryopreservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System maintains a grafted collection of apple accessions representing 49 taxa in Geneva, NY. Since 1993, dormant buds of many of these accessions have been routinely cryopreserved at the USDA-ARS National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) in For...

  18. Kenny, Bud, and Now Luther! Using Curtis' Books in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Beck, Sharon M.

    2005-01-01

    Christopher Paul Curtis is an internationally known author of books loved by young adult readers. "The Watsons Go to Birmingham--1963" and "Bud, Not Buddy" have now been joined by "Bucking the Sarge," Curtis' newest book. This article will share information about each of the texts, as well as how they can be used in…

  19. Safety assessment of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud (clove) extract with respect to testicular function in mice.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Raghav Kumar; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2008-10-01

    The flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (clove), a common food flavor, have been used as indigenous medicine for the treatment of male sexual disorders in Asian countries. However, the possible mechanism(s) by which it acts at testicular level remain obscure. Therefore, to investigate its effect on testicular function, chronic oral exposure of hexane extract of flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum in three doses (15 mg, 30 mg, and 60 mg/kg BW) were evaluated for a single spermatogenic cycle (35 days) in Parkes (P) strain mice. The treatment did not induce systemic toxicity at the doses tested. Lower dose (15 mg) of the extract increased the activities of Delta(5) 3 beta-HSD and 17 beta-HSD, and serum level of testosterone. The higher doses (30 and 60 mg) of extract inhibited these parameters and induced non-uniform degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules associated with decrease in daily sperm production and depletion of 1C (round and elongated spermatids) population. Taken together these results suggest biphasic action of hexane extract of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud on testicular function, thereby advocating a cautious use of the flower bud as an aphrodisiac in indigenous systems of medicine in Asian countries.

  20. Flower bud abscission triggered by the author in the Asiatic hybrid lilies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is not well documented which organ may trigger the onset of tepal or petal senescence and/or flower bud abscission. Asiatic hybrid L. × elegans Thunb., ‘Red Carpet’ lily flowers were selected as a model to study this relationship because the various floral organs can be easily dissected and col...

  1. The Rab11 Pathway Is Required for Influenza A Virus Budding and Filament Formation▿

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Emily A.; Digard, Paul; Stuart, Amanda D.

    2010-01-01

    Influenza A virus buds through the apical plasma membrane, forming enveloped virus particles that can take the shape of pleomorphic spheres or vastly elongated filaments. For either type of virion, the factors responsible for separation of viral and cell membranes are not known. We find that cellular Rab11 (a small GTP-binding protein involved in endocytic recycling) and Rab11-family interacting protein 3 ([FIP3] which plays a role in membrane trafficking and regulation of actin dynamics) are both required to support the formation of filamentous virions, while Rab11 is additionally involved in the final budding step of spherical particles. Cells transfected with Rab11 GTP-cycling mutants or depleted of Rab11 or FIP3 content by small interfering RNA treatment lost the ability to form virus filaments. Depletion of Rab11 resulted in up to a 100-fold decrease in titer of spherical virus released from cells. Scanning electron microscopy of Rab11-depleted cells showed high densities of virus particles apparently stalled in the process of budding. Transmission electron microscopy of thin sections confirmed that Rab11 depletion resulted in significant numbers of abnormally formed virus particles that had failed to pinch off from the plasma membrane. Based on these findings, we see a clear role for a Rab11-mediated pathway in influenza virus morphogenesis and budding. PMID:20357086

  2. Perception of photoperiod in individual buds of mature trees regulates leaf-out.

    PubMed

    Zohner, Constantin M; Renner, Susanne S

    2015-12-01

    Experimental data on the perception of day length and temperature in dormant temperate zone trees are surprisingly scarce. In order to investigate when and where these environmental signals are perceived, we carried out bagging experiments in which buds on branches of Fagus sylvatica, Aesculus hippocastanum and Picea abies trees were exposed to natural light increase or kept at constant 8-h days from December until June. Parallel experiments used twigs cut from the same trees, harvesting treated and control twigs seven times and then exposing them to 8- or 16-h days in a glasshouse. Under 8-h days, budburst in Fagus outdoors was delayed by 41 d and in Aesculus by 4 d; in Picea, day length had no effect. Buds on nearby branches reacted autonomously, and leaf primordia only reacted to light cues in late dormancy after accumulating warm days. Experiments applying different wavelength spectra and high-resolution spectrometry to buds indicate a phytochrome-mediated photoperiod control. By demonstrating local photoperiodic control of buds, revealing the time when these signals are perceived, and showing the interplay between photoperiod and chilling, this study contributes to improved modelling of the impact of climate warming on photosensitive species.

  3. Woody tissue photosynthesis and its contribution to trunk growth and bud development in young plants.

    PubMed

    Saveyn, An; Steppe, Kathy; Ubierna, Nerea; Dawson, Todd E

    2010-11-01

    Stem photosynthesis can contribute significantly to woody plant carbon balance, particularly in times when leaves are absent or in 'open' crowns with sufficient light penetration. We explored the significance of woody tissue (stem) photosynthesis for the carbon income in three California native plant species via measurements of chlorophyll concentrations, radial stem growth, bud biomass and stable carbon isotope composition of sugars in different plant organs. Young plants of Prunus ilicifolia, Umbellularia californica and Arctostaphylos manzanita were measured and subjected to manipulations at two levels: trunk light exclusion (100 and 50%) and complete defoliation. We found that long-term light exclusion resulted in a reduction in chlorophyll concentration and radial growth, demonstrating that trunk assimilates contributed to trunk carbon income. In addition, bud biomass was lower in covered plants compared to uncovered plants. Excluding 100% of the ambient light from trunks on defoliated plants led to an enrichment in ¹³C of trunk phloem sugars. We attributed this effect to a reduction in photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination against ¹³C that in turn resulted in an enrichment in ¹³C of bud sugars. Taken together our results reveal that stem photosynthesis contributes to the total carbon income of all species including the buds in defoliated plants.

  4. BRANCHED1 promotes axillary bud dormancy in response to shade in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    González-Grandío, Eduardo; Poza-Carrión, César; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S; Cubas, Pilar

    2013-03-01

    Plants interpret a decrease in the red to far-red light ratio (R:FR) as a sign of impending shading by neighboring vegetation. This triggers a set of developmental responses known as shade avoidance syndrome. One of these responses is reduced branching through suppression of axillary bud outgrowth. The Arabidopsis thaliana gene BRANCHED1 (BRC1), expressed in axillary buds, is required for branch suppression in response to shade. Unlike wild-type plants, brc1 mutants develop several branches after a shade treatment. BRC1 transcription is positively regulated 4 h after exposure to low R:FR. Consistently, BRC1 is negatively regulated by phytochrome B. Transcriptional profiling of wild-type and brc1 buds of plants treated with simulated shade has revealed groups of genes whose mRNA levels are dependent on BRC1, among them a set of upregulated abscisic acid response genes and two networks of cell cycle- and ribosome-related downregulated genes. The downregulated genes have promoters enriched in TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, and PCF (TCP) binding sites, suggesting that they could be transcriptionally regulated by TCP factors. Some of these genes respond to BRC1 in seedlings and buds, supporting their close relationship with BRC1 activity. This response may allow the rapid adaptation of plants to fluctuations in the ratio of R:FR light.

  5. Intracellular characteristics and responses of taste bud and lingual cells of the mudpuppy

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Intracellular recordings of membrane potentials of mudpuppy lingual cells were made with micropipette electrodes. Three types of cells were distinguished by their responses to chemical stimulation. Surface epithelial (SE) cells outside of taste buds responded with large membrane potential and resistance changes to a variety of stimuli representing the four taste qualities. Salts and acids evoked particularly large potential changes, and MgCl2, acids, and quinine greatly increased the membrane resistance. One type of taste bud cell (TB-1) was characterized by large depolarizations to K salts, and the other type of taste bud cell (TB-2) characteristically hyperpolarized to MgCl2, acid, and sugar solutions. Membrane resistance changes accompanying TB-1 and TB-2 cell responses were relatively small compared to those of SE cells. Electrotonic coupling was observed between pairs of SE and TB-2 cells but not for pairs of TB-1 cells nor cells of different types. After recording cell responses, dye-marking allowed verification of results in situ and histologically. From the identification of cells in section, it is hypothesized the TB-1 and TB- 2 cells correspond to light and dark cells, respectively. Responses of TB-1 cells imply a taste receptive function; wheras TB 2-cell responses suggest secretory, supportive, and (or) receptive functions. Factors affecting cellular characteristics, non-taste bud cell responsiveness, response mechanisms, and function of electrotonic coupling are discussed in relation to taste reception. PMID:702111

  6. Acid-sensing ion channels and transient-receptor potential ion channels in zebrafish taste buds.

    PubMed

    Levanti, M; Randazzo, B; Viña, E; Montalbano, G; Garcia-Suarez, O; Germanà, A; Vega, J A; Abbate, F

    2016-09-01

    Sensory information from the environment is required for life and survival, and it is detected by specialized cells which together make up the sensory system. The fish sensory system includes specialized organs that are able to detect mechanical and chemical stimuli. In particular, taste buds are small organs located on the tongue in terrestrial vertebrates that function in the perception of taste. In fish, taste buds occur on the lips, the flanks, and the caudal (tail) fins of some species and on the barbels of others. In fish taste receptor cells, different classes of ion channels have been detected which, like in mammals, presumably participate in the detection and/or transduction of chemical gustatory signals. However, since some of these ion channels are involved in the detection of additional sensory modalities, it can be hypothesized that taste cells sense stimuli other than those specific for taste. This mini-review summarizes current knowledge on the presence of transient-receptor potential (TRP) and acid-sensing (ASIC) ion channels in the taste buds of teleosts, especially adult zebrafish. Up to now ASIC4, TRPC2, TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPV4 ion channels have been found in the sensory cells, while ASIC2 was detected in the nerves supplying the taste buds. PMID:27513962

  7. Synapsin I-like immunoreactivity in nerve fibers associated with lingual taste buds of the rat.

    PubMed

    Finger, T E; Womble, M; Kinnamon, J C; Ueda, T

    1990-02-01

    Immunoreactivity to synapsin I, a neuronal phosphoprotein, was localized in free-floating tissue sections prepared from lingual tissue of rats. Many nerve fibers within the tissue exhibited clear immunoreactivity including motor endplates on striated muscle, autonomic fibers innervating blood vessels or glands, and sensory fibers innervating muscles or the lingual epithelium including taste buds. Numerous immunoreactive fibers occurred within each taste bud, with fewer, fine fibers being dispersed in the epithelium between taste buds. The majority of the intragemmal immunoreactive fibers extended throughout the taste buds most of the distance outward from the basal lamina toward the surface of the epithelium. Fine, perigemmal fibers reached nearly to the epithelial surface. Ultrastructural analysis of the immunoreactive sensory fibers revealed that synapsin I-immunoreactivity occurred diffusely throughout the cytoplasm, and heavily in association with microvesicles. The synaptic vesicles at the taste receptor cell-to-afferent fiber synapse were, however, not immunoreactive for synapsin I, although these vesicles fall into the size class shown to be immunoreactive in other systems. This absence of synapsin I may be a common property of vesicles in axonless short receptor cells. PMID:2108194

  8. [Effects of flower bud removal and artificial pollination on growth and yield of Tulipa edulis].

    PubMed

    Miao, Yuan-Yuan; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Ma, Hong-Liang; Yang, Ying; Zhu, Li-Fang

    2014-06-01

    The study was conducted to explore the response of growth and yield of Tulipa edulis to flower bud removal and artificial pollination. And flower bud removal and artificial pollination were carried out in the squaring period and bloom stage respectively. The morphological index and biomass indicators were determined and the yield was counted in harvest time. Result showed that flower bud removal was beneficial to the growth of T. edulis, resulting in increasing growth index, biomass as well as the yield of bulb. The diameter and dry weight of T. edulis fruit by artificial pollination were increased significantly compared with the control. Seed setting percentage increased to 100%, and the number of seed as well as the single grain weight increased by 69.03% and 16.48%, respectively, which did not significantly affect the bulb production. In conclusion, Flower bud removal treatment accelerates bulb biomass increase, so as to improve its yield. Artificial pollination raised significantly seed setting percentage, seed number as well as the single grain weight.

  9. Regularity in budding mode and resultant growth morphology of the azooxanthellate colonial scleractinian Tubastraea coccinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentoku, A.; Ezaki, Y.

    2012-03-01

    Scleractinia exhibit a variety of growth forms, whether zooxanthellate or azooxanthellate, according to factors that control asexual reproduction and ensuing coral growth. The azooxanthellate branching scleractinian Dendrophyllia arbuscula shows regular modes of budding in terms of the locations of budding sites, the orientations of directive septa, and the inclination angle of budding throughout colonial growth. This study reports that such regularities are also found in the apparently different growth form of the massive dendrophylliid Tubastraea coccinea, which shows the following growth features: (1) the offsets (lateral corallites) always occur near four primary septa, except the two directive primary septa, meaning that the lateral corallites do not appear in the sectors of the two directive septa; (2) the two directive septa in lateral corallites tend to be oriented subperpendicular to the growth direction of the parental corallites; (3) the lateral corallites grow approximately diagonally upwards; and (4) these regularities are seen in the axial and derived lateral corallites among all generations during colony growth. Large differences in growth form are found between the branching D. arbuscula and massive T. coccinea, irrespective of the presence of specific regularities. It is likely that subtle modifications of certain parameters (e.g., budding interval, branch length, corallite size, and inclination angle of lateral corallites) have a strong effect on the overall growth morphology. A precise understanding of such regularities, which occur regardless of generation or taxonomic position, would contribute to understanding the "shape-controlling mechanism" of corals, which are an archetypal modular organism.

  10. Assessment of regeneration potential in the clonal macrophyte Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Poaceae) after burial disturbance based on bud bank size and sprouting capacity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinsheng; Cao, Chenshu; Deng, Zhengmiao; Xie, Yonghong; Li, Feng; Hou, Zhiyong; Li, Xu

    2015-01-01

    The demography of the bud bank and its sprouting capacity are important for understanding the population dynamics of clonal plants and their potential responses to disturbances. To this end, we investigated the size and composition of the bud bank of Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Hack. immediately after flooding (November), in winter (January), in spring (March), and before flooding (May) in the wetlands of Dongting Lake. We then examined the sprouting capacity of axillary buds after sediment burial at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm. Total bud density of M. sacchariflorus ranged from 2524 buds m(-2) in November to 4293 buds m(-2) in March. Rhizome segments with inactive axillary buds, which represented the majority of the bud population (88.7% in November, 93.3% in May), did not sprout during the 140 days of the experiment (n = 250). The sprouting ratio was the highest for active axillary buds buried at 0 cm (64%) and decreased when buried at 10-20 cm (34%-40%). Due to the large number of active axillary buds in the bud bank (211-277 buds m(-2) from November to the following March), M. sacchariflorus could completely replace its aboveground shoot population, except in May (142 buds m(-2)). Increasing burial depth delayed bud emergence and reduced the growth period of shoots; however, burial depth did not affect the resulting plant height and only reduced the accumulated biomass at 20 cm. Therefore, the belowground bud bank and its strong sprouting capacity are important factors in the maintenance of local populations and colonization of new habitats for M. sacchariflorus after burial disturbances. The present methodology, which combined measurements of bud bank demography and sprouting capacity, may reflect the regeneration potential of clonal plants after burial disturbances.

  11. Assessment of regeneration potential in the clonal macrophyte Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Poaceae) after burial disturbance based on bud bank size and sprouting capacity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinsheng; Cao, Chenshu; Deng, Zhengmiao; Xie, Yonghong; Li, Feng; Hou, Zhiyong; Li, Xu

    2015-01-01

    The demography of the bud bank and its sprouting capacity are important for understanding the population dynamics of clonal plants and their potential responses to disturbances. To this end, we investigated the size and composition of the bud bank of Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Hack. immediately after flooding (November), in winter (January), in spring (March), and before flooding (May) in the wetlands of Dongting Lake. We then examined the sprouting capacity of axillary buds after sediment burial at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm. Total bud density of M. sacchariflorus ranged from 2524 buds m(-2) in November to 4293 buds m(-2) in March. Rhizome segments with inactive axillary buds, which represented the majority of the bud population (88.7% in November, 93.3% in May), did not sprout during the 140 days of the experiment (n = 250). The sprouting ratio was the highest for active axillary buds buried at 0 cm (64%) and decreased when buried at 10-20 cm (34%-40%). Due to the large number of active axillary buds in the bud bank (211-277 buds m(-2) from November to the following March), M. sacchariflorus could completely replace its aboveground shoot population, except in May (142 buds m(-2)). Increasing burial depth delayed bud emergence and reduced the growth period of shoots; however, burial depth did not affect the resulting plant height and only reduced the accumulated biomass at 20 cm. Therefore, the belowground bud bank and its strong sprouting capacity are important factors in the maintenance of local populations and colonization of new habitats for M. sacchariflorus after burial disturbances. The present methodology, which combined measurements of bud bank demography and sprouting capacity, may reflect the regeneration potential of clonal plants after burial disturbances. PMID:25785628

  12. Assessment of Regeneration Potential in the Clonal Macrophyte Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Poaceae) after Burial Disturbance Based on Bud Bank Size and Sprouting Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinsheng; Cao, Chenshu; Deng, Zhengmiao; Xie, Yonghong; Li, Feng; Hou, Zhiyong; Li, Xu

    2015-01-01

    The demography of the bud bank and its sprouting capacity are important for understanding the population dynamics of clonal plants and their potential responses to disturbances. To this end, we investigated the size and composition of the bud bank of Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Hack. immediately after flooding (November), in winter (January), in spring (March), and before flooding (May) in the wetlands of Dongting Lake. We then examined the sprouting capacity of axillary buds after sediment burial at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm. Total bud density of M. sacchariflorus ranged from 2524 buds m-2 in November to 4293 buds m-2 in March. Rhizome segments with inactive axillary buds, which represented the majority of the bud population (88.7% in November, 93.3% in May), did not sprout during the 140 days of the experiment (n = 250). The sprouting ratio was the highest for active axillary buds buried at 0 cm (64%) and decreased when buried at 10–20 cm (34%–40%). Due to the large number of active axillary buds in the bud bank (211–277 buds m-2 from November to the following March), M. sacchariflorus could completely replace its aboveground shoot population, except in May (142 buds m-2). Increasing burial depth delayed bud emergence and reduced the growth period of shoots; however, burial depth did not affect the resulting plant height and only reduced the accumulated biomass at 20 cm. Therefore, the belowground bud bank and its strong sprouting capacity are important factors in the maintenance of local populations and colonization of new habitats for M. sacchariflorus after burial disturbances. The present methodology, which combined measurements of bud bank demography and sprouting capacity, may reflect the regeneration potential of clonal plants after burial disturbances. PMID:25785628

  13. Efficient transmission of Cassava brown streak disease viral pathogens by chip bud grafting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Techniques to study plant viral diseases under controlled growth conditions are required to fully understand their biology and investigate host resistance. Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) presents a major threat to cassava production in East Africa. No infectious clones of the causal viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) or Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) are available, and mechanical transmission to cassava is not effective. An improved method for transmission of the viruses, both singly and as co-infections has been developed using bud grafts. Findings Axillary buds from CBSD symptomatic plants infected with virulent isolates of CBSV and UCBSV were excised and grafted onto 6–8 week old greenhouse-grown, disease-free cassava plants of cultivars Ebwanateraka, TME204 and 60444. Plants were assessed visually for development of CBSD symptoms and by RT-PCR for presence of the viruses in leaf and storage root tissues. Across replicated experiments, 70-100% of plants inoculated with CBSV developed CBSD leaf and stem symptoms 2–6 weeks after bud grafting. Infected plants showed typical, severe necrotic lesions in storage roots at harvest 12–14 weeks after graft inoculation. Sequential grafting of buds from plants infected with UCBSV followed 10–14 days later by buds carrying CBSV, onto the same test plant, resulted in 100% of the rootstocks becoming co-infected with both pathogens. This dual transmission rate was greater than that achieved by simultaneous grafting with UCBSV and CBSV (67%), or when grafting first with CBSV followed by UCBSV (17%). Conclusions The bud grafting method described presents an improved tool for screening cassava germplasm for resistance to CBSD causal viruses, and for studying pathogenicity of this important disease. Bud grafting provides new opportunities compared to previously reported top and side grafting systems. Test plants can be inoculated as young, uniform plants of a size easily handled in a

  14. RIP3-dependent necrosis induced inflammation exacerbates atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingjun; Jin, Wei; Wang, Yuhui; Huang, Huanwei; Li, Jia; Zhang, Cai

    2016-04-29

    Atherothrombotic vascular disease is already the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Atherosclerosis shares features with diseases caused by chronic inflammation. More attention should concentrates on the innate immunity effect atherosclerosis progress. RIP3 (receptor-interacting protein kinase 3) act through the transcription factor named Nr4a3 (Nuclear orphan receptors) to regulate cytokine production. Deletion RIP3 decreases IL-1α production. Injection of anti-IL-1α antibody protects against the progress of atherosclerosis in ApoE -/- mice. RIP3 as a molecular switch in necrosis, controls macrophage necrotic death caused inflammation. Inhibiting necrosis will certainly reduce atherosclerosis through limit inflammation. Necrotic cell death caused systemic inflammation exacerbated cardiovascular disease. Inhibition of necrosis may yield novel therapeutic targets for treatment in years to come.

  15. Thymic necrosis following oral inoculation of mouse thymic virus.

    PubMed

    Morse, S S

    1989-11-01

    Mouse thymic virus (MTLV;ICTV designation murid herpesvirus 3) infects developing T lymphocytes of neonatal mice, causing thymic necrosis and acute immunosuppression. Infected animals shed virus indefinitely. However, although transmission in nature is presumably by contact and is likely to involve the oral-nasal route, virtually all experimental studies with MTLV have used systemic (intraperitoneal) inoculation. In order to determine whether systemic inoculation causes artifacts in pathogenesis of the infection, effects of intraperitoneal and oral-nasal inoculation were compared in newborn mice. Thymic necrosis occurred with either route of inoculation, although rate of infection was lower with oral inoculation, varying from about 20% to 67%. There were no gross differences in pathogenesis. Orally infected animals seroconverted and shed virus. These data indicate that the apparent lymphotropism of thymic virus, and induction of thymic necrosis, are not dependent on route of inoculation.

  16. Postnatal reduction of BDNF regulates the developmental remodeling of taste bud innervation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Ma, Liqun; Krimm, Robin F

    2015-09-15

    The refinement of innervation is a common developmental mechanism that serves to increase the specificity of connections following initial innervation. In the peripheral gustatory system, the extent to which innervation is refined and how refinement might be regulated is unclear. The initial innervation of taste buds is controlled by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Following initial innervation, taste receptor cells are added and become newly innervated. The connections between the taste receptor cells and nerve fibers are likely to be specific in order to retain peripheral coding mechanisms. Here, we explored the possibility that the down-regulation of BDNF regulates the refinement of taste bud innervation during postnatal development. An analysis of BDNF expression in Bdnf(lacZ/+) mice and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that BDNF was down-regulated between postnatal day (P) 5 and P10. This reduction in BDNF expression was due to a loss of precursor/progenitor cells that express BDNF, while the expression of BDNF in the subpopulations of taste receptor cells did not change. Gustatory innervation, which was identified by P2X3 immunohistochemistry, was lost around the perimeter where most progenitor/precursor cells are located. In addition, the density of innervation in the taste bud was reduced between P5 and P10, because taste buds increase in size without increasing innervation. This reduction of innervation density was blocked by the overexpression of BDNF in the precursor/progenitor population of taste bud cells. Together these findings indicate that the process of BDNF restriction to a subpopulation of taste receptor cells between P5 and P10, results in a refinement of gustatory innervation. We speculate that this refinement results in an increased specificity of connections between neurons and taste receptor cells during development.

  17. Mapping of Candidate Genes Involved in Bud Dormancy and Flowering Time in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium)

    PubMed Central

    Le Dantec, Loïck; Quero-García, José; Barreneche, Teresa; Wenden, Bénédicte; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The timing of flowering in perennial plants is crucial for their survival in temperate climates and is regulated by the duration of bud dormancy. Bud dormancy release and bud break depend on the perception of cumulative chilling during endodormancy and heat during the bud development. The objectives of this work were to identify candidate genes involved in dormancy and flowering processes in sweet cherry, their mapping in two mapping progenies ‘Regina’ × ‘Garnet’ and ‘Regina’ × ‘Lapins’, and to select those candidate genes which co-localized with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with temperature requirements for bud dormancy release and flowering. Based on available data on flowering processes in various species, a list of 79 candidate genes was established. The peach and sweet cherry orthologs were identified and primers were designed to amplify sweet cherry candidate gene fragments. Based on the amplified sequences of the three parents of the mapping progenies, SNPs segregations in the progenies were identified. Thirty five candidate genes were genetically mapped in at least one of the two progenies and all were in silico mapped. Co-localization between candidate genes and QTLs associated with temperature requirements and flowering date were identified for the first time in sweet cherry. The allelic composition of the candidate genes located in the major QTL for heat requirements and flowering date located on linkage group 4 have a significant effect on these two traits indicating their potential use for breeding programs in sweet cherry to select new varieties adapted to putative future climatic conditions. PMID:26587668

  18. The bud break process and its variation among local populations of boreal black spruce

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Sergio; Bousquet, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Phenology of local populations can exhibit adaptations to the current environmental conditions resulting from a close interaction between climate and genotype. The bud break process and its variations among populations were analyzed in greenhouse by monitoring the growth resumption in black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] seedlings originating from seeds of five stands across the closed boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. Bud break lasted 15 days and occurred earlier and quicker in northern provenances. Provenance explained between 10.2 and 32.3% of the variance in bud break, while the families accounted for a smaller but still significant part of the variance. The late occurrence of one phenological phase corresponded to a delayed occurrence of the others according to linear relationships. A causal model was proposed in the form of a chain of events with each phase of bud break being related to the previous and successive one, while no link was observed between non-adjacent phases. The adaptation of black spruce populations along the latitudinal gradient points toward a strategy based on rapid physiological processes triggered by temperature increase inducing high metabolic activity. The variation observed in bud break reflects an evolutionary trade-off between maximization of security and taking advantage of the short growing season. This work provides evidence of the phenological adaptations of black spruce to its local environmental conditions while retaining sizeable genetic diversity within populations. Because of the multigenic nature of phenology, this diversity should provide some raw material for adaptation to changing local environmental conditions. PMID:25389430

  19. Adenosine enhances sweet taste through A2B receptors in the taste bud

    PubMed Central

    Dando, Robin; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Pereira, Elizabeth; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian taste buds use ATP as a neurotransmitter. Taste Receptor (Type II) cells secrete ATP via gap junction hemichannels into the narrow extracellular spaces within a taste bud. This ATP excites primary sensory afferent fibers and also stimulates neighboring taste bud cells. Here we show that extracellular ATP is enzymatically degraded to adenosine within mouse vallate taste buds and that this nucleoside acts as an autocrine neuromodulator to selectively enhance sweet taste. In Receptor cells in a lingual slice preparation, Ca2+ mobilization evoked by focally applied artificial sweeteners was significantly enhanced by adenosine (50 µM). Adenosine had no effect on bitter or umami taste responses, and the nucleoside did not affect Presynaptic (Type III) taste cells. We also used biosensor cells to measure transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Adenosine (5 µM) enhanced ATP release evoked by sweet but not bitter taste stimuli. Using single-cell RT-PCR on isolated vallate taste cells, we show that many Receptor cells express adenosine receptors, Adora2b, while Presynaptic (Type III) and Glial-like (Type I) cells seldom do. Furthermore, Adora2b receptors are significantly associated with expression of the sweet taste receptor subunit, Tas1r2. Adenosine is generated during taste stimulation mainly by the action of the ecto-5′-nucleotidase, NT5E, and to a lesser extent, prostatic acid phosphatase (ACPP). Both these ecto-nucleotidases are expressed by Presynaptic cells, as shown by single-cell RT-PCR, enzyme histochemistry and immunofluorescence. Our findings suggest that ATP released during taste reception is degraded to adenosine to exert positive modulation particularly on sweet taste. PMID:22219293

  20. Adenosine enhances sweet taste through A2B receptors in the taste bud.

    PubMed

    Dando, Robin; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Pereira, Elizabeth; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian taste buds use ATP as a neurotransmitter. Taste Receptor (type II) cells secrete ATP via gap junction hemichannels into the narrow extracellular spaces within a taste bud. This ATP excites primary sensory afferent fibers and also stimulates neighboring taste bud cells. Here we show that extracellular ATP is enzymatically degraded to adenosine within mouse vallate taste buds and that this nucleoside acts as an autocrine neuromodulator to selectively enhance sweet taste. In Receptor cells in a lingual slice preparation, Ca(2+) mobilization evoked by focally applied artificial sweeteners was significantly enhanced by adenosine (50 μM). Adenosine had no effect on bitter or umami taste responses, and the nucleoside did not affect Presynaptic (type III) taste cells. We also used biosensor cells to measure transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Adenosine (5 μM) enhanced ATP release evoked by sweet but not bitter taste stimuli. Using single-cell reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR on isolated vallate taste cells, we show that many Receptor cells express the adenosine receptor, Adora2b, while Presynaptic (type III) and Glial-like (type I) cells seldom do. Furthermore, Adora2b receptors are significantly associated with expression of the sweet taste receptor subunit, Tas1r2. Adenosine is generated during taste stimulation mainly by the action of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase, NT5E, and to a lesser extent, prostatic acid phosphatase. Both these ecto-nucleotidases are expressed by Presynaptic cells, as shown by single-cell RT-PCR, enzyme histochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Our findings suggest that ATP released during taste reception is degraded to adenosine to exert positive modulation particularly on sweet taste.