Science.gov

Sample records for groundwater quality index

  1. A groundwater quality index map for Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Thomas; Schulz, Oliver; Wanke, Heike; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater quality and contamination is a huge concern for the population of Namibia, especially for those living in remote areas. There, most farmers use their own wells to supply themselves and their animals with drinking water. In many cases, except for a few studies that were done in some areas, the only groundwater quality measurements that took place were taken at the time the well was drilled. These data were collected and are available through the national GROWAS-Database. Information on measurements determining the amount of contaminants such as fluoride, TDS, other major ions and nitrate for several thousand wells are provided there. The aim of this study was I) to check the database for its reliability by comparing it to results from different studies and statistical analysis, II) to analyze the database on groundwater quality using different methods (statistical-, pattern- and correlation analysis) and III) to embed our own field work that took place within a selected Namibian region into that analysis. In order to get a better understanding of the groundwater problems in different areas of Namibia, a groundwater quality index map based on GROWAS was created using GIS processing techniques. This map uses several indicators for groundwater quality in relation to selected guidelines and combines them into an index, thus enabling the assessment of groundwater quality with regard to more than one pollutant. The goal of the groundwater quality map is to help identify where the overall groundwater quality is problematic and to communicate these problems. Additionally, suggestions for an enhancement of the database and for new field surveys will be given. The field work was focusing on three farms within an area known for its problematic nitrate concentration in groundwater. There, 23 wells were probed. In order to identify the sources of the contamination, isotopic measurements were executed for three of these wells with high nitrate concentrations

  2. Groundwater quality and water quality index at Bhandara District.

    PubMed

    Rajankar, Prashant N; Tambekar, Dilip H; Wate, Satish R

    2011-08-01

    The present investigation reports the results of a monitoring study focusing on groundwater quality of Bhandara District of central India. Since, remediation of groundwater is very difficult, knowledge of the existing nature, magnitude, and sources of the various pollution loads is a prerequisite to assessing groundwater quality. The water quality index (WQI) value as a function of various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters was determined for groundwater obtained from a total of 21 locations. The WQI during pre-monsoon season varied from 68 to 83, while for post-monsoon, it was between 56 and 76. Significantly (P < 0.01) lower WQI for the post-monsoon season was observed, indicating deterioration of the groundwater overall in corresponding season. The study revealed that groundwater from only 19% locations was fit for domestic use, thus indicating the need of proper treatment before use.

  3. The vulnerability index calculation for determination of groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, D.A.; Parizek, R.R.

    1995-12-01

    Non-point source pollutants, such as pesticides, enter groundwater systems in a variety of means at wide-ranging concentrations. Risks in using groundwater in human consumption vary depending on the amounts of contaminants, the type of groundwater aquifer, and various use factors. We have devised a method of determining the vulnerability of an aquifer towards contamination with the Vulnerability Index. The Index can be used either as a comparative or an absolute index (comparative with a pure water source or aquifer spring or without comparison, assuming no peaks in the compared sample). Data for the calculation is obtained by extraction of a given water sample followed by analysis with a nitrogen/phosphorus detector on gas chromatography. The calculation uses the sum of peak heights as its determination. An additional peak number factor is added to emphasize higher numbers of compounds found in a given sample. Karst aquifers are considered to be highly vulnerable due to the large solution openings in its structure. Examples will be given of Vulnerability Indices taken from springs emanating from karst, intermediate, and diffuse flow aquifers taken at various times of the 1992 sampling year and compared with rainfall during that time. Comparisons will be made of the Index vs. rainfall events and vs. pesticide application data. The risk of using contaminated drinking water sources can be evaluated with the use of this index.

  4. Application of water quality index for groundwater quality assessment: Thirumanimuttar sub-basin, Tamilnadu, India.

    PubMed

    Vasanthavigar, M; Srinivasamoorthy, K; Vijayaragavan, K; Ganthi, R Rajiv; Chidambaram, S; Anandhan, P; Manivannan, R; Vasudevan, S

    2010-12-01

    An attempt has been made to understand the hydrogeochemical parameters to develop water quality index in Thirumanimuttar sub-basin. A total of 148 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for major cations and anions. The domination of cations and anions was in the order of Na>Mg>Ca>K for cations and Cl>HCO(3) >SO(4) in anions. The hydrogeochemical facies indicate alkalis (Na and K) exceed alkaline earths (Ca and Mg) and strong acids (Cl and SO(4)) exceed weak acid (HCO(3)). Water quality index rating was calculated to quantify overall water quality for human consumption. The PRM samples exhibit poor quality in greater percentage when compared with POM due to effective leaching of ions, over exploitation of groundwater, direct discharge of effluents and agricultural impact. The overlay of WQI with chloride and EC correspond to the same locations indicating the poor quality of groundwater in the study area. SAR, Na%, and TH were noted higher during both the seasons indicating most of the groundwater locations not suitable for irrigation purposes. PMID:20091344

  5. Hydrogeochemistry and Water Quality Index in the Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Drinking Uses.

    PubMed

    Batabyal, Asit Kumar; Chakraborty, Surajit

    2015-07-01

    The present investigation is aimed at understanding the hydrogeochemical parameters and development of a water quality index (WQI) to assess groundwater quality of a rural tract in the northwest of Bardhaman district of West Bengal, India. Groundwater occurs at shallow depths with the maximum flow moving southeast during pre-monsoon season and south in post-monsoon period. The physicochemical analysis of groundwater samples shows the major ions in the order of HCO3>Ca>Na>Mg>Cl>SO4 and HCO3>Ca>Mg>Na>Cl>SO4 in pre- and post-monsoon periods, respectively. The groundwater quality is safe for drinking, barring the elevated iron content in certain areas. Based on WQI values, groundwater falls into one of three categories: excellent water, good water, and poor water. The high value of WQI is because of elevated concentration of iron and chloride. The majority of the area is occupied by good water in pre-monsoon and poor water in post-monsoon period.

  6. Physicochemical quality evaluation of groundwater and development of drinking water quality index for Araniar River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Jasmin, I; Mallikarjuna, P

    2014-02-01

    Groundwater is the most important natural resource which cannot be optimally used and sustained unless its quality is properly assessed. In the present study, the spatial and temporal variations in physicochemical quality parameters of groundwater of Araniar River Basin, India were analyzed to determine its suitability for drinking purpose through development of drinking water quality index (DWQI) maps of the post- and pre-monsoon periods. The suitability for drinking purpose was evaluated by comparing the physicochemical parameters of groundwater in the study area with drinking water standards prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Interpretation of physicochemical data revealed that groundwater in the basin was slightly alkaline. The cations such as sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) and anions such as bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) and chloride (Cl(-)) exceeded the permissible limits of drinking water standards (WHO and BIS) in certain pockets in the northeastern part of the basin during the pre-monsoon period. The higher total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration was observed in the northeastern part of the basin, and the parameters such as calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), sulfate (SO4 (2-)), nitrate (NO3 (-)), and fluoride (F(-)) were within the limits in both the seasons. The hydrogeochemical evaluation of groundwater of the basin demonstrated with the Piper trilinear diagram indicated that the groundwater samples of the area were of Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) types during the post-monsoon period and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) types during the pre-monsoon period. The DWQI maps for the basin revealed that 90.24 and 73.46% of the basin area possess good quality drinking water during the post- and pre-monsoon seasons, respectively.

  7. Assessment of groundwater quality at a MSW landfill site using standard and AHP based water quality index: a case study from Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Shubhrasekhar; Kumar, R Naresh

    2016-06-01

    Landfill leachate generated from open MSW dumpsite can cause groundwater contamination. The impact of open dumping of MSW on the groundwater of adjacent area was studied. To assess the spatial and temporal variations in groundwater quality, samples were collected around an open MSW dumping site in Ranchi city, Jharkhand, India. Groundwater samples were analysed for various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters for 1 year. Results indicated that the groundwater is getting contaminated due to vertical and horizontal migration of landfill leachate. Extent of contamination was higher in areas closer to the landfill as indicated by high alkalinity, total dissolved solids and ammonia concentration. Metals such as lead, iron, and manganese were present at concentrations of 0.097, 0.97 and 0.36 mg/L, respectively exceeding the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 10,500 for drinking water. Enterobacteriaceae were also detected in several groundwater samples and highest coliform count of 2.1×10(4) CFU/mL was recorded from a dug well. In order to determine the overall groundwater quality, water quality index (WQI) was calculated using weighted arithmetic index method and this index was further modified by coupling with the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to get specific information. WQI values indicated that the overall groundwater quality of the region came under "poor" category while zone wise classification indicated the extent of impact of landfill leachate on groundwater. PMID:27155859

  8. Assessment of groundwater quality at a MSW landfill site using standard and AHP based water quality index: a case study from Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Shubhrasekhar; Kumar, R Naresh

    2016-06-01

    Landfill leachate generated from open MSW dumpsite can cause groundwater contamination. The impact of open dumping of MSW on the groundwater of adjacent area was studied. To assess the spatial and temporal variations in groundwater quality, samples were collected around an open MSW dumping site in Ranchi city, Jharkhand, India. Groundwater samples were analysed for various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters for 1 year. Results indicated that the groundwater is getting contaminated due to vertical and horizontal migration of landfill leachate. Extent of contamination was higher in areas closer to the landfill as indicated by high alkalinity, total dissolved solids and ammonia concentration. Metals such as lead, iron, and manganese were present at concentrations of 0.097, 0.97 and 0.36 mg/L, respectively exceeding the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 10,500 for drinking water. Enterobacteriaceae were also detected in several groundwater samples and highest coliform count of 2.1×10(4) CFU/mL was recorded from a dug well. In order to determine the overall groundwater quality, water quality index (WQI) was calculated using weighted arithmetic index method and this index was further modified by coupling with the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to get specific information. WQI values indicated that the overall groundwater quality of the region came under "poor" category while zone wise classification indicated the extent of impact of landfill leachate on groundwater.

  9. [Relationship between groundwater quality index of physics and chemistry in riparian zone and water quality in river].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua-Shan; Zhao, Tong-Qian; Meng, Hong-Qi; Xu, Zong-Xue; Ma, Chao-Hong

    2011-03-01

    Riparian zone hydrology is dominated by shallow groundwater with complex interactions between groundwater and surface water. There are obvious relations of discharge and recharge between groundwater and surface water. Flood is an important hydrological incident that affects groundwater quality in riparian zone. By observing variations of physical and chemical groundwater indicators in riparian zone at the Kouma section of the Yellow River Wetland, especially those took place in the period of regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir, relationship between the groundwater quality in riparian zone and the flood water quality in the river is studied. Results show that, affected by the river and pond water, the highest point of groundwater temperature is near the pond in spring, and near the river in winter; and regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir also affects groundwater temperature in riparian zone, which reaches its maximum at 100 m far from the river bank. There exists a strong zone of nitrification area at 50 m from the river bank, and in this area, the groundwater pH value is lower by 0.2 to 0.4 unit than that of the other regions, with great annual varieties. The turbidity of groundwater is affected by irrigation, which is more obvious than other indicators of groundwater. The turbidity of groundwater and river water increase rapidly during the early phase of flood retreat, and slope stability of river bank is the initial impact of the soil erosion of river bank. Conductivity, chloride and sulfate data show that the range of 50-200 m in riparian wetland is a very important salt accumulation zone, and the width of salt accumulation zone changes with seasons, and this area is also a very important zone of sulfur reduction. The quality of groundwater at 200 m from the river bank is also significantly affected by floods. Physical and chemical indicators of water change strongly in this area. The result indicates that

  10. [Relationship between groundwater quality index of physics and chemistry in riparian zone and water quality in river].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua-Shan; Zhao, Tong-Qian; Meng, Hong-Qi; Xu, Zong-Xue; Ma, Chao-Hong

    2011-03-01

    Riparian zone hydrology is dominated by shallow groundwater with complex interactions between groundwater and surface water. There are obvious relations of discharge and recharge between groundwater and surface water. Flood is an important hydrological incident that affects groundwater quality in riparian zone. By observing variations of physical and chemical groundwater indicators in riparian zone at the Kouma section of the Yellow River Wetland, especially those took place in the period of regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir, relationship between the groundwater quality in riparian zone and the flood water quality in the river is studied. Results show that, affected by the river and pond water, the highest point of groundwater temperature is near the pond in spring, and near the river in winter; and regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir also affects groundwater temperature in riparian zone, which reaches its maximum at 100 m far from the river bank. There exists a strong zone of nitrification area at 50 m from the river bank, and in this area, the groundwater pH value is lower by 0.2 to 0.4 unit than that of the other regions, with great annual varieties. The turbidity of groundwater is affected by irrigation, which is more obvious than other indicators of groundwater. The turbidity of groundwater and river water increase rapidly during the early phase of flood retreat, and slope stability of river bank is the initial impact of the soil erosion of river bank. Conductivity, chloride and sulfate data show that the range of 50-200 m in riparian wetland is a very important salt accumulation zone, and the width of salt accumulation zone changes with seasons, and this area is also a very important zone of sulfur reduction. The quality of groundwater at 200 m from the river bank is also significantly affected by floods. Physical and chemical indicators of water change strongly in this area. The result indicates that

  11. [Relationship between groundwater quality index of nutrition element and organic matter in riparian zone and water quality in river].

    PubMed

    Hua-Shan, Xu; Tong-Qian, Zhao; Hong-Q, Meng; Zong-Xue, Xu; Chao-Hon, Ma

    2011-04-01

    Riparian zone hydrology is dominated by shallow groundwater with complex interactions between groundwater and surface water. There are obvious relations of discharge and recharge between groundwater and surface water. Flood is an important hydrological incident that affects groundwater quality in riparian zone. By observing variations of physical and chemical groundwater indicators in riparian zone at the Kouma section of the Yellow River Wetland, especially those took place in the period of regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir, relationship between the groundwater quality in riparian zone and the flood water quality in the river is studied. Results show that there will be great risk of nitrogen, phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen and organic matter permeating into the groundwater if floodplain changes into farmland. As the special control unit of nitrogen pollution between rivers and artificial wetlands, dry fanning areas near the river play a very important role in nitrogen migration between river and groundwater. Farm manure as base fertilizer may he an important source of phosphorus leak and loss at the artificial wetlands. Phosphorus leaks into the groundwater and is transferred along the hydraulic gradient, especially during the period of regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir. The land use types and farming systems of the riparian floodplain have a major impact on the nitrate nitrogen contents of the groundwater. Nitrogen can infiltrate and accumulate quickly at anaerobic conditions in the fish pond area, and the annual nitrogen achieves a relatively balanced state in lotus area. In those areas, the soil is flooded and at anaerobic condition in spring and summer, nitrogen infiltrates and denitrification significantly, but soil is not flooded and at aerobic condition in the autumn and winter, and during these time, a significant nitrogen nitrification process occurs. In the area between 50 m and 200 m from the river

  12. [Relationship between groundwater quality index of nutrition element and organic matter in riparian zone and water quality in river].

    PubMed

    Hua-Shan, Xu; Tong-Qian, Zhao; Hong-Q, Meng; Zong-Xue, Xu; Chao-Hon, Ma

    2011-04-01

    Riparian zone hydrology is dominated by shallow groundwater with complex interactions between groundwater and surface water. There are obvious relations of discharge and recharge between groundwater and surface water. Flood is an important hydrological incident that affects groundwater quality in riparian zone. By observing variations of physical and chemical groundwater indicators in riparian zone at the Kouma section of the Yellow River Wetland, especially those took place in the period of regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir, relationship between the groundwater quality in riparian zone and the flood water quality in the river is studied. Results show that there will be great risk of nitrogen, phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen and organic matter permeating into the groundwater if floodplain changes into farmland. As the special control unit of nitrogen pollution between rivers and artificial wetlands, dry fanning areas near the river play a very important role in nitrogen migration between river and groundwater. Farm manure as base fertilizer may he an important source of phosphorus leak and loss at the artificial wetlands. Phosphorus leaks into the groundwater and is transferred along the hydraulic gradient, especially during the period of regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir. The land use types and farming systems of the riparian floodplain have a major impact on the nitrate nitrogen contents of the groundwater. Nitrogen can infiltrate and accumulate quickly at anaerobic conditions in the fish pond area, and the annual nitrogen achieves a relatively balanced state in lotus area. In those areas, the soil is flooded and at anaerobic condition in spring and summer, nitrogen infiltrates and denitrification significantly, but soil is not flooded and at aerobic condition in the autumn and winter, and during these time, a significant nitrogen nitrification process occurs. In the area between 50 m and 200 m from the river

  13. Assessment of different doses of N applied to a melon crop in the quality of groundwater: environmental impact indexes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, M. T.; Cartagena, M. C.; Ribas, F.; Cabello, M. J.; Arce, A.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Provided that the intensive use of N in agricultural systems has negatively impacted environmental quality, because a higher fertilization requirements of the crop to make the nitrate leached into the aquifer contaminating, as well as increasing their presence on the ground resulting in a time of intercropping nitrates washing with the arrival of rains. It's necessary to know the N management to reduce the pollution risks and may lead the higher production with the fewer economic cost, environmental and health. The aim of this study was to asses how different doses of nitrogen applied to a melon crop affected the quality of groundwater. The doses of N applied ranged between 11 and 393 kg ha-1. Several indexes, based in N leaching consequence of the agricultural practice, were calculated and provided an essential tool for knowing the risks of groundwater pollution with the practices used. Drinking water impact, irrigation water management impact and environmental impact indexes were obtained during four years in a vulnerable area of the centre of Spain. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA04-111

  14. Application of water quality index to evaluate groundwater quality (temporal and spatial variation) of an intensively exploited aquifer (Puebla valley, Mexico).

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Sánchez, Edith R; Garrido Hoyos, Sofía E; Esteller Alberich, Ma Vicenta; Martínez Morales, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    The spatial and temporal variation of water quality in the urban area of the Puebla Valley aquifer was evaluated using historical and present data obtained during this investigation. The current study assessed water quality based on the Water Quality Index developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME-WQI), which provides a mathematical framework to evaluate the quality of water in combination with a set of conditions representing quality criteria, or limits. This index is flexible regarding the type and number of variables used by the evaluation given that the variables of interest are selected according to the characteristics and objectives of development, conservation and compliance with regulations. The CCME-WQI was calculated using several variables that assess the main use of the wells in the urban area that is public supply, according to criteria for human use and consumption established by Mexican law and international standards proposed by the World Health Organization. The assessment of the index shows a gradual deterioration in the quality of the aquifer over time, as the amount of wells with excellent quality have decreased and those with lower index values (poor quality) have increased throughout the urban area of the Puebla Valley aquifer. The parameters affecting groundwater quality are: total dissolved solids, sulfate, calcium, magnesium and total hardness.

  15. Application of water quality index to evaluate groundwater quality (temporal and spatial variation) of an intensively exploited aquifer (Puebla valley, Mexico).

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Sánchez, Edith R; Garrido Hoyos, Sofía E; Esteller Alberich, Ma Vicenta; Martínez Morales, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    The spatial and temporal variation of water quality in the urban area of the Puebla Valley aquifer was evaluated using historical and present data obtained during this investigation. The current study assessed water quality based on the Water Quality Index developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME-WQI), which provides a mathematical framework to evaluate the quality of water in combination with a set of conditions representing quality criteria, or limits. This index is flexible regarding the type and number of variables used by the evaluation given that the variables of interest are selected according to the characteristics and objectives of development, conservation and compliance with regulations. The CCME-WQI was calculated using several variables that assess the main use of the wells in the urban area that is public supply, according to criteria for human use and consumption established by Mexican law and international standards proposed by the World Health Organization. The assessment of the index shows a gradual deterioration in the quality of the aquifer over time, as the amount of wells with excellent quality have decreased and those with lower index values (poor quality) have increased throughout the urban area of the Puebla Valley aquifer. The parameters affecting groundwater quality are: total dissolved solids, sulfate, calcium, magnesium and total hardness. PMID:27645142

  16. A New Evaluation Method for Groundwater Quality Applied in Guangzhou Region, China: Using Fuzzy Method Combining Toxicity Index.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fan; Huang, Guanxing; Sun, Jichao; Jing, Jihong; Zhang, Ying

    2016-02-01

    Groundwater quality assessment is essential for drinking from a security point of view. In this paper, a new evaluation method called toxicity combined fuzzy evaluation (TCFE) has been put forward, which is based on the fuzzy synthetic evaluation (FSE) method and the toxicity data from Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The comparison of TCFE and FSE in the groundwater quality assessment of Guangzhou region also has been done. The assessment results are divided into 5 water quality levels; level I is the best while level V is the worst. Results indicate that the proportion of level I, level II, and level III used by the FSE method was 69.33% in total. By contrast, this proportion rose to 81.33% after applying the TCFE method. In addition, 66.7% of level IV samples in the FSE method became level I (50%), level II (25%), and level III (25%) in the TCFE method and 29.41% of level V samples became level I (50%) and level III (50%). This trend was caused by the weight change after the combination of toxicity index. By analyzing the changes of different indicators' weight, it could be concluded that the better-changed samples mainly exceeded the corresponding standards of regular indicators and the deteriorated samples mainly exceeded the corresponding standards of toxic indicators. The comparison between the two results revealed that the TCFE method could represent the health implications of toxic indicators reasonably. As a result, the TCFE method is more scientific in view of drinking safety. PMID:26803098

  17. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  18. Hydro-geochemistry and application of water quality index (WQI) for groundwater quality assessment, Anna Nagar, part of Chennai City, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna kumar, S.; Logeshkumaran, A.; Magesh, N. S.; Godson, Prince S.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, the geochemical characteristics of groundwater and drinking water quality has been studied. 24 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and total hardness. The results were evaluated and compared with WHO and BIS water quality standards. The studied results reveal that the groundwater is fresh to brackish and moderately high to hard in nature. Na and Cl are dominant ions among cations and anions. Chloride, calcium and magnesium ions are within the allowable limit except few samples. According to Gibbs diagram, the predominant samples fall in the rock-water interaction dominance and evaporation dominance field. The piper trilinear diagram shows that groundwater samples are Na-Cl and mixed CaMgCl type. Based on the WQI results majority of the samples are falling under excellent to good category and suitable for drinking water purposes.

  19. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    Proposed is a measure of indexing consistency based on the concept of "fuzzy sets." By this procedure a higher consistency value is assigned if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on…

  20. Evaluation of groundwater dynamic regime with groundwater depth evaluation indexes.

    PubMed

    Genxu, Wang; Jian, Zhou; Kubota, Jumpei; Jianping, Su

    2008-06-01

    An accurate quantitative evaluation of anthropogenic effects on regional groundwater dynamics is critical to the rational planning, management, and use of such resources and in maintaining the sustainability of groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Based on groundwater dynamics, a series of groundwater depth evaluation indexes were created to quantitatively evaluate the effects of anthropogenic activities on the groundwater system. These indexes were based on mathematical relationships relating groundwater depth to surface runoff (gammat), precipitation (rhot), and extraction (deltat). The anthropogenic effects on these relationships were evaluated statistically, with respect to both temporal and spatial variation. The anthropogenic effects on groundwater dynamics within the arid Zhangye Basin, located in the middle reaches of northwest China's Heihe River, were investigated. River valley plains in the western portion of the basin excepted, anthropogenic activities have, since 1995, dramatically altered the basin's groundwater dynamics; in particular, in the mid-upper and lower portions of alluvial-diluvial fans and in localized northerly fine-soil plains regions, the relationship of groundwater to surface runoff and atmospheric precipitation has shifted. This and other changes indicate that anthropogenic effects on groundwater systems in this region show clear spatiotemporal variation. PMID:18686930

  1. Evaluation of groundwater dynamic regime with groundwater depth evaluation indexes.

    PubMed

    Genxu, Wang; Jian, Zhou; Kubota, Jumpei; Jianping, Su

    2008-06-01

    An accurate quantitative evaluation of anthropogenic effects on regional groundwater dynamics is critical to the rational planning, management, and use of such resources and in maintaining the sustainability of groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Based on groundwater dynamics, a series of groundwater depth evaluation indexes were created to quantitatively evaluate the effects of anthropogenic activities on the groundwater system. These indexes were based on mathematical relationships relating groundwater depth to surface runoff (gammat), precipitation (rhot), and extraction (deltat). The anthropogenic effects on these relationships were evaluated statistically, with respect to both temporal and spatial variation. The anthropogenic effects on groundwater dynamics within the arid Zhangye Basin, located in the middle reaches of northwest China's Heihe River, were investigated. River valley plains in the western portion of the basin excepted, anthropogenic activities have, since 1995, dramatically altered the basin's groundwater dynamics; in particular, in the mid-upper and lower portions of alluvial-diluvial fans and in localized northerly fine-soil plains regions, the relationship of groundwater to surface runoff and atmospheric precipitation has shifted. This and other changes indicate that anthropogenic effects on groundwater systems in this region show clear spatiotemporal variation.

  2. Groundwater environmental capacity and its evaluation index.

    PubMed

    Xing, Li Ting; Wu, Qiang; Ye, Chun He; Ye, Nan

    2010-10-01

    To date, no unified and acknowledged definition or well-developed evaluation index system of groundwater environment capacity can be found in the academia at home or abroad. The article explores the meaning of water environment capacity, and analyzes the environmental effects caused by the exploitation of groundwater resources. This research defines groundwater environmental capacity as a critical value in terms of time and space, according to which the groundwater system responds to the external influences within certain goal constraint. On the basis of observing the principles of being scientific, dominant, measurable, and applicable, six level 1 evaluation indexes and 11 constraint factors are established. Taking Jinan spring region for a case study, this research will adopt groundwater level and spring flow as constraint factors, and the allowable groundwater yield as the critical value of groundwater environmental capacity, prove the dynamic changeability and its indicating function of groundwater environmental capacity through calculation, and finally point out the development trends of researches on groundwater environmental capacity. PMID:19763854

  3. Arkansas Groundwater-Quality Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pugh, Aaron L.; Jackson, Barry T.; Miller, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Arkansas is the fourth largest user of groundwater in the United States, where groundwater accounts for two-thirds of the total water use. Groundwater use in the State increased by 510 percent between 1965 and 2005 (Holland, 2007). The Arkansas Groundwater-Quality Network is a Web map interface (http://ar.water.usgs.gov/wqx) that provides rapid access to the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) STOrage and RETrieval (STORET) databases of ambient water information. The interface enables users to perform simple graphical analysis and download selected water-quality data.

  4. Traffic air quality index.

    PubMed

    Bagieński, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI.

  5. Traffic air quality index.

    PubMed

    Bagieński, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI. PMID:25461063

  6. Groundwater quality in the San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Selected groundwater basins of the San Francisco Bay area constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  7. Integrated groundwater quality management in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartjes, F. A.; Otte, P. F.

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater assessments and remediations are approached at the scale of individual groundwater plumes. In urban areas, however, this management of individual groundwater plumes is often problematic for technical, practical or financial reasons, since the groundwater quality is often affected by a combination of sources, including (former) industrial activities, spills and leachate from uncontrolled landfills and building materials. As a result, often a whole series of intermingling contamination plumes is found in large volumes of groundwater. In several countries in the world, this led to stagnation of groundwater remediation in urban areas. Therefore, in the Netherlands there is a tendency managing groundwater in urban areas from an integrated perspective and on a larger scale. This so-called integrated groundwater quality management is often more efficient and hence, cheaper, since the organisation of the management of a cluster of groundwater plumes is much easier than it would be if all individual groundwater plumes were managed at different points in time. Integrated groundwater quality management should follow a tailor-made approach. However, to facilitate practical guidance was developed. This guidance relates to the delineation of the domain, the management of sources for groundwater contamination, procedures for monitoring, and (risk-based) assessment of the groundwater quality. Function-specific risk-based groundwater quality criteria were derived to support the assessment of the groundwater quality.

  8. Environmental Quality Index - Overview Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    A better estimate of overall environmental quality is needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between environmental conditions and humanhealth. Described in this report is the effort to construct an environmental quality index representing multiple domains of the ...

  9. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... reducing exposure to extremely high levels of particle pollution is available here . Fires: Current Conditions Click to ... Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke from fires | What You Can Do Health ...

  10. Groundwater quality of north-east Libya.

    PubMed

    Nair, G Achuthan; Bohjuari, Jalal Ahmed; Al-Mariami, Muftah A; Attia, Fathi Ali; El-Toumi, Fatma F

    2006-10-01

    The quality of groundwater was assessed to their suitability for drinking at six places of north-east Libya viz. El-Marj, Albayda, Shahat, Susa, Ras al-Hilal and Derna, during November, 2003 to March, 2004, by determining their physicochemical parameters (17 parameters) and water quality index (15 parameters). The temperatures of water samples averaged 15.1 degree C, pH values were alkaline and dissolved oxygen values were in safe ranges. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and hardness of water at all places except Susa were within the standard limits. Alkalinity of well water at all six places exceeded, and chlorine and chloride (except Susa) were within the desirable limits set for them. Fluoride and nitrate contaminations of well water were not observed, and only very low values of phosphorus, manganese, chromium, iron and zinc were recorded. Copper in well water was generally high, and at Susa and Ras al-Hilal, it exceeded the desirable limit. Parametric ratios showed that all parameters studied except those of pH, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity and total chlorine originated from sources different from that of hardness. Water quality index (WQI) revealed that well water of Albayda and Shahat were good for drinking and were only slightly polluted, whereas those of El-Marj, Ras al-Hilal and Derna were moderately polluted. However, the well water of Susa was excessively polluted and was unsuitable for drinking. Suitable suggestions were made to improve the quality of groundwater of N.E. Libya.

  11. Sixth Environmental Quality Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife, 1975

    1975-01-01

    This study, measuring the nation's clean-up efforts, shows an overall decline in environmental quality in the U.S. over the past year. In 1974, called "the year of the trade off," the federal government relaxed environmental quality standards to relieve economic problems and to solve the energy crisis temporarily. (MA)

  12. Groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Sierra Nevada Regional study unit constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  13. Modeling groundwater flow and quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, Leonard F.; Glynn, Pierre D.; Selinus, Olle

    2013-01-01

    In most areas, rocks in the subsurface are saturated with water at relatively shallow depths. The top of the saturated zone—the water table—typically occurs anywhere from just below land surface to hundreds of feet below the land surface. Groundwater generally fills all pore spaces below the water table and is part of a continuous dynamic flow system, in which the fluid is moving at velocities ranging from feet per millennia to feet per day (Fig. 33.1). While the water is in close contact with the surfaces of various minerals in the rock material, geochemical interactions between the water and the rock can affect the chemical quality of the water, including pH, dissolved solids composition, and trace-elements content. Thus, flowing groundwater is a major mechanism for the transport of chemicals from buried rocks to the accessible environment, as well as a major pathway from rocks to human exposure and consumption. Because the mineral composition of rocks is highly variable, as is the solubility of various minerals, the human-health effects of groundwater consumption will be highly variable.

  14. Wyoming groundwater-quality monitoring network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boughton, Gregory K.

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of human activities have the potential to contaminate groundwater. In addition, naturally occurring constituents can limit the suitability of groundwater for some uses. The State of Wyoming has established rules and programs to evaluate and protect groundwater quality based on identified uses. The Wyoming Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Network (WGQMN) is a cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ) and was implemented in 2009 to evaluate the water-quality characteristics of the State's groundwater. Representatives from USGS, WDEQ, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Wyoming Water Development Office, and Wyoming State Engineer's Office formed a steering committee, which meets periodically to evaluate progress and consider modifications to strengthen program objectives. The purpose of this fact sheet is to describe the WGQMN design and objectives, field procedures, and water-quality analyses. USGS groundwater activities in the Greater Green River Basin also are described.

  15. Minnesota ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albin, D.R.; Bruemmer, L.B.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains summary information on ground-water quality in one of the 50 States, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, or the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, Saipan, Guam, and American Samoa. The material is extracted from the manuscript of the 1986 National Water Summary, and with the exception of the illustrations, which will be reproduced in multi-color in the 1986 National Water Summary, the format and content of this report is identical to the State ground-water-quality descriptions to be published in the 1986 National Water Summary. Release of this information before formal publication in the 1986 National Water Summary permits the earliest access by the public.

  16. Texas ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strause, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains summary information on ground-water quality in one of the 50 States, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, or the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, Saipan, Guam, and American Samoa. The material is extracted from the manuscript of the 1986 National Water Summary, and with the exception of the illustrations, which will be reproduced in multi-color in the 1986 National Water Summary, the format and content of this report is identical to the State ground-water-quality descriptions to be published in the 1986 National Water Summary. Release of this information before formal publication in the 1986 National Water Summary permits the earliest access by the public.

  17. A methodology for space-time classification of groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Passarella, G; Caputo, M C

    2006-04-01

    Safeguarding groundwater from civil, agricultural and industrial contamination is matter of great interest in water resource management. During recent years, much legislation has been produced stating the importance of groundwater as a source for drinking water supplies, underlining its vulnerability and defining the required quality standards. Thus, schematic tools, able to characterise the quality and quantity of groundwater systems, are of very great interest in any territorial planning and/or water resource management activity. This paper proposes a groundwater quality classification method which has been applied to a real aquifer, starting from several studies published by the Italian National Hydrogeologic Catastrophe Defence Group (GNDCI). The methodology is based on the concentration values of several parameters used as indexes of the natural hydro-chemical water condition and of potential man-induced modifications of groundwater quality. The resulting maps, although representative of the quality, do not include any information on its evolution in time. In this paper, this "stationary" classification method has been improved by crossing the quality classes with three indexes of temporal behaviour during recent years. It was then applied to data from monitoring campaigns, performed in spring and autumn, from 1990 to 1996, in the plain of Modena aquifer (central Italy). The results are reported in the form of space-time classification table and maps.

  18. Key policy choices in groundwater quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Batie, S.S.; Diebel, P.L. )

    1990-01-01

    The fundamental policy choice of who has the right to do what to whom is a pivotal issue of governance. Over the last few decades, the answer to that question has become more restrictive to those who own and use natural resources as inputs into production processes. Increasingly, the beneficiaries of new policy initiatives are those who desire higher protection of groundwater quality. With respect to groundwater management, policy design increasingly reflects such diverse interests as agriculturists, industrialists, homeowners, local government officials and state officials. Policy design is becoming complex, in part because of this diversity and in part because scientific uncertainty hampers informed policy design. No umbrella federal legislation exists for managing groundwater resources. EPA's role has been mainly an advisory one on groundwater issues. The difficulties and responsibilities of protecting groundwater thus remain with the states. For the near future, it is the states that will address key policy choices with respect to groundwater quality management issues.

  19. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability by combining drastic and susceptibility index: Application to Annaba superficial aquifer (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedrati, Nassima; Djabri, Larbi; Chaffai, Hicham; Bougherira, Nabil

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The aim of this work is to propose a new integrated methodology to assess actual and forecasted groundwater vulnerability by combining Drastic and susceptibility index. The contamination susceptibility index (SI) at a given location was calculated by taking the product of the vulnerability DRASTIC index (VI) and the quality index (QI): SI=VI x QI. The superficial aquifer of Annaba plain was the study case proposed for the application of this methodology. The study revealed that the area with Very High vulnerability would increase 73 % in this superficial layer. This result can be explained by the susceptibility index map shows both hydrogeological and hydrochemical data related to the contamination problem including areas that should be taken into consideration during water management planning. The index map indicates that the most susceptible groundwater is occupies the majority of the study area. The validity of the DRASTIC and the susceptibility index methods, verified by comparing the distribution of some pollutants (Daouad, 2013) in the groundwater and the different vulnerability classes, shows a high contamination that affect the water quality in study areas.

  20. Trend Analysis for Groundwater Quality at Different Depths for National Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hyeonsil; Jeen, Sung-Wook; Hyun, Yunjung; Lee, Soo Jae; Yoon, Heesung; Kim, Rak-Hyeon

    2015-04-01

    Continuous groundwater monitoring is necessary to investigate the changes of groundwater quality with time, and trend analysis using a statistical method can be used to evaluate if the changes are significant. While groundwater quality is typically monitored and evaluated at one depth, in many cases groundwater quality can be different with depths; thus it is required that monitoring and assessment of trends of groundwater quality should be performed at different depths. In this study, we carried out trend analysis for groundwater quality data of National Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network of Korea to investigate the changes of groundwater quality between 2007 and 2013. The monitoring network has wells with different depths at each site, of which screens are located at about 10 m, 30 m, and 80 m. We analyzed three of the groundwater quality parameters that have sufficient time series data: pH, nitrate-nitrogen, and chloride ion. Sen's test, a non-parametric statistical method for trend analysis, was used to determine the linear trend of groundwater quality data. The trend analyses were conducted at different confidence levels (i.e., at 70, 80, 90, 95, and 99 % confidence levels). The results of groundwater monitoring and trend analysis at each location were compared with groundwater quality management standards and were classified to establish a new groundwater quality management framework of Korea. The results were further plotted in a regional scale to identify whether the trends, if any, can be grouped regionally. The results showed that wells with significant increasing or decreasing trends are far less than wells with no trends, and chloride ion has more wells with significant trends compared to pH and nitrate-nitrogen. The trends were more or less affected by local characteristics rather than reflecting a regional trend. The number of wells with trends decreased as the confidence level increased as expected, indicating that it is necessary to set an

  1. Ground-water quality in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    This report graphically summarizes ground-water quality from selected chemical-quality data for about 2,300 ground-water sites in Wyoming. Dissolved-solids, nitrate, fluoride, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, iron, and manganese concentrations are summarized on a statewide basis. The major chemical-quality problem that limits the use of Wyoming ground-water is excessive dissolved-solids concentrations. The aquifers with the best quality water, based on the lowest median dissolved-solids concentration of water in aquifers with 20 or more sampled sites, are Holocene lacustrine deposits, the upper Testiary Ogallala Formation and Arikaree Formation, and the Mississippian Madison Limestone. The counties with the best quality water, based on the lowest median dissolved-solids concentrations are Teton County and Laramie County. Hot Springs County and Natrona County have the highest median dissolved-solids concentrations. About 3 percent of the nitrate concentrations of ground-water samples exceeded the national primary drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter. Fluoride concentrations exceeded the national primary drinking-water standard in 14 percent of the ground-water samples. Except for selenium, toxic trace elements generally have not been found in concentrations in excess of the drinking-water standards. About 19 percent of the iron and about 30 percent of the manganese concentrations in ground-water samples exceeded the national secondary drinking-water standards. (USGS)

  2. Quality indexing with computer-aided lexicography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Indexing with computers is a far cry from indexing with the first indexing tool, the manual card sorter. With the aid of computer-aided lexicography, both indexing and indexing tools can provide standardization, consistency, and accuracy, resulting in greater quality control than ever before. A brief survey of computer activity in indexing is presented with detailed illustrations from NASA activity. Applications from techniques mentioned, such as Retrospective Indexing (RI), can be made to many indexing systems. In addition to improving the quality of indexing with computers, the improved efficiency with which certain tasks can be done is demonstrated.

  3. Groundwater quality of southeastern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Blain, Liberty

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater is an important resource for domestic, municipal, stock, and irrigation uses in southeastern Wyoming. Thirty-seven percent of water used in the tri-County area, which includes Laramie, Platte, and Goshen Counties, is from groundwater. Most groundwater use in the tri-County area is withdrawn from three primary aquifer groups: Quaternary-age unconsolidated-deposit aquifers, Tertiary-age units of the High Plains aquifer system, and Upper Cretaceous bedrock aquifers (Lance Formation and Fox Hills Sandstone). Authors include selected physical properties and chemicals found in water samples, describe sources and importance, and report maximum levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. They also show concentration ranges for selected physical properties and chemicals in samples collected from the three primary aquifer groups in the tri-County area.

  4. Hydrogeochemical quality and suitability studies of groundwater in northern Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, M J; Hakim, M A; Hanafi, M M; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Aktar, Sharmin; Siddiqa, Aysha; Rahman, A K M Shajedur; Islam, M Atikul; Halim, M A

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture, rapid urbanization and geochemical processes have direct or indirect effects on the chemical composition of groundwater and aquifer geochemistry. Hydro-chemical investigations, which are significant for assessment of water quality, were carried out to study the sources of dissolved ions in groundwater of Dinajpur district, northern Bangladesh. The groundwater samplish were analyzed for physico-chemical properties like pH, electrical conductance, hardness, alkalinity, total dissolved solids and Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, CO3(2-), HCO3(-), SO4(2-) and Cl- ions, respectively. Based on the analyses, certain parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, Kelly's ratio, permeability index and Gibbs ratio were also calculated. The results showed that the groundwater of study area was fresh, slightly acidic (pH 5.3-6.4) and low in TDS (35-275 mg I(-1)). Ground water of the study area was found suitable for irrigation, drinking and domestic purposes, since most of the parameters analyzed were within the WHO recommended values for drinking water. High concentration of NO3- and Cl- was reported in areas with extensive agriculture and rapid urbanization. Ion-exchange, weathering, oxidation and dissolution of minerals were major geochemical processes governing the groundwater evolution in study area. Gibb's diagram showed that all the samples fell in the rock dominance field. Based on evaluation, it is clear that groundwater quality of the study area was suitable for both domestic and irrigation purposes.

  5. COMPLEX MIXTURES AND GROUNDWATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experience has shown that many soil and ground-water contamination problems involve complex mixtures of chemicals. his manuscript identifies and discusses, in a generic sense, some of the important processes which must be considered when dealing with complex mixtures in the subsu...

  6. Heavy metal contamination and its indexing approach for groundwater of Goa mining region, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurdeep; Kamal, Rakesh Kant

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study is to reveal the seasonal variations in the groundwater quality with respect to heavy metal contamination. To get the extent of the heavy metals contamination, groundwater samples were collected from 45 different locations in and around Goa mining area during the monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. The concentration of heavy metals, such as lead, copper, manganese, zinc, cadmium, iron, and chromium, were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Most of the samples were found within limit except for Fe content during the monsoon season at two sampling locations which is above desirable limit, i.e., 300 µg/L as per Indian drinking water standard. The data generated were used to calculate the heavy metal pollution index (HPI) for groundwater. The mean values of HPI were 1.5 in the monsoon season and 2.1 in the post-monsoon season, and these values are well below the critical index limit of 100.

  7. Groundwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Ground-water quality atlas of Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kammerer, Phil A.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes data on ground-water quality stored in the U.S. Geological Survey's computer system (WATSTORE). The summary includes water quality data for 2,443 single-aquifer wells, which tap one of the State's three major aquifers (sand and gravel, Silurian dolomite, and sandstone). Data for dissolved solids, hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, manganese, sulfate, chloride, fluoride, and nitrate are summarized by aquifer and by county, and locations of wells for which data are available 1 are shown for each aquifer. Calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate (the principal component of alkalinity) are the major dissolved constituents in Wisconsin's ground water. High iron concentrations and hardness cause ground-water quality problems in much of the State. Statewide ,summaries of trace constituent (selected trace metals; arsenic, boron, and organic carbon) concentrations show that these constituents impair water quality in only a few isolated wells.

  9. Groundwater quality in Coachella Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Coachella Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Coachella study area is approximately 820 square miles (2,124 square kilometers) and includes the Coachella Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Coachella Valley has an arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The runoff from the surrounding mountains drains to rivers that flow east and south out of the study area to the Salton Sea. Land use in the study area is approximately 67 percent (%) natural, 21% agricultural, and 12% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban areas are the cities of Indio and Palm Springs (2010 populations of 76,000 and 44,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Coachella Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Coachella Valley are completed to depths between 490 and 900 feet (149 to 274 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 260 to 510 feet (79 to 155 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to

  10. Groundwater Quality in Mura Valley (Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajc Benda, T.; Souvent, P.; Bračič Železnik, B.; Čenčur Curk, B.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater quality is one of the most important parameters in drinking water supply management. For safe drinking water supply, the quality of groundwater in the water wells on the recharge area has to be controlled. Groundwater quality data will be presented for one test area in the SEE project CC-WaterS (Climate Change and Impacts on Water Supply) Mura valley, which lies in the northeastern part of Slovenia. The Mura valley is a part of the Pannonian basin tectonic unit, which is filled with Tertiary and Quaternary gravel and sand sediments. The porous aquifer is 17 m thick in average and recharges from precipitation (70 %) and from surface waters (30 %). The aquifer is the main source of drinking water in the area for almost 53.000 inhabitants. Most of the aquifer lies beneath the agricultural area what represents the risk of groundwater quality. The major groundwater pollutants in the Mura valley are nitrates, atrazine, desethyl-atrazine, trichloroethane and tetrachloroethene. National groundwater quality monitoring is carried out twice a year, so some polluting events could be missed. The nitrate concentrations in the past were up to 140 mg/l. Concentration trends are decreasing and are now below 60 mg/l. Concentrations of atrazine and desethyl-atrazine, are decreasing as well and are below 0,1 µg/l. Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene were detected downstream of main city in Mura valley, in the maximum concentrations of 280 μg/l in June 2005 (trichloroethene) and 880 μg/l in October 1997 (tetrachloroethene). So, it can be summarized that the trends for most pollutants in the Mura valley are decreasing, what is a good prediction for the future. Input estimation of the total nitrogen (N) (mineral and organic fertilizers) in the Mura valley shows, that the risk of leaching is enlarged in the areas, where the N input is larger than 250 kg/ha, this is at 6,3 % of all agricultural areas. Prediction for the period 2021-2050 indicates that the leaching of N

  11. Groundwater quality in the San Fernando--San Gabriel groundwater basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The San Fernando and San Gabriel groundwater basins constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  12. Iowa ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, R.C.; Squillace, P.J.; Drustrup, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Iowa Hygienic Laboratory, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, and several counties in Iowa, currently (1986) is monitoring about 1,500 public and private wells for inorganic and organic constituents. The principal objective of this program, begun in 1982, is to collect water-quality data that will describe the long-term chemical quality of the surficial and major bedrock aquifer systems in Iowa (Detroy, 1985).

  13. Groundwater quality in the Mojave area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Four groundwater basins along the Mojave River make up one of the study areas being evaluated. The Mojave study area is approximately 1,500 square miles (3,885 square kilometers) and includes four contiguous groundwater basins: Upper, Middle, and Lower Mojave River Groundwater Basins, and the El Mirage Valley (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The Mojave study area has an arid climate, and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). Land use in the study area is approximately 82 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland), 4% agricultural, and 14% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Victorville, Hesperia, and Apple Valley (2010 populations of 116,000, 90,000 and 69,000, respectively). Groundwater in these basins is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in the Mojave study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in the Mojave study area are completed to depths between 200 and 600 feet (18 to 61 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 130 to 420 feet (40 to 128 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the mountains to the south, mostly through the Mojave River channel. The primary sources

  14. Nodal failure index approach to groundwater remediation design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.; Reeves, H.W.; Dowding, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Computer simulations often are used to design and to optimize groundwater remediation systems. We present a new computationally efficient approach that calculates the reliability of remedial design at every location in a model domain with a single simulation. The estimated reliability and other model information are used to select a best remedial option for given site conditions, conceptual model, and available data. To evaluate design performance, we introduce the nodal failure index (NFI) to determine the number of nodal locations at which the probability of success is below the design requirement. The strength of the NFI approach is that selected areas of interest can be specified for analysis and the best remedial design determined for this target region. An example application of the NFI approach using a hypothetical model shows how the spatial distribution of reliability can be used for a decision support system in groundwater remediation design. ?? 2008 ASCE.

  15. Assessment of Groundwater Quality by Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Agelos; Rigas, George; Kella, Sotiria; Lokkas, Filotheos; Dinouli, Dimitra; Papakonstantinou, Argiris; Spiliotis, Xenofon; Plageras, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    Chemometric methods were used to analyze large data sets of groundwater quality from 18 wells supplying the central drinking water system of Larissa city (Greece) during the period 2001 to 2007 (8.064 observations) to determine temporal and spatial variations in groundwater quality and to identify pollution sources. Cluster analysis grouped each year into three temporal periods (January-April (first), May-August (second) and September-December (third). Furthermore, spatial cluster analysis was conducted for each period and for all samples, and grouped the 28 monitoring Units HJI (HJI=represent the observations of the monitoring site H, the J-year and the period I) into three groups (A, B and C). Discriminant Analysis used only 16 from the 24 parameters to correctly assign 97.3% of the cases. In addition, Factor Analysis identified 7, 9 and 8 latent factors for groups A, B and C, respectively.

  16. Assessment of Groundwater Quality by Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Agelos; Rigas, George; Kella, Sotiria; Lokkas, Filotheos; Dinouli, Dimitra; Papakonstantinou, Argiris; Spiliotis, Xenofon; Plageras, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    Chemometric methods were used to analyze large data sets of groundwater quality from 18 wells supplying the central drinking water system of Larissa city (Greece) during the period 2001 to 2007 (8.064 observations) to determine temporal and spatial variations in groundwater quality and to identify pollution sources. Cluster analysis grouped each year into three temporal periods (January-April (first), May-August (second) and September-December (third). Furthermore, spatial cluster analysis was conducted for each period and for all samples, and grouped the 28 monitoring Units HJI (HJI=represent the observations of the monitoring site H, the J-year and the period I) into three groups (A, B and C). Discriminant Analysis used only 16 from the 24 parameters to correctly assign 97.3% of the cases. In addition, Factor Analysis identified 7, 9 and 8 latent factors for groups A, B and C, respectively. PMID:27329059

  17. Groundwater quality in the Antelope Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Antelope Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Antelope study area is approximately 1,600 square miles (4,144 square kilometers) and includes the Antelope Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Antelope Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lakebeds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 68 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland and grassland), 24% agricultural, and 8% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Palmdale and Lancaster (2010 populations of 152,000 and 156,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Antelope Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Antelope Valley are completed to depths between 360 and 700 feet (110 to 213 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 180 to 350 feet (55 to 107 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation and sewer and septic

  18. Groundwater quality in the Owens Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Owens Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Owens study area is approximately 1,030 square miles (2,668 square kilometers) and includes the Owens Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Owens Valley has a semiarid to arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff primarily from the Sierra Nevada draining east to the Owens River, which flows south to Owens Lake dry lakebed at the southern end of the valley. Beginning in the early 1900s, the City of Los Angeles began diverting the flow of the Owens River to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, resulting in the evaporation of Owens Lake and the formation of the current Owens Lake dry lakebed. Land use in the study area is approximately 94 percent (%) natural, 5% agricultural, and 1% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Bishop (2010 population of 4,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to the Owens Lake dry lakebed. The primary aquifers in Owens Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database

  19. Developing an Index of School Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, John; Papps, Ivy

    1993-01-01

    Discusses ways to involve parents in a system to measure school quality. Develops a school quality index based on a characteristics approach, rather than market segmentation. The method emphasizes how the "best" school may not be the most popular, since school quality must be isolated from the "price" of attending. A hypothetical comparison shows…

  20. An Overall County Quality of Living Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Charles L.; Lin, Y. N.

    A recent study of the quality of life in the rural South developed a weighted index of the overall quality of living based on subjective evaluations by rural residents of such concerns as the local government's quality, politics, political organizations, schools, educational system, churches, civic organizations, recreational facilities, job…

  1. Analysis, assessment and mapping of groundwater quality of Chandigarh (India).

    PubMed

    Bansal, Rajesh; Sharma, L N; John, Siby

    2011-04-01

    Chandigarh (India) has been depending on groundwater resources to meet its water requirements in addition to the surface water source (Bhakra Main Canal). With a view to assess the groundwater quality, samples were collected from geo-referenced tube wells in different localities of the city. Samples were analysed for conventional parameters indicative of the physico-chemical quality of groundwater. The groundwater quality mapping was attempted using the ARCGIS 9.0. Thematic maps were generated for each parameter of groundwater quality. This paper presents the spatial distribution of groundwater quality of Chandigarh city. The quality of groundwater was found to be varying with geology of the area as well as the land use and land cover.

  2. Groundwater quality in the South Coast Range Coastal groundwater basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s untreated groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The coastal basins in the Southern Coast Ranges constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  3. Groundwater quality in the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Tracy A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-10-03

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California established the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Santa Barbara Coastal Plain is one of the study units.

  4. Groundwater quality in the Central Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Two small watersheds of the Fresno and San Joaquin Rivers in the Central Sierra Nevada constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  5. Groundwater quality in the South Coast Interior Basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Mary C.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s untreated groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The South Coast Interior Basins constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  6. Groundwater Quality in the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, T.A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-10-03

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California established the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Santa Barbara Coastal Plain is one of the study units.

  7. Groundwater quality in the Kern County Subbasin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Kern County Subbasin constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  8. Groundwater quality in the southeast San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The subbasins in the southeast portion of the San Joaquin Valley constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  9. Effects of variations in recharge on groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whittemore, D.O.; McGregor, K.M.; Marotz, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The predominant regional effect of recharge on municipal groundwater quality in Kansas is the dilution of mineralized water in aquifers with relatively shallow water tables. The individual dissolved constituents contributing most to the water-quality variations are sulfate and chloride, and the calcium and sodium accompanying them, which are derived from the dissolution of evaporite minerals within the aquifer or from saline formation water in bedrock underlying the aquifer. The relationship between recharge and groundwater-quality variation can be quantified by associating certain climatic indices, especially the Palmer Drought Index, with quality observations. The response time of the maximum water-quality change relative to the occurrence of drought or substantial recharge ranges from a month to 3 years depending on the aquifer characteristics, and is generally proportional to the saturated thickness and specific yield. The response time is also affected by discharge to and recharge from nearby streams and by the well construction, particularly the placement of the screened interval, and pumping stress. ?? 1989.

  10. A proposed ground-water quality monitoring network for Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, R.L.; Parliman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A ground water quality monitoring network is proposed for Idaho. The network comprises 565 sites, 8 of which will require construction of new wells. Frequencies of sampling at the different sites are assigned at quarterly, semiannual, annual, and 5 years. Selected characteristics of the water will be monitored by both laboratory- and field-analysis methods. The network is designed to: (1) Enable water managers to keep abreast of the general quality of the State 's ground water, and (2) serve as a warning system for undesirable changes in ground-water quality. Data were compiled for hydrogeologic conditions, ground-water quality, cultural elements, and pollution sources. A ' hydrologic unit priority index ' is used to rank 84 hydrologic units (river basins or segments of river basins) of the State for monitoring according to pollution potential. Emphasis for selection of monitoring sites is placed on the 15 highest ranked units. The potential for pollution is greatest in areas of privately owned agricultural land. Other areas of pollution potential are residential development, mining and related processes, and hazardous waste disposal. Data are given for laboratory and field analyses, number of site visits, manpower, subsistence, and mileage, from which costs for implementing the network can be estimated. Suggestions are made for data storage and retrieval and for reporting changes in water quality. (Kosco-USGS)

  11. Assessment of groundwater quality using geographical information system (GIS), at north-east Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Shahat, M F; Sadek, M A; Mostafa, W M; Hagagg, K H

    2016-04-01

    The present investigation has been conducted to delineate the hydrogeochemical and environmental factors that control the water quality of the groundwater resources in the north-east of Cairo. A complementary approach based on hydrogeochemistry and a geographical information system (GIS) based protectability index has been employed for conducting this work. The results from the chemical analysis revealed that the groundwater of the Quaternary aquifer is less saline than that of the Miocene aquifer and the main factors that control the groundwater salinity in the studied area are primarily related to the genesis of the original recharging water modified after by leaching, dissolution, cation exchange, and fertilizer leachate. The computed groundwater quality index (WQI) falls into two categories: fair for almost all the Miocene groundwater samples, while the Quaternary groundwater samples are all have a good quality. The retarded flow and non-replenishment of the Miocene aquifer compared to the renewable active recharge of the Quaternary aquifer can explain this variation of WQI. The index and overlay approach exemplified by the DUPIT index has been used to investigate the protectability of the study aquifers against diffuse pollutants. Three categories (highly protectable less vulnerable, moderately protectable moderately vulnerable and less protectable highly vulnerable) have been determined and areally mapped. PMID:27105417

  12. Assessment of groundwater quality using geographical information system (GIS), at north-east Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Shahat, M F; Sadek, M A; Mostafa, W M; Hagagg, K H

    2016-04-01

    The present investigation has been conducted to delineate the hydrogeochemical and environmental factors that control the water quality of the groundwater resources in the north-east of Cairo. A complementary approach based on hydrogeochemistry and a geographical information system (GIS) based protectability index has been employed for conducting this work. The results from the chemical analysis revealed that the groundwater of the Quaternary aquifer is less saline than that of the Miocene aquifer and the main factors that control the groundwater salinity in the studied area are primarily related to the genesis of the original recharging water modified after by leaching, dissolution, cation exchange, and fertilizer leachate. The computed groundwater quality index (WQI) falls into two categories: fair for almost all the Miocene groundwater samples, while the Quaternary groundwater samples are all have a good quality. The retarded flow and non-replenishment of the Miocene aquifer compared to the renewable active recharge of the Quaternary aquifer can explain this variation of WQI. The index and overlay approach exemplified by the DUPIT index has been used to investigate the protectability of the study aquifers against diffuse pollutants. Three categories (highly protectable less vulnerable, moderately protectable moderately vulnerable and less protectable highly vulnerable) have been determined and areally mapped.

  13. Effects Of Leaky Sewers On Groundwater Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leschik, S.; Musolff, A.; Reinstorf, F.; Strauch, G.; Oswald, S. E.; Schirmer, M.

    2007-12-01

    The impact of urban areas on groundwater quality has become an emerging research field in hydrogeology. Urban subsurface infrastructures like sewer networks are often leaky, so untreated wastewater may enter the urban aquifer. The transport of wastewater into the groundwater is still not well understood under field conditions. In the research platform WASSER Leipzig (Water And Sewershed Study of Environmental Risk in Leipzig- Germany) the effects of leaky sewers on the groundwater quality are investigated. The research is focused on the occurrence and transport of so-called "xenobiotics" such as pharmaceuticals and personal care product additives. Xenobiotics may pose a threat on human health, but can also be considered a marker for an urban impact on water resources. A new test site was established in Leipzig to quantify mass fluxes of xenobiotics into the groundwater from a leaky sewer. Corresponding to the leaks which were detected by closed circuit television inspections, monitoring wells were installed up- and downstream of the sewer. Concentrations of eight xenobiotics (technical-nonylphenol, bisphenol-a, caffeine, galaxolide, tonalide, carbamazepine, phenazone, ethinylestradiol) obtained from first sampling programmes were found to be highly heterogeneous, but a relation between the position of the sampling points and the sewer could not be clearly identified. However, concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium and nitrate increased significantly downstream of the sewer which may be due to wastewater exfiltration, since no other source is known on the water flowpath from the upstream to the downstream wells. Because of the highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of xenobiotics at the test site, a monitoring concept was developed comprising both high-resolution sampling and an integral approach to obtain representative average concentrations. Direct-push techniques were used to gain insight into the fine-scale spatial distribution of the target compounds

  14. Groundwater quality data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Project, May 2012 through December 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Terri L.; DeSimone, Leslie A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Musgrove, Marylynn; Kingsbury, James A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-06-20

    Groundwater-quality data were collected from 748 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program from May 2012 through December 2013. The data were collected from four types of well networks: principal aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for public water supply; land-use study networks, which assess land-use effects on shallow groundwater quality; major aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for domestic supply; and enhanced trends networks, which evaluate the time scales during which groundwater quality changes. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of water-quality indicators and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and radionuclides. These groundwater quality data are tabulated in this report. Quality-control samples also were collected; data from blank and replicate quality-control samples are included in this report.

  15. Using a fuzzy expert system to generate a holistic quantitative index of groundwater sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, S. W.; Wong, C.; Graham, G.

    2011-12-01

    Indicators and indices can be an effective method for tracking environmental conditions over time, and thus for assessing the effectiveness of policy measures or remediation activities. Relative to surface water resources, however, groundwater has received little attention in this regard. This is problematic: about 30% and 44% of the Canadian and American populations depend on groundwater resources, with localized reliance of up to 100%. Aquifers can also serve key functions in watershed hydrology by attenuating peak flows, providing baseflow and associated aquatic habitat, moderating water temperature, and providing transport pathways for contaminants from the land surface to the open freshwater environment. Here, we introduce a prototype groundwater sustainability index. It is holistic in the sense that it incorporates both quantity and quality indicators. The former is based on the signal-to-noise ratio of long-term water level trends as estimated via robust (rank-based) regression, whereas the latter is based on concentration of the chief contaminant of concern. A fuzzy inference system is employed to integrate these unlike metrics, and has the additional advantages of explicitly encoding expert knowledge and directly acknowledging subjectivity in environmental condition "grading" through the use of linguistic rules and fuzzy sets, respectively. The rule base is constructed such that poor environmental conditions captured by one measure would not be hidden by good environmental performance in another. A standard Mamdani (max-min) inference engine is used in conjunction with centroid defuzzification. The outcome is a fuzzy logic-based groundwater sustainability index (FGWSI) ranging from 0 to 100. The index is demonstrated using both synthetic and observational datasets, including examples from the Abbotsford-Sumas aquifer, an important and managerially challenging transboundary (Canada-US) water resource.

  16. Calculation of an interaction index between extractive activity and groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Louise; Hallet, Vincent; Barthélemy, Johan; Moriamé, Marie; Cartletti, Timotéo

    2015-04-01

    There are two underground resources intensively exploited in Wallonia (the southern Region of Belgium): groundwater and rock. Groundwater production rate is about 380*106 cubic meter per year from which 80 % is used for drinking water (SPW-DGO3, 2014). Annual rock extraction is about 73*106 tons per year and 80.6% of the materials are carbonate rocks (Collier and Hallet, 2013) corresponding to the most important aquifer formations. Given the high population density and environmental pressures, lateral quarry extensions are limited and the only solution for the operators is to excavate deeper. In this context, the aquifer level of the exploited formation is often reached and dewatering systems have to be installed to depress the water table below the quarry pit bottom. This affects the regional hydrogeology and, in some cases, the productivity of the water catchments is threatened. Using simple geological and hydrogeological parameters, an interaction index was developed to assess the interaction between extractive activity and groundwater resources and, in consequence, to define how far the feasibility study should go into detailed hydrogeological investigations. The interaction index is based on the equation used in the assessment of natural hazards (Dauphiné, 2003), which gives: Interaction = F (Quarry, Aquifer). The interaction is the risk, which is equal to a function where the hazard is defined from parameters corresponding to the quarry and vulnerability from parameters related to groundwater resources. Six parameters have been determined. The parameters chosen to represent the hazard of a quarry are: the geological, the hydrogeological and the piezometric contexts. The parameters chosen to represent the vulnerability of the water resources are: the relative position between the quarry and the water catchment (well, spring, gallery, etc.) sites, the productivity of the catchment and the quality of the groundwater. Each parameter was classified into four

  17. Groundwater quality in western New York, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Water samples collected from 16 production wells and 15 private residential wells in western New York from July through November 2011 were analyzed to characterize the groundwater quality. Fifteen of the wells were finished in sand and gravel aquifers, and 16 were finished in bedrock aquifers. Six of the 31 wells were sampled in a previous western New York study, which was conducted in 2006. Water samples from the 2011 study were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents that included major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and indicator bacteria. Results of the water-quality analyses are presented in tabular form for individual wells, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. The results indicate that groundwater generally is of acceptable quality, although at 30 of the 31 wells sampled, at least one of the following constituents was detected at a concentration that exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards: pH (two samples), sodium (eight samples), sulfate (three samples), total dissolved solids (nine samples), aluminum (two samples), arsenic (one sample), iron (ten samples), manganese (twelve samples), radon-222 (sixteen samples), benzene (one sample), and total coliform bacteria (nine samples). Existing drinking-water standards for color, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, gross alpha radioactivity, uranium, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, and heterotrophic bacteria were not exceeded in any of the samples collected. None of the pesticides analyzed exceeded existing drinking-water standards.

  18. Urbanization effect on groundwater quality (Paleohydrogeological study)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabri, Raghid; Merkel, Broder; Tichomirowa, Marion

    2015-04-01

    Speleothem growing in caves usually contain hydrological information. Carbonates precipitation growing in tunnels under cities contain information about anthropological influence on water system. Carbonate samples were taken from Roman tunnels in rural and urban area in Nablus district- Palestine. These laminated samples were analyzed for rare earth elements (REE), 13C and 18O. For REE, five samples were examined, each lamination was extracted and diluted with 0.1 ml 65% HNO3 and measured using ICP-MS. Yet, limited number of lamination was used for isotope analysis using Isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Total concentration of rare earth elements were calculated for each of the five samples. In all examined samples, the newer laminations show higher peaks than the older one of each sample. On the other hand, one sample (8 measurements) of 13C show values between -31.6° and -36°. These values mean that the carbonate is from organic origin. In an urban area, wastewater infiltration into groundwater system can be the source of organic matter. 18O measurements show continues enrichments within the growth of the carbonate. This increase of the 18O values reflects drier weather. Our results can be explained by the increase of water consumption in the household in the recent 100 years, rather than the increase of using detergents and cleaning products which have influenced groundwater quality as appeared in the carbonate samples. On the other hand, 18O results could be linked with the expansion of the building up area in the city and subsequently reduction of groundwater recharge

  19. The Groundwater Performance Assessment Project Quality Assurance Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Luttrell, Stuart P.

    2006-05-11

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has monitored groundwater on the Hanford Site since the 1940s to help determine what chemical and radiological contaminants have made their way into the groundwater. As regulatory requirements for monitoring increased in the 1980s, there began to be some overlap between various programs. DOE established the Groundwater Performance Assessment Project (groundwater project) in 1996 to ensure protection of the public and the environment while improving the efficiency of monitoring activities. The groundwater project is designed to support all groundwater monitoring needs at the site, eliminate redundant sampling and analysis, and establish a cost-effective hierarchy for groundwater monitoring activities. This document provides the quality assurance guidelines that will be followed by the groundwater project. This QA Plan is based on the QA requirements of DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance, and 10 CFR 830, Subpart A--General Provisions/Quality Assurance Requirements as delineated in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Standards-Based Management System. In addition, the groundwater project is subject to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans (EPA/240/B-01/003, QA/R-5). The groundwater project has determined that the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD, DOE/RL-96-68) apply to portions of this project and to the subcontractors. HASQARD requirements are discussed within applicable sections of this plan.

  20. Evaluation of groundwater quality in northern Indo-Gangetic alluvium region.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Malik, Amrita; Mohan, Dinesh; Singh, Vinod K; Sinha, Sarita

    2006-01-01

    The northern Indo-Gangetic alluvium region is known for intensive agricultural and industrial activities. Groundwater is the main source used for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes in this region. Groundwater quality assessment is an essential component for its safer use. Thus, the measurements on various water quality parameters were carried out on surface water and groundwater samples of dug wells, bore wells and hand pumps at different sites spread over an area of about 2150 km(2). Influence of soil on hydrochemistry of groundwater was investigated through analyzing soil characteristics at selected sites in the region. Water quality classification was investigated through calculating the base-exchange, meteoric genesis, Langelier saturation and Ryznar stability indices. Groundwater sources were evaluated according to various criteria for their drinking and domestic, irrigation (salinity, chlorinity and sodicity), and industrial (saturation index) uses. Soil-water interactions and impact on groundwater quality was evaluated using ion flux coefficient (cf). Results of this study show that the groundwater in the study region is mainly of Na-HCO(3) and shallow meteoric water percolation type. Low cf values observed for NO(3), PO(4), Ca and metals indicate their lower mobility from soil matrix to groundwater. About 4-19% of the groundwater samples showed levels of TDS, hardness, alkalinity, Cl, F, SO(4), Ca, Mn, Pb, Cr and Fe above their respective permissible limits. Majority of samples violating the drinking water guidelines belong to shallow depth aquifer. Correlations between various parameters lead to interpretation of the results of analysis and suggesting the ionic species present in the groundwater sources. Contamination of some groundwater aquifers with F, Pb and Cr indicates natural and anthropogenic influences.

  1. Quality Indexing with Computer-Aided Lexicography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchan, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of computer-aided indexing activity focuses on examples from projects at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Standardization and quality in providing subject access to databases are considered; and computer-aided lexicography, including thesaurus construction, access vocabulary, definitions preparation,…

  2. Chemical characteristics of groundwater and assessment of groundwater quality in Varaha River Basin, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Rao, N Subba; Rao, P Surya; Reddy, G Venktram; Nagamani, M; Vidyasagar, G; Satyanarayana, N L V V

    2012-08-01

    Study on chemical characteristics of groundwater and impacts of groundwater quality on human health, plant growth, and industrial sector is essential to control and improve the water quality in every part of the country. The area of the Varaha River Basin is chosen for the present study, where the Precambrian Eastern Ghats underlain the Recent sediments. Groundwater quality is of mostly brackish and very hard, caused by the sources of geogenic, anthropogenic, and marine origin. The resulting groundwater is characterized by Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) : [Formula: see text] > Cl(-) > [Formula: see text], Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) : [Formula: see text] > Cl(-) > [Formula: see text] > [Formula: see text], Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) : [Formula: see text] > Cl(-), and Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) : Cl(-) > [Formula: see text] > [Formula: see text] facies, following the topographical and water flow-path conditions. The genetic geochemical evolution of groundwater ([Formula: see text] and Cl(-)-[Formula: see text] types under major group of [Formula: see text]) and the hydrogeochemical signatures (Na(+)/Cl(-), >1 and [Formula: see text]/Cl(-), <1) indicate that the groundwater is of originally fresh quality, but is subsequently modified to brackish by the influences of anthropogenic and marine sources, which also supported by the statistical analysis. The concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS), TH, Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), [Formula: see text], Cl(-), [Formula: see text], and F(-) are above the recommended limits prescribed for drinking water in many locations. The quality of groundwater is of mostly moderate in comparison with the salinity hazard versus sodium hazard, the total salt concentration versus percent sodium, the residual sodium carbonate, and the magnesium hazard, but is of mostly suitable with respect to the permeability index for irrigation. The higher concentrations of TDS, TH, [Formula

  3. Chemical characteristics of groundwater and assessment of groundwater quality in Varaha River Basin, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Rao, N Subba; Rao, P Surya; Reddy, G Venktram; Nagamani, M; Vidyasagar, G; Satyanarayana, N L V V

    2012-08-01

    Study on chemical characteristics of groundwater and impacts of groundwater quality on human health, plant growth, and industrial sector is essential to control and improve the water quality in every part of the country. The area of the Varaha River Basin is chosen for the present study, where the Precambrian Eastern Ghats underlain the Recent sediments. Groundwater quality is of mostly brackish and very hard, caused by the sources of geogenic, anthropogenic, and marine origin. The resulting groundwater is characterized by Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) : [Formula: see text] > Cl(-) > [Formula: see text], Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) : [Formula: see text] > Cl(-) > [Formula: see text] > [Formula: see text], Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) : [Formula: see text] > Cl(-), and Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) : Cl(-) > [Formula: see text] > [Formula: see text] facies, following the topographical and water flow-path conditions. The genetic geochemical evolution of groundwater ([Formula: see text] and Cl(-)-[Formula: see text] types under major group of [Formula: see text]) and the hydrogeochemical signatures (Na(+)/Cl(-), >1 and [Formula: see text]/Cl(-), <1) indicate that the groundwater is of originally fresh quality, but is subsequently modified to brackish by the influences of anthropogenic and marine sources, which also supported by the statistical analysis. The concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS), TH, Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+), [Formula: see text], Cl(-), [Formula: see text], and F(-) are above the recommended limits prescribed for drinking water in many locations. The quality of groundwater is of mostly moderate in comparison with the salinity hazard versus sodium hazard, the total salt concentration versus percent sodium, the residual sodium carbonate, and the magnesium hazard, but is of mostly suitable with respect to the permeability index for irrigation. The higher concentrations of TDS, TH, [Formula

  4. Assessment of the hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality of the Tarim River Basin in an extreme arid region, NW China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jun; Jin, Zhangdong; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of the major and trace elements in the groundwater of the Tarim River Basin (TRB), the largest inland river basin of China, were analyzed before and during rainy seasons to determine the hydrogeochemistry and to assess the groundwater quality for irrigation and drinking purposes. The groundwater within the TRB was slightly alkaline and characterized by high ionic concentrations. The groundwater in the northern sub-basin was fresh water with a Ca(2+)-HCO3(-) water type, whereas the groundwater in the southern and central sub-basins was brackish with a Na(+)-Cl(-) water type. Evaporite dissolution and carbonate weathering were the primary and secondary sources of solutes in the groundwater within the basin, whereas silicate weathering played a minor role. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), water quality index (WQI), and sodium percentage (%Na) indicated that the groundwater in the northern sub-basin was suitable for irrigation and drinking, but that in the southern and central sub-basins was not suitable. The groundwater quality was slightly better in the wet season than in the dry season. The groundwater could be used for drinking after treatment for B(3+), F(-), and SO4(2-) and for irrigation after control of the sodium and salinity hazards. Considering the high corrosivity ratio of the groundwater in this area, noncorrosive pipes should be used for the groundwater supply. For sustainable development, integrated management of the surface water and the groundwater is needed in the future. PMID:24221557

  5. Assessment of the hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality of the Tarim River Basin in an extreme arid region, NW China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jun; Jin, Zhangdong; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of the major and trace elements in the groundwater of the Tarim River Basin (TRB), the largest inland river basin of China, were analyzed before and during rainy seasons to determine the hydrogeochemistry and to assess the groundwater quality for irrigation and drinking purposes. The groundwater within the TRB was slightly alkaline and characterized by high ionic concentrations. The groundwater in the northern sub-basin was fresh water with a Ca(2+)-HCO3(-) water type, whereas the groundwater in the southern and central sub-basins was brackish with a Na(+)-Cl(-) water type. Evaporite dissolution and carbonate weathering were the primary and secondary sources of solutes in the groundwater within the basin, whereas silicate weathering played a minor role. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), water quality index (WQI), and sodium percentage (%Na) indicated that the groundwater in the northern sub-basin was suitable for irrigation and drinking, but that in the southern and central sub-basins was not suitable. The groundwater quality was slightly better in the wet season than in the dry season. The groundwater could be used for drinking after treatment for B(3+), F(-), and SO4(2-) and for irrigation after control of the sodium and salinity hazards. Considering the high corrosivity ratio of the groundwater in this area, noncorrosive pipes should be used for the groundwater supply. For sustainable development, integrated management of the surface water and the groundwater is needed in the future.

  6. Groundwater quality in central New York, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 14 production wells and 15 private wells in central New York from August through December 2012 in a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. The samples were analyzed to characterize the groundwater quality in unconsolidated and bedrock aquifers in this area. Fifteen of the wells are finished in sand-and-gravel aquifers, and 14 are finished in bedrock aquifers. Six of the 29 wells were sampled in a previous central New York study, which was conducted in 2007. Water samples from the 2012 study were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, dissolved gases (argon, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, oxygen), and indicator bacteria. Results of the water-quality analyses are presented in tabular form for individual wells, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. The results indicate that the groundwater generally is of acceptable quality, although for all of the wells sampled, at least one of the following constituents was detected at a concentration that exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards: color (2 samples), pH (7 samples), sodium (9 samples), chloride (2 samples), fluoride (2 samples), sulfate (2 samples), dissolved solids (8 samples), aluminum (4 samples), arsenic (1 sample), iron (9 samples), manganese (13 samples), radon-222 (13 samples), total coliform bacteria (6 samples), and heterotrophic bacteria (2 samples). Drinking-water standards for nitrate, nitrite, antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, gross alpha radioactivity, uranium, fecal coliform, and

  7. Twenty years of global groundwater research: A Science Citation Index Expanded-based bibliometric survey (1993-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Beibei; Loáiciga, Hugo A.; Wang, Zhen; Zhan, F. Benjamin; Hong, Song

    2014-11-01

    A bibliometric analysis was conducted to evaluate groundwater research from different perspectives in the period 1993-2012 based on the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCIE) database. The bibliometric analysis summarizes output, categorical, geographical, and institutional patterns, as well as research hotspots in global groundwater studies. Groundwater research experienced notable growth in the past two decades. “Environmental sciences”, “water resources” and “multidisciplinary geosciences” were the three major subject categories. The Journal of Hydrology published the largest number of groundwater-related publications in the surveyed period. Major author clusters and research regions are located in the United States, Western Europe, Eastern and Southern Asia, and Eastern Australia. The United States was a leading contributor to global groundwater research with the largest number of independent and collaborative papers, its dominance affirmed by housing 12 of the top 20 most active institutions reporting groundwater-related research. The US Geological Survey, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the USDA Agricultural Research Service were the three institutions with the largest number of groundwater-related publications. A keywords analysis revealed that groundwater quality and contamination, effective research technologies, and treatment technologies for water-quality improvement were the main research areas in the study period. Several keywords such as “arsenic”, “climate change”, “fluoride”, “groundwater management”, “hydrogeochemistry”, “uncertainty”, “numerical modeling”, “seawater intrusion”, “adsorption”, “remote sensing”, “land use”, “USA”(as study site), and “water supply” received dramatically increased attention during the study period, possibly signaling future research trends.

  8. Evaluation of groundwater quality in and around Peenya industrial area of Bangalore, South India using GIS techniques.

    PubMed

    Pius, Anitha; Jerome, Charmaine; Sharma, Nagaraja

    2012-07-01

    Groundwater resource forms a significant component of the urban water supply. Declining groundwater levels in Bangalore Urban District is generally due to continuous overexploitation during the last two decades or more. There is a tremendous increase in demand in the city for good quality groundwater resource. The present study monitors the groundwater quality using geographic information system (GIS) techniques for a part of Bangalore metropolis. Thematic maps for the study area are prepared by visual interpretation of SOI toposheets on 1:50,000 scale using MapInfo software. Physicochemical analysis data of the groundwater samples collected at predetermined locations form the attribute database for the study, based on which spatial distribution maps of major water quality parameters are prepared using MapInfo GIS software. Water quality index was then calculated by considering the following water quality parameters--pH, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate and sulphate to find the suitability of water for drinking purpose. The water quality index for these samples ranged from 49 to 502. The high value of water quality index reveals that most of the study area is highly contaminated due to excessive concentration of one or more water quality parameters and that the groundwater needs pretreatment before consumption.

  9. Southwest Principal Aquifers Regional Ground-Water Quality Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, D.W.; Thiros, S.A.; Bexfield, L.M.; McKinney, T.S.; Green, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifers in the southwestern United States. The Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the region to ground-water contamination by synthesizing the baseline knowledge of ground-water quality conditions in 15 basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. The improved understanding of aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability to contamination is assisting in the development of tools that water managers can use to assess and protect the quality of ground-water resources. This fact sheet provides an overview of the basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States and description of the completed and planned regional analyses of ground-water quality being performed by the SWPA study.

  10. Design of national groundwater quality monitoring network in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Dawoud, Mohamed A

    2004-01-01

    In the Nile Valley and Delta the protection of groundwater resources is high priority environmental concern. Many groundwater quality problems are already dispersed and may be widespread and frequent in occurrence. Examples include problems associated with the extensive application of chemical fertilizers in agricultural specially in the new reclaimed areas, leaks in sewers, septic tanks, the aggregate effects of many different points source pollution in urban areas and natural, geologically related water quality problems. A national groundwater quality monitoring has been designed and implemented based on the stepwise procedure. The national groundwater quality monitoring network is used to quantify the quality changes in long run, either caused by pollution activities or by salt water intrusion and to describe the overall current groundwater quality status on a national scale of the main aquifers. The monitoring tools and methodologies developed in this research can be used to assure protection of public health and determine the sustainability of groundwater in various purposes. This national monitoring network plays important roles for decision makers in developing the groundwater resources management plans in different aquifers systems in Egypt.

  11. Groundwater Quality in Central New York, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckhardt, David A.V.; Reddy, J.E.; Shaw, Stephen B.

    2009-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 7 production wells and 28 private residential wells in central New York from August through December 2007 and analyzed to characterize the chemical quality of groundwater. Seventeen wells are screened in sand and gravel aquifers, and 18 are finished in bedrock aquifers. The wells were selected to represent areas of greatest groundwater use and to provide a geographical sampling from the 5,799-square-mile study area. Samples were analyzed for 6 physical properties and 216 constituents, including nutrients, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, phenolic compounds, organic carbon, and 4 types of bacteria. Results indicate that groundwater used for drinking supply is generally of acceptable quality, although concentrations of some constituents or bacteria exceeded at least one drinking-water standard at several wells. The cations detected in the highest concentrations were calcium, magnesium, and sodium; anions detected in the highest concentrations were bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. The predominant nutrients were nitrate and ammonia, but no nutrients exceeded Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs). The trace elements barium, boron, lithium, and strontium were detected in every sample; the trace elements present in the highest concentrations were barium, boron, iron, lithium, manganese, and strontium. Fifteen pesticides, including seven pesticide degradates, were detected in water from 17 of the 35 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded State or Federal MCLs. Sixteen volatile organic compounds were detected in water from 15 of the 35 wells. Nine analytes and three types of bacteria were detected in concentrations that exceeded Federal and State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. One sample had a water color that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) and the New York State MCL of 10 color

  12. Assessment of groundwater quality using DEA and AHP: a case study in the Sereflikochisar region in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kavurmaci, Murat; Üstün, A Korkut

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the spatial distribution of groundwater quality in Sereflikochisar Basin, in the Central Anatolian region of Turkey using different hydrochemical, statistical, and geostatistical methods. A total of 51 groundwater samples were collected from the observation wells in the study area to evaluate the characteristics of the groundwater quality. As a relatively simple and practical method, a groundwater quality index (GWQI) was developed to evaluate the overall groundwater quality. In this process, complex decision-making techniques such as analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and data envelopment analysis (DEA) were used. Based on these models, two new indices (A-GWQI and D-GWQI) were proposed. According to the D-GWQI score (from 0.6 to 1), water quality was classified in four categories as unsuitable (0.6–0.7), permissible (0.7–0.8), good (0.8–0.9), and excellent (0.9–1). The spatial distribution maps of the groundwater quality were created using the Kriging method. For each map, seven different semivariogram models were tested and the best-fitted model was chosen based on their root mean square standardized error. These maps showed that the areas with high groundwater quality were in the eastern and southern parts of the study area where the D-GWQI scores were greater than 0.8. Depending on the distance from the Salt Lake, the characteristics of groundwater changed from NaCl to NaHCO3 and CaHCO3 facies. This study shows how to determine the spatial distribution of the groundwater quality and identify the impact of salt lakes on the groundwater quality in inland aquifers. The findings of this study can be applied to ensure the quality of groundwater used for drinking and irrigation purposes in the study area. PMID:27359000

  13. Assessment of groundwater quality using DEA and AHP: a case study in the Sereflikochisar region in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kavurmaci, Murat; Üstün, A Korkut

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the spatial distribution of groundwater quality in Sereflikochisar Basin, in the Central Anatolian region of Turkey using different hydrochemical, statistical, and geostatistical methods. A total of 51 groundwater samples were collected from the observation wells in the study area to evaluate the characteristics of the groundwater quality. As a relatively simple and practical method, a groundwater quality index (GWQI) was developed to evaluate the overall groundwater quality. In this process, complex decision-making techniques such as analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and data envelopment analysis (DEA) were used. Based on these models, two new indices (A-GWQI and D-GWQI) were proposed. According to the D-GWQI score (from 0.6 to 1), water quality was classified in four categories as unsuitable (0.6–0.7), permissible (0.7–0.8), good (0.8–0.9), and excellent (0.9–1). The spatial distribution maps of the groundwater quality were created using the Kriging method. For each map, seven different semivariogram models were tested and the best-fitted model was chosen based on their root mean square standardized error. These maps showed that the areas with high groundwater quality were in the eastern and southern parts of the study area where the D-GWQI scores were greater than 0.8. Depending on the distance from the Salt Lake, the characteristics of groundwater changed from NaCl to NaHCO3 and CaHCO3 facies. This study shows how to determine the spatial distribution of the groundwater quality and identify the impact of salt lakes on the groundwater quality in inland aquifers. The findings of this study can be applied to ensure the quality of groundwater used for drinking and irrigation purposes in the study area.

  14. The Quality Assessment Index (QAI) for measuring nursing home quality.

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, D H; Sainfort, F C; Van Konigsveld, R; Zimmerman, D R

    1990-01-01

    There have been few detailed evaluations of measures of quality of care in nursing homes. This is unfortunate because it has meant that much research on factors affecting nursing home quality has used measures of questionable reliability and validity. Moreover, some measures currently in use have been developed using methodologies not based on solid conceptual grounds, offering little reason to expect them to have much internal or external validity. In this article we suggest characteristics that should be present in measures of nursing home quality, propose a methodology for the development of such measures, propose a specific nursing home quality measure (the Quality Assessment Index or QAI), and report the results of several tests of its validity and reliability. PMID:2184147

  15. An overview of ground-water quality data in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kammerer, Phil A.

    1984-01-01

    This report contains a summary of ground-water-quality data for Wisconsin and an evaluation of the adequacy of these data for assessing the impact of land disposal of wastes on ground-water quality. Chemical analyses used in data summaries were limited to those stored in the USGS computer system (WATSTORE). Information on documented instances of ground-water contamination and sources of potential contamination from land disposal of wastes was provided by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Available data provide an overview of ground water quality but may be insufficient for assessment of ground-water contamination from land disposal of wastes. Many sources of potential ground-water contamination (landfills, surface waste-storage impoundments, and buried tanks) are known. Some of these are probably causing local ground-water contamination that is not apparent from available regional data. Information needs for assessment of ground-water contamination from land disposal of wastes include improved understanding of both ground-water hydrology and the chemical behavior of specific contaminants in the environment. (USGS)

  16. Impact of geochemical stressors on shallow groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    An, Y.-J.; Kampbell, D.H.; Jeong, S.-W.; Jewell, K.P.; Masoner, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring wells (about 70 wells) were extensively installed in 28 sites surrounding Lake Texoma, located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas, to assess the impact of geochemical stressors to shallow groundwater quality. The monitoring wells were classified into three groups (residential area, agricultural area, and oil field area) depending on their land uses. During a 2-year period from 1999 to 2001 the monitoring wells were sampled every 3 months on a seasonal basis. Water quality assay consisted of 25 parameters including field parameters, nutrients, major ions, and trace elements. Occurrence and level of inorganics in groundwater samples were related to the land use and temporal change. Groundwater of the agricultural area showed lower levels of ferrous iron and nitrate than the residential area. The summer season data revealed more distinct differences in inorganic profiles of the two land use groundwater samples. There is a possible trend that nitrate concentrations in groundwater increased as the proportions of cultivated area increased. Water-soluble ferrous iron occurred primarily in water samples with a low dissolved oxygen concentration and/or a negative redox potential. The presence of brine waste in shallow groundwater was detected by chloride and conductivity in oil field area. Dissolved trace metals and volatile organic carbons were not in a form of concentration to be stressors. This study showed that the quality of shallow ground water could be related to regional geochemical stressors surrounding the lake. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimating Groundwater Quality Changes Using Remotely Sensed Groundwater Storage and Multivariate Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, A.; Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Global groundwater dependence is likely to increase with continued population growth and climate-driven freshwater redistribution. Recent groundwater quantity studies have estimated large-scale aquifer depletion rates using monthly water storage variations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. These innovative approaches currently fail to evaluate groundwater quality, integral to assess the availability of potable groundwater resources. We present multivariate relationships to predict total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations as a function of GRACE-derived variations in water table depth, dominant land use, and other physical parameters in two important aquifer systems in the United States: the High Plains aquifer and the Central Valley aquifer. Model evaluations were performed using goodness of fit procedures and cross validation to identify general model forms. Results of this work demonstrate the potential to characterize global groundwater potability using remote sensing.

  18. Hydrogeochemical investigations and groundwater quality assessment of Torbat-Zaveh plain, Khorasan Razavi, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nematollahi, M J; Ebrahimi, P; Razmara, M; Ghasemi, A

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogeochemical investigations of groundwater in Torbat-Zaveh plain have been carried out to assess the water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes. In this study, 190 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physicochemical parameters and major ion concentrations. The abundance of major cations and anions was in the following order: Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) > K(+), and Cl(-) > [Formula: see text] > [Formula: see text] > [Formula: see text]. As a result, alkaline element (Na(+)) exceeds alkaline earth elements (Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)), and strong acids (Cl(-) and [Formula: see text]) dominate weak acids ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]) in majority of the groundwater samples. Statistical analyses including Spearman correlation coefficients and factor analysis display good correlation between physicochemical parameters (EC, TDS and TH) and Na(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-) and [Formula: see text]. The results display that rock-weathering interactions and ion-exchange processes play important role in controlling groundwater chemistry. Saturation index values also indicate that water chemistry is significantly affected by carbonate minerals such as calcite, aragonite and dolomite. US Salinity Laboratory(USSL) and Wilcox diagrams together with permeability index values reveal that most of the groundwater samples are suitable for irrigation purpose. However, in some regions, the water samples do not indicate required irrigational quality.

  19. Hydrogeochemical investigations and groundwater quality assessment of Torbat-Zaveh plain, Khorasan Razavi, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nematollahi, M J; Ebrahimi, P; Razmara, M; Ghasemi, A

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogeochemical investigations of groundwater in Torbat-Zaveh plain have been carried out to assess the water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes. In this study, 190 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physicochemical parameters and major ion concentrations. The abundance of major cations and anions was in the following order: Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) > K(+), and Cl(-) > [Formula: see text] > [Formula: see text] > [Formula: see text]. As a result, alkaline element (Na(+)) exceeds alkaline earth elements (Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)), and strong acids (Cl(-) and [Formula: see text]) dominate weak acids ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]) in majority of the groundwater samples. Statistical analyses including Spearman correlation coefficients and factor analysis display good correlation between physicochemical parameters (EC, TDS and TH) and Na(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-) and [Formula: see text]. The results display that rock-weathering interactions and ion-exchange processes play important role in controlling groundwater chemistry. Saturation index values also indicate that water chemistry is significantly affected by carbonate minerals such as calcite, aragonite and dolomite. US Salinity Laboratory(USSL) and Wilcox diagrams together with permeability index values reveal that most of the groundwater samples are suitable for irrigation purpose. However, in some regions, the water samples do not indicate required irrigational quality. PMID:26627207

  20. Groundwater quality and hydrochemical properties of Al-Ula Region, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Naji; Hussein, Belal H M; Rafrafi, Sarra; El Kassas, Neama

    2015-03-01

    Groundwater quality monitoring is one of the most important aspects in groundwater studies in arid environments particularly in developing countries, like Saudi Arabia, due to the fast population growth and the expansion of irrigated agriculture and industrial uses. Groundwater samples have been collected from eight locations in Al-Ula in Saudi Arabia during June 2012 and January 2013 in order to investigate the hydrochemical characteristics and the groundwater quality and to understand the sources of dissolved ions. Physicochemical parameters of groundwater such as electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solid, and major cations and anions were determined. Chloride was found to be the dominant anion followed by HCO(-) 3 and SO4 (2-). Groundwater of the study area is characterized by the dominance of alkaline earths (Ca(2+) + Mg(2+)) over alkali metals (Na(+) + K(+)). The analytical results show that the groundwater is generally moderately hard and slightly alkaline in nature. The binary relationships of the major ions reveal that water quality of the Al-Ula region is mainly controlled by rock weathering, evaporation, and ion exchange reactions. Piper diagram was constructed to identify hydrochemical facies, and it was found that majority of the samples belong to Ca-Cl and mixed Ca-Mg-Cl facies. Chemical indices like chloro-alkali indices, sodium adsorption ratio, percentage of sodium, residual sodium carbonate, and permeability index were calculated. Also, the results show that the chemical composition of groundwater sources of Al-Ula is strongly influenced by lithology of country rocks rather than anthropogenic activities. PMID:25655124

  1. Groundwater quality and hydrochemical properties of Al-Ula Region, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Naji; Hussein, Belal H M; Rafrafi, Sarra; El Kassas, Neama

    2015-03-01

    Groundwater quality monitoring is one of the most important aspects in groundwater studies in arid environments particularly in developing countries, like Saudi Arabia, due to the fast population growth and the expansion of irrigated agriculture and industrial uses. Groundwater samples have been collected from eight locations in Al-Ula in Saudi Arabia during June 2012 and January 2013 in order to investigate the hydrochemical characteristics and the groundwater quality and to understand the sources of dissolved ions. Physicochemical parameters of groundwater such as electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solid, and major cations and anions were determined. Chloride was found to be the dominant anion followed by HCO(-) 3 and SO4 (2-). Groundwater of the study area is characterized by the dominance of alkaline earths (Ca(2+) + Mg(2+)) over alkali metals (Na(+) + K(+)). The analytical results show that the groundwater is generally moderately hard and slightly alkaline in nature. The binary relationships of the major ions reveal that water quality of the Al-Ula region is mainly controlled by rock weathering, evaporation, and ion exchange reactions. Piper diagram was constructed to identify hydrochemical facies, and it was found that majority of the samples belong to Ca-Cl and mixed Ca-Mg-Cl facies. Chemical indices like chloro-alkali indices, sodium adsorption ratio, percentage of sodium, residual sodium carbonate, and permeability index were calculated. Also, the results show that the chemical composition of groundwater sources of Al-Ula is strongly influenced by lithology of country rocks rather than anthropogenic activities.

  2. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapac, I.G.; Dey, W.S.; Roy, W.R.; Smyth, C.A.; Storment, E.; Sargent, S.L.; Steele, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and ??15N and ??18O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal streptococcus bacteria were detected at least once in groundwater from all monitoring wells at both sites

  3. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Krapac, I G; Dey, W S; Roy, W R; Smyth, C A; Storment, E; Sargent, S L; Steele, J D

    2002-01-01

    Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and delta15N and delta15O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal streptococcus bacteria were detected at least once in groundwater from all monitoring wells at both

  4. Ground-water quality in selected areas of Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hindall, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of 2,071 ground-water samples from 970 wells throughout Wisconsin indicate large variations in ground-water quality. Ground water in Wisconsin is generally suitable for most uses, but in some areas concentrations of chemical constituents exceed recommended drinking-water standards. Iron, manganese, and nitrate commonly exceed recommended drinking-water standards and dissolved solids, sulfate, heavy metals, and phenolic materials may present local problems. (USGS)

  5. Agricultural conversion of floodplain ecosystems: implications for groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Keith E; Jacobson, Peter J; Vogelgesang, Jason A

    2015-04-15

    With current trends of converting grasslands to row crop agriculture in vulnerable areas, there is a critical need to evaluate the effects of land use on groundwater quality in large river floodplain systems. In this study, groundwater hydrology and nutrient dynamics associated with three land cover types (grassland, floodplain forest and cropland) were assessed at the Cedar River floodplain in southeastern Iowa. The cropland site consisted of newly-converted grassland, done specifically for our study. Our objectives were to evaluate spatial and temporal variations in groundwater hydrology and quality, and quantify changes in groundwater quality following land conversion from grassland to row crop in a floodplain. We installed five shallow and one deep monitoring wells in each of the three land cover types and recorded water levels and quality over a three year period. Crop rotations included soybeans in year 1, corn in year 2 and fallow with cover crops during year 3 due to river flooding. Water table levels behaved nearly identically among the sites but during the second and third years of our study, NO₃-N concentrations in shallow floodplain groundwater beneath the cropped site increased from 0.5 mg/l to more than 25 mg/l (maximum of 70 mg/l). The increase in concentration was primarily associated with application of liquid N during June of the second year (corn rotation), although site flooding may have exacerbated NO₃-N leaching. Geophysical investigation revealed differences in ground conductivity among the land cover sites that related significantly to variations in groundwater quality. Study results provide much-needed information on the effects of different land covers on floodplain groundwater and point to challenges ahead for meeting nutrient reduction goals if row crop land use expands into floodplains. PMID:25687808

  6. Agricultural conversion of floodplain ecosystems: implications for groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Keith E; Jacobson, Peter J; Vogelgesang, Jason A

    2015-04-15

    With current trends of converting grasslands to row crop agriculture in vulnerable areas, there is a critical need to evaluate the effects of land use on groundwater quality in large river floodplain systems. In this study, groundwater hydrology and nutrient dynamics associated with three land cover types (grassland, floodplain forest and cropland) were assessed at the Cedar River floodplain in southeastern Iowa. The cropland site consisted of newly-converted grassland, done specifically for our study. Our objectives were to evaluate spatial and temporal variations in groundwater hydrology and quality, and quantify changes in groundwater quality following land conversion from grassland to row crop in a floodplain. We installed five shallow and one deep monitoring wells in each of the three land cover types and recorded water levels and quality over a three year period. Crop rotations included soybeans in year 1, corn in year 2 and fallow with cover crops during year 3 due to river flooding. Water table levels behaved nearly identically among the sites but during the second and third years of our study, NO₃-N concentrations in shallow floodplain groundwater beneath the cropped site increased from 0.5 mg/l to more than 25 mg/l (maximum of 70 mg/l). The increase in concentration was primarily associated with application of liquid N during June of the second year (corn rotation), although site flooding may have exacerbated NO₃-N leaching. Geophysical investigation revealed differences in ground conductivity among the land cover sites that related significantly to variations in groundwater quality. Study results provide much-needed information on the effects of different land covers on floodplain groundwater and point to challenges ahead for meeting nutrient reduction goals if row crop land use expands into floodplains.

  7. Assessment of groundwater quality status in Amini Island of Lakshadweep.

    PubMed

    Prasad, N B Narasimha; Mansoor, O A

    2005-01-01

    Amini Island is one of the 10 inhabited islands in Lakshadweep. Built on the ancient volcanic formations Lakshadweep is the the tiniest Union Territory of India. The major problem experienced by the islanders is the acute scarcity of fresh drinking water. Groundwater is the only source of fresh water and the availability of the same is very restricted due to peculiar hydrologic, geologic, geomorphic and demographic features. Hence, proper understanding of the groundwater quality, with reference to temporal and spatial variations, is very important to meet the increasing demand and also to formulate future plans for groundwater development. In this context, the assessment of groundwater quality status was carried out in Amini Island. All the available information on water quality, present groundwater usage pattern, etc. was collected and analyzed. Total hardness and salinity are found to be the most critical water quality parameters exceeding the permissible limits of drinking water standards. Spatial variation diagrams of salinity and hardness have been prepared for different seasons. It is also observed from these maps that the salinity and hardness are comparatively better on the lagoon side compared to the seaside. These maps also suggest that the salinity and the hardness problem is more in the southern tip compared to northern portion.

  8. [Effects of reclaimed water recharge on groundwater quality: a review].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ping; Lü, Si-Dan; Wang, Mei-E; Jiao, Wen-Tao

    2013-05-01

    Reclaimed water recharge to groundwater is an effective way to relieve water resource crisis. However, reclaimed water contains some pollutants such as nitrate, heavy metals, and new type contaminants, and thus, there exists definite environmental risk in the reclaimed water recharge to groundwater. To promote the development of reclaimed water recharge to groundwater and the safe use of reclaimed water in China, this paper analyzed the relevant literatures and practical experiences around the world, and summarized the effects of different reclaimed water recharge modes on the groundwater quality. Surface recharge makes the salt and nitrate contents in groundwater increased but the risk of heavy metals pollution be smaller, whereas well recharge can induce the arsenic release from sedimentary aquifers, which needs to be paid more attention to. New type contaminants are the hotspots in current researches, and their real risks are unknown. Pathogens have less pollution risks on groundwater, but some virus with strong activity can have the risks. Some suggestions were put forward to reduce the risks associated with the reclaimed water recharge to groundwater in China.

  9. Controlling groundwater use and quality: a fragmented system

    SciTech Connect

    Getches, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Groundwater laws remain deficient in many respects. First, most of those laws fail to distinguish between waters that are connected with surface sources and those which neither affect nor are affected by the use of surface water. Second, most have not rationally dealt with mining of groundwater - the use of water that will not be appreciably recharged in a reasonable time. And, third, state and federal water-quality laws are not integrated with groundwater allocation systems or with one another. In approaching groundwater allocation and pollution control, it would be wise to search for opportunities to curtail the fragmented approach plaguing the administration of the country's valuable groundwater resource. Federal and state governments both have substantial duties and must work together toward the common goal. The bar also has a responsibility to seek and suggest means for making the system work better. It is difficult to rise above the need to represent individual clients and help shape the law to serve the public interest. But efforts of all lawyers as well as public agencies are needed to contribute to shaping and enforcing our groundwater laws into a consistent and rational whole so that groundwater resources can be wisely used.

  10. Regional assessment of groundwater quality for drinking purpose.

    PubMed

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2012-05-01

    Owing to limited surface water during a long-term drought, this work attempted to locate clean and safe groundwater in the Choushui River alluvial fan of Taiwan based on drinking-water quality standards. Because aquifers contained several pollutants, multivariate indicator kriging (MVIK) was adopted to integrate the multiple pollutants in groundwater based on drinking- and raw-water quality standards and to explore spatial uncertainty. According to probabilities estimated by MVIK, safe zones were determined under four treatment conditions--no treatment; ammonium-N and iron removal; manganese and arsenic removal; and ammonium-N, iron, manganese, and arsenic removal. The analyzed results reveal that groundwater in the study area is not appropriate for drinking use without any treatments because of high ammonium-N, iron, manganese, and/or arsenic concentrations. After ammonium-N, iron, manganese, and arsenic removed, about 81.9-94.9% of total areas can extract safe groundwater for drinking. The proximal-fan, central mid-fan, southern mid-fan, and northern regions are the excellent locations to pump safe groundwater for drinking after treatment. Deep aquifers of exceeding 200 m depth have wider regions to obtain excellent groundwater than shallow aquifers do. PMID:21728036

  11. Regional assessment of groundwater quality for drinking purpose.

    PubMed

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2012-05-01

    Owing to limited surface water during a long-term drought, this work attempted to locate clean and safe groundwater in the Choushui River alluvial fan of Taiwan based on drinking-water quality standards. Because aquifers contained several pollutants, multivariate indicator kriging (MVIK) was adopted to integrate the multiple pollutants in groundwater based on drinking- and raw-water quality standards and to explore spatial uncertainty. According to probabilities estimated by MVIK, safe zones were determined under four treatment conditions--no treatment; ammonium-N and iron removal; manganese and arsenic removal; and ammonium-N, iron, manganese, and arsenic removal. The analyzed results reveal that groundwater in the study area is not appropriate for drinking use without any treatments because of high ammonium-N, iron, manganese, and/or arsenic concentrations. After ammonium-N, iron, manganese, and arsenic removed, about 81.9-94.9% of total areas can extract safe groundwater for drinking. The proximal-fan, central mid-fan, southern mid-fan, and northern regions are the excellent locations to pump safe groundwater for drinking after treatment. Deep aquifers of exceeding 200 m depth have wider regions to obtain excellent groundwater than shallow aquifers do.

  12. Groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, David A.; Wohl, Ellen E.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater represents the terrestrial subsurface component of the hydrologic cycle. As such, groundwater is generally in motion, moving from elevated areas of recharge to lower areas of discharge. Groundwater usually moves in accordance with Darcy’s law (Dalmont, Paris: Les Fontaines Publiques de la Ville de Dijon, 1856). Groundwater residence times can be under a day in small upland catchments to over a million years in subcontinental-sized desert basins. The broadest definition of groundwater includes water in the unsaturated zone, considered briefly here. Water chemically bound to minerals, as in gypsum (CaSO4 • 2H2O) or hydrated clays, cannot flow in response to gradients in total hydraulic head (pressure head plus elevation head); such water is thus usually excluded from consideration as groundwater. In 1940, M. King Hubbert showed Darcy’s law to be a special case of thermodynamically based potential field equations governing fluid motion, thereby establishing groundwater hydraulics as a rigorous engineering science (Journal of Geology 48, pp. 785–944). The development of computer-enabled numerical methods for solving the field equations with real-world approximating geometries and boundary conditions in the mid-1960s ushered in the era of digital groundwater modeling. An estimated 30 percent of global fresh water is groundwater, compared to 0.3 percent that is surface water, 0.04 percent atmospheric water, and 70 percent that exists as ice, including permafrost (Shiklomanov and Rodda 2004, cited under Groundwater Occurrence). Groundwater thus constitutes the vast majority—over 98 percent—of the unfrozen fresh-water resources of the planet, excluding surface-water reservoirs. Environmental dimensions of groundwater are equally large, receiving attention on multiple disciplinary fronts. Riparian, streambed, and spring-pool habitats can be sensitively dependent on the amount and quality of groundwater inputs that modulate temperature and solutes

  13. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, Floyd N.; Chou, Charissa J.

    2000-08-04

    As a result of the most recent recalculation one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41, triggering a change from detection monitoring to groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents (i.e., sodium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate). Nitrate, chromium, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking waster standards. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the waste management area are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the facility. There is evidence for both upgradient and waste management area sources for observed nitrate concentrations. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the observed chromium and technetium-99.

  14. Factors influencing groundwater quality: towards an integrated management approach.

    PubMed

    De Giglio, O; Quaranta, A; Barbuti, G; Napoli, C; Caggiano, G; Montagna, M T

    2015-01-01

    The safety of groundwater resources is a serious issue, particularly when these resources are the main source of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial use in coastal areas. In Italy, 85% of the water used by the public is of underground origin. The aim of this report is to analyze the main factors that make groundwater vulnerable. Soil characteristics and filtration capacity can promote or hinder the diffusion of environmental contaminants. Global climate change influences the prevalence and degree of groundwater contamination. Anthropic pressure causes considerable exploitation of water resources, leading to reduced water availability and the progressive deterioration of water quality. Management of water quality will require a multidisciplinary, dynamic and practical approach focused on identifying the measures necessary to reduce contamination and mitigate the risks associated with the use of contaminated water resources.

  15. Index-based groundwater vulnerability mapping models using hydrogeological settings: A critical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Prashant; Bansod, Baban K.S.; Debnath, Sanjit K.; Thakur, Praveen Kumar; Ghanshyam, C.

    2015-02-15

    Groundwater vulnerability maps are useful for decision making in land use planning and water resource management. This paper reviews the various groundwater vulnerability assessment models developed across the world. Each model has been evaluated in terms of its pros and cons and the environmental conditions of its application. The paper further discusses the validation techniques used for the generated vulnerability maps by various models. Implicit challenges associated with the development of the groundwater vulnerability assessment models have also been identified with scientific considerations to the parameter relations and their selections. - Highlights: • Various index-based groundwater vulnerability assessment models have been discussed. • A comparative analysis of the models and its applicability in different hydrogeological settings has been discussed. • Research problems of underlying vulnerability assessment models are also reported in this review paper.

  16. Rationales behind irrationality of decision making in groundwater quality management.

    PubMed

    Ronen, Daniel; Sorek, Shaul; Gilron, Jack

    2012-01-01

    This issue paper presents how certain policies regarding management of groundwater quality lead to unexpected and undesirable results, despite being backed by seemingly reasonable assumptions. This happened in part because the so-called reasonable decisions were not based on an integrative and quantitative methodology. The policies surveyed here are: (1) implementation of a program for aquifer restoration to pristine conditions followed, after failure, by leaving it to natural attenuation; (2) the "Forget About The Aquifer" (FATA) approach, while ignoring possible damage that contaminated groundwater can inflict on the other environmental systems; (3) groundwater recharge in municipal areas while neglecting the presence of contaminants in the unsaturated zone and conditions exerted by upper impervious surfaces; (4) the Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) practice considering aquifers to be "filters of infinite capacity"; and (5) focusing on well contamination vs. aquifer contamination to conveniently defer grappling with the problem of the aquifer as a whole. Possible reasons for the failure of these seemingly rational policies are: (1) the characteristic times of processes associated with groundwater that are usually orders of magnitude greater than the residence times of decision makers in their managerial position; (2) proliferation of improperly trained "groundwater experts" or policymakers with sectoral agendas alongside legitimate differences of opinion among groundwater scientists; (3) the neglect of the cyclic nature of natural phenomena; and (4) ignoring future long-term costs because of immediate costs.

  17. Ground-water quality in Douglas County, western Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, K.T.

    1989-01-01

    A 182% increase in population within the last 10 years in Douglas County, Nevada, has raised concerns by county officials as to the possible effects land development may have on groundwater quality. Most groundwater in Douglas County meets the State of Nevada drinking water standards. Of the 333 water samples used in this analysis, 6 equaled or were greater than the drinking water standards for sulfates, 44 for fluoride, 4 for dissolved solids, 5 for nitrate as nitrate, 12 for arsenic, 33 for iron, and 18 for manganese. Groundwater in the west-central, northern, and northeastern part of Carson Valley is influenced by geothermal water. Some areas in the county may have septic-tank effluent contaminating the groundwater. Temporal changes in most municipal wells showed no overall trend for dissolved-solids and nitrate concentrations spanning the years 1969-83. However, a municipal well in the Topaz Lake area has shown a general increases in the nitrate concentration from 1961 to 1984, but the concentration does not exceed the drinking-water standard. A future groundwater quality monitoring program in Douglas County would include periodic sampling of primary or heavily pumped wells, long-term trend wells, and supplemental wells. (Thacker-USGS)

  18. Groundwater quality and hydrogeochemical properties of Torbali Region, Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tayfur, Gokmen; Kirer, Tugba; Baba, Alper

    2008-11-01

    The large demand for drinking, irrigation and industrial water in the region of Torbali (Izmir, Turkey) is supplied from groundwater sources. Almost every factory and farm has private wells that are drilled without permission. These cause the depletion of groundwater and limiting the usage of groundwater. This study investigates spatial and temporal change in groundwater quality, relationships between quality parameters, and sources of contamination in Torbali region. For this purpose, samples were collected from 10 different sampling points chosen according to their geological and hydrogeological properties and location relative to factories, between October 2001 and July 2002. Various physical (pH, temperature, EC), chemical (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride, alkalinity, copper, chromium, cadmium, lead, zinc) and organic (nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, COD and cyanide) parameters were monitored. It was observed that the groundwater has bicarbonate alkalinity. Agricultural contamination was determined in the region, especially during the summer. Nitrite and ammonia concentrations were found to be above drinking water standard. Organic matter contamination was also investigated in the study area. COD concentrations were higher than the permissible limits during the summer months of the monitoring period.

  19. Groundwater quality and hydrogeochemical properties of Torbali Region, Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tayfur, Gokmen; Kirer, Tugba; Baba, Alper

    2008-11-01

    The large demand for drinking, irrigation and industrial water in the region of Torbali (Izmir, Turkey) is supplied from groundwater sources. Almost every factory and farm has private wells that are drilled without permission. These cause the depletion of groundwater and limiting the usage of groundwater. This study investigates spatial and temporal change in groundwater quality, relationships between quality parameters, and sources of contamination in Torbali region. For this purpose, samples were collected from 10 different sampling points chosen according to their geological and hydrogeological properties and location relative to factories, between October 2001 and July 2002. Various physical (pH, temperature, EC), chemical (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride, alkalinity, copper, chromium, cadmium, lead, zinc) and organic (nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, COD and cyanide) parameters were monitored. It was observed that the groundwater has bicarbonate alkalinity. Agricultural contamination was determined in the region, especially during the summer. Nitrite and ammonia concentrations were found to be above drinking water standard. Organic matter contamination was also investigated in the study area. COD concentrations were higher than the permissible limits during the summer months of the monitoring period. PMID:18204909

  20. Groundwater quality in the Colorado River basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Four groundwater basins along the Colorado River make up one of the study areas being evaluated. The Colorado River study area is approximately 884 square miles (2,290 square kilometers) and includes the Needles, Palo Verde Mesa, Palo Verde Valley, and Yuma groundwater basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The Colorado River study area has an arid climate and is part of the Sonoran Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 3 inches (8 centimeters). Land use in the study area is approximately 47 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland), 47% agricultural, and 6% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban area is the city of Blythe (2010 population of 21,000). Groundwater in these basins is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay deposited by the Colorado River or derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in the Colorado River study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in the Colorado River basins are completed to depths between 230 and 460 feet (70 to 140 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 130 of 390 feet (39 to 119 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. The main source of recharge to the groundwater systems in the Needles, Palo Verde Mesa, and Palo Verde Valley basins is the Colorado River; in the Yuma basin, the main source of recharge is from

  1. Groundwater quality in Maharashtra, India: focus on nitrate pollution.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Indrani; Salunkhe, Abhaysinh; Rohra, Nanda; Kumar, Rakesh

    2011-10-01

    Groundwater Survey and Development Agency (GSDA), Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) and Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) have been carrying out groundwater quality monitoring at about 1407 monitoring locations in various districts of Maharashtra state in India. The groundwater quality data for pH, TDS, total hardness, sulphate, flouride and nitrate were compared with BIS: 10500:2004-2005 standards for drinking purpose. The results show that nitrate pollution is becoming more prevalent in groundwater of Maharashtra. Water quality data during the period 2007-2009 show that 544 locations out of 1407 locations exceeded 45 mgl(-1), the allowable NO3 level for drinking water. About 227 locations exceeded nitrate level beyond 100 mgl(-1). At 87 talukas in 23 districts of Maharashtra the NO3 levels exceeded the standard in all samples monitored during 2007-2009. The Buldana district with highest locations (27) had nitrate above 100 mgl(-1) followed by Amravati (24) and Akola (20) districts. At 7 talukas in 4 districts, fluoride was found above permissible limit of 1.5 mgl(-1), 100% of the time. 2 talukas in 2 districts of Maharashtra showed 100% non compliance of pH as per BIS standard of 6.5-8.5 mgl(-1). The districts having good to excellent quality of groundwater were Bhandara, Gondia, Kolhapur, Mumbai city, Mumbai Suburban, Nandurbar, Raigad, Ratnagiri, Satara, Sindhudurg, Thane and Washim. Vaijapur taluka in Aurangabad, Sinnar in Nashik and Kalambh taluka in Osmanabad have very poor water quality. Paithan taluka in Aurangabad, Shegaon taluka at Buldhana district, Amolner taluka at Jalgaon district and Jafrabad in Jalna district have water unsuitable for drinking.

  2. Creating an Overall Environmental Quality Index - Technical Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    A better estimate of overall environmental quality is needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between environmental conditions and humanhealth. Described in this report is the effort to construct an environmental quality index representing multiple domains of the ...

  3. Mapping groundwater quality distinguishing geogenic and anthropogenic contribution using NBL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Ducci, Daniela; Condesso de Melo, Maria Teresa; Parrone, Daniele; Sellerino, Mariangela; Ghergo, Stefano; Oliveira, Joana; Ribeiro, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Groundwaters are threatened by anthropic activities and pollution is interesting a large number of aquifers worldwide. Qualitative and quantitative monitoring is required to assess the status and track its evolution in time and space especially where anthropic pressures are stronger. Up to now, groundwater quality mapping has been performed separately from the assessment of its natural status, i.e. the definition of the natural background level of a particular element in a particular area or groundwater body. The natural background level (NBL) of a substance or element allows to distinguish anthropogenic pollution from contamination of natural origin in a population of groundwater samples. NBLs are the result of different atmospheric, geological, chemical and biological interaction processes during groundwater infiltration and circulation. There is an increasing need for the water managers to have sound indications on good quality groundwater exploitation. Indeed the extension of a groundwater body is often very large, in the order of tens or hundreds of square km. How to select a proper location for good quality groundwater abstraction is often limited to a question of facility for drilling (access, roads, authorizations, etc.) or at the most related to quantitative aspects driven by geophysical exploration (the most promising from a transmissibility point of view). So how to give indications to the administrators and water managers about the exploitation of good quality drinking water? In the case of anthropic contamination, how to define which area is to be restored and to which threshold (e.g. background level) should the concentration be lowered through the restoration measures? In the framework of a common project between research institutions in Italy (funded by CNR) and Portugal (funded by FCT), our objective is to establish a methodology aiming at merging together 1) the evaluation of NBL and 2) the need to take into account the drinking water standards

  4. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Landon, Matthew K.; Farrar, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile (2,590-square-kilometer) North San Francisco Bay study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in northern California in Marin, Napa, and Sonoma Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA North San Francisco Bay study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated groundwater quality in the primary aquifer systems. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 89 wells in 2004 and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the North San Francisco Bay study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifers of the North San Francisco Bay study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or

  5. Groundwater prospective mapping: remote sensing and a GIS-based index model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, Amba; Nandagiri, Lakshman; Ramachandra, Padami

    2009-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the development and test of an integrated remote sensing and GIS based methodology for identification of groundwater potential areas in a humid tropical river basin. Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS 1C-LISS-III) data along with other collateral data such as existing maps and field observations was utilized to extract information on the hydro-geomorphic features of the terrain. The study involves two components: (a) demarcation of groundwater potential zones (b) validation of sites with yield data. In order to demarcate potential groundwater zones, six pertinent thematic layers were integrated and assigned appropriate rankings. Layers considered were: geology, geomorphology, drainage density, slope, rainfall with infiltration factor and land cover map. The layer parameters were also rated according to their importance relative to other classes in the same theme. All the layers were superimposed and analyzed in ARC GIS environment. A linear additive model based on the DRASTIC model concept was used to find the groundwater potential index (GPI). The map comprised of six categories of groundwater yield. To carry out more focused investigations on the potential zones, lineament maps were superimposed over it. The validity of different potential zones identified using the GIS-based model was compared with available borewell yield data and found to be in good agreement. The map generated can be used in future as a preliminary screening tool in selecting well sites and as a basic tool in land use planning for groundwater protection.

  6. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    SciTech Connect

    FN Hodges; CJ Chou

    2000-08-04

    Waste Management Area U (TWA U) is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The area includes the U Tank Farm, which contains 16 single-shell tanks and their ancillary equipment and waste systems. WMA U is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as stipulated in 40 CFR Part 265, Subpart F, which is incorporated into the Washington State dangerous waste regulations (WAC 173-303400) by reference. Groundwater monitoring at WMA U has been guided by an interim status indicator evaluation program. As a result of changes in the direction of groundwater flow, background values for the WMA have been recalculated several times during its monitoring history. The most recent recalculation revealed that one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41. This triggered a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents, such as bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium and sulfate. Chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking water standards. The objective of this study is to determine whether the increased concentrations of chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the WMA are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the WMA. There is evidence that both upgradient and WMA sources contribute to the nitrate concentrations that were detected. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the chromium and technetium-99 that was detected. Therefore, a source of contamination appears to

  7. Deterioration of coastal groundwater quality in Island and mainland regions of Ramanathapuram District, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, Venkataramann; Ramachandramoorthy, Thiagarajan; Chandramohan, A

    2013-01-01

    A study was carried out in the Island and mainland regions of Ramanathapuram District to characterize the physico-chemical characteristics of 87 groundwater samples in Island and 112 groundwater samples in mainland which include pH, EC, TDS, salinity, total alkalinity, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total hardness, chloride and fluoride. Heavy inorganic load in majority of the groundwater samples has been estimated due to the salinity, TDS, TH and chloride beyond the threshold level which substantiates the percolation of sea water into the freshwater confined zones. Although the groundwater sources are available in plenty, the scarcity of potable water is most prevalent in this coastal area. The Water Quality Index (WQI) and Langeleir Saturation Index (LSI) have also been calculated to know the potable and corrosive/incrusting nature of the water samples. The statistical tools such as principal component analysis, box plots and correlation matrix have also been used to explain the influence of different physico-chemical parameters with respect to one another among the groundwater samples. The percentage of groundwater samples in mainland was more than that in Island with respect to the acceptable limit of WHO drinking standard, especially in TDS, CH, TH and chloride but the converse is observed in the case of fluoride. About 8% of the mainland aquifers and 42% of Island aquifers were identified to have fluoride greater than 1.5 mg/l. The signature of salt-water intrusion is observed from the ratio of Cl/CO(3)(2-) + HCO(3) and TA/TH. A proper management plan to cater potable water to the immediate needs of the people is to be envisaged. PMID:22527453

  8. Deterioration of coastal groundwater quality in Island and mainland regions of Ramanathapuram District, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, Venkataramann; Ramachandramoorthy, Thiagarajan; Chandramohan, A

    2013-01-01

    A study was carried out in the Island and mainland regions of Ramanathapuram District to characterize the physico-chemical characteristics of 87 groundwater samples in Island and 112 groundwater samples in mainland which include pH, EC, TDS, salinity, total alkalinity, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total hardness, chloride and fluoride. Heavy inorganic load in majority of the groundwater samples has been estimated due to the salinity, TDS, TH and chloride beyond the threshold level which substantiates the percolation of sea water into the freshwater confined zones. Although the groundwater sources are available in plenty, the scarcity of potable water is most prevalent in this coastal area. The Water Quality Index (WQI) and Langeleir Saturation Index (LSI) have also been calculated to know the potable and corrosive/incrusting nature of the water samples. The statistical tools such as principal component analysis, box plots and correlation matrix have also been used to explain the influence of different physico-chemical parameters with respect to one another among the groundwater samples. The percentage of groundwater samples in mainland was more than that in Island with respect to the acceptable limit of WHO drinking standard, especially in TDS, CH, TH and chloride but the converse is observed in the case of fluoride. About 8% of the mainland aquifers and 42% of Island aquifers were identified to have fluoride greater than 1.5 mg/l. The signature of salt-water intrusion is observed from the ratio of Cl/CO(3)(2-) + HCO(3) and TA/TH. A proper management plan to cater potable water to the immediate needs of the people is to be envisaged.

  9. Comparison of methods for the detection and extrapolation of trends in groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Visser, Ate; Dubus, Igor; Broers, Hans Peter; Brouyère, Serge; Korcz, Marek; Orban, Philippe; Goderniaux, Pascal; Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi; Surdyk, Nicolas; Amraoui, Nadia; Job, Hélène; Pinault, Jean Louis; Bierkens, Marc

    2009-11-01

    Land use changes and the intensification of agriculture since the 1950s have resulted in a deterioration of groundwater quality in many European countries. For the protection of groundwater quality, it is necessary to (1) assess the current groundwater quality status, (2) detect changes or trends in groundwater quality, (3) assess the threat of deterioration and (4) predict future changes in groundwater quality. A variety of approaches and tools can be used to detect and extrapolate trends in groundwater quality, ranging from simple linear statistics to distributed 3D groundwater contaminant transport models. In this paper we report on a comparison of four methods for the detection and extrapolation of trends in groundwater quality: (1) statistical methods, (2) groundwater dating, (3) transfer functions, and (4) deterministic modeling. Our work shows that the selection of the method should firstly be made on the basis of the specific goals of the study (only trend detection or also extrapolation), the system under study, and the available resources. For trend detection in groundwater quality in relation to diffuse agricultural contamination, a very important aspect is whether the nature of the monitoring network and groundwater body allows the collection of samples with a distinct age or produces samples with a mixture of young and old groundwater. We conclude that there is no single optimal method to detect trends in groundwater quality across widely differing catchments.

  10. Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes using hydrochemical studies in Malwa region, southwestern part of Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Tajinder; Bhardwaj, Renu; Arora, Saroj

    2016-10-01

    Deterioration of groundwater quality due to anthropogenic activities is increasing at an alarming rate in most parts of the Punjab, but limited work has been carried out on groundwater quality and monitoring. This paper highlights the groundwater quality and compares its suitability for drinking and irrigation purpose in Malwa region, a southwestern part of Punjab. The Malwa region makes up the most cultivated area of Punjab with high consumption of pesticides and fertilizers. Twenty-four water samples representing groundwater sources were collected and analyzed for almost all major cations, anions and other physicochemical parameters. Analytical results of physicochemical analysis showed majority of the samples above the permissible limits of the Indian standards. The groundwater of the study area was very hard and the relative abundance of major cations and anions was Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ and HCO3 - > SO4 2- > Cl-. Fluoride content was higher than permissible limit in 75 % of the samples. The mean concentration of arsenic in groundwater was 9.37 and 11.01µg/L during summer and winter season, respectively. The parameters like sodium adsorption ratio and sodium percentage (Na%) revealed good quality of groundwater for irrigation purposes, whereas magnesium ratio and corrosivity ratio values showed that water is not suitable for agriculture and domestic use. The dominant hydrochemical facies of groundwater was Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-SO4-Cl. Chloro alkaline indices 1 and 2 indicated that reverse ion exchange is dominant in the region. The samples fall in rock dominance and evaporation dominance fields as indicated by Gibbs diagram. The saturation index shows that all the water samples were supersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals. This work thus concludes that groundwater in the study area is chemically unsuitable for domestic and agricultural uses. It is recommended to carry out a continuous water quality monitoring program and development of effective

  11. Assessment and Management of Groundwater Used in Aquacultural Fishponds Based on the Spatial Variability of Groundwater Quality and Quantity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C.-P.; Jang, C.-S.; Wang, S.-W.

    2012-04-01

    Aquaculture is a general landscape in western and southwestern coastal areas, Taiwan. Aquaculture industries frequently require the huge quantity of water resources. However, surface water resources are limited in the regions. Therefore, fishers abundantly pump groundwater to cultivate fish and shellfish, resulting in substantial decreases in groundwater levels and the occurrence of seawater intrusion over several decades. . To reduce adverse effects on fish growth and potential land subsidence due to pumping, this work combined the spatial variability of groundwater quality and quantity parameters to assess zones of suitable groundwater used in aquacultural fishponds in the Pingtung plain, Taiwan. First, according to an aquacultural water quality standard in Taiwan, two pollutants in groundwater - manganese and ammonium-nitrogen - were considered. Sequential indicator simulation (SIS) was adopted to characterize realizations of the pollutants and to probabilistically determine four roles in the groundwater utilization ratio (UR) - UR<0.1 (strictly limited), 0.1≦UR<0.5 (minor), 0.5≦UR<1 (major) and UR=1 (completely used). A safe groundwater UR was determined from the two pollutants based on dominant estimated probabilities. Then, SIS also was used to grade transmissivity fields representing the pumping capacity of aquifers. Finally, recommended combinations of different levels of groundwater quality and quantity in fishponds were spatially delineated based on estimated probabilities and provided decision makers with detailed information to wisely select a reliable scheme of groundwater management. The analyzed results indicate that the recommended pumping zones for aquaculture are mainly distributed in the northeastern, southwestern and partial southeastern aquifers. The factor of groundwater quantity is more important than that of groundwater quality for aquaculture in this plain. Therefore, a development and management scheme of groundwater resources in

  12. Groundwater-Quality Assessment, Pike County, Pennsylvania, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Pike County, a 545 square-mile area in northeastern Pennsylvania, has experienced the largest relative population growth of any county in the state from 1990 to 2000 and its population is projected to grow substantially through 2025. This growing population may result in added dependence and stresses on water resources, including the potential to reduce the quantity and degrade the quality of groundwater and associated stream base flow with changing land use. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in the county and is derived primarily from fractured-rock aquifers (shales, siltstones, and sandstones) and some unconsolidated glacial deposits that are recharged locally from precipitation. The principal land uses in the county as of 2005 were public, residential, agricultural, hunt club/private recreational, roads, and commercial. The public lands cover a third of the county and include national park, state park, and other state lands, much of which are forested. Individual on-site wells and wastewater disposal are common in many residential areas. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pike County Conservation District, began a study to provide current information on groundwater quality throughout the county that will be helpful for water-resource planning. The countywide reconnaissance assessment of groundwater quality documents current conditions with existing land uses and may serve as a baseline of groundwater quality for future comparison. Twenty wells were sampled in 2007 throughout Pike County to represent groundwater quality in the principal land uses (commercial, high-density and moderate-density residential with on-site wastewater disposal, residential in a sewered area, pre-development, and undeveloped) and geologic units (five fractured-rock aquifers and one glacial unconsolidated aquifer). Analyses selected for the groundwater samples were intended to identify naturally occurring constituents from the aquifer or

  13. Hydrochemical investigations and correlation analysis of groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Anita; Seth, Gita

    2011-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the water quality of Sambhar lake city (India) and its adjoining areas. Groundwater samples from hand pumps and tube wells of fifteen sampling stations were analyzed during post-monsoon session with the help of standard methods of APHA. The analytical results showed higher concentrations of TDS, EC, Sodium, Nitrate, Sulphate and Fluoride, which indicate signs of deterioration but values of pH, Calcium, Magnesium, TH and Carbonate were found within permissible limits as per the WHO standards. From correlation analysis it was observed that very strong correlations exist between Na+ and Cl- (0.99) as well as EC and Cl-. From Hill-piper trilinear diagram it is observed that the majority of groundwater from sampling stations was sodium-potassium-chloride-sulphate type water. The values of sodium absorption ratio and EC of groundwater were plotted in the US salinity laboratory diagram of irrigation water. Only one sample was found to fall in C3S1 quality with high salinity hazard and low sodium hazard. Another samples were found to fall in high salinity hazard and high sodium hazard. Chemical analysis of groundwater showed that mean concentration of cation is in order sodium > magnesium > calcium > potassium while for the anion it is chloride > bicarbonate > nitrate > sulphate. PMID:23033697

  14. A probabilistic methodology to assess the risk of groundwater quality degradation.

    PubMed

    Passarella, G; Vurro, M; D'Agostino, V; Giuliano, G; Barcelona, M J

    2002-10-01

    An approach to assess the risk of groundwater quality degradation with regard to fixed standards. based on Disjunctive Kriging (DK) is presented. The DK allows one to evaluate the Conditional Probability (CP) of overriding a given threshold of concentration of a pollutant at a given time, and at a generic point in a considered groundwater system. The result of such investigation over the considered area can be plotted in form of maps of spatial risk. By repeating this analysis at different times, several spatial risk maps will be produced, one for each considered time. By means of non-parametric statistics, the temporal trend of the CPs can be evaluated at every point of the considered area. The trend index, assessed by means of a sort of classification of the trend values obtained as described above, can be superimposed on the most recent values of the spatial risk (i.e.: the most recent values of probability). Consequently a classification of the risk of groundwater quality degradation results with which to weigh both the spatial distribution and the temporal behaviour of the probability to exceed a given standard threshold. The methodology has been applied to values of nitrate concentration sampled in the monitoring well network of the Modena plain, northern Italy. This area is characterised by intensive agricultural exploitation and hog breeding along with industrial and civil developments. The influence of agriculture on groundwater results in a high nitrate pollution that limits its use for potable purposes. PMID:12381023

  15. Groundwater quality assessment using geoelectrical and geochemical approaches: case study of Abi area, southeastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebong, Ebong D.; Akpan, Anthony E.; Emeka, Chimezie N.; Urang, Job G.

    2016-06-01

    The electrical resistivity technique which involved the Schlumberger depth sounding method and geochemical analyses of water samples collected from boreholes was used to investigate the suitability of groundwater aquifers in Abi for drinking and irrigation purposes. Fifty randomly located electrical resistivity data were collected, modeled, and interpreted after calibration with lithologic logs. Ten borehole water samples were collected and analysed to determine anion, cation concentrations and some physical and chemical parameters, such as water colour, temperature, total dissolved solids, and electrical conductivity. The results show that the lithostratigraphy of the study area is composed of sands, sandstones (fractured, consolidated and loosed), siltstones, shales (compacted and fractured) of the Asu River Group, Eze-Aku Formation which comprises the aquifer units, and the Nkporo Shale Formation. The aquifer conduits are known to be rich in silicate minerals, and the groundwater samples in some locations show a significant amount of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+. These cations balanced the consumption of H+ during the hydrolytic alteration of silicate minerals. The geochemical analysis of groundwater samples revealed dominant calcium-magnesium-carbonate-bicarbonate water facies. Irrigation water quality parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio, percentage of sodium, and permeability index, were calculated based on the physico-chemical analyses. The groundwater quality was observed to be influenced by the interaction of some geologic processes but was classified to be good to excellent, indicating its suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes.

  16. Identification and description of potential ground-water quality monitoring wells in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seaber, P.R.; Thagard, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a survey of existing wells in Florida that meet the following criteria are presented: (1) well location is known , (2) principal aquifer is known, (3) depth of well is known, (4) well casing depth is known, (5) well water had been analyzed between 1970 and 1982, and (6) well data are stored in the U.S. Geological Survey 's (USGS) computer files. Information for more than 20,000 wells in Florida were stored in the USGS Master Water Data Index of the National Water Data Exchange and in the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System 's Groundwater Site Inventory computerized files in 1982. Wells in these computer files that had been sampled for groundwater quality before November 1982 in Florida number 13,739; 1,846 of these wells met the above criteria and are the potential (or candidate) groundwater quality monitoring wells included in this report. The distribution by principal aquifer of the 1,846 wells identified as potential groundwater quality monitoring wells is as follows: 1,022 tap the Floridan aquifer system, 114 tap the intermediate aquifers, 232 tap the surficial aquifers, 246 tap the Biscayne aquifer, and 232 tap the sand-and-gravel aquifer. These wells are located in 59 of Florida 's 67 counties. This report presents the station descriptions, which include location , site characteristics, period of record, and the type and frequency of chemical water quality data collected for each well. The 1,846 well locations are plotted on 14 USGS 1:250,000 scale, 1 degree by 2 degree, quadrangle maps. This relatively large number of potential (or candidate) monitoring wells, geographically and geohydrologically dispersed, provides a basis for a future groundwater quality monitoring network and computerized data base for Florida. There is a large variety of water quality determinations available from these wells, both areally and temporally. Future sampling of these wells would permit analyses of time and areal trends for selected water quality

  17. Groundwater quality in West Virginia, 1993-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Kozar, Mark D.; White, Jeremy S.; Paybins, Katherine S.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 42 percent of all West Virginians rely on groundwater for their domestic water supply. However, prior to 2008, the quality of the West Virginia’s groundwater resource was largely unknown. The need for a statewide assessment of groundwater quality prompted the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP), Division of Water and Waste Management, to develop an ambient groundwater-quality monitoring program. The USGS West Virginia Water Science Center sampled 300 wells, of which 80 percent were public-supply wells, over a 10-year period, 1999–2008. Sites for this statewide ambient groundwater-quality monitoring program were selected to provide wide areal coverage and to represent a variety of environmental settings. The resulting 300 samples were supplemented with data from a related monitoring network of 24 wells and springs. All samples were analyzed for field measurements (water temperature, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), major ions, trace elements, nutrients, volatile organic compounds, fecal indicator bacteria, and radon-222. Sub-sets of samples were analyzed for pesticides or semi-volatile organic compounds; site selection was based on local land use. Samples were grouped for comparison by geologic age of the aquifer, Groups included Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Pennsylvanian, Permian, and Quaternary aquifers. A comparison of samples indicated that geologic age of the aquifer was the largest contributor to variability in groundwater quality. This study did not attempt to characterize drinking water provided through public water systems. All samples were of raw, untreated groundwater. Drinking-water criteria apply to water that is served to the public, not to raw water. However, drinking water criteria, including U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL), non-enforceable secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL

  18. Groundwater quality in West Virginia, 1993-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Kozar, Mark D.; White, Jeremy S.; Paybins, Katherine S.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 42 percent of all West Virginians rely on groundwater for their domestic water supply. However, prior to 2008, the quality of the West Virginia’s groundwater resource was largely unknown. The need for a statewide assessment of groundwater quality prompted the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP), Division of Water and Waste Management, to develop an ambient groundwater-quality monitoring program. The USGS West Virginia Water Science Center sampled 300 wells, of which 80 percent were public-supply wells, over a 10-year period, 1999–2008. Sites for this statewide ambient groundwater-quality monitoring program were selected to provide wide areal coverage and to represent a variety of environmental settings. The resulting 300 samples were supplemented with data from a related monitoring network of 24 wells and springs. All samples were analyzed for field measurements (water temperature, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), major ions, trace elements, nutrients, volatile organic compounds, fecal indicator bacteria, and radon-222. Sub-sets of samples were analyzed for pesticides or semi-volatile organic compounds; site selection was based on local land use. Samples were grouped for comparison by geologic age of the aquifer, Groups included Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Pennsylvanian, Permian, and Quaternary aquifers. A comparison of samples indicated that geologic age of the aquifer was the largest contributor to variability in groundwater quality. This study did not attempt to characterize drinking water provided through public water systems. All samples were of raw, untreated groundwater. Drinking-water criteria apply to water that is served to the public, not to raw water. However, drinking water criteria, including U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL), non-enforceable secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL

  19. Groundwater quality in the Indian Wells Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Indian Wells Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Indian Wells study area is approximately 600 square miles (1,554 square kilometers) and includes the Indian Wells Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Indian Wells Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lake beds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 97.0 percent (%) natural, 0.4% agricultural, and 2.6% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Ridgecrest (2010 population of 28,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from the Sierra Nevada to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and direct infiltration from irrigation and septic systems. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells and evapotranspiration near the dry lakebeds. The primary aquifers in the Indian Wells study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in

  20. Effect of groundwater quality on sustainability of groundwater resource: A case study in the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming; Wu, Jianfeng; Liu, Jie; Wu, Jichun; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2015-08-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the most severe water shortage areas in China. Due to the scarcity of surface water in the NCP, groundwater system is seriously over-exploited and use of nitrogen fertilizers is greatly increasing year by year to improve soil fertility and crop production, causing a variety of environmental issues in the processes of abstracting groundwater. Considering that previous research was limited on approaches to assess sustainability of groundwater through flow modeling and water level decline, this study focuses on addressing the implications of groundwater contaminant for water resource sustainability in the central part of NCP. Based on the previously developed groundwater flow model, a reaction modular code for the reactive transport in three-dimensional aquifers (RT3D) is developed for simulating the reactive process of nitrogen species transport in groundwater system. The management optimization model coupled with the nitrogen reactive transport model under consideration of water quality constraints is then conducted to quantify and improve the sustainability of groundwater utilization in the study area. Thus, the optimal pumping well locations and pumping rates that lead to the maximum total yield or the minimum total management costs subjecting to a series of groundwater level constraints are obtained from the optimization models. Compared with the optimization model without water quality constraints, this study could provide a more useful tool for developing cost-effective strategies for sustainable management of groundwater resource in the NCP, and greatly improve groundwater management level and water quality. PMID:26102477

  1. Effect of groundwater quality on sustainability of groundwater resource: A case study in the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming; Wu, Jianfeng; Liu, Jie; Wu, Jichun; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2015-08-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the most severe water shortage areas in China. Due to the scarcity of surface water in the NCP, groundwater system is seriously over-exploited and use of nitrogen fertilizers is greatly increasing year by year to improve soil fertility and crop production, causing a variety of environmental issues in the processes of abstracting groundwater. Considering that previous research was limited on approaches to assess sustainability of groundwater through flow modeling and water level decline, this study focuses on addressing the implications of groundwater contaminant for water resource sustainability in the central part of NCP. Based on the previously developed groundwater flow model, a reaction modular code for the reactive transport in three-dimensional aquifers (RT3D) is developed for simulating the reactive process of nitrogen species transport in groundwater system. The management optimization model coupled with the nitrogen reactive transport model under consideration of water quality constraints is then conducted to quantify and improve the sustainability of groundwater utilization in the study area. Thus, the optimal pumping well locations and pumping rates that lead to the maximum total yield or the minimum total management costs subjecting to a series of groundwater level constraints are obtained from the optimization models. Compared with the optimization model without water quality constraints, this study could provide a more useful tool for developing cost-effective strategies for sustainable management of groundwater resource in the NCP, and greatly improve groundwater management level and water quality.

  2. Groundwater age for identification of baseline groundwater quality and impacts of land-use intensification - The National Groundwater Monitoring Programme of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Uwe; Daughney, Christopher J.

    2012-08-01

    SummaryWe identified natural baseline groundwater quality and impacts caused by land use intensification by relating groundwater chemistry with water age. Tritium, the most direct tracer for groundwater dating, including the time of water passage through the unsaturated zone, was overwhelmed over the recent decades by contamination from bomb-tritium from nuclear weapons testing in the early 1960s. In the Southern Hemisphere, this situation has changed now with the fading of the bomb-tritium, and tritium has become a tool for accurate groundwater dating. Tritium dating will become efficient also in the Northern Hemisphere over the next decade. Plotting hydrochemistry and field parameters versus groundwater age allowed us to identify those parameters that have increasing concentrations with age and are therefore from geological sources. These indicators for natural groundwater evolution are: Na, HCO3, SiO2, F, PO4, the redox-sensitive elements and compounds Fe, Mn, NH4, CH4, and pH and conductivity. In young groundwater that was recharged after the intensification of agriculture, nitrate, sulphate, CFC-11 and CFC-12, and pesticides are the most representative indicators for the impact of land-use intensification on groundwater quality, with 66% of the sites showing such an impact. Elevated concentrations of nitrate in oxic groundwater allowed us to reconstruct the timing and magnitude of the impact of land-use intensification on groundwater which in New Zealand occurred in two stages. Old pristine groundwater reflects the natural baseline quality. A transition to slightly elevated concentration due to low-intensity land-use was observed in groundwater recharged since around 1880. A sharp increase in nitrate and other agrochemicals due to high-intensity agriculture was observed in groundwater recharged since 1955. The threshold concentrations that distinguish natural baseline quality water from low-intensity land-use water, and low-intensity from high intensity land

  3. Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Bear Creek hydrogeologic regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1994 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant. These sites lie in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the Y-12 Plant within the boundaries of the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring. The Environmental Management Department manages the groundwater monitoring activities under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to protect local groundwater resources. The annual GWQR for the Bear Creek Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, summarizes the status and findings of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities.

  4. Effects of a semi-formal urban settlement on groundwater quality. Epworth (Zimbabwe): Case study and groundwater quality zoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingoni, Emmanuel; Love, David; Magadza, Chris; Moyce, William; Musiwa, Kudzai

    Rapid urbanisation and lack of low cost accommodation in the City of Harare, Zimbabwe, led to a lot of people settling (formally or otherwise) on previously cultivated land in Epworth, south-east of the city. Groundwater quality in different parts of Epworth, a semi-formal settlement in Zimbabwe, was investigated. Water samples for water quality analysis were collected from 10 shallow boreholes and 20 shallow wells across the settlement. Results showed significantly elevated levels of nitrates and coliform bacteria in most parts of the settlement. Levels of coliforms were highest in the old parts of the settlement (>10,000 cfu). High nitrate levels (20-30 mg/l) can be related to more densely settled areas, with a higher density of pit latrines. The groundwater quality generally decreased downflow (to the south-east). Na, Zn, Cu, Co, Fe, PO 4 were also determined, of which only iron showed substantially high levels. Groundwater quality results were used to delineate parts of the settlement into water use zones. Three broad zones were defined: Zone 1 (water drinkable after boiling), Zone 2 (water for agricultural use only), and Zone 3 (water unsuitable for domestic or agricultural purposes). The results also showed that most parts of the settlement have no safe groundwater for human consumption and Zone 1 could be faced with high nitrate levels in future. It is too late to prevent contamination of groundwater in this settlement. As a cost-effective measure to reduce health risk, the local authority could consider the provision of a limited water supply, via communal taps, starting in those areas in Zones 2 and 3 except for the south-east where there area already communal taps. A health education campaign on the risks of drinking polluted groundwater in this settlement is also necessary. The development of a sewage system is an alternative although it is expensive with the current situation. Furthermore, although a proper sewage reticulation system would prevent

  5. Groundwater quality in the San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    More than 40 percent of California's drinking water is from groundwater. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province (hereinafter referred to as San Diego) is one of the study units being evaluated. The San Diego study unit is approximately 3,900 square miles and consists of the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and 12 other alluvial basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The study unit also consists of all areas outside defined groundwater basins that are within 3 kilometers of a public-supply well. The study unit was separated, based primarily on hydrogeologic settings, into four study areas: Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, Alluvial Basins, and Hard Rock (Wright and others, 2005). The sampling density for the Hard Rock study area, which consists of areas outside of groundwater basins, was much lower than for the other study areas. Consequently, aquifer proportions for the Hard Rock study area are not used to calculate the aquifer proportions shown by the pie charts. An assessment of groundwater quality for the Hard Rock study area can be found in Wright and Belitz, 2011. The temperatures in the coastal part of the study unit are mild with dry summers, moist winters, and an average annual rainfall of about 10 inches. The temperatures in the mountainous eastern part of the study unit are cooler than in the coastal part, with an annual precipitation of about 45 inches that occurs mostly in the winter. The primary aquifers consist of Quaternary-age alluvium and weathered bedrock in the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and Alluvial Basins study areas, whereas in the Hard Rock study area the primary aquifers consist mainly of fractured and

  6. Groundwater-quality characteristics for the Wyoming Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Network, November 2009 through September 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boughton, Gregory K.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from 146 shallow (less than or equal to 500 feet deep) wells for the Wyoming Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Network, from November 2009 through September 2012. Groundwater samples were analyzed for physical characteristics, major ions and dissolved solids, trace elements, nutrients and dissolved organic carbon, uranium, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, volatile organic compounds, and coliform bacteria. Selected samples also were analyzed for gross alpha radioactivity, gross beta radioactivity, radon, tritium, gasoline range organics, diesel range organics, dissolved hydrocarbon gases (methane, ethene, and ethane), and wastewater compounds. Water-quality measurements and concentrations in some samples exceeded numerous U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standards. Physical characteristics and constituents that exceeded EPA Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) in some samples were arsenic, selenium, nitrite, nitrate, gross alpha activity, and uranium. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli in some samples exceeded EPA Maximum Contaminant Level Goals. Measurements of pH and turbidity and concentrations of chloride, sulfate, fluoride, dissolved solids, aluminum, iron, and manganese exceeded EPA Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels in some samples. Radon concentrations in some samples exceeded the alternative MCL proposed by the EPA. Molybdenum and boron concentrations in some samples exceeded EPA Health Advisory Levels. Water-quality measurements and concentrations also exceeded numerous Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ) groundwater standards. Physical characteristics and constituents that exceeded WDEQ Class I domestic groundwater standards in some samples were measurements of pH and concentrations of chloride, sulfate, dissolved solids, iron, manganese, boron, selenium, nitrite, and nitrate. Measurements of pH and concentrations of chloride, sulfate, dissolved solids, aluminum, iron

  7. Assessing groundwater quality for irrigation using indicator kriging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbari, Masoomeh; Amiri, Meysam; Motlagh, Masoud Bahraini

    2014-09-01

    One of the key parameters influencing sprinkler irrigation performance is water quality. In this study, the spatial variability of groundwater quality parameters (EC, SAR, Na+, Cl-, HCO3 - and pH) was investigated by geostatistical methods and the most suitable areas for implementation of sprinkler irrigation systems in terms of water quality are determined. The study was performed in Fasa county of Fars province using 91 water samples. Results indicated that all parameters are moderately to strongly spatially correlated over the study area. The spatial distribution of pH and HCO3 - was mapped using ordinary kriging. The probability of concentrations of EC, SAR, Na+ and Cl- exceeding a threshold limit in groundwater was obtained using indicator kriging (IK). The experimental indicator semivariograms were often fitted well by a spherical model for SAR, EC, Na+ and Cl-. For HCO3 - and pH, an exponential model was fitted to the experimental semivariograms. Probability maps showed that the risk of EC, SAR, Na+ and Cl- exceeding the given critical threshold is higher in lower half of the study area. The most proper agricultural lands for sprinkler irrigation implementation were identified by evaluating all probability maps. The suitable areas for sprinkler irrigation design were determined to be 25,240 hectares, which is about 34 percent of total agricultural lands and are located in northern and eastern parts. Overall the results of this study showed that IK is an appropriate approach for risk assessment of groundwater pollution, which is useful for a proper groundwater resources management.

  8. National Wildlife's Eleventh Annual Environmental Quality Index 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presented is the Eleventh Annual Environmental Quality Index, a subjective analysis of the state of the nation's natural resources. Resource trends are detailed for wildlife, minerals, air, water, soil living space, and forests. (BT)

  9. A Geographically Variable Water Quality Index Used in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunnette, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the procedure developed in Oregon to formulate a valid water quality index which accounts for the specific conditions in the water body of interest. Parameters selected include oxygen depletion, BOD, eutrophication, dissolved substances, health hazards, and physical characteristics. (CS)

  10. Nonpoint source pollution management models for regional groundwater quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, K.

    1988-01-01

    Several steady-state groundwater quality management models useful for investigating regional groundwater wasteload allocation from nonpoint sources are presented. These management models are constructed as linear programming optimization models. Equations from a finite difference, steady-state, two-dimensional horizontal, unconfined, advective contaminant transport model are used as part of each optimization problem constraint set. The management models were applied over the Sole Source aquifer of Barnstable County, Massachusetts. Barnstable County is incurring widespread nitrate contamination from distributed septic systems which serve 88 percent of the population. The modeling approach requires general data normally available through state geological surveys, regional planning commissions, and the census bureau. The optimal regional nonpoint source groundwater wasteload allocations are generated from this data as are resultant contaminant distributions, boundaries of critical recharge areas, and the associated water quality tradeoffs for changes in existing and proposed land use (or source) management schemes. The optimal wasteload allocations were translated into estimates of distributed source densities and land use development patterns.

  11. Using the conceptual site model approach to characterize groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Shephard, E.; Glucksberg, N.; Walter, N.

    2007-07-01

    To understand groundwater quality, the first step is to develop a conceptual site model (CSM) that describes the site history, describes the geology and the hydrogeology of the site, identifies potential release areas or sources, and evaluates the fate and transport of site related compounds. After the physical site setting is understood and potential release areas are identified, appropriate and representative groundwater monitoring wells may be used to evaluate groundwater quality at a site and provide a network to assess impacts from potential future releases. To develop the CSM, the first step to understand the different requirements from each of the regulatory stakeholders. Each regulatory agency may have different approaches to site characterization and closure (i.e., different groundwater and soil remediation criteria). For example, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state governments have published guidance documents that proscribe the required steps and information needed to develop a CSM. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has a proscriptive model for the Historical Site Assessment under the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM), and contains requirements for developing a conceptual site model in NUREG 1757. Federal and state agencies may also have different closure criteria for potential contaminants of concern. Understanding these differences before starting a groundwater monitoring program is important because the minimum detectable activity (MDA), lowest limit detection (LLD), and sample quantitation limit (SQL) must be low enough so that data may be evaluated under each of the programs. After a Historical Site Assessment is completed a work plan is developed and executed to not only collect physical data that describes the geology and hydrogeology, but to also characterize the soil, groundwater, sediments, and surface water quality of each potentially impacted areas. Although the primary

  12. Environmental Quality: Outline for a National Index for Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inhaber, H.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an approach to constructing an Environmental Quality Index for Canada. The index is divided into air, water, land and miscellaneous sections. By looking at individual subindices, it is possible to see how environmental conditions vary across the country. By combining subindices, a crude gauge of the broad state of the environment may be…

  13. Remote sensing and GIS techniques for evaluation of groundwater quality in municipal corporation of Hyderabad (Zone-V), India.

    PubMed

    Asadi, S S; Vuppala, Padmaja; Reddy, M Anji

    2007-03-01

    Groundwater quality in Hyderabad has special significance and needs great attention of all concerned since it is the major alternate source of domestic, industrial and drinking water supply. The present study monitors the ground water quality, relates it to the land use / land cover and maps such quality using Remote sensing and GIS techniques for a part of Hyderabad metropolis. Thematic maps for the study are prepared by visual interpretation of SOI toposheets and linearly enhanced fused data of IRS-ID PAN and LISS-III imagery on 1:50,000 scale using AutoCAD and ARC/INFO software. Physico-chemical analysis data of the groundwater samples collected at predetermined locations forms the attribute database for the study, based on which, spatial distribution maps of major water quality parameters are prepared using curve fitting method in Arc View GIS software. Water Quality Index (WQI) was then calculated to find the suitability of water for drinking purpose. The overall view of the water quality index of the present study area revealed that most of the study area with >50 standard rating of water quality index exhibited poor, very poor and unfit water quality except in places like Banjara Hills, Erragadda and Tolichowki. Appropriate methods for improving the water quality in affected areas have been suggested.

  14. Remote sensing and GIS techniques for evaluation of groundwater quality in municipal corporation of Hyderabad (Zone-V), India.

    PubMed

    Asadi, S S; Vuppala, Padmaja; Reddy, M Anji

    2007-03-01

    Groundwater quality in Hyderabad has special significance and needs great attention of all concerned since it is the major alternate source of domestic, industrial and drinking water supply. The present study monitors the ground water quality, relates it to the land use / land cover and maps such quality using Remote sensing and GIS techniques for a part of Hyderabad metropolis. Thematic maps for the study are prepared by visual interpretation of SOI toposheets and linearly enhanced fused data of IRS-ID PAN and LISS-III imagery on 1:50,000 scale using AutoCAD and ARC/INFO software. Physico-chemical analysis data of the groundwater samples collected at predetermined locations forms the attribute database for the study, based on which, spatial distribution maps of major water quality parameters are prepared using curve fitting method in Arc View GIS software. Water Quality Index (WQI) was then calculated to find the suitability of water for drinking purpose. The overall view of the water quality index of the present study area revealed that most of the study area with >50 standard rating of water quality index exhibited poor, very poor and unfit water quality except in places like Banjara Hills, Erragadda and Tolichowki. Appropriate methods for improving the water quality in affected areas have been suggested. PMID:17431315

  15. Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques for Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad (Zone-V), India

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, S. S.; Vuppala, Padmaja; Reddy, M. Anji

    2007-01-01

    Groundwater quality in Hyderabad has special significance and needs great attention of all concerned since it is the major alternate source of domestic, industrial and drinking water supply. The present study monitors the ground water quality, relates it to the land use / land cover and maps such quality using Remote sensing and GIS techniques for a part of Hyderabad metropolis. Thematic maps for the study are prepared by visual interpretation of SOI toposheets and linearly enhanced fused data of IRS-ID PAN and LISS-III imagery on 1:50,000 scale using AutoCAD and ARC/INFO software. Physico-chemical analysis data of the groundwater samples collected at predetermined locations forms the attribute database for the study, based on which, spatial distribution maps of major water quality parameters are prepared using curve fitting method in Arc View GIS software. Water Quality Index (WQI) was then calculated to find the suitability of water for drinking purpose. The overall view of the water quality index of the present study area revealed that most of the study area with > 50 standard rating of water quality index exhibited poor, very poor and unfit water quality except in places like Banjara Hills, Erragadda and Tolichowki. Appropriate methods for improving the water quality in affected areas have been suggested. PMID:17431315

  16. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Devic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

    2014-01-15

    Various chemometric techniques were used to analyze the quality of groundwater data sets. Seventeen water quality parameters: the cations Na, K, Ca, Mg, the anions Cl, SO4, NO3, HCO3 and nine trace elements Pb, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cr were measured at 66 different key sampling sites in ten representative areas (low land-Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina and central Serbia) for the summer period of 2009. HCA grouped the sample sites into four clusters based on the similarities of the characteristics of the groundwater quality. DA showed two parameters, HCO3 and Zn, affording more than 90% correct assignments in the spatial analysis of four/three different regions in Serbia. Factor analysis was applied on the log-transformed data sets and allowed the identification of a reduced number of factors with hydrochemical meaning. The results showed severe pollution with Mn, As, NO3, Ni, Pb whereby anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The pollution comes from both scattered point sources (industrial and urban effluent) and diffuse source agricultural activity. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption; the water quality belongs to class III/IV (contaminated). The Fe anomalies (7.1mg/L) in the water from the Vetrnica site can be attributed to natural sources, such as the dissolution of rock masses and rock fragments. The serious groundwater contamination with As (25.7-137.8 μg/L) in the area of Banat (Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina) and a sample No. 9 at the Great Morava River requires urgent attention.

  17. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Devic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

    2014-01-15

    Various chemometric techniques were used to analyze the quality of groundwater data sets. Seventeen water quality parameters: the cations Na, K, Ca, Mg, the anions Cl, SO4, NO3, HCO3 and nine trace elements Pb, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cr were measured at 66 different key sampling sites in ten representative areas (low land-Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina and central Serbia) for the summer period of 2009. HCA grouped the sample sites into four clusters based on the similarities of the characteristics of the groundwater quality. DA showed two parameters, HCO3 and Zn, affording more than 90% correct assignments in the spatial analysis of four/three different regions in Serbia. Factor analysis was applied on the log-transformed data sets and allowed the identification of a reduced number of factors with hydrochemical meaning. The results showed severe pollution with Mn, As, NO3, Ni, Pb whereby anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The pollution comes from both scattered point sources (industrial and urban effluent) and diffuse source agricultural activity. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption; the water quality belongs to class III/IV (contaminated). The Fe anomalies (7.1mg/L) in the water from the Vetrnica site can be attributed to natural sources, such as the dissolution of rock masses and rock fragments. The serious groundwater contamination with As (25.7-137.8 μg/L) in the area of Banat (Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina) and a sample No. 9 at the Great Morava River requires urgent attention. PMID:24080418

  18. Hydrogeology and groundwater quality of Highlands County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spechler, Rick M.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater is the main source of water supply in Highlands County, Florida. As the demand for water in the county increases, additional information about local groundwater resources is needed to manage and develop the water supply effectively. To address the need for additional data, a study was conducted to evaluate the hydrogeology and groundwater quality of Highlands County. Total groundwater use in Highlands County has increased steadily since 1965. Total groundwater withdrawals increased from about 37 million gallons per day in 1965 to about 107 million gallons per day in 2005. Much of this increase in water use is related to agricultural activities, especially citrus cultivation, which increased more than 300 percent from 1965 to 2005. Highlands County is underlain by three principal hydrogeologic units. The uppermost water-bearing unit is the surficial aquifer, which is underlain by the intermediate aquifer system/intermediate confining unit. The lowermost hydrogeologic unit is the Floridan aquifer system, which consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, as many as three middle confining units, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. The surficial aquifer consists primarily of fine-to-medium grained quartz sand with varying amounts of clay and silt. The aquifer system is unconfined and underlies the entire county. The thickness of the surficial aquifer is highly variable, ranging from less than 50 to more than 300 feet. Groundwater in the surficial aquifer is recharged primarily by precipitation, but also by septic tanks, irrigation from wells, seepage from lakes and streams, and the lateral groundwater inflow from adjacent areas. The intermediate aquifer system/intermediate confining unit acts as a confining layer (except where breached by sinkholes) that restricts the vertical movement of water between the surficial aquifer and the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. The sediments have varying degrees of permeability and consist of permeable limestone, dolostone, or

  19. Shallow groundwater quality on dairy farms with irrigated forage crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, Thomas; Davis, Harley; Mathews, Marsha C.; Meyer, Roland D.

    2002-04-01

    California's dairies are the largest confined animal industry in the state. A major portion of these dairies, which have an average herd size of nearly 1000 animal units, are located in low-relief valleys and basins. Large amounts of liquid manure are generated and stored in these dairies. In the semi-arid climate, liquid manure is frequently applied via flood or furrow irrigation to forage crops that are grown almost year-round. Little is known about the impact of manure management practices on water quality of the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying these basins. The objective of this work is to assess nitrate and salt leaching to shallow groundwater in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to quantify the impact from individual sources on dairies. The complex array of potential point and nonpoint sources was divided into three major source areas representing farm management units: (1) manure water lagoons (ponds); (2) feedlot or exercise yard, dry manure, and feed storage areas (corrals); and (3) manure irrigated forage fields (fields). An extensive shallow groundwater-monitoring network (44 wells) was installed in five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, CA. Water quality (electrical conductivity, nitrate-nitrogen, total Kjehldahl nitrogen) was observed over a 4-year period. Nitrate-N, reduced nitrogen and electrical conductivity (EC, salinity) were subject to large spatial and temporal variability. The range of observed nitrate-N and salinity levels was similar on all five dairies. Average shallow groundwater nitrate-N concentrations within the dairies were 64 mg/l compared to 24 mg/l in shallow wells immediately upgradient of these dairies. Average EC levels were 1.9 mS/cm within the dairies and 0.8 mS/cm immediately upgradient. Within the dairies, nitrate-N levels did not significantly vary across dairy management units. However, EC levels were significantly higher in corral and pond areas (2.3 mS/cm) than in

  20. Shallow groundwater quality on dairy farms with irrigated forage crops.

    PubMed

    Harter, Thomas; Davis, Harley; Mathews, Marsha C; Meyer, Roland D

    2002-04-01

    California's dairies are the largest confined animal industry in the state. A major portion of these dairies, which have an average herd size of nearly 1000 animal units, are located in low-relief valleys and basins. Large amounts of liquid manure are generated and stored in these dairies. In the semi-arid climate, liquid manure is frequently applied via flood or furrow irrigation to forage crops that are grown almost year-round. Little is known about the impact of manure management practices on water quality of the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying these basins. The objective of this work is to assess nitrate and salt leaching to shallow groundwater in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to quantify the impact from individual sources on dairies. The complex array of potential point and nonpoint sources was divided into three major source areas representing farm management units: (1) manure water lagoons (ponds); (2) feedlot or exercise yard, dry manure, and feed storage areas (corrals); and (3) manure irrigated forage fields (fields). An extensive shallow groundwater-monitoring network (44 wells) was installed in five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, CA. Water quality (electrical conductivity, nitrate-nitrogen, total Kjehldahl nitrogen) was observed over a 4-year period. Nitrate-N, reduced nitrogen and electrical conductivity (EC, salinity) were subject to large spatial and temporal variability. The range of observed nitrate-N and salinity levels was similar on all five dairies. Average shallow groundwater nitrate-N concentrations within the dairies were 64 mg/l compared to 24 mg/l in shallow wells immediately upgradient of these dairies. Average EC levels were 1.9 mS/cm within the dairies and 0.8 mS/cm immediately upgradient. Within the dairies, nitrate-N levels did not significantly vary across dairy management units. However, EC levels were significantly higher in corral and pond areas (2.3 mS/cm) than in

  1. Groundwater quality assessment for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant. 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste- management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR), which is one of the three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring and remediation (Figure 2). The Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Division of the Y-12 Plant Environmental Management Department manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP).

  2. Groundwater Quality in the Shallow Aquifers of the Hadauti Plateau of the District of Baran, Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Lokesh; Rakshit, Amitava

    2014-07-01

    With the rapid pace of agricultural development, industrialization and urbanization, the commonly observed geogenic contaminants in groundwater are fluoride and nitrate, whereas nitrate is the dominant anthropogenic contaminant in the south-eastern plains of Rajasthan, India. Samples obtained using a tube well and hand pump in November, 2012, demonstrate that Na-Cl is the dominant salt in the groundwater, and the total salinity of the water is between 211-1056 mg L-1. Moreover, the observed sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) values ranged between 0.87 to 26.22 meq L-1 and -12.5 to 30.5 meq L-1 respectively. The study further shows that 6% of the total samples contain high amounts of nitrate, and 49% contain fluoride. A water quality index (WQI) rating was carried out using nine parameters to quantify the overall groundwater quality status of the area.

  3. Methods of Statistical Control for Groundwater Quality Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovich, E.; Nevidimova, O.; Yankovich, K.

    2016-06-01

    The article describes the results of conducted groundwater quality control. Controlled quality indicators included the following microelements - barium, manganese, iron, mercury, iodine, chromium, strontium, etc. Quality control charts - X-bar chart and R chart - were built. For the upper and the lower threshold limits, maximum permissible concentration of components in water and the lower limit of their biologically significant concentration, respectively, were selected. The charts analysis has shown that the levels of microelements content in water at the area of study are stable. Most elements in the underground water are contained in concentrations, significant for human organisms consuming the water. For example, such elements as Ba, Mn, Fe have concentrations that exceed maximum permissible levels for drinking water.

  4. Construction of an environmental quality index for public health research

    EPA Science Inventory

    A more comprehensive estimate of environmental quality would improve our understanding of the relationship between environmental conditions and human health. An environmental quality index (EQI) for all counties in the U.S. was developed. The EQI was developed in four parts: doma...

  5. Ground-water quality protection; why it's important to you

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webbers, Ank

    1995-01-01

    Ground water is a valuable resource often used for industry, commerce, agriculture, and drinking water. In the 19080's, ground water provided 35 percent of the municipal water supplies in the United States and 95 percent of the rural, domestic drinking water. Scientists participating in ground-water studies may determine the potential pathways that contaminants could be transported in aquifers. In karst terrain especially, a contanimant can enter a fracture network in a carbonate aquifer and quickly spread to become a widespread health problem. Although Federal and local funding for ground-water cleanups and treatment may be available, the costs can exceed many millions of dollars each year. Such costly remedial actions could be avoided or minimized by becoming aware that ground water anywhere is vulnerable to contamination, but particularly so in carbonate terrain. Practicing good "out-of-doors" house- keeping is necessary. From the standpoint of economic and environmental responsibility, it is critical that we all work together to protect the quality of ground-water resources so that future generations can continue to have clean water.

  6. Salinization process and coastal groundwater quality in Chaouia, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najib, Saliha; Fadili, Ahmed; Mehdi, Khalid; Riss, Joëlle; Makan, Abdelhadi; Guessir, Hakima

    2016-03-01

    The coastal aquifer system of Chaouia is recognized as one of the most important aquifers in Morocco that is affected by salinization in the coastal fringe. The purpose of this study is to highlight the origin of salinization by sampling and analyzing groundwater from 44 wells for major elements. This study was carried out in May 2011. The results indicate that, in the central and downstream parts, the dominant facies are Mg2+, Na+ and Cl-, while Ca2+ and HCO3- dominate in the upstream zones. Ion exchange processes, under seawater intrusion, control the concentration of ions such as calcium, magnesium and sodium. Moreover, groundwater is oversaturated with respect to carbonate minerals (calcite and dolomite), and under-saturated with respect to evaporate minerals (gypsum, halite). The contribution of dissolved halite and gypsum in the groundwater mineralization is revealed by their positive correlation between (Na + Cl) and (Ca + SO4), respectively. Furthermore, the comparison of the hydrochemical results to drinking water quality standards by World Health Organization (2008) shows that more than a half of the water sampled is not suitable for drinking purposes, especially with respect to high levels of EC, TDS, Cl- and NO3-. In addition, high mineralization is found to be a consequence of seawater intrusion and anthropogenic activities.

  7. The quality/safety medical index: implementation and analysis.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2015-02-01

    Medical analytics relating to quality and safety measures have become particularly timely and of high importance in contemporary medical practice. In medical imaging, the dynamic relationship between medical imaging quality and radiation safety creates challenges in quantifying quality or safety independently. By creating a standardized measurement which simultaneously accounts for quality and safety measures (i.e., quality safety index), one can in theory create a standardized method for combined quality and safety analysis, which in turn can be analyzed in the context of individual patient, exam, and clinical profiles. The derived index measures can be entered into a centralized database, which in turn can be used for comparative performance of individual and institutional service providers. In addition, data analytics can be used to create customizable educational resources for providers and patients, clinical decision support tools, technology performance analysis, and clinical/economic outcomes research.

  8. Groundwater Quality in the North San Francisco Bay Groundwater Basins, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulongoski, J. T.; Belitz, K.

    2010-12-01

    Groundwater quality in the ~2,600 km2 North San Francisco Bay groundwater basins was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program, a collaboration of the California State Water Resources Control Board, U.S. Geological Survey and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Samples from 96 wells and 1 hydrothermal spring were analyzed for water chemistry, isotopic abundances, and dissolved gases. The study, designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated groundwater quality in the primary aquifer systems, was based on water-quality and ancillary data from 84 of the wells sampled and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifers are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the CDPH database. Inorganic constituents with human-health benchmarks were present at high concentrations in 14%, moderate in 35.8%, and low in 50.2% of the primary aquifers. Arsenic, boron, and lead were the trace elements that most frequently occurred at high concentrations. Fluoride is a minor element, and nitrate, a nutrient were present at high concentrations in ~1% of the primary aquifers. In contrast, organic constituents (one or more) with human-health benchmarks were present at high concentrations in 1.4%, moderate in 4.9%, and low in 93.7% (not detected in 64.8%) of the primary aquifers. The high proportion of organic constituents primarily reflected high concentrations of PCE (1.3%), TCE (0.1%), and 1,1-dichloroethene (0.1%). Of the 255 organic constituents analyzed for, 26 constituents were detected. Two organic constituents were frequently detected (detected in 10% or more of samples): the trihalomethane chloroform and the herbicide simazine, but both were detected at low concentrations. In this study, arsenic is the constituent which most frequently exists at high concentrations (about 10%) in the primary aquifers. Natural sources

  9. Analysis of Climate Change Effects on Baseflow Index and Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Severe water shortages have been observed globally and the damage from climate change is predicted to increase consistently. Especially, groundwater which accounts for 95% of water resources that ecosystems rely on is very important. In order to protect the health of ecosystems from groundwater, research on climate change adaptation is necessary. This research aims at analyzing the effects of baseflow on Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems(GDEs) through Baseflow Index(BFI) utilizing run-off discharge according to the climate change. In order to analyze the effects on GDEs, Nakdong basin was selected for demonstration. So as to compute the baseflow in the basin, Soil and Water Assessment Tool(SWAT) was employed. This research compared and analyzed distribution of BFI over the past 30 years and expected BFI in connection with climate change. RCP 8.5 provided by IPCC was utilized and the result showed that changes of BFI in four periods, P1(1980-2009), F1(2010-2039), F2(2040-2069) and F3(2070-2099), varied according to weather conditions. So as to analyze the correlation between baseflow each period and GDEs, this research employed ecosystems health index and carried out correlation analysis according to each GDEs. Analysis showed that correlation between baseflow and Benthic Macro-invertebrate(BMI) was over R2 0.7 and correlation to the rest was low. This means BMI prove to be sensitive in BFI. The purpose of this research is to figure out the characteristics of baseflow about the impact of climate change and analyze the impact of baseflow on GDEs through the correlation analysis between baseflow and ecosystems health index. BMI has high correlation to baseflow and the rest do not. Generally, however, GDEs are hugely inter-related to water so that baseflow which accounts for over 40 percent cannot be excluded. Therefore, based on this research, management system on baseflow ought to be established with more endeavors to protect and preserve ecosystems.

  10. Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation use in shallow hard rock aquifer of Pudunagaram, Palakkad District Kerala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satish Kumar, V.; Amarender, B.; Dhakate, Ratnakar; Sankaran, S.; Raj Kumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater samples were collected for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons based on the variation in the geomorphological, geological, and hydrogeological factors for assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation use in a shallow hard rock aquifer of Pudunagaram area, Palakkad district, Kerala. The samples were analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters and major ion chemistry. Based on analytical results, Gibbs diagram and Wilcox plots were plotted and groundwater quality has been distinguished for drinking and irrigation use. Gibbs diagram shows that the samples are rock dominance and controlling the mechanism for groundwater chemistry in the study area, while Wilcox plot suggest that most of the samples are within the permissible limit of drinking and irrigation use. Further, the suitability of water for irrigation was determined by analyzing sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent (%Na), Kelly's ratio, residual sodium carbonate, soluble sodium percentage, permeability index, and water quality index. It has been concluded that, the water from the study area is good for drinking and irrigation use, apart few samples which are exceeding the limits due to anthropogenic activities and those samples were indisposed for irrigation.

  11. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US DOE Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994. Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management sites located within the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of the Y-12 Plant and is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, the Part 1 GWQR is submitted to the TDEC by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY). Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities.

  12. Baseline assessment of groundwater quality in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2016-06-30

    The Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and the Ordovician-age Utica Shale, geologic formations which have potential for natural gas development, underlie Wayne County and neighboring counties in northeastern Pennsylvania. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wayne Conservation District, conducted a study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers in Wayne County prior to potential extensive shale-gas development. The 2014 study expanded on previous, more limited studies that included sampling of groundwater from 2 wells in 2011 and 32 wells in 2013 in Wayne County. Eighty-nine water wells were sampled in summer 2014 to provide data on the presence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low levels in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines associated with fluids extracted from geologic formations during shale-gas development. Depths of sampled wells ranged from 85 to 1,300 feet (ft) with a median of 291 ft. All of the groundwater samples collected in 2014 were analyzed for bacteria, major ions, nutrients, selected inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, selected man-made organic compounds (including volatile organic compounds and glycols), dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and propane), and, if sufficient methane was present, the isotopic composition of methane.Results of the 2014 study show that groundwater quality generally met most drinking-water standards, but some well-water samples had one or more constituents or properties, including arsenic, iron, pH, bacteria, and radon-222, that exceeded primary or secondary maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Arsenic concentrations were higher than the MCL of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) in 4 of 89 samples (4.5 percent) with concentrations as high as 20 µg/L; arsenic

  13. Groundwater quality in rural watersheds with environmental land use conflicts.

    PubMed

    Valle Junior, R F; Varandas, S G P; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Pacheco, F A L

    2014-09-15

    The quality of groundwater was evaluated in a rural watershed of northern Portugal (River Sordo basin) where environmental land use conflicts have developed in the course of a progressive invasion of forest and pasture lands by agriculture, especially by vineyards. The selected groundwater quality parameters were the concentrations of sodium, calcium, bicarbonate, chloride and nitrates, derived from natural and anthropogenic sources. The environmental land use conflicts were revealed by the coupling of land use and land capability raster maps. The land capability evaluation allocated 70.3% of the basin to the practicing of agriculture, 20% to livestock pasturing and 9.7% to a mosaic of land uses including agriculture, livestock pasturing and forestry. The assessment of land use conflicts allocated 93.9% of the basin to no conflict areas. Minor conflict areas (4.1%) were found concentrated in the western region of the watershed. They correspond to an invasion of farmlands towards sectors of the catchment capable for the practicing of livestock pasturing. Moderate (1.6%) and major (0.4%) conflict areas were found limited to the eastern region, matching steep hillsides capable for the practicing of livestock pasturing or forestry but presently occupied with vineyards. The spatial distributions of ion concentrations were generally justified by common geochemical processes. The dominance of high concentration levels in moderate and major conflict areas was justified within the framework of nutrient dynamics in vineyard environment. Nitrate in groundwater was likewise produced via the nitrification of N-fertilizers. Apparently, this process promoted the weathering of plagioclase by the nitric acid reaction, in concurrence with the weathering by the carbonic acid reaction. The impact of nitrification was found more important in moderate and major conflict areas, relative to no conflict areas.

  14. Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1994 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y- 12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two-parts: Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference containing the groundwater quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY). Part 2 of the annual groundwater report, to be issued mid-year, will contain a regime-wide evaluation of groundwater quality, present the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describe changes in monitoring priorities, and present planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities.

  15. Groundwater Quality Protection in Oakland County: A Sourcebook for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Michigan Environmental Action Council, Troy.

    This sourcebook consists of background information and activities related to groundwater protection. The first section focuses on the characteristics of groundwater, the water cycle, stormwater runoff, and uses of groundwater. The second section addresses household hazardous materials--both from a safety standpoint and a groundwater standpoint.…

  16. Evaluation of groundwater quality and suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes in southwest Punjab, India using hydrochemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Diana Anoubam; Rishi, Madhuri S.; Keesari, Tirumalesh

    2016-08-01

    Groundwater samples from alluvial aquifers of Bathinda district, southwest Punjab were measured for physicochemical parameters as well as major ion chemistry to evaluate the groundwater suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes and to present the current hydrochemical status of groundwater of this district. Temporal variations were analyzed by comparing the pre- and post-monsoon groundwater chemistry. Most of the samples showed contamination: F- (72 %), Mg2+ (22 %), SO4 2- (28 %), TH (25 %), NO3 - (22 %), HCO3 - (22 %) and TDS (11 %) during pre-monsoon and F- (50 %), Mg2+ (39 %), SO4 2- (22 %), TH (28 %), NO3 - (22 %) and TDS (28 %) during post-monsoon above permissible limits for drinking, while rest of the parameters fall within the limits. Irrigation suitability was checked using sodium absorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), percent sodium (Na%) and permeability index (PI). Most of the samples fall under good to suitable category during pre-monsoon period, but fall under doubtful to unsuitable category during post-monsoon period. Presence of high salt content in groundwater during post-monsoon season reflects leaching of salts present in the unsaturated zone by infiltrating precipitation. Hydrochemical data was interpreted using Piper's trilinear plot and Chadha's plot to understand the various geochemical processes affecting the groundwater quality. The results indicate that the order of cation dominance is Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+, while anion dominance is in the order Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2-. The geochemistry of groundwater of this district is mainly controlled by the carbonate and silicate mineral dissolution and ion exchange during pre-monsoon and leaching from the salts deposited in vadose zone during post-monsoon. The main sources of contamination are soluble fertilizers and livestock wastes. This study is significant as the surface water resources are limited and the quality and quantity of groundwater are deteriorating with time due to

  17. Groundwater Quality Assessment in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apambire, W. B.

    2001-05-01

    In Ghana, West Africa, fluoride occurs as a natural pollutant in some groundwaters, while the presence of isolated high levels of nitrate and arsenic in groundwater is due to human activities such as poor sanitation, garbage disposal and mining practices. The challenge for Ghana is to ensure that groundwater quality and environmental adversities such as water level decline are not compromised by attempts to increase water quantity. Concentrations of groundwater fluoride in the study area range from 0.11 to 4.60 mg/L, with the highest concentrations found in the fluorine-enriched Bongo granitoids. Eighty-five out of 400 wells sampled have fluoride concentrations above the World Health Organization maximum guideline value of 1.5 mg/L and thus causes dental fluorosis in children drinking from the wells. The distribution of fluoride in groundwater is highly related to the distribution of dental fluorosis in the UER. Nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 211.00 mg/L and the mean value was 16.11 mg/L. Twenty-one samples had concentrations in excess of the guideline value of 45 mg/L. Consumption of water in excess of the guideline value, by infants, may cause an infantile disease known as methaemoglobinaemia. It is inferred that groundwaters with exceptionally high NO3 values have been contaminated principally through human activities such as farming and waste disposal. This is because wells with high nitrate concentrations are all located in and around towns and sizable villages. Also, there is good correlation between Cl and NO3 (r = +0.74), suggesting that both elements come from the same sources of pollution. Only two well waters had concentrations of iron in excess of the guideline value of 0.3 mg/L. These samples come from shallow hand-dug wells. The maximum concentration of iron in groundwaters is 3.5 mg/L. The recommended guideline limit for Al in drinking water is 0.2 mg/L; two wells had Al concentrations of 12.0 and 4.0 mg/L, respectively. Other high

  18. Spatial variability analysis of combining the water quality and groundwater flow model to plan groundwater and surface water management in the Pingtung plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng; Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2014-05-01

    As a result of rapid economic growth in the Pingtung Plain, the use of groundwater resources has changed dramatically. The groundwater is quite rich in the Pingtung plain and the most important water sources. During the several decades, a substantial amount of groundwater has been pumped for the drinking, irrigation and aquaculture water supplies. However, because the sustainable use concept of groundwater resources is lack, excessive pumping of groundwater causes the occurrence of serious land subsidence and sea water intrusion. Thus, the management and conservation of groundwater resources in the Pingtung plain are considerably critical. This study aims to assess the conjunct use effect of groundwater and surface water in the Pingtung plain on recharge by reducing the amount of groundwater extraction. The groundwater quality variability and groundwater flow models are combined to spatially analyze potential zones of groundwater used for multi-purpose in the Pingtung Plain. First, multivariate indicator kriging (MVIK) is used to analyze spatial variability of groundwater quality based on drinking, aquaculture and irrigation water quality standards, and probabilistically delineate suitable zones in the study area. Then, the groundwater flow model, Processing MODFLOW (PMWIN), is adopted to simulate groundwater flow. The groundwater flow model must be conducted by the calibration and verification processes, and the regional groundwater recovery is discussed when specified water rights are replaced by surface water in the Pingtung plain. Finally, the most suitable zones of reducing groundwater use are determined for multi-purpose according to combining groundwater quality and quantity. The study results can establish a sound and low-impact management plan of groundwater resources utilization for the multi-purpose groundwater use, and prevent decreasing ground water tables, and the occurrence of land subsidence and sea water intrusion in the Pingtung plain.

  19. Recreational stream assessment using Malaysia water quality index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Hanisah; Kutty, Ahmad Abas

    2013-11-01

    River water quality assessment is crucial in order to quantify and monitor spatial and temporally. Malaysia is producing WQI and NWQS indices to evaluate river water quality. However, the study on recreational river water quality is still scarce. A study was conducted to determine selected recreational river water quality area and to determine impact of recreation on recreational stream. Three recreational streams namely Sungai Benus, Sungai Cemperuh and Sungai Luruh in Janda Baik, Pahang were selected. Five sampling stations were chosen from each river with a 200-400 m interval. Six water quality parameters which are BOD5, COD, TSS, pH, ammoniacal-nitrogen and dissolved oxygen were measured. Sampling and analysis was conducted following standard method prepared by USEPA. These parameters were used to calculate the water quality subindex and finally an indicative WQI value using Malaysia water quality index formula. Results indicate that all recreational streams have excellent water quality with WQI values ranging from 89 to 94. Most of water quality parameter was homogenous between sampling sites and between streams. An one-way ANOVA test indicates that no significant difference was observed between each sub index values (p> 0.05, α=0.05). Only BOD and COD exhibit slightly variation between stations that would be due to organic domestic wastes done by visitors. The study demonstrated that visitors impact on recreational is minimum and recreation streams are applicable for direct contact recreational.

  20. Groundwater quality in the Genesee River Basin, New York, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Water samples collected from eight production wells and eight private residential wells in the Genesee River Basin from September through December 2010 were analyzed to characterize the groundwater quality in the basin. Eight of the wells were completed in sand and gravel aquifers, and eight were finished in bedrock aquifers. Three of the 16 wells were sampled in the first Genesee River Basin study during 2005-2006. Water samples from the 2010 study were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents that included major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and indicator bacteria. Results of the water-quality analyses are presented in tabular form for individual wells, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. The results indicate that groundwater generally is of acceptable quality, although concentrations of the following constituents exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards at each of the 16 wells sampled: color (one sample), sodium (three samples), sulfate (three samples), total dissolved solids (four samples), aluminum (one sample), arsenic (two samples), copper (one sample), iron (nine samples), manganese (eight samples), radon-222 (nine samples), and total coliform bacteria (six samples). Existing drinking-water standards for pH, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, gross alpha radioactivity, uranium, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, and heterotrophic bacteria were not exceeded in any of the samples collected. None of the pesticides and VOCs analyzed exceeded existing drinking-water standards.

  1. Groundwater quality in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley groundwater basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Monterey-Salinas study unit is nearly 1,000 square miles and consists of the Santa Cruz Purisima Formation Highlands, Felton Area, Scotts Valley, Soquel Valley, West Santa Cruz Terrace, Salinas Valley, Pajaro Valley, and Carmel Valley groundwater basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Kulongski and Belitz, 2011). These basins were grouped into four study areas based primarily on geography. Groundwater basins in the north were grouped into the Santa Cruz study area, and those to the south were grouped into the Monterey Bay, the Salinas Valley, and the Paso Robles study areas (Kulongoski and others, 2007). The study unit has warm, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 31 inches in Santa Cruz in the north to 13 inches in Paso Robles in the south. The study areas are drained by several rivers and their principal tributaries: the Salinas, Pajaro, and Carmel Rivers, and San Lorenzo Creek. The Salinas Valley is a large intermontane valley that extends southeastward from Monterey Bay to Paso Robles. It has been filled, up to a thickness of 2,000 feet, with Tertiary and Quaternary marine and terrestrial sediments that overlie granitic basement. The Miocene-age Monterey Formation and Pliocene- to Pleistocene-age Paso Robles Formation, and Pleistocene to Holocene-age alluvium contain freshwater used for supply. The primary aquifers in the study unit are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells are typically drilled to depths of 200 to 650 feet, consist of solid casing from the land surface to depths of about 175 to 500 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing. Water quality in the primary aquifers may differ from that in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer system. Groundwater movement is generally from the southern part of the Salinas Valley north towards the Monterey Bay

  2. Hydrogeochemistry of the shallow dutch groundwater: Interpretation of the National Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frapporti, G.; Vriend, P.; Van Gaans, P. F. M.

    1993-09-01

    Since 1979 the Dutch National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) has been developing the Dutch Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network (LMG). This network presently consists of about 350 monitoring sites. At each site, well screens are placed at two depths: 10 and 25 m below surface level. Samples are collected every year and are analyzed for all macrochemical parameters and some trace elements. Tritium contents were measured in the first sampling round. The geochemistry of Dutch groundwater is complex, due to the different sources (seawater, surface water and rainwater), complicated hydrogeology, and human impact on flow systems and pollution. Structuring or data analysis is required for the interpretation of the large number of hydrogeochemical data from such a monitoring network. An exploratory approach is to look within the data set for homogeneous groups, each with a typical (macro)chemistry. The selection criteria for the location of the monitoring sites of the LMG are mainly based on soil type and land use, and to some extent on the hydrogeological situation. However, a classification based on the two most reliable criteria, soil type and land use, does not result in chemically distinguishable homogeneous groups or water types. Fuzzy c means clustering was successfully used to discern structure and natural groups in the LMG data for 1 year. A seven-cluster model was adopted. The number of clusters was decided heuristically with the aid of nonlinear mapping, on the basis of the geographic distribution, the hydrogeochemical interpretability, and the unimodality of the distribution of the parameters per cluster. The consistency of the model is illustrated by the reproducibility of the clusters in different years. The clusters are related to geochemical processes, natural sources, and anthropogenic input and are designated as follows: (1) "seawater" in coastal areas, (2) "desalinization" in organic-rich Holocene marine and peat

  3. Megacity pumping and preferential flow threaten groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mahfuzur R.; Koneshloo, Mohammad; Knappett, Peter S. K.; Ahmed, Kazi M.; Bostick, Benjamin C.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Mozumder, Rajib H.; Zahid, Anwar; Harvey, Charles F.; van Geen, Alexander; Michael, Holly A.

    2016-09-01

    Many of the world's megacities depend on groundwater from geologically complex aquifers that are over-exploited and threatened by contamination. Here, using the example of Dhaka, Bangladesh, we illustrate how interactions between aquifer heterogeneity and groundwater exploitation jeopardize groundwater resources regionally. Groundwater pumping in Dhaka has caused large-scale drawdown that extends into outlying areas where arsenic-contaminated shallow groundwater is pervasive and has potential to migrate downward. We evaluate the vulnerability of deep, low-arsenic groundwater with groundwater models that incorporate geostatistical simulations of aquifer heterogeneity. Simulations show that preferential flow through stratigraphy typical of fluvio-deltaic aquifers could contaminate deep (>150 m) groundwater within a decade, nearly a century faster than predicted through homogeneous models calibrated to the same data. The most critical fast flowpaths cannot be predicted by simplified models or identified by standard measurements. Such complex vulnerability beyond city limits could become a limiting factor for megacity groundwater supplies in aquifers worldwide.

  4. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the coastal region of Oman using DRASTIC index method in GIS environment.

    PubMed

    Jamrah, Ahmad; Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Rajmohan, Natarajan; Al-Yaroubi, Saif

    2008-12-01

    A study was carried out to develop a vulnerability map for Barka region in the North Batina of Oman using DRASTIC vulnerability index method in GIS environment. DRASTIC layers were created using data from published reports and the seven DRASTIC layers were processed by the ArcGIS geographic information system. Finally, DRASTIC maps were created for 1995 and 2004 to understand the long-term changes in the vulnerability index. DRASTIC vulnerability maps were evaluated using groundwater quality data such as chemical and biological parameters. DRASTIC vulnerability maps of 1995 and 2004 indicate that the northern part of Barka is more vulnerable to pollution than southern part and the central part of Barka also shows high relative vulnerability which is mostly related to the high conductivity values. Moreover, the changes in water level due to high abstraction rate of groundwater reflect in the vulnerability maps and low vulnerability area is increased in the southern part during 2004 compared to 1995. Moreover, regional distribution maps of nitrate, chloride and total and fecal coliforms are well correlated with DRASTIC vulnerability maps. In contrast to this, even though DRASTIC method predicted the central part of the study region is highly vulnerable, both chemical and biological parameters show lower concentrations in this region compared to coastal belt, which is mainly due to agricultural and urban development. In Barka, urban development and agricultural activities are very high in coastal region compared to southern and central part of the study area. Hence, this study concluded that DRASTIC method is also applicable in coastal region having ubiquitous contamination sources.

  5. Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) Quality Assurance Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-20

    The scope of the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) is to provide technical and integration support to Fluor Hanford, Inc., including operable unit investigations at 300-FF-5 and other groundwater operable units, strategic integration, technical integration and assessments, remediation decision support, and science and technology. This Quality Assurance Management Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project).

  6. Characterization of shallow groundwater quality in the Lower St. Johns River Basin: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Ying; Zhang, Jia-En; Parajuli, Prem

    2013-12-01

    Characterization of groundwater quality allows the evaluation of groundwater pollution and provides information for better management of groundwater resources. This study characterized the shallow groundwater quality and its spatial and seasonal variations in the Lower St. Johns River Basin, Florida, USA, under agricultural, forest, wastewater, and residential land uses using field measurements and two-dimensional kriging analysis. Comparison of the concentrations of groundwater quality constituents against the US EPA's water quality criteria showed that the maximum nitrate/nitrite (NO x ) and arsenic (As) concentrations exceeded the EPA's drinking water standard limits, while the maximum Cl, SO 4 (2-) , and Mn concentrations exceeded the EPA's national secondary drinking water regulations. In general, high kriging estimated groundwater NH 4 (+) concentrations were found around the agricultural areas, while high kriging estimated groundwater NO x concentrations were observed in the residential areas with a high density of septic tank distribution. Our study further revealed that more areas were found with high estimated NO x concentrations in summer than in spring. This occurred partially because of more NO x leaching into the shallow groundwater due to the wetter summer and partially because of faster nitrification rate due to the higher temperature in summer. Large extent and high kriging estimated total phosphorus concentrations were found in the residential areas. Overall, the groundwater Na and Mg concentration distributions were relatively more even in summer than in spring. Higher kriging estimated groundwater As concentrations were found around the agricultural areas, which exceeded the EPA's drinking water standard limit. Very small variations in groundwater dissolved organic carbon concentrations were observed between spring and summer. This study demonstrated that the concentrations of groundwater quality constituents varied from location to location

  7. Groundwater Quality in the Central Eastside San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belitz, Kenneth; Landon, Matthew K.

    2010-01-01

    The Central Eastside study unit is located in California's San Joaquin Valley. The 1,695 square mile study unit includes three groundwater subbasins: Modesto, Turlock, and Merced (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The primary water-bearing units consist of discontinuous lenses of gravel, sand, silt, and clay, which are derived largely from the Sierra Nevada Mountains to the east. Public-supply wells provide most of the drinking water supply in the Central Eastside. Consequently, the primary aquifer in the Central Eastside study unit is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforated interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells are typically drilled to depths of 200 to 350 feet, consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of about 100 to 200 feet, and they are perforated below the solid casing. Water quality in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer system may differ from that in the primary aquifer. The Central Eastside study unit has hot and dry summers and cool, moist, winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 11 to 15 inches. The Stanislaus, Tuolumne, and Merced Rivers, with headwaters in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, are the primary streams traversing the study unit. Land use in the study unit is approximately 59 percent (%) agricultural, 34% natural (primarily grassland), and 7% urban. The primary crops are almonds, walnuts, peaches, grapes, grain, corn, and alfalfa. The largest urban areas (2003 population in parentheses) are the cities of Modesto (206,872), Turlock (63,467), and Merced (69,512). Municipal water use accounts for about 5% of the total water use in the Central Eastside study unit, with the remainder used for irrigated agriculture. Groundwater accounts for about 75% of the municipal supply, and surface water accounts for about 25%. Recharge to the groundwater flow system is primarily from percolation of irrigation return

  8. Ground-water quality, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, Roy L.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program, ground-water samples were collected from 34 existing wells in the Cook Inlet Basin in south-central Alaska during 1999. All ground-water samples were from aquifers composed of glacial or alluvial sediments. The water samples were used to determine the occurrence and distribution of selected major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radioisotopes, and environmental isotopes. Of 34 samples, 29 were from wells chosen by using a grid-based random-selection process. Water samples from five major public-supply wells also were collected. Radon-222 and arsenic concentrations exceeded drinking-water standards proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 39 and 18 percent of sampled wells, respectively. The highest radon concentration measured during this study was 610 picocuries per liter; 12 of 31 samples exceeded the proposed maximum contaminant level of 300 picocuries per liter. The highest arsenic concentration was 29 micrograms per liter; 6 of 34 samples exceeded the proposed maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter. Human activities may be increasing the concen- tration of nitrate in ground water, but nitrate concentrations in all samples were less than the maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Concentrations of nitrate were highest in Anchorage and were as great as 4.8 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 77 to 986 milligrams per liter; only 2 of 34 wells yielded water having greater than 500 milligrams per liter. Iron and manganese concentrations exceeded secondary maximum contaminant levels in 18 and 42 percent of samples, respectively. Concentrations of all pesticides and volatile organic compounds detected in ground-water samples were very low, less than 1 microgram per liter. No pesticide or volatile organic compounds were detected at concentrations

  9. Groundwater quality in the Santa Clara River Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Santa Clara River Valley (SCRV) study unit is located in Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California, and is bounded by the Santa Monica, San Gabriel, Topatopa, and Santa Ynez Mountains, and the Pacific Ocean. The 460-square-mile study unit includes eight groundwater basins: Ojai Valley, Upper Ojai Valley, Ventura River Valley, Santa Clara River Valley, Pleasant Valley, Arroyo Santa Rosa Valley, Las Posas Valley, and Simi Valley (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Montrella and Belitz, 2009). The SCRV study unit has hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 12 to 28 inches. The study unit is drained by the Ventura and Santa Clara Rivers, and Calleguas Creek. The primary aquifer system in the Ventura River Valley, Ojai Valley, Upper Ojai Valley, and Simi Valley basins is largely unconfined alluvium. The primary aquifer system in the remaining groundwater basins mainly consists of unconfined sands and gravels in the upper portion and partially confined marine and nonmarine deposits in the lower portion. The primary aquifer system in the SCRV study unit is defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. Public-supply wells typically are completed in the primary aquifer system to depths of 200 to 1,100 feet below land surface (bls). The wells contain solid casing reaching from the land surface to a depth of about 60-700 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing to allow water into the well. Water quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the water in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer. Land use in the study unit is approximately 40 percent (%) natural (primarily shrubs, grassland, and wetlands), 37% agricultural, and 23% urban. The primary crops are citrus, avocados, alfalfa, pasture, strawberries, and dry beans. The largest urban areas in the study unit are the cities of

  10. Assessment of groundwater quality in Puri City, India: an impact of anthropogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Khobragade, Puja; Mohapatra, P K

    2011-06-01

    Puri City is situated on the east coast of India and receives water supply only from the groundwater sources demarcated as water fields. The objective of this paper is to assess and evaluate the groundwater quality due to impact of anthropogenic activities in the city. Groundwater samples were collected from the water fields, hand pumps, open wells, and open water bodies during post-monsoon 2006 and summer 2007. Groundwater quality was evaluated with drinking water standards as prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards and Environmental Protection Agency to assess the suitability. The study indicated seasonal variation of water-quality parameters within the water fields and city area. Groundwater in the water fields was found to be suitable for drinking after disinfection. While in city area, groundwater quality was impacted by onsite sanitary conditions. The study revealed that groundwater quality was deteriorated due to the discharge of effluent from septic tanks, soak pits, pit latrines, discharges of domestic wastewater in leaky drains, and leachate from solid waste dumpsite. Based on observed groundwater quality, various mitigation measures were suggested to protect the water fields and further groundwater contamination in the city. PMID:20714928

  11. Assessment of groundwater quality in Puri City, India: an impact of anthropogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Khobragade, Puja; Mohapatra, P K

    2011-06-01

    Puri City is situated on the east coast of India and receives water supply only from the groundwater sources demarcated as water fields. The objective of this paper is to assess and evaluate the groundwater quality due to impact of anthropogenic activities in the city. Groundwater samples were collected from the water fields, hand pumps, open wells, and open water bodies during post-monsoon 2006 and summer 2007. Groundwater quality was evaluated with drinking water standards as prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards and Environmental Protection Agency to assess the suitability. The study indicated seasonal variation of water-quality parameters within the water fields and city area. Groundwater in the water fields was found to be suitable for drinking after disinfection. While in city area, groundwater quality was impacted by onsite sanitary conditions. The study revealed that groundwater quality was deteriorated due to the discharge of effluent from septic tanks, soak pits, pit latrines, discharges of domestic wastewater in leaky drains, and leachate from solid waste dumpsite. Based on observed groundwater quality, various mitigation measures were suggested to protect the water fields and further groundwater contamination in the city.

  12. Identification of Dysfunctional Cooperative Learning Teams Using Taguchi Quality Indexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Chin-Min

    2011-01-01

    In this study, dysfunctional cooperative learning teams are identified by comparing the Taguchi "larger-the-better" quality index for the academic achievement of students in a cooperative learning condition with that of students in an individualistic learning condition. In performing the experiments, 42 sophomore mechanical engineering students…

  13. Groundwater quality assessment for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant: 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The report contains groundwater and surface water quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non- hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). These sites are southwest of the Y-12 Plant complex within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (BCHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring and remediation (Figure 2). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Division manages the monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP).

  14. Overview of groundwater quality in the Piceance Basin, western Colorado, 1946--2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, J.C.; McMahon, P.B.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater-quality data from public and private sources for the period 1946 to 2009 were compiled and put into a common data repository for the Piceance Basin. The data repository is available on the web at http://rmgsc.cr.usgs.gov/cwqdr/Piceance/index.shtml. A subset of groundwater-quality data from the repository was compiled, reviewed, and checked for quality assurance for this report. The resulting dataset consists of the most recently collected sample from 1,545 wells, 1,007 (65 percent) of which were domestic wells. From those samples, the following constituents were selected for presentation in this report: dissolved oxygen, dissolved solids, pH, major ions (chloride, sulfate, fluoride), trace elements (arsenic, barium, iron, manganese, selenium), nitrate, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, methane, and the stable isotopic compositions of water and methane. Some portion of recharge to most of the wells for which data were available was derived from precipitation (most likely snowmelt), as indicated by δ2H [H2O] and δ18O[H2O] values that plot along the Global Meteoric Water Line and near the values for snow samples collected in the study area. Ninety-three percent of the samples were oxic, on the basis of concentrations of dissolved oxygen that were greater than or equal to 0.5 milligrams per liter. Concentration data were compared with primary and secondary drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Constituents that exceeded the primary standards were arsenic (13 percent), selenium (9.2 percent), fluoride (8.4 percent), barium (4.1 percent), nitrate (1.6 percent), and benzene (0.6 percent). Concentrations of toluene, xylenes, and ethylbenzene did not exceed standards in any samples. Constituents that exceeded the secondary standard were dissolved solids (72 percent), sulfate (37 percent), manganese (21 percent), iron (16 percent), and chloride (10 percent). Drinking-water standards have not been established for

  15. Ground-water levels and quality data for Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1979-01-01

    This report begins a publication format that will present annually both water-level and water-quality data in Georgia. In this format the information is presented in two-page units: the left page includes text which summarizes the information for an area or subject and the right page consists of one or more illustrations. Daily mean water-level fluctuations and trends are shown in hydrographs for the previous year and fluctuations for the monthly mean water level the previous 10 years for selected observation wells. The well data best illustrate the effects of changes in recharge and discharge in the various ground-water reservoirs in the State. A short narrative explains fluctuations and trends in each hydrograph. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Motivation of synthesis, with an example on groundwater quality sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogg, G. E.; Labolle, E. M.

    2007-12-01

    Synthesis of ideas and theories from disparate disciplines is necessary for addressing the major problems faced by society. Such integration happens neither via edict nor via lofty declarations of what is needed or what is best. It happens mainly through two mechanisms: limited scope collaborations (e.g., ~2-3 investigators) in which the researchers believe deeply in their need for each other's expertise and much larger scope collaborations driven by the 'big idea.' Perhaps the strongest motivation for broad, effective synthesis is the 'big idea' that is sufficiently important and inspiring to marshal the appropriate collaborative efforts. Examples include the Manhattan Project, the quest for cancer cures, predicting effects of climate change, and groundwater quality sustainability. The latter is posed as an example of a 'big idea' that would potentially unify research efforts in both the sciences and social sciences toward a common, pressing objective.

  17. Groundwater microbiological quality in Canadian drinking water municipal wells.

    PubMed

    Locas, Annie; Barthe, Christine; Margolin, Aaron B; Payment, Pierre

    2008-06-01

    To verify previous conclusions on the use of bacterial indicators suggested in regulations and to investigate virological quality of groundwater, a 1-year study was undertaken on groundwater used as a source of drinking water in 3 provinces in Canada. Raw water from 25 municipal wells was sampled during a 1-year period for a total of 167 samples. Twenty-three sites were selected on the basis of their excellent historical bacteriological water quality data, and 2 sites with known bacteriological contamination were selected as positive controls. Water samples were analyzed for general water quality indicators (aerobic endospores, total coliforms), fecal indicators (Escherichia coli, enterococci, somatic and male-specific coliphages), total culturable human enteric viruses (determined by cell culture and immunoperoxidase), noroviruses (analyzed by reverse-transcriptase -- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)), adenovirus types 40 and 41 (analyzed by integrated cell culture (ICC) - PCR), and enteroviruses and reoviruses types 1, 2, and 3 (analyzed by ICC-RT-PCR). General water quality indicators were found very occasionally at the clean sites but were frequently present at the 2 contaminated sites. Only one of 129 samples from the 23 clean sites was positive for enterococci. These results confirm the value of raw water quality historical data to detect source water contamination affecting wells that are vulnerable. Samples from the 2 contaminated sites confirmed the frequent presence of fecal indicators: E. coli was found in 20/38 samples and enterococci in 12/38 samples. Human enteric viruses were not detected by cell culture on MA-104 cells nor by immunoperoxidase detection in any sample from the clean sites but were found at one contaminated site. By ICC-RT-PCR and ICC-PCR, viruses were found by cytopathic effect in one sample from a clean site and they were found in 3 samples from contaminated sites. The viruses were not detected by the molecular methods but were

  18. Ground-water flow and quality near Canon City, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearne, G.A.; Litke, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Water in aquifers that underlie the Lincoln Park area near Canon City, Colorado, contains measurable concentrations of chemical constituents that are similar to those in raffinate (liquid waste) produced by a nearby uranium ore processing mill. The objective of this study was to expand the existing geohydrologic data base by collecting additional geohydrologic and water quality, in order to refine the description of the geohydrologic and geochemical systems in the study area. Geohydrologic data were collected from nine tests wells drilled in the area between the U.S. Soil Conservation Service dam and Lincoln Park. Lithologic and geophysical logs of these wells indicated that the section of Vermejo Formation penetrated consisted of interbedded sandstone and shale. The sandstone beds had a small porosity and small hydraulic conductivity. Groundwater flow from the U.S. Soil Conservation Service dam to Lincoln Park seemed to be along an alluvium-filled channel in the irregular and relatively undescribed topography of the Vermejo Formation subcrop. North of the De Weese Dye Ditch, the alluvium becomes saturated and groundwater generally flows to the northeast. Water samples from 28 sites were collected and analyzed for major ions and trace elements; selected water samples also were analyzed for stable isotopes; samples were collected from wells near the uranium ore processing mill, from privately owned wells in Lincoln Park, and from the test wells drilled in the intervening area. Results from the quality assurance samples indicate that cross-contamination between samples from different wells was avoided and that the data are reliable. Water in the alluvial aquifer underlying Lincoln Park is mainly a calcium bicarbonate type. Small variations in the composition of water in the alluvial aquifer appears to result from a reaction of water leaking from the De Weese Dye Ditch with alluvial material. Upward leakage from underlying aquifers does not seem to be significant in

  19. Elucidating hydraulic fracturing impacts on groundwater quality using a regional geospatial statistical modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Burton, Taylour G; Rifai, Hanadi S; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Fontenot, Brian E; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic fracturing operations have been viewed as the cause of certain environmental issues including groundwater contamination. The potential for hydraulic fracturing to induce contaminant pathways in groundwater is not well understood since gas wells are completed while isolating the water table and the gas-bearing reservoirs lay thousands of feet below the water table. Recent studies have attributed ground water contamination to poor well construction and leaks in the wellbore annulus due to ruptured wellbore casings. In this paper, a geospatial model of the Barnett Shale region was created using ArcGIS. The model was used for spatial analysis of groundwater quality data in order to determine if regional variations in groundwater quality, as indicated by various groundwater constituent concentrations, may be associated with the presence of hydraulically fractured gas wells in the region. The Barnett Shale reservoir pressure, completions data, and fracture treatment data were evaluated as predictors of groundwater quality change. Results indicated that elevated concentrations of certain groundwater constituents are likely related to natural gas production in the study area and that beryllium, in this formation, could be used as an indicator variable for evaluating fracturing impacts on regional groundwater quality. Results also indicated that gas well density and formation pressures correlate to change in regional water quality whereas proximity to gas wells, by itself, does not. The results also provided indirect evidence supporting the possibility that micro annular fissures serve as a pathway transporting fluids and chemicals from the fractured wellbore to the overlying groundwater aquifers. PMID:26745299

  20. Elucidating hydraulic fracturing impacts on groundwater quality using a regional geospatial statistical modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Burton, Taylour G; Rifai, Hanadi S; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Fontenot, Brian E; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic fracturing operations have been viewed as the cause of certain environmental issues including groundwater contamination. The potential for hydraulic fracturing to induce contaminant pathways in groundwater is not well understood since gas wells are completed while isolating the water table and the gas-bearing reservoirs lay thousands of feet below the water table. Recent studies have attributed ground water contamination to poor well construction and leaks in the wellbore annulus due to ruptured wellbore casings. In this paper, a geospatial model of the Barnett Shale region was created using ArcGIS. The model was used for spatial analysis of groundwater quality data in order to determine if regional variations in groundwater quality, as indicated by various groundwater constituent concentrations, may be associated with the presence of hydraulically fractured gas wells in the region. The Barnett Shale reservoir pressure, completions data, and fracture treatment data were evaluated as predictors of groundwater quality change. Results indicated that elevated concentrations of certain groundwater constituents are likely related to natural gas production in the study area and that beryllium, in this formation, could be used as an indicator variable for evaluating fracturing impacts on regional groundwater quality. Results also indicated that gas well density and formation pressures correlate to change in regional water quality whereas proximity to gas wells, by itself, does not. The results also provided indirect evidence supporting the possibility that micro annular fissures serve as a pathway transporting fluids and chemicals from the fractured wellbore to the overlying groundwater aquifers.

  1. Myocardial performance index correlates with the BODE index and affects quality of life in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Tannus-Silva, Daniela Graner Schuwartz; Masson-Silva, João Batista; Ribeiro, Lays Silva; Conde, Marcus Barreto; Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective COPD, a systemic illness associated with the impairment of different organs, affects patient prognosis and quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between right ventricle (RV) function, the BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity) index (a multifunctional scale for the assessment of mortality risk), and quality of life in patients with COPD. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 107 outpatients presenting with stable COPD who underwent clinical assessment, spirometry, arterial blood gas analyses, a 6-minute walk test, electrocardiography, and echocardiogram and who responded to the Saint George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Results Among the study subjects, 53% (57/107) were males, and the mean age was 65.26±8.81 years. A positive correlation was observed between RV dysfunction measured by the myocardial performance index using tissue Doppler (MPIt) and the BODE index, even after adjustment for age and partial pressure of oxygen (r2=0.47; P<0.01). Patients with alterations in the MPIt had worse quality of life, and a statistically significant difference was found for different domains of the SGRQ. Patients with a normal MPIt had a mean total score of 46.2±18.6, whereas for those with MPIt alterations, the mean total score was 61.6±14.2 (P=0.005). These patients had a 1.49-fold increased risk of exhibiting SGRQ total score above the upper limit of the 95% CI (P=0.01). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that RV dysfunction as measured by the MPIt was associated with impairment in quality of life and a worse BODE index in COPD patients, irrespective of age and hypoxemia status.

  2. Myocardial performance index correlates with the BODE index and affects quality of life in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Tannus-Silva, Daniela Graner Schuwartz; Masson-Silva, João Batista; Ribeiro, Lays Silva; Conde, Marcus Barreto; Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective COPD, a systemic illness associated with the impairment of different organs, affects patient prognosis and quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between right ventricle (RV) function, the BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity) index (a multifunctional scale for the assessment of mortality risk), and quality of life in patients with COPD. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 107 outpatients presenting with stable COPD who underwent clinical assessment, spirometry, arterial blood gas analyses, a 6-minute walk test, electrocardiography, and echocardiogram and who responded to the Saint George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Results Among the study subjects, 53% (57/107) were males, and the mean age was 65.26±8.81 years. A positive correlation was observed between RV dysfunction measured by the myocardial performance index using tissue Doppler (MPIt) and the BODE index, even after adjustment for age and partial pressure of oxygen (r2=0.47; P<0.01). Patients with alterations in the MPIt had worse quality of life, and a statistically significant difference was found for different domains of the SGRQ. Patients with a normal MPIt had a mean total score of 46.2±18.6, whereas for those with MPIt alterations, the mean total score was 61.6±14.2 (P=0.005). These patients had a 1.49-fold increased risk of exhibiting SGRQ total score above the upper limit of the 95% CI (P=0.01). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that RV dysfunction as measured by the MPIt was associated with impairment in quality of life and a worse BODE index in COPD patients, irrespective of age and hypoxemia status. PMID:27695314

  3. Groundwater quality in the Chemung River Basin, New York, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risen, Amy J.; Reddy, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The second groundwater quality study of the Chemung River Basin in south-central New York was conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 305(b) water-quality-monitoring program. Water samples were collected from five production wells and five private residential wells from October through December 2008. The samples were analyzed to characterize the chemical quality of the groundwater. Five of the wells are screened in sand and gravel aquifers, and five are finished in bedrock aquifers. Two of these wells were also sampled for the first Chemung River Basin study of 2003. Samples were analyzed for 6 physical properties and 217 constituents, including nutrients, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, phenolic compounds, organic carbon, and four types of bacterial analyses. Results of the water-quality analyses for individual wells are presented in tables, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. Water quality in the study area is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards; these were: sodium (one sample), total dissolved solids (one sample), aluminum (one sample), iron (one sample), manganese (four samples), radon-222 (eight samples), trichloroethene (one sample), and bacteria (four samples). The pH of all samples was typically neutral or slightly basic (median 7.5); the median water temperature was 11.0 degrees Celsius (?C). The ions with the highest median concentrations were bicarbonate (median 202 milligrams per liter [mg/L]) and calcium (median 59.0 mg/L). Groundwater in the study area is moderately hard to very hard, but more samples were hard or very hard (121 mg/L as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or greater) than were moderately hard (61-120 mg/L as Ca

  4. Groundwater quality and depletion in the Indo-Gangetic Basin mapped from in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, A. M.; Bonsor, H. C.; Ahmed, K. M.; Burgess, W. G.; Basharat, M.; Calow, R. C.; Dixit, A.; Foster, S. S. D.; Gopal, K.; Lapworth, D. J.; Lark, R. M.; Moench, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Rao, M. S.; Shamsudduha, M.; Smith, L.; Taylor, R. G.; Tucker, J.; van Steenbergen, F.; Yadav, S. K.

    2016-10-01

    Groundwater abstraction from the transboundary Indo-Gangetic Basin comprises 25% of global groundwater withdrawals, sustaining agricultural productivity in Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bangladesh. Recent interpretations of satellite gravity data indicate that current abstraction is unsustainable, yet these large-scale interpretations lack the spatio-temporal resolution required to govern groundwater effectively. Here we report new evidence from high-resolution in situ records of groundwater levels, abstraction and groundwater quality, which reveal that sustainable groundwater supplies are constrained more by extensive contamination than depletion. We estimate the volume of groundwater to 200 m depth to be >20 times the combined annual flow of the Indus, Brahmaputra and Ganges, and show the water table has been stable or rising across 70% of the aquifer between 2000 and 2012. Groundwater levels are falling in the remaining 30%, amounting to a net annual depletion of 8.0 +/- 3.0 km3. Within 60% of the aquifer, access to potable groundwater is restricted by excessive salinity or arsenic. Recent groundwater depletion in northern India and Pakistan has occurred within a longer history of groundwater accumulation from extensive canal leakage. This basin-wide synthesis of in situ groundwater observations provides the spatial detail essential for policy development, and the historical context to help evaluate recent satellite gravity data.

  5. Assessment of groundwater utilization for irrigating park trees under the spatiotemporal uncertainty condition of water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin; Kuo, Yi-Ming

    2013-04-01

    Parks have a variety of functions for residents and are important for urban landscape planning. The healthy growth of urban park trees requires regular irrigation. To reduce the pressure of high groundwater levels and to avoid wasting groundwater resources, proper groundwater extraction for irrigating park trees in the Taipei Basin is regarded as a reciprocal solution of sustainable groundwater management and preserving excellent urban landscapes. Therefore, this study determines pristine groundwater use for irrigating park trees in the metropolitan Taipei Basin under the spatiotemporal uncertainty condition of water quality. First, six hydrochemical parameters in groundwater associated with an irrigation water quality standard were collected from a 12-year survey. Upper, median and lower quartiles of the six hydrochemical parameters were obtained to establish three thresholds. According to the irrigation water quality standard, multivariate indicator kriging (MVIK) was adopted to probabilistically evaluate the integration of the six hydrochemical parameters. Entropy was then applied to quantify the spatiotemporal uncertainty of the hydrochemical parameters. Finally, locations, which have high estimated probabilities for the median-quartile threshold and low local uncertainty, are suitable for pumping groundwater for irrigating park trees. The study results demonstrate that MVIK and entropy are capable of characterizing the spatiotemporal uncertainty of groundwater quality parameters and determining suitable parks of groundwater utilization for irrigation. Moreover, the upper, median and lower quartiles of hydrochemical parameters are served as three estimated thresholds in MVIK, which is robust to assessment predictions. Therefore, this study significantly improves the methodological application and limitation of MVIK for spatiotemporally analyzing environmental quality compared with the previous related works. Furthermore, the analyzed results indicate that 64

  6. A comparison between index of entropy and catastrophe theory methods for mapping groundwater potential in an arid region.

    PubMed

    Al-Abadi, Alaa M; Shahid, Shamsuddin

    2015-09-01

    In this study, index of entropy and catastrophe theory methods were used for demarcating groundwater potential in an arid region using weighted linear combination techniques in geographical information system (GIS) environment. A case study from Badra area in the eastern part of central of Iraq was analyzed and discussed. Six factors believed to have influence on groundwater occurrence namely elevation, slope, aquifer transmissivity and storativity, soil, and distance to fault were prepared as raster thematic layers to facility integration into GIS environment. The factors were chosen based on the availability of data and local conditions of the study area. Both techniques were used for computing weights and assigning ranks vital for applying weighted linear combination approach. The results of application of both modes indicated that the most influential groundwater occurrence factors were slope and elevation. The other factors have relatively smaller values of weights implying that these factors have a minor role in groundwater occurrence conditions. The groundwater potential index (GPI) values for both models were classified using natural break classification scheme into five categories: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. For validation of generated GPI, the relative operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used. According to the obtained area under the curve, the catastrophe model with 78 % prediction accuracy was found to perform better than entropy model with 77 % prediction accuracy. The overall results indicated that both models have good capability for predicting groundwater potential zones.

  7. Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater quality in a river delta using multivariate statistical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matiatos, Ioannis; Paraskevopoulou, Vasiliki; Botsou, Fotini; Dassenakis, Manolis; Lazogiannis, Konstantinos; Ghionis, George; Poulos, Serafim

    2016-04-01

    The knowledge of the factors controlling the regional groundwater quality regime is important for planning and management of the groundwater resources. This work applies conventional hydrogeochemical and multivariate statistical techniques to identify the main factors and mechanisms controlling the hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in the deltaic environment of River Pinios (Thessaly) as well as possible areas of interactions between groundwater and surface water bodies. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) are performed using a data set of physical-chemical parameters from surface water and groundwater sites. Through HCA the paper's objective is to group together surface water and groundwater monitoring sites based on similarities in hydrochemistry in order to indicate areas of groundwater-surface water interaction. On the other hand, PCA aims at indicating factors responsible for the hydrogeochemical characteristics of the water bodies in the river delta (e.g., water-rock interaction, seawater intrusion, anthropogenic activities).

  8. Impacts of afforestation on groundwater resources and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alistair; Chapman, Deborah

    2001-07-01

    Plans to double the proportion of land under forest cover in Ireland by the year 2035 have been initiated. The plan, primarily financially driven, ignores potential environmental impacts of forestry, particularly impacts on groundwater resources and quality. Since groundwater supplies almost 25% of Ireland's total potable water, these impacts are important. Field investigations indicate that afforestation leads to a reduction in runoff by as much as 20%, mainly due to interception of rainfall by forest canopies. Clearfelling has the opposite impact. Implications are that uncoordinated forestry practices can potentially exacerbate flooding. Groundwater recharge is affected by forestry, largely due to greater uptake of soil water by trees and to increased water-holding capacity of forest soils, arising from higher organic contents. Recharge rates under forests can be reduced to one tenth that under grass or heathland. Groundwater quality may be affected by enhanced acidification and nitrification under forests, due partly to scavenging of atmospheric pollutants by forest canopies, and partly to greater deposition of highly acid leaf litter. The slower recharge rates of groundwater under forests lead to significant delays in manifestation of deterioration in groundwater quality. Résumé. Des plans sont à l'étude pour doubler la proportion du couvert forestier en Irlande d'ici à 2035. Le plan, primitivement déterminé sur une base financière, ignore les impacts environnementaux potentiels de la foresterie, et particulièrement les impacts sur les ressources en eau souterraine et leur qualité. Du fait que les eaux souterraines satisfont presque 25% du total de l'eau potable de l'Irlande, ces impacts sont importants. Les études de terrain montrent que le reboisement conduit à une réduction du ruissellement d'au moins 20%, principalement à cause d'une interception de la pluie par le couvert forestier. Les coupes ont un impact contraire. Les implications sont

  9. Baseline assessment of groundwater quality in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2016-06-30

    The Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and the Ordovician-age Utica Shale, geologic formations which have potential for natural gas development, underlie Wayne County and neighboring counties in northeastern Pennsylvania. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wayne Conservation District, conducted a study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers in Wayne County prior to potential extensive shale-gas development. The 2014 study expanded on previous, more limited studies that included sampling of groundwater from 2 wells in 2011 and 32 wells in 2013 in Wayne County. Eighty-nine water wells were sampled in summer 2014 to provide data on the presence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low levels in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines associated with fluids extracted from geologic formations during shale-gas development. Depths of sampled wells ranged from 85 to 1,300 feet (ft) with a median of 291 ft. All of the groundwater samples collected in 2014 were analyzed for bacteria, major ions, nutrients, selected inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, selected man-made organic compounds (including volatile organic compounds and glycols), dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and propane), and, if sufficient methane was present, the isotopic composition of methane.Results of the 2014 study show that groundwater quality generally met most drinking-water standards, but some well-water samples had one or more constituents or properties, including arsenic, iron, pH, bacteria, and radon-222, that exceeded primary or secondary maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Arsenic concentrations were higher than the MCL of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) in 4 of 89 samples (4.5 percent) with concentrations as high as 20 µg/L; arsenic

  10. Combining groundwater quality analysis and a numerical flow simulation for spatially establishing utilization strategies for groundwater and surface water in the Pingtung Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Liang, Ching-Ping; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Overexploitation of groundwater is a common problem in the Pingtung Plain area of Taiwan, resulting in substantial drawdown of groundwater levels as well as the occurrence of severe seawater intrusion and land subsidence. Measures need to be taken to preserve these valuable groundwater resources. This study seeks to spatially determine the most suitable locations for the use of surface water on this plain instead of extracting groundwater for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture purposes based on information obtained by combining groundwater quality analysis and a numerical flow simulation assuming the planning of manmade lakes and reservoirs to the increase of water supply. The multivariate indicator kriging method is first used to estimate occurrence probabilities, and to rank townships as suitable or unsuitable for groundwater utilization according to water quality standards for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture. A numerical model of groundwater flow (MODFLOW) is adopted to quantify the recovery of groundwater levels in townships after model calibration when groundwater for drinking and agricultural demands has been replaced by surface water. Finally, townships with poor groundwater quality and significant increases in groundwater levels in the Pingtung Plain are prioritized for the groundwater conservation planning based on the combined assessment of groundwater quality and quantity. The results of this study indicate that the integration of groundwater quality analysis and the numerical flow simulation is capable of establishing sound strategies for joint groundwater and surface water use. Six southeastern townships are found to be suitable locations for replacing groundwater with surface water from manmade lakes or reservoirs to meet drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture demands.

  11. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Beak Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Part 2: 1995 groundwater quality data interpretations

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) for several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the US DOE Y-12 Plant. The sites addressed by this document are located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the Y-12 Plant complex within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime. The Bear Creek Regime is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface water quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements. Each annual Part 2 GWQR addresses RCRA interim status reporting requirements regarding assessment of the horizontal and vertical extent of groundwater contamination. This report includes background information regarding the extent of groundwater and surface water contamination in the Bear Creek Regime based on the conceptual models described in the remedial investigation report (Section 2); a summary of the groundwater and surface water monitoring activities performed during CY 1995 (Section 3.0); analysis and interpretation of the CY 1995 monitoring data for groundwater (Section 4.0) and surface water (Section 5.0); a summary of conclusions and recommendations (Section 6.0); and a list of cited references (Section 7.0). Appendices contain diagrams, graphs, data tables, and summaries and the evaluation and decision criteria for data screening.

  12. Soil moisture and strength index for earthwork construction quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawangsuriya, A.; Wachiraporn, S.; Sramoon, W.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the implementation of soil moisture and strength index measurements for earthwork construction quality control as well as a link between the in situ testing and structural property of earthen materials. Use of the convenient Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) in conjunction with conventional moisture-density measurements enhances quality control by achieving acceptable level of compaction, more uniform structural properties, and aids developing a controlled design parameter during the earthwork construction. Soil strength in term of DCP index normalized by the deviation of compaction moisture content from the optimum moisture content is proposed as performance criteria for a variety of engineered earth fills and special engineering assessment, prevention, and mitigation of geohazards e.g. earthen flood defense embankments.

  13. Zone Management of Multi-Purpose Use of Groundwater Via Spatial Variability Analysis of Water Quality and Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C. P.; Chen, C. F.; Jang, C. S.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater is comprehensively used for irrigation, aquaculture and public water supply in Pingtung plain. Establishing a sound management plan of multi-purpose groundwater utilization in Pingtung plain is imperial for water resources sustainability. When extracting groundwater for such multi-purpose use, the major concerns are to assure the meets for the different water quality standards for various water use sectors demand and minimizing the pumping impacts on aquifers. The groundwater quality and hydrogeological conditions play important roles in multi-purpose groundwater utilization. Management and effective use of groundwater typically face great challenges, due to the spatial variability of groundwater quality and hydrogeological condition. This study combines the variability of groundwater quality and hydrological condition to propose zonal management of multi-purpose use of groundwater in Pingtung plain. Based on the water quality standards for various groundwater utilization sectors, the integration of hydrochemical parameters are used to delineate most appropriate zones of various groundwater utilization sectors. For evaluation of hydrogeological condition, transmissivity which represents the ability of water transmitted in aquifer is adopted to determine the most suitable zones of groundwater extraction. Based on the analytical results of the water quality parameters and transmissivity in combination with actual groundwater utilization, a zonal management plan of multi-purpose groundwater utilization is established. The framework in this project can provide an effective tool for government administrator establishing a zonal management of multi-purpose groundwater utilization in Pingtung plain.

  14. Evaluation of water quality index for River Sabarmati, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Kosha A.; Joshi, Geeta S.

    2015-07-01

    An attempt has been made to develop water quality index (WQI), using six water quality parameters pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, electrical conductivity, nitrate nitrogen and total coliform measured at three different stations along the Sabarmati river basin from the year 2005 to 2008. Rating scale is developed based on the tolerance limits of inland waters and health point of view. Weighted arithmetic water quality index method was used to find WQI along the stretch of the river basin. It was observed from this study that the impact of human activity and sewage disposal in the river was severe on most of the parameters. The station located in highly urban area showed the worst water quality followed by the station located in moderately urban area and lastly station located in a moderately rural area. It was observed that the main cause of deterioration in water quality was due to the high anthropogenic activities, illegal discharge of sewage and industrial effluent, lack of proper sanitation, unprotected river sites and urban runoff.

  15. A novel, fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI) for air quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Gharibi, Hamed; Yunesian, Masud; Tayefeh Mahmoudi, Maryam; Lotfi, Saeedeh

    2011-04-01

    The ever increasing level of air pollution in most areas of the world has led to development of a variety of air quality indices for estimation of health effects of air pollution, though the indices have their own limitations such as high levels of subjectivity. Present study, therefore, aimed at developing a novel, fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI ) to handle such limitations. The index developed by present study is based on fuzzy logic that is considered as one of the most common computational methods of artificial intelligence. In addition to criteria air pollutants (i.e. CO, SO 2, PM 10, O 3, NO 2), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and 1,3-butadiene were also taken into account in the index proposed, because of their considerable health effects. Different weighting factors were then assigned to each pollutant according to its priority. Trapezoidal membership functions were employed for classifications and the final index consisted of 72 inference rules. To assess the performance of the index, a case study was carried out employing air quality data at five different sampling stations in Tehran, Iran, from January 2008 to December 2009, results of which were then compared to the results obtained from USEPA air quality index (AQI). According to the results from present study, fuzzy-based air quality index is a comprehensive tool for classification of air quality and tends to produce accurate results. Therefore, it can be considered useful, reliable, and suitable for consideration by local authorities in air quality assessment and management schemes. Fuzzy-based air quality index (FAQI).

  16. The spatial and seasonal variability of the groundwater chemistry and quality in the exploited aquifer in the Daxing District, Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yuanzheng; Lei, Yan; Zhou, Jun; Li, Muzi; Wang, Jinsheng; Teng, Yanguo

    2015-02-01

    The aquifer in the Beijing Plain is intensively used as a primary source to meet the growing needs of the various sectors (drinking, agricultural, and industrial purposes). The analysis of groundwater chemical characteristics provides much important information useful in water resources management. To characterize the groundwater chemistry, reveal its spatial and seasonal variability, and determine its quality suitability for domestic and agricultural uses, a total of 200 groundwater samples were collected in June and October 2012 from 100 exploited wells in Daxing District, Beijing, China. All of the indices (39 items) listed in the Quality Standard for Groundwater of China (QSGC) as well as eight additional common parameters were tested and analyzed for all samples, based on which research target was achieved. The seasonal effect on the groundwater chemistry and quality was very slight, whereas the spatial changes were very obvious. The aquifer is mainly dominated by HCO3-Ca·Mg-type water. Of the 39 quality indices listed in QSGC, 28 indices of all of the samples for the 2 months can be classified into the excellent level, whereas the remaining 11 indices can be classified into different levels with the total hardness, NO3, NO2, and Fe being the worst, mainly distributed in the residential and industrial land. According to the general quality index, the groundwater can be classified from good to a relatively poor level, mainly from southeast to northwest. Furthermore, the relatively poor-level area in the northwest expands to the southeast more than in the past years, to which people should pay attention because this reverse spatial distribution relative to the natural law indicates an obvious, anthropogenic impact on the groundwater. In addition, the groundwater in this area is generally very suitable for irrigation year-round. Nevertheless, we recommend performing agricultural water-saving measures for the sustainable development of water and urbanization

  17. A water quality index for recreation in Brazilian freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Azevedo Lopes, F W; Davies-Colley, R J; Von Sperling, E; Magalhães, A P

    2016-04-01

    Use of water for leisure activities has long been prevalent in human societies, especially where the climate is favorable. Water resources with appealing conditions for primary contact recreational activities include rivers, waterfall plunge pools, dams and lakes, as well as sea coasts. Recreational use has specific demands for water quality, particularly as regards risks to human health such as exposure to pathogenic organisms, toxic substances, and submerged hazards. In Brazil, there is insufficient monitoring of bathing water conditions and currently used methodology has some limitations particularly the lack of guidance on interpretation of variables other than faecal bacterial indicators. The objectives of this study were: (1) to establish variables contributing to assessment of freshwater bathing conditions in Brazil; (2) to develop an integrated index of suitability-for-use for bathing in Brazil; and (3) to improve the methodology for assessing bathing water quality in Brazil. Based on a metadata analysis and consultation with Brazilian water professionals, a water quality index was developed incorporating the variables: Escherichia coli, cyanobacterial density, turbidity (visual clarity) and pH. This index should advance the management of recreational waters in Brazil, by improving the evaluation of freshwater bathing conditions and protecting the health of frequent users. PMID:27105410

  18. Indexes associated with information theory in water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zand, S.M.

    1976-01-01

    In many biological studies of water quality, a diversity index is calculated in 'bits per individual' by using Shannon's Approximation to Brillouin's Formula. Difficulties associated with such use of Shannon's Formula and its associated parameters are discussed. Recent research has indicated that diversity indexes can be improved if (a) biological sample collection and analysis are standardized prior to use for among various aquatic systems diversity indexes and their associated parameters, (b) the diversity index is measured in 'sits per individual' rather than the presently used unit of 'bits per individual,' and (c) the equation e=(H - H(min)/(H(max) - H(min)) is used to evaluate the uniformity of distribution of individuals among species in a sample where e equals relative evenness. Relative evenness, a ratio, is an expression in which Brillouin's and Shannon's Equations are not arbitrarily mixed. Values of diversity indexes using Brillouin and Shannon Formulas, both in bits and sits per individual, and relative evenness are given for 16 hypothetical samples.

  19. Empirical estimation of groundwater quality changes using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, A.; Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Recent groundwater availability studies estimate large-scale aquifer depletion rates and aquifer stress using monthly water storage variations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. To further evaluate available groundwater resources, assessing potability of groundwater is necessary. Statistical relationships are initially developed at individual well locations to discern our ability to predict groundwater geochemistry as a function of groundwater levels. Next, up-scaled multivariate relationships to estimate total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations as a function of GRACE-derived subsurface storage anomalies, dominant land use, and other physical parameters are developed in two important aquifer systems in the United States: the High Plains aquifer and the Central Valley aquifer. A goodness of fit test was performed to evaluate model strength. Results demonstrate the potential to characterize global groundwater potability variations using remote sensing.

  20. Groundwater quality in the Mohawk River Basin, New York, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Scott, Tia-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 21 production and domestic wells in the Mohawk River Basin in New York in July 2011 to characterize groundwater quality in the basin. The samples were collected and processed using standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 148 physiochemical properties and constituents, including dissolved gases, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria. The Mohawk River Basin covers 3,500 square miles in New York and is underlain by shale, sandstone, carbonate, and crystalline bedrock. The bedrock is overlain by till in much of the basin, but surficial deposits of saturated sand and gravel are present in some areas. Nine of the wells sampled in the Mohawk River Basin are completed in sand and gravel deposits, and 12 are completed in bedrock. Groundwater in the Mohawk River Basin was typically neutral or slightly basic; the water typically was very hard. Bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, and sodium were the major ions with the greatest median concentrations; the dominant nutrient was nitrate. Methane was detected in 15 samples. Strontium, iron, barium, boron, and manganese were the trace elements with the highest median concentrations. Four pesticides, all herbicides or their degradates, were detected in four samples at trace levels; three VOCs, including chloroform and two solvents, were detected in four samples. The greatest radon-222 activity, 2,300 picocuries per liter, was measured in a sample from a bedrock well, but the median radon activity was higher in samples from sand and gravel wells than in samples from bedrock wells. Coliform bacteria were detected in five samples with a maximum of 92 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters. Water quality in the Mohawk River Basin is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards. The standards

  1. Virological control of groundwater quality using biomolecular tests.

    PubMed

    Carducci, A; Casini, B; Bani, A; Rovini, E; Verani, M; Mazzoni, F; Giuntini, A

    2003-01-01

    specificity tests have been carried out in the presence of some of the commoner microorganisms. The most efficient, sensitive and specific protocols were used to test 35 x 100L deep groundwater samples. Sample concentrates were split with one part treated with chloroform and analysed by cell culture (BGM and Frp/3, derived from FrHK/4, cells) and the other tested by RT-PCR for HAV, EV and SRSV. Results demonstrated the high efficiency of the classic and QIAamp methods. Microcon-100 did not increase the sensitivity of the technique used. The highest sensitivity was observed for RT-PCR with specific primers for SRSV and for nested RT-PCR for HAV. One sample showed a cytopathic effect, not confirmed at the third subculture, while the RT-PCR allowed the detection of echovirus 7. Cell culture did not allow detection of the majority of the enteric viruses while PCR gave sensitive, specific and rapid detection of a range of agents in the same samples. Even if it was impossible to fix a virological quality standard, it would be necessary to find a viral indicator in order to achieve a complete preventive check which would be particularly useful in some cases (e.g. water never used before, after pollution accidents, for seasonal checking).

  2. Field-scale relationships among soil properties and shallow groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Derby, Nathan E; Korom, Scott F; Casey, Francis X M

    2013-01-01

    It is important to understand the link between land surface/soil properties and shallow groundwater quality. To that end, soil properties and near-water-table groundwater chemistry of a shallow, unconfined aquifer were measured on a 100-m grid on a 64-ha irrigated field in southeastern North Dakota. Soil properties and hydrochemistry were compared via multivariate analysis that included product-moment correlations and factor analysis/principal component analysis. Topographic low areas where the water table was in close proximity to the soil surface generally had higher apparent electrical conductivity (ECa ) and higher percent silt and clay than higher positions on the landscape. The majority of the groundwater was characterized by Ca- and Mg-HCO3 type water and was associated with topographic high areas with lower ECa and net groundwater recharge. Small topographic depressions were areas of higher ECa (net groundwater discharge) where salts that precipitated via evapotranspiration and evaporative discharge dissolved and leached to the groundwater during short-term depression-focused recharge events. At this site, groundwater quality and soil ECa were related to surface topography. High-resolution topography and EC(a) measurements are necessary to characterize the land surface/soil properties and surficial groundwater quality at the field-scale and to delineate areas where the shallow groundwater is most susceptible to contamination.

  3. Evaluation of Strategies to Improve Groundwater Quality in the Texas Rolling Plains using APEX model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ale, S.; Chaudhuri, S.; DeLaune, P.; Rajan, N.; Gowda, P. H.

    2011-12-01

    The Seymour aquifer that underlies over 120,000 ha in the Texas Rolling Plains is one of the major sources of irrigation and drinking water in this region. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentrations higher than the United States Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level for drinking water (10 mg/l) are observed in groundwater in about three-fourths of the monitoring wells located in the Seymour aquifer. The sources of high NO3-N contents in groundwater in this region are not well-understood. Modeling carbon and nitrogen dynamics can provide more insight into soil biogeochemical processes and enable identification of causes for high NO3-N concentrations in groundwater. The overarching goal of this study is to identify the sources of high NO3-N in groundwater and suggest measures that improve groundwater quality in the Texas Rolling Plains using Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (APEX) model. After calibrating the model for Seymour watershed in the Texas Rolling Plains using streamflow (USGS gage) and groundwater quality (Texas Water Development Board) data, long-term (1950-2010) simulations are made and the carbon and nitrogen processes are studied to identify sources of high NO3-N in groundwater. The effects of various management practices such as tillage and land management, fertilizer and manure application rate, irrigation method, and grazing management on NO3-N leaching to groundwater are studied and the best management practices that improve groundwater quality are suggested.

  4. Groundwater quality suitable zones identification: application of GIS, Chittoor area, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yammani, Srinivasarao

    2007-09-01

    Due to uneven spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall and lack of sufficient water management technologies, the development activities of the society are totally depending on groundwater resources. In addition to the prevailing drought-prone conditions, the improperly treated and unplanned release of effluents of industry, municipal and domestic into the nearby streams and ponds and the majority usage of groundwater for irrigation are increasing the ionic concentration of the groundwater and making it more saline. The analytical results of the collected groundwater samples show that the groundwater is alkaline, and sodium and bicarbonate are the dominant cation and anion, respectively. Gibbs variation diagram shows that the control of the chemistry of groundwater in the study area is the weathering of granitic gneisses and also the leaching of evaporated and crystallized ions from the topsoil of the irrigated areas and improperly treated industrial effluent ponds. GIS, a potential tool for facilitating the generation and use of thematic information, has been applied and analyzed for identification of groundwater quality suitable zones for domestic and irrigation purposes. 30.06% of the area is with suitable, 67.45% of the area is with moderately suitable and 2.45% of the area is with unsuitable quality of groundwater for domestic purpose. 46% of the area is with suitable, 53.36% of the area is with moderately suitable and 0.64% of the area is with unsuitable quality of groundwater for irrigation purpose.

  5. Megacity pumping and preferential flow threaten groundwater quality

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mahfuzur R.; Koneshloo, Mohammad; Knappett, Peter S. K.; Ahmed, Kazi M.; Bostick, Benjamin C.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Mozumder, Rajib H.; Zahid, Anwar; Harvey, Charles F.; van Geen, Alexander; Michael, Holly A.

    2016-01-01

    Many of the world's megacities depend on groundwater from geologically complex aquifers that are over-exploited and threatened by contamination. Here, using the example of Dhaka, Bangladesh, we illustrate how interactions between aquifer heterogeneity and groundwater exploitation jeopardize groundwater resources regionally. Groundwater pumping in Dhaka has caused large-scale drawdown that extends into outlying areas where arsenic-contaminated shallow groundwater is pervasive and has potential to migrate downward. We evaluate the vulnerability of deep, low-arsenic groundwater with groundwater models that incorporate geostatistical simulations of aquifer heterogeneity. Simulations show that preferential flow through stratigraphy typical of fluvio-deltaic aquifers could contaminate deep (>150 m) groundwater within a decade, nearly a century faster than predicted through homogeneous models calibrated to the same data. The most critical fast flowpaths cannot be predicted by simplified models or identified by standard measurements. Such complex vulnerability beyond city limits could become a limiting factor for megacity groundwater supplies in aquifers worldwide. PMID:27673729

  6. Hydrochemical Assessment of Surfacewater and Groundwater Quality at Bank Infiltration Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsuddin, M. K. N.; Suratman, S.; Ramli, M. F.; Sulaiman, W. N. A.; Sefie, A.

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater and surface water quantity and quality are an important factor that contribute for drinking water demand and agriculture use. The water quality analysis was assessed using multivariate statistical analyses based on analytical quantitative data that include Discriminant Analysis (DA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), based on 36 water quality parameters from the rivers, lakes, and groundwater sites at Jenderam Hilir, which were collected from 2013 to 2014 (56 observations). The DA identified six significant parameters (pH, NO2-, NO3-, F, Fe2+, and Mn2+) from 36 variables to distinguish between the river, lake, and groundwater groups (classification accuracy = 98%). The PCA had confirmed 10 possible causes of variation in the groundwater quality with an eigenvalue greater than 1, which explained 82.931% of the total variance in the water quality data set.

  7. Ground-water quality for Grainger County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J.D.; Patel, A.R.; Hickey, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    The residents of Grainger County depend on ground water for many of their daily needs including personal consumption and crop irrigation. To address concerns associated with ground-water quality related to domestic use, the U.S. Geological Survey collected water samples from 35 wells throughout the county during the summer 1992. The water samples were analyzed to determine if pesticides, nutrients, bacteria, and other selected constituents were present in the ground water. Wells selected for the study were between 100 and 250 feet deep and yielded 10 to 50 gallons of water per minute. Laboratory analyses of the water found no organic pesticides at concentrations exceeding the primary maximum contaminant levels established by the State of Tennessee for wells used for public supply. However, fecal coliform bacteria were detected at concentrations exceeding the State's maximum contaminant level in water from 15 of the 35 wells sampled. Analyses also indicated several inorganic compounds were present in the water samples at concentrations exceeding the secondary maximum contaminant level.

  8. Risk Communication of Groundwater Quality in Northern Malawi, Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, R.

    2011-12-01

    Malawi lies in Africa's Great Rift Valley. Its western border is defined by Lake Malawi, the third largest lake in Africa. Over 80% of Malawians live in rural areas and 90% of the labor force is associated with agriculture. More than half of the population lives below the poverty line. Area characteristics indicate a high likelihood of nitrate and total coliform in community drinking water. Infants exposed to high nitrate are at risk of developing methemoglobinemia. In addition, diarrheal diseases from unsafe drinking water are one of the top causes of mortality in children under five. Without sufficient and sustainable supplies of clean water, these challenges will continue to threaten Malawi's ability to overcome the devastating impact of diarrheal diseases on its population. Therefore, Malawi remains highly dependent on outside assistance and influence to reduce or eliminate the threat posed by unsafe drinking water. This research presents a literature review of nitrate and total coliform groundwater quality and a proposed risk communication plan for drinking water in northern Malawi.

  9. Groundwater quality in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit is approximately 860 square miles and consists of the Santa Monica, Hollywood, West Coast, Central, and Orange County Coastal Plain groundwater basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The basins are bounded in part by faults, including the Newport-Inglewood fault zone, and are filled with Holocene-, Pleistocene-, and Pliocene-age marine and alluvial sediments. The Central Basin and Orange County Coastal Plain are divided into a forebay zone on the northeast and a pressure zone in the center and southwest. The forebays consist of unconsolidated coarser sediment, and the pressure zones are characterized by lenses of coarser sediment divided into confined to semi-confined aquifers by lenses of finer sediments. The primary aquifer system in the study unit is defined as those parts of the aquifer system corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of public-supply wells. The majority of public-supply wells are drilled to depths of 510 to 1,145 feet, consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of about 300 to 510 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing. Water quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from that in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer systems.

  10. Forecasting of daily air quality index in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anikender; Goyal, P

    2011-11-15

    As the impact of air pollutants on human health through ambient air address much attention in recent years, the air quality forecasting in terms of air pollution parameters becomes an important topic in environmental science. The Air Quality Index (AQI) can be estimated through a formula, based on comprehensive assessment of concentration of air pollutants, which can be used by government agencies to characterize the status of air quality at a given location. The present study aims to develop forecasting model for predicting daily AQI, which can be used as a basis of decision making processes. Firstly, the AQI has been estimated through a method used by US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for different criteria pollutants as Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM), Sulfur dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). However, the sub-index and breakpoint concentrations in the formula are made according to Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Secondly, the daily AQI for each season is forecasted through three statistical models namely time series auto regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) (model 1), principal component regression (PCR) (model 2) and combination of both (model 3) in Delhi. The performance of all three models are evaluated with the help of observed concentrations of pollutants, which reflects that model 3 agrees well with observed values, as compared to the values of model 1 and model 2. The same is supported by the statistical parameters also. The significance of meteorological parameters of model 3 has been assessed through principal component analysis (PCA), which indicates that daily rainfall, station level pressure, daily mean temperature, wind direction index are maximum explained in summer, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter respectively. Further, the variation of AQI during the weekends (holidays) and weekdays are found negligible. Therefore all the days of week are accounted same in

  11. Groundwater quality assessment for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant. 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several waste management facilities and petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) sites associated with the Y-12 Plant. These sites are within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (UEFPCHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring and remediation. This report was prepared for informational purposes. Included are the analytical data for groundwater samples collected from selected monitoring wells during 1991 and the results for quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) samples associated with each groundwater sample. This report also contains summaries of selected data, including ion-charge balances for each groundwater sample, a summary of analytical results for nitrate (a principle contaminant in the UEFPCHR), results of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analyses validated using the associated QA/QC sample data, a summary of trace metal concentrations which exceeded drinking-water standards, and a summary of radiochemical analyses and associated counting errors.

  12. Overview of groundwater quality in the Piceance Basin, western Colorado, 1946--2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, J.C.; McMahon, P.B.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater-quality data from public and private sources for the period 1946 to 2009 were compiled and put into a common data repository for the Piceance Basin. The data repository is available on the web at http://rmgsc.cr.usgs.gov/cwqdr/Piceance/index.shtml. A subset of groundwater-quality data from the repository was compiled, reviewed, and checked for quality assurance for this report. The resulting dataset consists of the most recently collected sample from 1,545 wells, 1,007 (65 percent) of which were domestic wells. From those samples, the following constituents were selected for presentation in this report: dissolved oxygen, dissolved solids, pH, major ions (chloride, sulfate, fluoride), trace elements (arsenic, barium, iron, manganese, selenium), nitrate, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, methane, and the stable isotopic compositions of water and methane. Some portion of recharge to most of the wells for which data were available was derived from precipitation (most likely snowmelt), as indicated by δ2H [H2O] and δ18O[H2O] values that plot along the Global Meteoric Water Line and near the values for snow samples collected in the study area. Ninety-three percent of the samples were oxic, on the basis of concentrations of dissolved oxygen that were greater than or equal to 0.5 milligrams per liter. Concentration data were compared with primary and secondary drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Constituents that exceeded the primary standards were arsenic (13 percent), selenium (9.2 percent), fluoride (8.4 percent), barium (4.1 percent), nitrate (1.6 percent), and benzene (0.6 percent). Concentrations of toluene, xylenes, and ethylbenzene did not exceed standards in any samples. Constituents that exceeded the secondary standard were dissolved solids (72 percent), sulfate (37 percent), manganese (21 percent), iron (16 percent), and chloride (10 percent). Drinking-water standards have not been established for

  13. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide in agroecosystems affects groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Torbert, H.A.; Prior, S.A.; Rogers, H.H.; Schlesinger, W.H.; Mullins, G.L.; Runion, G.B.

    1996-07-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentration has led to concerns about global changes to the environment. One area of global change that has not been addressed is the effect of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on groundwater quality below agroecosystems. Elevated CO{sub 2} concentration alterations of plant growth and C/N ratios may modify C and N cycling in soil and affect nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) leaching to groundwater. This study was conducted to examine the effects of a legume (soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]) and a nonlegume (grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]) CO{sub 2}-enriched agroecosystems on NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} movement below the root zone in a Blanton loamy sand (loamy siliceous, thermic, Grossarenic Paleudults). The study was a split-plot design replicated three times with plant species (soybean and grain sorghum) as the main plots and CO{sub 2} concentration ({approximately}360 and {approximately}720 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2}) as subplots using open-top field chambers. Fertilizer application was made with {sup 15}N-depleted NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} to act as a fertilizer tracer. Soil solution samples were collected weekly at 90-cm depth for a 2-yr period and monitored for NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentrations. Isotope analysis of soil solution indicated that the decomposition of organic matter was the primary source of No{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N in soil solution below the root zone through most of the monitoring period. Significant differences were observed for NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentrations between soybean and grain sorghum, with soybean having the higher NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentration. Elevated CO{sub 2} increased total dry weight, total N content, and C/N ratio of residue returned to soil in both years. Elevated CO{sub 2} significantly decreased NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentrations below the root zone in both soybean and grain sorghum. 37 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Groundwater quality in Scotland: major ion chemistry of the key groundwater bodies.

    PubMed

    Robins, N S

    2002-07-22

    Groundwater in Scotland is, for the most part, weakly to moderately mineralised and dominated by the Ca and HCO3 ions. The aquifer systems are almost entirely unconfined and most groundwater remains in contact with oxygen; some reducing groundwaters occur in deeper isolated cracks and joints within the many fractured bedrock aquifers such as Devonian sandstones. Groundwater depleted in oxygen is also common in the Coal Measures in the Midland Valley as a direct result of past coal and oil shale mining, when iron and other metals are taken into solution as the abandoned mine workings are allowed to flood. Low pH groundwaters are rare but do occur where calcite is absent in some basement rocks. Marine intrusion of coastal aquifers occurs locally in East Lothian and parts of Morayshire. Deeper circulating groundwaters are responsible for some of the more exotic spa waters, notably at Bridge of Earn near Perth. Nitrate contamination of groundwater is increasing in some areas, and is most prevalent in the south of Scotland. The Devonian aquifer in Fife and parts of the Permian sandstone aquifers of south-west Scotland are the worst affected.

  15. The environmentally sensitive index patch applied to MEDALUS climate quality index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duro, A.; Piccione, V.; Ragusa, M. A.; Veneziano, V.

    2016-06-01

    The authors continue testing the Environmentally Sensitive Index Patch - ESPI -to the whole region of Sicily for a comprehensive interpretation of the sensitivity of the areas to desertification under the Protocol MEDALUS (MEditerranean Desertification Areas and Land USe). They apply the index ESPI to three scenarios - to the first half of the twentieth century, the second half of the twentieth, the twenty-first century and to their three respective indices of Quality Climate. From the application of ESPI the authors deduce that the improvement of sensitivity to desertification in Sicily, between the first and second half of the last century, is not due to the climate constant deteriorates between the three periods analyzed.

  16. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the South Coast Interior groundwater basins, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 653-square-mile (1,691-square-kilometer) South Coast Interior Basins (SCI) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The South Coast Interior Basins study unit contains eight priority groundwater basins grouped into three study areas, Livermore, Gilroy, and Cuyama, in the Southern Coast Ranges hydrogeologic province. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA South Coast Interior Basins study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated (raw) groundwater quality within the primary aquifer system, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality between basins. The assessment was based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 50 wells in 2008 and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the SCI study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as trace elements and minor ions. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifer system of the SCI study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration

  17. Zonal management of multi-purposes groundwater utilization based on water quality and impact on the aquifer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater is widely used for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture in the Pingtung Plain, Southwestern Taiwan. The overexploitation and poor quality of groundwater in some areas of the Pingtung Plain pose great challenges for the safe use and sustainable management of groundwater resources. Thus, establishing an effective management plan for multi-purpose groundwater utilization in the Pingtung Plain is imperative. Considerations of the quality of the groundwater and potential impact on the aquifer of groundwater exploitation are paramount to multi-purpose groundwater utilization management. This study proposes a zonal management plan for the multi-purpose use of groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The zonal management plan is developed by considering the spatial variability of the groundwater quality and the impact on the aquifer, which is defined as the ratio of the actual groundwater extraction rate to transmissivity. A geostatistical Kriging approach is used to spatially delineate the safe zones based on the water quality standards applied in the three groundwater utilization sectors. Suitable zones for the impact on the aquifer are then spatially determined. The evaluation results showing the safe water quality zones for the three types of utilization demands and suitable zones for the impact on aquifer are integrated to create a zonal management map for multi-purpose groundwater utilization which can help government administrators to establish a water resource management strategy for safe and sustainable use of groundwater to meet multi-purpose groundwater utilization requirements in the Pingtung Plain.

  18. Zonal management of multi-purposes groundwater utilization based on water quality and impact on the aquifer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater is widely used for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture in the Pingtung Plain, Southwestern Taiwan. The overexploitation and poor quality of groundwater in some areas of the Pingtung Plain pose great challenges for the safe use and sustainable management of groundwater resources. Thus, establishing an effective management plan for multi-purpose groundwater utilization in the Pingtung Plain is imperative. Considerations of the quality of the groundwater and potential impact on the aquifer of groundwater exploitation are paramount to multi-purpose groundwater utilization management. This study proposes a zonal management plan for the multi-purpose use of groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The zonal management plan is developed by considering the spatial variability of the groundwater quality and the impact on the aquifer, which is defined as the ratio of the actual groundwater extraction rate to transmissivity. A geostatistical Kriging approach is used to spatially delineate the safe zones based on the water quality standards applied in the three groundwater utilization sectors. Suitable zones for the impact on the aquifer are then spatially determined. The evaluation results showing the safe water quality zones for the three types of utilization demands and suitable zones for the impact on aquifer are integrated to create a zonal management map for multi-purpose groundwater utilization which can help government administrators to establish a water resource management strategy for safe and sustainable use of groundwater to meet multi-purpose groundwater utilization requirements in the Pingtung Plain. PMID:27343131

  19. Soil quality index for evaluation of reclaimed coal mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, S; Masto, R E; Yadav, A; George, J; Ram, L C; Shukla, S P

    2016-01-15

    Success in the remediation of mine spoil depends largely on the selection of appropriate tree species. The impacts of remediation on mine soil quality cannot be sufficiently assessed by individual soil properties. However, combination of soil properties into an integrated soil quality index provides a more holistic status of reclamation potentials of tree species. Remediation potentials of four tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia sissoo, and Leucaena leucocephala) were studied on reclaimed coal mine overburden dumps of Jharia coalfield, Dhanbad, India. Soil samples were collected under the canopies of the tree species. Comparative studies on the properties of soils in the reclaimed and the reference sites showed improvements in soil quality parameters of the reclaimed site: coarse fraction (-20.4%), bulk density (-12.8%), water holding capacity (+0.92%), pH (+25.4%), EC (+2.9%), cation exchange capacity (+46.6%), organic carbon (+91.5%), N (+60.6%), P (+113%), K (+19.9%), Ca (+49.6%), Mg (+12.2%), Na (+19.6%), S (+46.7%), total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (-71.4%), dehydrogenase activity (+197%), and microbial biomass carbon (+115%). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key mine soil quality indicators to develop a soil quality index (SQI). Selected indicators include: coarse fraction, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, P, Ca, S, and dehydrogenase activity. The indicator values were converted into a unitless score (0-1.00) and integrated into SQI. The calculated SQI was significantly (P<0.001) correlated with tree biomass and canopy cover. Reclaimed site has 52-93% higher SQI compared to the reference site. Higher SQI values were obtained for sites reclaimed with D.sissoo (+93.1%) and C.siamea (+86.4%). PMID:26524272

  20. Soil quality index for evaluation of reclaimed coal mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, S; Masto, R E; Yadav, A; George, J; Ram, L C; Shukla, S P

    2016-01-15

    Success in the remediation of mine spoil depends largely on the selection of appropriate tree species. The impacts of remediation on mine soil quality cannot be sufficiently assessed by individual soil properties. However, combination of soil properties into an integrated soil quality index provides a more holistic status of reclamation potentials of tree species. Remediation potentials of four tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia sissoo, and Leucaena leucocephala) were studied on reclaimed coal mine overburden dumps of Jharia coalfield, Dhanbad, India. Soil samples were collected under the canopies of the tree species. Comparative studies on the properties of soils in the reclaimed and the reference sites showed improvements in soil quality parameters of the reclaimed site: coarse fraction (-20.4%), bulk density (-12.8%), water holding capacity (+0.92%), pH (+25.4%), EC (+2.9%), cation exchange capacity (+46.6%), organic carbon (+91.5%), N (+60.6%), P (+113%), K (+19.9%), Ca (+49.6%), Mg (+12.2%), Na (+19.6%), S (+46.7%), total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (-71.4%), dehydrogenase activity (+197%), and microbial biomass carbon (+115%). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key mine soil quality indicators to develop a soil quality index (SQI). Selected indicators include: coarse fraction, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, P, Ca, S, and dehydrogenase activity. The indicator values were converted into a unitless score (0-1.00) and integrated into SQI. The calculated SQI was significantly (P<0.001) correlated with tree biomass and canopy cover. Reclaimed site has 52-93% higher SQI compared to the reference site. Higher SQI values were obtained for sites reclaimed with D.sissoo (+93.1%) and C.siamea (+86.4%).

  1. Demonstrating trend reversal of groundwater quality in relation to time of recharge determined by 3H/3He.

    PubMed

    Visser, A; Broers, H P; van der Grift, B; Bierkens, M F P

    2007-08-01

    Recent EU legislation is directed to reverse the upward trends in the concentrations of agricultural pollutants in groundwater. However, uncertainty of the groundwater travel time towards the screens of the groundwater quality monitoring networks complicates the demonstration of trend reversal. We investigated whether trend reversal can be demonstrated by relating concentrations of pollutants in groundwater to the time of recharge, instead of the time of sampling. To do so, we used the travel time to monitoring screens in sandy agricultural areas in the Netherlands, determined by (3)H/(3)He groundwater dating. We observed that concentrations of conservative pollutants increased in groundwater recharged before 1985 and decreased after 1990. Thereby, we demonstrated trend reversal of groundwater quality. From this research we concluded that (3)H/(3)He dating can be used to facilitate (re)interpretation of existing groundwater quality data. The presented approach is widely applicable in areas with unconsolidated granular aquifers and large agricultural pressures on groundwater resources.

  2. Groundwater-quality-protection policies for the Rocky Mountain Region and the nation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    This report is a transcript of the Conference on Groundwater Quality Protection Policies for the Rocky Mountain Region and the Nation held in Denver, Colorado on January 18, 1986. The conference, and five others like it in other regions of the country, were held to provide input for a groundwater-protection agenda for the U.S. Congress as it begins debate on new groundwater-quality-protection initiatives. The conference featured roundtable discussions among officials from the sponsoring organizations, local and state officials, environmentalists, corporate representatives, farm groups, and others on groundwater-protection needs and current programs in the region. Also considered were federal policy options, legislation, and mechanisms to implement groundwater policies.

  3. Waste deposit influences on groundwater quality as a tool for waste type and site selection for final storage quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arneth, Jan-Dirk; Milde, Gerald; Kerndorff, Helmut; Schleyer, Ruprecht

    Leachates from deposits of wastes may, in the long run, adversely influence groundwater quality. Since tipping still constitutes the most important form of waste disposal, strategies must be developed which are capable of protecting groundwater against contamination from leachates. In the first instance such protective measures must provide for a minimization of contamination by setting up optimal barriers. Since it would seem difficult to reach this goal in a forseeable future, the avoidance of substances with a high potential for groundwater hazards has to be attributed much importance. In former times, little attention was given to impermeability or avoidance of substances with a high potential for groundwater hazards contained in wastes. Therefore, results of the investigation of groundwater near abandoned sites can be used to optimize groundwater protection on future tipping sites. In the present study, the results of chemical investigation of groundwater from the vicinity of 92 waste disposal sites in the Federal Republic of Germany are presented and the changes in groundwater quality owing to the penetration of leachates are discussed separately for inorganic and organic contaminants.

  4. Positive and negative impacts of five Austrian gravel pit lakes on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Muellegger, Christian; Weilhartner, Andreas; Battin, Tom J; Hofmann, Thilo

    2013-01-15

    Groundwater-fed gravel pit lakes (GPLs) affect the biological, organic, and inorganic parameters of inflowing groundwater through combined effects of bank filtration at the inflow, reactions within the lake, and bank filtration at the outflow. GPLs result from wet dredging for sand and gravel and may conflict with groundwater protection programs by removing the protective soil cover and exposing groundwater to the atmosphere. We have investigated the impact on groundwater of five GPLs with different sizes, ages, and mean residence times, and all having low post-excavation anthropogenic usage. The results revealed highly active biological systems within the lake water, in which primary producers significantly reduced inflowing nitrate concentrations. Decalcification also occurred in lake water, reducing water hardness, which could be beneficial for waterworks in hard groundwater areas. Downgradient groundwater nitrate and calcium concentrations were found to be stable, with only minor seasonal variations. Biological degradation of organic material and organic micropollutants was also observed in the GPLs. For young GPLs adequate sediment deposits may not yet have formed and degradation processes at the outflow may consequently not yet be well established. However, our results showed that within 5 years from the cessation of excavation a protective sediment layer is established that is sufficient to prevent the export of dissolved organic carbon to downgradient groundwater. GPLs can improve groundwater quality in anthropogenically (e.g., pesticides and nitrate) or geologically (e.g., hardness) challenging situations. However, post-excavation usage of GPLs is often dominated by human activities such as recreational activities, water sports, or fish farming. These activities will affect lake and groundwater quality and the risks involved are difficult to predict and monitor and can lead to overall negative impacts on groundwater quality. PMID:23178886

  5. Estimating impacts of land use on groundwater quality using trilinear analysis.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Ying; Zhang, Jia En; Cui, Lihua

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater is connected to the landscape above and is thus affected by the overlaying land uses. This study evaluated the impacts of land uses upon groundwater quality using trilinear analysis. Trilinear analysis is a display of experimental data in a triangular graph. Groundwater quality data collected from agricultural, septic tank, forest, and wastewater land uses for a 6-year period were used for the analysis. Results showed that among the three nitrogen species (i.e., nitrate and nitrite (NO(x)), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and total organic nitrogen (TON)), NO(x) had a high percentage and was a dominant species in the groundwater beneath the septic tank lands, whereas TON was a major species in groundwater beneath the forest lands. Among the three phosphorus species, namely the particulate phosphorus (PP), dissolved ortho phosphorus (PO4(3-)) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP), there was a high percentage of PP in the groundwater beneath the septic tank, forest, and agricultural lands. In general, Ca was a dominant cation in the groundwater beneath the septic tank lands, whereas Na was a dominant cation in the groundwater beneath the forest lands. For the three major anions (i.e., F(-), Cl(-), and SO4(2-)), F(-) accounted for <1% of the total anions in the groundwater beneath the forest, wastewater, and agricultural lands. Impacts of land uses on groundwater Cd and Cr distributions were not profound. This study suggests that trilinear analysis is a useful technique to characterize the relationship between land use and groundwater quality.

  6. The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 S&T Roadmap Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-11

    The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 Science and Technology Roadmap Project is a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies and technology for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by EM-20 Roadmap Project staff.

  7. Quality-assurance plan for groundwater activities, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; Kahle, Sue C.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the standard procedures, policies, and field methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Washington Water Science Center staff for activities related to the collection, processing, analysis, storage, and publication of groundwater data. This groundwater quality-assurance plan changes through time to accommodate new methods and requirements developed by the Washington Water Science Center and the USGS Office of Groundwater. The plan is based largely on requirements and guidelines provided by the USGS Office of Groundwater, or the USGS Water Mission Area. Regular updates to this plan represent an integral part of the quality-assurance process. Because numerous policy memoranda have been issued by the Office of Groundwater since the previous groundwater quality assurance plan was written, this report is a substantial revision of the previous report, supplants it, and contains significant additional policies not covered in the previous report. This updated plan includes information related to the organization and responsibilities of USGS Washington Water Science Center staff, training, safety, project proposal development, project review procedures, data collection activities, data processing activities, report review procedures, and archiving of field data and interpretative information pertaining to groundwater flow models, borehole aquifer tests, and aquifer tests. Important updates from the previous groundwater quality assurance plan include: (1) procedures for documenting and archiving of groundwater flow models; (2) revisions to procedures and policies for the creation of sites in the Groundwater Site Inventory database; (3) adoption of new water-level forms to be used within the USGS Washington Water Science Center; (4) procedures for future creation of borehole geophysics, surface geophysics, and aquifer-test archives; and (5) use of the USGS Multi Optional Network Key Entry System software for entry of routine water-level data

  8. Multivariate statistical approach for the assessment of groundwater quality in Ujjain City, India.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, Vikas; Thakur, Lokendra Singh

    2012-10-01

    Groundwater quality assessment is an essential study which plays important role in the rational development and utilization of groundwater. Groundwater quality greatly influences the health of local people. The variations of water quality are essentially the combination of both anthropogenic and natural contributions. In order to understand the underlying physical and chemical processes this study analyzes 8 chemical and physical-chemical water quality parameters, viz. pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, total hardness, chloride and fluoride recorded at the 54 sampling stations during summer season of 2011 by using multivariate statistical techniques. Hierarchical clustering analysis (CA) is first applied to distinguish groundwater quality patterns among the stations, followed by the use of principle component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) to extract and recognize the major underlying factors contributing to the variations among the water quality measures. The first three components were chosen for interpretation of the data, which accounts for 72.502% of the total variance in the data set. The maximum number of variables, i.e. turbidity, EC, TDS and chloride were characterized by first component, while second and third were characterized by total alkalinity, total hardness, fluoride and pH respectively. This shows that hydro chemical constituents of the groundwater are mainly controlled by EC, TDS, and fluoride. The findings of the cluster analysis are presented in the form of dendrogram of the sampling stations (cases) as well as hydro chemical variables, which produced four major groupings, suggest that groundwater monitoring can be consolidated.

  9. Groundwater quality in the Lake Champlain Basin, New York, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Water was sampled from 20 production and domestic wells from August through November 2009 to characterize groundwater quality in the Lake Champlain Basin in New York. Of the 20 wells sampled, 8 were completed in sand and gravel, and 12 were completed in bedrock. The samples were collected and processed by standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria. Water quality in the study area is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards; these were color (1 sample), pH (3 samples), sodium (3 samples), total dissolved solids (4 samples), iron (4 samples), manganese (3 samples), gross alpha radioactivity (1 sample), radon-222 (10 samples), and bacteria (5 samples). The pH of all samples was typically neutral or slightly basic (median 7.1); the median water temperature was 9.7°C. The ions with the highest median concentrations were bicarbonate [median 158 milligrams per liter (mg/L)] and calcium (median 45.5 mg/L). Groundwater in the study area is soft to very hard, but more samples were hard or very hard (121 mg/L or more as CaCO3) than were moderately hard or soft (120 mg/L or less as CaCO3); the median hardness was 180 mg/L as CaCO3. The maximum concentration of nitrate plus nitrite was 3.79 mg/L as nitrogen, which did not exceed established drinking-water standards for nitrate plus nitrite (10 mg/L as nitrogen). The trace elements with the highest median concentrations were strontium (median 202 micrograms per liter [μg/L]), and iron (median 55 μg/L in unfiltered water). Six pesticides and pesticide degradates, including atrazine, fipronil, disulfoton, prometon, and two pesticide degradates, CIAT and desulfinylfipronil, were detected among five samples at concentrations

  10. Communicating Environmental Information to the Public: A New Water Quality Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, David J.; Janardan, Konanur G.

    1977-01-01

    A water quality index developed by the authors and used by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency is described. It compares biological and chemical assessments of water quality. Sampling procedures and use of the index are described. (BT)

  11. Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in the Yanqi Basin of Xinjiang Province, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuixian

    2013-09-01

    The Yanqi Basin in Xinjiang Province is an important agricultural area with a high population density. The extensive agricultural activities in the Yanqi Basin started in the 1950s with flood irrigation techniques. Since then, the groundwater table was raised because of the absence of an efficient drainage system. This obstacle is a crucial factor that restricts sustainable socioeconomic development. Hydrochemical investigations were conducted in the Yanqi Basin, Northwestern China, to determine the chemical composition of groundwater. Sixty groundwater samples were collected from different wells to monitor the water chemistry of various ions. The results of the chemical analysis indicate that the groundwater in the area is generally neutral to slightly alkaline and predominantly contains Na(+) and Ca(2+) cations as well as HCO3(-) and SO4 (2+) anions. High positive correlations between HCO3 (-)-Mg(2+) + Ca(2+), SO 4 (2-)-Mg(2+), SO4 (2-)-Na(+) + K(+), and Cl(-)-Na(+) + K(+) were obtained. The total dissolved solids (TDS) mainly depend on the concentration of major ions such as HCO3(-), SO4 (2-), Cl(-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+) + K(+). The dominant hydrochemical facies for groundwater are Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3(-), Mg(2+)-Ca(2+)-SO4 (2-)-Cl(-), Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), and Na(+)-K(+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-HCO3(-) types. The hydrochemical processes are the main factors that determine the water quality of the groundwater system. These processes include silicate mineral weathering, dissolution, ion exchange, and, to a lesser extent, evaporation, which seem to be more pronounced downgradient of the flow system. The saturation index (SI), which is calculated according to the ionic ratio plot, indicates that the gypsum-halite dissolution reactions occur during a certain degree of rock weathering. SI also indicates that evaporation is the dominant factor that determines the major ionic composition in the study area. The assessment results of the water samples using various methods

  12. Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in the Yanqi Basin of Xinjiang Province, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuixian

    2013-09-01

    The Yanqi Basin in Xinjiang Province is an important agricultural area with a high population density. The extensive agricultural activities in the Yanqi Basin started in the 1950s with flood irrigation techniques. Since then, the groundwater table was raised because of the absence of an efficient drainage system. This obstacle is a crucial factor that restricts sustainable socioeconomic development. Hydrochemical investigations were conducted in the Yanqi Basin, Northwestern China, to determine the chemical composition of groundwater. Sixty groundwater samples were collected from different wells to monitor the water chemistry of various ions. The results of the chemical analysis indicate that the groundwater in the area is generally neutral to slightly alkaline and predominantly contains Na(+) and Ca(2+) cations as well as HCO3(-) and SO4 (2+) anions. High positive correlations between HCO3 (-)-Mg(2+) + Ca(2+), SO 4 (2-)-Mg(2+), SO4 (2-)-Na(+) + K(+), and Cl(-)-Na(+) + K(+) were obtained. The total dissolved solids (TDS) mainly depend on the concentration of major ions such as HCO3(-), SO4 (2-), Cl(-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+) + K(+). The dominant hydrochemical facies for groundwater are Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3(-), Mg(2+)-Ca(2+)-SO4 (2-)-Cl(-), Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), and Na(+)-K(+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-HCO3(-) types. The hydrochemical processes are the main factors that determine the water quality of the groundwater system. These processes include silicate mineral weathering, dissolution, ion exchange, and, to a lesser extent, evaporation, which seem to be more pronounced downgradient of the flow system. The saturation index (SI), which is calculated according to the ionic ratio plot, indicates that the gypsum-halite dissolution reactions occur during a certain degree of rock weathering. SI also indicates that evaporation is the dominant factor that determines the major ionic composition in the study area. The assessment results of the water samples using various methods

  13. Environmental quality indexing of large industrial development alternatives using AHP

    SciTech Connect

    Solnes, Julius

    2003-05-01

    Two industrial development alternatives have been proposed for the East Coast of Iceland in order to strengthen its socio-economic basis. The favoured option is to build a large aluminium smelter, which requires massive hydropower development in the nearby highlands. Another viable option is the construction of a 6-million-ton oil refinery, following the planned exploitation of the Timan Pechora oil reserves in the Russian Arctic. A third 'fictitious' alternative could be general development of existing regional industry and new knowledge-based industries, development of ecotourism, establishment of national parks, accompanied by infrastructure improvement (roads, tunnels, communications, schools, etc.). The three alternatives will have different environmental consequences. The controversial hydropower plant for the smelter requires a large water reservoir as well as considerable land disturbance in this unique mountain territory, considered to be the largest uninhabited wilderness in Western Europe. The aluminium smelter and the oil refinery will give rise to substantial increase of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the country (about 20%). Then there is potential environmental risk associated with the refinery regarding oil spills at sea, which could have disastrous impact on the fisheries industry. However, the oil refinery does not require any hydropower development, which is a positive factor. Finally, the third alternative could be defined as a ''green'' solution whereby the detrimental environmental consequences of the two industrial solutions are mostly avoided. In order to compare the three alternatives in an orderly manner, the analytic hierarchy process methodology of Saaty was applied to calculate the environmental quality index of each alternative, which is defined as a weighted sum of selected environmental and socio-economic factors. These factors are evaluated on a comparison basis, applying the AHP methodology, and the weights in the quality

  14. The Assessment of Mangrove Sediment Quality in Mengkabong Lagoon: An Index Analysis Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praveena, Sarva M.; Radojevic, Miroslav; Abdullah, Mohd H.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to use different types of indexes to assess the current pollution status in Mengkabong lagoon and select the best index to describe the Mengkabong sediment quality. The indexes used in this study were Enrichment Factor (EF), Geo-accumulation Index (Igeo), Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Marine Sediment Pollution…

  15. Evaluation of groundwater quality and assessment of scaling potential and corrosiveness of water samples in Kadkan aquifer, Khorasan-e-Razavi Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili-Vardanjani, Mostafa; Rasa, Iraj; Amiri, Vahab; Yazdi, Mohammad; Pazand, Kaveh

    2015-02-01

    The chemical analysis of 129 groundwater samples in the Kadkan area, Khorasan-e-Razavi Province, NE of Iran was evaluated to determine the hydrochemical processes, assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation purposes, corrosiveness, and scaling potential of the groundwater. Accordingly, the suitability of groundwater for irrigation was evaluated based on the sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent, salinity hazard, and US Salinity Laboratory hazard diagram. Based on the electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio, the dominant classes are C3-S1, C3-S2, C2-S1, and C4-S2. According to the Wilcox plot, about 50 % of the samples fall in the "Excellent to Good" and "Good to Permissible" classes. Besides, the Langelier saturation index, Ryznar stability index (RSI), Larson-Skold index, and Puckorius scaling index were evaluated for assessing the corrosiveness and scaling potential of the groundwater. Corrosiveness and scaling indices stated that the majority of samples are classified into "Aggressive" and "Very Aggressive" category. In addition, chloride and sulfate interfere in 90 % of the samples. Assessment of hydrochemical characteristics indicates Na-Mg-Cl as the predominant hydrochemical type. Spatial distribution of hydrochemical parameters indicates that hydrochemical processes are influenced by geology and hydrogeology of Kadkan aquifer. The Gibbs plots gave an indication that groundwater chemistry in this area may have acquired the chemistry mainly from evaporation and mineral precipitation. Grouping the samples based on Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis helped to more separation of similar samples. The R-mode HCA grouped analyzed parameters into two groups based on similarity of hydrochemical characteristics. As a result, the samples collected in northern and southern parts of the study area show the best quality (i.e., lowest salinity) for some purposes such as irrigation and drinking. PMID:25638056

  16. Evaluation of groundwater quality and assessment of scaling potential and corrosiveness of water samples in Kadkan aquifer, Khorasan-e-Razavi Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili-Vardanjani, Mostafa; Rasa, Iraj; Amiri, Vahab; Yazdi, Mohammad; Pazand, Kaveh

    2015-02-01

    The chemical analysis of 129 groundwater samples in the Kadkan area, Khorasan-e-Razavi Province, NE of Iran was evaluated to determine the hydrochemical processes, assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation purposes, corrosiveness, and scaling potential of the groundwater. Accordingly, the suitability of groundwater for irrigation was evaluated based on the sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent, salinity hazard, and US Salinity Laboratory hazard diagram. Based on the electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio, the dominant classes are C3-S1, C3-S2, C2-S1, and C4-S2. According to the Wilcox plot, about 50 % of the samples fall in the "Excellent to Good" and "Good to Permissible" classes. Besides, the Langelier saturation index, Ryznar stability index (RSI), Larson-Skold index, and Puckorius scaling index were evaluated for assessing the corrosiveness and scaling potential of the groundwater. Corrosiveness and scaling indices stated that the majority of samples are classified into "Aggressive" and "Very Aggressive" category. In addition, chloride and sulfate interfere in 90 % of the samples. Assessment of hydrochemical characteristics indicates Na-Mg-Cl as the predominant hydrochemical type. Spatial distribution of hydrochemical parameters indicates that hydrochemical processes are influenced by geology and hydrogeology of Kadkan aquifer. The Gibbs plots gave an indication that groundwater chemistry in this area may have acquired the chemistry mainly from evaporation and mineral precipitation. Grouping the samples based on Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis helped to more separation of similar samples. The R-mode HCA grouped analyzed parameters into two groups based on similarity of hydrochemical characteristics. As a result, the samples collected in northern and southern parts of the study area show the best quality (i.e., lowest salinity) for some purposes such as irrigation and drinking.

  17. Assessing causes of quality deterioration of groundwater in Puttalam, Sri Lanka, using isotope and hydrochemical tools.

    PubMed

    Edirisinghe, E A N V; Karunarathne, G R R; Samarakoon, A S M N B; Pitawala, H M T G A; Dharmagunawardhane, H A; Tilakarathna, I A N D P

    2016-01-01

    Extensive extraction of groundwater has resulted in deterioration of the groundwater quality in the Puttalam area in the northwestern coastal zone of Sri Lanka. This situation led us to carry out the present comprehensive study based on environmental isotopic ((18)O, (2)H, (3)H) and geochemical evaluation to understand the root cause for water quality deterioration. The isotopic data suggest that the surface water and shallow groundwaters are subjected to intensive evaporation and, as a result, increase in their salinity. Deep groundwater of the area is mostly recharged by direct infiltration of rainwater and at few places by nearby surface water bodies. The salinity increase of deep groundwater depends on the specific hydrogeological zones and would be due to dissolution of salts which are precipitated in soil through the seawater spray over the time, dissolution of minerals in geological matrix and leaching of salts from salterns. The quality of the deep groundwater is relatively good in the granitic gneiss zone and nearby areas outside the sedimentary aquifer. There is no evidence from isotope and hydrogeochemical evaluation for seawater intrusion into groundwater in the Puttalam area. PMID:26906143

  18. Ground-Water Quality and Potential Effects of Individual Sewage Disposal System Effluent on Ground-Water Quality in Park County, Colorado, 2001-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Lisa D.; Ortiz, Roderick F.

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Park County, Colorado, began a study to evaluate ground-water quality in the various aquifers in Park County that supply water to domestic wells. The focus of this study was to identify and describe the principal natural and human factors that affect ground-water quality. In addition, the potential effects of individual sewage disposal system (ISDS) effluent on ground-water quality were evaluated. Ground-water samples were collected from domestic water-supply wells from July 2001 through October 2004 in the alluvial, crystalline-rock, sedimentary-rock, and volcanic-rock aquifers to assess general ground-water quality and effects of ISDS's on ground-water quality throughout Park County. Samples were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, bacteria, and boron; and selected samples also were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon, human-related (wastewater) compounds, trace elements, radionuclides, and age-dating constituents (tritium and chlorofluorocarbons). Drinking-water quality is adequate for domestic use throughout Park County with a few exceptions. Only about 3 percent of wells had concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, and (or) uranium that exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national, primary drinking-water standards. These primary drinking-water standards were exceeded only in wells completed in the crystalline-rock aquifers in eastern Park County. Escherichia coli bacteria were detected in one well near Guffey, and total coliform bacteria were detected in about 11 percent of wells sampled throughout the county. The highest total coliform concentrations were measured southeast of the city of Jefferson and west of Tarryall Reservoir. Secondary drinking-water standards were exceeded more frequently. About 19 percent of wells had concentrations of one or more constituents (pH, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and dissolved solids) that exceeded secondary drinking-water standards

  19. Appraisal of ground-water quality near wastewater-treatment facilities, Glacier National Park, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moreland, Joe A.; Wood, Wayne A.

    1982-01-01

    Water-level and water-quality data were collected from monitoring wells at wastewater-treatment facilities in Glacier National Park. Five additional shallow observation wells were installed at the Glacier Park Headquarters facility to monitor water quality in the shallow ground-water system. Water-level, water-quality, and geologic information indicate that some of the initial monitoring wells are not ideally located to sample ground water most likely to be affected by waste disposal at the sites. Small differences in chemical characteristics between samples from monitor wells indicate that effluent may be affecting ground-water quality but that impacts are not significant. Future monitoring of ground-water quality could be limited to selected wells most likely to be impacted by percolating effluent. Laboratory analyses for common ions could detect future impacts. (USGS)

  20. Direction of ground-water flow and ground-water quality near a landfill in Falmouth, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persky, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    A landfill in Falmouth, Massachusetts, is upgradient of a pond used for municipal water supply, but analysis of groundwater flow directions and groundwater quality indicates that leachate from the landfill does not threaten the municipal water supply. A network of water table observation wells was established, and water table altitudes were measured in these wells on several dates in 1981. Water quality analyses and specific conductance measurements were made on water samples from several wells in the vicinity of the landfill between October 1980 and April 1983. A water table altitude contour map of the area between the landfill and Long Pond for April 16-17, 1981, indicates that the direction of groundwater flow is primarily southwest from the landfill to Buzzards Bay. A similar map for September 2, 1981--a time at which the water table was unusually low--indicates the possibility of groundwater discharge to Long Pond from the landfill site. Groundwater quality beneath the landfill exceeded U.S. EPA water quality criteria for domestic water supply for manganese and total dissolved solids. Concentrations as high as 52 mg/L of nitrogen as ammonia and 4,500 micrograms/L (ug/L) of manganese were found. Concentrations of ammonia, manganese, calcium, potassium, and alkalinity exceeded local background levels by more than a factor of 100; specific-conductance levels and concentrations of hardness, barium, chloride, sodium, magnesium, iron, and strontium exceeded local background levels by more than a factor of 10; and cadmium concentrations exceeded local background levels by more than a factor of 5. Water quality analyses and field specific conductance measurements indicate the presence of a volume of leachate extending south-southwest from the landfill. Average chloride concentrations of landfill leachate, precipitation on the surface of Long Pond, and recharge from the remainder of the recharge area were 180, 3, and 9 mg/L, respectively. No significant degradation of

  1. Hydrochemistry of urban groundwater, Seoul, Korea: The impact of subway tunnels on groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Gi-Tak; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Yu, Soon-Young; Jo, Ho-Young; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Yun-Jong; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2008-10-01

    Hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data for subway tunnel seepage waters in Seoul (Republic of Korea) were examined to understand the effect of underground tunnels on the degradation of urban groundwater. A very large quantity of groundwater (up to 63 million m 3 year - 1 ) is discharged into subway tunnels with a total length of 287 km, resulting in a significant drop of the local groundwater table and the abandonment of groundwater wells. For the tunnel seepage water samples ( n = 72) collected from 43 subway stations, at least one parameter among pathogenic microbes (total coliform, heterotrophic bacteria), dissolved Mn and Fe, NH 4+, NO 3-, turbidity, and color exceeded the Korean Drinking Water Standards. Locally, tunnel seepage water was enriched in dissolved Mn (avg. 0.70 mg L - 1 , max. 5.58 mg L - 1 ), in addition to dissolved Fe, NH 4+, and pathogenic microbes, likely due to significant inflow of sewage water from broken or leaking sewer pipes. Geochemical modeling of redox reactions was conducted to simulate the characteristic hydrochemistry of subway tunnel seepage. The results show that variations in the reducing conditions occur in urban groundwater, dependent upon the amount of organic matter-rich municipal sewage contaminating the aquifer. The organic matter facilitates the reduction and dissolution of Mn- and Fe-bearing solids in aquifers and/or tunnel construction materials, resulting in the successive increase of dissolved Mn and Fe. The present study clearly demonstrates that locally significant deterioration of urban groundwater is caused by a series of interlinked hydrogeologic and hydrochemical changes induced by underground tunnels.

  2. Hydrochemistry of urban groundwater, Seoul, Korea: the impact of subway tunnels on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Chae, Gi-Tak; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Yu, Soon-Young; Jo, Ho-Young; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Yun-Jong; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2008-10-23

    Hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data for subway tunnel seepage waters in Seoul (Republic of Korea) were examined to understand the effect of underground tunnels on the degradation of urban groundwater. A very large quantity of groundwater (up to 63 million m3 year(-1)) is discharged into subway tunnels with a total length of 287 km, resulting in a significant drop of the local groundwater table and the abandonment of groundwater wells. For the tunnel seepage water samples (n = 72) collected from 43 subway stations, at least one parameter among pathogenic microbes (total coliform, heterotrophic bacteria), dissolved Mn and Fe, NH4+, NO3(-), turbidity, and color exceeded the Korean Drinking Water Standards. Locally, tunnel seepage water was enriched in dissolved Mn (avg. 0.70 mg L(-1), max. 5.58 mg L(-1)), in addition to dissolved Fe, NH4+, and pathogenic microbes, likely due to significant inflow of sewage water from broken or leaking sewer pipes. Geochemical modeling of redox reactions was conducted to simulate the characteristic hydrochemistry of subway tunnel seepage. The results show that variations in the reducing conditions occur in urban groundwater, dependent upon the amount of organic matter-rich municipal sewage contaminating the aquifer. The organic matter facilitates the reduction and dissolution of Mn- and Fe-bearing solids in aquifers and/or tunnel construction materials, resulting in the successive increase of dissolved Mn and Fe. The present study clearly demonstrates that locally significant deterioration of urban groundwater is caused by a series of interlinked hydrogeologic and hydrochemical changes induced by underground tunnels. PMID:18725171

  3. Hydrochemistry of urban groundwater, Seoul, Korea: the impact of subway tunnels on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Chae, Gi-Tak; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Yu, Soon-Young; Jo, Ho-Young; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Yun-Jong; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2008-10-23

    Hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data for subway tunnel seepage waters in Seoul (Republic of Korea) were examined to understand the effect of underground tunnels on the degradation of urban groundwater. A very large quantity of groundwater (up to 63 million m3 year(-1)) is discharged into subway tunnels with a total length of 287 km, resulting in a significant drop of the local groundwater table and the abandonment of groundwater wells. For the tunnel seepage water samples (n = 72) collected from 43 subway stations, at least one parameter among pathogenic microbes (total coliform, heterotrophic bacteria), dissolved Mn and Fe, NH4+, NO3(-), turbidity, and color exceeded the Korean Drinking Water Standards. Locally, tunnel seepage water was enriched in dissolved Mn (avg. 0.70 mg L(-1), max. 5.58 mg L(-1)), in addition to dissolved Fe, NH4+, and pathogenic microbes, likely due to significant inflow of sewage water from broken or leaking sewer pipes. Geochemical modeling of redox reactions was conducted to simulate the characteristic hydrochemistry of subway tunnel seepage. The results show that variations in the reducing conditions occur in urban groundwater, dependent upon the amount of organic matter-rich municipal sewage contaminating the aquifer. The organic matter facilitates the reduction and dissolution of Mn- and Fe-bearing solids in aquifers and/or tunnel construction materials, resulting in the successive increase of dissolved Mn and Fe. The present study clearly demonstrates that locally significant deterioration of urban groundwater is caused by a series of interlinked hydrogeologic and hydrochemical changes induced by underground tunnels.

  4. Evaluation of water quality and hydrogeochemistry of surface and groundwater, Tiruvallur District, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Kumar, S.; Hari Babu, S.; Eswar Rao, P.; Selvakumar, S.; Thivya, C.; Muralidharan, S.; Jeyabal, G.

    2016-07-01

    Water quality of Tiruvallur Taluk of Tiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, India has been analysed to assess its suitability in relation to domestic and agricultural uses. Thirty water samples, including 8 surface water (S), 22 groundwater samples [15 shallow ground waters (SW) and 7 deep ground waters (DW)], were collected to assess the various physico-chemical parameters such as Temperature, pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Total dissolved solids (TDS), cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K), anions (CO3, HCO3, Cl, SO4, NO3, PO4) and trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn). Various irrigation water quality diagrams and parameters such as United states salinity laboratory (USSL), Wilcox, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), sodium percentage (Na %), Residual sodium carbonate (RSC), Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (RSBC) and Kelley's ratio revealed that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation. Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) values suggest that the water is slightly corrosive and non-scale forming in nature. Gibbs plot suggests that the study area is dominated by evaporation and rock-water dominance process. Piper plot indicates the chemical composition of water, chiefly controlled by dissolution and mixing of irrigation return flow.

  5. Groundwater-quality monitoring program in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1980-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Chester County Water Resources Authority and the Chester County Health Department began a groundwater-quality monitoring program in 1980 in Chester County, Pa., where a large percentage of the population relies on wells for drinking-water supply. This report documents the program and serves as a reference for data collected through the program from 1980 through 2008. The initial focus of the program was to collect data on groundwater quality near suspected localized sources of contamination, such as uncontrolled landfills and suspected industrial wastes, to determine if contaminants were present that might pose a health risk to those using the groundwater. Subsequently, the program was expanded to address the effects of widely distributed contaminant sources associated with agricultural and residential land uses on groundwater quality and to document naturally occurring constituents, such as radium, radon, and arsenic, that are potential hazards in drinking water. Since 2000, base-flow stream samples have been collected in addition to well-water and spring samples in a few small drainage areas to investigate the relation between groundwater quality measured in well samples and streams. The program has primarily consisted of spatial assessment with limited temporal data collected on groundwater quality. Most data were collected through the monitoring program for reconnaissance purposes to identify and locate groundwater-quality problems and generally were not intended for rigorous statistical analyses that might determine land-use or geochemical factors affecting groundwater quality in space or through time. Results of the program found several contaminants associated with various land uses and human activities in groundwater in Chester County. Volatile organic compounds (such as trichloroethylene) were measured in groundwater near suspected localized contaminant sources in concentrations that exceeded drinking

  6. Construction of an environmental quality index for public health research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A more comprehensive estimate of environmental quality would improve our understanding of the relationship between environmental conditions and human health. An environmental quality index (EQI) for all counties in the U.S. was developed. Methods The EQI was developed in four parts: domain identification; data source acquisition; variable construction; and data reduction. Five environmental domains (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) were recognized. Within each domain, data sources were identified; each was temporally (years 2000–2005) and geographically (county) restricted. Variables were constructed for each domain and assessed for missingness, collinearity, and normality. Domain-specific data reduction was accomplished using principal components analysis (PCA), resulting in domain-specific indices. Domain-specific indices were then combined into an overall EQI using PCA. In each PCA procedure, the first principal component was retained. Both domain-specific indices and overall EQI were stratified by four rural–urban continuum codes (RUCC). Higher values for each index were set to correspond to areas with poorer environmental quality. Results Concentrations of included variables differed across rural–urban strata, as did within-domain variable loadings, and domain index loadings for the EQI. In general, higher values of the air and sociodemographic indices were found in the more metropolitan areas and the most thinly populated areas have the lowest values of each of the domain indices. The less-urbanized counties (RUCC 3) demonstrated the greatest heterogeneity and range of EQI scores (−4.76, 3.57) while the thinly populated strata (RUCC 4) contained counties with the most positive scores (EQI score ranges from −5.86, 2.52). Conclusion The EQI holds promise for improving our characterization of the overall environment for public health. The EQI describes the non-residential ambient county-level conditions to which residents are

  7. Quality of groundwater in the Denver Basin aquifer system, Colorado, 2003-5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Beck, Jennifer A.; Paschke, Suzanne; Bauch, Nancy J.; Mashburn, Shana L.

    2014-01-01

    Water-quality data were synthesized to evaluate factors that affect spatial and depth variability in water quality and to assess aquifer vulnerability to contaminants from geologic materials and those of human origin. The quality of shallow groundwater in the alluvial aquifer and shallow bedrock aquifer system has been adversely affected by development of agricultural and urban areas. Land use has altered the pattern and composition of recharge. Increased recharge from irrigation water has mobilized dissolved constituents and increased concentrations in the shallow groundwater. Concentrations of most constituents associated with poor or degraded water quality in shallow groundwater decreased with depth; many of these constituents are not geochemically conservative and are affected by geochemical reactions such as oxidation-reduction reactions. Groundwater age tracers provide additional insight into aquifer vulnerability and help determine if young groundwater of potentially poor quality has migrated to deeper parts of the bedrock aquifers used for drinking-water supply. Age-tracer results were used to group samples into categories of young, mixed, and old groundwater. Groundwater ages transitioned from mostly young in the water-table wells to mostly mixed in the shallowest bedrock aquifer, the Dawson aquifer, to mostly old in the deeper bedrock aquifers. Although the bedrock aquifers are mostly old groundwater of good water quality, several lines of evidence indicate that young, contaminant-bearing recharge has reached shallow to moderate depths in some areas of the bedrock aquifers. The Dawson aquifer is the most vulnerable of the bedrock aquifers to contamination, but results indicate that the older (deeper) bedrock aquifers are also vulnerable to groundwater contamination and that mixing with young recharge has occurred in some areas. Heavy pumping has caused water-level declines in the bedrock aquifers in some parts of the Denver Basin, which has the potential

  8. Impacts of urbanization on groundwater quality and recharge in a semi-arid alluvial basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Mark A.; Lohse, Kathleen A.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; McLain, Jean E. T.

    2011-10-01

    SummaryThe management of groundwater resources is paramount in semi-arid regions experiencing urban development. In the southwestern United States, enhancing recharge of urban storm runoff has been identified as a strategy for augmenting groundwater resources. An understanding of how urbanization may impact the timing of groundwater recharge and its quality is a prerequisite for mitigating water scarcity and identifying vulnerability to contamination. We sampled groundwater wells along the Rillito Creek in southern Arizona that had been previously analyzed for tritium in the late 1980s to early 1990s and analyzed samples for tritium ( 3H) and helium-3 ( 3H/ 3He) to evaluate changes in 3H and age date groundwaters. Groundwater samples were also analyzed for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and basic water quality metrics. Substantial changes in 3H values from waters sampled in the early 1990s compared to 2009 were identified after accounting for radioactive decay and indicate areas of rapid recharge. 3H- 3He groundwater ages ranged from 22 years before 2009 to modern recharge. CFC-11, -12 and -113 concentrations were anomalously high across the basin, and non-point source pollution in runoff and/or leaky infrastructure was identified as the most plausible source of this contamination. CFCs were strongly and positively correlated to nitrate ( r2 = 0.77) and a mobile trace metal, nickel ( r2 = 0.71), suggesting that solutes were derived from a similar source. Findings from this study suggest new waters from urban non-point sources are contributing to groundwater recharge and adversely affecting water quality. Reducing delivery of contaminants to areas of focused recharge will be critical to protect future groundwater resources.

  9. Evaluation of groundwater chemistry and its impact on drinking and irrigation water quality in the eastern part of the Central Arabian graben and trough system, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Faisal K.; Mogren, Saad; Mukhopadhyay, Manoj; Ibrahim, Elkhedr

    2016-08-01

    The present study deals with the assessment of groundwater with respect to the main hydrological processes controlling its chemistry and its subsequent impact on groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes in the eastern part of the Central Arabian graben and trough system. Groundwater samples were collected from 73 bore wells tapping the Cretaceous Biyadh and Wasia sandstone aquifers. The main groundwater facies in the area belong to the mixed Casbnd Mgsbnd SO4/Cl type and the SO4sbnd Cl type. Prolonged rock water interaction has resulted in high TDS (average of 2131 mg/l) and high EC (average of 2725 μS/cm) of the groundwater. The average nitrate (56.38 mg/l) value in the area is higher than the WHO prescribed limits of 50 mg/l in drinking water and is attributed to agricultural activities. The Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI) shows that 33% of the water samples fall within the excellent to good category whereas the remaining samples fall in the poor to unsuitable for drinking category. In terms of Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Sodium percentage (Na %) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) the groundwater is suitable for irrigation however the high salinity values can adversely affect the plant physiology.

  10. Evaluation of groundwater chemistry and its impact on drinking and irrigation water quality in the eastern part of the Central Arabian graben and trough system, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Faisal K.; Mogren, Saad; Mukhopadhyay, Manoj; Ibrahim, Elkhedr

    2016-08-01

    The present study deals with the assessment of groundwater with respect to the main hydrological processes controlling its chemistry and its subsequent impact on groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes in the eastern part of the Central Arabian graben and trough system. Groundwater samples were collected from 73 bore wells tapping the Cretaceous Biyadh and Wasia sandstone aquifers. The main groundwater facies in the area belong to the mixed Casbnd Mgsbnd SO4/Cl type and the SO4sbnd Cl type. Prolonged rock water interaction has resulted in high TDS (average of 2131 mg/l) and high EC (average of 2725 μS/cm) of the groundwater. The average nitrate (56.38 mg/l) value in the area is higher than the WHO prescribed limits of 50 mg/l in drinking water and is attributed to agricultural activities. The Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI) shows that 33% of the water samples fall within the excellent to good category whereas the remaining samples fall in the poor to unsuitable for drinking category. In terms of Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Sodium percentage (Na %) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) the groundwater is suitable for irrigation however the high salinity values can adversely affect the plant physiology.

  11. An innovative approach for determination of air quality health index.

    PubMed

    Gorai, Amit Kumar; Kanchan; Upadhyay, Abhishek; Tuluri, Francis; Goyal, Pramila; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2015-11-15

    Fuzzy-analytical hierarchical process (F-AHP) can be extended to determine fuzzy air quality health index (FAQHI) for deducing health risk associated with local air pollution levels, and subjective parameters. The present work aims at determining FAQHI by considering five air pollutant parameters (SO2, NO2, O3, CO, and PM10) and three subjective parameters (population sensitivity, population density and location sensitivity). Each of the individual pollutants has varying impacts. Hence the combined health effects associated with the pollutants were estimated by aggregating the pollutants with different weights. Global weights for each evaluation alternatives were determined using fuzzy-AHP method. The developed model was applied to determine FAQHI in Howrah City, India from daily-observed concentrations of air pollutants over the three-year period between 2009 and 2011. The FAQHI values obtained through this method in Howrah City range from 1 to 3. Since the permissible value of FAQHI (as calculated for NAAQS) for residential areas is 1.78, higher index values are of public health concern to the exposed individuals. During the period of study, the observed FAQHI values were found to be higher than 1.78 in most of the day in the months of January to March, and October to December. However, the index values were below the recommended limit during rest of the months. In conclusion, FAQHI in Howrah city was above permissible limit in winter months and within acceptable values in summer and rainy months. Diurnal variations of FAQHI showed a similar trend during the three-year period of assessment.

  12. Chemical substance transport in soils and its effect on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Khublarian, M G

    1989-11-01

    The problems of chemical substance applications in different spheres of industry and agriculture and their effects on groundwater quality and human health are described. Sources of groundwater contamination from industrial and municipal wastes, agricultural pollutants, etc., are listed. The experience in the application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in the USSR is described. A brief estimation of groundwater salinity is given for various regions of the USSR where irrigation is practiced, as well as the experience in environmental protection. Special attention is given to methods of simulating water seepage and chemical substance transport in soils. Boundary problems for free-surface seepage and dissolved solids transport in porous media are stated, and methods of solution are described in the example of the hydrodynamic theory of seepage and dispersion. Some results of calculations with this method are presented. The influence of groundwater quality on the morbidity of the population is given and the main diseases and associated medical problems are listed.

  13. The CHPRC Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) Quality Assurance Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2009-04-03

    The scope of the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, LLC (CHPRC) Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) is for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory staff to provide technical and integration support to CHPRC. This work includes conducting investigations at the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and other groundwater operable units, and providing strategic integration, technical integration and assessments, remediation decision support, and science and technology. The projects under this Master Project will be defined and included within the Master Project throughout the fiscal year, and will be incorporated into the Master Project Plan. This Quality Assurance Management Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the CHPRC Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) and all releases associated with the CHPRC Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The plan is designed to be used exclusively by project staff.

  14. Applicability of ELISA-based Determination of Pesticides for Groundwater Quality Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchihara, Takeo; Yoshimoto, Shuhei; Ishida, Satoshi; Imaizumi, Masayuki

    The principals and procedures of ELISA (Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay)-based determination of pesticides (Fenitrothion) in environmental samples were reviewed, and the applicability of the ELISA method for groundwater quality monitoring were validated through the experimental tracer tests in soil columns and the field test in Okinoerabu Island. The test results showed that the ELISA method could be useful not only for screening but also for quantitative analysis of pesticides. In the experimental tracer tests in soil columns, the retardation of pesticides leaching compared with conservative tracers were observed. In the field test, the contamination of the pesticide was detected in groundwater samples in Okinoerabu Island, even though the targeted pesticide was considered to be applied to the upland field 4 months ago. In order to investigate the transport and fate of pesticides in groundwater taking into account retardation from the field to groundwater table and the residue in groundwater, continuous observations of pesticides in groundwater are in a strong need, and the ELISA method is applicable to the long-term quality groundwater monitoring.

  15. Quality of groundwater in the Coastal Plain Sands aquifer of the Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajayi, Owolabi; Umoh, Obot A.

    1998-08-01

    The Coastal Plain Sands Formation is exploited by most of the population of the Akwa Ibom State in southeastern Nigeria. The aquifer is mostly coarse-grained, pebbly and poorly sorted sands with minor clay intercalations. It is up to 1500 m thick near the coast, but only a few metres thick along the northeastern boundary. Groundwater occurs principally under unconfined conditions. Boreholes penetrating less than 130 m yield over 300 m 3 hr -1. The main groundwater flow direction is seaward from north to south. The probable location of the fresh water-sea water interface is seaward. Forty-two groundwater and two surface water samples were analysed. Groundwater quality meets the WHO standards for potability and is dominated by bicarbonates of Na, Ca and Mg. The Sodium Adsorption Ratio lies between 0.2 and 2.0, indicating that the water is suitable for irrigation. The area has very high annual rainfall exceeding 2000 mm annually. Groundwater recharge should be high, although it is recommended that groundwater levels and quality near the coast be monitored regularly, especially in urban areas with high groundwater abstraction, to detect the onset of sea water intrusion which remains a potential hazard in this area.

  16. Ground-Water Quality in Western New York, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckhardt, David A.V.; Reddy, James E.; Tamulonis, Kathryn L.

    2008-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 7 production wells and 26 private residential wells in western New York from August through December 2006 and analyzed to characterize the chemical quality of ground water. Wells at 15 of the sites were screened in sand and gravel aquifers, and 18 were finished in bedrock aquifers. The wells were selected to represent areas of greatest ground-water use and to provide a geographical sampling from the 5,340-square-mile study area. Samples were analyzed for 5 physical properties and 219 constituents that included nutrients, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), phenolic compounds, organic carbon, and bacteria. Results indicate that ground water used for drinking supply is generally of acceptable quality, although concentrations of some constituents or bacteria exceeded at least one drinking-water standard at 27 of the 33 wells. The cations that were detected in the highest concentrations were calcium, magnesium, and sodium; anions that were detected in the highest concentrations were bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. The predominant nutrients were nitrate and ammonia; nitrate concentrations were higher in samples from sand and gravel aquifers than in samples from bedrock. The trace elements barium, boron, copper, lithium, nickel, and strontium were detected in every sample; the trace elements with the highest concentrations were barium, boron, iron, lithium, manganese, and strontium. Eighteen pesticides, including 9 pesticide degradates, were detected in water from 14 of the 33 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded State or Federal Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs). Fourteen volatile organic compounds were detected in water from 12 of the 33 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded MCLs. Eight chemical analytes and three types of bacteria were detected in concentrations that exceeded Federal and State drinking-water standards, which are typically identical

  17. Hydrochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality in El Eulma area, Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkhiri, Lazhar; Mouni, Lotfi

    2012-06-01

    The groundwater sources in the El Elma plain have been evaluated for their chemical composition and suitability for irrigation uses. Cluster analysis in Q-mode resulted in three major water types (HCO3 --Ca-2+dominated, Cl--HCO3 --Ca2+-dominated and Cl--Ca2+-Na+-dominated) for the groundwater. The US salinity diagram illustrates that most of the groundwater samples fall in C3S1 quality with high salinity hazard and low sodium hazard. Based on RSC values, all the samples of the three groups had values less than 1.25 and were good for irrigation.

  18. Effects of drainage and water table control on groundwater and surface water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Chescheir, G.M.; Skaggs, R.W.; Gilliam, J.W.; Breve, M.A.; Munster, C.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of the research project were to: conduct field experiments to measure and evaluate the effects of drainage, controlled drainage, and subirrigation of the following hydrologic and water quality variables: Movement and fate of fertilizer nutrients and sediment in surface runoff, shallow groundwater and subsurface drainage waters; and loss of pesticides in surface and subsurface drainage waters and their movement into shallow groundwaters; test the reliability of selected models for predicting the movement of pesticides and fertilizer nutrients to shallow groundwater and the losses of these pollutants via surface and subsurface drainage waters; and modify and further develop these existing models to improve their reliability.

  19. Framework for a ground-water quality monitoring and assessment program for California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belitz, Kenneth; Dubrovsky, Neil M.; Burow, Karen; Jurgens, Bryant C.; John, Tyler

    2003-01-01

    The State of California uses more ground water than any other State in the Nation. With a population of over 30 million people, an agricultural economy based on intensive irrigation, large urban industrial areas, and naturally elevated concentrations of some trace elements, there is a wide range of contaminant sources that have the potential to contaminate ground water and limit its beneficial uses. In response to the many-and different-potential sources of ground-water contamination, the State of California has evolved an extensive set of rules and programs to protect ground-water quality, and agencies to implement the rules and programs. These programs have in common a focus on compliance with regulations governing chemical use and (or) ground-water quality. Although appropriate for, and successful at, their specific missions, these programs do not at present provide a comprehensive view of ground-water quality in the State of California. In October 2001, The California Assembly passed a bill, AB 599, establishing the Ground-Water- Quality Monitoring Act of 2001.' The goal of AB 599 is to improve Statewide comprehensive ground-water monitoring and increase availability of information about ground-water quality to the public. AB 599 requires the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), in collaboration with an interagency task force (ITF) and a public advisory committee (PAC), to develop a plan for a comprehensive ground-water monitoring program. AB 599 specifies that the comprehensive program should be capable of assessing each ground-water basin in the State through direct and other statistically reliable sampling approaches, and that the program should integrate existing monitoring programs and design new program elements, as necessary. AB 599 also stresses the importance of prioritizing ground-water basins that provide drinking water. The United States Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the SWRCB, and in coordination with the ITF and PAC, has

  20. Applicability of statistical learning algorithms in groundwater quality modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Abedalrazq; Almasri, Mohammad N.; McKee, Mac; Kaluarachchi, Jagath J.

    2005-05-01

    Four algorithms are outlined, each of which has interesting features for predicting contaminant levels in groundwater. Artificial neural networks (ANN), support vector machines (SVM), locally weighted projection regression (LWPR), and relevance vector machines (RVM) are utilized as surrogates for a relatively complex and time-consuming mathematical model to simulate nitrate concentration in groundwater at specified receptors. Nitrates in the application reported in this paper are due to on-ground nitrogen loadings from fertilizers and manures. The practicability of the four learning machines in this work is demonstrated for an agriculture-dominated watershed where nitrate contamination of groundwater resources exceeds the maximum allowable contaminant level at many locations. Cross-validation and bootstrapping techniques are used for both training and performance evaluation. Prediction results of the four learning machines are rigorously assessed using different efficiency measures to ensure their generalization ability. Prediction results show the ability of learning machines to build accurate models with strong predictive capabilities and hence constitute a valuable means for saving effort in groundwater contamination modeling and improving model performance.

  1. Protecting groundwater quality with high frequency subsurface drip irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrate pollution from agriculture is a significant problem in the groundwater of the San Joaquin Valley of California (SJV). Nitrate is very mobile in water and transport is directly related to both water and fertilizer management on a crop. Surface irrigation is the principal method used in the SJ...

  2. Hydro-geochemical appraisal of groundwater quality from weathered basement aquifers in Northern Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanda, Elijah; Monjerezi, Maurice; Mwatseteza, Jonas F.; Kazembe, Lawrence N.

    The obligation to ensure adequate potable water supply to everyone, has necessitated the development of groundwater resources for reliable rural water supply in most developing countries. An understanding of spatial variation and processes affecting water quality is essential in sustaining usable water supplies under changing climate and local environmental pressures. In this study, an assessment of quality and dominant hydro-geochemical processes affecting the quality of groundwater from weathered basement aquifers in Mzimba district, Northern Malawi, has been conducted. Groundwater samples were collected from 172 hand-pumped boreholes, drilled for domestic rural water supply and analysed for major and minor ions, pH and total dissolved solids (TDS). In general, groundwater is of low mineralisation (TDS range: 29-1896 mg L -1 for the dry season), with hydro-geochemical facies dominated by Ca-HCO 3, which evolves to Ca-Cl water type. Multivariate statistical analysis (HCA and PCA) and geochemical interpretation showed that the Ca-HCO 3 groundwater type result from hydrolysis of silicate minerals, which causes the solution to reach equilibrium with kaolinite. The processes of cation exchange of Na + and K + in the groundwater for Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ on clay minerals, carbonate precipitation and evaporation, are shown to modify the chemical composition from Ca-HCO 3 types to Ca-Cl types. Groundwater is generally of good quality in both rainy and dry seasons, with little seasonal changes. The United States Salinity Laboratory Staff and Wilcox diagrams showed that most samples were also suitable for irrigation except for 4% (eight samples) of the groundwater samples (with EC > 2000 μS cm -1). These are located in alluviums and colluviums localised near river banks and in inter hill valleys.

  3. Ground-water quality in alluvial basins that have minimal urban development, south-central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.; Coes, Alissa L.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water quality data (1917-96) from 772 wells in 16 alluvial basins that have minimal urban development were used to determine the effect of nonurban factors on ground-water quality in south- central Arizona. Characterization of the spatial variability of ground-water quality within and among alluvial basins that have minimal urban development will provide a baseline to which water- quality problems associated with urbanization can be compared. Four water-type categories--calcium carbonate, calcium mixed anion, sodium carbonate, and sodium chloride--were used to classify the 13 alluvial basins for which adequate data were available. Ground-water quality was compared to U.S. Environmental Protaection Agency maximum contaminant levels for drinking water, depth of well, and depth to top of perforated interval for five alluvial basins that represented the four water-type categories. Exceedances of maximum contaminant levels for fluoride and nitrate occurred in three and four basins, respectively, of the five selected basins. Specific-conductance values for ground water in the five selected basins tend to increase in a northwesterly direction toward the central part of Arizona as the extent of evaporite deposits increases. The results of this study, which are part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, can be used to determine the effects of urban land-use activities on ground-water quality in similar hydrogeologic conditions and may be the best indicator available for nonurban ground-water quality in the region.

  4. Hydrochemical characteristics and water quality assessment of surface water and groundwater in Songnen plain, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Yinghua; Han, Dongmei; Tang, Changyuan; Yu, Yilei; Ma, Ying

    2012-05-15

    Water quality is the critical factor that influence on human health and quantity and quality of grain production in semi-humid and semi-arid area. Songnen plain is one of the grain bases in China, as well as one of the three major distribution regions of soda saline-alkali soil in the world. To assess the water quality, surface water and groundwater were sampled and analyzed by fuzzy membership analysis and multivariate statistics. The surface water were gather into class I, IV and V, while groundwater were grouped as class I, II, III and V by fuzzy membership analysis. The water samples were grouped into four categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagrams of USDA. Most water samples distributed in category C1-S1, C2-S2 and C3-S3. Three groups were generated from hierarchical cluster analysis. Four principal components were extracted from principal component analysis. The indicators to water quality assessment were Na, HCO(3), NO(3), Fe, Mn and EC from principal component analysis. We conclude that surface water and shallow groundwater are suitable for irrigation, the reservoir and deep groundwater in upstream are the resources for drinking. The water for drinking should remove of the naturally occurring ions of Fe and Mn. The control of sodium and salinity hazard is required for irrigation. The integrated management of surface water and groundwater for drinking and irrigation is to solve the water issues.

  5. Assessment of groundwater quality data for the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation, Rolette County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lundgren, Robert F.; Vining, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation relies on groundwater supplies to meet the demands of community and economic needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians, examined historical groundwater-level and groundwater-quality data for the Fox Hills, Hell Creek, Rolla, and Shell Valley aquifers. The two main sources of water-quality data for groundwater were the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database and the North Dakota State Water Commission database. Data included major ions, trace elements, nutrients, field properties, and physical properties. The Fox Hills and Hell Creek aquifers had few groundwater water-quality data. The lack of data limits any detailed assessments that can be made about these aquifers. Data for the Rolla aquifer exist from 1978 through 1980 only. The concentrations of some water-quality constituents exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant levels. No samples were analyzed for pesticides and hydrocarbons. Numerous water-quality samples have been obtained from the Shell Valley aquifer. About one-half of the water samples from the Shell Valley aquifer had concentrations of iron, manganese, sulfate, and dissolved solids that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant levels. Overall, the data did not indicate obvious patterns in concentrations.

  6. Estimation of impacts on groundwater quality in an urban area of Ljubljana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janža, Mitja; Prestor, Joerg; Pestotnik, Simona; Jamnik, Brigita

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater is a major source of drinking water supply in many cities worldwide. It is relatively stable and better-protected water resource compared to surface water and will have a vital role in assuring water-supply security in the future. In urbanized catchments numerous human activities (e.g. settling, industry, traffic, agriculture) take place which pose a threat to groundwater quality. For sustainable management of urban groundwater resources an integrated and adaptive approach based on continuous monitoring supported by modeling is needed. The aim of presented study was to develop a model of environmental pressures and impacts on Ljubljansko polje aquifer which is the main source exploited for the public drinking water supply of the city of Ljubljana. It is based on estimation of contaminants emissions from different sources, coupled with numerical transport modelling which is used to assess the impact on groundwater quality. The model was built up on detailed analysis of nitrogen mass balance and validated with monitoring data - concentration measurements of relevant chemical parameters. Based on the model simulations impacts of different sources of pollution on groundwater quality was estimated and priority of measures for improvement of chemical status of groundwater was defined.

  7. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the South Coast Interior groundwater basins, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 653-square-mile (1,691-square-kilometer) South Coast Interior Basins (SCI) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The South Coast Interior Basins study unit contains eight priority groundwater basins grouped into three study areas, Livermore, Gilroy, and Cuyama, in the Southern Coast Ranges hydrogeologic province. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA South Coast Interior Basins study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated (raw) groundwater quality within the primary aquifer system, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality between basins. The assessment was based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 50 wells in 2008 and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the SCI study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as trace elements and minor ions. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifer system of the SCI study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration

  8. Groundwater quality assessment and its correlation with gastroenteritis using GIS: a case study of Rawal Town, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Syed Umair; Iqbal, Javed; Hasnain, Ghalib

    2014-11-01

    Majority of the people of Pakistan get drinking water from groundwater source. Nearly 40 % of the total ailments reported in Pakistan are the result of dirty drinking water. Every summer, thousands of patients suffer from acute gastroenteritis in the Rawal Town. Therefore, a study was designed to generate a water quality index map of the Rawal Town and identify the relationship between bacteriological water quality and socio-economic indicators with gastroenteritis in the study area. Water quality and gastroenteritis patient data were collected by surveying the 262 tubewells and the major hospitals in the Rawal Town. The collected spatial data was analyzed by using ArcGIS spatial analyst (Moran's I spatial autocorrelation) and geostatistical analysis tools (inverse distance weighted, radial basis function, kriging, and cokriging). The water quality index (WQI) for the study area was computed using pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids, calcium, hardness, alkalinity, and chloride values of the 262 tubewells. The results of Moran's I spatial autocorrelation showed that the groundwater physicochemical parameters were clustered. Among IDW, radial basis function, and kriging and cokriging interpolation techniques, cokriging showed the lowest root mean square error. Cokriging was used to make the spatial distribution maps of water quality parameters. The WQI results showed that more than half of the tubewells in the Rawal Town were providing "poor" to "unfit" drinking water. The Pearson's coefficient of correlation for gastroenteritis with fecal coliform was found significant (P < 0.05) in Water and Sanitation Agency (WASA) zone 2, and with shortage of toilets, it was significant (P < 0.05) in WASA zones 1 and 3. However, it was significantly (P < 0.01) inversely related with literacy rate in WASA zones 1, 2, and 3.

  9. Salinity of deep groundwater in California: Water quantity, quality, and protection

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mary; Jackson, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Deep groundwater aquifers are poorly characterized but could yield important sources of water in California and elsewhere. Deep aquifers have been developed for oil and gas extraction, and this activity has created both valuable data and risks to groundwater quality. Assessing groundwater quantity and quality requires baseline data and a monitoring framework for evaluating impacts. We analyze 938 chemical, geological, and depth data points from 360 oil/gas fields across eight counties in California and depth data from 34,392 oil and gas wells. By expanding previous groundwater volume estimates from depths of 305 m to 3,000 m in California’s Central Valley, an important agricultural region with growing groundwater demands, fresh [<3,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS)] groundwater volume is almost tripled to 2,700 km3, most of it found shallower than 1,000 m. The 3,000-m depth zone also provides 3,900 km3 of fresh and saline water, not previously estimated, that can be categorized as underground sources of drinking water (USDWs; <10,000 ppm TDS). Up to 19% and 35% of oil/gas activities have occurred directly in freshwater zones and USDWs, respectively, in the eight counties. Deeper activities, such as wastewater injection, may also pose a potential threat to groundwater, especially USDWs. Our findings indicate that California’s Central Valley alone has close to three times the volume of fresh groundwater and four times the volume of USDWs than previous estimates suggest. Therefore, efforts to monitor and protect deeper, saline groundwater resources are needed in California and beyond. PMID:27354527

  10. Salinity of deep groundwater in California: Water quantity, quality, and protection.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mary; Jackson, Robert B

    2016-07-12

    Deep groundwater aquifers are poorly characterized but could yield important sources of water in California and elsewhere. Deep aquifers have been developed for oil and gas extraction, and this activity has created both valuable data and risks to groundwater quality. Assessing groundwater quantity and quality requires baseline data and a monitoring framework for evaluating impacts. We analyze 938 chemical, geological, and depth data points from 360 oil/gas fields across eight counties in California and depth data from 34,392 oil and gas wells. By expanding previous groundwater volume estimates from depths of 305 m to 3,000 m in California's Central Valley, an important agricultural region with growing groundwater demands, fresh [<3,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS)] groundwater volume is almost tripled to 2,700 km(3), most of it found shallower than 1,000 m. The 3,000-m depth zone also provides 3,900 km(3) of fresh and saline water, not previously estimated, that can be categorized as underground sources of drinking water (USDWs; <10,000 ppm TDS). Up to 19% and 35% of oil/gas activities have occurred directly in freshwater zones and USDWs, respectively, in the eight counties. Deeper activities, such as wastewater injection, may also pose a potential threat to groundwater, especially USDWs. Our findings indicate that California's Central Valley alone has close to three times the volume of fresh groundwater and four times the volume of USDWs than previous estimates suggest. Therefore, efforts to monitor and protect deeper, saline groundwater resources are needed in California and beyond.

  11. Salinity of deep groundwater in California: Water quantity, quality, and protection.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mary; Jackson, Robert B

    2016-07-12

    Deep groundwater aquifers are poorly characterized but could yield important sources of water in California and elsewhere. Deep aquifers have been developed for oil and gas extraction, and this activity has created both valuable data and risks to groundwater quality. Assessing groundwater quantity and quality requires baseline data and a monitoring framework for evaluating impacts. We analyze 938 chemical, geological, and depth data points from 360 oil/gas fields across eight counties in California and depth data from 34,392 oil and gas wells. By expanding previous groundwater volume estimates from depths of 305 m to 3,000 m in California's Central Valley, an important agricultural region with growing groundwater demands, fresh [<3,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS)] groundwater volume is almost tripled to 2,700 km(3), most of it found shallower than 1,000 m. The 3,000-m depth zone also provides 3,900 km(3) of fresh and saline water, not previously estimated, that can be categorized as underground sources of drinking water (USDWs; <10,000 ppm TDS). Up to 19% and 35% of oil/gas activities have occurred directly in freshwater zones and USDWs, respectively, in the eight counties. Deeper activities, such as wastewater injection, may also pose a potential threat to groundwater, especially USDWs. Our findings indicate that California's Central Valley alone has close to three times the volume of fresh groundwater and four times the volume of USDWs than previous estimates suggest. Therefore, efforts to monitor and protect deeper, saline groundwater resources are needed in California and beyond. PMID:27354527

  12. Groundwater quality in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Mary C.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s untreated groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Selected groundwater basins in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  13. Water quality analysis of groundwater in crystalline basement rocks, Northern Ghana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anku, Y.S.; Banoeng-Yakubo, B.; Asiedu, D.K.; Yidana, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrochemical data are presented for groundwater samples, collected from fractured aquifers in parts of northern Ghana. The data was collected to assess the groundwater suitability for domestic and agricultural use. Results of the study reveal that the pH of the groundwater in the area is slightly acidic to slightly alkaline. The electrical conductivity values, total dissolved solids (TDS) values and calcium, magnesium and sodium concentrations in the groundwater are generally below the limit set by the WHO for potable water supply. On the basis of activity diagrams, groundwater from the fractured aquifers appears to be stable within the montmorillonite field, suggesting weathering of silicate minerals. An inverse distance weighting interpolator with a power of 2 was applied to the data points to produce prediction maps for nitrate and fluoride. The distribution maps show the presence of high nitrate concentrations (50-194??mg/l) in some of the boreholes in the western part of the study area indicating anthropogenic impact on the groundwater. Elevated fluoride level (1.5-4??mg/l), higher than the WHO allowable fluoride concentration of 1.5, is recorded in the groundwater underlying the northeastern part of the study area, more specifically Bongo and its surrounding communities of the Upper East region. Results of this study suggest that groundwater from the fractured aquifers in the area exhibit low sodicity-low salinity (S1-C1), low sodicity-medium salinity (S1-C2) characteristics [United States Salinity Laboratory (USSL) classification scheme]. All data points from this study plot within the 'Excellent to good' category on a Wilcox diagram. Groundwater in this area thus appears to provide irrigation water of excellent quality. The hydrochemical results indicate that, although nitrate and fluoride concentrations in some boreholes are high, the groundwater in the study area, based on the parameters analyzed, is chemically potable and suitable for domestic and

  14. Estimation of Heavy Metal Contamination in Groundwater and Development of a Heavy Metal Pollution Index by Using GIS Technique.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Singh, Abhay Kumar; De Maio, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal (Al, As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn) concentration in sixty-six groundwater samples of the West Bokaro coalfield were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy for determination of seasonal fluctuation, source apportionment and heavy metal pollution index (HPI). Metal concentrations were found higher in the pre-monsoon season as compared to the post-monsoon season. Geographic information system (GIS) tool was attributed to study the metals risk in groundwater of the West Bokaro coalfield. The results show that 94 % of water samples were found as low class and 6 % of water samples were in medium class in the post-monsoon season. However, 79 % of water samples were found in low class, 18 % in medium class and 3 % in high class in the pre-monsoon season. The HPI values were below the critical pollution index value of 100. The concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, and Ni are exceeding the desirable limits in many groundwater samples in both seasons. PMID:26886427

  15. Estimation of Heavy Metal Contamination in Groundwater and Development of a Heavy Metal Pollution Index by Using GIS Technique.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Singh, Abhay Kumar; De Maio, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal (Al, As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn) concentration in sixty-six groundwater samples of the West Bokaro coalfield were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy for determination of seasonal fluctuation, source apportionment and heavy metal pollution index (HPI). Metal concentrations were found higher in the pre-monsoon season as compared to the post-monsoon season. Geographic information system (GIS) tool was attributed to study the metals risk in groundwater of the West Bokaro coalfield. The results show that 94 % of water samples were found as low class and 6 % of water samples were in medium class in the post-monsoon season. However, 79 % of water samples were found in low class, 18 % in medium class and 3 % in high class in the pre-monsoon season. The HPI values were below the critical pollution index value of 100. The concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, and Ni are exceeding the desirable limits in many groundwater samples in both seasons.

  16. Groundwater quality assessment of the Limnos Island Volcanic Aquifers, Greece.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, George; Panagiotaras, Dionisios; Giannoulopoulos, Panagiotis

    2013-05-01

    Limnos Island in Greece, which has been the subject of extensive hydrogeological research, contains confined volcanic aquifers that overlie impermeable flysch. Groundwater salinization is usually the effect of seawater intrusion, and results from a combination of factors such as low annual areal precipitation and exploitation of aquifers for civil, commercial, and agricultural purposes. Areas with intense agricultural activities have also increasingly observed these effects. A geochemical evaluation on the basis of multiple ion (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-), NO3-) concentrations and physicochemical parameters distribution revealed that ion exchange is the dominant hydrogeochemical process. However, the enrichment of groundwater in potassium and magnesium results from rock and mineral weathering and dissolution.

  17. Groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges Basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily from mixture of ambient sources, including direct percolation of precipitation and irrigation waters, infiltration of runoff from surrounding hills/areas, seepage from rivers and creeks, and subsurface inflow (from non-alluvial geologic units that bound the alluvial basins). The primary sources of discharge are evaporation, discharge to streams, and water pumped for municipal supply and irrigation.

  18. Influences on water quality in a groundwater dependent wetland system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanafield, M.; Rigosi, A.; Wood, C.; White, N.; Liu, Y.; Brookes, J. D.; Cook, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    Ewens Ponds is a unique series of connected wetlands situated within the Gambier Limestone formation in the Gambier Basin on the southeastern coast in South Australia. The system is composed of three consecutive ponds, each with a total depth of 9 to 13 m deep. Groundwater is the sole water source for the ponds, and the clear water, lush flora, and rare indigenous fish that characterize these wetlands typically lure thousands of divers to the Ponds each year. Over the past century, agricultural practices in the area have changed the hydrology of this system in many ways; first with an extensive system of drains on both sides of the Ponds to make the surrounding area viable for agricultural use, subsequently with the dredging of the outflow of the Ponds and addition of synthetic fertilizers, and most recently with heavy aquifer pumping for widespread use of center pivot irrigation systems. Beginning in the 1970s, diebacks in the Ponds' flora were documented, concurrent with spikes in nutrient concentrations. In nearby waters, reductions in key wetland species have been observed during periods of high alkalinity (pH>10). Following these concerns, the current study aims to quantify the water budget within the ponds, identify sources of nutrients, and estimate the age of groundwaters entering the wetlands for correlation with longterm agricultural trends. Groundwater ages were sampled in May 2014 and analysed for Carbon 14 and SF6, in addition to the installation of salinity and water level sensors and flow gaging. Preliminary results show that approximately 70 percent of the water enters the system through groundwater inflow in the first pond, with the remaining water entering within the third pond. A slight increase in the electrical conductivity of the ponds (average 750 μS in the first pond, up to 800 μS in the third pond) also differentiates the water.

  19. Quality of our groundwater resources: arsenic and fluoride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater often contains arsenic or fluoride concentrations too high for drinking or cooking. These constituents, often naturally occurring, are not easy to remove. The right combination of natural or manmade conditions can lead to elevated arsenic or fluoride which includes continental source rocks, high alkalinity and pH, reducing conditions for arsenic, high phosphate, high temperature and high silica. Agencies responsible for safe drinking water should be aware of these conditions, be prepared to monitor, and treat if necessary.

  20. Spatial variability and long-term analysis of groundwater quality of Faisalabad industrial zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Muhammad Salman; Nasir, Abdul; Rashid, Haroon; Shah, Syed Hamid Hussain

    2016-09-01

    Water is the basic necessity of life and is essential for healthy society. In this study, groundwater quality analysis was carried out for the industrial zone of Faisalabad city. Sixty samples of groundwater were collected from the study area. The quality maps of deliberately analyzed results were prepared in GIS. The collected samples were analyzed for chemical parameters and heavy metals, such as total hardness, alkalinity, cadmium, arsenic, nickel, lead, and fluoride, and then, the results were compared with the WHO guidelines. The values of these results were represented by a mapping of quality parameters using the ArcView GIS v9.3, and IDW was used for raster interpolation. The long-term analysis of these parameters has been carried out using the `R Statistical' software. It was concluded that water is partially not fit for drinking, and direct use of this groundwater may cause health issues.

  1. Linking Groundwater Quality and Quantity: An Assessment of Satellite-Based Groundwater Storage Anomalies From GRACE Against Ground Measurements of Contaminants in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaie Boroon, M.; Fisher, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater comprises a large portion of irrigation for California's agriculture, and sustains a wide diversity of ecosystems as well as consumptive use, but pumping is occurring faster than replenishment. At the same time, contaminants from fertilizers and pesticides are infiltrating into the groundwater, becoming increasingly concentrated as water is extracted. We compared space-based observations of groundwater anomalies from California's San Joaquin Valley using the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) against measurements of 42 organic and inorganic chemicals from 41,667 wells in the valley from 2003 to 2010. Preliminary results show both strong and weak correlations with groundwater depletion against increasing chlorine (r2=0.78), boron (r2=0.88), but no relationship with benzene (r2=0.03). These results are the first to link space-based groundwater quantity with groundwater quality.

  2. Results of RCRA groundwater quality assessment at the 216-B-3 Pond Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D.B.; Teel, S.S.

    1997-06-01

    This document describes a groundwater quality assessment of the 216-B-3 pond system, a Resources Conservation and Recovery act of 1976 (RCRA) waste facility. In 1990, sampling and chemical analysis of groundwater underlying the facility indicated that the contamination indicator parameters, total organic halogens (TOX), and total organic carbon (TOC) had exceeded established limits in two wells. This discovery placed the facility into RCRA groundwater assessment status and subsequently led to a more detailed hydrochemical analysis of groundwater underlying the facility. Comprehensive chemical analyses of groundwater samples from 1994 through 1996 revealed one compound, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TRIS2CH), that may have contributed to elevated TOX concentrations. No compound was identified as a contributor to TOC. Detailed evaluations of TOX, TOC, and TRIS2CH and comparison of occurrences of these parameters led to conclusions that (1) with few exceptions, these constituents occur at low concentrations below or near limits of quantitation; (2) it is problematic whether the low concentrations of TRIS2CH represent a contaminant originating from the facility or if it is a product of well construction; and (3) given the low and diminishing concentration of TOX, TOC, and TRIS2CH, no further investigation into the occurrent of these constituents is justified. Continued groundwater monitoring should include an immediate recalculation of background critical means of upgradient/downgradient comparisons and a return to seminannual groundwater monitoring under a RCRA indicator parameter evaluation program.

  3. Assessment of groundwater quality: a fusion of geochemical and geophysical information via Bayesian neural networks.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Saumen; Erram, V C; Gupta, Gautam; Tiwari, Ram Krishna; Kulkarni, U D; Sangpal, R R

    2013-04-01

    Deplorable quality of groundwater arising from saltwater intrusion, natural leaching and anthropogenic activities is one of the major concerns for the society. Assessment of groundwater quality is, therefore, a primary objective of scientific research. Here, we propose an artificial neural network-based method set in a Bayesian neural network (BNN) framework and employ it to assess groundwater quality. The approach is based on analyzing 36 water samples and inverting up to 85 Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding data. We constructed a priori model by suitably parameterizing geochemical and geophysical data collected from the western part of India. The posterior model (post-inversion) was estimated using the BNN learning procedure and global hybrid Monte Carlo/Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimization scheme. By suitable parameterization of geochemical and geophysical parameters, we simulated 1,500 training samples, out of which 50 % samples were used for training and remaining 50 % were used for validation and testing. We show that the trained model is able to classify validation and test samples with 85 % and 80 % accuracy respectively. Based on cross-correlation analysis and Gibb's diagram of geochemical attributes, the groundwater qualities of the study area were classified into following three categories: "Very good", "Good", and "Unsuitable". The BNN model-based results suggest that groundwater quality falls mostly in the range of "Good" to "Very good" except for some places near the Arabian Sea. The new modeling results powered by uncertainty and statistical analyses would provide useful constrain, which could be utilized in monitoring and assessment of the groundwater quality. PMID:22899457

  4. Assessment of groundwater quality: a fusion of geochemical and geophysical information via Bayesian neural networks.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Saumen; Erram, V C; Gupta, Gautam; Tiwari, Ram Krishna; Kulkarni, U D; Sangpal, R R

    2013-04-01

    Deplorable quality of groundwater arising from saltwater intrusion, natural leaching and anthropogenic activities is one of the major concerns for the society. Assessment of groundwater quality is, therefore, a primary objective of scientific research. Here, we propose an artificial neural network-based method set in a Bayesian neural network (BNN) framework and employ it to assess groundwater quality. The approach is based on analyzing 36 water samples and inverting up to 85 Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding data. We constructed a priori model by suitably parameterizing geochemical and geophysical data collected from the western part of India. The posterior model (post-inversion) was estimated using the BNN learning procedure and global hybrid Monte Carlo/Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimization scheme. By suitable parameterization of geochemical and geophysical parameters, we simulated 1,500 training samples, out of which 50 % samples were used for training and remaining 50 % were used for validation and testing. We show that the trained model is able to classify validation and test samples with 85 % and 80 % accuracy respectively. Based on cross-correlation analysis and Gibb's diagram of geochemical attributes, the groundwater qualities of the study area were classified into following three categories: "Very good", "Good", and "Unsuitable". The BNN model-based results suggest that groundwater quality falls mostly in the range of "Good" to "Very good" except for some places near the Arabian Sea. The new modeling results powered by uncertainty and statistical analyses would provide useful constrain, which could be utilized in monitoring and assessment of the groundwater quality.

  5. Agriculture-related trends in groundwater quality of the glacial deposits aquifer, central Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saad, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Measuring and understanding trends in groundwater quality is necessary for determining whether changes in land-management practices have an effect on groundwater quality. This paper describes an approach that was used to measure and understand trends using data from two groundwater studies conducted in central Wisconsin as part of the USGS NAWQA program. One of the key components of this approach, determining the age of sampled groundwater, gave a temporal component to the snapshots of water quality that were obtained through synoptic-sampling efforts. This approach can be used at other locations where groundwater quality data are collected, groundwater age can be determined, and associated temporal data are available. Results of these studies indicate measured concentrations of nitrate and atrazine plus deethylatrazine were correlated to historical patterns of fertilizer and atrazine use. Concentrations of nitrate in groundwater have increased over time; concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine increased and then decreased. Concentrations of nitrate also were correlated to screen depth below the water level and concentrations of dissolved O2; concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine were correlated to dissolved O2 and annual precipitation. To measure trends in concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine, the data, collected over a near-decadal period, were adjusted to account for changes in laboratory-reporting levels and analytical recoveries. Only after accounting for these changes was it apparent that the median concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine decreased over the near-decadal interval between sampling efforts. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  6. Groundwater-quality and quality-control data for two monitoring wells near Pavillion, Wyoming, April and May 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Peter R.; McMahon, Peter B.; Mueller, David K.; Clark, Melanie L.

    2012-01-01

    In June 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency installed two deep monitoring wells (MW01 and MW02) near Pavillion, Wyoming, to study groundwater quality. During April and May 2012, the U.S Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, collected groundwater-quality data and quality-control data from monitoring well MW01 and, following well redevelopment, quality-control data for monitoring well MW02. Two groundwater-quality samples were collected from well MW01—one sample was collected after purging about 1.5 borehole volumes, and a second sample was collected after purging 3 borehole volumes. Both samples were collected and processed using methods designed to minimize atmospheric contamination or changes to water chemistry. Groundwater-quality samples were analyzed for field water-quality properties (water temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, oxidation potential); inorganic constituents including naturally occurring radioactive compounds (radon, radium-226 and radium-228); organic constituents; dissolved gasses; stable isotopes of methane, water, and dissolved inorganic carbon; and environmental tracers (carbon-14, chlorofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, tritium, helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and the ratio of helium-3 to helium-4). Quality-control sample results associated with well MW01 were evaluated to determine the extent to which environmental sample analytical results were affected by bias and to evaluate the variability inherent to sample collection and laboratory analyses. Field documentation, environmental data, and quality-control data for activities that occurred at the two monitoring wells during April and May 2012 are presented.

  7. Comparison of Soil Quality Index Using Three Methods

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Atanu; Lal, Rattan

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of management-induced changes in soil quality is important to sustaining high crop yield. A large diversity of cultivated soils necessitate identification development of an appropriate soil quality index (SQI) based on relative soil properties and crop yield. Whereas numerous attempts have been made to estimate SQI for major soils across the World, there is no standard method established and thus, a strong need exists for developing a user-friendly and credible SQI through comparison of various available methods. Therefore, the objective of this article is to compare three widely used methods to estimate SQI using the data collected from 72 soil samples from three on-farm study sites in Ohio. Additionally, challenge lies in establishing a correlation between crop yield versus SQI calculated either depth wise or in combination of soil layers as standard methodology is not yet available and was not given much attention to date. Predominant soils of the study included one organic (Mc), and two mineral (CrB, Ko) soils. Three methods used to estimate SQI were: (i) simple additive SQI (SQI-1), (ii) weighted additive SQI (SQI-2), and (iii) statistically modeled SQI (SQI-3) based on principal component analysis (PCA). The SQI varied between treatments and soil types and ranged between 0–0.9 (1 being the maximum SQI). In general, SQIs did not significantly differ at depths under any method suggesting that soil quality did not significantly differ for different depths at the studied sites. Additionally, data indicate that SQI-3 was most strongly correlated with crop yield, the correlation coefficient ranged between 0.74–0.78. All three SQIs were significantly correlated (r = 0.92–0.97) to each other and with crop yield (r = 0.65–0.79). Separate analyses by crop variety revealed that correlation was low indicating that some key aspects of soil quality related to crop response are important requirements for estimating SQI. PMID:25148036

  8. Impact of diffuse nitrate pollution sources on groundwater quality--some examples from Czechoslovakia.

    PubMed Central

    Benes, V; Pĕkný, V; Skorepa, J; Vrba, J

    1989-01-01

    In several regions of Czechoslovakia with intensive agricultural production, the correlation between the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied and the nitrate content in groundwater has been recognized. Nitrate pollution of groundwater is considered to be the most serious source of nonpoint pollution in Czechoslovakia. A program of research into the effects of farming activities on groundwater quality in Czechoslovakia is under way on experimental fields (20 to 30 hectares) and, simultaneously, in regions in which shallow, vulnerable aquifers occur. The importance of the soil organic matter's stability for maintaining the groundwater quality is emphasized. Research based on nitrogen and organic carbon balance has shown that the restoration of a soil-groundwater system is a complicated process that usually requires changes in the extent and intensity of agricultural activities and consistent attention to the effects produced by natural conditions. Regional investigation of the impact of farming on shallow aquifers in the fluvial deposits of the Elbe River in Bohemia has proved the hydrochemical instability and vertical hydrochemical heterogeneity of these aquifers. The WASTEN deterministic model was used for modeling the transport and transformation of various types of inorganic fertilizers. The input data is based on laboratory and field measurements. Special topics are the verification of model calculations and the time and spatial variability of input data with respect to the unsaturated zone. The research results are being used for making regional and national agro-groundwater managerial schemes more precise, as well as for decision-making. PMID:2559844

  9. Hydrochemical processes regulating groundwater quality in the coastal plain of Al Musanaah, Sultanate of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askri, Brahim

    2015-06-01

    The Al Batinah coastal aquifer is the principal source of water in northwestern Oman. The rainfall in the Jabal Al Akhdar mountain region recharges the plain with freshwater that allowed agricultural and industrial activities to develop. The over-exploitation of this aquifer since the 1970s for municipal, agricultural and industrial purposes, excessive use of fertilizers in agriculture and leakage from septic tanks led to the deterioration of groundwater quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the hydrochemical processes regulating the groundwater quality in the southwestern section of Al Batinah. From available data collected during the spring of 2010 from 58 wells located in Al Musanaah wilayat, it was determined that the groundwater salinity increased in the direction from the south to the north following the regional flow direction. In addition to salinisation, the groundwater in the upstream and intermediate regions was contaminated with nitrate, while groundwater in the downstream region was affected by fluoride. Calculations of ionic ratios and seawater fraction indicated that seawater intrusion was not dominant in the study area. The primary factors controlling the groundwater chemistry in Al Musanaah appear to be halite dissolution, reverse ion exchange with clay material and anthropogenic pollutants.

  10. Impact of diffuse nitrate pollution sources on groundwater quality--some examples from Czechoslovakia.

    PubMed

    Benes, V; Pĕkný, V; Skorepa, J; Vrba, J

    1989-11-01

    In several regions of Czechoslovakia with intensive agricultural production, the correlation between the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied and the nitrate content in groundwater has been recognized. Nitrate pollution of groundwater is considered to be the most serious source of nonpoint pollution in Czechoslovakia. A program of research into the effects of farming activities on groundwater quality in Czechoslovakia is under way on experimental fields (20 to 30 hectares) and, simultaneously, in regions in which shallow, vulnerable aquifers occur. The importance of the soil organic matter's stability for maintaining the groundwater quality is emphasized. Research based on nitrogen and organic carbon balance has shown that the restoration of a soil-groundwater system is a complicated process that usually requires changes in the extent and intensity of agricultural activities and consistent attention to the effects produced by natural conditions. Regional investigation of the impact of farming on shallow aquifers in the fluvial deposits of the Elbe River in Bohemia has proved the hydrochemical instability and vertical hydrochemical heterogeneity of these aquifers. The WASTEN deterministic model was used for modeling the transport and transformation of various types of inorganic fertilizers. The input data is based on laboratory and field measurements. Special topics are the verification of model calculations and the time and spatial variability of input data with respect to the unsaturated zone. The research results are being used for making regional and national agro-groundwater managerial schemes more precise, as well as for decision-making.

  11. Groundwater Age in Multi-Level Water Quality Monitor Wells on California Central Valley Dairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, B. K.; Visser, A.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Singleton, M. J.; Moran, J. E.; Harter, T.

    2011-12-01

    Dairy farming in California's Central Valley is a significant source of nitrate to underlying aquifers. One approach to mitigation is to implement farm-scale management plans that reduce nutrient loading to groundwater while sustaining crop yield. While the effect of different management practices on crop yield is easily measured, their effect on groundwater quality has only infrequently been evaluated. Documenting and predicting the impact of management on water quality requires a quantitative assessment of transport (including timescale and mixing) through the vadose and saturated zones. In this study, we measured tritium, helium isotopic composition, and noble gas concentrations in groundwater drawn from monitor wells on several dairies in the Lower San Joaquin Valley and Tulare Lake Basin of California's Central Valley in order to predict the timescales on which changes in management may produce observable changes in groundwater quality. These dairies differ in age (from <10 to >100 years old), thickness of the vadose zone (from <10 to 60 m), hydrogeologic setting, and primary source of irrigation water (surface or groundwater). All of the dairies use manure wastewater for irrigation and fertilization. Three of the dairies have implemented management changes designed to reduce nutrient loading and/or water usage. Monitor wells in the southern Tulare Lake Basin dairies were installed by UC-Davis as multi-level nested wells allowing depth profiling of tritium and noble gases at these sites. Tritium/helium-3 groundwater ages, calculated using a simple piston-flow model, range from <2 to >50 years. Initial tritium (the sum of measured tritium and tritiogenic helium-3) is close to or slightly above precipitation in the calculated recharge year for young samples; and significantly above the precipitation curve for older samples. This pattern is consistent with the use of 20-30 year old groundwater recharged before 1980 for irrigation, and illustrates how irrigation

  12. Tradeoffs between Price and Quality: How a Value Index Affects Preference Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creyer, Elizabeth H.; Ross, William T., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Some of a group of 143 consumers were given a choice between higher-priced, higher-quality items and items with lower price and quality but higher value index (benefit/cost tradeoff); others were given price and quality information only. Consumers were more likely to choose lower-priced, higher-value options when the index information was…

  13. Conceptual understanding and groundwater quality of selected basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems in the southwestern United States (hereinafter, 'Southwest') since 2005. Part of the NAWQA Program, the objective of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is to develop a better understanding of water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region by synthesizing information from case studies of 15 basins into a common set of important natural and human-related factors found to affect groundwater quality. The synthesis consists of three major components: 1. Summary of current knowledge about the groundwater systems, and the status of, changes in, and influential factors affecting quality of groundwater in basin-fill aquifers in 15 basins previously studied by NAWQA (this report). 2. Development of a conceptual model of the primary natural and human-related factors commonly affecting groundwater quality, thereby building a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contaminants. 3. Development of statistical models that relate the concentration or occurrence of specific chemical constituents in groundwater to natural and human-related factors linked to the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contamination. Basin-fill aquifers occur in about 200,000 mi2 of the 410,000 mi2 SWPA study area and are the primary source of groundwater supply for cities and agricultural communities. Four of the principal aquifers or aquifer systems of the United States are included in the basin-fill aquifers of the study area: (1) the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; (2) the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; (3) the California Coastal Basin aquifers; and (4) the Central Valley aquifer system in California. Because of the generally limited availability of surface-water supplies in

  14. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment along Wadi Al Showat, Khamis Mushiet District, Southwest Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhumidan, S. M.; Alfaifi, H. J.; Ibrahim, E. K. E.; Abdel Rahman, K.

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, the hydrochemistry and geologic characteristics of the shallow groundwater aquifer along Wadi Al Showat, Khamis Mushiet District, Southwest Saudi Arabia was evaluated and assessed. Along this wadi the fractured/weathered basement rocks house significant quantity of groundwater that usually used by local people for agricultural and domestic purposes. Assessing and evaluation of the quality of the groundwater in such shallow aquifers is very important; especially the groundwater is generally occurred within the fractured basement rocks at shallow depths, thus exposing the groundwater to surface or near-surface contaminants is expected. For this purpose hydrochemical and biological analysis was conducted for 25 water samples collected from the available shallow dug wells along the studied wadi. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to the agriculture and urbanization practices along the wadi. The effect of domestic waste water and septic tanks was obvious. In addition, the field investigation indicates that the basement rocks in the area is dissected by two main sets of fractures that oriented in the west-northwest and east-west directions. In some places, the basement rocks is intruded by coarse-grained, quartz-rich quartzite grained monzogranite, and pegmatite veins that have a coarse-grained weathering product, therefore, they tend to develop and preserve open joint systems between the granitic blocks. These fracturing system are important from the hydrogeological point of view, as they facilitate the storage, water flow movement through them and also facilitate the vertical infiltration of the surface pollutants. These results led to a better understanding of the groundwater characteristics that is important in groundwater management in the study area.

  15. Effects of a constructed wetland and pond system upon shallow groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Ying

    2013-05-01

    Constructed wetland (CW) and constructed pond (CP) are commonly utilized for removal of excess nutrients and certain pollutants from stormwater. This study characterized shallow groundwater quality for pre- and post-CW and CP system conditions using data from monitoring wells. Results showed that the average concentrations of groundwater phosphorus (P) decreased from pre-CW to post-CW but increased from pre-CP to post-CP. The average concentrations of groundwater total Kjeldahl nitrogen and ammonium (NH(4)(+)) increased from pre-CW (or CP) to post-CW (or CP), whereas the average concentrations of groundwater arsenic (As), chromium, nickel, and zinc (Zn) decreased from pre-CW to post-CW regardless of the well locations. Variations of groundwater cadmium, copper, and Zn concentrations were larger in pre-CP than in post-CP and had a tendency to decrease from pre-CP to post-CP. In general, the average concentrations of groundwater aluminum and manganese decreased and of groundwater calcium, iron, magnesium, and sodium increased from pre-CP to post-CP. The average values of water levels (depth from the ground surface), redox potential, and conductance decreased and of chloride and sulfate (SO(4)(-2)) increased after the wetland and pond were constructed regardless of the well locations. Results further revealed that there were significant differences (α = 0.05) between the pre- and post-CW (or CP) for redox potential, water level, and As. This study suggests that the CW-CP system had discernible effects on some of the shallow groundwater quality constituents. This information is very useful for fully estimating overall performance of stormwater treatment with the CW-CP system. PMID:22976119

  16. Effects of a constructed wetland and pond system upon shallow groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Ying

    2013-05-01

    Constructed wetland (CW) and constructed pond (CP) are commonly utilized for removal of excess nutrients and certain pollutants from stormwater. This study characterized shallow groundwater quality for pre- and post-CW and CP system conditions using data from monitoring wells. Results showed that the average concentrations of groundwater phosphorus (P) decreased from pre-CW to post-CW but increased from pre-CP to post-CP. The average concentrations of groundwater total Kjeldahl nitrogen and ammonium (NH(4)(+)) increased from pre-CW (or CP) to post-CW (or CP), whereas the average concentrations of groundwater arsenic (As), chromium, nickel, and zinc (Zn) decreased from pre-CW to post-CW regardless of the well locations. Variations of groundwater cadmium, copper, and Zn concentrations were larger in pre-CP than in post-CP and had a tendency to decrease from pre-CP to post-CP. In general, the average concentrations of groundwater aluminum and manganese decreased and of groundwater calcium, iron, magnesium, and sodium increased from pre-CP to post-CP. The average values of water levels (depth from the ground surface), redox potential, and conductance decreased and of chloride and sulfate (SO(4)(-2)) increased after the wetland and pond were constructed regardless of the well locations. Results further revealed that there were significant differences (α = 0.05) between the pre- and post-CW (or CP) for redox potential, water level, and As. This study suggests that the CW-CP system had discernible effects on some of the shallow groundwater quality constituents. This information is very useful for fully estimating overall performance of stormwater treatment with the CW-CP system.

  17. Groundwater quality assessment in the village of Lutfullapur Nawada, Loni, District Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vinod K; Bikundia, Devendra Singh; Sarswat, Ankur; Mohan, Dinesh

    2012-07-01

    The groundwater quality for drinking, domestic and irrigation in the village Lutfullapur Nawada, Loni, district Ghaziabad, U.P., India, has been assessed. Groundwater samples were collected, processed and analyzed for temperature, pH, conductivity, salinity, total alkalinity, carbonate alkalinity, bicarbonate alkalinity, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total solids, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, nitrate-nitrogen, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate, silica, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, total chromium, cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, lead and zinc. A number of groundwater samples showed levels of electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, chloride, calcium, sodium, potassium and iron exceeding their permissible limits. Except iron, the other metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were analyzed below the permissible limits. The correlation matrices for 28 variables were performed. EC, salinity, TS and TDS had significant positive correlations among themselves and also with NO (3) (-) , Cl(-), alkalinity, Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+). Fluoride was not significantly correlated with any of the parameters. NO (3) (-) was significantly positively correlated with Cl(-), alkalinity, Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+). Chloride also correlated significantly with alkalinity, Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+). Sodium showed a strong and positive correlation with K(+) and Ca(2+). pH was negatively correlated with most of the physicochemical parameters. This groundwater is classified as a normal sulfate and chloride type. Base-exchange indices classified 73% of the groundwater sources as the Na(+)-SO (4) (2-) type. The meteoric genesis indices demonstrated that 67% of groundwater sources belong to a deep meteoric water percolation type. Hydrochemical groundwater evaluations revealed that most of the groundwaters belong to the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO (4) (2-) type followed by Na(+)-K(+)-HCO (3) (-) type. Salinity, chlorinity and SAR indices indicated that majority

  18. Groundwater quality assessment in the village of Lutfullapur Nawada, Loni, District Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vinod K; Bikundia, Devendra Singh; Sarswat, Ankur; Mohan, Dinesh

    2012-07-01

    The groundwater quality for drinking, domestic and irrigation in the village Lutfullapur Nawada, Loni, district Ghaziabad, U.P., India, has been assessed. Groundwater samples were collected, processed and analyzed for temperature, pH, conductivity, salinity, total alkalinity, carbonate alkalinity, bicarbonate alkalinity, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total solids, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, nitrate-nitrogen, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate, silica, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, total chromium, cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, lead and zinc. A number of groundwater samples showed levels of electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, chloride, calcium, sodium, potassium and iron exceeding their permissible limits. Except iron, the other metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were analyzed below the permissible limits. The correlation matrices for 28 variables were performed. EC, salinity, TS and TDS had significant positive correlations among themselves and also with NO (3) (-) , Cl(-), alkalinity, Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+). Fluoride was not significantly correlated with any of the parameters. NO (3) (-) was significantly positively correlated with Cl(-), alkalinity, Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+). Chloride also correlated significantly with alkalinity, Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+). Sodium showed a strong and positive correlation with K(+) and Ca(2+). pH was negatively correlated with most of the physicochemical parameters. This groundwater is classified as a normal sulfate and chloride type. Base-exchange indices classified 73% of the groundwater sources as the Na(+)-SO (4) (2-) type. The meteoric genesis indices demonstrated that 67% of groundwater sources belong to a deep meteoric water percolation type. Hydrochemical groundwater evaluations revealed that most of the groundwaters belong to the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO (4) (2-) type followed by Na(+)-K(+)-HCO (3) (-) type. Salinity, chlorinity and SAR indices indicated that majority

  19. Spatial assessment of groundwater quality in Mamundiyar basin, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Dar, Imran Ahmad; Sankar, K; Dar, Mithas Ahmad

    2011-07-01

    Understanding the groundwater quality is important as it is the main factor determining its suitability for drinking, domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes. In order to assess the groundwater quality, 30 groundwater samples have been collected in year 2008. The water samples collected in the field were analyzed for electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), major cations like calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and anions like bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate, in the laboratory using the standard methods given by the American Public Health Association. The groundwater locations were selected to cover the entire study area and attention was been given to the area where contamination is expected. The expected groundwater contaminants were chloride, nitrate, TDS, etc. The results were evaluated in accordance with the drinking water quality standards given by the World Health Organization (WHO 1993). To know the distribution pattern of the concentration of different elements and to demarcate the higher concentration zones, the contour maps for various elements were also generated, discussed, and presented.

  20. The comparison of rapid bioassays for the assessment of urban groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, R E; Wheeler, J R; Chummun, K S; Mather, J D; Callaghan, A; Crane, M

    2002-05-01

    Groundwater is a complex mixture of chemicals that is naturally variable. Current legislation in the UK requires that groundwater quality and the degree of contamination are assessed using chemical methods. Such methods do not consider the synergistic or antagonistic interactions that may affect the bioavailability and toxicity of pollutants in the environment. Bioassays are a method for assessing the toxic impact of whole groundwater samples on the environment. Three rapid bioassays, Eclox, Microtox and ToxAlert, and a Daphnia magna 48-h immobilisation test were used to assess groundwater quality from sites with a wide range of historical uses. Eclox responses indicated that the test was very sensitive to changes in groundwater chemistry; 77% of the results had a percentage inhibition greater than 90%. ToxAlert, although suitable for monitoring changes in water quality under laboratory conditions, produced highly variable results due to fluctuations in temperature and the chemical composition of the samples. Microtox produced replicable results that correlated with those from D. magna tests.

  1. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the northern San Joaquin Basin, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 2,079 square mile Northern San Joaquin Basin (Northern San Joaquin) study unit was investigated from December 2004 through February 2005 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 that was passed by the State of California and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Northern San Joaquin study unit was the third study unit to be designed and sampled as part of the Priority Basin Project. Results of the study provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw (untreated) groundwater, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 61 wells in parts of Alameda, Amador, Calaveras, Contra Costa, San Joaquin, and Stanislaus Counties; 51 of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based approach to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 10 of the wells were sampled to increase spatial density and provide additional information for the evaluation of water chemistry in the study unit (understanding/flowpath wells). The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) assessed in this study are defined by the depth intervals of the wells in the California Department of Public Health database for each study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource; and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors

  2. Statistical comparisons of ground-water quality underlying different land uses in central Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, A.T.; German, E.R. Geological Survey, Altamonte Springs, FL )

    1988-09-01

    Human activities at land surface can affect the quality of water recharging groundwater systems. Because ground water is the principal source of drinking water in many areas, it is necessary to know the relation between land use and ground-water quality. This study is 1 of 7 being made throughout the US as part of the Toxic Waste - Ground-Water Contamination Program of the US Geological Survey. This report documents statistical comparisons of ground-water quality for three test areas in central Florida: (1) a control area where land use is minimal, (2) a citrus-growing area where effects of agriculture may be expected, and (3) a phosphate-mining area where effects of mining activities may be expected. This study addresses water-quality conditions in the surficial aquifer, which consists of sand and shell beds of Pleistocene and Holocene age. The two developed areas are representative of land uses that characterize large areas of Florida, and the control area is representative of near-pristine conditions that exist over a large area, so results of this study may be transferable. The water-quality variables of interest include physical properties, major ions, nutrients, and trace elements.

  3. Groundwater-quality data and regional trends in the Virginia Coastal Plain, 1906-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFarland, E. Randolph

    2010-01-01

    A newly developed regional perspective of the hydrogeology of the Virginia Coastal Plain incorporates updated information on groundwater quality in the area. Local-scale groundwater-quality information is provided by a comprehensive dataset compiled from multiple Federal and State agency databases. Groundwater-sample chemical-constituent values and related data are presented in tables, summaries, location maps, and discussions of data quality and limitations. Spatial trends in groundwater quality and related processes at the regional scale are determined from interpretive analyses of the sample data. Major ions that dominate the chemical composition of groundwater in the deep Piney Point, Aquia, and Potomac aquifers evolve eastward and with depth from (1) 'hard' water, dominated by calcium and magnesium cations and bicarbonate and carbonate anions, to (2) 'soft' water, dominated by sodium and potassium cations and bicarbonate and carbonate anions, and lastly to (3) 'salty' water, dominated by sodium and potassium cations and chloride anions. Chemical weathering of subsurface sediments is followed by ion exchange by clay and glauconite, and subsequently by mixing with seawater along the saltwater-transition zone. The chemical composition of groundwater in the shallower surficial and Yorktown-Eastover aquifers, and in basement bedrock along the Fall Zone, is more variable as a result of short flow paths between closely located recharge and discharge areas and possibly some solutes originating from human sources. The saltwater-transition zone is generally broad and landward-dipping, based on groundwater chloride concentrations that increase eastward and with depth. The configuration is convoluted across the Chesapeake Bay impact crater, however, where it is warped and mounded along zones having vertically inverted chloride concentrations that decrease with depth. Fresh groundwater has flushed seawater from subsurface sediments preferentially around the impact crater

  4. Ground-water quality assessment of the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; project description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, S.C.; Parkhurst, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. The program, known as the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, is designed to acquire and interpret information about a variety of water-quality issues. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project is one of three ground-water pilot projects that have been started. The NAWQA program also incudes four surface-water pilot projects. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project, as part of the pilot NAWQA program, will develop and test methods for performing assessments of ground-water quality. The objectives of the Central Oklahoma aquifer assessment are: (1) To investigate regional ground-water quality throughout the aquifer in the manner consistent with the other pilot ground-water projects, emphasizing the occurrence and distribution of potentially toxic substances in ground water, including trace elements, organic compounds, and radioactive constituents; (2) to describe relations between ground-water quality, land use, hydrogeology, and other pertinent factors; and (3) to provide a general description of the location, nature, and possible causes of selected prevalent water-quality problems within the study unit; and (4) to describe the potential for water-quality degradation of ground-water zones within the study unit. The Central Oklahoma aquifer, which includes in descending order the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation, the Chase Group, the Council Grove Group, the Admire Group, and overlying alluvium and terrace deposits, underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma and is used extensively for municipal, industrial, commercial, and domestic water supplies. The aquifer was selected for study by the NAWQA program because it is a major source for water supplies in central Oklahoma and because it has several known or suspected water-quality problems. Known problems include concentrations of arsenic, chromium

  5. Use of hierarchical cluster analysis to assess the representativeness of a baseline groundwater quality monitoring network: comparison of New Zealand's national and regional groundwater monitoring programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daughney, Christopher J.; Raiber, Matthias; Moreau-Fournier, Magali; Morgenstern, Uwe; van der Raaij, Rob

    2012-02-01

    Baseline monitoring of groundwater quality aims to characterize the ambient condition of the resource and identify spatial or temporal trends. Sites comprising any baseline monitoring network must be selected to provide a representative perspective of groundwater quality across the aquifer(s) of interest. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) has been used as a means of assessing the representativeness of a groundwater quality monitoring network, using example datasets from New Zealand. HCA allows New Zealand's national and regional monitoring networks to be compared in terms of the number of water-quality categories identified in each network, the hydrochemistry at the centroids of these water-quality categories, the proportions of monitoring sites assigned to each water-quality category, and the range of concentrations for each analyte within each water-quality category. Through the HCA approach, the National Groundwater Monitoring Programme (117 sites) is shown to provide a highly representative perspective of groundwater quality across New Zealand, relative to the amalgamated regional monitoring networks operated by 15 different regional authorities (680 sites have sufficient data for inclusion in HCA). This methodology can be applied to evaluate the representativeness of any subset of monitoring sites taken from a larger network.

  6. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater and surface water quality data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The sites addressed by this document are located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the Y-12 Plant complex within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime. The Bear Creek Regime is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface water quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The purpose of the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements. Part 1 (this report) consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Part 2 of the report, to be issued mid-year, will contain an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, present the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describe changes in monitoring priorities, and present planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis program for the following CY.

  7. Ground-water quality and data on wells and springs in Pennsylvania; Volume I, Ohio and St. Lawrence River basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koester, Harry E.; Miller, Denise R.

    1980-01-01

    Volume I of the Groundwater Quality and Data on Wells and Springs in Pennsylvania presents groundwater quality and physical data on about 1,200 well and spring sites in the Ohio and St. Lawrence River basins. Locations are shown on site-location maps derived from the hydrologic unit map. Codes showing the geologic age and aquifer are provided. (USGS)

  8. Groundwater Quality Data for the Northern Sacramento Valley, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Peter A.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,180-square-mile Northern Sacramento Valley study unit (REDSAC) was investigated in October 2007 through January 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within REDSAC and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 66 wells in Shasta and Tehama Counties. Forty-three of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 23 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen of water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. In total, over 275 constituents and field water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and sampmatrix spikes) were collected at approximately 8

  9. Ground-water flow and quality beneath sewage-sludge lagoons, and a comparison with the ground-water quality beneath a sludge-amended landfill, Marion County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bobay, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    The groundwater beneath eight sewage sludge lagoons, was studied to characterize the flow regime and to determine whether leachate had infiltrated into the glacio-fluvial sediments. Groundwater quality beneath the lagoons was compared with the groundwater quality beneath a landfill where sludge had been applied. The lagoons and landfills overlie outwash sand and gravel deposits separated by discontinuous clay layers. Shallow groundwater flows away from the lagoons and discharges into the White River. Deep groundwater discharges to the White River and flows southwest beneath Eagle Creek. After an accumulation of at least 2 inches of precipitation during 1 week, groundwater flow is temporarily reversed in the shallow aquifer, and all deep flow is along a relatively steep hydraulic gradient to the southwest. The groundwater is predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, although ammonium accounts for more than 30% of the total cations in water from three wells. Concentrations of sodium, chloride, sulfate, iron, arsenic, boron, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, and methylene-blue-active substances indicate the presence of leachate in the groundwater. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc were less than detection limits. The concentrations of 16 of 19 constituents or properties of groundwater beneath the lagoons are statistically different than groundwater beneath the landfill at the 0.05 level of significance. Only pH and concentrations of dissolved oxygen and bromide are higher in groundwater beneath the landfill than beneath the lagoons. 

  10. Stochastic hydro-economic model for groundwater quality management using Bayesian networks.

    PubMed

    Molina, José-Luis; Pulido-Velázquez, Manuel; Llopis-Albert, Carlos; Peña-Haro, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    A strong normative development in Europe, including the Nitrate Directive (1991) and the Water Framework Directive (WFD) (2000), has been promulgated. The WFD states that all water bodies have to reach a good quantitative and chemical status by 2015. It is necessary to consider different objectives, often in conflict, for tackling a suitable assessment of the impacts generated by water policies aimed to reduce nitrate pollution in groundwater. For that, an annual lumped probabilistic model based on Bayesian networks (BNs) has been designed for hydro-economic modelling of groundwater quality control under uncertain conditions. The information introduced in the BN model comes from different sources such as previous groundwater flow and mass transport simulations, hydro-economic models, stakeholders and expert opinion, etc. The methodology was applied to the El Salobral-Los Llanos aquifer unit within the 'Easter Mancha' groundwater body, which is one of the largest aquifers in Spain (7,400 km(2)), included in the Júcar River Basin. Over the past 30 years, socioeconomic development within the region has been mainly depending on intensive use of groundwater resources for irrigating crops. This has provoked a continuous groundwater level fall in the last two decades and significant streamflow depletion in the connected Júcar River. This BN model has proved to be a robust Decision Support System for helping water managers in the decision making process.

  11. Impacts of a large Sahelian city on groundwater hydrodynamics and quality: example of Niamey (Niger)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassane, Aïssata B.; Leduc, Christian; Favreau, Guillaume; Bekins, Barbara A.; Margueron, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The management of groundwater resources is very important in the semiarid Sahel region, which is experiencing rapid urban development. Impacts of urbanization on groundwater resources were investigated in the unconfined aquifer of the Continental Terminal beneath the city of Niamey, Niger, using water level and chemical data. Hydrodynamic and chemical changes are best described by a combination of factors including the historical development of the city, current land use, water-table depth and topography. Seasonal groundwater recharge occurs with high spatial variability, as indicated by water-level monitoring in all wells, but there was no interannual trend over the 5-year study period. Groundwater salinity shows high spatial variability and a minor rising trend. The highest salinity is in the old city centre, with Na-NO3 dominant, and it increases seasonally with recharge. Salinity is much lower and more variable in the suburbs (Ca-HCO3, Ca-NO3, and Na-NO3 dominant). Nitrate is the main ionic contaminant and is seasonally or permanently above the international guidelines for drinking water quality in 36 % of sampled wells, with a peak value of 112 mg L-1 NO3-N (8 meq L-1). Comparison of urban and rural sites indicates a long-term increase in groundwater recharge and nitrate enrichment in the urban area with serious implications for groundwater management in the region.

  12. Effects of Stormwater Infiltration on Quality of Groundwater Beneath Retention and Detention Basins

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of stormwater retention and detention basins has become a popular method for managing urban and suburban stormwater runoff. Infiltration of stormwater through these basins may increase the risk to ground-water quality, especially in areas where the soil is sandy and the wate...

  13. Groundwater Quality Assessment Report for Waste Management Area S-SX (April 2000 through December 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, V G.; Chou, Charissa J.

    2002-02-01

    This report was written to comply with the requirements stipulated in the RCRA and State of Washington regulations. It presents the results of continued groundwater quality assessment to determine the rate and extent of contamination in the uppermost aquifer beneath Waste Management Area S-SX in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site.

  14. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek hydrogeologic regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: 1993 groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    This Groundwater Quality Report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994 (HSW Environmental Consultants, Inc. 1994a). Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities and underground storage tanks (USTS) located within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements and in accordance with DOE Orders and Energy Systems corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the East Fork Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis program for the following calendar year.

  15. The regulation of groundwater quality with delayed responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C. S.; Hostetler, John; Amacher, Gregory

    1993-05-01

    This research develops a dynamic model of input regulation in the presence of externalities that do not occur simultaneously with input use. The model is formulated to study the regulation of firms that apply fertilizer, where leachate from the application of fertilizer accumulates in groundwater over time. In the model we show the derivation of an optimal nitrogen user fee and the consequences of regulatory design when time lags between nitrogen application and nitrate contamination are present. This research also responds to the need of developing a general solution algorithm for an optimal control model when the control variable exhibits a delayed response. A multistage solution algorithm presented in this paper is different from other studies in that a typical relationship is not assumed for the state and adjoint variables.

  16. Validation of Student Generated Data for Assessment of Groundwater Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckenham, John M.; Thornton, Teresa; Peckenham, Phoebe

    2012-01-01

    As part of a research project to evaluate the effects of sand and gravel mining on water quality, students were trained to analyze their own drinking water for simple quality indicators. Indicators analyzed were pH, conductivity, hardness, nitrate, chloride, and dissolved iron. Approximately 523 analyses were completed by students between 2006 and…

  17. Relationship of Shallow Groundwater Quality to Hydraulic Fracturing Activities in Antrim and Kalkaska Counties, MI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefansky, J. N.; Robertson, W. M.; Chappaz, A.; Babos, H.; Israel, S.; Groskreutz, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) of oil and natural gas (O&G) wells is a widely applied technology that can increase yields from tight geologic formations. However, it is unclear how fracking may impact shallow groundwater; previous research into its effects has produced conflicting results. Much of the worry over potential impacts to water quality arises from concerns about the produced water. The water produced from O&G formations is often salty, contains toxic dissolved elements, and can be radioactive. If fracking activities cause or increase connectivity between O&G formations and overlying groundwater, there may be risks to aquifers. As one part of a groundwater quality study in Antrim and Kalkaska Counties, MI, samples were collected from the unconfined glacial aquifer (3-300 m thick) and produced water from the underlying Antrim formation, a shallow (180-670 m deep) natural gas producing black shale. Groundwater samples were collected between 200 to 10,000 m distance from producing Antrim gas wells and from a range of screened intervals (15-95 m). Samples were analyzed for major constituents (e.g., Br, Cl), pH, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen (DO). The specific conductance of groundwater samples ranged from 230-1020 μS/cm; DO ranged from 0.4-100% saturation. Preliminary results show a slight inverse correlation between specific conductance and proximity to producing Antrim wells. The observed range of DO saturation in glacial aquifer groundwater appears to be related to both screened depth of the water wells and proximity to Antrim wells. During sampling, some well owners expressed concerns about the effects of fracking on groundwater quality and reported odd smells and tastes in their water after O&G drilling occurred near their homes. The results of this study and reported observations provide evidence to suggest a potential hydrogeological connection between the Antrim formation and the overlying glacial aquifer in some locations; it also raises

  18. Groundwater quality in Imphal West district, Manipur, India, with multivariate statistical analysis of data.

    PubMed

    Singh, Elangbam J K; Gupta, Abhik; Singh, N R

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the groundwater quality of Imphal West district, Manipur, India, and assess its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural use. Eighteen physico-chemical variables were analyzed in groundwater from 30 different hand-operated tube wells in urban, suburban, and rural areas in two seasons. The data were subjected to uni-, bi-, and multivariate statistical analysis, the latter comprising cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and factor analysis (FA). Arsenic concentrations exceed the Indian standard in 23.3% and the WHO limit in 73.3% of the groundwater sources with only 26.7% in the acceptable range. Several variables like iron, chloride, sodium, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and turbidity are also beyond their desirable limits for drinking water in a number of sites. Sodium concentrations and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) are both high to render the water from the majority of the sources unsuitable for agricultural use. Multivariate statistical techniques, especially varimax rotation of PCA data helped to bring to focus the hidden yet important variables and understand their roles in influencing groundwater quality. Widespread arsenic contamination and high sodium concentration of groundwater pose formidable constraints towards its exploitation for drinking and other domestic and agricultural use in the study area, although urban anthropogenic impacts are not yet pronounced.

  19. Groundwater quality in Imphal West district, Manipur, India, with multivariate statistical analysis of data.

    PubMed

    Singh, Elangbam J K; Gupta, Abhik; Singh, N R

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the groundwater quality of Imphal West district, Manipur, India, and assess its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural use. Eighteen physico-chemical variables were analyzed in groundwater from 30 different hand-operated tube wells in urban, suburban, and rural areas in two seasons. The data were subjected to uni-, bi-, and multivariate statistical analysis, the latter comprising cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and factor analysis (FA). Arsenic concentrations exceed the Indian standard in 23.3% and the WHO limit in 73.3% of the groundwater sources with only 26.7% in the acceptable range. Several variables like iron, chloride, sodium, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and turbidity are also beyond their desirable limits for drinking water in a number of sites. Sodium concentrations and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) are both high to render the water from the majority of the sources unsuitable for agricultural use. Multivariate statistical techniques, especially varimax rotation of PCA data helped to bring to focus the hidden yet important variables and understand their roles in influencing groundwater quality. Widespread arsenic contamination and high sodium concentration of groundwater pose formidable constraints towards its exploitation for drinking and other domestic and agricultural use in the study area, although urban anthropogenic impacts are not yet pronounced. PMID:22935861

  20. The effects of urbanization on groundwater quantity and quality in the Zahedan aquifer, southeast Iran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khazaei, E.; Mackay, R.; Warner, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the impacts of urban growth on groundwater quality and quantity in the Zahedan aquifer, which is the sole source of water supply for the city of Zahedan, Iran. The investigation is based on the collection of available historical data, supplemented by field and laboratory investigations. Groundwater levels in 40 wells were measured in December 2000. In addition, 102 water samples were taken in two periods during November and December 2000. Of these, 43 samples were analyzed for major ions, 32 samples were analyzed for nitrogen and phosphorus and the remainder for bacteriological contamination. The water level data show that there has been a general decline since 1977 due to over-abstraction. The magnitude of this decline has reached about 20 m in some places. However, in one area over the same period, a rise of about 3 m has been observed. This occurs as a result of the local hydrogeological conditions of shallow bedrock and relatively low permeability materials down stream of this area that limits the flow of groundwater towards the northeastern part of the aquifer. The general fall in groundwater levels has been accompanied by a change in the direction of the groundwater flow and an overall reduction of the areal extent of the saturated region of the aquifer. The city now has a serious problem such that even if the abstracted groundwater is rationed, water is not available for long periods because the demand far exceeds the supply. The heavy impact of urbanization on the groundwater quality is shown through the observed high nitrate (up to 295 mg/l as nitrate) and high phosphorus values (about 0.1 mg/l as P). Significant changes in the chloride concentration are also observed in two areas: increasing from 100 mg/l to 1,600 mg/l and from 2,000 mg/l to 4,000 mg/l, respectively. Furthermore, the bacteriological investigations show that 33 percent of the 27 collected groundwater samples are positive for total coliform and 11 percent of the

  1. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 3. Historical ground-water quality for the Red River Valley, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LoVetere, Sara H.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Maest, Ann S.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2003-01-01

    Historical ground-water quality data for 100 wells in the Red River Valley between the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station (08265000), near Questa, and Placer Creek east of the town of Red River, New Mexico, were compiled and reviewed. The tabulation included 608 water-quality records from 23 sources entered into an electronic database. Groundwater quality data were first collected at the Red River wastewater-treatment facility in 1982. Most analyses, however, were obtained between 1994 and 2002, even though the first wells were developed in 1962. The data were evaluated by considering (a) temporal consistency, (b) quality of sampling methods, (c) charge imbalance, and (d) replicate analyses. Analyses that qualified on the basis of these criteria were modeled to obtain saturation indices for gypsum, calcite, fluorite, gibbsite, manganite, and rhodocrosite. Plots created from the data illustrate that water chemistry in the Red River Valley is predominantly controlled by calcite dissolution, congruent gypsum dissolution, and pyrite oxidation.

  2. Groundwater quality and its health impact: An assessment of dental fluorosis in rural inhabitants of the Main Ethiopian Rift.

    PubMed

    Rango, Tewodros; Kravchenko, Julia; Atlaw, Behailu; McCornick, Peter G; Jeuland, Marc; Merola, Brittany; Vengosh, Avner

    2012-08-01

    This study aims to assess the link between fluoride content in groundwater and its impact on dental health in rural communities of the Ethiopian Rift. A total of 148 water samples were collected from two drainage basins within the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER). In the Ziway-Shala basin in particular, wells had high fluoride levels (mean: 9.4±10.5mg/L; range: 1.1 to 68 mg/L), with 48 of 50 exceeding the WHO drinking water guideline limit of 1.5mg/L. Total average daily intake of fluoride from drinking groundwater (calculated per weight unit) was also found to be six times higher than the No-Observed-Adverse-Effects-Level (NOAEL) value of 0.06 mg/kg/day. The highest fluoride levels were found in highly-alkaline (pH of 7 to 8.9) groundwater characterized by high salinity; high concentrations of sodium (Na⁺), bicarbonate (HCO₃⁻), and silica (SiO₂); and low concentrations of calcium (Ca²⁺). A progressive Ca²⁺ decrease along the groundwater flow path is associated with an increase of fluoride in the groundwater. The groundwater quality problem is also coupled with the presence of other toxic elements, such as arsenic (As) and uranium (U). The health impact of fluoride was evaluated based on clinical examination of dental fluorosis (DF) among local residents using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index (TFI). In total, 200 rural inhabitants between the ages of 7 and 40 years old using water from 12 wells of fluoride range of 7.8-18 mg/L were examined. Signs of DF (TF score of ≥ 1) were observed in all individuals. Most of the teeth (52%) recorded TF scores of 5 and 6, followed by TF scores of 3 and 4 (30%), and 8.4% had TF scores of 7 or higher. Sixty percent of the teeth exhibited loss of the outermost enamel. Within the range of fluoride contents, we did not find any correlation between fluoride content and DF. Finally, preliminary data suggest that milk intake has contributed to reducing the severity of DF. The study highlights the apparent positive role of

  3. Groundwater quality and its health impact: An assessment of dental fluorosis in rural inhabitants of the Main Ethiopian Rift.

    PubMed

    Rango, Tewodros; Kravchenko, Julia; Atlaw, Behailu; McCornick, Peter G; Jeuland, Marc; Merola, Brittany; Vengosh, Avner

    2012-08-01

    This study aims to assess the link between fluoride content in groundwater and its impact on dental health in rural communities of the Ethiopian Rift. A total of 148 water samples were collected from two drainage basins within the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER). In the Ziway-Shala basin in particular, wells had high fluoride levels (mean: 9.4±10.5mg/L; range: 1.1 to 68 mg/L), with 48 of 50 exceeding the WHO drinking water guideline limit of 1.5mg/L. Total average daily intake of fluoride from drinking groundwater (calculated per weight unit) was also found to be six times higher than the No-Observed-Adverse-Effects-Level (NOAEL) value of 0.06 mg/kg/day. The highest fluoride levels were found in highly-alkaline (pH of 7 to 8.9) groundwater characterized by high salinity; high concentrations of sodium (Na⁺), bicarbonate (HCO₃⁻), and silica (SiO₂); and low concentrations of calcium (Ca²⁺). A progressive Ca²⁺ decrease along the groundwater flow path is associated with an increase of fluoride in the groundwater. The groundwater quality problem is also coupled with the presence of other toxic elements, such as arsenic (As) and uranium (U). The health impact of fluoride was evaluated based on clinical examination of dental fluorosis (DF) among local residents using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index (TFI). In total, 200 rural inhabitants between the ages of 7 and 40 years old using water from 12 wells of fluoride range of 7.8-18 mg/L were examined. Signs of DF (TF score of ≥ 1) were observed in all individuals. Most of the teeth (52%) recorded TF scores of 5 and 6, followed by TF scores of 3 and 4 (30%), and 8.4% had TF scores of 7 or higher. Sixty percent of the teeth exhibited loss of the outermost enamel. Within the range of fluoride contents, we did not find any correlation between fluoride content and DF. Finally, preliminary data suggest that milk intake has contributed to reducing the severity of DF. The study highlights the apparent positive role of

  4. Assessing the Groundwater Quality at a Saudi Arabian Agricultural Site and the Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens on Irrigated Food Produce

    PubMed Central

    Alsalah, Dhafer; Al-Jassim, Nada; Timraz, Kenda; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the groundwater quality in wells situated near agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia. Fruits (e.g., tomato and green pepper) irrigated with groundwater were also assessed for the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens to determine if food safety was compromised by the groundwater. The amount of total nitrogen in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the 15 mg/L permissible limit for agricultural irrigation. Fecal coliforms in densities > 12 MPN/100 mL were detected in three of the groundwater wells that were in close proximity to a chicken farm. These findings, coupled with qPCR-based fecal source tracking, show that groundwater in wells D and E, which were nearest to the chicken farm, had compromised quality. Anthropogenic contamination resulted in a shift in the predominant bacterial phyla within the groundwater microbial communities. For example, there was an elevated presence of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in wells D and E but a lower overall microbial richness in the groundwater perturbed by anthropogenic contamination. In the remaining wells, the genus Acinetobacter was detected at high relative abundance ranging from 1.5% to 48% of the total groundwater microbial community. However, culture-based analysis did not recover any antibiotic-resistant bacteria or opportunistic pathogens from these groundwater samples. In contrast, opportunistic pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the fruits irrigated with the groundwater from wells B and F. Although the groundwater was compromised, quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the annual risk incurred from accidental consumption of E. faecalis on these fruits was within the acceptable limit of 10−4. However, the annual risk arising from P. aeruginosa was 9.55 × 10−4, slightly above the acceptable limit. Our findings highlight that the groundwater quality at this agricultural site in western Saudi Arabia is not pristine and that better

  5. Assessing the Groundwater Quality at a Saudi Arabian Agricultural Site and the Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens on Irrigated Food Produce.

    PubMed

    Alsalah, Dhafer; Al-Jassim, Nada; Timraz, Kenda; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-10-05

    This study examines the groundwater quality in wells situated near agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia. Fruits (e.g., tomato and green pepper) irrigated with groundwater were also assessed for the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens to determine if food safety was compromised by the groundwater. The amount of total nitrogen in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the 15 mg/L permissible limit for agricultural irrigation. Fecal coliforms in densities > 12 MPN/100 mL were detected in three of the groundwater wells that were in close proximity to a chicken farm. These findings, coupled with qPCR-based fecal source tracking, show that groundwater in wells D and E, which were nearest to the chicken farm, had compromised quality. Anthropogenic contamination resulted in a shift in the predominant bacterial phyla within the groundwater microbial communities. For example, there was an elevated presence of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in wells D and E but a lower overall microbial richness in the groundwater perturbed by anthropogenic contamination. In the remaining wells, the genus Acinetobacter was detected at high relative abundance ranging from 1.5% to 48% of the total groundwater microbial community. However, culture-based analysis did not recover any antibiotic-resistant bacteria or opportunistic pathogens from these groundwater samples. In contrast, opportunistic pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the fruits irrigated with the groundwater from wells B and F. Although the groundwater was compromised, quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the annual risk incurred from accidental consumption of E. faecalis on these fruits was within the acceptable limit of 10(-4). However, the annual risk arising from P. aeruginosa was 9.55 × 10(-4), slightly above the acceptable limit. Our findings highlight that the groundwater quality at this agricultural site in western Saudi Arabia is not pristine and that better

  6. Pesticides and groundwater quality protection : Calibrating a simple model for ranking the contamination potential.

    PubMed

    Bacci, E; Franchi, A; Bensi, L; Gaggi, C

    1994-03-01

    A simple approach for ranking the leaching of pesticides from surface soil is presented and tentatively calibrated with field data from an agricultural area. The approach is based on the calculation of a leaching index indicating the proportion of active ingredient, with respect to the quantity applied, leaching from a soil model in a given time interval (one year). In the selected area, 85 wells tapping an unconfined aquifer were sampled for groundwater pesticide residue analysis, in order to explore the index region between leachers and nonleachers.

  7. Identification of indicators of groundwater quality formation process using a zoning model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xiu-yan; Yang, Hongbin; Cao, Yuqing; Wang, Wenke

    2014-06-01

    Drinking water safety is a world-wide focus. In Yinchuan Plain of western China, groundwater is mostly saline water, and it has generated many problems for the life of local residents. Yinchuan Plain exhibits differences from the mountain area to the plain in terrain and elevation, and landforms and scales. Such differences resulted in hydro-geological water storage structures with different water yield properties and permeabilities of the aquifers. These water storage structures are the places where the groundwater moves and is retained, as well as where the air-water-rock interaction and the migration and differentiation between substances in the water take place. With the arid climate and intense irrigation in Yinchuan Plain, the hydro-chemical features of the groundwater exhibit distinct zonation. To explore the formative mechanism of the groundwater quality in Yinchuan Plain, a zoning model for the formation of groundwater quality is established in three layers, the first layer shows the geological and hydrogeological conditions that express the landform and landscape, geological age, lithology, and hydrodynamic features of the studied area. The second layer indicates the zonation of the formation of groundwater quality. According to the major hydro-geochemical actions, the plain is divided from west to east into lixiviation, evaporation, and evaporation-mixing zones. The third layer contains the hydrodynamic features that express the hydro-chemical type, salinity, and the contents of the major ions as well as trace elements fluorine and arsenic. The features of each zone are quantitatively expressed with thermodynamic, hydrodynamic, and hydro-chemical indicators.

  8. Development of innovative computer software to facilitate the setup and computation of water quality index

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Developing a water quality index which is used to convert the water quality dataset into a single number is the most important task of most water quality monitoring programmes. As the water quality index setup is based on different local obstacles, it is not feasible to introduce a definite water quality index to reveal the water quality level. Findings In this study, an innovative software application, the Iranian Water Quality Index Software (IWQIS), is presented in order to facilitate calculation of a water quality index based on dynamic weight factors, which will help users to compute the water quality index in cases where some parameters are missing from the datasets. Conclusion A dataset containing 735 water samples of drinking water quality in different parts of the country was used to show the performance of this software using different criteria parameters. The software proved to be an efficient tool to facilitate the setup of water quality indices based on flexible use of variables and water quality databases. PMID:24499556

  9. Subscribing to Databases: How Important Is Depth and Quality of Indexing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delong, Linwood

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the subject indexing on articles pertaining to Immanuel Kant, agriculture, and aging that are found simultaneously in Humanities Index, Academic Search Elite (EBSCO) and Periodicals Research II (Micromedia ProQuest), in order to show that there are substantial variations in the depth and quality of indexing in these databases.…

  10. Evaluating Journal Quality: Is the H-Index a Better Measure than Impact Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Lacasse, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluates the utility of a new measure--the h-index--that may provide a more valid approach to evaluating journal quality in the social work profession. Method: H-index values are compared with Thomson ISI 5-year impact factors and expert opinion. Results: As hypothesized, the h-index correlates highly with ISI 5-year impact…

  11. Data Sources for an Environmental Quality Index: Availability, Quality, and Utility

    PubMed Central

    Rappazzo, Kristen; Messer, Lynne C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. An environmental quality index (EQI) for all counties in the United States is under development to explore the relationship between environmental insults and human health. The EQI is potentially useful for investigators researching health disparities to account for other concurrent environmental conditions. This article focused on the identification and assessment of data sources used in developing the EQI. Data source strengths, limitations, and utility were addressed. Methods. Five domains were identified that contribute to environmental quality: air, water, land, built, and sociodemographic environments. An inventory of possible data sources was created. Data sources were evaluated for appropriate spatial and temporal coverage and data quality. Results. The overall data inventory identified multiple data sources for each domain. From the inventory (187 sources, 617 records), the air, water, land, built environment, and sociodemographic domains retained 2, 9, 7, 4, and 2 data sources for inclusion in the EQI, respectively. However, differences in data quality, geographic coverage, and data availability existed between the domains. Conclusions. The data sources identified for use in the EQI may be useful to researchers, advocates, and communities to explore specific environmental quality questions. PMID:21836111

  12. Quantifying the response of riparian water balance and groundwater quality to alterations of land management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, S.; Bronstert, A.; Morgner, M.; Zehe, E.; Voss, A.

    2009-04-01

    Floodplains and wetlands in Central Europe have been affected by intensively changing landuse and management conditions within the last century. Formerly intensively agricultural used areas are often more extensively used today and nature conservation issues became more important. Nevertheless, a majority of floodplain water bodies are still under different pressures and alternative landuse targets of different stakeholders produce conflicts in management policies. The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) demands the evaluation of the status and, if necessary, the improvement of the surface and groundwater quality of water bodies. Therefore the current status of water bodies, as well as pressures on them, the risks and potential strategies for improvement need to be characterised. As detailed knowledge about impacts of landuse management changes on the the hydrology of floodplains and wetlands is often insufficient, impact assessment and the resulting argumentations are not always adequate. Exemplary for lowland floodplains in Central Europe a set of reasonable land use and management scenarios was developed for the Lower Havel river basin in North-eastern Germany. The scenarios were analysed for their ability to gain a sustainable improvement of the floodplain water balance as well as of the surface water and groundwater quality. The coupled groundwater - water balance model IWAN was used for the quantification of potential changes of the floodplain water balance and of the interactions between the groundwater and surface waters. It was possible to prove that the assumed land use changes effect the floodplain water balance only insignificantly although lateral processes as infiltration and evapotranspiration were modified. However, these alterations of vertical fluxes are widely compensated by the lateral impact of groundwater - surface water interactions within the intensively drained parts of the floodplain. The analysis of a further scenario assuming the

  13. Assessing the potential risks of burial practices on groundwater quality in rural north-central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Zume, Joseph T

    2011-09-01

    Several cultures of north-central Nigeria do not use community cemeteries. Instead, human remains are buried in and around family compounds, often in shallow and sometimes unmarked graves. At several locations, graves and drinking water wells end up too close to be presumed environmentally safe. This paper reports findings of a pilot study that explored the potential for groundwater contamination from gravesites in some rural settlements of north-central Nigeria. Preliminary results suggest that the long-standing burial practices among some cultures of rural north-central Nigeria may potentially compromise groundwater quality, which is, by far, their most important source of drinking water.

  14. Modeling groundwater quality over a humid subtropical region using numerical indices, earth observation datasets, and X-ray diffraction technique: a case study of Allahabad district, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Srivastava, Prashant K; Singh, Dharmveer; Han, Dawei; Gautam, Sandeep Kumar; Pandey, A C

    2015-02-01

    Water is undoubtedly the vital commodity for all living creatures and required for well-being of the human society. The present work is based on the surveys and chemical analyses performed on the collected groundwater samples in a part of the Ganga basin in order to understand the sources and evolution of the water quality in the region. The two standard indices such as water quality index and synthetic pollution index for the classification of water in the region are computed. The soil and sediment analysis are carried out with the help of X-ray diffractometer (XRD) for the identification of possible source of ions in water from rock and soil weathering. The dominant minerals which include quartz, muscovite, plagioclase, and orthoclase are reported in the area. The study further utilizes the multivariate statistical techniques for handling large and complex datasets in order to get better information about the groundwater quality. The following statistical methods such as cluster analysis (CA), factor analysis (FA), and principal component analysis (PCA) are applied to handle the large datasets and to understand the latent structure of the data. Through FA/PCAs, we have identified a total of 3 factors in pre-monsoon and 4 factors in post-monsoon season, which are responsible for the whole data structure. These factors explain 77.62 and 82.39% of the total variance of the pre- and post-monsoon datasets. On the other hand, CA depicted the regions that have similar pollutants origin. The average value of synthetic pollution index of groundwater during pre-monsoon is 9.27, while during post-monsoon, it has been recorded as 8.74. On the other hand, the average values of water quality index of groundwater during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons are found as 217.59 and 233.02, respectively. The study indicates that there occurs an extensive urbanization with gradual vast development of various small- and large-scale industries, which is responsible for degradation in

  15. Development of Water Quality Index for the United States: A Sensitivity Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Water quality is quantified using several measures, available from various data sources, which can be combined to create a single index of overall water quality. It is necessary to identify appropriate variables to include in an index which could be used for health re...

  16. A New Malaysian Quality of Life Index Based on Fuzzy Sets and Hierarchical Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazim, M. Abdullah; Abu Osman, M. Tap

    2009-01-01

    The Malaysian Quality of Life Index (MQLI) released by the Economic Planning Unit (EPU), has led authors to search for alternative method of expressing this index. One of the limitations in MQLI computations is the failure to recognise unequal weights for each accounted component. This paper offers a new way of expressing the quality of life index…

  17. The Biotic Indexing of Water Quality and Its Application to Field Work in Schools and Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the biotic indexing of water quality and its application to A-level field work with reference to the Trent Biotic Index and Chandler Score system. These indices are related to the classification of water quality used by the Department of the Environment. Interpretations and limitations of the indices are discussed. (Author/DS)

  18. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cherubin, Maurício R; Karlen, Douglas L; Cerri, Carlos E P; Franco, André L C; Tormena, Cássio A; Davies, Christian A; Cerri, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane) was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators) and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators). Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity); however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC), abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity). Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration) and proportional weighting to reflect chemical

  19. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cherubin, Maurício R.; Karlen, Douglas L.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Franco, André L. C.; Tormena, Cássio A.; Davies, Christian A.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane) was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators) and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators). Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity); however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC), abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity). Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration) and proportional weighting to reflect chemical

  20. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cherubin, Maurício R; Karlen, Douglas L; Cerri, Carlos E P; Franco, André L C; Tormena, Cássio A; Davies, Christian A; Cerri, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane) was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators) and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators). Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity); however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC), abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity). Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration) and proportional weighting to reflect chemical

  1. Uncertainty in simulated groundwater-quality trends in transient flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starn, J. Jeffrey; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios; Robbins, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    In numerical modeling of groundwater flow, the result of a given solution method is affected by the way in which transient flow conditions and geologic heterogeneity are simulated. An algorithm is demonstrated that simulates breakthrough curves at a pumping well by convolution-based particle tracking in a transient flow field for several synthetic basin-scale aquifers. In comparison to grid-based (Eulerian) methods, the particle (Lagrangian) method is better able to capture multimodal breakthrough caused by changes in pumping at the well, although the particle method may be apparently nonlinear because of the discrete nature of particle arrival times. Trial-and-error choice of number of particles and release times can perhaps overcome the apparent nonlinearity. Heterogeneous aquifer properties tend to smooth the effects of transient pumping, making it difficult to separate their effects in parameter estimation. Porosity, a new parameter added for advective transport, can be accurately estimated using both grid-based and particle-based methods, but predictions can be highly uncertain, even in the simple, nonreactive case.

  2. Groundwater Quality Data in the Mojave Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,500 square-mile Mojave (MOJO) study unit was investigated from February to April 2008, as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). MOJO was the 23rd of 37 study units to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basin Project. The MOJO study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated ground water used for public water supplies within MOJO, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 59 wells in San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties. Fifty-two of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and seven were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds], constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]) naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids [TDS], and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, radium isotopes, and radon-222). Naturally occurring isotopes (stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, and activities of tritium and carbon-14), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled

  3. Ground-water quality at the Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) near Princeton, Minnesota, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landon, M.K.; Delin, G.N.; Lamb, J.A.; Guo, Laodong

    1993-01-01

    The northern cornbelt sand-plains Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) program is a multiagency, multistate initiative to evaluate the effects of modified and prevailing fanning systems on water quality in a sand-plain area in Minnesota and at satellite areas in North and South Dakota, and Wisconsin (Delin and others, 1992). The primary objective of the northern cornbelt sand-plains MSEA is to evaluate the effects of ridge-tillage practices in a corn and soybean farming system on ground-water quality. The Minnesota MSEA program is a cooperative study primarily between the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, the University of Minnesota Soil Science Department, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency and the Department of Geology and Geophysics at the University of Minnesota are also cooperating in the evaluation of ground-water quality at the MSEA.

  4. Ground-water quality at the Management Systems Evaluation Area near Princeton, Minnesota, 1991-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landon, M.K.; Delin, G.N.; Lamb, J.A.; Guo, Lei

    1993-01-01

    The northern cornbelt sand-plains Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) program is a multiagency, multistate initiative to evaluate the effects of modified and prevailing farming systems on water quality in a sand-plain area in Minnesota and at satellite areas in North and South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The primary objective of Minnesota MSEA is to evaluate the effects of ridge-tillage practices in a corn and soybean farming system on ground-water quality. The Minnesota MSEA program is a cooperative study primarily between the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, the University of Minnesota Soil Science Department, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency and the Department of Geology and Geophysics at the University of Minnesota are also cooperating in the evaluation of groundwater quality at the MSEA.

  5. A Comprehensive Analysis of Groundwater Quality in The Barnett Shale Region.

    PubMed

    Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Fontenot, Brian E; Meik, Jesse M; Walton, Jayme L; Taylor, Josh T; Thacker, Jonathan B; Korlie, Stephanie; Shelor, C Phillip; Henderson, Drew; Kadjo, Akinde F; Roelke, Corey E; Hudak, Paul F; Burton, Taylour; Rifai, Hanadi S; Schug, Kevin A

    2015-07-01

    The exploration of unconventional shale energy reserves and the extensive use of hydraulic fracturing during well stimulation have raised concerns about the potential effects of unconventional oil and gas extraction (UOG) on the environment. Most accounts of groundwater contamination have focused primarily on the compositional analysis of dissolved gases to address whether UOG activities have had deleterious effects on overlying aquifers. Here, we present an analysis of 550 groundwater samples collected from private and public supply water wells drawing from aquifers overlying the Barnett shale formation of Texas. We detected multiple volatile organic carbon compounds throughout the region, including various alcohols, the BTEX family of compounds, and several chlorinated compounds. These data do not necessarily identify UOG activities as the source of contamination; however, they do provide a strong impetus for further monitoring and analysis of groundwater quality in this region as many of the compounds we detected are known to be associated with UOG techniques. PMID:26079990

  6. Impact of long-term land application of biosolids on groundwater quality and surface soils

    SciTech Connect

    Surampalli, R.Y.; Lin, K.L.; Banerji, S.K.

    1995-11-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the long-term land application of Biosolids and its potential impact on groundwater quality and surface soils. For this study, an existing site, that has been in operation for 8--15 years were selected for sampling and analyses. From this site sludge applied soil samples, background soil samples, and groundwater monitoring samples were obtained. The samples were analyzed for the following: pH, conductivity, total solids, fecal coliform, fecal streptococci, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, TKN, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc. The results of this study indicate that groundwater at this biosolids application site was not contaminated with heavy metals or pathogens. The bacteriological soil data also indicated that the levels of fecal coliform and fecal streptococci were close to background level with no evidence of contamination. The results also indicate that there is no heavy metals buildup in biosolids-amended soils.

  7. A Comprehensive Analysis of Groundwater Quality in The Barnett Shale Region.

    PubMed

    Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Fontenot, Brian E; Meik, Jesse M; Walton, Jayme L; Taylor, Josh T; Thacker, Jonathan B; Korlie, Stephanie; Shelor, C Phillip; Henderson, Drew; Kadjo, Akinde F; Roelke, Corey E; Hudak, Paul F; Burton, Taylour; Rifai, Hanadi S; Schug, Kevin A

    2015-07-01

    The exploration of unconventional shale energy reserves and the extensive use of hydraulic fracturing during well stimulation have raised concerns about the potential effects of unconventional oil and gas extraction (UOG) on the environment. Most accounts of groundwater contamination have focused primarily on the compositional analysis of dissolved gases to address whether UOG activities have had deleterious effects on overlying aquifers. Here, we present an analysis of 550 groundwater samples collected from private and public supply water wells drawing from aquifers overlying the Barnett shale formation of Texas. We detected multiple volatile organic carbon compounds throughout the region, including various alcohols, the BTEX family of compounds, and several chlorinated compounds. These data do not necessarily identify UOG activities as the source of contamination; however, they do provide a strong impetus for further monitoring and analysis of groundwater quality in this region as many of the compounds we detected are known to be associated with UOG techniques.

  8. Ground-water quality in Wisconsin through 1972

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, E.L.; Holt, C. L. R.

    1972-01-01

    Ground water, a plentiful and largely underdeveloped resource of Wisconsin, has good to excellent chemical quality in most places. This resource is readily available in most parts of the State for municipal, industrial, and rural uses. In 1970, about 0.5 billion gallons of ground water a day was pumped in Wisconsin for all uses (Murray and Reeves, 1972). In addition, underground reservoirs discharge an average of 16 billion gallons per day of water of relatively constant temperature and uniform quality, which maintains the base flow of streams and the level of lakes (Holt, 1964).

  9. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeological Regime, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1995 Groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number for the Y-12 Plant is TN.

  10. Seawater Intrusion and groundwater quality of the coastal area in Tripoli region, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Rashid; Rinder, Thomas; Dietzel, Martin; Leis, Albrecht

    2010-05-01

    In Libya groundwater is the main source of freshwater, providing a vital supplement to surface water sources. Groundwater availability and quality are however, vulnerable both to climate change and over-abstraction. In Libyan cities where the water table has lowered there has been a consequent impact on agricultural activities. Groundwater aquifers are either renewable or non-renewable. The renewable aquifers are those located in the north coastal strip with high precipitation rates. The large non-renewable sedimentary groundwater basins cover extensive areas in the central and southern parts of Libya and contribute large quantities of freshwater for local use, industrial and agricultural development. Seawater intrusion is a problem in the coastal areas of Libya. Most productive agricultural fields are in the northern coastal areas of the country where irrigation predominantly relies on groundwater. Seawater has moved inland because of heavy exploitation of the Miocene-Quaternary aquifer in order to meet the increasing water demand. The physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as electrical conductivity, pH, temperature and individual ion content were determined. Most of the wells showed high values of electrical conductivity. The increase of water salinity is directly related to the extreme pumping of shallow coastal aquifers and movement of seawater towards inland. In some samples the increase of salinity corresponds to the ions abundant in seawater. In those solutions molar ratios of Cl/Br indicate influence of seawater intrusion. According to mixing calculations between fresh groundwater of the study area and Mediterranean seawater, the estimated concentration of seawater ranges from 10 to 15 wt%.

  11. Hydrochemical and microbiological quality of groundwater in West Thrace Region of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özler, H. Murat; Aydın, Ali

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to do a preliminary assessment of the hydrochemical and microbial groundwater quality of the West Thrace region. Forty samples of groundwater collected from Edirne (Site 1) to Gelibolu (Site 2) were assessed for their suitability for human consumption. As3- was non-detectable in all the groundwater and Zn2+, Pb2+, F-, Cu2+, NH{4/+}, Cn- PO{4/3-} and Cl- were all below their respective European Union drinking water directive (EU-DWD) and Turkish food codex-drinking water directive (TFC-DWD). Maximum Acceptable Concentrations (MAC) Ni2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, and Ca2+ levels were detected in upper maximum acceptable concentrations 77.5, 42.5, 35.0, 50.0, 50.0, and 32.5% of the groundwater samples, respectively. However, in terms of Cr3+, Ni2+ and Pb2+, the differences between groundwaters of Sites 1 and 2 were significant ( p < 0.05). Eight water samples (20%) had HPC exceeding the EU and Turkish water directive limit 20 CFU (Colony Forming Unit)/ml in drinking water and the maximum bacteria count recorded was 44 CFU/ml. Total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus spp. and P. aeruginosa were detected in 25, 17.5, 15, 47.5, 15, 27.5, and 15% of the groundwater samples, respectively. Furthermore, heavy metals and trace elements were found after chemical analyzes in most samples. The pollution of groundwater come from a variety of sources, Meric and Ergene rivers, including land application of agricultural chemicals and organics wastes, infiltration of irrigation water, septic tanks, and infiltration of effluent from sewage treatment plants, pits, lagoons and ponds used storage.

  12. Numerical modeling of multiple nitrate sources affecting the groundwater quality of private wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, J.; Lefebvre, R.; Paradis, D.; Savard, M.

    2009-05-01

    The use of hydraulic data alone has proven to be insufficient to constrain transient simulations of mass transport. Recent developments in analytical methods, especially in the measurement of stable isotopes in water, have opened new possibilities to interpret transient groundwater flow and mass transport mechanisms. In that perspective, a numerical model was developed to represent the transient transport of nitrates in the Wilmot River watershed in Prince Edwards Island. This area is characterized by intensive agricultural land use, especially potato crops using large quantities of chemical fertilizers. The groundwater quality in many wells in the watershed has been deteriorating over the years, with the average nitrate concentration now reaching 7 mg/L, while some individual wells are above the maximum concentration limit of 10 mg/L. To evaluate the contribution of different nitrate sources to groundwater, seasonal concentrations of nitrate ion isotopes were measured in groundwater (N-15 and O-18). The dual isotope analysis allows the quantification of the proportions of nitrate species in groundwater, providing a geochemical mixing model of the different nitrate sources. The isotopic results obtained from the domestic wells within the watershed were used to develop and constrain a 3D groundwater flow and transport regional numerical model. Conceptually, the model reproduces the flow and transport conditions of the fractured upper 20 m of the aquifer. Since this part of the aquifer contains most the water available for domestic use, simulation results demonstrate that this groundwater is highly vulnerable to surface contamination and responds rapidly to changes in contaminant input.

  13. Numerical Model Assessment of the Effects of Drywell Facilitated Stormwater Infiltration on Groundwater Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, E.; Harter, T.; Fogg, G. E.; Washburn, B.

    2015-12-01

    Drywells are gravity-fed, excavated pits with perforated casings used to facilitate stormwater infiltration and groundwater recharge in areas comprised of low permeability soils or cover. Stormwater runoff that would otherwise be routed to streams or drains in urban areas is used as a source of aquifer recharge, potentially mitigating the effects of drought. However, the potential for groundwater contamination caused by urban runoff bypassing surface soil and near surface sediment attenuation processes has prevented more widespread use of drywells as a recharge mechanism. A study is currently underway in Elk Grove, CA, where two drywells have been constructed: one in a preexisting drainage basin fed by residential lots, and one at an industrial site. Both sites are outfitted with one upgradient and two downgradient groundwater monitoring wells, and one vadose zone monitoring well. To assess long-term effects of stormwater infiltration on the surrounding hydrogeologic system, fate and transport models of contaminants in the vadose zone are coupled with groundwater flow models to predict the concentrations of contaminants at the water table and simulate the transport of contaminant plumes to local municipal wells. Results of water quality sampling have identified the local contaminants of interest and the concentrations of these contaminants in the influent stormwater, and the fate and transport of these contaminants have been simulated using a 2D axisymmetrical model with site specific parameters. The output concentrations from vadose zone modeling are used as inputs to simulate contaminant plume migration in groundwater after two, ten, and fifty years. The results of the numerical modeling assessments indicate that the study's drywells do not pose a long-term threat to groundwater quality and may be an effective source of aquifer recharge and drought mitigation.

  14. Submarine Groundwater Discharge and Coastal Water Quality on the Kona Coast: The Land Use Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knee, K. L.; Street, J. H.; Grossman, E. G.; Boehm, A. B.; Paytan, A.

    2008-12-01

    For several decades, the Kona, or western, coast of the island of Hawai'i (Hawai'i, USA) has been recognized as a region of exceptionally high submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Maintaining good water quality on the Kona coast is important for the local coral reef ecosystems and tourism-based economy. However, rapid development in the recent past and planned development in the near future may pose a threat to coastal waters. In this study, we quantified SGD-related fluxes of freshwater, nutrients and trace metals into the coastal ocean at 12 sites on the Kona coast. Radium-224 activity, silica concentration, and salinity were used as groundwater tracers, and a mass-balance approach was used to estimate fluxes. The relation between fresh groundwater quality and land use was also investigated. Fresh SGD was pervasive along the Kona coast, occurring to a measurable extent at 11 of 12 study sites. However, the volume percent of fresh groundwater at coastal ocean sites varied considerably, from 0-47%, indicating that SGD affects some sites much more than others. Inverse, linear relationships between salinity and concentrations of nitrate+nitrite, phosphate, and silica in the coastal ocean indicated conservative behavior and suggested that nutrients are diluted or advected away from shore faster than they can be used biologically. Neither the population density nor the percentage of urbanized, agricultural, forested or bare land in the vicinity of the study sites influenced groundwater nutrient concentrations; however, sites closest to golf courses had significantly higher concentrations of nitrate+nitrite. Relations between land use and trace metal concentrations in groundwater were also investigated.

  15. Impact of post-methanation distillery effluent irrigation on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Jain, N; Bhatia, A; Kaushik, R; Kumar, Sanjeev; Joshi, H C; Pathak, H

    2005-11-01

    Molasses-based distilleries generate large quantities of effluent, which is used for irrigation in many countries including India. The effluent is rich in organic and inorganic ions, which may leach down and pollute the groundwater. An on-farm experiment was conducted to assess the impact of long-term irrigation with post-methanation distillery effluent (PMDE) on nitrate, sulphate, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium contents in the groundwater of two sites in northwest India. Electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and colour were also determined to assess the chemical load in the groundwater. Nitrate content in the groundwater samples ranged from 16.95 mg L(-1) in the unamended fields to 59.81 mg L(-1) in the PMDE-amended fields during the 2-year study (2001-2002). Concentrations of TDS in water samples from tubewell of the amended field was higher by 40.4% over the tubewell water of the unamended field. Colour of the water samples of the amended fields was also darker than that of the unamended fields. The study indicated that the organic and inorganic ions added through the effluent could pose a serious threat to the groundwater quality if applied without proper monitoring. PMID:16308790

  16. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This annual groundwater report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline.

  17. Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: 1994 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater and surface water quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several waste-management facilities and a petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) site associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The sites addressed by this document are located within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The East Fork Regime, which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant, encompasses the Y-12 Plant. The regime extends west from a surface water and shallow groundwater divide located near the west end of the plant to Scarboro Road (directions in this report are in reference to the Y-12 Plant grid system unless otherwise noted). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements and in accordance with DOE Orders and Energy Systems corporate policy.

  18. Impact of uranium mines closure and abandonment on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Rapantova, Nada; Licbinska, Monika; Babka, Ondrej; Grmela, Arnost; Pospisil, Pavel

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the evolving mine water quality of closed uranium mines (abandoned between 1958 and 1992) in the Czech Republic. This paper focuses on the changes in mine water quality over time and spatial variability. In 2010, systematic monitoring of mine water quality was performed at all available locations of previous uranium exploitation. Gravity flow discharges (mine adits, uncontrolled discharges) or shafts (in dynamic state or stagnating) were sampled. Since the quality of mine water results from multiple conditions-geology, type of sample, sampling depth, time since mine flooding, an assessment of mine water quality evolution was done taking into account all these conditions. Multivariate analyses were applied in order to identify the groups of samples based on their similarity. Evaluation of hydrogeochemical equilibrium and evolution of mine waters was done using the Geochemist's Workbench and PHREEQC software. The sampling proved that uranium concentrations in mine waters did not predominantly exceed 0.45 mg/L. In case of discharges from old adits abandoned more than 40 years ago, uranium concentrations were below the MCL of US Environmental Protection Agency for uranium in drinking water (0.03 mg/L). Higher concentrations, up to 1.23 mg/L of U, were found only at active dewatered mines. Activity concentration of 226Ra varied from 0.03 up to 1.85 Bq/L except for two sites with increased background values due to rock formation (granites). Radium has a typically increasing trend after mine abandonment with a large variability. Concerning metals in mine water, Al, Co and Ni exceeded legislative limits on two sites with low pH waters. The mine water quality changes with a focus on uranium mobility were described from recently dewatered mines to shafts with water level maintained in order to prevent outflows to surface water and finally to stagnating shafts and discharges of mine water from old adits. The results were in good agreement

  19. Quality-assurance and data management plan for groundwater activities by the U.S. Geological Survey in Kansas, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, James E.; Hansen, Cristi V.

    2014-01-01

    As the Nation’s principle earth-science information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is depended on to collect data of the highest quality. This document is a quality-assurance plan for groundwater activities (GWQAP) of the Kansas Water Science Center. The purpose of this GWQAP is to establish a minimum set of guidelines and practices to be used by the Kansas Water Science Center to ensure quality in groundwater activities. Included within these practices are the assignment of responsibilities for implementing quality-assurance activities in the Kansas Water Science Center and establishment of review procedures needed to ensure the technical quality and reliability of the groundwater products. In addition, this GWQAP is intended to complement quality-assurance plans for surface-water and water-quality activities and similar plans for the Kansas Water Science Center and general project activities throughout the USGS. This document provides the framework for collecting, analyzing, and reporting groundwater data that are quality assured and quality controlled. This GWQAP presents policies directing the collection, processing, analysis, storage, review, and publication of groundwater data. In addition, policies related to organizational responsibilities, training, project planning, and safety are presented. These policies and practices pertain to all groundwater activities conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center, including data-collection programs, interpretive and research projects. This report also includes the data management plan that describes the progression of data management from data collection to archiving and publication.

  20. Denver's Urban Ground-Water Quality: Nutrients, Pesticides, and Volatile Organic Compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruce, Breton W.

    1995-01-01

    A recent study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) under the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program characterized the ground-water quality in a part of the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area. The study provides an assessment of water-quality conditions in an alluvial aquifer that drains into the South Platte River. Thirty wells randomly distributed in residential, commercial, and industrial land-use settings were sampled once in 1993 for a broad range of compounds. Nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds (VOC's), all of which are generally associated with human activities, frequently were detected in the urban wells sampled. Nutrients and VOC's occasionally exceeded drinking-water standards.

  1. Seawater Intrusion Impacts on the Water Quality of the Groundwater on theNorthwest Coast of Oman.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Abdelkader T; Askri, Brahim

    2016-08-01

    The groundwater aquifer in the coastal region of the northwest of Oman has been used extensively since the early 1980s for agricultural, industrial and municipal purposes. The over pumping of this reservoir has led to the intrusion of seawater and therefore to the deterioration of the groundwater quality. In this study, an investigation was carried out in the southern part of this region to identify the quality of groundwater, to understand the main sources of groundwater mineralisation, and to check the suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation. The spatial distributions and temporal variations of groundwater level and electrical conductivity were studied for the period from 1982 to 2005 using data collected from 225 wells. In addition, groundwater samples were collected recently in 2012 from eight wells and analysed for pH, EC, and major ions to understand the sources of dissolved ions and assess the chemical quality of the groundwater. The study area was divided into two strips parallel to the coastline, A and B, located in the discharge and recharge parts of the aquifer, respectively. Results showed a significant increase in the degree of water mineralisation in the direction of south to north following the regional flow direction. Results showed also that the groundwater in the last area could be used for irrigation with little danger of exchangeable sodium while this aquifer is unsuitable for irrigation in the discharge area because it presents a very high salinity hazard. PMID:27456143

  2. Evaluation of Groundwater Quality Characteristics in Lagos-City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusuf, K. A.

    Most of the water requirement for Lagos is met from surface and ground water supplies. Lagos an industrial and highly populated city located in the Southwest Nigeria has urban migration problems and resource limitations. However, as found in many cities, a certain proportion of the population is forced to rely on the well water as sources of drinking water, a poor drinking water quality that may have health consequences. A study was therefore carried out to gain an idea of the inorganic quality of the water in the wells penetrating the shallow (< 20 m thick) alluvial aquifer in the city. Results from this study revealed that some of the ground water quality constituents exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) standards for drinking water irrespective of the sources of pollution: the total dissolved solids limit in 50%, the conductivity limit in 27.8%, the lead limit in 38.9%, the pH limit in 44.4% and the sodium and calcium limits in 11.1% of the samples. Thus, ground water from some of these wells requires further purification to ensure its fitness for human consumption.

  3. The impact of on-site wastewater from high density cluster developments on groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrissey, P. J.; Johnston, P. M.; Gill, L. W.

    2015-11-01

    The net impact on groundwater quality from high density clusters of unsewered housing across a range of hydro(geo)logical settings has been assessed. Four separate cluster development sites were selected, each representative of different aquifer vulnerability categories. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis over a two year period for chemical and microbiological analysis from nested multi-horizon sampling boreholes upstream and downstream of the study sites. The field results showed no statistically significant difference between upstream and downstream water quality at any of the study areas, although there were higher breakthroughs in contaminants in the High and Extreme vulnerability sites linked to high intensity rainfall events; these however, could not be directly attributed to on-site effluent. Linked numerical models were then built for each site using HYDRUS 2D to simulate the attenuation of contaminants through the unsaturated zone from which the resulting hydraulic and contaminant fluxes at the water table were used as inputs into MODFLOW MT3D models to simulate the groundwater flows. The results of the simulations confirmed the field observations at each site, indicating that the existing clustered on-site wastewater discharges would only cause limited and very localised impacts on groundwater quality, with contaminant loads being quickly dispersed and diluted downstream due to the relatively high groundwater flow rates. Further simulations were then carried out using the calibrated models to assess the impact of increasing cluster densities revealing little impact at any of the study locations up to a density of 6 units/ha with the exception of the Extreme vulnerability site.

  4. Tailoring groundwater quality monitoring to vulnerability: a GIS procedure for network design.

    PubMed

    Preziosi, E; Petrangeli, A B; Giuliano, G

    2013-05-01

    Monitoring networks aiming to assess the state of groundwater quality and detect or predict changes could increase in efficiency when fitted to vulnerability and pollution risk assessment. The main purpose of this paper is to describe a methodology aiming at integrating aquifers vulnerability and actual levels of groundwater pollution in the monitoring network design. In this study carried out in a pilot area in central Italy, several factors such as hydrogeological setting, groundwater vulnerability, and natural and anthropogenic contamination levels were analyzed and used in designing a network tailored to the monitoring objectives, namely, surveying the evolution of groundwater quality relating to natural conditions as well as to polluting processes active in the area. Due to the absence of an aquifer vulnerability map for the whole area, a proxi evaluation of it was performed through a geographic information system (GIS) methodology, leading to the so called "susceptibility to groundwater quality degradation". The latter was used as a basis for the network density assessment, while water points were ranked by several factors including discharge, actual contamination levels, maintenance conditions, and accessibility for periodical sampling in order to select the most appropriate to the network. Two different GIS procedures were implemented which combine vulnerability conditions and water points suitability, producing two slightly different networks of 50 monitoring points selected out of the 121 candidate wells and springs. The results are compared with a "manual" selection of the points. The applied GIS procedures resulted capable to select the requested number of water points from the initial set, evaluating the most confident ones and an appropriate density. Moreover, it is worth underlining that the second procedure (point distance analysis [PDA]) is technically faster and simpler to be performed than the first one (GRID + PDA).

  5. An Assessment of Peri-Urban Groundwater Quality from Shallow Dug Wells, Mzuzu, Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, R.; Felsot, A.

    2012-12-01

    Throughout Malawi, governmental, non-governmental, religious and civic organizations are targeting the human need for water. Diarrheal diseases, often associated with unsafe drinking water, are a leading cause of mortality in children under five in Malawi with over 6,000 deaths per year (World Health Organization, 2010). From January to March 2012, a field study was undertaken in Malawi to study water quality and develop a public health risk communication strategy. The region studied, Area 1B, represents a comparatively new peri-urban area on the edge of Mzuzu city. Area 1B is serviced by a piped municipal water supply, but many shallow dug wells are also used for household water. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 shallow dug well sites and analyzed for nitrate, total coliform, Escherichia coli, total hardness, total alkalinity and pH. In addition to water quality analyses, a structured household questionnaire was administered to address water use, sanitation, health, consumption patterns, and socioeconomics. Results showed that more than half of the groundwater samples would be considered of unacceptable quality based on World Health Organization (WHO) standards for E. coli contamination. Low levels of nitrate were found in groundwater, but only one well exceeded WHO standards. The structured questionnaire revealed that some residents were still consuming groundwater despite the access to safer municipal water. In general, the widespread E. coli contamination was not statistically correlated with well depth, latrine proximity, or surface features. Similarly, nitrate concentrations were not significantly correlated with proximity to latrines. On the other hand, nitrate was correlated with well depth, which is expected given the high potential for leaching of anionic highly water soluble compounds. E. coli was significantly correlated with nitrate concentration. Projects targeting the need for clean water need to recognize that households with access to a

  6. The impact of on-site wastewater from high density cluster developments on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, P J; Johnston, P M; Gill, L W

    2015-11-01

    The net impact on groundwater quality from high density clusters of unsewered housing across a range of hydro(geo)logical settings has been assessed. Four separate cluster development sites were selected, each representative of different aquifer vulnerability categories. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis over a two year period for chemical and microbiological analysis from nested multi-horizon sampling boreholes upstream and downstream of the study sites. The field results showed no statistically significant difference between upstream and downstream water quality at any of the study areas, although there were higher breakthroughs in contaminants in the High and Extreme vulnerability sites linked to high intensity rainfall events; these however, could not be directly attributed to on-site effluent. Linked numerical models were then built for each site using HYDRUS 2D to simulate the attenuation of contaminants through the unsaturated zone from which the resulting hydraulic and contaminant fluxes at the water table were used as inputs into MODFLOW MT3D models to simulate the groundwater flows. The results of the simulations confirmed the field observations at each site, indicating that the existing clustered on-site wastewater discharges would only cause limited and very localised impacts on groundwater quality, with contaminant loads being quickly dispersed and diluted downstream due to the relatively high groundwater flow rates. Further simulations were then carried out using the calibrated models to assess the impact of increasing cluster densities revealing little impact at any of the study locations up to a density of 6 units/ha with the exception of the Extreme vulnerability site.

  7. Assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal area of Sindh province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Alamgir, Aamir; Khan, Moazzam Ali; Schilling, Janpeter; Shaukat, S Shahid; Shahab, Shoaib

    2016-02-01

    Groundwater is a highly important resource, especially for human consumption and agricultural production. This study offers an assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal areas of Sindh province in Pakistan. Fifty-six samples of groundwater were taken at depths ranging from 30 to 50 m. Bacteriological and physico-chemical analyses were performed using the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. These were supplemented with expert interviews and observations to identify the usage of water and potential sources of pollution. The quality of the groundwater was found to be unsuitable for human consumption, despite being used for this purpose. The concentrations of sulfate and phosphate were well within the tolerance limits. Most critical were the high levels of organic and fecal pollution followed by turbidity and salinity. Metal concentrations (As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were also determined, and Ni and Pb strongly exceeded health standards. The study stresses the need for significant improvements of the irrigation, sanitation, and sewage infrastructure. PMID:26739008

  8. Changes in shallow groundwater quality beneath recently urbanized areas in the Memphis, Tennessee area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kingsbury, James A.; Coupe, Richard H.

    2012-01-01

    Memphis, the largest city in the state of Tennessee, and its surrounding suburbs depend on a confined aquifer, the Memphis aquifer, for drinking water. Concern over the potential for downward movement of water from an overlying shallow aquifer to the underlying Memphis aquifer provided impetus for monitoring groundwater quality within the shallow aquifer. The occurrence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrate, and pesticides in samples from the shallow well network indicate a widespread affect on water quality from the overlying urban land use. Total pesticide concentration was generally higher in more recently recharged groundwater indicating that as the proportion of recent water increases, the occurrence of pesticides related to the current urban land use also increases. Groundwater samples with nitrate concentrations greater than 1.5 mg/l and detectable concentrations of the pesticides atrazine and simazine also had higher concentrations of chloroform, a VOC primarily associated with urban land use, than in other samples. The age of the water from these wells indicates that these concentrations are most likely not representative of past agricultural use, but of more recent urban use of these chemicals. Given that the median age of water represented by the shallow well network was 21 years, a lag time likely exists between changes in land use and the occurrence of constituents related to urbanization in shallow groundwater.

  9. Assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal area of Sindh province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Alamgir, Aamir; Khan, Moazzam Ali; Schilling, Janpeter; Shaukat, S Shahid; Shahab, Shoaib

    2016-02-01

    Groundwater is a highly important resource, especially for human consumption and agricultural production. This study offers an assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal areas of Sindh province in Pakistan. Fifty-six samples of groundwater were taken at depths ranging from 30 to 50 m. Bacteriological and physico-chemical analyses were performed using the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. These were supplemented with expert interviews and observations to identify the usage of water and potential sources of pollution. The quality of the groundwater was found to be unsuitable for human consumption, despite being used for this purpose. The concentrations of sulfate and phosphate were well within the tolerance limits. Most critical were the high levels of organic and fecal pollution followed by turbidity and salinity. Metal concentrations (As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were also determined, and Ni and Pb strongly exceeded health standards. The study stresses the need for significant improvements of the irrigation, sanitation, and sewage infrastructure.

  10. Quality modeling of drinking groundwater using GIS in rural communities, northwest of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mosaferi, Mohammad; Pourakbar, Mojtaba; Shakerkhatibi, Mohammad; Fatehifar, Esmaeil; Belvasi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of groundwater resources in water supply, this work aimed to study quality of drinking groundwater in rural areas in Tabriz county, northwest of Iran. Thirty two groundwater samples from different areas were collected and analyzed in terms of general parameters along with 20 heavy metals (e.g. As, Hg and …). The data of the analyses were applied as an attribute database for preparing thematic maps and showing water quality parameters. Multivariate statistical techniques, including principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (CA) were used to compare and evaluate water quality. The findings showed that hydrochemical faces of the groundwater were of calcium-bicarbonate type. EC values were from 110 to 1750 μs/cm, in which concentration of salts was high in the east and a zone in north of the studied area. Hardness was from 52 to 476 mg/l and CaCO3 with average value of 185.88 ± 106.56 mg/L indicated hard water. Dominant cations and anions were Ca(2+) > Na(+) > Mg(2+) > K(+) and HCO3 (-) > Cl(-) > SO4 (2-) > NO3 (2), respectively. In the western areas, arsenic contamination was observed as high as 69 μg/L. Moreover, mercury was above the standard level in one of the villages. Eskandar and Olakandi villages had the lowest quality of drinking water. In terms of CA, sampling sites were classified into four clusters of similar water quality and PCA demonstrated that 3 components could cover 84.3% of the parameters. For investigating arsenic anomaly, conducting a comprehensive study in the western part of studied area is strongly recommended.

  11. Summary of surface-water quality, ground-water quality, and water withdrawals for the Spirit Lake Reservation, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.; Cates, Steven W.

    2006-01-01

    Available surface-water quality, ground-water quality, and water-withdrawal data for the Spirit Lake Reservation were summarized. The data were collected intermittently from 1948 through 2004 and were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey databases, North Dakota State Water Commission databases, and Spirit Lake Nation tribal agencies. Although the quality of surface water on the reservation generally is satisfactory, no surface-water sources are used for consumable water supplies. Ground water on the reservation is of sufficient quality for most uses. The Tokio and Warwick aquifers have better overall water quality than the Spiritwood aquifer. Water from the Spiritwood aquifer is used mostly for irrigation. The Warwick aquifer provides most of the consumable water for the reservation and for the city of Devils Lake. Annual water withdrawals from the Warwick aquifer by the Spirit Lake Nation ranged from 71 million gallons to 122 million gallons during 2000-04.

  12. Ground-water age, flow, and quality near a landfill, and changes in ground-water conditions from 1976 to 1996 in the Swinomish Indian Reservation, northwestern Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, B.E.; Cox, S.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the results of two related studies: a study of ground-water age, flow, and quality near a landfill in the south-central part of the Swinomish Indian Reservation; and a study of changes in ground-water conditions for the entire reservation from 1976 to 1996. The Swinomish Indian Reservation is a 17-square-mile part of Fidalgo Island in northwestern Washington. The groundwater flow system in the reservation is probably independent of other flow systems in the area because it is almost completely surrounded by salt water. There has been increasing stress on the ground-water resources of the reservation because the population has almost tripled during the past 20 years, and 65 percent of the population obtain their domestic water supply from the local ground-water system. The Swinomish Tribe is concerned that increased pumping of ground water might have caused decreased ground-water discharge into streams, declines in ground-water levels, and seawater intrusion into the ground-water system. There is also concern that leachate from an inactive landfill containing mostly household and wood-processing wastes may be contaminating the ground water. The study area is underlain by unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits of Quaternary age that range from about 300 to 900 feet thick. Five hydrogeologic units have been defined in the unconsolidated deposits. From top to bottom, the hydrogeologic units are a till confining bed, an outwash aquifer, a clay confining bed, a sea-level aquifer, and an undifferentiated unit. The ground-water flow system of the reservation is similar to other island-type flow systems. Water enters the system through the water table as infiltration and percolation of precipitation (recharge), then the water flows downward and radially outward from the center of the island. At the outside edges of the system, ground water flows upward to discharge into the surrounding saltwater bodies. Average annual recharge is estimated to

  13. Ground-water quality beneath an urban residential and commercial area, Montgomery, Alabama, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, James L.

    2002-01-01

    The Black Warrior River aquifer, which is composed of the Coker, Gordo, and Eutaw Formations, supplies more than 50 percent of the ground water used for public water supply in the Mobile River Basin. The city of Montgomery, Alabama, is partially built upon a recharge area for the Black Warrior River aquifer, and is one of many major population centers that depend on the Black Warrior River aquifer for public water supply. To represent the baseline ground-water quality in the Black Warrior River aquifer, water samples were collected from 30 wells located in a low-density residential or rural setting; 9 wells were completed in the Coker Formation, 9 wells in the Gordo Formation, and 12 wells in the Eutaw Formation. To describe the ground-water quality beneath Montgomery, Alabama, water samples also were collected from 30 wells located in residential and commercial areas of Montgomery, Alabama; 16 wells were completed in the Eutaw Formation, 8 wells in alluvial deposits, and 6 wells in terrace deposits. The alluvial and terrace deposits directly overlie the Eutaw Formation with little or no hydraulic separation. Ground-water samples collected from both the rural and urban wells were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, metals, volatile organic compounds, and pesticides. Samples from the urban wells also were analyzed for bacteria, chlorofluorocarbons, dissolved gases, and sulfur hexafluoride. Ground-water quality beneath the urban area was compared to baseline water quality in the Black Warrior River aquifer.Compared to the rural wells, ground-water samples from urban wells contained greater concentrations or more frequent detections of chloride and nitrate, and the trace metals aluminium, chromium, cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc. Pesticides and volatile organic compounds were detected more frequently and in greater concentrations in ground-water samples collected from urban wells than in ground-water samples from rural wells.The Spearman rho

  14. Calendar Year 1994 Groundwater Quality Report for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater and surface water quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The sites addressed by this document are located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the Y-12 Plant complex (directions in this report are in reference to the Y-12 administrative grid system) within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface water quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in the Bear Creek Regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements and in accordance with DOE Orders and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the Bear Creek Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 (this report) consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Part 2 of the report, to be issued mid-year, will contain an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, present the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describe changes in monitoring priorities, and present planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis program for the following CY.

  15. Current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in central part of the Kanto Plain, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachinohe, S.; Hamamoto, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Hayashi, T.; Miyakoshi, A.; Yasuhara, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Kanto Plain is known as the largest plain in Japan, where a lot of huge cities are located and about 30% of population of Japan is concentrated. In the inland part of the Kanto Plain, dependence on groundwater for water requirements is relatively high; in particular around 40% of the municipal water supply is dependent on groundwater. On the other hand, various kinds of controlled substances such as arsenic, nitrate and nitrite-nitrogen, volatile organic compounds are detected in groundwater in excess of the Japanese environmental standards. Therefore, in order to evaluate current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in the central part of the Kanto Plain, we investigated around 500 wells. These wells are distributed throughout the plain area of Saitama Prefecture, stretching about 80 kilometers from east to west and about 60 kilometers from north to south. Depths of these wells range from 5m to 200m. We analyzed heavy metals and metalloids such as Fe, Mn, Al, As, Pb, using the ICP/AES and ICP/MS and also analyzed major dissolved ions such as Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, SO42-, using the ion chromatograph. As a result of investigation, rate of samples exceeded the Japanese environmental standards of arsenic (0.01 mg/l) in groundwater was about 1%, and the maximum concentration was about 10 times of the environmental standards. Groundwater with a high arsenic concentration was detected in the specific area, such as in the lowlands located upstream from the former shoreline at the Holocene glacial retreat. Taking the land use of surrounding area, well depth and groundwater condition of aquifers into account, detected arsenic is considered to be of natural origin and mainly originate from natural layers. According to the previous studies, the release mechanisms of natural arsenic are summarized in some ways and in case of this research area, it was explained that natural arsenic is released with dissolution of the iron oxide in the reduction

  16. National Wildlife's 1978 Environmental Quality Index: A Fresh Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This index evaluates the status of the environmental concerns of the past year and suggests ways to deal with these situations. Environmental areas addressed are wildlife, air, minerals, water, forests, soil, and living space. Each is discussed with respect to current legislation, standards, and problems. (MA)

  17. 7 CFR 61.103 - Determination of quality index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fatty acids in the oil in the seed, shall be known as prime quality cottonseed and shall have a quality..., contain foreign matter, moisture, or free fatty acids in the oil in the seed, in excess of the percentages... cottonseed as follows: (1) Four-tenths of a unit for each 0.1 percent of free fatty acids in the oil in...

  18. 7 CFR 61.103 - Determination of quality index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fatty acids in the oil in the seed, shall be known as prime quality cottonseed and shall have a quality..., contain foreign matter, moisture, or free fatty acids in the oil in the seed, in excess of the percentages... cottonseed as follows: (1) Four-tenths of a unit for each 0.1 percent of free fatty acids in the oil in...

  19. 7 CFR 61.103 - Determination of quality index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fatty acids in the oil in the seed, shall be known as prime quality cottonseed and shall have a quality..., contain foreign matter, moisture, or free fatty acids in the oil in the seed, in excess of the percentages... cottonseed as follows: (1) Four-tenths of a unit for each 0.1 percent of free fatty acids in the oil in...

  20. 7 CFR 61.103 - Determination of quality index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fatty acids in the oil in the seed, shall be known as prime quality cottonseed and shall have a quality..., contain foreign matter, moisture, or free fatty acids in the oil in the seed, in excess of the percentages... cottonseed as follows: (1) Four-tenths of a unit for each 0.1 percent of free fatty acids in the oil in...

  1. 7 CFR 61.103 - Determination of quality index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fatty acids in the oil in the seed, shall be known as prime quality cottonseed and shall have a quality..., contain foreign matter, moisture, or free fatty acids in the oil in the seed, in excess of the percentages... cottonseed as follows: (1) Four-tenths of a unit for each 0.1 percent of free fatty acids in the oil in...

  2. Quaternion structural similarity: a new quality index for color images.

    PubMed

    Kolaman, Amir; Yadid-Pecht, Orly

    2012-04-01

    One of the most important issues for researchers developing image processing algorithms is image quality. Methodical quality evaluation, by showing images to several human observers, is slow, expensive, and highly subjective. On the other hand, a visual quality matrix (VQM) is a fast, cheap, and objective tool for evaluating image quality. Although most VQMs are good in predicting the quality of an image degraded by a single degradation, they poorly perform for a combination of two degradations. An example for such degradation is the color crosstalk (CTK) effect, which introduces blur with desaturation. CTK is expected to become a bigger issue in image quality as the industry moves toward smaller sensors. In this paper, we will develop a VQM that will be able to better evaluate the quality of an image degraded by a combined blur/desaturation degradation and perform as well as other VQMs on single degradations such as blur, compression, and noise. We show why standard scalar techniques are insufficient to measure a combined blur/desaturation degradation and explain why a vectorial approach is better suited. We introduce quaternion image processing (QIP), which is a true vectorial approach and has many uses in the fields of physics and engineering. Our new VQM is a vectorial expansion of structure similarity using QIP, which gave it its name-Quaternion Structural SIMilarity (QSSIM). We built a new database of a combined blur/desaturation degradation and conducted a quality survey with human subjects. An extensive comparison between QSSIM and other VQMs on several image quality databases-including our new database-shows the superiority of this new approach in predicting visual quality of color images.

  3. Seasonal Variation of Groundwater Quality in Erode District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Kavidha, R; Elangovan, K

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, the recurring environmental issues regarding hazardous waste, global climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, groundwater contamination, disaster mitigation and removal of pollutant have become the focus of environmental attention. In the management of water resources, quality of water is just as important as its quantity. In order to assess the quality and/or suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation in Erode District, 144 water samples each in post-monsoon and pre-monsoon during the year 2007 were collected and analyzed for various parameters. These parameters were compared with IS: 10500-1991 drinking water standards. Out of 144 samples, 29 samples exceeded the permissible limit for both the monsoons, 71 samples were within the permissible limit for both the monsoons and the remaining samples exceeded the permissible limit for any one of the monsoon. During both monsoons, except some samples, most of the samples were suitable for drinking and irrigation.

  4. Seasonal Variation of Groundwater Quality in Erode District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Kavidha, R; Elangovan, K

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, the recurring environmental issues regarding hazardous waste, global climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, groundwater contamination, disaster mitigation and removal of pollutant have become the focus of environmental attention. In the management of water resources, quality of water is just as important as its quantity. In order to assess the quality and/or suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation in Erode District, 144 water samples each in post-monsoon and pre-monsoon during the year 2007 were collected and analyzed for various parameters. These parameters were compared with IS: 10500-1991 drinking water standards. Out of 144 samples, 29 samples exceeded the permissible limit for both the monsoons, 71 samples were within the permissible limit for both the monsoons and the remaining samples exceeded the permissible limit for any one of the monsoon. During both monsoons, except some samples, most of the samples were suitable for drinking and irrigation. PMID:26563080

  5. Groundwater levels and water-quality observations pertaining to the Austin Group, Bexar County, Texas, 2009-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banta, J.R.; Clark, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    In general, the water-quality data indicated that the samples were representative of a calcium carbonate dominated system. The major ion chemistry and relations between magnesium to calcium molar ratios and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios of samples collected from sites H and I indicated that the groundwater from these sites was most geochemically similar to groundwater collected from site B (State well AY-68-36-134), which is representative of groundwater in the Edwards aquifer. Of the sites sampled in this study, there appears to be varying hydrologic connectivity between groundwater from wells completed in the Austin Group and the Edwards aquifer.

  6. Development and sensitivity analysis of a global drinking water quality index.

    PubMed

    Rickwood, C J; Carr, G M

    2009-09-01

    The UNEP GEMS/Water Programme is the leading international agency responsible for the development of water quality indicators and maintains the only global database of water quality for inland waters (GEMStat). The protection of source water quality for domestic use (drinking water, abstraction etc) was identified by GEMS/Water as a priority for assessment. A composite index was developed to assess source water quality across a range of inland water types, globally, and over time. The approach for development was three-fold: (1) Select guidelines from the World Health Organisation that are appropriate in assessing global water quality for human health, (2) Select variables from GEMStat that have an appropriate guideline and reasonable global coverage, and (3) determine, on an annual basis, an overall index rating for each station using the water quality index equation endorsed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. The index allowed measurements of the frequency and extent to which variables exceeded their respective WHO guidelines, at each individual monitoring station included within GEMStat, allowing both spatial and temporal assessment of global water quality. Development of the index was followed by preliminary sensitivity analysis and verification of the index against real water quality data.

  7. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge Tennessee. 1995 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) at several waste management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites lie within the boundaries of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to ensure protection of local groundwater resources in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations, DOE Orders, and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the East Fork Regime is completed in two parts. Part I consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with reporting requirements of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring, the Part I GWQR is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY); Energy Systems submitted the 1995 Part I GWQR for the East Fork Regime to the TDEC in February 1996. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality.

  8. Water-quality assessment of the Carson River ground-water basin, Nevada and California; project description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, A.H.; Plume, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the nation 's surface water and groundwater resources. This program, called the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, is designed to acquire and interpret information about a wide range of water quality issues. The program is in its early stages and consists of four surface water and three groundwater pilot projects. The objectives of the Carson River basin NAWQA project are described in the context of the national program, the study area and its associated water quality issues, and a proposed study approach. The objectives of the Carson River basin NAWQA project are to: (1) investigate regional groundwater quality; (2) describe relations of groundwater quality to land use, geohydrology, and other pertinent factors; (3) provide a general description of the location, nature and possible causes of selected widespread water quality problems in the project area; and (4) develop new techniques for characterizing regional groundwater quality, especially in arid alluvial basins. There are to be three major phases of the Carson River basin project. The first will consist of compilation and analysis of existing data. The second phase will consist of a regional water quality survey that will produce a consistent set of data that can be used to: (1) define regional quality of groundwater within the Carson River basin; and (2) compare that water quality with other aquifers in the Nation. The third phase will include topical studies that will define groundwater quality in the Carson River basin with respect to certain constituents, either basin wide or within specific areas of concern. (Lantz-PTT)

  9. Suburban groundwater quality as influenced by turfgrass and septic sources, Delmarva Peninsula, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasper, Joshua W.; Denver, Judith M.; York, Joanna K.

    2015-01-01

    Suburban land use is expanding in many parts of the United States and there is a need to better understand the potential water-quality impacts of this change. This study characterized groundwater quality in a sandy, water-table aquifer influenced by suburban development and compared the results to known patterns in water chemistry associated with natural, background conditions and agricultural effects. Samples for nutrients, major ions, and isotopes of N and O in NO3− were collected in 2011 beneath turfgrass from 29 shallow wells (median depth 3.7 m) and from 18 deeper wells (median depth 16.9 m) in a long-term suburban development. Nitrate (as N) concentrations in groundwater beneath turfgrass were highly variable (0.02–22.3 mg L−1) with a median of 2.7 mg L−1, which is higher than natural water chemistry (>0.4 mg L−1; Na+–Cl−–HCO3− water type), but significantly lower than concentrations beneath a nearby agricultural area (median 16.9 mg L−1; p < .0001). Dissolved Fe concentrations in shallow suburban groundwater, attributed to chelated Fe in turfgrass fertilizers, were significantly higher (p < .005) than concentrations from the agricultural site, although a Ca2+–Mg2+–Cl−–NO3− water type was dominant in both areas. A Na+–Cl−–NO3− water type indicated a septic-system source for nitrate in deep suburban groundwater (0.06–6.0 mg L−1; median 1.5 mg L−1). Isotopic data indicated denitrification; however, geochemical techniques were more helpful in identifying nitrate sources. Results indicate that suburban expansion into agricultural areas may significantly decrease overall nitrate concentrations in groundwater, but excessive turfgrass fertilization could result in localized contamination.

  10. Suburban groundwater quality as influenced by turfgrass and septic sources, delmarva peninsula, USA.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Joshua W; Denver, Judith M; York, Joanna K

    2015-03-01

    Suburban land use is expanding in many parts of the United States and there is a need to better understand the potential water-quality impacts of this change. This study characterized groundwater quality in a sandy, water-table aquifer influenced by suburban development and compared the results to known patterns in water chemistry associated with natural, background conditions and agricultural effects. Samples for nutrients, major ions, and isotopes of N and O in NO were collected in 2011 beneath turfgrass from 29 shallow wells (median depth 3.7 m) and from 18 deeper wells (median depth 16.9 m) in a long-term suburban development. Nitrate (as N) concentrations in groundwater beneath turfgrass were highly variable (0.02-22.3 mg L) with a median of 2.7 mg L, which is higher than natural water chemistry (>0.4 mg L; Na-Cl-HCO water type), but significantly lower than concentrations beneath a nearby agricultural area (median 16.9 mg L; < .0001). Dissolved Fe concentrations in shallow suburban groundwater, attributed to chelated Fe in turfgrass fertilizers, were significantly higher ( < .005) than concentrations from the agricultural site, although a Ca-Mg-Cl-NO water type was dominant in both areas. A Na-Cl-NO water type indicated a septic-system source for nitrate in deep suburban groundwater (0.06-6.0 mg L; median 1.5 mg L). Isotopic data indicated denitrification; however, geochemical techniques were more helpful in identifying nitrate sources. Results indicate that suburban expansion into agricultural areas may significantly decrease overall nitrate concentrations in groundwater, but excessive turfgrass fertilization could result in localized contamination. PMID:26023982

  11. Impact of pesticides used in agriculture and vineyards to surface and groundwater quality (North Spain).

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Alain; Guillamón, Míriam; Lacorte, Sílvia; Tauler, Romà; Barceló, Damià

    2008-07-01

    An environmental monitoring program was carried out to determine the impact of eight pesticides on the surface and groundwater quality of agricultural areas within the Ebro, Duero and Miño river basins. Three triazines and their desethyl degradation products, metolachlor and metalaxyl, were monitored during 18 months in 63 sites. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) using OASIS HLB 60 mg cartridges and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) provided good analytical quality parameters and limits of quantification of 0.01 microg/L. Environmental data were assessed using descriptive statistical analysis and multivariate data analysis with principal component analysis (PCA) to elucidate the relevant contamination patterns and provide a description of their seasonal trends, according to the pesticide application timing. Duero was the site with the highest frequency of detection and highest concentration levels, followed by the Ebro and Miño basins. The frequency of detection of the studied compounds, considering all surface and groundwater samples, was atrazine>desethylatrazine>simazine>desethylsimazine>metolachlor>desethylterbuthylazine>terbuthylazine>metalaxyl. Over all results, and taking into consideration the European Union (EU) maximum residual limit of pesticides in groundwater, only 12% of the results exceeded the 0.1 microg/L limit. However, sporadic high levels up to 2.46 mug/L in groundwater and 0.63 microg/L in surface water were detected. PCA permitted to state that Duero and Ebro river basins were especially affected by a contamination pattern dominated by atrazine, the Ebro river basin being occasionally affected by a contamination pattern dominated by simazine. Only trace levels were rarely detected in the Miño river basin. Groundwater levels were higher than surface water levels for the studied pesticides.

  12. Suburban groundwater quality as influenced by turfgrass and septic sources, delmarva peninsula, USA.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Joshua W; Denver, Judith M; York, Joanna K

    2015-03-01

    Suburban land use is expanding in many parts of the United States and there is a need to better understand the potential water-quality impacts of this change. This study characterized groundwater quality in a sandy, water-table aquifer influenced by suburban development and compared the results to known patterns in water chemistry associated with natural, background conditions and agricultural effects. Samples for nutrients, major ions, and isotopes of N and O in NO were collected in 2011 beneath turfgrass from 29 shallow wells (median depth 3.7 m) and from 18 deeper wells (median depth 16.9 m) in a long-term suburban development. Nitrate (as N) concentrations in groundwater beneath turfgrass were highly variable (0.02-22.3 mg L) with a median of 2.7 mg L, which is higher than natural water chemistry (>0.4 mg L; Na-Cl-HCO water type), but significantly lower than concentrations beneath a nearby agricultural area (median 16.9 mg L; < .0001). Dissolved Fe concentrations in shallow suburban groundwater, attributed to chelated Fe in turfgrass fertilizers, were significantly higher ( < .005) than concentrations from the agricultural site, although a Ca-Mg-Cl-NO water type was dominant in both areas. A Na-Cl-NO water type indicated a septic-system source for nitrate in deep suburban groundwater (0.06-6.0 mg L; median 1.5 mg L). Isotopic data indicated denitrification; however, geochemical techniques were more helpful in identifying nitrate sources. Results indicate that suburban expansion into agricultural areas may significantly decrease overall nitrate concentrations in groundwater, but excessive turfgrass fertilization could result in localized contamination.

  13. Appraisal of ground-water quality in the Bunker Hill Basin of San Bernardino Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duell, L.F.; Schroeder, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 47 wells and analyzed for concentration of major inorganic ions, nitrogen species, and volatile (purgeable) organic priority pollutants to assess groundwater quality in the Bunker Hill basin, California. Data were supplemented with additional analysis of nitrate, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene made by other agencies. The organic quality of groundwater in the basin generally is suitable for most uses, although fluoride concentration exceeded the California public drinking water standard of 1.4 mg/L in water from 5 of 47 wells. Nitrate (as nitrogen) concentration equaled or exceeded the public drinking water standard of 10 mg/L in water from 13 of 47 wells sampled for this study and in an additional 19 of 120 samples analyzed by other agencies. Concentration generally decreased with increasing depth below land surface. Twenty-four of the 33 volatile organic priority pollutants were detected in water from wells sampled during this study. When supplemental data from other agencies are included, tetrachloroethylene concentration exceeded the standard of 5 micrograms/L in water from 49 of 128 wells. No basinwide relation between contamination by these two chemicals and well depth or land use was discerned. A network of 11 observation wells that could be sampled twice a year would enhance the monitoring of changes groundwater quality in the Bunker Hill basin. (USGS)

  14. Application of multivariate statistical techniques for characterization of groundwater quality in the coastal aquifer of Nador, Tipaza (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouderbala, Abdelkader; Remini, Boualem; Saaed Hamoudi, Abdelamir; Pulido-Bosch, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    The study focuses on the characterization of the groundwater salinity on the Nador coastal aquifer (Algeria). The groundwater quality has undergone serious deterioration due to overexploitation. Groundwater samplings were carried out in high and low waters in 2013, in order to study the evolution of groundwater hydrochemistry from the recharge to the coastal area. Different kinds of statistical analysis were made in order to identify the main hydrogeochemical processes occurring in the aquifer and to discriminate between different groups of groundwater. These statistical methods provide a better understanding of the aquifer hydrochemistry, and put in evidence a hydrochemical classification of wells, showing that the area with higher salinity is located close to the coast, in the first two kilometers, where the salinity gradually increases as one approaches the seaside and suggests the groundwater salinization by seawater intrusion.

  15. An evaluation of effects of groundwater exchange on nearshore habitats and water quality of western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Neff, Brian P.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Lundstrom, Scott C.

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the high potentiometric surface of groundwater in the Silurian/Devonian carbonate aquifer in Monroe County, MI resulted in discharge of highly mineralized, SO4-rich groundwater to the Lake Erie shoreline near both Erie State Game Area (ESGA) and Pointe Mouillee State Game Area (PMSGA). Recently, regional groundwater levels near PMSGA have been drawn down as much as 45 m below lake level in apparent response to quarry dewatering. From August to November of 2003, we conducted preliminary studies of groundwater flow dynamics and chemistry, shallow lake water chemistry, and fish and invertebrate communities at both sites. Consistent with regional observations, groundwater flow direction in the nearshore at ESGA was upward, or toward Lake Erie, and shallow nearshore groundwater chemistry was influenced by regional groundwater chemistry. In contrast, at PMSGA, the groundwater flow potential was downward and lake water, influenced by quarry discharge seeping downward into nearshore sediments, produced a different lake and shallow groundwater chemistry than at ESGA. Although the invertebrate and young fish community was similar at the two sites, taxonomic groups tolerant of degraded water quality were more prevalent at PMSGA. Sensitive taxa were more prevalent at ESGA. We propose a conceptual model, based on well-described models of groundwater/seawater interaction along coastal margins, to describe the interconnection among geologic, hydrologic, chemical, and biological processes in the different nearshore habitats of Lake Erie, and we identify processes that warrant further detailed study in the Great Lakes.

  16. Groundwater quality in the Madera and Chowchilla subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s untreated groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Madera and Chowchilla subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley constitute one of the study units being evaluated. The Madera-Chowchilla study unit is about 860 square miles and consists of the Madera and Chowchilla groundwater subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley Basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Shelton and others, 2009). The study unit has hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 11 to 15 inches, most of which occurs between November and February. The main surface-water features in the study unit are the San Joaquin, Fresno, and Chowchilla Rivers, and the Madera and Chowchilla canals. Land use in the study unit is about 69 percent (%) agricultural, 28% natural (mainly grasslands), and 3% urban. The primary crops are orchards and vineyards. The largest urban area is the city of Madera. The primary aquifer system is defined as those parts of the aquifer corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. In the Madera-Chowchilla study unit, these wells typically are drilled to depths between 200 and 800 feet, consist of a solid casing from land surface to a depth of about 140 to 400 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing. Water quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from that in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer system. The primary aquifer system in the study unit consists of Quaternary-age alluvial-fan and fluvial deposits that were formed by the rivers draining the Sierra Nevada. Sediments consist of gravels, sands

  17. Quantity and quality of groundwater discharge in a hypersaline lake environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R.B.; Naftz, D.L.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Henderson, R.D.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Stolp, B.J.; Jewell, P.

    2014-01-01

    Geophysical and geochemical surveys were conducted to understand groundwater discharge to Great Salt Lake (GSL) and assess the potential significance of groundwater discharge as a source of selenium (Se). Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) focusing below the sediment/water interface and fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) surveys were conducted along the south shore of GSL. FO-DTS surveys identified persistent cold-water temperature anomalies at 10 separate locations. Seepage measurements were conducted at 17 sites (mean seepage rate = 0.8 cm/day). High resistivity anomalies identified by the CRP survey were likely a mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) salt layer acting as a semi-confining layer for the shallow groundwater below the south shore of the lake. Positive seepage rates measured along the near-shore areas of GSL indicate that a ∼1-m thick oolitic sand overlying the mirabilite layer is likely acting as a shallow, unconfined aquifer. Using the average seepage rate of 0.8 cm/day over an area of 1.6 km2, an annual Se mass loading to GSL of 23.5 kg was estimated. Determination of R/Ra values (calculated 3He/4He ratio over the present-day atmospheric 3He/4He ratio) 34S and δ18O isotopic values in samples of dissolved sulfate from the shallow groundwater below the mirabilite are almost identical to the isotopic signature of the mirabilite core material. The saturation index calculated for groundwater samples using PHREEQC indicates the water is at equilibrium with mirabilite. Water samples collected from GSL immediately off shore contained Se concentrations that were 3–4 times higher than other sampling sites >25 km offshore from the study site and may be originating from less saline groundwater seeps mixing with the more saline water from GSL. Additional evidence for mixing with near shore seeps is found in the δD and δ18O isotopic values and Br:Cl ratios. Geochemical modeling for a water sample collected in the vicinity of the study area

  18. Application of Integral Pumping Tests to estimate the influence of losing streams on groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leschik, S.; Musolff, A.; Reinstorf, F.; Strauch, G.; Schirmer, M.

    2009-05-01

    Urban streams receive effluents of wastewater treatment plants and untreated wastewater during combined sewer overflow events. In the case of losing streams substances, which originate from wastewater, can reach the groundwater and deteriorate its quality. The estimation of mass flow rates Mex from losing streams to the groundwater is important to support groundwater management strategies, but is a challenging task. Variable inflow of wastewater with time-dependent concentrations of wastewater constituents causes a variable water composition in urban streams. Heterogeneities in the structure of the streambed and the connected aquifer lead, in combination with this variable water composition, to heterogeneous concentration patterns of wastewater constituents in the vicinity of urban streams. Groundwater investigation methods based on conventional point sampling may yield unreliable results under these conditions. Integral Pumping Tests (IPT) can overcome the problem of heterogeneous concentrations in an aquifer by increasing the sampled volume. Long-time pumping (several days) and simultaneous sampling yields reliable average concentrations Cav and mass flow rates Mcp for virtual control planes perpendicular to the natural flow direction. We applied the IPT method in order to estimate Mex of a stream section in Leipzig (Germany). The investigated stream is strongly influenced by combined sewer overflow events. Four pumping wells were installed up- and downstream of the stream section and operated for a period of five days. The study was focused on four inorganic (potassium, chloride, nitrate and sulfate) and two organic (caffeine and technical-nonylphenol) wastewater constituents with different transport properties. The obtained concentration-time series were used in combination with a numerical flow model to estimate Mcp of the respective wells. The difference of the Mcp's between up- and downstream wells yields Mex of wastewater constituents that increase

  19. Anthropogenic Influence On Groundwater Quality In Jericho and And Adjoining Wadis (Lower Jordan Valley, Palestine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, S.; Khayat, S.; Roediger, T.; Siebert, C.

    2008-12-01

    vegetable gardening hold the danger to pollute the groundwater via irrigation return flow. This return flow most probably endangers the quality of the water resource, because shallow wells nearby extract it directly from the underground. However, one result of the first screening campaign concerning pesticide remnants in the groundwater wells of Jericho, just traces have been detected. Thus, the higher amount of chemicals is retained by the soil during infiltration of irrigated water. The detected low concentrations in groundwater of the fan may be the result of outleaching from agricultural areas from the mountain range. The flood water of Wadi Qilt infiltrates partly in the fluviatil sediments. The ongoing investigations in the Wadi Qilt-Jericho area include an approach of combined hydrochemical and hydraulic studies to simulate the complex groundwater system at the edge of the graben and to prepare a sustainable groundwater management strategy for the area of Jericho.

  20. Multivariate analysis of groundwater quality and modeling impact of ground heat pump system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuyet, D. Q.; Saito, H.; Muto, H.; Saito, T.; Hamamoto, S.; Komatsu, T.

    2013-12-01

    The ground source heat pump system (GSHP) has recently become a popular building heating or cooling method, especially in North America, Western Europe, and Asia, due to advantages in reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission. Because of the stability of the ground temperature, GSHP can effectively exchange the excess or demand heat of the building to the ground during the building air conditioning in the different seasons. The extensive use of GSHP can potentially disturb subsurface soil temperature and thus the groundwater quality. Therefore the assessment of subsurface thermal and environmental impacts from the GSHP operations is necessary to ensure sustainable use of GSHP system as well as the safe use of groundwater resources. This study aims to monitor groundwater quality during GSHP operation and to develop a numerical model to assess changes in subsurface soil temperature and in groundwater quality as affected by GSHP operation. A GSHP system was installed in Fuchu city, Tokyo, and consists of two closed double U-tubes (50-m length) buried vertically in the ground with a distance of 7.3 m from each U-tube located outside a building. An anti-freezing solution was circulated inside the U-tube for exchanging the heat between the building and the ground. The temperature at every 5-m depth and the groundwater quality including concentrations of 16 trace elements, pH, EC, Eh and DO in the shallow aquifer (32-m depth) and the deep aquifer (44-m depth) were monitored monthly since 2012, in an observation well installed 3 m from the center of the two U-tubes.Temporal variations of each element were evaluated using multivariate analysis and geostatistics. A three-dimensional heat exchange model was developed in COMSOL Multiphysics4.3b to simulate the heat exchange processes in subsurface soils. Results showed the difference in groundwater quality between the shallow and deep aquifers to be significant for some element concentrations and DO, but

  1. Application of integral pumping tests to investigate the influence of a losing stream on groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leschik, S.; Musolff, A.; Krieg, R.; Martienssen, M.; Bayer-Raich, M.; Reinstorf, F.; Strauch, G.; Schirmer, M.

    2009-06-01

    Losing streams that are influenced by wastewater treatment plant effluents and combined sewer overflows (CSO's) can be a source of groundwater contamination. Released micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, endocrine disrupters and other ecotoxicologically relevant substances as well as inorganic wastewater constituents can reach the groundwater, where they may deteriorate groundwater quality. This paper presents a method to quantify exfiltration mass flow rates Mex of wastewater constituents from losing streams by the operation of integral pumping tests (IPT's) up- and downstream of a target section. Due to the large sampled water volume during IPT's the results are more reliable than those from conventional point sampling. We applied the method at a test site in Leipzig (Germany). Wastewater constituents K+ and NO3- showed Mex values of 1241 to 4315 and 749 to 924 mg m-1stream d-1, respectively, while Cl- (16.8 to 47.3 g m-1stream d-1) and SO42- (20.3 to 32.2 g m-1stream d-1) revealed the highest observed Mex values at the test site. The micropollutants caffeine and technical-nonylphenol were dominated by elimination processes in the groundwater between upstream and downstream wells. Additional concentration measurements in the stream and a connected sewer at the test site were performed to identify relevant processes that influence the concentrations at the IPT wells.

  2. Application of integral pumping tests to investigate the influence of a losing stream on groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leschik, S.; Musolff, A.; Krieg, R.; Martienssen, M.; Bayer-Raich, M.; Reinstorf, F.; Strauch, G.; Schirmer, M.

    2009-10-01

    Losing streams that are influenced by wastewater treatment plant effluents and combined sewer overflows (CSOs) can be a source of groundwater contamination. Released micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, endocrine disrupters and other ecotoxicologically relevant substances as well as inorganic wastewater constituents can reach the groundwater, where they may deteriorate groundwater quality. This paper presents a method to quantify exfiltration mass flow rates per stream length unit Mex of wastewater constituents from losing streams by the operation of integral pumping tests (IPTs) up- and downstream of a target section. Due to the large sampled water volume during IPTs the results are more reliable than those from conventional point sampling. We applied the method at a test site in Leipzig (Germany). Wastewater constituents K+ and NO3- showed Mex values of 1241 to 4315 and 749 to 924 mg mstream-1 d-1, respectively, while Cl- (16.8 to 47.3 g mstream-1 d-1) and SO42- (20.3 to 32.2 g mstream-1 d-1) revealed the highest observed Mex values at the test site. The micropollutants caffeine and technical-nonylphenol were dominated by elimination processes in the groundwater between upstream and downstream wells. Additional concentration measurements in the stream and a connected sewer at the test site were performed to identify relevant processes that influence the concentrations at the IPT wells.

  3. Effects of land use on ground-water quality in the East Everglades, Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    Groundwater quality characteristics of the Biscayne aquifer from September 1978 through June 1979 were determined for seven land use areas within the East Everglades in Dade County, Florida. Four agricultural areas, two low-density residential areas, and Chekika Hammock State Park were investigated. The effects of land use on the groundwater were minimal in all areas; only iron , which occurs naturally in high concentrations in the Everglades, exceeded potable groundwater standards. Potassium and nitrate concentrations in certain samples increased over background concentrations in the agricultural areas. Groundwater at Chekika Hammock State Park and at a citrus grove is contaminated by brackish water flowing from an artesian well. The soil at the agricultural areas had higher concentrations of chromium, copper, and manganese than at the two residential areas or at Chekika Hammock State Park. One residential area (Coopertown) had the highest concentrations of lead and zinc and detectable polychlorinated biphenyls. Chlorinated-hydrocarbon insecticide residues in soil at three agricultural areas were higher than background concentrations. (Author 's abstract)

  4. Groundwater-quality data in the northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, untreated groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory benchmarks apply to water that is served to the consumer, not to untreated groundwater. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the untreated groundwa

  5. Ground-water quality in northern Ada County, lower Boise River basin, Idaho, 1985-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parliman, D.J.; Spinazola, Joseph M.

    1998-01-01

    In October 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Idaho Division of Environmental Quality, Boise Regional Office (IDEQ-BRO), began a comprehensive study of ground-water quality in the lower Boise River Basin. The study in northern Ada County has been completed, and this report presents selected results of investigations in that area. Results and discussion presented herein are based on information in publications listed under “References Cited” on the last page of this Fact Sheet.

  6. Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in Thanjavur city, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, R; Rajmohan, N; Mahendran, U; Senthamilkumar, S

    2010-12-01

    As groundwater is a vital source of water for domestic and agricultural activities in Thanjavur city due to lack of surface water resources, groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural usage were evaluated. In this study, 102 groundwater samples were collected from dug wells and bore wells during March 2008 and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, major ions, and nitrate. Results suggest that, in 90% of groundwater samples, sodium and chloride are predominant cation and anion, respectively, and NaCl and CaMgCl are major water types in the study area. The groundwater quality in the study site is impaired by surface contamination sources, mineral dissolution, ion exchange, and evaporation. Nitrate, chloride, and sulfate concentrations strongly express the impact of surface contamination sources such as agricultural and domestic activities, on groundwater quality, and 13% of samples have elevated nitrate content (>45 mg/l as NO(3)). PHREEQC code and Gibbs plots were employed to evaluate the contribution of mineral dissolution and suggest that mineral dissolution, especially carbonate minerals, regulates water chemistry. Groundwater suitability for drinking usage was evaluated by the World Health Organization and Indian standards and suggests that 34% of samples are not suitable for drinking. Integrated groundwater suitability map for drinking purposes was created using drinking water standards based on a concept that if the groundwater sample exceeds any one of the standards, it is not suitable for drinking. This map illustrates that wells in zones 1, 2, 3, and 4 are not fit for drinking purpose. Likewise, irrigational suitability of groundwater in the study region was evaluated, and results suggest that 20% samples are not fit for irrigation. Groundwater suitability map for irrigation was also produced based on salinity and sodium hazards and denotes that wells mostly situated in zones 2 and 3 are not suitable for

  7. Reliability testing across the Environmental Quality Index and national environmental indices.

    EPA Science Inventory

    One challenge in environmental epidemiology is the exploration of cumulative environmental exposure across multiple domains (e.g. air, water, land). The Environmental Quality Index (EQI), created by the U.S. EPA, uses principle component analyses combining environmental domains (...

  8. Quality of groundwater in the Denver Basin aquifer system, Colorado, 2003-5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Beck, Jennifer A.; Paschke, Suzanne; Bauch, Nancy J.; Mashburn, Shana L.

    2014-01-01

    The chemistry of groundwater samples collected from the water-table wells was generally different from that of samples collected from the bedrock-aquifer wells. Samples from the water-table wells tended to have higher concentrations of total dissolved solids and most major ions. Concentrations of several constituents with potential human-health concerns, including nitrate, selenium, uranium, and arsenic, decreased with depth and were highest in samples from the water-table wells. Exceedances of drinking-water standards and water-quality benchmarks were more frequently associated with shallow groundwater samples; concentrations of total dissolved solids and sulfate exceeded water-quality benchmarks for about half or more of samples from the water-table wells. The sediments and rocks of the Denver Basin are natural sources of the trace elements selenium, uranium, and arsenic, which affect their concentrations in groundwater. Detections of organic contaminants, which are typically indicative of human sources of contamination to groundwater, were more frequent in samples from the water-table wells. Pesticide compounds and volatile organic compounds were detected in 33 and 62 percent, respectively, of water-table well samples. Detected organic contaminant concentrations were much less than the associated drinking-water standards. Samples collected from the bedrock aquifers had lower concentrations of total dissolved solids than did samples collected from the water-table wells, although within the bedrock-aquifer samples, concentrations increased from the Dawson to Denver to Arapahoe to Laramie-Fox Hills aquifers. Concentrations of total dissolved solids and many constituents varied spatially and with depth in the bedrock aquifers, likely as a result of ion-exchange and oxidation-reduction reactions, which are important processes affecting water quality. Major-ion chemis

  9. Intensive rice agriculture deteriorates the quality of shallow groundwater in a typical agricultural catchment in subtropical central China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Li, Yuyuan; Li, Yong; Liu, Feng; Liu, Xinliang; Gong, Dianlin; Ma, Qiumei; Li, Wei; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-09-01

    High nitrogen (N) concentrations in rural domestic water supplies have been attributed to excessive agricultural N leaching into shallow groundwater systems; therefore, it is important to determine the impact of agriculture (e.g., rice production) on groundwater quality. To understand the impact of agricultural land use on the N concentrations in the shallow groundwater in subtropical central China, a large observation program was established to observe ammonium-N (NH4-N), nitrate-N (NO3-N), and total N (TN) concentrations in 161 groundwater observation wells from April 2010 to November 2012. The results indicated that the median values of NH4-N, NO3-N, and TN concentrations in the groundwater were 0.15, 0.39, and 1.38 mg N L(-1), respectively. A total of 36.3 % of the water samples were categorized as NH4-N pollution, and only a small portion of the samples were categorized as NO3-N pollution, based on the Chinese Environmental Quality Standards for Groundwater of GB/T 14848-93 (General Administration of Quality Supervision of China, 1993). These results indicated of moderate groundwater NH4-N pollution, which was mainly attributed to intensive rice agriculture with great N fertilizer application rates in the catchment. In addition, tea and vegetable fields showed higher groundwater NO3-N and TN concentrations than other agricultural land use types. The factorial correspondence analysis (FCA) suggested that the flooded agricultural land use types (e.g., single-rice and double-rice) had potential to impose NH4-N pollution, particularly in the soil exhausting season during from July to October. And, the great N fertilizer application rates could lead to a worse NO3-N and TN pollution in shallow groundwater. Hence, to protect groundwater quality and minimize NH4-N pollution, managing optimal fertilizer application and applying appropriate agricultural land use types should be implemented in the region. PMID:25940468

  10. Intensive rice agriculture deteriorates the quality of shallow groundwater in a typical agricultural catchment in subtropical central China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Li, Yuyuan; Li, Yong; Liu, Feng; Liu, Xinliang; Gong, Dianlin; Ma, Qiumei; Li, Wei; Wu, Jinshui

    2015-09-01

    High nitrogen (N) concentrations in rural domestic water supplies have been attributed to excessive agricultural N leaching into shallow groundwater systems; therefore, it is important to determine the impact of agriculture (e.g., rice production) on groundwater quality. To understand the impact of agricultural land use on the N concentrations in the shallow groundwater in subtropical central China, a large observation program was established to observe ammonium-N (NH4-N), nitrate-N (NO3-N), and total N (TN) concentrations in 161 groundwater observation wells from April 2010 to November 2012. The results indicated that the median values of NH4-N, NO3-N, and TN concentrations in the groundwater were 0.15, 0.39, and 1.38 mg N L(-1), respectively. A total of 36.3 % of the water samples were categorized as NH4-N pollution, and only a small portion of the samples were categorized as NO3-N pollution, based on the Chinese Environmental Quality Standards for Groundwater of GB/T 14848-93 (General Administration of Quality Supervision of China, 1993). These results indicated of moderate groundwater NH4-N pollution, which was mainly attributed to intensive rice agriculture with great N fertilizer application rates in the catchment. In addition, tea and vegetable fields showed higher groundwater NO3-N and TN concentrations than other agricultural land use types. The factorial correspondence analysis (FCA) suggested that the flooded agricultural land use types (e.g., single-rice and double-rice) had potential to impose NH4-N pollution, particularly in the soil exhausting season during from July to October. And, the great N fertilizer application rates could lead to a worse NO3-N and TN pollution in shallow groundwater. Hence, to protect groundwater quality and minimize NH4-N pollution, managing optimal fertilizer application and applying appropriate agricultural land use types should be implemented in the region.

  11. Integrated understanding of urban land, groundwater, baseflow and surface-water quality--the City of Birmingham, UK.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Kevin A; Ellis, Paul A; Rivett, Michael O

    2006-05-01

    Integrated understanding of urban land, groundwater (shallow and deep), baseflow and surface-water quality relationships is required for effective urban water-quality management. Chemical quality data from across these media have been collected for the Birmingham (UK) aquifer--River Tame conurbation to assess chemical transport from contaminated land to groundwater to baseflow to surface water. Although metals concentrations were high in soils, low leachability and attenuation caused concentrations in groundwaters and baseflow discharging to surface water to be generally low with only sporadic elevated concentrations attributed to localised point sources. Hydrocarbon VOCs (volatile organic compounds) were similarly absent or at low concentration attributable to their ready natural attenuation. Chlorinated VOCs, however, were widely encountered in groundwater, discharging as baseflow to surface water and impacting surface-water quality. This is attributed to their DNAPL (dense nonaqueous-phase liquid) properties and relative recalcitrance although there was some evidence of biodegradation, albeit insufficient to protect surface water and groundwater abstraction receptors. Some inorganic trends were evident across the various media; nitrate was the most significant quality concern. Generic conclusions are drawn on urban water-quality management and the need for risk-based management strategies to optimise use of urban, sporadically contaminated groundwater in conjunction with surface water highlighted.

  12. The Acoustic Voice Quality Index: Toward Improved Treatment Outcomes Assessment in Voice Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryn, Youri; De Bodt, Marc; Roy, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Voice practitioners require an objective index of dysphonia severity as a means to reliably track treatment outcomes. To ensure ecological validity however, such a measure should survey both sustained vowels and continuous speech. In an earlier study, a multivariate acoustic model referred to as the Acoustic Voice Quality Index (AVQI), consisting…

  13. Application of a Functional Mathematical Index to the Evaluation of the Nutritional Quality of Potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the derivation and application of a new functional mathematical index that was used to evaluate the nutritional, safety, and processing quality aspects of potatoes. The index introduces the concept of an “optimal potato”, using appropriate distance and N-dimensional parameter sp...

  14. Body mass index, poor diet quality and health related quality of life are associated with mortality in rural older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an aging population, potentially modifiable factors impacting mortality such as diet quality, body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are of interest. Surviving members of the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS) (n = 5,993; aged =74 years) were contacted in the fall of 20...

  15. "Quality Counts" and the Chance-for-Success Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    From the moment of birth, Americans have a fascination with seeing how they measure up. They are a nation obsessed with the story told in numbers. The quality of public schools has been measured in innumerable ways, and stakeholders may draw on any number of sources for rankings to support a particular agenda. Each winter, "Education Week" issues…

  16. Estimating a soil quality index with VNIR reflectance spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensor-based approaches to assessment and quantification of soil quality are important to facilitate cost-effective, site-specific soil management. The objective of this research was to evaluate the ability of visible, near-infrared (VNIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to estimate multiple soil q...

  17. Computing the Water Quality Index: The Hudson River Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihich, Orlando

    1996-01-01

    Describes a science project at Booker T. Washington Middle School #54 (New York City) where seventh and eighth graders computed the Hudson River's water quality using ClarisWorks spreadsheets and MicroWorlds software. Students gained technology skills and public recognition, as well as scientific and environmental information. Includes sample…

  18. 17th Environmental Quality Index: Troubling Times with Toxics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents a subjective analysis of the status of United States' natural resources, reviewing 1985's key environmental events, problems, and successes. Reports current conditions and/or dilemmas concerning wildlife, air, water, energy, forests, and soils. Provides both a public rating of the quality of life and a priority ranking of environmental…

  19. A quality-assurance plan for district ground-water activities of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunett, J.O.; Barber, N.L.; Burns, A.W.; Fogelman, R.P.; Gillies, D.C.; Lidwin, R.A.; Mack, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    As the Nation's principal earth-science information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is depended upon to collect data of the highest quality. This document provides the framework for collecting, analyzing and reporting ground-water data that are quality assured and quality controlled.

  20. Groundwater and geothermal resources of Eritrea with the emphasis on their chemical quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerai, Habteab

    1996-05-01

    Available chemical analyses have been evaluated and a water quality map prepared using electrical conductivity values. The country has been divided into three water quality regions. The quality of each region is variously a combination of climate, geology, waste disposal and irrigation practices and salt water intrusion. Region 1 has the best water quality, though in the Asmara area the groundwater is polluted by nitrate (50-150 mg l -1 NO 3). The impact on the natural environment due to the salinity hazard created by high evapotranspiration and irrigation practices becomes more pronounced across Region 2 and reaches a peak in the Red Sea catchments (Region 3), where it is supplemented by saline intrusion and mineralized upflows. In this region, soil fertility has been greatly affected and the development of groundwater has been constrained. Fluoride concentrations of 7-17 mg l -1 are common in Regions 2 and 3 and some dental fluorosis has been noted. Upflows of thermal water (34-100°C) exist in the Red Sea coastal zone and provide a potential energy resource. Both these and the factors affecting water resource quality in general require careful investigation and conservation measures.

  1. Psoriasis: correlation between severity index (PASI) and quality of life index (DLQI) in patients assessed before and after systemic treatment*

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Maria Flávia Pereira; Fortes, Maria Rita Parise; Miot, Luciane Donida Bartoli; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin that affects patients of all ages andboth genders. The impact of the disease on quality of life is greater among patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. OBJECTIVE to establish a correlation between the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) and theDermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) based on a quality of life questionnaire adapted to the Brazilian contextfor patients with plaque psoriasis before and after systemic treatment. METHODS This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study of psoriasis patients who did not undergo treatment or who manifested clinical activity of the disease. Patients were evaluated according to the PASI and the quality of life questionnaire adapted to theBrazilian context before and 60 days after systemic treatment. RESULTS Thirty-five patients participated in thestudy. Twenty-six were men, with a mean age of 46 years. There was no correlation between the PASI and thequality of life questionnaire adapted to the Brazilian context, but there was a correlation between the PASI andsome items of the quality of life questionnaire adapted to the Brazilian context, such as jobs involving public contact. CONCLUSION The non-correlation between the PASI and the quality of life questionnaire adapted to the Brazilian context in this work may be associated with a history of chronic disease, which implies greater acceptance of the illness, or may be related to the low income and social status of the patients studied. The correlationobserved among patients with careers involving public contact suggests that some professions are more impacted by the disease. It may be necessary to adapt the quality of life questionnaire to patients with a low income andcultural and social limitations. The small sample size (n=35 patients) and the short follow-up period of 60 dayswere some of the limitations of this work. PMID:24173182

  2. Shallow ground-water quality beneath rice areas in the Sacramento Valley, California, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey installed and sampled 28 wells in rice areas in the Sacramento Valley as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The purpose of the study was to assess the shallow ground-water quality and to determine whether any effects on water quality could be related to human activities and particularly rice agriculture. The wells installed and sampled were between 8.8 and 15.2 meters deep, and water levels were between 0.4 and 8.0 meters below land surface. Ground-water samples were analyzed for 6 field measurements, 29 inorganic constituents, 6 nutrient constituents, dissolved organic carbon, 86 pesticides, tritium (hydrogen- 3), deuterium (hydrogen-2), and oxygen-18. At least one health-related state or federal drinking-water standard (maximum contaminant or long-term health advisory level) was exceeded in 25 percent of the wells for barium, boron, cadmium, molybdenum, or sulfate. At least one state or federal secondary maximum contaminant level was exceeded in 79 percent of the wells for chloride, iron, manganese, specific conductance, or dissolved solids. Nitrate and nitrite were detected at concentrations below state and federal 2000 drinking-water standards; three wells had nitrate concentrations greater than 3 milligrams per liter, a level that may indicate impact from human activities. Ground-water redox conditions were anoxic in 26 out of 28 wells sampled (93 percent). Eleven pesticides and one pesticide degradation product were detected in ground-water samples. Four of the detected pesticides are or have been used on rice crops in the Sacramento Valley (bentazon, carbofuran, molinate, and thiobencarb). Pesticides were detected in 89 percent of the wells sampled, and rice pesticides were detected in 82 percent of the wells sampled. The most frequently detected pesticide was the rice herbicide bentazon, detected in 20 out of 28 wells (71 percent); the other pesticides detected have been used for rice, agricultural

  3. Evaluation of Shiraz wastewater treatment plant effluent quality for agricultural irrigation by Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Using treated wastewater in agriculture irrigation could be a realistic solution for the shortage of fresh water in Iran, however, it is associated with environmental and health threats; therefore, effluent quality assessment is quite necessary before use. The present study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical and microbial quality of Shiraz wastewater treatment plant effluent for being used in agricultural irrigation. In this study, 20 physicochemical and 3 microbial parameters were measured during warm (April to September) and cold months (October to march). Using the measured parameters and the Canadian Water Quality Index, the quality of the effluent was determined in both warm and cold seasons and in all the seasons together. Results The calculated index for the physicochemical parameters in the effluent was equal (87) in warm and cold months and it was obtained as 85 for the seasons all together. When the microbial parameters were used in order to calculate the index, it declined to 67 in warm and cold seasons and 64 in all the seasons together. Also, it was found that three physicochemical parameters (TDS, EC, and NO3) and three microbial parameters (Fecal coliform, Helminthes egg, and Total coliform) had the most contribution to the reduction of the index value. Conclusions The results showed that the physicochemical quality of Shiraz Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent was good for irrigation in the warm, cold, and total of the two kinds of seasons. However, by applying the microbial parameter, the index value declined dramatically and the quality of the effluent was marginal. PMID:23566673

  4. Monitoring-well network and sampling design for ground-water quality, Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, Jon P.; Sebree, Sonja K.; Quinn, Thomas L.

    2005-01-01

    The Wind River Indian Reservation, located in parts of Fremont and Hot Springs Counties, Wyoming, has a total land area of more than 3,500 square miles. Ground water on the Wind River Indian Reservation is a valuable resource for Shoshone and Northern Arapahoe tribal members and others who live on the Reservation. There are many types of land uses on the Reservation that have the potential to affect the quality of ground-water resources. Urban areas, rural housing developments, agricultural lands, landfills, oil and natural gas fields, mining, and pipeline utility corridors all have the potential to affect ground-water quality. A cooperative study was developed between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Wind River Environmental Quality Commission to identify areas of the Reservation that have the highest potential for ground-water contamination and develop a comprehensive plan to monitor these areas. An arithmetic overlay model for the Wind River Indian Reservation was created using seven geographic information system data layers representing factors with varying potential to affect ground-water quality. The data layers used were: the National Land Cover Dataset, water well density, aquifer sensitivity, oil and natural gas fields and petroleum pipelines, sites with potential contaminant sources, sites that are known to have ground-water contamination, and National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System sites. A prioritization map for monitoring ground-water quality on the Reservation was created using the model. The prioritization map ranks the priority for monitoring ground-water quality in different areas of the Reservation as low, medium, or high. To help minimize bias in selecting sites for a monitoring well network, an automated stratified random site-selection approach was used to select 30 sites for ground-water quality monitoring within the high priority areas. In addition, the study also provided a sampling design for constituents to be monitored, sampling

  5. Quantity and quality of groundwater discharge in a hypersaline lake environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. B.; Naftz, D. L.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Henderson, R. D.; Rosenberry, D. O.; Stolp, B. J.; Jewell, P.

    2014-05-01

    Geophysical and geochemical surveys were conducted to understand groundwater discharge to Great Salt Lake (GSL) and assess the potential significance of groundwater discharge as a source of selenium (Se). Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) focusing below the sediment/water interface and fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) surveys were conducted along the south shore of GSL. FO-DTS surveys identified persistent cold-water temperature anomalies at 10 separate locations. Seepage measurements were conducted at 17 sites (mean seepage rate = 0.8 cm/day). High resistivity anomalies identified by the CRP survey were likely a mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) salt layer acting as a semi-confining layer for the shallow groundwater below the south shore of the lake. Positive seepage rates measured along the near-shore areas of GSL indicate that a ∼1-m thick oolitic sand overlying the mirabilite layer is likely acting as a shallow, unconfined aquifer. Using the average seepage rate of 0.8 cm/day over an area of 1.6 km2, an annual Se mass loading to GSL of 23.5 kg was estimated. Determination of R/Ra values (calculated 3He/4He ratio over the present-day atmospheric 3He/4He ratio) <1 and tritium activities of 1.2-2.0 tritium units in groundwater within and below the mirabilite layer indicates a convergence of regional and local groundwater flow paths discharging into GSL. Groundwater within and below the mirabilite layer obtains its high sulfate salinity from the dissolution of mirabilite. The δ34S and δ18O isotopic values in samples of dissolved sulfate from the shallow groundwater below the mirabilite are almost identical to the isotopic signature of the mirabilite core material. The saturation index calculated for groundwater samples using PHREEQC indicates the water is at equilibrium with mirabilite. Water samples collected from GSL immediately off shore contained Se concentrations that were 3-4 times higher than other sampling sites >25 km offshore from

  6. Groundwater-quality data in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit, 2010-Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 39,000-square-kilometer Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau (CAMP) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from July through October 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CAMP study unit is the thirty-second study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA PBP. The GAMA CAMP study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the open or screened intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the CAMP study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from the quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the CAMP study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 90 wells and springs in 6 study areas (Sacramento Valley Eastside, Honey Lake Valley, Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau Low Use Basins, Shasta Valley and Mount Shasta Volcanic Area, Quaternary Volcanic Areas, and Tertiary Volcanic Areas) in Butte, Lassen, Modoc, Plumas, Shasta, Siskiyou, and Tehama Counties. Wells and springs were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Groundwater samples were analyzed for field water-quality indicators, organic constituents, perchlorate, inorganic constituents

  7. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several waste management facilities and petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) sites associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the East Fork Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline.

  8. Water quality assessment using water quality index and geographical information system methods in the coastal waters of Andaman Sea, India.

    PubMed

    Jha, Dilip Kumar; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Vidyalakshmi, Rajendran; Brindha, Balan; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-11-15

    Seawater samples at 54 stations in the year 2011-2012 from Chidiyatappu, Port Blair, Rangat and Aerial Bays of Andaman Sea, have been investigated in the present study. Datasets obtained have been converted into simple maps using coastal water quality index (CWQI) and Geographical Information System (GIS) based overlay mapping technique to demarcate healthy and polluted areas. Analysis of multiple parameters revealed poor water quality in Port Blair and Rangat Bays. The anthropogenic activities may be the likely cause for poor water quality. Whereas, good water quality was witnessed at Chidiyatappu Bay. Higher CWQI scores were perceived in the open sea. However, less exploitation of coastal resources owing to minimal anthropogenic activity indicated good water quality index at Chidiyatappu Bay. This study is an attempt to integrate CWQI and GIS based mapping technique to derive a reliable, simple and useful output for water quality monitoring in coastal environment.

  9. Water quality assessment using water quality index and geographical information system methods in the coastal waters of Andaman Sea, India.

    PubMed

    Jha, Dilip Kumar; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Vidyalakshmi, Rajendran; Brindha, Balan; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-11-15

    Seawater samples at 54 stations in the year 2011-2012 from Chidiyatappu, Port Blair, Rangat and Aerial Bays of Andaman Sea, have been investigated in the present study. Datasets obtained have been converted into simple maps using coastal water quality index (CWQI) and Geographical Information System (GIS) based overlay mapping technique to demarcate healthy and polluted areas. Analysis of multiple parameters revealed poor water quality in Port Blair and Rangat Bays. The anthropogenic activities may be the likely cause for poor water quality. Whereas, good water quality was witnessed at Chidiyatappu Bay. Higher CWQI scores were perceived in the open sea. However, less exploitation of coastal resources owing to minimal anthropogenic activity indicated good water quality index at Chidiyatappu Bay. This study is an attempt to integrate CWQI and GIS based mapping technique to derive a reliable, simple and useful output for water quality monitoring in coastal environment. PMID:26346804

  10. Hydrochemical profile for assessing the groundwater quality of Sambhar lake city and its adjoining area.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Anita; Seth, Gita

    2011-03-01

    Quality assessment of water is essential to ensure sustainable safe use of it for drinking, agricultural, and industrial purposes. For the same purpose the study was conducted for the samples of water of Sambhar lake city and its adjoining areas. The standard methods of APHA were used to analysis 15 samples collected from hand pumps and tube wells of the specified area. The analytical results show higher concentration of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity sodium, nitrate, sulfate, and fluoride, which indicate signs of deterioration but values of pH, calcium, magnesium, total hardness, and carbonate are within permissible limits as per WHO standards. From the Hill-piper trilinear diagram, it is observed that the majority of groundwater from sampling stations are sodium-potassium-chloride-sulfate type water. The values of sodium absorption ratio and electrical conductivity of the groundwater were plotted in the US salinity laboratory diagram for irrigation water. Only the one sample fall in C(3)S(1) quality with high salinity hazard and low sodium hazard. Other samples fall in high salinity hazard and high sodium hazard. Chemical analysis of groundwater shows that mean concentration of cation is in order sodium > magnesium > calcium > potassium while for the anion it is chloride > bicarbonate > nitrate > sulfate. PMID:20559718

  11. Assessment of the microbiological quality of groundwater in three regions of the Valencian Community (Spain).

    PubMed

    Llopis-González, Agustín; Sánchez, Adriana L; Requena, Pedro Martí; Suárez-Varela, María Morales

    2014-05-01

    Urban groundwater development was traditionally constrained by concerns about its quality. This study was conducted in the regions of La Ribera Alta and Ribera Baja and La Plana de Requena-Utiel of the Valencian Community (Valencia, Spain) where population density, demand for drinking water and agricultural activities are high. Groundwater bodies (GWBs) are regarded as management areas within each territory, and were used to establish protection policies. This study analyzed eleven GWBs. We used two databases with microbiological measurements from 154 wells over a 7-year period (2004-2011), risk factors and groundwater information. Wells were grouped according to frequency of microbiological contamination using E. coli measurements, category <1, or wells with low-frequency microbiological contamination and high-frequency wells or category 1-100, according to World Health Organization (WHO) quality criteria of drinking water. Of all wells, 18.12% showed high-frequency microbiological contamination with a majority distribution in the Ribera Alta region (26.98%, p < 0.001). No significant differences were found between the two risk categories for flow, static level, well depth and distance from population centres. This paper reveals that the vulnerability classes established by the Geological and Mining Institute of Spain (IGME) do not match the microbiological results, and that only eight wells with high-frequency contamination coincide with the high vulnerability areas.

  12. An investigation of shallow ground-water quality near East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee