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Sample records for groundwater quality index

  1. Development of groundwater quality index.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Mohesn; Abessi, Ozeair; Sharifi, Farid; Meraji, Hamed

    2010-04-01

    Assessing the water quality status for special use is the main objective of any water quality monitoring studies. The water quality index (WQI) is a mathematical instrument used to transform large quantities of water quality data into a single number which represents the water quality level. In fact, developing WQI in an area is a fundamental process in the planning of land use and water resources management. In this study, a simple methodology based on multivariate analysis is developed to create a groundwater quality index (GWQI), with the aim of identifying places with best quality for drinking within the Qazvin province, west central of Iran. The methodology is based on the definition of GWQI using average value of eight cation and anion parameters for 163 wells during a 3-year period. The proportion of observed concentrations to the maximum allowable concentration is calculated as normalized value of each parameter in observing wells. Final indices for each well are calculated considering weight of each parameter. In order to assess the groundwater quality of study area, the derived indices are compared with those of well-known mineral waters. Using developed indices, groundwater iso-index map for study area and the map of areas of which the indices are near to mineral waters was drawn. In the case study, the GWQI map reveals that groundwater quality in two areas is extremely near to mineral water quality. Created index map provides a comprehensive picture of easily interpretable for regional decision makers for better planning and management.

  2. A groundwater quality index map for Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Thomas; Schulz, Oliver; Wanke, Heike; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater quality and contamination is a huge concern for the population of Namibia, especially for those living in remote areas. There, most farmers use their own wells to supply themselves and their animals with drinking water. In many cases, except for a few studies that were done in some areas, the only groundwater quality measurements that took place were taken at the time the well was drilled. These data were collected and are available through the national GROWAS-Database. Information on measurements determining the amount of contaminants such as fluoride, TDS, other major ions and nitrate for several thousand wells are provided there. The aim of this study was I) to check the database for its reliability by comparing it to results from different studies and statistical analysis, II) to analyze the database on groundwater quality using different methods (statistical-, pattern- and correlation analysis) and III) to embed our own field work that took place within a selected Namibian region into that analysis. In order to get a better understanding of the groundwater problems in different areas of Namibia, a groundwater quality index map based on GROWAS was created using GIS processing techniques. This map uses several indicators for groundwater quality in relation to selected guidelines and combines them into an index, thus enabling the assessment of groundwater quality with regard to more than one pollutant. The goal of the groundwater quality map is to help identify where the overall groundwater quality is problematic and to communicate these problems. Additionally, suggestions for an enhancement of the database and for new field surveys will be given. The field work was focusing on three farms within an area known for its problematic nitrate concentration in groundwater. There, 23 wells were probed. In order to identify the sources of the contamination, isotopic measurements were executed for three of these wells with high nitrate concentrations

  3. Groundwater quality and water quality index at Bhandara District.

    PubMed

    Rajankar, Prashant N; Tambekar, Dilip H; Wate, Satish R

    2011-08-01

    The present investigation reports the results of a monitoring study focusing on groundwater quality of Bhandara District of central India. Since, remediation of groundwater is very difficult, knowledge of the existing nature, magnitude, and sources of the various pollution loads is a prerequisite to assessing groundwater quality. The water quality index (WQI) value as a function of various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters was determined for groundwater obtained from a total of 21 locations. The WQI during pre-monsoon season varied from 68 to 83, while for post-monsoon, it was between 56 and 76. Significantly (P < 0.01) lower WQI for the post-monsoon season was observed, indicating deterioration of the groundwater overall in corresponding season. The study revealed that groundwater from only 19% locations was fit for domestic use, thus indicating the need of proper treatment before use.

  4. Assessment of groundwater quality near the landfill site using the modified water quality index.

    PubMed

    Talalaj, Izabela A

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the groundwater quality near a landfill site using the modified water quality index. A total of 128 groundwater samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total organic carbon (TOC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Hg. The analytical results have showed a decreasing trend in concentration for TOC, Cd, Pb, Hg, and Cu and an increasing one for pH, EC, and PAH. The modified water quality index, which was called landfill water pollution index (LWPI), was calculated to quantify the overall water quality near the landfill site. The analysis reveals that groundwater in piezometers close to the landfill is under a strong landfill impact. The LWPI in piezometers ranged from 0.52 to 98.25 with a mean value of 7.99. The LWPI in groundwater from the nearest house wells varied from 0.59 to 0.92. A LWPI value below 1 proves that analyzed water is not affected by the landfill. Results have shown that LWPI is an efficient method for assessing and communicating the information on the groundwater quality near the landfill.

  5. The vulnerability index calculation for determination of groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, D.A.; Parizek, R.R.

    1995-12-01

    Non-point source pollutants, such as pesticides, enter groundwater systems in a variety of means at wide-ranging concentrations. Risks in using groundwater in human consumption vary depending on the amounts of contaminants, the type of groundwater aquifer, and various use factors. We have devised a method of determining the vulnerability of an aquifer towards contamination with the Vulnerability Index. The Index can be used either as a comparative or an absolute index (comparative with a pure water source or aquifer spring or without comparison, assuming no peaks in the compared sample). Data for the calculation is obtained by extraction of a given water sample followed by analysis with a nitrogen/phosphorus detector on gas chromatography. The calculation uses the sum of peak heights as its determination. An additional peak number factor is added to emphasize higher numbers of compounds found in a given sample. Karst aquifers are considered to be highly vulnerable due to the large solution openings in its structure. Examples will be given of Vulnerability Indices taken from springs emanating from karst, intermediate, and diffuse flow aquifers taken at various times of the 1992 sampling year and compared with rainfall during that time. Comparisons will be made of the Index vs. rainfall events and vs. pesticide application data. The risk of using contaminated drinking water sources can be evaluated with the use of this index.

  6. Hydrogeochemistry and Water Quality Index in the Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Drinking Uses.

    PubMed

    Batabyal, Asit Kumar; Chakraborty, Surajit

    2015-07-01

    The present investigation is aimed at understanding the hydrogeochemical parameters and development of a water quality index (WQI) to assess groundwater quality of a rural tract in the northwest of Bardhaman district of West Bengal, India. Groundwater occurs at shallow depths with the maximum flow moving southeast during pre-monsoon season and south in post-monsoon period. The physicochemical analysis of groundwater samples shows the major ions in the order of HCO3>Ca>Na>Mg>Cl>SO4 and HCO3>Ca>Mg>Na>Cl>SO4 in pre- and post-monsoon periods, respectively. The groundwater quality is safe for drinking, barring the elevated iron content in certain areas. Based on WQI values, groundwater falls into one of three categories: excellent water, good water, and poor water. The high value of WQI is because of elevated concentration of iron and chloride. The majority of the area is occupied by good water in pre-monsoon and poor water in post-monsoon period.

  7. Groundwater Quality Assessment Using Averaged Water Quality Index: A Case Study of Lahore City, Punjab, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umair Shahid, Syed; Iqbal, Javed

    2016-10-01

    Water quality is considered as a major issue in mega cities of developing countries. The city of Lahore has over 10 million populations with the highest population density in the Punjab Province, Pakistan. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in Lahore. The groundwater quality should be regularly monitored to cope up with drinking water quality issues. The water quality index (WQI), previously used in many studies was usually based on one-year data to analyze the water quality situation of the study area. However, the results obtained from the data, based on single observation from different points may have distortion. This might have occurred due to the inclusion of multiple types of errors induced in the data as a result of improper sampling design, lack of expertise in terms of both sampling method and sample testing, instrumental and human errors, etc. Therefore, the study evaluated the groundwater physicochemical parameters (turbidity, pH, total dissolved solids, hardness, chlorides, alkalinity and calcium) for three years. The averaged water quality index (AWQI) was computed using ArcGIS 10.3 model builder. The AWQI map indicated that the water quality in the study area was generally good except in few places like Anarkali, Baghbanpura, Allama Iqbal Town, Mughalpura and Mozang due to relatively higher turbidity levels. The results of this study can be used for decision making regarding provision of clean drinking water to the city of Lahore. Moreover, the methodology adopted in this study can be implemented in other mega cities as well to monitor groundwater quality.

  8. Use of the landfill water pollution index (LWPI) for groundwater quality assessment near the landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Talalaj, Izabela A; Biedka, Pawel

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the groundwater quality near the landfill sites using landfill water pollution index (LWPI). In order to investigate the scale of groundwater contamination, three landfills (E, H and S) in different stages of their operation were taken into analysis. Samples of groundwater in the vicinity of studied landfills were collected four times each year in the period from 2004 to 2014. A total of over 300 groundwater samples were analysed for pH, EC, PAH, TOC, Cr, Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, as required by the UE legal acts for landfill monitoring system. The calculated values of the LWPI allowed the quantification of the overall water quality near the landfill sites. The obtained results indicated that the most negative impact on groundwater quality is observed near the old Landfill H. Improper location of piezometer at the Landfill S favoured infiltration of run-off from road pavement into the soil-water environment. Deep deposition of the groundwater level at Landfill S area reduced the landfill impact on the water quality. Conducted analyses revealed that the LWPI can be used for evaluation of water pollution near a landfill, for assessment of the variability of water pollution with time and for comparison of water quality from different piezometers, landfills or time periods. The applied WQI (Water Quality Index) can also be an important information tool for landfill policy makers and the public about the groundwater pollution threat from landfill.

  9. Relevance of water quality index for groundwater quality evaluation: Thoothukudi District, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singaraja, C.

    2017-09-01

    The present hydrogeochemical study was confined to the Thoothukudi District in Tamilnadu, India. A total of 100 representative water samples were collected during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon and analyzed for the major cations (sodium, calcium, magnesium and potassium) and anions (chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, fluoride and nitrate) along with various physical and chemical parameters (pH, total dissolved salts and electrical conductivity). Water quality index rating was calculated to quantify the overall water quality for human consumption. The PRM samples exhibit poor quality in greater percentage when compared with POM due to dilution of ions and agricultural impact. The overlay of WQI with chloride and EC corresponds to the same locations indicating the poor quality of groundwater in the study area. Sodium (Na %), sodium absorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), residual sodium bicarbonate, permeability index (PI), magnesium hazards (MH), Kelly's ratio (KR), potential salinity (PS) and Puri's salt index (PSI) and domestic quality parameters such as total hardness (TH), temporary, permanent hardness and corrosivity ratio (CR) were calculated. The majority of the samples were not suitable for drinking, irrigation and domestic purposes in the study area. In this study, the analysis of salinization/freshening processes was carried out through binary diagrams such as of mole ratios of {SO}_{ 4}^{ 2- } /Cl- and Cl-/EC that clearly classify the sources of seawater intrusion and saltpan contamination. Spatial diagram BEX was used to find whether the aquifer was in the salinization region or in the freshening encroachment region.

  10. Groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.H.; Giger, W.; McCarty, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a collection of 28 selected papers presented at the First International Conference on Groundwater Quality Research, at Rice University in October 1981. Several studies provide an overview of chemical and microbial contamination. Local groundwater pollution problems in the Netherlands and metals motility in New Zealand are described. In addition, the effects to groundwater quality due to the discharge of treated wastewaters in the Netherlands, Great Britain, and Houston, Texas are described. Mathematical models are presented that can be used to simulate and predict the transport of contaminants in a saturated groundwater system. Studies describing the sorption of halogenated hydrocarbons, the survival and transport of pathogenic bacteria, the biodegradation of contaminants, and anaerobic transformation in subsurface environments are included. Other topics of discussion include methods for obtaining representative groundwater samples, methods for assessing groundwater problems, methods for designing and constructing microcosms and the microbial characterization of subsurface systems.

  11. Physicochemical quality evaluation of groundwater and development of drinking water quality index for Araniar River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Jasmin, I; Mallikarjuna, P

    2014-02-01

    Groundwater is the most important natural resource which cannot be optimally used and sustained unless its quality is properly assessed. In the present study, the spatial and temporal variations in physicochemical quality parameters of groundwater of Araniar River Basin, India were analyzed to determine its suitability for drinking purpose through development of drinking water quality index (DWQI) maps of the post- and pre-monsoon periods. The suitability for drinking purpose was evaluated by comparing the physicochemical parameters of groundwater in the study area with drinking water standards prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Interpretation of physicochemical data revealed that groundwater in the basin was slightly alkaline. The cations such as sodium (Na(+)) and potassium (K(+)) and anions such as bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) and chloride (Cl(-)) exceeded the permissible limits of drinking water standards (WHO and BIS) in certain pockets in the northeastern part of the basin during the pre-monsoon period. The higher total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration was observed in the northeastern part of the basin, and the parameters such as calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), sulfate (SO4 (2-)), nitrate (NO3 (-)), and fluoride (F(-)) were within the limits in both the seasons. The hydrogeochemical evaluation of groundwater of the basin demonstrated with the Piper trilinear diagram indicated that the groundwater samples of the area were of Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) and Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) types during the post-monsoon period and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-) and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3 (-) types during the pre-monsoon period. The DWQI maps for the basin revealed that 90.24 and 73.46% of the basin area possess good quality drinking water during the post- and pre-monsoon seasons, respectively.

  12. Characterizing groundwater quality ranks for drinking purposes in Sylhet district, Bangladesh, using entropy method, spatial autocorrelation index, and geostatistics.

    PubMed

    Islam, Abu Reza Md Towfiqul; Ahmed, Nasir; Bodrud-Doza, Md; Chu, Ronghao

    2017-09-24

    Drinking water is susceptible to the poor quality of contaminated water affecting the health of humans. Thus, it is an essential study to investigate factors affecting groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking uses. In this paper, the entropy theory, multivariate statistics, spatial autocorrelation index, and geostatistics are applied to characterize groundwater quality and its spatial variability in the Sylhet district of Bangladesh. A total of 91samples have been collected from wells (e.g., shallow, intermediate, and deep tube wells at 15-300-m depth) from the study area. The results show that NO3(-), then SO4(2-), and As are the most contributed parameters influencing the groundwater quality according to the entropy theory. The principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation coefficient also confirm the results of the entropy theory. However, Na(+) has the highest spatial autocorrelation and the most entropy, thus affecting the groundwater quality. Based on the entropy-weighted water quality index (EWQI) and groundwater quality index (GWQI) classifications, it is observed that 60.45 and 53.86% of water samples are classified as having an excellent to good qualities, while the remaining samples vary from medium to extremely poor quality domains for drinking purposes. Furthermore, the EWQI classification provides the more reasonable results than GWQIs due to its simplicity, accuracy, and ignoring of artificial weight. A Gaussian semivariogram model has been chosen to the best fit model, and groundwater quality indices have a weak spatial dependence, suggesting that both geogenic and anthropogenic factors play a pivotal role in spatial heterogeneity of groundwater quality oscillations.

  13. Determination of groundwater quality index of a highland village of Kerala (India) using Geographical Information System.

    PubMed

    Rejith, P G; Jeeva, S P; Vijith, H; Sowmya, M; Hatha, A A Mohamed

    2009-06-01

    In this study, the authors' goal was to understand the groundwater quality of Nedumkandam panchayat by an integrated approach of traditional water quality analysis and Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Fourteen wells were identified from the study area and samples were collected and analyzed using standard protocols (American Public Health Association, 1998). Parameters analyzed include pH, hardness, nitrate, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, trace metals (cadmium, zinc, copper, and lead), and fecal coliforms. All parameters except pH, cadmium, and fecal coliforms were within the limit of drinking water quality standards prescribed by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) (BIS, 1983). The spatial distribution of physico-chemical and biological parameters was analyzed using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) approach and the maps thus obtained were integrated using the raster calculator option of spatial analyst in ArcGIS 8.3 software, and a water quality index (WQI) was calculated. Based on the WQI values, the study area was divided into poor, moderate, and good water quality zones.

  14. Assessment of groundwater quality at a MSW landfill site using standard and AHP based water quality index: a case study from Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Shubhrasekhar; Kumar, R Naresh

    2016-06-01

    Landfill leachate generated from open MSW dumpsite can cause groundwater contamination. The impact of open dumping of MSW on the groundwater of adjacent area was studied. To assess the spatial and temporal variations in groundwater quality, samples were collected around an open MSW dumping site in Ranchi city, Jharkhand, India. Groundwater samples were analysed for various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters for 1 year. Results indicated that the groundwater is getting contaminated due to vertical and horizontal migration of landfill leachate. Extent of contamination was higher in areas closer to the landfill as indicated by high alkalinity, total dissolved solids and ammonia concentration. Metals such as lead, iron, and manganese were present at concentrations of 0.097, 0.97 and 0.36 mg/L, respectively exceeding the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 10,500 for drinking water. Enterobacteriaceae were also detected in several groundwater samples and highest coliform count of 2.1×10(4) CFU/mL was recorded from a dug well. In order to determine the overall groundwater quality, water quality index (WQI) was calculated using weighted arithmetic index method and this index was further modified by coupling with the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to get specific information. WQI values indicated that the overall groundwater quality of the region came under "poor" category while zone wise classification indicated the extent of impact of landfill leachate on groundwater.

  15. [Relationship between groundwater quality index of physics and chemistry in riparian zone and water quality in river].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua-Shan; Zhao, Tong-Qian; Meng, Hong-Qi; Xu, Zong-Xue; Ma, Chao-Hong

    2011-03-01

    Riparian zone hydrology is dominated by shallow groundwater with complex interactions between groundwater and surface water. There are obvious relations of discharge and recharge between groundwater and surface water. Flood is an important hydrological incident that affects groundwater quality in riparian zone. By observing variations of physical and chemical groundwater indicators in riparian zone at the Kouma section of the Yellow River Wetland, especially those took place in the period of regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir, relationship between the groundwater quality in riparian zone and the flood water quality in the river is studied. Results show that, affected by the river and pond water, the highest point of groundwater temperature is near the pond in spring, and near the river in winter; and regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir also affects groundwater temperature in riparian zone, which reaches its maximum at 100 m far from the river bank. There exists a strong zone of nitrification area at 50 m from the river bank, and in this area, the groundwater pH value is lower by 0.2 to 0.4 unit than that of the other regions, with great annual varieties. The turbidity of groundwater is affected by irrigation, which is more obvious than other indicators of groundwater. The turbidity of groundwater and river water increase rapidly during the early phase of flood retreat, and slope stability of river bank is the initial impact of the soil erosion of river bank. Conductivity, chloride and sulfate data show that the range of 50-200 m in riparian wetland is a very important salt accumulation zone, and the width of salt accumulation zone changes with seasons, and this area is also a very important zone of sulfur reduction. The quality of groundwater at 200 m from the river bank is also significantly affected by floods. Physical and chemical indicators of water change strongly in this area. The result indicates that

  16. [Relationship between groundwater quality index of nutrition element and organic matter in riparian zone and water quality in river].

    PubMed

    Hua-Shan, Xu; Tong-Qian, Zhao; Hong-Q, Meng; Zong-Xue, Xu; Chao-Hon, Ma

    2011-04-01

    Riparian zone hydrology is dominated by shallow groundwater with complex interactions between groundwater and surface water. There are obvious relations of discharge and recharge between groundwater and surface water. Flood is an important hydrological incident that affects groundwater quality in riparian zone. By observing variations of physical and chemical groundwater indicators in riparian zone at the Kouma section of the Yellow River Wetland, especially those took place in the period of regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir, relationship between the groundwater quality in riparian zone and the flood water quality in the river is studied. Results show that there will be great risk of nitrogen, phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen and organic matter permeating into the groundwater if floodplain changes into farmland. As the special control unit of nitrogen pollution between rivers and artificial wetlands, dry fanning areas near the river play a very important role in nitrogen migration between river and groundwater. Farm manure as base fertilizer may he an important source of phosphorus leak and loss at the artificial wetlands. Phosphorus leaks into the groundwater and is transferred along the hydraulic gradient, especially during the period of regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir. The land use types and farming systems of the riparian floodplain have a major impact on the nitrate nitrogen contents of the groundwater. Nitrogen can infiltrate and accumulate quickly at anaerobic conditions in the fish pond area, and the annual nitrogen achieves a relatively balanced state in lotus area. In those areas, the soil is flooded and at anaerobic condition in spring and summer, nitrogen infiltrates and denitrification significantly, but soil is not flooded and at aerobic condition in the autumn and winter, and during these time, a significant nitrogen nitrification process occurs. In the area between 50 m and 200 m from the river

  17. Application of water quality index to evaluate groundwater quality (temporal and spatial variation) of an intensively exploited aquifer (Puebla valley, Mexico).

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Sánchez, Edith R; Garrido Hoyos, Sofía E; Esteller Alberich, Ma Vicenta; Martínez Morales, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    The spatial and temporal variation of water quality in the urban area of the Puebla Valley aquifer was evaluated using historical and present data obtained during this investigation. The current study assessed water quality based on the Water Quality Index developed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME-WQI), which provides a mathematical framework to evaluate the quality of water in combination with a set of conditions representing quality criteria, or limits. This index is flexible regarding the type and number of variables used by the evaluation given that the variables of interest are selected according to the characteristics and objectives of development, conservation and compliance with regulations. The CCME-WQI was calculated using several variables that assess the main use of the wells in the urban area that is public supply, according to criteria for human use and consumption established by Mexican law and international standards proposed by the World Health Organization. The assessment of the index shows a gradual deterioration in the quality of the aquifer over time, as the amount of wells with excellent quality have decreased and those with lower index values (poor quality) have increased throughout the urban area of the Puebla Valley aquifer. The parameters affecting groundwater quality are: total dissolved solids, sulfate, calcium, magnesium and total hardness.

  18. Hydro-geochemistry and application of water quality index (WQI) for groundwater quality assessment, Anna Nagar, part of Chennai City, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna kumar, S.; Logeshkumaran, A.; Magesh, N. S.; Godson, Prince S.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, the geochemical characteristics of groundwater and drinking water quality has been studied. 24 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, sulphate, nitrate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and total hardness. The results were evaluated and compared with WHO and BIS water quality standards. The studied results reveal that the groundwater is fresh to brackish and moderately high to hard in nature. Na and Cl are dominant ions among cations and anions. Chloride, calcium and magnesium ions are within the allowable limit except few samples. According to Gibbs diagram, the predominant samples fall in the rock-water interaction dominance and evaporation dominance field. The piper trilinear diagram shows that groundwater samples are Na-Cl and mixed CaMgCl type. Based on the WQI results majority of the samples are falling under excellent to good category and suitable for drinking water purposes.

  19. Evaluation of groundwater dynamic regime with groundwater depth evaluation indexes.

    PubMed

    Genxu, Wang; Jian, Zhou; Kubota, Jumpei; Jianping, Su

    2008-06-01

    An accurate quantitative evaluation of anthropogenic effects on regional groundwater dynamics is critical to the rational planning, management, and use of such resources and in maintaining the sustainability of groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Based on groundwater dynamics, a series of groundwater depth evaluation indexes were created to quantitatively evaluate the effects of anthropogenic activities on the groundwater system. These indexes were based on mathematical relationships relating groundwater depth to surface runoff (gammat), precipitation (rhot), and extraction (deltat). The anthropogenic effects on these relationships were evaluated statistically, with respect to both temporal and spatial variation. The anthropogenic effects on groundwater dynamics within the arid Zhangye Basin, located in the middle reaches of northwest China's Heihe River, were investigated. River valley plains in the western portion of the basin excepted, anthropogenic activities have, since 1995, dramatically altered the basin's groundwater dynamics; in particular, in the mid-upper and lower portions of alluvial-diluvial fans and in localized northerly fine-soil plains regions, the relationship of groundwater to surface runoff and atmospheric precipitation has shifted. This and other changes indicate that anthropogenic effects on groundwater systems in this region show clear spatiotemporal variation.

  20. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  1. A fuzzy-logic based decision-making approach for identification of groundwater quality based on groundwater quality indices.

    PubMed

    Vadiati, M; Asghari-Moghaddam, A; Nakhaei, M; Adamowski, J; Akbarzadeh, A H

    2016-12-15

    Due to inherent uncertainties in measurement and analysis, groundwater quality assessment is a difficult task. Artificial intelligence techniques, specifically fuzzy inference systems, have proven useful in evaluating groundwater quality in uncertain and complex hydrogeological systems. In the present study, a Mamdani fuzzy-logic-based decision-making approach was developed to assess groundwater quality based on relevant indices. In an effort to develop a set of new hybrid fuzzy indices for groundwater quality assessment, a Mamdani fuzzy inference model was developed with widely-accepted groundwater quality indices: the Groundwater Quality Index (GQI), the Water Quality Index (WQI), and the Ground Water Quality Index (GWQI). In an effort to present generalized hybrid fuzzy indices a significant effort was made to employ well-known groundwater quality index acceptability ranges as fuzzy model output ranges rather than employing expert knowledge in the fuzzification of output parameters. The proposed approach was evaluated for its ability to assess the drinking water quality of 49 samples collected seasonally from groundwater resources in Iran's Sarab Plain during 2013-2014. Input membership functions were defined as "desirable", "acceptable" and "unacceptable" based on expert knowledge and the standard and permissible limits prescribed by the World Health Organization. Output data were categorized into multiple categories based on the GQI (5 categories), WQI (5 categories), and GWQI (3 categories). Given the potential of fuzzy models to minimize uncertainties, hybrid fuzzy-based indices produce significantly more accurate assessments of groundwater quality than traditional indices. The developed models' accuracy was assessed and a comparison of the performance indices demonstrated the Fuzzy Groundwater Quality Index model to be more accurate than both the Fuzzy Water Quality Index and Fuzzy Ground Water Quality Index models. This suggests that the new hybrid fuzzy

  2. Arkansas Groundwater-Quality Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pugh, Aaron L.; Jackson, Barry T.; Miller, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Arkansas is the fourth largest user of groundwater in the United States, where groundwater accounts for two-thirds of the total water use. Groundwater use in the State increased by 510 percent between 1965 and 2005 (Holland, 2007). The Arkansas Groundwater-Quality Network is a Web map interface (http://ar.water.usgs.gov/wqx) that provides rapid access to the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) STOrage and RETrieval (STORET) databases of ambient water information. The interface enables users to perform simple graphical analysis and download selected water-quality data.

  3. Groundwater quality in the San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Selected groundwater basins of the San Francisco Bay area constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  4. Environmental Quality Index webinar

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environmental Quality index, data reduction approaches to help improve statistical efficiency, summarizing information on the wider environment humans are exposed to. air, water, land, built, socio-demographic, human and environmental health

  5. Groundwater quality mapping in urban groundwater using GIS.

    PubMed

    Nas, Bilgehan; Berktay, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Konya City, located in the central part of Turkey, has grown and urbanized rapidly. A large amount of the water requirement of Konya City is supplied from groundwater. The quality of this groundwater was determined by taking samples from 177 of the wells within the study area. The purposes of this investigation were (1) to provide an overview of present groundwater quality and (2) to determine spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, Cl-, SO4(-2), hardness, and NO3- concentrations, and (3) to map groundwater quality in the study area by using GIS and Geostatistics techniques. ArcGIS 9.0 and ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst were used for generation of various thematic maps and ArcGIS Spatial Analyst to produce the final groundwater quality map. An interpolation technique, ordinary kriging, was used to obtain the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters. The final map shows that the southwest of the city has optimum groundwater quality, and, in general, the groundwater quality decreases south to north of the city; 5.03% (21.51 km2) of the total study area is classified to be at the optimum groundwater quality level.

  6. Integrated groundwater quality management in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartjes, F. A.; Otte, P. F.

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater assessments and remediations are approached at the scale of individual groundwater plumes. In urban areas, however, this management of individual groundwater plumes is often problematic for technical, practical or financial reasons, since the groundwater quality is often affected by a combination of sources, including (former) industrial activities, spills and leachate from uncontrolled landfills and building materials. As a result, often a whole series of intermingling contamination plumes is found in large volumes of groundwater. In several countries in the world, this led to stagnation of groundwater remediation in urban areas. Therefore, in the Netherlands there is a tendency managing groundwater in urban areas from an integrated perspective and on a larger scale. This so-called integrated groundwater quality management is often more efficient and hence, cheaper, since the organisation of the management of a cluster of groundwater plumes is much easier than it would be if all individual groundwater plumes were managed at different points in time. Integrated groundwater quality management should follow a tailor-made approach. However, to facilitate practical guidance was developed. This guidance relates to the delineation of the domain, the management of sources for groundwater contamination, procedures for monitoring, and (risk-based) assessment of the groundwater quality. Function-specific risk-based groundwater quality criteria were derived to support the assessment of the groundwater quality.

  7. Groundwater quality in the Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Sierra Nevada Regional study unit constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  8. Groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Klamath Mountains constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  9. Traffic air quality index.

    PubMed

    Bagieński, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling groundwater flow and quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, Leonard F.; Glynn, Pierre D.; Selinus, Olle

    2013-01-01

    In most areas, rocks in the subsurface are saturated with water at relatively shallow depths. The top of the saturated zone—the water table—typically occurs anywhere from just below land surface to hundreds of feet below the land surface. Groundwater generally fills all pore spaces below the water table and is part of a continuous dynamic flow system, in which the fluid is moving at velocities ranging from feet per millennia to feet per day (Fig. 33.1). While the water is in close contact with the surfaces of various minerals in the rock material, geochemical interactions between the water and the rock can affect the chemical quality of the water, including pH, dissolved solids composition, and trace-elements content. Thus, flowing groundwater is a major mechanism for the transport of chemicals from buried rocks to the accessible environment, as well as a major pathway from rocks to human exposure and consumption. Because the mineral composition of rocks is highly variable, as is the solubility of various minerals, the human-health effects of groundwater consumption will be highly variable.

  11. Wyoming groundwater-quality monitoring network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boughton, Gregory K.

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of human activities have the potential to contaminate groundwater. In addition, naturally occurring constituents can limit the suitability of groundwater for some uses. The State of Wyoming has established rules and programs to evaluate and protect groundwater quality based on identified uses. The Wyoming Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Network (WGQMN) is a cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ) and was implemented in 2009 to evaluate the water-quality characteristics of the State's groundwater. Representatives from USGS, WDEQ, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Wyoming Water Development Office, and Wyoming State Engineer's Office formed a steering committee, which meets periodically to evaluate progress and consider modifications to strengthen program objectives. The purpose of this fact sheet is to describe the WGQMN design and objectives, field procedures, and water-quality analyses. USGS groundwater activities in the Greater Green River Basin also are described.

  12. Trend Analysis for Groundwater Quality at Different Depths for National Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hyeonsil; Jeen, Sung-Wook; Hyun, Yunjung; Lee, Soo Jae; Yoon, Heesung; Kim, Rak-Hyeon

    2015-04-01

    Continuous groundwater monitoring is necessary to investigate the changes of groundwater quality with time, and trend analysis using a statistical method can be used to evaluate if the changes are significant. While groundwater quality is typically monitored and evaluated at one depth, in many cases groundwater quality can be different with depths; thus it is required that monitoring and assessment of trends of groundwater quality should be performed at different depths. In this study, we carried out trend analysis for groundwater quality data of National Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network of Korea to investigate the changes of groundwater quality between 2007 and 2013. The monitoring network has wells with different depths at each site, of which screens are located at about 10 m, 30 m, and 80 m. We analyzed three of the groundwater quality parameters that have sufficient time series data: pH, nitrate-nitrogen, and chloride ion. Sen's test, a non-parametric statistical method for trend analysis, was used to determine the linear trend of groundwater quality data. The trend analyses were conducted at different confidence levels (i.e., at 70, 80, 90, 95, and 99 % confidence levels). The results of groundwater monitoring and trend analysis at each location were compared with groundwater quality management standards and were classified to establish a new groundwater quality management framework of Korea. The results were further plotted in a regional scale to identify whether the trends, if any, can be grouped regionally. The results showed that wells with significant increasing or decreasing trends are far less than wells with no trends, and chloride ion has more wells with significant trends compared to pH and nitrate-nitrogen. The trends were more or less affected by local characteristics rather than reflecting a regional trend. The number of wells with trends decreased as the confidence level increased as expected, indicating that it is necessary to set an

  13. Environmental Quality Index - Overview Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    A better estimate of overall environmental quality is needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between environmental conditions and humanhealth. Described in this report is the effort to construct an environmental quality index representing multiple domains of the ...

  14. Environmental Quality Index - Overview Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    A better estimate of overall environmental quality is needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between environmental conditions and humanhealth. Described in this report is the effort to construct an environmental quality index representing multiple domains of the ...

  15. Estimating Groundwater Development area in Jianan Plain using Standardized Groundwater Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chang Hsiang; Haw, Lee Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Taiwan has been facing severe water crises in recent years owing to the effects of extreme weather conditions. Changes in precipitation patterns have also made the drought phenomenon increasingly prominent, which has indirectly affected groundwater recharge. Hence, in the present study, long-term monitoring data were collected from the study area of the Jianan plain. The standardized groundwater index (SGI) and was then used to analyse the region's drought characteristics. To analyse the groundwater level by using SGI, making SGI180 groundwater level be the medium water crises, and SGI360 groundwater level be the extreme water crises. Through the different water crises signal in SGI180 and SGI360, we divide groundwater in Jianan plain into two sections. Thereby the water crises indicators establishing groundwater level standard line in Jianan Plain, then using the groundwater level standard line to find the study area where could be groundwater development area in Jianan plain. Taking into account relatively more water scarcity in dry season, so the study screen out another emergency backup groundwater development area, but the long-term groundwater development area is still as a priority development area. After finding suitable locations, groundwater modeling systems(GMS) software is used to simulate our sites to evaluate development volume. Finally, the result of study will help the government to grasp the water shortage situation immediately and solve the problem of water resources deployment.

  16. Groundwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Groundwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braids, Olin C.; Gillies, Nola P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of groundwater quality covering publications of 1977. This review includes: (1) sources of groundwater contamination; and (2) management of groundwater. A list of 59 references is also presented. (HM)

  18. Sixth Environmental Quality Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife, 1975

    1975-01-01

    This study, measuring the nation's clean-up efforts, shows an overall decline in environmental quality in the U.S. over the past year. In 1974, called "the year of the trade off," the federal government relaxed environmental quality standards to relieve economic problems and to solve the energy crisis temporarily. (MA)

  19. Ground-water quality in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    This report graphically summarizes ground-water quality from selected chemical-quality data for about 2,300 ground-water sites in Wyoming. Dissolved-solids, nitrate, fluoride, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, iron, and manganese concentrations are summarized on a statewide basis. The major chemical-quality problem that limits the use of Wyoming ground-water is excessive dissolved-solids concentrations. The aquifers with the best quality water, based on the lowest median dissolved-solids concentration of water in aquifers with 20 or more sampled sites, are Holocene lacustrine deposits, the upper Testiary Ogallala Formation and Arikaree Formation, and the Mississippian Madison Limestone. The counties with the best quality water, based on the lowest median dissolved-solids concentrations are Teton County and Laramie County. Hot Springs County and Natrona County have the highest median dissolved-solids concentrations. About 3 percent of the nitrate concentrations of ground-water samples exceeded the national primary drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter. Fluoride concentrations exceeded the national primary drinking-water standard in 14 percent of the ground-water samples. Except for selenium, toxic trace elements generally have not been found in concentrations in excess of the drinking-water standards. About 19 percent of the iron and about 30 percent of the manganese concentrations in ground-water samples exceeded the national secondary drinking-water standards. (USGS)

  20. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability by combining drastic and susceptibility index: Application to Annaba superficial aquifer (Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedrati, Nassima; Djabri, Larbi; Chaffai, Hicham; Bougherira, Nabil

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The aim of this work is to propose a new integrated methodology to assess actual and forecasted groundwater vulnerability by combining Drastic and susceptibility index. The contamination susceptibility index (SI) at a given location was calculated by taking the product of the vulnerability DRASTIC index (VI) and the quality index (QI): SI=VI x QI. The superficial aquifer of Annaba plain was the study case proposed for the application of this methodology. The study revealed that the area with Very High vulnerability would increase 73 % in this superficial layer. This result can be explained by the susceptibility index map shows both hydrogeological and hydrochemical data related to the contamination problem including areas that should be taken into consideration during water management planning. The index map indicates that the most susceptible groundwater is occupies the majority of the study area. The validity of the DRASTIC and the susceptibility index methods, verified by comparing the distribution of some pollutants (Daouad, 2013) in the groundwater and the different vulnerability classes, shows a high contamination that affect the water quality in study areas.

  1. Groundwater quality of southeastern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Blain, Liberty

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater is an important resource for domestic, municipal, stock, and irrigation uses in southeastern Wyoming. Thirty-seven percent of water used in the tri-County area, which includes Laramie, Platte, and Goshen Counties, is from groundwater. Most groundwater use in the tri-County area is withdrawn from three primary aquifer groups: Quaternary-age unconsolidated-deposit aquifers, Tertiary-age units of the High Plains aquifer system, and Upper Cretaceous bedrock aquifers (Lance Formation and Fox Hills Sandstone). Authors include selected physical properties and chemicals found in water samples, describe sources and importance, and report maximum levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. They also show concentration ranges for selected physical properties and chemicals in samples collected from the three primary aquifer groups in the tri-County area.

  2. Hydrogeochemical quality and suitability studies of groundwater in northern Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, M J; Hakim, M A; Hanafi, M M; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Aktar, Sharmin; Siddiqa, Aysha; Rahman, A K M Shajedur; Islam, M Atikul; Halim, M A

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture, rapid urbanization and geochemical processes have direct or indirect effects on the chemical composition of groundwater and aquifer geochemistry. Hydro-chemical investigations, which are significant for assessment of water quality, were carried out to study the sources of dissolved ions in groundwater of Dinajpur district, northern Bangladesh. The groundwater samplish were analyzed for physico-chemical properties like pH, electrical conductance, hardness, alkalinity, total dissolved solids and Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, CO3(2-), HCO3(-), SO4(2-) and Cl- ions, respectively. Based on the analyses, certain parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, Kelly's ratio, permeability index and Gibbs ratio were also calculated. The results showed that the groundwater of study area was fresh, slightly acidic (pH 5.3-6.4) and low in TDS (35-275 mg I(-1)). Ground water of the study area was found suitable for irrigation, drinking and domestic purposes, since most of the parameters analyzed were within the WHO recommended values for drinking water. High concentration of NO3- and Cl- was reported in areas with extensive agriculture and rapid urbanization. Ion-exchange, weathering, oxidation and dissolution of minerals were major geochemical processes governing the groundwater evolution in study area. Gibb's diagram showed that all the samples fell in the rock dominance field. Based on evaluation, it is clear that groundwater quality of the study area was suitable for both domestic and irrigation purposes.

  3. COMPLEX MIXTURES AND GROUNDWATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experience has shown that many soil and ground-water contamination problems involve complex mixtures of chemicals. his manuscript identifies and discusses, in a generic sense, some of the important processes which must be considered when dealing with complex mixtures in the subsu...

  4. Public policy perspective on groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Libby, L.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Groundwater pollution problems are fundamentally institutional problems. The means for reducing contamination are institutional: the mix of incentives, rights and obligations confronting resource users. Only changes in the rights and obligations of users or the economic and social cost of water use options will reduce groundwater pollution. Policy is the process by which those changes are made. The essential purpose of groundwater quality policy is to change water use behavior. For the most part, people do respond to evidence that a failure to change could be painful. New information can produce the support necessary for regulation or other policy change. It is essential to maintain healthy respect for the rights and intentions of individuals. Improved understanding of human behavior is essential to success in groundwater policy.

  5. Groundwater quality around Tummalapalle area, Cuddapah District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreedhar, Y.; Nagaraju, A.

    2017-04-01

    The suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation was assessed in Tummalapalle area. Forty groundwater samples were analysed for major cations, anions and other parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total alkalinity and total hardness (TH). The parameters such as sodium adsorption ratio, adjusted sodium adsorption ratio (adj.SAR), per cent sodium, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, non-carbonate hardness, Kelly's ratio and permeability index were calculated for the evaluation of irrigation water quality. Groundwater chemistry was also analysed by statistical analysis, USSL, Wilcox, Doneen, Piper and Chadhas diagrams, to find out their suitability for irrigation. TDS and TH were used as main parameters to interpret the suitability of groundwater for drinking purpose. The correlation coefficient matrix between the hydrochemical parameters was carried out using Pearson's correlation to infer the possible water-rock interactions responsible for the variation of groundwater chemistry and this has been supported by Gibbs diagram. The results indicate that the groundwater in Tummalapalle area is alkaline in nature. Ca-Mg-HCO3 is the dominant hydrogeochemical facies. Water chemistry of the study area strongly reflects the dominance of weathering of rock-forming minerals such as bicarbonates and silicates. All parameters and diagrams suggest that the water samples of the study are good for irrigation, and the plots of TDS and TH suggest that 12.5% of the samples are good for human consumption.

  6. Quality of groundwater resources in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Ehsanullah; Baba, Alper

    2017-07-01

    Water is the main source of energy production and economy in Afghanistan where agriculture accounts for more than 50% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Access to safe drinking water is still a problem in the country, which has caused different health issues and even child mortality especially in rural areas. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in the country. However, little knowledge is available about the quality of groundwater throughout the entire country, and its quality has not been investigated extensively yet like in other countries in the world. While most people think that consuming groundwater is a reliable and safe source of drinking water for health, the United Nations (UN) agencies report various kinds of waterborne diseases and even child mortalities due to drinking water quality in the country. In this article, significant geogenic and anthropogenic factors that play a vital role in groundwater contamination of the country are identified and explained. Different geogenic contaminations such as arsenic, fluoride, sulfate, and boron occur in several areas of Afghanistan that have a direct effect on human health. The water quality mapping for Afghanistan is completed for half of the country, which shows that groundwater is plagued by high levels of fluoride and arsenic in some areas. The water quality mapping of the other half of the country cannot be completed due to security concerns currently. Also, there are different kinds of waterborne diseases such as diarrhea, cholera, and dysentery that can be seen in different parts of the country because of anthropogenic activities which continuously deteriorate groundwater.

  7. Groundwater quality in the San Fernando--San Gabriel groundwater basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The San Fernando and San Gabriel groundwater basins constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  8. Groundwater quality in Coachella Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Coachella Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Coachella study area is approximately 820 square miles (2,124 square kilometers) and includes the Coachella Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Coachella Valley has an arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The runoff from the surrounding mountains drains to rivers that flow east and south out of the study area to the Salton Sea. Land use in the study area is approximately 67 percent (%) natural, 21% agricultural, and 12% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban areas are the cities of Indio and Palm Springs (2010 populations of 76,000 and 44,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Coachella Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Coachella Valley are completed to depths between 490 and 900 feet (149 to 274 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 260 to 510 feet (79 to 155 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to

  9. Groundwater Quality in Mura Valley (Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajc Benda, T.; Souvent, P.; Bračič Železnik, B.; Čenčur Curk, B.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater quality is one of the most important parameters in drinking water supply management. For safe drinking water supply, the quality of groundwater in the water wells on the recharge area has to be controlled. Groundwater quality data will be presented for one test area in the SEE project CC-WaterS (Climate Change and Impacts on Water Supply) Mura valley, which lies in the northeastern part of Slovenia. The Mura valley is a part of the Pannonian basin tectonic unit, which is filled with Tertiary and Quaternary gravel and sand sediments. The porous aquifer is 17 m thick in average and recharges from precipitation (70 %) and from surface waters (30 %). The aquifer is the main source of drinking water in the area for almost 53.000 inhabitants. Most of the aquifer lies beneath the agricultural area what represents the risk of groundwater quality. The major groundwater pollutants in the Mura valley are nitrates, atrazine, desethyl-atrazine, trichloroethane and tetrachloroethene. National groundwater quality monitoring is carried out twice a year, so some polluting events could be missed. The nitrate concentrations in the past were up to 140 mg/l. Concentration trends are decreasing and are now below 60 mg/l. Concentrations of atrazine and desethyl-atrazine, are decreasing as well and are below 0,1 µg/l. Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene were detected downstream of main city in Mura valley, in the maximum concentrations of 280 μg/l in June 2005 (trichloroethene) and 880 μg/l in October 1997 (tetrachloroethene). So, it can be summarized that the trends for most pollutants in the Mura valley are decreasing, what is a good prediction for the future. Input estimation of the total nitrogen (N) (mineral and organic fertilizers) in the Mura valley shows, that the risk of leaching is enlarged in the areas, where the N input is larger than 250 kg/ha, this is at 6,3 % of all agricultural areas. Prediction for the period 2021-2050 indicates that the leaching of N

  10. Heavy metal contamination and its indexing approach for groundwater of Goa mining region, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurdeep; Kamal, Rakesh Kant

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study is to reveal the seasonal variations in the groundwater quality with respect to heavy metal contamination. To get the extent of the heavy metals contamination, groundwater samples were collected from 45 different locations in and around Goa mining area during the monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. The concentration of heavy metals, such as lead, copper, manganese, zinc, cadmium, iron, and chromium, were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Most of the samples were found within limit except for Fe content during the monsoon season at two sampling locations which is above desirable limit, i.e., 300 µg/L as per Indian drinking water standard. The data generated were used to calculate the heavy metal pollution index (HPI) for groundwater. The mean values of HPI were 1.5 in the monsoon season and 2.1 in the post-monsoon season, and these values are well below the critical index limit of 100.

  11. Heavy metal contamination and its indexing approach for groundwater of Goa mining region, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurdeep; Kamal, Rakesh Kant

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the study is to reveal the seasonal variations in the groundwater quality with respect to heavy metal contamination. To get the extent of the heavy metals contamination, groundwater samples were collected from 45 different locations in and around Goa mining area during the monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. The concentration of heavy metals, such as lead, copper, manganese, zinc, cadmium, iron, and chromium, were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Most of the samples were found within limit except for Fe content during the monsoon season at two sampling locations which is above desirable limit, i.e., 300 µg/L as per Indian drinking water standard. The data generated were used to calculate the heavy metal pollution index (HPI) for groundwater. The mean values of HPI were 1.5 in the monsoon season and 2.1 in the post-monsoon season, and these values are well below the critical index limit of 100.

  12. Ground-water quality atlas of Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kammerer, Phil A.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes data on ground-water quality stored in the U.S. Geological Survey's computer system (WATSTORE). The summary includes water quality data for 2,443 single-aquifer wells, which tap one of the State's three major aquifers (sand and gravel, Silurian dolomite, and sandstone). Data for dissolved solids, hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, manganese, sulfate, chloride, fluoride, and nitrate are summarized by aquifer and by county, and locations of wells for which data are available 1 are shown for each aquifer. Calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate (the principal component of alkalinity) are the major dissolved constituents in Wisconsin's ground water. High iron concentrations and hardness cause ground-water quality problems in much of the State. Statewide ,summaries of trace constituent (selected trace metals; arsenic, boron, and organic carbon) concentrations show that these constituents impair water quality in only a few isolated wells.

  13. Groundwater quality in the Mojave area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Four groundwater basins along the Mojave River make up one of the study areas being evaluated. The Mojave study area is approximately 1,500 square miles (3,885 square kilometers) and includes four contiguous groundwater basins: Upper, Middle, and Lower Mojave River Groundwater Basins, and the El Mirage Valley (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The Mojave study area has an arid climate, and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). Land use in the study area is approximately 82 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland), 4% agricultural, and 14% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Victorville, Hesperia, and Apple Valley (2010 populations of 116,000, 90,000 and 69,000, respectively). Groundwater in these basins is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in the Mojave study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in the Mojave study area are completed to depths between 200 and 600 feet (18 to 61 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 130 to 420 feet (40 to 128 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the mountains to the south, mostly through the Mojave River channel. The primary sources

  14. Iowa ground-water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, R.C.; Squillace, P.J.; Drustrup, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Iowa Hygienic Laboratory, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources, and several counties in Iowa, currently (1986) is monitoring about 1,500 public and private wells for inorganic and organic constituents. The principal objective of this program, begun in 1982, is to collect water-quality data that will describe the long-term chemical quality of the surficial and major bedrock aquifer systems in Iowa (Detroy, 1985).

  15. Groundwater quality in the South Coast Range Coastal groundwater basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s untreated groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The coastal basins in the Southern Coast Ranges constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  16. Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The basins north of San Francisco constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  17. Hydrochemistry and quality assessment of groundwater in the Ardabil area, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghazadeh, N.; Chitsazan, M.; Golestan, Y.

    2016-11-01

    In the study area, groundwater is the main water resource for various purposes such as drinking, agriculture and industrial. To evaluate the hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater and suitability for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes, seventy-seven samples were collected and analyzed for various ions. Results show that, groundwater in the study area is mainly hard to very hard, and slightly alkaline-fresh to brackish in nature. According to the hydrochemistry diagrams, the main groundwater types are Ca, Mg-HCO3, Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl. Calculation of mineral saturation index indicate that the groundwater samples are saturated with respect to carbonate minerals and under-saturated with respect to sulfate minerals such as gypsum and anhydride. The mineral weathering, mixing, ion exchange and anthropogenic activity are the dominant hydrogeochemical natural processes. Results of investigating the quality of heavy metals and calculating the heavy metal index indicated that the groundwater of study area is not contaminated with heavy metals. In this research, the various indices were used to determine the quality of groundwater for various uses. Calculate the indices and comparison results with the WHO standards to determine the quality of groundwater for various uses indicated that the most of the groundwater in study area is chemically suitable for drinking, industrial and agricultural uses.

  18. Groundwater quality in the Antelope Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Antelope Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Antelope study area is approximately 1,600 square miles (4,144 square kilometers) and includes the Antelope Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Antelope Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lakebeds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 68 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland and grassland), 24% agricultural, and 8% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Palmdale and Lancaster (2010 populations of 152,000 and 156,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Antelope Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Antelope Valley are completed to depths between 360 and 700 feet (110 to 213 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 180 to 350 feet (55 to 107 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation and sewer and septic

  19. Groundwater quality in the Owens Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Owens Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Owens study area is approximately 1,030 square miles (2,668 square kilometers) and includes the Owens Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Owens Valley has a semiarid to arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff primarily from the Sierra Nevada draining east to the Owens River, which flows south to Owens Lake dry lakebed at the southern end of the valley. Beginning in the early 1900s, the City of Los Angeles began diverting the flow of the Owens River to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, resulting in the evaporation of Owens Lake and the formation of the current Owens Lake dry lakebed. Land use in the study area is approximately 94 percent (%) natural, 5% agricultural, and 1% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Bishop (2010 population of 4,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to the Owens Lake dry lakebed. The primary aquifers in Owens Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database

  20. Analysis, assessment and mapping of groundwater quality of Chandigarh (India).

    PubMed

    Bansal, Rajesh; Sharma, L N; John, Siby

    2011-04-01

    Chandigarh (India) has been depending on groundwater resources to meet its water requirements in addition to the surface water source (Bhakra Main Canal). With a view to assess the groundwater quality, samples were collected from geo-referenced tube wells in different localities of the city. Samples were analysed for conventional parameters indicative of the physico-chemical quality of groundwater. The groundwater quality mapping was attempted using the ARCGIS 9.0. Thematic maps were generated for each parameter of groundwater quality. This paper presents the spatial distribution of groundwater quality of Chandigarh city. The quality of groundwater was found to be varying with geology of the area as well as the land use and land cover.

  1. Cross comparison of five popular groundwater pollution vulnerability index approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindha, K.; Elango, L.

    2015-05-01

    Identification of a suitable overlay and index method to map vulnerable zones for pollution in weathered rock aquifers was carried out in this study. DRASTIC and four models derived from it, namely Pesticide DRASTIC, modified DRASTIC, modified Pesticide DRASTIC and Susceptibility Index (SI) were compared by applying them to a weathered rock aquifer in southern India. The results were validated with the measured geochemical data. This study also introduces the use of temporal variation in the groundwater level and nitrate concentration in groundwater as input and for validation respectively to obtain more reliable and meaningful results. Sensitivity analysis of the vulnerability index maps highlight the importance of one parameter over another for a given hydrogeological setting, which will help to plan the field investigations based on the most or the least influential parameter. It is recommended to use modified Pesticide DRASTIC for weathered rock regions with irrigation practises and shallow aquifers (<20 m bgl). The crucial input due to land use should not be neglected and to be considered in any hydrogeological setting. It is better to estimate the specific vulnerability wherever possible rather than the intrinsic vulnerability as overlay and index methods are more suited for this purpose. It is also necessary to consider the maximum and minimum values of input parameters measured during a normal year in the models used for decision making.

  2. Groundwater quality in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Western San Joaquin Valley is one of the study units being evaluated. 

  3. Groundwater quality in the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Tracy A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-10-03

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California established the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Santa Barbara Coastal Plain is one of the study units.

  4. Groundwater quality in the Central Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Two small watersheds of the Fresno and San Joaquin Rivers in the Central Sierra Nevada constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  5. Groundwater quality in the Northern San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Northern San Joaquin constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  6. Groundwater quality in the Southern Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Tehachapi-Cummings Valley and Kern River Valley basins and surrounding watersheds in the Southern Sierra Nevada constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  7. Groundwater quality in the Tahoe and Martis Basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Tahoe and Martis Basins and surrounding watersheds constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  8. Groundwater quality in the Kern County Subbasin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Kern County Subbasin constitutes one of the study units being evaluated.

  9. Groundwater quality in the South Coast Interior Basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Mary C.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s untreated groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The South Coast Interior Basins constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  10. Groundwater quality in the Northern Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Northern Sacramento Valley is one of the study units being evaluated.

  11. Groundwater quality in the southeast San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The subbasins in the southeast portion of the San Joaquin Valley constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  12. Groundwater quality in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Southern Sacramento Valley is one of the study units being evaluated.

  13. Nodal failure index approach to groundwater remediation design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.; Reeves, H.W.; Dowding, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Computer simulations often are used to design and to optimize groundwater remediation systems. We present a new computationally efficient approach that calculates the reliability of remedial design at every location in a model domain with a single simulation. The estimated reliability and other model information are used to select a best remedial option for given site conditions, conceptual model, and available data. To evaluate design performance, we introduce the nodal failure index (NFI) to determine the number of nodal locations at which the probability of success is below the design requirement. The strength of the NFI approach is that selected areas of interest can be specified for analysis and the best remedial design determined for this target region. An example application of the NFI approach using a hypothetical model shows how the spatial distribution of reliability can be used for a decision support system in groundwater remediation design. ?? 2008 ASCE.

  14. Quality indexing with computer-aided lexicography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Indexing with computers is a far cry from indexing with the first indexing tool, the manual card sorter. With the aid of computer-aided lexicography, both indexing and indexing tools can provide standardization, consistency, and accuracy, resulting in greater quality control than ever before. A brief survey of computer activity in indexing is presented with detailed illustrations from NASA activity. Applications from techniques mentioned, such as Retrospective Indexing (RI), can be made to many indexing systems. In addition to improving the quality of indexing with computers, the improved efficiency with which certain tasks can be done is demonstrated.

  15. Classification management plan of groundwater quality in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun Ming; Chen, Yu Ying; Pan, Shih Cheng; Li, Hui Jun; Hsiao, Fang Ke

    2017-04-01

    Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration has been monitoring regional water quality for 14 years. Since the beginning of 2002 till now, there are 453 regional groundwater monitoring wells in ten groundwater subregions in Taiwan, and the monitoring of groundwater quality has been carried out for a long time. Currently, water quality monitoring project has reached 50 items, while the number of water quality monitoring data has reached more than 20,000. In order to use the monitoring data efficiently, this study constructed the localized groundwater quality indicators of Taiwan. This indicator takes into account the different users' point of view, incorporating the Taiwan groundwater pollution monitoring standards (Category II), irrigation water quality standard and drinking water source water quality standard. 50 items of water quality monitoring projects were simplified and classified. The groundwater quality parameters were divided into five items, such as potability for drinking water, salting, external influence, health influences and toxicity hazard. The weight of the five items of groundwater was calculated comprehensively, and the groundwater quality of each monitoring well was evaluated with three grades of good, ordinary, and poor. According to the monitoring results of the groundwater monitoring wells in October to December of 2016, about 70% of groundwater quality in Taiwan is in good to ordinary grades. The areas with poor groundwater quality were mostly distributed in coastal, agriculture and part of the urban areas. The conductivity or ammonia nitrogen concentration was higher in those regions, showing that groundwater may be salinized or affected by external influences. Groundwater quality indicators can clearly show the current comprehensive situation of the groundwater environment in Taiwan and can be used as a tool for groundwater quality classification management. The indicators can coordinate with the Taiwan land planning policy in the

  16. A proposed ground-water quality monitoring network for Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, R.L.; Parliman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A ground water quality monitoring network is proposed for Idaho. The network comprises 565 sites, 8 of which will require construction of new wells. Frequencies of sampling at the different sites are assigned at quarterly, semiannual, annual, and 5 years. Selected characteristics of the water will be monitored by both laboratory- and field-analysis methods. The network is designed to: (1) Enable water managers to keep abreast of the general quality of the State 's ground water, and (2) serve as a warning system for undesirable changes in ground-water quality. Data were compiled for hydrogeologic conditions, ground-water quality, cultural elements, and pollution sources. A ' hydrologic unit priority index ' is used to rank 84 hydrologic units (river basins or segments of river basins) of the State for monitoring according to pollution potential. Emphasis for selection of monitoring sites is placed on the 15 highest ranked units. The potential for pollution is greatest in areas of privately owned agricultural land. Other areas of pollution potential are residential development, mining and related processes, and hazardous waste disposal. Data are given for laboratory and field analyses, number of site visits, manpower, subsistence, and mileage, from which costs for implementing the network can be estimated. Suggestions are made for data storage and retrieval and for reporting changes in water quality. (Kosco-USGS)

  17. Effects of variations in recharge on groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whittemore, D.O.; McGregor, K.M.; Marotz, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The predominant regional effect of recharge on municipal groundwater quality in Kansas is the dilution of mineralized water in aquifers with relatively shallow water tables. The individual dissolved constituents contributing most to the water-quality variations are sulfate and chloride, and the calcium and sodium accompanying them, which are derived from the dissolution of evaporite minerals within the aquifer or from saline formation water in bedrock underlying the aquifer. The relationship between recharge and groundwater-quality variation can be quantified by associating certain climatic indices, especially the Palmer Drought Index, with quality observations. The response time of the maximum water-quality change relative to the occurrence of drought or substantial recharge ranges from a month to 3 years depending on the aquifer characteristics, and is generally proportional to the saturated thickness and specific yield. The response time is also affected by discharge to and recharge from nearby streams and by the well construction, particularly the placement of the screened interval, and pumping stress. ?? 1989.

  18. Effects Of Leaky Sewers On Groundwater Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leschik, S.; Musolff, A.; Reinstorf, F.; Strauch, G.; Oswald, S. E.; Schirmer, M.

    2007-12-01

    The impact of urban areas on groundwater quality has become an emerging research field in hydrogeology. Urban subsurface infrastructures like sewer networks are often leaky, so untreated wastewater may enter the urban aquifer. The transport of wastewater into the groundwater is still not well understood under field conditions. In the research platform WASSER Leipzig (Water And Sewershed Study of Environmental Risk in Leipzig- Germany) the effects of leaky sewers on the groundwater quality are investigated. The research is focused on the occurrence and transport of so-called "xenobiotics" such as pharmaceuticals and personal care product additives. Xenobiotics may pose a threat on human health, but can also be considered a marker for an urban impact on water resources. A new test site was established in Leipzig to quantify mass fluxes of xenobiotics into the groundwater from a leaky sewer. Corresponding to the leaks which were detected by closed circuit television inspections, monitoring wells were installed up- and downstream of the sewer. Concentrations of eight xenobiotics (technical-nonylphenol, bisphenol-a, caffeine, galaxolide, tonalide, carbamazepine, phenazone, ethinylestradiol) obtained from first sampling programmes were found to be highly heterogeneous, but a relation between the position of the sampling points and the sewer could not be clearly identified. However, concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium and nitrate increased significantly downstream of the sewer which may be due to wastewater exfiltration, since no other source is known on the water flowpath from the upstream to the downstream wells. Because of the highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of xenobiotics at the test site, a monitoring concept was developed comprising both high-resolution sampling and an integral approach to obtain representative average concentrations. Direct-push techniques were used to gain insight into the fine-scale spatial distribution of the target compounds

  19. Assessment of groundwater quality using geographical information system (GIS), at north-east Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Shahat, M F; Sadek, M A; Mostafa, W M; Hagagg, K H

    2016-04-01

    The present investigation has been conducted to delineate the hydrogeochemical and environmental factors that control the water quality of the groundwater resources in the north-east of Cairo. A complementary approach based on hydrogeochemistry and a geographical information system (GIS) based protectability index has been employed for conducting this work. The results from the chemical analysis revealed that the groundwater of the Quaternary aquifer is less saline than that of the Miocene aquifer and the main factors that control the groundwater salinity in the studied area are primarily related to the genesis of the original recharging water modified after by leaching, dissolution, cation exchange, and fertilizer leachate. The computed groundwater quality index (WQI) falls into two categories: fair for almost all the Miocene groundwater samples, while the Quaternary groundwater samples are all have a good quality. The retarded flow and non-replenishment of the Miocene aquifer compared to the renewable active recharge of the Quaternary aquifer can explain this variation of WQI. The index and overlay approach exemplified by the DUPIT index has been used to investigate the protectability of the study aquifers against diffuse pollutants. Three categories (highly protectable less vulnerable, moderately protectable moderately vulnerable and less protectable highly vulnerable) have been determined and areally mapped.

  20. Groundwater quality data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Project, May 2012 through December 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Terri L.; DeSimone, Leslie A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Musgrove, Marylynn; Kingsbury, James A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-06-20

    Groundwater-quality data were collected from 748 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program from May 2012 through December 2013. The data were collected from four types of well networks: principal aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for public water supply; land-use study networks, which assess land-use effects on shallow groundwater quality; major aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for domestic supply; and enhanced trends networks, which evaluate the time scales during which groundwater quality changes. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of water-quality indicators and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and radionuclides. These groundwater quality data are tabulated in this report. Quality-control samples also were collected; data from blank and replicate quality-control samples are included in this report.

  1. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the Daule aquifer, Ecuador, using the susceptibility index method.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Luís; Pindo, Juan Carlos; Dominguez-Granda, Luis

    2017-01-01

    The Guayas region in Ecuador is economically very important, producing 68% of the national crops. The main agricultural activities threaten the groundwater therein with nitrate contamination given the large fertiliser and water needs. The present work tests the applicability of the susceptibility index assessment method in evaluating the impact of agricultural activities on groundwater quality, using as a case study an aquifer of the Guayas river basin in Ecuador. The index adapts four parameters of the DRASTIC method and incorporated a new land use parameter. Results show that the areas highly vulnerable to contamination are located in irrigation perimeters of dominant paddy fields associated with the high recharge rates in the alluvial deposits. Respectively, moderately vulnerable and low-vulnerability areas correspond to aquatic environments and forests, semi-natural zones and water bodies. One of the main contributions of the Daule aquifer vulnerability is likely its wide, flat topography. A great part of the aquifer is at high risk of contamination by nitrates if a code of good agricultural practices is not applied. Therefore the implementation of a monitoring network to control the nitrates concentrations is the first step to assure groundwater quality for drinking purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Groundwater Performance Assessment Project Quality Assurance Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Luttrell, Stuart P.

    2006-05-11

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has monitored groundwater on the Hanford Site since the 1940s to help determine what chemical and radiological contaminants have made their way into the groundwater. As regulatory requirements for monitoring increased in the 1980s, there began to be some overlap between various programs. DOE established the Groundwater Performance Assessment Project (groundwater project) in 1996 to ensure protection of the public and the environment while improving the efficiency of monitoring activities. The groundwater project is designed to support all groundwater monitoring needs at the site, eliminate redundant sampling and analysis, and establish a cost-effective hierarchy for groundwater monitoring activities. This document provides the quality assurance guidelines that will be followed by the groundwater project. This QA Plan is based on the QA requirements of DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance, and 10 CFR 830, Subpart A--General Provisions/Quality Assurance Requirements as delineated in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Standards-Based Management System. In addition, the groundwater project is subject to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans (EPA/240/B-01/003, QA/R-5). The groundwater project has determined that the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD, DOE/RL-96-68) apply to portions of this project and to the subcontractors. HASQARD requirements are discussed within applicable sections of this plan.

  3. Urbanization effect on groundwater quality (Paleohydrogeological study)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabri, Raghid; Merkel, Broder; Tichomirowa, Marion

    2015-04-01

    Speleothem growing in caves usually contain hydrological information. Carbonates precipitation growing in tunnels under cities contain information about anthropological influence on water system. Carbonate samples were taken from Roman tunnels in rural and urban area in Nablus district- Palestine. These laminated samples were analyzed for rare earth elements (REE), 13C and 18O. For REE, five samples were examined, each lamination was extracted and diluted with 0.1 ml 65% HNO3 and measured using ICP-MS. Yet, limited number of lamination was used for isotope analysis using Isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Total concentration of rare earth elements were calculated for each of the five samples. In all examined samples, the newer laminations show higher peaks than the older one of each sample. On the other hand, one sample (8 measurements) of 13C show values between -31.6° and -36°. These values mean that the carbonate is from organic origin. In an urban area, wastewater infiltration into groundwater system can be the source of organic matter. 18O measurements show continues enrichments within the growth of the carbonate. This increase of the 18O values reflects drier weather. Our results can be explained by the increase of water consumption in the household in the recent 100 years, rather than the increase of using detergents and cleaning products which have influenced groundwater quality as appeared in the carbonate samples. On the other hand, 18O results could be linked with the expansion of the building up area in the city and subsequently reduction of groundwater recharge

  4. GIS-based assessment and characterization of groundwater quality in a hard-rock hilly terrain of Western India.

    PubMed

    Machiwal, Deepesh; Jha, Madan K; Mal, Bimal C

    2011-03-01

    The growing population, pollution, and misuse of freshwater worldwide necessitate developing innovative methods and efficient strategies to protect vital groundwater resources. This need becomes more critical for arid/semi-arid regions of the world. The present study focuses on a GIS-based assessment and characterization of groundwater quality in a semi-arid hard-rock terrain of Rajasthan, western India using long-term and multi-site post-monsoon groundwater quality data. Spatio-temporal variations of water quality parameters in the study area were analyzed by GIS techniques. Groundwater quality was evaluated based on a GIS-based Groundwater Quality Index (GWQI). A Potential GWQI map was also generated for the study area following the Optimum Index Factor concept. The most-influential water quality parameters were identified by performing a map removal sensitivity analysis among the groundwater quality parameters. Mean annual concentration maps revealed that hardness is the only parameter that exceeds its maximum permissible limit for drinking water. GIS analysis revealed that sulfate and nitrate ions exhibit the highest (CV > 30%) temporal variation, but groundwater pH is stable. Hardness, EC, TDS, and magnesium govern the spatial pattern of the GWQI map. The groundwater quality of the study area is generally suitable for drinking and irrigation (median GWQI > 74). The GWQI map indicated that relatively high-quality groundwater exists in northwest and southeast portions of the study area. The groundwater quality parameter group of Ca, Cl, and pH were found to have the maximum value (6.44) of Optimum Index factor. It is concluded that Ca, Cl, and pH are three prominent parameters for cost-effective and long-term water quality monitoring in the study area. Hardness, Na, and SO(4), being the most-sensitive water quality parameters, need to be monitored regularly and more precisely.

  5. Groundwater quality in western New York, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Water samples collected from 16 production wells and 15 private residential wells in western New York from July through November 2011 were analyzed to characterize the groundwater quality. Fifteen of the wells were finished in sand and gravel aquifers, and 16 were finished in bedrock aquifers. Six of the 31 wells were sampled in a previous western New York study, which was conducted in 2006. Water samples from the 2011 study were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents that included major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and indicator bacteria. Results of the water-quality analyses are presented in tabular form for individual wells, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. The results indicate that groundwater generally is of acceptable quality, although at 30 of the 31 wells sampled, at least one of the following constituents was detected at a concentration that exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards: pH (two samples), sodium (eight samples), sulfate (three samples), total dissolved solids (nine samples), aluminum (two samples), arsenic (one sample), iron (ten samples), manganese (twelve samples), radon-222 (sixteen samples), benzene (one sample), and total coliform bacteria (nine samples). Existing drinking-water standards for color, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, gross alpha radioactivity, uranium, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, and heterotrophic bacteria were not exceeded in any of the samples collected. None of the pesticides analyzed exceeded existing drinking-water standards.

  6. Using a fuzzy expert system to generate a holistic quantitative index of groundwater sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, S. W.; Wong, C.; Graham, G.

    2011-12-01

    Indicators and indices can be an effective method for tracking environmental conditions over time, and thus for assessing the effectiveness of policy measures or remediation activities. Relative to surface water resources, however, groundwater has received little attention in this regard. This is problematic: about 30% and 44% of the Canadian and American populations depend on groundwater resources, with localized reliance of up to 100%. Aquifers can also serve key functions in watershed hydrology by attenuating peak flows, providing baseflow and associated aquatic habitat, moderating water temperature, and providing transport pathways for contaminants from the land surface to the open freshwater environment. Here, we introduce a prototype groundwater sustainability index. It is holistic in the sense that it incorporates both quantity and quality indicators. The former is based on the signal-to-noise ratio of long-term water level trends as estimated via robust (rank-based) regression, whereas the latter is based on concentration of the chief contaminant of concern. A fuzzy inference system is employed to integrate these unlike metrics, and has the additional advantages of explicitly encoding expert knowledge and directly acknowledging subjectivity in environmental condition "grading" through the use of linguistic rules and fuzzy sets, respectively. The rule base is constructed such that poor environmental conditions captured by one measure would not be hidden by good environmental performance in another. A standard Mamdani (max-min) inference engine is used in conjunction with centroid defuzzification. The outcome is a fuzzy logic-based groundwater sustainability index (FGWSI) ranging from 0 to 100. The index is demonstrated using both synthetic and observational datasets, including examples from the Abbotsford-Sumas aquifer, an important and managerially challenging transboundary (Canada-US) water resource.

  7. Assessment of the Hydrogeochemistry and Groundwater Quality of the Tarim River Basin in an Extreme Arid Region, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jun; Jin, Zhangdong; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of the major and trace elements in the groundwater of the Tarim River Basin (TRB), the largest inland river basin of China, were analyzed before and during rainy seasons to determine the hydrogeochemistry and to assess the groundwater quality for irrigation and drinking purposes. The groundwater within the TRB was slightly alkaline and characterized by high ionic concentrations. The groundwater in the northern sub-basin was fresh water with a Ca2+-HCO3 - water type, whereas the groundwater in the southern and central sub-basins was brackish with a Na+-Cl- water type. Evaporite dissolution and carbonate weathering were the primary and secondary sources of solutes in the groundwater within the basin, whereas silicate weathering played a minor role. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), water quality index (WQI), and sodium percentage (%Na) indicated that the groundwater in the northern sub-basin was suitable for irrigation and drinking, but that in the southern and central sub-basins was not suitable. The groundwater quality was slightly better in the wet season than in the dry season. The groundwater could be used for drinking after treatment for B3+, F-, and SO4 2- and for irrigation after control of the sodium and salinity hazards. Considering the high corrosivity ratio of the groundwater in this area, noncorrosive pipes should be used for the groundwater supply. For sustainable development, integrated management of the surface water and the groundwater is needed in the future.

  8. Calculation of an interaction index between extractive activity and groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Louise; Hallet, Vincent; Barthélemy, Johan; Moriamé, Marie; Cartletti, Timotéo

    2015-04-01

    There are two underground resources intensively exploited in Wallonia (the southern Region of Belgium): groundwater and rock. Groundwater production rate is about 380*106 cubic meter per year from which 80 % is used for drinking water (SPW-DGO3, 2014). Annual rock extraction is about 73*106 tons per year and 80.6% of the materials are carbonate rocks (Collier and Hallet, 2013) corresponding to the most important aquifer formations. Given the high population density and environmental pressures, lateral quarry extensions are limited and the only solution for the operators is to excavate deeper. In this context, the aquifer level of the exploited formation is often reached and dewatering systems have to be installed to depress the water table below the quarry pit bottom. This affects the regional hydrogeology and, in some cases, the productivity of the water catchments is threatened. Using simple geological and hydrogeological parameters, an interaction index was developed to assess the interaction between extractive activity and groundwater resources and, in consequence, to define how far the feasibility study should go into detailed hydrogeological investigations. The interaction index is based on the equation used in the assessment of natural hazards (Dauphiné, 2003), which gives: Interaction = F (Quarry, Aquifer). The interaction is the risk, which is equal to a function where the hazard is defined from parameters corresponding to the quarry and vulnerability from parameters related to groundwater resources. Six parameters have been determined. The parameters chosen to represent the hazard of a quarry are: the geological, the hydrogeological and the piezometric contexts. The parameters chosen to represent the vulnerability of the water resources are: the relative position between the quarry and the water catchment (well, spring, gallery, etc.) sites, the productivity of the catchment and the quality of the groundwater. Each parameter was classified into four

  9. EPA's Environmental Quality Index Supports Public Health

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Quality Index (EQI) pulls data from five domains: air, water, land, built, and sociodemographic environments to provide a county-by-county snapshot of overall environmental quality across the entire U.S.

  10. Assessment and modeling of groundwater quality using WQI and GIS in Upper Egypt area.

    PubMed

    Rabeiy, Ragab ElSayed

    2017-04-04

    The continuous growth and development of population need more fresh water for drinking, irrigation, and domestic in arid countries like Egypt. Evaluation the quality of groundwater is an essential study to ensure its suitability for different purposes. In this study, 812 groundwater samples were taken within the middle area of Upper Egypt (Sohag Governorate) to assess the quality of groundwater for drinking and irrigation purposes. Eleven water parameters were analyzed at each groundwater sample (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), HCO3(-) SO4(2-), Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Cl(-), electrical conductivity, and pH) to exploit them in water quality evaluation. A classical statistics were applied for the raw data to examine the distribution of physicochemical parameters in the investigated area. The relationship between groundwater parameters was tested using the correlation coefficient where a strong relationship was found between several water parameters such as Ca(2+) and Cl(-). Water quality index (WQI) is a mathematical model used to transform many water parameters into a single indicator value which represents the water quality level. Results of WQI showed that 20% of groundwater samples are excellent, 75% are good for drinking, and 7% are very poor water while only 1% of samples are unsuitable for drinking. To test the suitability of groundwater for irrigation, three indices are used; they are sodium adsorption ration (SAR), sodium percentage (Na%), and permeability index (PI). For irrigation suitability, the study proved that most sampling sites are suitable while less than 3% are unsuitable for irrigation. The spatial distribution of the estimated values of WQI, SAR, Na%, PI, and each groundwater parameter was spatially modeled using GIS.

  11. Groundwater quality in central New York, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 14 production wells and 15 private wells in central New York from August through December 2012 in a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. The samples were analyzed to characterize the groundwater quality in unconsolidated and bedrock aquifers in this area. Fifteen of the wells are finished in sand-and-gravel aquifers, and 14 are finished in bedrock aquifers. Six of the 29 wells were sampled in a previous central New York study, which was conducted in 2007. Water samples from the 2012 study were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, dissolved gases (argon, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, oxygen), and indicator bacteria. Results of the water-quality analyses are presented in tabular form for individual wells, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. The results indicate that the groundwater generally is of acceptable quality, although for all of the wells sampled, at least one of the following constituents was detected at a concentration that exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards: color (2 samples), pH (7 samples), sodium (9 samples), chloride (2 samples), fluoride (2 samples), sulfate (2 samples), dissolved solids (8 samples), aluminum (4 samples), arsenic (1 sample), iron (9 samples), manganese (13 samples), radon-222 (13 samples), total coliform bacteria (6 samples), and heterotrophic bacteria (2 samples). Drinking-water standards for nitrate, nitrite, antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, gross alpha radioactivity, uranium, fecal coliform, and

  12. Southwest principal aquifers regional ground-water quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, D.W.; Thiros, S.A.; Bexfield, L.M.; McKinney, T.S.; Green, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifers in the southwestern United States. The Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the region to ground-water contamination by synthesizing the baseline knowledge of ground-water quality conditions in 15 basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. The improved understanding of aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability to contamination is assisting in the development of tools that water managers can use to assess and protect the quality of ground-water resources. This fact sheet provides an overview of the basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States and description of the completed and planned regional analyses of ground-water quality being performed by the SWPA study.

  13. Twenty years of global groundwater research: A Science Citation Index Expanded-based bibliometric survey (1993-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Beibei; Loáiciga, Hugo A.; Wang, Zhen; Zhan, F. Benjamin; Hong, Song

    2014-11-01

    A bibliometric analysis was conducted to evaluate groundwater research from different perspectives in the period 1993-2012 based on the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCIE) database. The bibliometric analysis summarizes output, categorical, geographical, and institutional patterns, as well as research hotspots in global groundwater studies. Groundwater research experienced notable growth in the past two decades. “Environmental sciences”, “water resources” and “multidisciplinary geosciences” were the three major subject categories. The Journal of Hydrology published the largest number of groundwater-related publications in the surveyed period. Major author clusters and research regions are located in the United States, Western Europe, Eastern and Southern Asia, and Eastern Australia. The United States was a leading contributor to global groundwater research with the largest number of independent and collaborative papers, its dominance affirmed by housing 12 of the top 20 most active institutions reporting groundwater-related research. The US Geological Survey, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the USDA Agricultural Research Service were the three institutions with the largest number of groundwater-related publications. A keywords analysis revealed that groundwater quality and contamination, effective research technologies, and treatment technologies for water-quality improvement were the main research areas in the study period. Several keywords such as “arsenic”, “climate change”, “fluoride”, “groundwater management”, “hydrogeochemistry”, “uncertainty”, “numerical modeling”, “seawater intrusion”, “adsorption”, “remote sensing”, “land use”, “USA”(as study site), and “water supply” received dramatically increased attention during the study period, possibly signaling future research trends.

  14. Groundwater Quality in Central New York, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckhardt, David A.V.; Reddy, J.E.; Shaw, Stephen B.

    2009-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 7 production wells and 28 private residential wells in central New York from August through December 2007 and analyzed to characterize the chemical quality of groundwater. Seventeen wells are screened in sand and gravel aquifers, and 18 are finished in bedrock aquifers. The wells were selected to represent areas of greatest groundwater use and to provide a geographical sampling from the 5,799-square-mile study area. Samples were analyzed for 6 physical properties and 216 constituents, including nutrients, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, phenolic compounds, organic carbon, and 4 types of bacteria. Results indicate that groundwater used for drinking supply is generally of acceptable quality, although concentrations of some constituents or bacteria exceeded at least one drinking-water standard at several wells. The cations detected in the highest concentrations were calcium, magnesium, and sodium; anions detected in the highest concentrations were bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. The predominant nutrients were nitrate and ammonia, but no nutrients exceeded Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs). The trace elements barium, boron, lithium, and strontium were detected in every sample; the trace elements present in the highest concentrations were barium, boron, iron, lithium, manganese, and strontium. Fifteen pesticides, including seven pesticide degradates, were detected in water from 17 of the 35 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded State or Federal MCLs. Sixteen volatile organic compounds were detected in water from 15 of the 35 wells. Nine analytes and three types of bacteria were detected in concentrations that exceeded Federal and State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. One sample had a water color that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) and the New York State MCL of 10 color

  15. Evaluation of groundwater quality in and around Peenya industrial area of Bangalore, South India using GIS techniques.

    PubMed

    Pius, Anitha; Jerome, Charmaine; Sharma, Nagaraja

    2012-07-01

    Groundwater resource forms a significant component of the urban water supply. Declining groundwater levels in Bangalore Urban District is generally due to continuous overexploitation during the last two decades or more. There is a tremendous increase in demand in the city for good quality groundwater resource. The present study monitors the groundwater quality using geographic information system (GIS) techniques for a part of Bangalore metropolis. Thematic maps for the study area are prepared by visual interpretation of SOI toposheets on 1:50,000 scale using MapInfo software. Physicochemical analysis data of the groundwater samples collected at predetermined locations form the attribute database for the study, based on which spatial distribution maps of major water quality parameters are prepared using MapInfo GIS software. Water quality index was then calculated by considering the following water quality parameters--pH, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate and sulphate to find the suitability of water for drinking purpose. The water quality index for these samples ranged from 49 to 502. The high value of water quality index reveals that most of the study area is highly contaminated due to excessive concentration of one or more water quality parameters and that the groundwater needs pretreatment before consumption.

  16. [Bacteriological quality of groundwaters in cemeteries].

    PubMed

    Martins, M T; Pellizari, V H; Pacheco, A; Myaki, D M; Adams, C; Bossolan, N R; Mendes, J M; Hassuda, S

    1991-02-01

    Groundwater samples collected by piezometers from three cemeteries in geologically distinct areas of S. Paulo and Santos, Brazil, were analysed in order to determine their hygienic and sanitary conditions. Fecal coliformes, fecal streptococci, sulfite reducer clostridia and Salmonella were searched for the purpose of evaluating sanitary conditions, and total coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria, proteolitic and lipolitic microorganisms for evaluating hygienic conditions. In some samples, nitrate levels were also determined. It was discovered that these waters do not present adequate sanitary and hygienic conditions and that, in some cases, nitrate levels were extremely high (75.7 mg/l). In most samples, higher levels of fecal streptococci and sufite reducer clostridia than fecal coliforms were detected, which seems to show that the two former indicators would be more appropriate for evaluating the sanitary conditions of this kind of water. Salmonella were detected in only one of 44 samples analysed and coliphages in none. In the statistical analysis, the correlation matrix showed significant correlations among three fecal pollution indicators, as well as among anaerobic and aerobic heterotrophs and lipolitic bacteria. A direct relationship between the deterioration of water quality and the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the environment studied was observed. When cemeteries are constructed these conditions should, therefore, be taken into consideration.

  17. Assessment of groundwater quality using DEA and AHP: a case study in the Sereflikochisar region in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kavurmaci, Murat; Üstün, A Korkut

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the spatial distribution of groundwater quality in Sereflikochisar Basin, in the Central Anatolian region of Turkey using different hydrochemical, statistical, and geostatistical methods. A total of 51 groundwater samples were collected from the observation wells in the study area to evaluate the characteristics of the groundwater quality. As a relatively simple and practical method, a groundwater quality index (GWQI) was developed to evaluate the overall groundwater quality. In this process, complex decision-making techniques such as analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and data envelopment analysis (DEA) were used. Based on these models, two new indices (A-GWQI and D-GWQI) were proposed. According to the D-GWQI score (from 0.6 to 1), water quality was classified in four categories as unsuitable (0.6–0.7), permissible (0.7–0.8), good (0.8–0.9), and excellent (0.9–1). The spatial distribution maps of the groundwater quality were created using the Kriging method. For each map, seven different semivariogram models were tested and the best-fitted model was chosen based on their root mean square standardized error. These maps showed that the areas with high groundwater quality were in the eastern and southern parts of the study area where the D-GWQI scores were greater than 0.8. Depending on the distance from the Salt Lake, the characteristics of groundwater changed from NaCl to NaHCO3 and CaHCO3 facies. This study shows how to determine the spatial distribution of the groundwater quality and identify the impact of salt lakes on the groundwater quality in inland aquifers. The findings of this study can be applied to ensure the quality of groundwater used for drinking and irrigation purposes in the study area.

  18. An Overall County Quality of Living Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Charles L.; Lin, Y. N.

    A recent study of the quality of life in the rural South developed a weighted index of the overall quality of living based on subjective evaluations by rural residents of such concerns as the local government's quality, politics, political organizations, schools, educational system, churches, civic organizations, recreational facilities, job…

  19. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... 0 - 50) Air quality is considered satisfactory, and air pollution poses little or no risk. AQI: Moderate (51 - ... number of people who are unusually sensitive to air pollution. AQI: Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups (101 - 150) Although ...

  20. A method of groundwater quality assessment based on fuzzy network-CANFIS and geographic information system (GIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholami, V.; Khaleghi, M. R.; Sebghati, M.

    2016-12-01

    The process of water quality testing is money/time-consuming, quite important and difficult stage for routine measurements. Therefore, use of models has become commonplace in simulating water quality. In this study, the coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) was used to simulate groundwater quality. Further, geographic information system (GIS) was used as the pre-processor and post-processor tool to demonstrate spatial variation of groundwater quality. All important factors were quantified and groundwater quality index (GWQI) was developed. The proposed model was trained and validated by taking a case study of Mazandaran Plain located in northern part of Iran. The factors affecting groundwater quality were the input variables for the simulation, whereas GWQI index was the output. The developed model was validated to simulate groundwater quality. Network validation was performed via comparison between the estimated and actual GWQI values. In GIS, the study area was separated to raster format in the pixel dimensions of 1 km and also by incorporation of input data layers of the Fuzzy Network-CANFIS model; the geo-referenced layers of the effective factors in groundwater quality were earned. Therefore, numeric values of each pixel with geographical coordinates were entered to the Fuzzy Network-CANFIS model and thus simulation of groundwater quality was accessed in the study area. Finally, the simulated GWQI indices using the Fuzzy Network-CANFIS model were entered into GIS, and hence groundwater quality map (raster layer) based on the results of the network simulation was earned. The study's results confirm the high efficiency of incorporation of neuro-fuzzy techniques and GIS. It is also worth noting that the general quality of the groundwater in the most studied plain is fairly low.

  1. Estimating Groundwater Quality Changes Using Remotely Sensed Groundwater Storage and Multivariate Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, A.; Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Global groundwater dependence is likely to increase with continued population growth and climate-driven freshwater redistribution. Recent groundwater quantity studies have estimated large-scale aquifer depletion rates using monthly water storage variations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. These innovative approaches currently fail to evaluate groundwater quality, integral to assess the availability of potable groundwater resources. We present multivariate relationships to predict total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations as a function of GRACE-derived variations in water table depth, dominant land use, and other physical parameters in two important aquifer systems in the United States: the High Plains aquifer and the Central Valley aquifer. Model evaluations were performed using goodness of fit procedures and cross validation to identify general model forms. Results of this work demonstrate the potential to characterize global groundwater potability using remote sensing.

  2. Groundwater quality data from the National Water Quality Assessment Project, May 2012 through December 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Terri L.; DeSimone, Leslie; Bexfield, Laura M.; Lindsey, Bruce; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kulongoski, Justin; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Kingsbury, James A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater-quality data were collected from 748 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program from May 2012 through December 2013. The data were collected from four types of well networks: principal aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for public water supply; land-use study networks, which assess land-use effects on shallow groundwater quality; major aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for domestic supply; and enhanced trends networks, which evaluate the time scales during which groundwater quality changes. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of water-quality indicators and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and radionuclides. These groundwater quality data are tabulated in a U.S. Geological Survey Data Series Report DS-997 which is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds997 and in this data release. Quality-control samples also were collected; data from blank and replicate quality-control samples are included in the related report (DS-997) and this data release. This compressed file contains 28 files of groundwater-quality data in ASCII text tab-delimited format and 28 corresponding metadata in xml format for wells sampled for the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Project, May 2012 through December 2013.

  3. Groundwater Quality Deterioration due to Municipal Solid Waste Dumping Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parameswari, Kaliyaperumal; Karunakaran, Krishnasamy

    2011-07-01

    Groundwater is the major source of drinking water in both urban and rural India. The demand for water has increased over the years and this has led to water scarcity. The scarcity situation, especially in urban areas, is aggravated by the problem of water pollution or contamination by solid waste dumping. In many urban centers in India, the quality of groundwater is getting severely affected because of the widespread pollution, due to the discharge of untreated waste water in water bodies and leachate from the unscientific disposal of solid wastes. It is necessary to realize the importance of groundwater and preserve its quality through careful monitoring and remediation. This study focuses on the magnitude of groundwater pollution due to improper solid waste dumping practices prevailing in the southern part of the Chennai Metropolitan Area. The Perungudi dumpsite, a solid waste dumping site in the periphery of Chennai city, India, has been chosen for this study. The chemical characteristic of solid waste and leachate has been studied, and the groundwater samples from various locations around the dumpsite were collected and analyzed. Samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, chlorides, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, total hardness, sodium, potassium, BOD, and COD. Heavy metals such as lead, iron, and zinc have been analyzed. The study reveals that most of the groundwater samples do not conform to drinking water quality standards. The study also indicates that groundwater remediation techniques and proper groundwater quality monitoring on a regular basis are of utmost importance in the study area. A few in-situ groundwater remediation technologies have been suggested to improve the present water quality.

  4. Groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, David A.; Wohl, Ellen E.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater represents the terrestrial subsurface component of the hydrologic cycle. As such, groundwater is generally in motion, moving from elevated areas of recharge to lower areas of discharge. Groundwater usually moves in accordance with Darcy’s law (Dalmont, Paris: Les Fontaines Publiques de la Ville de Dijon, 1856). Groundwater residence times can be under a day in small upland catchments to over a million years in subcontinental-sized desert basins. The broadest definition of groundwater includes water in the unsaturated zone, considered briefly here. Water chemically bound to minerals, as in gypsum (CaSO4 • 2H2O) or hydrated clays, cannot flow in response to gradients in total hydraulic head (pressure head plus elevation head); such water is thus usually excluded from consideration as groundwater. In 1940, M. King Hubbert showed Darcy’s law to be a special case of thermodynamically based potential field equations governing fluid motion, thereby establishing groundwater hydraulics as a rigorous engineering science (Journal of Geology 48, pp. 785–944). The development of computer-enabled numerical methods for solving the field equations with real-world approximating geometries and boundary conditions in the mid-1960s ushered in the era of digital groundwater modeling. An estimated 30 percent of global fresh water is groundwater, compared to 0.3 percent that is surface water, 0.04 percent atmospheric water, and 70 percent that exists as ice, including permafrost (Shiklomanov and Rodda 2004, cited under Groundwater Occurrence). Groundwater thus constitutes the vast majority—over 98 percent—of the unfrozen fresh-water resources of the planet, excluding surface-water reservoirs. Environmental dimensions of groundwater are equally large, receiving attention on multiple disciplinary fronts. Riparian, streambed, and spring-pool habitats can be sensitively dependent on the amount and quality of groundwater inputs that modulate temperature and solutes

  5. Impact of geochemical stressors on shallow groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    An, Y.-J.; Kampbell, D.H.; Jeong, S.-W.; Jewell, K.P.; Masoner, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring wells (about 70 wells) were extensively installed in 28 sites surrounding Lake Texoma, located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas, to assess the impact of geochemical stressors to shallow groundwater quality. The monitoring wells were classified into three groups (residential area, agricultural area, and oil field area) depending on their land uses. During a 2-year period from 1999 to 2001 the monitoring wells were sampled every 3 months on a seasonal basis. Water quality assay consisted of 25 parameters including field parameters, nutrients, major ions, and trace elements. Occurrence and level of inorganics in groundwater samples were related to the land use and temporal change. Groundwater of the agricultural area showed lower levels of ferrous iron and nitrate than the residential area. The summer season data revealed more distinct differences in inorganic profiles of the two land use groundwater samples. There is a possible trend that nitrate concentrations in groundwater increased as the proportions of cultivated area increased. Water-soluble ferrous iron occurred primarily in water samples with a low dissolved oxygen concentration and/or a negative redox potential. The presence of brine waste in shallow groundwater was detected by chloride and conductivity in oil field area. Dissolved trace metals and volatile organic carbons were not in a form of concentration to be stressors. This study showed that the quality of shallow ground water could be related to regional geochemical stressors surrounding the lake. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An overview of ground-water quality data in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kammerer, Phil A.

    1984-01-01

    This report contains a summary of ground-water-quality data for Wisconsin and an evaluation of the adequacy of these data for assessing the impact of land disposal of wastes on ground-water quality. Chemical analyses used in data summaries were limited to those stored in the USGS computer system (WATSTORE). Information on documented instances of ground-water contamination and sources of potential contamination from land disposal of wastes was provided by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Available data provide an overview of ground water quality but may be insufficient for assessment of ground-water contamination from land disposal of wastes. Many sources of potential ground-water contamination (landfills, surface waste-storage impoundments, and buried tanks) are known. Some of these are probably causing local ground-water contamination that is not apparent from available regional data. Information needs for assessment of ground-water contamination from land disposal of wastes include improved understanding of both ground-water hydrology and the chemical behavior of specific contaminants in the environment. (USGS)

  7. Groundwater monitoring: Guidelines and methodology for developing and implementing a ground-water quality monitoring program

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    The handbook attempts to structure a cost-effective, generic groundwater pollution monitoring methodology that can be applied either on a regional basis or to site-specific, alternative approaches to monitoring the quality of groundwater at a considerable saving of time and money. Extensive detail is given to the relation of groundwater quality to the geohydrologic framework, constituents in the polluted groundwater, sources and causes of pollution, and use of water. Information is also given about groundwater monitoring techniques used in top soil, the vadose zone, ad the saturated zone. The costs of these techniques are described in figures and tables. Groundwater databases and their applicability to water resources information systems are also covered. Comprehensive site-specific examples are given of how to use the material in the handbook to monitoring major sources of groundwater pollution. Included are in-depth models of hazardous waste disposal, brine disposal, landfill leachate control, oxidation ponds and percolation ponds, septic fields, and agricultural return flow, as well as descriptions of cases of multiple-source municipal and agricultural pollution.

  8. 7 CFR 61.103 - Determination of quality index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section shall be found by reducing the quality index of prime quality... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of quality index. 61.103 Section 61.103... quality index. The quality index of cottonseed shall be an index of purity and soundness, and shall be...

  9. 7 CFR 61.103 - Determination of quality index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section shall be found by reducing the quality index of prime quality... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of quality index. 61.103 Section 61.103... quality index. The quality index of cottonseed shall be an index of purity and soundness, and shall be...

  10. 7 CFR 61.103 - Determination of quality index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section shall be found by reducing the quality index of prime quality... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of quality index. 61.103 Section 61.103... quality index. The quality index of cottonseed shall be an index of purity and soundness, and shall be...

  11. 7 CFR 61.103 - Determination of quality index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section shall be found by reducing the quality index of prime quality... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of quality index. 61.103 Section 61.103... quality index. The quality index of cottonseed shall be an index of purity and soundness, and shall be...

  12. 7 CFR 61.103 - Determination of quality index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... prescribed in paragraph (a) of this section shall be found by reducing the quality index of prime quality... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of quality index. 61.103 Section 61.103... quality index. The quality index of cottonseed shall be an index of purity and soundness, and shall be...

  13. Hydrogeochemical investigations and groundwater quality assessment of Torbat-Zaveh plain, Khorasan Razavi, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nematollahi, M J; Ebrahimi, P; Razmara, M; Ghasemi, A

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogeochemical investigations of groundwater in Torbat-Zaveh plain have been carried out to assess the water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes. In this study, 190 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physicochemical parameters and major ion concentrations. The abundance of major cations and anions was in the following order: Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) > K(+), and Cl(-) > [Formula: see text] > [Formula: see text] > [Formula: see text]. As a result, alkaline element (Na(+)) exceeds alkaline earth elements (Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)), and strong acids (Cl(-) and [Formula: see text]) dominate weak acids ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]) in majority of the groundwater samples. Statistical analyses including Spearman correlation coefficients and factor analysis display good correlation between physicochemical parameters (EC, TDS and TH) and Na(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-) and [Formula: see text]. The results display that rock-weathering interactions and ion-exchange processes play important role in controlling groundwater chemistry. Saturation index values also indicate that water chemistry is significantly affected by carbonate minerals such as calcite, aragonite and dolomite. US Salinity Laboratory(USSL) and Wilcox diagrams together with permeability index values reveal that most of the groundwater samples are suitable for irrigation purpose. However, in some regions, the water samples do not indicate required irrigational quality.

  14. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapac, I.G.; Dey, W.S.; Roy, W.R.; Smyth, C.A.; Storment, E.; Sargent, S.L.; Steele, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and ??15N and ??18O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal streptococcus bacteria were detected at least once in groundwater from all monitoring wells at both sites

  15. Impacts of swine manure pits on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Krapac, I G; Dey, W S; Roy, W R; Smyth, C A; Storment, E; Sargent, S L; Steele, J D

    2002-01-01

    Manure deep-pits are commonly used to store manure at confined animal feeding operations. However, previous to this study little information had been collected on the impacts of deep-pits on groundwater quality to provide science-based guidance in formulating regulations and waste management strategies that address risks to human health and the environment. Groundwater quality has been monitored since January 1999 at two hog finishing facilities in Illinois that use deep-pit systems for manure storage. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis and analyzed for inorganic and bacteriological constituent concentrations. The two sites are located in areas with geologic environments representing different vulnerabilities for local groundwater contamination. One site is underlain by more than 6 m of clayey silt, and 7-36 m of shale. Concentrations of chloride, ammonium, phosphate, and potassium indicated that local groundwater quality had not been significantly impacted by pit leakage from this facility. Nitrate concentrations were elevated near the pit, often exceeding the 10 mg N/l drinking water standard. Isotopic nitrate signatures suggested that the nitrate was likely derived from soil organic matter and fertilizer applied to adjacent crop fields. At the other site, sandstone is located 4.6-6.1 m below land surface. Chloride concentrations and delta15N and delta15O values of dissolved nitrate indicated that this facility may have limited and localized impacts on groundwater. Other constituents, including ammonia, potassium, phosphate, and sodium were generally at or less than background concentrations. Trace- and heavy-metal concentrations in groundwater samples collected from both facilities were at concentrations less than drinking water standards. The concentration of inorganic constituents in the groundwater would not likely impact human health. Fecal streptococcus bacteria were detected at least once in groundwater from all monitoring wells at both

  16. Groundwater quality and hydrochemical properties of Al-Ula Region, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Naji; Hussein, Belal H M; Rafrafi, Sarra; El Kassas, Neama

    2015-03-01

    Groundwater quality monitoring is one of the most important aspects in groundwater studies in arid environments particularly in developing countries, like Saudi Arabia, due to the fast population growth and the expansion of irrigated agriculture and industrial uses. Groundwater samples have been collected from eight locations in Al-Ula in Saudi Arabia during June 2012 and January 2013 in order to investigate the hydrochemical characteristics and the groundwater quality and to understand the sources of dissolved ions. Physicochemical parameters of groundwater such as electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solid, and major cations and anions were determined. Chloride was found to be the dominant anion followed by HCO(-) 3 and SO4 (2-). Groundwater of the study area is characterized by the dominance of alkaline earths (Ca(2+) + Mg(2+)) over alkali metals (Na(+) + K(+)). The analytical results show that the groundwater is generally moderately hard and slightly alkaline in nature. The binary relationships of the major ions reveal that water quality of the Al-Ula region is mainly controlled by rock weathering, evaporation, and ion exchange reactions. Piper diagram was constructed to identify hydrochemical facies, and it was found that majority of the samples belong to Ca-Cl and mixed Ca-Mg-Cl facies. Chemical indices like chloro-alkali indices, sodium adsorption ratio, percentage of sodium, residual sodium carbonate, and permeability index were calculated. Also, the results show that the chemical composition of groundwater sources of Al-Ula is strongly influenced by lithology of country rocks rather than anthropogenic activities.

  17. Factors controlling groundwater quality in the Yeonjegu District of Busan City, Korea, using the hydrogeochemical processes and fuzzy GIS.

    PubMed

    Venkatramanan, Senapathi; Chung, Sang Yong; Selvam, Sekar; Lee, Seung Yeop; Elzain, Hussam Eldin

    2017-08-31

    The hydrogeochemical processes and fuzzy GIS techniques were used to evaluate the groundwater quality in the Yeonjegu district of Busan Metropolitan City, Korea. The highest concentrations of major ions were mainly related to the local geology. The seawater intrusion into the river water and municipal contaminants were secondary contamination sources of groundwater in the study area. Factor analysis represented the contamination sources of the mineral dissolution of the host rocks and domestic influences. The Gibbs plot exhibited that the major ions were derived from the rock weathering condition. Piper's trilinear diagram showed that the groundwater quality was classified into five types of CaHCO3, NaHCO3, NaCl, CaCl2, and CaSO4 types in that order. The ionic relationship and the saturation mineral index of the ions indicated that the evaporation, dissolution, and precipitation processes controlled the groundwater chemistry. The fuzzy GIS map showed that highly contaminated groundwater occurred in the northeastern and the central parts and that the groundwater of medium quality appeared in most parts of the study area. It suggested that the groundwater quality of the study area was influenced by local geology, seawater intrusion, and municipal contaminants. This research clearly demonstrated that the geochemical analyses and fuzzy GIS method were very useful to identify the contaminant sources and the location of good groundwater quality.

  18. A bit-mapped classifier for groundwater quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Marc P.; Bennett, David A.

    Increased public and scientific attention is being placed on groundwater quality issues. To assist in the process of evaluating groundwater trends, we have developed a knowledge-based approach to simplify trends, and to place them into categories based on local and global variation, and to fixed, legally defined maximum contaminant levels. The approach employs an inductive, message passing classifier based on matching observations to known patterns. The software is written in Turbo Prolog.

  19. Modeling of Groundwater Quantity and Quality Management, Nile Valley, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owlia, R.; Fogg, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater levels have been rising in the Luxor area of Egypt due to increased agricultural irrigation following the construction of the Aswan High Dam (AHD) in 1970. This has led to soil and groundwater salinity problems caused by increasing evapotranspiration from shallower water table, as well as the degradation of historical monuments whose foundations are weakening by capillary rise of water into the columns and stonework. While similar salinity problems exist elsewhere in the world (e.g., San Joaquin Valley of California), we hypothesize that as long as groundwater discharge to the Nile River continues and serves as a sink for the salt, the regional salt balance will be manageable and will not lead to irreversible salinization of soils. Further, we hypothesize that if a groundwater system such as this one becomes overdrafted, thereby cutting off groundwater discharge to the River, the system salt balance will be less manageable and possibly non-sustainable. With groundwater flow modeling we are investigating approaches for managing the irrigation and groundwater levels so as to eliminate water stresses on Egyptian monuments and antiquities. Consequences of possible actions for managing the water table through groundwater pumping and alternative irrigation practices will be presented. Moreover, through the use of high resolution modeling of system heterogeneity, we will simulate the long term salt balance of the system under various scenarios, including the overdraft case. The salt source will be a function of groundwater discharge to the surface via bare-soil evaporation and crop transpiration. The built-in heterogeneity will account for dispersion, fast transport in connected media and slow mass transfer between aquifer and aquitard materials. Key Words: Groundwater, modeling, water quality, sustainability, salinity, irrigated agriculture, Nile aquifer.

  20. Agricultural conversion of floodplain ecosystems: implications for groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Keith E; Jacobson, Peter J; Vogelgesang, Jason A

    2015-04-15

    With current trends of converting grasslands to row crop agriculture in vulnerable areas, there is a critical need to evaluate the effects of land use on groundwater quality in large river floodplain systems. In this study, groundwater hydrology and nutrient dynamics associated with three land cover types (grassland, floodplain forest and cropland) were assessed at the Cedar River floodplain in southeastern Iowa. The cropland site consisted of newly-converted grassland, done specifically for our study. Our objectives were to evaluate spatial and temporal variations in groundwater hydrology and quality, and quantify changes in groundwater quality following land conversion from grassland to row crop in a floodplain. We installed five shallow and one deep monitoring wells in each of the three land cover types and recorded water levels and quality over a three year period. Crop rotations included soybeans in year 1, corn in year 2 and fallow with cover crops during year 3 due to river flooding. Water table levels behaved nearly identically among the sites but during the second and third years of our study, NO₃-N concentrations in shallow floodplain groundwater beneath the cropped site increased from 0.5 mg/l to more than 25 mg/l (maximum of 70 mg/l). The increase in concentration was primarily associated with application of liquid N during June of the second year (corn rotation), although site flooding may have exacerbated NO₃-N leaching. Geophysical investigation revealed differences in ground conductivity among the land cover sites that related significantly to variations in groundwater quality. Study results provide much-needed information on the effects of different land covers on floodplain groundwater and point to challenges ahead for meeting nutrient reduction goals if row crop land use expands into floodplains.

  1. [Effects of reclaimed water recharge on groundwater quality: a review].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ping; Lü, Si-Dan; Wang, Mei-E; Jiao, Wen-Tao

    2013-05-01

    Reclaimed water recharge to groundwater is an effective way to relieve water resource crisis. However, reclaimed water contains some pollutants such as nitrate, heavy metals, and new type contaminants, and thus, there exists definite environmental risk in the reclaimed water recharge to groundwater. To promote the development of reclaimed water recharge to groundwater and the safe use of reclaimed water in China, this paper analyzed the relevant literatures and practical experiences around the world, and summarized the effects of different reclaimed water recharge modes on the groundwater quality. Surface recharge makes the salt and nitrate contents in groundwater increased but the risk of heavy metals pollution be smaller, whereas well recharge can induce the arsenic release from sedimentary aquifers, which needs to be paid more attention to. New type contaminants are the hotspots in current researches, and their real risks are unknown. Pathogens have less pollution risks on groundwater, but some virus with strong activity can have the risks. Some suggestions were put forward to reduce the risks associated with the reclaimed water recharge to groundwater in China.

  2. Assessment of groundwater quality status in Amini Island of Lakshadweep.

    PubMed

    Prasad, N B Narasimha; Mansoor, O A

    2005-01-01

    Amini Island is one of the 10 inhabited islands in Lakshadweep. Built on the ancient volcanic formations Lakshadweep is the the tiniest Union Territory of India. The major problem experienced by the islanders is the acute scarcity of fresh drinking water. Groundwater is the only source of fresh water and the availability of the same is very restricted due to peculiar hydrologic, geologic, geomorphic and demographic features. Hence, proper understanding of the groundwater quality, with reference to temporal and spatial variations, is very important to meet the increasing demand and also to formulate future plans for groundwater development. In this context, the assessment of groundwater quality status was carried out in Amini Island. All the available information on water quality, present groundwater usage pattern, etc. was collected and analyzed. Total hardness and salinity are found to be the most critical water quality parameters exceeding the permissible limits of drinking water standards. Spatial variation diagrams of salinity and hardness have been prepared for different seasons. It is also observed from these maps that the salinity and hardness are comparatively better on the lagoon side compared to the seaside. These maps also suggest that the salinity and the hardness problem is more in the southern tip compared to northern portion.

  3. CUQI: cardiac ultrasound video quality index

    PubMed Central

    Razaak, Manzoor; Martini, Maria G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Medical images and videos are now increasingly part of modern telecommunication applications, including telemedicinal applications, favored by advancements in video compression and communication technologies. Medical video quality evaluation is essential for modern applications since compression and transmission processes often compromise the video quality. Several state-of-the-art video quality metrics used for quality evaluation assess the perceptual quality of the video. For a medical video, assessing quality in terms of “diagnostic” value rather than “perceptual” quality is more important. We present a diagnostic-quality–oriented video quality metric for quality evaluation of cardiac ultrasound videos. Cardiac ultrasound videos are characterized by rapid repetitive cardiac motions and distinct structural information characteristics that are explored by the proposed metric. Cardiac ultrasound video quality index, the proposed metric, is a full reference metric and uses the motion and edge information of the cardiac ultrasound video to evaluate the video quality. The metric was evaluated for its performance in approximating the quality of cardiac ultrasound videos by testing its correlation with the subjective scores of medical experts. The results of our tests showed that the metric has high correlation with medical expert opinions and in several cases outperforms the state-of-the-art video quality metrics considered in our tests. PMID:27014715

  4. Regional assessment of groundwater quality for drinking purpose.

    PubMed

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2012-05-01

    Owing to limited surface water during a long-term drought, this work attempted to locate clean and safe groundwater in the Choushui River alluvial fan of Taiwan based on drinking-water quality standards. Because aquifers contained several pollutants, multivariate indicator kriging (MVIK) was adopted to integrate the multiple pollutants in groundwater based on drinking- and raw-water quality standards and to explore spatial uncertainty. According to probabilities estimated by MVIK, safe zones were determined under four treatment conditions--no treatment; ammonium-N and iron removal; manganese and arsenic removal; and ammonium-N, iron, manganese, and arsenic removal. The analyzed results reveal that groundwater in the study area is not appropriate for drinking use without any treatments because of high ammonium-N, iron, manganese, and/or arsenic concentrations. After ammonium-N, iron, manganese, and arsenic removed, about 81.9-94.9% of total areas can extract safe groundwater for drinking. The proximal-fan, central mid-fan, southern mid-fan, and northern regions are the excellent locations to pump safe groundwater for drinking after treatment. Deep aquifers of exceeding 200 m depth have wider regions to obtain excellent groundwater than shallow aquifers do.

  5. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, Floyd N.; Chou, Charissa J.

    2000-08-04

    As a result of the most recent recalculation one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41, triggering a change from detection monitoring to groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents (i.e., sodium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate). Nitrate, chromium, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking waster standards. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the waste management area are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the facility. There is evidence for both upgradient and waste management area sources for observed nitrate concentrations. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the observed chromium and technetium-99.

  6. Multiscale evaluation of the Standardized Precipitation Index as a groundwater drought indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rohini; Musuuza, Jude L.; Van Loon, Anne F.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Barthel, Roland; Ten Broek, Jurriaan; Mai, Juliane; Samaniego, Luis; Attinger, Sabine

    2016-03-01

    The lack of comprehensive groundwater observations at regional and global scales has promoted the use of alternative proxies and indices to quantify and predict groundwater droughts. Among them, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is commonly used to characterize droughts in different compartments of the hydro-meteorological system. In this study, we explore the suitability of the SPI to characterize local- and regional-scale groundwater droughts using observations at more than 2000 groundwater wells in geologically different areas in Germany and the Netherlands. A multiscale evaluation of the SPI is performed using the station data and their corresponding 0.5° gridded estimates to analyze the local and regional behavior of groundwater droughts, respectively. The standardized anomalies in the groundwater heads (SGI) were correlated against SPIs obtained using different accumulation periods. The accumulation periods to achieve maximum correlation exhibited high spatial variability (ranges 3-36 months) at both scales, leading to the conclusion that an a priori selection of the accumulation period (for computing the SPI) would result in inadequate characterization of groundwater droughts. The application of the uniform accumulation periods over the entire domain significantly reduced the correlation between the SPI and SGI (≈ 21-66 %), indicating the limited applicability of the SPI as a proxy for groundwater droughts even at long accumulation times. Furthermore, the low scores of the hit rate (0.3-0.6) and a high false alarm ratio (0.4-0.7) at the majority of the wells and grid cells demonstrated the low reliability of groundwater drought predictions using the SPI. The findings of this study highlight the pitfalls of using the SPI as a groundwater drought indicator at both local and regional scales, and stress the need for more groundwater observations and accounting for regional hydrogeological characteristics in groundwater drought monitoring.

  7. Characterization of shallow groundwater quality in the Lower St. Johns River Basin: a case study

    Treesearch

    Ying Ouyang; Jia-En Zhang; Prem. Parajuli

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of groundwater quality allows the evaluation of groundwater pollution and provides information for better management of groundwater resources. This study characterized the shallow groundwater quality and its spatial and seasonal variations in the Lower St. Johns River Basin, Florida, USA, under agricultural, forest, wastewater, and residential land...

  8. Quality of Indexing in Online Data Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Howard D.; Griffith, Belver C.

    1987-01-01

    Describes study that compared and judged the quality of subject indexing in online bibliographic databases. Documents from medical behavioral science literature are used with terms drawn from MEDLINE, PsychINFO, BIOSIS, and Excerpta Medica. Comparative statistics are presented on how each database links related documents and discriminates among…

  9. Quality Indexing with Computer-Aided Lexicography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchan, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of computer-aided indexing activity focuses on examples from projects at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Standardization and quality in providing subject access to databases are considered; and computer-aided lexicography, including thesaurus construction, access vocabulary, definitions preparation,…

  10. Quality of Indexing in Online Data Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Howard D.; Griffith, Belver C.

    1987-01-01

    Describes study that compared and judged the quality of subject indexing in online bibliographic databases. Documents from medical behavioral science literature are used with terms drawn from MEDLINE, PsychINFO, BIOSIS, and Excerpta Medica. Comparative statistics are presented on how each database links related documents and discriminates among…

  11. Development of AHPDST Vulnerability Indexing Model for Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment Using Hydrogeophysical Derived Parameters and GIS Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogaji, K. A.

    2017-04-01

    Producing a bias-free vulnerability assessment map model is significantly needed for planning a scheme of groundwater quality protection. This study developed a GIS-based AHPDST vulnerability index model for producing groundwater vulnerability model map in the hard rock terrain, Nigeria by exploiting the potentials of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) data mining models. The acquired borehole and geophysical data in the study area were processed to derive five groundwater vulnerability conditioning factors (GVCFs), namely recharge rate, aquifer transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, transverse resistance and longitudinal conductance. The produced GVCFs' thematic maps were multi-criterially analyzed by employing the mechanisms of AHP and DST models to determine the normalized weight ( W) parameter for the GVCFs and mass function factors (MFFs) parameter for the GVCFs' thematic maps' class boundaries, respectively. Based on the application of the weighted linear average technique, the determined W and MFFs parameters were synthesized to develop groundwater vulnerability potential index (GVPI)-based AHPDST model algorithm. The developed model was applied to establish four GVPI mass/belief function indices. The estimates based on the applied GVPI belief function indices were processed in GIS environment to create prospective groundwater vulnerability potential index maps. The most representative of the resulting vulnerability maps (the GVPIBel map) was considered for producing the groundwater vulnerability potential zones (GVPZ) map for the area. The produced GVPZ map established 48 and 52% of the areal extent to be covered by the lows/moderate and highs vulnerable zones, respectively. The success and the prediction rates of the produced GVPZ map were determined using the relative operating characteristics technique to give 82.3 and 77.7%, respectively. The analyzed results reveal that the developed GVPI-based AHPDST model algorithm is

  12. Development of AHPDST Vulnerability Indexing Model for Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment Using Hydrogeophysical Derived Parameters and GIS Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogaji, K. A.

    2017-02-01

    Producing a bias-free vulnerability assessment map model is significantly needed for planning a scheme of groundwater quality protection. This study developed a GIS-based AHPDST vulnerability index model for producing groundwater vulnerability model map in the hard rock terrain, Nigeria by exploiting the potentials of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) data mining models. The acquired borehole and geophysical data in the study area were processed to derive five groundwater vulnerability conditioning factors (GVCFs), namely recharge rate, aquifer transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, transverse resistance and longitudinal conductance. The produced GVCFs' thematic maps were multi-criterially analyzed by employing the mechanisms of AHP and DST models to determine the normalized weight (W) parameter for the GVCFs and mass function factors (MFFs) parameter for the GVCFs' thematic maps' class boundaries, respectively. Based on the application of the weighted linear average technique, the determined W and MFFs parameters were synthesized to develop groundwater vulnerability potential index (GVPI)-based AHPDST model algorithm. The developed model was applied to establish four GVPI mass/belief function indices. The estimates based on the applied GVPI belief function indices were processed in GIS environment to create prospective groundwater vulnerability potential index maps. The most representative of the resulting vulnerability maps (the GVPIBel map) was considered for producing the groundwater vulnerability potential zones (GVPZ) map for the area. The produced GVPZ map established 48 and 52% of the areal extent to be covered by the lows/moderate and highs vulnerable zones, respectively. The success and the prediction rates of the produced GVPZ map were determined using the relative operating characteristics technique to give 82.3 and 77.7%, respectively. The analyzed results reveal that the developed GVPI-based AHPDST model algorithm is

  13. Correlations between quality indexes of chest compression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng-ling; Yan, Li; Huang, Su-fang; Bai, Xiang-jun

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a kind of emergency treatment for cardiopulmonary arrest, and chest compression is the most important and necessary part of CPR. The American Heart Association published the new Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care in 2010 and demanded for better performance of chest compression practice, especially in compression depth and rate. The current study was to explore the relationship of quality indexes of chest compression and to identify the key points in chest compression training and practice. METHODS: Totally 219 healthcare workers accepted chest compression training by using Laerdal ACLS advanced life support resuscitation model. The quality indexes of chest compression, including compression hands placement, compression rate, compression depth, and chest wall recoil as well as self-reported fatigue time were monitored by the Laerdal Computer Skills and Reporting System. RESULTS: The quality of chest compression was related to the gender of the compressor. The indexes in males, including self-reported fatigue time, the accuracy of compression depth and the compression rate, the accuracy of compression rate, were higher than those in females. However, the accuracy of chest recoil was higher in females than in males. The quality indexes of chest compression were correlated with each other. The self-reported fatigue time was related to all the indexes except the compression rate. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to offer CPR training courses regularly. In clinical practice, it might be better to change the practitioner before fatigue, especially for females or weak practitioners. In training projects, more attention should be paid to the control of compression rate, in order to delay the fatigue, guarantee enough compression depth and improve the quality of chest compression. PMID:25215093

  14. Assessment of groundwater quality and health risk in drinking water basin using GIS.

    PubMed

    Şener, Şehnaz; Şener, Erhan; Davraz, Ayşen

    2017-02-01

    Eğirdir Lake basin was selected as the study area because the lake is the second largest freshwater lake in Turkey and groundwater in the basin is used as drinking water. In the present study, 29 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters to determine the hydrochemical characteristics, groundwater quality, and human health risk in the study area. The dominant ions are Ca(2+), Mg(2+), HCO3(2-), and SO4(2). According to Gibbs plot, the predominant samples fall in the rock-water interaction field. A groundwater quality index (WQI) reveals that the majority of the samples falls under good to excellent category of water, suggesting that the groundwater is suitable for drinking and other domestic uses. The Ca-Mg-HCO3, Ca-HCO3, Ca-SO4-HCO3, and Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 water types are the dominant water types depending on the water-rock interaction in the investigation area. Risk of metals to human health was then evaluated using hazard quotients (HQ) by ingestion and dermal pathways for adults and children. It was indicated that As with HQ ingestion >1 was the most important pollutant leading to non-carcinogenic concerns. It can be concluded that the highest contributors to chronic risks were As and Cr for both adults and children.

  15. Factors influencing groundwater quality: towards an integrated management approach.

    PubMed

    De Giglio, O; Quaranta, A; Barbuti, G; Napoli, C; Caggiano, G; Montagna, M T

    2015-01-01

    The safety of groundwater resources is a serious issue, particularly when these resources are the main source of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial use in coastal areas. In Italy, 85% of the water used by the public is of underground origin. The aim of this report is to analyze the main factors that make groundwater vulnerable. Soil characteristics and filtration capacity can promote or hinder the diffusion of environmental contaminants. Global climate change influences the prevalence and degree of groundwater contamination. Anthropic pressure causes considerable exploitation of water resources, leading to reduced water availability and the progressive deterioration of water quality. Management of water quality will require a multidisciplinary, dynamic and practical approach focused on identifying the measures necessary to reduce contamination and mitigate the risks associated with the use of contaminated water resources.

  16. Ground-water quality in Douglas County, western Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, K.T.

    1989-01-01

    A 182% increase in population within the last 10 years in Douglas County, Nevada, has raised concerns by county officials as to the possible effects land development may have on groundwater quality. Most groundwater in Douglas County meets the State of Nevada drinking water standards. Of the 333 water samples used in this analysis, 6 equaled or were greater than the drinking water standards for sulfates, 44 for fluoride, 4 for dissolved solids, 5 for nitrate as nitrate, 12 for arsenic, 33 for iron, and 18 for manganese. Groundwater in the west-central, northern, and northeastern part of Carson Valley is influenced by geothermal water. Some areas in the county may have septic-tank effluent contaminating the groundwater. Temporal changes in most municipal wells showed no overall trend for dissolved-solids and nitrate concentrations spanning the years 1969-83. However, a municipal well in the Topaz Lake area has shown a general increases in the nitrate concentration from 1961 to 1984, but the concentration does not exceed the drinking-water standard. A future groundwater quality monitoring program in Douglas County would include periodic sampling of primary or heavily pumped wells, long-term trend wells, and supplemental wells. (Thacker-USGS)

  17. Groundwater quality and hydrogeochemical properties of Torbali Region, Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tayfur, Gokmen; Kirer, Tugba; Baba, Alper

    2008-11-01

    The large demand for drinking, irrigation and industrial water in the region of Torbali (Izmir, Turkey) is supplied from groundwater sources. Almost every factory and farm has private wells that are drilled without permission. These cause the depletion of groundwater and limiting the usage of groundwater. This study investigates spatial and temporal change in groundwater quality, relationships between quality parameters, and sources of contamination in Torbali region. For this purpose, samples were collected from 10 different sampling points chosen according to their geological and hydrogeological properties and location relative to factories, between October 2001 and July 2002. Various physical (pH, temperature, EC), chemical (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride, alkalinity, copper, chromium, cadmium, lead, zinc) and organic (nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, COD and cyanide) parameters were monitored. It was observed that the groundwater has bicarbonate alkalinity. Agricultural contamination was determined in the region, especially during the summer. Nitrite and ammonia concentrations were found to be above drinking water standard. Organic matter contamination was also investigated in the study area. COD concentrations were higher than the permissible limits during the summer months of the monitoring period.

  18. Groundwater quality in the Colorado River basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Four groundwater basins along the Colorado River make up one of the study areas being evaluated. The Colorado River study area is approximately 884 square miles (2,290 square kilometers) and includes the Needles, Palo Verde Mesa, Palo Verde Valley, and Yuma groundwater basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The Colorado River study area has an arid climate and is part of the Sonoran Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 3 inches (8 centimeters). Land use in the study area is approximately 47 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland), 47% agricultural, and 6% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban area is the city of Blythe (2010 population of 21,000). Groundwater in these basins is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay deposited by the Colorado River or derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in the Colorado River study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in the Colorado River basins are completed to depths between 230 and 460 feet (70 to 140 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 130 of 390 feet (39 to 119 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. The main source of recharge to the groundwater systems in the Needles, Palo Verde Mesa, and Palo Verde Valley basins is the Colorado River; in the Yuma basin, the main source of recharge is from

  19. Groundwater quality assessment for domestic and agriculture purposes in Puducherry region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, M.; Senthil Nathan, D.

    2017-03-01

    Totally about 174 groundwater samples have been collected during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season to study the suitability for domestic and agriculture purposes along the coastal aquifers of Puducherry region. Parameters such as pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), bicarbonate (HCO3), chloride (Cl) and sulfate (SO4) were analyzed to assess the suitability of groundwater for domestic purposes. Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), residual sodium bicarbonate (RSC), soluble sodium percentage (Na%), permeability index (PI) and chlorinity index were assessed for irrigation purposes. The higher concentration of ions such as Na, Ca, Cl and So4 indicates seawater intrusion, mineral dissolution, intense agricultural practices and improper sewage disposal. The level of EC, TDS and hardness in the water samples indicates that maximum of them are suitable for drinking and domestic purposes. The parameters such as SAR, Na%, PI, MAR and Chlorinity index indicates that majority of water sample are very good to moderately suitable for agriculture. In pre-monsoon, RSC of about 5.7% of samples was higher which when used for a longer time alter the soil properties and reduce crop production. Wilcox diagram suggests that water samples are of medium saline to low sodium type indicating that groundwater is suitable for irrigation. Temporal variation of groundwater quality shows significant increasing trend in EC, TDS and ions like Mg, K and Cl in the last decade, mainly due to anthropogenic activities with little geogenic impact in the quality of groundwater.

  20. Groundwater quality characterization around Jawaharnagar open dumpsite, Telangana State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unnisa, Syeda Azeem; Zainab Bi, Shaik

    2017-03-01

    In the present work groundwater samples were collected from ten different data points in and around Jawaharnagar municipal dumpsite, Telangana State Hyderabad city from May 2015 to May 2016 on monthly basis for groundwater quality characterization. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) value was determined using correlation matrix to identify the highly correlated and interrelated water quality standards issued by Bureau of Indian Standard (IS-10500:2012). It is found that most of the groundwater samples are above acceptable limits and are not potable. The chemical analysis results revealed that pH range from 7.2 to 7.8, TA 222 to 427 mg/l, TDS 512 to 854 mg/l, TH 420 to 584 mg/l, Calcium 115 to 140 mg/l, Magnesium 55 to 115 mg/l, Chlorides 202 to 290 mg/l, Sulphates 170 to 250 mg/l, Nitrates 6.5 to 11.3 mg/l, and Fluoride 0.9 to 1.7 mg/l. All samples showed higher range of physicochemical parameters except nitrate content which was lower than permissible limit. Highly positive correlation was observed between pH-TH (r = 0.5063), TA-Cl- (r = 0.5896), TDS-SO4 - (r = 0.5125), Mg2+-NO3 - (r = 0.5543) and Cl--F- (r = 0.7786). The groundwater samples in and around Jawaharnagar municipal dumpsite implies that groundwater samples were contaminated by municipal leachate migration from open dumpsite. The results revealed that the systematic calculations of correlation coefficient between water parameters and regression analysis provide qualitative and rapid monitoring of groundwater quality.

  1. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Landon, Matthew K.; Farrar, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile (2,590-square-kilometer) North San Francisco Bay study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in northern California in Marin, Napa, and Sonoma Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA North San Francisco Bay study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated groundwater quality in the primary aquifer systems. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 89 wells in 2004 and water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter referred to as primary aquifers) were defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the North San Francisco Bay study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifers; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifers of the North San Francisco Bay study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or

  2. Groundwater quality in Maharashtra, India: focus on nitrate pollution.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Indrani; Salunkhe, Abhaysinh; Rohra, Nanda; Kumar, Rakesh

    2011-10-01

    Groundwater Survey and Development Agency (GSDA), Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) and Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) have been carrying out groundwater quality monitoring at about 1407 monitoring locations in various districts of Maharashtra state in India. The groundwater quality data for pH, TDS, total hardness, sulphate, flouride and nitrate were compared with BIS: 10500:2004-2005 standards for drinking purpose. The results show that nitrate pollution is becoming more prevalent in groundwater of Maharashtra. Water quality data during the period 2007-2009 show that 544 locations out of 1407 locations exceeded 45 mgl(-1), the allowable NO3 level for drinking water. About 227 locations exceeded nitrate level beyond 100 mgl(-1). At 87 talukas in 23 districts of Maharashtra the NO3 levels exceeded the standard in all samples monitored during 2007-2009. The Buldana district with highest locations (27) had nitrate above 100 mgl(-1) followed by Amravati (24) and Akola (20) districts. At 7 talukas in 4 districts, fluoride was found above permissible limit of 1.5 mgl(-1), 100% of the time. 2 talukas in 2 districts of Maharashtra showed 100% non compliance of pH as per BIS standard of 6.5-8.5 mgl(-1). The districts having good to excellent quality of groundwater were Bhandara, Gondia, Kolhapur, Mumbai city, Mumbai Suburban, Nandurbar, Raigad, Ratnagiri, Satara, Sindhudurg, Thane and Washim. Vaijapur taluka in Aurangabad, Sinnar in Nashik and Kalambh taluka in Osmanabad have very poor water quality. Paithan taluka in Aurangabad, Shegaon taluka at Buldhana district, Amolner taluka at Jalgaon district and Jafrabad in Jalna district have water unsuitable for drinking.

  3. Development of indoor environmental index: Air quality index and thermal comfort index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, S. M.; Shakaff, A. Y. M.; Saad, A. R. M.; Yusof, A. M.; Andrew, A. M.; Zakaria, A.; Adom, A. H.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, index for indoor air quality (also known as IAQI) and thermal comfort index (TCI) have been developed. The IAQI was actually modified from previous outdoor air quality index (AQI) designed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). In order to measure the index, a real-time monitoring system to monitor indoor air quality level was developed. The proposed system consists of three parts: sensor module cloud, base station and service-oriented client. The sensor module cloud (SMC) contains collections of sensor modules that measures the air quality data and transmit the captured data to base station through wireless. Each sensor modules includes an integrated sensor array that can measure indoor air parameters like Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide, Oxygen, Volatile Organic Compound and Particulate Matter. Temperature and humidity were also being measured in order to determine comfort condition in indoor environment. The result from several experiments show that the system is able to measure the air quality presented in IAQI and TCI in many indoor environment settings like air-conditioner, chemical present and cigarette smoke that may impact the air quality. It also shows that the air quality are changing dramatically, thus real-time monitoring system is essential.

  4. Mapping groundwater quality distinguishing geogenic and anthropogenic contribution using NBL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Ducci, Daniela; Condesso de Melo, Maria Teresa; Parrone, Daniele; Sellerino, Mariangela; Ghergo, Stefano; Oliveira, Joana; Ribeiro, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Groundwaters are threatened by anthropic activities and pollution is interesting a large number of aquifers worldwide. Qualitative and quantitative monitoring is required to assess the status and track its evolution in time and space especially where anthropic pressures are stronger. Up to now, groundwater quality mapping has been performed separately from the assessment of its natural status, i.e. the definition of the natural background level of a particular element in a particular area or groundwater body. The natural background level (NBL) of a substance or element allows to distinguish anthropogenic pollution from contamination of natural origin in a population of groundwater samples. NBLs are the result of different atmospheric, geological, chemical and biological interaction processes during groundwater infiltration and circulation. There is an increasing need for the water managers to have sound indications on good quality groundwater exploitation. Indeed the extension of a groundwater body is often very large, in the order of tens or hundreds of square km. How to select a proper location for good quality groundwater abstraction is often limited to a question of facility for drilling (access, roads, authorizations, etc.) or at the most related to quantitative aspects driven by geophysical exploration (the most promising from a transmissibility point of view). So how to give indications to the administrators and water managers about the exploitation of good quality drinking water? In the case of anthropic contamination, how to define which area is to be restored and to which threshold (e.g. background level) should the concentration be lowered through the restoration measures? In the framework of a common project between research institutions in Italy (funded by CNR) and Portugal (funded by FCT), our objective is to establish a methodology aiming at merging together 1) the evaluation of NBL and 2) the need to take into account the drinking water standards

  5. Assessment and Management of Groundwater Used in Aquacultural Fishponds Based on the Spatial Variability of Groundwater Quality and Quantity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C.-P.; Jang, C.-S.; Wang, S.-W.

    2012-04-01

    Aquaculture is a general landscape in western and southwestern coastal areas, Taiwan. Aquaculture industries frequently require the huge quantity of water resources. However, surface water resources are limited in the regions. Therefore, fishers abundantly pump groundwater to cultivate fish and shellfish, resulting in substantial decreases in groundwater levels and the occurrence of seawater intrusion over several decades. . To reduce adverse effects on fish growth and potential land subsidence due to pumping, this work combined the spatial variability of groundwater quality and quantity parameters to assess zones of suitable groundwater used in aquacultural fishponds in the Pingtung plain, Taiwan. First, according to an aquacultural water quality standard in Taiwan, two pollutants in groundwater - manganese and ammonium-nitrogen - were considered. Sequential indicator simulation (SIS) was adopted to characterize realizations of the pollutants and to probabilistically determine four roles in the groundwater utilization ratio (UR) - UR<0.1 (strictly limited), 0.1≦UR<0.5 (minor), 0.5≦UR<1 (major) and UR=1 (completely used). A safe groundwater UR was determined from the two pollutants based on dominant estimated probabilities. Then, SIS also was used to grade transmissivity fields representing the pumping capacity of aquifers. Finally, recommended combinations of different levels of groundwater quality and quantity in fishponds were spatially delineated based on estimated probabilities and provided decision makers with detailed information to wisely select a reliable scheme of groundwater management. The analyzed results indicate that the recommended pumping zones for aquaculture are mainly distributed in the northeastern, southwestern and partial southeastern aquifers. The factor of groundwater quantity is more important than that of groundwater quality for aquaculture in this plain. Therefore, a development and management scheme of groundwater resources in

  6. Evaluation of index-overlay methods for groundwater vulnerability and risk assessment in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sangam; Kafle, Ranjana; Pandey, Vishnu Prasad

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating three index-overlay methods of vulnerability assessment (i.e., DRASTIC, GOD, and SI) for estimating risk to pollution of shallow groundwater aquifer in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The Groundwater Risk Assessment Model (GRAM) model was used to compute the risk to groundwater pollution. Results showed that DRASTIC and SI methods are comparable for vulnerability assessment as both methods delineate around 80% of the groundwater basin area under high vulnerable zone. From the perspective of risk to pollution results, DRASTIC and GOD methods are comparable. Nevertheless, all the three methods estimate that at least 60% of the groundwater basin is under moderate risk to NO3-N pollution, which goes up to 75% if DRASTIC or GOD-based vulnerabilities are considered as exposure pathways. Finally, based on strength and significance of correlation between the estimated risk and observed NO3-N concentrations, it was found that SI method is a better-suited one to assess the vulnerability and risk to groundwater pollution in the study area. Findings from this study are useful to design strategies and actions aimed to prevent nitrate pollution in groundwater of Kathmandu Valley in Nepal.

  7. Index-based groundwater vulnerability mapping models using hydrogeological settings: A critical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Prashant; Bansod, Baban K.S.; Debnath, Sanjit K.; Thakur, Praveen Kumar; Ghanshyam, C.

    2015-02-15

    Groundwater vulnerability maps are useful for decision making in land use planning and water resource management. This paper reviews the various groundwater vulnerability assessment models developed across the world. Each model has been evaluated in terms of its pros and cons and the environmental conditions of its application. The paper further discusses the validation techniques used for the generated vulnerability maps by various models. Implicit challenges associated with the development of the groundwater vulnerability assessment models have also been identified with scientific considerations to the parameter relations and their selections. - Highlights: • Various index-based groundwater vulnerability assessment models have been discussed. • A comparative analysis of the models and its applicability in different hydrogeological settings has been discussed. • Research problems of underlying vulnerability assessment models are also reported in this review paper.

  8. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Waste Management Area U: First Determination

    SciTech Connect

    FN Hodges; CJ Chou

    2000-08-04

    Waste Management Area U (TWA U) is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The area includes the U Tank Farm, which contains 16 single-shell tanks and their ancillary equipment and waste systems. WMA U is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as stipulated in 40 CFR Part 265, Subpart F, which is incorporated into the Washington State dangerous waste regulations (WAC 173-303400) by reference. Groundwater monitoring at WMA U has been guided by an interim status indicator evaluation program. As a result of changes in the direction of groundwater flow, background values for the WMA have been recalculated several times during its monitoring history. The most recent recalculation revealed that one of the indicator parameters, specific conductance, exceeded its background value in downgradient well 299-W19-41. This triggered a change from detection monitoring to a groundwater quality assessment program. The major contributors to the higher specific conductance are nonhazardous constituents, such as bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium and sulfate. Chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 are present and are increasing; however, they are significantly below their drinking water standards. The objective of this study is to determine whether the increased concentrations of chromium, nitrate, and technetium-99 in groundwater are from WMA U or from an upgradient source. Interpretation of groundwater monitoring data indicates that both the nonhazardous constituents causing elevated specific conductance in groundwater and the tank waste constituents present in groundwater at the WMA are a result of surface water infiltration in the southern portion of the WMA. There is evidence that both upgradient and WMA sources contribute to the nitrate concentrations that were detected. There is no indication of an upgradient source for the chromium and technetium-99 that was detected. Therefore, a source of contamination appears to

  9. Groundwater age for identification of baseline groundwater quality and impacts of land-use intensification - The National Groundwater Monitoring Programme of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Uwe; Daughney, Christopher J.

    2012-08-01

    SummaryWe identified natural baseline groundwater quality and impacts caused by land use intensification by relating groundwater chemistry with water age. Tritium, the most direct tracer for groundwater dating, including the time of water passage through the unsaturated zone, was overwhelmed over the recent decades by contamination from bomb-tritium from nuclear weapons testing in the early 1960s. In the Southern Hemisphere, this situation has changed now with the fading of the bomb-tritium, and tritium has become a tool for accurate groundwater dating. Tritium dating will become efficient also in the Northern Hemisphere over the next decade. Plotting hydrochemistry and field parameters versus groundwater age allowed us to identify those parameters that have increasing concentrations with age and are therefore from geological sources. These indicators for natural groundwater evolution are: Na, HCO3, SiO2, F, PO4, the redox-sensitive elements and compounds Fe, Mn, NH4, CH4, and pH and conductivity. In young groundwater that was recharged after the intensification of agriculture, nitrate, sulphate, CFC-11 and CFC-12, and pesticides are the most representative indicators for the impact of land-use intensification on groundwater quality, with 66% of the sites showing such an impact. Elevated concentrations of nitrate in oxic groundwater allowed us to reconstruct the timing and magnitude of the impact of land-use intensification on groundwater which in New Zealand occurred in two stages. Old pristine groundwater reflects the natural baseline quality. A transition to slightly elevated concentration due to low-intensity land-use was observed in groundwater recharged since around 1880. A sharp increase in nitrate and other agrochemicals due to high-intensity agriculture was observed in groundwater recharged since 1955. The threshold concentrations that distinguish natural baseline quality water from low-intensity land-use water, and low-intensity from high intensity land

  10. Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes using hydrochemical studies in Malwa region, southwestern part of Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Tajinder; Bhardwaj, Renu; Arora, Saroj

    2016-10-01

    Deterioration of groundwater quality due to anthropogenic activities is increasing at an alarming rate in most parts of the Punjab, but limited work has been carried out on groundwater quality and monitoring. This paper highlights the groundwater quality and compares its suitability for drinking and irrigation purpose in Malwa region, a southwestern part of Punjab. The Malwa region makes up the most cultivated area of Punjab with high consumption of pesticides and fertilizers. Twenty-four water samples representing groundwater sources were collected and analyzed for almost all major cations, anions and other physicochemical parameters. Analytical results of physicochemical analysis showed majority of the samples above the permissible limits of the Indian standards. The groundwater of the study area was very hard and the relative abundance of major cations and anions was Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ and HCO3 - > SO4 2- > Cl-. Fluoride content was higher than permissible limit in 75 % of the samples. The mean concentration of arsenic in groundwater was 9.37 and 11.01µg/L during summer and winter season, respectively. The parameters like sodium adsorption ratio and sodium percentage (Na%) revealed good quality of groundwater for irrigation purposes, whereas magnesium ratio and corrosivity ratio values showed that water is not suitable for agriculture and domestic use. The dominant hydrochemical facies of groundwater was Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-SO4-Cl. Chloro alkaline indices 1 and 2 indicated that reverse ion exchange is dominant in the region. The samples fall in rock dominance and evaporation dominance fields as indicated by Gibbs diagram. The saturation index shows that all the water samples were supersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals. This work thus concludes that groundwater in the study area is chemically unsuitable for domestic and agricultural uses. It is recommended to carry out a continuous water quality monitoring program and development of effective

  11. Deterioration of coastal groundwater quality in Island and mainland regions of Ramanathapuram District, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Sivasankar, Venkataramann; Ramachandramoorthy, Thiagarajan; Chandramohan, A

    2013-01-01

    A study was carried out in the Island and mainland regions of Ramanathapuram District to characterize the physico-chemical characteristics of 87 groundwater samples in Island and 112 groundwater samples in mainland which include pH, EC, TDS, salinity, total alkalinity, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total hardness, chloride and fluoride. Heavy inorganic load in majority of the groundwater samples has been estimated due to the salinity, TDS, TH and chloride beyond the threshold level which substantiates the percolation of sea water into the freshwater confined zones. Although the groundwater sources are available in plenty, the scarcity of potable water is most prevalent in this coastal area. The Water Quality Index (WQI) and Langeleir Saturation Index (LSI) have also been calculated to know the potable and corrosive/incrusting nature of the water samples. The statistical tools such as principal component analysis, box plots and correlation matrix have also been used to explain the influence of different physico-chemical parameters with respect to one another among the groundwater samples. The percentage of groundwater samples in mainland was more than that in Island with respect to the acceptable limit of WHO drinking standard, especially in TDS, CH, TH and chloride but the converse is observed in the case of fluoride. About 8% of the mainland aquifers and 42% of Island aquifers were identified to have fluoride greater than 1.5 mg/l. The signature of salt-water intrusion is observed from the ratio of Cl/CO(3)(2-) + HCO(3) and TA/TH. A proper management plan to cater potable water to the immediate needs of the people is to be envisaged.

  12. Groundwater-Quality Assessment, Pike County, Pennsylvania, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Pike County, a 545 square-mile area in northeastern Pennsylvania, has experienced the largest relative population growth of any county in the state from 1990 to 2000 and its population is projected to grow substantially through 2025. This growing population may result in added dependence and stresses on water resources, including the potential to reduce the quantity and degrade the quality of groundwater and associated stream base flow with changing land use. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in the county and is derived primarily from fractured-rock aquifers (shales, siltstones, and sandstones) and some unconsolidated glacial deposits that are recharged locally from precipitation. The principal land uses in the county as of 2005 were public, residential, agricultural, hunt club/private recreational, roads, and commercial. The public lands cover a third of the county and include national park, state park, and other state lands, much of which are forested. Individual on-site wells and wastewater disposal are common in many residential areas. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pike County Conservation District, began a study to provide current information on groundwater quality throughout the county that will be helpful for water-resource planning. The countywide reconnaissance assessment of groundwater quality documents current conditions with existing land uses and may serve as a baseline of groundwater quality for future comparison. Twenty wells were sampled in 2007 throughout Pike County to represent groundwater quality in the principal land uses (commercial, high-density and moderate-density residential with on-site wastewater disposal, residential in a sewered area, pre-development, and undeveloped) and geologic units (five fractured-rock aquifers and one glacial unconsolidated aquifer). Analyses selected for the groundwater samples were intended to identify naturally occurring constituents from the aquifer or

  13. Groundwater quality in the Indian Wells Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Indian Wells Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Indian Wells study area is approximately 600 square miles (1,554 square kilometers) and includes the Indian Wells Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Indian Wells Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lake beds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 97.0 percent (%) natural, 0.4% agricultural, and 2.6% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Ridgecrest (2010 population of 28,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from the Sierra Nevada to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and to the west and from the other surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada and direct infiltration from irrigation and septic systems. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells and evapotranspiration near the dry lakebeds. The primary aquifers in the Indian Wells study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in

  14. Groundwater quality in West Virginia, 1993-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Kozar, Mark D.; White, Jeremy S.; Paybins, Katherine S.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 42 percent of all West Virginians rely on groundwater for their domestic water supply. However, prior to 2008, the quality of the West Virginia’s groundwater resource was largely unknown. The need for a statewide assessment of groundwater quality prompted the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP), Division of Water and Waste Management, to develop an ambient groundwater-quality monitoring program. The USGS West Virginia Water Science Center sampled 300 wells, of which 80 percent were public-supply wells, over a 10-year period, 1999–2008. Sites for this statewide ambient groundwater-quality monitoring program were selected to provide wide areal coverage and to represent a variety of environmental settings. The resulting 300 samples were supplemented with data from a related monitoring network of 24 wells and springs. All samples were analyzed for field measurements (water temperature, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), major ions, trace elements, nutrients, volatile organic compounds, fecal indicator bacteria, and radon-222. Sub-sets of samples were analyzed for pesticides or semi-volatile organic compounds; site selection was based on local land use. Samples were grouped for comparison by geologic age of the aquifer, Groups included Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Pennsylvanian, Permian, and Quaternary aquifers. A comparison of samples indicated that geologic age of the aquifer was the largest contributor to variability in groundwater quality. This study did not attempt to characterize drinking water provided through public water systems. All samples were of raw, untreated groundwater. Drinking-water criteria apply to water that is served to the public, not to raw water. However, drinking water criteria, including U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL), non-enforceable secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL

  15. Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Bear Creek hydrogeologic regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1994 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant. These sites lie in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the Y-12 Plant within the boundaries of the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring. The Environmental Management Department manages the groundwater monitoring activities under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to protect local groundwater resources. The annual GWQR for the Bear Creek Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, summarizes the status and findings of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities.

  16. Groundwater quality assessment using geoelectrical and geochemical approaches: case study of Abi area, southeastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebong, Ebong D.; Akpan, Anthony E.; Emeka, Chimezie N.; Urang, Job G.

    2016-06-01

    The electrical resistivity technique which involved the Schlumberger depth sounding method and geochemical analyses of water samples collected from boreholes was used to investigate the suitability of groundwater aquifers in Abi for drinking and irrigation purposes. Fifty randomly located electrical resistivity data were collected, modeled, and interpreted after calibration with lithologic logs. Ten borehole water samples were collected and analysed to determine anion, cation concentrations and some physical and chemical parameters, such as water colour, temperature, total dissolved solids, and electrical conductivity. The results show that the lithostratigraphy of the study area is composed of sands, sandstones (fractured, consolidated and loosed), siltstones, shales (compacted and fractured) of the Asu River Group, Eze-Aku Formation which comprises the aquifer units, and the Nkporo Shale Formation. The aquifer conduits are known to be rich in silicate minerals, and the groundwater samples in some locations show a significant amount of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+. These cations balanced the consumption of H+ during the hydrolytic alteration of silicate minerals. The geochemical analysis of groundwater samples revealed dominant calcium-magnesium-carbonate-bicarbonate water facies. Irrigation water quality parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio, percentage of sodium, and permeability index, were calculated based on the physico-chemical analyses. The groundwater quality was observed to be influenced by the interaction of some geologic processes but was classified to be good to excellent, indicating its suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes.

  17. Groundwater quality assessment using geoelectrical and geochemical approaches: case study of Abi area, southeastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebong, Ebong D.; Akpan, Anthony E.; Emeka, Chimezie N.; Urang, Job G.

    2017-09-01

    The electrical resistivity technique which involved the Schlumberger depth sounding method and geochemical analyses of water samples collected from boreholes was used to investigate the suitability of groundwater aquifers in Abi for drinking and irrigation purposes. Fifty randomly located electrical resistivity data were collected, modeled, and interpreted after calibration with lithologic logs. Ten borehole water samples were collected and analysed to determine anion, cation concentrations and some physical and chemical parameters, such as water colour, temperature, total dissolved solids, and electrical conductivity. The results show that the lithostratigraphy of the study area is composed of sands, sandstones (fractured, consolidated and loosed), siltstones, shales (compacted and fractured) of the Asu River Group, Eze-Aku Formation which comprises the aquifer units, and the Nkporo Shale Formation. The aquifer conduits are known to be rich in silicate minerals, and the groundwater samples in some locations show a significant amount of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+. These cations balanced the consumption of H+ during the hydrolytic alteration of silicate minerals. The geochemical analysis of groundwater samples revealed dominant calcium-magnesium-carbonate-bicarbonate water facies. Irrigation water quality parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio, percentage of sodium, and permeability index, were calculated based on the physico-chemical analyses. The groundwater quality was observed to be influenced by the interaction of some geologic processes but was classified to be good to excellent, indicating its suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes.

  18. Identification and description of potential ground-water quality monitoring wells in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seaber, P.R.; Thagard, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a survey of existing wells in Florida that meet the following criteria are presented: (1) well location is known , (2) principal aquifer is known, (3) depth of well is known, (4) well casing depth is known, (5) well water had been analyzed between 1970 and 1982, and (6) well data are stored in the U.S. Geological Survey 's (USGS) computer files. Information for more than 20,000 wells in Florida were stored in the USGS Master Water Data Index of the National Water Data Exchange and in the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System 's Groundwater Site Inventory computerized files in 1982. Wells in these computer files that had been sampled for groundwater quality before November 1982 in Florida number 13,739; 1,846 of these wells met the above criteria and are the potential (or candidate) groundwater quality monitoring wells included in this report. The distribution by principal aquifer of the 1,846 wells identified as potential groundwater quality monitoring wells is as follows: 1,022 tap the Floridan aquifer system, 114 tap the intermediate aquifers, 232 tap the surficial aquifers, 246 tap the Biscayne aquifer, and 232 tap the sand-and-gravel aquifer. These wells are located in 59 of Florida 's 67 counties. This report presents the station descriptions, which include location , site characteristics, period of record, and the type and frequency of chemical water quality data collected for each well. The 1,846 well locations are plotted on 14 USGS 1:250,000 scale, 1 degree by 2 degree, quadrangle maps. This relatively large number of potential (or candidate) monitoring wells, geographically and geohydrologically dispersed, provides a basis for a future groundwater quality monitoring network and computerized data base for Florida. There is a large variety of water quality determinations available from these wells, both areally and temporally. Future sampling of these wells would permit analyses of time and areal trends for selected water quality

  19. Effects of a semi-formal urban settlement on groundwater quality. Epworth (Zimbabwe): Case study and groundwater quality zoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingoni, Emmanuel; Love, David; Magadza, Chris; Moyce, William; Musiwa, Kudzai

    Rapid urbanisation and lack of low cost accommodation in the City of Harare, Zimbabwe, led to a lot of people settling (formally or otherwise) on previously cultivated land in Epworth, south-east of the city. Groundwater quality in different parts of Epworth, a semi-formal settlement in Zimbabwe, was investigated. Water samples for water quality analysis were collected from 10 shallow boreholes and 20 shallow wells across the settlement. Results showed significantly elevated levels of nitrates and coliform bacteria in most parts of the settlement. Levels of coliforms were highest in the old parts of the settlement (>10,000 cfu). High nitrate levels (20-30 mg/l) can be related to more densely settled areas, with a higher density of pit latrines. The groundwater quality generally decreased downflow (to the south-east). Na, Zn, Cu, Co, Fe, PO 4 were also determined, of which only iron showed substantially high levels. Groundwater quality results were used to delineate parts of the settlement into water use zones. Three broad zones were defined: Zone 1 (water drinkable after boiling), Zone 2 (water for agricultural use only), and Zone 3 (water unsuitable for domestic or agricultural purposes). The results also showed that most parts of the settlement have no safe groundwater for human consumption and Zone 1 could be faced with high nitrate levels in future. It is too late to prevent contamination of groundwater in this settlement. As a cost-effective measure to reduce health risk, the local authority could consider the provision of a limited water supply, via communal taps, starting in those areas in Zones 2 and 3 except for the south-east where there area already communal taps. A health education campaign on the risks of drinking polluted groundwater in this settlement is also necessary. The development of a sewage system is an alternative although it is expensive with the current situation. Furthermore, although a proper sewage reticulation system would prevent

  20. Estimating impacts of land use on groundwater quality using trilinear analysis

    Treesearch

    Ying Ouyang; Jia-En Zhang; Lihua. Cui

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater is connected to the landscape above and is thus affected by the overlaying land uses. This study evaluated the impacts of land uses upon groundwater quality using trilinear analysis. Trilinear analysis is a display of experimental data in a triangular graph. Groundwater quality data collected from agricultural, septic tank, forest, and wastewater land uses...

  1. Groundwater quality in the San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    More than 40 percent of California's drinking water is from groundwater. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province (hereinafter referred to as San Diego) is one of the study units being evaluated. The San Diego study unit is approximately 3,900 square miles and consists of the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and 12 other alluvial basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The study unit also consists of all areas outside defined groundwater basins that are within 3 kilometers of a public-supply well. The study unit was separated, based primarily on hydrogeologic settings, into four study areas: Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, Alluvial Basins, and Hard Rock (Wright and others, 2005). The sampling density for the Hard Rock study area, which consists of areas outside of groundwater basins, was much lower than for the other study areas. Consequently, aquifer proportions for the Hard Rock study area are not used to calculate the aquifer proportions shown by the pie charts. An assessment of groundwater quality for the Hard Rock study area can be found in Wright and Belitz, 2011. The temperatures in the coastal part of the study unit are mild with dry summers, moist winters, and an average annual rainfall of about 10 inches. The temperatures in the mountainous eastern part of the study unit are cooler than in the coastal part, with an annual precipitation of about 45 inches that occurs mostly in the winter. The primary aquifers consist of Quaternary-age alluvium and weathered bedrock in the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and Alluvial Basins study areas, whereas in the Hard Rock study area the primary aquifers consist mainly of fractured and

  2. Effect of Ditching, Fertilization, and Herbicide Application on Groundwater Levels and Groundwater Quality in a Flatwood Spodosol

    Treesearch

    D.S. Segal; D.G. Neary; G.R. Best; J.L. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Groundwater levels and associated water quality parameters were studied in a young slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) plantation following ditching, fertilization, and herbicide application. Drainage ditches surrounding each watershed significantly lowered groundwater levels up to 45 m from the ditch for mean and high water table conditions....

  3. Groundwater-quality characteristics for the Wyoming Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Network, November 2009 through September 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boughton, Gregory K.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from 146 shallow (less than or equal to 500 feet deep) wells for the Wyoming Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Network, from November 2009 through September 2012. Groundwater samples were analyzed for physical characteristics, major ions and dissolved solids, trace elements, nutrients and dissolved organic carbon, uranium, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, volatile organic compounds, and coliform bacteria. Selected samples also were analyzed for gross alpha radioactivity, gross beta radioactivity, radon, tritium, gasoline range organics, diesel range organics, dissolved hydrocarbon gases (methane, ethene, and ethane), and wastewater compounds. Water-quality measurements and concentrations in some samples exceeded numerous U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water standards. Physical characteristics and constituents that exceeded EPA Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) in some samples were arsenic, selenium, nitrite, nitrate, gross alpha activity, and uranium. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli in some samples exceeded EPA Maximum Contaminant Level Goals. Measurements of pH and turbidity and concentrations of chloride, sulfate, fluoride, dissolved solids, aluminum, iron, and manganese exceeded EPA Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels in some samples. Radon concentrations in some samples exceeded the alternative MCL proposed by the EPA. Molybdenum and boron concentrations in some samples exceeded EPA Health Advisory Levels. Water-quality measurements and concentrations also exceeded numerous Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ) groundwater standards. Physical characteristics and constituents that exceeded WDEQ Class I domestic groundwater standards in some samples were measurements of pH and concentrations of chloride, sulfate, dissolved solids, iron, manganese, boron, selenium, nitrite, and nitrate. Measurements of pH and concentrations of chloride, sulfate, dissolved solids, aluminum, iron

  4. Assessing groundwater quality for irrigation using indicator kriging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbari, Masoomeh; Amiri, Meysam; Motlagh, Masoud Bahraini

    2016-11-01

    One of the key parameters influencing sprinkler irrigation performance is water quality. In this study, the spatial variability of groundwater quality parameters (EC, SAR, Na+, Cl-, HCO3 - and pH) was investigated by geostatistical methods and the most suitable areas for implementation of sprinkler irrigation systems in terms of water quality are determined. The study was performed in Fasa county of Fars province using 91 water samples. Results indicated that all parameters are moderately to strongly spatially correlated over the study area. The spatial distribution of pH and HCO3 - was mapped using ordinary kriging. The probability of concentrations of EC, SAR, Na+ and Cl- exceeding a threshold limit in groundwater was obtained using indicator kriging (IK). The experimental indicator semivariograms were often fitted well by a spherical model for SAR, EC, Na+ and Cl-. For HCO3 - and pH, an exponential model was fitted to the experimental semivariograms. Probability maps showed that the risk of EC, SAR, Na+ and Cl- exceeding the given critical threshold is higher in lower half of the study area. The most proper agricultural lands for sprinkler irrigation implementation were identified by evaluating all probability maps. The suitable areas for sprinkler irrigation design were determined to be 25,240 hectares, which is about 34 percent of total agricultural lands and are located in northern and eastern parts. Overall the results of this study showed that IK is an appropriate approach for risk assessment of groundwater pollution, which is useful for a proper groundwater resources management.

  5. Groundwater quality in the Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy; Burton, Carmen; Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-20

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Bear Valley and Lake Arrowhead Watershed study areas in southern California compose one of the study units being evaluated.

  6. Groundwater quality in the Upper Santa Ana Watershed study unit, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Upper Santa Ana Watershed is one of the study units being evaluated.

  7. Using the conceptual site model approach to characterize groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Shephard, E.; Glucksberg, N.; Walter, N.

    2007-07-01

    To understand groundwater quality, the first step is to develop a conceptual site model (CSM) that describes the site history, describes the geology and the hydrogeology of the site, identifies potential release areas or sources, and evaluates the fate and transport of site related compounds. After the physical site setting is understood and potential release areas are identified, appropriate and representative groundwater monitoring wells may be used to evaluate groundwater quality at a site and provide a network to assess impacts from potential future releases. To develop the CSM, the first step to understand the different requirements from each of the regulatory stakeholders. Each regulatory agency may have different approaches to site characterization and closure (i.e., different groundwater and soil remediation criteria). For example, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state governments have published guidance documents that proscribe the required steps and information needed to develop a CSM. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has a proscriptive model for the Historical Site Assessment under the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM), and contains requirements for developing a conceptual site model in NUREG 1757. Federal and state agencies may also have different closure criteria for potential contaminants of concern. Understanding these differences before starting a groundwater monitoring program is important because the minimum detectable activity (MDA), lowest limit detection (LLD), and sample quantitation limit (SQL) must be low enough so that data may be evaluated under each of the programs. After a Historical Site Assessment is completed a work plan is developed and executed to not only collect physical data that describes the geology and hydrogeology, but to also characterize the soil, groundwater, sediments, and surface water quality of each potentially impacted areas. Although the primary

  8. Characterization of Surface Water and Groundwater Quality in the Lower Tano River Basin Using Statistical and Isotopic Approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edjah, Adwoba; Stenni, Barbara; Cozzi, Giulio; Turetta, Clara; Dreossi, Giuliano; Tetteh Akiti, Thomas; Yidana, Sandow

    2017-04-01

    Adwoba Kua- Manza Edjaha, Barbara Stennib,c,Giuliano Dreossib, Giulio Cozzic, Clara Turetta c,T.T Akitid ,Sandow Yidanae a,eDepartment of Earth Science, University of Ghana Legon, Ghana West Africa bDepartment of Enviromental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, Ca Foscari University of Venice, Italy cInstitute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes, CNR, Venice, Italy dDepartment of Nuclear Application and Techniques, Graduate School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences University of Ghana Legon This research is part of a PhD research work "Hydrogeological Assessment of the Lower Tano river basin for sustainable economic usage, Ghana, West - Africa". In this study, the researcher investigated surface water and groundwater quality in the Lower Tano river basin. This assessment was based on some selected sampling sites associated with mining activities, and the development of oil and gas. Statistical approach was applied to characterize the quality of surface water and groundwater. Also, water stable isotopes, which is a natural tracer of the hydrological cycle was used to investigate the origin of groundwater recharge in the basin. The study revealed that Pb and Ni values of the surface water and groundwater samples exceeded the WHO standards for drinking water. In addition, water quality index (WQI), based on physicochemical parameters(EC, TDS, pH) and major ions(Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, HCO3-,NO3-, CL-, SO42-, K+) exhibited good quality water for 60% of the sampled surface water and groundwater. Other statistical techniques, such as Heavy metal pollution index (HPI), degree of contamination (Cd), and heavy metal evaluation index (HEI), based on trace element parameters in the water samples, reveal that 90% of the surface water and groundwater samples belong to high level of pollution. Principal component analysis (PCA) also suggests that the water quality in the basin is likely affected by rock - water interaction and anthropogenic activities (sea water intrusion). This

  9. Ground-water quality in east-central Idaho valleys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parliman, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    From May through November 1978, water quality, geologic, and hydrologic data were collected for 108 wells in the Lemhi, Pahsimeroi, Salman River (Stanley to Salmon), Big Lost River, and Little Lost River valleys in east-central Idaho. Data were assembled to define, on a reconnaissance level, water-quality conditions in major aquifers and to develop an understanding of factors that affected conditions in 1978 and could affect future ground-water quality. Water-quality characteristics determined include specific conductance, pH, water temperature, major dissolved cations, major dissolved anions, and coliform bacteria. Concentrations of hardness, nitrite plus nitrate, coliform bacteria, dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, fluoride , iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium or bicarbonate exceed public drinking water regulation limits or were anomalously high in some water samples. Highly mineralized ground water probably is due to the natural composition of the aquifers and not to surface contamination. Concentrations of coliform bacteria that exceed public drinking water limits and anomalously high dissolved nitrite-plus-nitrite concentrations are from 15- to 20-year old irrigation wells in heavily irrigated or more densely populated areas of the valleys. Ground-water quality and quantity in most of the study area are sufficient to meet current (1978) population and economic demands. Ground water in all valleys is characterized by significant concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate plus carbonate ions. Variations in the general trend of ground-water composition (especially in the Lemhi Valley) probably are most directly related to variability in aquifer lithology and proximity of sampling site to source of recharge. (USGS)

  10. Groundwater quality assessment for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant. 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste- management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR), which is one of the three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring and remediation (Figure 2). The Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Division of the Y-12 Plant Environmental Management Department manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP).

  11. Hydrogeology and groundwater quality of Highlands County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spechler, Rick M.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater is the main source of water supply in Highlands County, Florida. As the demand for water in the county increases, additional information about local groundwater resources is needed to manage and develop the water supply effectively. To address the need for additional data, a study was conducted to evaluate the hydrogeology and groundwater quality of Highlands County. Total groundwater use in Highlands County has increased steadily since 1965. Total groundwater withdrawals increased from about 37 million gallons per day in 1965 to about 107 million gallons per day in 2005. Much of this increase in water use is related to agricultural activities, especially citrus cultivation, which increased more than 300 percent from 1965 to 2005. Highlands County is underlain by three principal hydrogeologic units. The uppermost water-bearing unit is the surficial aquifer, which is underlain by the intermediate aquifer system/intermediate confining unit. The lowermost hydrogeologic unit is the Floridan aquifer system, which consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, as many as three middle confining units, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. The surficial aquifer consists primarily of fine-to-medium grained quartz sand with varying amounts of clay and silt. The aquifer system is unconfined and underlies the entire county. The thickness of the surficial aquifer is highly variable, ranging from less than 50 to more than 300 feet. Groundwater in the surficial aquifer is recharged primarily by precipitation, but also by septic tanks, irrigation from wells, seepage from lakes and streams, and the lateral groundwater inflow from adjacent areas. The intermediate aquifer system/intermediate confining unit acts as a confining layer (except where breached by sinkholes) that restricts the vertical movement of water between the surficial aquifer and the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. The sediments have varying degrees of permeability and consist of permeable limestone, dolostone, or

  12. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Devic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

    2014-01-15

    Various chemometric techniques were used to analyze the quality of groundwater data sets. Seventeen water quality parameters: the cations Na, K, Ca, Mg, the anions Cl, SO4, NO3, HCO3 and nine trace elements Pb, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cr were measured at 66 different key sampling sites in ten representative areas (low land-Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina and central Serbia) for the summer period of 2009. HCA grouped the sample sites into four clusters based on the similarities of the characteristics of the groundwater quality. DA showed two parameters, HCO3 and Zn, affording more than 90% correct assignments in the spatial analysis of four/three different regions in Serbia. Factor analysis was applied on the log-transformed data sets and allowed the identification of a reduced number of factors with hydrochemical meaning. The results showed severe pollution with Mn, As, NO3, Ni, Pb whereby anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The pollution comes from both scattered point sources (industrial and urban effluent) and diffuse source agricultural activity. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption; the water quality belongs to class III/IV (contaminated). The Fe anomalies (7.1mg/L) in the water from the Vetrnica site can be attributed to natural sources, such as the dissolution of rock masses and rock fragments. The serious groundwater contamination with As (25.7-137.8 μg/L) in the area of Banat (Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina) and a sample No. 9 at the Great Morava River requires urgent attention. © 2013.

  13. Persistent Urban Influence on Surface Water Quality via Impacted Groundwater.

    PubMed

    Gabor, Rachel S; Hall, Steven J; Eiriksson, David P; Jameel, Yusuf; Millington, Mallory; Stout, Trinity; Barnes, Michelle L; Gelderloos, Andrew; Tennant, Hyrum; Bowen, Gabriel J; Neilson, Bethany T; Brooks, Paul D

    2017-09-05

    Growing urban environments stress hydrologic systems and impact downstream water quality. We examined a third-order catchment that transitions from an undisturbed mountain environment into urban Salt Lake City, Utah. We performed synoptic surveys during a range of seasonal baseflow conditions and utilized multiple lines of evidence to identify mechanisms by which urbanization impacts water quality. Surface water chemistry did not change appreciably until several kilometers into the urban environment, where concentrations of solutes such as chloride and nitrate increase quickly in a gaining reach. Groundwater springs discharging in this gaining system demonstrate the role of contaminated baseflow from an aquifer in driving stream chemistry. Hydrometric and hydrochemical observations were used to estimate that the aquifer contains approximately 18% water sourced from the urban area. The carbon and nitrogen dynamics indicated the urban aquifer also serves as a biogeochemical reactor. The evidence of surface water-groundwater exchange on a spatial scale of kilometers and time scale of months to years suggests a need to evolve the hydrologic model of anthropogenic impacts to urban water quality to include exchange with the subsurface. This has implications on the space and time scales of water quality mitigation efforts.

  14. Shallow groundwater quality on dairy farms with irrigated forage crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, Thomas; Davis, Harley; Mathews, Marsha C.; Meyer, Roland D.

    2002-04-01

    California's dairies are the largest confined animal industry in the state. A major portion of these dairies, which have an average herd size of nearly 1000 animal units, are located in low-relief valleys and basins. Large amounts of liquid manure are generated and stored in these dairies. In the semi-arid climate, liquid manure is frequently applied via flood or furrow irrigation to forage crops that are grown almost year-round. Little is known about the impact of manure management practices on water quality of the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying these basins. The objective of this work is to assess nitrate and salt leaching to shallow groundwater in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to quantify the impact from individual sources on dairies. The complex array of potential point and nonpoint sources was divided into three major source areas representing farm management units: (1) manure water lagoons (ponds); (2) feedlot or exercise yard, dry manure, and feed storage areas (corrals); and (3) manure irrigated forage fields (fields). An extensive shallow groundwater-monitoring network (44 wells) was installed in five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, CA. Water quality (electrical conductivity, nitrate-nitrogen, total Kjehldahl nitrogen) was observed over a 4-year period. Nitrate-N, reduced nitrogen and electrical conductivity (EC, salinity) were subject to large spatial and temporal variability. The range of observed nitrate-N and salinity levels was similar on all five dairies. Average shallow groundwater nitrate-N concentrations within the dairies were 64 mg/l compared to 24 mg/l in shallow wells immediately upgradient of these dairies. Average EC levels were 1.9 mS/cm within the dairies and 0.8 mS/cm immediately upgradient. Within the dairies, nitrate-N levels did not significantly vary across dairy management units. However, EC levels were significantly higher in corral and pond areas (2.3 mS/cm) than in

  15. Effect of groundwater quality on sustainability of groundwater resource: A case study in the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming; Wu, Jianfeng; Liu, Jie; Wu, Jichun; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2015-08-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the most severe water shortage areas in China. Due to the scarcity of surface water in the NCP, groundwater system is seriously over-exploited and use of nitrogen fertilizers is greatly increasing year by year to improve soil fertility and crop production, causing a variety of environmental issues in the processes of abstracting groundwater. Considering that previous research was limited on approaches to assess sustainability of groundwater through flow modeling and water level decline, this study focuses on addressing the implications of groundwater contaminant for water resource sustainability in the central part of NCP. Based on the previously developed groundwater flow model, a reaction modular code for the reactive transport in three-dimensional aquifers (RT3D) is developed for simulating the reactive process of nitrogen species transport in groundwater system. The management optimization model coupled with the nitrogen reactive transport model under consideration of water quality constraints is then conducted to quantify and improve the sustainability of groundwater utilization in the study area. Thus, the optimal pumping well locations and pumping rates that lead to the maximum total yield or the minimum total management costs subjecting to a series of groundwater level constraints are obtained from the optimization models. Compared with the optimization model without water quality constraints, this study could provide a more useful tool for developing cost-effective strategies for sustainable management of groundwater resource in the NCP, and greatly improve groundwater management level and water quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ground-water quality protection; why it's important to you

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webbers, Ank

    1995-01-01

    Ground water is a valuable resource often used for industry, commerce, agriculture, and drinking water. In the 19080's, ground water provided 35 percent of the municipal water supplies in the United States and 95 percent of the rural, domestic drinking water. Scientists participating in ground-water studies may determine the potential pathways that contaminants could be transported in aquifers. In karst terrain especially, a contanimant can enter a fracture network in a carbonate aquifer and quickly spread to become a widespread health problem. Although Federal and local funding for ground-water cleanups and treatment may be available, the costs can exceed many millions of dollars each year. Such costly remedial actions could be avoided or minimized by becoming aware that ground water anywhere is vulnerable to contamination, but particularly so in carbonate terrain. Practicing good "out-of-doors" house- keeping is necessary. From the standpoint of economic and environmental responsibility, it is critical that we all work together to protect the quality of ground-water resources so that future generations can continue to have clean water.

  17. Salinization process and coastal groundwater quality in Chaouia, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najib, Saliha; Fadili, Ahmed; Mehdi, Khalid; Riss, Joëlle; Makan, Abdelhadi; Guessir, Hakima

    2016-03-01

    The coastal aquifer system of Chaouia is recognized as one of the most important aquifers in Morocco that is affected by salinization in the coastal fringe. The purpose of this study is to highlight the origin of salinization by sampling and analyzing groundwater from 44 wells for major elements. This study was carried out in May 2011. The results indicate that, in the central and downstream parts, the dominant facies are Mg2+, Na+ and Cl-, while Ca2+ and HCO3- dominate in the upstream zones. Ion exchange processes, under seawater intrusion, control the concentration of ions such as calcium, magnesium and sodium. Moreover, groundwater is oversaturated with respect to carbonate minerals (calcite and dolomite), and under-saturated with respect to evaporate minerals (gypsum, halite). The contribution of dissolved halite and gypsum in the groundwater mineralization is revealed by their positive correlation between (Na + Cl) and (Ca + SO4), respectively. Furthermore, the comparison of the hydrochemical results to drinking water quality standards by World Health Organization (2008) shows that more than a half of the water sampled is not suitable for drinking purposes, especially with respect to high levels of EC, TDS, Cl- and NO3-. In addition, high mineralization is found to be a consequence of seawater intrusion and anthropogenic activities.

  18. Groundwater Quality in the Shallow Aquifers of the Hadauti Plateau of the District of Baran, Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Lokesh; Rakshit, Amitava

    2014-07-01

    With the rapid pace of agricultural development, industrialization and urbanization, the commonly observed geogenic contaminants in groundwater are fluoride and nitrate, whereas nitrate is the dominant anthropogenic contaminant in the south-eastern plains of Rajasthan, India. Samples obtained using a tube well and hand pump in November, 2012, demonstrate that Na-Cl is the dominant salt in the groundwater, and the total salinity of the water is between 211-1056 mg L-1. Moreover, the observed sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) values ranged between 0.87 to 26.22 meq L-1 and -12.5 to 30.5 meq L-1 respectively. The study further shows that 6% of the total samples contain high amounts of nitrate, and 49% contain fluoride. A water quality index (WQI) rating was carried out using nine parameters to quantify the overall groundwater quality status of the area.

  19. Methods of Statistical Control for Groundwater Quality Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovich, E.; Nevidimova, O.; Yankovich, K.

    2016-06-01

    The article describes the results of conducted groundwater quality control. Controlled quality indicators included the following microelements - barium, manganese, iron, mercury, iodine, chromium, strontium, etc. Quality control charts - X-bar chart and R chart - were built. For the upper and the lower threshold limits, maximum permissible concentration of components in water and the lower limit of their biologically significant concentration, respectively, were selected. The charts analysis has shown that the levels of microelements content in water at the area of study are stable. Most elements in the underground water are contained in concentrations, significant for human organisms consuming the water. For example, such elements as Ba, Mn, Fe have concentrations that exceed maximum permissible levels for drinking water.

  20. Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques for Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad (Zone-V), India

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, S. S.; Vuppala, Padmaja; Reddy, M. Anji

    2007-01-01

    Groundwater quality in Hyderabad has special significance and needs great attention of all concerned since it is the major alternate source of domestic, industrial and drinking water supply. The present study monitors the ground water quality, relates it to the land use / land cover and maps such quality using Remote sensing and GIS techniques for a part of Hyderabad metropolis. Thematic maps for the study are prepared by visual interpretation of SOI toposheets and linearly enhanced fused data of IRS-ID PAN and LISS-III imagery on 1:50,000 scale using AutoCAD and ARC/INFO software. Physico-chemical analysis data of the groundwater samples collected at predetermined locations forms the attribute database for the study, based on which, spatial distribution maps of major water quality parameters are prepared using curve fitting method in Arc View GIS software. Water Quality Index (WQI) was then calculated to find the suitability of water for drinking purpose. The overall view of the water quality index of the present study area revealed that most of the study area with > 50 standard rating of water quality index exhibited poor, very poor and unfit water quality except in places like Banjara Hills, Erragadda and Tolichowki. Appropriate methods for improving the water quality in affected areas have been suggested. PMID:17431315

  1. Remote sensing and GIS techniques for evaluation of groundwater quality in municipal corporation of Hyderabad (Zone-V), India.

    PubMed

    Asadi, S S; Vuppala, Padmaja; Reddy, M Anji

    2007-03-01

    Groundwater quality in Hyderabad has special significance and needs great attention of all concerned since it is the major alternate source of domestic, industrial and drinking water supply. The present study monitors the ground water quality, relates it to the land use / land cover and maps such quality using Remote sensing and GIS techniques for a part of Hyderabad metropolis. Thematic maps for the study are prepared by visual interpretation of SOI toposheets and linearly enhanced fused data of IRS-ID PAN and LISS-III imagery on 1:50,000 scale using AutoCAD and ARC/INFO software. Physico-chemical analysis data of the groundwater samples collected at predetermined locations forms the attribute database for the study, based on which, spatial distribution maps of major water quality parameters are prepared using curve fitting method in Arc View GIS software. Water Quality Index (WQI) was then calculated to find the suitability of water for drinking purpose. The overall view of the water quality index of the present study area revealed that most of the study area with >50 standard rating of water quality index exhibited poor, very poor and unfit water quality except in places like Banjara Hills, Erragadda and Tolichowki. Appropriate methods for improving the water quality in affected areas have been suggested.

  2. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US DOE Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994. Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management sites located within the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of the Y-12 Plant and is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, the Part 1 GWQR is submitted to the TDEC by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY). Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities.

  3. Baseline assessment of groundwater quality in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2016-06-30

    The Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and the Ordovician-age Utica Shale, geologic formations which have potential for natural gas development, underlie Wayne County and neighboring counties in northeastern Pennsylvania. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wayne Conservation District, conducted a study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers in Wayne County prior to potential extensive shale-gas development. The 2014 study expanded on previous, more limited studies that included sampling of groundwater from 2 wells in 2011 and 32 wells in 2013 in Wayne County. Eighty-nine water wells were sampled in summer 2014 to provide data on the presence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low levels in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines associated with fluids extracted from geologic formations during shale-gas development. Depths of sampled wells ranged from 85 to 1,300 feet (ft) with a median of 291 ft. All of the groundwater samples collected in 2014 were analyzed for bacteria, major ions, nutrients, selected inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, selected man-made organic compounds (including volatile organic compounds and glycols), dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and propane), and, if sufficient methane was present, the isotopic composition of methane.Results of the 2014 study show that groundwater quality generally met most drinking-water standards, but some well-water samples had one or more constituents or properties, including arsenic, iron, pH, bacteria, and radon-222, that exceeded primary or secondary maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Arsenic concentrations were higher than the MCL of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) in 4 of 89 samples (4.5 percent) with concentrations as high as 20 µg/L; arsenic

  4. Assessment and spatial distribution of groundwater quality in industrial areas of Ghaziabad, India.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Savita; Singh, Anil Kumar; Verma, Ashok Kumar; Yaduvanshi, N P S

    2014-01-01

    An attempt has been made in this study to evaluate the groundwater quality in two industrial blocks of Ghaziabad district. Groundwater samples were collected from shallow wells, deep wells and hand pumps of two heavily industrialized blocks, namely Bulandshahar road industrial area and Meerut road industrial area in Ghaziabad district for assessing their suitability for various uses. Samples were collected from 30 sites in each block before and after monsoon. They were analyzed for a total of 23 elements, namely, Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Se, U, V, and Zn. In addition to these elements, some other parameters were also studied viz: color, odor, turbidity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids and total suspended solid. The water quality index was also calculated based on some of the parameters estimated. Out of the 23 elements, the mean values of 12 elements, namely, Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, and U, were higher than the prescribed standard limits. The concentrations (in milligram per liter) of highly toxic metals viz., Al, As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, and U, ranged from 1.33-6.30, 0.04-0.54, 0.005-0.013, 4.51-7.09, 0.14-0.27, 0.13-0.32, 0.16-2.11, and 0.10-1.21, respectively, in all groundwater samples, while the permissible limits of these elements as per WHO/BIS standards for drinking are 0.2, 0.01, 0.003, 0.05, 0.07, 0.01, 0.04, and 0.03 mg L(-1), respectively. The EC, pH, and COD in all samples varied from 0.74-4.21, 6.05-7.72, and 4.5-20.0 while their permissible limits are 0.7 dS m(-1), 6.5-8.5, and 10 mg L(-1), respectively. On the basis of the above-mentioned parameters, the water quality index of all groundwater samples ranged from 101 to 491, and 871 to 2904 with mean value of 265 and 1,174 based on two criteria, i.e., physico-chemical and metal contaminations, respectively while the prescribed safe limit for drinking is below 50

  5. Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1994 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y- 12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two-parts: Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference containing the groundwater quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY). Part 2 of the annual groundwater report, to be issued mid-year, will contain a regime-wide evaluation of groundwater quality, present the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describe changes in monitoring priorities, and present planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities.

  6. Groundwater Quality Protection in Oakland County: A Sourcebook for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Michigan Environmental Action Council, Troy.

    This sourcebook consists of background information and activities related to groundwater protection. The first section focuses on the characteristics of groundwater, the water cycle, stormwater runoff, and uses of groundwater. The second section addresses household hazardous materials--both from a safety standpoint and a groundwater standpoint.…

  7. Groundwater Quality Protection in Oakland County: A Sourcebook for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Michigan Environmental Action Council, Troy.

    This sourcebook consists of background information and activities related to groundwater protection. The first section focuses on the characteristics of groundwater, the water cycle, stormwater runoff, and uses of groundwater. The second section addresses household hazardous materials--both from a safety standpoint and a groundwater standpoint.…

  8. Groundwater quality assessment using geospatial and statistical tools in Salem District, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arulbalaji, P.; Gurugnanam, B.

    2016-11-01

    The water quality study of Salem district, Tamil Nadu has been carried out to assess the water quality for domestic and irrigation purposes. For this purpose, 59 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), major anions (HCO3 -, CO3 -, F-, Cl-, NO2 - + NO3 -, and SO4 2-), major cations (Ca2+ Mg2+, Na+, and K+), alkalinity (ALK), and hardness (HAR). To assess the water quality, the following chemical parameters were calculated based on the analytical results, such as Piper plot, water quality index (WQI), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), magnesium hazard (MH), Kelly index (KI), and residual sodium carbonate (RSC). Wilcox diagram represents that 23% of the samples are excellent to good, 40% of the samples are good to permissible, 10% of the samples are permissible to doubtful, 24% of the samples are doubtful unsuitable, and only 3% of the samples are unsuitable for irrigation. SAR values shows that 52% of the samples indicate high-to-very high and low-to-medium alkali water. KI values indicate good quality (30%) and not suitable (70%) for irrigation purposes. RSC values indicate that 89% of samples are suitable for irrigation purposes. MH reveals that 17% suitable and 83% samples are not suitable for irrigation purposes and for domestic purposes the excellent (8%), good (48%), and poor (44%). The agricultural waste, fertilizer used, soil leaching, urban runoff, livestock waste, and sewages are the sources of poor water quality. Some samples are not suitable for irrigation purposes due to high salinity, hardness, and magnesium concentration. In general, the groundwater of the Salem district was polluted by agricultural activities, anthropogenic activities, ion exchange, and weathering.

  9. Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation use in shallow hard rock aquifer of Pudunagaram, Palakkad District Kerala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satish Kumar, V.; Amarender, B.; Dhakate, Ratnakar; Sankaran, S.; Raj Kumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater samples were collected for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons based on the variation in the geomorphological, geological, and hydrogeological factors for assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation use in a shallow hard rock aquifer of Pudunagaram area, Palakkad district, Kerala. The samples were analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters and major ion chemistry. Based on analytical results, Gibbs diagram and Wilcox plots were plotted and groundwater quality has been distinguished for drinking and irrigation use. Gibbs diagram shows that the samples are rock dominance and controlling the mechanism for groundwater chemistry in the study area, while Wilcox plot suggest that most of the samples are within the permissible limit of drinking and irrigation use. Further, the suitability of water for irrigation was determined by analyzing sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent (%Na), Kelly's ratio, residual sodium carbonate, soluble sodium percentage, permeability index, and water quality index. It has been concluded that, the water from the study area is good for drinking and irrigation use, apart few samples which are exceeding the limits due to anthropogenic activities and those samples were indisposed for irrigation.

  10. Evaluation of groundwater quality and suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes in southwest Punjab, India using hydrochemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Diana Anoubam; Rishi, Madhuri S.; Keesari, Tirumalesh

    2016-08-01

    Groundwater samples from alluvial aquifers of Bathinda district, southwest Punjab were measured for physicochemical parameters as well as major ion chemistry to evaluate the groundwater suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes and to present the current hydrochemical status of groundwater of this district. Temporal variations were analyzed by comparing the pre- and post-monsoon groundwater chemistry. Most of the samples showed contamination: F- (72 %), Mg2+ (22 %), SO4 2- (28 %), TH (25 %), NO3 - (22 %), HCO3 - (22 %) and TDS (11 %) during pre-monsoon and F- (50 %), Mg2+ (39 %), SO4 2- (22 %), TH (28 %), NO3 - (22 %) and TDS (28 %) during post-monsoon above permissible limits for drinking, while rest of the parameters fall within the limits. Irrigation suitability was checked using sodium absorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), percent sodium (Na%) and permeability index (PI). Most of the samples fall under good to suitable category during pre-monsoon period, but fall under doubtful to unsuitable category during post-monsoon period. Presence of high salt content in groundwater during post-monsoon season reflects leaching of salts present in the unsaturated zone by infiltrating precipitation. Hydrochemical data was interpreted using Piper's trilinear plot and Chadha's plot to understand the various geochemical processes affecting the groundwater quality. The results indicate that the order of cation dominance is Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+, while anion dominance is in the order Cl- > HCO3 - > SO4 2-. The geochemistry of groundwater of this district is mainly controlled by the carbonate and silicate mineral dissolution and ion exchange during pre-monsoon and leaching from the salts deposited in vadose zone during post-monsoon. The main sources of contamination are soluble fertilizers and livestock wastes. This study is significant as the surface water resources are limited and the quality and quantity of groundwater are deteriorating with time due to

  11. Groundwater quality in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley groundwater basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Monterey-Salinas study unit is nearly 1,000 square miles and consists of the Santa Cruz Purisima Formation Highlands, Felton Area, Scotts Valley, Soquel Valley, West Santa Cruz Terrace, Salinas Valley, Pajaro Valley, and Carmel Valley groundwater basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Kulongski and Belitz, 2011). These basins were grouped into four study areas based primarily on geography. Groundwater basins in the north were grouped into the Santa Cruz study area, and those to the south were grouped into the Monterey Bay, the Salinas Valley, and the Paso Robles study areas (Kulongoski and others, 2007). The study unit has warm, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 31 inches in Santa Cruz in the north to 13 inches in Paso Robles in the south. The study areas are drained by several rivers and their principal tributaries: the Salinas, Pajaro, and Carmel Rivers, and San Lorenzo Creek. The Salinas Valley is a large intermontane valley that extends southeastward from Monterey Bay to Paso Robles. It has been filled, up to a thickness of 2,000 feet, with Tertiary and Quaternary marine and terrestrial sediments that overlie granitic basement. The Miocene-age Monterey Formation and Pliocene- to Pleistocene-age Paso Robles Formation, and Pleistocene to Holocene-age alluvium contain freshwater used for supply. The primary aquifers in the study unit are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells are typically drilled to depths of 200 to 650 feet, consist of solid casing from the land surface to depths of about 175 to 500 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing. Water quality in the primary aquifers may differ from that in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer system. Groundwater movement is generally from the southern part of the Salinas Valley north towards the Monterey Bay

  12. Groundwater Quality Assessment in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apambire, W. B.

    2001-05-01

    In Ghana, West Africa, fluoride occurs as a natural pollutant in some groundwaters, while the presence of isolated high levels of nitrate and arsenic in groundwater is due to human activities such as poor sanitation, garbage disposal and mining practices. The challenge for Ghana is to ensure that groundwater quality and environmental adversities such as water level decline are not compromised by attempts to increase water quantity. Concentrations of groundwater fluoride in the study area range from 0.11 to 4.60 mg/L, with the highest concentrations found in the fluorine-enriched Bongo granitoids. Eighty-five out of 400 wells sampled have fluoride concentrations above the World Health Organization maximum guideline value of 1.5 mg/L and thus causes dental fluorosis in children drinking from the wells. The distribution of fluoride in groundwater is highly related to the distribution of dental fluorosis in the UER. Nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 211.00 mg/L and the mean value was 16.11 mg/L. Twenty-one samples had concentrations in excess of the guideline value of 45 mg/L. Consumption of water in excess of the guideline value, by infants, may cause an infantile disease known as methaemoglobinaemia. It is inferred that groundwaters with exceptionally high NO3 values have been contaminated principally through human activities such as farming and waste disposal. This is because wells with high nitrate concentrations are all located in and around towns and sizable villages. Also, there is good correlation between Cl and NO3 (r = +0.74), suggesting that both elements come from the same sources of pollution. Only two well waters had concentrations of iron in excess of the guideline value of 0.3 mg/L. These samples come from shallow hand-dug wells. The maximum concentration of iron in groundwaters is 3.5 mg/L. The recommended guideline limit for Al in drinking water is 0.2 mg/L; two wells had Al concentrations of 12.0 and 4.0 mg/L, respectively. Other high

  13. Impact of land-use on groundwater quality: GIS-based study from an alluvial aquifer in the western Ganges basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Arina; Khan, Haris Hasan; Umar, Rashid

    2017-09-01

    In this study, groundwater quality of an alluvial aquifer in the western Ganges basin is assessed using a GIS-based groundwater quality index (GQI) concept that uses groundwater quality data from field survey and laboratory analysis. Groundwater samples were collected from 42 wells during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods of 2012 and analysed for pH, EC, TDS, Anions (Cl, SO4, NO3), and Cations (Ca, Mg, Na). To generate the index, several parameters were selected based on WHO recommendations. The spatially variable grids of each parameter were modified by normalizing with the WHO standards and finally integrated into a GQI grid. The mean GQI values for both the season suggest good groundwater quality. However, spatial variations exist and are represented by GQI map of both seasons. This spatial variability was compared with the existing land-use, prepared using high-resolution satellite imagery available in Google earth. The GQI grids were compared to the land-use map using an innovative GIS-based method. Results indicate that the spatial variability of groundwater quality in the region is not fully controlled by the land-use pattern. This probably reflects the diffuse nature of land-use classes, especially settlements and plantations.

  14. Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) Quality Assurance Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-20

    The scope of the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) is to provide technical and integration support to Fluor Hanford, Inc., including operable unit investigations at 300-FF-5 and other groundwater operable units, strategic integration, technical integration and assessments, remediation decision support, and science and technology. This Quality Assurance Management Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project).

  15. Megacity pumping and preferential flow threaten groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mahfuzur R; Koneshloo, Mohammad; Knappett, Peter S K; Ahmed, Kazi M; Bostick, Benjamin C; Mailloux, Brian J; Mozumder, Rajib H; Zahid, Anwar; Harvey, Charles F; van Geen, Alexander; Michael, Holly A

    2016-09-27

    Many of the world's megacities depend on groundwater from geologically complex aquifers that are over-exploited and threatened by contamination. Here, using the example of Dhaka, Bangladesh, we illustrate how interactions between aquifer heterogeneity and groundwater exploitation jeopardize groundwater resources regionally. Groundwater pumping in Dhaka has caused large-scale drawdown that extends into outlying areas where arsenic-contaminated shallow groundwater is pervasive and has potential to migrate downward. We evaluate the vulnerability of deep, low-arsenic groundwater with groundwater models that incorporate geostatistical simulations of aquifer heterogeneity. Simulations show that preferential flow through stratigraphy typical of fluvio-deltaic aquifers could contaminate deep (>150 m) groundwater within a decade, nearly a century faster than predicted through homogeneous models calibrated to the same data. The most critical fast flowpaths cannot be predicted by simplified models or identified by standard measurements. Such complex vulnerability beyond city limits could become a limiting factor for megacity groundwater supplies in aquifers worldwide.

  16. Megacity pumping and preferential flow threaten groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mahfuzur R.; Koneshloo, Mohammad; Knappett, Peter S. K.; Ahmed, Kazi M.; Bostick, Benjamin C.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Mozumder, Rajib H.; Zahid, Anwar; Harvey, Charles F.; van Geen, Alexander; Michael, Holly A.

    2016-09-01

    Many of the world's megacities depend on groundwater from geologically complex aquifers that are over-exploited and threatened by contamination. Here, using the example of Dhaka, Bangladesh, we illustrate how interactions between aquifer heterogeneity and groundwater exploitation jeopardize groundwater resources regionally. Groundwater pumping in Dhaka has caused large-scale drawdown that extends into outlying areas where arsenic-contaminated shallow groundwater is pervasive and has potential to migrate downward. We evaluate the vulnerability of deep, low-arsenic groundwater with groundwater models that incorporate geostatistical simulations of aquifer heterogeneity. Simulations show that preferential flow through stratigraphy typical of fluvio-deltaic aquifers could contaminate deep (>150 m) groundwater within a decade, nearly a century faster than predicted through homogeneous models calibrated to the same data. The most critical fast flowpaths cannot be predicted by simplified models or identified by standard measurements. Such complex vulnerability beyond city limits could become a limiting factor for megacity groundwater supplies in aquifers worldwide.

  17. Characterization of shallow groundwater quality in the Lower St. Johns River Basin: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Ying; Zhang, Jia-En; Parajuli, Prem

    2013-12-01

    Characterization of groundwater quality allows the evaluation of groundwater pollution and provides information for better management of groundwater resources. This study characterized the shallow groundwater quality and its spatial and seasonal variations in the Lower St. Johns River Basin, Florida, USA, under agricultural, forest, wastewater, and residential land uses using field measurements and two-dimensional kriging analysis. Comparison of the concentrations of groundwater quality constituents against the US EPA's water quality criteria showed that the maximum nitrate/nitrite (NO x ) and arsenic (As) concentrations exceeded the EPA's drinking water standard limits, while the maximum Cl, SO 4 (2-) , and Mn concentrations exceeded the EPA's national secondary drinking water regulations. In general, high kriging estimated groundwater NH 4 (+) concentrations were found around the agricultural areas, while high kriging estimated groundwater NO x concentrations were observed in the residential areas with a high density of septic tank distribution. Our study further revealed that more areas were found with high estimated NO x concentrations in summer than in spring. This occurred partially because of more NO x leaching into the shallow groundwater due to the wetter summer and partially because of faster nitrification rate due to the higher temperature in summer. Large extent and high kriging estimated total phosphorus concentrations were found in the residential areas. Overall, the groundwater Na and Mg concentration distributions were relatively more even in summer than in spring. Higher kriging estimated groundwater As concentrations were found around the agricultural areas, which exceeded the EPA's drinking water standard limit. Very small variations in groundwater dissolved organic carbon concentrations were observed between spring and summer. This study demonstrated that the concentrations of groundwater quality constituents varied from location to location

  18. Assessment of groundwater quality from Bankura I and II Blocks, Bankura District, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, S. K.; Das, Shreya

    2017-02-01

    Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater has been conducted in Bankura I and II Blocks to analyze and determining groundwater quality in the area. Thirty-six groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. The constituents have the following ranges in the water: pH 6.4-8.6, electrical conductivity 80-1900 μS/cm, total hardness 30-730 mg/l, TDS 48-1001 mg/l, Ca2+ 4.2-222.6 mg/l, Na+ 2.33-103.33 mg/l, Mg2+ 1.56-115.36 mg/l, K+ 0.67-14 mg/l and Fe BDL-2.53 mg/l, HCO3^{ - } 48.8-1000.4 mg/l, Cl- 5.6-459.86 mg/l and SO4^{ = } BDL-99.03 mg/l. Results also show that bicarbonate ions ( HCO3^{ - } ) dominate the other anions (Cl- and SO4^{2 - } ). Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), total hardness (TH), and permeability index (PI) were calculated as derived parameters, to investigate the ionic toxicity. Concerned chemical parameters when plotted in the U.S. Salinity diagram indicate that waters are of C1-S1, C2-S1 and C3-S1 types, i.e., low salinity and low sodium which is good for irrigation. The values of Sodium Adsorption Ratio indicate that the groundwater of the area falls under the category of low sodium hazard. So, there is neither salinity nor toxicity problem of irrigation water, and hence the ground water can safely be used for long-term irrigation. The chemical parameters when plotted in Piper's trilinear diagram are found to concentrate in the central and west central part of the diamond-shaped field. Based on the analytical results, groundwater in the area is found to be generally fresh and hard to very hard. The abundance of the major ions is as follows: HCO3 > Cl > SO4 and Ca > Na > Mg > K > Fe. Results also show that bicarbonate ions ( HCO3^{ - } ) dominate the other anions (Cl- and SO4^{2 - } ). According to Gibbs diagrams samples fall in the rock dominance field and the chemical quality of

  19. Creating an Overall Environmental Quality Index - Technical Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    A better estimate of overall environmental quality is needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between environmental conditions and humanhealth. Described in this report is the effort to construct an environmental quality index representing multiple domains of the ...

  20. Creating an Overall Environmental Quality Index - Technical Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    A better estimate of overall environmental quality is needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between environmental conditions and humanhealth. Described in this report is the effort to construct an environmental quality index representing multiple domains of the ...

  1. Assessment of groundwater quality in Puri City, India: an impact of anthropogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Khobragade, Puja; Mohapatra, P K

    2011-06-01

    Puri City is situated on the east coast of India and receives water supply only from the groundwater sources demarcated as water fields. The objective of this paper is to assess and evaluate the groundwater quality due to impact of anthropogenic activities in the city. Groundwater samples were collected from the water fields, hand pumps, open wells, and open water bodies during post-monsoon 2006 and summer 2007. Groundwater quality was evaluated with drinking water standards as prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards and Environmental Protection Agency to assess the suitability. The study indicated seasonal variation of water-quality parameters within the water fields and city area. Groundwater in the water fields was found to be suitable for drinking after disinfection. While in city area, groundwater quality was impacted by onsite sanitary conditions. The study revealed that groundwater quality was deteriorated due to the discharge of effluent from septic tanks, soak pits, pit latrines, discharges of domestic wastewater in leaky drains, and leachate from solid waste dumpsite. Based on observed groundwater quality, various mitigation measures were suggested to protect the water fields and further groundwater contamination in the city.

  2. Groundwater quality in the Genesee River Basin, New York, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Water samples collected from eight production wells and eight private residential wells in the Genesee River Basin from September through December 2010 were analyzed to characterize the groundwater quality in the basin. Eight of the wells were completed in sand and gravel aquifers, and eight were finished in bedrock aquifers. Three of the 16 wells were sampled in the first Genesee River Basin study during 2005-2006. Water samples from the 2010 study were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents that included major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and indicator bacteria. Results of the water-quality analyses are presented in tabular form for individual wells, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. The results indicate that groundwater generally is of acceptable quality, although concentrations of the following constituents exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards at each of the 16 wells sampled: color (one sample), sodium (three samples), sulfate (three samples), total dissolved solids (four samples), aluminum (one sample), arsenic (two samples), copper (one sample), iron (nine samples), manganese (eight samples), radon-222 (nine samples), and total coliform bacteria (six samples). Existing drinking-water standards for pH, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, gross alpha radioactivity, uranium, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, and heterotrophic bacteria were not exceeded in any of the samples collected. None of the pesticides and VOCs analyzed exceeded existing drinking-water standards.

  3. Groundwater quality assessment for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant: 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The report contains groundwater and surface water quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non- hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant (Figure 1). These sites are southwest of the Y-12 Plant complex within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (BCHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring and remediation (Figure 2). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Division manages the monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP).

  4. Analysis of Climate Change Effects on Baseflow Index and Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Severe water shortages have been observed globally and the damage from climate change is predicted to increase consistently. Especially, groundwater which accounts for 95% of water resources that ecosystems rely on is very important. In order to protect the health of ecosystems from groundwater, research on climate change adaptation is necessary. This research aims at analyzing the effects of baseflow on Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems(GDEs) through Baseflow Index(BFI) utilizing run-off discharge according to the climate change. In order to analyze the effects on GDEs, Nakdong basin was selected for demonstration. So as to compute the baseflow in the basin, Soil and Water Assessment Tool(SWAT) was employed. This research compared and analyzed distribution of BFI over the past 30 years and expected BFI in connection with climate change. RCP 8.5 provided by IPCC was utilized and the result showed that changes of BFI in four periods, P1(1980-2009), F1(2010-2039), F2(2040-2069) and F3(2070-2099), varied according to weather conditions. So as to analyze the correlation between baseflow each period and GDEs, this research employed ecosystems health index and carried out correlation analysis according to each GDEs. Analysis showed that correlation between baseflow and Benthic Macro-invertebrate(BMI) was over R2 0.7 and correlation to the rest was low. This means BMI prove to be sensitive in BFI. The purpose of this research is to figure out the characteristics of baseflow about the impact of climate change and analyze the impact of baseflow on GDEs through the correlation analysis between baseflow and ecosystems health index. BMI has high correlation to baseflow and the rest do not. Generally, however, GDEs are hugely inter-related to water so that baseflow which accounts for over 40 percent cannot be excluded. Therefore, based on this research, management system on baseflow ought to be established with more endeavors to protect and preserve ecosystems.

  5. Quantitative assessment of groundwater vulnerability using index system and transport simulation, Huangshuihe catchment, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cheng; Yao, Yingying; Hayes, Gregory; Zhang, Baoxiang; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2010-11-15

    Groundwater vulnerability assessment has been an increasingly important environment management tool. The existing vulnerability assessment approaches are mostly index systems which have significant disadvantages. There need to be some quantitative studies on vulnerability indicators based on objective physical process study. In this study, we tried to do vulnerability assessment in Huangshuihe catchment in Shandong province of China using both contaminant transport simulations and index system approach. Transit time of 75% of hypothetical injected contaminant concentration was considered as the vulnerability indicator. First, we collected the field data of the Huangshuihe catchment and the catchment was divided into 34 sub areas that can each be treated as a transport sub model. Next, we constructed a Hydrus1D transport model of Huangshuihe catchment. Different sub areas had different input values. Thirdly, we used Monte-Carlo simulation to improve the collected data and did vulnerability assessment using the statistics of the contaminant transit time as a vulnerability indicator. Finally, to compare with the assessment result by transport simulation, we applied two index systems to Huangshuihe catchment. The first was DRASTIC system, and the other was a system we tentatively constructed examining the relationships between the transit time and the input parameters by simply changing the input values. The result of comparisons between the two index systems and transport simulation approach suggested partial validation to DRASTIC, and the construction of the new tentative index system was an attempt of building up index approaches based on physical process simulation.

  6. Groundwater Quality in the Central Eastside San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belitz, Kenneth; Landon, Matthew K.

    2010-01-01

    The Central Eastside study unit is located in California's San Joaquin Valley. The 1,695 square mile study unit includes three groundwater subbasins: Modesto, Turlock, and Merced (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The primary water-bearing units consist of discontinuous lenses of gravel, sand, silt, and clay, which are derived largely from the Sierra Nevada Mountains to the east. Public-supply wells provide most of the drinking water supply in the Central Eastside. Consequently, the primary aquifer in the Central Eastside study unit is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforated interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells are typically drilled to depths of 200 to 350 feet, consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of about 100 to 200 feet, and they are perforated below the solid casing. Water quality in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer system may differ from that in the primary aquifer. The Central Eastside study unit has hot and dry summers and cool, moist, winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 11 to 15 inches. The Stanislaus, Tuolumne, and Merced Rivers, with headwaters in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, are the primary streams traversing the study unit. Land use in the study unit is approximately 59 percent (%) agricultural, 34% natural (primarily grassland), and 7% urban. The primary crops are almonds, walnuts, peaches, grapes, grain, corn, and alfalfa. The largest urban areas (2003 population in parentheses) are the cities of Modesto (206,872), Turlock (63,467), and Merced (69,512). Municipal water use accounts for about 5% of the total water use in the Central Eastside study unit, with the remainder used for irrigated agriculture. Groundwater accounts for about 75% of the municipal supply, and surface water accounts for about 25%. Recharge to the groundwater flow system is primarily from percolation of irrigation return

  7. Groundwater quality in the Santa Clara River Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Santa Clara River Valley (SCRV) study unit is located in Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California, and is bounded by the Santa Monica, San Gabriel, Topatopa, and Santa Ynez Mountains, and the Pacific Ocean. The 460-square-mile study unit includes eight groundwater basins: Ojai Valley, Upper Ojai Valley, Ventura River Valley, Santa Clara River Valley, Pleasant Valley, Arroyo Santa Rosa Valley, Las Posas Valley, and Simi Valley (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Montrella and Belitz, 2009). The SCRV study unit has hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 12 to 28 inches. The study unit is drained by the Ventura and Santa Clara Rivers, and Calleguas Creek. The primary aquifer system in the Ventura River Valley, Ojai Valley, Upper Ojai Valley, and Simi Valley basins is largely unconfined alluvium. The primary aquifer system in the remaining groundwater basins mainly consists of unconfined sands and gravels in the upper portion and partially confined marine and nonmarine deposits in the lower portion. The primary aquifer system in the SCRV study unit is defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. Public-supply wells typically are completed in the primary aquifer system to depths of 200 to 1,100 feet below land surface (bls). The wells contain solid casing reaching from the land surface to a depth of about 60-700 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing to allow water into the well. Water quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the water in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer. Land use in the study unit is approximately 40 percent (%) natural (primarily shrubs, grassland, and wetlands), 37% agricultural, and 23% urban. The primary crops are citrus, avocados, alfalfa, pasture, strawberries, and dry beans. The largest urban areas in the study unit are the cities of

  8. Ground-water quality, Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, Roy L.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program, ground-water samples were collected from 34 existing wells in the Cook Inlet Basin in south-central Alaska during 1999. All ground-water samples were from aquifers composed of glacial or alluvial sediments. The water samples were used to determine the occurrence and distribution of selected major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radioisotopes, and environmental isotopes. Of 34 samples, 29 were from wells chosen by using a grid-based random-selection process. Water samples from five major public-supply wells also were collected. Radon-222 and arsenic concentrations exceeded drinking-water standards proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 39 and 18 percent of sampled wells, respectively. The highest radon concentration measured during this study was 610 picocuries per liter; 12 of 31 samples exceeded the proposed maximum contaminant level of 300 picocuries per liter. The highest arsenic concentration was 29 micrograms per liter; 6 of 34 samples exceeded the proposed maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter. Human activities may be increasing the concen- tration of nitrate in ground water, but nitrate concentrations in all samples were less than the maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Concentrations of nitrate were highest in Anchorage and were as great as 4.8 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 77 to 986 milligrams per liter; only 2 of 34 wells yielded water having greater than 500 milligrams per liter. Iron and manganese concentrations exceeded secondary maximum contaminant levels in 18 and 42 percent of samples, respectively. Concentrations of all pesticides and volatile organic compounds detected in ground-water samples were very low, less than 1 microgram per liter. No pesticide or volatile organic compounds were detected at concentrations

  9. Quality assessment of groundwater from the south-eastern Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H W; Sun, Y Q; Li, Y; Zhou, X D; Tang, X Z; Yi, P; Murad, A; Hussein, S; Alshamsi, D; Aldahan, A; Yu, Z B; Chen, X G; Mugwaneza, V D P

    2017-08-01

    Assessment of groundwater quality plays a significant role in the utilization of the scarce water resources globally and especially in arid regions. The increasing abstraction together with man-made contamination and seawater intrusion have strongly affected groundwater quality in the Arabia Peninsula, exemplified by the investigation given here from the United Arab Emirates, where the groundwater is seldom reviewed and assessed. In the aim of assessing current groundwater quality, we here present a comparison of chemical data linked to aquifers types. The results reveal that most of the investigated groundwater is not suitable for drinking, household, and agricultural purposes following the WHO permissible limits. Aquifer composition and climate have vital control on the water quality, with the carbonate aquifers contain the least potable water compared to the ophiolites and Quaternary clastics. Seawater intrusion along coastal regions has deteriorated the water quality and the phenomenon may become more intensive with future warming climate and rising sea level.

  10. Elucidating hydraulic fracturing impacts on groundwater quality using a regional geospatial statistical modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Burton, Taylour G; Rifai, Hanadi S; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Fontenot, Brian E; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic fracturing operations have been viewed as the cause of certain environmental issues including groundwater contamination. The potential for hydraulic fracturing to induce contaminant pathways in groundwater is not well understood since gas wells are completed while isolating the water table and the gas-bearing reservoirs lay thousands of feet below the water table. Recent studies have attributed ground water contamination to poor well construction and leaks in the wellbore annulus due to ruptured wellbore casings. In this paper, a geospatial model of the Barnett Shale region was created using ArcGIS. The model was used for spatial analysis of groundwater quality data in order to determine if regional variations in groundwater quality, as indicated by various groundwater constituent concentrations, may be associated with the presence of hydraulically fractured gas wells in the region. The Barnett Shale reservoir pressure, completions data, and fracture treatment data were evaluated as predictors of groundwater quality change. Results indicated that elevated concentrations of certain groundwater constituents are likely related to natural gas production in the study area and that beryllium, in this formation, could be used as an indicator variable for evaluating fracturing impacts on regional groundwater quality. Results also indicated that gas well density and formation pressures correlate to change in regional water quality whereas proximity to gas wells, by itself, does not. The results also provided indirect evidence supporting the possibility that micro annular fissures serve as a pathway transporting fluids and chemicals from the fractured wellbore to the overlying groundwater aquifers.

  11. Coastal Water Quality Modeling in Tidal Lake: Revisited with Groundwater Intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C.

    2016-12-01

    A new method for predicting the temporal and spatial variation of water quality, with accounting for a groundwater effect, has been proposed and applied to a water body partially connected to macro-tidal coastal waters in Korea. The method consists of direct measurement of environmental parameters, and it indirectly incorporates a nutrients budget analysis to estimate the submarine groundwater fluxes. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of water quality has been used with the directly collected data and the indirectly estimated groundwater fluxes. The applied area is Saemangeum tidal lake that is enclosed by 33km-long sea dyke with tidal openings at two water gates. Many investigations of groundwater impact reveal that 10 50% of nutrient loading in coastal waters comes from submarine groundwater, particularly in the macro-tidal flat, as in the west coast of Korea. Long-term monitoring of coastal water quality signals the possibility of groundwater influence on salinity reversal and on the excess mass outbalancing the normal budget in Saemangeum tidal lake. In the present study, we analyze the observed data to examine the influence of submarine groundwater, and then a box model is demonstrated for quantifying the influx and efflux. A three-dimensional numerical model has been applied to reproduce the process of groundwater dispersal and its effect on the water quality of Saemangeum tidal lake. The results show that groundwater influx during the summer monsoon then contributes significantly, 20% more than during dry season, to water quality in the tidal lake.

  12. Motivation of synthesis, with an example on groundwater quality sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogg, G. E.; Labolle, E. M.

    2007-12-01

    Synthesis of ideas and theories from disparate disciplines is necessary for addressing the major problems faced by society. Such integration happens neither via edict nor via lofty declarations of what is needed or what is best. It happens mainly through two mechanisms: limited scope collaborations (e.g., ~2-3 investigators) in which the researchers believe deeply in their need for each other's expertise and much larger scope collaborations driven by the 'big idea.' Perhaps the strongest motivation for broad, effective synthesis is the 'big idea' that is sufficiently important and inspiring to marshal the appropriate collaborative efforts. Examples include the Manhattan Project, the quest for cancer cures, predicting effects of climate change, and groundwater quality sustainability. The latter is posed as an example of a 'big idea' that would potentially unify research efforts in both the sciences and social sciences toward a common, pressing objective.

  13. Natural ground-water quality in Michigan, 1974-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cummings, T. Ray

    1989-01-01

    Wide variations occur in the chemical and physical characteristics of natural groundwaters in Michigan. Dissolved-solids concentrations range from 20 to 76,000 mg/L. Waters having low dissolved-solids concentrations are calcium bicarbonate-type waters. Sodium, sulfate, and chloride increase as mineralization increases. Iron, aluminum, and titanium concentrations are higher at some locations than is common in most natural waters. Lead concentrations exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 's primary drinking-water regulations at some locations in the northern part of the lower Peninsula. Generalized areal patterns of water-quality variability indicate that geology is a primary cause of differences across the State. Examples of chemical associations in water indicate that chemical analyses may be valuable in tracing and identifying mineral deposits.

  14. Ground-water levels and quality data for Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1979-01-01

    This report begins a publication format that will present annually both water-level and water-quality data in Georgia. In this format the information is presented in two-page units: the left page includes text which summarizes the information for an area or subject and the right page consists of one or more illustrations. Daily mean water-level fluctuations and trends are shown in hydrographs for the previous year and fluctuations for the monthly mean water level the previous 10 years for selected observation wells. The well data best illustrate the effects of changes in recharge and discharge in the various ground-water reservoirs in the State. A short narrative explains fluctuations and trends in each hydrograph. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Quality index tables for some eastern hardwood species

    Treesearch

    Joseph J. Mendel; William H. Smith; William H. Smith

    1970-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the quality-index concept, presents log-quality index tables for a selected group of eastern hardwood tree species, and explains how timber operators can use Q.I. for evaluating the lumber that can be sawed from logs and trees.

  16. Groundwater quality and depletion in the Indo-Gangetic Basin mapped from in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, A. M.; Bonsor, H. C.; Ahmed, K. M.; Burgess, W. G.; Basharat, M.; Calow, R. C.; Dixit, A.; Foster, S. S. D.; Gopal, K.; Lapworth, D. J.; Lark, R. M.; Moench, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Rao, M. S.; Shamsudduha, M.; Smith, L.; Taylor, R. G.; Tucker, J.; van Steenbergen, F.; Yadav, S. K.

    2016-10-01

    Groundwater abstraction from the transboundary Indo-Gangetic Basin comprises 25% of global groundwater withdrawals, sustaining agricultural productivity in Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bangladesh. Recent interpretations of satellite gravity data indicate that current abstraction is unsustainable, yet these large-scale interpretations lack the spatio-temporal resolution required to govern groundwater effectively. Here we report new evidence from high-resolution in situ records of groundwater levels, abstraction and groundwater quality, which reveal that sustainable groundwater supplies are constrained more by extensive contamination than depletion. We estimate the volume of groundwater to 200 m depth to be >20 times the combined annual flow of the Indus, Brahmaputra and Ganges, and show the water table has been stable or rising across 70% of the aquifer between 2000 and 2012. Groundwater levels are falling in the remaining 30%, amounting to a net annual depletion of 8.0 +/- 3.0 km3. Within 60% of the aquifer, access to potable groundwater is restricted by excessive salinity or arsenic. Recent groundwater depletion in northern India and Pakistan has occurred within a longer history of groundwater accumulation from extensive canal leakage. This basin-wide synthesis of in situ groundwater observations provides the spatial detail essential for policy development, and the historical context to help evaluate recent satellite gravity data.

  17. Ground-water flow and quality near Canon City, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearne, G.A.; Litke, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Water in aquifers that underlie the Lincoln Park area near Canon City, Colorado, contains measurable concentrations of chemical constituents that are similar to those in raffinate (liquid waste) produced by a nearby uranium ore processing mill. The objective of this study was to expand the existing geohydrologic data base by collecting additional geohydrologic and water quality, in order to refine the description of the geohydrologic and geochemical systems in the study area. Geohydrologic data were collected from nine tests wells drilled in the area between the U.S. Soil Conservation Service dam and Lincoln Park. Lithologic and geophysical logs of these wells indicated that the section of Vermejo Formation penetrated consisted of interbedded sandstone and shale. The sandstone beds had a small porosity and small hydraulic conductivity. Groundwater flow from the U.S. Soil Conservation Service dam to Lincoln Park seemed to be along an alluvium-filled channel in the irregular and relatively undescribed topography of the Vermejo Formation subcrop. North of the De Weese Dye Ditch, the alluvium becomes saturated and groundwater generally flows to the northeast. Water samples from 28 sites were collected and analyzed for major ions and trace elements; selected water samples also were analyzed for stable isotopes; samples were collected from wells near the uranium ore processing mill, from privately owned wells in Lincoln Park, and from the test wells drilled in the intervening area. Results from the quality assurance samples indicate that cross-contamination between samples from different wells was avoided and that the data are reliable. Water in the alluvial aquifer underlying Lincoln Park is mainly a calcium bicarbonate type. Small variations in the composition of water in the alluvial aquifer appears to result from a reaction of water leaking from the De Weese Dye Ditch with alluvial material. Upward leakage from underlying aquifers does not seem to be significant in

  18. Groundwater microbiological quality in Canadian drinking water municipal wells.

    PubMed

    Locas, Annie; Barthe, Christine; Margolin, Aaron B; Payment, Pierre

    2008-06-01

    To verify previous conclusions on the use of bacterial indicators suggested in regulations and to investigate virological quality of groundwater, a 1-year study was undertaken on groundwater used as a source of drinking water in 3 provinces in Canada. Raw water from 25 municipal wells was sampled during a 1-year period for a total of 167 samples. Twenty-three sites were selected on the basis of their excellent historical bacteriological water quality data, and 2 sites with known bacteriological contamination were selected as positive controls. Water samples were analyzed for general water quality indicators (aerobic endospores, total coliforms), fecal indicators (Escherichia coli, enterococci, somatic and male-specific coliphages), total culturable human enteric viruses (determined by cell culture and immunoperoxidase), noroviruses (analyzed by reverse-transcriptase -- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)), adenovirus types 40 and 41 (analyzed by integrated cell culture (ICC) - PCR), and enteroviruses and reoviruses types 1, 2, and 3 (analyzed by ICC-RT-PCR). General water quality indicators were found very occasionally at the clean sites but were frequently present at the 2 contaminated sites. Only one of 129 samples from the 23 clean sites was positive for enterococci. These results confirm the value of raw water quality historical data to detect source water contamination affecting wells that are vulnerable. Samples from the 2 contaminated sites confirmed the frequent presence of fecal indicators: E. coli was found in 20/38 samples and enterococci in 12/38 samples. Human enteric viruses were not detected by cell culture on MA-104 cells nor by immunoperoxidase detection in any sample from the clean sites but were found at one contaminated site. By ICC-RT-PCR and ICC-PCR, viruses were found by cytopathic effect in one sample from a clean site and they were found in 3 samples from contaminated sites. The viruses were not detected by the molecular methods but were

  19. Hydrochemical characteristics and GIS-based assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal aquifers of Tuticorin corporation, Tamilnadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvam, S.; Manimaran, G.; Sivasubramanian, P.

    2013-03-01

    Tuticorin corporation stretches geographically from 8°43'-8°51'N latitude and 78°5'-78°10'E longitude, positioned in the East-West International sea routes on the South-East coast of India. The rapid urban developments in the past two decades of Tuticorin have caused depletion of groundwater quantity, and deterioration of quality through excessive consumption and influx of pollutants from natural and anthropogenic activities. The water samples collected in the field were analyzed for electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids, major cations like calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and anions SUCH AS bicarbonate, carbonate, chloride, nitrate and sulfate, in the laboratory using the standard methods given by the American Public Health Association. In order to assess the groundwater quality, 36 groundwater samples had been collected in year 2011. The geographic information system-based spatial distribution map of different major elements has been prepared using ArcGIS 9.2. The Piper plot shows that most of the groundwater samples fall in the field of Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl--SO4 2- and Na+-K+-Cl--HCO3 - by projecting the position on the plots in the triangular field. The cation concentration indicate that 83, 39 and 22 % of the K+, Na+, Ca2+ concentrations exceed the WHO limit. As per Wilcox's diagram and US Salinity laboratory classification, most of the groundwater samples are not suitable for irrigation due to the presence of high salinity and medium sodium hazard. Irrigation waters classified based on sodium absorption ratio, have revealed that 52 % groundwater are in general safe for irrigation, which needs treatment before use. permeability index also indicates that the groundwater samples are suitable for irrigation purpose.

  20. An innovative index for evaluating water quality in streams.

    PubMed

    Said, Ahmend; Stevens, David K; Sehlke, Gerald

    2004-09-01

    A water quality index expressed as a single number is developed to describe overall water quality conditions using multiple water quality variables. The index consists of water quality variables: dissolved oxygen, specific conductivity, turbidity, total phosphorus, and fecal coliform. The objectives of this study were to describe the preexisting indices and to define a new water quality index that has advantages over these indices. The new index was applied to the Big Lost River Watershed in Idaho, and the results gave a quantitative picture for the water quality situation. If the new water quality index for the impaired water is less than a certain number, remediation-likely in the form of total maximum daily loads or changing the management practices-may be needed. The index can be used to assess water quality for general beneficial uses. Nevertheless, the index cannot be used in making regulatory decisions, indicate water quality for specific beneficial uses, or indicate contamination from trace metals, organic contaminants, and toxic substances.

  1. Groundwater quality in the Yuba River and Bear River Watersheds, Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Jasper, Monica; Taylor, Kimberly A.

    2017-09-27

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Program’s Priority Basin Project assesses the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking water supply and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. In the Yuba River and Bear River Watersheds of the Sierra Nevada, many rural households rely on private wells for their drinking water supplies. 

  2. Combining groundwater quality analysis and a numerical flow simulation for spatially establishing utilization strategies for groundwater and surface water in the Pingtung Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Liang, Ching-Ping; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Overexploitation of groundwater is a common problem in the Pingtung Plain area of Taiwan, resulting in substantial drawdown of groundwater levels as well as the occurrence of severe seawater intrusion and land subsidence. Measures need to be taken to preserve these valuable groundwater resources. This study seeks to spatially determine the most suitable locations for the use of surface water on this plain instead of extracting groundwater for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture purposes based on information obtained by combining groundwater quality analysis and a numerical flow simulation assuming the planning of manmade lakes and reservoirs to the increase of water supply. The multivariate indicator kriging method is first used to estimate occurrence probabilities, and to rank townships as suitable or unsuitable for groundwater utilization according to water quality standards for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture. A numerical model of groundwater flow (MODFLOW) is adopted to quantify the recovery of groundwater levels in townships after model calibration when groundwater for drinking and agricultural demands has been replaced by surface water. Finally, townships with poor groundwater quality and significant increases in groundwater levels in the Pingtung Plain are prioritized for the groundwater conservation planning based on the combined assessment of groundwater quality and quantity. The results of this study indicate that the integration of groundwater quality analysis and the numerical flow simulation is capable of establishing sound strategies for joint groundwater and surface water use. Six southeastern townships are found to be suitable locations for replacing groundwater with surface water from manmade lakes or reservoirs to meet drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture demands.

  3. Groundwater quality in the Chemung River Basin, New York, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risen, Amy J.; Reddy, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The second groundwater quality study of the Chemung River Basin in south-central New York was conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 305(b) water-quality-monitoring program. Water samples were collected from five production wells and five private residential wells from October through December 2008. The samples were analyzed to characterize the chemical quality of the groundwater. Five of the wells are screened in sand and gravel aquifers, and five are finished in bedrock aquifers. Two of these wells were also sampled for the first Chemung River Basin study of 2003. Samples were analyzed for 6 physical properties and 217 constituents, including nutrients, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, phenolic compounds, organic carbon, and four types of bacterial analyses. Results of the water-quality analyses for individual wells are presented in tables, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. Water quality in the study area is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards; these were: sodium (one sample), total dissolved solids (one sample), aluminum (one sample), iron (one sample), manganese (four samples), radon-222 (eight samples), trichloroethene (one sample), and bacteria (four samples). The pH of all samples was typically neutral or slightly basic (median 7.5); the median water temperature was 11.0 degrees Celsius (?C). The ions with the highest median concentrations were bicarbonate (median 202 milligrams per liter [mg/L]) and calcium (median 59.0 mg/L). Groundwater in the study area is moderately hard to very hard, but more samples were hard or very hard (121 mg/L as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or greater) than were moderately hard (61-120 mg/L as Ca

  4. Spatiotemporal evaluation of the groundwater quality in Gharbiya Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Masoud, Alaa A; El Bouraie, Mohamed M; El-Nashar, Wafaa; Mashaly, Hamdy

    2017-03-01

    Groundwater quality indicators were monitored over 6 years (2007-2012) from 55 drinking water supply wells in Gharbiya Governorate (Egypt). The prime objective was to characterize, for the first time, the governorate-wide significant and sustained trends in the concentrations of the groundwater pollutants. Quality indicators included turbidity, pH, total dissolved solid (TDS), electric conductivity (EC), Cl(-), SO4(2-), Na(+), total alkalinity, hardness (total, Mg, and Ca), Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), F(-), NH4(+), NO2(-), NO3(-), PO4(3-), dissolved oxygen (DO), and SiO2 contents. Detection and estimation of trends and magnitude were carried out applying the non-parametric Mann-Kendall and Thiel-Sen trend statistical tests, respectively. Factor analysis was applied to identify significant sources of quality variation and their loads. Violation of groundwater quality standards clarified emergence of Mn(2+) (46%), Fe(2+) (35%), and NH4(+) (33%). Out of the 55 wells, notable upward trends (deterioration) were significant (>95% level) for TDS (89%), NO3(-) (85), PO4(3-) (75%), NH4(+) (65%), total alkalinity (62%), Fe(2+) (58%), NO2(-) (47%), Mg hardness (36%), turbidity (25%), and Mn(2+) (24%). Ranges of attenuation rates (mg/l/year) varied for TDS (24.3, -0.7), Mg hardness (3.8, -0.85), total alkalinity (1.4, -1.2), NO3(-) (0.52, -0.066), PO4(3-) (0.069, -0.064), NH4(+) (0.038, -0.019), Mn(2+) (0.015, -0.044), Fe(2+) (0.006, -0.014), and NO2(-) (0.006, -0.00003). Highest rates marked Tanta (total alkalinity and Fe(2+)), Al-Mehala Al-Kubra (TDS, Mg hardness, and NO3(-)), Kafr Al-Zayat (NH4(+)), Zifta (Mn(2+)), Bassyun (NO2(-)), and Qutur (PO4(3-)). Precision of the trend estimate varied in goodness of fit, for TDS (86%), Mg hardness (76%), total alkalinity (73%), PO4(3-) (67.4%), NH4(+) (66.8%), Mn(2+) (55%), and Fe(2+) (49.6%), arranged in decreasing order. Two main varimax-rotated factors counted for more than 55% of the quality variance and, in particular

  5. Groundwater quality in the shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule Groundwater Basins and adjacent highlands areas, Southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-01-18

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The shallow aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule groundwater basins and adjacent highlands areas of the southern San Joaquin Valley constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  6. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Beak Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Part 2: 1995 groundwater quality data interpretations

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) for several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the US DOE Y-12 Plant. The sites addressed by this document are located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the Y-12 Plant complex within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime. The Bear Creek Regime is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface water quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements. Each annual Part 2 GWQR addresses RCRA interim status reporting requirements regarding assessment of the horizontal and vertical extent of groundwater contamination. This report includes background information regarding the extent of groundwater and surface water contamination in the Bear Creek Regime based on the conceptual models described in the remedial investigation report (Section 2); a summary of the groundwater and surface water monitoring activities performed during CY 1995 (Section 3.0); analysis and interpretation of the CY 1995 monitoring data for groundwater (Section 4.0) and surface water (Section 5.0); a summary of conclusions and recommendations (Section 6.0); and a list of cited references (Section 7.0). Appendices contain diagrams, graphs, data tables, and summaries and the evaluation and decision criteria for data screening.

  7. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the coastal region of Oman using DRASTIC index method in GIS environment.

    PubMed

    Jamrah, Ahmad; Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Rajmohan, Natarajan; Al-Yaroubi, Saif

    2008-12-01

    A study was carried out to develop a vulnerability map for Barka region in the North Batina of Oman using DRASTIC vulnerability index method in GIS environment. DRASTIC layers were created using data from published reports and the seven DRASTIC layers were processed by the ArcGIS geographic information system. Finally, DRASTIC maps were created for 1995 and 2004 to understand the long-term changes in the vulnerability index. DRASTIC vulnerability maps were evaluated using groundwater quality data such as chemical and biological parameters. DRASTIC vulnerability maps of 1995 and 2004 indicate that the northern part of Barka is more vulnerable to pollution than southern part and the central part of Barka also shows high relative vulnerability which is mostly related to the high conductivity values. Moreover, the changes in water level due to high abstraction rate of groundwater reflect in the vulnerability maps and low vulnerability area is increased in the southern part during 2004 compared to 1995. Moreover, regional distribution maps of nitrate, chloride and total and fecal coliforms are well correlated with DRASTIC vulnerability maps. In contrast to this, even though DRASTIC method predicted the central part of the study region is highly vulnerable, both chemical and biological parameters show lower concentrations in this region compared to coastal belt, which is mainly due to agricultural and urban development. In Barka, urban development and agricultural activities are very high in coastal region compared to southern and central part of the study area. Hence, this study concluded that DRASTIC method is also applicable in coastal region having ubiquitous contamination sources.

  8. Influence of Sungun copper mine on groundwater quality, NW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, T.; Nabi Bidhendi, G. R.; Karbassi, A. R.; Hoveidi, H.; Nasrabadi, I.; Pezeshk, H.; Rashidinejad, F.

    2009-08-01

    Sungun mine is the largest open-cast copper mine in northwest of Iran and is in the primary stages of extraction. The influence of mining activity on the quality of regional groundwater has been taken in to consideration in this study. Accordingly, sampling was done from 22 springs in the study area. The concentrations of major anions and cations as well as Al, Cu, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, and Zn were determined for all 22 spring samples in mid-August 2005. The results showed that the concentrations of most of these elements were below the USA Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) limits; however, Al and Fe concentrations are considered to be more than limits in a couple of samples. Despite the fact that geological formations are highly weathered and fractured, the dissolution of minerals within the study area is low. This may be justified by the relatively high alkalinity of local underground water which keeps metals in solid phase and does not let them enter dissolved phase. Additionally, this may be attributed to the high velocity of groundwater flows, which do not give enough time for minerals to dissolve. Correlation coefficients among water chemistry components were determined and the weighted-pair group method was chosen for cluster analysis. Accordingly, high correlation among Al, Fe and Cr, Cd ,and Cu, sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and Na as well as total hardness (TH), Ca, and Mg were observed. The chemical characteristics of water compositions on the basis of major ion concentrations were evaluated on a Schoeller and Piper diagram. Accordingly, the dominant type of water in the region is considered to be Ca-HCO3 (calcium-bicarbonate type). However, this type of water is also rich in Na, K, and especially Mg. Regarding Schoeller diagram, the current status of local underground water is good for drinking purposes. By commencing mining excavation with designed capacity in near future, the minerals will come into contact with air and water resulting in dissolution

  9. Optimizing the monitoring scheme for groundwater quality in the Lusatian mining region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Beate; Hildmann, Christian; Haubold-Rosar, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Opencast lignite mining always requires the lowering of the groundwater table. In Lusatia, strong mining activities during the GDR era were associated with low groundwater levels in huge parts of the region. Pyrite (iron sulfide) oxidation in the aerated sediments is the cause for a continuous regional groundwater pollution with sulfates, acids, iron and other metals. The contaminated groundwater poses danger to surface water bodies and may also affect soil quality. Due to the decline of mining activities after the German reunification, groundwater levels have begun to recover towards the pre-mining stage, which aggravates the environmental risks. Given the relevance of the problem and the need for effective remediation measures, it is mandatory to know the temporal and spatial distribution of potential pollutants. The reliability of these space-time models, in turn, relies on a well-designed groundwater monitoring scheme. So far, the groundwater monitoring network in the Lusatian mining region represents a purposive sample in space and time with great variations in the density of monitoring wells. Moreover, groundwater quality in some of the areas that face pronounced increases in groundwater levels is currently not monitored at all. We therefore aim to optimize the monitoring network based on the existing information, taking into account practical aspects such as the land-use dependent need for remedial action. This contribution will discuss the usefulness of approaches for optimizing spatio-temporal mapping with regard to groundwater pollution by iron and aluminum in the Lusatian mining region.

  10. Impacts of afforestation on groundwater resources and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alistair; Chapman, Deborah

    2001-07-01

    Plans to double the proportion of land under forest cover in Ireland by the year 2035 have been initiated. The plan, primarily financially driven, ignores potential environmental impacts of forestry, particularly impacts on groundwater resources and quality. Since groundwater supplies almost 25% of Ireland's total potable water, these impacts are important. Field investigations indicate that afforestation leads to a reduction in runoff by as much as 20%, mainly due to interception of rainfall by forest canopies. Clearfelling has the opposite impact. Implications are that uncoordinated forestry practices can potentially exacerbate flooding. Groundwater recharge is affected by forestry, largely due to greater uptake of soil water by trees and to increased water-holding capacity of forest soils, arising from higher organic contents. Recharge rates under forests can be reduced to one tenth that under grass or heathland. Groundwater quality may be affected by enhanced acidification and nitrification under forests, due partly to scavenging of atmospheric pollutants by forest canopies, and partly to greater deposition of highly acid leaf litter. The slower recharge rates of groundwater under forests lead to significant delays in manifestation of deterioration in groundwater quality. Résumé. Des plans sont à l'étude pour doubler la proportion du couvert forestier en Irlande d'ici à 2035. Le plan, primitivement déterminé sur une base financière, ignore les impacts environnementaux potentiels de la foresterie, et particulièrement les impacts sur les ressources en eau souterraine et leur qualité. Du fait que les eaux souterraines satisfont presque 25% du total de l'eau potable de l'Irlande, ces impacts sont importants. Les études de terrain montrent que le reboisement conduit à une réduction du ruissellement d'au moins 20%, principalement à cause d'une interception de la pluie par le couvert forestier. Les coupes ont un impact contraire. Les implications sont

  11. Evaluation of ground-water quality data from Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sprinkle, C.L.; Davis, R.W.; Mull, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    The report reviews and summarizes 10,578 chemical analyses, from 2,362 wells and springs in Kentucky. These water-quality data were collected prior to September 30, 1981, and are available in computer files of the U.S. Geological Survey. The principal water-bearing rocks in Kentucky were combined into 10 major groups to aid in data summary preparation and general description of the ground-water quality of the State. Ground water in Kentucky is generally fresh near the outcrop of the rocks comprising the aquifer. Slightly saline to briny water occurs at variable depths beneath the freshwater. Preparation of quadrilinear diagrams revealed three principal geochemical processes in the aquifers of Kentucky: (1) mixing of freshwater and saline water in an interface zone; (2) dedolomitization of the Devonian and Silurian and Lower Mississippian carbonate rocks; (3) sodium for calcium exchange in the freshwater sections of many of the sandstone-shale aquifers. A number of errors and deficiencies were found in the data base. The principal deficiencies were: (1) very few complete analyses which included important field measurements; (2) inadequate definition of the chemistry of the freshwater-saline water interface zone throughout much of the State; (3) no analyses of stable isotopes and dissolved gases; (4) fewer than 10 analyses of most trace metals, radionuclides, and man-made organic chemicals; and (5) no data on bacteria in ground water from any aquifer in the State. (USGS)

  12. Field-scale relationships among soil properties and shallow groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Derby, Nathan E; Korom, Scott F; Casey, Francis X M

    2013-01-01

    It is important to understand the link between land surface/soil properties and shallow groundwater quality. To that end, soil properties and near-water-table groundwater chemistry of a shallow, unconfined aquifer were measured on a 100-m grid on a 64-ha irrigated field in southeastern North Dakota. Soil properties and hydrochemistry were compared via multivariate analysis that included product-moment correlations and factor analysis/principal component analysis. Topographic low areas where the water table was in close proximity to the soil surface generally had higher apparent electrical conductivity (ECa ) and higher percent silt and clay than higher positions on the landscape. The majority of the groundwater was characterized by Ca- and Mg-HCO3 type water and was associated with topographic high areas with lower ECa and net groundwater recharge. Small topographic depressions were areas of higher ECa (net groundwater discharge) where salts that precipitated via evapotranspiration and evaporative discharge dissolved and leached to the groundwater during short-term depression-focused recharge events. At this site, groundwater quality and soil ECa were related to surface topography. High-resolution topography and EC(a) measurements are necessary to characterize the land surface/soil properties and surficial groundwater quality at the field-scale and to delineate areas where the shallow groundwater is most susceptible to contamination.

  13. The spatial and seasonal variability of the groundwater chemistry and quality in the exploited aquifer in the Daxing District, Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yuanzheng; Lei, Yan; Zhou, Jun; Li, Muzi; Wang, Jinsheng; Teng, Yanguo

    2015-02-01

    The aquifer in the Beijing Plain is intensively used as a primary source to meet the growing needs of the various sectors (drinking, agricultural, and industrial purposes). The analysis of groundwater chemical characteristics provides much important information useful in water resources management. To characterize the groundwater chemistry, reveal its spatial and seasonal variability, and determine its quality suitability for domestic and agricultural uses, a total of 200 groundwater samples were collected in June and October 2012 from 100 exploited wells in Daxing District, Beijing, China. All of the indices (39 items) listed in the Quality Standard for Groundwater of China (QSGC) as well as eight additional common parameters were tested and analyzed for all samples, based on which research target was achieved. The seasonal effect on the groundwater chemistry and quality was very slight, whereas the spatial changes were very obvious. The aquifer is mainly dominated by HCO3-Ca·Mg-type water. Of the 39 quality indices listed in QSGC, 28 indices of all of the samples for the 2 months can be classified into the excellent level, whereas the remaining 11 indices can be classified into different levels with the total hardness, NO3, NO2, and Fe being the worst, mainly distributed in the residential and industrial land. According to the general quality index, the groundwater can be classified from good to a relatively poor level, mainly from southeast to northwest. Furthermore, the relatively poor-level area in the northwest expands to the southeast more than in the past years, to which people should pay attention because this reverse spatial distribution relative to the natural law indicates an obvious, anthropogenic impact on the groundwater. In addition, the groundwater in this area is generally very suitable for irrigation year-round. Nevertheless, we recommend performing agricultural water-saving measures for the sustainable development of water and urbanization

  14. Empirical estimation of groundwater quality changes using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, A.; Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Recent groundwater availability studies estimate large-scale aquifer depletion rates and aquifer stress using monthly water storage variations from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. To further evaluate available groundwater resources, assessing potability of groundwater is necessary. Statistical relationships are initially developed at individual well locations to discern our ability to predict groundwater geochemistry as a function of groundwater levels. Next, up-scaled multivariate relationships to estimate total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations as a function of GRACE-derived subsurface storage anomalies, dominant land use, and other physical parameters are developed in two important aquifer systems in the United States: the High Plains aquifer and the Central Valley aquifer. A goodness of fit test was performed to evaluate model strength. Results demonstrate the potential to characterize global groundwater potability variations using remote sensing.

  15. Megacity pumping and preferential flow threaten groundwater quality

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mahfuzur R.; Koneshloo, Mohammad; Knappett, Peter S. K.; Ahmed, Kazi M.; Bostick, Benjamin C.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Mozumder, Rajib H.; Zahid, Anwar; Harvey, Charles F.; van Geen, Alexander; Michael, Holly A.

    2016-01-01

    Many of the world's megacities depend on groundwater from geologically complex aquifers that are over-exploited and threatened by contamination. Here, using the example of Dhaka, Bangladesh, we illustrate how interactions between aquifer heterogeneity and groundwater exploitation jeopardize groundwater resources regionally. Groundwater pumping in Dhaka has caused large-scale drawdown that extends into outlying areas where arsenic-contaminated shallow groundwater is pervasive and has potential to migrate downward. We evaluate the vulnerability of deep, low-arsenic groundwater with groundwater models that incorporate geostatistical simulations of aquifer heterogeneity. Simulations show that preferential flow through stratigraphy typical of fluvio-deltaic aquifers could contaminate deep (>150 m) groundwater within a decade, nearly a century faster than predicted through homogeneous models calibrated to the same data. The most critical fast flowpaths cannot be predicted by simplified models or identified by standard measurements. Such complex vulnerability beyond city limits could become a limiting factor for megacity groundwater supplies in aquifers worldwide. PMID:27673729

  16. Virological control of groundwater quality using biomolecular tests.

    PubMed

    Carducci, A; Casini, B; Bani, A; Rovini, E; Verani, M; Mazzoni, F; Giuntini, A

    2003-01-01

    specificity tests have been carried out in the presence of some of the commoner microorganisms. The most efficient, sensitive and specific protocols were used to test 35 x 100L deep groundwater samples. Sample concentrates were split with one part treated with chloroform and analysed by cell culture (BGM and Frp/3, derived from FrHK/4, cells) and the other tested by RT-PCR for HAV, EV and SRSV. Results demonstrated the high efficiency of the classic and QIAamp methods. Microcon-100 did not increase the sensitivity of the technique used. The highest sensitivity was observed for RT-PCR with specific primers for SRSV and for nested RT-PCR for HAV. One sample showed a cytopathic effect, not confirmed at the third subculture, while the RT-PCR allowed the detection of echovirus 7. Cell culture did not allow detection of the majority of the enteric viruses while PCR gave sensitive, specific and rapid detection of a range of agents in the same samples. Even if it was impossible to fix a virological quality standard, it would be necessary to find a viral indicator in order to achieve a complete preventive check which would be particularly useful in some cases (e.g. water never used before, after pollution accidents, for seasonal checking).

  17. Effects of a constructed wetland and pond system upon shallow groundwater quality

    Treesearch

    Ying Ouyang

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetland (CW) and constructed pond (CP) are commonly utilized for removal of excess nutrients and certain pollutants from stormwater. This study characterized shallow groundwater quality for pre- and post-CW and CP system conditions using data from monitoring wells. Results showed that the average concentrations of groundwater phosphorus (P) decreased from...

  18. Interactions of water quality and integrated groundwater management: exampled from the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Groundwater is available in many parts of the world, but the quality of the water may limit its use. Contaminants can limit the use of groundwater through concerns associated with human health, aquatic health, economic costs, or even societal perception. Given this broad range of concerns, this chap...

  19. Groundwater quality in the Mohawk River Basin, New York, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Scott, Tia-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 21 production and domestic wells in the Mohawk River Basin in New York in July 2011 to characterize groundwater quality in the basin. The samples were collected and processed using standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 148 physiochemical properties and constituents, including dissolved gases, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria. The Mohawk River Basin covers 3,500 square miles in New York and is underlain by shale, sandstone, carbonate, and crystalline bedrock. The bedrock is overlain by till in much of the basin, but surficial deposits of saturated sand and gravel are present in some areas. Nine of the wells sampled in the Mohawk River Basin are completed in sand and gravel deposits, and 12 are completed in bedrock. Groundwater in the Mohawk River Basin was typically neutral or slightly basic; the water typically was very hard. Bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, and sodium were the major ions with the greatest median concentrations; the dominant nutrient was nitrate. Methane was detected in 15 samples. Strontium, iron, barium, boron, and manganese were the trace elements with the highest median concentrations. Four pesticides, all herbicides or their degradates, were detected in four samples at trace levels; three VOCs, including chloroform and two solvents, were detected in four samples. The greatest radon-222 activity, 2,300 picocuries per liter, was measured in a sample from a bedrock well, but the median radon activity was higher in samples from sand and gravel wells than in samples from bedrock wells. Coliform bacteria were detected in five samples with a maximum of 92 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters. Water quality in the Mohawk River Basin is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards. The standards

  20. Hydrochemical Assessment of Surfacewater and Groundwater Quality at Bank Infiltration Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsuddin, M. K. N.; Suratman, S.; Ramli, M. F.; Sulaiman, W. N. A.; Sefie, A.

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater and surface water quantity and quality are an important factor that contribute for drinking water demand and agriculture use. The water quality analysis was assessed using multivariate statistical analyses based on analytical quantitative data that include Discriminant Analysis (DA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), based on 36 water quality parameters from the rivers, lakes, and groundwater sites at Jenderam Hilir, which were collected from 2013 to 2014 (56 observations). The DA identified six significant parameters (pH, NO2-, NO3-, F, Fe2+, and Mn2+) from 36 variables to distinguish between the river, lake, and groundwater groups (classification accuracy = 98%). The PCA had confirmed 10 possible causes of variation in the groundwater quality with an eigenvalue greater than 1, which explained 82.931% of the total variance in the water quality data set.

  1. Groundwater quality in Scotland: major ion chemistry of the key groundwater bodies.

    PubMed

    Robins, N S

    2002-07-22

    Groundwater in Scotland is, for the most part, weakly to moderately mineralised and dominated by the Ca and HCO3 ions. The aquifer systems are almost entirely unconfined and most groundwater remains in contact with oxygen; some reducing groundwaters occur in deeper isolated cracks and joints within the many fractured bedrock aquifers such as Devonian sandstones. Groundwater depleted in oxygen is also common in the Coal Measures in the Midland Valley as a direct result of past coal and oil shale mining, when iron and other metals are taken into solution as the abandoned mine workings are allowed to flood. Low pH groundwaters are rare but do occur where calcite is absent in some basement rocks. Marine intrusion of coastal aquifers occurs locally in East Lothian and parts of Morayshire. Deeper circulating groundwaters are responsible for some of the more exotic spa waters, notably at Bridge of Earn near Perth. Nitrate contamination of groundwater is increasing in some areas, and is most prevalent in the south of Scotland. The Devonian aquifer in Fife and parts of the Permian sandstone aquifers of south-west Scotland are the worst affected.

  2. National Wildlife's Eleventh Annual Environmental Quality Index 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presented is the Eleventh Annual Environmental Quality Index, a subjective analysis of the state of the nation's natural resources. Resource trends are detailed for wildlife, minerals, air, water, soil living space, and forests. (BT)

  3. National Wildlife's Eleventh Annual Environmental Quality Index 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presented is the Eleventh Annual Environmental Quality Index, a subjective analysis of the state of the nation's natural resources. Resource trends are detailed for wildlife, minerals, air, water, soil living space, and forests. (BT)

  4. A Geographically Variable Water Quality Index Used in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunnette, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the procedure developed in Oregon to formulate a valid water quality index which accounts for the specific conditions in the water body of interest. Parameters selected include oxygen depletion, BOD, eutrophication, dissolved substances, health hazards, and physical characteristics. (CS)

  5. A Geographically Variable Water Quality Index Used in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunnette, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the procedure developed in Oregon to formulate a valid water quality index which accounts for the specific conditions in the water body of interest. Parameters selected include oxygen depletion, BOD, eutrophication, dissolved substances, health hazards, and physical characteristics. (CS)

  6. A comparison between index of entropy and catastrophe theory methods for mapping groundwater potential in an arid region.

    PubMed

    Al-Abadi, Alaa M; Shahid, Shamsuddin

    2015-09-01

    In this study, index of entropy and catastrophe theory methods were used for demarcating groundwater potential in an arid region using weighted linear combination techniques in geographical information system (GIS) environment. A case study from Badra area in the eastern part of central of Iraq was analyzed and discussed. Six factors believed to have influence on groundwater occurrence namely elevation, slope, aquifer transmissivity and storativity, soil, and distance to fault were prepared as raster thematic layers to facility integration into GIS environment. The factors were chosen based on the availability of data and local conditions of the study area. Both techniques were used for computing weights and assigning ranks vital for applying weighted linear combination approach. The results of application of both modes indicated that the most influential groundwater occurrence factors were slope and elevation. The other factors have relatively smaller values of weights implying that these factors have a minor role in groundwater occurrence conditions. The groundwater potential index (GPI) values for both models were classified using natural break classification scheme into five categories: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. For validation of generated GPI, the relative operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used. According to the obtained area under the curve, the catastrophe model with 78 % prediction accuracy was found to perform better than entropy model with 77 % prediction accuracy. The overall results indicated that both models have good capability for predicting groundwater potential zones.

  7. Zonal management of multi-purposes groundwater utilization based on water quality and impact on the aquifer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater is widely used for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture in the Pingtung Plain, Southwestern Taiwan. The overexploitation and poor quality of groundwater in some areas of the Pingtung Plain pose great challenges for the safe use and sustainable management of groundwater resources. Thus, establishing an effective management plan for multi-purpose groundwater utilization in the Pingtung Plain is imperative. Considerations of the quality of the groundwater and potential impact on the aquifer of groundwater exploitation are paramount to multi-purpose groundwater utilization management. This study proposes a zonal management plan for the multi-purpose use of groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The zonal management plan is developed by considering the spatial variability of the groundwater quality and the impact on the aquifer, which is defined as the ratio of the actual groundwater extraction rate to transmissivity. A geostatistical Kriging approach is used to spatially delineate the safe zones based on the water quality standards applied in the three groundwater utilization sectors. Suitable zones for the impact on the aquifer are then spatially determined. The evaluation results showing the safe water quality zones for the three types of utilization demands and suitable zones for the impact on aquifer are integrated to create a zonal management map for multi-purpose groundwater utilization which can help government administrators to establish a water resource management strategy for safe and sustainable use of groundwater to meet multi-purpose groundwater utilization requirements in the Pingtung Plain.

  8. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the South Coast Interior groundwater basins, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 653-square-mile (1,691-square-kilometer) South Coast Interior Basins (SCI) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The South Coast Interior Basins study unit contains eight priority groundwater basins grouped into three study areas, Livermore, Gilroy, and Cuyama, in the Southern Coast Ranges hydrogeologic province. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA South Coast Interior Basins study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated (raw) groundwater quality within the primary aquifer system, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality between basins. The assessment was based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 50 wells in 2008 and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the SCI study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as trace elements and minor ions. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifer system of the SCI study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration

  9. Heuristic Model Of The Composite Quality Index Of Environmental Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabarov, A. N.; Knyaginin, A. A.; Bondarenko, D. V.; Shepet, I. P.; Korolkova, L. N.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to present the heuristic model of the composite environmental quality index based on the integrated application of the elements of utility theory, multidimensional scaling, expert evaluation and decision-making. The composite index is synthesized in linear-quadratic form, it provides higher adequacy of the results of the assessment preferences of experts and decision-makers.

  10. Quality of Life in Hong Kong: The CUHK Hong Kong Quality of Life Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ying Keung; Kwan, Cheuk Chiu Andy; Shek, Tan Lei Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The CUHK Hong Kong Quality of Life Index, which aims to assess and monitor the quality of life in Hong Kong, is a composite index incorporating both objective and subjective measures. This index, developed by the Faculty of Social Science of The Chinese University of Hong Kong, employs data collected in representative sample surveys and official…

  11. Groundwater quality assessment for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant. 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several waste management facilities and petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) sites associated with the Y-12 Plant. These sites are within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (UEFPCHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring and remediation. This report was prepared for informational purposes. Included are the analytical data for groundwater samples collected from selected monitoring wells during 1991 and the results for quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) samples associated with each groundwater sample. This report also contains summaries of selected data, including ion-charge balances for each groundwater sample, a summary of analytical results for nitrate (a principle contaminant in the UEFPCHR), results of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analyses validated using the associated QA/QC sample data, a summary of trace metal concentrations which exceeded drinking-water standards, and a summary of radiochemical analyses and associated counting errors.

  12. Computed tomography quality indexes: evaluation experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strocchi, Sabina; Vite, Cristina; Novario, Raffaele; Cacciatori, Marco; Frigerio, Giovanna; Conte, Leopoldo

    2009-02-01

    Aim of this work was to identify proper figures of merit (FoM's) to quantitatively and objectively assess the whole acquisition process of a CT image and to evaluate which are more significant. Catphan® phantom images where acquired with a 64 slices computed tomography system, with head and abdomen protocols. Automatic exposure modulation system was on, with different settings. We defined three FoM's (Q, Q1 and Q2) including image quality parameters and acquisition modalities; two of them (Q and Q1) include also a radiation dose quantity, the third (Q2) does not. Then we drew from these the comparable FoM's (CNR, Q1 *, Q2), that do not have dose in their definitions, in order to investigate how they depend on perceived image quality. The FoM's were evaluated for each series. At the same time, expert observers evaluated the number of low contrast inserts seen in the phantom' images. The considered CNR, Q1*, Q2 FoM's are linearly related to the perceived image quality for both the acquisition protocols (head: r2=0.91;0.94;0.91; abdomen: r2=0.93;0.93;0.85). Q and Q1 values analysis shows that these FoM's can distinguish between different acquisition modalities (head or abdomen) with statistically significant difference (p<0.05). The studied FoM's can be usefully used to quantitatively and objectively assess the whole CT image acquisition process. Those FoM's including also radiation dose (Q, Q1) can be used to objectively quantify the equilibrium between image quality and radiation dose for a certain acquisition modality.

  13. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of Ranipet industrial area, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, G. Tamma; Rao, V. V. S. Gurunadha; Ranganathan, K.

    2013-06-01

    One of the highly polluted areas in India located at Ranipet occupies around 200 tanneries and other small scale chemical industries. Partially treated industrial effluents combined with sewage and other wastes discharged on the surface cause severe groundwater pollution in the industrial belt. This poses a problem of supply of safe drinking water in the rural parts of the country. A study was carried out to assess the groundwater pollution and identify major variables affecting the groundwater quality in Ranipet industrial area. Twenty five wells were monitored during pre- and post-monsoon in 2008 and analyzed for the major physico-chemical variables. The water quality variables such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Iron (Fe2 + ), Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6 + ), at most of the sampling locations exceeded the ISI and WHO guideline levels for drinking water. Multivariate statistical techniques such as factor analysis were applied to identify the major factors (variables) corresponding to the different source of variation in groundwater quality. The water quality of groundwater is influenced by both anthropogenic and chemical weathering. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from TDS, Cr6 + and Fe2 + , which are associated with sewage and pollution of tannery waste. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influences such as agricultural, natural weathering process.

  14. Geomorphological control on groundwater flow, transit times and water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Marçais, Jean; Kolbe, Tamara; Courtois, Quentin; Longuevergne, Laurent; Steer, Philippe; Davy, Philippe; Thomas, Zahra; Le Carlier, Christian; Guillocheau, François; Pinay, Gilles

    2017-04-01

    In weathered zones, subsurface flows remain shallow and strongly depend on the geomorphological evolution of the landscape. Weathered profiles have limited depths. Subsurface circulations follow the structure of the hydrological catchment. Surface and subsurface flows are strongly coupled by rapid responses of saturations to recharge. Some of the circulations are indeed fast with surface/subsurface signatures and transit times of the order of some weeks to some months. Most of the water is however much older as revealed by anthropogenic tracers. For example, in the western crystalline basement of France, characteristic transit times are more of the order of decades. Detailed groundwater flow and transport modelling in well-documented sites show that behaviour of weathered zones is intermediary between hydrology and hydrogeology. While organization of flows is strongly constrained by topography like for hydrology, transit times are however much longer like in hydrogeology. Based on several catchments, we propose quantitative indicators to relate geomorphology with subsurface flow organization. We integrate geological constrains and saturation capacities to derive transit-time dynamics. We discuss the consequences on water quality linked to kinetically-controlled degradation of non-point source contaminants.

  15. Ground-water availability and water quality, Farmington, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazzaferro, David L.

    1980-01-01

    The strataified-drift aquifer in Farmington, Conn., is capable of yielding large amounts of water to individual wells. About 14 square miles of Farmington is underlain by stratified-drift deposits which, in places, are more than 450 feet thick. The most productive deposits are found in the Farmington River valley, from Unionville to River Glen, and along Scott Swamp Brook. In these areas, saturated, coarse-grained, stratified-drift deosits exceed 80 feet in thickness and estimated yields to individual wells ranged from 250 to 1,000 gallons per minute. Results of mathematical model analysis of three of the most favorable ground-water areas indicate that long-term yields range from 1.2 to 2.5 million gallons per day. Water in the Framington and Pequabuck Rivers meets the Connecticut Drinking Water Standards, assuming complete conventional treatment, for coliform orgaisms, color, trubidity, chloride, copper, and nitrate. Coliform bacteria concentrations in the Pequabuck river (12-month geometric mean of about 6,800 colonies per 100 milliliters of water) indicate a potential problem. Water in the stratified-drift aquifer is of good quality with the exception of manganese; 10 of 11 wells sampled had maganese concentrations above 0.05 milligram per liter. (USGS)

  16. Groundwater quality in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit is approximately 860 square miles and consists of the Santa Monica, Hollywood, West Coast, Central, and Orange County Coastal Plain groundwater basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The basins are bounded in part by faults, including the Newport-Inglewood fault zone, and are filled with Holocene-, Pleistocene-, and Pliocene-age marine and alluvial sediments. The Central Basin and Orange County Coastal Plain are divided into a forebay zone on the northeast and a pressure zone in the center and southwest. The forebays consist of unconsolidated coarser sediment, and the pressure zones are characterized by lenses of coarser sediment divided into confined to semi-confined aquifers by lenses of finer sediments. The primary aquifer system in the study unit is defined as those parts of the aquifer system corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of public-supply wells. The majority of public-supply wells are drilled to depths of 510 to 1,145 feet, consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of about 300 to 510 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing. Water quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from that in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer systems.

  17. Risk Communication of Groundwater Quality in Northern Malawi, Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, R.

    2011-12-01

    Malawi lies in Africa's Great Rift Valley. Its western border is defined by Lake Malawi, the third largest lake in Africa. Over 80% of Malawians live in rural areas and 90% of the labor force is associated with agriculture. More than half of the population lives below the poverty line. Area characteristics indicate a high likelihood of nitrate and total coliform in community drinking water. Infants exposed to high nitrate are at risk of developing methemoglobinemia. In addition, diarrheal diseases from unsafe drinking water are one of the top causes of mortality in children under five. Without sufficient and sustainable supplies of clean water, these challenges will continue to threaten Malawi's ability to overcome the devastating impact of diarrheal diseases on its population. Therefore, Malawi remains highly dependent on outside assistance and influence to reduce or eliminate the threat posed by unsafe drinking water. This research presents a literature review of nitrate and total coliform groundwater quality and a proposed risk communication plan for drinking water in northern Malawi.

  18. Water quality assessment and hydrochemical characterization of Zamzam groundwater, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Barakah, Fahad N.; Al-jassas, Abdurahman M.; Aly, Anwar A.

    2017-03-01

    This study focuses on chemical and microbial analyses of 50 Zamzam water samples, Saudi Arabia. The soluble ions, trace elements, total colony counts, total coliform group, and E. coli were determined and compared with WHO standards. The obtained results indicated that the dissolved salts, soluble cations and anions, Pb, Cd, As, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, Cr, PO4 3-, NO2 -, Br-, F-, NH4 +, and Li+, were within permissible limits for all samples. Yet, 2% of waters contain NO3 - at slightly high concentration. The water quality index (WQI) reveals that 94% of the samples were excellent for drinking (class I). While the remaining was unsuitable due to total coliform group contamination "class (V)". Durov diagram suggest no clear facies and dominant water type can be noted. It indicates mixing processes of two or more different facies might be occurring in the groundwater system. All studied waters were undersaturated with respect to halite, gypsum, fluorite, and anhydrite. These minerals tend to dissolve and increase water salinity. A direct relationship between Zamzam water salinity and rainfall is recorded. The water salinity fluctuated between 4500 mg L-1 (year 1950) and 500 mg L-1 (year 2015) based on rainfall extent. The approach applied can be used to similar groundwater worldwide.

  19. Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation: a case study from Bandalamottu lead mining area, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraju, A.; Sunil Kumar, K.; Thejaswi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Quality of water resources in the Bandalamottu area of Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh in South India is facing a serious challenge due to Pb mining. Therefore, 40 groundwater samples were collected from this area to assess their hydrogeochemistry and suitability for irrigation purposes. The groundwater samples were analyzed for distribution of chemical elements Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, CO3 2-, F-, Cl-, and SO4 2-. It also includes pH, electrical conductivity, total hardness, non-carbonate hardness and total alkalinity. The parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio (SAR), adjusted SAR, sodium percentage, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, non-carbonate hardness, Kelly's ratio, magnesium ratio, permeability index, indices of base exchange (IBE) and Gibbs ratio were also calculated. The major hydrochemical facieses were Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl types. The result of saturation index calculated by Visual MINTEQ software combined with Gibbs diagram and IBE findings indicate that, dolomite and calcite dissolution and reverse ion exchange can be a major process controlling the water chemistry in the study area. The results also showed that the salinity (85 %, C3 class) and alkalinity due to high concentration of HCO3 - and CO3 - and low Ca:Mg molar ratio (97.5 %, <1), are the major problems with water for irrigation usage. As a result, the quality of the groundwater is not suitable for sustainable crop production and soil health without appropriate remediation.

  20. Positive and negative impacts of five Austrian gravel pit lakes on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Muellegger, Christian; Weilhartner, Andreas; Battin, Tom J; Hofmann, Thilo

    2013-01-15

    Groundwater-fed gravel pit lakes (GPLs) affect the biological, organic, and inorganic parameters of inflowing groundwater through combined effects of bank filtration at the inflow, reactions within the lake, and bank filtration at the outflow. GPLs result from wet dredging for sand and gravel and may conflict with groundwater protection programs by removing the protective soil cover and exposing groundwater to the atmosphere. We have investigated the impact on groundwater of five GPLs with different sizes, ages, and mean residence times, and all having low post-excavation anthropogenic usage. The results revealed highly active biological systems within the lake water, in which primary producers significantly reduced inflowing nitrate concentrations. Decalcification also occurred in lake water, reducing water hardness, which could be beneficial for waterworks in hard groundwater areas. Downgradient groundwater nitrate and calcium concentrations were found to be stable, with only minor seasonal variations. Biological degradation of organic material and organic micropollutants was also observed in the GPLs. For young GPLs adequate sediment deposits may not yet have formed and degradation processes at the outflow may consequently not yet be well established. However, our results showed that within 5 years from the cessation of excavation a protective sediment layer is established that is sufficient to prevent the export of dissolved organic carbon to downgradient groundwater. GPLs can improve groundwater quality in anthropogenically (e.g., pesticides and nitrate) or geologically (e.g., hardness) challenging situations. However, post-excavation usage of GPLs is often dominated by human activities such as recreational activities, water sports, or fish farming. These activities will affect lake and groundwater quality and the risks involved are difficult to predict and monitor and can lead to overall negative impacts on groundwater quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  1. Overview of groundwater quality in the Piceance Basin, western Colorado, 1946--2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, J.C.; McMahon, P.B.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater-quality data from public and private sources for the period 1946 to 2009 were compiled and put into a common data repository for the Piceance Basin. The data repository is available on the web at http://rmgsc.cr.usgs.gov/cwqdr/Piceance/index.shtml. A subset of groundwater-quality data from the repository was compiled, reviewed, and checked for quality assurance for this report. The resulting dataset consists of the most recently collected sample from 1,545 wells, 1,007 (65 percent) of which were domestic wells. From those samples, the following constituents were selected for presentation in this report: dissolved oxygen, dissolved solids, pH, major ions (chloride, sulfate, fluoride), trace elements (arsenic, barium, iron, manganese, selenium), nitrate, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, methane, and the stable isotopic compositions of water and methane. Some portion of recharge to most of the wells for which data were available was derived from precipitation (most likely snowmelt), as indicated by δ2H [H2O] and δ18O[H2O] values that plot along the Global Meteoric Water Line and near the values for snow samples collected in the study area. Ninety-three percent of the samples were oxic, on the basis of concentrations of dissolved oxygen that were greater than or equal to 0.5 milligrams per liter. Concentration data were compared with primary and secondary drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Constituents that exceeded the primary standards were arsenic (13 percent), selenium (9.2 percent), fluoride (8.4 percent), barium (4.1 percent), nitrate (1.6 percent), and benzene (0.6 percent). Concentrations of toluene, xylenes, and ethylbenzene did not exceed standards in any samples. Constituents that exceeded the secondary standard were dissolved solids (72 percent), sulfate (37 percent), manganese (21 percent), iron (16 percent), and chloride (10 percent). Drinking-water standards have not been established for

  2. Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a coupled modeling system

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study demonstrates the value of a coupled chemical transport modeling system for investigating groundwater nitrate contamination responses associated with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and increased corn production. The coupled Community Multiscale Air Quality Bidirect...

  3. Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a coupled modeling system

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study demonstrates the value of a coupled chemical transport modeling system for investigating groundwater nitrate contamination responses associated with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and increased corn production. The coupled Community Multiscale Air Quality Bidirect...

  4. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide in agroecosystems affects groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Torbert, H.A.; Prior, S.A.; Rogers, H.H.; Schlesinger, W.H.; Mullins, G.L.; Runion, G.B.

    1996-07-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentration has led to concerns about global changes to the environment. One area of global change that has not been addressed is the effect of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on groundwater quality below agroecosystems. Elevated CO{sub 2} concentration alterations of plant growth and C/N ratios may modify C and N cycling in soil and affect nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) leaching to groundwater. This study was conducted to examine the effects of a legume (soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]) and a nonlegume (grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]) CO{sub 2}-enriched agroecosystems on NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} movement below the root zone in a Blanton loamy sand (loamy siliceous, thermic, Grossarenic Paleudults). The study was a split-plot design replicated three times with plant species (soybean and grain sorghum) as the main plots and CO{sub 2} concentration ({approximately}360 and {approximately}720 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2}) as subplots using open-top field chambers. Fertilizer application was made with {sup 15}N-depleted NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} to act as a fertilizer tracer. Soil solution samples were collected weekly at 90-cm depth for a 2-yr period and monitored for NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentrations. Isotope analysis of soil solution indicated that the decomposition of organic matter was the primary source of No{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N in soil solution below the root zone through most of the monitoring period. Significant differences were observed for NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentrations between soybean and grain sorghum, with soybean having the higher NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentration. Elevated CO{sub 2} increased total dry weight, total N content, and C/N ratio of residue returned to soil in both years. Elevated CO{sub 2} significantly decreased NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N concentrations below the root zone in both soybean and grain sorghum. 37 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Groundwater-quality data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Project, January through December 2014 and select quality-control data from May 2012 through December 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Terri L.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Stackelberg, Paul E.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; DeSimone, Leslie A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Kingsbury, James A.; Ayotte, Joseph D.; Fleming, Brandon J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2017-10-05

    Groundwater-quality data were collected from 559 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program from January through December 2014. The data were collected from four types of well networks: principal aquifer study networks, which are used to assess the quality of groundwater used for public water supply; land-use study networks, which are used to assess land-use effects on shallow groundwater quality; major aquifer study networks, which are used to assess the quality of groundwater used for domestic supply; and enhanced trends networks, which are used to evaluate the time scales during which groundwater quality changes. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of water-quality indicators and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radionuclides, and some constituents of special interest (arsenic speciation, chromium [VI] and perchlorate). These groundwater-quality data, along with data from quality-control samples, are tabulated in this report and in an associated data release.

  6. Quality-assurance plan for groundwater activities, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; Kahle, Sue C.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the standard procedures, policies, and field methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Washington Water Science Center staff for activities related to the collection, processing, analysis, storage, and publication of groundwater data. This groundwater quality-assurance plan changes through time to accommodate new methods and requirements developed by the Washington Water Science Center and the USGS Office of Groundwater. The plan is based largely on requirements and guidelines provided by the USGS Office of Groundwater, or the USGS Water Mission Area. Regular updates to this plan represent an integral part of the quality-assurance process. Because numerous policy memoranda have been issued by the Office of Groundwater since the previous groundwater quality assurance plan was written, this report is a substantial revision of the previous report, supplants it, and contains significant additional policies not covered in the previous report. This updated plan includes information related to the organization and responsibilities of USGS Washington Water Science Center staff, training, safety, project proposal development, project review procedures, data collection activities, data processing activities, report review procedures, and archiving of field data and interpretative information pertaining to groundwater flow models, borehole aquifer tests, and aquifer tests. Important updates from the previous groundwater quality assurance plan include: (1) procedures for documenting and archiving of groundwater flow models; (2) revisions to procedures and policies for the creation of sites in the Groundwater Site Inventory database; (3) adoption of new water-level forms to be used within the USGS Washington Water Science Center; (4) procedures for future creation of borehole geophysics, surface geophysics, and aquifer-test archives; and (5) use of the USGS Multi Optional Network Key Entry System software for entry of routine water-level data

  7. The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 S&T Roadmap Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-11

    The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 Science and Technology Roadmap Project is a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies and technology for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by EM-20 Roadmap Project staff.

  8. Assessment of chemical quality of groundwater in coastal volcano-sedimentary aquifer of Djibouti, Horn of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Abdoulkader Houssein; Rayaleh, Waiss Elmi; Zghibi, Adel; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2017-07-01

    This research is conducted to evaluate the current status of hydrogeochemical contaminants and their sources in groundwater in the volcano-sedimentary aquifer of Djibouti. Groundwater samples were mostly collected from the volcanic and inferoflux aquifers and then were analyzed for quality on physicochemical parameters (EC, pH, Temperature, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, NO3-, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Br-, F-), minor and trace elements (Li, Ba, B, Sr, Si, Al, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, Ti, V, As, Se). The interpretations of hydrochemical data are shown numerically and graphically through the Piper diagram such as the multivariate statistical analysis, binary diagram, the calculation of the saturation indexes, the index of base exchanges and ratio of Na+/Cl-, SO42-/Cl-, HCO3-/Cl-. The seawater ratio and ionic deviation in the groundwater were calculated using the chloride concentration. These processes can be used as indicators of seawater intrusion progress. This study reveals three groundwater quality groups and how the quality of water supply has been deteriorated through the process of seawater intrusion. The seawater intrusion extends into the Gulf basalts aquifer that covers nearly 12% of the whole area according to some observations. Some toxic elements present in drinking water (As and Se) have already exceeded the maximum permissible in almost the entire of the Gulf basalts aquifer affected by seawater intrusion. Indeed, some correlations were found between As, Se, with electrical conductivity and among other minor and trace elements such as Br, B, Sr, Co and Cr. It indicates that all these elements are mainly controlled by naturel/geogenic processes. The Principal component Analysis and the Hierarchical Cluster Analysis have led to the confirmation of the hypotheses developed in the previous hydrochemical study in which two factors explain the major hydrochemical processes in the aquifer. These factors reveal first the existence of an intensive intrusion of

  9. Construction of an environmental quality index for public health research

    EPA Science Inventory

    A more comprehensive estimate of environmental quality would improve our understanding of the relationship between environmental conditions and human health. An environmental quality index (EQI) for all counties in the U.S. was developed. The EQI was developed in four parts: doma...

  10. Construction of an environmental quality index for public health research

    EPA Science Inventory

    A more comprehensive estimate of environmental quality would improve our understanding of the relationship between environmental conditions and human health. An environmental quality index (EQI) for all counties in the U.S. was developed. The EQI was developed in four parts: doma...

  11. The quality/safety medical index: implementation and analysis.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2015-02-01

    Medical analytics relating to quality and safety measures have become particularly timely and of high importance in contemporary medical practice. In medical imaging, the dynamic relationship between medical imaging quality and radiation safety creates challenges in quantifying quality or safety independently. By creating a standardized measurement which simultaneously accounts for quality and safety measures (i.e., quality safety index), one can in theory create a standardized method for combined quality and safety analysis, which in turn can be analyzed in the context of individual patient, exam, and clinical profiles. The derived index measures can be entered into a centralized database, which in turn can be used for comparative performance of individual and institutional service providers. In addition, data analytics can be used to create customizable educational resources for providers and patients, clinical decision support tools, technology performance analysis, and clinical/economic outcomes research.

  12. Isotopic and Hydrogeochemical Assessment of Groundwater quality of Punjab and Haryana, India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyoti, V.; Douglas, E. M.; Hannigan, R.; Schaaf, C.; Moore, J.

    2016-12-01

    Punjab and Haryana lie in the semi-arid region of northwestern India and are characterized by a limited access to freshwater resources and an increasing dependence on groundwater resources to meet human demand, resulting in overexploitation. The objectives of the present study was to characterize groundwater recharge sources using stable isotopes of (δ2H) and (δ18O) and to trace geochemical evolution of groundwater using rare earth elements (REEs). Samples were collected from 30 different locations including shallow domestic handpumps, deep irrigation wells, surface water and rainwater. Samples were analyzed for stable isotopes of (δ2H) and (δ18O) using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) and trace elements using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) at University of Massachusetts Boston. Precipitation, surface water and irrigation return flow were identified as the primary sources of recharge to groundwater. Sustainability of recharge sources is highly dependent on the glacier-fed rivers from the Himalayas that are already experiencing impacts from climate change. Geochemistry of REEs revealed geochemically evolved groundwater system with carbonate subsurface weathering as major hydrological processes. Enhanced dissolution of carbonates in the future can be a serious issue with extremely hard groundwater leaving scaly deposits inside pipes and wells. This would not only worsen the groundwater quality but would impose financial implications on the groundwater users in the community. If irrigated culture is to survive as an economically viable and environmentally sustainable activity in the region, groundwater management activities have to be planned at the regional scale.

  13. Hydrochemical characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater along the Manavalakurichi coast, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Y.; Aghil, T. B.; Hudson Oliver, D.; Nithya Nair, C.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to find the groundwater quality of coastal aquifer along Manavalakurichi coast. For this study, a total of 30 groundwater samples were collected randomly from open wells and borewells. The concentration of major ions and other geochemical parameters in the groundwater were analyzed in the laboratory by adopting standard procedures suggested by the American Public Health Association. The order of the dominant cations in the study area was found to be Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+, whereas the sequence of dominant anions was {{Cl}}^{ - } > {{HCO}}3^{ - } > {{SO}}4^{2 - } . The hydrogeochemical facies of the groundwater samples were studied by constructing piper trilinear diagram which revealed the evidence of saltwater intrusion into the study area. The obtained geochemical parameters were compared with the standard permissible limits suggested by the World Health Organization and Indian Standard Institution to determine the drinking water quality in the study area. The analysis suggests that the groundwater from the wells W25 and W26 is unsuitable for drinking. The suitability of groundwater for irrigation was studied by calculating percent sodium, sodium absorption ratio and residual sodium carbonate values. The Wilcox and USSL plots were also prepared. It was found that the groundwater from the stations W1, W25 and W26 is unfit for irrigation. The Gibbs plots were also sketched to study the mechanisms controlling the geochemical composition of groundwater in the study area.

  14. Hydrochemical characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater along the Manavalakurichi coast, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Y.; Aghil, T. B.; Hudson Oliver, D.; Nithya Nair, C.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2017-06-01

    The present study was carried out to find the groundwater quality of coastal aquifer along Manavalakurichi coast. For this study, a total of 30 groundwater samples were collected randomly from open wells and borewells. The concentration of major ions and other geochemical parameters in the groundwater were analyzed in the laboratory by adopting standard procedures suggested by the American Public Health Association. The order of the dominant cations in the study area was found to be Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+, whereas the sequence of dominant anions was {{Cl}}^{ - } > {{HCO}}3^{ - } > {{SO}}4^{2 - }. The hydrogeochemical facies of the groundwater samples were studied by constructing piper trilinear diagram which revealed the evidence of saltwater intrusion into the study area. The obtained geochemical parameters were compared with the standard permissible limits suggested by the World Health Organization and Indian Standard Institution to determine the drinking water quality in the study area. The analysis suggests that the groundwater from the wells W25 and W26 is unsuitable for drinking. The suitability of groundwater for irrigation was studied by calculating percent sodium, sodium absorption ratio and residual sodium carbonate values. The Wilcox and USSL plots were also prepared. It was found that the groundwater from the stations W1, W25 and W26 is unfit for irrigation. The Gibbs plots were also sketched to study the mechanisms controlling the geochemical composition of groundwater in the study area.

  15. Groundwater quality in the Lake Champlain Basin, New York, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Water was sampled from 20 production and domestic wells from August through November 2009 to characterize groundwater quality in the Lake Champlain Basin in New York. Of the 20 wells sampled, 8 were completed in sand and gravel, and 12 were completed in bedrock. The samples were collected and processed by standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria. Water quality in the study area is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards; these were color (1 sample), pH (3 samples), sodium (3 samples), total dissolved solids (4 samples), iron (4 samples), manganese (3 samples), gross alpha radioactivity (1 sample), radon-222 (10 samples), and bacteria (5 samples). The pH of all samples was typically neutral or slightly basic (median 7.1); the median water temperature was 9.7°C. The ions with the highest median concentrations were bicarbonate [median 158 milligrams per liter (mg/L)] and calcium (median 45.5 mg/L). Groundwater in the study area is soft to very hard, but more samples were hard or very hard (121 mg/L or more as CaCO3) than were moderately hard or soft (120 mg/L or less as CaCO3); the median hardness was 180 mg/L as CaCO3. The maximum concentration of nitrate plus nitrite was 3.79 mg/L as nitrogen, which did not exceed established drinking-water standards for nitrate plus nitrite (10 mg/L as nitrogen). The trace elements with the highest median concentrations were strontium (median 202 micrograms per liter [μg/L]), and iron (median 55 μg/L in unfiltered water). Six pesticides and pesticide degradates, including atrazine, fipronil, disulfoton, prometon, and two pesticide degradates, CIAT and desulfinylfipronil, were detected among five samples at concentrations

  16. Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in the Yanqi Basin of Xinjiang Province, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuixian

    2013-09-01

    The Yanqi Basin in Xinjiang Province is an important agricultural area with a high population density. The extensive agricultural activities in the Yanqi Basin started in the 1950s with flood irrigation techniques. Since then, the groundwater table was raised because of the absence of an efficient drainage system. This obstacle is a crucial factor that restricts sustainable socioeconomic development. Hydrochemical investigations were conducted in the Yanqi Basin, Northwestern China, to determine the chemical composition of groundwater. Sixty groundwater samples were collected from different wells to monitor the water chemistry of various ions. The results of the chemical analysis indicate that the groundwater in the area is generally neutral to slightly alkaline and predominantly contains Na(+) and Ca(2+) cations as well as HCO3(-) and SO4 (2+) anions. High positive correlations between HCO3 (-)-Mg(2+) + Ca(2+), SO 4 (2-)-Mg(2+), SO4 (2-)-Na(+) + K(+), and Cl(-)-Na(+) + K(+) were obtained. The total dissolved solids (TDS) mainly depend on the concentration of major ions such as HCO3(-), SO4 (2-), Cl(-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+) + K(+). The dominant hydrochemical facies for groundwater are Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3(-), Mg(2+)-Ca(2+)-SO4 (2-)-Cl(-), Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), and Na(+)-K(+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-HCO3(-) types. The hydrochemical processes are the main factors that determine the water quality of the groundwater system. These processes include silicate mineral weathering, dissolution, ion exchange, and, to a lesser extent, evaporation, which seem to be more pronounced downgradient of the flow system. The saturation index (SI), which is calculated according to the ionic ratio plot, indicates that the gypsum-halite dissolution reactions occur during a certain degree of rock weathering. SI also indicates that evaporation is the dominant factor that determines the major ionic composition in the study area. The assessment results of the water samples using various methods

  17. Groundwater Quality: Analysis of Its Temporal and Spatial Variability in a Karst Aquifer.

    PubMed

    Pacheco Castro, Roger; Pacheco Ávila, Julia; Ye, Ming; Cabrera Sansores, Armando

    2017-06-15

    This study develops an approach based on hierarchical cluster analysis for investigating the spatial and temporal variation of water quality governing processes. The water quality data used in this study were collected in the karst aquifer of Yucatan, Mexico, the only source of drinking water for a population of nearly two million people. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to the quality data of all the sampling periods lumped together. This was motivated by the observation that, if water quality does not vary significantly in time, two samples from the same sampling site will belong to the same cluster. The resulting distribution maps of clusters and box-plots of the major chemical components reveal the spatial and temporal variability of groundwater quality. Principal component analysis was used to verify the results of cluster analysis and to derive the variables that explained most of the variation of the groundwater quality data. Results of this work increase the knowledge about how precipitation and human contamination impact groundwater quality in Yucatan. Spatial variability of groundwater quality in the study area is caused by: a) seawater intrusion and groundwater rich in sulfates at the west and in the coast, b) water rock interactions and the average annual precipitation at the middle and east zones respectively, and c) human contamination present in two localized zones. Changes in the amount and distribution of precipitation cause temporal variation by diluting groundwater in the aquifer. This approach allows to analyze the variation of groundwater quality controlling processes efficiently and simultaneously. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  18. Assessment of groundwater quality in Ghataprabha command area, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Varadarajan, N; Purandara, B K; Kumar, Bhism

    2011-07-01

    The studies related to assessment of groundwater quality of Gokak, Mudhol Biligi and Bagalkot taluks of Ghataprabha command area, Belgaum District, Karnataka (India) were carried out during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons to evaluate its suitability for domestic and irrigation purpose. The samples were collected from 42 locations (including 25 open wells) during pre-monsoon (May, 2007) and post-monsoon (November, 2007) seasons. The samples were analyzed for pH, EC, TDS, carbonates, bicarbonates, alkalinity, chlorides, sulphates, hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, phosphates, nitrates, iron, manganese and fluorides. Based on the concentration of TDS, about 47 % of the samples were found within the permissible limits both for drinking and irrigation, 43% of the samples were useful only for irrigation and 10% of the samples were unfit for drinking and irrigation. Similarly during post-monsoon about 61% of the samples were within the permissible limits both for drinking and irrigation, 31% of the samples were useful only for irrigation and 8 % of the samples unfit for drinking and irrigation. Based on the irrigation water classification, it is understood that, the area falls under low to very high salinity zone for both seasons. The values of sodium absorption ratio indicate that all the samples fall under the category of low, medium and high sodium hazards. The Piper trilinear diagram shows that 60% fall under Na(2+)--K(2+)--HCO3- and Na(2+)-- K(2+)--Cl(-)--SO4(2-) types and rest 40% of the samples fall under Ca(2+)--Mg(2+)--HCO(3-) and Ca(2+)--Mg(2+)--Cl(-)--SO4(2) types. According to U.S.Salinity Laboratory Classification, water belongs to medium salinity to very high salinity and low sodium to high sodium water.

  19. Assessment of the statistical significance of seasonal groundwater quality change in a karstic aquifer system near Izmir-Turkey.

    PubMed

    Elçi, Alper; Polat, Rahime

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to statistically evaluate the significance of seasonal groundwater quality change and to provide an assessment on the spatial distribution of specific groundwater quality parameters. The studied area was the Mount Nif karstic aquifer system located in the southeast of the city of Izmir. Groundwater samples were collected at 57 sampling points in the rainy winter and dry summer seasons. Groundwater quality indicators of interest were electrical conductivity (EC), nitrate, chloride, sulfate, sodium, some heavy metals, and arsenic. Maps showing the spatial distributions and temporal changes of these parameters were created to further interpret spatial patterns and seasonal changes in groundwater quality. Furthermore, statistical tests were conducted to confirm whether the seasonal changes for each quality parameter were statistically significant. It was evident from the statistical tests that the seasonal changes in most groundwater quality parameters were statistically not significant. However, the increase in EC values and aluminum concentrations from winter to summer was found to be significant. Furthermore, a negative correlation between sampling elevation and groundwater quality was found. It was shown that with simple statistical testing, important conclusions can be drawn from limited monitoring data. It was concluded that less groundwater recharge in the dry period of the year does not always imply higher concentrations for all groundwater quality parameters because water circulation times, lithology, quality and extent of recharge, and land use patterns also play an important role on the alteration of groundwater quality.

  20. Groundwater quality assessment and pollution source apportionment in an intensely exploited region of northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianqian; Wang, Huiwei; Wang, Yanchao; Yang, Mingnan; Zhu, Liang

    2017-07-01

    Deterioration in groundwater quality has attracted wide social interest in China. In this study, groundwater quality was monitored during December 2014 at 115 sites in the Hutuo River alluvial-pluvial fan region of northern China. Results showed that 21.7% of NO3(-) and 51.3% of total hardness samples exceeded grade III of the national quality standards for Chinese groundwater. In addition, results of gray relationship analysis (GRA) show that 64.3, 10.4, 21.7, and 3.6% of samples were within the I, II, IV, and V grades of groundwater in the Hutuo River region, respectively. The poor water quality in the study region is due to intense anthropogenic activities as well as aquifer vulnerability to contamination. Results of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed three major factors: (1) domestic wastewater and agricultural runoff pollution (anthropogenic activities), (2) water-rock interactions (natural processes), and (3) industrial wastewater pollution (anthropogenic activities). Using PCA and absolute principal component scores-multivariate linear regression (APCS-MLR), results show that domestic wastewater and agricultural runoff are the main sources of groundwater pollution in the Hutuo River alluvial-pluvial fan area. Thus, the most appropriate methods to prevent groundwater quality degradation are to improve capacities for wastewater treatment and to optimize fertilization strategies.

  1. Assessing causes of quality deterioration of groundwater in Puttalam, Sri Lanka, using isotope and hydrochemical tools.

    PubMed

    Edirisinghe, E A N V; Karunarathne, G R R; Samarakoon, A S M N B; Pitawala, H M T G A; Dharmagunawardhane, H A; Tilakarathna, I A N D P

    2016-01-01

    Extensive extraction of groundwater has resulted in deterioration of the groundwater quality in the Puttalam area in the northwestern coastal zone of Sri Lanka. This situation led us to carry out the present comprehensive study based on environmental isotopic ((18)O, (2)H, (3)H) and geochemical evaluation to understand the root cause for water quality deterioration. The isotopic data suggest that the surface water and shallow groundwaters are subjected to intensive evaporation and, as a result, increase in their salinity. Deep groundwater of the area is mostly recharged by direct infiltration of rainwater and at few places by nearby surface water bodies. The salinity increase of deep groundwater depends on the specific hydrogeological zones and would be due to dissolution of salts which are precipitated in soil through the seawater spray over the time, dissolution of minerals in geological matrix and leaching of salts from salterns. The quality of the deep groundwater is relatively good in the granitic gneiss zone and nearby areas outside the sedimentary aquifer. There is no evidence from isotope and hydrogeochemical evaluation for seawater intrusion into groundwater in the Puttalam area.

  2. Variable infiltration and river flooding resulting in changing groundwater quality - A case study from Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miotliński, Konrad; Postma, Dieke; Kowalczyk, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    SummaryThe changes in groundwater quality occurring in a buried valley aquifer following a reduction in groundwater exploitation and enhanced infiltration due to extensive flooding of the Odra River in 1997 were investigated. Long-time series data for the chemical composition of groundwater in a large well field for drinking water supply indicated the deterioration of groundwater quality in the wells capturing water from the flooded area, which had been intensively cultivated since the 1960s. Infiltration of flooded river water into the aquifer is suggested by an elevated chloride concentration, although salt flushing from the rewatered unsaturated zone due to the enhanced recharge event is much more feasible. Concomitantly with chloride increases in the concentrations of sulphate, ferrous iron, manganese, and nickel imply the oxidation of pyrite (FeS 2) which is abundant in the aquifer. The proton production resulting from pyrite oxidation is buffered by the dissolution of calcite, while the Ca:SO 4 stoichiometry of the groundwater indicates that pyrite oxidation coupled with nitrate reduction is the dominant process occurring in the aquifer. The pyritic origin of SO42- is confirmed by the sulphur isotopic composition. The resultant Fe 2+ increase induces Mn-oxide dissolution and the mobilisation of Ni 2+ previously adsorbed to Mn-oxide surfaces. The study has a major implication for groundwater quality prediction studies where there are considerable variations in water level associated with groundwater management and climate change issues.

  3. Hydrochemistry of urban groundwater, Seoul, Korea: the impact of subway tunnels on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Chae, Gi-Tak; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Yu, Soon-Young; Jo, Ho-Young; Mayer, Bernhard; Kim, Yun-Jong; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2008-10-23

    Hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data for subway tunnel seepage waters in Seoul (Republic of Korea) were examined to understand the effect of underground tunnels on the degradation of urban groundwater. A very large quantity of groundwater (up to 63 million m3 year(-1)) is discharged into subway tunnels with a total length of 287 km, resulting in a significant drop of the local groundwater table and the abandonment of groundwater wells. For the tunnel seepage water samples (n = 72) collected from 43 subway stations, at least one parameter among pathogenic microbes (total coliform, heterotrophic bacteria), dissolved Mn and Fe, NH4+, NO3(-), turbidity, and color exceeded the Korean Drinking Water Standards. Locally, tunnel seepage water was enriched in dissolved Mn (avg. 0.70 mg L(-1), max. 5.58 mg L(-1)), in addition to dissolved Fe, NH4+, and pathogenic microbes, likely due to significant inflow of sewage water from broken or leaking sewer pipes. Geochemical modeling of redox reactions was conducted to simulate the characteristic hydrochemistry of subway tunnel seepage. The results show that variations in the reducing conditions occur in urban groundwater, dependent upon the amount of organic matter-rich municipal sewage contaminating the aquifer. The organic matter facilitates the reduction and dissolution of Mn- and Fe-bearing solids in aquifers and/or tunnel construction materials, resulting in the successive increase of dissolved Mn and Fe. The present study clearly demonstrates that locally significant deterioration of urban groundwater is caused by a series of interlinked hydrogeologic and hydrochemical changes induced by underground tunnels.

  4. Temporal variations of groundwater quality in the Western Jianghan Plain, China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Beibei; Wang, Huanhuan; Loáiciga, Hugo A; Hong, Song; Shao, Wei

    2017-02-01

    The Western Jianghan Plain (WJHP) lies in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. It has been impacted by anthropogenic activities during the past decades. The long-term variations of the WJHP's regional aquifer's hydrochemistry and groundwater quality have not been previously assessed. Sixteen physiochemical parameters at 29 monitoring wells within the Western Jianghan Plain were monitored during 1992-2010 and analyzed with multiple approaches. The confined groundwater is predominantly of the HCO3-Ca-Mg type with Cl(-), SO4(2-), NH4-N, and NO3-N showing remarkable spatial variations. Correlation analysis was used to identify the origins and contamination sources of groundwater. The seasonal Mann-Kendall test revealed that pH, NO3-N, and Cl(-) concentrations at 27, 26 and 15 wells, respectively, exhibited significant increasing trends during 1992-2010. The increase of pH may be attributed to CO2 degassing caused by extensive groundwater extraction. Regional average NO3-N concentrations of groundwater increased coincidently with the increased use of fertilizer, which suggests that nitrate pollution is caused by agricultural activities. Abnormally high values of Cl(-) and SO4(2-) at some wells were induced by industrial chemicals. In addition, the similarity of the temporal variations of the regional average of pH, NH4-N, and NO3-N concentrations in groundwater with those in the Yangtze River at the outlet of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) suggests that the variations of these parameters in the WJHP is partly due to water storage by the TGR. This study presents an analysis of temporal variations of groundwater quality in the WJHP that reveals a relation between the creation of the TGR and downstream groundwater quality. This paper's findings provide clues for measures that could be taken to protect the groundwater quality of the WJHP's aquifer.

  5. A new plan quality index for dose painting radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Yang-Kyun; Park, Soyeon; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Kim, Siyong

    2014-07-08

    Dose painting radiotherapy is considered a promising radiotherapy technology that enables more targeted dose delivery to tumor rich regions while saving critical normal tissues. Obviously, dose painting planning would be more complicated and hard to be evaluated with current plan quality index systems that were developed under the paradigm of uniform dose prescription. In this study, we introduce a new plan quality index, named "index of achievement (IOA)" that assesses how close the planned dose distribution is to the prescribed one in a dose painting radiotherapy plan. By using voxel-based comparison between planned and prescribed dose distributions in its formulation, the index allows for a single-value evaluation regardless of the number of prescribed dose levels, which cannot be achieved with the conventional indices such as conventional homogeneity index. Benchmark calculations using patient data demonstrated feasibility of the index not only for contour-based dose painting plans, but also for dose painting by numbers plans. Also, it was shown that there is strong correlation between the new index and conventional indices, which indicates a potential of the new index as an alternative to conventional ones in general radiotherapy plan evaluation.

  6. Direction of ground-water flow and ground-water quality near a landfill in Falmouth, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persky, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    A landfill in Falmouth, Massachusetts, is upgradient of a pond used for municipal water supply, but analysis of groundwater flow directions and groundwater quality indicates that leachate from the landfill does not threaten the municipal water supply. A network of water table observation wells was established, and water table altitudes were measured in these wells on several dates in 1981. Water quality analyses and specific conductance measurements were made on water samples from several wells in the vicinity of the landfill between October 1980 and April 1983. A water table altitude contour map of the area between the landfill and Long Pond for April 16-17, 1981, indicates that the direction of groundwater flow is primarily southwest from the landfill to Buzzards Bay. A similar map for September 2, 1981--a time at which the water table was unusually low--indicates the possibility of groundwater discharge to Long Pond from the landfill site. Groundwater quality beneath the landfill exceeded U.S. EPA water quality criteria for domestic water supply for manganese and total dissolved solids. Concentrations as high as 52 mg/L of nitrogen as ammonia and 4,500 micrograms/L (ug/L) of manganese were found. Concentrations of ammonia, manganese, calcium, potassium, and alkalinity exceeded local background levels by more than a factor of 100; specific-conductance levels and concentrations of hardness, barium, chloride, sodium, magnesium, iron, and strontium exceeded local background levels by more than a factor of 10; and cadmium concentrations exceeded local background levels by more than a factor of 5. Water quality analyses and field specific conductance measurements indicate the presence of a volume of leachate extending south-southwest from the landfill. Average chloride concentrations of landfill leachate, precipitation on the surface of Long Pond, and recharge from the remainder of the recharge area were 180, 3, and 9 mg/L, respectively. No significant degradation of

  7. Ground-Water Quality and Potential Effects of Individual Sewage Disposal System Effluent on Ground-Water Quality in Park County, Colorado, 2001-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Lisa D.; Ortiz, Roderick F.

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Park County, Colorado, began a study to evaluate ground-water quality in the various aquifers in Park County that supply water to domestic wells. The focus of this study was to identify and describe the principal natural and human factors that affect ground-water quality. In addition, the potential effects of individual sewage disposal system (ISDS) effluent on ground-water quality were evaluated. Ground-water samples were collected from domestic water-supply wells from July 2001 through October 2004 in the alluvial, crystalline-rock, sedimentary-rock, and volcanic-rock aquifers to assess general ground-water quality and effects of ISDS's on ground-water quality throughout Park County. Samples were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, bacteria, and boron; and selected samples also were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon, human-related (wastewater) compounds, trace elements, radionuclides, and age-dating constituents (tritium and chlorofluorocarbons). Drinking-water quality is adequate for domestic use throughout Park County with a few exceptions. Only about 3 percent of wells had concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, and (or) uranium that exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national, primary drinking-water standards. These primary drinking-water standards were exceeded only in wells completed in the crystalline-rock aquifers in eastern Park County. Escherichia coli bacteria were detected in one well near Guffey, and total coliform bacteria were detected in about 11 percent of wells sampled throughout the county. The highest total coliform concentrations were measured southeast of the city of Jefferson and west of Tarryall Reservoir. Secondary drinking-water standards were exceeded more frequently. About 19 percent of wells had concentrations of one or more constituents (pH, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and dissolved solids) that exceeded secondary drinking-water standards

  8. Groundwater-quality monitoring program in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1980-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Chester County Water Resources Authority and the Chester County Health Department began a groundwater-quality monitoring program in 1980 in Chester County, Pa., where a large percentage of the population relies on wells for drinking-water supply. This report documents the program and serves as a reference for data collected through the program from 1980 through 2008. The initial focus of the program was to collect data on groundwater quality near suspected localized sources of contamination, such as uncontrolled landfills and suspected industrial wastes, to determine if contaminants were present that might pose a health risk to those using the groundwater. Subsequently, the program was expanded to address the effects of widely distributed contaminant sources associated with agricultural and residential land uses on groundwater quality and to document naturally occurring constituents, such as radium, radon, and arsenic, that are potential hazards in drinking water. Since 2000, base-flow stream samples have been collected in addition to well-water and spring samples in a few small drainage areas to investigate the relation between groundwater quality measured in well samples and streams. The program has primarily consisted of spatial assessment with limited temporal data collected on groundwater quality. Most data were collected through the monitoring program for reconnaissance purposes to identify and locate groundwater-quality problems and generally were not intended for rigorous statistical analyses that might determine land-use or geochemical factors affecting groundwater quality in space or through time. Results of the program found several contaminants associated with various land uses and human activities in groundwater in Chester County. Volatile organic compounds (such as trichloroethylene) were measured in groundwater near suspected localized contaminant sources in concentrations that exceeded drinking

  9. Appraisal of ground-water quality near wastewater-treatment facilities, Glacier National Park, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moreland, Joe A.; Wood, Wayne A.

    1982-01-01

    Water-level and water-quality data were collected from monitoring wells at wastewater-treatment facilities in Glacier National Park. Five additional shallow observation wells were installed at the Glacier Park Headquarters facility to monitor water quality in the shallow ground-water system. Water-level, water-quality, and geologic information indicate that some of the initial monitoring wells are not ideally located to sample ground water most likely to be affected by waste disposal at the sites. Small differences in chemical characteristics between samples from monitor wells indicate that effluent may be affecting ground-water quality but that impacts are not significant. Future monitoring of ground-water quality could be limited to selected wells most likely to be impacted by percolating effluent. Laboratory analyses for common ions could detect future impacts. (USGS)

  10. A new plan quality index for nasopharyngeal cancer SIB IMRT.

    PubMed

    Jin, X; Yi, J; Zhou, Y; Yan, H; Han, C; Xie, C

    2014-02-01

    A new plan quality index integrating dosimetric and radiobiological indices was proposed to facilitate the evaluation and comparison of simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients. Ten NPC patients treated by SIB-IMRT were enrolled in the study. Custom software was developed to read dose-volume histogram (DVH) curves from the treatment planning system (TPS). A plan filtering matrix was introduced to filter plans that fail to satisfy treatment protocol. Target plan quality indices and organ at risk (OAR) plan quality indices were calculated for qualified plans. A unique composite plan quality index (CPQI) was proposed based on the relative weight of these indices to evaluate and compare competing plans. Plan ranking results were compared with detailed statistical analysis, radiation oncology quality system (ROQS) scoring results and physician's evaluation results to verify the accuracy of this new plan quality index. The average CPQI values for plans with OAR priority of low, normal, high, and PTV only were 0.22 ± 0.08, 0.49 ± 0.077, 0.71 ± 0.062, and -0.21 ± 0.16, respectively. There were significant differences among these plan quality indices (One-way ANOVA test, p < 0.01). This was consistent with statistical analysis, ROQS results and physician's ranking results in which 90% OAR high plans were selected. Plan filtering matrix was able to speed up the plan evaluation process. The new matrix plan quality index CPQI showed good consistence with physician ranking results. It is a promising index for NPC SIB-IMRT plan evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Summary of ground-water quality in West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathes, M.V.; Kozar, Mark D.; Brown, David P.

    1998-01-01

    units. Data from the ambient network did not show any significant seasonal variations in groundwater quality. Of the additional constituents sampled for in the ambient network, median concentrations of metals were less than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards, and organic chemical constituents were rarely detected. Statistical comparisons of data from the NWIS data base and the ambient network data set showed no significant differences except for fecal coliform, iron, and manganese. Median concentrations of these three constituents were several times greater for samples from wells and springs in the ambient network. Statistical differences in values for these constituents could be attributed to differences in the state of constituents sampled (dissolved concentrations of iron and manganese for the NWIS data set as opposed to total concentrations for the ambient network data set) and the smaller number of sites in the ambient network. Statistical resolution could be improved by sampling a greater number of wells and springs that have a greater diversity of geologic and topographic conditions for the ambient network. The present ambient network does not include sites in Silurian or Middle Pennsylvanian geologic units nor sites in hilltop settings. The statistical validity of the ambient network could be improved by sampling additional sites, especially those for aquifers underrepresented in the data set.

  12. Spatial variability of groundwater depth and quality parameters in the National Capital Territory of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Dash, J P; Sarangi, A; Singh, D K

    2010-03-01

    The groundwater quantity and quality scenario is of much concern in the National Capital Territory of Delhi, India, which necessitates an investigation to envisage the extent of spatial variability of groundwater depth and pollutant concentration levels in this region. Therefore, in this study, an effort was made to generate the spatial variability map of groundwater depth and quality parameters (viz. chloride, electrical conductivity, fluoride, magnesium, and nitrate). Ordinary kriging was used to analyze the spatial variability of groundwater depth and quality parameters, whereas indicator kriging was used to analyze groundwater quality parameters equal to or greater than the pollution threshold values. It was observed that the semivariogram parameters fitted well in the exponential model for water depth and in the spherical model for water quality parameters. The generated spatial variability maps indicated that in 43% of the study area, groundwater depth was within 20 m. The salinity level was higher than 2.5 dS m(-1) in 69% of the study area and the nitrate concentration exceeded 45 mg l(-1) in 36% of the area. The probability maps showed that about 24% of the area had the highest probability (0.8-1.0) of exceedence of the threshold electrical conductivity value and an area of 2% exhibited the highest probability of exceedence of the threshold value of nitrate concentration in the groundwater. The generated spatial variability and probability maps will assist water resource managers and policymakers in development of guidelines in judicious management of groundwater resources for agricultural and drinking purposes in the study area.

  13. Hydrochemical characteristics and the effects of irrigation on groundwater quality in Harran Plain, GAP Project, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesilnacar, M. Irfan; Gulluoglu, M. Said

    2008-03-01

    Improper design, faulty planning, mismanagement and incorrect operation of irrigation schemes are the principle reasons for the deterioration of groundwater quality in a large number of countries, in particular in semi-arid and arid regions. The aim of this study is to determine the dimensions of groundwater quality after surface irrigation was begun in the semi-arid Harran Plain. Physical and chemical parameters of the groundwater including pH, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate, sulphate, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, total phosphorus, total organic carbon and turbidity were determined monthly during the 2006 water year. The quality of the groundwater in the study area was assessed hydrochemically in order to determine its suitability for human consumption and agricultural purposes. In the general plain, the EC values measured were considerably above the guide level of 650 μS/cm, while nitrate in particular was found in almost all groundwater samples to be significantly above the maximum admissible concentration of 50 mg/l for the quality of water intended for human consumption as per the international and national standards. Total hardness reveals that a majority of the groundwater samples fall in the very hard water category. Interpretation of analytical data shows that Ca HCO3 and Ca SO4 are the dominant hydrochemical facies in the study area.

  14. Evaluation of groundwater quality and assessment of scaling potential and corrosiveness of water samples in Kadkan aquifer, Khorasan-e-Razavi Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili-Vardanjani, Mostafa; Rasa, Iraj; Amiri, Vahab; Yazdi, Mohammad; Pazand, Kaveh

    2015-02-01

    The chemical analysis of 129 groundwater samples in the Kadkan area, Khorasan-e-Razavi Province, NE of Iran was evaluated to determine the hydrochemical processes, assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation purposes, corrosiveness, and scaling potential of the groundwater. Accordingly, the suitability of groundwater for irrigation was evaluated based on the sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent, salinity hazard, and US Salinity Laboratory hazard diagram. Based on the electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio, the dominant classes are C3-S1, C3-S2, C2-S1, and C4-S2. According to the Wilcox plot, about 50 % of the samples fall in the "Excellent to Good" and "Good to Permissible" classes. Besides, the Langelier saturation index, Ryznar stability index (RSI), Larson-Skold index, and Puckorius scaling index were evaluated for assessing the corrosiveness and scaling potential of the groundwater. Corrosiveness and scaling indices stated that the majority of samples are classified into "Aggressive" and "Very Aggressive" category. In addition, chloride and sulfate interfere in 90 % of the samples. Assessment of hydrochemical characteristics indicates Na-Mg-Cl as the predominant hydrochemical type. Spatial distribution of hydrochemical parameters indicates that hydrochemical processes are influenced by geology and hydrogeology of Kadkan aquifer. The Gibbs plots gave an indication that groundwater chemistry in this area may have acquired the chemistry mainly from evaporation and mineral precipitation. Grouping the samples based on Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis helped to more separation of similar samples. The R-mode HCA grouped analyzed parameters into two groups based on similarity of hydrochemical characteristics. As a result, the samples collected in northern and southern parts of the study area show the best quality (i.e., lowest salinity) for some purposes such as irrigation and drinking.

  15. Quality of groundwater in the Denver Basin aquifer system, Colorado, 2003-5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Beck, Jennifer A.; Paschke, Suzanne; Bauch, Nancy J.; Mashburn, Shana L.

    2014-01-01

    Water-quality data were synthesized to evaluate factors that affect spatial and depth variability in water quality and to assess aquifer vulnerability to contaminants from geologic materials and those of human origin. The quality of shallow groundwater in the alluvial aquifer and shallow bedrock aquifer system has been adversely affected by development of agricultural and urban areas. Land use has altered the pattern and composition of recharge. Increased recharge from irrigation water has mobilized dissolved constituents and increased concentrations in the shallow groundwater. Concentrations of most constituents associated with poor or degraded water quality in shallow groundwater decreased with depth; many of these constituents are not geochemically conservative and are affected by geochemical reactions such as oxidation-reduction reactions. Groundwater age tracers provide additional insight into aquifer vulnerability and help determine if young groundwater of potentially poor quality has migrated to deeper parts of the bedrock aquifers used for drinking-water supply. Age-tracer results were used to group samples into categories of young, mixed, and old groundwater. Groundwater ages transitioned from mostly young in the water-table wells to mostly mixed in the shallowest bedrock aquifer, the Dawson aquifer, to mostly old in the deeper bedrock aquifers. Although the bedrock aquifers are mostly old groundwater of good water quality, several lines of evidence indicate that young, contaminant-bearing recharge has reached shallow to moderate depths in some areas of the bedrock aquifers. The Dawson aquifer is the most vulnerable of the bedrock aquifers to contamination, but results indicate that the older (deeper) bedrock aquifers are also vulnerable to groundwater contamination and that mixing with young recharge has occurred in some areas. Heavy pumping has caused water-level declines in the bedrock aquifers in some parts of the Denver Basin, which has the potential

  16. Groundwater Quality Assessment for Drinking Purposes Using GIS Modelling (case Study: City of Tabriz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeihouni, M.; Toomanian, A.; Shahabi, M.; Alavipanah, S. K.

    2014-10-01

    Tabriz is the largest industrial city in North West of Iran and it is developing rapidly. A large proportion of water requirements for this city are supplied from dams. In this research, groundwater quality assessed through sampling 70 wells in Tabriz and its rural areas. The purposes of this study are: (1) specifying spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as Chloride, Electrical Conductivity (EC), pH, hardness and sulphate (2) mapping groundwater quality for drinking purpose by employing Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method in the study area using GIS and Geosatistics. We utilized an interpolation technique of ordinary kriging for generating thematic map of each parameter. The final map indicates that the groundwater quality esaeicni from North to South and from West to East of the study area. The areas located in Center, South and South West of the study area have the optimum quality for drinking purposes which are the best locations to drill wells for supplying water demands of Tabriz city. In critical conditions, the groundwater quality map as a result of this research can be taken into account by East Azerbaijan Regional Water Company as decision support system to drill new wells or selecting existing wells to supply drinking water to Tabriz city.

  17. Groundwater quality across scales: impact on nutrient transport to large water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürr, Hans; Moosdorf, Nils; Mallast, Ulf

    2017-04-01

    High concentrations of dissolved nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in groundwater are an increasing concern in many areas of the world. Especially regions with high agriculture impact see widespread declining groundwater quality, with considerable uncertainty mainly regarding the impact of phosphorus (P). Implications reach from direct impacts on different water users to discharge of nutrient-rich groundwater to rivers, lakes and coastal areas, where it can contribute to eutrophication, hypoxia or harmful algal blooms. While local-scale studies are abundant and management options exist, quantitative approaches at regional to continental scales are scarce and frequently have to deal with data inconsistencies or are temporally sparse. Here, we present the research framework to combine large databases of local groundwater quality to data sets of climatical, hydrological, geological or landuse parameters. Pooling of such information, together with robust methods such as water balances and groundwater models, can provide constraints such as upper boundaries and likely ranges of nutrient composition in various settings, or for the nutrient transport to large water bodies. Remote Sensing can provide spatial information on the location of groundwater seepage. Results will eventually help to identify focus areas and lead to improved understanding of the role of groundwater in the context of global biogeochemical cycles.

  18. Methodology for mapping shallow groundwater quality in urbanized areas: A case study from Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimas, A. A.

    1996-06-01

    Cities have a negative impact on the quality of shallow groundwater. Many of Lithuania's urban residents drink water from dug wells. Moreover, polluted shallow groundwater contaminates deeper aquifers of fresh drinking water. Therefore, this situation should be controlled and managed, as far as possible. In order to evaluate the quality of shallow groundwater in an urban area and to create an optimal monitoring system, an original methodology for groundwater mapping has been proposed. It resembles the GIS (geographical information system) technologies. The set of maps, laid one over another, consists of the following: (1) urbanization map, (2) geological-hydrogeological map, (3) groundwater chemistry map, (4) resulting groundwater chemistry factorial analysis map, and (5) pollution and pollutant transport map. The data obtained from studies on dug and geotechnical wells have been used for compilation of the maps. The system for shallow groundwater monitoring in the city with an area of 70 sq km and a population of 140,000 is proposed to consist of about 30 monitoring wells and several dug wells.

  19. Analytical hydrologic models and the design of policy instruments for groundwater-quality management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwayama, Yusuke; Brozović, Nicholas

    2012-08-01

    This paper explores how analytical hydrologic models can inform the effective design and choice of policy instruments to manage groundwater quality by coupling a social-planner's problem of optimal groundwater-quality management with analytical solutions from the hydrology literature. A theoretical analysis is performed in order to characterize the properties of an optimal emissions policy. The model is then applied in a numerical analysis of groundwater contamination by chloride from highway deicers, demonstrating the relevance of the theoretical results to practical management settings. This analytical approach can help determine which policy instruments are likely to be effective in controlling groundwater pollution, especially if costly numerical groundwater models are not available for the aquifer in question. Unlike previous economic studies of groundwater contamination, this approach defines optimal emissions policies as a function of geophysical parameters employed by hydrologists such as distance between source and sink, groundwater velocity, and aquifer dispersivity. The theoretical section of this paper also demonstrates that the relationship between geophysical parameters and optimal emissions levels may be ambiguous.

  20. Chemical substance transport in soils and its effect on groundwater quality.

    PubMed Central

    Khublarian, M G

    1989-01-01

    The problems of chemical substance applications in different spheres of industry and agriculture and their effects on groundwater quality and human health are described. Sources of groundwater contamination from industrial and municipal wastes, agricultural pollutants, etc., are listed. The experience in the application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in the USSR is described. A brief estimation of groundwater salinity is given for various regions of the USSR where irrigation is practiced, as well as the experience in environmental protection. Special attention is given to methods of simulating water seepage and chemical substance transport in soils. Boundary problems for free-surface seepage and dissolved solids transport in porous media are stated, and methods of solution are described in the example of the hydrodynamic theory of seepage and dispersion. Some results of calculations with this method are presented. The influence of groundwater quality on the morbidity of the population is given and the main diseases and associated medical problems are listed. PMID:2559843

  1. The CHPRC Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) Quality Assurance Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2009-04-03

    The scope of the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, LLC (CHPRC) Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) is for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory staff to provide technical and integration support to CHPRC. This work includes conducting investigations at the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and other groundwater operable units, and providing strategic integration, technical integration and assessments, remediation decision support, and science and technology. The projects under this Master Project will be defined and included within the Master Project throughout the fiscal year, and will be incorporated into the Master Project Plan. This Quality Assurance Management Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the CHPRC Groundwater and Technical Integration Support (Master Project) and all releases associated with the CHPRC Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The plan is designed to be used exclusively by project staff.

  2. Effects of drainage and water table control on groundwater and surface water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Chescheir, G.M.; Skaggs, R.W.; Gilliam, J.W.; Breve, M.A.; Munster, C.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of the research project were to: conduct field experiments to measure and evaluate the effects of drainage, controlled drainage, and subirrigation of the following hydrologic and water quality variables: Movement and fate of fertilizer nutrients and sediment in surface runoff, shallow groundwater and subsurface drainage waters; and loss of pesticides in surface and subsurface drainage waters and their movement into shallow groundwaters; test the reliability of selected models for predicting the movement of pesticides and fertilizer nutrients to shallow groundwater and the losses of these pollutants via surface and subsurface drainage waters; and modify and further develop these existing models to improve their reliability.

  3. Managed aquifer recharge by a check dam to improve the quality of fluoride-rich groundwater: a case study from southern India.

    PubMed

    Gowrisankar, G; Jagadeshan, G; Elango, L

    2017-04-01

    In many regions around the globe, including India, degradation in the quality of groundwater is of great concern. The objective of this investigation is to determine the effect of recharge from a check dam on quality of groundwater in a region of Krishnagiri District of Tamil Nadu State, India. For this study, water samples from 15 wells were periodically obtained and analysed for major ions and fluoride concentrations. The amount of major ions present in groundwater was compared with the drinking water guideline values of the Bureau of Indian Standards. With respect to the sodium and fluoride concentrations, 38% of groundwater samples collected was not suitable for direct use as drinking water. Suitability of water for agricultural use was determined considering the electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption ratio, sodium percentage, permeability index, Wilcox and United States Salinity Laboratory diagrams. The influence of freshwater recharge from the dam is evident as the groundwater in wells nearer to the check dam was suitable for both irrigation and domestic purposes. However, the groundwater away from the dam had a high ionic composition. This study demonstrated that in other fluoride-affected areas, the concentration can be reduced by dilution with the construction of check dams as a measure of managed aquifer recharge.

  4. Evaluation of groundwater chemistry and its impact on drinking and irrigation water quality in the eastern part of the Central Arabian graben and trough system, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Faisal K.; Mogren, Saad; Mukhopadhyay, Manoj; Ibrahim, Elkhedr

    2016-08-01

    The present study deals with the assessment of groundwater with respect to the main hydrological processes controlling its chemistry and its subsequent impact on groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes in the eastern part of the Central Arabian graben and trough system. Groundwater samples were collected from 73 bore wells tapping the Cretaceous Biyadh and Wasia sandstone aquifers. The main groundwater facies in the area belong to the mixed Casbnd Mgsbnd SO4/Cl type and the SO4sbnd Cl type. Prolonged rock water interaction has resulted in high TDS (average of 2131 mg/l) and high EC (average of 2725 μS/cm) of the groundwater. The average nitrate (56.38 mg/l) value in the area is higher than the WHO prescribed limits of 50 mg/l in drinking water and is attributed to agricultural activities. The Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI) shows that 33% of the water samples fall within the excellent to good category whereas the remaining samples fall in the poor to unsuitable for drinking category. In terms of Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Sodium percentage (Na %) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) the groundwater is suitable for irrigation however the high salinity values can adversely affect the plant physiology.

  5. Recreational stream assessment using Malaysia water quality index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Hanisah; Kutty, Ahmad Abas

    2013-11-01

    River water quality assessment is crucial in order to quantify and monitor spatial and temporally. Malaysia is producing WQI and NWQS indices to evaluate river water quality. However, the study on recreational river water quality is still scarce. A study was conducted to determine selected recreational river water quality area and to determine impact of recreation on recreational stream. Three recreational streams namely Sungai Benus, Sungai Cemperuh and Sungai Luruh in Janda Baik, Pahang were selected. Five sampling stations were chosen from each river with a 200-400 m interval. Six water quality parameters which are BOD5, COD, TSS, pH, ammoniacal-nitrogen and dissolved oxygen were measured. Sampling and analysis was conducted following standard method prepared by USEPA. These parameters were used to calculate the water quality subindex and finally an indicative WQI value using Malaysia water quality index formula. Results indicate that all recreational streams have excellent water quality with WQI values ranging from 89 to 94. Most of water quality parameter was homogenous between sampling sites and between streams. An one-way ANOVA test indicates that no significant difference was observed between each sub index values (p> 0.05, α=0.05). Only BOD and COD exhibit slightly variation between stations that would be due to organic domestic wastes done by visitors. The study demonstrated that visitors impact on recreational is minimum and recreation streams are applicable for direct contact recreational.

  6. Spatial evaluation of the risk of groundwater quality degradation. A comparison between disjunctive kriging and geostatistical simulation.

    PubMed

    Barca, E; Passarella, G

    2008-02-01

    In some previous papers a probabilistic methodology was introduced to estimate a spatial index of risk of groundwater quality degradation, defined as the conditional probability of exceeding assigned thresholds of concentration of a generic chemical sampled in the studied water system. A crucial stage of this methodology was the use of geostatistical techniques to provide an estimation of the above-mentioned probability in a number of selected points by crossing spatial and temporal information. In this work, spatial risk values were obtained using alternatively stochastic conditional simulation and disjunctive kriging. A comparison between the resulting two sets of spatial risks, based on global and local statistical tests, showed that they do not come from the same statistical population and, consequently, they cannot be viewed as equivalent in a statistical sense. At a first glance, geostatistical conditional simulation may appear to represent the spatial variability of the phenomenon more effectively, as the latter tends to be smoothed by DK. However, a close examination of real case study results suggests that disjunctive kriging is more effective than simulation in estimating the spatial risk of groundwater quality degradation. In the study case, the potentially 'harmful event' considered, threatening a natural 'vulnerable groundwater system,' is fertilizer and manure application.

  7. Hydro-geochemical appraisal of groundwater quality from weathered basement aquifers in Northern Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanda, Elijah; Monjerezi, Maurice; Mwatseteza, Jonas F.; Kazembe, Lawrence N.

    The obligation to ensure adequate potable water supply to everyone, has necessitated the development of groundwater resources for reliable rural water supply in most developing countries. An understanding of spatial variation and processes affecting water quality is essential in sustaining usable water supplies under changing climate and local environmental pressures. In this study, an assessment of quality and dominant hydro-geochemical processes affecting the quality of groundwater from weathered basement aquifers in Mzimba district, Northern Malawi, has been conducted. Groundwater samples were collected from 172 hand-pumped boreholes, drilled for domestic rural water supply and analysed for major and minor ions, pH and total dissolved solids (TDS). In general, groundwater is of low mineralisation (TDS range: 29-1896 mg L -1 for the dry season), with hydro-geochemical facies dominated by Ca-HCO 3, which evolves to Ca-Cl water type. Multivariate statistical analysis (HCA and PCA) and geochemical interpretation showed that the Ca-HCO 3 groundwater type result from hydrolysis of silicate minerals, which causes the solution to reach equilibrium with kaolinite. The processes of cation exchange of Na + and K + in the groundwater for Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ on clay minerals, carbonate precipitation and evaporation, are shown to modify the chemical composition from Ca-HCO 3 types to Ca-Cl types. Groundwater is generally of good quality in both rainy and dry seasons, with little seasonal changes. The United States Salinity Laboratory Staff and Wilcox diagrams showed that most samples were also suitable for irrigation except for 4% (eight samples) of the groundwater samples (with EC > 2000 μS cm -1). These are located in alluviums and colluviums localised near river banks and in inter hill valleys.

  8. Groundwater quality in the Western San Joaquin Valley study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-06-09

    Water quality in groundwater resources used for public drinking-water supply in the Western San Joaquin Valley (WSJV) was investigated by the USGS in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) as part of its Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The WSJV includes two study areas: the Delta–Mendota and Westside subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley groundwater basin. Study objectives for the WSJV study unit included two assessment types: (1) a status assessment yielding quantitative estimates of the current (2010) status of groundwater quality in the groundwater resources used for public drinking water, and (2) an evaluation of natural and anthropogenic factors that could be affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments characterized the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water distributors.The status assessment was based on data collected from 43 wells sampled by the U.S. Geological Survey for the GAMA Priority Basin Project (USGS-GAMA) in 2010 and data compiled in the SWRCB Division of Drinking Water (SWRCB-DDW) database for 74 additional public-supply wells sampled for regulatory compliance purposes between 2007 and 2010. To provide context, concentrations of constituents measured in groundwater were compared to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and SWRCB-DDW regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. The status assessment used a spatially weighted, grid-based method to estimate the proportion of the groundwater resources used for public drinking water that has concentrations for particular constituents or class of constituents approaching or above benchmark concentrations. This method provides statistically unbiased results at the study-area scale within the WSJV study unit, and permits comparison of the two study areas to other areas assessed by the GAMA Priority Basin Project

  9. Framework for a ground-water quality monitoring and assessment program for California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belitz, Kenneth; Dubrovsky, Neil M.; Burow, Karen; Jurgens, Bryant C.; John, Tyler

    2003-01-01

    The State of California uses more ground water than any other State in the Nation. With a population of over 30 million people, an agricultural economy based on intensive irrigation, large urban industrial areas, and naturally elevated concentrations of some trace elements, there is a wide range of contaminant sources that have the potential to contaminate ground water and limit its beneficial uses. In response to the many-and different-potential sources of ground-water contamination, the State of California has evolved an extensive set of rules and programs to protect ground-water quality, and agencies to implement the rules and programs. These programs have in common a focus on compliance with regulations governing chemical use and (or) ground-water quality. Although appropriate for, and successful at, their specific missions, these programs do not at present provide a comprehensive view of ground-water quality in the State of California. In October 2001, The California Assembly passed a bill, AB 599, establishing the Ground-Water- Quality Monitoring Act of 2001.' The goal of AB 599 is to improve Statewide comprehensive ground-water monitoring and increase availability of information about ground-water quality to the public. AB 599 requires the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), in collaboration with an interagency task force (ITF) and a public advisory committee (PAC), to develop a plan for a comprehensive ground-water monitoring program. AB 599 specifies that the comprehensive program should be capable of assessing each ground-water basin in the State through direct and other statistically reliable sampling approaches, and that the program should integrate existing monitoring programs and design new program elements, as necessary. AB 599 also stresses the importance of prioritizing ground-water basins that provide drinking water. The United States Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the SWRCB, and in coordination with the ITF and PAC, has

  10. Evaluation of water quality and hydrogeochemistry of surface and groundwater, Tiruvallur District, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Kumar, S.; Hari Babu, S.; Eswar Rao, P.; Selvakumar, S.; Thivya, C.; Muralidharan, S.; Jeyabal, G.

    2016-07-01

    Water quality of Tiruvallur Taluk of Tiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, India has been analysed to assess its suitability in relation to domestic and agricultural uses. Thirty water samples, including 8 surface water (S), 22 groundwater samples [15 shallow ground waters (SW) and 7 deep ground waters (DW)], were collected to assess the various physico-chemical parameters such as Temperature, pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Total dissolved solids (TDS), cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K), anions (CO3, HCO3, Cl, SO4, NO3, PO4) and trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn). Various irrigation water quality diagrams and parameters such as United states salinity laboratory (USSL), Wilcox, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), sodium percentage (Na %), Residual sodium carbonate (RSC), Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (RSBC) and Kelley's ratio revealed that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation. Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) values suggest that the water is slightly corrosive and non-scale forming in nature. Gibbs plot suggests that the study area is dominated by evaporation and rock-water dominance process. Piper plot indicates the chemical composition of water, chiefly controlled by dissolution and mixing of irrigation return flow.

  11. Evaluation of water quality and hydrogeochemistry of surface and groundwater, Tiruvallur District, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Kumar, S.; Hari Babu, S.; Eswar Rao, P.; Selvakumar, S.; Thivya, C.; Muralidharan, S.; Jeyabal, G.

    2017-09-01

    Water quality of Tiruvallur Taluk of Tiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, India has been analysed to assess its suitability in relation to domestic and agricultural uses. Thirty water samples, including 8 surface water (S), 22 groundwater samples [15 shallow ground waters (SW) and 7 deep ground waters (DW)], were collected to assess the various physico-chemical parameters such as Temperature, pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Total dissolved solids (TDS), cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K), anions (CO3, HCO3, Cl, SO4, NO3, PO4) and trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn). Various irrigation water quality diagrams and parameters such as United states salinity laboratory (USSL), Wilcox, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), sodium percentage (Na %), Residual sodium carbonate (RSC), Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (RSBC) and Kelley's ratio revealed that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation. Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) values suggest that the water is slightly corrosive and non-scale forming in nature. Gibbs plot suggests that the study area is dominated by evaporation and rock-water dominance process. Piper plot indicates the chemical composition of water, chiefly controlled by dissolution and mixing of irrigation return flow.

  12. Estimation of impacts on groundwater quality in an urban area of Ljubljana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janža, Mitja; Prestor, Joerg; Pestotnik, Simona; Jamnik, Brigita

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater is a major source of drinking water supply in many cities worldwide. It is relatively stable and better-protected water resource compared to surface water and will have a vital role in assuring water-supply security in the future. In urbanized catchments numerous human activities (e.g. settling, industry, traffic, agriculture) take place which pose a threat to groundwater quality. For sustainable management of urban groundwater resources an integrated and adaptive approach based on continuous monitoring supported by modeling is needed. The aim of presented study was to develop a model of environmental pressures and impacts on Ljubljansko polje aquifer which is the main source exploited for the public drinking water supply of the city of Ljubljana. It is based on estimation of contaminants emissions from different sources, coupled with numerical transport modelling which is used to assess the impact on groundwater quality. The model was built up on detailed analysis of nitrogen mass balance and validated with monitoring data - concentration measurements of relevant chemical parameters. Based on the model simulations impacts of different sources of pollution on groundwater quality was estimated and priority of measures for improvement of chemical status of groundwater was defined.

  13. Protecting groundwater quality with high frequency subsurface drip irrigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitrate pollution from agriculture is a significant problem in the groundwater of the San Joaquin Valley of California (SJV). Nitrate is very mobile in water and transport is directly related to both water and fertilizer management on a crop. Surface irrigation is the principal method used in the SJ...

  14. Groundwater quality of porous aquifers in Greece: a synoptic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalaki, P.; Voudouris, K.

    2008-04-01

    Greece is dependent on groundwater resources for its water supply. The main aquifers are within carbonate rocks (karstic aquifers) and coarse grained Neogene and Quaternary deposits (porous aquifers). The use of groundwater resources has become particularly intensive in coastal areas during the last decades with the intense urbanization, tourist development and irrigated land expansion. Sources of groundwater pollution are the seawater intrusion due to over-exploitation of coastal aquifers, the fertilizers from agricultural activities and the disposal of untreated wastewater in torrents or in old pumping wells. In the last decades the total abstractions from coastal aquifers exceed the natural recharge; so the aquifer systems are not used safely. Over-exploitation causes a negative water balance, triggering seawater intrusion. Seawater intrusion phenomena are recorded in coastal aquifer systems. Nitrate pollution is the second major source of groundwater degradation in many areas in Greece. The high levels of nitrate are probably the result of over-fertilization and the lack of sewage systems in some urban areas.

  15. Groundwater quality in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Mary C.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s untreated groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Selected groundwater basins in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  16. Ground-water quality in alluvial basins that have minimal urban development, south-central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.; Coes, Alissa L.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water quality data (1917-96) from 772 wells in 16 alluvial basins that have minimal urban development were used to determine the effect of nonurban factors on ground-water quality in south- central Arizona. Characterization of the spatial variability of ground-water quality within and among alluvial basins that have minimal urban development will provide a baseline to which water- quality problems associated with urbanization can be compared. Four water-type categories--calcium carbonate, calcium mixed anion, sodium carbonate, and sodium chloride--were used to classify the 13 alluvial basins for which adequate data were available. Ground-water quality was compared to U.S. Environmental Protaection Agency maximum contaminant levels for drinking water, depth of well, and depth to top of perforated interval for five alluvial basins that represented the four water-type categories. Exceedances of maximum contaminant levels for fluoride and nitrate occurred in three and four basins, respectively, of the five selected basins. Specific-conductance values for ground water in the five selected basins tend to increase in a northwesterly direction toward the central part of Arizona as the extent of evaporite deposits increases. The results of this study, which are part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, can be used to determine the effects of urban land-use activities on ground-water quality in similar hydrogeologic conditions and may be the best indicator available for nonurban ground-water quality in the region.

  17. Assessment of groundwater quality data for the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation, Rolette County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lundgren, Robert F.; Vining, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation relies on groundwater supplies to meet the demands of community and economic needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians, examined historical groundwater-level and groundwater-quality data for the Fox Hills, Hell Creek, Rolla, and Shell Valley aquifers. The two main sources of water-quality data for groundwater were the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database and the North Dakota State Water Commission database. Data included major ions, trace elements, nutrients, field properties, and physical properties. The Fox Hills and Hell Creek aquifers had few groundwater water-quality data. The lack of data limits any detailed assessments that can be made about these aquifers. Data for the Rolla aquifer exist from 1978 through 1980 only. The concentrations of some water-quality constituents exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant levels. No samples were analyzed for pesticides and hydrocarbons. Numerous water-quality samples have been obtained from the Shell Valley aquifer. About one-half of the water samples from the Shell Valley aquifer had concentrations of iron, manganese, sulfate, and dissolved solids that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant levels. Overall, the data did not indicate obvious patterns in concentrations.

  18. Hydrochemical characteristics and water quality assessment of surface water and groundwater in Songnen plain, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Yinghua; Han, Dongmei; Tang, Changyuan; Yu, Yilei; Ma, Ying

    2012-05-15

    Water quality is the critical factor that influence on human health and quantity and quality of grain production in semi-humid and semi-arid area. Songnen plain is one of the grain bases in China, as well as one of the three major distribution regions of soda saline-alkali soil in the world. To assess the water quality, surface water and groundwater were sampled and analyzed by fuzzy membership analysis and multivariate statistics. The surface water were gather into class I, IV and V, while groundwater were grouped as class I, II, III and V by fuzzy membership analysis. The water samples were grouped into four categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagrams of USDA. Most water samples distributed in category C1-S1, C2-S2 and C3-S3. Three groups were generated from hierarchical cluster analysis. Four principal components were extracted from principal component analysis. The indicators to water quality assessment were Na, HCO(3), NO(3), Fe, Mn and EC from principal component analysis. We conclude that surface water and shallow groundwater are suitable for irrigation, the reservoir and deep groundwater in upstream are the resources for drinking. The water for drinking should remove of the naturally occurring ions of Fe and Mn. The control of sodium and salinity hazard is required for irrigation. The integrated management of surface water and groundwater for drinking and irrigation is to solve the water issues.

  19. Salinity of deep groundwater in California: Water quantity, quality, and protection

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mary; Jackson, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Deep groundwater aquifers are poorly characterized but could yield important sources of water in California and elsewhere. Deep aquifers have been developed for oil and gas extraction, and this activity has created both valuable data and risks to groundwater quality. Assessing groundwater quantity and quality requires baseline data and a monitoring framework for evaluating impacts. We analyze 938 chemical, geological, and depth data points from 360 oil/gas fields across eight counties in California and depth data from 34,392 oil and gas wells. By expanding previous groundwater volume estimates from depths of 305 m to 3,000 m in California’s Central Valley, an important agricultural region with growing groundwater demands, fresh [<3,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS)] groundwater volume is almost tripled to 2,700 km3, most of it found shallower than 1,000 m. The 3,000-m depth zone also provides 3,900 km3 of fresh and saline water, not previously estimated, that can be categorized as underground sources of drinking water (USDWs; <10,000 ppm TDS). Up to 19% and 35% of oil/gas activities have occurred directly in freshwater zones and USDWs, respectively, in the eight counties. Deeper activities, such as wastewater injection, may also pose a potential threat to groundwater, especially USDWs. Our findings indicate that California’s Central Valley alone has close to three times the volume of fresh groundwater and four times the volume of USDWs than previous estimates suggest. Therefore, efforts to monitor and protect deeper, saline groundwater resources are needed in California and beyond. PMID:27354527

  20. Salinity of deep groundwater in California: Water quantity, quality, and protection.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mary; Jackson, Robert B

    2016-07-12

    Deep groundwater aquifers are poorly characterized but could yield important sources of water in California and elsewhere. Deep aquifers have been developed for oil and gas extraction, and this activity has created both valuable data and risks to groundwater quality. Assessing groundwater quantity and quality requires baseline data and a monitoring framework for evaluating impacts. We analyze 938 chemical, geological, and depth data points from 360 oil/gas fields across eight counties in California and depth data from 34,392 oil and gas wells. By expanding previous groundwater volume estimates from depths of 305 m to 3,000 m in California's Central Valley, an important agricultural region with growing groundwater demands, fresh [<3,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS)] groundwater volume is almost tripled to 2,700 km(3), most of it found shallower than 1,000 m. The 3,000-m depth zone also provides 3,900 km(3) of fresh and saline water, not previously estimated, that can be categorized as underground sources of drinking water (USDWs; <10,000 ppm TDS). Up to 19% and 35% of oil/gas activities have occurred directly in freshwater zones and USDWs, respectively, in the eight counties. Deeper activities, such as wastewater injection, may also pose a potential threat to groundwater, especially USDWs. Our findings indicate that California's Central Valley alone has close to three times the volume of fresh groundwater and four times the volume of USDWs than previous estimates suggest. Therefore, efforts to monitor and protect deeper, saline groundwater resources are needed in California and beyond.

  1. Water quality analysis of groundwater in crystalline basement rocks, Northern Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anku, Yvonne S.; Banoeng-Yakubo, Bruce; Asiedu, Daniel K.; Yidana, Sandow M.

    2009-09-01

    Hydrochemical data are presented for groundwater samples, collected from fractured aquifers in parts of northern Ghana. The data was collected to assess the groundwater suitability for domestic and agricultural use. Results of the study reveal that the pH of the groundwater in the area is slightly acidic to slightly alkaline. The electrical conductivity values, total dissolved solids (TDS) values and calcium, magnesium and sodium concentrations in the groundwater are generally below the limit set by the WHO for potable water supply. On the basis of activity diagrams, groundwater from the fractured aquifers appears to be stable within the montmorillonite field, suggesting weathering of silicate minerals. An inverse distance weighting interpolator with a power of 2 was applied to the data points to produce prediction maps for nitrate and fluoride. The distribution maps show the presence of high nitrate concentrations (50-194 mg/l) in some of the boreholes in the western part of the study area indicating anthropogenic impact on the groundwater. Elevated fluoride level (1.5-4 mg/l), higher than the WHO allowable fluoride concentration of 1.5, is recorded in the groundwater underlying the northeastern part of the study area, more specifically Bongo and its surrounding communities of the Upper East region. Results of this study suggest that groundwater from the fractured aquifers in the area exhibit low sodicity-low salinity (S1-C1), low sodicity-medium salinity (S1-C2) characteristics [United States Salinity Laboratory (USSL) classification scheme]. All data points from this study plot within the ‘Excellent to good’ category on a Wilcox diagram. Groundwater in this area thus appears to provide irrigation water of excellent quality. The hydrochemical results indicate that, although nitrate and fluoride concentrations in some boreholes are high, the groundwater in the study area, based on the parameters analyzed, is chemically potable and suitable for domestic and

  2. Water quality analysis of groundwater in crystalline basement rocks, Northern Ghana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anku, Y.S.; Banoeng-Yakubo, B.; Asiedu, D.K.; Yidana, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrochemical data are presented for groundwater samples, collected from fractured aquifers in parts of northern Ghana. The data was collected to assess the groundwater suitability for domestic and agricultural use. Results of the study reveal that the pH of the groundwater in the area is slightly acidic to slightly alkaline. The electrical conductivity values, total dissolved solids (TDS) values and calcium, magnesium and sodium concentrations in the groundwater are generally below the limit set by the WHO for potable water supply. On the basis of activity diagrams, groundwater from the fractured aquifers appears to be stable within the montmorillonite field, suggesting weathering of silicate minerals. An inverse distance weighting interpolator with a power of 2 was applied to the data points to produce prediction maps for nitrate and fluoride. The distribution maps show the presence of high nitrate concentrations (50-194??mg/l) in some of the boreholes in the western part of the study area indicating anthropogenic impact on the groundwater. Elevated fluoride level (1.5-4??mg/l), higher than the WHO allowable fluoride concentration of 1.5, is recorded in the groundwater underlying the northeastern part of the study area, more specifically Bongo and its surrounding communities of the Upper East region. Results of this study suggest that groundwater from the fractured aquifers in the area exhibit low sodicity-low salinity (S1-C1), low sodicity-medium salinity (S1-C2) characteristics [United States Salinity Laboratory (USSL) classification scheme]. All data points from this study plot within the 'Excellent to good' category on a Wilcox diagram. Groundwater in this area thus appears to provide irrigation water of excellent quality. The hydrochemical results indicate that, although nitrate and fluoride concentrations in some boreholes are high, the groundwater in the study area, based on the parameters analyzed, is chemically potable and suitable for domestic and

  3. IWQ index: a GIS-integrated technique to assess irrigation water quality.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Celalettin; Gunduz, Orhan

    2007-05-01

    The irrigation water quality and the associated hazards to soil characteristics and crop yield is often a complex phenomenon that involves the combined effect of many parameters. From a management point of view, it is sometimes necessary to analyze all related parameters as a combination rather than focusing on a single isolated parameter. With this objective in mind, a new GIS-integrated tool is proposed in this study to evaluate the quality of irrigation waters with regards to potential soil and crop problems. The proposed procedure is mainly an index method that utilizes five hazard groups: (a) salinity hazard, (b) infiltration and permeability hazard, (c) specific ion toxicity, (d) trace element toxicity; and, (e) miscellaneous impacts on sensitive crops. A linear combination of these groups is formulated to form the so-called IWQ index, which is a technique that could be used to classify irrigation waters with respect to three suitability classes. The proposed technique is applied to assess the irrigation water quality of the Simav Plain located in western Anatolia, Turkey. The Simav application is implemented by using a GIS database developed for the plain. Based on the results of this application, the general groundwater quality in the surfacial aquifer is found to be fairly good and the aquifer waters are mostly suitable for irrigation purposes.

  4. The Hearing-Aid Audio Quality Index (HAAQI).

    PubMed

    Kates, James M; Arehart, Kathryn H

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an index designed to predict music quality for individuals listening through hearing aids. The index is "intrusive", that is, it compares the degraded signal being evaluated to a reference signal. The index is based on a model of the auditory periphery that includes the effects of hearing loss. Outputs from the auditory model are used to measure changes in the signal time-frequency envelope modulation, temporal fine structure, and long-term spectrum caused by the hearing aid processing. The index is constructed by combining a term sensitive to noise and nonlinear distortion with a second term sensitive to changes in the long-term spectrum. The index is fitted to an existing database of music quality judgments made by listeners having normal or impaired hearing. The data comprise ratings for three music excerpts (classical orchestra, jazz trio, and jazz singer), each processed through 100 conditions representative of hearing-aid processing and listening situations. The overall accuracy of the index is high, with a correlation coefficient of 0.970 when computed over all of the processing conditions and averaged over the combined groups of listeners having normal and impaired hearing.

  5. The Hearing-Aid Audio Quality Index (HAAQI)

    PubMed Central

    Kates, James M.; Arehart, Kathryn H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an index designed to predict music quality for individuals listening through hearing aids. The index is “intrusive”, that is, it compares the degraded signal being evaluated to a reference signal. The index is based on a model of the auditory periphery that includes the effects of hearing loss. Outputs from the auditory model are used to measure changes in the signal time-frequency envelope modulation, temporal fine structure, and long-term spectrum caused by the hearing aid processing. The index is constructed by combining a term sensitive to noise and nonlinear distortion with a second term sensitive to changes in the long-term spectrum. The index is fitted to an existing database of music quality judgments made by listeners having normal or impaired hearing. The data comprise ratings for three music excerpts (classical orchestra, jazz trio, and jazz singer), each processed through 100 conditions representative of hearing-aid processing and listening situations. The overall accuracy of the index is high, with a correlation coefficient of 0.970 when computed over all of the processing conditions and averaged over the combined groups of listeners having normal and impaired hearing. PMID:27135042

  6. Towards understanding how geographic, hydrologic, and chemical processes interact to produce trends in groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starn, J. J.; Green, C. T.; Hinkle, S. R.; Chapelle, F. H.; Lindsey, B.; Thiros, S.

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop methods and guidelines to help understand how geographic (land use and resource development), hydrologic (directions and rates of groundwater flow), and chemical processes (reaction rates) interact to explain historical changes in the distribution of natural and anthropogenic constituents in and across major aquifer systems and how these factors might affect groundwater quality in the coming decades. This study will include contribute to the understanding of how geologic heterogeneity and data/model uncertainty affect the quality of predictions made using large-scale groundwater models. An ancillary purpose is to make recommendations for sampling USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program water-quality networks to enhance the detection and understanding of incipient groundwater quality trends. This study is in the early stages of development. Although the study encompasses work at multiple sites, this presentation will focus on an effort in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah. Groundwater quality is spatially variable in this basin-fill aquifer, primarily as a result of rock-water interaction and variations in recharge water quality. Recharge water quality is influenced by human activities (such as the use of de-icing chemicals) that tend to contribute water with relatively high dissolved solids and by natural processes (such as the infiltration of meteoric water from adjacent mountains) that tend to contribute water with relatively low dissolved solids. Human activities and natural processes are not stationary, and changes in water-quality distribution over time are expected; documented changes in groundwater quality include local increases in nitrate, sulfate, chloride, and total dissolved solids. These changes affect the public-water supply that is pumped from the deeper part of the basin-fill aquifer and should be considered in the future management of that supply. An existing groundwater flow model was recalibrated using more

  7. Ground-Water Quality in Western New York, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckhardt, David A.V.; Reddy, James E.; Tamulonis, Kathryn L.

    2008-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 7 production wells and 26 private residential wells in western New York from August through December 2006 and analyzed to characterize the chemical quality of ground water. Wells at 15 of the sites were screened in sand and gravel aquifers, and 18 were finished in bedrock aquifers. The wells were selected to represent areas of greatest ground-water use and to provide a geographical sampling from the 5,340-square-mile study area. Samples were analyzed for 5 physical properties and 219 constituents that included nutrients, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), phenolic compounds, organic carbon, and bacteria. Results indicate that ground water used for drinking supply is generally of acceptable quality, although concentrations of some constituents or bacteria exceeded at least one drinking-water standard at 27 of the 33 wells. The cations that were detected in the highest concentrations were calcium, magnesium, and sodium; anions that were detected in the highest concentrations were bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. The predominant nutrients were nitrate and ammonia; nitrate concentrations were higher in samples from sand and gravel aquifers than in samples from bedrock. The trace elements barium, boron, copper, lithium, nickel, and strontium were detected in every sample; the trace elements with the highest concentrations were barium, boron, iron, lithium, manganese, and strontium. Eighteen pesticides, including 9 pesticide degradates, were detected in water from 14 of the 33 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded State or Federal Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs). Fourteen volatile organic compounds were detected in water from 12 of the 33 wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded MCLs. Eight chemical analytes and three types of bacteria were detected in concentrations that exceeded Federal and State drinking-water standards, which are typically identical

  8. Identification of Dysfunctional Cooperative Learning Teams Using Taguchi Quality Indexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Chin-Min

    2011-01-01

    In this study, dysfunctional cooperative learning teams are identified by comparing the Taguchi "larger-the-better" quality index for the academic achievement of students in a cooperative learning condition with that of students in an individualistic learning condition. In performing the experiments, 42 sophomore mechanical engineering…

  9. Identification of Dysfunctional Cooperative Learning Teams Using Taguchi Quality Indexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Chin-Min

    2011-01-01

    In this study, dysfunctional cooperative learning teams are identified by comparing the Taguchi "larger-the-better" quality index for the academic achievement of students in a cooperative learning condition with that of students in an individualistic learning condition. In performing the experiments, 42 sophomore mechanical engineering…

  10. γ+ index: A new evaluation parameter for quantitative quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Stathakis, Sotirios; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Shi, Chengyu; Xu, Jun; Kauweloa, Kevin I; Narayanasamy, Ganesh; Papanikolaou, Niko

    2014-04-01

    The accuracy of dose delivery and the evaluation of differences between calculated and delivered dose distributions, has been studied by several groups. The aim of this investigation is to extend the gamma index by including radiobiological information and to propose a new index that we will here forth refer to as the gamma plus (γ+). Furthermore, to validate the robustness of this new index in performing a quality control analysis of an IMRT treatment plan using pure radiobiological measures such as the biologically effective uniform dose (D) and complication-free tumor control probability (P+). A new quality assurance index, the (γ+), is proposed based on the theoretical concept of gamma index presented by Low et al. (1998). In this study, the dose difference, including the radiobiological dose information (biological effective dose, BED) is used instead of just the physical dose difference when performing the γ+ calculation. An in-house software was developed to compare different dose distributions based on the γ+ concept. A test pattern for a two-dimensional dose comparison was built using the in-house software platform. The γ+ index was tested using planar dose distributions (exported from the treatment planning system) and delivered (film) dose distributions acquired in a solid water phantom using a test pattern and a theoretical clinical case. Furthermore, a lung cancer case for a patient treated with IMRT was also selected for the analysis. The respective planar dose distributions from the treatment plan and the film were compared based on the γ+ index and were evaluated using the radiobiological measures of P+ and D. The results for the test pattern analysis indicate that the γ+ index distributions differ from those of the gamma index since the former considers radiobiological parameters that may affect treatment outcome. For the theoretical clinical case, it is observed that the γ+ index varies for different treatment parameters (e.g. dose per

  11. Quality of life index in autoimmune bullous dermatosis patients*

    PubMed Central

    Penha, Mariana Álvares; Farat, Joyce Godoy; Miot, Hélio Amante; Barraviera, Sílvia Regina Catharino Sartori

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Autoimmune bullous dermatoses are complex diseases triggered by autoantibodies action against epidermal antigens or the dermoepidermal junction. Blisters and vesicles that evolve with erosion areas characterize them. Although rare, they present high morbidity, affecting the quality of life of patients. OBJECTIVES To assess the magnitude of autoimmune bullous dermatoses on life quality of patients treated in a public university service in countryside of Brazil. METHODS This cross-sectional study was based on an inquiry with autoimmune bullous dermatoses patients assisted at outpatient university referral service. Elements related to quality of life were evaluated by the Dermatology Life Quality Index, as well as clinical and demographic data. RESULTS The study evaluated 43 patients with pemphigus foliaceus, 32 with pemphigus vulgaris, 6 with bullous pemphigoid and 3 with dermatitis herpetiformis. The average age was 48 ± 16 years and 34 (40%) were female. The median score (p25-p75) of the Dermatology Life Quality Index was 16 (9-19), classified as "severe impairment" of life quality, in which the greater impact was related to symptoms and feelings, daily and leisure activities. CONCLUSIONS Autoimmune bullous dermatoses inflict severe impairment of quality of life for patients followed by a public outpatient clinic in the countryside of Brazil. PMID:25830988

  12. Bioremediation as an efficient method to degrade creosote and improve groundwater quality

    SciTech Connect

    Newbern, V.A.

    1994-09-01

    A hydrogeologic monitoring evaluation was conducted to determine the efficiency of bioremediation on a site at which creosote is used for pressure treating and wood preservation. Initially, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and diesel fuel were incorporated with the creosote. The waste water generated from the process was disposed of in three unlined surface impoundments until 1982. Thirteen monitoring wells were installed between August 1981 and the first half of 1982 where both PCP and creosote releases were found and attributed to the impoundments. A groundwater quality assessment program was initiated in April 1986 and a subsequent pilot groundwater remediation program begun in February 1987. A Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been in operation since August 1987 and was designed to remediate groundwater from the uppermost water-bearing sand (Bentley sand), which was affected by the impoundment areas. With the CAP, a system of 21 recovery wells set in 4 lines were implemented to withdraw the groundwater. The groundwater was then treated in above-ground bioreactors where microorganisms were introduced to degrade the creosote compounds. Treated groundwater was then discharged to the public waste-water facility or injected to recharge the Bentley sands by the use of either of the two recharge trenches. Both nutrients and oxygen were added to the water prior to injection to increase the in-situ bioremediation of the creosote and PCP contaminants via two air sparging lines. The results demonstrate the reduction of creosote constituents from the groundwater with the use of bioremediation.

  13. Results of RCRA groundwater quality assessment at the 216-B-3 Pond Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D.B.; Teel, S.S.

    1997-06-01

    This document describes a groundwater quality assessment of the 216-B-3 pond system, a Resources Conservation and Recovery act of 1976 (RCRA) waste facility. In 1990, sampling and chemical analysis of groundwater underlying the facility indicated that the contamination indicator parameters, total organic halogens (TOX), and total organic carbon (TOC) had exceeded established limits in two wells. This discovery placed the facility into RCRA groundwater assessment status and subsequently led to a more detailed hydrochemical analysis of groundwater underlying the facility. Comprehensive chemical analyses of groundwater samples from 1994 through 1996 revealed one compound, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TRIS2CH), that may have contributed to elevated TOX concentrations. No compound was identified as a contributor to TOC. Detailed evaluations of TOX, TOC, and TRIS2CH and comparison of occurrences of these parameters led to conclusions that (1) with few exceptions, these constituents occur at low concentrations below or near limits of quantitation; (2) it is problematic whether the low concentrations of TRIS2CH represent a contaminant originating from the facility or if it is a product of well construction; and (3) given the low and diminishing concentration of TOX, TOC, and TRIS2CH, no further investigation into the occurrent of these constituents is justified. Continued groundwater monitoring should include an immediate recalculation of background critical means of upgradient/downgradient comparisons and a return to seminannual groundwater monitoring under a RCRA indicator parameter evaluation program.

  14. Preliminary evaluations of regional ground-water quality in relation to land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, D.; Helsel, D.R.; Ragone, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary results from New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Florida, Nebraska, and Colorado indicate that regional ground-water quality has been affected by human activities. The frequencies of detection of volatile organic compounds and some trace elements were larger in ground water underlying urban or industrial areas in comparison to undeveloped areas. Ground water in agricultural areas generally had larger concentrations of nitrate and an increased frequency of detection of pesticides. Effects of human activities on water quality increased as the intensity of urbanization or irrigation increased. Ground-water pumpage, waste-water discharges into a stream that is hydraulically connected to an alluvial aquifer, and consumptive use of ground water affected the ground-water quality in one study area to a greater extent than land-use practices. -from Authors

  15. Spatial variability and long-term analysis of groundwater quality of Faisalabad industrial zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Muhammad Salman; Nasir, Abdul; Rashid, Haroon; Shah, Syed Hamid Hussain

    2016-09-01

    Water is the basic necessity of life and is essential for healthy society. In this study, groundwater quality analysis was carried out for the industrial zone of Faisalabad city. Sixty samples of groundwater were collected from the study area. The quality maps of deliberately analyzed results were prepared in GIS. The collected samples were analyzed for chemical parameters and heavy metals, such as total hardness, alkalinity, cadmium, arsenic, nickel, lead, and fluoride, and then, the results were compared with the WHO guidelines. The values of these results were represented by a mapping of quality parameters using the ArcView GIS v9.3, and IDW was used for raster interpolation. The long-term analysis of these parameters has been carried out using the `R Statistical' software. It was concluded that water is partially not fit for drinking, and direct use of this groundwater may cause health issues.

  16. Groundwater quality assessment of the Limnos Island Volcanic Aquifers, Greece.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, George; Panagiotaras, Dionisios; Giannoulopoulos, Panagiotis

    2013-05-01

    Limnos Island in Greece, which has been the subject of extensive hydrogeological research, contains confined volcanic aquifers that overlie impermeable flysch. Groundwater salinization is usually the effect of seawater intrusion, and results from a combination of factors such as low annual areal precipitation and exploitation of aquifers for civil, commercial, and agricultural purposes. Areas with intense agricultural activities have also increasingly observed these effects. A geochemical evaluation on the basis of multiple ion (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-), NO3-) concentrations and physicochemical parameters distribution revealed that ion exchange is the dominant hydrogeochemical process. However, the enrichment of groundwater in potassium and magnesium results from rock and mineral weathering and dissolution.

  17. Impact of diffuse nitrate pollution sources on groundwater quality--some examples from Czechoslovakia.

    PubMed Central

    Benes, V; Pĕkný, V; Skorepa, J; Vrba, J

    1989-01-01

    In several regions of Czechoslovakia with intensive agricultural production, the correlation between the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied and the nitrate content in groundwater has been recognized. Nitrate pollution of groundwater is considered to be the most serious source of nonpoint pollution in Czechoslovakia. A program of research into the effects of farming activities on groundwater quality in Czechoslovakia is under way on experimental fields (20 to 30 hectares) and, simultaneously, in regions in which shallow, vulnerable aquifers occur. The importance of the soil organic matter's stability for maintaining the groundwater quality is emphasized. Research based on nitrogen and organic carbon balance has shown that the restoration of a soil-groundwater system is a complicated process that usually requires changes in the extent and intensity of agricultural activities and consistent attention to the effects produced by natural conditions. Regional investigation of the impact of farming on shallow aquifers in the fluvial deposits of the Elbe River in Bohemia has proved the hydrochemical instability and vertical hydrochemical heterogeneity of these aquifers. The WASTEN deterministic model was used for modeling the transport and transformation of various types of inorganic fertilizers. The input data is based on laboratory and field measurements. Special topics are the verification of model calculations and the time and spatial variability of input data with respect to the unsaturated zone. The research results are being used for making regional and national agro-groundwater managerial schemes more precise, as well as for decision-making. PMID:2559844

  18. Regional assessment of groundwater for drinking purpose subject to water-quality parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin

    2010-05-01

    Owing to limited surface water during a long term drought, this work attempted to locate safe groundwater for drinking in aquifers of the Choushui River alluvial fan, Taiwan subject to its water-quality parameters. Because the aquifers contained multiple pollutions, such as the salinity pollution, the organic pollution, the nitrogen pollution and the heavy metal pollution, multiple-variable indicator kriging (MVIK) was adopted to estimate integration of several pollutions in groundwater based on water-quality standards for drinking and to characterize spatial uncertainty. According to probabilities estimated by MVIK, safe scopes were determined for four treatment conditions - no treatment, ammonium-N removal, manganese removal, and ammonium-N and manganese removals. The analyzed results reveal that, because of exceeding the standards of manganese and/or ammonium-N, groundwater in proximal-fan aquifers (a natural recharging zone) has to be treated appropriately, such as dilution and removals with some treatment approaches, before being drunk. The proximal-fan, southeastern and central regions are the best locations to pump clean and safe groundwater for drinking when devices of ammonium-N and manganese removals are available. Deep aquifers of exceeding 200 m depth have wider safe regions to obtain excellent groundwater for drinking than shallow aquifers do. Keywords: Multiple-variable indicator kriging; groundwater; pollution; drinking

  19. Environmental impact of municipal dumpsite leachate on ground-water quality in Jawaharnagar, Rangareddy, Telangana, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soujanya Kamble, B.; Saxena, Praveen Raj

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the impact of dumpsite leachate on ground-water quality of Jawaharnagar village. Leachate and ground-water samples were investigated for various physico-chemical parameters viz., pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), carbonates (CO3 2-), bicarbonates (HCO3 -), nitrates (NO3 -), and sulphates (SO4 2-) during dry and wet seasons in 2015 and were reported. The groundwater was hard to very hard in nature, and the concentrations of total dissolved solids, chlorides, and nitrates were found to be exceeding the permissible levels of WHO drinking water quality standards. Piper plots revealed that the dominant hydrochemical facies of the groundwater were of calcium chloride (CaCl2) type and alkaline earths (Ca2+ and Mg2+) exceed the alkali (Na+ and SO4 2-), while the strong acids (Cl- and SO4 2-) exceed the weak acids (CO3 2- and HCO3 -). According to USSL diagram, all the ground-water samples belong to high salinity and low-sodium type (C3S1). Overall, the ground-water samples collected around the dumpsite were found to be polluted and are unfit for human consumption but can be used for irrigation purpose with heavy drainage and irrigation patterns to control the salinity.

  20. Hydrochemical processes regulating groundwater quality in the coastal plain of Al Musanaah, Sultanate of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askri, Brahim

    2015-06-01

    The Al Batinah coastal aquifer is the principal source of water in northwestern Oman. The rainfall in the Jabal Al Akhdar mountain region recharges the plain with freshwater that allowed agricultural and industrial activities to develop. The over-exploitation of this aquifer since the 1970s for municipal, agricultural and industrial purposes, excessive use of fertilizers in agriculture and leakage from septic tanks led to the deterioration of groundwater quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the hydrochemical processes regulating the groundwater quality in the southwestern section of Al Batinah. From available data collected during the spring of 2010 from 58 wells located in Al Musanaah wilayat, it was determined that the groundwater salinity increased in the direction from the south to the north following the regional flow direction. In addition to salinisation, the groundwater in the upstream and intermediate regions was contaminated with nitrate, while groundwater in the downstream region was affected by fluoride. Calculations of ionic ratios and seawater fraction indicated that seawater intrusion was not dominant in the study area. The primary factors controlling the groundwater chemistry in Al Musanaah appear to be halite dissolution, reverse ion exchange with clay material and anthropogenic pollutants.

  1. Agriculture-related trends in groundwater quality of the glacial deposits aquifer, central Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saad, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Measuring and understanding trends in groundwater quality is necessary for determining whether changes in land-management practices have an effect on groundwater quality. This paper describes an approach that was used to measure and understand trends using data from two groundwater studies conducted in central Wisconsin as part of the USGS NAWQA program. One of the key components of this approach, determining the age of sampled groundwater, gave a temporal component to the snapshots of water quality that were obtained through synoptic-sampling efforts. This approach can be used at other locations where groundwater quality data are collected, groundwater age can be determined, and associated temporal data are available. Results of these studies indicate measured concentrations of nitrate and atrazine plus deethylatrazine were correlated to historical patterns of fertilizer and atrazine use. Concentrations of nitrate in groundwater have increased over time; concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine increased and then decreased. Concentrations of nitrate also were correlated to screen depth below the water level and concentrations of dissolved O2; concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine were correlated to dissolved O2 and annual precipitation. To measure trends in concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine, the data, collected over a near-decadal period, were adjusted to account for changes in laboratory-reporting levels and analytical recoveries. Only after accounting for these changes was it apparent that the median concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine decreased over the near-decadal interval between sampling efforts. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  2. Groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges Basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily from mixture of ambient sources, including direct percolation of precipitation and irrigation waters, infiltration of runoff from surrounding hills/areas, seepage from rivers and creeks, and subsurface inflow (from non-alluvial geologic units that bound the alluvial basins). The primary sources of discharge are evaporation, discharge to streams, and water pumped for municipal supply and irrigation.

  3. Groundwater Monitoring Plan. Volume 2. Final Quality Assurance Project Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    Samples Added weekly blank for organic-free deionized water and Collected in the Field. filter blank. Specific to Project. 5-9 5.5 Sample Custody Greater...Gmoundwater Monitoing Plan, VOLUME/i Filter blanks will be collected at a frequency of 1 per lot. Organic-free, deionized water will be run through the filter ...using the filtering apparatus used to filter groundwater samples. The water will be collected in the appropriate sample bottles following filtering

  4. Influences on water quality in a groundwater dependent wetland system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanafield, M.; Rigosi, A.; Wood, C.; White, N.; Liu, Y.; Brookes, J. D.; Cook, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    Ewens Ponds is a unique series of connected wetlands situated within the Gambier Limestone formation in the Gambier Basin on the southeastern coast in South Australia. The system is composed of three consecutive ponds, each with a total depth of 9 to 13 m deep. Groundwater is the sole water source for the ponds, and the clear water, lush flora, and rare indigenous fish that characterize these wetlands typically lure thousands of divers to the Ponds each year. Over the past century, agricultural practices in the area have changed the hydrology of this system in many ways; first with an extensive system of drains on both sides of the Ponds to make the surrounding area viable for agricultural use, subsequently with the dredging of the outflow of the Ponds and addition of synthetic fertilizers, and most recently with heavy aquifer pumping for widespread use of center pivot irrigation systems. Beginning in the 1970s, diebacks in the Ponds' flora were documented, concurrent with spikes in nutrient concentrations. In nearby waters, reductions in key wetland species have been observed during periods of high alkalinity (pH>10). Following these concerns, the current study aims to quantify the water budget within the ponds, identify sources of nutrients, and estimate the age of groundwaters entering the wetlands for correlation with longterm agricultural trends. Groundwater ages were sampled in May 2014 and analysed for Carbon 14 and SF6, in addition to the installation of salinity and water level sensors and flow gaging. Preliminary results show that approximately 70 percent of the water enters the system through groundwater inflow in the first pond, with the remaining water entering within the third pond. A slight increase in the electrical conductivity of the ponds (average 750 μS in the first pond, up to 800 μS in the third pond) also differentiates the water.

  5. Quality of our groundwater resources: arsenic and fluoride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater often contains arsenic or fluoride concentrations too high for drinking or cooking. These constituents, often naturally occurring, are not easy to remove. The right combination of natural or manmade conditions can lead to elevated arsenic or fluoride which includes continental source rocks, high alkalinity and pH, reducing conditions for arsenic, high phosphate, high temperature and high silica. Agencies responsible for safe drinking water should be aware of these conditions, be prepared to monitor, and treat if necessary.

  6. Hydrogeology, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality at two landfills in Bristol, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    A study was done to describe the hydrogeology of unconsolidated deposits, simulated ground-water flow, and ground-water quality at two landfills in Bristol, Vermont. The study area is characterized by a glacial delta greater than 200 feet thick on the west flank of the Green Mountains. An upper unconfined, coarse-grained glacial aquifer and a lower fine-grained glacial aquifer are separated throughout most of the study area by a sand, silt, and clay confining unit. A two-layer ground-water flow model was designed and calibrated to estimate ground-water-flow paths form the aquifers beneath the landfills. Large upward head gradients of 0.03 to 0.30 foot per foot are the result of ground water leaking from the underlying bedrock aquifer, which caused ground-water flow to concentrate in the upper aquifer. Most simulated ground-water-flow paths in the lower glacial aquifer beneath the landfills crossed into the upper aquifer. Simulated ground- water-flow paths in the upper aquifer, beneath the landfills, remained in the upper aquifer. Ground water characterized as landfill leachate, or influenced by landfill leachate, has a median specific conductance of 700 microseimens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius. Landfill leachate contained mean concentrations 1.5 to 10 times the background concentrations of common constituents and metals, including calcium, potassium, sodium, chloride, iron, magnesium, and manganese. Trace metals detected in the leachate included copper, nickel, zinc, cobalt, lead, and arsenic. Ten volatile organic compounds were found at four observation wells associated with one landfill and three volatile organic compounds were found at two observation wells associated with the record landfill. No one volatile organic compound was consistently found and detections were generally at or near detection limits.

  7. Groundwater Age in Multi-Level Water Quality Monitor Wells on California Central Valley Dairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, B. K.; Visser, A.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Singleton, M. J.; Moran, J. E.; Harter, T.

    2011-12-01

    Dairy farming in California's Central Valley is a significant source of nitrate to underlying aquifers. One approach to mitigation is to implement farm-scale management plans that reduce nutrient loading to groundwater while sustaining crop yield. While the effect of different management practices on crop yield is easily measured, their effect on groundwater quality has only infrequently been evaluated. Documenting and predicting the impact of management on water quality requires a quantitative assessment of transport (including timescale and mixing) through the vadose and saturated zones. In this study, we measured tritium, helium isotopic composition, and noble gas concentrations in groundwater drawn from monitor wells on several dairies in the Lower San Joaquin Valley and Tulare Lake Basin of California's Central Valley in order to predict the timescales on which changes in management may produce observable changes in groundwater quality. These dairies differ in age (from <10 to >100 years old), thickness of the vadose zone (from <10 to 60 m), hydrogeologic setting, and primary source of irrigation water (surface or groundwater). All of the dairies use manure wastewater for irrigation and fertilization. Three of the dairies have implemented management changes designed to reduce nutrient loading and/or water usage. Monitor wells in the southern Tulare Lake Basin dairies were installed by UC-Davis as multi-level nested wells allowing depth profiling of tritium and noble gases at these sites. Tritium/helium-3 groundwater ages, calculated using a simple piston-flow model, range from <2 to >50 years. Initial tritium (the sum of measured tritium and tritiogenic helium-3) is close to or slightly above precipitation in the calculated recharge year for young samples; and significantly above the precipitation curve for older samples. This pattern is consistent with the use of 20-30 year old groundwater recharged before 1980 for irrigation, and illustrates how irrigation

  8. Relationship between land use and groundwater quality in six districts in the eastern region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Fianko, J R; Osae, S; Adomako, D; Achel, D G

    2009-06-01

    The chemical quality of groundwater in six district of the eastern region beneath the different types of land use areas of Ghana was examined to evaluate the effects of human activities on groundwater. Analyses indicate that groundwater in the studied area is fresh and generally suitable for most uses. The groundwater is generally characterised by a chemical facies of Ca-HCO3-, Na-Cl and mixed Na-Ca-HCO3 types and is weakly mineralised. Anthropogenic disturbances have had and continue to have an impact on the aquatic ecosystem of Ghana. High concentration of Cl- and TDS were found in wells in high residential areas while the highest levels of Na, Ca, SO4(2-) and NO3- were found in agricultural and high density residential areas. About 50% of boreholes sampled have elevated level of NO3(-)-N emanating from agricultural runoff.

  9. Assessment of groundwater quality: a fusion of geochemical and geophysical information via Bayesian neural networks.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Saumen; Erram, V C; Gupta, Gautam; Tiwari, Ram Krishna; Kulkarni, U D; Sangpal, R R

    2013-04-01

    Deplorable quality of groundwater arising from saltwater intrusion, natural leaching and anthropogenic activities is one of the major concerns for the society. Assessment of groundwater quality is, therefore, a primary objective of scientific research. Here, we propose an artificial neural network-based method set in a Bayesian neural network (BNN) framework and employ it to assess groundwater quality. The approach is based on analyzing 36 water samples and inverting up to 85 Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding data. We constructed a priori model by suitably parameterizing geochemical and geophysical data collected from the western part of India. The posterior model (post-inversion) was estimated using the BNN learning procedure and global hybrid Monte Carlo/Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimization scheme. By suitable parameterization of geochemical and geophysical parameters, we simulated 1,500 training samples, out of which 50 % samples were used for training and remaining 50 % were used for validation and testing. We show that the trained model is able to classify validation and test samples with 85 % and 80 % accuracy respectively. Based on cross-correlation analysis and Gibb's diagram of geochemical attributes, the groundwater qualities of the study area were classified into following three categories: "Very good", "Good", and "Unsuitable". The BNN model-based results suggest that groundwater quality falls mostly in the range of "Good" to "Very good" except for some places near the Arabian Sea. The new modeling results powered by uncertainty and statistical analyses would provide useful constrain, which could be utilized in monitoring and assessment of the groundwater quality.

  10. Interactions of water quality and integrated groundwater management: Examples from the United States and Europe: Chapter 14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, Kelly L.; Barataud, Fabienne; Hunt, Randall J.; Benoit, Marc; Anglade, Juliette; Borchardt, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is available in many parts of the world, but the quality of the water may limit its use. Contaminants can limit the use of groundwater through concerns associated with human health, aquatic health, economic costs, or even societal perception. Given this broad range of concerns, this chapter focuses on examples of how water quality issues influence integrated groundwater management. One example evaluates the importance of a naturally occurring contaminant Arsenic (As) for drinking water supply, one explores issues resulting from agricultural activities on the land surface and factors that influence related groundwater management, and the last examines unique issues that result from human-introduced viral pathogens for groundwater-derived drinking water vulnerability. The examples underscore how integrated groundwater management lies at the intersections of environmental characterization, engineering constraints, societal needs, and human perception of acceptable water quality. As such, water quality factors can be a key driver for societal decision making.

  11. Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation use in Alathur Block, Perambalur District, Tamilnadu, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafar Ahamed, A.; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Loganathan, K.; Manikandan, K.

    2013-12-01

    The suitability of groundwater for irrigation uses was assessed in Alathur Block located in Perambalur District of the state of Tamil Nadu. Groundwater samples from ten villages were analyzed in two seasons for major cations, anions and other parameters such as electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, Kelly's ratio, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), magnesium ratio, % sodium, chloro-alkaline indices, residual sodium carbonate and permeability index to know the suitability of groundwater for irrigation purpose. Piper trilinear diagram interpretations were made to know the suitability of chemical type of the groundwater. It reveals that the subsurface water is alkaline (Na + K) than the alkaline earth (Ca + Mg) type. According to the SAR values plotted in the USSL Staff diagram, most of the groundwater samples belong to class high-salinity hazard and low-sodium hazard (C3-S1) and high-salinity hazard and medium-sodium hazard (C3-S2), which indicate that the groundwater of most stations require a special type of irrigation method.

  12. Myocardial performance index correlates with the BODE index and affects quality of life in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Tannus-Silva, Daniela Graner Schuwartz; Masson-Silva, João Batista; Ribeiro, Lays Silva; Conde, Marcus Barreto; Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective COPD, a systemic illness associated with the impairment of different organs, affects patient prognosis and quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between right ventricle (RV) function, the BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity) index (a multifunctional scale for the assessment of mortality risk), and quality of life in patients with COPD. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 107 outpatients presenting with stable COPD who underwent clinical assessment, spirometry, arterial blood gas analyses, a 6-minute walk test, electrocardiography, and echocardiogram and who responded to the Saint George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Results Among the study subjects, 53% (57/107) were males, and the mean age was 65.26±8.81 years. A positive correlation was observed between RV dysfunction measured by the myocardial performance index using tissue Doppler (MPIt) and the BODE index, even after adjustment for age and partial pressure of oxygen (r2=0.47; P<0.01). Patients with alterations in the MPIt had worse quality of life, and a statistically significant difference was found for different domains of the SGRQ. Patients with a normal MPIt had a mean total score of 46.2±18.6, whereas for those with MPIt alterations, the mean total score was 61.6±14.2 (P=0.005). These patients had a 1.49-fold increased risk of exhibiting SGRQ total score above the upper limit of the 95% CI (P=0.01). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that RV dysfunction as measured by the MPIt was associated with impairment in quality of life and a worse BODE index in COPD patients, irrespective of age and hypoxemia status. PMID:27695314

  13. Examining the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater quality using a coupled modeling system.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Valerie; Cooter, Ellen; Crooks, James; Hinckley, Brian; Murphy, Mark; Xing, Xiangnan

    2017-05-15

    This study demonstrates the value of a coupled chemical transport modeling system for investigating groundwater nitrate contamination responses associated with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and increased corn production. The coupled Community Multiscale Air Quality Bidirectional and Environmental Policy Integrated Climate modeling system incorporates agricultural management practices and N exchange processes between the soil and atmosphere to estimate levels of N that may volatilize into the atmosphere, re-deposit, and seep or flow into surface and groundwater. Simulated values from this modeling system were used in a land-use regression model to examine associations between groundwater nitrate-N measurements and a suite of factors related to N fertilizer and groundwater nitrate contamination. Multi-variable modeling analysis revealed that the N-fertilizer rate (versus total) applied to irrigated (versus rainfed) grain corn (versus other crops) was the strongest N-related predictor variable of groundwater nitrate-N concentrations. Application of this multi-variable model considered groundwater nitrate-N concentration responses under two corn production scenarios. Findings suggest that increased corn production between 2002 and 2022 could result in 56% to 79% increase in areas vulnerable to groundwater nitrate-N concentrations ≥5mg/L. These above-threshold areas occur on soils with a hydraulic conductivity 13% higher than the rest of the domain. Additionally, the average number of animal feeding operations (AFOs) for these areas was nearly 5 times higher, and the mean N-fertilizer rate was 4 times higher. Finally, we found that areas prone to high groundwater nitrate-N concentrations attributable to the expansion scenario did not occur in new grid cells of irrigated grain-corn croplands, but were clustered around areas of existing corn crops. This application demonstrates the value of the coupled modeling system in developing spatially refined multi

  14. Groundwater quality protection at biosolids land application sites.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Kumarsamy, Karthik; Brobst, Robert B; Hais, Alan; Schmitz, Mark D

    2012-11-15

    Using the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Multimedia, Multi-pathway, Multi-receptor Exposure and Risk Assessment (3MRA) technology, a computer-based biosolids groundwater risk characterization screening tool (RCST) was developed. The RCST, which generates a non-carcinogenic human health risk estimate (i.e., hazard quotient or HQ value), has the ability to conduct screening-level risk-based characterization of potential human risks associated with pollutants released from biosolids land application sites. The HQ is a human health indicator that is equal to the ratio of the pollutant dose (mass of pollutant per unit body weight per time) to the specific pollutant reference dose (R(f)d) which, in turn, is a human health benchmark defined by the EPA as a scientific estimate of the daily exposure level. A HQ value equal to or greater than one (1) suggests that the resulting conditions pose an unacceptable risk to human health. The focus of the current study was to evaluate whether the present regulatory limits established for biosolids pollutants (e.g., heavy metals) were sufficiently protective of human health associated with potential groundwater consumption using a new EPA risk assessment tool. Application of the RCST to two biosolids land application sites located near Columbus, Georgia predicted that, when the depth to groundwater was maintained at a distance of at least 2 m, regulated pollutant concentrations as large as ten (10) times the current regulatory limit (i.e., Title 40 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 503 - Ceiling Concentration Limit) could be safely land applied at rates as high as ninety (90) Megagrams per hectare (Mg ha(-1)) with no apparent non-carcinogenic human health effects associated with groundwater consumption. At these pollutant concentrations, the HQ ranged from 1.79 × 10(-9) for cadmium to 3.03 × 10(-3) for selenium. Only under unrealistically high biosolids application rates were the public

  15. Effects of a constructed wetland and pond system upon shallow groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Ying

    2013-05-01

    Constructed wetland (CW) and constructed pond (CP) are commonly utilized for removal of excess nutrients and certain pollutants from stormwater. This study characterized shallow groundwater quality for pre- and post-CW and CP system conditions using data from monitoring wells. Results showed that the average concentrations of groundwater phosphorus (P) decreased from pre-CW to post-CW but increased from pre-CP to post-CP. The average concentrations of groundwater total Kjeldahl nitrogen and ammonium (NH(4)(+)) increased from pre-CW (or CP) to post-CW (or CP), whereas the average concentrations of groundwater arsenic (As), chromium, nickel, and zinc (Zn) decreased from pre-CW to post-CW regardless of the well locations. Variations of groundwater cadmium, copper, and Zn concentrations were larger in pre-CP than in post-CP and had a tendency to decrease from pre-CP to post-CP. In general, the average concentrations of groundwater aluminum and manganese decreased and of groundwater calcium, iron, magnesium, and sodium increased from pre-CP to post-CP. The average values of water levels (depth from the ground surface), redox potential, and conductance decreased and of chloride and sulfate (SO(4)(-2)) increased after the wetland and pond were constructed regardless of the well locations. Results further revealed that there were significant differences (α = 0.05) between the pre- and post-CW (or CP) for redox potential, water level, and As. This study suggests that the CW-CP system had discernible effects on some of the shallow groundwater quality constituents. This information is very useful for fully estimating overall performance of stormwater treatment with the CW-CP system.

  16. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment along Wadi Al Showat, Khamis Mushiet District, Southwest Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhumidan, S. M.; Alfaifi, H. J.; Ibrahim, E. K. E.; Abdel Rahman, K.

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, the hydrochemistry and geologic characteristics of the shallow groundwater aquifer along Wadi Al Showat, Khamis Mushiet District, Southwest Saudi Arabia was evaluated and assessed. Along this wadi the fractured/weathered basement rocks house significant quantity of groundwater that usually used by local people for agricultural and domestic purposes. Assessing and evaluation of the quality of the groundwater in such shallow aquifers is very important; especially the groundwater is generally occurred within the fractured basement rocks at shallow depths, thus exposing the groundwater to surface or near-surface contaminants is expected. For this purpose hydrochemical and biological analysis was conducted for 25 water samples collected from the available shallow dug wells along the studied wadi. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to the agriculture and urbanization practices along the wadi. The effect of domestic waste water and septic tanks was obvious. In addition, the field investigation indicates that the basement rocks in the area is dissected by two main sets of fractures that oriented in the west-northwest and east-west directions. In some places, the basement rocks is intruded by coarse-grained, quartz-rich quartzite grained monzogranite, and pegmatite veins that have a coarse-grained weathering product, therefore, they tend to develop and preserve open joint systems between the granitic blocks. These fracturing system are important from the hydrogeological point of view, as they facilitate the storage, water flow movement through them and also facilitate the vertical infiltration of the surface pollutants. These results led to a better understanding of the groundwater characteristics that is important in groundwater management in the study area.

  17. A soil quality index for reclaimed mine soils.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Verónica; Guala, S D; Vega, Flora A; Covelo, Emma F

    2013-10-01

    The quality of soils found in mines is low if they do not receive any reclamation treatment; yet, to the authors’ knowledge, there are still no equations to evaluate the quality of metal-contaminated mine soils after the application of the most widely used reclamation treatments (planting vegetation and amending with wastes). Therefore, the purposes of the present study were 1) to propose a method for developing soil quality indexes (SQIs); 2) to develop the SQIs for 2 types of mine soils (settling pond and mine tailing) reclaimed by planting trees, amending with wastes, or both; and 3) to assess the quality of these soils under field conditions. The results obtained after the use of an SQI developed for reclaimed mine soils through the selection of an SQI with a factor analysis and the totaling of the scores of the selected variables revealed that this method is a valid tool for developing SQIs. Applying this index with reclaimed mine soils showed that the untreated sites had a very low quality and that the treatment that most improved the soils was amending with wastes (sewage sludges and paper mill residues). The authors recommend the periodic addition of sewage sludges and paper mill residues to degraded sites as they increase the quality of soils, but the effects decrease over time.

  18. [Groundwater].

    PubMed

    González De Posada, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of Hydrogeology, the concept and an introductory general typology of groundwater are established. From the perspective of Geotechnical Engineering works, the physical and mathematical equations of the hydraulics of permeable materials, which are implemented, by electric analogical simulation, to two unique cases of global importance, are considered: the bailing during the construction of the dry dock of the "new shipyard of the Bahia de Cádiz" and the waterproofing of the "Hatillo dam" in the Dominican Republic. From a physical fundamental perspective, the theories which are the subset of "analogical physical theories of Fourier type transport" are related, among which the one constituted by the laws of Adolf Fick in physiology occupies a historic role of some relevance. And finally, as a philosophical abstraction of so much useful mathematical process, the one which is called "the Galilean principle of the mathematical design of the Nature" is dealt with.

  19. Groundwater quality in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system, eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, Bruce; Belitz, Kenneth

    2017-01-19

    Groundwater provides nearly 50 percent of the Nation’s drinking water. To help protect this vital resource, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project assesses groundwater quality in aquifers that are important sources of drinking water. The Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system constitutes one of the important areas being evaluated. One or more inorganic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at high concentrations in about 15 percent of the study area and at moderate concentrations in about 17 percent. Organic constituents were not detected at high concentrations in the study area.

  20. Groundwater quality assessment and its correlation with gastroenteritis using GIS: a case study of Rawal Town, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Syed Umair; Iqbal, Javed; Hasnain, Ghalib

    2014-11-01

    Majority of the people of Pakistan get drinking water from groundwater source. Nearly 40 % of the total ailments reported in Pakistan are the result of dirty drinking water. Every summer, thousands of patients suffer from acute gastroenteritis in the Rawal Town. Therefore, a study was designed to generate a water quality index map of the Rawal Town and identify the relationship between bacteriological water quality and socio-economic indicators with gastroenteritis in the study area. Water quality and gastroenteritis patient data were collected by surveying the 262 tubewells and the major hospitals in the Rawal Town. The collected spatial data was analyzed by using ArcGIS spatial analyst (Moran's I spatial autocorrelation) and geostatistical analysis tools (inverse distance weighted, radial basis function, kriging, and cokriging). The water quality index (WQI) for the study area was computed using pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids, calcium, hardness, alkalinity, and chloride values of the 262 tubewells. The results of Moran's I spatial autocorrelation showed that the groundwater physicochemical parameters were clustered. Among IDW, radial basis function, and kriging and cokriging interpolation techniques, cokriging showed the lowest root mean square error. Cokriging was used to make the spatial distribution maps of water quality parameters. The WQI results showed that more than half of the tubewells in the Rawal Town were providing "poor" to "unfit" drinking water. The Pearson's coefficient of correlation for gastroenteritis with fecal coliform was found significant (P < 0.05) in Water and Sanitation Agency (WASA) zone 2, and with shortage of toilets, it was significant (P < 0.05) in WASA zones 1 and 3. However, it was significantly (P < 0.01) inversely related with literacy rate in WASA zones 1, 2, and 3.

  1. Conceptual understanding and groundwater quality of selected basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems in the southwestern United States (hereinafter, “Southwest”) since 2005. Part of the NAWQA Program, the objective of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is to develop a better understanding of water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region by synthesizing information from case studies of 15 basins into a common set of important natural and human-related factors found to affect groundwater quality.The synthesis consists of three major components:1. Summary of current knowledge about the groundwater systems, and the status of, changes in, and influential factors affecting quality of groundwater in basin-fill aquifers in 15 basins previously studied by NAWQA (this report).2. Development of a conceptual model of the primary natural and human-related factors commonly affecting groundwater quality, thereby building a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contaminants.3. Development of statistical models that relate the concentration or occurrence of specific chemical constituents in groundwater to natural and human-related factors linked to the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contamination.Basin-fill aquifers occur in about 200,000 mi2 of the 410,000 mi2 SWPA study area and are the primary source of groundwater supply for cities and agricultural communities. Four of the principal aquifers or aquifer systems of the United States are included in the basin-fill aquifers of the study area: (1) the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; (2) the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; (3) the California Coastal Basin aquifers; and (4) the Central Valley aquifer system in California. Because of the generally limited availability of surface-water supplies in

  2. [Assessment of groundwater quality of different aquifers in Tongzhou area in Beijing Plain and its chemical characteristics analysis].

    PubMed

    Guo, Gao-Xuan; Ju, Yi-Wen; Zhai, Hang; Xu, Liang; Shen, Yuan-Yuan; Ji, Yi-Qun

    2014-06-01

    In order to evaluate the groundwater quality of Tongzhou area in Beijing Plain and to discuss the characteristics of its distribution by the view of hydrochemistry, a total of 151 groundwater samples, collected within study area in the dry period of 2008 according to the geological and hydrogeololgical condition of Tongzhou area, were classified as shallow, middle and deep groundwater, respectively. Based on the data, the groundwater quality was evaluated by the method of F value. The mean and variance of main chemical constituents of groundwater samples were presented. Almost all the quaternary groundwater of Chaobai river pluvial fan belonged to the alkaline water type. The evaluation results based on the analysis results showed that from shallow to deep, the quality of groundwater in Beijing became better. The total areas of groundwater belonging to class IV and V area were 884 km2, 599 km2 and 94 km2 respectively for shallow, middle and deep groundwater. The evaluation results showed that the main exceeding chemical constituents were TDS, hardness, NH4(+), F(-) and total Fe. Most exceeding samples belonged to middle and deep aquifers. The main types of shallow groundwater were HCO2-Ca x Mg- and HCO3 x Cl-Ca x Na x Mg, while the chemical types of mid-deep groundwater were mostly HCO3-Na x Ca- and HCO3 x SO4(2-) -Na x Ca type due to the increased Na(+), SO4(2-) and Cl(-) concentration. Study results showed that the quality of shallow groundwater became worse mainly due to human activities. The deterioration of groundwater quality in mid-deep aquifers was due to both human activities and natural occurrence of poor-quality water.

  3. Assessment of Groundwater quality in Krishnagiri and Vellore Districts in Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugasundharam, A.; Kalpana, G.; Mahapatra, S. R.; Sudharson, E. R.; Jayaprakash, M.

    2015-11-01

    Groundwater quality is important as it is the main factor determining its suitability for drinking, domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. The suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation has been assessed in north and eastern part of Krishnagiri district, South-western part of Vellore district and contiguous with Andhra Pradesh states, India. A total of 31 groundwater samples were collected in the study area. The groundwater quality assessment has been carried out by evaluating the physicochemical parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, HCO3^{ - } , Cl-, SO4^{2 - } , Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+. The dominant cations are in the order of Na+ > K+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ while the dominant anions have the trends of Cl- > HCO3^{ - } > SO4^{2 - } > CO3. The quality of the water is evaluated using Wilcox diagram and the results reveals that most of the samples are found to be suitable for irrigation. Based on these parameters, groundwater has been assessed in favor of its suitability for drinking and irrigation purpose.

  4. Assessment of Groundwater quality in Krishnagiri and Vellore Districts in Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugasundharam, A.; Kalpana, G.; Mahapatra, S. R.; Sudharson, E. R.; Jayaprakash, M.

    2017-07-01

    Groundwater quality is important as it is the main factor determining its suitability for drinking, domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. The suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation has been assessed in north and eastern part of Krishnagiri district, South-western part of Vellore district and contiguous with Andhra Pradesh states, India. A total of 31 groundwater samples were collected in the study area. The groundwater quality assessment has been carried out by evaluating the physicochemical parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, {HCO}3^{ - }, Cl-, {SO}4^{2 - }, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+. The dominant cations are in the order of Na+ > K+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ while the dominant anions have the trends of Cl- > {HCO}3^{ - } > {SO}4^{2 - } > CO3. The quality of the water is evaluated using Wilcox diagram and the results reveals that most of the samples are found to be suitable for irrigation. Based on these parameters, groundwater has been assessed in favor of its suitability for drinking and irrigation purpose.

  5. Groundwater-quality data and regional trends in the Virginia Coastal Plain, 1906-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFarland, Randolph E.

    2010-01-01

    A newly developed regional perspective of the hydrogeology of the Virginia Coastal Plain incorporates updated information on groundwater quality in the area. Local-scale groundwater-quality information is provided by a comprehensive dataset compiled from multiple Federal and State agency databases. Groundwater-sample chemical-constituent values and related data are presented in tables, summaries, location maps, and discussions of data quality and limitations. Spatial trends in groundwater quality and related processes at the regional scale are determined from interpretive analyses of the sample data. Major ions that dominate the chemical composition of groundwater in the deep Piney Point, Aquia, and Potomac aquifers evolve eastward and with depth from (1) 'hard' water, dominated by calcium and magnesium cations and bicarbonate and carbonate anions, to (2) 'soft' water, dominated by sodium and potassium cations and bicarbonate and carbonate anions, and lastly to (3) 'salty' water, dominated by sodium and potassium cations and chloride anions. Chemical weathering of subsurface sediments is followed by ion exchange by clay and glauconite, and subsequently by mixing with seawater along the saltwater-transition zone. The chemical composition of groundwater in the shallower surficial and Yorktown-Eastover aquifers, and in basement bedrock along the Fall Zone, is more variable as a result of short flow paths between closely located recharge and discharge areas and possibly some solutes originating from human sources. The saltwater-transition zone is generally broad and landward-dipping, based on groundwater chloride concentrations that increase eastward and with depth. The configuration is convoluted across the Chesapeake Bay impact crater, however, where it is warped and mounded along zones having vertically inverted chloride concentrations that decrease with depth. Fresh groundwater has flushed seawater from subsurface sediments preferentially around the impact crater

  6. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater and surface water quality data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The sites addressed by this document are located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the Y-12 Plant complex within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime. The Bear Creek Regime is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface water quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The purpose of the Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements. Part 1 (this report) consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Part 2 of the report, to be issued mid-year, will contain an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, present the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describe changes in monitoring priorities, and present planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis program for the following CY.

  7. Groundwater-quality and quality-control data for two monitoring wells near Pavillion, Wyoming, April and May 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Peter R.; McMahon, Peter B.; Mueller, David K.; Clark, Melanie L.

    2012-01-01

    In June 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency installed two deep monitoring wells (MW01 and MW02) near Pavillion, Wyoming, to study groundwater quality. During April and May 2012, the U.S Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, collected groundwater-quality data and quality-control data from monitoring well MW01 and, following well redevelopment, quality-control data for monitoring well MW02. Two groundwater-quality samples were collected from well MW01—one sample was collected after purging about 1.5 borehole volumes, and a second sample was collected after purging 3 borehole volumes. Both samples were collected and processed using methods designed to minimize atmospheric contamination or changes to water chemistry. Groundwater-quality samples were analyzed for field water-quality properties (water temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, oxidation potential); inorganic constituents including naturally occurring radioactive compounds (radon, radium-226 and radium-228); organic constituents; dissolved gasses; stable isotopes of methane, water, and dissolved inorganic carbon; and environmental tracers (carbon-14, chlorofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, tritium, helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and the ratio of helium-3 to helium-4). Quality-control sample results associated with well MW01 were evaluated to determine the extent to which environmental sample analytical results were affected by bias and to evaluate the variability inherent to sample collection and laboratory analyses. Field documentation, environmental data, and quality-control data for activities that occurred at the two monitoring wells during April and May 2012 are presented.

  8. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the northern San Joaquin Basin, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth; Jurgens, Bryant C.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 2,079 square mile Northern San Joaquin Basin (Northern San Joaquin) study unit was investigated from December 2004 through February 2005 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 that was passed by the State of California and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Northern San Joaquin study unit was the third study unit to be designed and sampled as part of the Priority Basin Project. Results of the study provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw (untreated) groundwater, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 61 wells in parts of Alameda, Amador, Calaveras, Contra Costa, San Joaquin, and Stanislaus Counties; 51 of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based approach to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 10 of the wells were sampled to increase spatial density and provide additional information for the evaluation of water chemistry in the study unit (understanding/flowpath wells). The primary aquifer systems (hereinafter, primary aquifers) assessed in this study are defined by the depth intervals of the wells in the California Department of Public Health database for each study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from quality of groundwater in the primary aquifers; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to contamination from the surface. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource; and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors

  9. Ground-water flow and quality beneath sewage-sludge lagoons, and a comparison with the ground-water quality beneath a sludge-amended landfill, Marion County, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bobay, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    The groundwater beneath eight sewage sludge lagoons, was studied to characterize the flow regime and to determine whether leachate had infiltrated into the glacio-fluvial sediments. Groundwater quality beneath the lagoons was compared with the groundwater quality beneath a landfill where sludge had been applied. The lagoons and landfills overlie outwash sand and gravel deposits separated by discontinuous clay layers. Shallow groundwater flows away from the lagoons and discharges into the White River. Deep groundwater discharges to the White River and flows southwest beneath Eagle Creek. After an accumulation of at least 2 inches of precipitation during 1 week, groundwater flow is temporarily reversed in the shallow aquifer, and all deep flow is along a relatively steep hydraulic gradient to the southwest. The groundwater is predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, although ammonium accounts for more than 30% of the total cations in water from three wells. Concentrations of sodium, chloride, sulfate, iron, arsenic, boron, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, and methylene-blue-active substances indicate the presence of leachate in the groundwater. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc were less than detection limits. The concentrations of 16 of 19 constituents or properties of groundwater beneath the lagoons are statistically different than groundwater beneath the landfill at the 0.05 level of significance. Only pH and concentrations of dissolved oxygen and bromide are higher in groundwater beneath the landfill than beneath the lagoons. 

  10. Statistical comparisons of ground-water quality underlying different land uses in central Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, A.T.; German, E.R. Geological Survey, Altamonte Springs, FL )

    1988-09-01

    Human activities at land surface can affect the quality of water recharging groundwater systems. Because ground water is the principal source of drinking water in many areas, it is necessary to know the relation between land use and ground-water quality. This study is 1 of 7 being made throughout the US as part of the Toxic Waste - Ground-Water Contamination Program of the US Geological Survey. This report documents statistical comparisons of ground-water quality for three test areas in central Florida: (1) a control area where land use is minimal, (2) a citrus-growing area where effects of agriculture may be expected, and (3) a phosphate-mining area where effects of mining activities may be expected. This study addresses water-quality conditions in the surficial aquifer, which consists of sand and shell beds of Pleistocene and Holocene age. The two developed areas are representative of land uses that characterize large areas of Florida, and the control area is representative of near-pristine conditions that exist over a large area, so results of this study may be transferable. The water-quality variables of interest include physical properties, major ions, nutrients, and trace elements.

  11. Soil moisture and strength index for earthwork construction quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawangsuriya, A.; Wachiraporn, S.; Sramoon, W.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the implementation of soil moisture and strength index measurements for earthwork construction quality control as well as a link between the in situ testing and structural property of earthen materials. Use of the convenient Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) in conjunction with conventional moisture-density measurements enhances quality control by achieving acceptable level of compaction, more uniform structural properties, and aids developing a controlled design parameter during the earthwork construction. Soil strength in term of DCP index normalized by the deviation of compaction moisture content from the optimum moisture content is proposed as performance criteria for a variety of engineered earth fills and special engineering assessment, prevention, and mitigation of geohazards e.g. earthen flood defense embankments.

  12. Evaluation of water quality index for River Sabarmati, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Kosha A.; Joshi, Geeta S.

    2017-06-01

    An attempt has been made to develop water quality index (WQI), using six water quality parameters pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, electrical conductivity, nitrate nitrogen and total coliform measured at three different stations along the Sabarmati river basin from the year 2005 to 2008. Rating scale is developed based on the tolerance limits of inland waters and health point of view. Weighted arithmetic water quality index method was used to find WQI along the stretch of the river basin. It was observed from this study that the impact of human activity and sewage disposal in the river was severe on most of the parameters. The station located in highly urban area showed the worst water quality followed by the station located in moderately urban area and lastly station located in a moderately rural area. It was observed that the main cause of deterioration in water quality was due to the high anthropogenic activities, illegal discharge of sewage and industrial effluent, lack of proper sanitation, unprotected river sites and urban runoff.

  13. Evaluation of water quality index for River Sabarmati, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Kosha A.; Joshi, Geeta S.

    2015-07-01

    An attempt has been made to develop water quality index (WQI), using six water quality parameters pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, electrical conductivity, nitrate nitrogen and total coliform measured at three different stations along the Sabarmati river basin from the year 2005 to 2008. Rating scale is developed based on the tolerance limits of inland waters and health point of view. Weighted arithmetic water quality index method was used to find WQI along the stretch of the river basin. It was observed from this study that the impact of human activity and sewage disposal in the river was severe on most of the parameters. The station located in highly urban area showed the worst water quality followed by the station located in moderately urban area and lastly station located in a moderately rural area. It was observed that the main cause of deterioration in water quality was due to the high anthropogenic activities, illegal discharge of sewage and industrial effluent, lack of proper sanitation, unprotected river sites and urban runoff.

  14. Ground-water quality assessment of the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; project description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, S.C.; Parkhurst, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. The program, known as the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, is designed to acquire and interpret information about a variety of water-quality issues. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project is one of three ground-water pilot projects that have been started. The NAWQA program also incudes four surface-water pilot projects. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project, as part of the pilot NAWQA program, will develop and test methods for performing assessments of ground-water quality. The objectives of the Central Oklahoma aquifer assessment are: (1) To investigate regional ground-water quality throughout the aquifer in the manner consistent with the other pilot ground-water projects, emphasizing the occurrence and distribution of potentially toxic substances in ground water, including trace elements, organic compounds, and radioactive constituents; (2) to describe relations between ground-water quality, land use, hydrogeology, and other pertinent factors; and (3) to provide a general description of the location, nature, and possible causes of selected prevalent water-quality problems within the study unit; and (4) to describe the potential for water-quality degradation of ground-water zones within the study unit. The Central Oklahoma aquifer, which includes in descending order the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation, the Chase Group, the Council Grove Group, the Admire Group, and overlying alluvium and terrace deposits, underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma and is used extensively for municipal, industrial, commercial, and domestic water supplies. The aquifer was selected for study by the NAWQA program because it is a major source for water supplies in central Oklahoma and because it has several known or suspected water-quality problems. Known problems include concentrations of arsenic, chromium

  15. Ground-water development in Utah and effects on ground-water levels and chemical quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, Joseph S.; Allen, David V.

    1996-01-01

    Systematic ground-water development began in Utah shortly after settlement by Mormon pioneers in 1847. By 1939, about 230,000 acrefeet per year of ground water was being withdrawn from wells for irrigation, public supply, industrial use, and rural-domestic and stock supply. Withdrawals increased from about 600,000 to 700,000 acre-feet per year during 1963-67 to about 800,000 to 900,000 acre-feet per year during 1989-93, with a peak of 940,000 acre-feet in 1990.Most ground-water withdrawals from wells have been from unconsolidated basin-fill deposits in 13 areas along or near the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province, which extends from the northern edge of Utah to its southwestern part. The proportions of withdrawals for various uses have changed; in 1964, 72 percent of withdrawals was for irrigation and II percent for public supply, whereas in 1993,64 percent was for irrigation and 21 percent for public supply.Long-term withdrawals from wells have caused declines in water levels in parts of western Utah from the 1940's and 1950's to 1994; the withdrawals apparently have caused local increases in dissolved-solids concentrations in ground water. Water levels have declined as much as 67 feet owing to withdrawals for public supply and industrial use in northwestern Utah, and as much as 88 feet owing to withdrawals for irrigation in southwestern Utah. Declines of this magnitude, however, are confined to local areas of large withdrawals. Withdrawals for irrigation apparently have caused increases in dissolved-solids concentrations in ground water in at least six irrigated areas of western Utah. Minor land subsidence related to compaction of basin-fill deposits caused by water-level declines has been observed locally in southwestern Utah.

  16. Groundwater Quality Data for the Northern Sacramento Valley, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Peter A.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,180-square-mile Northern Sacramento Valley study unit (REDSAC) was investigated in October 2007 through January 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within REDSAC and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 66 wells in Shasta and Tehama Counties. Forty-three of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 23 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen of water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. In total, over 275 constituents and field water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and sampmatrix spikes) were collected at approximately 8

  17. Forecast quality of the mediterranean cyclones: a numerical index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picornell, M. A.; Jansà, A.; Genovés, A.

    2010-09-01

    The weather in the Mediterranean sometimes is related to the presence of mesoscale cyclones that, from time to time, produce severe weather events. The assessing of the quality of the forecast of these cyclonic structures must be a significant advance for better knowing the goodness of the weather forecast in this region, and particularly, the quality of the high impact phenomena prediction. In order to estimate the cyclone forecast uncertainty in operational models, in this work two cyclone databases, one from the operational analyses of the T799 ECMWF deterministic model and another one from the forecasts provided by the same model in three ranges, H+12, H+24 and H+48, have been compared. The skill of the model to detect mesoscale cyclones and the accuracy in describing their features are assessed. An index is presented as an indicator of the quality of the prediction, derived from the frequency distribution of errors in the prediction of four characteristics of the cyclone: position, central pressure value, geostrophic circulation and domain. Some sub-indexes are derived to verify separately each of the variables in order to analyze the most frequent sources of error. Other sub-indexes are also defined to indicate possible biases in the numerical prediction model.

  18. Prediction of ground water quality index to assess suitability for drinking purposes using fuzzy rule-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorai, A. K.; Hasni, S. A.; Iqbal, Jawed

    2016-11-01

    Groundwater is the most important natural resource for drinking water to many people around the world, especially in rural areas where the supply of treated water is not available. Drinking water resources cannot be optimally used and sustained unless the quality of water is properly assessed. To this end, an attempt has been made to develop a suitable methodology for the assessment of drinking water quality on the basis of 11 physico-chemical parameters. The present study aims to select the fuzzy aggregation approach for estimation of the water quality index of a sample to check the suitability for drinking purposes. Based on expert's opinion and author's judgement, 11 water quality (pollutant) variables (Alkalinity, Dissolved Solids (DS), Hardness, pH, Ca, Mg, Fe, Fluoride, As, Sulphate, Nitrates) are selected for the quality assessment. The output results of proposed methodology are compared with the output obtained from widely used deterministic method (weighted arithmetic mean aggregation) for the suitability of the developed methodology.

  19. Recharge history and controls on groundwater quality in the Yuncheng Basin, north China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currell, Matthew J.; Cartwright, Ian; Bradley, Dean C.; Han, Dongmei

    2010-05-01

    SummaryEnvironmental isotopes and water quality indicators (e.g. TDS and NO 3 contents) were used to characterize the age, recharge history and controls on the quality of groundwater resources in the Yuncheng Basin, north China, where extensive extraction occurs for agriculture and domestic supply. δ 18O and δ 2H values as low as -10.6‰ and -73‰, respectively, together with low radiocarbon activities (<20 pmC) show that deep groundwater comprises palaeowaters largely recharged in the late Pleistocene (˜10 to 22 ka B.P.) under a cooler climate than the present. Shallow groundwater has higher radiocarbon activities (>70 pmC), indicating a significant component of modern (post-1950s) recharge. The shallow groundwater has higher δ 18O and δ 2H values (up to -8.1‰ and -54‰) that are similar to those in modern summer monsoon rainfall, indicating that current recharge is via direct infiltration and/or leakage of ephemeral streams during heavy rain events. Historic recharge rates estimated using radiocarbon ages are between 1 and 10 mm/year, corresponding to <2% of local rainfall, which is lower than estimates of modern recharge nearby based on tritium data. The relationship between groundwater δ 18O values and 14C ages is similar to that observed in groundwater from other basins in northern China, confirming that much deep groundwater in the region is palaeowater, and suggesting that a broad scale assessment of groundwater residence times may be made from δ 18O and δ 2H values. Most deep groundwater has low TDS and nitrate concentrations (median 1090 mg/L and 1.8 mg/L, respectively), while shallow groundwater has TDS contents of up to 8450 mg/L (median 2010 mg/L) and NO 3 concentrations up to 630 mg/L (median 31 mg/L). A lack of enrichment in δ 18O values in the high salinity shallow groundwater indicates that transpiration by crops and possibly minor mineral dissolution are the major salinisation processes, rather than evaporation or leakage from salt

  20. Estimation of Heavy Metal Contamination in Groundwater and Development of a Heavy Metal Pollution Index by Using GIS Technique.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ashwani Kumar; Singh, Prasoon Kumar; Singh, Abhay Kumar; De Maio, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal (Al, As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn) concentration in sixty-six groundwater samples of the West Bokaro coalfield were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy for determination of seasonal fluctuation, source apportionment and heavy metal pollution index (HPI). Metal concentrations were found higher in the pre-monsoon season as compared to the post-monsoon season. Geographic information system (GIS) tool was attributed to study the metals risk in groundwater of the West Bokaro coalfield. The results show that 94 % of water samples were found as low class and 6 % of water samples were in medium class in the post-monsoon season. However, 79 % of water samples were found in low class, 18 % in medium class and 3 % in high class in the pre-monsoon season. The HPI values were below the critical pollution index value of 100. The concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn, and Ni are exceeding the desirable limits in many groundwater samples in both seasons.

  1. Stochastic hydro-economic model for groundwater quality management using Bayesian networks.

    PubMed

    Molina, José-Luis; Pulido-Velázquez, Manuel; Llopis-Albert, Carlos; Peña-Haro, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    A strong normative development in Europe, including the Nitrate Directive (1991) and the Water Framework Directive (WFD) (2000), has been promulgated. The WFD states that all water bodies have to reach a good quantitative and chemical status by 2015. It is necessary to consider different objectives, often in conflict, for tackling a suitable assessment of the impacts generated by water policies aimed to reduce nitrate pollution in groundwater. For that, an annual lumped probabilistic model based on Bayesian networks (BNs) has been designed for hydro-economic modelling of groundwater quality control under uncertain conditions. The information introduced in the BN model comes from different sources such as previous groundwater flow and mass transport simulations, hydro-economic models, stakeholders and expert opinion, etc. The methodology was applied to the El Salobral-Los Llanos aquifer unit within the 'Easter Mancha' groundwater body, which is one of the largest aquifers in Spain (7,400 km(2)), included in the Júcar River Basin. Over the past 30 years, socioeconomic development within the region has been mainly depending on intensive use of groundwater resources for irrigating crops. This has provoked a continuous groundwater level fall in the last two decades and significant streamflow depletion in the connected Júcar River. This BN model has proved to be a robust Decision Support System for helping water managers in the decision making process.

  2. Effects of stormwater infiltration on quality of groundwater beneath retention and detention basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, D.; Charles, E.G.; Baehr, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    Infiltration of storm water through detention and retention basins may increase the risk of groundwater contamination, especially in areas where the soil is sandy and the water table shallow, and contaminants may not have a chance to degrade or sorb onto soil particles before reaching the saturated zone. Groundwater from 16 monitoring wells installed in basins in southern New Jersey was compared to the quality of shallow groundwater from 30 wells in areas of new-urban land use. Basin groundwater contained much lower levels of dissolved oxygen, which affected concentrations of major ions. Patterns of volatile organic compound and pesticide occurrence in basin groundwater reflected the land use in the drainage areas served by the basins, and differed from patterns in background samples, exhibiting a greater occurrence of petroleum hydrocarbons and certain pesticides. Dilution effects and volatilization likely decrease the concentration and detection frequency of certain compounds commonly found in background groundwater. High recharge rates in storm water basins may cause loading factors to be substantial even when constituent concentrations in infiltrating storm water are relatively low.

  3. Impacts of a large Sahelian city on groundwater hydrodynamics and quality: example of Niamey (Niger)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassane, Aïssata B.; Leduc, Christian; Favreau, Guillaume; Bekins, Barbara A.; Margueron, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The management of groundwater resources is very important in the semiarid Sahel region, which is experiencing rapid urban development. Impacts of urbanization on groundwater resources were investigated in the unconfined aquifer of the Continental Terminal beneath the city of Niamey, Niger, using water level and chemical data. Hydrodynamic and chemical changes are best described by a combination of factors including the historical development of the city, current land use, water-table depth and topography. Seasonal groundwater recharge occurs with high spatial variability, as indicated by water-level monitoring in all wells, but there was no interannual trend over the 5-year study period. Groundwater salinity shows high spatial variability and a minor rising trend. The highest salinity is in the old city centre, with Na-NO3 dominant, and it increases seasonally with recharge. Salinity is much lower and more variable in the suburbs (Ca-HCO3, Ca-NO3, and Na-NO3 dominant). Nitrate is the main ionic contaminant and is seasonally or permanently above the international guidelines for drinking water quality in 36 % of sampled wells, with a peak value of 112 mg L-1 NO3-N (8 meq L-1). Comparison of urban and rural sites indicates a long-term increase in groundwater recharge and nitrate enrichment in the urban area with serious implications for groundwater management in the region.

  4. Indexes associated with information theory in water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zand, S.M.

    1976-01-01

    In many biological studies of water quality, a diversity index is calculated in 'bits per individual' by using Shannon's Approximation to Brillouin's Formula. Difficulties associated with such use of Shannon's Formula and its associated parameters are discussed. Recent research has indicated that diversity indexes can be improved if (a) biological sample collection and analysis are standardized prior to use for among various aquatic systems diversity indexes and their associated parameters, (b) the diversity index is measured in 'sits per individual' rather than the presently used unit of 'bits per individual,' and (c) the equation e=(H - H(min)/(H(max) - H(min)) is used to evaluate the uniformity of distribution of individuals among species in a sample where e equals relative evenness. Relative evenness, a ratio, is an expression in which Brillouin's and Shannon's Equations are not arbitrarily mixed. Values of diversity indexes using Brillouin and Shannon Formulas, both in bits and sits per individual, and relative evenness are given for 16 hypothetical samples.

  5. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek hydrogeologic regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: 1993 groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    This Groundwater Quality Report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Figure 1). The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994 (HSW Environmental Consultants, Inc. 1994a). Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities and underground storage tanks (USTS) located within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements and in accordance with DOE Orders and Energy Systems corporate policy. The annual GWQR for the East Fork Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis program for the following calendar year.

  6. Hydrogeochemical parameters for assessment of groundwater quality in the upper Gunjanaeru River basin, Cuddapah District, Andhra Pradesh, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, N. Janardhana

    2007-06-01

    In the management of water resources, quality of water is just as important as its quantity. In order to know the quality and/or suitability of groundwater for domestic and irrigation in upper Gunjanaeru River basin, 51 water samples in post-monsoon and 46 in pre-monsoon seasons were collected and analyzed for various parameters. Geological units are alluvium, shale and quartzite. Based on the analytical results, chemical indices like percent sodium, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, permeability index (PI) and chloroalkaline indices were calculated. The pre-monsoon waters have low sodium hazard as compared to post-monsoon season. Residual sodium carbonate values revealed that one sample is not suitable in both the seasons for irrigation purposes due the occurrence of alkaline white patches and low permeability of the soil. PI values of both seasons revealed that the ground waters are generally suitable for irrigation. The positive values of Chloroalkaline indices in post-monsoon (80%) and in pre-monsoon (59%) water samples indicate absence of base-exchange reaction (chloroalkaline disequilibrium), and remaining samples of negative values of the ratios indicate base-exchange reaction (chloroalkaline equilibrium). Chadha rectangular diagram for geochemical classification and hydrochemical processes of groundwater for both seasons indicates that most of waters are Ca Mg HCO3 type. Assessment of water samples from various methods indicated that majority of the water samples in both seasons are suitable for different purposes except at Yanadipalle (sample no. 8) that requires precautionary measures. The overall quality of groundwater in post-monsoon season in all chemical constituents is on the higher side due to dissolution of surface pollutants during the infiltration and percolation of rainwater and at few places due to agricultural and domestic activities.

  7. Assessing the Groundwater Quality at a Saudi Arabian Agricultural Site and the Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens on Irrigated Food Produce

    PubMed Central

    Alsalah, Dhafer; Al-Jassim, Nada; Timraz, Kenda; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the groundwater quality in wells situated near agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia. Fruits (e.g., tomato and green pepper) irrigated with groundwater were also assessed for the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens to determine if food safety was compromised by the groundwater. The amount of total nitrogen in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the 15 mg/L permissible limit for agricultural irrigation. Fecal coliforms in densities > 12 MPN/100 mL were detected in three of the groundwater wells that were in close proximity to a chicken farm. These findings, coupled with qPCR-based fecal source tracking, show that groundwater in wells D and E, which were nearest to the chicken farm, had compromised quality. Anthropogenic contamination resulted in a shift in the predominant bacterial phyla within the groundwater microbial communities. For example, there was an elevated presence of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in wells D and E but a lower overall microbial richness in the groundwater perturbed by anthropogenic contamination. In the remaining wells, the genus Acinetobacter was detected at high relative abundance ranging from 1.5% to 48% of the total groundwater microbial community. However, culture-based analysis did not recover any antibiotic-resistant bacteria or opportunistic pathogens from these groundwater samples. In contrast, opportunistic pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the fruits irrigated with the groundwater from wells B and F. Although the groundwater was compromised, quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the annual risk incurred from accidental consumption of E. faecalis on these fruits was within the acceptable limit of 10−4. However, the annual risk arising from P. aeruginosa was 9.55 × 10−4, slightly above the acceptable limit. Our findings highlight that the groundwater quality at this agricultural site in western Saudi Arabia is not pristine and that better

  8. Assessing the Groundwater Quality at a Saudi Arabian Agricultural Site and the Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens on Irrigated Food Produce.

    PubMed

    Alsalah, Dhafer; Al-Jassim, Nada; Timraz, Kenda; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-10-05

    This study examines the groundwater quality in wells situated near agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia. Fruits (e.g., tomato and green pepper) irrigated with groundwater were also assessed for the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens to determine if food safety was compromised by the groundwater. The amount of total nitrogen in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the 15 mg/L permissible limit for agricultural irrigation. Fecal coliforms in densities > 12 MPN/100 mL were detected in three of the groundwater wells that were in close proximity to a chicken farm. These findings, coupled with qPCR-based fecal source tracking, show that groundwater in wells D and E, which were nearest to the chicken farm, had compromised quality. Anthropogenic contamination resulted in a shift in the predominant bacterial phyla within the groundwater microbial communities. For example, there was an elevated presence of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in wells D and E but a lower overall microbial richness in the groundwater perturbed by anthropogenic contamination. In the remaining wells, the genus Acinetobacter was detected at high relative abundance ranging from 1.5% to 48% of the total groundwater microbial community. However, culture-based analysis did not recover any antibiotic-resistant bacteria or opportunistic pathogens from these groundwater samples. In contrast, opportunistic pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the fruits irrigated with the groundwater from wells B and F. Although the groundwater was compromised, quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the annual risk incurred from accidental consumption of E. faecalis on these fruits was within the acceptable limit of 10(-4). However, the annual risk arising from P. aeruginosa was 9.55 × 10(-4), slightly above the acceptable limit. Our findings highlight that the groundwater quality at this agricultural site in western Saudi Arabia is not pristine and that better

  9. Groundwater quality in Imphal West district, Manipur, India, with multivariate statistical analysis of data.

    PubMed

    Singh, Elangbam J K; Gupta, Abhik; Singh, N R

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the groundwater quality of Imphal West district, Manipur, India, and assess its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural use. Eighteen physico-chemical variables were analyzed in groundwater from 30 different hand-operated tube wells in urban, suburban, and rural areas in two seasons. The data were subjected to uni-, bi-, and multivariate statistical analysis, the latter comprising cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and factor analysis (FA). Arsenic concentrations exceed the Indian standard in 23.3% and the WHO limit in 73.3% of the groundwater sources with only 26.7% in the acceptable range. Several variables like iron, chloride, sodium, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and turbidity are also beyond their desirable limits for drinking water in a number of sites. Sodium concentrations and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) are both high to render the water from the majority of the sources unsuitable for agricultural use. Multivariate statistical techniques, especially varimax rotation of PCA data helped to bring to focus the hidden yet important variables and understand their roles in influencing groundwater quality. Widespread arsenic contamination and high sodium concentration of groundwater pose formidable constraints towards its exploitation for drinking and other domestic and agricultural use in the study area, although urban anthropogenic impacts are not yet pronounced.

  10. Evaluating the human impact on groundwater quality discharging into a coastal reef lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Hernandez-Terrones, L.; Soto, M.; Lecossec, A.; Monroy-Rios, E.

    2008-12-01

    The Eastern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula has the fastest growth rate in Mexico and groundwater is the only source of drinking water in the region. The consequences of the lack of proper infrastructure to collect and treat wastewater and the impact of human activities on the quality of groundwater are addressed. The groundwater in the coastal aquifer of Quintana Roo (SE Mexico) discharges directly into the ocean. In addition, the coral reef of the Eastern Yucatan Peninsula is part of the Mesoamerican Coral Reef System, one of the largest in the world. The interaction of the reef-lagoon hydraulics with the coastal aquifer of Puerto Morelos (NE Yucatan Peninsula), and a major input of NH4, SO4, SiO2, as a consequence of the use of septic tanks and the lack of modern wastewater treatment plants are presented. No seasonal parameters differences were observed, suggesting that groundwater composition reaching the reef lagoon is not changing seasonally. A conceptual model of the coastal aquifer was developed, in order to explain how the human activities are impacting directly on the groundwater quality that, potentially, will have a direct impact on the coral reef. The protection and conservation of coral reefs must be directly related with a policy of sound management of coastal aquifers and wastewater treatment.

  11. Spatial assessment and redesign of a groundwater quality monitoring network using entropy theory, Gaza Strip, Palestine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogheir, Y.; Singh, V. P.; de Lima, J. L. M. P.

    2006-06-01

    Using entropy theory, a methodology was developed for the evaluation and redesign of groundwater quality monitoring wells in the Gaza Strip in Palestine. Essential to the methodology is the development of a Transinformation Model (TM) which yields the amount of information transfer and the dependency between the wells as a function of distance. The TM parameters, such as the minimum transinformation and the range, were employed for evaluating the network which revealed that most of the distances between wells were less than the range. It also indicated that a high percentage of redundant information existed in the network. Therefore, the network was reduced by superimposing a square pattern over the monitored area and selecting one well per square block in a stratified pattern. The methodology was tested using the chloride data collected from 1972 2000 from 417 groundwater quality monitoring wells in the Gaza Strip. The number of the groundwater quality monitoring wells in the Gaza Strip was reduced by 53%, while there was 26% redundant information based on the minimum existing distance between wells. This methodology is meant to help monitor the groundwater quality (salinity) in the Gaza Strip.

  12. Effects of Stormwater Infiltration on Quality of Groundwater Beneath Retention and Detention Basins

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of stormwater retention and detention basins has become a popular method for managing urban and suburban stormwater runoff. Infiltration of stormwater through these basins may increase the risk to ground-water quality, especially in areas where the soil is sandy and the wate...

  13. Impacts of Enhanced Reductive Bioremediation on Post-Remediation Groundwater Quality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-15

    carbon, and naturally occurring hazardous compounds (e.g., arsenic ). Fortunately, this ‘plume’ of impacted groundwater is usually confined within the...SUBJECT TERMS secondary water quality impacts; anaerobic bioremediation; enhanced reductive dechlorination; methane; iron; manganese; arsenic 16...Cumulative frequency distributions for change in SWQI concentrations at 47 ERB sites ............ 20 3.3 Arsenic versus iron concentrations for

  14. Effects of Stormwater Infiltration on Quality of Groundwater Beneath Retention and Detention Basins

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of stormwater retention and detention basins has become a popular method for managing urban and suburban stormwater runoff. Infiltration of stormwater through these basins may increase the risk to ground-water quality, especially in areas where the soil is sandy and the wate...

  15. The effects of urbanization on groundwater quantity and quality in the Zahedan aquifer, southeast Iran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khazaei, E.; Mackay, R.; Warner, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the impacts of urban growth on groundwater quality and quantity in the Zahedan aquifer, which is the sole source of water supply for the city of Zahedan, Iran. The investigation is based on the collection of available historical data, supplemented by field and laboratory investigations. Groundwater levels in 40 wells were measured in December 2000. In addition, 102 water samples were taken in two periods during November and December 2000. Of these, 43 samples were analyzed for major ions, 32 samples were analyzed for nitrogen and phosphorus and the remainder for bacteriological contamination. The water level data show that there has been a general decline since 1977 due to over-abstraction. The magnitude of this decline has reached about 20 m in some places. However, in one area over the same period, a rise of about 3 m has been observed. This occurs as a result of the local hydrogeological conditions of shallow bedrock and relatively low permeability materials down stream of this area that limits the flow of groundwater towards the northeastern part of the aquifer. The general fall in groundwater levels has been accompanied by a change in the direction of the groundwater flow and an overall reduction of the areal extent of the saturated region of the aquifer. The city now has a serious problem such that even if the abstracted groundwater is rationed, water is not available for long periods because the demand far exceeds the supply. The heavy impact of urbanization on the groundwater quality is shown through the observed high nitrate (up to 295 mg/l as nitrate) and high phosphorus values (about 0.1 mg/l as P). Significant changes in the chloride concentration are also observed in two areas: increasing from 100 mg/l to 1,600 mg/l and from 2,000 mg/l to 4,000 mg/l, respectively. Furthermore, the bacteriological investigations show that 33 percent of the 27 collected groundwater samples are positive for total coliform and 11 percent of the

  16. Relationship of Shallow Groundwater Quality to Hydraulic Fracturing Activities in Antrim and Kalkaska Counties, MI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefansky, J. N.; Robertson, W. M.; Chappaz, A.; Babos, H.; Israel, S.; Groskreutz, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) of oil and natural gas (O&G) wells is a widely applied technology that can increase yields from tight geologic formations. However, it is unclear how fracking may impact shallow groundwater; previous research into its effects has produced conflicting results. Much of the worry over potential impacts to water quality arises from concerns about the produced water. The water produced from O&G formations is often salty, contains toxic dissolved elements, and can be radioactive. If fracking activities cause or increase connectivity between O&G formations and overlying groundwater, there may be risks to aquifers. As one part of a groundwater quality study in Antrim and Kalkaska Counties, MI, samples were collected from the unconfined glacial aquifer (3-300 m thick) and produced water from the underlying Antrim formation, a shallow (180-670 m deep) natural gas producing black shale. Groundwater samples were collected between 200 to 10,000 m distance from producing Antrim gas wells and from a range of screened intervals (15-95 m). Samples were analyzed for major constituents (e.g., Br, Cl), pH, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen (DO). The specific conductance of groundwater samples ranged from 230-1020 μS/cm; DO ranged from 0.4-100% saturation. Preliminary results show a slight inverse correlation between specific conductance and proximity to producing Antrim wells. The observed range of DO saturation in glacial aquifer groundwater appears to be related to both screened depth of the water wells and proximity to Antrim wells. During sampling, some well owners expressed concerns about the effects of fracking on groundwater quality and reported odd smells and tastes in their water after O&G drilling occurred near their homes. The results of this study and reported observations provide evidence to suggest a potential hydrogeological connection between the Antrim formation and the overlying glacial aquifer in some locations; it also raises

  17. Artificial neural networks for defining the water quality determinants of groundwater abstraction in coastal aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallahem, S.; Hani, A.

    2017-02-01

    Water sustainability in the lower Seybouse River basin, eastern Algeria, must take into account the importance of water quantity and quality integration. So, there is a need for a better knowledge and understanding of the water quality determinants of groundwater abstraction to meet the municipal and agricultural uses. In this paper, the artificial neural network (ANN) models were used to model and predict the relationship between groundwater abstraction and water quality determinants in the lower Seybouse River basin. The study area chosen is the lower Seybouse River basin and real data were collected from forty five wells for reference year 2006. Results indicate that the feed-forward multilayer perceptron models with back-propagation are useful tools to define and prioritize the important water quality parameters of groundwater abstraction and use. The model evaluation shows that the correlation coefficients are more than 95% for training, verification and testing data. The model aims to link the water quantity and quality with the objective to strengthen the Integrated Water Resources Management approach. It assists water planners and managers to better assess the water quality parameters and progress towards the provision of appropriate quantities of water of suitable quality.

  18. Report on the audit of the Savannah River Site`s quality control program for groundwater sampling

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-20

    The Savannah River Site`s groundwater remediation program was managed by the Department of Energy`s (Department) management and operating contractor for the site, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (Westinghouse). One component of the remediation program was the quality control program. The goal of the groundwater quality control program was to ensure that the results of laboratory analyses of groundwater samples were accurate and precise so that they could be relied upon for making remediation decisions. The objective of this audit was to determine whether Westinghouse acquired the minimal number of laboratory analyses required to ensure that groundwater sampling results met this criteria.

  19. Groundwater quality assessment in parts of Eastern Niger Delta, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edet, A. E.

    1993-09-01

    Hydrogeochemical analyses were carried out on groundwater samples collected from 20 producing wells in different parts of the Eastern Niger Delta. Results show that the concentrations of the major cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) and anions (Cl-, SO{4/2-}, HCO{3/-}) are below the World Health Organization (WHO) standards set for domestic purposes. The occurrence of slightly saline water in certain areas is attributed to local hydrogeological processes occurring in the area. On the basis of the analytical results, two hydrogeochemical facies are delineated. These are calcium-magnesium-chloride-sulfate-bicarbonate (Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4-HCO3) and calcium-sodium-chloride-sulfatebicarbonate (Ca-Na-Cl-SO4-HCO3) to the west and east of the study area, respectively.

  20. Impact of agricultural practices on groundwater quality in intensive irrigated area of Chtouka-Massa, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Malki, Mouna; Bouchaou, Lhoussaine; Hirich, Abdelaziz; Ait Brahim, Yassine; Choukr-Allah, Redouane

    2017-01-01

    The Plio-Quaternary aquifer of Chtouka is located in Southwestern of Morocco. The intensive agricultural activity in Chtouka basin requires the mobilization of 94% of fresh water resources for irrigation. This overexploitation, along with the succession of drought years, sea water intrusion and various sources of pollution, affected the quality and availability of groundwater resources. Several sampling campaigns were carried out in different sites of the study area in order to investigate the spatial variation of groundwater quality. The temporal evolution of groundwater level shows that the water table was subjected to a gradual decline during the last decade, indicating an intensive exploitation mainly in irrigated areas. In the Southern part around Belfaa and the irrigated area along Massa River, nitrate concentrations exceed 50mg/L, which is the threshold set by the World Health Organization, while in the northern part around Biougra and Ait Amira, the nitrate concentration is mostly below 50mg/L indicating a relative good groundwater quality. This finding can be explained by the improvement of agricultural practices, particularly the conversion of flood and sprinkler irrigation to drip irrigation (80% of the total irrigated area) in most of the developed farms in this part of the study area. Moreover, the exploitation of groundwater from the deep aquifer, due to the increasing water demand in the region, can also explain the low chemical concentrations since the deep aquifer is not affected by anthropogenic pollutants or marine intrusion. Stable isotopes ((18)O and (2)H) highlight the different origins of groundwater, indicating the complexity of the aquifer system path flows, which is attributable to the intensive exploitation and irrigation water return. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Multi-parameter Analysis and Visualization of Groundwater Quality during High River Discharge Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, R. M.; Huggenberger, P.; Lischeid, G.

    2010-12-01

    The filter capacity of alluvial aquifers enables many groundwater extraction wells near rivers to provide high-quality drinking water during average flow and surface water quality conditions. However, during high river discharge events, the bacterial load of the groundwater is increased and the extracted water is no longer safe for the production of drinking water without treatment. Optimal management of production wells requires well-founded knowledge of the river - groundwater interaction and transport of microorganisms over this interface. Due to the spatial and temporal variability of river - groundwater interaction, monitoring individual parameters does not always correctly identify the actual potential risk of contamination of drinking water. Identifying situations where the quality is insufficient can be difficult in systems that are influenced by many factors including natural and artificial recharge, as well as extraction. As high-resolution sampling for waterborne pathogens during flood events is cost and time intensive, proxies are usually used in addition to short-term microbial monitoring studies. The resulting datasets are multi-dimensional and have variable temporal resolutions. For these reasons, it is necessary to apply procedures where multivariate datasets can be considered simultaneously and inherent patterns visualized. These patterns are important for determining the governing processes and can be used to assess the actual potential risk of contamination due to infiltrating surface water. In this study, a multi-parameter dataset, including specific conductivity and faecal indicators (Escherichia coli, enterococci and aerobic mesophilic germs), was analyzed using a combination of the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) and Sammon's mapping techniques. The SOM analysis allowed to differentiate between the effects of groundwater extraction and fluctuations of the river table on groundwater levels, electric conductivity and temperature in the well field

  2. Identification of indicators of groundwater quality formation process using a zoning model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xiu-yan; Yang, Hongbin; Cao, Yuqing; Wang, Wenke

    2014-06-01

    Drinking water safety is a world-wide focus. In Yinchuan Plain of western China, groundwater is mostly saline water, and it has generated many problems for the life of local residents. Yinchuan Plain exhibits differences from the mountain area to the plain in terrain and elevation, and landforms and scales. Such differences resulted in hydro-geological water storage structures with different water yield properties and permeabilities of the aquifers. These water storage structures are the places where the groundwater moves and is retained, as well as where the air-water-rock interaction and the migration and differentiation between substances in the water take place. With the arid climate and intense irrigation in Yinchuan Plain, the hydro-chemical features of the groundwater exhibit distinct zonation. To explore the formative mechanism of the groundwater quality in Yinchuan Plain, a zoning model for the formation of groundwater quality is established in three layers, the first layer shows the geological and hydrogeological conditions that express the landform and landscape, geological age, lithology, and hydrodynamic features of the studied area. The second layer indicates the zonation of the formation of groundwater quality. According to the major hydro-geochemical actions, the plain is divided from west to east into lixiviation, evaporation, and evaporation-mixing zones. The third layer contains the hydrodynamic features that express the hydro-chemical type, salinity, and the contents of the major ions as well as trace elements fluorine and arsenic. The features of each zone are quantitatively expressed with thermodynamic, hydrodynamic, and hydro-chemical indicators.

  3. Groundwater quality and its health impact: An assessment of dental fluorosis in rural inhabitants of the Main Ethiopian Rift.

    PubMed

    Rango, Tewodros; Kravchenko, Julia; Atlaw, Behailu; McCornick, Peter G; Jeuland, Marc; Merola, Brittany; Vengosh, Avner

    2012-08-01

    This study aims to assess the link between fluoride content in groundwater and its impact on dental health in rural communities of the Ethiopian Rift. A total of 148 water samples were collected from two drainage basins within the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER). In the Ziway-Shala basin in particular, wells had high fluoride levels (mean: 9.4±10.5mg/L; range: 1.1 to 68 mg/L), with 48 of 50 exceeding the WHO drinking water guideline limit of 1.5mg/L. Total average daily intake of fluoride from drinking groundwater (calculated per weight unit) was also found to be six times higher than the No-Observed-Adverse-Effects-Level (NOAEL) value of 0.06 mg/kg/day. The highest fluoride levels were found in highly-alkaline (pH of 7 to 8.9) groundwater characterized by high salinity; high concentrations of sodium (Na⁺), bicarbonate (HCO₃⁻), and silica (SiO₂); and low concentrations of calcium (Ca²⁺). A progressive Ca²⁺ decrease along the groundwater flow path is associated with an increase of fluoride in the groundwater. The groundwater quality problem is also coupled with the presence of other toxic elements, such as arsenic (As) and uranium (U). The health impact of fluoride was evaluated based on clinical examination of dental fluorosis (DF) among local residents using the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index (TFI). In total, 200 rural inhabitants between the ages of 7 and 40 years old using water from 12 wells of fluoride range of 7.8-18 mg/L were examined. Signs of DF (TF score of ≥ 1) were observed in all individuals. Most of the teeth (52%) recorded TF scores of 5 and 6, followed by TF scores of 3 and 4 (30%), and 8.4% had TF scores of 7 or higher. Sixty percent of the teeth exhibited loss of the outermost enamel. Within the range of fluoride contents, we did not find any correlation between fluoride content and DF. Finally, preliminary data suggest that milk intake has contributed to reducing the severity of DF. The study highlights the apparent positive role of

  4. Developing a risk-based air quality health index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Tze Wai; Tam, Wilson Wai San; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Lau, Alexis Kai Hon; Pang, Sik Wing; Wong, Andromeda H. S.

    2013-09-01

    We developed a risk-based, multi-pollutant air quality health index (AQHI) reporting system in Hong Kong, based on the Canadian approach. We performed time series studies to obtain the relative risks of hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases associated with four air pollutants: sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10). We then calculated the sum of excess risks of the hospital admissions associated with these air pollutants. The cut-off points of the summed excess risk, for the issuance of different health warnings, were based on the concentrations of these pollutants recommended as short-term Air Quality Guidelines by the World Health Organization. The excess risks were adjusted downwards for young children and the elderly. Health risk was grouped into five categories and sub-divided into eleven bands, with equal increments in excess risk from band 1 up to band 10 (the 11th band is 'band 10+'). We developed health warning messages for the general public, including at-risk groups: young children, the elderly, and people with pre-existing cardiac or respiratory diseases. The new system addressed two major shortcomings of the current standard-based system; namely, the time lag between a sudden rise in air pollutant concentrations and the issue of a health warning, and the reliance on one dominant pollutant to calculate the index. Hence, the AQHI represents an improvement over Hong Kong's existing air pollution index.

  5. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 3. Historical ground-water quality for the Red River Valley, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LoVetere, Sara H.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Maest, Ann S.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2003-01-01

    Historical ground-water quality data for 100 wells in the Red River Valley between the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station (08265000), near Questa, and Placer Creek east of the town of Red River, New Mexico, were compiled and reviewed. The tabulation included 608 water-quality records from 23 sources entered into an electronic database. Groundwater quality data were first collected at the Red River wastewater-treatment facility in 1982. Most analyses, however, were obtained between 1994 and 2002, even though the first wells were developed in 1962. The data were evaluated by considering (a) temporal consistency, (b) quality of sampling methods, (c) charge imbalance, and (d) replicate analyses. Analyses that qualified on the basis of these criteria were modeled to obtain saturation indices for gypsum, calcite, fluorite, gibbsite, manganite, and rhodocrosite. Plots created from the data illustrate that water chemistry in the Red River Valley is predominantly controlled by calcite dissolution, congruent gypsum dissolution, and pyrite oxidation.

  6. Validation of Student Generated Data for Assessment of Groundwater Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckenham, John M.; Thornton, Teresa; Peckenham, Phoebe

    2012-01-01

    As part of a research project to evaluate the effects of sand and gravel mining on water quality, students were trained to analyze their own drinking water for simple quality indicators. Indicators analyzed were pH, conductivity, hardness, nitrate, chloride, and dissolved iron. Approximately 523 analyses were completed by students between 2006 and…

  7. Validation of Student Generated Data for Assessment of Groundwater Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckenham, John M.; Thornton, Teresa; Peckenham, Phoebe

    2012-01-01

    As part of a research project to evaluate the effects of sand and gravel mining on water quality, students were trained to analyze their own drinking water for simple quality indicators. Indicators analyzed were pH, conductivity, hardness, nitrate, chloride, and dissolved iron. Approximately 523 analyses were completed by students between 2006 and…

  8. Broad target chemical screening approach used as tool for rapid assessment of groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    ter Laak, Thomas L; Puijker, Leo M; van Leerdam, Jan A; Raat, Klaasjan J; Kolkman, Annemieke; de Voogt, Pim; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2012-06-15

    The chemical water quality is often assessed by screening for a limited set of target chemicals. This 'conventional' target analysis approach inevitably misses chemicals present in the samples. In this study a 'broad' target screening approach for water quality assessment using high resolution and accurate mass spectrometry (HR MS) was applied to detect a wide variety of organic chemicals in 42 groundwater samples. In this approach, both known and unidentified chemicals observed in previous samples define the training set for the analysis of future samples and, additionally, new samples can be used to extend the training set. Nearly 400 chemicals were observed in the samples, of which 82 were known and more than 313 are of unknown identity. The obtained results were interpreted in relation to the source characteristics and land use. Groundwater that was affected by landfills showed the highest total MS response (ion counts) and most individual chemicals and was therefore considered most contaminated. Furthermore, river bank filtrated water was generally more contaminated than phreatic groundwater and groundwater from (semi)confined aquifers was most pristine. Additionally, industrial chemicals were more frequently observed in river bank filtrated water and pesticides were more frequently observed in water originating from rural areas. The 'broad' target screening approach for both known and unidentified chemicals does provide more information on the over-all water quality than 'conventional' target analysis.

  9. Importance of mineralogical data for groundwater quality affectedby CO2 leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu

    2006-02-13

    Recently, geological storage of CO{sub 2} has been extensively investigated. The impact of leakage from CO{sub 2} storage reservoirs on groundwater quality is one of the concerns. Dissolution of CO{sub 2} in groundwater results in a decrease in pH. Such acidic condition can affect the dissolution and sorption mechanisms of many minerals (Jaffe and Wang, 2004). Some heavy-metal-bearing minerals dissolve under acidic conditions. For example, galena (PbS) can dissolve and increase significantly Pb concentrations and diminish groundwater quality. If calcite is present in the rock, it can buffer the pH and decrease galena dissolution. Therefore, mineralogical composition and distribution in caprock, overlying aquifers, and along the leakage paths are important data that should be obtained from site characterization. Insight into which minerals and compounds are most important for groundwater quality can be obtained from reactive geochemical transport simulations. Here we present results of simulations using the code TOUGHREACT, whose physical and chemical process capabilities have been discussed by Xu et al. (2006). The simulator can be applied to one-, two-, or three-dimensional porous and fractured media with physical and chemical heterogeneity, and can accommodate any number of chemical species present in liquid, gas and solid phases.

  10. The environmentally sensitive index patch applied to MEDALUS climate quality index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duro, A.; Piccione, V.; Ragusa, M. A.; Veneziano, V.

    2016-06-01

    The authors continue testing the Environmentally Sensitive Index Patch - ESPI -to the whole region of Sicily for a comprehensive interpretation of the sensitivity of the areas to desertification under the Protocol MEDALUS (MEditerranean Desertification Areas and Land USe). They apply the index ESPI to three scenarios - to the first half of the twentieth century, the second half of the twentieth, the twenty-first century and to their three respective indices of Quality Climate. From the application of ESPI the authors deduce that the improvement of sensitivity to desertification in Sicily, between the first and second half of the last century, is not due to the climate constant deteriorates between the three periods analyzed.

  11. Robust principal component analysis in water quality index development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Zalina Mohd; Ibrahim, Noor Akma; Mengersen, Kerrie; Shitan, Mahendran; Juahir, Hafizan

    2014-06-01

    Some statistical procedures already available in literature are employed in developing the water quality index, WQI. The nature of complexity and interdependency that occur in physical and chemical processes of water could be easier explained if statistical approaches were applied to water quality indexing. The most popular statistical method used in developing WQI is the principal component analysis (PCA). In literature, the WQI development based on the classical PCA mostly used water quality data that have been transformed and normalized. Outliers may be considered in or eliminated from the analysis. However, the classical mean and sample covariance matrix used in classical PCA methodology is not reliable if the outliers exist in the data. Since the presence of outliers may affect the computation of the principal component, robust principal component analysis, RPCA should be used. Focusing in Langat River, the RPCA-WQI was introduced for the first time in this study to re-calculate the DOE-WQI. Results show that the RPCA-WQI is capable to capture similar distribution in the existing DOE-WQI.

  12. Translating the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index into Arabic.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Khaled H; Yates, Bernice C; Berger, Ann M; Pozehl, Bunny; Meza, Jane

    2010-03-01

    This descriptive correlational study describes the translation process and the psychometric testing of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The PSQI has been successfully translated into Arabic and back-translated into English by 10 Arabic bilingual translators. Then the PSQI is tested in a sample of 35 healthy Arabic bilinguals.The internal consistency reliability for the Global PSQI demonstrates borderline acceptability (Cronbach's alpha = .65). The reliability is further supported by moderate to high correlations between five PSQI components and the global PSQI score (r = .53 to .82, p < .01). Convergent validity is supported by the global PSQI correlating strongly with the Insomnia Severity Index (r = .76) and moderately with the related construct of the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 vitality subscale (r = -.33). Further testing of the PSQI is needed in a larger Arabic population, both clinical and healthy populations, living in their native countries.

  13. Soil quality index for evaluation of reclaimed coal mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, S; Masto, R E; Yadav, A; George, J; Ram, L C; Shukla, S P

    2016-01-15

    Success in the remediation of mine spoil depends largely on the selection of appropriate tree species. The impacts of remediation on mine soil quality cannot be sufficiently assessed by individual soil properties. However, combination of soil properties into an integrated soil quality index provides a more holistic status of reclamation potentials of tree species. Remediation potentials of four tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia sissoo, and Leucaena leucocephala) were studied on reclaimed coal mine overburden dumps of Jharia coalfield, Dhanbad, India. Soil samples were collected under the canopies of the tree species. Comparative studies on the properties of soils in the reclaimed and the reference sites showed improvements in soil quality parameters of the reclaimed site: coarse fraction (-20.4%), bulk density (-12.8%), water holding capacity (+0.92%), pH (+25.4%), EC (+2.9%), cation exchange capacity (+46.6%), organic carbon (+91.5%), N (+60.6%), P (+113%), K (+19.9%), Ca (+49.6%), Mg (+12.2%), Na (+19.6%), S (+46.7%), total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (-71.4%), dehydrogenase activity (+197%), and microbial biomass carbon (+115%). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key mine soil quality indicators to develop a soil quality index (SQI). Selected indicators include: coarse fraction, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, P, Ca, S, and dehydrogenase activity. The indicator values were converted into a unitless score (0-1.00) and integrated into SQI. The calculated SQI was significantly (P<0.001) correlated with tree biomass and canopy cover. Reclaimed site has 52-93% higher SQI compared to the reference site. Higher SQI values were obtained for sites reclaimed with D.sissoo (+93.1%) and C.siamea (+86.4%).

  14. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeological Regime, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1995 Groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number for the Y-12 Plant is TN.

  15. Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater quality in parts of the niger delta, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadi, P. A.; Ofoegbu, C. O.; Morrison, T.

    1989-11-01

    Detailed hydrogeochemical analysis of several samples of groundwater collected from parts of the Niger Delta, Nigeria has been carried out in an effort to assess the quality of groundwater in the area. Results obtained showed the groundwater in the area to be enriched in Na+, Ca++, Mg++, Cl-, HCO{3/-}, and SO{4/-}. The concentration of these ions as well as such parameters as salinity, total hardness, and TDS are below the World Health Organization (WHO) standards for drinking water. The concentration of Ca++ was found to be higher than Mg++ except in some areas very close to the coast suggesting the encroachment of saltwater. This encroachment of saltwater is further indicated by the general increase in Cl- and a decreased in HCO{3/-} content towards the coast and Na/Cl ratios. On the basis of the present hydrogeochemical studies, five groundwater types have been recognized to occur in the area of study. These are (1) Sodium-Calcium-Magnesium-Bicarbonate type (Na-Ca-Mg-5HCO3), (2) Iron-Calcium-Bicarbonate type (Fe-Ca-4HCO3), (3) Sodium-Calcium-Magnesium-Sulfate type (Na - Ca - Mg - tfrac{5}{2}SO_4 ), (4) Iron-Chloride-Bicarbonate (Fe-Cl-HCO3), and (5) Magnesium-Chloride type (Mg-2Cl). The assemblage of groundwater types in the area shows that both compound and single groundwater types occur. The geochemical characteristics of the groundwaters are thought to be closely related to the peculiar geologic and hydrologic conditions that prevail in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria.

  16. Hydrochemical and microbiological quality of groundwater in West Thrace Region of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özler, H. Murat; Aydın, Ali

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to do a preliminary assessment of the hydrochemical and microbial groundwater quality of the West Thrace region. Forty samples of groundwater collected from Edirne (Site 1) to Gelibolu (Site 2) were assessed for their suitability for human consumption. As3- was non-detectable in all the groundwater and Zn2+, Pb2+, F-, Cu2+, NH{4/+}, Cn- PO{4/3-} and Cl- were all below their respective European Union drinking water directive (EU-DWD) and Turkish food codex-drinking water directive (TFC-DWD). Maximum Acceptable Concentrations (MAC) Ni2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, and Ca2+ levels were detected in upper maximum acceptable concentrations 77.5, 42.5, 35.0, 50.0, 50.0, and 32.5% of the groundwater samples, respectively. However, in terms of Cr3+, Ni2+ and Pb2+, the differences between groundwaters of Sites 1 and 2 were significant ( p < 0.05). Eight water samples (20%) had HPC exceeding the EU and Turkish water directive limit 20 CFU (Colony Forming Unit)/ml in drinking water and the maximum bacteria count recorded was 44 CFU/ml. Total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus spp. and P. aeruginosa were detected in 25, 17.5, 15, 47.5, 15, 27.5, and 15% of the groundwater samples, respectively. Furthermore, heavy metals and trace elements were found after chemical analyzes in most samples. The pollution of groundwater come from a variety of sources, Meric and Ergene rivers, including land application of agricultural chemicals and organics wastes, infiltration of irrigation water, septic tanks, and infiltration of effluent from sewage treatment plants, pits, lagoons and ponds used storage.

  17. A Comprehensive Analysis of Groundwater Quality in The Barnett Shale Region.

    PubMed

    Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Fontenot, Brian E; Meik, Jesse M; Walton, Jayme L; Taylor, Josh T; Thacker, Jonathan B; Korlie, Stephanie; Shelor, C Phillip; Henderson, Drew; Kadjo, Akinde F; Roelke, Corey E; Hudak, Paul F; Burton, Taylour; Rifai, Hanadi S; Schug, Kevin A

    2015-07-07

    The exploration of unconventional shale energy reserves and the extensive use of hydraulic fracturing during well stimulation have raised concerns about the potential effects of unconventional oil and gas extraction (UOG) on the environment. Most accounts of groundwater contamination have focused primarily on the compositional analysis of dissolved gases to address whether UOG activities have had deleterious effects on overlying aquifers. Here, we present an analysis of 550 groundwater samples collected from private and public supply water wells drawing from aquifers overlying the Barnett shale formation of Texas. We detected multiple volatile organic carbon compounds throughout the region, including various alcohols, the BTEX family of compounds, and several chlorinated compounds. These data do not necessarily identify UOG activities as the source of contamination; however, they do provide a strong impetus for further monitoring and analysis of groundwater quality in this region as many of the compounds we detected are known to be associated with UOG techniques.

  18. Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in the Eastern District of Abu Dhabi Emirate, UAE.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamed M; Murad, Ahmed; Chowdhury, RezaulKabir

    2017-03-01

    Water samples were collected to evaluate the groundwater quality in the shallow unconfined alluvial aquifer in the eastern part of Abu-Dhabi Emirate, UAE. The chemical monitoring revealed some spatial variability in chemical parameters as influenced by matrix aquifer changes in geological formations. Results show that changes in groundwater chemistry in the aquifer is mainly controlled by evaporation, silicate mineral dissolution, evaporite dissolution, and cation exchange. The concentration increases were accounted for primarily by dissolved sodium, chloride, and sulphate. The high value of total dissolved solids of shallow groundwater is mainly controlled by evaporation. The dominance of sodium ion was evident among the cationic compositions with an average of 2621.1 mg/L, while the chloride ion was the dominant among the anionic constituents with an average of 6249 mg/L. The prevalence of those two elements in most water samples contributes to the existence of saline water occurrence in the study area.

  19. Groundwater Quality Data in the Mojave Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,500 square-mile Mojave (MOJO) study unit was investigated from February to April 2008, as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). MOJO was the 23rd of 37 study units to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basin Project. The MOJO study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated ground water used for public water supplies within MOJO, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 59 wells in San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties. Fifty-two of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and seven were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds], constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]) naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids [TDS], and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, radium isotopes, and radon-222). Naturally occurring isotopes (stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, and activities of tritium and carbon-14), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled

  20. Numerical Model Assessment of the Effects of Drywell Facilitated Stormwater Infiltration on Groundwater Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, E.; Harter, T.; Fogg, G. E.; Washburn, B.

    2015-12-01

    Drywells are gravity-fed, excavated pits with perforated casings used to facilitate stormwater infiltration and groundwater recharge in areas comprised of low permeability soils or cover. Stormwater runoff that would otherwise be routed to streams or drains in urban areas is used as a source of aquifer recharge, potentially mitigating the effects of drought. However, the potential for groundwater contamination caused by urban runoff bypassing surface soil and near surface sediment attenuation processes has prevented more widespread use of drywells as a recharge mechanism. A study is currently underway in Elk Grove, CA, where two drywells have been constructed: one in a preexisting drainage basin fed by residential lots, and one at an industrial site. Both sites are outfitted with one upgradient and two downgradient groundwater monitoring wells, and one vadose zone monitoring well. To assess long-term effects of stormwater infiltration on the surrounding hydrogeologic system, fate and transport models of contaminants in the vadose zone are coupled with groundwater flow models to predict the concentrations of contaminants at the water table and simulate the transport of contaminant plumes to local municipal wells. Results of water quality sampling have identified the local contaminants of interest and the concentrations of these contaminants in the influent stormwater, and the fate and transport of these contaminants have been simulated using a 2D axisymmetrical model with site specific parameters. The output concentrations from vadose zone modeling are used as inputs to simulate contaminant plume migration in groundwater after two, ten, and fifty years. The results of the numerical modeling assessments indicate that the study's drywells do not pose a long-term threat to groundwater quality and may be an effective source of aquifer recharge and drought mitigation.

  1. Submarine Groundwater Discharge and Coastal Water Quality on the Kona Coast: The Land Use Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knee, K. L.; Street, J. H.; Grossman, E. G.; Boehm, A. B.; Paytan, A.

    2008-12-01

    For several decades, the Kona, or western, coast of the island of Hawai'i (Hawai'i, USA) has been recognized as a region of exceptionally high submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Maintaining good water quality on the Kona coast is important for the local coral reef ecosystems and tourism-based economy. However, rapid development in the recent past and planned development in the near future may pose a threat to coastal waters. In this study, we quantified SGD-related fluxes of freshwater, nutrients and trace metals into the coastal ocean at 12 sites on the Kona coast. Radium-224 activity, silica concentration, and salinity were used as groundwater tracers, and a mass-balance approach was used to estimate fluxes. The relation between fresh groundwater quality and land use was also investigated. Fresh SGD was pervasive along the Kona coast, occurring to a measurable extent at 11 of 12 study sites. However, the volume percent of fresh groundwater at coastal ocean sites varied considerably, from 0-47%, indicating that SGD affects some sites much more than others. Inverse, linear relationships between salinity and concentrations of nitrate+nitrite, phosphate, and silica in the coastal ocean indicated conservative behavior and suggested that nutrients are diluted or advected away from shore faster than they can be used biologically. Neither the population density nor the percentage of urbanized, agricultural, forested or bare land in the vicinity of the study sites influenced groundwater nutrient concentrations; however, sites closest to golf courses had significantly higher concentrations of nitrate+nitrite. Relations between land use and trace metal concentrations in groundwater were also investigated.

  2. Calendar year 1994 groundwater quality report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: 1994 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater and surface water quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several waste-management facilities and a petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) site associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The sites addressed by this document are located within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime). The East Fork Regime, which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant, encompasses the Y-12 Plant. The regime extends west from a surface water and shallow groundwater divide located near the west end of the plant to Scarboro Road (directions in this report are in reference to the Y-12 Plant grid system unless otherwise noted). The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements and in accordance with DOE Orders and Energy Systems corporate policy.

  3. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This annual groundwater report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline.

  4. Uncertainty in simulated groundwater-quality trends in transient flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starn, J. Jeffrey; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios; Robbins, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    In numerical modeling of groundwater flow, the result of a given solution method is affected by the way in which transient flow conditions and geologic heterogeneity are simulated. An algorithm is demonstrated that simulates breakthrough curves at a pumping well by convolution-based particle tracking in a transient flow field for several synthetic basin-scale aquifers. In comparison to grid-based (Eulerian) methods, the particle (Lagrangian) method is better able to capture multimodal breakthrough caused by changes in pumping at the well, although the particle method may be apparently nonlinear because of the discrete nature of particle arrival times. Trial-and-error choice of number of particles and release times can perhaps overcome the apparent nonlinearity. Heterogeneous aquifer properties tend to smooth the effects of transient pumping, making it difficult to separate their effects in parameter estimation. Porosity, a new parameter added for advective transport, can be accurately estimated using both grid-based and particle-based methods, but predictions can be highly uncertain, even in the simple, nonreactive case.

  5. Ground-water quality at the Management Systems Evaluation Area near Princeton, Minnesota, 1991-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landon, M.K.; Delin, G.N.; Lamb, J.A.; Guo, Lei

    1993-01-01

    The northern cornbelt sand-plains Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) program is a multiagency, multistate initiative to evaluate the effects of modified and prevailing farming systems on water quality in a sand-plain area in Minnesota and at satellite areas in North and South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The primary objective of Minnesota MSEA is to evaluate the effects of ridge-tillage practices in a corn and soybean farming system on ground-water quality. The Minnesota MSEA program is a cooperative study primarily between the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, the University of Minnesota Soil Science Department, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency and the Department of Geology and Geophysics at the University of Minnesota are also cooperating in the evaluation of groundwater quality at the MSEA.

  6. Ground-water quality at the Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) near Princeton, Minnesota, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landon, M.K.; Delin, G.N.; Lamb, J.A.; Guo, Laodong

    1993-01-01

    The northern cornbelt sand-plains Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) program is a multiagency, multistate initiative to evaluate the effects of modified and prevailing fanning systems on water quality in a sand-plain area in Minnesota and at satellite areas in North and South Dakota, and Wisconsin (Delin and others, 1992). The primary objective of the northern cornbelt sand-plains MSEA is to evaluate the effects of ridge-tillage practices in a corn and soybean farming system on ground-water quality. The Minnesota MSEA program is a cooperative study primarily between the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, the University of Minnesota Soil Science Department, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency and the Department of Geology and Geophysics at the University of Minnesota are also cooperating in the evaluation of ground-water quality at the MSEA.

  7. Developing a Water Quality Index (WQI) for an Irrigation Dam

    PubMed Central

    De La Mora-Orozco, Celia; Flores-Lopez, Hugo; Rubio-Arias, Hector; Chavez-Duran, Alvaro; Ochoa-Rivero, Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Pollution levels have been increasing in water ecosystems worldwide. A water quality index (WQI) is an available tool to approximate the quality of water and facilitate the work of decision-makers by grouping and analyzing numerous parameters with a single numerical classification system. The objective of this study was to develop a WQI for a dam used for irrigation of about 5000 ha of agricultural land. The dam, La Vega, is located in Teuchitlan, Jalisco, Mexico. Seven sites were selected for water sampling and samples were collected in March, June, July, September, and December 2014 in an initial effort to develop a WQI for the dam. The WQI methodology, which was recommended by the Mexican National Water Commission (CNA), was used. The parameters employed to calculate the WQI were pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), alkalinity (Alk), total phosphorous (TP), Cl−, NO3, SO4, Ca, Mg, K, B, As, Cu, and Zn. No significant differences in WQI values were found among the seven sampling sites along the dam. However, seasonal differences in WQI were noted. In March and June, water quality was categorized as poor. By July and September, water quality was classified as medium to good. Quality then decreased, and by December water quality was classified as medium to poor. In conclusion, water treatment must be applied before waters from La Vega dam reservoir can be used for irrigation or other purposes. It is recommended that the water quality at La Vega dam is continually monitored for several years in order to confirm the findings of this short-term study. PMID:28468230

  8. Developing a Water Quality Index (WQI) for an Irrigation Dam.

    PubMed

    De La Mora-Orozco, Celia; Flores-Lopez, Hugo; Rubio-Arias, Hector; Chavez-Duran, Alvaro; Ochoa-Rivero, Jesus

    2017-04-29

    Pollution levels have been increasing in water ecosystems worldwide. A water quality index (WQI) is an available tool to approximate the quality of water and facilitate the work of decision-makers by grouping and analyzing numerous parameters with a single numerical classification system. The objective of this study was to develop a WQI for a dam used for irrigation of about 5000 ha of agricultural land. The dam, La Vega, is located in Teuchitlan, Jalisco, Mexico. Seven sites were selected for water sampling and samples were collected in March, June, July, September, and December 2014 in an initial effort to develop a WQI for the dam. The WQI methodology, which was recommended by the Mexican National Water Commission (CNA), was used. The parameters employed to calculate the WQI were pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), alkalinity (Alk), total phosphorous (TP), Cl(-), NO₃, SO₄, Ca, Mg, K, B, As, Cu, and Zn. No significant differences in WQI values were found among the seven sampling sites along the dam. However, seasonal differences in WQI were noted. In March and June, water quality was categorized as poor. By July and September, water quality was classified as medium to good. Quality then decreased, and by December water quality was classified as medium to poor. In conclusion, water treatment must be applied before waters from La Vega dam reservoir can be used for irrigation or other purposes. It is recommended that the water quality at La Vega dam is continually monitored for several years in order to confirm the findings of this short-term study.

  9. Seawater Intrusion Impacts on the Water Quality of the Groundwater on theNorthwest Coast of Oman.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Abdelkader T; Askri, Brahim

    2016-08-01

    The groundwater aquifer in the coastal region of the northwest of Oman has been used extensively since the early 1980s for agricultural, industrial and municipal purposes. The over pumping of this reservoir has led to the intrusion of seawater and therefore to the deterioration of the groundwater quality. In this study, an investigation was carried out in the southern part of this region to identify the quality of groundwater, to understand the main sources of groundwater mineralisation, and to check the suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation. The spatial distributions and temporal variations of groundwater level and electrical conductivity were studied for the period from 1982 to 2005 using data collected from 225 wells. In addition, groundwater samples were collected recently in 2012 from eight wells and analysed for pH, EC, and major ions to understand the sources of dissolved ions and assess the chemical quality of the groundwater. The study area was divided into two strips parallel to the coastline, A and B, located in the discharge and recharge parts of the aquifer, respectively. Results showed a significant increase in the degree of water mineralisation in the direction of south to north following the regional flow direction. Results showed also that the groundwater in the last area could be used for irrigation with little danger of exchangeable sodium while this aquifer is unsuitable for irrigation in the discharge area because it presents a very high salinity hazard.

  10. Ground-water age, flow, and quality near a landfill, and changes in ground-water conditions from 1976 to 1996 in the Swinomish Indian Reservation, northwestern Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, B.E.; Cox, S.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the results of two related studies: a study of ground-water age, flow, and quality near a landfill in the south-central part of the Swinomish Indian Reservation; and a study of changes in ground-water conditions for the entire reservation from 1976 to 1996. The Swinomish Indian Reservation is a 17-square-mile part of Fidalgo Island in northwestern Washington. The groundwater flow system in the reservation is probably independent of other flow systems in the area because it is almost completely surrounded by salt water. There has been increasing stress on the ground-water resources of the reservation because the population has almost tripled during the past 20 years, and 65 percent of the population obtain their domestic water supply from the local ground-water system. The Swinomish Tribe is concerned that increased pumping of ground water might have caused decreased ground-water discharge into streams, declines in ground-water levels, and seawater intrusion into the ground-water system. There is also concern that leachate from an inactive landfill containing mostly household and wood-processing wastes may be contaminating the ground water. The study area is underlain by unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits of Quaternary age that range from about 300 to 900 feet thick. Five hydrogeologic units have been defined in the unconsolidated deposits. From top to bottom, the hydrogeologic units are a till confining bed, an outwash aquifer, a clay confining bed, a sea-level aquifer, and an undifferentiated unit. The ground-water flow system of the reservation is similar to other island-type flow systems. Water enters the system through the water table as infiltration and percolation of precipitation (recharge), then the water flows downward and radially outward from the center of the island. At the outside edges of the system, ground water flows upward to discharge into the surrounding saltwater bodies. Average annual recharge is estimated to

  11. Modeling groundwater quality over a humid subtropical region using numerical indices, earth observation datasets, and X-ray diffraction technique: a case study of Allahabad district, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Srivastava, Prashant K; Singh, Dharmveer; Han, Dawei; Gautam, Sandeep Kumar; Pandey, A C

    2015-02-01

    Water is undoubtedly the vital commodity for all living creatures and required for well-being of the human society. The present work is based on the surveys and chemical analyses performed on the collected groundwater samples in a part of the Ganga basin in order to understand the sources and evolution of the water quality in the region. The two standard indices such as water quality index and synthetic pollution index for the classification of water in the region are computed. The soil and sediment analysis are carried out with the help of X-ray diffractometer (XRD) for the identification of possible source of ions in water from rock and soil weathering. The dominant minerals which include quartz, muscovite, plagioclase, and orthoclase are reported in the area. The study further utilizes the multivariate statistical techniques for handling large and complex datasets in order to get better information about the groundwater quality. The following statistical methods such as cluster analysis (CA), factor analysis (FA), and principal component analysis (PCA) are applied to handle the large datasets and to understand the latent structure of the data. Through FA/PCAs, we have identified a total of 3 factors in pre-monsoon and 4 factors in post-monsoon season, which are responsible for the whole data structure. These factors explain 77.62 and 82.39% of the total variance of the pre- and post-monsoon datasets. On the other hand, CA depicted the regions that have similar pollutants origin. The average value of synthetic pollution index of groundwater during pre-monsoon is 9.27, while during post-monsoon, it has been recorded as 8.74. On the other hand, the average values of water quality index of groundwater during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons are found as 217.59 and 233.02, respectively. The study indicates that there occurs an extensive urbanization with gradual vast development of various small- and large-scale industries, which is responsible for degradation in

  12. Communicating Environmental Information to the Public: A New Water Quality Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, David J.; Janardan, Konanur G.

    1977-01-01

    A water quality index developed by the authors and used by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency is described. It compares biological and chemical assessments of water quality. Sampling procedures and use of the index are described. (BT)

  13. Management of groundwater supply and water quality in the Los Angeles Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichard, E.G.; Crawford, S.M.; Land, M.T.; Paybins, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Water use and water needs in the coastal Los Angeles Basin in California have been very closely tied to the development of the region during the last 150 years. The first water wells were drilled in the mid-1800s. Currently about 40% of the water supply (9.4 m3 s-1) in the region is provided by groundwater. Other sources of water supply include reclaimed water and surface water imported from Owens Valley, the Colorado River, and northern California. Increasing groundwater use in the basin led to over-abstraction and seawater instrusion. Because of this, an important component of water management in the area has been the artificial recharge of local, imported, and reclaimed water which is spread in ponds and injected in wells to recharge the aquifer system and control seawater intrusion. The US Geological Survey (USGS) is working co-operatively with the Water Replenishment District of Southern California to evaluate the hydraulic and water-quality effects of these recharge operations and to assess the potential impacts of alternative water-management strategies, including changes in pumping and increases in the use of reclaimed water. As part of this work, the USGS has developed a geographic information system (GIS), collected water-quality and geohydrological data from new and existing wells, and developed a multi-aquifer regional groundwater flow model. Chemical and isotopic data were used to identify the age and source of recharge to groundwater throughout the study area. This information is key to understanding the fate of artificially recharged water and helps define the three-dimensional groundwater flow system. The geohydrological data, especially the geophysical and geological data collected from 11 newly installed multi-completion monitoring wells, were used to redefine the regional hydrostratigraphy. The groundwater flow model is being used to enhance the understanding of the geohydrological system and to quantitatively evaluate new water

  14. Quality-assurance and data management plan for groundwater activities by the U.S. Geological Survey in Kansas, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, James E.; Hansen, Cristi V.

    2014-01-01

    As the Nation’s principle earth-science information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is depended on to collect data of the highest quality. This document is a quality-assurance plan for groundwater activities (GWQAP) of the Kansas Water Science Center. The purpose of this GWQAP is to establish a minimum set of guidelines and practices to be used by the Kansas Water Science Center to ensure quality in groundwater activities. Included within these practices are the assignment of responsibilities for implementing quality-assurance activities in the Kansas Water Science Center and establishment of review procedures needed to ensure the technical quality and reliability of the groundwater products. In addition, this GWQAP is intended to complement quality-assurance plans for surface-water and water-quality activities and similar plans for the Kansas Water Science Center and general project activities throughout the USGS. This document provides the framework for collecting, analyzing, and reporting groundwater data that are quality assured and quality controlled. This GWQAP presents policies directing the collection, processing, analysis, storage, review, and publication of groundwater data. In addition, policies related to organizational responsibilities, training, project planning, and safety are presented. These policies and practices pertain to all groundwater activities conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center, including data-collection programs, interpretive and research projects. This report also includes the data management plan that describes the progression of data management from data collection to archiving and publication.

  15. Ground-Water Quality Reconnaissance, Tutuila, American Samoa, 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eyre, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    In May and July 1989, 19 ground-water samples were collected from 17 of the 35 water-supply wells on the island of Tutuila, American Samoa. Samples were analyzed for temperature, pH, hardness, specific conductance, turbidity, total and fecal coliform bacteria, major ions, major nutrients, 12 common metals, and 66 organic compounds. Chemical analysis of the water samples shows that, after chlorination, sampled ground water was in compliance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water regulations. Fourteen of the 19 samples were collected before the water was chlorinated in the water distribution system, and five were collected after chlorination. Seven of the 14 unchlorinated samples contained coliform bacteria and five of the seven contained fecal coliform bacteria, indicating potential contamination from disease-causing pathogens. All five of the chlorinated samples contained trace levels of trihalomethanes, but at concentrations below U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels. Trihalomethanes were the only organic constituents detected. Concentrations of total dissolved solids in the 19 samples ranged from about 100 to 2,400 milligrams per liter. Four samples had concentrations of total dissolved solids and chloride that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary drinking-water regulations of 500 and 250 milligrams per liter, respectively. For samples with less than 300 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids, sodium, calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate were the dominant ions, indicating that they were derived from dissolution of minerals and carbon-dioxide enrichment of recharge water. For samples with greater than 300 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids, sodium and chloride were the dominant ions, indicating increased mixing of ground water with seawater.

  16. Changes in shallow groundwater quality beneath recently urbanized areas in the Memphis, Tennessee area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kingsbury, James A.; Coupe, Richard H.

    2012-01-01

    Memphis, the largest city in the state of Tennessee, and its surrounding suburbs depend on a confined aquifer, the Memphis aquifer, for drinking water. Concern over the potential for downward movement of water from an overlying shallow aquifer to the underlying Memphis aquifer provided impetus for monitoring groundwater quality within the shallow aquifer. The occurrence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrate, and pesticides in samples from the shallow well network indicate a widespread affect on water quality from the overlying urban land use. Total pesticide concentration was generally higher in more recently recharged groundwater indicating that as the proportion of recent water increases, the occurrence of pesticides related to the current urban land use also increases. Groundwater samples with nitrate concentrations greater than 1.5 mg/l and detectable concentrations of the pesticides atrazine and simazine also had higher concentrations of chloroform, a VOC primarily associated with urban land use, than in other samples. The age of the water from these wells indicates that these concentrations are most likely not representative of past agricultural use, but of more recent urban use of these chemicals. Given that the median age of water represented by the shallow well network was 21 years, a lag time likely exists between changes in land use and the occurrence of constituents related to urbanization in shallow groundwater.

  17. Assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal area of Sindh province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Alamgir, Aamir; Khan, Moazzam Ali; Schilling, Janpeter; Shaukat, S Shahid; Shahab, Shoaib

    2016-02-01

    Groundwater is a highly important resource, especially for human consumption and agricultural production. This study offers an assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal areas of Sindh province in Pakistan. Fifty-six samples of groundwater were taken at depths ranging from 30 to 50 m. Bacteriological and physico-chemical analyses were performed using the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. These were supplemented with expert interviews and observations to identify the usage of water and potential sources of pollution. The quality of the groundwater was found to be unsuitable for human consumption, despite being used for this purpose. The concentrations of sulfate and phosphate were well within the tolerance limits. Most critical were the high levels of organic and fecal pollution followed by turbidity and salinity. Metal concentrations (As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were also determined, and Ni and Pb strongly exceeded health standards. The study stresses the need for significant improvements of the irrigation, sanitation, and sewage infrastructure.

  18. Tailoring groundwater quality monitoring to vulnerability: a GIS procedure for network design.

    PubMed

    Preziosi, E; Petrangeli, A B; Giuliano, G

    2013-05-01

    Monitoring networks aiming to assess the state of groundwater quality and detect or predict changes could increase in efficiency when fitted to vulnerability and pollution risk assessment. The main purpose of this paper is to describe a methodology aiming at integrating aquifers vulnerability and actual levels of groundwater pollution in the monitoring network design. In this study carried out in a pilot area in central Italy, several factors such as hydrogeological setting, groundwater vulnerability, and natural and anthropogenic contamination levels were analyzed and used in designing a network tailored to the monitoring objectives, namely, surveying the evolution of groundwater quality relating to natural conditions as well as to polluting processes active in the area. Due to the absence of an aquifer vulnerability map for the whole area, a proxi evaluation of it was performed through a geographic information system (GIS) methodology, leading to the so called "susceptibility to groundwater quality degradation". The latter was used as a basis for the network density assessment, while water points were ranked by several factors including discharge, actual contamination levels, maintenance conditions, and accessibility for periodical sampling in order to select the most appropriate to the network. Two different GIS procedures were implemented which combine vulnerability conditions and water points suitability, producing two slightly different networks of 50 monitoring points selected out of the 121 candidate wells and springs. The results are compared with a "manual" selection of the points. The applied GIS procedures resulted capable to select the requested number of water points from the initial set, evaluating the most confident ones and an appropriate density. Moreover, it is worth underlining that the second procedure (point distance analysis [PDA]) is technically faster and simpler to be performed than the first one (GRID + PDA).

  19. The impact of on-site wastewater from high density cluster developments on groundwater quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrissey, P. J.; Johnston, P. M.; Gill, L. W.

    2015-11-01

    The net impact on groundwater quality from high density clusters of unsewered housing across a range of hydro(geo)logical settings has been assessed. Four separate cluster development sites were selected, each representative of different aquifer vulnerability categories. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis over a two year period for chemical and microbiological analysis from nested multi-horizon sampling boreholes upstream and downstream of the study sites. The field results showed no statistically significant difference between upstream and downstream water quality at any of the study areas, although there were higher breakthroughs in contaminants in the High and Extreme vulnerability sites linked to high intensity rainfall events; these however, could not be directly attributed to on-site effluent. Linked numerical models were then built for each site using HYDRUS 2D to simulate the attenuation of contaminants through the unsaturated zone from which the resulting hydraulic and contaminant fluxes at the water table were used as inputs into MODFLOW MT3D models to simulate the groundwater flows. The results of the simulations confirmed the field observations at each site, indicating that the existing clustered on-site wastewater discharges would only cause limited and very localised impacts on groundwater quality, with contaminant loads being quickly dispersed and diluted downstream due to the relatively high groundwater flow rates. Further simulations were then carried out using the calibrated models to assess the impact of increasing cluster densities revealing little impact at any of the study locations up to a density of 6 units/ha with the exception of the Extreme vulnerability site.

  20. Wellbore-wall compression effects on monitored groundwater levels and qualities.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, S; Sawamoto, M; Shiba, M; Iiyama, I; Hasegawa, S

    2013-01-01

    The effects of wellbore-wall compression from rough excavation on monitored groundwater levels and qualities under natural hydraulic gradient conditions were investigated in a shallow clayey Andisol aquifer. Nine wellbores reaching the underlying aquitard at about 2.6-m depth were constructed by dynamic cone penetrometry to mimic rough wellbore construction. Five of these were constructed under wet aquifer soil conditions and the remaining four under dry conditions. A 15-month period monitoring showed that the groundwater levels in the wellbores constructed under wet conditions responded significantly in retard of, and in narrower ranges than, those constructed under dry conditions. The wellbore-wall hydraulic conductivities at the former wellbores were calculated to be more than one to two orders of magnitude lower than those at the latter ones. Furthermore, remarkable nitrate removal attributable to the occurrence of a heterotrophic denitrification was observed in one of the former wellbores. In contrast, the groundwater levels and qualities in the latter wellbores appeared to be generally similar to those monitored in the conventional soil coring and augering-derived wellbores. Our results suggest that the wellbore-wall compression induced by rough excavation under wet and soft aquifer soil conditions leads to a substantial decrease in the wellbore-wall hydraulic conductivity, which in turn can lead to unreliable groundwater levels and qualities. This problem can occur in clayey Andisols whenever the aquifer soil is wet; however, the problem can be largely avoided by constructing the wellbore under dry and hard aquifer soil conditions. © 2012, The Author(s). Groundwater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  1. The impact of on-site wastewater from high density cluster developments on groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, P J; Johnston, P M; Gill, L W

    2015-11-01

    The net impact on groundwater quality from high density clusters of unsewered housing across a range of hydro(geo)logical settings has been assessed. Four separate cluster development sites were selected, each representative of different aquifer vulnerability categories. Groundwater samples were collected on a monthly basis over a two year period for chemical and microbiological analysis from nested multi-horizon sampling boreholes upstream and downstream of the study sites. The field results showed no statistically significant difference between upstream and downstream water quality at any of the study areas, although there were higher breakthroughs in contaminants in the High and Extreme vulnerability sites linked to high intensity rainfall events; these however, could not be directly attributed to on-site effluent. Linked numerical models were then built for each site using HYDRUS 2D to simulate the attenuation of contaminants through the unsaturated zone from which the resulting hydraulic and contaminant fluxes at the water table were used as inputs into MODFLOW MT3D models to simulate the groundwater flows. The results of the simulations confirmed the field observations at each site, indicating that the existing clustered on-site wastewater discharges would only cause limited and very localised impacts on groundwater quality, with contaminant loads being quickly dispersed and diluted downstream due to the relatively high groundwater flow rates. Further simulations were then carried out using the calibrated models to assess the impact of increasing cluster densities revealing little impact at any of the study locations up to a density of 6 units/ha with the exception of the Extreme vulnerability site. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An Assessment of Peri-Urban Groundwater Quality from Shallow Dug Wells, Mzuzu, Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, R.; Felsot, A.

    2012-12-01

    Throughout Malawi, governmental, non-governmental, religious and civic organizations are targeting the human need for water. Diarrheal diseases, often associated with unsafe drinking water, are a leading cause of mortality in children under five in Malawi with over 6,000 deaths per year (World Health Organization, 2010). From January to March 2012, a field study was undertaken in Malawi to study water quality and develop a public health risk communication strategy. The region studied, Area 1B, represents a comparatively new peri-urban area on the edge of Mzuzu city. Area 1B is serviced by a piped municipal water supply, but many shallow dug wells are also used for household water. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 shallow dug well sites and analyzed for nitrate, total coliform, Escherichia coli, total hardness, total alkalinity and pH. In addition to water quality analyses, a structured household questionnaire was administered to address water use, sanitation, health, consumption patterns, and socioeconomics. Results showed that more than half of the groundwater samples would be considered of unacceptable quality based on World Health Organization (WHO) standards for E. coli contamination. Low levels of nitrate were found in groundwater, but only one well exceeded WHO standards. The structured questionnaire revealed that some residents were still consuming groundwater despite the access to safer municipal water. In general, the widespread E. coli contamination was not statistically correlated with well depth, latrine proximity, or surface features. Similarly, nitrate concentrations were not significantly correlated with proximity to latrines. On the other hand, nitrate was correlated with well depth, which is expected given the high potential for leaching of anionic highly water soluble compounds. E. coli was significantly correlated with nitrate concentration. Projects targeting the need for clean water need to recognize that households with access to a

  3. Groundwater site identification indexes for Washington, D.C., Baltimore City, and the counties of Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    These datasets represent 23 geographic 5-minute indexes for the counties of Maryland, one 2 1/2-minute index for Washington D.C., and 1-mile square index for Baltimore City. There are 25 vector polygon datasets covered by this metadata report.

  4. Calendar Year 1994 Groundwater Quality Report for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains groundwater and surface water quality data obtained during the 1994 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The sites addressed by this document are located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the Y-12 Plant complex (directions in this report are in reference to the Y-12 administrative grid system) within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface water quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability (HSEA) Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in the Bear Creek Regime under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protec