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Sample records for group comparison studies the

  1. The efficacy of a population-based comparison group in cross-sectional occupational health studies.

    PubMed

    Schulte, P A; Singal, M; Stringer, W T; Kominsky, J R; Landrigan, P J

    1982-12-01

    The availability and the choice of appropriate comparison groups are essential for valid occupational epidemiologic studies. Too often, however, adequate comparison groups cannot easily be found within a workplace environment or extracted from the general population. An evaluation of the efficacy of using a pool of comparison subjects from the health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES) was performed on data gathered by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1979. Comparison groups from the HANES pool were derived for 246 workers at four different commercial/industrial facilities in the Niagara Falls, New York, area and the comparability between the groups was assessed for several demographic, behavioural, and biomedical variables. The HANES groups exhibited a high degree of comparability with regard to most variables, excluding ancestry. The HANES pool may serve as a useful source of subjects to allow for the comparison of disease rates where occupational exposure is the key distinguishing feature between groups.

  2. The comparison of outcomes of surgically treated bilateral temporomandibular joint disorder in different groups: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Pernu, Hannu; Oikarinen, Kyosti; Raustia, Aune

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to determine the prognosis and outcomes of the patients with bilateral temporomandibular disorder which underwent bilateral temporomandibular joint surgery in a consecutive number of patients in a retrospective study. Study Design: Sixty five patients with 130 bilateral TMJ were included the study with the selection from consecutive 256 TMJ patients who were treated with open surgery who do not respond to conservative treatment. 65 patients were divided in to 3 main groups according to the clinical diagnosis of bilateral TMJ site. In the first group comprised 29 patients with 48 TMJ, the clinical diagnosis was bilaterally presence of anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDR). In the second group comprised 19 patients with 26 TMJ, bilateral presence of TMD consisted of anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDNR) on both site. In the third group comprised 27 patients with 46 TMJ, bilaterally presence of TMD consist of ADDR on one site and ADDNR on another site. The patients in three different groups were operated either high condylectomy alone or high condylectomy with additional surgical procedures. Results: In the evaluation of pain relief, clicking, crepitation, headache, marked improvement was determined in all groups, but it was statistically insignificant in the comparison of 3 groups. Slight increase in maximal mouth opening was determined in the mean values of the 3 groups and also in the comparison of 3 groups it was not statistically significant. Conclusions: These similar succesfull outcomes of bilateral TMD with the respect of TMJ surgical procedures were obtained in 3 main groups although different diagnosis on the patients’ groups waspresent. Key words:Temporomandibular joint, prognosis, retrospective studies. PMID:22926476

  3. A method to enhance the sensitivity of DTI analyses to group differences: a validation study with comparison to voxelwise analyses.

    PubMed

    Cykowski, Matthew D; Lancaster, Jack L; Fox, Peter T

    2011-09-30

    Studies of white matter (WM) abnormalities in psychiatric and neurological disorders often use the analysis package Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). However, with small samples and/or subtle effects, a study using the standard TBSS approach can be underpowered. For such cases, a new method is presented that summarizes global differences between TBSS-derived fractional anisotropy (FA) images with a single paired t-statistic, estimating the degrees of freedom using spatial autocorrelation. The sensitivity of the method is demonstrated by using well-known aging effects on FA as a proxy for disease effects. Sixty healthy subjects were divided equally into younger- (YA), middle- (MA), and older-aged (OA) groups and significant global differences were demonstrated in the YA versus OA (all N ≥ 4, FA difference≈0.023), MA versus OA (all N≥4, FA difference≈0.017), and YA versus MA (FA difference≈0.005 at N=20) comparisons. In contrast, no significant difference could be detected in the YA versus MA comparison using voxelwise TBSS analysis with the full sample (N=20 per group). This method should facilitate localizing analyses in the direction of a proven group difference while providing clinically relevant information about pathophysiologic processes globally affecting WM.

  4. The inter-group comparison-intra-group cooperation hypothesis: comparisons between groups increase efficiency in public goods provision.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Robert; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Identifying methods to increase cooperation and efficiency in public goods provision is of vital interest for human societies. The methods that have been proposed often incur costs that (more than) destroy the efficiency gains through increased cooperation. It has for example been shown that inter-group conflict increases intra-group cooperation, however at the cost of collective efficiency. We propose a new method that makes use of the positive effects associated with inter-group competition but avoids the detrimental (cost) effects of a structural conflict. We show that the mere comparison to another structurally independent group increases both the level of intra-group cooperation and overall efficiency. The advantage of this new method is that it directly transfers the benefits from increased cooperation into increased efficiency. In repeated public goods provision we experimentally manipulated the participants' level of contribution feedback (intra-group only vs. both intra- and inter-group) as well as the provision environment (smaller groups with higher individual benefits from cooperation vs. larger groups with lower individual benefits from cooperation). Irrespective of the provision environment groups with an inter-group comparison opportunity exhibited a significantly stronger cooperation than groups without this opportunity. Participants conditionally cooperated within their group and additionally acted to advance their group to not fall behind the other group. The individual efforts to advance the own group cushion the downward trend in the above average contributors and thus render contributions on a higher level. We discuss areas of practical application.

  5. A double-masked comparison of Naprelan and nabumetone in osteoarthritis of the knee. Naprelan Study Group.

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, R M; Flint, K; Constantine, G; Kolecki, B

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of Naprelan (naproxen sodium) 1000 mg once daily (QD) and nabumetone 1500 mg QD were compared in a multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, double-masked, 4-week study of adult outpatients with active osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Nabumetone 1500 mg was chosen for comparison because it is commonly prescribed in a QD dosing regimen for OA. After a washout period free of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 279 patients were enrolled and assigned randomly to treatment with either Naprelan 1000 mg QD (n = 92), nabumetone 1500 mg QD (n = 93), or placebo (n = 94). All treatments were evaluated for efficacy and safety at baseline and at weeks 2 and 4 of the treatment period or at discontinuation. Demographic characteristics were comparable among all treatment groups. As might be expected in a study of OA of the knee, a majority of patients enrolled were women (68.8%), and many were obese (mean weight, 195.6 lb; mean height, 66 in). Significantly fewer patients (13) treated with Naprelan prematurely discontinued the study than did patients treated with placebo (27); there was a lower rate of discontinuation for insufficient therapeutic effect in the Naprelan group compared with the nabumetone and placebo groups. Using an intent-to-treat model, the overall distribution of scores in all three primary efficacy assessments (investigator's global assessment of OA, patient's global assessment of OA, and walking pain) at week 2 and at the last visit was significantly better for the Naprelan group compared with both the nabumetone and placebo groups. The mean improvement from baseline was also significant for Naprelan compared with the nabumetone and placebo groups for all three assessments at week 2 and for investigator's global assessment of OA and walking pain at the last visit. The nabumetone-treated group showed significant improvement over the placebo-treated group in only one primary assessment: mean change from baseline in

  6. Emphases of Parenting in the Light of Three Comparison Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laukkanen, Ella; Karppinen, Sanna; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2014-01-01

    Parenthood is a phenomenon that is not easy to research. This study analyzed the emphases of parenting in the light of three comparison groups. The research was grounded on Bradley's (2007) theory of six fundamental parenting tasks. This was a case study focusing in one second-grade classroom. The teacher, 18 parents, and 19 pupils were recruited…

  7. Economic Evaluation of a Multifaceted Implementation Strategy for the Prevention of Hand Eczema Among Healthcare Workers in Comparison with a Control Group: The Hands4U Study.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Esther W C; van Dongen, Johanna M; Boot, Cécile R L; van der Gulden, Joost W J; Bosmans, Judith E; Anema, Johannes R

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy for the prevention of hand eczema in comparison with a control group among healthcare workers. A total of 48 departments (n=1,649) were randomly allocated to the implementation strategy or the control group. Data on hand eczema and costs were collected at baseline and every 3 months. Cost-effectiveness analyses were performed using linear multilevel analyses. The probability of the implementation strategy being cost-effective gradually increased with an increasing willingness-to-pay, to 0.84 at a ceiling ratio of €590,000 per person with hand eczema prevented (societal perspective). The implementation strategy appeared to be not cost-effective in comparison with the control group (societal perspective), nor was it cost-beneficial to the employer. However, this study had some methodological problems which should be taken into account when interpreting the results.

  8. What determines the outcomes for adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated on cooperative group protocols? A comparison of Children's Cancer Group and Cancer and Leukemia Group B studies.

    PubMed

    Stock, Wendy; La, Mei; Sanford, Ben; Bloomfield, Clara D; Vardiman, James W; Gaynon, Paul; Larson, Richard A; Nachman, James

    2008-09-01

    We performed a retrospective comparison of presenting features, planned treatment, complete remission (CR) rate, and outcome of 321 adolescents and young adults (AYAs) ages 16 to 20 years with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who were treated on consecutive trials in either the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) or the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) from 1988 to 2001. CR rates were identical, 90% for both CALGB and CCG AYAs. CCG AYAs had a 63% event-free survival (EFS) and 67% overall survival (OS) at 7 years in contrast to the CALGB AYAs, in which 7-year EFS was only 34% (P < .001; relative hazard rate [RHR] = 2.2) and OS was 46% (P < .001; RHR = 1.9). While CALGB AYAs aged 16 to 17 years achieved similar outcomes to all CCG AYAs with a 7-year EFS of 55%, the EFS for 18- to 20-year-old CALGB patients was only 29%. Comparison of the regimens showed that CCG AYAs received earlier and more intensive central nervous system prophylaxis and higher cumulative doses of nonmyelosuppressive agents. There were no differences in outcomes of those who reached maintenance therapy on time compared with those who were delayed. Based on these observations, a prospective study for AYAs with ALL using the more successful approach of the CCG has been initiated.

  9. The Iraq Study Group Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Capitol Hill meeting hosted by U.S. Senator John Warner and attended by congressional leaders from both sides of the aisle. To support the Study...advisor to the Study Group; John Williams, Policy Assistant to Mr. Baker; and Ben Rhodes, Special Assistant to Mr. Hamilton. Richard H. Solomon...M. Abshire, President Center for the Study of the Presidency John J. Hamre, President Center for Strategic and International Studies 65 Iraq

  10. Standardization and a multilaboratory comparison of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A and C serum bactericidal assays. The Multilaboratory Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Maslanka, S E; Gheesling, L L; Libutti, D E; Donaldson, K B; Harakeh, H S; Dykes, J K; Arhin, F F; Devi, S J; Frasch, C E; Huang, J C; Kriz-Kuzemenska, P; Lemmon, R D; Lorange, M; Peeters, C C; Quataert, S; Tai, J Y; Carlone, G M

    1997-01-01

    A standardized serum bactericidal assay (SBA) is required to evaluate the functional activity of antibody produced in response to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A and C vaccines. We evaluated assay parameters (assay buffer, target strains, growth of target cells, target cell number, complement source and concentration, and methods for growth of surviving bacteria) which may affect the reproducibility of SBA titers. The various assay parameters and specificity of anticapsular antibody to five serogroup A strains (A1, ATCC 13077, F8238, F9205, and F7485) and four serogroup C strains (C11, G7880, G8050, and 1002-90) were evaluated with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention meningococcal quality control sera. The critical assay parameters for the reproducible measurement of SBA titers were found to include the target strain, assay incubation time, and complement. The resulting standardized SBA was used by 10 laboratories to measure functional anticapsular antibody against serogroup A strains F8238 and serogroup C strain C11. In the multilaboratory study, SBA titers were measured in duplicate for 14 pairs of sera (seven adults and seven children) before and after immunization with a quadrivalent polysaccharide (A, C, Y, and W-135) vaccine. The standardized SBA was reliable in all laboratories regardless of experience in performing SBAs. For most sera, intralaboratory reproducibility was +/- 1 dilution; interlaboratory reproducibility was +/- 2 dilutions. The correlation between median titers (interlaboratory) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay total antibody concentrations was high for both serogroup A (r = 0.86; P < 0.001; slope = 0.5) and serogroup C (n = 0.86; P < 0.001; slope = 0.7). The specified assay, which includes the critical parameters of target strain, incubation time, and complement source, will facilitate interlaboratory comparisons of the functional antibody produced in response to current or developing serogroup A and C meningococcal vaccines

  11. Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Models: A Project of the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David O'C.; Benedetti, Angela; Boehm, Matt; Brown, Philip R. A.; Gierens, Klaus M.; Girard, Eric; Giraud, Vincent; Jakob, Christian; Jensen, Eric

    2000-01-01

    The GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS, GEWEX is the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) is a community activity aiming to promote development of improved cloud parameterizations for application in the large-scale general circulation models (GCMs) used for climate research and for numerical weather prediction. The GCSS strategy is founded upon the use of cloud-system models (CSMs). These are "process" models with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to represent individual cloud elements, but spanning a wide range of space and time scales to enable statistical analysis of simulated cloud systems. GCSS also employs single-column versions of the parametric cloud models (SCMs) used in GCMs. GCSS has working groups on boundary-layer clouds, cirrus clouds, extratropical layer cloud systems, precipitating deep convective cloud systems, and polar clouds.

  12. Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Models: A Project of the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David OC.; Benedetti, Angela; Boehm, Matt; Brown, Philip R. A.; Gierens, Klaus M.; Girard, Eric; Giraud, Vincent; Jakob, Christian; Jensen, Eric; Khvorostyanov, Vitaly; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS, GEWEX is the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) is a community activity aiming to promote development of improved cloud parameterizations for application in the large-scale general circulation models (GCMs) used for climate research and for numerical weather prediction (Browning et al, 1994). The GCSS strategy is founded upon the use of cloud-system models (CSMs). These are "process" models with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to represent individual cloud elements, but spanning a wide range of space and time scales to enable statistical analysis of simulated cloud systems. GCSS also employs single-column versions of the parametric cloud models (SCMs) used in GCMs. GCSS has working groups on boundary-layer clouds, cirrus clouds, extratropical layer cloud systems, precipitating deep convective cloud systems, and polar clouds.

  13. Results from IAG's Joint Study Group JSG0.3 on the Comparison of Current Methodologies in Regional Gravity Field Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael; Gerlach, Christian; Bentel, Katrin; Dettmering, Denise; Eicker, Annette; Herceg, Matija; Kusche, Jürgen; Lieb, Verena; Schall, Judith; Tscherning, Carl Christian

    2014-05-01

    For the period 2011-2015, the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) has established under the roof of its Inter-Commission Committee on Theory (ICCT) a Joint Study Group (JSG0.3) on the Comparison of Current Methodologies in Regional Gravity Field Modeling. The main objectives of JSG0.3 are (1) to collect information of available methodologies and strategies for regional modelling, (2) to analyze the collected information in order to find specific properties of the different approaches and to find, why certain strategies have been chosen, (3) to create a benchmark data set for comparative numerical studies, (4) to carry out numerical comparisons between different solution strategies for estimating the model parameters and to validate the results with other approaches, and (5) to quantify and interpret the differences of the comparisons with a focus on detection, explanation and treatment of inconsistencies and possible instabilities of the different approaches. Meanwhile the group has provided a set of synthetic gravity field observations representing data from terrestrial, airborne and satellite sensors. This benchmark data set is publicly available (http://jsg03.dgfi.badw.de) and free to all interested researchers to test and validate their modelling procedures. The aim of the present contribution is to analyze and compare results from different methodologies employing local basis functions of wavelet and spline type as well as reduced point mass modeling and the classical collocation approach following the above mentioned objectives of JSG0.3.

  14. Questionnaire Design in Broad-Based Evaluation Studies: Letting Someone Else Collect Comparison Group Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sheldon B.; Boser, Judith A.

    A context in which existing items may provide a convenient source of questions for questionnaires was explored through a case study making use of existing comparison groups. Two programs at Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), the Science and Engineering Research Semester (SERS) and the Laboratory Graduate Research Participation (Lab Grad)…

  15. Population studies in groups and clusters of galaxies. IV - Comparison of the luminosity functions and morphological-type distributions in seven nearby groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Henry C.; Sandage, Allan

    1991-01-01

    Published observational data on the Leo, Dorado, NGC 1400, NGC 5044, Antlia, Fornax, and Virgo groups of galaxies are analyzed in terms of the luminosity functions and morphological types of their members. The data sets employed are characterized, and the results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussed in detail. While the fractions of early and late galaxies in the groups are similar, the ratio of dwarfs to giants (D/G) in the early galaxies varies monotonically with the richness of the cluster, leading to artificial flattening at the faint end of the total luminosity function in environments with low D/G. The luminosity function for dwarfs in all environments is found to have a slope of about -1.3.

  16. Population studies in groups and clusters of galaxies. IV. Comparison of the luminosity functions and morphological-type distributions in seven nearby groups

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, H.C.; Sandage, A. Observatories of the Carnegie Institution, Pasadena, CA Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD )

    1991-03-01

    Published observational data on the Leo, Dorado, NGC 1400, NGC 5044, Antlia, Fornax, and Virgo groups of galaxies are analyzed in terms of the luminosity functions and morphological types of their members. The data sets employed are characterized, and the results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussed in detail. While the fractions of early and late galaxies in the groups are similar, the ratio of dwarfs to giants (D/G) in the early galaxies varies monotonically with the richness of the cluster, leading to artificial flattening at the faint end of the total luminosity function in environments with low D/G. The luminosity function for dwarfs in all environments is found to have a slope of about -1.3. 54 refs.

  17. An Analysis of the Utility of HEGIS Finance Data in Conducting Institutional and Higher Education Sector Comparisons: Proceedings of the Joint Study Group on the Utility of HEGIS Finance Data. (Washington, DC, May 22-23, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, James A.; And Others

    Proceedings of a study group that considered the utility of the Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS) finance data for institutional and higher educational sector comparisons are presented, as are issue papers and descriptive information. The study group of representatives from higher education institutions and organizations outlined…

  18. Long-term effects of political imprisonment: a group comparison study.

    PubMed

    Maercker, A; Schützwohl, M

    1997-11-01

    The study investigated the long-term effects of political imprisonment in the former German Democratic Republic. A group of non-treatment-seeking former political prisoners (n = 146) was compared with an age- and sex-matched group (n = 75). Assessments included the structured Diagnostic Interview for Psychiatric Disorders (German abbreviation: DIPS) for DSM-III-R/-IV diagnoses, a checklist of persecution and maltreatment, and other self-rated measures of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression, and dissociation. PTSD was assessed by the DIPS as current and lifetime diagnoses. Former political prisoners were imprisoned for 38 months on average. The former prisoners had a lower educational and lifetime occupational level than the comparison group. Results regarding diagnoses show a frequency of 30% current and 60% lifetime PTSD in the former prisoners group. Other anxiety disorders (e.g., claustrophobia, social phobia) outnumbered comorbid affective disorders. The level of dissociation was elevated in the former prisoners group. Intrusive recollections and hyperarousal were more common than avoidance/numbing symptoms. Despite differences in imprisonment duration between three historically defined eras of persecution, no differences appeared in the level of symptomatology. The results suggest that political imprisonment in the former German Democratic Republic had long-term psychological effects. Compared with an age- and sex-matched comparison group, the former political prisoners showed higher levels not only of post-traumatic symptomatology but also of other anxiety disorders and dissociation.

  19. Comparison of single-dose oral grepafloxacin with cefixime for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea in men. The STD Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Hook, E W; McCormack, W M; Martin, D; Jones, R B; Bean, K; Maroli, A N

    1997-01-01

    In a randomized open study, 351 male patients with uncomplicated gonorrhea were given single oral doses of grepafloxacin (400 mg) or cefixime (400 mg). In the 299 microbiologically evaluable patients, urethral infections were cured in 99% (147 of 149) of those receiving grepafloxacin and 97% (145 of 150) of those given cefixime. Eradication rates for both regimens were 100% in the 16% (47 of 299) of participants who were infected with penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae and 97% in the 21% (62 of 299) of participants infected with tetracycline-resistant strains. Grepafloxacin is a well-tolerated alternative to cefixime for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea in males. PMID:9257777

  20. Comparison of single-dose oral grepafloxacin with cefixime for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea in men. The STD Study Group.

    PubMed

    Hook, E W; McCormack, W M; Martin, D; Jones, R B; Bean, K; Maroli, A N

    1997-08-01

    In a randomized open study, 351 male patients with uncomplicated gonorrhea were given single oral doses of grepafloxacin (400 mg) or cefixime (400 mg). In the 299 microbiologically evaluable patients, urethral infections were cured in 99% (147 of 149) of those receiving grepafloxacin and 97% (145 of 150) of those given cefixime. Eradication rates for both regimens were 100% in the 16% (47 of 299) of participants who were infected with penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae and 97% in the 21% (62 of 299) of participants infected with tetracycline-resistant strains. Grepafloxacin is a well-tolerated alternative to cefixime for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea in males.

  1. Group membership and everyday social comparison experiences

    PubMed Central

    SMITH, HEATHER J.; LEACH, COLIN W.

    2006-01-01

    In two everyday experience studies, we examined the degree to which everyday social comparisons are framed by group membership. In the first study, 30 undergraduates attending a public university in the United States completed short questionnaires about their social comparison experiences whenever they were signalled. In the second study, 34 ethnic minority undergraduates from the same university completed similar questionnaires about their social comparison experiences. Across both studies, comparisons in which participants viewed themselves as an ingroup member in comparison to an outgroup comprised less than 10% of the comparison experiences reported by participants. However, minorities in the second study who reported closer identification with their ethnic group reported more comparison experiences in which they mentioned their own or the comparison target's ethnicity. PMID:16691290

  2. The Influence of Social Comparison and Peer Group Size on Risky Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dawei; Zhu, Liping; Maguire, Phil; Liu, Yixin; Pang, Kaiyuan; Li, Zhenying; Hu, Yixin

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the influence of different social reference points and different comparison group sizes on risky decision-making. Participants were presented with a scenario describing an exam, and presented with the opportunity of making a risky decision in the context of different information provided about the performance of their peers. We found that behavior was influenced, not only by comparison with peers, but also by the size of the comparison group. Specifically, the larger the reference group, the more polarized the behavior it prompted. In situations describing social loss, participants were led to make riskier decisions after comparing themselves against larger groups, while in situations describing social gain, they become more risk averse. These results indicate that decision making is influenced both by social comparison and the number of people making up the social reference group. PMID:27582723

  3. Comparison Groups in Yoga Research: A Systematic Review and Critical Evaluation of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Groessl, Erik; Maiya, Meghan; Sarkin, Andrew; Eisen, Susan V.; Riley, Kristen; Elwy, A. Rani

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Comparison groups are essential for accurate testing and interpretation of yoga intervention trials. However, selecting proper comparison groups is difficult because yoga comprises a very heterogeneous set of practices and its mechanisms of effect have not been conclusively established. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the control and comparison groups used in published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of yoga. Results We located 128 RCTs that met our inclusion criteria; of these, 65 included only a passive control and 63 included at least one active comparison group. Primary comparison groups were physical exercise (43%), relaxation/meditation (20%), and education (16%). Studies rarely provided a strong rationale for choice of comparison. Considering year of publication, the use of active controls in yoga research appears to be slowly increasing over time. Conclusions Given that yoga has been established as a potentially powerful intervention, future research should use active control groups. Further, care is needed to select comparison conditions that help to isolate the specific mechanisms of yoga’s effects. PMID:25440384

  4. An Empirical Comparison of Joint and Stratified Frameworks for Studying G × E Interactions: Systolic Blood Pressure and Smoking in the CHARGE Gene-Lifestyle Interactions Working Group.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yun Ju; Winkler, Thomas W; Manning, Alisa K; Aschard, Hugues; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B; Smith, Albert V; Boerwinkle, Eric; Brown, Michael R; Morrison, Alanna C; Fornage, Myriam; Lin, Li-An; Richard, Melissa; Bartz, Traci M; Psaty, Bruce M; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Marten, Jonathan; Rudan, Igor; Feitosa, Mary F; Kraja, Aldi T; Province, Michael A; Deng, Xuan; Fisher, Virginia A; Zhou, Yanhua; Bielak, Lawrence F; Smith, Jennifer; Huffman, Jennifer E; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Smith, Blair H; Ding, Jingzhong; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Bouchard, Claude; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rice, Treva K; Arnett, Donna; Schwander, Karen; Guo, Xiuqing; Palmas, Walter; Rotter, Jerome I; Alfred, Tamuno; Bottinger, Erwin P; Loos, Ruth J F; Amin, Najaf; Franco, Oscar H; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vojinovic, Dina; Chasman, Daniel I; Ridker, Paul M; Rose, Lynda M; Kardia, Sharon; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Rice, Kenneth; Borecki, Ingrid B; Rao, Dabeeru C; Gauderman, W James; Cupples, L Adrienne

    2016-07-01

    Studying gene-environment (G × E) interactions is important, as they extend our knowledge of the genetic architecture of complex traits and may help to identify novel variants not detected via analysis of main effects alone. The main statistical framework for studying G × E interactions uses a single regression model that includes both the genetic main and G × E interaction effects (the "joint" framework). The alternative "stratified" framework combines results from genetic main-effect analyses carried out separately within the exposed and unexposed groups. Although there have been several investigations using theory and simulation, an empirical comparison of the two frameworks is lacking. Here, we compare the two frameworks using results from genome-wide association studies of systolic blood pressure for 3.2 million low frequency and 6.5 million common variants across 20 cohorts of European ancestry, comprising 79,731 individuals. Our cohorts have sample sizes ranging from 456 to 22,983 and include both family-based and population-based samples. In cohort-specific analyses, the two frameworks provided similar inference for population-based cohorts. The agreement was reduced for family-based cohorts. In meta-analyses, agreement between the two frameworks was less than that observed in cohort-specific analyses, despite the increased sample size. In meta-analyses, agreement depended on (1) the minor allele frequency, (2) inclusion of family-based cohorts in meta-analysis, and (3) filtering scheme. The stratified framework appears to approximate the joint framework well only for common variants in population-based cohorts. We conclude that the joint framework is the preferred approach and should be used to control false positives when dealing with low-frequency variants and/or family-based cohorts.

  5. Target selection and comparison of mission design for space debris removal by DLR's advanced study group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Pas, Niels; Lousada, Joao; Terhes, Claudia; Bernabeu, Marc; Bauer, Waldemar

    2014-09-01

    Space debris is a growing problem. Models show that the Kessler syndrome, the exponential growth of debris due to collisions, has become unavoidable unless an active debris removal program is initiated. The debris population in LEO with inclination between 60° and 95° is considered as the most critical zone. In order to stabilize the debris population in orbit, especially in LEO, 5 to 10 objects will need to be removed every year. The unique circumstances of such a mission could require that several objects are removed with a single launch. This will require a mission to rendezvous with a multitude of objects orbiting on different altitudes, inclinations and planes. Removal models have assumed that the top priority targets will be removed first. However this will lead to a suboptimal mission design and increase the ΔV-budget. Since there is a multitude of targets to choose from, the targets can be selected for an optimal mission design. In order to select a group of targets for a removal mission the orbital parameters and political constraints should also be taken into account. Within this paper a number of the target selection criteria are presented. The possible mission targets and their order of retrieval is dependent on the mission architecture. A comparison between several global mission architectures is given. Under consideration are 3 global missions of which a number of parameters are varied. The first mission launches multiple separate deorbit kits. The second launches a mother craft with deorbit kits. The third launches an orbital tug which pulls the debris in a lower orbit, after which a deorbit kit performs the final deorbit burn. A RoM mass and cost comparison is presented. The research described in this paper has been conducted as part of an active debris removal study by the Advanced Study Group (ASG). The ASG is an interdisciplinary student group working at the DLR, analyzing existing technologies and developing new ideas into preliminary

  6. Beyond social and temporal comparisons: the role of temporal inter-group comparisons in the context of dramatic social change in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    de la Sablonnière, Roxane; Tougas, Francine; Perenlei, Onon

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that the target of comparison should be taken into consideration when evaluating the associated outcomes of negative comparisons in the context of dramatic social change. To achieve this general goal, we considered five distinct targets of comparison: social (my group versus another group), temporal (my group across time), and temporal inter-group (my group versus another group across time). We hypothesised that in times of constant social change, two points of anchors (social and temporal) are simultaneously needed to evaluate one's position. A total of 236 high school and university students from Mongolia participated in the study. We used hierarchical regression analysis to test our hypotheses. As predicted, we found that temporal inter-group comparisons are better predictor of collective esteem than their social and temporal counterparts. Moreover, the link from past and future temporal inter-group comparisons to collective esteem was negative as hypothesized. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical implications.

  7. Differential Item Functioning Detection across Two Methods of Defining Group Comparisons: Pairwise and Composite Group Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Halil Ibrahim; Huggins, Anne Corinne

    2015-01-01

    This study compares two methods of defining groups for the detection of differential item functioning (DIF): (a) pairwise comparisons and (b) composite group comparisons. We aim to emphasize and empirically support the notion that the choice of pairwise versus composite group definitions in DIF is a reflection of how one defines fairness in DIF…

  8. Randomised, double blind, multicentre comparison of hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, nitrendipine, and enalapril in antihypertensive treatment: results of the HANE study. HANE Trial Research Group.

    PubMed Central

    Philipp, T.; Anlauf, M.; Distler, A.; Holzgreve, H.; Michaelis, J.; Wellek, S.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness and tolerability of hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, nitrendipine, and enalapril in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. DESIGN: Randomised multicentre trial over 48 weeks with double blind comparison of treatments. SETTING: 48 centres in four countries. PATIENTS: 868 patients with essential hypertension (diastolic blood pressure 95-120 mm Hg) INTERVENTIONS: Initial treatment (step 1) consisted of 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide (n = 215), 25 mg atenolol (n = 215), 10 mg nitrendipine (n = 218), or 5 mg enalapril (n = 220) once daily. If diastolic blood pressure was not reduced to < 90 mm Hg within four weeks, doses were increased to 25 mg, 50 mg, 20 mg, 10 mg, respectively, once daily (step 2) and after two more weeks to twice daily (step 3). The eight week titration phase was followed by an additional 40 weeks for patients who had reached the target diastolic pressure. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Blood pressure by means of an automatic device with repeated measurements. RESULTS: After eight weeks the response rate for atenolol (63.7%) was significantly higher than for enalapril (50.0%), hydrochlorothiazide (44.7%), or nitrendipine (44.5%). After one year atenolol was still more effective (48.0%) than hydrochlorothiazide (35.4%) and nitrendipine (32.9%), but not significantly better than enalapril (42.7%). The treatment related dropout rate was higher (P < 0.001) in the nitrendipine group (n = 28). CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence of superiority for antihypertensive effectiveness or tolerability of the "new" classes of antihypertensives (calcium channel blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors). As these drugs are now widely used as treatment of first choice, our results further emphasise the need for studies confirming that they also reduce morbidity and mortality, as has been shown for diuretics and beta blockers. PMID:9251545

  9. Upward and downward comparison in the intermediate-status group: the role of social stratification stability.

    PubMed

    Caricati, Luca

    2012-06-01

    This work analyses intergroup comparison choices made by intermediate-status group members. Seventy-six psychology students were categorized in an intermediate position with respect to other faculties. Stability was manipulated at three levels: stable, upwardly unstable, and downwardly unstable. Data on strength of comparison, comparison for enhancing, comparison for evaluation, and ingroup identification were collected. Results revealed that in the stable condition, participants were equally engaged in both upward and downward comparison. In the upwardly unstable condition, participants were more likely to compare themselves with the high-status group, whereas in the downwardly unstable condition, they were more likely to choose a downward comparison. In this latter condition, both downward comparison for enhancement and in-group identification were lower than in other conditions.

  10. Comparison of the inhibitory capacity of two groups of pure natural extract on the crystallization of two types of material compound urinary stones in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghalia, Mohamed; Ghalem, Said; Allali, Hocine

    2015-10-01

    Urolithiasis is defined as the result of an abnormal precipitation within the urinary tract. This precipitation is most often from the normal constituents of the urine. This is a fairly common condition in the population. She is happy and recurrent etiology is often unknown if hypothetical. In Algeria, as in many countries, a large number of patients use herbal medicines in the treatment of their diseases including urolithiasis. Thus the aim of this study is the most widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of aqueous extracts of medicinal plants, in the treatment of calcium urolithiasis oxalo-and magnesium-amoniaco in vitro. The study also examines the effect of these extracts on the states of crystallization (nucleation, crystal growth, crystal aggregation), followed by photography on polarized light microscope.In this regard, we are devoted to studying the crystallization steps from oxalo-calcium and phospho-calcic prepared as artificial urine and supersaturated aqueous solutions, maintained at 37 °C to remain close to biological conditions. Extracts of the first group of herbs: Ammodaucus leucotrichus, Ajuga iva, Globularia alypum, Atriplex halimus are studied on the crystallization calcium oxalate, we cite the Ammodaucus leucotrichus which acts on the stages of nucleation, growth and the aggregation with a total inhibition. The second group of extracts plants tested on calcium phosphate crystallization : Acacia raddiana, Citrullus colocynthis, Rhus tripartita, Pistacia lentiscu, Warionia saharae, are able to significantly reduce phosphate crystallization in vitro. It is easily proved by FTIR and optical microscope. In conclusion the results of our work allows us to confirm the use of these plants as an aqueous decoction, in the field of urolithiasis. These activities may help to strengthen the body in depressed situations.

  11. Comparison of the effect of anti-hyperlipidemic drugs from different groups on the phase profile of liposomal membrane-a fluorescence anisotropy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandary, Suman; Basu, Ruma; Das, Sukhen; Nandy, Papiya

    2010-07-01

    The study compares the effect of incorporation of three different groups of anti-hyperlipidemic drugs, namely niacin, simvastatin, and fenofibrate on the phase profile of liposomal membranes of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). The fluorescence anisotropy studies, using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene as fluorescent probe, have shown that the lipophilic molecule fenofibrate changes phase behavior of DPPC liposomal membrane to a greater extent compared to the changes produced by amphiphilic simvastatin and hydrophilic niacin. This variation in effect can be attributed to the nature of the drug molecules and hence their location in different parts of the liposomal membrane. We have also calculated the changes in van't Hoff enthalpy values in all these three cases and observed that these values decreased with increase in drug concentrations in the case of simvastatin but for fenofibrate and niacin the effect is completely the reverse. In order to get a better insight, the fraction of motionally restricted lipid molecules has been calculated.

  12. Comparison of the COPD Population Screener and International Primary Care Airway Group questionnaires in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama study

    PubMed Central

    Tsukuya, Go; Samukawa, Takuya; Matsumoto, Koichiro; Fukuyama, Satoru; Kumamoto, Tomohiro; Uchida, Akifumi; Koriyama, Chihaya; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing worldwide. In Japan and other countries, epidemiological studies have found that many patients with COPD are underdiagnosed and untreated, and thus, early detection and treatment of COPD has been emphasized. Screening questionnaires may have utility in the initial detection of COPD. Objective This study aimed to validate and compare the COPD Population Screener (COPD-PS) and the International Primary Care Airway Group (IPAG) questionnaires in a general Japanese population. Patients and methods Eligible subjects 40 years of age and older living in the town of Hisayama were solicited to participate in a health checkup in 2012. All subjects 40–79 years of age without physician-diagnosed asthma or lung resection were recruited, and 2,336 subjects who fully completed both questionnaires and who had valid spirometry measurements were analyzed. Persistent airflow obstruction (AO) was defined by a postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity <0.70. Receiver operating characteristic curves, net reclassification improvement, and integrated discrimination improvement were used to examine the ability of the COPD-PS and IPAG questionnaires to discriminate between subjects with and without AO. Results The overall area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the COPD-PS questionnaire was 0.747 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.707–0.788) and for the IPAG was 0.775 (95% CI, 0.735–0.816), with no significant difference (P=0.09). The net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement were −0.107 (95% CI, −0.273–0.058; P=0.203) and −0.014 (95% CI, −0.033–0.006; P=0.182), respectively. Conclusion The five-item COPD-PS questionnaire was comparable to the eight-item IPAG for discriminating between subjects with and without AO. The COPD-PS is a simple and useful screening questionnaire for persistent AO. PMID

  13. Report of the Public Cryptography Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC.

    Concerns of the National Security Agency (NSA) that information contained in some articles about cryptography in learned and professional journals and in monographs might be inimical to the national security are addressed. The Public Cryptography Study Group, with one dissenting opinion, recommends that a voluntary system of prior review of…

  14. Mothers with intellectual disability, their experiences of maltreatment, and their children's attachment representations: a small-group matched comparison study.

    PubMed

    Granqvist, Pehr; Forslund, Tommie; Fransson, Mari; Springer, Lydia; Lindberg, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Maternal intellectual disability (ID) is regarded a risk factor in child development, but there is no scientific evidence on maternal ID in relation to children's attachment. Using a matched comparison design, a small group (n = 23) of mothers diagnosed with ID was studied to help fill this gap. Besides maternal ID, we examined the role of abuse/trauma/maltreatment (ATM) in the mothers' biographies, along with potential confounds. Comparison group mothers (n = 25) had normal variations in intelligence and matched mothers with ID on residential area, income, child age, and sex. History of maternal ATM was assessed using a semi-structured interview and was found to be significantly more likely in the ID group mothers' experience than the comparison group mothers. Children's (M age = 77 months) attachment representations were assessed with the Separation Anxiety Test. Among children of mothers with ID, a substantial minority (35%) had a secure and the vast majority (>80%) an organized attachment representation. Mothers with ID who had suffered elevated ATM were significantly more likely to have children who were scored high on disorganization and insecurity. We discuss possible implications of our findings for societal considerations regarding parenting and child attachment in the context of parental ID status.

  15. Hypertension management initiative prospective cohort study: comparison between immediate and delayed intervention groups.

    PubMed

    Tobe, S W; Moy Lum-Kwong, M; Von Sychowski, S; Kandukur, K; Kiss, A; Flintoft, V

    2014-01-01

    The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario's Hypertension Management Initiative (HMI) was a pragmatic implementation of clinical practice guidelines for hypertension management in primary care clinics. The HMI was a prospective delayed phase cohort study of 11 sites enrolling patients in two blocks starting 9 months apart in 2007. The intervention was an evidence-informed chronic disease management program consisting of an interprofessional educational intervention with practice tools to implement the Canadian Hypertension Education Program's clinical practice guidelines. This study compares the change in blood pressure (BP) from baseline to 9 months after the intervention between groups. In the immediate intervention group, the mean BP at baseline was 134.6/79.1 mm Hg (18.2/11.5) and in the delayed intervention group 134.2/77.1 mm Hg (18.9/11.8). The fall in BP in the immediate intervention group from baseline to 9 months after the intervention was 7.3/3.6 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.9-8.7/2.6-4.5) and in the delayed group 8.1/3.3 mm Hg (95% CI: 7.0-9.3/2.5-4.1) (all P<0.0001 were compared from baseline to the end of 9 months of the program in both groups). This study is the first to demonstrate that implementation of an interprofessional knowledge integration initiative for the control of hypertension can rapidly lead to lower BP levels.

  16. Facilitating Group Analysis of Two Case Studies Utilising Peer Tutoring: Comparison of Tasks and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Lin Siew

    2016-01-01

    Peer-tutoring sessions of two groups of advanced diploma in financial accounting students with mixed proficiency were analysed thoroughly in this study. Numerous studies in peer tutoring have produced favourable results to both tutors and tutees due to the scaffolding process which promotes effective learning. However, there is a lack of studies…

  17. Finding a Comparison Group: Is Online Crowdsourcing a Viable Option?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Tarek; Jacobson, Miriam R.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the viability of online crowdsourcing for creating matched-comparison groups. This exploratory study compares survey results from a randomized control group to survey results from a matched-comparison group created from Amazon.com's MTurk crowdsourcing service to determine their comparability. Study findings indicate…

  18. Reducing Bias and Increasing Precision by Adding Either a Pretest Measure of the Study Outcome or a Nonequivalent Comparison Group to the Basic Regression Discontinuity Design: An Example from Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Yang; Cook, Thomas D.; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    Regression discontinuity design (RD) has been widely used to produce reliable causal estimates. Researchers have validated the accuracy of RD design using within study comparisons (Cook, Shadish & Wong, 2008; Cook & Steiner, 2010; Shadish et al, 2011). Within study comparisons examines the validity of a quasi-experiment by comparing its…

  19. STUDIES ON THE HEMOPHILUS GROUP OF ORGANISMS

    PubMed Central

    Gilder, H.; Granick, S.

    1947-01-01

    The porphin requirements of the Hemophilus organisms have been studied. Organisms of the parainfluenzae group show quantitative differences in their ability to synthesize heme. The ability of the parainfluenzae organisms to grow appears to depend on the rate with which they synthesize heme and in part at least on the properties of the medium to protect the heme from peroxidative breakdown. Quantitative studies of the growth of H. influenzae Turner on various iron porphins have been made. Iron protoporphin gives greatest growth when supplied in excess, although iron mesoporphin appears more efficient at lower concentrations. Iron deutero- and iron hematoporphin are much less effective. This suggests that although the vinyl groups are not essential for growth of the Turner organism they may be required for some particular enzymes which aid in attaining maximum growth. A number of substances potentiate the growth-promoting properties of iron porphins. These substances include reducing agents and agents which destroy H2O2. E. influenzae Turner appears to require heme for anaerobic as well as aerobic growth. The possibility of an essential heme enzyme functioning under anaerobic conditions must therefore be considered. PMID:18896933

  20. Evaluating the Effect of Random Selection on Virtual Comparison Group Creation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Lingling; Cronin, John

    2009-01-01

    Virtual Comparison Groups (VCG) were developed by the Northwest Evaluation Association as an alternative to conventional controlled experiments for social science researchers working in the field of education. The VCG is generally a group of up to 51 students who are matched, based on key characteristics of the student and school, to a single…

  1. The Performance of the Mantel-Haenszel DIF Statistic When Comparison Group Distributions Are Incongruent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pommerich, Mary; And Others

    The functioning of two population-based Mantel-Haenszel (MH) common-odds ratios was compared. One ratio is conditioned on the observed test score, while the other is conditioned on a latent trait or true ability score. When the comparison group distributions are incongruent or nonoverlapping to some degree, the observed score represents different…

  2. Life of Pizza Pie: The Implications of Sub-Group Comparisons in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Tara N.

    2013-01-01

    Current educational statistics have pitted subgroups against one another without consideration of the actual population sizes of each group. This paper is intended to provided a clearer understanding of the current usage of sub-group comparisons in American education. (Contains 4 figures.)

  3. Comparison of Some Risk Factors for Diabetes Across Different Social Groups: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, A; Rathod, HK; Konda, M; Bhawalkar, JS

    2014-01-01

    prevalent among the medical students, while smokeless tobacco use was more among the other groups. Conclusions: Physical inactivity, obesity, including central obesity, alcohol and tobacco use were found in various degrees in the study samples. An important finding was that both obesity and central obesity ascertained by BMI and WHR respectively were highest among the rural population implying the impact of social change on diabetic risk factors. PMID:25506486

  4. Cost-comparison of different management policies for tuberculosis patients in Italy. AIPO TB Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Migliori, G. B.; Ambrosetti, M.; Besozzi, G.; Farris, B.; Nutini, S.; Saini, L.; Casali, L.; Nardini, S.; Bugiani, M.; Neri, M.; Raviglione, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    Although in developing countries the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) cases is among the most cost-effective health interventions, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of TB control in low-prevalence countries. The aim of the present study was to carry out an economic analysis in Italy that takes into account both the perspective of the resource-allocating authority (i.e. the Ministry of Health) and the broader social perspective, including a cost description based on current outcomes applied to a representative sample of TB patients nationwide (admission and directly observed treatment (DOT) during the initial intensive phase of treatment); a cost-comparison analysis of two alternative programmes: current policy based on available data (scenario 1) and an hypothetical policy oriented more towards outpatient care (scenario 2) (both scenarios included the option of including or not including DOT outside hospital admission, and incentives) were compared in terms of cost per case treated successfully. Indirect costs (such as loss of productivity) were included in considerations of the broader social perspective. The study was designed as a prospective monitoring activity based on the supervised collection of forms from a representative sample of Italian TB units. Individual data were collected and analysed to obtain a complete economic profile of the patients enrolled and to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. A separate analysis was done for each scenario to determine the end-point at different levels of cure rate (50-90%). The mean length of treatment was 6.6 months (i.e. patients hospitalized during the intensive phase; length of stay was significantly higher in smear-positive patients and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients). Roughly six direct smear and culture examinations were performed during hospital admission and three during ambulatory treatment. The cost of a single bed day was US$186.90, whereas that of a

  5. The Women in the Army Study Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    areas and in some cases inferior commanders. Conditions were considered bad enough that the War Department initiated an investigation of morale, health ...includes lectures and study in military law, 2-I-3 customs, history and organization, general service knowledge, health and hygiene, physical education...in Section 1I of this report,, the TRADOC and Health Services Command (HSC) are developing critical task lists based on individual training plans for

  6. The Holmes Group Plan vs. a Phenomenological Scenario for Teacher Education: An Epistemological Methodological Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Harriet B.

    The "Report of the Holmes Group: Tomorrow's Teachers" (1986) impacted the teacher education reform movement. The epistemological methodology inherent in its proposal requires consideration to establish its philosophical foundations and to appreciate the special nature of its teacher education model. Comparison with a dissimilar…

  7. Comparison of cold enrichment and U.S. Department of Agriculture methods for isolating Listeria monocytogenes from naturally contaminated foods. The Listeria Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, P S; Graves, L M; Ajello, G W; Swaminathan, B; Weaver, R E; Wenger, J D; Schuchat, A; Broome, C V

    1991-01-01

    We compared the cold enrichment (CE) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) methods for isolating Listeria monocytogenes by examining 402 food samples. The food samples were collected from refrigerators of listeriosis patients as part of a multistate active surveillance project to determine the role of foods in sporadic listeriosis in the United States. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 51 food samples (13%). The USDA method was significantly better (P less than 0.001) than the CE method. The isolation efficiencies of the USDA and CE methods were 96 and 59%, respectively. Quantitation of L. monocytogenes in the food samples revealed that many food samples containing less than 0.3 CFU/g were negative as determined by the CE method but positive as determined by the USDA method. PMID:1768082

  8. Safety impacts of platform tram stops on pedestrians in mixed traffic operation: A comparison group before-after crash study.

    PubMed

    Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Logan, David; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Tram stops in mixed traffic environments present a variety of safety, accessibility and transport efficiency challenges. In Melbourne, Australia the hundred year-old electric tram system is progressively being modernized to improve passenger accessibility. Platform stops, incorporating raised platforms for level entry into low floor trams, are being retro-fitted system-wide to replace older design stops. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety impacts of platform stops over older design stops (i.e. Melbourne safety zone tram stops) on pedestrians in the context of mixed traffic tram operation in Melbourne, using an advanced before-after crash analysis approach, the comparison group (CG) method. The CG method evaluates safety impacts by taking into account the general trends in safety and the unobserved factors at treatment and comparison sites that can alter the outcomes of a simple before-after analysis. The results showed that pedestrian-involved all injury crashes reduced by 43% after platform stop installation. This paper also explores a concern that the conventional CG method might underestimate safety impacts as a result of large differences in passenger stop use between treatment and comparison sites, suggesting differences in crash risk exposure. To adjust for this, a modified analysis explored crash rates (crash counts per 10,000 stop passengers) for each site. The adjusted results suggested greater reductions in pedestrian-involved crashes after platform stop installation: an 81% reduction in pedestrian-involved all injury crashes and 86% reduction in pedestrian-involved FSI crashes, both are significant at the 95% level. Overall, the results suggest that platform stops have considerable safety benefits for pedestrians. Implications for policy and areas for future research are explored.

  9. Prospective and randomized trial of lipiodol-transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: a comparison of epirubicin and doxorubicin (second cooperative study). The Cooperative Study Group for Liver Cancer Treatment of Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawai, S; Tani, M; Okamura, J; Ogawa, M; Ohashi, Y; Monden, M; Hayashi, S; Inoue, J; Kawarada, Y; Kusano, M; Kubo, Y; Kuroda, C; Sakata, Y; Shimamura, Y; Jinno, K; Takahashi, A; Takayasu, K; Tamura, K; Nagasue, N; Nakanishi, Y; Makino, M; Masuzawa, M; Yumoto, Y; Mori, T; Oda, T

    1997-04-01

    A randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted to compare the use of epirubicin (EPI) and doxorubicin (DOX) in Lipiodol (Laboratoire Guerbet, Roissy-Charles-de-Gaulle Cedex, France)-transcatheter arterial chemoembolization as a treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. One hundred ninety-two hospitals participated, and 415 patients were enrolled in the study during the period between October 1989 and December 1990. The patients were randomly allocated to group A (EPI) or group B (DOX) by a centralized telephone registration. The actual doses of EPI and DOX were 72 mg/body and 48 mg/body, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were, respectively, 69%, 44%, and 33% for group A and 73%, 54%, and 37% for group B. There were no statistically significant differences (P = .2296, log-rank test). When each group of patients was classified retrospectively into high-risk and low-risk subgroups based on the severity index calculated by the Cox regression model from the significant prognostic factors (the pretreatment tumor size, the pretreatment serum alpha-fetoprotein level, tumor encroachment, and Child's classification), the survival curve of the low-risk DOX subgroup was significantly superior to that of the low-risk EPI subgroup (P = .0182). However, there was no significant difference between the high-risk subgroups (P = .4606). The change in the serum alpha-fetoprotein level, the extent of Lipiodol accumulation in the tumor, and the extent of tumor reduction after the treatment did not show any significant differences between the groups. The white blood cell count in group B showed a tendency to decrease slightly more than in group A at 3 weeks after Lipiodol-transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. In conclusion, there was no statistically significant difference between the survival curves of the EPI and DOX groups in Lipiodol-transcatheter arterial embolization treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  10. Group heterogeneity increases the risks of large group size: a longitudinal study of productivity in research groups.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Jonathon N; Kiesler, Sara; Bosagh Zadeh, Reza; Balakrishnan, Aruna D

    2013-06-01

    Heterogeneous groups are valuable, but differences among members can weaken group identification. Weak group identification may be especially problematic in larger groups, which, in contrast with smaller groups, require more attention to motivating members and coordinating their tasks. We hypothesized that as groups increase in size, productivity would decrease with greater heterogeneity. We studied the longitudinal productivity of 549 research groups varying in disciplinary heterogeneity, institutional heterogeneity, and size. We examined their publication and citation productivity before their projects started and 5 to 9 years later. Larger groups were more productive than smaller groups, but their marginal productivity declined as their heterogeneity increased, either because their members belonged to more disciplines or to more institutions. These results provide evidence that group heterogeneity moderates the effects of group size, and they suggest that desirable diversity in groups may be better leveraged in smaller, more cohesive units.

  11. Comparison of gait of persons with partial foot amputation wearing prosthesis to matched control group: observational study.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Michael P; Barker, Timothy M

    2008-01-01

    Our understanding of the gait mechanics of persons with partial foot amputation and the influence of prosthetic intervention has been limited by the reporting of isolated gait parameters in specific amputation levels and limited interpretation and discussion of results. This observational study aimed to more completely describe the gait patterns of persons with partial foot amputation wearing their existing prosthesis and footwear in comparison with a nonamputee control group. Major adaptations occurred once the metatarsal heads were compromised. Persons with transmetatarsal and Lisfranc amputation who were wearing insoles and slipper sockets maintained the center of pressure behind the end of the residuum until after contralateral heel contact. This gait pattern may be a useful adaptation to protect the residuum, moderate the requirement of the calf musculature, or compensate for the compliance of the forefoot. Power generation across the affected ankle was virtually negligible, necessitating increased power generation across the hip joints. The clamshell devices fitted to the persons with Chopart amputation restored their effective foot length and normalized many aspects of gait. These persons' ability to adopt this gait pattern may be the result of the broad anterior shell of the socket, a relatively stiff forefoot, and immobilization of the ankle. The hip joints still contributed significantly to the power generation required to walk.

  12. Artifact removal in the context of group ICA: A comparison of single-subject and group approaches.

    PubMed

    Du, Yuhui; Allen, Elena A; He, Hao; Sui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Calhoun, Vince D

    2016-03-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has been widely applied to identify intrinsic brain networks from fMRI data. Group ICA computes group-level components from all data and subsequently estimates individual-level components to recapture intersubject variability. However, the best approach to handle artifacts, which may vary widely among subjects, is not yet clear. In this work, we study and compare two ICA approaches for artifacts removal. One approach, recommended in recent work by the Human Connectome Project, first performs ICA on individual subject data to remove artifacts, and then applies a group ICA on the cleaned data from all subjects. We refer to this approach as Individual ICA based artifacts Removal Plus Group ICA (IRPG). A second proposed approach, called Group Information Guided ICA (GIG-ICA), performs ICA on group data, then removes the group-level artifact components, and finally performs subject-specific ICAs using the group-level non-artifact components as spatial references. We used simulations to evaluate the two approaches with respect to the effects of data quality, data quantity, variable number of sources among subjects, and spatially unique artifacts. Resting-state test-retest datasets were also employed to investigate the reliability of functional networks. Results from simulations demonstrate GIG-ICA has greater performance compared with IRPG, even in the case when single-subject artifacts removal is perfect and when individual subjects have spatially unique artifacts. Experiments using test-retest data suggest that GIG-ICA provides more reliable functional networks. Based on high estimation accuracy, ease of implementation, and high reliability of functional networks, we find GIG-ICA to be a promising approach.

  13. The Study in Group: A Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, Óscar; López-Marcos, Juan Carlos; Del Carmen Martínez, María

    In this work, we present an activity developed for the practical lessons into the subject Fundamentos Matemáticos de la Ingeniería which belongs to the graduate program of Ingeniero Técnico en Diseño Industrial (Industrial Design Technical Engineering).

  14. The Experiences of Expert Group Work Supervisors: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atieno Okech, Jane E.; Rubel, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of group work supervision literature suggests that description of expert group work supervisors' experiences could be useful for expanding existing group work supervision practices and models. This study provided a systematic exploration of the experiences of expert group work supervisors during the supervision process. Results indicate…

  15. Methodological issues regarding power of classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT)-based approaches for the comparison of patient-reported outcomes in two groups of patients - a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients-Reported Outcomes (PRO) are increasingly used in clinical and epidemiological research. Two main types of analytical strategies can be found for these data: classical test theory (CTT) based on the observed scores and models coming from Item Response Theory (IRT). However, whether IRT or CTT would be the most appropriate method to analyse PRO data remains unknown. The statistical properties of CTT and IRT, regarding power and corresponding effect sizes, were compared. Methods Two-group cross-sectional studies were simulated for the comparison of PRO data using IRT or CTT-based analysis. For IRT, different scenarios were investigated according to whether items or person parameters were assumed to be known, to a certain extent for item parameters, from good to poor precision, or unknown and therefore had to be estimated. The powers obtained with IRT or CTT were compared and parameters having the strongest impact on them were identified. Results When person parameters were assumed to be unknown and items parameters to be either known or not, the power achieved using IRT or CTT were similar and always lower than the expected power using the well-known sample size formula for normally distributed endpoints. The number of items had a substantial impact on power for both methods. Conclusion Without any missing data, IRT and CTT seem to provide comparable power. The classical sample size formula for CTT seems to be adequate under some conditions but is not appropriate for IRT. In IRT, it seems important to take account of the number of items to obtain an accurate formula. PMID:20338031

  16. Study Abroad: The Reality of Building Dynamic Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransbury, Molly K.; Harris, Sandra A.

    1994-01-01

    The collaborative effort of a professor of human development with expertise in group process and a general education professor with expertise in Greek mythology and culture uses a case study format to apply theoretical models of group dynamics to the travel and learning experience of study abroad. Implications for course design and group process…

  17. Carcinogenicity evaluation: comparison of tumor data from dual control groups in the CD-1 mouse.

    PubMed

    Baldrick, Paul; Reeve, Lesley

    2007-06-01

    Current regulatory thinking allows for the use of single control groups for rodent carcinogenicity testing although there has been a trend until recently to use dual control groups. To date, virtually nothing has been published on whether a shift from dual to single control groups will affect the identification of tumorigenic risk potential in these studies. A recent evaluation of dual control carcinogenicity data in the rat (Baldrick, Toxicol Pathol 2005, 33: 283-291) showed that although no major differences in tumor incidences between the control groups were found, some interstudy variation occurred and in cases were a notable difference was seen, the use of 2 control groups, as well as robust, contemporary background data, allowed an easier interpretation of findings in drug-treated groups. In this paper, the results of 10 mouse carcinogenicity studies, performed between 1991 and 2004, with 2 control groups, are presented. As in the rat, interstudy variation was seen and in some cases, the use of dual control groups assisted in the tumor risk assessment. Thus, the continued use of 2 control groups can have a vital role in mouse carcinogenicity studies. The paper also presents an update on survival, on the range and extent of background spontaneous neoplasms and comments on genetic drift in this commonly used mouse strain.

  18. Sleep and Daytime Functioning: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Three Preschool-Age Comparison Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Thomas; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Tang, Karen; Goodlin-Jones, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sleep, sleepiness, and daytime performance in 68 children with autism, 57 children with intellectual disability (ID), and 69 typically developing preschool children. Children in the autism and ID groups had poorer daytime performance and behaviors than the typically developing children. Children in the ID group also were…

  19. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention.

  20. Evaluating "Baby Think It Over" Infant Simulators: A Comparison Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Jerrold E.

    2006-01-01

    To test the efficacy of Baby-Think-It-Over (BTIO) infant simulators, two versions of a sexuality education program were compared. While the program was designed to include BTIO as an important teaching technique, two schools (49 students) opted not to use them. These students completed all elements of the program except the BTIO activities. Their…

  1. Draft genome comparison of representatives of the three dominant genotype groups of dairy Bacillus licheniformis strains.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Rajat; Seale, R Brent; Deeth, Hilton C; Craven, Heather; Turner, Mark S

    2014-06-01

    The spore-forming bacterium Bacillus licheniformis is a common contaminant of milk and milk products. Strains of this species isolated from dairy products can be differentiated into three major groups, namely, G, F1, and F2, using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis; however, little is known about the genomic differences between these groups and the identity of the fragments that make up their RAPD profiles. In this work we obtained high-quality draft genomes of representative strains from each of the three RAPD groups (designated strain G-1, strain F1-1, and strain F2-1) and compared them to each other and to B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 and Bacillus subtilis 168. Whole-genome comparison and multilocus sequence typing revealed that strain G-1 contains significant sequence variability and belongs to a lineage distinct from the group F strains. Strain G-1 was found to contain genes coding for a type I restriction modification system, urease production, and bacitracin synthesis, as well as the 8-kbp plasmid pFL7, and these genes were not present in strains F1-1 and F2-1. In agreement with this, all isolates of group G, but no group F isolates, were found to possess urease activity and antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus. Identification of RAPD band sequences revealed that differences in the RAPD profiles were due to differences in gene lengths, 3' ends of predicted primer binding sites, or gene presence or absence. This work provides a greater understanding of the phylogenetic and phenotypic differences observed within the B. licheniformis species.

  2. Draft Genome Comparison of Representatives of the Three Dominant Genotype Groups of Dairy Bacillus licheniformis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Rajat; Seale, R. Brent; Deeth, Hilton C.; Craven, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The spore-forming bacterium Bacillus licheniformis is a common contaminant of milk and milk products. Strains of this species isolated from dairy products can be differentiated into three major groups, namely, G, F1, and F2, using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis; however, little is known about the genomic differences between these groups and the identity of the fragments that make up their RAPD profiles. In this work we obtained high-quality draft genomes of representative strains from each of the three RAPD groups (designated strain G-1, strain F1-1, and strain F2-1) and compared them to each other and to B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 and Bacillus subtilis 168. Whole-genome comparison and multilocus sequence typing revealed that strain G-1 contains significant sequence variability and belongs to a lineage distinct from the group F strains. Strain G-1 was found to contain genes coding for a type I restriction modification system, urease production, and bacitracin synthesis, as well as the 8-kbp plasmid pFL7, and these genes were not present in strains F1-1 and F2-1. In agreement with this, all isolates of group G, but no group F isolates, were found to possess urease activity and antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus. Identification of RAPD band sequences revealed that differences in the RAPD profiles were due to differences in gene lengths, 3′ ends of predicted primer binding sites, or gene presence or absence. This work provides a greater understanding of the phylogenetic and phenotypic differences observed within the B. licheniformis species. PMID:24657871

  3. Is the Medium Really the Message? A Comparison of Face-to-Face, Telephone, and Internet Focus Group Venues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothberg, June; Applegate, Brooks; Reeves, Patricia; Kohler, Paula; Thurston, Linda; Peterson, Lori

    2013-01-01

    With increased use of technology in qualitative research, it is important to understand unintended, unanticipated, and unobvious consequences to the data. Using a side-by-side comparison of face-to-face, telephone, and Internet with video focus groups, we examined the yield differences of focus group venue (medium) to the data (message) rendered…

  4. Clinical comparison of monophasic oral contraceptive preparations of gestodene/ethinyl estradiol and desogestrel/ethinyl estradiol. Latin American Oral Contraceptive Study Group.

    PubMed

    1994-09-01

    The efficacy, cycle control, subjective complaints, and safety of monophasic preparations of the oral contraceptives containing gestodene 75 mcg plus ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg versus desogestrel 150 mcg plus ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg were compared in a 6-cycle, open-label, parallel, randomized, multicenter phase IV clinical study in Latin America. Of a total of 176 women in each group, 163 in the gestodene group and 160 in the desogestrel group completed 6 cycles, providing data for 1,015 and 1,006 cycles, respectively. Subject compliance was excellent; pills were missed during only 6.9% of the cycles in each group. No woman became pregnant during the study. Gestodene group exhibited significantly better cycle control as evidenced by the lower incidence of breakthrough bleeding and spotting. Spotting in some cycles was reported by 11.9% of women taking the gestodene-combination compared with 21% of women taking the desogestrel-combination. Based on number of women, 86.4% of the gestodene group reported all cycles were normal (no BTB) compared with 76.7% of the desogestrel group. Also, the women in the gestodene group reported a significantly lower incidence of nuisance side effects during treatment cycles. No amenorrhea was observed for either group. There were no clinically significant differences between groups with respect to body weight, blood pressure, or laboratory evaluations. Seven women withdrew from the gestodene group and 8 women withdrew from the desogestrel group because of adverse reactions. The results of this study indicate that, although both OCs provided effective contraception, in comparison to the desogestrel-combination, the gestodene-containing OC is associated with better cycle control, less bleeding, and fewer subjective complaints.

  5. Effectiveness of the surviving the Teens® suicide prevention and depression awareness program: an impact evaluation utilizing a comparison group.

    PubMed

    Strunk, Catherine M; King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Sorter, Michael T

    2014-12-01

    Youth suicide is a serious public health issue in the United States. It is currently the third leading cause of death for youth aged 10 to 19. School-based prevention programs may be an effective method of educating youth and enhancing their help-seeking. Most school-based suicide prevention programs have not been rigorously evaluated for their effectiveness. This evaluation employs a comparison group to measure whether program group participants differed significantly from comparison group participants on pretest-posttest measures while assessing the immediate impact of the Surviving the Teens® Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program. Findings indicate several positive outcomes in program group students' suicide and depression knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and behavioral intentions compared with the comparison group. Suicide prevention specialists and prevention planners may benefit from study findings.

  6. Comparison of the Variations of Sunspot Number, Number of Sunspot Groups, and Sunspot Area, 1875 -2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Examined are the yearly variations and ratios of sunspot number, the number of sunspot groups, and the total corrected sunspot area for the interval 1875-2013. While yearly sunspot number independently correlates strongly (r = 0.98) with the yearly number of sunspot groups (y = -2 + 11.99x) and the total corrected sunspot area (y = 5 + 0.059x), the strongest correlation (Ry12 = 0.99) is the one based on the bivariate fit of sunspot number against the combined variations of the number of sunspot groups and sunspot area (y = 1 + 5.88x1 + 0.031x2, where y refers to sunspot number, x1 refers to the number of sunspot groups, and x2 refers to the sunspot area). While all cycle minima based on the bivariate fit are concurrent with the observed minimum in sunspot number, cycle maxima are sometimes found to differ. For sunspot cycles 12, 19, 20, and 23, cycle maximum is inferred to have occurred in 1884, 1958, 1970, and 2002, respectively, rather than in 1883, 1957, 1968, and 2000, based on the observed sunspot number. Also, cycle 19's maximum amplitude based on observed sunspot number seems too high in comparison to that found using the bivariate fit. During the 139-year interval 1875-2013, the difference between the observed and predicted sunspot number based on the bivariate fit is <1 standard error of estimate (se) (<6.4) for 111 years, between 1 and <2 se (6.4 to <12.8) for 28 years, and =2 se (=12.8) for only 4 years, these years being 1957 (16.6), 1978 (-15.8), 1980 (23), and 1982 (-16.3). For sunspot cycle 24, the difference between observed and predicted values has been only -0.7 and 3.2 (=0.5 se).

  7. A Comparison of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Psychological Screening Inventory in a Delinquent Sample and a Comparison Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGurk, Barry J.; Bolton, Neil

    1981-01-01

    Compared the scores of reformatory inmates and technical college students on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Psychological Screening Inventory. Two factors accounted for most of the variance. Neuroticism was common to both groups. The second factor in the delinquent group was extraversion. (Author/JAC)

  8. Carcinogenicity evaluation: comparison of tumor data from dual control groups in the Sprague-Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Baldrick, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Following recent clarification in Europe that a single control group is now acceptable for rodent carcinogenicity studies, the use of dual controls may be reduced or disappear. To date, virtually nothing has been published on whether this latter situation has improved the identification of tumorigenic risk potential in these studies. In this paper, the results of 13 rat carcinogenicity studies, performed between 1991 and 2002, with 2 control groups, are presented. Although no major differences in tumor incidences between these dual control groups were found, some interstudy variation occurred. In cases where a notable difference was seen, the use of 2 control groups, as well as robust, contemporary background data, allowed an easier interpretation of findings in drug-treated groups. Thus, the continued use of dual control groups has a vital role in the assessment of tumoriogenic risk. The paper also presents an update on survival, on the range and extent of background spontaneous neoplasms, and comments on genetic drift in this commonly used rat strain.

  9. Comparison of the Efficiency of Posterior Intravaginal Sling (PIVS) Procedure in Older and Younger Groups

    PubMed Central

    Sivaslioglu, Akin; Ilhan, Türkan; Uçar, Mustafa Gazi; Dolen, İsmail

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vaginal vault prolapsus is a challenging problem for the patients and physicians. There may be differences between young and elderly patients in terms of efficiency and safety of surgical procedures. Aim The aim of our study was to compare the efficiency of the Posterior Intravaginal Sling (PIVS) procedure in older versus younger patient groups. Materials and Methods A total of 40 patients who underwent the PIVS procedure were chosen. Twenty of these patients were younger than 60 years of age (Group I) while the other 20 patients were 60 years of age or older (Group II). Preoperative Pelvic Organ Prolapsed Quantification (POP-Q) reference points were compared with postoperative data at the first year following surgery. Student’s t-test was used to analyse continuous variables and the χ2 test was used to analyse categorical data. The Mann–Whitney test was used for data that were not normally distributed. Results Anatomical cure rates were 90 percent in both groups (p=1.00). There were significantly greater improvements in POP-Q points in group I than group II. Conclusion It could be concluded that PIVS as minimally invasive procedure for vaginal vault prolapsed and is effective in all age groups. PMID:27630908

  10. Grassroots Growth: The Evolution of a Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Dana; Moore, Terry; Taylor, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Four years ago, a group of teachers lingered after a district meeting, sharing a conversation about encouraging social responsibility in the school district of Tenafly, New Jersey. That conversation led to the eventual formation of a teacher study group, a grassroots professional learning community that has impacted its members and the school…

  11. Comparison of the interactions in the rare gas hydride and Group 2 metal hydride anions.

    PubMed

    Harris, Joe P; Manship, Daniel R; Breckenridge, W H; Wright, Timothy G

    2014-02-28

    We study both the rare gas hydride anions, RG-H(-) (RG = He-Rn) and Group 2 (Group IIa) metal hydride anions, MIIaH(-) (MIIa = Be-Ra), calculating potential energy curves at the CCSD(T) level with augmented quadruple and quintuple basis sets, and extrapolating the results to the basis set limit. We report spectroscopic parameters obtained from these curves; additionally, we study the Be-He complex. While the RG-H(-) and Be-He species are weakly bound, we show that, as with the previously studied BeH(-) and MgH(-) species, the other MIIaH(-) species are strongly bound, despite the interactions nominally also being between two closed shell species: M(ns(2)) and H(-)(1s(2)). We gain insight into the interactions using contour plots of the electron density changes and population analyses. For both series, the calculated dissociation energy is significantly less than the ion/induced-dipole attraction term, confirming that electron repulsion is important in these species; this effect is more dramatic for the MIIaH(-) species than for RG-H(-). Our analyses lead us to conclude that the stronger interaction in the case of the MIIaH(-) species arises from sp and spd hybridization, which allows electron density on the MIIa atom to move away from the incoming H(-).

  12. Study on dermatoses and their prevalence in groups of confirmed alcoholic individuals in comparison to a non-alcoholic group of individuals*

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Maria Cecilia Teixeira de Carvalho; Vilela, Maria Aparecida Constantino; de Oliveira, Carlos Alberto B. Mendes

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The direct relationship between alcoholism and dermatoses has been evaluated in recent researches. However, there are few objective surveys that demonstrate and prove a direct relationship between alcohol and a specific dermatosis. OBJECTIVES to verify the prevalence of dermatoses in alcoholics, analize the dermatological changes found in these patients and their evolution during alcoholic abstinence. Also, to compare the results obtained with a non-alcoholic control group and with the data found in medical literature. METHODS: the dermatologic conditions of 278 alcoholic patients (250 men, 28 women) were studied over a period of 4 years, and compared to those of a control group of 271 non-alcoholic individuals (249 men, 22 women), members of the Military Police Force. The individuals in both groups were between 20 and 60 years old. RESULTS Pellagra, nummular eczema, purpura pigmentosa chronica (also known as pigmented purpuric dermatosis) and psoriasis were more frequent in the group of alcoholics and, apparently, occurred in parallel with alcoholism that seems to play a role in the evolution of these dermatoses. The dermatopathies were more frequent before the age of forty, regardless of factors such as profession, race or gender. CONCLUSION the association of dermatoses and alcoholism was extremely significant according to the statistical data. Alcoholism can be considered a risk factor for pellagra, psoriasis, nummular eczema and purpura pigmentosa chronica dermatoses, which can, as well, be considered alcoholism indicators. PMID:23793198

  13. When the group practice breaks up: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Group practices are increasingly common for primary care physicians worldwide. Although breakups are likely to happen frequently within group practices, their process has not been studied to date. The aims of this study were therefore to explore the reasons for breakups of group practices of general practitioners and to describe the associated feelings. Methods We conducted a qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews of 21 general practitioners and one secretary from past group practices in the Rhône-Alpes region, France, who experienced a breakup. Results When getting started in group practice for the first time, young doctors did not feel ready and supported, and did not necessarily share the same expectations as their partners. The reasons for the breakups involved imbalances within the groups, contrasting working and management styles, and breakdowns in communication. The breakup process often generated long-persistent feelings of suffering and failure for almost every partner who experienced a breakup, particularly for the partner who was leaving. Conclusions Weakening factors exist from the very beginning of a partnership, and problems are likely to increase at every change or event occurring in the group. We provide several recommendations, including fair management, a shared project based on a precise contract, the consultation of third parties as necessary and, in the worst case scenario, leaving the group practice in time. PMID:23642277

  14. Self-Concept and Native Language Background: A Study of Measurement Invariance and Cross-Group Comparisons in Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehaus, Kate; Adelson, Jill L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the measurement and interpretation of self-concept among the growing population of children who are English Language Learners (ELLs). More specifically, a 3-group analysis was conducted comparing native English-speaking children, Spanish-speaking ELLs, and ELLs from Asian language backgrounds. Data were drawn from the Early…

  15. The Knowledge-Based Reasoning of Physical Education Teachers: A Comparison between Groups with Different Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuker, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    The study addresses professional vision, including the abilities of selective attention and knowledge-based reasoning. This article focuses on the latter ability. Groups with different sport-specific and pedagogical expertise (n = 60) were compared according to their observation and interpretation of sport activities in a four-field design. The…

  16. Comparison of the effects of bimatoprost and timolol on intraocular pressure and pulsatile ocular blood flow in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma: A prospective, open-label, randomized, two-arm, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    Vetrugno, Michele; Cardascia, Nicola; Cantatore, Francesco; Sborgia, Carlo

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background: The current objective of antiglaucomatous therapy is to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP), and thus to preserve visual function. Many ophthalmologists believe this objective is best achieved by methods that improve ocular blood flow to the optic nerve head. Beta-blockers are effective ocular hypotensive agents, but they can reduce choroidal blood flow. Bimatoprost, a new prostamide analogue, has been shown to have a better IOP-lowering effect compared with the nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor blocker timolol maleate, but little is known about its effects on the vascular bed of the eye. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of bimatoprost and timolol on IOP and choroidal blood flow (as measured using pulsatile ocular blood flow [pOBF]) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods: This prospective, open-label, randomized, 2-arm, parallel-group study was conducted at the Glaucoma Research Centre, Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Bari, Bari, Italy. Patients with POAG having well-controlled IOP (<16 mm Hg) on monotherapy with timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution (2 drops per affected eye BID) for ≥12 months but with a progressive decrease in pOBF during the same time period were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups. One group continued monotherapy with timolol, 2 drops per affected eye BID. The other group was switched (without washout) to bimatoprost 0.3% ophthalmic solution (2 drops per affected eye QD [9 pm]). Treatment was given for 180 days. IOP and pOBF were assessed at the diagnostic visit (pre-timolol), baseline (day 0), and treatment days 15, 30, 60, 90, and 180. Primary adverse effects (AEs) (ie, conjunctival hyperemia, conjunctival papillae, stinging, burning, foreign body sensation, and pigmentation of periorbital skin) were monitored throughout the study. Results: Thirty-eight patients were enrolled (22 men, 16 women; mean [SD] age, 51.7 [4.8] years; 19 patients per

  17. The Langer-Improved Wald Test for DIF Testing with Multiple Groups: Evaluation and Comparison to Two-Group IRT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.; Cai, Li; Wang, Mian

    2013-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when the probability of responding in a particular category to an item differs for members of different groups who are matched on the construct being measured. The identification of DIF is important for valid measurement. This research evaluates an improved version of Lord's chi [superscript 2]…

  18. Group theories: relevance to group safety studies.

    PubMed

    Benevento, A L

    1998-01-01

    Promoting safety in the workplace has been attempted in a variety of ways. Increasingly, industries are using groups such as safety teams and quality circles to promote worker safety. Group influences on individual behavior and attitudes have long been studied in the social psychology literature, but the theories have not been commonly found outside the psychology arena. This paper describes the group theories of group polarization, risky shift, social loafing, groupthink and team think and attempts to apply these theories to existing studies that examine work group influences on safety. Interesting parallels were found but only one study examined group influences as their primary focus of research. Since groups are increasingly used for safety promotion, future research on safety that studies group influences with respect to current group theories is recommended.

  19. Group Comparisons of Mathematics Performance from a Cognitive Diagnostic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yi-Hsin; Ferron, John M.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Gorin, Joanna S.; Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional comparisons of test score means identify group differences in broad academic areas, but fail to provide substantive description of how the groups differ on the specific cognitive attributes required for success in the academic area. The rule space method (RSM) allows for group comparisons at the cognitive attribute level, which…

  20. 40 CFR 761.326 - Conducting the comparison study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conducting the comparison study. 761.326 Section 761.326 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC...-liquid PCB Remediation Waste Samples § 761.326 Conducting the comparison study. Extract or analyze...

  1. 40 CFR 761.326 - Conducting the comparison study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conducting the comparison study. 761.326 Section 761.326 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC...-liquid PCB Remediation Waste Samples § 761.326 Conducting the comparison study. Extract or analyze...

  2. 40 CFR 761.326 - Conducting the comparison study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conducting the comparison study. 761.326 Section 761.326 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC...-liquid PCB Remediation Waste Samples § 761.326 Conducting the comparison study. Extract or analyze...

  3. Classifiers as a model-free group comparison test.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bommae; Oertzen, Timo von

    2017-04-03

    The conventional statistical methods to detect group differences assume correct model specification, including the origin of difference. Researchers should be able to identify a source of group differences and choose a corresponding method. In this paper, we propose a new approach of group comparison without model specification using classification algorithms in machine learning. In this approach, the classification accuracy is evaluated against a binomial distribution using Independent Validation. As an application example, we examined false-positive errors and statistical power of support vector machines to detect group differences in comparison to conventional statistical tests such as t test, Levene's test, K-S test, Fisher's z-transformation, and MANOVA. The SVMs detected group differences regardless of their origins (mean, variance, distribution shape, and covariance), and showed comparably consistent power across conditions. When a group difference originated from a single source, the statistical power of SVMs was lower than the most appropriate conventional test of the study condition; however, the power of SVMs increased when differences originated from multiple sources. Moreover, SVMs showed substantially improved performance with more variables than with fewer variables. Most importantly, SVMs were applicable to any types of data without sophisticated model specification. This study demonstrates a new application of classification algorithms as an alternative or complement to the conventional group comparison test. With the proposed approach, researchers can test two-sample data even when they are not certain which statistical test to use or when data violates the statistical assumptions of conventional methods.

  4. Comparison of Radiological Parameters between Normal and Patellar Dislocation Groups in Korean Population: A Rotational Profile CT-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jatin; Seon, Jong-Keun; Woo, Seong-Hwan; Jin, Cheng; Song, Eun-Kyoo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Patellofemoral instability is a common cause of anterior knee pain in adolescents and young adults. Most normal and pathological values for diagnosing patellofemoral instability are based on Western literature. We conducted this radiological study to determine normal values for different patellofemoral parameters in a Korean population and to evaluate their usefulness in diagnosis. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the rotational profile computerized tomography (CT) scans of the patellar dislocation and control groups. Trochlear, patellar, rotational profile, and trochleo-patellar alignment parameters were compared between the groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves were drawn for significant parameters, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the cut-off values. Results There were 48 patients in the patellar dislocation group and 87 patients in the control group. In the control group and patellar dislocation group, the mean sulcus angle was 132.5° and 143.3°, respectively, trochlear depth was 6.04 mm and 3.6 mm, bisect offset was 56.4% and 99.9%, lateral patellar tilting was 9.8° and 19.2°, patellar facet asymmetry was 63.5% and 45.16%, and the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance was 10.91 mm and 27.16 mm, respectively. Conclusions The trochlear depth, bisect offset, patella tilting, and TT-TG distance were parameters that significantly contributed to patellar instability. Rotational profile CT can be considered a good diagnostic tool to assess all these parameters that help to identify anatomical aberration resulting in patellofemoral instability, thereby helping in formulating the most effective treatment plan. PMID:27894178

  5. International neurocognitive normative study: neurocognitive comparison data in diverse resource-limited settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5271.

    PubMed

    Robertson, K; Jiang, H; Evans, S R; Marra, C M; Berzins, B; Hakim, J; Sacktor, N; Silva, M Tulius; Campbell, T B; Nair, A; Schouten, J; Kumwenda, J; Supparatpinyo, K; Tripathy, S; Kumarasamy, N; la Rosa, A; Montano, S; Mwafongo, A; Firnhaber, C; Sanne, I; Naini, L; Amod, F; Walawander, A

    2016-08-01

    Infrastructure for conducting neurological research in resource-limited settings (RLS) is limited. The lack of neurological and neuropsychological (NP) assessment and normative data needed for clinical interpretation impedes research and clinical care. Here, we report on ACTG 5271, which provided neurological training of clinical site personnel and collected neurocognitive normative comparison data in diverse settings. At ten sites in seven RLS countries, we provided training for NP assessments. We collected normative comparison data on HIV- participants from Brazil (n = 240), India (n = 480), Malawi (n = 481), Peru (n = 239), South Africa (480), Thailand (n = 240), and Zimbabwe (n = 240). Participants had a negative HIV test within 30 days before standardized NP exams were administered at baseline and 770 at 6 months. Participants were enrolled in eight strata, gender (female and male), education (<10 and ≥10 years), and age (<35 and ≥35 years). Of 2400 enrolled, 770 completed the 6-month follow-up. As expected, significant between-country differences were evident in all the neurocognitive test scores (p < 0.0001). There was variation between the age, gender, and education strata on the neurocognitive tests. Age and education were important variables for all tests; older participants had poorer performance, and those with higher education had better performance. Women had better performance on verbal learning/memory and speed of processing tests, while men performed better on motor tests. This study provides the necessary neurocognitive normative data needed to build infrastructure for future neurological and neurocognitive studies in diverse RLS. These normative data are a much-needed resource for both clinicians and researchers.

  6. The Comparison of Different Age Groups on the Attitudes toward and the Use of ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Different factors may be influencing the use of information and communication technology (ICT). One of the important factors is age. The society is divided into different groups according to age. A well-known age-based categorization, commonly used especially in the field of economics,, is based on whether people belong to the Millennial…

  7. A Comparison of Web-based and Small-Group Palliative and End-of-Life Care Curricula: A Quasi-Randomized Controlled Study at One Institution

    PubMed Central

    Day, Frank C.; Srinivasan, Malathi; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Griffin, Erin; Hoffman, Jerome R.; Wilkes, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have compared the effect of web-based eLearning versus small-group learning on medical student outcomes. Palliative and end-of-life (PEOL) education is ideal for this comparison, given uneven access to PEOL experts and content nationally. Method In 2010, the authors enrolled all third-year medical students at the University of California, Davis School of Medicine into a quasi-randomized controlled trial of web-based interactive education (eDoctoring) compared to small-group education (Doctoring) on PEOL clinical content over two months. All students participated in three 3-hour PEOL sessions with similar content. Outcomes included a 24-item PEOL-specific self-efficacy scale with three domains (diagnosis/treatment [Cronbach’s alpha = 0.92, CI: 0.91–0.93], communication/prognosis [alpha = 0.95; CI: 0.93–0.96], and social impact/self-care [alpha = 0.91; CI: 0.88–0.92]); eight knowledge items; ten curricular advantage/disadvantages, and curricular satisfaction (both students and faculty). Results Students were randomly assigned to web-based eDoctoring (n = 48) or small-group Doctoring (n = 71) curricula. Self-efficacy and knowledge improved equivalently between groups: e.g., prognosis self-efficacy, 19%; knowledge, 10–42%. Student and faculty ratings of the web-based eDoctoring curriculum and the small group Doctoring curriculum were equivalent for most goals, and overall satisfaction was equivalent for each, with a trend towards decreased eDoctoring student satisfaction. Conclusions Findings showed equivalent gains in self-efficacy and knowledge between students participating in a web-based PEOL curriculum, in comparison to students learning similar content in a small-group format. Web-based curricula can standardize content presentation when local teaching expertise is limited, but may lead to decreased user satisfaction. PMID:25539518

  8. Laboratory Governance: Issues for the Study Group on Regional Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Thomas; Dominic, Joseph

    Background information and an analysis of issues involved in the governance of new regional educational laboratories are presented. The new laboratories are to be established through a 1984 competition administered by the National Institute of Education (NIE). The analysis is designed to assist the Study Group on Regional Laboratories to advise…

  9. Reliability of the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test: Age and Ethnic Group Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark

    1981-01-01

    Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)

  10. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy for the Nonpurging Bulimic Individual: A Controlled Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilfrey, Denise E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) and group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for binge eating among 56 women with nonpurging bulimia. At posttreatment, both CBT and IPT conditions showed significant improvement in reducing binge eating, compared to waiting-list condition. Binge eating remained significantly…

  11. The Influence of Learner Strategies on Oral Presentations: A Comparison between Group and Individual Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Mu-hsuan

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative learning has frequently been used in language classrooms, from in-class task-based group work to group presentations. Research suggests that cooperative learning provides mutual support, as well as successful and effective learning outcomes of tasks. The present research addressed a number of problems discovered in group oral…

  12. Comparison of efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of rupatadine and olopatadine in patients of allergic rhinitis: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study

    PubMed Central

    Dakhale, Ganesh; Tathod, Yogesh; Patel, Seema; Pimpalkhute, Sonali; Raghute, Latesh; Khamkar, Ajita

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of rupatadine and olopatadine in patients of allergic rhinitis (AR). Materials and Methods: A 2-week, single-centered, randomized, double-blind, parallel group comparative clinical study was conducted on patients with AR. Following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 67 patients were recruited and randomized to two treatment groups and received the respective drugs for 2 weeks. At follow-up, parameters assessed were total nasal symptom score (TNSS), change in total and differential count of eosinophil. Results: In olopatadine group, there was a significantly higher reduction in TNSS (P < 0.05) than that of rupatadine. Both the drugs significantly reduced the absolute eosinophil count, but olopatadine (P < 0.001) was found to be superior. The incidence of adverse effects was found to be less in olopatadine group when compared with rupatadine group. Conclusion: Olopatadine is a better choice in AR in comparison to rupatadine due to its better efficacy and safety profile. PMID:28163538

  13. A study of the current group evaporation/combustion theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Hayley H.

    1990-01-01

    Liquid fuel combustion can be greatly enhanced by disintegrating the liquid fuel into droplets, an effect achieved by various configurations. A number of experiments carried out in the seventies showed that combustion of droplet arrays and sprays do not form individual flames. Moreover, the rate of burning in spray combustion greatly deviates from that of the single combustion rate. Such observations naturally challenge its applicability to spray combustion. A number of mathematical models were developed to evaluate 'group combustion' and the related 'group evaporation' phenomena. This study investigates the similarity and difference of these models and their applicability to spray combustion. Future work that should be carried out in this area is indicated.

  14. Towards power and sample size calculations for the comparison of two groups of patients with item response theory models.

    PubMed

    Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Amri, Sarah; Feddag, Mohand-Larbi; Sébille, Véronique

    2012-05-20

    Evaluation of patient-reported outcomes (PRO) is increasingly performed in health sciences. PRO differs from other measurements because such patient characteristics cannot be directly observed. Item response theory (IRT) is an attractive way for PRO analysis. However, in the framework of IRT, sample size justification is rarely provided or ignores the fact that PRO measures are latent variables with the use of formulas developed for observed variables. It might therefore be inappropriate and might provide inadequately sized studies. The objective was to develop valid sample size methodology for the comparison of PRO in two groups of patients using IRT. The proposed approach takes into account questionnaire's items parameters, the difference of the latent variables means, and its variance whose derivation is approximated using Cramer-Rao bound (CRB). We also computed the associated power. We realized a simulation study taking into account sample size, number of items, and value of the group effect. We compared power obtained from CRB with the one obtained from simulations (SIM) and with the power based on observed variables (OBS). For a given sample size, powers using CRB and SIM were similar and always lower than OBS. We observed a strong impact of the number of items for CRB and SIM, the power increasing with the questionnaire's length but not for OBS. In the context of latent variables, it seems important to use an adapted sample size formula because the formula developed for observed variables seems to be inadequate and leads to an underestimated study size.

  15. TRICARE Fourth Generation Study Group - Exploring the Way Forward

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-26

    JAN 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TRICARE Fourth Generation Study Group - Exploring the...1ncludes all AD, AOFMIGRIGRFM, and unclef 65 RETIRETFMIOTH, exclucbng 65+ Albers Equal Area Prqect10n, 2011 2011 MHS Conference Five Models  TRICARE

  16. International Study Tour Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John J.; McCaw, William P.; Kero, Patty; Stewart, Courtney; Haddouch, Reda

    2014-01-01

    Using the context of international study tour groups, this study examined the personal and professional transformation that occurred among host faculty and staff at The University of Montana-Missoula as a result of their interactions with traveling academics from other countries. Data were collected from participant responses (n = 27) using a…

  17. Ab-Initio Study of the Group 2 Hydride Anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Joe P.; Wright, Timothy G.; Manship, Daniel R.

    2013-06-01

    The beryllium hydride (BeH)- dimer has recently been shown to be surprisingly strongly bound, with an electronic structure which is highly dependent on internuclear separation. At the equilibrium distance, the negative charge is to be found on the beryllium atom, despite the higher electronegativity of the hydrogen. The current study expands this investigation to the other Group 2 hydrides, and attempts to explain these effects. M. Verdicchio, G. L. Bendazzoli, S. Evangelisti, T. Leininger J. Phys. Chem. A, 117, 192, (2013)

  18. Geothermal development of the Madison group aquifer: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    A geothermal well has been drilled at the St. Mary's Hospital in Pierre, South Dakota. The well is 2176 feet deep and artesian flows 375 gpm at 106/sup 0/F. The well is producing fluids from the Mississippian Madison Group, a sequence of carbonate rocks deposited over several western states. The project was funded to demonstrate the goethermal potential of this widespread aquifer. This case study describes the development of the project through geology, drilling, stimulation, and testing.

  19. Selecting Evaluation Comparison Groups: A Cluster Analytic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Todd Mclin; McLean, James E.

    A persistent problem in the evaluation of field-based projects is the lack of no-treatment comparison groups. Frequently, potential comparison groups are confounded by socioeconomic, racial, or other factors. Among the possible methods for dealing with this problem are various matching procedures, but they are cumbersome to use with multiple…

  20. Self-estimates of intelligence: interaction effects of the comparison to a specific reference group and neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Bipp, T; Kleingeld, A

    2012-04-01

    An experiment that investigated the interaction effect of Neuroticism and the comparison to different reference groups on self-estimates of intelligence is reported. University students (100 men, 15 women) were randomly assigned to two experimental groups and asked to rate their own intelligence on a one-item measure, in IQ points, having been provided with reference values for either the general population or a student sample. Analysis of data confirmed that the accuracy of self-estimates of intelligence was influenced by the variation of the instruction. Participants provided more accurate estimations when confronted with comparison information about fellow students than about the general population. Persons scoring high on Neuroticism estimated their intelligence lower, but only when their estimation was based on a general reference group. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  1. The HPV Vaccine: A Comparison of Focus Groups Conducted in South Africa and Ohio Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Mira L.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among women. Even though women in developing countries account for approximately 85 % of the cervical cancer cases and deaths, disparities in cervical cancer rates are also documented in developed countries like the United States (U.S.). Recently, formative research conducted in the U.S. and developing countries like South Africa have sought to gain a better understanding of the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes about cervical cancer prevention, HPV, and the acceptance of the HPV vaccine. This study compares findings from two independent focus group studies. One study was conducted in a segregated township in Johannesburg, South Africa (n = 24) and the other study was conducted in Ohio Appalachia (n = 19). The following seven themes emerged during the discussions from both studies: HPV and cervical cancer; health decision making; parent–child communication; healthy children; HPV vaccine costs; sexual abuse; and HPV vaccine education. Findings from both studies indicate the importance of the role of mothers and grandmothers in the health care decision-making process for children and a lack of awareness of HPV and its association with cervical cancer. While there was interest in the HPV vaccine, participants voiced concern about the vaccine’s cost and side effects. Some participants expressed concern that receipt of the HPV vaccine may initiate adolescent sexual behavior. However, other participants suggested that the HPV vaccine may protect young women who may experience sexual abuse. The importance of developing culturally appropriate educational materials and programs about cervical cancer prevention and the HPV vaccine were expressed by participants in both countries. PMID:22930347

  2. The Specificity of Emotional Switching in Borderline Personality Disorder in Comparison to Other Clinical Groups

    PubMed Central

    Houben, Marlies; Bohus, Martin; Santangelo, Philip; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Trull, Timothy; Kuppens, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to better understand the nature of emotion dysregulation in the daily lives of persons with a borderline personality disorder (BPD), Houben, Vansteelandt et al. (2015) recently identified emotional switching, which refers to the tendency to make large changes between positive and negative emotional states over time, as a possible defining characteristic of the emotion dynamics observed in BPD. The goal of this study was to examine the specificity of these previous findings in two samples, by comparing BPD patients (N = 43 in sample 1; N = 81 in sample 2) to patients with bulimia nervosa (N = 20) or posttraumatic stress disorder (N = 28) or healthy controls (N = 28) in sample 1, and to patients with depressive disorder (N = 50) in sample 2, with respect to measures of emotional switching. Analyses of these two experience sampling datasets revealed that contrary to expectations, BPD patients did not differ from the clinical groups regarding their mere tendency to switch between positive and negative emotional states on consecutive moments over time, and regarding the magnitude of such changes between positive and negative emotional states over time. However, all clinical groups did differ from healthy controls regarding all switch measures in dataset 1. These results indicate that emotional switching, similar to other more traditional indicators of overall changes in emotional intensity in daily life, might reflect a feature of emotional responding characterising a range of disorders with mood disturbances. PMID:26882282

  3. Yeast Communities of Diverse Drosophila Species: Comparison of Two Symbiont Groups in the Same Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, Jonathan A.; Kopp, Artyom

    2012-01-01

    The combination of ecological diversity with genetic and experimental tractability makes Drosophila a powerful model for the study of animal-associated microbial communities. Despite the known importance of yeasts in Drosophila physiology, behavior, and fitness, most recent work has focused on Drosophila-bacterial interactions. In order to get a more complete understanding of the Drosophila microbiome, we characterized the yeast communities associated with different Drosophila species collected around the world. We focused on the phylum Ascomycota because it constitutes the vast majority of the Drosophila-associated yeasts. Our sampling strategy allowed us to compare the distribution and structure of the yeast and bacterial communities in the same host populations. We show that yeast communities are dominated by a small number of abundant taxa, that the same yeast lineages are associated with different host species and populations, and that host diet has a greater effect than host species on yeast community composition. These patterns closely parallel those observed in Drosophila bacterial communities. However, we do not detect a significant correlation between the yeast and bacterial communities of the same host populations. Comparative analysis of different symbiont groups provides a more comprehensive picture of host-microbe interactions. Future work on the role of symbiont communities in animal physiology, ecological adaptation, and evolution would benefit from a similarly holistic approach. PMID:22885750

  4. Profit 󈨐 Summary Report. Report of the Profit Study Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-07

    Evaluation of the Test of the Employed Capital Concept Pro E,, a.l-.•iih•er Purpose VI-3 Approach V 1-5 Findings VI-12 M!osenile of Findings VI-19...development of a new profit policy. The Profit 󈨐 study group, with help from the Defense Contract 9 Audit Agency (DCAA), the General Accounting Office...attention were specifically organized for "in-depth" analysis. These "Major Issues" , are: /; (1) DPC 107 and the return-on-investment -- concept (2

  5. A Comparison of Workplace Groups with Groups in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.; James, Joyce E.

    The use of groups in both the workplace and schools has been increasing. In the workplace, groups reflective of a growing trend toward worker participation in management have been variously referred to as self-managing work teams, self-directed work groups, quality circles, autonomous work groups, and cross-functional teams. Schools have used many…

  6. Study Groups: Conduit for Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makibbin, Shirley S.; Sprague, Marsha M.

    This conference presentation describes study groups as a mechanism for changing teacher behavior. The history of study groups is discussed, beginning with the first American study groups organized by Benjamin Franklin; the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle; the waning of study groups in the early 20th century as college enrollment…

  7. Comparison of Debrecen and Mount Wilson/Kodaikanal sunspot group tilt angles and the Joy's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranyi, T.

    2015-02-01

    The study of active region tilt angles and their variations in different time-scales plays an important role in revealing the subsurface dynamics of magnetic flux ropes and in understanding the dynamo mechanism. In order to reveal the exact characteristics of tilt angles, precise long-term tilt angle data bases are needed. However, there are only a few different data sets at present, which are difficult to be compared and cross-calibrate because of their substantial deviations. In this paper, we describe new tilt angle data bases derived from the Debrecen Photoheliographic Data (DPD) (1974-) and from the SOHO/MDI-Debrecen Data (SDD) (1996-2010) sunspot catalogues. We compare them with the traditional sunspot group tilt angle data bases of Mount Wilson Observatory (1917-85) and Kodaikanal Solar Observatory (1906-87) and we analyse the deviations. Various methods and filters are investigated which may improve the sample of data and may help in deriving better results based on combined data. As a demonstration of the enhanced quality of the improved data set a refined diagram of Joy's law is presented.

  8. Impact of tissue atrophy on high-pass filtered MRI signal phase-based assessment in large-scale group-comparison studies: A simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweser, Ferdinand; Dwyer, Michael G.; Deistung, Andreas; Reichenbach, Jürgen R.; Zivadinov, Robert

    2013-10-01

    The assessment of abnormal accumulation of tissue iron in the basal ganglia nuclei and in white matter plaques using the gradient echo magnetic resonance signal phase has become a research focus in many neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis or Parkinson’s disease. A common and natural approach is to calculate the mean high-pass-filtered phase of previously delineated brain structures. Unfortunately, the interpretation of such an analysis requires caution: in this paper we demonstrate that regional gray matter atrophy, which is concomitant with many neurodegenerative diseases, may itself directly result in a phase shift seemingly indicative of increased iron concentration even without any real change in the tissue iron concentration. Although this effect is relatively small results of large-scale group comparisons may be driven by anatomical changes rather than by changes of the iron concentration.

  9. Report of the APS Neutrino Study Reactor Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Abouzaid, E.; Anderson, K.; Barenboim, G.; Berger, B.; Blucher, E.; Bolton, T.; Choubey, S.; Conrad, J.; Formaggio, J.; Freedman, S.; Finely, D.; Fisher, P.; Fujikawa, B.; Gai, M.; Goodman, M.; de Goueva, A.; Hadley, N.; Hahn, R.; Horton-Smith, G.; Kadel, R.; Kayser, B.; Heeger, K.; Klein, J.; Learned, J.; Lindner, M.; Link, J.; Luk, K.-B.; McKeown, R.; Mocioiu, I.; Mohapatra, R.; Naples, D.; Peng, J.; Petcov, S.; Pilcher, J.; Rapidis, P.; Reyna, D.; Shaevitz, M.; Shrock, R.; Stanton, N.; Stefanski, R.; Yamamoto, R.; Worcester, M.

    2004-10-28

    The worldwide program to understand neutrino oscillations and determine the neutrino mixing parameters, CP violating effects, and mass hierarchy will require a broad combination of measurements. The group believes that a key element of this future neutrino program is a multi-detector neutrino experiment (with baselines of {approx} 200 m and {approx} 1.5 km) with a sensitivity of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} = 0.01. In addition to oscillation physics, the reactor experiment may provide interesting measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} at Q{sup 2} = 0, neutrino couplings, magnetic moments, and mixing with sterile neutrino states. {theta}{sub 13} is one of the twenty-six parameters of the standard model, the best model of electroweak interactions for energies below 100 GeV and, as such, is worthy of a precision measurement independent of other considerations. A reactor experiment of the proposed sensitivity will allow a measurement of {theta}{sub 13} with no ambiguities and significantly better precision than any other proposed experiment, or will set limits indicating the scale of future experiments required to make progress. Figure 1 shows a comparison of the sensitivity of reactor experiments of different scales with accelerator experiments for setting limits on sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} if the mixing angle is very small, or for making a measurement of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} if the angle is observable. A reactor experiment with a 1% precision may also resolve the degeneracy in the {theta}{sub 23} parameter when combined with long-baseline accelerator experiments. In combination with long-baseline measurements, a reactor experiment may give early indications of CP violation and the mass hierarchy. The combination of the T2K and Nova long-baseline experiments will be able to make significant measurements of these effects if sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} > 0.05 and with enhanced beam rates can improve their reach to the sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} > 0.02 level

  10. Reexamining the Impact of Nonnormality in Two-Group Comparison Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Yoonjeong; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The authors performed a Monte Carlo simulation to empirically investigate the robustness and power of 4 methods in testing mean differences for 2 independent groups under conditions in which 2 populations may not demonstrate the same pattern of nonnormality. The approaches considered were the t test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, Welch-James test with…

  11. Global Analysis and Comparison of the Transcriptomes and Proteomes of Group A Streptococcus Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Freiberg, Jeffrey A.; Le Breton, Yoann; Tran, Bao Q.; Scott, Alison J.; Harro, Janette M.; Ernst, Robert K.; Goo, Young Ah; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Goodlett, David R.; McIver, Kevin S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To gain a better understanding of the genes and proteins involved in group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) biofilm growth, we analyzed the transcriptome, cellular proteome, and cell wall proteome from biofilms at different stages and compared them to those of plankton-stage GAS. Using high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) shotgun proteomics, we found distinct expression profiles in the transcriptome and proteome. A total of 46 genes and 41 proteins showed expression across the majority of biofilm time points that was consistently higher or consistently lower than that seen across the majority of planktonic time points. However, there was little overlap between the genes and proteins on these two lists. In line with other studies comparing transcriptomic and proteomic data, the overall correlation between the two data sets was modest. Furthermore, correlation was poorest for biofilm samples. This suggests a high degree of regulation of protein expression by nontranscriptional mechanisms. This report illustrates the benefits and weaknesses of two different approaches to global expression profiling, and it also demonstrates the advantage of using proteomics in conjunction with transcriptomics to gain a more complete picture of global expression within biofilms. In addition, this report provides the fullest characterization of expression patterns in GAS biofilms currently available. IMPORTANCE Prokaryotes are thought to regulate their proteomes largely at the level of transcription. However, the results from this first set of global transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of paired microbial samples presented here show that this assumption is false for the majority of genes and their products in S. pyogenes. In addition, the tenuousness of the link between transcription and translation becomes even more pronounced when microbes exist in a biofilm or a stationary planktonic state

  12. Group Comparisons in the Presence of Missing Data Using Latent Variable Modeling Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.

    2010-01-01

    A latent variable modeling approach for examining population similarities and differences in observed variable relationship and mean indexes in incomplete data sets is discussed. The method is based on the full information maximum likelihood procedure of model fitting and parameter estimation. The procedure can be employed to test group identities…

  13. A Comparison of Punishment and Positive Reinforcement Group Contingencies in the Modification of Inappropriate Classroom Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonewille, Jack; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Measures the relative effectiveness of a short-term punishment versus a snort-term positive reinforcement contingency system for reducing the frequency of specific inappropriate behaviors of a group of senior elementary students. Students were directly involved in identifying the different types of discipline so that they might help determine the…

  14. Studies of nearby poor clusters - The Eridanus group

    SciTech Connect

    Willmer, C.N.A.; Focardi, P.; Da Costa, L.N.; Pellegrini, P.S. )

    1989-11-01

    Results are reported from dynamical study of the Eridanus group of galaxies. This system is quite prominent in one of the large-scale features found in the recently completed Southern Sky Redshift Survey (da Costa et al., 1988): the Eridanus-Fornax-Dorado filament. The irregualr aspect of Eridanus suggests the existence of subclustering, which is confirmed by statistical tests. These subclusters are bound, suggesting that the system is still condensing from the Hubble flow and may eventually form a cluster of about 10 to the 14th solar mass. By calculating the two-body orbital solution, it is found that the Eridanus complex and the Fornax cluster also form a bound system, although still in the expansion phase. 41 refs.

  15. A Comparison of Approaches to Group Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimpfer, David G.; And Others

    This panel is based on the assumptions that: (1) group counseling has a valuable contribution to make, (2) group counseling is feasible in terms of time and space at local institutions, (3) group counseling is particularly concerned with affective material, and (4) group counseling probably cannot be conducted effectively in groups as large as 30.…

  16. Comparison of Polyurethanes with Polyhydroxyurethanes: Effect of the Hydroxyl Group on Structure-Property Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitsch, Emily K.; Lombardo, Vince M.; Scheidt, Karl A.; Torkelson, John M.

    2014-03-01

    Polyurethanes (PUs) are commonly synthesized by rapid step-growth polymerization through the reaction of a multifunctional alcohol with a polyisocyanate. PUs can be prepared at ambient conditions utilizing a variety of starting material molecular weights and backbones, resulting in highly tunable thermal and physical properties. The urethane linkages as well as the nanophase separated morphology attainable in PU materials lead to desirable properties including elastomeric character and adhesion. The isocyanate-based monomers used in the synthesis of traditional PUs have come under increasing regulatory pressure and thus inspired the investigation of alternative routes for the formation of PU materials. We examine an alternative route to synthesize PU- the reaction of five-membered cyclic carbonate with amines. This reaction results in the formation of a urethane linkage with an adjacent alcohol group. The effects of this hydroxyl group on the thermal and mechanical properties of the resulting polymer are investigated and compared with an analogous traditional PU system.

  17. Telehealth and the Deaf: A Comparison Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jaime A. B.; Wells, M. Gawain

    2009-01-01

    Within the deaf population, an extreme mental health professional shortage exists that may be alleviated with videoconferencing technology--also known as telehealth. Moreover, much needed mental health education within the deaf population remains largely inaccessible. Researchers have warned that the deaf population may remain underserved if…

  18. Scandium in the open ocean: A comparison with other group 3 trivalent metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, C. E.; Brown, M. T.; Bruland, K. W.

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the distribution of scandium (Sc) in the open ocean. Since the 1970s there has been only one published depth profile of dissolved Sc. The work presented here reports depth profiles of dissolved Sc from GEOTRACES cruises in the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and South Pacific. This work also compares the reactivity of Sc with its trivalent periodic table groupmates in Group IIIB, yttrium (Y) and lanthanum (La), and Group IIIA, aluminum (Al) and gallium (Ga). Yttrium and La are classic nutrient-type metals that increase in concentration in aging deep water; Al and Ga are classic scavenged-type metals that do the opposite. Results indicate that Sc is a hybrid-type metal with an inferred residence time on the order of 1000 years, and that Sc's inorganic speciation and reactivity are similar to Fe's and have the potential to give insights into the nonnutrient side of oceanic Fe cycling.

  19. Disability and Family in the People's Republic of China: Implementation, Benefits, and Comparison of Two Mutual Support Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Helen; McCabe, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The authors and 2 Chinese parents established 2 support groups in China. One group was for parents of children with autism, and the other was for young adults with either mental health issues or intellectual disability, and their parents. The purpose of this study was to examine the meaning and effectiveness of these groups from the…

  20. Multicenter Evaluation of the Solana Group A Streptococcus Assay: Comparison with Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.; Daly, Judy A.; Marti, Tara N.

    2016-01-01

    We compared group A Streptococcus (GAS) culture with a rapid helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) method using 1,082 throat swab specimens. The HDA method demonstrated 98.2% sensitivity and 97.2% specificity. GAS prevalence by culture was 20.7%, and it was 22.6% using the HDA method. In 35 min, the HDA method provided rapid, sensitive GAS detection, making culture confirmation unnecessary. PMID:27358464

  1. Comparison groups on bills: Automated, personalized energy information

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Maithili; Kempton, Willett; Payne, Christopher

    2006-07-01

    A program called ``Innovative Billing?? has been developed to provide individualized energy information for a mass audience?the entireresidential customer base of an electric or gas utility. Customers receive a graph on the bill that compares that customer?s consumption with othersimilar customers for the same month. The program aims to stimulate customers to make ef?ciency improvements. To group as many as severalmillion customers into small ``comparison groups??, an automated method must be developed drawing solely from the data available to the utility.This paper develops and applies methods to compare the quality of resulting comparison groups.A data base of 114,000 customers from a utility billing system was used to evaluate Innovative Billing comparison groups, comparing fouralternative criteria: house characteristics (?oor area, housing type, and heating fuel); street; meter read route; billing cycle. Also, customers wereinterviewed to see what forms of comparison graphs made most sense and led to fewest errors of interpretation. We ?nd that good qualitycomparison groups result from using street name, meter book, or multiple house characteristics. Other criteria we tested, such as entire cycle, entiremeter book, or single house characteristics such as ?oor area, resulted in poor quality comparison groups. This analysis provides a basis forchoosing comparison groups based on extensive user testing and statistical analysis. The result is a practical set of guidelines that can be used toimplement realistic, inexpensive innovative billing for the entire customer base of an electric or gas utility.

  2. Comparison of cardiovascular risk profile between male employees of two automotives companies in France and Sweden. The Coeur Project Group.

    PubMed

    Simon, A; Dimberg, L; Levenson, J; Lanoiselée, C; Massonneau, M; Eriksson, B; Jern, S; Kumlin, L; Marin, P; Dahlöf, B; Hansson, L; Björntorp, P

    1997-12-01

    To determine whether or not the lower rate of coronary disease in France, in comparison with Sweden, might be explained by different cardiovascular risk profiles, a cross-sectional analysis (first step of a longitudinal study) of comparable samples of automotive workers was carried out in corporate occupational health clinics of Renault and Volvo. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were evaluated and the Framingham coronary risk was estimated for 1000 randomly selected 45-50 years old Caucasian males from each company. Compared with the Frenchmen, the Swedish men consisted of more white collar workers and were slightly older. After adjustment for age and blue/white collar status, the Swedish men showed lower body mass indexes, waist to hip rations and heart rates, lower frequency of treatment of hypercholesterolemia and diabetes than the Frenchmen. The Swedish males also exhibited higher averages of blood cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and glucose, but lower frequencies of hypercholestrolemia and diabetes, and a higher frequency of family histories of cardiovascular disease. Blood pressure, hypertension prevalence, triglycerides level, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) did not differ between the groups. The average number of traditional risk factors was 1.1/person for the Frenchmen and 0.8/person for the Swedes. However, the coronary risk as estimated using the Framingham index was not different between the groups. This, together with the more frequent family history of cardiovascular disease in Swedish men, suggests a lower susceptibility to risk factors as a possible explanation for the lower cardiovascular disease prevalence reported in France, and/or the possibility that factors not measured were involved.

  3. THE NORTH AMERICAN MERCURY MODEL INTER-COMPARISON STUDY (NAMMIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the North American Mercury Model Inter-comparison Study (NAMMIS). The NAMMIS is an effort to apply atmospheric Hg models in a tightly constrained testing environment with a focus on North America. With each model using the same input data sets for initial co...

  4. Comparison of usual podiatric care and early physical therapy intervention for plantar heel pain: study protocol for a parallel-group randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A significant number of individuals suffer from plantar heel pain (PHP) and many go on to have chronic symptoms and continued disability. Persistence of symptoms adds to the economic burden of PHP and cost-effective solutions are needed. Currently, there is a wide variation in treatment, cost, and outcomes of care for PHP with limited information on the cost-effectiveness and comparisons of common treatment approaches. Two practice guidelines and recent evidence of effective physical therapy intervention are available to direct treatment but the timing and influence of physical therapy intervention in the multidisciplinary management of PHP is unclear. The purpose of this investigation is to compare the outcomes and costs associated with early physical therapy intervention (ePT) following initial presentation to podiatry versus usual podiatric care (uPOD) in individuals with PHP. Methods A parallel-group, block-randomized clinical trial will compare ePT and uPOD. Both groups will be seen initially by a podiatrist before allocation to a group that will receive physical therapy intervention consisting primarily of manual therapy, exercise, and modalities, or podiatric care consisting primarily of a stretching handout, medication, injections, and orthotics. Treatment in each group will be directed by practice guidelines and a procedural manual, yet the specific intervention for each participant will be selected by the treating provider. Between-group differences in the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure 6 months following the initial visit will be the primary outcome collected by an independent investigator. In addition, differences in the European Quality of Life – Five Dimensions, Numeric Pain Rating Scale, Global Rating of Change (GROC), health-related costs, and cost-effectiveness at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year will be compared between groups. The association between successful outcomes based on GROC score and participant expectations of recovery

  5. Two-Year Comparison of a Stream Macroinvertebrate Functional Group Bioassessment Protocol for the Republic of Palau Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesen, A. A.; Benbow, M. E.; Holm, T.; Burky, A. J.

    2005-05-01

    Macroinvertebrate functional feeding group data was collected in 2003 and 2004 to develop a rapid bioassessment protocol for Palauan streams. One reference stream, Ngardmau, was selected to test functional group ratios and associated ecosystem attributes against streams of variable impact. In both years qualitative samples were collected using 30s dip net samples in pool habitats and benthic scouring methods in cascades with additional quantitative cascade collections for sampling technique comparisons in 2004. In the reference stream riffle habitat, filtering-gatherers dominated the community (89.92% in 2003 and 47.37% in 2004) compared to all other functional groups. Among the impacted streams, riffle functional group composition was variable compared to the reference stream. In reference pool habitats, gathering-collectors and scrapers dominated in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Scrapers dominated pool habitats of impacted streams in 2004, with some functional groups missing. Changes in ecosystem attributes followed functional group variability depending on degree of impact. Functional group ratios indicated channel stability ratio ([filtering-collectors + scrapers]/[shredders + gathering-collectors]) was lowered with increasing impact, suggesting food and/or habitat quality for filtering-collectors was degraded in riffle habitats in 2003 with no trends in 2004. By this protocol streams were determined to be degraded in 2004 relative to 2003.

  6. The Life Design Group: A Case Study Vignette in Group Career Construction Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Susan R.; Stoltz, Kevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Providing cost efficient, yet effective, student services, including career services, is a critical component in higher education. Career services must include the perspectives of the 21st-century work place. We advocate for the delivery of career development services in a group format using a narrative approach to career counseling with college…

  7. A Summary of Observational Data of the Local Group and a Comparison to ΛCDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yniguez, Basilio

    The Local group's dwarf galaxies may well be the key to connecting observation and theory in galaxy formation. I will use this thesis to outline contributions I have made to collecting data related the galaxies in the Local Group. I will also describe several uses of ΛCDM substructure to investigate seemingly anomalous distributions of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. The first such anomalous distribution is that of the Milky Way's brightest dwarf satellites which, while presumed to represent a complete sample, are quite different, both in number and in spacial distribution from ΛCDM AND from those of our nearest large neighbor, the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). The conclusion drawn from this mismatch is that the MW's bright dwarf galaxies are potentially quite incomplete. The second anomalous distribution of satellites is M31's so called Great Plane of Satellites (POS), which consists of 16 dwarf galaxies that lie at a root mean square (RMS) distance of 13 kpc from a common plane and appear to be co-rotating about M31. I find that only one of the 44 high resolution simulated host halos has a great POS that is this thin, which is not corotating while several or more of the halos' thinnest POS are corotating at rates comparable to that of M31. The subhalos of the ELVIS suite of high resolution simulations serves as a simple, yet powerful, empirical tool to relate mass to tracer velocity dispersion. Using this combined with spectroscopic data which I helped to collect, I determine an M31 virial mass of 1:2 x 1012 which is consistent with mass estimates calculated from different data sets.

  8. Multicenter evaluation of antimicrobial resistance to six broad-spectrum beta-lactams in Colombia: comparison of data from 1997 and 1998 using the Etest method. The Colombian Antimicrobial Resistance Study Group.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, M A; Jones, R N; Doern, G V; Salazar, J C

    1999-11-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations of six broad-spectrum beta-lactam antimicrobial agents were determined in 1998 by use of the Etest versus a total of 823 bacteria in 11 Colombian hospital laboratories. These data were compared with results of a similar study conducted in 1997. The organisms tested included 532 recent clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, 108 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 94 Acinetobacter species, and 89 oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production was noted among 27.8 to 33.9% of Escherichia coli isolates and 41.7 to 46.7% of Klebsiella spp. isolates. Hyperproduction of Amp C cephalosporinases was observed with 10.5 to 31.4% of isolates of Enterobacter spp., Serratia spp., and Citrobacter spp. An increase in resistance to all of the beta-lactams was observed among Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter spp. and P. aeruginosa when 1998 results were compared with those obtained in 1997. The overall rank order of activity of the six beta-lactams tested in 1998 versus all clinical isolates was imipenem (93.2% susceptible) > cefoperazone/sulbactam (84.1%) > cefepime (80.9%) > ceftazidime (70.7%) > aztreonam (65.7%) > cefotaxime (65.6%). In contrast, the rank order of these same agents tested against a similar collection of Colombian isolates in 1997 was imipenem (96.6% susceptible) > cefepime (93.6%) > cefoperazone/sulbactam (90.5%) > cefotaxime (74.9%) > aztreonam (74.3%) > ceftazidime (73.2%).

  9. The Healthy Immigrant (Migrant) Effect: In Search of a Better Native-Born Comparison Group*

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Tod G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates whether immigrants’ initial health advantage over their U.S.-born counterparts results primarily from characteristics correlated with their birth countries (e.g., immigrant culture) or from selective migration (e.g., unobserved characteristics such as motivation and ambition) by comparing recent immigrants’ health to that of recent U.S.-born interstate migrants (“U.S.-born movers”). Using data from the 1999–2013 waves of the March Current Population Survey, I find that, relative to U.S.-born adults (collectively), recent immigrants have a 6.1 percentage point lower probability of reporting their health as fair or poor. Changing the reference group to U.S.-born movers, however, reduces the recent immigrant health advantage by 28%. Similar reductions in the immigrant health advantage occurs in models estimated separately by either race/ethnicity or education level. Models that examine health differences between recent immigrants and U.S-born movers who both moved for a new job—a primary motivation behind moving for both immigrants and the U.S.-born—show that such immigrants have only a 1.9 percentage point lower probability of reporting their health as fair or poor. Together, the findings suggest that changing the reference group from U.S.-born adults collectively to U.S.-born movers reduces the identified immigrant health advantage, indicating that selective migration plays a significant role in explaining the initial health advantage of immigrants in the United States. PMID:26463553

  10. Comparison of methods for the detection of node group membership in bipartite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawardecker, E. N.; Amundsen, C. A.; Sales-Pardo, M.; Amaral, L. A. N.

    2009-12-01

    Most real-world networks considered in the literature have a modular structure. Analysis of these real-world networks often are performed under the assumption that there is only one type of node. However, social and biochemical systems are often bipartite networks, meaning that there are two exclusive sets of nodes, and that edges run exclusively between nodes belonging to different sets. Here we address the issue of module detection in bipartite networks by comparing the performance of two classes of group identification methods - modularity maximization and clique percolation - on an ensemble of modular random bipartite networks. We find that the modularity maximization methods are able to reliably detect the modular bipartite structure, and that, under some conditions, the simulated annealing method outperforms the spectral decomposition method. We also find that the clique percolation methods are not capable of reliably detecting the modular bipartite structure of the bipartite model networks considered.

  11. Studies of Typing from the LNR Typing Research Group.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    transient signals having identical energy spectra. February, 1970. 11. Donald A. Norman. Remembrance of things past. June, 1970. 12. Norman I. Anderson...Differences in Skill Level, Errors, Hand Movements, and a Computer Simulation Donald R. Gentner F-’ Jonathan Grudin Serge Larochelle __ Donald A. Norman...Group: The Role of Context, Differences in Skill Level, Errors, Hand Movements, and a Computer Simulation The LNI Typing Research Group: Donald R

  12. Life Cycle Leadership Theory vs. Theory on the Phases of Small Group Discussion: Comparisons, Contrasts, and Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Charles Thomas, Jr.

    The work of Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard on life-cycle leadership was compared and contrasted to three studies on group phase theories. The studies on group phases were conducted by Robert Bales and Fred Strodtbeck in 1951, Thomas Scheidel and Laura Crowell in 1964, and B. Aubrey Fisher in 1970. The two theoretical approaches were found to…

  13. The history and future of the Urologic Oncology Study Group (UOSG) of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG).

    PubMed

    Tobisu, Kenichi

    2012-05-01

    The Urologic Oncology Study Group (UOSG) of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group was founded in 2001. At the beginning, 41 collaborative institutions participated, and the first group representative was Kenichi Tobisu, from the Shizuoka Cancer Center. In the last 10 years, three JCOG studies have been conducted. In two of them, patient registration has been closed and they are now in the follow-up period. The third study has just started registration in 2011. At present, we have not yet completed the final data analyses in any of the studies. In the meantime, however, we have performed a few retrospective analyses by collecting clinical data from each of the participating institutions, and the results were published as important Japanese data. All the activities of the investigation were supported by the Health and Labor Sciences Research Grants for Clinical Research in Japan. The UOSG encountered great difficulties in planning the prospective study, completing the sophisticated protocol and recruiting the expected number of patients. It usually took a longer time than expected to achieve the final goal. This was probably due to insufficient experience in conducting sophisticated protocol studies and immaturity in managing a study group. Now, the UOSG consists of 38 institutions and is gradually overcoming these problems. In 2011, the UOSG changed its group representative to Yoshiyuki Kakehi from Kagawa University and continues to strive to meet the challenge of becoming a more active group. In this review, we provide an overview of the history and achievements of the UOSG over the past 10 years, along with a list of participating institutions.

  14. Comparison of five blood-typing methods for the feline AB blood group system.

    PubMed

    Seth, Mayank; Jackson, Karen V; Giger, Urs

    2011-02-01

    Objective-To compare the ease of use and accuracy of 5 feline AB blood-typing methods: card agglutination (CARD), immunochromatographic cartridge (CHROM), gel-based (GEL), and conventional slide (SLIDE) and tube (TUBE) agglutination assays. Sample Population-490 anticoagulated blood samples from sick and healthy cats submitted to the Transfusion or Clinical Laboratory at the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Procedures-Sample selection was purposely biased toward those from anemic, type B, or type AB cats or those with autoagglutination. All blood samples were tested by use of GEL, SLIDE, and TUBE methods. Fifty-eight samples were also tested by use of CARD and CHROM methods. The presence of alloantibodies in all cats expressing the B antigen as detected by use of any method was also assessed. Results-Compared with the historical gold-standard TUBE method, good to excellent agreement was achieved with the other typing tests: CARD, 53 of 58 (91% agreement); CHROM, 55 of 58 (95%); GEL, 487 of 490 (99%); and SLIDE, 482 of 487 (99%; 3 samples were excluded because of autoagglutination). Four of the samples with discordant test results originated from cats with FeLV-related anemia. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Current laboratory and in-clinic methods provide simple and accurate typing for the feline AB blood group system with few discrepancies. Retyping after in-clinic typing with the GEL or TUBE laboratory methods is recommended to confirm any type B or AB cats.

  15. Azacitidine for Front-Line Therapy of Patients with AML: Reproducible Efficacy Established by Direct Comparison of International Phase 3 Trial Data with Registry Data from the Austrian Azacitidine Registry of the AGMT Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Pleyer, Lisa; Döhner, Hartmut; Dombret, Hervé; Seymour, John F.; Schuh, Andre C.; Beach, CL; Swern, Arlene S.; Burgstaller, Sonja; Stauder, Reinhard; Girschikofsky, Michael; Sill, Heinz; Schlick, Konstantin; Thaler, Josef; Halter, Britta; Machherndl Spandl, Sigrid; Zebisch, Armin; Pichler, Angelika; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Autzinger, Eva M.; Lang, Alois; Geissler, Klaus; Voskova, Daniela; Sperr, Wolfgang R.; Hojas, Sabine; Rogulj, Inga M.; Andel, Johannes; Greil, Richard

    2017-01-01

    We recently published a clinically-meaningful improvement in median overall survival (OS) for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), >30% bone marrow (BM) blasts and white blood cell (WBC) count ≤15 G/L, treated with front-line azacitidine versus conventional care regimens within a phase 3 clinical trial (AZA-AML-001; NCT01074047; registered: February 2010). As results obtained in clinical trials are facing increased pressure to be confirmed by real-world data, we aimed to test whether data obtained in the AZA-AML-001 trial accurately represent observations made in routine clinical practice by analysing additional AML patients treated with azacitidine front-line within the Austrian Azacitidine Registry (AAR; NCT01595295; registered: May 2012) and directly comparing patient-level data of both cohorts. We assessed the efficacy of front-line azacitidine in a total of 407 patients with newly-diagnosed AML. Firstly, we compared data from AML patients with WBC ≤ 15 G/L and >30% BM blasts included within the AZA-AML-001 trial treated with azacitidine (“AML-001” cohort; n = 214) with AAR patients meeting the same inclusion criteria (“AAR (001-like)” cohort; n = 95). The current analysis thus represents a new sub-analysis of the AML-001 trial, which is directly compared with a new sub-analysis of the AAR. Baseline characteristics, azacitidine application, response rates and OS were comparable between all patient cohorts within the trial or registry setting. Median OS was 9.9 versus 10.8 months (p = 0.616) for “AML-001” versus “AAR (001-like)” cohorts, respectively. Secondly, we pooled data from both cohorts (n = 309) and assessed the outcome. Median OS of the pooled cohorts was 10.3 (95% confidence interval: 8.7, 12.6) months, and the one-year survival rate was 45.8%. Thirdly, we compared data from AAR patients meeting AZA-AML-001 trial inclusion criteria (n = 95) versus all AAR patients with World Health Organization (WHO)-defined AML (“AAR (WHO

  16. Azacitidine for Front-Line Therapy of Patients with AML: Reproducible Efficacy Established by Direct Comparison of International Phase 3 Trial Data with Registry Data from the Austrian Azacitidine Registry of the AGMT Study Group.

    PubMed

    Pleyer, Lisa; Döhner, Hartmut; Dombret, Hervé; Seymour, John F; Schuh, Andre C; Beach, C L; Swern, Arlene S; Burgstaller, Sonja; Stauder, Reinhard; Girschikofsky, Michael; Sill, Heinz; Schlick, Konstantin; Thaler, Josef; Halter, Britta; Machherndl Spandl, Sigrid; Zebisch, Armin; Pichler, Angelika; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Autzinger, Eva M; Lang, Alois; Geissler, Klaus; Voskova, Daniela; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Hojas, Sabine; Rogulj, Inga M; Andel, Johannes; Greil, Richard

    2017-02-15

    We recently published a clinically-meaningful improvement in median overall survival (OS) for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), >30% bone marrow (BM) blasts and white blood cell (WBC) count ≤15 G/L, treated with front-line azacitidine versus conventional care regimens within a phase 3 clinical trial (AZA-AML-001; NCT01074047; registered: February 2010). As results obtained in clinical trials are facing increased pressure to be confirmed by real-world data, we aimed to test whether data obtained in the AZA-AML-001 trial accurately represent observations made in routine clinical practice by analysing additional AML patients treated with azacitidine front-line within the Austrian Azacitidine Registry (AAR; NCT01595295; registered: May 2012) and directly comparing patient-level data of both cohorts. We assessed the efficacy of front-line azacitidine in a total of 407 patients with newly-diagnosed AML. Firstly, we compared data from AML patients with WBC ≤ 15 G/L and >30% BM blasts included within the AZA-AML-001 trial treated with azacitidine ("AML-001" cohort; n = 214) with AAR patients meeting the same inclusion criteria ("AAR (001-like)" cohort; n = 95). The current analysis thus represents a new sub-analysis of the AML-001 trial, which is directly compared with a new sub-analysis of the AAR. Baseline characteristics, azacitidine application, response rates and OS were comparable between all patient cohorts within the trial or registry setting. Median OS was 9.9 versus 10.8 months (p = 0.616) for "AML-001" versus "AAR (001-like)" cohorts, respectively. Secondly, we pooled data from both cohorts (n = 309) and assessed the outcome. Median OS of the pooled cohorts was 10.3 (95% confidence interval: 8.7, 12.6) months, and the one-year survival rate was 45.8%. Thirdly, we compared data from AAR patients meeting AZA-AML-001 trial inclusion criteria (n = 95) versus all AAR patients with World Health Organization (WHO)-defined AML ("AAR (WHO-AML)" cohort; n

  17. Interpreting Voucher Research: The Influence of Multiple Comparison Groups and Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Kim K.; Legan, Natalie A.

    2006-01-01

    School vouchers, particularly since the landmark U.S. Supreme Court ruling on the Cleveland program, are one of the most contentious issues in American education. Seemingly contradictory results across available studies have caused confusion among diverse audiences. The authors suggest that these divergent findings are, in part, due to three…

  18. Comparison of Perception of Self-Competence among Five Ethnic Groups of Preschoolers in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambunathan, Saigeetha; Burts, Diane C.

    2003-01-01

    This study compared the perception of self-competence of immigrant Asian-American, Asian-Indian, Hispanic, native European-American, and African-American preschoolers. Self-competence is defined by Harter as the "feeling of confidence in achieving certain tasks." The development of self-competence emerges gradually as children acquire greater…

  19. Renormalization-group study of the four-body problem

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Richard; Moroz, Sergej

    2010-05-15

    We perform a renormalization-group analysis of the nonrelativistic four-boson problem by means of a simple model with pointlike three- and four-body interactions. We investigate in particular the region where the scattering length is infinite and all energies are close to the atom threshold. We find that the four-body problem behaves truly universally, independent of any four-body parameter. Our findings confirm the recent conjectures of others that the four-body problem is universal, now also from a renormalization-group perspective. We calculate the corresponding relations between the four- and three-body bound states, as well as the full bound-state spectrum and comment on the influence of effective range corrections.

  20. Final Report of the West Point Study Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-27

    effectively in the basic langu- ages of daily life-standard Eglish and scientific language . Likewise, an Academy education should emphasize the...behavioral sciences, language , and the humanities. This required grouping of courses is designed to estab- lish a foundation in the mathematical and...longer term will provide stability and continuity of policy and contribute to academic excellence. (p. 39) 2. Change the function of the Academic Board

  1. Alcohol Habits in Patients with Long-Term Musculoskeletal Pain: Comparison with a Matched Control Group from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin Bronner, Kerstin Birgitta; Wennberg, Peter; Kallmen, Hakan; Schult, Marie-Louise Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to describe alcohol habits in patients with chronic pain compared with those in a matched control group from the general Swedish population. In total, 100 consecutive patients enrolled were matched against 100 individuals in a control group on the basis of age and sex. Alcohol habits were measured using the Alcohol Use…

  2. The Use of Minimization to Form Comparison Groups in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torgerson, Carole J.; Torgerson, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials in educational research tend to be small. Small trials can have large, chance, imbalances in important covariates. For studies with sample sizes greater than 50, chance imbalances can be corrected using analysis of covariance; for small trials, however, statistical power is maximized if the trial is balanced and…

  3. A Study of Group Dynamics in Educational Leadership Cohort and Non-Cohort Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Bobbie J.; Karanxha, Zorka

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group dynamics of educational leadership students in cohorts and make comparisons with the group dynamics characteristics of non-cohort students. Cohorts have emerged as dynamic and adaptive entities with attendant group dynamic processes that shape collective learning and action. Cohort (n=42) and…

  4. Motivational Differences among Students with ADHD Reading Disabilities, Combined Groups, and Typical Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jiyeon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess reading motivational differences of students with reading disabilities/difficulties (RD), attention deficit hyperactive disorders/at-risk for ADHD, combined groups (RD+ADHD), and non-disabled comparisons (ND). Most motivational research has made academic motivational comparisons with typical students without…

  5. Comparison of self-report and electronic monitoring of 6MP intake in childhood ALL: A Children's Oncology Group study.

    PubMed

    Landier, Wendy; Chen, Yanjun; Hageman, Lindsey; Kim, Heeyoung; Bostrom, Bruce C; Casillas, Jacqueline N; Dickens, David S; Evans, William E; Maloney, Kelly W; Mascarenhas, Leo; Ritchey, A Kim; Termuhlen, Amanda M; Carroll, William L; Relling, Mary V; Wong, F Lennie; Bhatia, Smita

    2017-02-02

    Adequate exposure to oral 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) during maintenance therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is critical for sustaining durable remissions; the accuracy of self-reported 6MP intake is unknown. We aimed to directly compare self-report to electronic monitoring (Medication Event Monitoring System [MEMS]), and identify predictors of over-reporting in a cohort of 416 children with ALL in first remission over 4 study months per patient (1,344 patient-months for the cohort) during maintenance therapy. Patients were classified as "perfect reporters" (self-report=MEMS), "over reporters" (self-report>MEMS by ≥5 days/month for ≥50% of study months), and "others" (all patients not meeting criteria for perfect- or over-reporter). Multivariable logistic regression examined sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, 6MP dose-intensity, TPMT genotype, TGN levels, and 6MP non-adherence (MEMs-based adherence rate <95%) associated with the over-reporter phenotype; generalized estimating equations (GEE) compared 6MP intake by self-report and MEMS over the study period. Self-reported 6MP intake exceeded MEMS at least some of the time in 84% of patients. Fifty (12%) patients were classified as perfect reporters, 98 (23.6%) as over-reporters, 2 (0.5%) as under-reporters, and 266 (63.9%) as others. Multivariable logistic regression technique identified the following variables associated with the over-reporter phenotype: i) non-white race: Hispanic, odds ratio (OR)=2.4, 95%CI, 1.1-5.1, p=0.02; Asian, OR=3.1, 95%CI, 1.2-8.3, p=0.02; African-American, OR=5.4, 95%CI, 2.3-12.8, p=0.0001; ii) paternal education

  6. The false memory syndrome: Experimental studies and comparison to confabulations

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, M.F.; Fras, I.A.

    2011-01-01

    False memories, or recollections that are factually incorrect but strongly believed, remain a source of confusion for both psychiatrists and neurologists. We propose model for false memories based on recent experimental investigations, particularly when analyzed in comparison to confabulations, which are the equivalent of false memories from neurological disease. Studies using the Deese/Roedinger–McDermott experimental paradigm indicate that false memories are associated with the need for complete and integrated memories, self-relevancy, imagination and wish fulfillment, familiarity, emotional facilitation, suggestibility, and sexual content. In comparison, confabulations are associated with the same factors except for emotional facilitation, suggestibility, and sexual content. Both false memories and confabulations have an abnormal sense of certainty for their recollections, and neuroanatomical findings implicate decreased activity in the ventromedial frontal lobe in this certainty. In summary, recent studies of false memories in comparison to confabulations support a model of false memories as internally-generated but suggestible and emotionally-facilitated fantasies or impulses, rather than repressed memories of real events. Furthermore, like confabulations, in order for false memories to occur there must be an attenuation of the normal, nonconscious, right frontal “doubt tag” regarding their certainty. PMID:21177042

  7. Septic arthritis of the knee: clinical and laboratory comparison of groups with different etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Helito, Camilo Partezani; Teixeira, Paulo Renan Lima; de Oliveira, Priscila Rosalba; de Carvalho, Vladimir Cordeiro; Pécora, José Ricardo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Lima, Ana Lucia Munhoz

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To clinically and epidemiologically characterize a population diagnosed with and treated for septic arthritis of the knee, to evaluate the treatment results and to analyze the differences between patients with positive and negative culture results, patients with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial isolates and patients with S. aureus- and non-S. aureus-related infections. METHODS: One hundred and five patients with septic knee arthritis were included in this study. The clinical and epidemiological data were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed to compare patients with and without an isolated causative agent, patients with Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens and patients with S. aureus-related and non S. aureus-related infections. RESULTS: Causative agents were isolated in 81 patients. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 65 patients and Gram-negative bacteria were isolated in 16 patients. The most commonly isolated bacterium was S. aureus. Comparing cases with an isolated pathogen to cases without an isolated pathogen, no differences between the studied variables were found except for the longer hospital stays of patients in whom an etiological agent was identified. When comparing Gram-positive bacteria with Gram-negative bacteria, patients with Gram-positive-related infections exhibited higher leukocyte counts. Patients with S. aureus-related infections were more frequently associated with healthcare-related environmental encounters. CONCLUSION: S. aureus is the most common pathogen of septic knee arthritis. Major differences were not observed between infections with isolated and non-isolated pathogens and between infections with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. S. aureus infections were more likely to be associated with a prior healthcare environment exposure. PMID:28076516

  8. Comparison of the frequency of psychiatric disorders among patients with chronic low back pain and control group

    PubMed Central

    Farajirad, Elnaz; Tohidi, Hadi; Farajirad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common complaints of patients referred to the clinics. Studies indicated that psychosocial factors have great impact on the patients’ complaints and disability. The aim of this study was to evaluate a broad range of psychiatric disorders in patients with chronic LBP (CLBP) and compare them with those of the control group. Patients and Methods: We applied Symptom Checklist 90-R to compare 50 CLBP patients in the case group with 100 participants without it in the control group. The questionnaire measured somatization, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. Results: Average “global severity index” was 1.10 in the case and 0.5 in the control group. Average “positive symptom total” was 45.26 in the case and 27.41 in the control group. Average “positive symptom distress index” was 2.50 in the case and 1.50 in the control group. Average scores for all test dimensions were significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.00). Conclusions: All dimensions were significantly more common in CLBP patients. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of these disorders may improve the outcome of CLBP. PMID:27366258

  9. Context Matters: Volunteer Bias, Small Sample Size, and the Value of Comparison Groups in the Assessment of Research-Based Undergraduate Introductory Biology Lab Courses

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Sara E.; Kloser, Matthew J.; Fukami, Tadashi; Shavelson, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    The shift from cookbook to authentic research-based lab courses in undergraduate biology necessitates the need for evaluation and assessment of these novel courses. Although the biology education community has made progress in this area, it is important that we interpret the effectiveness of these courses with caution and remain mindful of inherent limitations to our study designs that may impact internal and external validity. The specific context of a research study can have a dramatic impact on the conclusions. We present a case study of our own three-year investigation of the impact of a research-based introductory lab course, highlighting how volunteer students, a lack of a comparison group, and small sample sizes can be limitations of a study design that can affect the interpretation of the effectiveness of a course. PMID:24358380

  10. Isolating the Terrorists: The Abu Sayyaf Group Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-23

    was given by the Spanish colonizers to the Muslims in Mindanao whom they found to have the same religion and way oflife with the Moors of North... Basil an Province, the ASG became increasingly notorious with a series of bombings in Zamboanga City. This was followed by the treacherous attack on...usacac.leavenworth.army.mil/blog/blogs/llop/archive/2009/02/26/commander- interview-mgen-juancho-m-sabban.aspx, (accessed January 22, 2011) Clark, Yvorme. " Moors and

  11. Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy in Breast Cancer: A Novel e-Health Approach in Optimizing Treatment for Seniors (OPTIMUM): A Two-Group Controlled Comparison Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tamblyn, Robyn; Meterissian, Sarkis; Law, Susan; Prchal, Jaroslav; Winslade, Nancy; Stern, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Background In women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer, adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) is associated with a significant survival advantage. Nonadherence is a particular challenge in older women, even though they stand to benefit the most from AET. Therefore, a novel eHealth tool (OPTIMUM) that integrates real-time analysis of health administrative claims data was developed to provide point-of-care decision support for clinicians. Objectives The objectives of the study are to determine the effectiveness of a patient-specific, real-time eHealth alert delivered at point-of-care in reducing rates of AET discontinuation and to understand patient-level factors related to AET discontinuation as well as to assess integration of eHealth alerts regarding deviations from best practices in administration of AET by cancer care teams. Methods A prospective, 2-group controlled comparison pilot study will be conducted at 2 urban, McGill University–affiliated hospitals, the Royal Victoria Hospital and St. Mary’s Hospital. A minimum of 43 patients per study arm will be enrolled through site-level allocation. Follow-up is 1.5 years. Health care professionals at the intervention site will have access to the eHealth tool, which will report to them in real-time medical events with known associations to AET discontinuation, an AET adherence monitor, and a discontinuation alert. Cox proportional hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals will estimate risks of AET discontinuation. Tests for significance will be 2-sided with a significance level of P<.05. Results This protocol has been approved and funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. The study will evaluate site-level differences between AET discontinuation and AET adherence and assess care team actions at the intervention site. Participant enrollment into this project is expected to start September 2016 with primary data ready to present by June 2018. Conclusion This study will offer an opportunity to

  12. Therapy of locally unresectable pancreatic carcinoma: a randomized comparison of high dose (6000 rads) radiation alone, moderate dose radiation (4000 rads + 5-fluorouracil), and high dose radiation + 5-fluorouracil: the Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group. [X ray

    SciTech Connect

    Moertel, C.G.; Frytak, S.; Hahn, R.G.

    1981-10-15

    One-hundred-ninety-four eligible and evaluable patients with histologically confirmed locally unresectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas were randomly assigned to therapy with high-dose (6000 rads) radiation therapy alone, to moderate-dose (4000 rads) radiation + 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and to high-dose radiation plus 5-FU. Median survival with radiation alone was only 5 1/2 months from date of diagnosis. Both 5-FU-containing treatment regimens produced a highly significant survival improvement when compared with radiation alone. Survival differences between 4000 rads plus 5-FU and 6000 rads plus 5-FU were not significant with an overall median survival of ten months. Significant prognostic variables, in addition to treatment, were pretreatment performance status and pretreatment CEA level. The toxic reactions related to the treatment are discussed.

  13. Structural Validity of the Movement ABC-2 Test: Factor Structure Comparisons across Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Joerg; Henderson, Sheila E.; Sugden, David A.; Barnett, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Movement ABC test is one of the most widely used assessments in the field of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Improvements to the 2nd edition of the test (M-ABC-2) include an extension of the age range and reduction in the number of age bands as well as revision of tasks. The total test score provides a measure of motor…

  14. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Three Group Treatments for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byom, Tianna K.

    2009-01-01

    Rising overweight and obesity rates in the United States and the accompanying health issues underscore the need for an effective treatment for weight loss. While most people tend to lose weight as a result of cognitive-behavioral treatment, the weight is often regained after treatment ends. Possible reasons for weight regain include not fully…

  15. Evaluation of "The First Tee" in Promoting Positive Youth Development: Group Comparisons and Longitudinal Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Maureen R.; Bolter, Nicole D.; Kipp, Lindsay E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This manuscript represents the 3rd in a series of articles documenting our longitudinal evaluation of "The First Tee," a physical activity-based youth development program that uses golf as a vehicle for teaching life skills and enhancing developmental outcomes. Previous phases of our project: (a) established initial data-based…

  16. The Noticing of Physical Education Teachers: A Comparison of Groups with Different Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuker, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Teachers' important diagnostic abilities include noticing and interpreting students' behaviors and learning processes. By focusing on noticing, I refer to the theoretical framework of professional vision. Professional vision includes the ability to notice what is occurring in complex classroom situations (selective attention) and the…

  17. Final Recommendations of the Community College Financing Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cade, John A.; Heller, Henry B.

    This report presents findings and recommendations from a study conducted by the Maryland General Assembly examining options for increasing state formula aid and changing the distribution of aid to the state's 18 community colleges. Following a letter of transmittal providing background information on community college financing, the report…

  18. Description of Bacillus toyonensis sp. nov., a novel species of the Bacillus cereus group, and pairwise genome comparisons of the species of the group by means of ANI calculations.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Guillermo; Urdiain, Mercedes; Cifuentes, Ana; López-López, Aránzazu; Blanch, Anicet R; Tamames, Javier; Kämpfer, Peter; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Ramón, Daniel; Martínez, Juan F; Codoñer, Francisco M; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon

    2013-09-01

    Strain BCT-7112(T) was isolated in 1966 in Japan from a survey designed to obtain naturally occurring microorganisms as pure cultures in the laboratory for use as probiotics in animal nutrition. This strain, which was primarily identified as Bacillus cereus var toyoi, has been in use for more than 30 years as the active ingredient of the preparation TOYOCERIN(®), an additive for use in animal nutrition (e.g. swine, poultry, cattle, rabbits and aquaculture). Despite the fact that the strain was initially classified as B. cereus, it showed significant genomic differences from the type strains of the B. cereus group that were large enough (ANI values below 92%) to allow it to be considered as a different species within the group. The polyphasic taxonomic study presented here provides sufficient discriminative parameters to classify BCT-7112(T) as a new species for which the name Bacillus toyonensis sp. nov. is proposed, with BCT-7112(T) (=CECT 876(T); =NCIMB 14858(T)) being designated as the type strain. In addition, a pairwise comparison between the available genomes of the whole B. cereus group by means of average nucleotide identity (ANI) calculations indicated that besides the eight classified species (including B. toyonensis), additional genomospecies could be detected, and most of them also had ANI values below 94%. ANI values were on the borderline of a species definition only in the cases of representatives of B. cereus versus B. thuringiensis, and B. mycoides and B. weihenstephanensis.

  19. The Comparison of the Effects of a Didactic Stress Management Program and Group Counselling on the Coping Strategies of School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coban, Aysel Esen; Hamamci, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a didactic stress management program, group counselling, and a control group on school counsellors' stress coping strategies. Thirty-four school counsellors were randomly assigned to either a didactic stress management group, group counselling, or a control group. The didactic stress management…

  20. A Comparison of the Perceptions of Four Groups of University Constituents Concerning Institutional Effectiveness at a Private University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernecker, Kimberly James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the level of congruence in the perceptions of institutional effectiveness among four groups of stakeholders at a small, private university in the Southern United States. The constituency consisted of 923 on-campus students, 12 administrators, 60 faculty, and 120 staff members. A descriptive research design…

  1. How Can Comparison Groups Strengthen Regression Discontinuity Designs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Coady; Cook, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine some of the ways that different types of non-equivalent comparison groups can be used to strengthen causal inferences based on regression discontinuity design (RDD). First, they consider a design that incorporates pre-test data on assignment scores and outcomes that were collected either before the treatment…

  2. GRIN: “GRoup versus INdividual physiotherapy following lower limb intra-muscular Botulinum Toxin-A injections for ambulant children with cerebral palsy: an assessor-masked randomised comparison trial”: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood. Spasticity is a significant contributor to the secondary impairments impacting functional performance and participation. The most common lower limb spasticity management is focal intramuscular injections of Botulinum Toxin-Type A accompanied by individually-delivered (one on one) physiotherapy rehabilitation. With increasing emphasis on improving goal-directed functional activity and participation within a family-centred framework, it is timely to explore whether physiotherapy provided in a group could achieve comparable outcomes, encouraging providers to offer flexible models of physiotherapy delivery. This study aims to compare individual to group-based physiotherapy following intramuscular Botulinum Toxin-A injections to the lower limbs for ambulant children with cerebral palsy aged four to fourteen years. Methods/Design An assessor-masked, block randomised comparison trial will be conducted with random allocation to either group-based or individual physiotherapy. A sample size of 30 (15 in each study arm) will be recruited. Both groups will receive six hours of direct therapy following Botulinum Toxin-A injections in either an individual or group format with additional home programme activities (three exercises to be performed three times a week). Study groups will be compared at baseline (T1), then at 10 weeks (T2, efficacy) and 26 weeks (T3, retention) post Botulinum Toxin-A injections. Primary outcomes will be caregiver/s perception of and satisfaction with their child’s occupational performance goals (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure) and quality of gait (Edinburgh Visual Gait Score) with a range of secondary outcomes across domains of the International Classification of Disability, Functioning and Health. Discussion This paper outlines the study protocol including theoretical basis, study hypotheses and outcome measures for this assessor-masked, randomised

  3. Cost analysis for the prevention of variceal rebleeding: a comparison between transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and endoscopic sclerotherapy in a selected group of Italian cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Meddi, P; Merli, M; Lionetti, R; De Santis, A; Valeriano, V; Masini, A; Rossi, P; Salvatori, F; Salerno, F; de Franchis, R; Capocaccia, L; Riggio, O

    1999-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the cumulative cost of the first 18-month period in a selected group of Italian cirrhotic patients treated with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) versus endoscopic sclerotherapy (ES) to prevent variceal rebleeding. Thirty-eight patients enrolled in a controlled trial were considered (18 TIPS and 20 sclerotherapy). The number of days spent in the hospital for the initial treatment and during the follow-up period were defined as the costs of hospitalization. ES sessions, TIPS procedures, angioplasty or addition of a second stent to maintain the shunt patency, were defined as the costs of therapeutic procedures. The two groups were comparable for age, sex, and Child-Pugh score. During the observation period 4 patients died in the TIPS group, and 2 died and 1 was transplanted in the sclerotherapy group. The rebleeding rate was significantly higher in the sclerotherapy group. Despite this, the number of days spent in the hospital was similar in the two groups. This was because of a higher number of hospital admissions for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy and shunt insufficiency in the TIPS group. The therapeutic procedures were more expensive for TIPS. Consequently, the cumulative cost was higher for patients treated with TIPS than for those treated with sclerotherapy. The extra cost was because of the initial higher cost of the procedure and the difference was still maintained at the end of the 18-month follow-up. When the cumulative costs were expressed per month free of rebleeding, the disadvantage of TIPS disappeared. In conclusion, a program of prevention of variceal rebleeding with TIPS, despite the longer interval free of rebleeding, is not a cost-saving strategy in comparison with sclerotherapy.

  4. Negotiating the Inquiry Question: A Comparison of Whole Class and Small Group Strategies in Grade Five Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnetto, Andy R.; Hand, Brian; Norton-Meier, Lori

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of two strategies for negotiating the question for exploration during science inquiry on student achievement and teachers' perceptions. The study is set in the context of the Science Writing Heuristic. The first strategy (small group) consisted of each group of four students negotiating a question for inquiry with the teacher while the second strategy (whole class) consisted of the entire class negotiating a single question for inquiry with the teacher. The study utilized a mixed-method approach. A quasi-experimental repeated measures design was used to determine the effect of strategy on student achievement and semi-structured teacher interviews were used to probe the question of teacher perceptions of the two strategies. Teacher observations were conducted using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) to check for variation in implementation of the two strategies. Iowa Test of Basic Skills Science (ITBSS) (2005 and 2006) and teacher/researcher developed unit exams (pre and post) were used as student achievement measures. No statistically significant differences were found among students in the two treatment groups on the ITBSS or unit exams. RTOP observations suggest that teacher implementation was consistent across the two treatment strategies. Teachers disclosed personal preferences for the two strategies, indicating the whole class treatment was easier to manage (at least at the beginning of the school year) as students gained experience with science inquiry and the associated increased responsibility. Possible mechanisms linking the two strategies, negotiated questions, and student outcomes are discussed.

  5. Exploratory Studies on the Effects of a Career Exploration Group for Urban Chinese Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Munyi; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Yeh, Christine J.; Lee, Sarah J.; Pituc, Stephanie T.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies evaluating a school-based, culturally responsive career exploration and assessment group for low-income, urban Chinese immigrant youth are described. Mixed qualitative and quantitative methods compared the treatment (CEDAR group) versus the control group (no intervention). In Study 1, CEDAR group participants reported a significant…

  6. Group dynamics during the EXEMSI isolation study. Experimental Campaign for the European Manned Space Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Cazes, C; Rosnet, E; Bachelard, C; Le Scanff, C; Rivolier, J

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the social behavior, interrelations, cohesion, efficiency and team formation of the crew during 60 days of isolation and confinement, to make a critical comparison of a variety of test methods used for this purpose and to formulate recommendations for their applications in selection, training and support for future studies of this kind. The study consisted of three phases: (1) the pre-isolation period, in which initial individual and group assessment were made to understand the motivation, characteristics, and styles of the crew members, the state of the crew, and to make a prognosis for the behavior of the group and its members, (2) the isolation period, with tests and observations to follow and analyze behavior and group dynamics of the crew, and to detect manifestations of stress, and (3) the post-isolation period with final assessment and debriefing. During these three periods individual and group tests were carried out. Direct methods, questionnaires and tests, as well as indirect methods, observations of behavior, were used. These had cognitive, affective-emotional and social components; they were quantitative, qualitative or a combination. Before isolation the crew members expressed strong confidence in the team and in their own personal capability. The leadership of the Commander seemed uncontested. Crew functioning during this period was conflict-free, but was structured in a rather rigid and defensive way (isolation of affects, denial of anxiety). Apparently, the members strongly needed to present a good image image of themselves. The relatively short period of the experiment, and the absence of real risk suggested that the crew would be able to maintain their cohesion, but in a real spaceflight situation this behavior could be inadequate and even dangerous. The pre-isolation prognosis for crew behavior during isolation was validated to a large extent. During isolation there were no clear manifestations of

  7. The Necessity for the Military Assistance Command--Vietnam Studies and Observations Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    THE NECESSITY FOR THE MILITARY ASSISTANCE COMMAND– VIETNAM STUDIES AND OBSERVATIONS GROUP A thesis presented to the Faculty of...2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Necessity for the Military Assistance Command–Vietnam Studies and Observations Group 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...14. ABSTRACT The Military Assistance Command, Vietnam–Studies and Observations Group was created in 1963 as the result of President John F

  8. Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, Judith M; Herzog, Holly; Clodfelter, Sharon; Bovee, Vicki; Schrage, Jon; Pritsos, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2) were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG) or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG) incorporating 1–2 meal replacement drinks or bars per day. Both groups had an energy-restricted goal of 5400 kJ/day. Dietary intake data was obtained using 3-Day Food records kept by the subjects at baseline, 6 months and one-year. For more uniform comparisons between groups, each diet intervention consisted of 18 small group sessions led by the same Registered Dietitian. Results Weight loss for the 73% (n = 70) completing this one-year study was not significantly different between the groups, but was significantly different (p ≤ .05) within each group with a mean (± standard deviation) weight loss of -6.1 ± 6.7 kg (TFG, n = 35) vs -5.0 ± 4.9 kg (MRG, n = 35). Both groups had macronutrient (Carbohydrate:Protein:Fat) ratios that were within the ranges recommended (50:19:31, TFG vs 55:16:29, MRG). Their reported reduced energy intake was similar (5729 ± 1424 kJ, TFG vs 5993 ± 2016 kJ, MRG). There was an improved dietary intake pattern in both groups as indicated by decreased intake of saturated fat (≤ 10%), cholesterol (<200 mg/day), and sodium (< 2400 mg/day), with increased total servings/day of fruits and vegetables (4.0 ± 2.2, TFG vs 4.6 ± 3.2, MRG). However, the TFG had a significantly lower dietary intake of several vitamins and minerals compared to the MRG and was at greater risk for inadequate intake. Conclusion In this one-year university-based intervention, both dietitian-led groups successfully lost weight while improving overall dietary adequacy. The group

  9. Comparison of four methods for the biofunctionalization of gold nanorods by the introduction of sulfhydryl groups to antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Zhong; Wang, Yanyan

    2017-01-01

    Introducing sulfhydryl groups to biomolecules to functionalize gold nanorods (GNRs) is an attractive method that involves the creation of a strong Au–S bond. Previously, we developed a facile method to functionalize GNR surfaces by thiolating antibodies using Traut’s reagent. In the current study, we evaluated several methods for the introduction of thiol groups onto the surface of GNRs by using Traut’s reagent, dithiotreitol (DTT), dithiolaromatic PEG6-CONHNH2, and thiol-polyethylene glycolamine (SH-PEG-NH2) combined with EDC reaction. We showed that the four above-mentioned thiolation methods can efficiently functionalize GNRs and simplify the functionalization procedures. The formed GNR-bioconjugates showed superior stability without compromising the biological activity. The GNR nanochip prepared with these four thiolated antibodies can detect human IgG targets with specificity. However, SH-PEG-NH2 combined with EDC reaction may affect the amount of functionalized GNRs because of the efficiency of thiol moiety linkage to antibodies, thereby affecting the sensitivity of the GNR sensor. The introduction of a thiol group to antibodies by using Traut’s reagent, DTT, and PEG6-CONHNH2 allowed for direct immobilization onto the GNR surface, improved the efficacy of functionalized GNRs, and increased the sensitivity in response to target detection as a biosensor. Given that PEG6-CONHNH2 modification requires glycosylated biomolecules, Traut’s reagent and DTT thiolation are recommended as universal applications of GNR biofunctionalization and can be easily extended to other sensing applications based on other gold nanostructures or new biomolecules. PMID:28326226

  10. Baseline characteristics and risk factors of retinal vein occlusion: a study by the Korean RVO Study Group.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Yong; Yoon, Young Hee; Kim, Ha Kyoung; Yoon, Hee Seong; Kang, Se Woong; Kim, June-Gone; Park, Kyu Hyung; Jo, Young Joon

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the demographic characteristics and risk factors of Korean patients with naÏve central or branch retinal vein occlusion (CRVO or BRVO). This study enrolled 41 clinical sites throughout Korea and included 557 consecutive patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) from May through November 2010. A total of 557 patients with new-onset RVO participated in this study. Two hundred and three (36.4%) patients were diagnosed with CRVO and 354 (63.6%) patients were diagnosed with BRVO. Comparisons between the two groups showed that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was significantly higher in CRVO patients and hypertension was significantly higher in BRVO patients (P = 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). Poor baseline visual acuity was significantly associated with female and old age in BRVO patients (P = 0.002 and 0.013, respectively), whereas the wide intraretinal hemorrhage (CRVO, P = 0.029; BRVO, P < 0.001) and the macular ischemia (CRVO, P < 0.001; BRVO, P < 0.001) were associated with both groups. The study results show the clinical features of RVO in Korean patients. Hypertension is strongly associated with BRVO and diabetes mellitus is more strongly associated with CRVO in Korean patients with RVO. As the first nationwide study performed by the Korean Retinal Society, the results of this study can be applied to future studies on RVO.

  11. Social support within a mother and child group: An ethnographic study situated in the UK.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jane; Skirton, Heather

    2013-06-01

    Social support has been associated with positive outcomes regarding the mothering experience, and professional interventions have therefore been developed in formal settings to promote this. An ethnographic approach was used to consider the subjective experiences of mothers attending a professionally-facilitated group for parents and children aged 0-4 years, focusing on relationships within the group and their importance within existing social networks. Qualitative data were collected from seven participants using interviews and participant observation. These were analyzed by the constant comparison method into codes, categories, and themes. Three themes emerged: past history, being a mother, and function of the group. To ensure mothers and children benefit from such groups, nurses who participate in developing and leading community interventions for mothers and their children need to be aware of the importance of maternal identity and the factors that can impact the relationships between mothers within group settings.

  12. Comparison of high group velocity accelerating structures

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, Z.D.; Wilson, P.B.

    1987-02-01

    It is well known that waveguides with no perturbations have phase velocities greater than the velocity of light c. If the waveguide dimensions are chosen so that the phase velocity is only moderately greater than c, only small perturbations are required to reduce the phase velocity to be synchronous with a high energy particle bunch. Such a lightly loaded accelerator structure will have smaller longitudinal and transverse wake potentials and hence will lead to lower emittance growth in an accelerated beam. Since these structures are lightly loaded, their group velocities are only slightly less than c and not in the order of 0.01c, as is the case for the standard disk-loaded structures. To ascertain that the peak and average power requirements for these structures are not prohibitive, we examine the elastance and the Q for several traveling wave structures: phase slip structures, bellows-like structures, and lightly loaded disk-loaded structures.

  13. Through the Vanishing Point, Study Group Paper No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Harley W.

    Under the impact of electronic immediacy the world is being reorganized in sensory terms toward the primacy of the audile-tactile. In the educational system, emphasis remains on traditional methods of logical (visual) and sequential learning. The effect on literature is an increased interest in the spoken, as opposed to the written word. Through…

  14. The effects of group 1 versus group 2 carbapenems on imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Carmeli, Yehuda; Lidji, Shiri Klarfeld; Shabtai, Esther; Navon-Venezia, Shiri; Schwaber, Mitchell J

    2011-07-01

    Use of the group 2 carbapenems, imipenem and meropenem, may lead to emergence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance. The group 1 carbapenem ertapenem has limited activity against P. aeruginosa and is not associated with imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (IMP-R PA) in vitro. This retrospective, group-level, longitudinal study collected patient, antibiotic use, and resistance data from 2001 to 2005 using a hospital database containing information on 9 medical wards. A longitudinal data time series analysis was done to evaluate the association between carbapenem use (defined daily doses, or DDDs) and IMP-R PA. A total of 139 185 patient admissions were included, with 541 150 antibiotics DDDs prescribed: 4637 DDDs of group 2 carbapenems and 2130 DDDs of ertapenem. A total of 779 IMP-R PA were isolated (5.6 cases/1000 admissions). Univariate analysis found a higher incidence of IMP-R PA with group 2 carbapenems (P < 0.001), aminoglycosides (P = 0.034), and penicillins (P = 0.05), but not with ertapenem. Multivariate analysis showed a yearly increase in incidence of IMP-R-PA (3.8%, P < 0.001). Group 2 carbapenem use was highly associated with IMP-R PA, with a 20% increase in incidence (P = 0.0014) for each 100 DDDs. Group 2 carbapenem use tended to be associated with an increased proportion of IMP-R PA (P = 0.0625) in multivariate analysis. Ertapenem was not associated with IMP-R PA. These data would support preferentially prescribing ertapenem rather than group 2 carbapenems where clinically appropriate.

  15. Mentoring First Year Study Groups--Benefits from the Mentors' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrberg, Nadia Rahbek; Michelsen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    The "study group concept" at the University of Southern Denmark (SDU) was implemented to aid first year students' transitional challenges. A mentor (an older student) is affiliated each study group to facilitate productive group work, bring awareness to study habits, and share his/her own experiences with life as a student. The study…

  16. Lessons learned from the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry (PCMR) Study Group.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, James D; Westphal, Joslyn A; Bansal, Neha; Czachor, Jason D; Razoky, Hiedy; Lipshultz, Steven E

    2015-08-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a rare disorder of the heart muscle, affecting 1.13 cases per 100,000 children, from birth to 18 years of age. Cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of heart transplantation in children over the age of 1. The Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry funded in 1994 by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute was established to examine the epidemiology of the disease in children below 18 years of age. More than 3500 children across the United States and Canada have been enrolled in the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry, which has followed-up these patients until death, heart transplantation, or loss to follow-up. The Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry has provided the most in-depth illustration of this disease regarding its aetiology, clinical course, associated risk factors, and patient outcomes. Data from the registry have helped in guiding the clinical management of cardiomyopathy in children under 18 years of age; however, questions still remain regarding the most clinically effective diagnostic and treatment approaches for these patients. Future directions of the registry include the use of next-generation whole-exome sequencing and cardiac biomarkers to identify aetiology-specific treatments and improve diagnostic strategies. This article provides a brief synopsis of the work carried out by the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry since its inception, including the current knowledge on the aetiologies, outcomes, and treatments of cardiomyopathy in children.

  17. Studies on the Nucleocapsid Structure of a Group A Arbovirus

    PubMed Central

    Horzinek, Marian; Mussgay, Manfred

    1969-01-01

    When Sindbis virus (273S) was treated with sodium desoxycholate, a nonhemagglutinating 136S particle was liberated from the virion, representing the viral nucleocapsid (core). Electron microscopically it appeared as a spherical particle 35 nm in diameter, showing ringlike morphological units 12 to 14 nm in diameter on its surface. When the one- and two-sided images of core particles were correlated, their structure could be demonstrated to have the T = 3 arrangement of 32 hexamer-pentamer morphological units within a symmetrical surface lattice. The core contained a further spherical structure (12 to 16 nm in diameter) which was designated as the central core component. Two proteins were found associated with the core, a third viral protein belonged to the hemagglutinating surface structures. The significance of these findings for virus classification is discussed. Images PMID:4186278

  18. Pilot study of the Korean Parent Training Program using a partial group randomized experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjung; Cain, Kevin; Boutain, Doris; Chun, Jin-Joo; Kim, Sangho; Im, Hyesang

    2017-01-01

    Problems Korean American (KA) children experience mental health problems due to difficulties in parenting dysfunction complicated by living in two cultures. Methods Korean Parent Training Program (KPTP) was pilot tested with 48 KA mothers of children (ages 3–8) using partial group randomized controlled experimental study design. Self-report survey and observation data were gathered. Findings Analyses using generalized estimating equation indicated the intervention group mothers increased effective parenting and their children decreased behavior problems and reported less acculturation conflict with mothers. Conclusions The KPTP is a promising way to promote effective parenting and increase positive child mental health in KA families. PMID:24645901

  19. A Comparison of Solar Cycle Variations in the Equatorial Rotation Rates of the Sun's Subsurface, Surface, Corona, and Sunspot Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaraiah, J.

    2013-10-01

    Using the Solar Optical Observing Network (SOON) sunspot-group data for the period 1985 - 2010, the variations in the annual mean equatorial-rotation rates of the sunspot groups are determined and compared with the known variations in the solar equatorial-rotation rates determined from the following data: i) the plasma rotation rates at 0.94R⊙,0.95R⊙,…,1.0R⊙ measured by the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) during the period 1995 - 2010, ii) the data on the soft-X-ray corona determined from Yohkoh/SXT full-disk images for the years 1992 - 2001, iii) the data on small bright coronal structures (SBCS) that were traced in Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/EIT images during the period 1998 - 2006, and iv) the Mount Wilson Doppler-velocity measurements during the period 1986 - 2007. A large portion (up to ≈ 30∘ latitude) of the mean differential-rotation profile of the sunspot groups lies between those of the internal differential-rotation rates at 0.94R⊙ and 0.98R⊙. The variation in the yearly mean equatorial-rotation rate of the sunspot groups seems to be lagging behind that of the equatorial-rotation rate determined from the GONG measurements by one to two years. The amplitude of the GONG measurements is very small. The solar-cycle variation in the equatorial-rotation rate of the solar corona closely matches that determined from the sunspot-group data. The variation in the equatorial-rotation rate determined from the Mount Wilson Doppler-velocity data closely resembles the corresponding variation in the equatorial-rotation rate determined from the sunspot-group data that included the values of the abnormal angular motions (> |3∘| day-1) of the sunspot groups. Implications of these results are pointed out.

  20. Machine intelligence and robotics: Report of the NASA study group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Opportunities for the application of machine intelligence and robotics in NASA missions and systems were identified. The benefits of successful adoption of machine intelligence and robotics techniques were estimated and forecasts were prepared to show their growth potential. Program options for research, advanced development, and implementation of machine intelligence and robot technology for use in program planning are presented.

  1. Attachment relationships of adolescents who spent their infancy in residential group care: The Greek Metera study.

    PubMed

    Vorria, Panayiota; Ntouma, Maria; Vairami, Maria; Rutter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A prospective longitudinal study beginning whilst the infants were living in the Metera Babies Centre showed that the great majority showed a disorganized attachment during the period of residential care, even though neither abuse/neglect nor subnutrition were involved. There was an initial follow-up post-adoption age at four years. This paper concerns a further follow-up of the 52 adopted adolescents aged 13 years who had spent their first two years of life in Metera Babies Centre. They were compared to 36 adolescents reared in their biological families who, during their infancy, attended full-time public day care. The key aim was to examine continuities and discontinuities between early and contemporary relationships. The Child Attachment Interview was employed in adolescence. The main findings were a significant decrease in the rate of disorganization and a lack of a significant difference between the previously institutionalized group and the family care comparison group on attachment qualities in adolescence. There was not sufficient statistical power, however, to detect a small difference.

  2. How Terrorist Groups End: Studies of the Twentieth Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    rights and wages of blue-collar working men, Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of...Information Operations and Reports , 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any...valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE How Terrorist

  3. Group Work and the Learning of Critical Thinking in the Hong Kong Secondary Liberal Studies Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Dennis; Howe, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a one-year longitudinal study that investigated the impact of group work on the development of students' critical thinking in Hong Kong secondary schools. It explores whether the participation of teachers in a group-based teaching intervention adapted from an earlier study conducted in the United Kingdom (UK)…

  4. The Saginaw Teacher Study Group Movement: From Pilot to Districtwide Study Groups in Four Years. National Writing Project at Work. Volume 1, Number 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Mary K.; Calliari, Mary

    2004-01-01

    This monograph covers the Saginaw Teacher Study Group Movement from its inception in 1996 through its expansion to include the overwhelming majority of Saginaw teachers in 1999-2001. Since 1996, classroom teachers in Saginaw have been volunteering for study groups addressing the learning and teaching of students in poverty. In the first half of…

  5. A single standardized practical training for surgical scrubbing according to EN1500: Effect Quantification, value of the standardized method and comparison with clinical reference groups

    PubMed Central

    Fichtner, Andreas; Haupt, Elke; Karwath, Tobias; Wullenk, Katharina; Pöhlmann, Christoph; Jatzwauk, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    The standardized training of practical competences in skills labs is relatively new among German Medical Faculties. The broad acceptance and outstanding evaluation results do not provide objective data on the efficiency and cost-efficiency of these trainings. This study aims on the quantification of the teaching effect of the surgical scrubbing technique EN1500 and its comparison with clinical references of OR personnel. Methods: 161 4th year medical students were randomized into intervention and control group. The intervention group received a 45 minute standardized peer-teaching training of practical competences necessary in the OR including the scrubbing according to EN1500. Fluorescence dye was mixed in the disinfectant solution. After hand disinfection, standardized fotographs and semi-automated digital processing resulted in quantification of the insufficiently covered hand area. These results were compared with the control group that received the training after the test. In order to provide information on the achieved clinical competence level, the results were compared with the two clinical reference groups. Results: The intervention group remained with 4,99% (SD 2,34) insufficiently covered hand area after the training compared to the control group 7,33% (SD 3,91), p<0,01. There was no significant difference between control group and reference groups: surgeons 9,32% (SD 4,97), scrub nurses 8,46% (SD 4,66). The student intervention group showed results that were significantly better than the clinical references. The methodic mistake remained negligible. In the sub-group analysis, the students with low or medium experience in surgical scrubbing and hand disinfection derived highest benefit from the training, whereas students with no or high experience did benefit less. All participants showed better results on hand palms compared to back of hand areas. Discussion: A single standardized peer-teaching of surgical scrubbing and hand disinfection according to EN

  6. Food groups and the risk of colorectal cancer: results from a Jordanian case-control study.

    PubMed

    Abu Mweis, Suhad S; Tayyem, Reema F; Shehadah, Ihab; Bawadi, Hiba A; Agraib, Lana M; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed

    2015-07-01

    The role of diet in colorectal cancer (CRC) in Jordan has not been studied previously. This study aimed at examining the association between food groups (including grains, fruits, vegetables, milk, and meat and legumes) and CRC risk in Jordan. We compared intakes of the different food groups among CRC patients (n=167) and matched controls (n=240) by age, sex, occupation, and marital status. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of quartiles of intakes of the different food groups with CRC risk. In addition, the association of selected food items with CRC risk was examined. Odds ratios (ORs) for the fourth versus the first quartile of intake were 2.92 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-6.08] for grains, 1.66 (95% CI: 0.81-3.40) for vegetables, 0.55 (95% CI: 0.26-1.16) for fruits, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.46-1.97) for milk, and 1.43 (95% CI: 0.68-2.98) for meat and legumes. In a comparison of the highest with the lowest weekly frequency of consumption, there was a direct association between the risk of CRC and the frequency of consumption of chicken (OR=2.52, 95% CI: 1.33-4.77). An increase in risk was observed with increased consumption of white bread (OR=3.13, 95% CI: 1.18-9.25), whereas consumption of whole bread was associated with a decreased risk for CRC (OR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.12-0.84). Our results support a role of diet in CRC. Direct associations were found for grains, white bread, and chicken, whereas an inverse relation was reported for whole bread.

  7. Naval Outpatient Medical Care and Services: A Comparison of the Perceptions of Satisfaction Held by Sub-Groupings of a Beneficiary Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    services and providers. How does the medical community find out how well it is meeting the needs of its customers? In general, patient satisfaction is the...PERCEPTIONS OF SATISFACTION HELD BY SUB-GROUPINGS OF A BENEFICIARY POPULATION 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) LCDR John A. Rooney 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED...OUTPATIENT MEDICAL CARE AND SERVICES: A COMPARISON OF THE PERCEPTIONS OF SATISFACTION HELD BY SUB-GROUPINGS OF A BENEFICIARY POPULATION A Graduate Research

  8. When are emotions related to group-based appraisals? A comparison between group-based emotions and general group emotions.

    PubMed

    Kuppens, Toon; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y

    2014-12-01

    In the literature on emotions in intergroup relations, it is not always clear how exactly emotions are group-related. Here, we distinguish between emotions that involve appraisals of immediate group concerns (i.e., group-based emotions) and emotions that do not. Recently, general group emotions, measured by asking people how they feel "as a group member" but without specifying an object for these emotions, have been conceptualized as reflecting appraisals of group concerns. In contrast, we propose that general group emotions are best seen as emotions about belonging to a group. In two studies, general group emotions were closely related to emotions that are explicitly measured as belonging emotions. Two further studies showed that general group emotions were not related to appraisals of immediate group concerns, whereas group-based emotions were. We argue for more specificity regarding the group-level aspects of emotion that are tapped by emotion measures.

  9. Petroleum potential of the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa Group in Illinois: A coordinated geological and geochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, J.E.; Oltz, D.F. ); Kruge, M.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The Ordovician Maquoketa Group in Illinois, predominantly composed of shale, calcareous shale, and carbonates, has long been considered a potential source for Illinois basin hydrocarbons. Methods used to better define the petroleum potential of the Maquoketa in the Illinois basin were lithostratigraphic study, Rock-Eval (pyrolysis) analyses, comparison of molecular markers from whole-rock extracts and produced oil, and construction of burial history models. Organic-rich submature Maquoketa potential source rocks are present in western Illinois at shallow depths on the basin flank. Deeper in the basin in southern Illinois, Rock-Eval analyses indicate that the Maquoketa shale is within the oil window. Solvent extracts of the Maquoketa from western Illinois closely resemble the Devonian New Albany Shale, suggesting that past studies may have erroneously attributed Maquoketa-generated petroleum to a New Albany source or failed to identify mixed source oils. Subtle differences between Maquoketa and New Albany solvent extracts include differences in pristane/phytane ratios, proportions of steroids, and distribution of dimethyldibenzothiophene isomers. Maquoketa solvent extracts show little resemblance to Middle Ordovician oils from the Illinois or Michigan basins. Lithostratigraphic studies identified localized thick carbonate facies in the Maquoketa, suggesting depositional response to upper Ordovician paleostructures. Sandstone facies in the Maquoketa in southwestern Illinois offer a potential source/trap play, as well as serving as potential carrier beds for hydrocarbon migration. Maquoketa source and carrier beds may feed older Ordovician rocks in faulted areas along and south of the Cottage Grove fault system in southern Illinois.

  10. A Comparison of the Effects of Group Dynamics on Individuals Assigned to Integral and Non-Integral Aircrews.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    34 Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 10: 149-165(1974). Cartwright , Dorwin and Alvin Zander. Group Dynamics Research and Theory. Row, Peterson and...Company, Evanston IL 1953. Cartwright , Dorwin and Alvin Zander. "The Nature of Group Cohesiveness," Group Dynamics, 91-109. Harper and Row, New York...other reasons. Cartwright and Zander propose that groups may either facilitate or inhibit tne attainment of desirable social objectives ( Cartwright and

  11. Geology orbiter comparison study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, J. A. J.; Blasius, K. R.; Davis, D. R.; Pang, K. D.; Shreve, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Instrument requirements of planetary geology orbiters were examined with the objective of determining the feasibility of applying standard instrument designs to a host of terrestrial targets. Within the basic discipline area of geochemistry, gamma-ray, X-ray fluorescence, and atomic spectroscopy remote sensing techniques were considered. Within the discipline area of geophysics, the complementary techniques of gravimetry and radar were studied. Experiments using these techniques were analyzed for comparison at the Moon, Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites. On the basis of these comparative assessments, the adaptability of each sensing technique was judged as a basic technique for many targets, as a single instrument applied to many targets, as a single instrument used in different mission modes, and as an instrument capability for nongeoscience objectives.

  12. Qualitative analysis of the role of self-weighing as a strategy of weight control for weight-loss maintainers in comparison with a normal, stable weight group.

    PubMed

    Carrard, Isabelle; Kruseman, Maaike

    2016-10-01

    Self-weighing seems to have a primary role in weight-loss maintenance. The use of this strategy may help correct even slight weight regain and contribute to long-term weight stability. However, self-weighing has also been associated with negative psychological health consequences in specific subgroups. This study aimed to explore the use and the behavioral and psychological consequences of self-weighing in a group of weight-loss maintainers (WLoMs). We chose a qualitative design to conduct this investigation. Eighteen WLoMs were interviewed and compared to a matched comparison group of 18 participants with a lifelong normal stable weight (NSW). Analyses showed that most WLoMs needed regular self-weighing to be aware of their weight. The weight displayed on the scale helped WLoMs sustain the continuous efforts needed to maintain weight loss and also at times triggered corrective actions that were sometimes drastic. Weight changes generated both negative and positive affect among WLoMs, who could experience anxiety because of self-weighing or have their self-esteem impaired in the case of weight gain. In comparison, the NSW group rarely used self-weighing. They relied on a conscious way of living to control their weight and needed fewer strategies. NSW participants simply went back to their routine when they felt a slight increase in their weight, without experiencing consequences on their mood or self-esteem. Regular self-weighing as a component of weight-loss maintenance should be encouraged to help WLoMs regulate their food and physical activity, provided that potential consequences on psychological well-being, including self-esteem, are screened and addressed when needed.

  13. Comparison of tinzaparin and acenocoumarol for the secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism: a multicentre, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Pérez-de-Llano, Luis A; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Golpe, Rafael; Núñez-Delgado, Jose M; Palacios-Bartolomé, Ana; Méndez-Marote, Lidia; Colomé-Nafria, Esteve

    2010-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and healthcare resource utilization of long-term treatment with tinzaparin in symptomatic patients with acute pulmonary embolism as compared to standard therapy. In this open-label trial, 102 patients with objectively confirmed pulmonary embolism were randomized to receive, after initial treatment with tinzaparin, either tinzaparin (175 IU/kg/day) or international normalized ratio-adjusted acenocoumarol for 6 months. Clinical endpoints were assessed during the 6 months of treatment. A pharmacoeconomic analysis was carried out to evaluate the cost of the long-term treatment with tinzaparin in comparison with the standard one. In an intention-to-treat analysis, one of 52 patients developed recurrent venous thromboembolism in the tinzaparin group compared with none of the 50 patients in the acenocoumarol group. One patient in each group had a major haemorrhagic complication. Six patients in the acenocoumarol group had minor bleeding compared with none in the tinzaparin group (P = 0.027). Median hospital length of stay was shorter in the tinzaparin group compared to the acenocoumarol group (7 versus 9 days; P = 0.014). When all the direct and indirect cost components were combined for the entire population, we found a slight, nonstatistically significant (mean difference €345; 95% CI 1382-2071; P = 0.69) reduction in total cost with tinzaparin. Symptomatic acute pulmonary embolism treatment with full therapeutic doses of tinzaparin for 6 months is a feasible alternative to conventional treatment with vitamin K antagonists.

  14. Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery Study Group.

    PubMed

    LoCicero, J

    1993-09-01

    Both patients and the medical profession are quick to embrace new technology, particularly when it may replace an existing surgical procedure. Unfortunately, the rapidity of acceptance is rarely associated with careful evaluation. Laparoscopy is a recent example of such widely embraced technology. Studies of laparoscopy that yielded good comparative data to more traditional methods were slow to accrue. This led to the exposure of its shortcomings through governmental reports and the lay press. To prevent this from happening in thoracoscopy, two types of studies are required so that valid conclusions about the new technology can be drawn. The first is an accounting of the new technology as procedures evolve around it. The data collected in such a study should contain basic information, including the indications for the procedure, how it was performed, procedure length, associated complications, and patient outcome. Such information provides a broad profile of the technology, emphasizing from the outset its potential strengths and weaknesses. The second type of study involves a more detailed concurrent comparison of the specific procedures utilizing this technology to the established traditional methods. Such randomized studies help to firmly establish through scientific process the place of the new technology. The Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery Study Group was organized in early 1992 to address these concerns. From an initial four surgeons the group has grown to include more than 41 institutions. Currently the group is collecting data in a registry and has established three clinical trials to evaluate video-assisted thoracic surgery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Benchmark Problems of the Geothermal Technologies Office Code Comparison Study

    SciTech Connect

    White, Mark D.; Podgorney, Robert; Kelkar, Sharad M.; McClure, Mark W.; Danko, George; Ghassemi, Ahmad; Fu, Pengcheng; Bahrami, Davood; Barbier, Charlotte; Cheng, Qinglu; Chiu, Kit-Kwan; Detournay, Christine; Elsworth, Derek; Fang, Yi; Furtney, Jason K.; Gan, Quan; Gao, Qian; Guo, Bin; Hao, Yue; Horne, Roland N.; Huang, Kai; Im, Kyungjae; Norbeck, Jack; Rutqvist, Jonny; Safari, M. R.; Sesetty, Varahanaresh; Sonnenthal, Eric; Tao, Qingfeng; White, Signe K.; Wong, Yang; Xia, Yidong

    2016-12-02

    A diverse suite of numerical simulators is currently being applied to predict or understand the performance of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). To build confidence and identify critical development needs for these analytical tools, the United States Department of Energy, Geothermal Technologies Office has sponsored a Code Comparison Study (GTO-CCS), with participants from universities, industry, and national laboratories. A principal objective for the study was to create a community forum for improvement and verification of numerical simulators for EGS modeling. Teams participating in the study were those representing U.S. national laboratories, universities, and industries, and each team brought unique numerical simulation capabilities to bear on the problems. Two classes of problems were developed during the study, benchmark problems and challenge problems. The benchmark problems were structured to test the ability of the collection of numerical simulators to solve various combinations of coupled thermal, hydrologic, geomechanical, and geochemical processes. This class of problems was strictly defined in terms of properties, driving forces, initial conditions, and boundary conditions. Study participants submitted solutions to problems for which their simulation tools were deemed capable or nearly capable. Some participating codes were originally developed for EGS applications whereas some others were designed for different applications but can simulate processes similar to those in EGS. Solution submissions from both were encouraged. In some cases, participants made small incremental changes to their numerical simulation codes to address specific elements of the problem, and in other cases participants submitted solutions with existing simulation tools, acknowledging the limitations of the code. The challenge problems were based on the enhanced geothermal systems research conducted at Fenton Hill, near Los Alamos, New Mexico, between 1974 and 1995. The problems

  16. The Efficacy of Two Improvement-over-Chance Effect Size Measures for Two-Group Univariate Comparisons under Variance Heterogeneity and Nonnormality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Brian; Olejnik, Stephen; Huberty, Carl J.

    The efficacy of two improvement-over-chance or "I" effect sizes, derived from predictive discriminant analysis (PDA) and logistic regression analysis (LRA), were investigated for two-group univariate mean comparisons. Data were generated under selected levels of population separation, variance pattern, sample size, and distribution…

  17. Results of the eruptive column model inter-comparison study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, A.; Suzuki, Y. J.; Cerminara, M.; Devenish, B. J.; Ongaro, T. Esposti; Herzog, M.; Van Eaton, A. R.; Denby, L. C.; Bursik, M.; de'Michieli Vitturi, M.; Engwell, S.; Neri, A.; Barsotti, S.; Folch, A.; Macedonio, G.; Girault, F.; Carazzo, G.; Tait, S.; Kaminski, E.; Mastin, L. G.; Woodhouse, M. J.; Phillips, J. C.; Hogg, A. J.; Degruyter, W.; Bonadonna, C.

    2016-10-01

    This study compares and evaluates one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) numerical models of volcanic eruption columns in a set of different inter-comparison exercises. The exercises were designed as a blind test in which a set of common input parameters was given for two reference eruptions, representing a strong and a weak eruption column under different meteorological conditions. Comparing the results of the different models allows us to evaluate their capabilities and target areas for future improvement. Despite their different formulations, the 1D and 3D models provide reasonably consistent predictions of some of the key global descriptors of the volcanic plumes. Variability in plume height, estimated from the standard deviation of model predictions, is within 20% for the weak plume and 10% for the strong plume. Predictions of neutral buoyancy level are also in reasonably good agreement among the different models, with a standard deviation ranging from 9 to 19% (the latter for the weak plume in a windy atmosphere). Overall, these discrepancies are in the range of observational uncertainty of column height. However, there are important differences amongst models in terms of local properties along the plume axis, particularly for the strong plume. Our analysis suggests that the simplified treatment of entrainment in 1D models is adequate to resolve the general behaviour of the weak plume. However, it is inadequate to capture complex features of the strong plume, such as large vortices, partial column collapse, or gravitational fountaining that strongly enhance entrainment in the lower atmosphere. We conclude that there is a need to more accurately quantify entrainment rates, improve the representation of plume radius, and incorporate the effects of column instability in future versions of 1D volcanic plume models.

  18. Prevalence of Types of Cancers in the Elderly Covered by Insurance of the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting Company in 2015 - Comparison with Younger Groups.

    PubMed

    Roshani, Zahra; Akbari Kamrani, Ahmad Ali; Shati, Mohsen; Sahaf, Robab

    2016-01-01

    Presently, the world population of the elderly is growing. By improving health hygiene and welfare indicators, mortality and birth rates decrease and life expectancy increases, making the present century the century of elderly. Aging is one of the main risk factors for development of cancer, which itself is the second cause of death in old people. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of cancer in the elderly covered by the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) insurance program and to obtain suitable programs for cancer screening and early detection, increase patient survival, improve elderly care and to reclaim the cost of treatment in comparison to the national and international statistics. This is a cross-sectional study conducted on all elderly patients diagnosed with malignancy based on their pathology reports. In this study, of the total 75,500 patients covered by IRIB insurance, 17.2% belonged to the elderly group, males accounting for 53.3%. The most common cancers in old men were prostatic cancer (61.3%), colon cancer (10.3%) cancer of the hematologic system, bladder cancer (9.6%), lung cancer (9.1%), thyroid cancer (3.9%) and brain tumors (1.3%). In the elderly women, the most common cancers were breast cancer (80.1%), colon cancer (5.1%), thyroid cancers (4.4%), bladder and hematologic system malignancies (3.6), lung cancer (2.9%) and brain tumors (0.7%). In addition, the prevalence of cancer was almost the same as national and international statistics. With the exception of non-melanoma skin cancer no difference was shown in prevalence of cancer between IRIB elderly patients and the other groups of cancer patients in Iran.

  19. Comparison of Safety and Immunogenicity of PVRV and PCECV Immunized in Patients with WHO Category II Animal Exposure: A Study Based on Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Man-Qing; Zhu, Zheng-Gang; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Hu, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the safety and immunogenicity between purified vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV) in patients with WHO category II animal exposure, especially in different age groups. Methodology/Principal Findings In one-year clinical observation after vaccination with PVRV or PCECV under Zagreb (2-1-1) or Essen (1-1-1-1-1) regimens, information collection for the demographic and adverse events (AEs) and rabies virus laboratory examination of neutralizing antibody (RVNA) titers were performed for all patients with WHO category II animal exposure in Wuhan city. The results showed no significant differences of safety and immunogenicity between PVRV and PCECV both in Zagreb and Essen regimens. However, when compared with other age groups, most systemic AEs (36/61) occurred in <5-year-old patients, and <5-year-old patients have significant lower RVNA titer and seroconversion rate (RVNA ≥0.5 IU/ml) at day 7 both in Zagreb and Essen regimens or PVRV and PCECV groups. Conclusions Our data showed that vaccination with PVRV is as safe and immunogenic as PCECV in patients of all age groups, but might be more popular for clinical use. When performing a vaccination with rabies vaccine in young children, the most optimal vaccine regimen should be selected. PMID:25522244

  20. Transcriptomic and Epigenetic Profiling of the Lung of Influenza-Infected Pigs: A Comparison of Different Birth Weight and Susceptibility Groups

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Jamie M.; Gunvaldsen, Rayna E.; Detmer, Susan E.; Dyck, Michael K.; Dixon, Walter T.; Foxcroft, George R.; Plastow, Graham S.; Harding, John C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza viruses are a common cause of respiratory disease in swine. Infections range in severity from asymptomatic to causing significant morbidity. The main objective of this study was to compare lung transcriptomic and epigenetic responses to influenza infection in pigs from high or low birth weight litters. The latter is a potential indicator of intrauterine growth restriction, a significant risk factor for prenatal programming effects. Individual pigs from high (HBW) or low birth weight (LBW) litters (n = 17) were inoculated with influenza A virus and euthanized 48 hours later. Lesion severity and viral loads were assessed as previously described. The transcriptional response to infection in LBW and HBW groups (n = 16) was assessed by microarray. A separate analysis of pigs classified as ‘Resilient’ (RES) or ‘Susceptible’ (SUS) (n = 6) on the basis of severity of lung pathology was also conducted. Eight genes were confirmed as differentially expressed for the birth weight comparison, including three antiviral genes with lower expression in LBW: ISG15, OAS1, and OAS2 (P<0.05). The promoter region methylation status of these three genes was assessed for each birth weight group, and no differences were found. These expression data are consistent with our previous finding that LBW pigs had less severe lesion scores and a trend towards lower viral titres in lung than the HBW cohort. The SUS v RES comparison identified 91 differentially expressed genes (FDR<0.05) that were enriched with functional annotation terms and pathways associated with inflammation. The cytokine genes IL6, IL8, and CCL2 were all upregulated in SUS pigs, and may have driven disease severity in these animals. In conclusion, this study found no evidence that the transcriptional immune response to influenza was adversely affected by low litter birth weight, but did identify several candidate genes for driving disease pathology. PMID:26393920

  1. Comparison of the Standard and Reliability of the Assessments of Practical Scientific Skills Using Groups of Different Sizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, J. I.; Seddon, G. M.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates differences in marking standard and reliability when experienced teachers carried out assessments of the performance on practical exercises. The results showed that there was no difference between the assessments from the groups containing 5 and 20 students. (Author/YP)

  2. Improving the Entrepreneurial Competencies of Dutch Dairy Farmers through the Use of Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergevoet, R. H. M.; Van Woerkum, Cees

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe and analyse the role that study groups might play in improving the entrepreneurial competencies of farmers. The most important competencies are described. Emphasis is placed on group learning processes and participatory approaches. Theories of adult learning and extension paradigms in relation to our…

  3. Ochratoxin A Dietary Exposure of Ten Population Groups in the Czech Republic: Comparison with Data over the World.

    PubMed

    Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Frantisek; Dofkova, Marcela; Skarkova, Jarmila; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Ruprich, Jiri

    2015-09-10

    Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic and renal carcinogenic mycotoxin and is a common contaminant of various food commodities. Eighty six kinds of foodstuffs (1032 food samples) were collected in 2011-2013. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used for ochratoxin A determination. Limit of quantification of the method varied between 0.01-0.2 μg/kg depending on the food matrices. The most exposed population is children aged 4-6 years old. Globally for this group, the maximum ochratoxin A dietary exposure for "average consumer" was estimated at 3.3 ng/kg bw/day (lower bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 0) and 3.9 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 1/2 limit of quantification). Important sources of exposure for this latter group include grain-based products, confectionery, meat products and fruit juice. The dietary intake for "high consumers" in the group 4-6 years old was estimated from grains and grain-based products at 19.8 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound), from tea at 12.0 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound) and from confectionery at 6.5 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound). For men aged 18-59 years old beer was the main contributor with an intake of 2.60 ng/kg bw/day ("high consumers", middle bound). Tea and grain-based products were identified to be the main contributors for dietary exposure in women aged 18-59 years old. Coffee and wine were identified as a higher contributor of the OTA intake in the population group of women aged 18-59 years old compared to the other population groups.

  4. Ochratoxin A Dietary Exposure of Ten Population Groups in the Czech Republic: Comparison with Data over the World

    PubMed Central

    Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Frantisek; Dofkova, Marcela; Skarkova, Jarmila; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Ruprich, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic and renal carcinogenic mycotoxin and is a common contaminant of various food commodities. Eighty six kinds of foodstuffs (1032 food samples) were collected in 2011–2013. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used for ochratoxin A determination. Limit of quantification of the method varied between 0.01–0.2 μg/kg depending on the food matrices. The most exposed population is children aged 4–6 years old. Globally for this group, the maximum ochratoxin A dietary exposure for “average consumer” was estimated at 3.3 ng/kg bw/day (lower bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 0) and 3.9 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 1/2 limit of quantification). Important sources of exposure for this latter group include grain-based products, confectionery, meat products and fruit juice. The dietary intake for “high consumers” in the group 4–6 years old was estimated from grains and grain-based products at 19.8 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound), from tea at 12.0 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound) and from confectionery at 6.5 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound). For men aged 18–59 years old beer was the main contributor with an intake of 2.60 ng/kg bw/day (“high consumers”, middle bound). Tea and grain-based products were identified to be the main contributors for dietary exposure in women aged 18–59 years old. Coffee and wine were identified as a higher contributor of the OTA intake in the population group of women aged 18–59 years old compared to the other population groups. PMID:26378578

  5. A comparison of the relationships between psychosocial factors, occupational strain, and work ability among 4 ethnic teacher groups in China.

    PubMed

    Lian, Yulong; Xiao, Jing; Zhang, Chen; Guan, Suzhen; Li, Fuye; Ge, Hua; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the level of occupational strain and work ability among Han, Hui, Uygur, Hui, and Kazakh teachers, and explored ethnic differences based on the associations of psychosocial factors at work, occupational strain, and work ability. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2,941 teachers in primary and secondary schools in Xinjiang Province, China. Psychosocial factors, occupational strain, and work ability were measured using the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition (OSI-R) and Work Ability Index. Han and Hui teachers experienced reduced work ability compared with Uygur and Kazakh teachers, and this finding was caused, in part, by exposure to psychosocial factors at work. The vocational and psychological strains caused by these factors play an important role in reduced work ability among all ethnic teacher groups. The findings indicate the importance of taking action to reduce occupational strain for promoting teachers' work ability in multiethnic workplaces.

  6. Offender experiences and opinions of mixed-gender group work in the community: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Burrowes, Nina; Day, Jo

    2011-10-01

    The National Probation Service in England and Wales currently delivers community-based accredited offending behavior programs in mixed-gender groups. There is at present a lack of research on the potential impact of mixed-gender group work on female offenders, who are often the minority within the group. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the area using qualitative methods. Sixteen offenders who had participated in a mixed-gender offending behavior program were interviewed as part of this study. Themes from the interviews were analyzed using Grounded Theory techniques. The findings illustrated an overall preference among all participants for mixed-gender rather than single-gender group work. The specific advantages of mixed-gender group work included increased learning about the opposite sex and a more relaxed atmosphere within the group. Although this study reflects positive attitudes to mixed-gender group work, the findings need to be tested further using empirical methodology.

  7. A comparison of cycle control and effect on well-being of monophasic gestodene-, triphasic gestodene- and monophasic desogestrel-containing oral contraceptives. Gestodene Study Group.

    PubMed

    Bruni, V; Croxatto, H; De La Cruz, J; Dhont, M; Durlot, F; Fernandes, M T; Andrade, R P; Weisberg, E; Rhoa, M

    2000-04-01

    This was an open-label multicenter study to compare the cycle control and effect on well-being of two oral contraceptives containing gestodene and one containing desogestrel. A total of 2419 healthy women < or = 41 years of age were randomized to receive oral contraceptives containing monophasic gestodene (Minulet; n = 806, mean age 24.5 years), triphasic gestodene (Tri-Minulet; n = 808, mean age 24.6 years) or monophasic desogestrel (Mercilon; n = 805, mean age 24.6 years). Subjects were to participate in the study for up to 13 treatment cycles. A modified Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire was used to evaluate menstrual symptoms and to assess overall well-being. A total of 698 women were withdrawn from the study, 154 due to adverse events. Cycle control with gestodene was superior to that with desogestrel at almost all time points, particularly for breakthrough bleeding and/or spotting, which occurred significantly less frequently with gestodene than with desogestrel at cycles 1-7 and 9-11 (p < 0.05). Generally, the proportion of subjects with breakthrough bleeding and/or spotting was almost twice as great with desogestrel as with gestodene. The duration of bleeding was not consistently different between the gestodene and desogestrel groups; however, the intensity of bleeding was greater with gestodene at all time points (p < 0.05). The latent period before withdrawal bleeding was significantly longer for monophasic gestodene at cycles 1-5 and 8-10 (p < 0.05). Treatment significantly improved overall well-being at cycles 6 and 9 with triphasic gestodene and at cycle 13 with desogestrel; however, no statistically significant differences among treatment groups in overall well-being scores or individual factors of well-being could be identified. All three treatments were well tolerated. The most common drug-related adverse events were headache (14.2%), breast pain (6.2%), nausea (4.1%), metrorrhagia (3.9%) and abdominal pain (3.5%). The incidence of adverse

  8. Postoperative Complications in the Ahmed Baerveldt Comparison Study during Five Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Budenz, Donald L.; Feuer, William J.; Barton, Keith; Schiffman, Joyce; Costa, Vital P.; Godfrey, David G.; Buys, Yvonne M.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare the late complications in the Ahmed Baerveldt Comparison Study during 5 years of follow-up. DESIGN Multicenter, prospective, randomized clinical trial. METHODS SETTINGS Sixteen international clinical centers. STUDY POPULATION Two hundred seventy six subjects aged 18 to 85 years with previous intraocular surgery or refractory glaucoma with intraocular pressure of > 18 mmHg. INTERVENTIONS Ahmed Glaucoma Valve FP7 or Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant BG 101-350. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Late postoperative complications (beyond 3 months), reoperations for complications, and decreased vision from complications. RESULTS Late complications developed in 56 subjects (46.8 ± 4.8 5 year cumulative % ± SE) in the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve group and 67 (56.3 ± 4.7 5 year cumulative % ± SE) in the Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant group (P = 0.082). The cumulative rates of serious complications were 15.9% and 24.7% in the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve and Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant groups respectively (P = 0.034) although this was largely driven by subjects who had tube occlusions in the two groups (0.8% in the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve group and 5.7% in the Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant group, P = 0.037). Both groups had a relatively high incidence of persistent diplopia (12%) and corneal edema (20%), although half of the corneal edema cases were likely due to pre-existing causes other than the aqueous shunt. The incidence of tube erosion was 1% and 3% in the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve and Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant groups, respectively (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS Long term rates of vision threatening complications and complications resulting in reoperation were higher in the Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant than the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve group over 5 years of follow-up. PMID:26596400

  9. A Controlled Comparison of Cognitive Therapy and Self-Help Support Groups in the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Annette; Blanchard, Edward B.

    1995-01-01

    Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (n=34) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment conditions for 8 weeks: individualized cognitive treatment, support group, or control. Results indicated significantly greater reductions in gastrointestinal symptoms and amelioration of depression and anxiety for the cognitive therapy group, and these results…

  10. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'etude en didactique des mathematiques. Proceedings of the 1994 Annual Meeting (Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, June 3-7, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Martyn, Ed.

    These proceedings contain papers from the 1994 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group. Papers are divided into the following sections: (1) invited lectures; (2) working groups; (3) topic groups; (4) ad hoc groups; and (5) reports on ICMI (International Committee on Mathematical Instruction) studies. Papers include: (1)…

  11. The Roles of a University Professor in a Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Hui-Chin; Hung, Hsiu-Ting; Chen, Yi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The opportunities in which university professors collaborate with the practicing school teachers in a teacher study group are few. This study investigated how a university professor facilitated a collaborative teacher study group to enhance teachers' professional growth. Five primary school teachers and a university professor collaborated on…

  12. Limitations of Species Delimitation Based on Phylogenetic Analyses: A Case Study in the Hypogymnia hypotrypa Group (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xinli; McCune, Bruce; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Li, Hui; Leavitt, Steven; Yamamoto, Yoshikazu; Tchabanenko, Svetlana; Wei, Jiangchun

    2016-01-01

    Delimiting species boundaries among closely related lineages often requires a range of independent data sets and analytical approaches. Similar to other organismal groups, robust species circumscriptions in fungi are increasingly investigated within an empirical framework. Here we attempt to delimit species boundaries in a closely related clade of lichen-forming fungi endemic to Asia, the Hypogymnia hypotrypa group (Parmeliaceae). In the current classification, the Hypogymnia hypotrypa group includes two species: H. hypotrypa and H. flavida, which are separated based on distinctive reproductive modes, the former producing soredia but absent in the latter. We reexamined the relationship between these two species using phenotypic characters and molecular sequence data (ITS, GPD, and MCM7 sequences) to address species boundaries in this group. In addition to morphological investigations, we used Bayesian clustering to identify potential genetic groups in the H. hypotrypa/H. flavida clade. We also used a variety of empirical, sequence-based species delimitation approaches, including: the “Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery” (ABGD), the Poisson tree process model (PTP), the General Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC), and the multispecies coalescent approach BPP. Different species delimitation scenarios were compared using Bayes factors delimitation analysis, in addition to comparisons of pairwise genetic distances, pairwise fixation indices (FST). The majority of the species delimitation analyses implemented in this study failed to support H. hypotrypa and H. flavida as distinct lineages, as did the Bayesian clustering analysis. However, strong support for the evolutionary independence of H. hypotrypa and H. flavida was inferred using BPP and further supported by Bayes factor delimitation. In spite of rigorous morphological comparisons and a wide range of sequence-based approaches to delimit species, species boundaries in the H. hypotrypa group remain uncertain. This study

  13. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'etude en didactique des mathematiques. Proceedings of the 1993 Annual Meeting (York, Ontario, Canada, May 28-June 1, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Martyn, Ed.

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the 1993 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group. Papers are presented in four sections: (1) invited lectures; (2) working groups; (3) topic groups; and (4) ad hoc groups. Papers include: (1) "What is a Square Root? A Study of Geometrical Representation in Different…

  14. The Distribution of Instructional Time and Its Effect on Group Cohesion in the Foreign Language Classroom: A Comparison of Intensive and Standard Format Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinger, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues for the influence of the distribution of instructional time on group cohesion in the foreign language classroom and postulates that concentrating classroom time enhances group cohesion. To test the hypothesis, a comparative classroom study of two groups of Spanish learners in their second year of learning, one following an…

  15. Neuropsychological comparison of children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and an IQ-matched comparison group.

    PubMed

    Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2011-05-01

    An objective in current research on children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is to determine neurobehavioral profiles to identify affected individuals. Deficits observed when children with FASD are compared to typically developing controls may be confounded by lower IQ scores in the subjects with FASD. To determine if prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with neurobehavioral deficits after controlling for IQ differences, multivariate analyses were conducted to compare alcohol-exposed (ALC) subjects to a comparison group closely matched on IQ (IQC). The initial analysis included a broad neuropsychological battery with measures of language, executive function, visual-motor integration, motor ability, and academic achievement. Additional, in depth comparisons focused on visual sustained attention, verbal learning and memory and parent/guardian-reported behavior problems. Group differences (ALC < IQC) were found on verbal learning and parent-rated behavior problems. Group differences were marginally significant (measures within the broad neuropsychological comparison) or not significant (visual attention, retention of verbal material) on the remaining comparisons. Therefore, some deficits (e.g., verbal learning and behavior problems) in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be explained by the lower FSIQ observed in the population. These areas of relative weakness could be useful in distinguishing children with FASD from other children with lowered IQ.

  16. The Relationship between Students' Small Group Activities, Time Spent on Self-Study, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp, Rachelle J. A.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; van Berkel, Henk J. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the contributions students make to the problem-based tutorial group process as observed by their peers, self-study time and achievement. To that end, the Maastricht Peer Activity Rating Scale was administered to students participating in Problem-Based Learning tutorial groups.…

  17. Validation of cytogenetic risk groups according to International Prognostic Scoring Systems by peripheral blood CD34+FISH: results from a German diagnostic study in comparison with an international control group

    PubMed Central

    Braulke, Friederike; Platzbecker, Uwe; Müller-Thomas, Catharina; Götze, Katharina; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A. N.; Lübbert, Michael; Greenberg, Peter L.; Bennett, John M.; Solé, Francesc; Mallo, Mar; Slovak, Marilyn L.; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Le Beau, Michelle M.; Tüchler, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Nösslinger, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Shirneshan, Katayoon; Aul, Carlo; Stauder, Reinhard; Sperr, Wolfgang R.; Valent, Peter; Fonatsch, Christa; Trümper, Lorenz; Haase, Detlef; Schanz, Julie

    2015-01-01

    International Prognostic Scoring Systems are used to determine the individual risk profile of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. For the assessment of International Prognostic Scoring Systems, an adequate chromosome banding analysis of the bone marrow is essential. Cytogenetic information is not available for a substantial number of patients (5%–20%) with dry marrow or an insufficient number of metaphase cells. For these patients, a valid risk classification is impossible. In the study presented here, the International Prognostic Scoring Systems were validated based on fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using extended probe panels applied to cluster of differentiation 34 positive (CD34+) peripheral blood cells of 328 MDS patients of our prospective multicenter German diagnostic study and compared to chromosome banding results of 2902 previously published patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. For cytogenetic risk classification by fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of CD34+ peripheral blood cells, the groups differed significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival by uni- and multivariate analyses without discrepancies between treated and untreated patients. Including cytogenetic data of fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of peripheral CD34+ blood cells (instead of bone marrow banding analysis) into the complete International Prognostic Scoring System assessment, the prognostic risk groups separated significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival. Our data show that a reliable stratification to the risk groups of the International Prognostic Scoring Systems is possible from peripheral blood in patients with missing chromosome banding analysis by using a comprehensive probe panel (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01355913). PMID:25344522

  18. [Urinary lithotripsy in children. Multicenter study of the Pediatric Urology Study Group].

    PubMed

    Van Kote, G; Lottmann, H; Fremond, B; Mourey, E; Dore, B; Daoud, S; Valla, J S; Garcia, S; Beurton, D; Poddevin, F; Biserte, J; Villar, F; Lacombe, A

    1999-01-01

    The authors present the results of a survey conducted among French paediatric urologists belonging to the Groupe d'Etudes en Urologie Pédiatrique (GEUP) (Paediatric Urology Study Group). This study, based on 122 cases observed in 13 centres, is not exhaustive, but is nevertheless statistically significant. The preoperative assessment confirms the usual findings of urinary stones in children: pyelonephritis, haematuria and abdominal pain, the usual presenting complaint, concomitant malformative uropathy (10% of cases) and a predominance of calcium stones. More than 200 stones were treated, larger than 10 millimeters in diameter in one-third of cases. Renal stones, mainly caliceal (more than 50%), included 11 staghorn calculi. This study also included 22 ureteric stones, mainly in the pelvic ureter, and 2 bladder stones. Lithotripsy was ultrasound-guided in 2/3 of cases and required general anaesthesia in about 3/4 of cases. Ureteric catheterization was required in 19 infants preoperatively, but in only 2 infants (stein strasse) postoperatively. One or two lithotripsy sessions were sufficient in most cases, but 4 sessions were necessary in 5 patients, to the same kidney in 1 case. The mean hospital stay was 2 to 3 days, but the procedure was performed on an outpatient basis in 15 cases. The immediate postoperative course was uneventful and asymptomatic. This survey revealed about 10% of complete failures, corresponding to solitary caliceal stones in 2/3 of cases; 29 partial failures were essentially due to lower caliceal stones and staghorn calculi; 84 successes (stone-free), mainly pelvic or simple caliceal stones. Scintigraphy did not reveal any immediate postoperative impairment of renal function. This study reported a success rate of about 70%, regardless of the type of apparatus used. Assessment of the results of ESWL requires sufficient follow-up both concerning the outcome of fragmented stones and evaluation of possible functional repercussions. This survey

  19. VAST PLANES OF SATELLITES IN A HIGH-RESOLUTION SIMULATION OF THE LOCAL GROUP: COMPARISON TO ANDROMEDA

    SciTech Connect

    Gillet, N.; Ocvirk, P.; Aubert, D.; Knebe, A.; Yepes, G.; Libeskind, N.; Gottlöber, S.; Hoffman, Y.

    2015-02-10

    We search for vast planes of satellites (VPoS) in a high-resolution simulation of the Local Group performed by the CLUES project, which improves significantly the resolution of previous similar studies. We use a simple method for detecting planar configurations of satellites, and validate it on the known plane of M31. We implement a range of prescriptions for modeling the satellite populations, roughly reproducing the variety of recipes used in the literature, and investigate the occurrence and properties of planar structures in these populations. The structure of the simulated satellite systems is strongly non-random and contains planes of satellites, predominantly co-rotating, with, in some cases, sizes comparable to the plane observed in M31 by Ibata et al. However, the latter is slightly richer in satellites, slightly thinner, and has stronger co-rotation, which makes it stand out as overall more exceptional than the simulated planes, when compared to a random population. Although the simulated planes we find are generally dominated by one real structure forming its backbone, they are also partly fortuitous and are thus not kinematically coherent structures as a whole. Provided that the simulated and observed planes of satellites are indeed of the same nature, our results suggest that the VPoS of M31 is not a coherent disk and that one-third to one-half of its satellites must have large proper motions perpendicular to the plane.

  20. Evaluation of Teaching Methods in Mass CPCR Training in Different Groups of the Society, an Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Hasani, Hamed; Bahrami, Mojtaba; Malekpour, Abdorrasoul; Dehghani, Mohammadreza; Allahyary, Elaheh; Amini, Mitra; Abdorahimi, Mehdi; khani, Sara; Kalantari Meibodi, Mohammad; Kojuri, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To determine the efficacy of different methods of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPCR) training in 3 different groups of the society. In a prospective and observational study of 2000 individuals in 3 different groups including G1, G2, and G3 4 different protocols of CPCR training were applied and their efficacy was compared between the groups. Also, 12 months after the study course, 460 participants from 3 groups were asked to take apart in a theoretical and practical examination to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the 4 protocols. Among 2000 individuals took a parted in the study, 950 (47.5%) were G1, 600 (30%) were G2, and 450 (22.5%) were G3. G1 in 4 groups were 2.37 and 2.65 times more successful in pretest theoretical and 2.61 and 18.20 times more successful in practical examinations compared with G2 and G3 and gained highest improvement in CPCR skills. Other groups also showed significantly improved CPCR skills. Comparison of different methods of CPCR learning showed that the workshop using interactive lecture as well as human model, educational film, and reference CPCR book has the highest efficacy in all groups. This protocol of CPCR training showed more efficacy in long-term postdelayed evaluation. On the contrary, medical students had better long-term outcomes from the course. Although G1 and G2 obtained better results in learning CPCR skills, in G3 also the theoretical and practical knowledge were improved significantly. This course increased confidence for doing CPCR in all groups of the study. Considering that the most of the bystanders at emergency states are general population, training this group of the society and increasing their confidence about performing CPCR can be so effective and lifesaving at emergency states. (Clinical trial. Gov registration: NCT02120573) PMID:26020392

  1. Evaluation of Teaching Methods in Mass CPCR Training in Different Groups of the Society, an Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Hasani, Hamed; Bahrami, Mojtaba; Malekpour, Abdorrasoul; Dehghani, Mohammadreza; Allahyary, Elaheh; Amini, Mitra; Abdorahimi, Mehdi; khani, Sara; Kalantari Meibodi, Mohammad; Kojuri, Javad

    2015-05-01

    To determine the efficacy of different methods of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPCR) training in 3 different groups of the society. In a prospective and observational study of 2000 individuals in 3 different groups including G1, G2, and G3 4 different protocols of CPCR training were applied and their efficacy was compared between the groups. Also, 12 months after the study course, 460 participants from 3 groups were asked to take apart in a theoretical and practical examination to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the 4 protocols. Among 2000 individuals took a parted in the study, 950 (47.5%) were G1, 600 (30%) were G2, and 450 (22.5%) were G3. G1 in 4 groups were 2.37 and 2.65 times more successful in pretest theoretical and 2.61 and 18.20 times more successful in practical examinations compared with G2 and G3 and gained highest improvement in CPCR skills. Other groups also showed significantly improved CPCR skills. Comparison of different methods of CPCR learning showed that the workshop using interactive lecture as well as human model, educational film, and reference CPCR book has the highest efficacy in all groups. This protocol of CPCR training showed more efficacy in long-term postdelayed evaluation. On the contrary, medical students had better long-term outcomes from the course. Although G1 and G2 obtained better results in learning CPCR skills, in G3 also the theoretical and practical knowledge were improved significantly. This course increased confidence for doing CPCR in all groups of the study. Considering that the most of the bystanders at emergency states are general population, training this group of the society and increasing their confidence about performing CPCR can be so effective and lifesaving at emergency states. (Clinical trial. Gov registration: NCT02120573).

  2. Juvenile Group Sex Offenders: A Comparison of Group Leaders and Followers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate group sex offenses with regard to the role of leaders versus followers and to compare both groups on levels of psychopathology, intelligence, and psychosocial and offense-related characteristics. Eighty-nine adolescent group sex offenders (mean age = 14.9, SD = 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch child…

  3. The Principal's Role in Fostering Collaborative Learning Communities through Faculty Study Group Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.; Hutinger, Janice L.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the leadership of school principals with respect to faculty study group development as a key element of the professional learning community. Questions asked concern the approaches that principals use to facilitate study group processes that, in turn. foster teacher learning and student achievement, and ways in which…

  4. NMR lineshape equations for hindered methyl group: a comparison of the semi-classical and quantum mechanical models.

    PubMed

    Bernatowicz, P; Szymański, S

    2003-09-01

    The semiclassical and quantum mechanical NMR lineshape equations for a hindered methyl group are compared. In both the approaches, the stochastic dynamics can be interpreted in terms of a progressive symmetrization of the spin density matrix. However, the respective ways of achieving the same limiting symmetry can be remarkably different. From numerical lineshape simulations it is inferred that in the regime of intermediate exchange, where the conventional theory predicts occurrence of a single Lorentzian, the actual spectrum can have nontrivial features. This observation may open new perspectives in the search for nonclassical effects in the stochastic behavior of methyl groups in liquid-phase NMR.

  5. Merging Groups to Maximize Object Partition Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klastorin, T. D.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of objectively comparing two independently determined partitions of N objects or variables is discussed. A similarity measure based on the simple matching coefficient is defined and related to previously suggested measures. (Author/JKS)

  6. The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis and public perceptions of biomedical research: a focus group study.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Benjamin R.; Harris, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    African Americans are less likely than European Americans to participate in biomedical research. Researchers often attribute nonparticipation to the "Tuskegee effect." Using critical qualitative analysis of focus group data, we examined the public's use of the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis (TSUS) to discuss biomedical research. Our participants articulated three primary themes in relation to TSUS: 1) that TSUS made them suspicious about biomedical research; 2) that other values had to weigh against concerns about TSUS; and 3) that African Americans could take steps to resolve their concerns about TSUS. African Americans were more likely to discuss TSUS than were European Americans. African Americans did not use TSUS to express simple fear. African Americans suggested issues other than TSUS that influence the decision to participate in research. African Americans indicated specific reforms that would increase participation in research. We discuss how a better understanding of African Americans' use of TSUS can enhance research participation and allay concerns about "another Tuskegee." PMID:15303410

  7. The educational legacy of unauthorized migration: comparisons across U.S.-immigrant groups in how parents' status affects their offspring.

    PubMed

    Bean, Frank D; Leach, Mark A; Brown, Susan K; Bachmeier, James D; Hipp, John R

    2011-01-01

    This research compares several national-origin groups in terms of how parents’ entry, legalization and naturalization (i.e., membership) statuses relate to their children’s educational attainment. In the case of Asian groups, the members of which predominantly come to the United States as permanent legal migrants, we hypothesize (1) that father’s and mother’s statuses will be relatively homogenous and few in number and (2) that these will exert minimal net effects on second-generation attainment. For Mexicans, many of whom initially come as temporary unauthorized migrants, we hypothesize (1) that parental status combinations will be heterogeneous and greater in number and (2) that marginal membership statuses will exert negative net effects on education in the second generation. To assess these ideas, we analyze unique intergenerational data from Los Angeles on the young adult members of second-generation national-origin groups and their parents. The findings show that Asian immigrant groups almost universally exhibit similar father–mother migration statuses and high educational attainment among children. By contrast, Mexicans manifest more numerous discrepant father–mother combinations, with those in which the mother remains unauthorized carrying negative implications for children’s schooling. The paper discusses the theoretical and policy implications of the delays in incorporation that result from Mexican Americans needing extra time and resources compared to the members of other groups to overcome their handicap of marginal membership status (i.e., being more likely to enter and remain unauthorized).

  8. Uni- Versus Multidimensional Comparison of Political Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Pamela J.

    Journalists view the left-right continuum as a dimension on which political entities array themselves in order to vie for a similarly arrayed public. Such a spatial measuring device is useful, since it allows journalists to compare political entities on a common scale that readers supposedly understand and on which they can relate their own…

  9. Library on the Go: A Focus Group Study of the Mobile Web and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeholzer, Jamie; Salem, Joseph A., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores student use of the mobile Web in general and expectations for an academic library's mobile Web site in particular through focus groups with students at Kent State University. Participants expressed more interest in using their mobile Web device to interact with library resources and services than anticipated. Results showed an…

  10. 'A Most Cantankerous and Awkward Bunch': The Study Group on Government and the Weaver Report (1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, C. D.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the British Study Group on the Government of Colleges of Education (the SGG) examining the legal, administrative, and political problems that were involved related to the SGG. Addresses the three phases in the story of the SGG, focusing on Toby Weaver's piloting. Identifies the significance of the SGG. (CMK)

  11. Psychophysiological Responses to an Infant Cry: Comparison of Groups of Women in Different Phases of the Maternal Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleichfeld, Bruce; Moely, Barbara E.

    1984-01-01

    Investigates psychophysiological reactions of 60 women to an infant's cry and to a control sound. The 30-second pain cry evoked greater cardiac and electrodermal activity than did the control stimulus, although selected groups varied in the nature and extent of their reactions. Both maternal state and experience with infants affected reactions.…

  12. The Female as Administrator: An Assessment and Comparison of Perceptions of Certain Groups of the El Camino College Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Janet Carol Gelder

    A study was conducted at El Camino College in Torrance, California to assess and compare the perceptions of students, faculty, and administrators toward women as administrators. The study focused on double-standard conflicts, promotional possibilities, advancement aspirations, and parity perceptions. Questionnaires were administered to all faculty…

  13. Inactivation of the RTEM-1 cysteine beta-lactamase by iodoacetate. The nature of active-site functional groups and comparisons with the native enzyme.

    PubMed

    Knap, A K; Pratt, R F

    1991-01-01

    The pH-rate profile for inactivation of the RTEM-1 cysteine beta-lactamase by iodoacetate supports previous evidence [Knap & Pratt (1989) Proteins Struct. Funct. Genet. 6, 316-323] for the activation of the active-site thiol group by adjacent functional groups. The enhanced reactivity of iodoacetate, with respect to that of iodoacetamide, suggests the influence of a positive charge in the active site. The reactivity of iodoacetate is not affected by dissociation of an active-site functional group of pKa 6.7, which increases the reactivity of neutral reagents, probably because of a compensation phenomenon; it is, however, lost on dissociation of an acid of pKa 8.1. It is concluded that the active cysteine beta-lactamase has four functional groups at the active site, one nucleophilic thiolate of Cys-70, one neutral acid (most probably the carboxy group of Glu-166, from the crystal structures) and two cationic residues (most probably Lys-73 and Lys-234). A comparison of these results with the pH-dependence of reactivity of the native RTEM-2 beta-lactamase suggests that the active form of the latter enzyme is also monocationic, although the nucleophile (Ser-70) is likely to be neutral in this case and the carboxylic acid dissociated. A mechanism of class A beta-lactamase catalysis is discussed where the Glu-166 carboxylate acts as a general base/acid catalyst and Lys-73 is principally required for electrostatic stabilization of the anionic tetrahedral intermediate.

  14. Modifications of the ionosphere prior to large earthquakes: report from the Ionosphere Precursor Study Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, K.-I.; Devi, M.; Ryu, K.; Chen, C. H.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, H.; Bankov, L.; Kodama, T.

    2016-12-01

    The current status of ionospheric precursor studies associated with large earthquakes (EQ) is summarized in this report. It is a joint endeavor of the "Ionosphere Precursor Study Task Group," which was formed with the support of the Mitsubishi Foundation in 2014-2015. The group promotes the study of ionosphere precursors (IP) to EQs and aims to prepare for a future EQ dedicated satellite constellation, which is essential to obtain the global morphology of IPs and hence demonstrate whether the ionosphere can be used for short-term EQ predictions. Following a review of the recent IP studies, the problems and specific research areas that emerged from the one-year project are described. Planned or launched satellite missions dedicated (or suitable) for EQ studies are also mentioned.

  15. The Tavistock Group Relations Conference: Description and Comparison with Laboratory Training. A CRUSK-ISR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowfoot, James E.

    Laboratory training and the Tavistock Conference, two types of experiential learning, contrast in important ways. They are designed to respond to different societal issues and make different types of responses to these issues. Tavistock conferences focus consciously and exclusively on group operation, role, role relationships, intergroup…

  16. School Finance and Technology: A Case Study Using Grid and Group Theory to Explore the Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Stephoni; Harris, Edward L.

    2014-01-01

    Using grid and group theory (Douglas 1982, 2011), the study described in this article examined the intersections of technology and school finance in four schools located in districts differing in size, wealth, and commitment to technology integration. In grid and group theory, grid refers to the degree to which policies and role prescriptions…

  17. Reconsidering the gospel according to group studies: a neuropsychological case study approach to schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Laws, K R; McKenna, P J; McCarthy, R A

    1996-11-01

    Individual patterns of performance on tests of: visual perception, language, executive function, memory, and face-processing, were examined in 10 schizophrenic patients who were preselected for having current WAIS IQ and premorbid NART IQ scores in the normal range. Although the patients showed some heterogeneity in the type, pervasiveness, and degree of cognitive impairment, a majority had severely impaired verbal recall and familiar face-naming. This contrasted with the low incidence and severity of impairment on tests of executive function, visual recall, recognition memory, naming, and unfamiliar faceprocessing. Contrasts between individual patients indicated that verbal recall and executive performance are independent in some patients and that memory appears to be the core deficit. The profile of impaired and preserved cognitive function revealed some important dissimilarities from the pattern that has emerged from group studies. Finally, face-naming correlated highly with the learning of unrelated paired associates, confirming a similarity with neurological patients who have person name anomia. It is suggested that both deficits might reflect a problem with learning ''meaninglessness'' associations; this interpretation is discussed with reference to a deficit at the level of the Supervisory Attentional System (Shallice, 1988).

  18. Examining the Underlying Values of Turkish and German Mathematics Teachers' Decision Making Processes in Group Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Yuksel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the values underlying the decision-making processes in group studies for Turkish and German mathematics teachers. This study presented a small part of a wider study investigating German and Turkish mathematics teachers' and their students' values (Values in Mathematics Teaching in Turkey and Germany…

  19. The Linear Algebra Curriculum Study Group Recommendations for the First Course in Linear Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents five recommendations of the Linear Algebra Curriculum Study Group: (1) The syllabus must respond to the client disciplines; (2) The first course should be matrix oriented; (3) Faculty should consider the needs and interests of students; (4) Faculty should use technology; and (5) At least one follow-up course should be required. Provides a…

  20. Summary Report of the Defense Science Study Group, 1985-1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    8217 -,’Copy 24 of 150 Copies NIDA PAPER P-2310 Two I SUMMARY REPORT OF THE 0 DEFENSE SCIENCE STUDY GROUP 1985 - 1988 0 DTIC JAN 3 11990 Richard J...CARRUTHERS Head, Department of Physics University of Arizona * RUTH DAVIS** President The Pymatuning Group, Inc. ALEXANDER H. FLAX Private Consultant EUGENE

  1. Issues in Feminist Therapy: The Work of a Women's Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radov, Carol G.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Discusses attempts of study groups of women in mental health professions that was instrumental in developing thearetical formulations concerning feminist therapy. From experiences both in the group and with clients, concludes that the profession as a whole must increase its responsiveness to concerns of women and issues of feminist therapy.…

  2. Exploratory Study of MOOC Learners' Demographics and Motivation: The Case of Students Involved in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayeck, Rebecca Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary findings on students enrolled in a massive open online course, who were also assigned to work in groups. Part of a larger study on the effect of groups on retention and completion in MOOCs, the paper provides students' demographics (i.e., location, gender, education level, and employment status), and motivation for…

  3. The Effects on Students of Working in Cooperative Groups: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, David L.; And Others

    This study asks whether placing students in small, cooperative work groups results in redirecting student norms, climate and student interaction. Using a post-test only design, students in classes which daily used cooperative groups for the entire academic year were compared with comparable students from classes which used the lecture-discussion…

  4. A Study of the Structure of Piagetian Logical and Infralogical Grouping Within the Concrete Operational Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettrick, Graham W.

    This study investigated a problem within the theoretical structure of cognitive development proposed by Jean Piaget, and used the concepts of classification and projective spatial relationships to investigate the nature of attainment and sequencing of three corresponding logical and infralogical groupings according to the models proposed by…

  5. Eternal Triangulation: Case Studies in the Evaluation of Educational Software by Classroom-Based Teacher Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David; Keep, Ros

    1988-01-01

    Reviews some of the problems involved in the evaluation of educational software, and describes a classroom-based case study approach to software evaluation intended for application by autonomous self-programming groups of teachers. (20 references) (Author/CLB)

  6. Communicating the Nature of Science through "The Big Bang Theory": Evidence from a Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Rashel; Orthia, Lindy A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a little-studied means of communicating about or teaching the nature of science (NOS)--through fiction television. We report some results of focus group research which suggest that the American sitcom "The Big Bang Theory" (2007-present), whose main characters are mostly working scientists, has influenced…

  7. Exploring health preferences in sociodemographic and health related groups through the paired comparison of the items of the Nottingham Health Profile

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, L.; Alonso, J.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Preference weighted measures of health related quality of life are necessary for cost effectiveness calculations involving quality of life adjustment. There are conflicting data about the influence of factors such as sociodemographic and health related variables on health preferences.
STUDY OBJECTIVE—The relative values attached to the items of the Spanish version of the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) were assessed to make comparisons across social and health subgroups.
DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS—Preference values were obtained in sets of 250 to 253 persons (total n=1258) using the method of paired comparisons after all possible pairs of NHP items had been presented to respondents for judgement of severity. χ2 Tests and Spearman's correlations among item ranks were calculated.
MAIN RESULTS—Findings show that preferences elicited with the method of paired comparisons are consistent and independent of the sample from which they are obtained (mean correlation coefficients across subgroups range from 0.87 to 0.96). Conclusion—The evaluation of health did not seem to be related to sociodemographic variables (gender, age, social class) or to the health status of the respondents, suggesting that health preferences are stable across different populations.


Keywords: health preferences; Nottingham Health Profile; psychometrics PMID:10846197

  8. Matrixed business support comparison study.

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, Josh D.

    2004-11-01

    The Matrixed Business Support Comparison Study reviewed the current matrixed Chief Financial Officer (CFO) division staff models at Sandia National Laboratories. There were two primary drivers of this analysis: (1) the increasing number of financial staff matrixed to mission customers and (2) the desire to further understand the matrix process and the opportunities and challenges it creates.

  9. Autonomous Spacecraft Maintenance Study Group.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    ADOAIOO 318 JETOPROPULSION LAB PASADENA CA F/G 9/2 AUTONOMOUS SPACECRAFT MAINTENANCE STUDY GROUP(U) FEB 81 M H MARSHALL, G D LOW NAS7-100...for pUblio release AW AIR 1912a(T) D1etribution 13 Umlalt~ d , (7b). A. D . BLOSE -7 The research described in this pubi’cation was carried out by the Jet...Rettriek (Jill I Academic Assessment Committee iKDAMac (~jf.IIht~i~srtt D I I I I1. ), ’I ,lil I. I 1 i i t: c; Jill I h-0 K IfItt,1 fIIlkc I IV

  10. Police officers: a high-risk group for the development of mental health disturbances? A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    van der Velden, Peter G; Rademaker, Arthur R; Vermetten, Eric; Portengen, Marie-Anne; Yzermans, Joris C; Grievink, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Policing is generally considered a high-risk profession for the development of mental health problems, but this assumption lacks empirical evidence. Research question of the present study is to what extent mental health disturbances, such as (very) severe symptoms of anxiety, depression and hostility are more prevalent among police officers than among other occupational groups. Design Multicomparative cross-sectional study using the data of several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in the Netherlands. Participants Two samples of police officers (N=144 and 503), employees of banks (N=1113) and employees of banks who were robbed (N=144); employees of supermarkets (N=335), and a psychiatric hospital (N=219), employees of a governmental social welfare organisation (N=76), employees who followed a training based on rational-motive therapy to strengthen their assertiveness (N=710), soldiers before deployment (N=278) and before redeployment (N=236) and firefighters (N=123). The numbers refer to respondents with complete data. Primary outcomes Prevalence of severe (subclinical level) and very severe symptoms (clinical level) were computed using the Dutch norm tables (80th percentile and 95th percentile, respectively) of the Symptom Check List Revised (SCL-90-R). All comparisons were controlled for age, gender and education. Results Multivariate logistic regression and analyses showed that the prevalence of clinical and subclinical levels of symptoms of anxiety, depression and hostility among police officers were not significantly higher than among comparison groups. The same pattern was found for the other SCL-90-R subscales. Conclusions We found no indications that self-reported mental health disturbances were more prevalent among police officers than among groups of employees that are not considered high-risk groups, such as employees of banks, supermarkets, psychiatric hospital and soldiers before deployment. PMID:23355659

  11. A Case Study of the Impact of Guided Reading Groups in Second Grade on Comprehension Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorent Deegan, Chanin E.

    2010-01-01

    This study combined both qualitative and quantitative research to determine the impact of instructional practices on comprehension improvement in second grade Guided Reading groups. Four second grade teachers and their 73 students ages seven through eight years old participated in this study. Additionally, the study examined the effects of Guided…

  12. The Effectiveness of Lecture-Integrated, Web-Supported Case Studies in Large Group Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzawi, May; Dawson, Maureen M.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of lecture-integrated and web-supported case studies in supporting a large and academically diverse group of undergraduate students was evaluated in the present study. Case studies and resource (web)-based learning were incorporated as two complementary interactive learning strategies into the traditional curriculum. A truncated…

  13. Group Performance in Information Systems Project Groups: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahli, Bouchaib; Buyukkurt, Meral Demirbag

    2005-01-01

    The importance of teamwork in Information Systems Development (ISD) practice and education has been acknowledged but not studied extensively to date. This paper tests a model of how groups participating in ISD projects perform and examines the relationships between some antecedents of this performance based on group research theory well…

  14. The Project Approach Catalog 2 by the Project Approach Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Judy Harris, Ed.

    Projects are in-depth studies of a topic undertaken by a class, a group, or an individual child. Projects are intended to strengthen children's dispositions to be interested, absorbed, and involved in in-depth observation, investigation, and representation of worthwhile phenomena in their own environments. This Catalog on the Project Approach, the…

  15. The Project Approach Catalog 3 by the Project Approach Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Judy Harris, Ed.

    Projects are in-depth studies of a topic undertaken by a class, a group, or an individual child. Projects are intended to strengthen children's dispositions to be interested, absorbed, and involved in in-depth observation, investigation, and representation of worthwhile phenomena in their own environments. This Catalog on the Project Approach, the…

  16. Improving the Reading Ability of Science Students through Study Groups and Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owolabi, Tunde; Okebukola, Foluso

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the effects of appropriate pedagogical skills (study groups and multiple intelligences) on students' efficiencies in reading skills. It employed a factorial design using three variables. A sample of 90 science students choosing from three intact classes were involved in the study. Data analyses were carried out using mean,…

  17. Formative Study to Develop the Eban Treatment and Comparison Interventions for Couples

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe formative and pilot-testing research that generated themes and procedures, curricula, and critical measures for a randomized clinical trial testing a Risk Reduction Intervention for HIV-serodiscordant African American couples (Project Eban). Design This paper describes the themes that emerged from discussions with African American serodiscordant couples about HIV-related risks from focus groups with 11 couples and pilot study results with 32 couples across four sites. Methods In Step 1, focus groups examined the need for a Risk Reduction Intervention for HIV-serodiscordant African American couples and confirmed four themes that formed the basis for the intervention curriculum and study format. In Step 2, a pilot study refined the clinical trial procedures for this population and tested critical measures and selected portions of the curriculum for both the treatment and comparison interventions. Results Based on these findings, stigma and psychological distress, barriers to condom use, insufficient support from community and service organizations, and the lack of skills that emphasize individual and relationship protection were ultimately integrated into the Risk Reduction Intervention. Conclusion Pilot study findings highlighted the importance of examining gender and ethnicity in HIV- impacted couples along with factors that heightened HIV-related risk behaviors that affect couples’ skills and psychological adjustment. The goal was to ensure that a skill-based, culturally congruent, relationship-centered intervention could be understood and of interest to couples. Future analyses in the main trial will be discussed. PMID:18724190

  18. The American Cowboy: Developing Small Group Social Studies Interaction Experiences in the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Edward, Jr.

    Appropriate for elementary school students, this resource unit on the American cowboy provides four activities for small group work. The unit also lists objectives and discusses the organization and dynamics of small groups. The general objective is for the student to learn how to work within groups and how to resolve group conflict. The…

  19. The Misuse of the Studies and Observation Group as a National Asset in Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    resources to meet the strategic goal of defeating international terrorists and the nations who sponsor them is a difficult problem. In the past, policy...administration. On 28 January 1961 President Kennedy convened his first National Security Council meeting to discuss the Vietnam situation. He received a...THE MISUSE OF THE STUDIES AND OBSERVATION GROUP AS A NATIONAL ASSET IN VIETNAM A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army

  20. Comparison of Helicobacter pylori Urease Inhibition by Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri and Berberine: Mechanisms of Interaction with the Sulfhydryl Group.

    PubMed

    Li, Cailan; Xie, Jianhui; Chen, Xiaoying; Mo, Zhizhun; Wu, Wen; Liang, Yeer; Su, Zuqing; Li, Qian; Li, Yucui; Su, Ziren; Yang, Xiaobo

    2016-03-01

    Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri, and berberine were reported to inhibit Helicobacter pylori. However, the underlying mechanism remained elusive. Urease plays a vital role in H. pylori colonization and virulence. In this work, aqueous extracts of Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri of different origins, and purified berberine were investigated against H. pylori urease and jack bean urease to elucidate the inhibitory capacity, kinetics, and mechanism. Results showed that berberine was the major chemical component in Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex Phellodendri, and the content of berberine in Rhizoma Coptidis was higher than in Cortex Phellodendri. The IC50 values of Rhizoma Coptidis were significantly lower than those Cortex Phellodendri and purified berberine, of which Coptis chinensis was shown to be the most active concentration- and time-dependent urease inhibitor. The Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis indicated that the inhibition pattern of C. chinensis against urease was noncompetitive for both H. pylori urease and jack bean urease. Thiol protectors (L-cysteine, glutathione, and dithiothreithol) significantly protected urease from the loss of enzymatic activity, while fluoride and boric acid showed weaker protection, indicating the active-site sulfhydryl group was possibly responsible for its inhibition. Furthermore, the urease inhibition proved to be reversible since C. chinensis-blocked urease could be reactivated by glutathione. The results suggested that the anti-urease activity of Rhizoma Coptidis was superior to that of Cortex Phellodendri and berberine, which was believed to be more likely to correlate to the content of total alkaloids rather than berberine monomer. The concentration- and time-dependent, reversible, and noncompetitive inhibition against urease by C. chinensis might be attributed to its interaction with the sulfhydryl group of the active site of urease.

  1. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health: Using Focus Groups to Inform Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruitment and retention of participants to large-scale, longitudinal studies can be a challenge, particularly when trying to target young women. Qualitative inquiries with members of the target population can prove valuable in assisting with the development of effective recruiting techniques. Researchers in the current study made use of focus group methodology to identify how to encourage young women aged 18-23 to participate in a national cohort online survey. Objective Our objectives were to gain insight into how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal health survey, as well as to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Methods The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health used focus group methodology to learn how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal Web-based health survey and to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Nineteen groups, involving 75 women aged 18-23 years, were held in remote, regional, and urban areas of New South Wales and Queensland. Results Focus groups were held in 2 stages, with discussions lasting from 19 minutes to over 1 hour. The focus groups allowed concord to be reached regarding survey promotion using social media, why personal information was needed, strategies to ensure confidentiality, how best to ask sensitive questions, and survey design for ease of completion. Recruitment into the focus groups proved difficult: the groups varied in size between 1 and 8 participants, with the majority conducted with 2 participants. Conclusions Intense recruitment efforts and variation in final focus group numbers highlights the “hard to reach” character of young women. However, the benefits of conducting focus group discussions as a preparatory stage to the recruitment of a large cohort for a longitudinal Web-based health survey were upheld. PMID:26902160

  2. Constructing "behavioral" comparison groups: A difference-in-difference analysis of the effect of copayment based on the patient's price elasticity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chaohsin; Hsu, Shuofen

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that the differences-in-differences (DD) estimator is based on the assumption that in the absence of treatment, the average outcomes for the treated group and the control group will follow a common trend over time. That can be problematic, especially when the selection for the treatment is influenced by the individual's unobserved behavior correlating with the medical utilization. The aim of this study was to develop an index for controlling a patient's unobserved heterogeneous response to reform, in order to improve the comparability of treatment assignment. This study showed that a DD estimator of the reform effects can be decomposed into effects induced by moral hazard and by changes in health risk within the same treated/untreated group. This article also presented evidence that the constructed index of the price elasticity of the adjusted clinical group has good statistical properties for identifying the impact of reform.

  3. Studies of genotoxicity and mutagenicity of nitroimidazoles: demystifying this critical relationship with the nitro group.

    PubMed

    Boechat, Núbia; Carvalho, Alcione S; Salomão, Kelly; Castro, Solange L de; Araujo-Lima, Carlos F; Mello, Francisco V C; Felzenszwalb, Israel; Aiub, Claudia A F; Conde, Taline Ramos; Zamith, Helena P S; Skupin, Rolf; Haufe, Günter

    2015-06-01

    Nitroimidazoles exhibit high microbicidal activity, but mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties have been attributed to the presence of the nitro group. However, we synthesised nitroimidazoles with activity against the trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, but that were not genotoxic. Herein, nitroimidazoles (11-19) bearing different substituent groups were investigated for their potential induction of genotoxicity (comet assay) and mutagenicity (Salmonella/Microsome assay) and the correlations of these effects with their trypanocidal effect and with megazol were investigated. The compounds were designed to analyse the role played by the position of the nitro group in the imidazole nucleus (C-4 or C-5) and the presence of oxidisable groups at N-1 as an anion receptor group and the role of a methyl group at C-2. Nitroimidazoles bearing NO2 at C-4 and CH3 at C-2 were not genotoxic compared to those bearing NO 2 at C-5. However, when there was a CH3 at C-2, the position of the NO2 group had no influence on the genotoxic activity. Fluorinated compounds exhibited higher genotoxicity regardless of the presence of CH3 at C-2 or NO2 at C-4 or C-5. However, in compounds 11 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2Cl) and 12 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2F), the fluorine atom had no influence on genotoxicity. This study contributes to the future search for new and safer prototypes and provide.

  4. Studies of genotoxicity and mutagenicity of nitroimidazoles: demystifying this critical relationship with the nitro group

    PubMed Central

    Boechat, Núbia; Carvalho, Alcione S; Salomão, Kelly; de Castro, Solange L; Araujo-Lima, Carlos F; Mello, Francisco VC; Felzenszwalb, Israel; Aiub, Claudia AF; Conde, Taline Ramos; Zamith, Helena PS; Skupin, Rolf; Haufe, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Nitroimidazoles exhibit high microbicidal activity, but mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties have been attributed to the presence of the nitro group. However, we synthesised nitroimidazoles with activity against the trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, but that were not genotoxic. Herein, nitroimidazoles (11-19) bearing different substituent groups were investigated for their potential induction of genotoxicity (comet assay) and mutagenicity (Salmonella/Microsome assay) and the correlations of these effects with their trypanocidal effect and with megazol were investigated. The compounds were designed to analyse the role played by the position of the nitro group in the imidazole nucleus (C-4 or C-5) and the presence of oxidisable groups at N-1 as an anion receptor group and the role of a methyl group at C-2. Nitroimidazoles bearing NO2 at C-4 and CH3 at C-2 were not genotoxic compared to those bearing NO2 at C-5. However, when there was a CH3 at C-2, the position of the NO2 group had no influence on the genotoxic activity. Fluorinated compounds exhibited higher genotoxicity regardless of the presence of CH3 at C-2 or NO2 at C-4 or C-5. However, in compounds 11 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2Cl) and 12 (2-CH3; 4-NO2; N-CH2OHCH2F), the fluorine atom had no influence on genotoxicity. This study contributes to the future search for new and safer prototypes and provide. PMID:26018452

  5. A review of 1985 Volvo Award winner in clinical science: objective assessment of spine function following industrial injury: a prospective study with comparison group and 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rainville, James; Kim, Richard S; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2007-08-15

    It is now 2 decades since Mayer et al published their Volvo Award-winning paper entitled "Objective assessment of spine function following industrial injury: a prospective study with comparison group and one-year follow-up." Their landmark paper reported that return to work rates of patients that underwent a "functional restoration" treatment program were double that of a comparative group of patients that were denied treatment by their insurers. These results were considered extraordinary and inspired both debate and enthusiasm. Our goal is to review this landmark study, report on its strengths and weaknesses, and review the studies that have attempted to replicate this work in other settings. We also highlight its contribution to our current knowledge about the treatment of back pain and disability. The major weaknesses of the paper of Mayer et al are the possibility of selection bias in the development of their cohort of patients and the lack of a true randomized controlled study design. These factors may have inflated the rates of return to work. Regardless, their reported results were robust, and cannot be easily dismissed. During the last 20 years, this treatment model has received considerable study worldwide, and it is generally agreed that it is superior to standard care for reducing work absence in patients with chronic low back pain. Additionally, the concepts underlying functional restoration have been found to be highly relevant to patients with chronic low back pain, medical providers, and disability systems and continue to gain acceptance and integration into the care of patients throughout the industrialized world.

  6. Group Grades Miss the Mark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Spencer

    1995-01-01

    Some teachers justify group grading for cooperative projects using specious arguments that invoke real-world comparison, employment skills, motivation, teacher workload, and credit for teamwork. This article argues that group grades are blatantly unfair, invalidate report cards, undermine motivation, convey the wrong message, violate individual…

  7. The role of discourse in group knowledge construction: A case study of engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittleson, Julie M.; Southerland, Sherry A.

    2004-03-01

    This qualitative study examined the role of discourse (verbal elements of language) and Discourse (nonverbal elements related to the use of language, such as ways of thinking, valuing, and using tools and technologies) in the process of group knowledge construction of mechanical engineering students. Data included interviews, participant observations, and transcripts from lab sessions of a group of students working on their senior design project. These data were analyzed using discourse analysis focusing on instances of concept negotiation, interaction in which multiple people contribute to the evolving conceptual conversation. In this context, despite instructors' attempts to enhance the collaboration of group members, concept negotiation was rare. In an effort to understand this rarity, we identified themes related to an engineering Discourse, which included participants' assumptions about the purpose of group work, the views about effective groups, and their epistemologies and ontologies. We explore how the themes associated with the engineering Discourse played a role in how and when the group engaged in concept negotiation. We found that underlying ideologies and assumptions related to the engineering Discourse played both facilitating and inhibitory roles related to the group's conceptually based interactions.

  8. The role of a teacher study group in negotiating constructivist science teaching in an elementary school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Ellen Louise

    2000-12-01

    This study arose from the frustrations expressed by elementary teachers in a mid-size, urban school district who were involved in implementing a new district-wide science curriculum. The new curriculum was designed to meet the recommendations for constructivist teaching espoused in the current science education reform movement. As a fifth-grade teacher in the district as well, as a member of the science curriculum committee that wrote the new curriculum, I was in the position to hear the frustrations vented by fellow teachers as they struggled to make the shift from a loosely-supervised, textbook-based curriculum to one which emphasized hands-on instruction through four in-depth units at each grade level. In response to teachers' frustrations, I conducted an action-research study designed to provide a sustained, personalized, professional development opportunity for a group of elementary teachers in the building in which I taught. The study group of five teachers met during the course of the 1996--97 school year to work on familiarizing ourselves with the tenets of constructivist science teaching and learning and incorporating this type of teaching into our own practice. Activities engaged in included: reading relevant literature, viewing videotapes of teachers practicing constructivist science teaching, attending physics workshops, working with the intermediate school-district science consultant, and videotaping our own science lessons for the purposes of sharing with the other group members and studying our practice. During the year, I conducted individual interviews with the teacher participants and audiotaped all group meetings in an effort to learn if this experience held value as a means of helping the group members become more constructivist science teachers. During the year, it became clear that the teachers continued to face many obstacles as they worked to improve their science teaching. While the participants felt they made progress and all agreed that

  9. Case studies putting the decision-making framework for the grouping and testing of nanomaterials (DF4nanoGrouping) into practice.

    PubMed

    Arts, Josje H E; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Keene, Athena M; Kreiling, Reinhard; Lyon, Delina; Maier, Monika; Michel, Karin; Neubauer, Nicole; Petry, Thomas; Sauer, Ursula G; Warheit, David; Wiench, Karin; Wohlleben, Wendel; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Case studies covering carbonaceous nanomaterials, metal oxide and metal sulphate nanomaterials, amorphous silica and organic pigments were performed to assess the Decision-making framework for the grouping and testing of nanomaterials (DF4nanoGrouping). The usefulness of the DF4nanoGrouping for nanomaterial hazard assessment was confirmed. In two tiers that rely exclusively on non-animal test methods followed by a third tier, if necessary, in which data from rat short-term inhalation studies are evaluated, nanomaterials are assigned to one of four main groups (MGs). The DF4nanoGrouping proved efficient in sorting out nanomaterials that could undergo hazard assessment without further testing. These are soluble nanomaterials (MG1) whose further hazard assessment should rely on read-across to the dissolved materials, high aspect-ratio nanomaterials (MG2) which could be assessed according to their potential fibre toxicity and passive nanomaterials (MG3) that only elicit effects under pulmonary overload conditions. Thereby, the DF4nanoGrouping allows identifying active nanomaterials (MG4) that merit in-depth investigations, and it provides a solid rationale for their sub-grouping to specify the further information needs. Finally, the evaluated case study materials may be used as source nanomaterials in future read-across applications. Overall, the DF4nanoGrouping is a hazard assessment strategy that strictly uses animals as a last resort.

  10. Status of the IAA study group on traffic management rules for space operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contant, Corinne; Lala, Petr; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2007-10-01

    The investigation of space traffic and its management has only recently become a point of wider discussion. In particular, the series of workshops organized by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and other international organizations on international cooperation highlighted the issue. It was discussed thoroughly at the workshops, which took place in 1999 and 2001, respectively. It was at the 2001 workshop, when the suggestion was made that an International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) Study on the subject of space traffic management should be prepared. This suggestion was taken up and a proposal was presented to the Board of Trustees of IAA, which, in late 2001, accepted this proposal. Following this, an interdisciplinary study group of around 20 persons was composed. One early milestone in the process of work was the conduct of an International Institute of Space Law (IISL)/European Center of Space Law (ECSL) Symposium alongside the 2002 session of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) Legal Subcommittee. This symposium consisted of presentations of members of the IAA study group. Also, close coordination with other study projects of IAA, in particular with the one on space debris, is sought. This paper presents the status of work of the study group, in particular, the approach and the scope of the study as well as its preliminary findings. The study group intends to finalize its work in early 2004, in order to be able to put the study before IAA and launch its review process before the 2004 International Astronautical Congress. Following this review, the study will be published and may be expected to make an impact in fora like the UNCOPUOS. The authors of this paper act as the coordinators/the rapporteur to this study. The paper will be presented in the IAA—as well as the IISL—session dealing with space traffic, by that bridging the two areas and seeking input from various sources.

  11. Common Group Problems: A Field Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Sanford B.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A field study of a naturally functioning group (N=125) was conducted to identify common group problems. Trained observers attended group meetings and described the problems encountered. Difficulties of cohesion, leadership, sub-group formation, and personality conflict were identified. (RC)

  12. Cost comparison of axillary sentinel lymph node detection and axillary lymphadenectomy in early breast cancer. A national study based on a prospective multi-institutional series of 985 patients ‘on behalf of the Group of Surgeons from the French Unicancer Federation’

    PubMed Central

    Classe, J. M.; Baffert, S.; Sigal-Zafrani, B.; Fall, M.; Rousseau, C.; Alran, S.; Rouanet, P.; Belichard, C.; Mignotte, H.; Ferron, G.; Marchal, F.; Giard, S.; Tunon de Lara, C.; Le Bouedec, G.; Cuisenier, J.; Werner, R.; Raoust, I.; Rodier, J.-F.; Laki, F.; Colombo, P.-E.; Lasry, S.; Faure, C.; Charitansky, H.; Olivier, J.-B.; Chauvet, M.-P.; Bussières, E.; Gimbergues, P.; Flipo, B.; Houvenaeghel, G.; Dravet, F.; Livartowski, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Our objective was to assess the global cost of the sentinel lymph node detection [axillary sentinel lymph node detection (ASLND)] compared with standard axillary lymphadenectomy [axillary lymph node dissection (ALND)] for early breast cancer patients. Patients and methods: We conducted a prospective, multi-institutional, observational, cost comparative analysis. Cost calculations were realized with the micro-costing method from the diagnosis until 1 month after the last surgery. Results: Eight hundred and thirty nine patients were included in the ASLND group and 146 in the ALND group. The cost generated for a patient with an ASLND, with one preoperative scintigraphy, a combined method for sentinel node detection, an intraoperative pathological analysis without lymphadenectomy, was lower than the cost generated for a patient with lymphadenectomy [€2947 (σ = 580) versus €3331 (σ = 902); P = 0.0001]. Conclusion: ASLND, involving expensive techniques, was finally less expensive than ALND. The length of hospital stay was the cost driver of these procedures. The current observational study points the heterogeneous practices for this validated and largely diffused technique. Several technical choices have an impact on the cost of ASLND, as intraoperative analysis allowing to reduce rehospitalization rate for secondary lymphadenectomy or preoperative scintigraphy, suggesting possible savings on hospital resources. PMID:21896543

  13. Complete sequence of three plasmids from Bacillus thuringiensis INTA-FR7-4 environmental isolate and comparison with related plasmids from the Bacillus cereus group.

    PubMed

    Amadio, Ariel F; Benintende, Graciela B; Zandomeni, Rubén O

    2009-11-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an insect pathogen used worldwide as a bioinsecticide. It belongs to the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group as well as Bacillus anthracis and B. cereus. Plasmids from this group of organisms have been implicated in pathogenicity as they carry the genes responsible for different types of diseases that affect mammals and insects. Some plasmids, like pAW63 and pBT9727, encode a functional conjugation machinery allowing them to be transferred to a recipient cell. They also share extensive homology with the non-functional conjugation apparatus of pXO2 from B. anthracis. In this study we report the complete sequence of three plasmids from an environmental B. thuringiensis isolate from Argentina, obtained by a shotgun sequencing method. We obtained the complete nucleotide sequence of plasmids pFR12 (12,095bp), pFR12.5 (12,459bp) and pFR55 (55,712bp) from B. thuringiensis INTA-FR7-4. pFR12 and pFR12.5 were classified as cryptic as they do not code for any obvious functions besides replication and mobilization. Both small plasmids were classified as RCR plasmids due to similarities with the replicases they encode. Plasmid pFR55 showed a structural organization similar to that observed for plasmids pAW63, pBT9727 and pXO2. pFR55 also shares a tra region with these plasmids, containing genes related to T4SS and conjugation. A comparison between pFR55 and conjugative plasmids led to the postulation that pFR55 is a conjugative plasmid. Genes related to replication functions in pFR55 are different to those described for plasmids with known complete sequences. pFR55 is the first completely sequenced plasmid with a replication machinery related to that of ori44. The analysis of the complete sequence of plasmids from an environmental isolate of B. thuringiensis permitted the identification of a near complete conjugation apparatus in pFR55, resembling those of plasmids pAW63, pBT9727 and pXO2. The availability of this sequence is a step forward in the study

  14. Comparison of Health-Related Measures of Two Groups of Adolescents in a Rural Southeastern County in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Charles D.; Hensarling, Robert W.; Angel, James B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to establish baseline values on physiological parameters for 7-11 graders (n = 146) in a rural area of Alabama and to examine whether differences existed among the adolescents in the county. Design: Descriptive. Setting: Many adolescents in the southern portion of the United States suffer disproportionately…

  15. Beachrocks and sea level changes since Middle Holocene: Comparison between the insular group of Mykonos-Delos-Rhenia (Cyclades, Greece) and the southern coast of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desruelles, Stéphane; Fouache, Éric; Ciner, Attila; Dalongeville, Rémi; Pavlopoulos, Kosmas; Kosun, Erdal; Coquinot, Yvan; Potdevin, Jean-Luc

    2009-03-01

    The small insular group of Mykonos-Delos-Rhenia in Cyclades, Greece, and the southern coast of Turkey from Andriake to Arsuz show three bands of beachrocks, emerged up to + 0.35 m and submerged sometimes down to - 4.3 m. Because beachrocks are formed within the intertidal zone by carbonate cementation of the beach deposits during stages of shoreline stabilisation (both eustatic and tectonic), they correspond to different generations indicating different sea level stands. 11 sites on the southern coast of Turkey and 7 bays on the insular group of Mykonos-Delos-Rhenia were studied. 52 beachrock samples were analysed by polarizing microscope, cathodoluminescence and SEM. This study indicated that carbonate elements that constitute most of the samples were at least partly incorporated within the intertidal zone. The adequate method for radiocarbon dating (total sample or cement) was decided according to these observations. Because diagenetic cements seemed difficult to extract manually and the sources of carbonate pollution are limited in Mykonos-Delos-Rhenia, we performed 14C AMS dating on total samples. On the southern coast of Turkey, due to the abundance of micrite in between the limestone pebbles that often constitute the beachrocks, available cements had to be manually extracted for 14C AMS dating. The dates obtained from Mykonos-Delos-Rhenia beachrocks indicate 3 separate sea level stands: the first one at about - 3.6 m (± 0.5 m) around 2000 BC, the second one at about - 2.5 m (± 0.5 m) around 400 BC and finally the third sea level at about - 1 m (± 0.5 m) around 1000 AD. On the southern coast of Turkey, several relative sea level positions in 4 areas (I to IV) are recognised. From Finike Bay to the west (area I), a post-Roman relative sea level rise is observed after a period of coastline stabilisation. The area from the east of Finike Peninsula to Çimtur (area II) witnessed relative sea level rise since mid-Holocene interrupted by 3 phases of stability

  16. Staff Attitudes towards the Sexuality of People with Learning Disabilities: A Comparison of Different Professional Groups and Residential Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieve, Alan; McLaren, Shona; Lindsay, William; Culling, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    The role of care staff is invaluable in the day to day living of many people with learning disabilities. Consequently, care staff can often have substantial influence, although this may not always serve the best interests of the individual. Previous studies have shown significant levels of stigma towards people with learning disabilities, both…

  17. Spectroscopic investigation of phenolic groups ionization in the vipoxin neurotoxic phospholipase A 2: comparison with the X-ray structure in the region of the tyrosyl residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, Dessislava Nikolova; Genov, Nicolay; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Aleksiev, Boris; Betzel, Christian

    1998-12-01

    The neurotoxin vipoxin is the major lethal component of the venom of Vipera ammodites meridionalis, the most toxic snake in Europe. It is a complex between a toxic phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2) and a non-toxic protein inhibitor (Inh). Tyrosyl residues are involved in the catalytic site (Tyr 52 and 73) and in the substrate binding (Tyr 22). Spectroscopic studies demonstrated differences in the ionization behavior of the various phenolic hydroxyl groups in the toxic PLA 2. The tyrosyl side chains of the enzyme can be classified into three groups: (a) three phenolic hydroxyls are accessible to the solvent and titrate normally, with a p Keff=10.45; (b) three residues are partially 'buried' and participate in hydrogen bonds with neighboring functional groups. They titrate anomalously with a p Keff=12.17; (c) two tyrosines with a p Keff=13.23 are deeply 'buried' in the hydrophobic interior of PLA 2. They became accessible to the titrating agent only after alkaline denaturation of the protein molecule. The spectroscopic data are related to the X-ray structure of the vipoxin PLA 2. The refined model was investigated in the region of the tyrosyl side chains. The accessible surface area of each tyrosyl residue and each phenolic hydroxyl group was calculated. A good correlation between the spectrophotometric and the crystallographic data was observed. The ionization behavior of the phenolic groups is explained by peculiarities of the protein three-dimensional structure and the participation of tyrosines in the catalytic site hydrogen bond network. Attempts are made to assign the calculated p Keff values to individual residues. The high degree of 'exposure' on the protein surface of Tyr 22 and 75 is probably important for their function as parts of the substrate binding and pharmacological sites.

  18. Preliminary dose comparisons for the MRS Systems Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Lavender, J.C.

    1989-04-01

    This report provides preliminary information on the radiological doses to the public and the workers for alternative system configurations proposed in the MRS Systems Study. Information published in the MRS Environmental Assessment (DOE 1986) was used as a basis for this analysis. The risk differences between alternative configurations were found to be small and should not be viewed as a major factor in selecting alternative configurations. 1 ref.

  19. Comparison of the learning of two notations: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    AKRAM, ASHFAQ; FUADFUAD, MAHER D; MALIK, ARSHAD MAHMOOD; NASIR ALZURFI, BALSAM MAHDI; CHANGMAI, MANAH CHANDRA; MADLENA, MELINDA

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: MICAP is a new notation in which the teeth are indicated by letters (I-incisor, C-canine, P-premolar, M-molar) and numbers [1,2,3] which are written superscript and subscript on the relevant letters. FDI tooth notation is a two digit system where one digit shows quadrant and the second one shows the tooth of the quadrant. This study aimed to compare the short term retention of knowledge of two notation systems (FDI two digit system and MICAP notation) by lecture method. Methods: Undergraduate students [N=80] of three schools participated in a cross-over study. Two theory-driven classroom based lectures on MICAP notation and FDI notation were delivered separately. Data were collected using eight randomly selected permanent teeth to be written in MICAP format and FDI format at pretest (before the lecture), post-test I (immediately after lecture) and post-test II (one week after the lecture). Analysis was done by SPSS version 20.0 using repeated measures ANCOVA and independent t-test. Results: The results of pre-test and post-test I were similar for FDI education. Similar results were found between post-test I and post-test II for MICAP and FDI notations. Conclusion: The study findings indicated that the two notations (FDI and MICAP) were equally mind cognitive. However, the sample size used in this study may not reflect the global scenario. Therefore, we suggest more studies to be performed for prospective adaptation of MICAP in dental curriculum. PMID:28367462

  20. Spatio-temporal Rasch analysis of quality of life outcomes in the French general population. Measurement invariance and group comparisons

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aims at analyzing Health related quality of life (HRQoL) data on the French general population between 1995 and 2003 using an Item Response Theory (IRT) model. Methods Data concerned 26388 individuals having responded to the SF36 questionnaire in 1995 or in 2003. General Health, Mental Health and Physical Functioning dimensions have been analyzed using a latent regression mixed Partial Credit Model. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) have been searched on each item between age categories, genders, regions of residency, and years of study. Mean and variance of the latent traits have been explained by the same variables, in order to quantify their impact. Results Few DIF have been detected between age categories or genders. The analysis shows already known evolutions for HRQoL data: the decrease with age and the differences between genders with worst values for women. We note differences between regions, with better mean value in Paris, in the West or in the South of France, and worst values in the North and in the East. Last, a decrease of the three studied dimensions is noted between 1995 and 2003. Conclusions This study using IRT model offers several advantages compared to a classical approach based on scores. First, DIF can be taken into account. More, handling of missing data is easy, because IRT models do not required imputation of missing data. Last, analysis using IRT model is more powerful than analysis based on scores, and allow highlighting a most important number of effects. PMID:23190935

  1. The MATISSE study: a randomised trial of group art therapy for people with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Art Therapy has been promoted as a means of helping people who may find it difficult to express themselves verbally engage in psychological treatment. Group Art Therapy has been widely used as an adjunctive treatment for people with schizophrenia but there have been few attempts to examine its effects and cost effectiveness has not been examined. The MATISSE study aims to evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness of group Art Therapy for people with schizophrenia. Method/Design The MATISSE study is a three-arm, parallel group, pragmatic, randomised, controlled trial of referral to group Art Therapy plus standard care, referral to an attention control 'activity' group plus standard care, or standard care alone. Study participants were recruited from inpatient and community-based mental health and social care services at four centres in England and Northern Ireland. Participants were aged over 18 years with a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia, confirmed by an examination of case notes using operationalised criteria. Participants were then randomised via an independent and remote telephone randomisation service using permuted stacked blocks, stratified by site. Art Therapy and activity groups were made available to participants once a week for up to 12 months. Outcome measures were assessed by researchers masked to allocation status at 12 and 24 months after randomisation. Participants and care givers were aware which arm of the trial participants were allocated to. The primary outcomes for the study are global functioning (measured using the Global Assessment of Functioning scale) and mental health symptoms (measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) assessed at 24 months. Secondary outcomes were assessed at 12 and 24 months and comprise levels of group attendance, social function, satisfaction with care, mental wellbeing, and costs. Discussion We believe that this is the first large scale pragmatic trial of Art Therapy for people with

  2. Comparison of different force fields for the study of disaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen empirical force fields and the semi-empirical quantum method PM3CARB-1 were compared for studying ß-cellobiose, a-maltose, and a-galabiose [a-D-Galp-(1'4)-a-D-Galp]. For each disaccharide, the energies of 54 conformers with differing hydroxymethyl, hydroxyl and glycosidic linkage orientatio...

  3. Empirical Studies on the Network of Social Groups: The Case of Tencent QQ

    PubMed Central

    You, Zhi-Qiang; Han, Xiao-Pu; Lü, Linyuan; Yeung, Chi Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background Participation in social groups are important but the collective behaviors of human as a group are difficult to analyze due to the difficulties to quantify ordinary social relation, group membership, and to collect a comprehensive dataset. Such difficulties can be circumvented by analyzing online social networks. Methodology/Principal Findings In this paper, we analyze a comprehensive dataset released from Tencent QQ, an instant messenger with the highest market share in China. Specifically, we analyze three derivative networks involving groups and their members—the hypergraph of groups, the network of groups and the user network—to reveal social interactions at microscopic and mesoscopic level. Conclusions/Significance Our results uncover interesting behaviors on the growth of user groups, the interactions between groups, and their relationship with member age and gender. These findings lead to insights which are difficult to obtain in social networks based on personal contacts. PMID:26176850

  4. Analysis of the sequence of dioscorea Alata bacilliform virus: comparison to others members of the badnavirus group.

    PubMed

    Briddon, R W; Phillips, S; Brunt, A; Hull, R

    1999-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Dioscorea alata bacilliform virus (DaBV) has been determined from cloned fragments. Features of the genome confirm DaBV to be a pararetrovirus of the genus Badnavirus which is more similar to other mealy-bug transmitted badnaviruses, in particular to cacao swollen shoot virus, than to rice tungro bacilliform virus. Sequence variability between cloned fragments suggests that the genetic variability of the virus may be quite high (up to 11% nucleotide sequence variation for some small regions of the genome) although the overall variability detected was 4.2% at the nucleotide level.

  5. The Impact of Homogeneity on Intra-Group Cohesion: A Macro-Level Comparison of Minority Communities in a Western Diaspora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deffa, Oromiya-Jalata

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to earlier studies dealing with the cultural identity development of diasporic minorities, this paper assesses the impact of homogeneity on intra-group cohesion and ethnic orientation. To this end, Oromo-Americans, an ethnic group originally located within the national borders of Ethiopia, will be compared to Armenian-Americans,…

  6. Studying the dwarf galaxies in nearby groups of galaxies: Spectroscopic and photometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, U.; Vennik, J.

    2014-11-01

    Galaxy evolution by interaction-driven transformation is probably highly efficient in groups of galaxies. Dwarf galaxies with their shallow potential are expected to reflect the interaction most prominently in their observable structure. The major aim of this series of papers is to establish a data base which allows to study the impact of group interaction onto the morphology and star-forming properties of dwarf galaxies. Firstly, we present our selection rules for target groups and the morphological selection method of target dwarf member candidates. Secondly, the spectroscopic follow-up observations with the HET are presented. Thirdly, we applied own reduction methods based on adaptive filtering to derive surface photometry of the candidates. The spectroscopic follow-up indicate a dwarf identification success rate of roughly 55 %, and a group member success rate of about 33 %. A total of 17 new low surface-brightness members is presented. For all candidates, total magnitudes, colours, and light distribution parameters are derived and discussed in the context of scaling relations. We point out short comings of the SDSS standard pipeline for surface photometry for these dim objects. We conclude that our selection strategy is rather efficient to obtain a sample of dim, low surface brightness members of groups of galaxies within the Virgo super-cluster. The photometric scaling relation in these X-ray dim, rather isolated groups does not significantly differ from those of the galaxies within the local volume.

  7. Quality of life assessment in Hodgkin's disease: a new comprehensive approach. First experiences from the EORTC/GELA and GHSG trials. EORTC Lymphoma Cooperative Group. Groupe D'Etude des Lymphomes de L'Adulte and German Hodgkin Study Group.

    PubMed

    Flechtner, H; Rüffer, J U; Henry-Amar, M; Mellink, W A; Sieber, M; Fermé, C; Eghbali, H; Josting, A; Diehl, V

    1998-01-01

    Previous reports from available trials have dealt with negative long-term sequelae in Hodgkin's disease (HD) survivors. There is, however, a lack of longitudinal data showing the correlation between outcome and various treatment-related variables and the process of re-adaptation into normal life after the end of treatment. In order to investigate the quality of life (QoL) of patients with HD in different dimensions during active treatment and follow-up and to identify longitudinal patterns of QoL dimensions during re-adaptation to normal life within the EORTC Lymphoma Cooperative Group and Groupe D'Etude des Lymphomes de L'Adulte (EORTC/GELA) and the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG), QoL assessment strategies were put into use over the last three to five years. Furthermore, the efforts aimed at obtaining cross-cultural comparisons between the participating countries and study groups (EORTC/GELA and GHSG). Within the randomised EORTC/GELA Trial 'H8' for clinical stage I-II HD which started in September 1993, patients receive a QoL questionnaire for completion at each follow-up visit during the first 10 years after the end of active therapy. The corresponding 'HD8' study of the GHSG employs the assessment of QoL during and after active treatment periods. Within both studies, the EORTC QLQ C30 is used for QoL assessment incorporated in the QLQ-S (quality of life questionnaire for survivors), which additionally addresses the aspects of fatigue/malaise, sexuality, specific side effects, and retrospective evaluation of treatment. In total the QLQ-S includes 45 questions on 14 functional, symptom, and fatigue scales, 15 additional single items, and 3 open questions. In addition to the longitudinal QoL assessment, the GHSG carried out cross-sectional QoL trials with all cured surviving patients from the past HD1-6 studies and a matched normal control sample employing the QLQ-S and the life situation questionnaire (LSQ), an instrument covering objective data from 45

  8. Group membership prediction when known groups consist of unknown subgroups: a Monte Carlo comparison of methods

    PubMed Central

    Finch, W. Holmes; Bolin, Jocelyn H.; Kelley, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Classification using standard statistical methods such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) or logistic regression (LR) presume knowledge of group membership prior to the development of an algorithm for prediction. However, in many real world applications members of the same nominal group, might in fact come from different subpopulations on the underlying construct. For example, individuals diagnosed with depression will not all have the same levels of this disorder, though for the purposes of LDA or LR they will be treated in the same manner. The goal of this simulation study was to examine the performance of several methods for group classification in the case where within group membership was not homogeneous. For example, suppose there are 3 known groups but within each group two unknown classes. Several approaches were compared, including LDA, LR, classification and regression trees (CART), generalized additive models (GAM), and mixture discriminant analysis (MIXDA). Results of the study indicated that CART and mixture discriminant analysis were the most effective tools for situations in which known groups were not homogeneous, whereas LDA, LR, and GAM had the highest rates of misclassification. Implications of these results for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24904445

  9. The group matters: an explorative study of group cohesion and quality of life in cancer patients participating in physical exercise intervention during treatment.

    PubMed

    Midtgaard, J; Rorth, M; Stelter, R; Adamsen, L

    2006-03-01

    A series of studies have shown that physical activity improves cancer patients functional capacity and quality of life (QOL). Few of these studies have included physical exercise carried out in a group setting. However, patient's experience with the in-group processes remains unexplored. This study investigated group cohesion and changes in QOL in 55 cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy who participated in a 9 h weekly group exercise programme for 6 weeks. The study used a method triangulation component design. Seven qualitative group interviews were conducted post-intervention. QOL (SF-36; EORTC QLQ-C30) was assessed at baseline and after Week 6. The interviews revealed that group cohesion was an interim goal aimed to maximize peak performance potential by patients. Group cohesion was characterized by a special 'esprit de corps' and enabled the group members to feel like sport teams. The programme made purposeful togetherness possible while allowing the patients an opportunity to let their illness fade into the background. Questionnaire data showed significant improvements in mental health, social and emotional functioning. This study identified a conceptualization of group cohesion that forms a valuable basis for a larger randomized controlled trial to conclude whether the observed changes are a result of this specific intervention.

  10. An Ethnographic Study of the Mathematical Ideas of a Group of Carpenters. Monograph Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millroy, Wendy Lesley

    1992-01-01

    The researcher conducted a six-month ethnographic study as an apprentice carpenter in Cape Town, South Africa, to document the valid mathematical ideas that are embedded in the everyday woodworking activities of a group of carpenters. A secondary objective was to examine and to give a firsthand account of the teaching and learning of mathematical…

  11. The Development of Second Language Writing Complexity in Groups and Individuals: A Longitudinal Learner Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vyatkina, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the development of multiple dimensions of linguistic complexity in the writing of beginning learners of German both as a group and as individuals. The data come from an annotated, longitudinal learner corpus. The development of lexicogrammatical complexity is explored at 2 intersections: (a) between cross-sectional trendlines…

  12. Staff Perceptions of the Work Environment in Juvenile Group Home Settings: A Study of Social Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minor, Kevin I.; Wells, James B.; Jones, Brandi

    2004-01-01

    This study used the Prison Social Climate Survey to measure perceptions of the work environment among staff employed in all group homes administered by a state department of juvenile justice. Work environment perceptions were favorable along six dimensions and in the moderate range on a seventh. The variables that most consistently predicted staff…

  13. Cryptographic Research and NSA: Report of the Public Cryptography Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davida, George I.

    1981-01-01

    The Public Cryptography Study Group accepted the claim made by the National Security Agency that some information in some publications concerning cryptology could be inimical to national security, and is allowing the establishment of a voluntary mechanism, on an experimental basis, for NSA to review cryptology manuscripts. (MLW)

  14. Ralstonia paucula (Formerly CDC Group IV c-2): Unsuccessful Strain Differentiation with PCR-Based Methods, Study of the 16S-23S Spacer of the rRNA Operon, and Comparison with Other Ralstonia Species (R. eutropha, R. pickettii, R. gilardii, and R. solanacearum)

    PubMed Central

    Moissenet, Didier; Bidet, Philippe; Garbarg-Chenon, Antoine; Arlet, Guillaume; Vu-Thien, Hoang

    2001-01-01

    Ralstonia paucula (formerly CDC group IV c-2) can cause serious human infections. Confronted in 1995 with five cases of nosocomial bacteremia, we found that pulsed-field gel electrophoresis could not distinguish between the isolates and that randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis was poorly discriminatory. In this study, we used PCR-ribotyping and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the spacer 16S-23S ribosomal DNA (rDNA); both methods were unable to differentiate R. paucula isolates. Eighteen strains belonging to other Ralstonia species (one R. eutropha strain, six R. pickettii strains, three R. solanacearum strains, and eight R. gilardii strains) were also tested by PCR-ribotyping, which failed to distinguish between the four species. The 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer of R. paucula contains the tRNAIle and tRNAAla genes, which are identical to genes described for R. pickettii and R. solanacearum. PMID:11136807

  15. Ralstonia paucula (Formerly CDC group IV c-2): unsuccessful strain differentiation with PCR-based methods, study of the 16S-23S spacer of the rRNA operon, and comparison with other Ralstonia species (R. eutropha, R. pickettii, R. gilardii, and R. solanacearum).

    PubMed

    Moissenet, D; Bidet, P; Garbarg-Chenon, A; Arlet, G; Vu-Thien, H

    2001-01-01

    Ralstonia paucula (formerly CDC group IV c-2) can cause serious human infections. Confronted in 1995 with five cases of nosocomial bacteremia, we found that pulsed-field gel electrophoresis could not distinguish between the isolates and that randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis was poorly discriminatory. In this study, we used PCR-ribotyping and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the spacer 16S-23S ribosomal DNA (rDNA); both methods were unable to differentiate R. paucula isolates. Eighteen strains belonging to other Ralstonia species (one R. eutropha strain, six R. pickettii strains, three R. solanacearum strains, and eight R. gilardii strains) were also tested by PCR-ribotyping, which failed to distinguish between the four species. The 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer of R. paucula contains the tRNA(Ile) and tRNA(Ala) genes, which are identical to genes described for R. pickettii and R. solanacearum.

  16. Differences in Caregiver-Reported Health Problems and Health Care Use in Maltreated Adolescents and a Comparison Group from the Same Urban Environment

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Kools, Susan; Negriff, Sonya; Smith, Sharon; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2014-01-01

    Maltreated youth have a high prevalence of acute and chronic mental and physical health problems, but it is not clear whether these problems are related to maltreatment or to a disadvantaged environment. To compare health status and health care use of maltreated youth receiving child protective services to comparison youth living in the same community, we conducted a secondary analysis of caregiver reports for 207 maltreated adolescents (mean age 11.9 years) and 142 comparison adolescents (mean age 12.3 years) living in urban Los Angeles, using questionnaire data from a larger longitudinal study framed in a socio-ecological model. Caregivers included biological parents, relatives, and unrelated caregivers. Analyses included t-test, MANOVA, chi-square, and multivariable logistic regression. Caregivers reported similar rates of physical health problems but more mental health problems and psychotropic medicine use in maltreated youth than in the comparison youth, suggesting that maltreated youths’ higher rates of mental health problems could not be attributed to the disadvantaged environment. Although there were no differences in health insurance coverage, maltreated youth received preventive medical care more often than comparison youth. For all youth, having Medicaid improved their odds of receiving preventive health and dental care. Attention to mental health issues in adolescents receiving child welfare services remains important. Acceptance of Medicaid by neighborhood-based and/or school-based services in low-income communities may reduce barriers to preventive care. PMID:25557881

  17. Do drug users use less alcohol than non-drug users? A comparison of ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair between the two groups in medico-legal cases.

    PubMed

    Paul, Richard; Kingston, Robert; Tsanaclis, Lolita; Berry, Anthony; Guwy, Alan

    2008-03-21

    Two groups were selected from the remainder of hair samples that had been tested for drugs at TrichoTech for medico-legal cases: samples that tested negative (drug-negative group; N=42, age 33.4+/-7.2 years) and samples that tested positive for drugs (drug-positive group; N=57, age 32.5+/-8.8 years). A rapid, simple method to detect the ethanol metabolite, ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair has been developed. The hair samples were sectioned, and then submitted to overnight sonication in water. Samples then underwent SPE using anion exchange cartridges, followed by derivatisation with N,O-bis[trimethylsilyl]trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), before confirmation by GC-MS/MS. The assay produced excellent linearity and sensitivity over the calibration range 0.02-1.0 ng/mg, assuming a 10 mg hair sample. The mean age of the two groups was not statistically different (p=0.575, Student t-test), indicating a homogeneous group. Twelve of the 57 (21.0%) hair samples of the drug-positive group tested positive for EtG, and 17 of the 42 (40.5%) hair samples of the drug-negative group tested positive for EtG. The mean concentration of EtG in the drug-positive group was 0.011 ng/mg compared to 0.107 ng/mg in the drug-negative group. When the full results of this study were subjected to statistical analysis it was shown that EtG levels in the drug-negative group were statistically higher than those found in the drug-positive group (p<0.05). This preliminary finding may be of use in the study of addiction and adds valuable data to previous studies regarding the use of EtG as a valuable marker for alcohol levels in hair.

  18. Proceedings of the 1979 Meeting [of the] Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1979

    These proceedings contain: two lectures; reports from four working groups, four review groups, and three special groups; and a list of participants. Lecture I, by Joseph Agassi, was entitled "On Mathematics Education: The Lakatosian Revolution." Lecture II, by Jack Easley, was entitled "Alternative Research Metaphore and the Social Context of…

  19. Preliminary Study of Resilience-Based Group Therapy for Improving the Functioning of Anxious Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Candice C.; Rich, Brendan A.; Sanchez, Lisa; O'Brien, Kelly; Alvord, Mary K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of research examining the feasibility of group psychotherapy interventions for anxious children in private clinical service settings. Furthermore, no research to date has examined the effectiveness of resilience-based interventions for helping children with anxiety disorders. Objective: The present study aims to examine…

  20. Shaping State Rehabilitation Programs through Consumer Partnerships: Issues and Strategies. Report from the Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Ronald R., Ed.

    Targeted to state vocational rehabilitation administrators and leaders, this document discusses the recommendations of a study group that investigated approaches, ways, methods, and strategies for increasing the involvement of individuals with disabilities in the operation and management of state agency rehabilitation programs. Part 1, "Consumer…

  1. The Museum Structured Group Experience: An Observational Study of Criterion Behaviors and Recommendations for Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jean

    In a 1973 Smithsonian behavioral science project, observational methods were used to record school group behaviors during docent guided tours in the National Museum of History and Technology. The purpose of this exploratory study was to reveal the natural museum habitat and criterion behaviors of visiting fourth through sixth graders. Children's…

  2. Group Work for Korean Expatriate Women in the United States: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Suhyun; Lee, Myoung-Suk

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of exploratory research with a group of seven Korean expatriate women. The study employed a modified Reality Therapy approach over eight meetings conducted by two professionally qualified leaders who also speak Korean. Qualitative research methods were used to analyze and describe the participants' experiences.…

  3. Talking through the Problems: A Study of Discourse in Peer-Led Small Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repice, Michelle D.; Sawyer, R. Keith; Hogrebe, Mark C.; Brown, Patrick L.; Luesse, Sarah B.; Gealy, Daniel J.; Frey, Regina F.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, studies are investigating the factors that influence student discourse in science courses, and specifically the mechanisms and discourse processes within small groups, to better understand the learning that takes place as students work together. This paper contributes to a growing body of research by analyzing how students engage in…

  4. The Role of Discourse in Group Knowledge Construction: A Case Study of Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittleson, Julie M.; Southerland, Sherry A.

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the role of discourse (verbal elements of language) and Discourse (nonverbal elements related to the use of language, such as ways of thinking, valuing, and using tools and technologies) in the process of group knowledge construction of mechanical engineering students. Data included interviews, participant…

  5. Clarifying the role of social comparison in the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE): an integrative study.

    PubMed

    Huguet, Pascal; Dumas, Florence; Marsh, Herbert; Wheeler, Ladd; Seaton, Marjorie; Nezlek, John; Suls, Jerry; Régner, Isabelle

    2009-07-01

    It has been speculated that the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE; the negative impact of highly selective academic settings on academic self-concept) is a consequence of invidious social comparisons experienced in higher ability schools. However, the direct role of such comparisons for the BFLPE has not heretofore been documented. The present study comprises the first evidence that the BFLPE (a) is eliminated after controlling for students' invidious comparisons with their class and (b) coexists with the assimilative and contrastive effects of upward social comparison choices on academic self-concept. These results increase understanding of the BFLPE and offer support for integrative approaches of social comparison (selective accessibility and interpretation comparison models) in a natural setting. They also lend support for the distinction between forced and deliberate social comparisons and the usefulness of distinguishing between absolute and relative comparison-level choice in self-assessment.

  6. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'etude en didactique des mathematiques. Proceedings of the 1995 Annual Meeting (Ontario, Canada, May 26-30, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pothier, Yvonne M., Ed.

    These proceedings contain the papers presented at the 1995 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group. Papers are organized into four sections: (1) plenary lectures; (2) working groups; (3) topic sessions; and (4) ad hoc sessions. Papers include: (1) "The Role of Epistemology in the Analysis of Teaching/Learning…

  7. Exploring Robust Methods for Evaluating Treatment and Comparison Groups in Chronic Care Management Programs

    PubMed Central

    Hamar, Brent; Bradley, Chastity; Gandy, William M.; Harrison, Patricia L.; Sidney, James A.; Coberley, Carter R.; Rula, Elizabeth Y.; Pope, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Evaluation of chronic care management (CCM) programs is necessary to determine the behavioral, clinical, and financial value of the programs. Financial outcomes of members who are exposed to interventions (treatment group) typically are compared to those not exposed (comparison group) in a quasi-experimental study design. However, because member assignment is not randomized, outcomes reported from these designs may be biased or inefficient if study groups are not comparable or balanced prior to analysis. Two matching techniques used to achieve balanced groups are Propensity Score Matching (PSM) and Coarsened Exact Matching (CEM). Unlike PSM, CEM has been shown to yield estimates of causal (program) effects that are lowest in variance and bias for any given sample size. The objective of this case study was to provide a comprehensive comparison of these 2 matching methods within an evaluation of a CCM program administered to a large health plan during a 2-year time period. Descriptive and statistical methods were used to assess the level of balance between comparison and treatment members pre matching. Compared with PSM, CEM retained more members, achieved better balance between matched members, and resulted in a statistically insignificant Wald test statistic for group aggregation. In terms of program performance, the results showed an overall higher medical cost savings among treatment members matched using CEM compared with those matched using PSM (-$25.57 versus -$19.78, respectively). Collectively, the results suggest CEM is a viable alternative, if not the most appropriate matching method, to apply when evaluating CCM program performance. (Population Health Management 2013;16:35–45) PMID:22788834

  8. Nordic Myeloma Study Group, the first 15 years: scientific collaboration and improvement of patient care.

    PubMed

    Hippe, Erik; Westin, Jan; Wislöff, Finn

    2005-03-01

    The accomplishments of the Nordic Myeloma Study Group (NMSG) during its first 15 yr are briefly surveyed, together with a discussion of principles guiding the group's clinical trials and of problems that need to be addressed in coming years. The group has so far carried out 12 clinical trials, comprising more than 2500 patients, spanning from minor phase II to large randomised phase III trials. At the time of writing, two randomised trials are running (comparing two doses of i.v. pamidronate, and melphalan-prednisone (MP) vs. MP-thalidomide to elderly patients). The group has strived for a simple organisation with much responsibility delegated to regional coordinators (Denmark 3, Norway 5, Sweden 5). With regard to trial design, the group has considered it important that studies are based on sound scientific questions, are simple to handle for the participants, population based, investigator initiated, include quality of life and health resources assessment as end-points, and can be used as basis for diverse scientific spin-off projects. Like other clinical trial groups, NMSG faces a number of challenges in coming years. The financial situation for independent investigator-initiated trials is far from satisfactory, especially with regard to the resource-consuming implementation of more stringent good clinical practice rules and ethical committee demands. NMSG has also encountered increasing difficulties in recruiting patients to recent trials, partly because of problems related to participating physicians (lack of support, laborious paper work, insufficient credit for participation). Solutions to these problems have to be found if industry-independent clinical trial groups are to survive.

  9. Increasing International and Domestic Student Interaction through Group Work: A Case Study from the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruickshank, Ken; Chen, Honglin; Warren, Stan

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the use of group work strategies to increase student interaction and learning. Despite the growing linguistic and cultural diversity in tertiary institutions, there is strong evidence of minimal interaction between "domestic" and "international" students in classrooms and in wider university contexts. This study investigates…

  10. Teen Perceptions of the Promotion of Safer Sexual Practices: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrman, Judith W.; Kelley, Andrea; Haigh, Katherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Teens' own thoughts on fostering safe sexual practice are important perspectives in promoting adolescent sexual health yet are relatively absent in the literature. This focus group study explored teens' perceptions about the supports and challenges that exist as teens strive to engage in healthy sexual practices. Seventy-five teens participated in…

  11. ABO and Rh (D) group distribution and gene frequency; the first multicentric study in India

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Amit; Tiwari, Aseem Kumar; Mehta, Nidhi; Bhattacharya, Prasun; Wankhede, Ravi; Tulsiani, Sunita; Kamath, Susheela

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The study was undertaken with the objective to provide data on the ABO and Rh(D) blood group distribution and gene frequency across India. Materials and Methods: A total of 10,000 healthy blood donors donating in blood banks situated in five different geographical regions of the country (North, South, East and Center) were included in the study. ABO and Rh (D) grouping was performed on all these samples. Data on the frequency of ABO and Rh(D) blood groups was reported in simple numbers and percentages. Results: The study showed that O was the most common blood group (37.12%) in the country closely followed by B at 32.26%, followed by A at 22.88% while AB was the least prevalent group at 7.74%. 94.61% of the donor population was Rh positive and the rest were Rh negative. Regional variations were observed in the distribution. Using the maximum likelihood method, the frequencies of the IA, IB and IO alleles were calculated and tested according to the Hardy Weinberg law of Equilibrium. The calculated gene frequencies are 0.1653 for IA (p), 0.2254 for IB (q) and 0.6093 for IO (r). In Indian Population, O (r) records the highest value followed by B (q) and A (p); O > B > A. Conclusion: The study provides information about the relative distribution of various alleles in the Indian population both on a pan-India basis as well as region-wise. This vital information may be helpful in planning for future health challenges, particularly planning with regards to blood transfusion services. PMID:25161353

  12. A Comparison of Preferred Urban Administrative Dispositions between Constituency Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pregot, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This research study analyzes preferred leadership dispositions for teachers, parents, and school leaders. Respondents selected their most preferred dispositions from a list of 20 (Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium) leadership standards. Similarities and differences were discerned among the constituent groups. School leaders, teachers,…

  13. Giftedness and Underachievement: A Comparison of Student Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davie, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined and compared school attitudes, including academic self-perceptions, attitudes toward teachers, attitudes toward school, goal valuation, and motivation/self-regulation, using the School Attitude Assessment Survey-Revised (SAAS-R) in groups of students who varied in their potential for academic achievement and their actual…

  14. Group Therapy Goals: A Comparison of Group Therapy Providers and Male Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Robert D.; Garland, J. Travis; Rozycki, Alicia T.; Reich, Darcy A.; Wilson, Scott

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to identify important process and content goals from the perspective of inmates and compare these goals to the goals identified by group therapists in a previous study conducted by Winterowd, Morgan, and Ferrell (2001). Utilizing survey data from 156 incarcerated adult males, an initial confirmatory factor analysis…

  15. The GROOP Effect: Groups Mimic Group Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jessica Chia-Chin; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    Research on perception-action links has focused on an interpersonal level, demonstrating effects of observing individual actions on performance. The present study investigated perception-action matching at an inter-group level. Pairs of participants responded to hand movements that were performed by two individuals who used one hand each or they…

  16. The effectiveness of a health promotion with group intervention by clinical trial. Study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The promotion of health and the interventions in community health continue to be one of the pending subjects of our health system. The most prevalent health problems (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes...) are for the most part related to life habits. We propose a holistic and integral approach as the best option for tackling behavior and its determinants. The research team has elaborated the necessary educational material to realize group teaching, which we call "Health Workshops". The goal of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of these Health Workshops in the following terms: Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL), incorporate and maintain a balanced diet, do physical activity regularly, maintain risk factors such as tension, weight, cholesterol within normal limits and diminish cardiovascular risk. Methods/Design Controlled and random clinical testing, comparing a group of persons who have participated in the Health Workshops with a control group of similar characteristics who have not participated in the Health Workshops. Field of study: the research is being done in Health Centers of the city of Barcelona, Spain. Population studied: The group is composed of 108 persons that are actually doing the Health Workshops, and 108 that are not and form the control group. They are assigned at random to one group or the other. Data Analysis: With Student's t-distribution test to compare the differences between numerical variables or their non parametric equivalent if the variable does not comply with the criteria of normality. (Kolmogorov-Smirnof test). Chi-square test to compare the differences between categorical variables and the Logistic Regression Model to analyze different meaningful variables by dichotomous analysis related to the intervention. Discussion The Health Workshop proposed in the present study constitutes an innovative approach in health promotion, placing the emphasis on the person's self responsibility for his/her own

  17. Nursing from the casual pool: focus group study to explore the experiences of casual nurses.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Mary; McMillan, Margaret; Maguire, Jane Margaret

    2007-08-01

    The use of flexible non-contract nursing staff is increasing in Australia and in other countries where there is currently a nursing shortage. There is sparse empirical evidence relating to the experience of these nurses. This focus group study with six groups of enrolled and registered nurses in one regional health authority in New South Wales reports on the challenges and rewards of working through the casual pool. The textual data were coded and reported in themes and subthemes; the overarching theme is balance of social and professional life, while subthemes are social politics, nursing work and professional performance. The results reveal that nurses who work from the casual pool have insight into the work environment and culture of clinical teams that is untapped formally. They have little or no chance to provide clinical teams with feedback or receive feedback on their own performance. The consequence of this study has been the development of a two-way performance intervention to promote high standards of care from nurses who work from the casual pool and the promotion of safe clinical environments and cultures.

  18. Comparison of the Mammography, Contrast-Enhanced Spectral Mammography and Ultrasonography in a Group of 116 patients.

    PubMed

    Luczyńska, Elzbieta; Heinze, Sylwia; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Rys, Janusz; Mitus, Jerzy W; Hendrick, Edward

    2016-08-01

    Mammography (MG) is the gold-standard in breast cancer detection - the only method documented to reduce breast cancer mortality. Breast ultrasound (US) has been shown to increase sensitivity to breast cancers in screening women with dense breasts. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) is a novel technique intensively developed in the last few years. The goal of this study was to compare the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MG, US and CESM in detecting malignant breast lesions. The study included 116 patients. All patients were symptomatic and underwent MG, US and CESM. A radiologist with 20 years of experience in US and MG breast imaging and 1 year of experience in CESM reviewed images acquired in each of the three modalities separately, within an interval of 14-30 days. All identified lesions were confirmed at core biopsy. BI-RADS classifications on US, MG and CESM were compared to histopathology. MG, CESM and US were compared among 116 patients with 137 lesions encountered. Sensitivity of CESM was 100%, significantly higher than that of MG (90%, p<0.004) or US (92%, p<0.01). CESM accuracy was 78%, also higher than MG (69%, p<0.004) and US (70%, p=0.03). There was no statistically significant difference between AUCs for CESM and US (both 0.83). The AUCs of both US and CESM, however, were significantly larger than that of MG (p<0.0004 for each). CESM permitted better detection of malignant lesions than both MG and US, read individually. CESM found lesion enhancement in some benign lesions, as well, yielding a rate of false-positive diagnoses similar to that of MG and US.

  19. X-ray Source Population Study of the Local Group Galaxy M 31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiele, Holger

    2010-11-01

    This dissertation presents the analysis of a large and deep XMM-Newton survey of the second large Local Group spiral galaxy M31. The survey observations, taken between June 2006 and February 2008, together with re-analysed archival observations from June 2000 to July 2004 cover, for the first time, the whole D25 ellipse of M 31 with XMM-Newton down to a limiting luminosity of ˜10^35 erg s-1 in the 0.2-4.5 keV band. The main goal of the thesis was a study of the different source populations of M 31 that can be observed in X-rays. Therefore a catalogue was created, which contains all 1 948 sources detected in the 0.2 - 12.0 keV range. 961 of these sources were detected in X-rays for the first time. Source classification and identification was based on X-ray hardness ratios, spatial extent of the sources, and by cross correlating with catalogues in the X-ray, optical, infrared and radio wavelengths. An additional classification criterion was the long-term temporal variability of the sources in X-rays. This variability allows us to distinguish between X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei. Furthermore, supernova remnant classifications of previous studies that did not use long-term variability as a classification criterion, could be validated. Including previous Chandra and ROSAT observations in the long-term variability study allowed me to detect additional transient or at least highly variable sources, which are good candidates for being X-ray binaries. Fourteen of the 40 supersoft source (SSS) candidates correlated with optical novae and therefore can be considered the supersoft emission of the optical novae. Among them is the first nova/SSS detected in a globular cluster of M 31. Correlations with previous ROSAT and Chandra studies revealed that only three SSSs are visible for at least one decade. This result underlines the strong long-term variability found for the class of SSSs. In addition the correlations demonstrated that strict selection criteria have to

  20. Using the Facebook Group as a Learning Management System: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qiyun; Woo, Huay Lit; Quek, Choon Lang; Yang, Yuqin; Liu, Mei

    2012-01-01

    Facebook is a popular social networking site. It, like many other new technologies, has potential for teaching and learning because of its unique built-in functions that offer pedagogical, social and technological affordances. In this study, the Facebook group was used as a learning management system (LMS) in two courses for putting up…

  1. The impact of instructor grouping strategies on student efficacy in inquiry science labs: A phenomenological case study of grouping perceptions and strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Nathaniel J.

    Abundant educational research has integrated Albert Bandura's concepts of self-efficacy and collective efficacy within educational settings. In this phenomenological case study, the investigation sought to capture the manifestation of self-efficacy and collective efficacy within inquiry-based science laboratory courses. Qualitative data was derived from student efficacy surveys, direct classroom observations, and three-tiered interviews with teacher participants. Four high school science instructors and their students from two school districts in Northern Illinois were selected to participate in the study. This study sought to identify instructor strategies or criteria used to formulate student laboratory groups and the impact of such groupings on student self-efficacy and collective efficacy. Open coding of interview transcripts, observation logs, and student surveys led to the development of eight emerging themes. These themes included the purpose of science laboratory activities, instructor grouping strategies, instructor roles, instructor's perceptions, science laboratory assessment, student interactions, learner self-perceptions, and grouping preferences. Results from the study suggest that some students were innately inclined to assume leadership roles, smaller groupings had greater participation from all group members, students had a strong preference for working collaboratively in groups, and students desired to maintain stable laboratory groups in lieu of periodically changing laboratory partners. As with all case study methodologies, the findings of the study were limited to the individual participants at research sites and were not generalizable to all science classrooms. Additional research in the realms of group size, group autonomy, and student interviews would provide even greater insights into the observed phenomena.

  2. A comparative study of the clinical efficacy and safety of agomelatine with escitalopram in major depressive disorder patients: A randomized, parallel-group, phase IV study

    PubMed Central

    Urade, Chetan S.; Mahakalkar, Sunil M.; Tiple, Prashant G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of agomelatine with escitalopram in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), improve sleep in MDD patients and study the adverse effects of agomelatine. Materials and Methods: Randomized, parallel-group, open-label study. The primary efficacy outcome was change from baseline to last post-baseline value in Hamilton depression rating scale and Leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire scale. Both parametric and nonparametric tests were applied for analysis. Results: Within-group and between-groups comparison of the mean HAMD17 scores showed statistically significant changes (P < 0.0001). Escitalopram showed early onset of response and remission compared to agomelatine at 10th week (P < 0.0001) and 14th week (P < 0.0001), respectively. In agomelatine, within-group and between-groups change of the mean LSEQ score was statistically significant at subsequent follow-up visits (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Escitalopram is superior to agomelatine in efficacy, considering the early response, early remission, and better relief from symptoms of MDD in adults. Agomelatine may be preferred in MDD patients having insomnia as a predominant symptom. Liver function monitoring should be done in patients on long-term agomelatine therapy. PMID:26813706

  3. Proceedings of the 2013 Annual Meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Kable, Julie A.; Reynolds, James N.; Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Medina, Alexandre E.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group (FASDSG) meeting was held in Orlando (Grand Cypress), FL with the theme “Developing Brain-Based Interventions for Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders”. Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders have significant impairments in cognitive functioning and behavioral regulation skills, which lead to a lifetime of challenges for themselves and their families; thus, developing interventions that remediate or compensate for these deficits is of great importance. The conference included 2 keynote presentations, FASt data talks, award presentations, and updates by government agencies. In addition, a lively panel discussion addressed the challenges faced by FASDSG researchers in the translation of intervention strategies developed in preclinical studies to clinical trials and, ultimately, to clinical practice. PMID:25224492

  4. Proceedings of the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, C Fernando; Medina, Alexandre E; Wozniak, Jeffrey R; Klintsova, Anna Y

    2016-02-01

    The 2015 Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group (FASDSG) meeting was titled "Basic Mechanisms and Translational Implications." Despite decades of basic science and clinical research, our understanding of the mechanisms by which ethanol affects fetal development is still in its infancy. The first keynote presentation focused on the role of heat shock protein pathways in the actions of ethanol in the developing brain. The second keynote presentation addressed the use of magnetoencephalography to characterize brain function in children with FASD. The conference also included talks by representatives from several government agencies, short presentations by junior and senior investigators that showcased the latest in FASD research, and award presentations. An important part of the meeting was the presentation of the 2015 Henry Rosett award to Dr. Michael Charness in honor of his achievements in research on FASD.

  5. Proceedings of the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Medina, Alexandre E.; Wozniak, Jeffrey; Klintsova, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group (FASDSG) meeting was titled “Basic Mechanisms and Translational Implications”. Despite decades of basic science and clinical research, our understanding of the mechanisms by which ethanol affects fetal development is still in its infancy. The first keynote presentation focused on the role of heat shock protein pathways in the actions of ethanol in the developing brain. The second keynote presentation addressed the use of magnetoencephalography to characterize brain function in children with FASD. The conference also included talks by representatives from several government agencies, short presentations by junior and senior investigators that showcased the latest in FASD research, and award presentations. An important part of the meeting was the presentation of the 2015 Henry Rosett award to Dr. Michael Charness in honor of his achievements in research on FASD. PMID:26695590

  6. Management of long bone metastases: recommendations from the Italian Orthopaedic Society bone metastasis study group.

    PubMed

    Capanna, Rodolfo; Piccioli, Andrea; Di Martino, Alberto; Daolio, Primo Andrea; Ippolito, Vincenzo; Maccauro, Giulio; Piana, Raimondo; Ruggieri, Pietro; Gasbarrini, Alessandro; Spinelli, Maria Silvia; Campanacci, Domenico Andrea

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to outline the current approach to patients affected by metastasis to the long bones and to present a clinical and surgical algorithm available for clinicians and for future research. A modern approach to patients affected by long bone metastasis in fact requires a multidisciplinary contest where oncologists, radiotherapists, surgeons and physical therapists cooperate with a shared vision, in order to provide the best possible integrated treatments available. The authors of this article constitute the Bone Metastasis Study Group of the Italian Orthopaedic Society (SIOT): a national group of orthopedic tumor surgeons who are dedicated to studying the approach, techniques and outcomes of surgery for metastatic tumours of the musculoskeletal system.

  7. The Future of Stellar Populations Studies in the Milky Way and the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Steven R.

    2010-04-01

    The last decade has seen enormous progress in understanding the structure of the Milky Way and neighboring galaxies via the production of large-scale digital surveys of the sky like 2MASS and SDSS, as well as specialized, counterpart imaging surveys of other Local Group systems. Apart from providing snaphots of galaxy structure, these “cartographic” surveys lend insights into the formation and evolution of galaxies when supplemented with additional data (e.g., spectroscopy, astrometry) and when referenced to theoretical models and simulations of galaxy evolution. These increasingly sophisticated simulations are making ever more specific predictions about the detailed chemistry and dynamics of stellar populations in galaxies. To fully exploit, test and constrain these theoretical ventures demands similar commitments of observational effort as has been plied into the previous imaging surveys to fill out other dimensions of parameter space with statistically significant intensity. Fortunately the future of large-scale stellar population studies is bright with a number of grand projects on the horizon that collectively will contribute a breathtaking volume of information on individual stars in Local Group galaxies. These projects include: (1) additional imaging surveys, such as Pan-STARRS, SkyMapper and LSST, which, apart from providing deep, multicolor imaging, yield time series data useful for revealing variable stars (including critical standard candles, like RR Lyrae variables) and creating large-scale, deep proper motion catalogs; (2) higher accuracy, space-based astrometric missions, such as Gaia and SIM-Lite, which stand to provide critical, high precision dynamical data on stars in the Milky Way and its satellites; and (3) large-scale spectroscopic surveys provided by RAVE, APOGEE, HERMES, LAMOST, and the Gaia spectrometer, which will yield not only enormous numbers of stellar radial velocities, but extremely comprehensive views of the chemistry of stellar

  8. A field study on the validity of the Quadri-Track Zone Comparison Technique.

    PubMed

    Mangan, Daniel J; Armitage, Thomas E; Adams, Gregory C

    2008-09-03

    This field study tested and demonstrated the validity and reliability of the Quadri-Track Zone Comparison Technique designed for specific Single-Issue Psychophysiological Veracity (PV) examinations using the polygraph, using one hundred and forty confirmed real-life cases from a private polygraph firm under contract with a metropolitan police department. The Quadri-Track Zone Comparison Technique's unique Inside Track accurately increased the scores for the innocent by 43.6% and the guilty by 37.1% thereby reducing the overall inconclusive rate from 19.5% to 1.4%, which effectively remedies the major cause (Fear/Hope of Error) of inconclusive results in single-issue polygraph tests. The Quadri-Track Zone Comparison Technique correctly identified 100% of the innocent as truthful with no inconclusives and no errors. It further correctly identified 97.8% of the guilty as deceptive and 2.2% as inconclusive, with no errors. Inconclusives excluded, the Quadri-Track Zone Comparison Technique was 100% accurate in the identification of the innocent and the guilty. Inconclusives included, the utility rate was 98.6%. Blind scoring of polygraph charts showed extremely high correlations for the individual and total scores with a combined accuracy of 98.3%.

  9. [Pediatric pancreatitis. Evidence based management guidelines of the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group].

    PubMed

    Párniczky, Andrea; Czakó, László; Dubravcsik, Zsolt; Farkas, Gyula; Hegyi, Péter; Hritz, István; Kelemen, Dezső; Morvay, Zita; Oláh, Attila; Pap, Ákos; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Szabó, Flóra; Szentkereszti, Zsolt; Szmola, Richárd; Takács, Tamás; Tiszlavicz, László; Veres, Gábor; Szücs, Ákos; Lásztity, Natália

    2015-02-22

    Pediatric pancreatitis is a rare disease with variable etiology. In the past 10-15 years the incidence of pediatric pancreatitis has been increased. The management of pediatric pancreatitis requires up-to-date and evidence based management guidelines. The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group proposed to prepare an evidence based guideline based on the available international guidelines and evidences. The preparatory and consultation task force appointed by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group translated and complemented and/or modified the international guidelines if it was necessary. In 8 clinical topics (diagnosis; etiology; prognosis; imaging; therapy; biliary tract management; complications; chronic pancreatitis) 50 relevant questions were defined. Evidence was classified according to the UpToDate(®) grading system. The draft of the guidelines was presented and discussed at the consensus meeting on September 12, 2014. All clinical statements were accepted with total (more than 95%) agreement. The present Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group guideline is the first evidence based pediatric pancreatitis guideline in Hungary. The present guideline is the first evidence-based pancreatic cancer guideline in Hungary that provides a solid ground for teaching purposes, offers quick reference for daily patient care in pediatric pancreatitis and guides financing options. The authors strongly believe that these guidelines will become a standard reference for pancreatic cancer treatment in Hungary.

  10. A call-to-action from the feedM.E. Middle East study group

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zeer, Osama; Ozcagli, Tahsin G.; Uyar, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Up to 50% of hospitalized patients worldwide are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Guidelines recommend nutritional screening of all patients on hospital admission. Results from studies of hospitalized patients show that screening, with follow-up nutritional assessment and care when indicated, can improve patients’ clinical outcomes and reduce healthcare costs. Despite compelling evidence, attention to nutritional care remains suboptimal in clinical settings worldwide. The feedM.E. Global Study Group developed a simple, stepwise Nutrition Care Pathway to facilitate best-practice nutrition care. This pathway guides clinicians to screen patients’ nutritional status on hospital admission or at initiation of care; intervene promptly with nutrition care when needed; and supervene or follow-up routinely with adjustment and reinforcement of nutrition care plans. The feedM.E. Middle East Study Group seeks to extend this program to our region. We advise clinicians to adopt and adapt the Nutrition Care Pathway, bringing quality nutrition care to everyday practice. PMID:26219439

  11. Physical Demands Study - Focus Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-26

    BFV CAT FAASV FS3 GLPS HEl-T IOTV JAQ LLDR LRAS3 MK19 MOPMS MOS NCO SME TOW TRADOC USARIEM LIST OF ACRONYMS Armored Knight...Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine v AKV APOBS BFV CAT FAASV FS3 GLPS HEl-T IOTV JAQ LLDR LRAS3 MK19 MOP MS MOS NCO...the Carrier Ammunition Track ( CAT ) task. Soldiers in the senior enlisted’ 138 focus group reported the most frequently performed tasks in training

  12. ORGANIC CHARACTERIZATION OF AIRBORNE PARTICLES: INTERLABORATORY COMPARISON STUDIES AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARDS AND REFERENCE MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigators characterizing and quantifying the organic compounds in particulate matter (PM) have completed the second interlaboratory comparison study. The first study used a subset of SRM1649a sieved to <63um(API) as an unknown sample, an extract of API, and SRM1649a for u...

  13. Psychology of the scientist: LXXXIII. An assessment of Herek's critique of the Cameron group's survey studies.

    PubMed

    Schumm, W R

    2000-12-01

    Herek's criticisms of the research on sexuality by Paul Cameron's research group are evaluated. While the Cameron group's research has many limitations, these limitations are not uncommon in contemporary research, especially research that concerns specialized, hard-to-find populations. The best response from a scientific perspective, it is argued, is better research, not merely critical comments on existing research.

  14. THE EPOCH OF ASSEMBLY OF TWO GALAXY GROUPS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Matthew; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2013-10-01

    Nearby galaxy groups of comparable mass to the Local Group show global variations that reflect differences in their evolutionary history. Satellite galaxies in groups have higher levels of gas deficiency as the distance to their host decreases. The well established gas-deficiency profile of the Local Group reflects an epoch of assembly starting at z ∼< 10. We investigate whether this gas-deficiency profile can be used to determine the epoch of assembly for other nearby groups. We choose the M81 group as this has the most complete inventory, both in terms of membership and multi-wavelength observations. We expand our earlier evolutionary model of satellite dwarf galaxies to not only confirm this result for the Local Group but also show that the more gas-rich M81 group is likely to have assembled at a later time (z ∼< 1-3) than the Local Group.

  15. Comparison of the myotoxic effects of levobupivacaine, bupivacaine, and ropivacaine: an electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Öz Gergin, Özlem; Yıldız, Karamehmet; Bayram, Adnan; Sencar, Leman; Coşkun, Gülfidan; Yay, Arzu; Biçer, Cihangir; Özdamar, Saim; Polat, Sait

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the myotoxic effects of bupivacaine, ropivacaine, and levobupivacaine which were applied intramuscularly to rat skeletal muscle. Forty Wistar-Albino rats were divided into four groups. In the study, .5% bupivacaine (Group B), .5% ropivacaine (Group R), .5% levobupivacaine (Group L), or .9% normal saline (Group SF) was applied intramuscularly to the right gastrocnemius muscle of rats. The rats in each group were sacrificed on the second day after injection. Sections of muscle samples were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for light microscopic investigation and prepared for the evaluation of ultrastructural changes in the subcellular level with transmission electron microscopy. All three local anesthetic agents caused qualitatively similar skeletal muscle damage. The most observed muscle damage was in Group B, muscle damage of Group R was less than that of Group B, and the least damage was seen in Group L quantitatively. Electron microscopic examination of each group that caused cellular damage was qualitatively similar. The most subcellular damage was observed in the group receiving bupivacaine, less was seen in the ropivacaine group, and the least was observed in the levobupivacaine group. The results indicated that bupivacaine caused more myotoxic damage than the other two agents in the skeletal muscle of rats and that levobupivacaine caused less myotoxic damage than both bupivacaine and ropivacaine at the cell and tissue levels.

  16. Cohort Comparisons in Resources and Functioning among Centenarians: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Margrett, Jennifer; MacDonald, Maurice; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine cohort comparisons in levels of resources (e.g., mental health, physical functioning, economic and social resources, and cognitive functioning) for 211 community-dwelling centenarians (whose Mini-Mental Status Examination score was 23 or higher) of phases I and III of the Georgia Centenarian Study. The…

  17. A policy-capturing study of the simultaneous effects of fit with jobs, groups, and organizations.

    PubMed

    Kristof-Brown, Amy L; Jansen, Karen J; Colbert, Amy E

    2002-10-01

    The authors report an experimental policy-capturing study that examines the simultaneous impact of person-job (PJ), person-group (PG), and person-organization (PO) fit on work satisfaction. Using hierarchical linear modeling, the authors determined that all 3 types of fit had important, independent effects on satisfaction. Work experience explained systematic differences in how participants weighted each type of fit. Multiple interactions also showed participants used complex strategies for combining fit cues.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance and epidemiological study of Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated in Portugal. The Multicentre Study Group.

    PubMed

    Bajanca-Lavado, M P; Casin, I; Vaz Pato, M V

    1996-10-01

    In the course of a multicentric surveillance study, nine laboratories sent 375 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae to the Sector de Resistência aos Antibióticos (SRA) from the National Institute of Health in Lisbon, between 1 January and 31 December 1992. The majority of the H. influenzae isolates were from the respiratory tract (84.8%); only 5.1% were of invasive origin. Overall resistance for ampicillin was 11.7%, tetracycline 3.7%, and chloramphenicol 2.4%. All isolates tested were fully susceptible to cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. Multiresistance was rare, occurring only in 2.4% of the isolates, although 50% of the ampicillin resistant strains had at least one additional resistance marker. Forty two isolates (11.2%) produced a TEM-1 type beta-lactamase, as shown by isoelectric focusing. beta-lactamase production was not detected in two of the ampicillin resistant strains. Fifteen of the 42 beta-lactamase producing strains (35.7%) contained detectable DNA plasmid: nine harboured large plasmids with an apparent molecular mass of 45 or 54 kb depending on their resistance phenotype and six harboured a small plasmid of 5 kb. In order to study transfer of resistance in both ampicillin and multiresistant strains conjugation experiments were performed for 14 isolates, seven of which harboured a large plasmid and seven had no detectable plasmid DNA. All 14 transferred their resistance phenotype but only a single large plasmid could be demonstrated in ten transconjugants. Restriction endonuclease analysis of plasmids from six representative transconjugants, isolated in different hospitals, revealed that there was no dissemination of a single R plasmid, which suggests an independent process of acquisition of resistance genes.

  19. Southeastern Cancer Study Group: breast cancer studies

    SciTech Connect

    Smalley, R.V.; Bartolucci, A.A.; Moore, M.

    1983-12-01

    During the past 10 years, the Southeastern Cancer Study Group (SECSG) has been engaged in one major adjuvant study and three major advanced disease studies for patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast. The adjuvant study is demonstrating that six months of adjuvant CMF is the therapeutic equivalent of 12 months and that post-operative irradiation is of no added therapeutic benefit. In patients with advanced disease, a low dose 5 drug combination of CMFVP induces more objective responses than single agent 5FU, but improves survival only for those patients with liver metastases when compared to the sequential use of the same 5 single agents. The three drug combination, CAF, utilizing doxorubicin, induces more objective responses than low dose CMFVP, but it does not improve overall survival. The addition of a phase active combination, CAMELEON, (i.e., sequentially alternating therapy) of CAF has not improved the duration of disease control and survival for patients with liver metastases, lymphangitic and nodular lung metastases compared to CAF. Aggressive combination chemotherapeutic approaches to patients with advanced disease provide better and longer disease and tumor control but only marginal improvements in overall survival. Adding additional agents to a maximally tolerable regimen has not improved the therapeutic outcome.

  20. Parenting Predictors of Early-Adolescents' Health Behaviors: Simultaneous Group Comparisons across Sex and Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael; Brener, Nancy; Cuccaro, Paula; Dittus, Patricia; Kanouse, David E.; Murray, Nancy; Wallander, Jan; Schuster, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the invariance of predictive relations across early-adolescent sex and ethnic groups regarding parenting factors and externalizing and internalizing problems and victimization. Data (n = 598; 54% female) from a triethnic (Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black) probability sample of fifth…

  1. GPs’ perspectives on secondary cardiovascular prevention in older age: a focus group study in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van Peet, Petra G; Drewes, Yvonne M; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; de Ruijter, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Background Although guidelines recommend secondary cardiovascular prevention irrespective of age, in older age the uptake of treatment is lower than in younger age groups. Aim To explore the dilemmas GPs in the Netherlands encounter when implementing guidelines for secondary cardiovascular prevention in older age. Design and setting Qualitative study in four focus groups consisting of GPs (n = 23, from the northern part of the province South Holland) and a fifth focus group consisting of GP trainees (n = 4, from the Leiden University Medical Center). Method Focus group discussions were organised to elicit perspectives on the implementation of secondary cardiovascular prevention for older people. The 14 theoretical domains of the refined Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) were used for (deductive) coding of the focus group discussions. The coded texts were analysed, content was discussed, and barriers and facilitators were identified for each domain of the TDF. Results The main theme that emerged was ‘uncertainty’. Identified barriers were guideline-related, patient-related, and organisation-related. Identified facilitators were doctor-related, patient-related, and organisation-related. The main aim of secondary preventive treatment was improvement in quality of life. Conclusion GPs in the Netherlands are uncertain about many aspects of secondary cardiovascular prevention in older age; the guidelines themselves, their own role, patient factors, and the organisation of care. In view of this uncertainty, GPs consciously weigh all aspects of the situation in close dialogue with the individual patient, with the ultimate aim of improving quality of life. This highly-individualised care may largely explain the reduced prescription rates. PMID:26500321

  2. Measuring Small-Group Environments: A Validity Study of Scores from the Salter Environmental Type Assessment and the Group Environment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Daniel W.; Junco, Reynol

    2007-01-01

    This concurrent validity study of Salter Environmental Type Assessment scores was conducted with the Group Environment Scale. A principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation of 191 college students' responses suggested two factors that accounted for 51% of the variance. The factor-analytic results and concurrent validity coefficients…

  3. Apples and Oranges: Comparing the Backgrounds and Academic Trajectories of International Baccalaureate (IB) Students to a Matched Comparison Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Henry; Rodriguez, Awilda; Sirinides, Philip M.; Perna, Laura W.; Yee, April; Ransom, Tafaya

    2013-01-01

    As a critical step in understanding the impacts of IB, the analyses presented in this report examined the selection mechanisms behind IB participation across Florida, the state with the second highest representation of IB programs in the nation. We use longitudinal student and school-level data from 1995 through 2009 from the Florida K-20…

  4. The Neuroscience of Group Membership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Samantha; Decety, Jean; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to uncover the neural activity associated with specific in-group and out-group word related stimuli, to examine the neuroanatomical basis of group membership concept representation, and investigate to what extent neural processes represent "in-group" differently from "out-group". Participants' brain activity was measured…

  5. A study of the effect of group delay distortion on an SMSK satellite communications channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of group delay distortion on an SMSK satellite communications channel have been investigated. Software and hardware simulations have been used to determine the effects of channel group delay variations with frequency on the bit error rate for a 220 Mbps SMSK channel. These simulations indicate that group delay distortions can significantly degrade the bit error rate performance. The severity of the degradation is dependent on the amount, type, and spectral location of the group delay distortion.

  6. Social comparison framing in health news and its effect on perceptions of group risk.

    PubMed

    Bigman, Cabral A

    2014-01-01

    News about health disparities often compares health risks faced by different demographic groups. Does this social comparison produce a contrast effect? It was hypothesized that when two racial groups are compared, people would perceive the relatively more at-risk group to be more, and the less at-risk group to be less, at-risk than if the same risk information was presented without the comparative reference group. Three experiments with Black and White respondents tested effects of intergroup social comparison framing (SCF) on perceptions of risk for sexually transmitted infections and skin cancer. SCF (including one White and two Black disparity frames) did not raise respondents' perceived risk regarding the more at-risk racial group, but consistently lowered respondents' risk ratings for the less at-risk racial group. The finding that the same statistic was perceived differently in comparative and noncomparative contexts underscores the importance of considering effects of communication about disparities.

  7. Direct comparison of the electronic coupling efficiency of sulfur and selenium anchoring groups for molecules adsorbed onto gold electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrone, L.; Palacin, S.; Bourgoin, J. P.; Lagoute, J.; Zambelli, T.; Gauthier, S.

    2002-08-01

    We performed air and ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy experiments in order to compare the electronic coupling provided by S and by Se used as alligator clips for bisthiol- and biselenol-terthiophene molecules adsorbed onto gold. The molecules were inserted in a dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayer. Their apparent height above the dodecanethiol matrix was used as a measure of the electronic coupling strength corresponding to S and Se, respectively. We show that the insertion behaviors of the two molecules are qualitatively the same, and that Se provides systematically a better coupling link than S whatever the tunneling conditions.

  8. The Comparability of Focus Group and Survey Results: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Victoria M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Focus group findings were compared with survey findings for three studies in which both methods were used. Studies conducted on voluntary sterilization in Guatemala, Honduras, and Zaire with over 2,000 subjects confirm that focus groups yield information similar to that obtained from surveys and are useful in program planning. (SLD)

  9. Discovering the research priorities of people with diabetes in a multicultural community: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ken; Dyas, Jane; Chahal, Prit; Khalil, Yesmean; Riaz, Perween; Cummings-Jones, Joy

    2006-01-01

    Background Usually experts decide on which research is worthwhile, yet it is government policy to involve service users in research. There has been a lack of published research about involving patients from minority ethnic groups and people from deprived areas in setting research agendas. In this study we wanted to hear the voices of patients that are not often heard. Aim To find out the research priorities of people with diabetes from an inner city community and compare these with current expert-led research priorities in diabetes. Design of study A qualitative study using a participatory approach with consumer groups. Setting Primary care within inner city Nottingham, UK. Method Thirty-nine adult patients with diabetes with varying ethnic backgrounds recruited from three general practices. Six focus groups carried out in participants' preferred language, analysed using the constant comparative method. Results Nine main themes equating to research priorities were identified. Within these themes, information and awareness, service delivery and primary prevention of diabetes emerged as the main factors. There were no science-based topics and there was more emphasis on culturally influenced research questions, which differed from recent Department of Health priorities. There were several themes about service delivery, patient self-management and screening and prevention of diabetes that overlapped. Conclusions There is some divergence between expert-led and patient-led agendas in research about diabetes. Patient perspectives have a significant influence on research priorities, and there are likely to be several different patient perspectives. PMID:16536961

  10. A Comparison of the Economic Status of Working-Age Persons with Visual Impairments and Those of Other Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtenville, Andrew J.

    2003-01-01

    This article compares the economic status of adults with visual impairments with those with non-visual impairments using data from the National Health Interview Survey. Employment rates and mean household incomes were lower and receipt of Social Security Disability Insurance higher among those blind in both eyes than those with less severe visual…

  11. White matter microstructure in a genetically defined group at increased risk of autism symptoms, and a comparison with idiopathic autism: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Marcia N; van Rijn, Sophie; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-12-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) is associated with physical, behavioral, and cognitive consequences. Deviations in brain structure and function have been reported, but structural characteristics of white matter have barely been assessed. This exploratory diffusion tensor imaging study assessed white matter microstructure in boys with 47,XXY compared with non-clinical, male controls. Additionally, both similarities and differences between 47,XXY and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been reported in cognition, behavior and neural architecture. To further investigate these brain-behavior pathways, white matter microstructure in boys with 47,XXY was compared to that of boys with ASD. Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (Dr), axial diffusivity (Da), and mean diffusivity (MD) were assessed in 47,XXY (n = 9), ASD (n = 18), and controls (n = 14), using tract-based spatial statistics. Compared with controls, boys with 47,XXY have reduced FA, coupled with reduced Da, in the corpus callosum. Boys with 47,XXY also have reduced Dr. in the left anterior corona radiata and sagittal striatum compared with controls. Compared with boys with ASD, boys with 47,XXY show reduced Da in the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Although this study is preliminary considering the small sample size, reduced white matter integrity in the corpus callosum may be a contributing factor in the cognitive and behavioral problems associated with 47,XXY. In addition, the differences in white matter microstructure between 47,XXY and ASD may be important for our understanding of the mechanisms that are fundamental to behavioral outcome in social dysfunction, and may be targeted through intervention.

  12. Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Comparison of Group and Individual Formats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Carolyn S.; And Others

    The relative efficacy of both group and individual cognitive behavior therapeutic approaches in treating anxiety and depression are evaluated and then compared to an interpersonal group therapy approach. The two major hypotheses are that group cognitive behavior therapy is at least as effective as individual cognitive behavior therapy, and that…

  13. Relapse Analysis of Irradiated Patients Within the HD15 Trial of the German Hodgkin Study Group

    SciTech Connect

    Kriz, Jan; Reinartz, Gabriele; Dietlein, Markus; Kobe, Carsten; Kuhnert, Georg; Haverkamp, Heinz; Haverkamp, Uwe; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Herfarth, Klaus; Lukas, Peter; Schmidberger, Heinz; Staar, Susanne; Hegerfeld, Kira; Baues, Christian; Engert, Andreas; Eich, Hans Theodor

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: To determine, in the setting of advanced-stage of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), whether relapses occur in the irradiated planning target volume and whether the definition of local radiation therapy (RT) used by the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) is adequate, because there is no harmonization of field and volume definitions among the large cooperative groups in the treatment of advanced-stage HL. Methods and Materials: All patients with residual disease of ≥2.5 cm after multiagent chemotherapy (CTX) were evaluated using additional positron emission tomography (PET), and those with a PET-positive result were irradiated with 30 Gy to the site of residual disease. We re-evaluated all sites of disease before and after CTX, as well as the PET-positive residual tumor that was treated in all relapsed patients. Documentation of radiation therapy (RT), treatment planning procedures, and portal images were carefully analyzed and compared with the centrally recommended RT prescription. The irradiated sites were compared with sites of relapse using follow-up computed tomography scans. Results: A total of 2126 patients were enrolled, and 225 patients (11%) received RT. Radiation therapy documents of 152 irradiated patients (68%) were analyzed, with 28 irradiated patients (11%) relapsing subsequently. Eleven patients (39%) had an in-field relapse, 7 patients (25%) relapsed outside the irradiated volume, and an additional 10 patients (36%) showed mixed in- and out-field relapses. Of 123 patients, 20 (16%) with adequately performed RT relapsed, compared with 7 of 29 patients (24%) with inadequate RT. Conclusions: The frequency and pattern of relapses suggest that local RT to PET-positive residual disease is sufficient for patients in advanced-stage HL. Insufficient safety margins of local RT may contribute to in-field relapses.

  14. [A study of the effectiveness of a group-based cognitive-behavioral parent training program].

    PubMed

    Konstadinidis, L; Goga, P; Simos, G; Mavreas, V

    2012-01-01

    The role of the family in the development of the child as well as the quality of the parent-child relationship and its effect in the social, mental and cognitive development of the child has been the focus of attention of many sciences and scientists and it has been discovered that many parents are not well prepared to do their best for their children. The parent training programmes are willing to partly give a solution to this with their preventive role. In recent years, the effectiveness of the parent training programmes, which are offered to "high risk" parents, has been the focus of a big amount of research, meta-analyses and reviews. A smaller amount concerns the effectiveness of the universal programmes which are offered to the parents of the general population. The effectiveness of a ten-meeting structured group parent training programme of cognitive-behavioral approach, which had been offered to mothers of the general population, was researched in the present study. It aimed to research the effectiveness of the specific programme in the children's behavior and the subjective perception of the functionality of the family of the mothers who chose to participate in and completed the programme (n=56, experimental group/participants), compared to those who chose not to (n=113, control group/non participants). The mothers of the two groups were mothers with children aged between 2 and 12 and filled in the Family Adaptation and Cohesion Scales, FACES-III and the Questionnaire of Inter-personal and Cross-personal Adaptation, before (Phases A) and after (Phases B) the programme. The two groups were fully matched and did not present any significant difference regarding their demographic characteristics. During both Phases A and B of the training programme participants and non-participants expressed a high degree of satisfaction by the functionality of their family and did not differentiate significantly in the evaluation of the existent family cohesion and

  15. Natalizumab therapy of multiple sclerosis: recommendations of the Multiple Sclerosis Study Group--Italian Neurological Society.

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, A; Grimaldi, L M E; Marrosu, M G; Pozzilli, C; Comi, G; Bertolotto, A; Trojano, M; Gallo, P; Capra, R; Centonze, D; Millefiorini, E; Sotgiu, S; Brescia Morra, V; Amato, M P; Lugaresi, A; Mancardi, G; Caputo, D; Montanari, E; Provinciali, L; Durelli, L; Bergamaschi, R; Bellantonio, P; Tola, M R; Cottone, S; Savettieri, G; Tedeschi, G

    2011-04-01

    Three years after the introduction of natalizumab (NA) therapy for the second line treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), Italian MS centers critically reviewed the scientific literature and their own clinical experience. Natalizumab was shown to be highly efficacious in the treatment of MS. However, the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy was confirmed and defined better. This article summarizes the MS-SIN Study Group recommendations on the use of NA in MS, with particular reference to the appropriate selection and monitoring of patients as well as to the management of adverse events.

  16. TDS exposure project: relevance of the total diet study approach for different groups of substances.

    PubMed

    Vin, Karine; Papadopoulos, Alexandra; Cubadda, Francesco; Aureli, Federica; Oktay Basegmez, Hatice Imge; D'Amato, Marilena; De Coster, Sam; D'Evoli, Laura; López Esteban, María Teresa; Jurkovic, Martina; Lucarini, Massimo; Ozer, Hayrettin; Fernández San Juan, Pedro Mario; Sioen, Isabelle; Sokolic, Darja; Turrini, Aida; Sirot, Véronique

    2014-11-01

    A method to validate the relevance of the Total Diet Study (TDS) approach for different types of substances is described. As a first step, a list of >2800 chemicals classified into eight main groups of relevance for food safety (natural components, environmental contaminants, substances intentionally added to foods, residues, naturally occurring contaminants, process contaminants, contaminants from packaging and food contact materials, other substances) has been established. The appropriateness of the TDS approach for the different substance groups has then been considered with regard to the three essential principles of a TDS: representativeness of the whole diet, pooling of foods and food analyzed as consumed. Four criteria were considered for that purpose (i) the substance has to be present in a significant part of the diet or predominantly present in specific food groups, (ii) a robust analytical method has to be available to determine it in potential contributors to the dietary exposure of the population, and (iii) the dilution impact of pooling and (iv) the impact of everyday food preparation methods on the concentration of the substance are assessed. For most of the substances the TDS approach appeared to be relevant and any precautions to be taken are outlined.

  17. Proceedings of the 2014 Annual Meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, James N.; Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Medina, Alex E.; Wozniak, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group (FASDSG) meeting focused on the dual themes of the risks associated with low to moderate alcohol exposure during pregnancy and knowledge translation practices to enhance the impact of scientific research. The meeting theme was titled “Low drinking versus no drinking: Matching science with policy and public perception”. Despite decades of basic science and clinical evidence that has documented the risks associated with prenatal alcohol exposure, there still exists confusion and uncertainty on the part of health professionals and the public regarding the question of whether or not there is a “safe” level of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. The first keynote presentation reviewed the data obtained from large-scale epidemiological studies that have attempted to address the question of relative risk associated with low to moderate alcohol exposure during pregnancy. This presentation was followed by an expert panel discussion of the state of scientific evidence obtained from clinical and basic science investigations concerning this question, and strategies for moving research evidence into policy and practice. The second keynote presentation presented a framework for knowledge translation and mobilization to move research discoveries toward implementation. The conference also featured updates by government agencies, FASt data talks that highlighted new and innovative findings in FASD research, and award presentations, including a lifetime achievement award presented to Dr. Kenneth Warren to acknowledge his longstanding support for FASD research. A highlight of the meeting was the presentation of the 2014 Henry Rosett award to Dr. Philip May in recognition of his substantial contributions to epidemiological studies on FASD. PMID:25979530

  18. A study on neural learning on manifold foliations: the case of the Lie group SU(3).

    PubMed

    Fiori, Simone

    2008-04-01

    Learning on differential manifolds may involve the optimization of a function of many parameters. In this letter, we deal with Riemannian-gradient-based optimization on a Lie group, namely, the group of unitary unimodular matrices SU(3). In this special case, subalgebras of the associated Lie algebra su(3) may be individuated by computing pair-wise Gell-Mann matrices commutators. Subalgebras generate subgroups of a Lie group, as well as manifold foliation. We show that the Riemannian gradient may be projected over tangent structures to foliation, giving rise to foliation gradients. Exponentiations of foliation gradients may be computed in closed forms, which closely resemble Rodriguez forms for the special orthogonal group SO(3). We thus compare optimization by Riemannian gradient and foliation gradients.

  19. Engaging Focus Group Methodology: The 4-H Middle School-Aged Youth Learning and Leading Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Siri; Grant, Samantha; Nippolt, Pamela Larson

    2015-01-01

    With young people, discussing complex issues such as learning and leading in a focus group can be a challenge. To help prime youth for the discussion, we created a focus group approach that featured a fun, interactive activity. This article includes a description of the focus group activity, lessons learned, and suggestions for additional…

  20. The Comparison Of Dome And HMD Delivery Systems: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jian; Harm, Deborah L.; Loftin, R. Bowen; Tyalor, Laura C.; Leiss, Ernst L.

    2002-01-01

    For effective astronaut training applications, choosing the right display devices to present images is crucial. In order to assess what devices are appropriate, it is important to design a successful virtual environment for a comparison study of the display devices. We present a comprehensive system, a Virtual environment testbed (VET), for the comparison of Dome and Head Mounted Display (HMD) systems on an SGI Onyx workstation. By writing codelets, we allow a variety of virtual scenarios and subjects' information to be loaded without programming or changing the code. This is part of an ongoing research project conducted by the NASA / JSC.

  1. A neutron diffraction study of chemisorbed methyl groups in the structure of Y zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vratislav, S.; Dlouhá, M.; Bosáček, V.

    A powder diffraction study of the structure of NaY zeolites with chemisorbed CD 3+ species created by a reaction of Na + cations with d-methyliodide show that chemisorbed methyl groups are preferentially located in alfa cages at O(1) oxygen sites. A complete set of the structural parameters in the frame of Fd3m space group for unperturbed NaY with NaY after the formation of surface methoxy groups were given and an influence of chemisorbed species on the distribution of Na + cations in the lattice was detected by neutron diffraction. Our results show that the population of cationic sites has been changed significantly after the chemisorption of methyl iodide. While the occupation of S II in NaY without adsorbate was 32 Na + per unit cell (i.e. 100%), after the chemisorption of CH 3I it was found to be 19.6 (61%) and in case of CD 3I 21.4 (67%). On the same samples also a significant decrease of population in S I‧ was detected accompanied by a slight increase of population in S I sites.

  2. Exploring the impact of a community hospital closure on older adults: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Countouris, Malamo; Gilmore, Sandra; Yonas, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The closing of hospitals has exacerbated challenges for older adults in accessing healthcare, especially those living in economically underserved settings. Through focus groups and a community-engaged approach, our study examined and documented the emergent health needs of older adults following the closing of a local hospital in an economically disadvantaged community. Focus groups were reconvened to assess progress and health needs over time. Analyses of the focus groups (n=37, mean age 77, 84% female) illustrated the impact of the closure and the emergence of the following dominant themes: perceptions of the hospital system, including feelings of abandonment and social isolation; transportation challenges in accessing health care resources; and lack of knowledge and literacy regarding available health care and obtaining health services. Discussion sessions with hospital administrators and participants afforded an opportunity for sharing data and additional assessment. The data and relationships developed with community participants and health system representatives resulted in the production of an information resource about access to health services, tailored for older adults.

  3. EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF A COMMUNITY HOSPITAL CLOSURE ON OLDER ADULTS: A FOCUS GROUP STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Countouris, Malamo; Gilmore, Sandra; Yonas, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The closing of hospitals has exacerbated challenges for older adults in accessing healthcare, especially those living in economically underserved settings. Through focus groups and a community-engaged approach, our study examined and documented the emergent health needs of older adults following the closing of a local hospital in an economically disadvantaged community. Focus groups were reconvened to assess progress and health needs over time. Analyses of the focus groups (n=37, mean age 77, 84% female) illustrated the impact of the closure and the emergence of the following dominant themes: perceptions of the hospital system, including feelings of abandonment and social isolation; transportation challenges in accessing health care resources; and lack of knowledge and literacy regarding available health care and obtaining health services. Discussion sessions with hospital administrators and participants afforded an opportunity for sharing data and additional assessment. The data and relationships developed with community participants and health system representatives resulted in the production of an information resource about access to health services, tailored for older adults. PMID:24448403

  4. [Using the method of central relationship conflict topic in a study of the process and outcome of long-term inpatient group psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Strauss, B; Dauert, E; Gladewitz, J; Kaak, A; Kieselbach, S; Lammert, K; Struck, D

    1995-01-01

    Within a research project dealing with the process and outcome of inpatient group psychotherapy, the core conflictual relationship theme method (CCRT) was used to determine if the central basic interpersonal problems of patients differ in comparison of individual pre- and postreatment sessions, if the CCRT determined at the beginning of treatment is related to outcome, and if there is a similarity between the CCRT from individual and group sessions. Comparisons of the CRRT(-components) from the beginning and the end of treatment (related to 19 patients) indicated marked changes on the levels of wishes and responses from others as well as "formal" changes of the narratives (temporal relations as well as the objects mentioned). The second part of the study (n = 26) revealed differences between subgroups determined on the basis of differential outcome measures with respect to the structure of their conflicts. The similarity of the CCRT from group and individual sessions which was studied for nine patients appeared to be moderate. The study revealed that the CCRT might need some minor revisions but appears to be an important method to thoroughly describe the effects of psychotherapies.

  5. Facebook Groups as LMS: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meishar-Tal, Hagit; Kurtz, Gila; Pieterse, Efrat

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot study in using Facebook as an alternative to a learning management system (LMS). The paper reviews the current research on the use of Facebook in academia and analyzes the differences between a Facebook group and a regular LMS. The paper reports on a precedent-setting attempt to use a Facebook group as a course…

  6. Management of pediatric renal tumor: Past and future trials of the Japan Wilms Tumor Study Group.

    PubMed

    Oue, Takaharu; Fukuzawa, Masahiro; Koshinaga, Tsugumichi; Okita, Hajime; Nozaki, Miwako; Chin, Motoki; Kaneko, Yasuhiko; Tanaka, Yukichi; Haruta, Masayuki; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Kuwajima, Shigeko; Takimoto, Tetsuya

    2015-10-01

    The Japan Wilms Tumor Study group (JWiTS) was founded in 1996 to improve outcomes for children with renal tumor in Japan, and a nationwide multicenter cooperative study was initiated thereafter. JWiTS-1 (1996-2005) was analyzed, and JWiTS-2 (2005-2014) is now under analysis; the following problems have been identified and used to decide future study protocol: (i) there has been a decline in survival rate for patients with rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (RTK) and new treatment strategies are required; (ii) the survival rate for bilateral Wilms tumors (BWT) has improved, but results for renal preservation are unsatisfactory; (iii) the prognosis of stage IV favorable nephroblastoma is very good, suggesting that the current protocols provide overtreatment, particularly for patients with lung metastasis; and (iv) no effective biological risk factors exist for predicting the outcome of Wilms tumor, and a study of the genetic changes of these tumors is necessary to determine biological markers for use in risk classification. To solve these issues, the development of a new risk classification of pediatric renal tumors is required. In addition, different study protocols should be developed according to the risk-based classification of the patients. Further, a new study protocol for BWT began in 2015, and new study protocols are being prepared for RTK, and for Wilms tumor with lung metastasis. In addition, an analysis of biological markers with regard to risk classification is to be performed. Furthermore, to create new protocols for patients with rare renal tumors, international collaboration with Children's Oncology Group and International Society of Pediatric Oncology is necessary.

  7. Failure of cromolyn sodium to reduce the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a pilot study. The Neonatal Cromolyn Study Group.

    PubMed

    Watterberg, K L; Murphy, S

    1993-04-01

    This prospective, randomized, blinded clinical trial was conducted to test whether therapy with cromolyn sodium might decrease the incidence or severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia when given to newborns with respiratory distress syndrome. Cromolyn (20 mg) or placebo was aerosolized to intubated newborns with respiratory distress syndrome every 6 hours, beginning on the first day of intubation. Patients were stratified by birth weight less than 1000 g and 1000 to 2000 g; primary outcome success was defined as survival to 30 days without oxygen dependence. Of 10 patients enrolled who were less than 1000 g birth weight, there were no treatment successes, preventing outcome analysis. The study was discontinued after 28 patients of 1000 to 2000 g birth weight had been studied, at which time it had been found with 95% confidence, with a power of .80, that cromolyn sodium did not decrease by 50% the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia was also similar, with 4 patients in the treatment group and 3 in the placebo group receiving mechanical ventilation at 30 days. Possible reasons for this study outcome include (1) a delivered dose too small to produce a clinical effect; (2) the start of therapy too late to prevent the onset of inflammation; (3) inadequate effect of cromolyn on polymorphonuclear cells in vivo; or (4) development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia through factors unaffected by the actions of cromolyn.

  8. Renormalization-group study of the ferromagnetic Ising model on the triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Chris

    1984-08-01

    The dynamic real-space renormalization group of Mazenko and Valls is applied to the zero-field ferromagnetic Ising model on the triangular lattice. Renormalization equations valid for all temperatures above the critical temperature Tc are derived for the susceptibility, specific heat, structure factor, and correlation length. The magnetization is found for TThe critical exponents and amplitudes for these quantities are calculated. The agreement between the known static properties and the renormalization-group results is good to excellent, and shows that this renormalization-group method can accurately calculate nonuniversal, as well as universal, quantities on different lattices. The computed dynamic structure factor, however, exhibits nonmonotonic behavior as a function of temperature. This nonmonotonic behavior is conjectured to be due to approximations in determining the expansion parameters.

  9. [Acute pancreatitis. Evidence-based practice guidelines, prepared by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group].

    PubMed

    Hritz, István; Czakó, László; Dubravcsik, Zsolt; Farkas, Gyula; Kelemen, Dezső; Lásztity, Natália; Morvay, Zita; Oláh, Attila; Pap, Ákos; Párniczky, Andrea; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Szentkereszti, Zsolt; Szmola, Richárd; Szücs, Ákos; Takács, Tamás; Tiszlavicz, László; Hegyi, Péter

    2015-02-15

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract associated with significant morbidity and mortality that requires up-to-date and evidence based treatment guidelines. The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group proposed to prepare evidence based guideline for the medical and surgical management of acute pancreatitis based on the available international guidelines and evidence. The preparatory and consultation task force appointed by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group translated and, if it was necessary, complemented and/or modified the international guidelines. All together 42 relevant clinical questions were defined in 11 topics (Diagnosis and etiology, Prognosis, Imaging, Fluid therapy, Intensive care management, Prevention of infectious complications, Nutrition, Biliary interventions, Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography pancreatitis, Indication, timing and strategy for intervention in necrotizing pancreatitis, Timing of cholecystectomy [or endoscopic sphincterotomy]). Evidence was classified according to the UpToDate® grading system. The draft of the guideline was presented and discussed at the consensus meeting on September 12, 2014. 25 clinical questions with almost total (more than 95%) and 17 clinical questions with strong (more than 70%) agreement were accepted. The present guideline is the first evidence based acute pancreatitis guideline in Hungary. The guideline may provide important help for tuition, everyday practice and for establishment of proper finance of acute pancreatitis. Therefore, the authors believe that these guidelines will widely become as basic reference in Hungary.

  10. The Group Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, John

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of group dynamics and leadership activities is a component of the CORE Standards for the Master's degree curriculum in Rehabilitation Counseling. A group experience is often included as a learning activity in rehabilitation counselor education curricula as an instructional method of imparting knowledge of group dynamics. Group experience…

  11. [Chronic pancreatitis. Evidence based management guidelines of the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group].

    PubMed

    Takács, Tamás; Czakó, László; Dubravcsik, Zsolt; Farkas, Gyula; Hegyi, Péter; Hritz, István; Kelemen, Dezső; Lásztity, Natália; Morvay, Zita; Oláh, Attila; Pap, Ákos; Párniczky, Andrea; Patai, Árpád; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Szentkereszti, Zsolt; Szmola, Richárd; Tiszlavicz, László; Szücs, Ákos

    2015-02-15

    Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease associated with structural and functional damage of the pancreas. In most cases pain, maldigestion and weight loss are the leading symptoms, which significantly worsen the quality of life. Correct diagnosis and differential diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis and treatment of these patients requires up-to-date and evidence based treatment guidelines. The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group proposed to prepare an evidence based guideline based on the available international guidelines and evidence. The preparatory and consultation task force appointed by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group translated and complemented and/or modified the international guidelines if it was necessary. 123 relevant clinical questions in 11 topics were defined. Evidence was classified according to the UpToDate® grading system. The draft of the guidelines were presented and discussed at the consensus meeting in September 12, 2014. All clinical questions were accepted with total or strong agreement. The present guideline is the first evidence based guideline for chronic pancreatitis in Hungary. This guideline provides very important and helpful data for tuition, everyday practice and proper financing of chronic pancreatitis. Therefore, the authors believe that these guidelines will widely become a basic reference in Hungary.

  12. Modeling study on the cleavage step of the self-splicing reaction in group I introns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Setlik, R. F.; Garduno-Juarez, R.; Manchester, J. I.; Shibata, M.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of the Tetrahymena thermophila group I intron is used to further explore the catalytic mechanism of the transphosphorylation reaction of the cleavage step. Based on the coordinates of the catalytic core model proposed by Michel and Westhof (Michel, F., Westhof, E. J. Mol. Biol. 216, 585-610 (1990)), we first converted their ligation step model into a model of the cleavage step by the substitution of several bases and the removal of helix P9. Next, an attempt to place a trigonal bipyramidal transition state model in the active site revealed that this modified model for the cleavage step could not accommodate the transition state due to insufficient space. A lowering of P1 helix relative to surrounding helices provided the additional space required. Simultaneously, it provided a better starting geometry to model the molecular contacts proposed by Pyle et al. (Pyle, A. M., Murphy, F. L., Cech, T. R. Nature 358, 123-128. (1992)), based on mutational studies involving the J8/7 segment. Two hydrated Mg2+ complexes were placed in the active site of the ribozyme model, using the crystal structure of the functionally similar Klenow fragment (Beese, L.S., Steitz, T.A. EMBO J. 10, 25-33 (1991)) as a guide. The presence of two metal ions in the active site of the intron differs from previous models, which incorporate one metal ion in the catalytic site to fulfill the postulated roles of Mg2+ in catalysis. The reaction profile is simulated based on a trigonal bipyramidal transition state, and the role of the hydrated Mg2+ complexes in catalysis is further explored using molecular orbital calculations.

  13. [Autoimmune pancreatitis. Evidence based management guidelines of the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group].

    PubMed

    Dubravcsik, Zsolt; Farkas, Gyula; Hegyi, Péter; Hritz, István; Kelemen, Dezső; Lásztity, Natália; Morvay, Zita; Oláh, Attila; Pap, Ákos; Párniczky, Andrea; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Szentkereszti, Zsolt; Szmola, Richárd; Takács, Tamás; Tiszlavicz, László; Szücs, Ákos; Czakó, László

    2015-02-22

    Autoimmune pancreatitis is a rare disease which can even mimic pancreatic tumor, however, unlike the latter, it requires not surgical but conservative management. Correct diagnosis and differential diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis and treatment of these patients requires up-to-date and evidence based management guidelines. The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group proposed to prepare an evidence based guideline based on the available international guidelines and evidences. The preparatory and consultation task force appointed by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group translated and complemented and/or modified the international guidelines if it was necessary. 29 relevant clinical questions in 4 topics were defined (Basics; Diagnosis; Differential diagnostics; Therapy). Evidence was classified according to the UpToDate(®) grading system. The draft of the guidelines was presented and discussed at the consensus meeting on September 12, 2014. All clinial questions were accepted with almost total (more than 95%) agreement. The present guideline is the first evidence based autoimmune pancreatitis guideline in Hungary. The guideline may provide very important and helpful data for tuition of autoimmune pancreatitis, for everyday practice and for establishing proper finance. Therefore, the authors believe that these guidelines will widely become a basic reference in Hungary.

  14. Comparison of the influence of polyaspartic acid and polylysine functional groups on the adsorption at the Cr2O3-Aqueous polymer solution interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostolska, Iwona; Wiśniewska, Małgorzata

    2014-08-01

    Polyamino acids are a group of synthesized polymers obtained by polymerization of a given kind of amino acid monomer. Because of high biodegradability of this class of polymers, they can be used as flocculation or stabilization agents in the environmental aspects. Therefore determination of their influence on the stability of the aqueous suspension of metal oxides is important. An influence of different functional groups of polyamino acids, their molecular weight and concentration on the adsorption at the chromium (III) oxide (Cr2O3)-aqueous solution interface was determined. Experiments were carried out for four values of solution pH varying from 3 to 10 (3, 4, 7.6 and 10, respectively). Two polymers were used: anionic polyaspartic acid (ASP) of 6800 and 27,000 as well as polylysine (LYS) of 4900 and 33,000 molecular weights. Changes of surface charge density of colloidal Cr2O3 in the presence and in the absence of macromolecular substances were determined using potentiometric titration. In these studies the influence of the concentration and molecular weight of the ionic polymers on the pHpzc value was determined. Additionally, due to the lack of appropriate literature data, potentiometric titration of the selected polymers was performed to determine pKa values.

  15. Electrochemical study on the adsorption of carbon oxides and oxidation of their adsorption products on platinum group metals and alloys.

    PubMed

    Siwek, Hanna; Lukaszewski, Mariusz; Czerwiński, Andrzej

    2008-07-07

    CO(2) reduction and CO adsorption on noble metals (Pt, Rh, Pd) and their alloys (Pt-Rh, Pd-Pt, Pd-Rh, Pd-Pt-Rh) prepared as thin rough deposits have been studied by chronoamperometry (CA), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM). The influence of alloy surface composition on the values of surface coverage, eps (electron per site) and potential of the oxidation of CO(2) reduction and CO adsorption products is shown. The oxidation of the adsorbate on Pt-Rh alloys proceeds more easily (at lower potentials) than on pure metals. On the other hand, in the case of Pd-Pt and Pd-Rh alloys the adsorbate oxidation is more difficult and requires higher potentials than on Pt or Rh. The analysis of the EQCM signal is presented for the case of adsorption and oxidation of carbon oxide adsorption products on the electrodes studied. The comparison of adsorption parameters and the EQCM response obtained for platinum group metals and alloys leads to the conclusion that reduced CO(2) cannot be totally identified with adsorbed CO.

  16. On the "dependence" of "independent" group EEG sources; an EEG study on two large databases.

    PubMed

    Congedo, Marco; John, Roy E; De Ridder, Dirk; Prichep, Leslie; Isenhart, Robert

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this work is to study the coherence profile (dependence) of robust eyes-closed resting EEG sources isolated by group blind source separation (gBSS). We employ a test-retest strategy using two large sample normative databases (N = 57 and 84). Using a BSS method in the complex Fourier domain, we show that we can rigourously study the out-of-phase dependence of the extracted components, albeit they are extracted so as to be in-phase independent (by BSS definition). Our focus on lagged communication between components effectively yields dependence measures unbiased by volume conduction effects, which is a major concern about the validity of any dependence measures issued by EEG measurements. We are able to show the organization of the extracted components in two networks. Within each network components oscillate coherently with multiple-frequency dynamics, whereas between networks they exchange information at non-random multiple time-lag rates.

  17. One-to-one versus group setting for conducting computer-assisted TTO studies: findings from pilot studies in England and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Shah, Koonal K; Lloyd, Andrew; Oppe, Mark; Devlin, Nancy J

    2013-07-01

    We compare two settings for administering time trade-off (TTO) tasks in computer-assisted interviews (one-to-one, interviewer-led versus group, self-complete) by examining the quality of the data generated in pilot studies undertaken in England and the Netherlands. The two studies used near-identical methods, except that in England, data were collected in one-to-one interviews with substantial amounts of interviewer assistance, whereas in the Netherlands, the computer aid was used as a self-completion tool in group interviews with lesser amounts of interviewer assistance. In total, 801 members of the general public (403 in England; 398 in the Netherlands) each completed five TTO valuations of EQ-5D-5L health states. Respondents in the Netherlands study showed a greater tendency to give 'round number' values such as 0 and 1 and to complete tasks using a minimal number of iterative steps. They also showed a greater tendency to skip the animated instructions that preceded the first task and to take into account assumptions that they were specifically asked not to take into account. When faced with a pair of health states in which one state dominated the other, respondents in the Netherlands study were more likely than those in the England study to give a higher value to the dominant health state. On the basis of these comparisons, we conclude that the one-to-one, interviewer-led setting is superior to the group, self-complete setting in terms of the quality of data generated and that the former is more suitable than the latter for TTO studies being used to value EQ-5D-5L.

  18. [Study on the effect of some group-specific agents on clostridiopeptidase].

    PubMed

    Balaevskaia, T O; Solov'eva, N I; Orekhovich, V N

    1989-05-01

    The interaction of clostridiopeptidase of Clostridium histolyticum with EDC, TNM and MA, the specific reagents for COOH-groups, tyrosine and lysine residues was studied. It was shown that at pH 6.0 EDC inactivates the enzyme. The inactivation process follows the pseudo-first order kinetics and is described by a second order rate constant equal to 1 M-1 min-1. The synthetic substrate does not prevent, in practical terms, the enzyme inactivation by EDC. At pH 8.0 TNM modifies about 19 tyrosine residues in the clostridiopeptidase molecule which is accompanied by marked inhibition of the enzyme activity (down to 70-90%). In this case, the inactivation process is not described by simple pseudo-first order kinetics but is characterized by two steps (fast and slow) with second order rate constants of approximately 14 and 3.5 M-1 min-1, respectively. The synthetic substrate partly prevents the inactivation of the enzyme by TNM and protects 11 tyrosine residues. The MA-induced incorporation of 13 +/- 3 maleyl groups into the clostridiopeptidase molecule in partially prevented by the synthetic substrate with protects the enzyme against inactivation. The data obtained suggest that lysine residues are seemingly included into the active center of clostridiopeptidase, whereas tyrosine residues provide for the maintenance of active conformation of the enzyme.

  19. A qualitative study of the experience of CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care for physicians

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study sought to understand the central meaning of the experience of group prenatal care for physicians who were involved in providing CenteringPregnancy through a maternity clinic in Calgary, Canada. Method The study followed the phenomenological qualitative tradition. Three physicians involved in group prenatal care participated in a one-on-one interview between November and December 2009. Two physicians participated in verification sessions. Interviews followed an open ended general guide and were audio recorded and transcribed. The purpose of the analysis was to identify meaning themes and the core meaning experienced by the physicians. Results Six themes emerged: (1) having a greater exchange of information, (2) getting to knowing, (3) seeing women get to know and support each other, (4) sharing ownership of care, (5) having more time, and (6) experiencing enjoyment and satisfaction in providing care. These themes contributed to the core meaning for physicians of “providing richer care.” Conclusions Physicians perceived providing better care and a better professional experience through CenteringPregnancy compared to their experience of individual prenatal care. Thus, CenteringPregnancy could improve work place satisfaction, increase retention of providers in maternity care, and improve health care for women. PMID:23445867

  20. Proceedings of the 2010 Annual Meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Cynthia J. M.; Smith, Susan M.; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Kable, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The annual meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group (FASDSG) was held on June 26, 2010 in San Antonio, TX, as a satellite of the Research Society on Alcoholism meeting. The FASDSG membership includes clinical, basic and social scientists who meet to discuss recent advances and issues in FASD research. The central theme of the meeting was “Glia and Neurons: Teamwork in Pathology and Therapy.” Alcohol disruption of neuron development and alcohol-induced neurodegeneration is central to the pathology and clinical expression of FASD. The active role of glia as perpetrator, victim, or bystander in neurotoxicology and neurodegenerative processes has emerged at the forefront of adult CNS disorders and therapy. Glia and neuron-glial interactions hold the potential to elucidate causes and offer treatment of FASD as well. Growing evidence indicates that neurons and glia are direct targets of alcohol, but may also be vulnerable to molecules produced in peripheral systems as a result of alcohol exposure. Diagnostics and therapies can take advantage of these processes and biomarkers, and these may be applicable to CNS pathology in FASD. Two keynote speakers, Howard E. Gendelman, M.D., and Ernest M. Graham, M.D, addressed the role of glia and neuroinflammation in brain development and neurodegeneration. The invited speakers and FASDSG members discussed new paradigms in CNS development and discuss new strategies for understanding and treating neurodegenerative disease. Members of the FASDSG provided updates on new findings through presentation of breaking research in the FASt Data Sessions. Representatives of national agencies provided updates on programs, activities, and funding priorities. The Henry Rosett Award was presented to R. Louise Floyd, R.N., D.S.N. for her career contributions to the field of fetal alcohol research. The Student and Postdoctoral Fellow Research Merit Award was presented to Shonagh O’Leary-Moore, Ph.D. for her contributions to

  1. Proceedings of the 2010 annual meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group.

    PubMed

    Kane, Cynthia J M; Smith, Susan M; Miranda, Rajesh C; Kable, Julie

    2012-02-01

    The annual meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group (FASDSG) was held on June 26, 2010 in San Antonio, TX, as a satellite of the Research Society on Alcoholism meeting. The FASDSG membership includes clinical, basic, and social scientists who meet to discuss recent advances and issues in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) research. The central theme of the meeting was "Glia and Neurons: Teamwork in Pathology and Therapy." Alcohol disruption of neuron development and alcohol-induced neurodegeneration is central to the pathology and clinical expression of FASD. The active role of glia as perpetrator, victim, or bystander in neurotoxicology and neurodegenerative processes has emerged at the forefront of adult central nervous system (CNS) disorders and therapy. Glia- and neuron-glial interactions hold the potential to elucidate causes and offer treatment of FASD as well. Growing evidence indicates that neurons and glia are direct targets of alcohol, but may also be vulnerable to molecules produced in peripheral systems as a result of alcohol exposure. Diagnostics and therapies can take advantage of these processes and biomarkers, and these may be applicable to CNS pathology in FASD. Two keynote speakers, Howard E. Gendelman, M.D., and Ernest M. Graham, M.D, addressed the role of glia and neuroinflammation in brain development and neurodegeneration. The invited speakers and FASDSG members discussed new paradigms in CNS development and discuss new strategies for understanding and treating neurodegenerative disease. Members of the FASDSG provided updates on new findings through presentation of breaking research in the FASt data sessions. Representatives of national agencies provided updates on programs, activities, and funding priorities. The Henry Rosett Award was presented to R. Louise Floyd, R.N., D.S.N., for her career contributions to the field of fetal alcohol research. The Student and Postdoctoral Fellow Research Merit Award was presented to

  2. A Comparison of Two-Group Classification Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Jocelyn E.; Finch, W. Holmes; Kelley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The statistical classification of "N" individuals into "G" mutually exclusive groups when the actual group membership is unknown is common in the social and behavioral sciences. The results of such classification methods often have important consequences. Among the most common methods of statistical classification are linear discriminant analysis,…

  3. The comparison of the viability of crushed, morselized and diced cartilage grafts: a confocal microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Kayabasoglu, Gurkan; Ozbek, Elvan; Yanar, Sevinc; Sahin, Fikrettin; Keles, Osman Nuri; Yilmaz, Mahmut Sinan; Guven, Mehmet

    2015-05-01

    To compare the cellular viability of diced, crushed, and morselized cartilage used in nasal surgeries. In this study, cartilage was extracted from the ears of seven New Zealand rabbits and was subsequently either diced, crushed or morselized to an amorphous state, or left unmodified. The four types of grafts were then implanted in the back regions of the rabbits. After 3 months, the cellular viability from four groups was compared to a control group using confocal microscopy. Analysis of the data obtained from the enumeration of live cells showed no statistically significant difference between the unmodified graft group and the control group. The diced, crushed, and morselized cartilage groups did show a statistically significant difference in terms of live cell count with the highest number of live cells in diced cartilage group. A statistically significant decrease in live cell count was detected in crushed cartilage group. Our study shows that the viability of cells in diced cartilage grafts is greater than those in crushed or morselized cartilage grafts.

  4. Acidity of the amidoxime functional group in aqueous solution. A combined experimental and computational study

    SciTech Connect

    Mehio, Nada; Lashely, Mark A.; Nugent, Joseph W.; Tucker, Lyndsay; Correia, Bruna; Do-Thanh, Chi-Linh; Dai, Sheng; Hancock, Robert D.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.

    2015-01-26

    Poly(acrylamidoxime) adsorbents are often invoked in discussions of mining uranium from seawater. It has been demonstrated repeatedly in the literature that the success of these materials is due to the amidoxime functional group. While the amidoxime-uranyl chelation mode has been established, a number of essential binding constants remain unclear. This is largely due to the wide range of conflicting pKa values that have been reported for the amidoxime functional group in the literature. To resolve this existing controversy we investigated the pKa values of the amidoxime functional group using a combination of experimental and computational methods. Experimentally, we used spectroscopic titrations to measure the pKa values of representative amidoximes, acetamidoxime and benzamidoxime. Computationally, we report on the performance of several protocols for predicting the pKa values of aqueous oxoacids. Calculations carried out at the MP2 or M06-2X levels of theory combined with solvent effects calculated using the SMD model provide the best overall performance with a mean absolute error of 0.33 pKa units and 0.35 pKa units, respectively, and a root mean square deviation of 0.46 pKa units and 0.45 pKa units, respectively. Finally, we employ our two best methods to predict the pKa values of promising, uncharacterized amidoxime ligands. Hence, our study provides a convenient means for screening suitable amidoxime monomers for future generations of poly(acrylamidoxime) adsorbents used to mine uranium from seawater.

  5. Acidity of the amidoxime functional group in aqueous solution. A combined experimental and computational study

    DOE PAGES

    Mehio, Nada; Lashely, Mark A.; Nugent, Joseph W.; ...

    2015-01-26

    Poly(acrylamidoxime) adsorbents are often invoked in discussions of mining uranium from seawater. It has been demonstrated repeatedly in the literature that the success of these materials is due to the amidoxime functional group. While the amidoxime-uranyl chelation mode has been established, a number of essential binding constants remain unclear. This is largely due to the wide range of conflicting pKa values that have been reported for the amidoxime functional group in the literature. To resolve this existing controversy we investigated the pKa values of the amidoxime functional group using a combination of experimental and computational methods. Experimentally, we used spectroscopicmore » titrations to measure the pKa values of representative amidoximes, acetamidoxime and benzamidoxime. Computationally, we report on the performance of several protocols for predicting the pKa values of aqueous oxoacids. Calculations carried out at the MP2 or M06-2X levels of theory combined with solvent effects calculated using the SMD model provide the best overall performance with a mean absolute error of 0.33 pKa units and 0.35 pKa units, respectively, and a root mean square deviation of 0.46 pKa units and 0.45 pKa units, respectively. Finally, we employ our two best methods to predict the pKa values of promising, uncharacterized amidoxime ligands. Hence, our study provides a convenient means for screening suitable amidoxime monomers for future generations of poly(acrylamidoxime) adsorbents used to mine uranium from seawater.« less

  6. Modeling phytoplankton community in reservoirs. A comparison between taxonomic and functional groups-based models.

    PubMed

    Di Maggio, Jimena; Fernández, Carolina; Parodi, Elisa R; Diaz, M Soledad; Estrada, Vanina

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we address the formulation of two mechanistic water quality models that differ in the way the phytoplankton community is described. We carry out parameter estimation subject to differential-algebraic constraints and validation for each model and comparison between models performance. The first approach aggregates phytoplankton species based on their phylogenetic characteristics (Taxonomic group model) and the second one, on their morpho-functional properties following Reynolds' classification (Functional group model). The latter approach takes into account tolerance and sensitivity to environmental conditions. The constrained parameter estimation problems are formulated within an equation oriented framework, with a maximum likelihood objective function. The study site is Paso de las Piedras Reservoir (Argentina), which supplies water for consumption for 450,000 population. Numerical results show that phytoplankton morpho-functional groups more closely represent each species growth requirements within the group. Each model performance is quantitatively assessed by three diagnostic measures. Parameter estimation results for seasonal dynamics of the phytoplankton community and main biogeochemical variables for a one-year time horizon are presented and compared for both models, showing the functional group model enhanced performance. Finally, we explore increasing nutrient loading scenarios and predict their effect on phytoplankton dynamics throughout a one-year time horizon.

  7. Virtual Versus In-Person Focus Groups: Comparison of Costs, Recruitment, and Participant Logistics

    PubMed Central

    Poehlman, Jon A; Hayes, Jennifer J; Ray, Sarah E; Moultrie, Rebecca R

    2017-01-01

    Background Virtual focus groups—such as online chat and video groups—are increasingly promoted as qualitative research tools. Theoretically, virtual groups offer several advantages, including lower cost, faster recruitment, greater geographic diversity, enrollment of hard-to-reach populations, and reduced participant burden. However, no study has compared virtual and in-person focus groups on these metrics. Objective To rigorously compare virtual and in-person focus groups on cost, recruitment, and participant logistics. We examined 3 focus group modes and instituted experimental controls to ensure a fair comparison. Methods We conducted 6 1-hour focus groups in August 2014 using in-person (n=2), live chat (n=2), and video (n=2) modes with individuals who had type 2 diabetes (n=48 enrolled, n=39 completed). In planning groups, we solicited bids from 6 virtual platform vendors and 4 recruitment firms. We then selected 1 platform or facility per mode and a single recruitment firm across all modes. To minimize bias, the recruitment firm employed different recruiters by mode who were blinded to recruitment efforts for other modes. We tracked enrollment during a 2-week period. A single moderator conducted all groups using the same guide, which addressed the use of technology to communicate with health care providers. We conducted the groups at the same times of day on Monday to Wednesday during a single week. At the end of each group, participants completed a short survey. Results Virtual focus groups offered minimal cost savings compared with in-person groups (US $2000 per chat group vs US $2576 per in-person group vs US $2,750 per video group). Although virtual groups did not incur travel costs, they often had higher management fees and miscellaneous expenses (eg, participant webcams). Recruitment timing did not differ by mode, but show rates were higher for in-person groups (94% [15/16] in-person vs 81% [13/16] video vs 69% [11/16] chat). Virtual group

  8. Mesh generation and energy group condensation studies for the jaguar deterministic transport code

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R. A.; Watson, A. M.; Iwueke, C. I.; Edwards, E. J.

    2012-07-01

    The deterministic transport code Jaguar is introduced, and the modeling process for Jaguar is demonstrated using a two-dimensional assembly model of the Hoogenboom-Martin Performance Benchmark Problem. This single assembly model is being used to test and analyze optimal modeling methodologies and techniques for Jaguar. This paper focuses on spatial mesh generation and energy condensation techniques. In this summary, the models and processes are defined as well as thermal flux solution comparisons with the Monte Carlo code MC21. (authors)

  9. Comparison of diagnostic accuracy between endometrial curettage and pipelle aspiration biopsy in patients treated with progestin for endometrial hyperplasia: a Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group Study (KGOG 2019).

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Kyoung; Seong, Seok Ju; Lee, Taek Sang; Ki, Kyung-Do; Lim, Myong Cheol; Kim, Yun Hwan; Kim, Kidong; Joo, Won Duk

    2015-10-01

    A prospective multicenter trial has been started in Korea to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of endometrial aspiration biopsy compared with dilatation and curettage in patients treated with progestin for endometrial hyperplasia. For conservative treatment of endometrial hyperplasia, orally administered progestins are most commonly used method with various treatment regimens and more recently, the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system also has been used successfully to treat endometrial hyperplasia. However, there is no report about the accuracy of endometrial sampling during hormonal treatment for follow-up evaluation of endometrial hyperplasia. Patients with histologically confirmed endometrial hyperplasia are offered hormonal treatment with any one of the following three options: oral medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg/day for 14 days per cycle, continuous oral medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg/day or insertion of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system. Histological surveillance is performed at 3 months or 6 months following initial treatment. Endometrial tissues are obtained via endometrial aspiration biopsy using a pipelle and dilatation and curettage. In the case of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, endometrial aspiration biopsy will be done with levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in uterus and then, after the removal of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, dilatation and curettage will be done. The biopsy findings will be compared. The primary endpoint is to compare the pathological outcome of endometrial aspiration with dilatation and curettage. The secondary endpoint is the response rate with three types of progestin treatment at 6 months.

  10. Beyond "cirrhosis": a proposal from the International Liver Pathology Study Group.

    PubMed

    Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Snover, Dale C; Alves, Venancio; Balabaud, Charles; Bhathal, Prithi S; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Crawford, James M; Dhillon, Amar P; Ferrell, Linda; Guido, Maria; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Paradis, Valerie; Quaglia, Alberto; Theise, Neil D; Thung, Swan N; Tsui, Wilson M S; van Leeuwen, Dirk J

    2012-01-01

    "Cirrhosis" is a morphologic term that has been used for almost 200 years to denote the end stage of a variety of chronic liver diseases. The term implies a condition with adverse prognosis due to the well-known complications of portal hypertension, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver failure. However, recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic liver diseases have changed the natural history of cirrhosis significantly. This consensus document by the International Liver Pathology Study Group challenges the usefulness of the word cirrhosis in modern medicine and suggests that this is an appropriate time to consider discontinuing the use of this term. The role of pathologists should evolve to the diagnosis of advanced stage of chronic liver disease, with emphasis on etiology, grade of activity, features suggestive of progression or regression, presence of other diseases, and risk factors for malignancy, within the perspective of an integrated clinicopathologic assessment.

  11. Parenting predictors of early-adolescents' health behaviors: simultaneous group comparisons across sex and ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Windle, Michael; Brener, Nancy; Cuccaro, Paula; Dittus, Patricia; Kanouse, David E; Murray, Nancy; Wallander, Jan; Schuster, Mark A

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the invariance of predictive relations across early-adolescent sex and ethnic groups regarding parenting factors and externalizing and internalizing problems and victimization. Data (n = 598; 54% female) from a triethnic (Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black) probability sample of fifth graders collected from three sites (Birmingham, AL, Houston, TX, and Los Angeles, CA) were used in the analyses. Simultaneous group structural equation modeling supported the invariance of parenting-early adolescent outcomes across sex and ethnic groups. Parental monitoring and parental norms were relatively robust predictors of early-adolescent externalizing problems and victimization, and to a lesser extent, of internalizing problems. A maternal nurturance by parental monitoring interaction was statistically significant for all outcome behaviors, indicating that higher monitoring in conjunction with higher maternal nurturance was associated with lower levels of early-adolescent problem behaviors. The findings suggest that core parenting factors such as nurturance, monitoring, and normative expectations for early adolescent problem behaviors may serve as a foundation for parenting components of multi-component intervention studies.

  12. Quantitative Amyloid Imaging in Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer’s Disease: Results from the DIAN Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yi; Blazey, Tyler M.; Owen, Christopher J.; Christensen, Jon J.; Friedrichsen, Karl; Joseph-Mathurin, Nelly; Wang, Qing; Hornbeck, Russ C.; Ances, Beau M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Cash, Lisa A.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Klunk, William E.; Galasko, Douglas; Brickman, Adam M.; McDade, Eric; Ringman, John M.; Thompson, Paul M.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Salloway, Stephen P.; Schofield, Peter R.; Masters, Colin L.; Villemagne, Victor L.; Fox, Nick C.; Förster, Stefan; Chen, Kewei; Reiman, Eric M.; Xiong, Chengjie; Marcus, Daniel S.; Weiner, Michael W.; Morris, John C.; Bateman, Randall J.; Benzinger, Tammie L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid imaging plays an important role in the research and diagnosis of dementing disorders. Substantial variation in quantitative methods to measure brain amyloid burden exists in the field. The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of methodological variations to the quantification of amyloid burden using data from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer’s Network (DIAN), an autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease population. Cross-sectional and longitudinal [11C]-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET imaging data from the DIAN study were analyzed. Four candidate reference regions were investigated for estimation of brain amyloid burden. A regional spread function based technique was also investigated for the correction of partial volume effects. Cerebellar cortex, brain-stem, and white matter regions all had stable tracer retention during the course of disease. Partial volume correction consistently improves sensitivity to group differences and longitudinal changes over time. White matter referencing improved statistical power in the detecting longitudinal changes in relative tracer retention; however, the reason for this improvement is unclear and requires further investigation. Full dynamic acquisition and kinetic modeling improved statistical power although it may add cost and time. Several technical variations to amyloid burden quantification were examined in this study. Partial volume correction emerged as the strategy that most consistently improved statistical power for the detection of both longitudinal changes and across-group differences. For the autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease population with PiB imaging, utilizing brainstem as a reference region with partial volume correction may be optimal for current interventional trials. Further investigation of technical issues in quantitative amyloid imaging in different study populations using different amyloid imaging tracers is warranted. PMID:27010959

  13. Anticipated Group versus Individual Examinations: A Classroom Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, William Douglas; Woody, Lisa K.; Bromley, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Instructors across disciplines continue to seek methods to improve students' retention of class material. One potential method for increasing retention is the use of collaborative, or group, testing. We tested the hypothesis that group testing would lead to greater retention than individual testing. Two instructors, teaching 2 sections of their…

  14. [New approach to the study of interaction of amino acid side groups with aryl azides].

    PubMed

    Knorre, D G; Bichenkova, E V; Koval', V V; Alekseev, P V; Knorre, V D; Nordhoff, E; Godovikova, T S

    1998-09-01

    A new approach to the study of the interaction of amino acid side chains with photoreactive aryl azides was proposed. This approach was based on the drawing together of the reacting groups by the attachment of the reacting compounds to complementary oligonucleotides. Cystamine, histamine, and 1,6-hexamethylenediamine mimicking the cystine, histidine, and lysine residues, respectively, were attached to the 3'-terminal phosphate of the oligonucleotide GGTATCp through a phosphamide bond and used as the targets for photomodification. Derivatives of the oligonucleotide pGATACCAA with the fragment N3C6H4NH- attached directly to its 5'-end by a phosphamide bond or through the spacer -(CH2)nNH- (where n is 2, 4, and 6) were used as photoreagents. Their derivatives containing the same spacer and the N3C6F4CO-NH(CH2)3NH- or 2-N3,5-NO2-C6H3CO-NH(CH2)3NH- residues were also used. The duplexes were photomodified by irradiation with 300-350 nm wavelength light. The maximal yields of the photo-cross-linking were from 22 to 68%. The reagents containing p-azidoaniline residue were found to be the most effective toward the targets. The maximum yields of the photomodification products modeling the side chains of cysteine and lysine were found to vary from 40 to 67% and to depend on the length and the structure of the spacers used. The duplex with the target bearing the imidazole residue (the histidine model) manifested a yield decreased to 25%. This fact was in a good agreement with the data of computer modeling that indicated an unfavorable mutual displacement of the imidazole residue and the photoreactive group.

  15. Multichannel Numerical Renormalization Group study of the Anderson Hamiltonian with multiple impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, James; Konik, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Using the Numerical Renormalization Group (NRG), the low energy sector of the Anderson Hamiltonian with two impurities in parallel has been previously argued to be consistent with an underscreened spin-1 Kondo effect (R. Zitko and J. Bonca, Phys. Rev. B 76, 241305 (2007); Logan et al., Phys. Rev. B 80, 125117 (2009)). Bethe Ansatz and slave boson calculations have given the ground state as a singlet (M. Kulkarni and R. M. Konik, Phys. Rev. B 83, 245121 (2011)). As an attempt to understand these differences, we have developed a modified NRG routine that takes into account the multiple channels arising from the logarithmic discretization of the Fermi sea. This could conceivably allow for more complicated screening processes suggested by the Bethe ansatz computations. Results of studies using this code for various numbers of impurities and channels will be presented and discussed in relationship to these conflicting views.

  16. The quality of life of children and adolescents with ADHD undergoing outpatient psychiatric treatment: simple disorders of activity and attention and hyperkinetic conduct disorders in comparison with each other and with other diagnostic groups.

    PubMed

    Remschmidt, Helmut; Mattejat, Fritz

    2010-12-01

    (1) How does the quality of life of patients with ADHD treated in an ambulatory care setting compare to that of other patient groups in child and adolescent psychiatry? (2) Can differences in the quality of life be demonstrated between patients with simple disorders of activity and attention and those with hyperkinetic conduct disorders? (3) How does the quality of life in these patient groups change over one year of treatment? The Inventory for the Assessment of Life Quality in Children and Adolescents (Inventar zur Untersuchung der Lebensqualität von Kindern und Jugendlichen, ILK) was applied to a sample of 726 patients derived from nine different outpatient practices for child and adolescent psychiatry. Among them were 196 patients with a simple disorder of activity and attention and 64 with a hyperkinetic conduct disorder. A comparison between these two groups was the main aim of the study. The mean age of the patients in the sample (all diagnoses) was 8.7 ± 3 years. The two groups of hyperkinetic patients made up 35% of the overall sample, and both of them showed a marked male predominance. The hyperkinetic patients tended to have lower quality-of-life scores than patients in the other diagnostic groups. Longitudinal observation revealed improvements in the quality of life across all patient groups, but the patients with hyperkinetic disorders (both groups) improved the least. The parents of the hyperkinetic patients, too, reported suffering greater stress because of their children's condition than the parents of children with other types of disorders. The ILK instrument has test-metrical qualities that render it usable and capable of holding its own among other, comparable instruments. It can be used to assess the quality of life of children with various diagnoses. Children with ADHD tend to have the least favorable quality-of-life scores, yet they do show some degree of improvement in their quality of life after a year of treatment.

  17. Different Neural Mechanisms for the Comparison and Priming Distance Effects: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Cai, Fei; Chen, Chuansheng; He, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study examined whether the comparison distance effect (CDE) and the priming distance effect (PDE) in number processing had the same underlying neural mechanisms. 24 healthy participants completed a number comparison task and a number priming task in the scanner. Imaging data were examined for brain regions selected based on a meta-analysis of previous studies of number processing. Results revealed robust CDE and PDE at both behavioral and neural levels. The CDE had a significant hemodynamic signature in the right parietal cortex but not in the left parietal cortex, although a direct test of this hemispheric laterality did not reach statistical significance. In contrast, the PDE showed significant left-hemisphere laterality with a significant hemodynamic signature in the left parietal cortex but not in the right parietal cortex. These results suggested that the CDE and PDE had different underlying neural mechanisms. PMID:27833571

  18. The PEGASUS project--a prospective cohort study for the investigation of drug use in pregnancy. PEGASUS Study Group.

    PubMed

    Irl, C; Hasford, J

    1997-12-01

    Since the thalidomide disaster, it is well accepted that drugs can have adverse effects on the developing human being. Although numerous studies show that medication during pregnancy is wide-spread, there still is a serious lack of comprehensive and valid data concerning the risks of drug use during pregnancy. One objective of the PEGASUS project, a population-based cohort study focusing on Munich, is to prospectively record information on drug exposure during pregnancy, to evaluate these data with regard to teratogenic properties, and to contribute to the quality assurance of medical treatment in pregnancy. The results of PEGASUS confirm that drug utilization during pregnancy is rather common--84% of the women use at least one preparation. The most frequent groups are minerals (mainly magnesium), iodide, and iron preparations. Although randomized studies have shown that periconceptional folic acid supplementation considerably reduces the risk of neural tube defects, only very few women in the PEGASUS project recorded folic acid intake during the critical period and in sufficient dosage. Moreover, only 42% of the pregnant women apply iodide prophylaxis in the recommended dosage.

  19. Steam dealkylation of aromatic hydrocarbons. II. Role of the support and kinetic pathway of oxygenated species in toluene steam dealkylation over group VIII metal catalysts. [Catalyst support comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Duprez, D.; Pereira, P.; Miloudi, A.; Maurel, R.

    1982-05-01

    The role of support in steam dealkylation (SDA) is studied on a series of Group VIII metal catalysts supported on alumina, silica, and titania. When possible turnover frequencies are given on the basis of the free metal fraction during the reaction, the values are generally constant with time-on-steam and represent the actual turnover frequency of the catalysts. Metals can be classified into two groups, namely, support-sensitive metals (Pt,Rh,Pd) and support-insensitive metals (Ni,Co,Ru and to a certain extent Ir). Support sensitivity is related to the oxidizability of the metallic surface. For metals of the first group, the reaction is probably governed by a noncompetitive mechanism in which the metal coverage by the oxygenated species is negligible. Kinetic derivation leads to a rate law where there is at once intervention of the support site concentration and of the specific perimeter of the metal/support interface. One can thus explain the support effect for this metal group and the slight sensitivity to the crystallite size observed in the Rh/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ series. For metals of the second group, a competitive mechanism probably takes place on the metal. Kinetic derivation leads to a rate law independent of the support site concentration and accounting for the slight negative order with respect to toluene as previously reported. The conspicuous parallelism between the selectivities of the various metals in SDA, in hydrodealkylation , and in hydrogenolysis is also discussed. In addition to the metal, the support and the crystallite size are determining factors of the selectivity to benzene in SDA.

  20. Stroke in Children With Cardiac Disease: Report From the International Pediatric Stroke Study Group Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Adriane J.; Fox, Christine K.; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Almond, Christopher S.; Bernard, Timothy J.; Beslow, Lauren A.; Chan, Anthony K.C.; Cheung, Michael; deVeber, Gabrielle; Dowling, Michael M.; Friedman, Neil; Giglia, Therese M.; Guilliams, Kristin P.; Humpl, Tilman; Licht, Daniel J.; Mackay, Mark T.; Jordan, Lori C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cardiac disease is a leading cause of stroke in children, yet limited data support the current stroke prevention and treatment recommendations. A multidisciplinary panel of clinicians was convened in February 2014 by the International Pediatric Stroke Study group to identify knowledge gaps and prioritize clinical research efforts for children with cardiac disease and stroke. RESULTS Significant knowledge gaps exist, including a lack of data on stroke incidence, predictors, primary and secondary stroke prevention, hyperacute treatment, and outcome in children with cardiac disease. Commonly used diagnostic techniques including brain computed tomography and ultrasound have low rates of stroke detection, and diagnosis is frequently delayed. The challenges of research studies in this population include epidemiologic barriers to research such as small patient numbers, heterogeneity of cardiac disease, and coexistence of multiple risk factors. Based on stroke burden and study feasibility, studies involving mechanical circulatory support, single ventricle patients, early stroke detection strategies, and understanding secondary stroke risk factors and prevention are the highest research priorities over the next 5-10 years. The development of large-scale multicenter and multispecialty collaborative research is a critical next step. The designation of centers of expertise will assist in clinical care and research. CONCLUSIONS There is an urgent need for additional research to improve the quality of evidence in guideline recommendations for cardiogenic stroke in children. Although significant barriers to clinical research exist, multicenter and multispecialty collaboration is an important step toward advancing clinical care and research for children with cardiac disease and stroke. PMID:25532775

  1. Erotic subset for the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS ERO): cross-sexual comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Wierzba, Małgorzata; Riegel, Monika; Pucz, Anna; Leśniewska, Zuzanna; Dragan, Wojciech Ł.; Gola, Mateusz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Research on the processing of sexual stimuli has proved that such material has high priority in human cognition. Yet, although sex differences in response to sexual stimuli were extensively discussed in the literature, sexual orientation was given relatively little consideration, and material suitable for relevant research is difficult to come by. With this in mind, we present a collection of 200 erotic images, accompanied by their self-report ratings of emotional valence and arousal by homo- and heterosexual males and females (n = 80, divided into four equal-sized subsamples). The collection complements the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) and is intended to be used as stimulus material in experimental research. The erotic images are divided into five categories, depending on their content: opposite-sex couple (50), male couple (50), female couple (50), male (25) and female (25). Additional 100 control images from the NAPS depicting people in a non-erotic context were also used in the study. We showed that recipient sex and sexual orientation strongly influenced the evaluation of erotic content. Thus, comparisons of valence and arousal ratings in different subject groups will help researchers select stimuli set for the purpose of various experimental designs. To facilitate the use of the dataset, we provide an on-line tool, which allows the user to browse the images interactively and select proper stimuli on the basis of several parameters. The NAPS ERO image collection together with the data are available to the scientific community for non-commercial use at http://naps.nencki.gov.pl. PMID:26441715

  2. Statistical analysis of test-day milk yields using random regression models for the comparison of feeding groups during the lactation period.

    PubMed

    Mielenz, Norbert; Spilke, Joachim; Krejcova, Hana; Schüler, Lutz

    2006-10-01

    Random regression models are widely used in the field of animal breeding for the genetic evaluation of daily milk yields from different test days. These models are capable of handling different environmental effects on the respective test day, and they describe the characteristics of the course of the lactation period by using suitable covariates with fixed and random regression coefficients. As the numerically expensive estimation of parameters is already part of advanced computer software, modifications of random regression models will considerably grow in importance for statistical evaluations of nutrition and behaviour experiments with animals. Random regression models belong to the large class of linear mixed models. Thus, when choosing a model, or more precisely, when selecting a suitable covariance structure of the random effects, the information criteria of Akaike and Schwarz can be used. In this study, the fitting of random regression models for a statistical analysis of a feeding experiment with dairy cows is illustrated under application of the program package SAS. For each of the feeding groups, lactation curves modelled by covariates with fixed regression coefficients are estimated simultaneously. With the help of the fixed regression coefficients, differences between the groups are estimated and then tested for significance. The covariance structure of the random and subject-specific effects and the serial correlation matrix are selected by using information criteria and by estimating correlations between repeated measurements. For the verification of the selected model and the alternative models, mean values and standard deviations estimated with ordinary least square residuals are used.

  3. Hypnosis and Encounter Group Volunteers: A Validation Study of the Sensation-Seeking Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    Individual differences in optimal level of stimulation as operationalized by the Sensation Seeking Scale significantly differentiated volunteers for hypnosis and encounter groups from non-volunteers. This confirmed predictions and extended the findings of previous work regarding encounter group volunteers. (NG)

  4. Lord of the Flies: An Ethological Study of Dominance Ordering in a Group of Human Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard C.

    A stable, ordered dominance hierarchy was found via observational and sociometric methods for a group of 13-year-old boys during a five-week summer camp. This group structure was formed early in camp and was stable across settings, time, and types of dominance interactions. The hierarchy correlated significantly with the rank-orderings bed…

  5. Does Matching Quality Matter in Mode Comparison Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Ji; Yin, Ping; Shedden, Kerby A.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview and comparison of three matching approaches in forming comparable groups for a study comparing test administration modes (i.e., computer-based tests [CBT] and paper-and-pencil tests [PPT]): (a) a propensity score matching approach proposed in this article, (b) the propensity score matching approach used by…

  6. Gut feelings in the diagnostic process of Spanish GPs: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    March, Sebastià; Gadea, Cristina; Stolper, Erik; Esteva, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The gut feelings of doctors can act as triggers and modulators of the diagnostic process. This study explored the existence, significance, determinants and triggers of gut feelings among Spanish general practitioners. Design Qualitative study using focus groups. Thematic content analysis. Setting Primary healthcare centres in Majorca (Spain). Participants 20 purposively sampled general practitioners working in Majorca. Results General practitioners were aware of the existence of gut feelings in their diagnostic reasoning process and recognised 2 kinds of gut feelings: a sense of alarm and a sense of reassurance. A previous physician–patient relationship and the physician's experience had a strong perceived influence on the appearance of gut feelings. The physicians attached great significance to gut feelings, and considered them as a characteristic of the primary care working style and as a tool available in their diagnostic process. The physicians thought that the notion of gut feelings and their relevance can be transmitted to students and trainees. They tended to follow their gut feelings, although they were not sure of their accuracy. Conclusions Spanish general practitioners in our study recognise the presence and role of gut feelings in their diagnostic reasoning process. Future research should examine the diagnostic accuracy of gut feelings and how to teach about gut feelings in the training of general practitioners. PMID:27940631

  7. IMMUNOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON BLOOD GROUPS

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Carlos; Lundblad, Arne; Kabat, Elvin A.

    1971-01-01

    The immunochemical properties of purified A1 and A2 glycoproteins have been compared to ascertain whether their antigenic determinants differ. Quantitative precipitin and complement-fixation studies using several anti-A sera as well as purified γG anti-A antibodies clearly showed a specificity difference. This was also supported by absorption studies: A2 substance specifically removed antibodies reacting with A2 substance leaving anti-A1 activity. A1 substance was more effective than A2 substance in dissolving an A1 anti-A1-specific precipitate. Purified γM anti-A hemolyzed A1 cells more readily than A2 cells. Inhibition studies using mono- and difucosyl type 2 A-active oligosaccharides showed that type 2 difucosyl receptors are present in A2 substance. The structural basis for the specificity difference between A1 and A2 would appear to be that A2 substances lack type 1 A determinants; this would account for the observed higher H and Leb activity in A2 substances. PMID:4104425

  8. Exploring the Role of the Food Environment on Food Shopping Patterns in Philadelphia, PA, USA: A Semiquantitative Comparison of Two Matched Neighborhood Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Jana A.; Hillier, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Increasing research has focused on the built food environment and nutrition-related outcomes, yet what constitutes a food environment and how this environment influences individual behavior still remain unclear. This study assesses whether travel mode and distance to food shopping venues differ among individuals in varying food environments and whether individual- and household-level factors are associated with food shopping patterns. Fifty neighbors who share a traditionally defined food environment (25 in an unfavorable environment and 25 in a favorable environment) were surveyed using a mix of close- and open-ended survey questions. Food shopping patterns were mapped using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Stores visited were beyond the 0.5-mile (805 meters) radius traditionally used to represent the extent of an individual’s food environment in an urban area. We found no significant difference in shopping frequency or motivating factor behind store choice between the groups. No differences existed between the two groups for big food shopping trips. For small trips, individuals in the favorable food environment traveled shorter distances and were more likely to walk than drive. Socioeconomic status, including car ownership, education, and income influenced distance traveled. These findings highlight the complexities involved in the study and measurement of food environments. PMID:23343984

  9. Exploring the role of the food environment on food shopping patterns in Philadelphia, PA, USA: a semiquantitative comparison of two matched neighborhood groups.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Jana A; Hillier, Amy

    2013-01-14

    Increasing research has focused on the built food environment and nutrition-related outcomes, yet what constitutes a food environment and how this environment influences individual behavior still remain unclear. This study assesses whether travel mode and distance to food shopping venues differ among individuals in varying food environments and whether individual- and household-level factors are associated with food shopping patterns. Fifty neighbors who share a traditionally defined food environment (25 in an unfavorable environment and 25 in a favorable environment) were surveyed using a mix of close- and open-ended survey questions. Food shopping patterns were mapped using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Stores visited were beyond the 0.5-mile (805 meters) radius traditionally used to represent the extent of an individual's food environment in an urban area. We found no significant difference in shopping frequency or motivating factor behind store choice between the groups. No differences existed between the two groups for big food shopping trips. For small trips, individuals in the favorable food environment traveled shorter distances and were more likely to walk than drive. Socioeconomic status, including car ownership, education, and income influenced distance traveled. These findings highlight the complexities involved in the study and measurement of food environments.

  10. Space Station concept development group studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, L. E.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA study activities in preparation for a Space Station began in the early 1970's. The early studies included many in-house NASA and contracted studies. A group of representatives from all the NASA Centers, titled the Space Station Concept Development Group (CDG) was involved in the studies which led to the initiation of the Space Station Program. The CDG studies were performed over a period of approximately one year and consisted of four phases. The initial phase had the objective to determine the functions required of the station as opposed to a configuration. The activities of the second phase were primarily concerned with a sizing of the facilities required for payloads and the resources necessary to support these mission payloads. The third phase of studies was designed to develop a philosophical approach to a number of areas related to autonomy, maintainability, operations and logistics, and verification. The fourth phase of the study was to be concerned with configuration assessment activities.

  11. The interaction between electrolyte and surfaces decorated with charged groups: A molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Calero, Carles; Faraudo, Jordi

    2010-01-14

    In this paper, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of an interface containing charged functional groups of different valences in contact with 2:1 ionic solution. We take into account both the finite sizes of the ions in solution and the functional groups but we neglect the structural details of the solvent (primitive model). We show that the distribution of ions and the electrostatic properties of the system depend strongly on the valence of the interfacial charged groups. In the case of surfaces containing well-separated charged interfacial groups, we observe counterion binding at these groups induced by electrostatic interactions. A detailed analysis of the potential of mean force between interfacial charged groups and ions reveals significant features not anticipated by present theories of electrolytes near interfaces. Overall, our results show that, in primitive models of the ion-interface interaction, not only the ionic size and valence are important but the size and valence of the interfacial charged groups also have a significant impact.

  12. Measuring the impact of Hurricane Katrina on access to a personal healthcare provider: the use of the National Survey of Children's Health for an external comparison group.

    PubMed

    Stehling-Ariza, Tasha; Park, Yoon Soo; Sury, Jonathan J; Abramson, David

    2012-04-01

    This paper examined the effect of Hurricane Katrina on children's access to personal healthcare providers and evaluated the use of propensity score methods to compare a nationally representative sample of children, as a proxy for an unexposed group, with a smaller exposed sample. 2007 data from the Gulf Coast Child and Family Health (G-CAFH) Study, a longitudinal cohort of households displaced or greatly impacted by Hurricane Katrina, were matched with 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) data using propensity score techniques. Propensity scores were created using poverty level, household educational attainment, and race/ethnicity, with and without the addition of child age and gender. The outcome was defined as having a personal healthcare provider. Additional confounders (household structure, neighborhood safety, health and insurance status) were also examined. All covariates except gender differed significantly between the exposed (G-CAFH) and unexposed (NSCH) samples. Fewer G-CAFH children had a personal healthcare provider (65 %) compared to those from NSCH (90 %). Adjusting for all covariates, the propensity score analysis showed exposed children were 20 % less likely to have a personal healthcare provider compared to unexposed children in the US (OR = 0.80, 95 % CI 0.76, 0.84), whereas the logistic regression analysis estimated a stronger effect (OR = 0.28, 95 % CI 0.21, 0.39). Two years after Hurricane Katrina, children exposed to the storm had significantly lower odds of having a personal health care provider compared to unexposed children. Propensity score matching techniques may be useful for combining separate data samples when no clear unexposed group exists.

  13. Bimodal response sensitivity and bias in a test of sustained attention contrasting patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder to normal comparison group.

    PubMed

    Baerwald, Jeffrey P; Tryon, Warren W; Sandford, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This study examined response discrimination (d') and bias (likelihood ratio) differentials in a computer-generated test of auditory and visual attention functioning. Patients with bipolar disorder (n=42) and schizophrenia (n=47) were contrasted to a normal comparison group (n=89) in two conditions: (a) simple modal responsivity (auditory and visual stimuli) and (b) ipsimodal (auditory/auditory and visual/visual) and crossmodal (auditory/visual and visual/auditory) responding. The results of this study indicated that in the simple modal condition both subject groups showed differential modal preferences but in opposite directions. The schizophrenic group showed a significant visual over auditory preference, committing more auditory commission and omission errors than visual errors. The bipolar group displayed a distinct auditory over visual response preference, committing significantly higher number of visual omission errors. Response bias analysis indicates that both diagnostic groups adopted a more liberal response bias, whereas the comparison group assumed a more conservative approach. For all groups response sensitivity improved as response bias became more neutral. The modal switching results indicated that all three groups tended to commit more commission errors (false alarms) in the auditory crossmodal switching condition (visual/auditory) by comparison with the other switching conditions. Between group comparisons for this condition showed that the schizophrenic group committed significantly more commission errors than the other groups. No significant medication effects were detected.

  14. Opportunities and challenges in using studies without a control group in comparative effectiveness reviews.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Jessica K; Dahabreh, Issa J; Balk, Ethan M; Avendano, Esther E; Lau, Joseph; Ip, Stanley

    2014-06-01

    When examining the evidence on therapeutic interventions to answer a comparative effectiveness research question, one should consider all studies that are informative on the interventions' causal effects. "Single group studies" evaluate outcomes longitudinally in cohorts of subjects who are managed with a single treatment strategy. Because these studies are "missing" a direct, concurrent comparison group, they are typically deemed non-informative on comparative effectiveness. However, in principle, single group studies can provide information on causal treatment effects by extrapolating expected outcomes in the "missing" untreated arm. Single group studies rely on before-after, implicit, or historical comparisons as a proxy for an ideal comparison group. The validity of these comparisons must be carefully examined on a case-by-case basis. While in many cases, researchers will disagree on whether such extrapolations are reasonable; circumstances exist where such studies are generally acceptable as a source of evidence. This article provides an overview of issues related to the interpretation of single group studies with a focus on the assumptions required to support their consideration in comparative effectiveness reviews. We discuss the various settings in which single group studies are employed, common research designs that systematic reviewers need to interpret, and challenges associated with using these designs to inform comparative effectiveness questions.

  15. Comparison of the Cumulative Incidence Rates of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis between 1970 and 2013 among Four State-Owned Colliery Groups in China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Han, Bing; Yuan, Juxiang; Suo, Xia; Qin, Tianbang; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the incidence characteristics of coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) based on data from four large state-owned colliery groups of China, by comparing the cumulative incidence rates of CWP. We investigated 87,904 coal workers from the Datong, Kailuan, Fuxin, and Tiefa Colliery Groups, who were exposed to dust for at least 1 year. The cumulative incidence rate of CWP was calculated with the life-table method and stratified analysis among coal workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. Our results showed the cumulative incidence rate of Datong was higher than that of any other colliery group among workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. For Datong workers who started their dust exposure in the 1970s, the cumulative incidence rates of CWP among tunneling, mining, combining, and helping workers were 34.77%, 10.20%, 34.59%, and 4.91% during the observed time of 34 years, respectively. For those in the 1980s, the cumulative incidence rates were 32.29%, 13.51%, 2.98%, and 0.47%, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. In conclusion, the Datong colliery has the highest cumulative incidence rate of CWP among the four studied collieries, followed by Kailuan. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. Additional dust-proofing measures for decreasing dust concentrations are still necessary. PMID:26133134

  16. Comparison of the Cumulative Incidence Rates of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis between 1970 and 2013 among Four State-Owned Colliery Groups in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Han, Bing; Yuan, Juxiang; Suo, Xia; Qin, Tianbang; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie

    2015-06-30

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the incidence characteristics of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) based on data from four large state-owned colliery groups of China, by comparing the cumulative incidence rates of CWP. We investigated 87,904 coal workers from the Datong, Kailuan, Fuxin, and Tiefa Colliery Groups, who were exposed to dust for at least 1 year. The cumulative incidence rate of CWP was calculated with the life-table method and stratified analysis among coal workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. Our results showed the cumulative incidence rate of Datong was higher than that of any other colliery group among workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. For Datong workers who started their dust exposure in the 1970s, the cumulative incidence rates of CWP among tunneling, mining, combining, and helping workers were 34.77%, 10.20%, 34.59%, and 4.91% during the observed time of 34 years, respectively. For those in the 1980s, the cumulative incidence rates were 32.29%, 13.51%, 2.98%, and 0.47%, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. In conclusion, the Datong colliery has the highest cumulative incidence rate of CWP among the four studied collieries, followed by Kailuan. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. Additional dust-proofing measures for decreasing dust concentrations are still necessary.

  17. Impact of platinum group metals on the environment: a toxicological, genotoxic and analytical chemistry study.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Zofia E; Newkirk, Catherine; Hicks, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies show particles of Platinum Group Metals (PGMs); primarily platinum, palladium and rhodium; released from automobile catalytic converters are being deposited alongside roadways. This deposition is leading to increasing concentrations of PGMs in the environment, raising concerns about the environmental impact and toxicity of these elements in living organisms. The objective of this study was to determine how PGMs alter the patterns of growth, development, and physiology by studying the toxicological and genotoxic effects of these metals. Two vastly different species were used as models: plant-a wild wetland common Sphagnum moss, and animal-6-week old rats Sprague-Dawley. Both species were exposed, in controlled environments, to different concentrations of the PGMs. Toxicological and genotoxic effects were determined by assessment of plant growth, animal survival and pathology, and influence on DNA in both models. Our results on the uptake of PGMs by Sphagnum showed significant decreases in plant length and biomass as PGM concentration increased. Histological and pathological analysis of the animal model revealed vacuolization, eosinophil inclusion bodies in adrenal glands, shrinkage of glomeruli in the kidney, and enlargement of white pulp in the spleen. In both models, DNA damage was detected. Chemical analysis using ICP-AES atomic absorption demonstrated accumulation of PGMs in plant tissues at all PGM levels, proportional to concentration.

  18. Geriatric assessment in multiple myeloma patients: validation of the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) score and comparison with other common comorbidity scores

    PubMed Central

    Engelhardt, Monika; Dold, Sandra Maria; Ihorst, Gabriele; Zober, Alexander; Möller, Mandy; Reinhardt, Heike; Hieke, Stefanie; Schumacher, Martin; Wäsch, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    This first validation of the International Myeloma Working Group geriatric assessment in 125 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients was performed using the International Myeloma Working Group score based on age, the Charlson Comorbidity Index and cognitive and physical conditions (Activities of Daily Living / Instrumental Activities of Daily Living) to classify patients as fit, intermediate-fit or frail. We verified the International Myeloma Working Group score’s impact on outcome, and whether additional tools complement it. Since our prior analyses determined renal, lung and Karnofsky performance impairment as multivariate risks, and the inclusion of frailty, age and cytogenetics complements this, we included the revised myeloma comorbidity index, the Charlson Comorbidity Index, the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Comorbidity Index and the Kaplan-Feinstein Index in this assessment. Multivariate analysis confirmed cytogenetics, Activities of Daily Living, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and the Charlson Comorbidity Index as risks: 3-year overall survival for fit, intermediate-fit and frail patients was 91%, 77% and 47%, respectively. Using the Charlson Comorbidity Index, the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Comorbidity Index, the Kaplan-Feinstein Index and the revised Myeloma Comorbidity Index allowed us to define fit and frail patients with distinct progression-free and overall survival rates, with the most pronounced differences evidenced via the International Myeloma Working Group score, the Charlson Comorbidity Index and the revised Myeloma Comorbidity Index. Since the Charlson Comorbidity Index is included in the International Myeloma Working Group score, we propose the latter and the revised Myeloma Comorbidity Index for future frailty measurements. Both are useful instruments for identifying myeloma patients with a geriatric risk profile and have a strong prognostic value for functional decline and overall survival. The study was registered

  19. What are parents' perspectives on psychological empowerment in the MMR vaccination decision? A focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Fadda, Marta; Galimberti, Elisa; Carraro, Valter; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Most developed countries do not have compulsory immunisation requirements, but instead issue recommendations. Although parents are expected to make an informed, autonomous (ie, empowered) decision regarding their children's vaccinations, there is no evidence about how parents' interpret this demand nor on the latitude of their decision-making. The goal of this study is to gain insights from parents residing in a low measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) uptake area on what constitutes feelings of empowerment in the decision they have to make on their child's MMR vaccination. Design A qualitative study employing focus group interviews. Setting 11 vaccination centres and hospitals in the Province of Trento, Italy. Participants 24 mothers and 4 fathers of children for whom the MMR vaccination decision was still pending participated in 6 focus groups. Results Autonomy and competence were salient themes in relation to empowerment, and were further connected with beliefs regarding legal responsibility and ethics of freedom concerning the decision, parents' relationship with the paediatrician (trust), feelings of relevance of the decision and related stress, and seeking, avoidance, or fear of vaccination-related information. Competence was interpreted as medical knowledge and information-seeking skills, but it was also related to the extent parents perceived the paediatrician to be competent. Conclusions Since parents' interpretation of empowerment goes beyond mere perceptions of being informed and autonomous and differs across individuals, it is important that this construct be correctly interpreted and implemented by best practice, for instance by explicitly adopting a relational conception of autonomy. Knowing whether parents want to make an empowered decision and what their information and autonomy needs are might help health professionals adapt their communication about immunisation, and promote parental perception of making an informed, autonomous decision. PMID

  20. A randomised, independent groups study investigating the sympathetic nervous system responses to two manual therapy treatments in patients with LBP.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jo; Green, Ann; Singh, Sally; Watson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Manual therapy (MT) and exercise therapy techniques are commonly utilised, guideline recommended treatment strategies in the management of non-specific low back pain (LBP). Preliminary evidence on asymptomatic participants indicates that two manual therapy techniques; repeated lumbar extension in lying exercise (EIL); and segmental rotational grade V manipulation (manipulation), have significant effects on the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) as detectable with skin conductance (SC) responses. However, it is not known if these responses occur in patients with LBP. A randomised, independent group's design was utilised to investigate the immediate SC responses in 50 patients with LBP of less than 12 weeks duration. Patients received either the manipulation technique (n = 25) or the EIL exercise (n = 25) and SC activity was recorded, in a single treatment session, pre-, peri- and post-treatment. Both treatments resulted in a sympatho-excitatory response during the intervention period with the manipulation technique having a 255% increase (p < 0.005), and the EIL technique a 94% increase (p = 0.019) with both treatments having responses that were sustained into the final rest period (p < 0.005). Between-group comparisons indicate that the manipulation technique had a significantly greater magnitude of effect (p < 0.001). The results support the sympatho-excitatory responses seen in normative studies but challenge the assumption that normative and patient populations are analogous with respect to the magnitude of effect observed and suggest that SC responses may be a feasible, proxy method of detecting dorsal horn sensitisation and neuro-plastic adaptations occurring in the presence of LBP.

  1. A collaborative study of the EDNAP group regarding Y-chromosome binary polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Brion, María; Dupuy, Berit M; Heinrich, Marielle; Hohoff, Carsten; Hoste, Bernardette; Ludes, Bertrand; Mevag, Bente; Morling, Niels; Niederstätter, Harald; Parson, Walther; Sanchez, Juan; Bender, Klaus; Siebert, Nathalie; Thacker, Catherine; Vide, Conceiçao; Carracedo, Angel

    2005-10-29

    A collaborative study was carried out by the European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP) in order to evaluate the performance of Y-chromosome binary polymorphism analysis in different European laboratories. Four blood samples were sent to the laboratories, to be analysed for 11 Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): SRY-1532, M40, M35, M213, M9, 92R7, M17, P25, M18, M153 and M167. All the labs were also asked to submit a population study including these markers. All participating laboratories reported the same results, indicating the reproducibility and robustness of Y-chromosome SNP typing. A total of 535 samples from six different European populations were also analysed. In Galicia (NW Spain) and Belgium, the most frequent haplogroup was R1b*(xR1b1,R1b3df). Haplogroup F*(xK) is one of the most frequent in Austria and Denmark, while the lowest frequency appear in Belgium. Haplogroup frequencies found in this collaborative study were compared with previously published European Y-chromosome haplogroup data.

  2. The group selection controversy.

    PubMed

    Leigh, E G

    2010-01-01

    Many thought Darwinian natural selection could not explain altruism. This error led Wynne-Edwards to explain sustainable exploitation in animals by selection against overexploiting groups. Williams riposted that selection among groups rarely overrides within-group selection. Hamilton showed that altruism can evolve through kin selection. How strongly does group selection influence evolution? Following Price, Hamilton showed how levels of selection interact: group selection prevails if Hamilton's rule applies. Several showed that group selection drove some major evolutionary transitions. Following Hamilton's lead, Queller extended Hamilton's rule, replacing genealogical relatedness by the regression on an actor's genotypic altruism of interacting neighbours' phenotypic altruism. Price's theorem shows the generality of Hamilton's rule. All instances of group selection can be viewed as increasing inclusive fitness of autosomal genomes. Nonetheless, to grasp fully how cooperation and altruism evolve, most biologists need more concrete concepts like kin selection, group selection and selection among individuals for their common good.

  3. Cooperative Group Performance in Graduate Research Methodology Courses: The Role of Study Coping and Examination-Taking Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Qun G.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the extent to which cooperative group members' levels of coping strategies (study and examination-taking coping strategies) and the degree that heterogeneity (variability of study coping strategies and examination-taking coping strategies) predict cooperative groups' levels of achievement in research methodology…

  4. Comparison of Guided and Unguided Ocriplasmin Injection for the Treatment of Vitreomacular Traction: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Di Antonio, Luca; Ciciarelli, Vincenzo; Aharrh-Gnama, Agbeanda; Rispoli, Marco; Carpineto, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective quality control study aimed at comparing resolution in patients treated with intravitreal ocriplasmin (IVO) using two injection techniques, classical injection procedure (unguided) and targeted injection using a surgical microscope with a 30-gauge 1-inch needle (guided) for the treatment of focal VMT without macular hole. The two groups presented a statistically significant difference in terms of resolution of VMT within the first month following treatment: 1/7 for the unguided group versus 6/7 for the guided group (p = 0.0291). The majority of the guided group presented an earlier resolution than the single resolved case in the unguided group. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the injection of ocriplasmin closer to the site of VMT results in the resolution in a higher number of cases and that this resolution occurs in a short time interval. PMID:27066269

  5. Renormalization group study of the minimal Majoronic dark radiation and dark matter model

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, We-Fu; Ng, John N.

    2016-07-18

    We study the 1-loop renormalization group equation running in the simplest singlet Majoron model constructed by us earlier to accommodate the dark radiation and dark matter content in the universe. A comprehensive numerical study was performed to explore the whole model parameter space. A smaller effective number of neutrinos △N{sub eff}∼0.05, or a Majoron decoupling temperature higher than the charm quark mass, is preferred. We found that a heavy scalar dark matter, ρ, of mass 1.5–4 TeV is required by the stability of the scalar potential and an operational type-I see-saw mechanism for neutrino masses. A neutral scalar, S, of mass in the 10–100 GeV range and its mixing with the standard model Higgs as large as 0.1 is also predicted. The dominant decay modes are S into bb-bar and/or ωω. A sensitive search will come from rare Z decays via the chain Z→S+ff-bar, where f is a Standard Model fermion, followed by S into a pair of Majoron and/or b-quarks. The interesting consequences of dark matter bound state due to the sizable Sρρ-coupling are discussed as well. In particular, shower-like events with an apparent neutrino energy at M{sub ρ} could contribute to the observed effective neutrino flux in underground neutrino detectors such as IceCube.

  6. Density matrix renormalization group study of the Anyon-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcila-Forero, J.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.

    2016-02-01

    Recently optical lattices allow us to observe phase transition without the uncertainty posed by complex materials, and the simulations of these systems are an excellent bridge between materials-based condensed matter physics and cold atoms. In this way, the computational physics related to many-body problems have increased in importance. Using the density matrix renormalization group method, we studied a Hubbard model for anyons, which is an equivalent to a variant of the Bose-Hubbard model in which the bosonic hopping depends on the local density. This is an exact mapping between anyons and bosons in one dimension. The anyons interlope between bosons and fermions. For two anyons under particle exchange, the wave function acquires a fractional phase eiθ . We conclude that this system exhibits two phases: Mott-insulator and superfluid. We present the phase diagram for some angles. The Mott lobe increases with an increase of the statistical. We observed a reentrance phase transition for all lobes. We showed that the model studied is in the same universality class as the Bose-Hubbard model with two-body interactions.

  7. Renormalization group study of the minimal Majoronic dark radiation and dark matter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, We-Fu; Ng, John N.

    2016-07-01

    We study the 1-loop renormalization group equation running in the simplest singlet Majoron model constructed by us earlier to accommodate the dark radiation and dark matter content in the universe. A comprehensive numerical study was performed to explore the whole model parameter space. A smaller effective number of neutrinos triangle Neff~ 0.05, or a Majoron decoupling temperature higher than the charm quark mass, is preferred. We found that a heavy scalar dark matter, ρ, of mass 1.5-4 TeV is required by the stability of the scalar potential and an operational type-I see-saw mechanism for neutrino masses. A neutral scalar, S, of mass in the 10-100 GeV range and its mixing with the standard model Higgs as large as 0.1 is also predicted. The dominant decay modes are S into bbar b and/or ωω. A sensitive search will come from rare Z decays via the chain Z → S+ fbar f, where f is a Standard Model fermion, followed by S into a pair of Majoron and/or b-quarks. The interesting consequences of dark matter bound state due to the sizable Sρ ρ-coupling are discussed as well. In particular, shower-like events with an apparent neutrino energy at Mρ could contribute to the observed effective neutrino flux in underground neutrino detectors such as IceCube.

  8. The Influence of Culture on Agroecosystem Structure: A Comparison of the Spatial Patterns of Homegardens of Different Ethnic Groups in Thailand and Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Different ethnic groups have evolved distinctive cultural models which guide their interactions with the environment, including their agroecosystems. Although it is probable that variations in the structures of homegardens among separate ethnic groups reflect differences in the cultural models of the farmers, empirical support for this assumption is limited. In this paper the modal horizontal structural patterns of the homegardens of 8 ethnic groups in Northeast Thailand and Vietnam are described. Six of these groups (5 speaking Tai languages and 1 speaking Vietnamese) live in close proximity to each other in separate villages in Northeast Thailand, and 2 of the groups (one Tai-speaking and one Vietnamese-speaking) live in different parts of Vietnam. Detailed information on the horizontal structure of homegardens was collected from samples of households belonging to each group. Although each ethnic group has a somewhat distinctive modal structure, the groups cluster into 2 different types. The Tai speaking Cao Lan, Kalaeng, Lao, Nyaw, and Yoy make up Type I while both of the Vietnamese groups, along with the Tai speaking Phu Thai, belong to Type II. Type I gardens have predominantly organic shapes, indeterminate boundaries, polycentric planting patterns, and multi-species composition within planting areas. Type II homegardens have geometric shapes, sharp boundaries, lineal planting patterns, and mono-species composition of planting areas. That the homegardens of most of the Tai ethnic groups share a relatively similar horizontal structural pattern that is quite different from the pattern shared by both of the Vietnamese groups suggests that the spatial layout of homegardens is strongly influenced by their different cultural models. PMID:26752564

  9. Past and present achievements, and future direction of the Gastrointestinal Oncology Study Group (GIOSG), a Division of Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG).

    PubMed

    Boku, Narikazu

    2011-12-01

    Initially, Gastrointestinal Study Group in Japan Clinical Oncology Group (GIOSG/JCOG) focused on gastric cancer. In 1980s, fluoropyrimidine, cisplatin and mitomycin C were key drugs. A randomized Phase II trial (JCOG8501) comparing futrafur plus mitomycin C and uracil plus futrafur and mitomycin C showed a higher response rate of uracil plus futrafur and mitomycin C than futrafur plus mitomycin C. From the results of two Phase II trials of etoposide, adriamycin and cisplatin, and cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil, uracil plus futrafur and mitomycin C and cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil were adopted for the test arms of the Phase III trial (JCOG9205) comparing with continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil as a control arm. Neither cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil nor uracil plus futrafur and mitomycin C showed a survival benefit over continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil. In late 1990s, new agents, irinotecan and S-1, were developed for gastric cancer in Japan. GIOSG conducted a Phase III trial (JCOG9912) investigating superiority of irinotecan plus cisplatin and non-inferiority of monotherapy with S-1 compared with continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil, and S-1 succeeded in showing non-inferiority. Then, SPIRITS trial showed a survival benefit of S-1 plus cisplatin over S-1, resulting in the establishment of a standard care for advanced gastric cancer in Japan. GIOSG have merged with Gastric Cancer Study Group as the Stomach Cancer Study Group (SCSG) from 2011. Recent progress in the development of new drugs has been remarkable. From the point of the roles shared with many other study groups for clinical trials, including registration trials of new drugs conducted by pharmaceutical companies, SCSG should recognize its role and conduct clinical trials with high quality for establishing new standard treatment.

  10. Hanford single-shell tank grouping study

    SciTech Connect

    Remund, K.M.; Anderson, C.M.; Simpson, B.C.

    1995-10-01

    A tank grouping study has been conducted to find Hanford single-shell tanks with similar waste properties. The limited sampling resources of the characterization program could be allocated more effectively by having a better understanding of the groups of tanks that have similar waste types. If meaningful groups of tanks can be identified, tank sampling requirements may be reduced, and the uncertainty of the characterization estimates may be narrowed. This tank grouping study considers the analytical sampling information and the historical information that is available for all single-shell tanks. The two primary sources of historical characterization estimates and information come from the Historical Tank Content Estimate (HTCE) Model and the Sort on Radioactive Waste Tanks (SORWT) Model. The sampling and historical information are used together to come up with meaningful groups of similar tanks. Based on the results of analyses presented in this report, credible tank grouping looks very promising. Some groups defined using historical information (HTCE and SORWT) correspond well with those based on analytical data alone.

  11. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Two Approaches to the Teaching of Multiethnic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Philip I.; And Others

    Compared in this study is the power of a directed, conscious attempt to reduce stereotyping through the use of selected individuals who have achieved renown in endeavors not usually identified with the group of their origin with a similar effort which utilizes eminent persons on the basis of their celebrity with no regard to the nature of that…

  12. Why an Active Comparison Group Makes a Difference and What to Do about It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datta, Lois-ellin

    2007-01-01

    The Randomized Control Trials (RCT) design and its quasi-experimental kissing cousin, the Comparison Group Trials (CGT), are golden to some and not even silver to others. At the center of the affection, at the vortex of the discomfort, are beliefs about what it takes to establish causality. These designs are considered primarily when the purpose…

  13. The role of environmental groups in electric-utility regulation: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E. )

    1994-03-01

    Environmental groups, if they pick their issues and their turf carefully, and work closely with other interest groups, can have a profound and positive effect on electric utility planning and regulation. From July 1992 through June 1993 the author spent a year working with the Energy Project of the Land and Water Fund of the Rockies (LAW Fund) in Boulder, Colorado. The LAW Fund is a regional environmental law center that provides legal support to local environmental groups throughout the Rocky Mountain region. The LAW Fund's Energy Project focuses on the use of demand-side management programs, renewable resources, and integrated resource planning as ways for electric and gas utilities to deliver desired energy services to their customers at minimal environmental cost. The Energy Project works on state-specific and regional issues in six states. This paper offers the author's observations on the substantial influence and valuable services that such a small group can provide. He also comments on the problems faced in deciding to allocate limited human and financial resources among competing objectives, projects, and activities. The article also describes the Energy Project activities in 1992 and 1993; suggests the factors that accounted for its successes; and reflects on the choices that such groups make in selecting projects on which to focus, on allocating time and effort among projects, negotiating vs. litigating, working with the media, developing alliances with other groups that have similar interests, and participating in state politics.

  14. [AIDS among the Japanese-Brazilian residents of the Sao Paulo municipality: size and profile of the studied group].

    PubMed

    Shima, H; Afuso, D S; Nichiata, L Y

    1998-12-01

    The study aimed to know the spread of AIDS epidemic among Japanese and their descendents, living on São Paulo Municipality. The authors dimension the total number of cases, since the beginning of the epidemic till july, 1994 and characterized the profile of the group in terms of sex, age, school degree, civil status, sexual option, occupation, exposed category and mean survival.

  15. Analysis of the HBr-based hydrogen production process as being developed by the SRT Group, Inc. Process study

    SciTech Connect

    DiPietro, J.P.; Skolnik, E.G.

    1997-10-01

    The SRT Group is developing a process that produces hydrogen from the electrolysis of hydrobromic acid. Compared to conventional water electrolysis, HBr electrolysis requires about 25% less electricity per unit of hydrogen produced. The capital and O and M costs are higher though, because of equipment that is required to regenerate HBr from the bromine formed in the electrolyzer (as a comparison a water electrolyzer discards the oxygen product and imports new water feedstock). Exhibit 1 presents summary statistics for the HBr and water electrolysis systems. All else equal, the HBr electrolysis process will be favorable to water electrolysis in situations where electricity is more expensive. A cost model is developed for water and HBr electrolysis systems. It indicates that HBr electrolysis is favored when the average cost of electricity exceeds 5.9 cents/kWh, at which price the cost of hydrogen 2.8 $/kg (20 $/MMBtu). In most cases steam methane reforming would be preferred if electricity costs are higher than 4 cents/kWh, indicating little commercial viability for HBr electrolysis. In 1996, SRT Group proposed a revised concept that addressed the issues associated with the solar-based process. Their idea is to add methane to the reactor with the bromine and water. The methane scavenges the oxygen produced in reaction (1) thus driving a higher conversion of bromine to HBr. Also, the reaction of methane and oxygen provides needed heat. The SRT Group has tested this concept in the laboratory and has demonstrated hydrogen production. The purpose of this analysis is to assess the economic potential of SRT Group`s innovation.

  16. A Comparison Study of the Effectiveness of the Lexia Reading Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Mike; Couperus, Josh; Willey, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of the Lexia Reading (LR) programme with a cohort of 37 students in a Decile 1 primary school. The students were randomly assigned to experimental (who used LR) and control groups (who did not use LR). The WIAT-II was used to provide pre and post measures of literacy skills. Results indicated that students who…

  17. Exploring Design Requirements for Repurposing Dental Virtual Patients From the Web to Second Life: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Panagiotis E; Athanasopoulou, Christina A; Dafli, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    Background Since their inception, virtual patients have provided health care educators with a way to engage learners in an experience simulating the clinician’s environment without danger to learners and patients. This has led this learning modality to be accepted as an essential component of medical education. With the advent of the visually and audio-rich 3-dimensional multi-user virtual environment (MUVE), a new deployment platform has emerged for educational content. Immersive, highly interactive, multimedia-rich, MUVEs that seamlessly foster collaboration provide a new hotbed for the deployment of medical education content. Objective This work aims to assess the suitability of the Second Life MUVE as a virtual patient deployment platform for undergraduate dental education, and to explore the requirements and specifications needed to meaningfully repurpose Web-based virtual patients in MUVEs. Methods Through the scripting capabilities and available art assets in Second Life, we repurposed an existing Web-based periodontology virtual patient into Second Life. Through a series of point-and-click interactions and multiple-choice queries, the user experienced a specific periodontology case and was asked to provide the optimal responses for each of the challenges of the case. A focus group of 9 undergraduate dentistry students experienced both the Web-based and the Second Life version of this virtual patient. The group convened 3 times and discussed relevant issues such as the group’s computer literacy, the assessment of Second Life as a virtual patient deployment platform, and compared the Web-based and MUVE-deployed virtual patients. Results A comparison between the Web-based and the Second Life virtual patient revealed the inherent advantages of the more experiential and immersive Second Life virtual environment. However, several challenges for the successful repurposing of virtual patients from the Web to the MUVE were identified. The identified challenges

  18. Comparison of genetic variations of the SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, and SLCO2B1 genes among five ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Namgoong, Suhg; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Kim, Ji On; Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Na, Han Sung; Koh, In Song; Chung, Myeon Woo; Shin, Hyoung Doo

    2015-11-01

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP; gene symbol, SLCO) transporters are generally involved in the uptake of multiple drugs and their metabolites at most epithelial barriers. The pattern of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these transporters may be determinants of interindividual variability in drug disposition and response. The objective of this study was to define the distribution of SNPs of three SLCO genes, SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, and SLCO2B1, in a Korean population and other ethnic groups. The study was screened using the Illumina GoldenGate assay for genomic DNA from 450 interethnic subjects, including 11 pharmacogenetic core variants and 76 HapMap tagging SNPs. The genotype distribution of the Korean population was similar to East Asian populations, but significantly different from African American and European American cohorts. These interethnic differences will be useful information for prospective studies, including genetic association and pharmacogenetic studies of drug metabolism by SLCO families.

  19. The Role of Important Non-Parental Adults (VIPs) in the Lives of Older Adolescents: A Comparison of Three Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The present study compared VIPs of 355 Hispanic, Asian, and European American older adolescents (age range = 17–19 years; M = 18.7 years; 62% female). Results indicated that, despite ethnic differences in their social capital, VIPs’ psychological characteristics (e.g., warmth and acceptance, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were similar. VIPs were perceived to have more positive psychological profiles than parents and peers, and in some cases, romantic partners. Moreover, with a few exceptions, the associations between VIP characteristics and adolescent adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were largely similar across ethnic groups. Finally, VIPs made unique contributions to adolescents’ self-esteem and problem behaviors even after the effects of romantic partners were considered. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:20446024

  20. The role of important non-parental adults (VIPs) in the lives of older adolescents: a comparison of three ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Eileen; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2011-03-01

    Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The present study compared VIPs of 355 Hispanic, Asian, and European American older adolescents (age range = 17-19 years; M = 18.7 years; 62% female). Results indicated that, despite ethnic differences in their social capital, VIPs' psychological characteristics (e.g., warmth and acceptance, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were similar. VIPs were perceived to have more positive psychological profiles than parents and peers, and in some cases, romantic partners. Moreover, with a few exceptions, the associations between VIP characteristics and adolescent adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were largely similar across ethnic groups. Finally, VIPs made unique contributions to adolescents' self-esteem and problem behaviors even after the effects of romantic partners were considered. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  1. USE OF DISCUSSION GROUPS TO INVESTIGATE RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of Discussion Groups to Investigate Recruitment and Retention Issues for a Longitudinal Study of Children's Environmental Health
    DT Lobdell*, S Gutter+, P Mendola* (*US EPA, NHEERL; +UNC Chapel Hill)

    Much of what is known about successful recruitment and retention o...

  2. Multivariate sparse group lasso for the multivariate multiple linear regression with an arbitrary group structure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanming; Zhu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Summary We propose a multivariate sparse group lasso variable selection and estimation method for data with high-dimensional predictors as well as high-dimensional response variables. The method is carried out through a penalized multivariate multiple linear regression model with an arbitrary group structure for the regression coefficient matrix. It suits many biology studies well in detecting associations between multiple traits and multiple predictors, with each trait and each predictor embedded in some biological functioning groups such as genes, pathways or brain regions. The method is able to effectively remove unimportant groups as well as unimportant individual coefficients within important groups, particularly for large p small n problems, and is flexible in handling various complex group structures such as overlapping or nested or multilevel hierarchical structures. The method is evaluated through extensive simulations with comparisons to the conventional lasso and group lasso methods, and is applied to an eQTL association study. PMID:25732839

  3. Vibrational properties of the amide group in acetanilide: A molecular-dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campa, Alessandro; Giansanti, Andrea; Tenenbaum, Alexander

    1987-09-01

    A simplified classical model of acetanilide crystal is built in order to study the mechanisms of vibrational energy transduction in a hydrogen-bonded solid. The intermolecular hydrogen bond is modeled by an electrostatic interaction between neighboring excess charges on hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The intramolecular interaction in the peptide group is provided by a dipole-charge interaction. Forces are calculated up to second-order terms in the atomic displacements from equilibrium positions; the model is thus a chain of nonlinear coupled oscillators. Numerical molecular-dynamics experiments are performed on chain segments of five molecules. The dynamics is ordered, at all temperatures. Energy is widely exchanged between the stretching and the bending of the N-H bond, with characteristic times of the order of 0.2 ps. Energy transduction through the H bond is somewhat slower and of smaller amplitude, and is strongly reduced when the energies of the two bound molecules are very different: This could reduce the dissipation of localized energy fluctuations.

  4. The Whole-Faculty Study Groups Fieldbook: Lessons Learned and Best Practices From Classrooms, Districts, and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lick, Dale W.; Murphy, Carlene U.

    2006-01-01

    The Whole-Faculty Study Group (WFSG) System is a student-centered, teacher-driven process for facilitating major staff development and schoolwide change. When applied properly, it has produced extraordinary results for thousands of educators and students in schools and school districts across the country. The Whole-Faculty Study Groups Fieldbook…

  5. Comparability and representativeness of control groups in a case-control study of infant leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Puumala, Susan E; Spector, Logan G; Robison, Leslie L; Bunin, Greta R; Olshan, Andrew F; Linabery, Amy M; Roesler, Michelle A; Blair, Cindy K; Ross, Julie A

    2009-08-01

    Traditionally, controls in US pediatric cancer studies were selected through random digit dialing. With declining participation and lack of nonparticipant information, random digit dialing (RDD) controls may be substandard. Birth certificate (BC) controls are an alternative, because they are population based and include data from nonparticipants. The authors examined controls collected by random digit dialing and birth certificates for a Children's Oncology Group case-control study of infant leukemia in 1995-2006. Demographic variables were used to assess differences in RDD and BC controls and their representativeness. RDD and BC controls did not differ significantly with regard to maternal variables (age, race, education, marital status, alcohol during pregnancy) or child variables (sex, gestational age, birth weight), but they varied in smoking during pregnancy (22% RDD controls, 12% BC controls) (P = 0.05). The study's combined control group differed significantly from US births: Mothers of controls were more likely to be older (29.8 vs. 27.2 years), white (84% vs. 59%), and married (85% vs. 67%) and to have >16 years of education (37% vs. 25%). Control children were more often full term (88% vs. 81%) and heavier (3,436 vs. 3,317 g). Finally, participating BC mothers were likely to be older and to have more education than nonparticipants. Thus, the study's control groups were comparable but differed from the population of interest.

  6. Conformational study of the binding of a high mobility group protein with chromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Sasi, R.; Huvoes, P.E.; Fasman, G.D.

    1982-10-10

    The nature of the binding of a high mobility group protein (HMG 17) to native and H1-H5-depleted chicken erythrocyte chromatin was studied, as a function of ionic strength, using circular dichroism and thermal denaturation techniques. The circular dichroism properties of the HMG 17-reconstituted whole chromatin and H1-H5-depleted chromatin structure occurred upon HMG 17 binding at low ionic strength. Thermal denaturation profiles confirmed this change in the structure of chromatin induced by HMG 17. Thermal denaturation profiles were resolved into three-component transitions. These results indicate that the binding sites of HMG 17 are situated in the linker regions immediately adjacent to the core. The nature of the interaction of HMG 17 at higher ionic strength with whole chromatin and H1-H5-depleted chromatin was found to be different. These observations suggest that HMG 17 does not loosen chromatin structure but produces an overall stabilization and condensation of structure. The implications of these results to the currently accepted models of transcriptionally active chromatin are discussed.

  7. [Comparison of the Results of Satellite Studies of "Mars-500" Experiment Participans in Syktyvkar and Almaty].

    PubMed

    Solonin, Iu G; Markov, A L; Bojko, E R; Akanov, A A; Yeshmanova, A K

    2015-01-01

    Participants of "Mars-500" experiment living in Syktyvkar (northerners) and Almaty (southerners) were studied throughout the year in various seasons. Latitude-caused differences of vegetative index values (RMSSD and pNN50) between groups were found in summer. Northerners were found to have significant seasonal shifts in thermoregulation parameters and RMSSD and pNN50 values. Southerners showed no seasonal changes in abovementioned indices. Participants from both groups were shown to have deviations of several physiological parameters from moderate latitude norms. Many participants from both groups demonstrated stress in adaptation mechanisms. Orthostatic tests performed in both groups revealed deficiencies in regulation of blood circulation.

  8. THE ZURICH ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY OF GALAXIES IN GROUPS ALONG THE COSMIC WEB. I. WHICH ENVIRONMENT AFFECTS GALAXY EVOLUTION?

    SciTech Connect

    Carollo, C. Marcella; Cibinel, Anna; Lilly, Simon J.; Miniati, Francesco; Cameron, Ewan; Peng, Yingjie; Pipino, Antonio; Rudick, Craig S.; Norberg, Peder; Silverman, John D.; Van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Finoguenov, Alexis

    2013-10-20

    The Zurich Environmental Study (ZENS) is based on a sample of ∼1500 galaxy members of 141 groups in the mass range ∼10{sup 12.5-14.5} M{sub ☉} within the narrow redshift range 0.05 < z < 0.0585. ZENS adopts novel approaches, described here, to quantify four different galactic environments, namely: (1) the mass of the host group halo; (2) the projected halo-centric distance; (3) the rank of galaxies as central or satellites within their group halos; and (4) the filamentary large-scale structure density. No self-consistent identification of a central galaxy is found in ∼40% of <10{sup 13.5} M{sub ☉} groups, from which we estimate that ∼15% of groups at these masses are dynamically unrelaxed systems. Central galaxies in relaxed and unrelaxed groups generally have similar properties, suggesting that centrals are regulated by their mass and not by their environment. Centrals in relaxed groups have, however, ∼30% larger sizes than in unrelaxed groups, possibly due to accretion of small satellites in virialized group halos. At M > 10{sup 10} M{sub ☉}, satellite galaxies in relaxed and unrelaxed groups have similar size, color, and (specific) star formation rate distributions; at lower galaxy masses, satellites are marginally redder in relaxed relative to unrelaxed groups, suggesting quenching of star formation in low-mass satellites by physical processes active in relaxed halos. Overall, relaxed and unrelaxed groups show similar stellar mass populations, likely indicating similar stellar mass conversion efficiencies. In the enclosed ZENS catalog, we publish all environmental diagnostics as well as the galaxy structural and photometric measurements described in companion ZENS papers II and III.

  9. Function of the triceps surae muscle group in low and high arched feet: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Branthwaite, Helen; Pandyan, Anand; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2012-06-01

    The Achilles tendon has been shown to be comprised of segmental components of tendon arising from the tricpes surae muscle group. Motion of the foot joints in low and high arched feet may induce a change in behaviour of the triceps surae muscle group due to altered strain on the tendon. Surface electromyogram of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius and the soleus muscle from 12 subjects (with 6 low arched and 6 high arched feet) (1:1) was recorded whilst walking at a self selected speed along a 10m walkway. The results showed a high variability in muscle activity between groups with patterns emerging within groups. Soleus was more active in 50% of the low arch feet at forefoot loading and there was a crescendo of activity towards heel lift in 58% of all subjects. This observed variability between groups and foot types emphasises the need for further work on individual anatomical variation and foot function to help in the understanding and management of Achilles tendon pathologies and triceps surae dysfunction.

  10. Incidence of psychotic illness in London: comparison of ethnic groups.

    PubMed Central

    King, M.; Coker, E.; Leavey, G.; Hoare, A.; Johnson-Sabine, E.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare annual incidences of psychosis in people from different ethnic groups as defined in the 1991 census. SETTING--Catchment area of district psychiatric hospital. DESIGN--All people aged 16 to 54 years who made contact with a wide range of community and hospital services between 1 July 1991 and 30 June 1992 were screened for psychotic symptoms. Patients with such symptoms were interviewed face to face to collect information on demography, ethnic group, psychiatric history and symptoms, drug use, and how care had been sought. A key informant, usually a close relative, was also interviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Age standardised incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis according to the ninth edition of the International Classification of Diseases in each ethnic group. RESULTS--Ninety three patients took part, of whom 38 were assigned a certain or very likely diagnosis of schizophrenia (15 in white population, 14 in black, seven in Asian, and two in others). The age standardised annual incidence of schizophrenia was 2.2 (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 2.9) per 10,000 of the population. The incidence ratio for schizophrenia in all ethnic minority groups compared with the white population was 3.6 (1.9 to 7.1); the corresponding figure for non-affective psychosis was 3.7 (2.2 to 6.2). CONCLUSIONS--Raised incidences of schizophrenia were not specific to the African Caribbeans, which suggests that the current focus on schizophrenia in this population is misleading. Members of all ethnic minority groups were more likely to develop a psychosis but not necessarily schizophrenia. The personal and social pressures of belonging to any ethnic minority group in Britain are important determinants in the excess of psychotic disorders found. PMID:7755702

  11. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: II. Exposure Monitoring Surveys and Development of Exposure Groups

    PubMed Central

    Coble, Joseph B.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Vermeulen, Roel; Yereb, Daniel; Stanevich, Rebecca; Blair, Aaron; Silverman, Debra T.; Attfield, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Air monitoring surveys were conducted between 1998 and 2001 at seven non-metal mining facilities to assess exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), for an epidemiologic study of miners exposed to DE. Personal exposure measurements were taken on workers in a cross-section of jobs located underground and on the surface. Air samples taken to measure REC were also analyzed for respirable organic carbon (ROC). Concurrent measurements to assess exposure to nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), two gaseous components of DE, were also taken. The REC measurements were used to develop quantitative estimates of average exposure levels by facility, department, and job title for the epidemiologic analysis. Each underground job was assigned to one of three sets of exposure groups from specific to general: (i) standardized job titles, (ii) groups of standardized job titles combined based on the percentage of time in the major underground areas, and (iii) larger groups based on similar area carbon monoxide (CO) air concentrations. Surface jobs were categorized based on their use of diesel equipment and proximity to DE. A total of 779 full-shift personal measurements were taken underground. The average REC exposure levels for underground jobs with five or more measurements ranged from 31 to 58 μg m−3 at the facility with the lowest average exposure levels and from 313 to 488 μg m−3 at the facility with the highest average exposure levels. The average REC exposure levels for surface workers ranged from 2 to 6 μg m−3 across the seven facilities. There was much less contrast in the ROC compared with REC exposure levels measured between surface and underground workers within each facility, as well as across the facilities. The average ROC levels underground ranged from 64 to 195 μg m−3, while on the surface, the average ROC levels ranged from 38 to 71 μg m−3 by facility, an ∼2- to 3-fold difference. The average NO and

  12. Long-term results in the treatment of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia: a Pediatric Oncology Group Study.

    PubMed

    Krischer, J P; Steuber, C P; Vietti, T J; Culbert, S J; Ragab, A H; Morgan, S K; Berry, D H; Hvizdala, E; Thomas, P J; Land, V J

    1989-01-01

    Complete remission (CR), 5-year remission duration (RD), and overall 5-year survival rates are 74%, 28% and 25%, respectively, for previously untreated children with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia diagnosed between 1977 and 1981, following induction therapy with vincristine, doxorubicin and prednisone (VAP), consolidation therapy with 6-thioguanine, cytosine arabinoside (TA) and cyclophosphamide/vincristine/cytosine arabinoside/prednisone (COAP), and maintenance therapy of alternating TA and COAP with or without VAP pulses. Approximately 20% are free of their disease for more than 5 years. High white blood cell counts (WBC) at diagnosis and M3 and M6 morphology were associated with lower CR rates, while M5 morphology was associated with higher CR rates. Patients with M1 morphology had shorter remission duration as compared to those with M4 or M5 morphology. Low WBC and age between 2 and 10 years at diagnosis were associated with longer remission durations and survival. Patients with M4 morphology also survived longer. The observed CR rates are comparable to other studies initiated at the same time as this study but survival is less than those reported more recently. Low WBC at diagnosis and M4/M5 morphology may identify relatively favorable prognostic groups.

  13. A Grid/Group Study of Gender Perceptions of the Culture of the Oklahoma Civil Air Patrol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardlaw, Kelly Ann

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe member perceptions of the culture of the Oklahoma CAP using an online version of the Douglas Grid/Group typology. This study further described and compared differences in how men and women in the organization view its culture. All senior members of the Oklahoma CAP with a valid email address on file…

  14. Factors associated with psychological distress in the Canadian population: a comparison of low-income and non low-income sub-groups.

    PubMed

    Caron, Jean; Liu, Aihua

    2011-06-01

    This study presents a comparison of the level of psychological distress between low-income and non low-income populations in Canada. It describes the factors associate with distress identified for each population and presents the differences found with the models used in predicting distress. Data were collected through the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 including 36,984 individuals aged 15 or over. Of this sample, 17.9% (N = 7,940) was identified as being within the low-income population. In the low-income population, the percentage of high psychological distress was as high as 28%, compared to 19% in the non low-income population. Variables related to social support, stress and coping abilities were the stronger sets of variables related to distress in both populations. The results provided evidence that although economically disadvantaged and more affluent populations share many variables associated with psychological distress, they have a different profile on the correlates of psychological distress.

  15. On responder analyses in the framework of within subject comparisons - considerations and two case studies.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Michael

    2014-07-30

    A responder analysis is a common tool when clinical data are reported. In this paper, we extend the definition of responders to within subject comparisons and present a rigorous definition of the corresponding statistical functional. Via simulation studies, we get further insights under which conditions these analyses can even result in a higher power compared with an analysis based on the arithmetic mean. We report two case studies where these analyses contributed to a better understanding of the clinical data especially as some large observations were present that had a notable impact on the observed standard deviation.

  16. A Report on an Evaluation Study of the Group Dynamics Traffic Safety School, State of Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Robert D.; And Others

    The evaluation of the effectiveness of the classes for persons convicted of driving while intoxicated was based largely on analyses of verbal behaviors of participants and instructors, using the psychosocial theories of Erik Erikson. The established goals of the course emphasize that the information must be dealt with in a group situation where…

  17. Comparison of the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Text Previewing and Preteaching Keywords as Small-Group Reading Comprehension Strategies with Middle-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Matthew K.; Hodgson, Jennifer; Parker, David C.; Fremont, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Reading instruction for middle- and high-school students is focused on vocabulary and comprehension, yet research suggests that comprehension skills among these students are alarmingly low. Small-group reading interventions are becoming more prevalent in schools, but there are few studies regarding small-group reading comprehension interventions.…

  18. Central review of cytogenetics is necessary for cooperative group correlative and clinical studies of adult acute leukemia: The Cancer and Leukemia Group B experience

    PubMed Central

    Mrózek, Krzysztof; Carroll, Andrew J.; Maharry, Kati; Rao, Kathleen W.; Patil, Shivanand R.; Pettenati, Mark J.; Watson, Michael S.; Arthur, Diane C.; Tantravahi, Ramana; Heerema, Nyla A.; Koduru, Prasad R. K.; Block, AnneMarie W.; Qumsiyeh, Mazin B.; Edwards, Colin G.; Sterling, Lisa J.; Holland, Kelsi B.; Bloomfield, Clara D.

    2009-01-01

    The Cancer and Leukemia Group B has performed central review of karyotypes submitted by institutional cytogenetics laboratories from patients with acute myeloid (AML) and acute lymphoblastic (ALL) leukemia since 1986. We assessed the role of central karyotype review in maintaining accurate, high quality cytogenetic data for clinical and translational studies using two criteria: the proportion of karyotypes rejected (i.e. inadequate), and, among accepted (i.e. adequate) cases, the proportion of karyotypes whose interpretation was changed on central karyotype review. We compared the first four years during which central karyotype review was performed with a recent four-year period and found that the proportion of rejected samples decreased significantly for both AML and ALL. However, during the latter period, central karyotype reviews still found 8% of AML and 16% of ALL karyotypes inadequate. Among adequate cases, the karyotype was revised in 26% of both AML and ALL samples. Some revisions resulted in changing the patients’ assignment to particular World Health Organization diagnostic categories and/or moving patients from one prognostic group to another. Overall, when both data on rejection rates and data on karyotype revisions made in accepted cases were considered together, 32% of AML and 38% of ALL samples submitted were either rejected or revised on central karyotype review during the recent 4-year period. These data underscore the necessity of continued central karyotype review in multi-institutional cooperative group studies. PMID:18636143

  19. Report of the Expert Group Meeting on Population Projections. Asian Population Studies Series No. 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).

    A group of experts on population projections was convened in Thailand in late 1975. It was organized by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. This report is the result of background papers used at the conference, reactions to the papers, and further writing. Chapter headings are: (1) Introduction; (2) The Role…

  20. Empirical study of the group delay dispersion achievable with multilayer mirrors.

    PubMed

    Pervak, V; Fedorov, V; Pervak, Yu A; Trubetskov, M

    2013-07-29

    With the help of the most advanced algorithms we obtained many dozens of multilayer dispersive mirror designs to empirically find limits for the maximum achievable negative value of the group delay dispersion (GDD). This value depends on the total thickness of coatings and layer material combination. Nb(2)O(5)/SiO(2) and Ta(2)O(50/SiO(2) combinations are studied in detail, for combinations HfO(2)/SiO(2) and TiO(2)/SiO(2) we obtained estimations for two bandwidths. We also show that reasonable values of third-order dispersion have no significant impact on the obtained results. Current state-of-the-art technology allows to produce designs with total physical thicknesses slightly higher than 10 µm and to achieve maximum negative GDD values corresponding to this total design thickness. Designs with total physical thickness of 15 µm and 20 µm are not realized yet due to high sensitivity to deposition errors.

  1. Comparison of albumin and cabergoline in the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: A clinical trial study

    PubMed Central

    Torabizadeh, Aalie; Vahidroodsari, Fatemeh; Ghorbanpour, Zakieh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is the most serious and potentially life-threatening iatrogenic complication associated with ovarian stimulation during Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) protocols. OHSS typically is a result of ovarian expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) which increases vascular permeability. Objective: Comparison of albumin and cabergoline in the prevention of OHSS. Materials and Methods: 95 high risk infertile women for OHSS (more than 20 follicles in both ovaries at day of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) injection) were randomly divided into two groups. First group including 48 women received 10 unit intravenous albumin at starting oocyte retrieval, and second group including 47 women received 0.5 mg/day dopamine agonist (Cabergolin) at day of HCG injection till 8 days. The dosage of human Menopausal Gonadotropin (HMG) used, total number of follicles developed, number of oocytes retrieved, serum E2 concentrations during the luteal phase, development of ascites, number of embryos generated, clinical pregnancy rate, results of the in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles and incidence and severity of any OHSS were evaluated. Results: There was evidence of a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of OHSS in the cabergolin group (53.7%) versus albumin group (46.3%) (p=0.04). But there was no significant difference of a reduction in severe OHSS (p=0.62). There was no difference in clinical pregnancy rate too. Conclusion: Administration of cabergolin can prevent incidence of OHSS and does not appear to effect on its severity. Registration ID in IRCT: IRCT138706281217N4 PMID:24639705

  2. The Relationship between School Principals' Leadership Behaviors and the Development of Professional Learning Communities in Schools with Teacher Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorter, Casey D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the strength and the direction of the relationship between principals' leadership behaviors and the development of professional learning communities, specifically teacher study groups. In effect, I sought to uncover principal leadership behaviors that positively affect the development of professional learning communities (PLC)…

  3. A Comparison of Family Environment Characteristics among White (Non-Hispanic), Hispanic, and African Caribbean Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachern, Adriana G.; Kenny, Maureen C.

    2002-01-01

    To investigate differences in the family environments of different cultural groups, the Family Environment Scale and a clinical interview were administered to 153 college students from White (non-Hispanic), Hispanic, and African Caribbean backgrounds. A multivariate analysis of covariance and post hoc comparisons revealed significant differences…

  4. COMPARISON OF OUTCOMES BETWEEN BLOOD GROUP O AND NON-GROUP O PREMATURE NEONATES RECEIVING RED CELL TRANSFUSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Boral, Leonard I.; Staubach, Zane G.; de Leeuw, Reny; MacIvor, Duncan C.; Kryscio, Richard; Bada, Henrietta S.

    2015-01-01

    Background At some institutions all babies requiring red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) receive group O RBCs. Although tran