Science.gov

Sample records for group comparison studies the

  1. The efficacy of a population-based comparison group in cross-sectional occupational health studies.

    PubMed

    Schulte, P A; Singal, M; Stringer, W T; Kominsky, J R; Landrigan, P J

    1982-12-01

    The availability and the choice of appropriate comparison groups are essential for valid occupational epidemiologic studies. Too often, however, adequate comparison groups cannot easily be found within a workplace environment or extracted from the general population. An evaluation of the efficacy of using a pool of comparison subjects from the health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES) was performed on data gathered by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1979. Comparison groups from the HANES pool were derived for 246 workers at four different commercial/industrial facilities in the Niagara Falls, New York, area and the comparability between the groups was assessed for several demographic, behavioural, and biomedical variables. The HANES groups exhibited a high degree of comparability with regard to most variables, excluding ancestry. The HANES pool may serve as a useful source of subjects to allow for the comparison of disease rates where occupational exposure is the key distinguishing feature between groups.

  2. The comparison of outcomes of surgically treated bilateral temporomandibular joint disorder in different groups: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Pernu, Hannu; Oikarinen, Kyosti; Raustia, Aune

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to determine the prognosis and outcomes of the patients with bilateral temporomandibular disorder which underwent bilateral temporomandibular joint surgery in a consecutive number of patients in a retrospective study. Study Design: Sixty five patients with 130 bilateral TMJ were included the study with the selection from consecutive 256 TMJ patients who were treated with open surgery who do not respond to conservative treatment. 65 patients were divided in to 3 main groups according to the clinical diagnosis of bilateral TMJ site. In the first group comprised 29 patients with 48 TMJ, the clinical diagnosis was bilaterally presence of anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDR). In the second group comprised 19 patients with 26 TMJ, bilateral presence of TMD consisted of anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDNR) on both site. In the third group comprised 27 patients with 46 TMJ, bilaterally presence of TMD consist of ADDR on one site and ADDNR on another site. The patients in three different groups were operated either high condylectomy alone or high condylectomy with additional surgical procedures. Results: In the evaluation of pain relief, clicking, crepitation, headache, marked improvement was determined in all groups, but it was statistically insignificant in the comparison of 3 groups. Slight increase in maximal mouth opening was determined in the mean values of the 3 groups and also in the comparison of 3 groups it was not statistically significant. Conclusions: These similar succesfull outcomes of bilateral TMD with the respect of TMJ surgical procedures were obtained in 3 main groups although different diagnosis on the patients’ groups waspresent. Key words:Temporomandibular joint, prognosis, retrospective studies. PMID:22926476

  3. A method to enhance the sensitivity of DTI analyses to group differences: a validation study with comparison to voxelwise analyses.

    PubMed

    Cykowski, Matthew D; Lancaster, Jack L; Fox, Peter T

    2011-09-30

    Studies of white matter (WM) abnormalities in psychiatric and neurological disorders often use the analysis package Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). However, with small samples and/or subtle effects, a study using the standard TBSS approach can be underpowered. For such cases, a new method is presented that summarizes global differences between TBSS-derived fractional anisotropy (FA) images with a single paired t-statistic, estimating the degrees of freedom using spatial autocorrelation. The sensitivity of the method is demonstrated by using well-known aging effects on FA as a proxy for disease effects. Sixty healthy subjects were divided equally into younger- (YA), middle- (MA), and older-aged (OA) groups and significant global differences were demonstrated in the YA versus OA (all N ≥ 4, FA difference≈0.023), MA versus OA (all N≥4, FA difference≈0.017), and YA versus MA (FA difference≈0.005 at N=20) comparisons. In contrast, no significant difference could be detected in the YA versus MA comparison using voxelwise TBSS analysis with the full sample (N=20 per group). This method should facilitate localizing analyses in the direction of a proven group difference while providing clinically relevant information about pathophysiologic processes globally affecting WM.

  4. The Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy: a preliminary psychometric study and group comparisons in Korean physicians.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dae Hun; Hong, Jong Soo; Lee, Dong Hun; Gonnella, Joseph S; Hojat, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    Empathy is an important element of professionalism in medicine. Thus, evaluation and enhancement empathy in physicians is important, regardless of geographical boundaries. This study was designed to evaluate the psychometrics of a Korean version of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) among Korean physicians. The Korean version of JSPE was completed by 229 physicians in Korea. Item-total score correlations were all positive and statistically significant. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was 0.84. The mean score was 98.2 (SD = 12.0), which was lower than that reported for American and Italian physicians. The emerged factor structure of the translated version was somewhat similar to that reported for American physicians, although the order was different. Significant differences in the mean empathy scores were observed between men and women and among physicians in different specialties. Our findings provide evidence in support of reliability and construct validity of the Korean version of JSPE for assessing empathy among Korean physicians. The disparity between Korean physicians and physicians from other countries may be explained by differences in the culture of medical education and medical practice. It suggests an exploration of cross-cultural differences in physician empathy.

  5. The inter-group comparison-intra-group cooperation hypothesis: comparisons between groups increase efficiency in public goods provision.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Robert; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Identifying methods to increase cooperation and efficiency in public goods provision is of vital interest for human societies. The methods that have been proposed often incur costs that (more than) destroy the efficiency gains through increased cooperation. It has for example been shown that inter-group conflict increases intra-group cooperation, however at the cost of collective efficiency. We propose a new method that makes use of the positive effects associated with inter-group competition but avoids the detrimental (cost) effects of a structural conflict. We show that the mere comparison to another structurally independent group increases both the level of intra-group cooperation and overall efficiency. The advantage of this new method is that it directly transfers the benefits from increased cooperation into increased efficiency. In repeated public goods provision we experimentally manipulated the participants' level of contribution feedback (intra-group only vs. both intra- and inter-group) as well as the provision environment (smaller groups with higher individual benefits from cooperation vs. larger groups with lower individual benefits from cooperation). Irrespective of the provision environment groups with an inter-group comparison opportunity exhibited a significantly stronger cooperation than groups without this opportunity. Participants conditionally cooperated within their group and additionally acted to advance their group to not fall behind the other group. The individual efforts to advance the own group cushion the downward trend in the above average contributors and thus render contributions on a higher level. We discuss areas of practical application.

  6. A double-masked comparison of Naprelan and nabumetone in osteoarthritis of the knee. Naprelan Study Group.

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, R M; Flint, K; Constantine, G; Kolecki, B

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of Naprelan (naproxen sodium) 1000 mg once daily (QD) and nabumetone 1500 mg QD were compared in a multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, double-masked, 4-week study of adult outpatients with active osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Nabumetone 1500 mg was chosen for comparison because it is commonly prescribed in a QD dosing regimen for OA. After a washout period free of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 279 patients were enrolled and assigned randomly to treatment with either Naprelan 1000 mg QD (n = 92), nabumetone 1500 mg QD (n = 93), or placebo (n = 94). All treatments were evaluated for efficacy and safety at baseline and at weeks 2 and 4 of the treatment period or at discontinuation. Demographic characteristics were comparable among all treatment groups. As might be expected in a study of OA of the knee, a majority of patients enrolled were women (68.8%), and many were obese (mean weight, 195.6 lb; mean height, 66 in). Significantly fewer patients (13) treated with Naprelan prematurely discontinued the study than did patients treated with placebo (27); there was a lower rate of discontinuation for insufficient therapeutic effect in the Naprelan group compared with the nabumetone and placebo groups. Using an intent-to-treat model, the overall distribution of scores in all three primary efficacy assessments (investigator's global assessment of OA, patient's global assessment of OA, and walking pain) at week 2 and at the last visit was significantly better for the Naprelan group compared with both the nabumetone and placebo groups. The mean improvement from baseline was also significant for Naprelan compared with the nabumetone and placebo groups for all three assessments at week 2 and for investigator's global assessment of OA and walking pain at the last visit. The nabumetone-treated group showed significant improvement over the placebo-treated group in only one primary assessment: mean change from baseline in

  7. Emphases of Parenting in the Light of Three Comparison Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laukkanen, Ella; Karppinen, Sanna; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2014-01-01

    Parenthood is a phenomenon that is not easy to research. This study analyzed the emphases of parenting in the light of three comparison groups. The research was grounded on Bradley's (2007) theory of six fundamental parenting tasks. This was a case study focusing in one second-grade classroom. The teacher, 18 parents, and 19 pupils were recruited…

  8. The Differences between Novice and Expert Group-Piano Teaching Strategies: A Case Study and Comparison of Beginning Group Piano Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Pamela D.

    2014-01-01

    This case study compares the teaching strategies employed by a novice and an expert instructor of two beginning children's group-piano classes. In the United States, there is a century-long tradition of teaching piano to children in groups, and group teaching is championed in pedagogy texts and at professional educator conferences throughout…

  9. Economic Evaluation of a Multifaceted Implementation Strategy for the Prevention of Hand Eczema Among Healthcare Workers in Comparison with a Control Group: The Hands4U Study.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Esther W C; van Dongen, Johanna M; Boot, Cécile R L; van der Gulden, Joost W J; Bosmans, Judith E; Anema, Johannes R

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy for the prevention of hand eczema in comparison with a control group among healthcare workers. A total of 48 departments (n=1,649) were randomly allocated to the implementation strategy or the control group. Data on hand eczema and costs were collected at baseline and every 3 months. Cost-effectiveness analyses were performed using linear multilevel analyses. The probability of the implementation strategy being cost-effective gradually increased with an increasing willingness-to-pay, to 0.84 at a ceiling ratio of €590,000 per person with hand eczema prevented (societal perspective). The implementation strategy appeared to be not cost-effective in comparison with the control group (societal perspective), nor was it cost-beneficial to the employer. However, this study had some methodological problems which should be taken into account when interpreting the results.

  10. What determines the outcomes for adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated on cooperative group protocols? A comparison of Children's Cancer Group and Cancer and Leukemia Group B studies.

    PubMed

    Stock, Wendy; La, Mei; Sanford, Ben; Bloomfield, Clara D; Vardiman, James W; Gaynon, Paul; Larson, Richard A; Nachman, James

    2008-09-01

    We performed a retrospective comparison of presenting features, planned treatment, complete remission (CR) rate, and outcome of 321 adolescents and young adults (AYAs) ages 16 to 20 years with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who were treated on consecutive trials in either the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) or the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) from 1988 to 2001. CR rates were identical, 90% for both CALGB and CCG AYAs. CCG AYAs had a 63% event-free survival (EFS) and 67% overall survival (OS) at 7 years in contrast to the CALGB AYAs, in which 7-year EFS was only 34% (P < .001; relative hazard rate [RHR] = 2.2) and OS was 46% (P < .001; RHR = 1.9). While CALGB AYAs aged 16 to 17 years achieved similar outcomes to all CCG AYAs with a 7-year EFS of 55%, the EFS for 18- to 20-year-old CALGB patients was only 29%. Comparison of the regimens showed that CCG AYAs received earlier and more intensive central nervous system prophylaxis and higher cumulative doses of nonmyelosuppressive agents. There were no differences in outcomes of those who reached maintenance therapy on time compared with those who were delayed. Based on these observations, a prospective study for AYAs with ALL using the more successful approach of the CCG has been initiated.

  11. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of 2% dorzolamide and 0.5% betaxolol in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure. Dorzolamide Comparison Study Group.

    PubMed

    Rusk, C; Sharpe, E; Laurence, J; Polis, A; Adamsons, I

    1998-01-01

    A multicenter, parallel-design, randomized, double-masked study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of 2% dorzolamide with those of 0.5% betaxolol in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure (i.o.p). A total of 311 adults with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma were randomly allocated to receive either 2% dorzolamide administered topically TID or 0.5% betaxolol administered topically BID plus placebo administered topically QD for 12 weeks. After the washout of previous ocular hypotensive drugs, patients with IOP > or = 23 mm Hg in at least one eye at 10 AM or 4 PM on study day 1 were randomly allocated to receive one of the study treatments. Throughout the study, IOP was measured 2 and 8 hours after instillation of study medication for the morning peak effect (hour 2) and afternoon trough effect (hour 8). After 12 weeks of therapy, the mean change in IOP was not significantly different between the dorzolamide and betaxolol treatment groups at hour 8 (-3.6 mm Hg in both groups) or hour 2 (-5.4 vs -5.3 mm Hg, respectively). The differences between treatments (and 95% CIs associated with these differences) in mean IOP changes from baseline were 0.02 mm Hg (-0.870 to 0.901) for hour 8 and -0.14 mm Hg (-0.959 to 0.685) for hour 2. The ocular adverse experience (AE) most frequently reported by patients was ocular burning and/or stinging, and the most frequently reported nonocular AEs were taste perversion, upper respiratory infection, and headache. Only the incidence of taste perversion was significantly different between treatment groups (14.6% for the dorzolamide group and 0.0% for the betaxolol group). Two percent of patients in each treatment group discontinued the study due to AEs. This study confirmed the similar IOP-lowering effect of 2% dorzolamide and 0.5% betaxolol. Both treatments were generally well tolerated, and their safety profiles were similar.

  12. Comparison of rabeprazole 20 mg vs. omeprazole 20 mg in the treatment of active gastric ulcer--a European multicentre study. The European Rabeprazole Study Group.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, C P; Beker, J A; Thjodleifsson, B; Gabryelewicz, A; Bell, N E; Humphries, T J

    1998-08-01

    Rabeprazole sodium is the newest member of a class of substituted benzimidazole molecules known as proton pump inhibitors. Other proton pump inhibitors have been shown to be effective in healing active, benign gastric ulcers. In this randomized, double-blind, multicentre study, conducted at 25 European sites, rabeprazole and omeprazole were compared in patients with active gastric ulcers. Two hundred and twenty-seven patients with active benign gastric ulcer were randomized to receive either rabeprazole 20 mg (n = 113) or omeprazole 20 mg (n = 114) once daily for 3 or 6 weeks, with healing monitored by endoscopy. After 3 weeks, complete healing (ITT analysis) was documented in 58% of patients given rabeprazole and 61% in patients given omeprazole (N.S.). After 6 weeks the healing rates were identical in both groups at 91%. Rabeprazole-treated patients had numerically greater symptom relief at all 12 points of comparison. The differences significantly favoured rabeprazole at week 3 for daytime pain improvement (P = 0.023) and at week 6 for pain frequency (P = 0.006) and complete resolution of night pain (P = 0.022). Both drugs were well-tolerated over the 6-week treatment course. Mean changes from baseline to end-point in fasting serum gastrin were comparable. No significant differences in laboratory parameters were seen. In this study, rabeprazole produced healing rates comparable to omeprazole at weeks 3 and 6, but provided more consistent and occasionally significantly superior symptom improvement. Both treatments were well-tolerated.

  13. Standardization and a multilaboratory comparison of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A and C serum bactericidal assays. The Multilaboratory Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Maslanka, S E; Gheesling, L L; Libutti, D E; Donaldson, K B; Harakeh, H S; Dykes, J K; Arhin, F F; Devi, S J; Frasch, C E; Huang, J C; Kriz-Kuzemenska, P; Lemmon, R D; Lorange, M; Peeters, C C; Quataert, S; Tai, J Y; Carlone, G M

    1997-01-01

    A standardized serum bactericidal assay (SBA) is required to evaluate the functional activity of antibody produced in response to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A and C vaccines. We evaluated assay parameters (assay buffer, target strains, growth of target cells, target cell number, complement source and concentration, and methods for growth of surviving bacteria) which may affect the reproducibility of SBA titers. The various assay parameters and specificity of anticapsular antibody to five serogroup A strains (A1, ATCC 13077, F8238, F9205, and F7485) and four serogroup C strains (C11, G7880, G8050, and 1002-90) were evaluated with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention meningococcal quality control sera. The critical assay parameters for the reproducible measurement of SBA titers were found to include the target strain, assay incubation time, and complement. The resulting standardized SBA was used by 10 laboratories to measure functional anticapsular antibody against serogroup A strains F8238 and serogroup C strain C11. In the multilaboratory study, SBA titers were measured in duplicate for 14 pairs of sera (seven adults and seven children) before and after immunization with a quadrivalent polysaccharide (A, C, Y, and W-135) vaccine. The standardized SBA was reliable in all laboratories regardless of experience in performing SBAs. For most sera, intralaboratory reproducibility was +/- 1 dilution; interlaboratory reproducibility was +/- 2 dilutions. The correlation between median titers (interlaboratory) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay total antibody concentrations was high for both serogroup A (r = 0.86; P < 0.001; slope = 0.5) and serogroup C (n = 0.86; P < 0.001; slope = 0.7). The specified assay, which includes the critical parameters of target strain, incubation time, and complement source, will facilitate interlaboratory comparisons of the functional antibody produced in response to current or developing serogroup A and C meningococcal vaccines

  14. Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Models: A Project of the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David O'C.; Benedetti, Angela; Boehm, Matt; Brown, Philip R. A.; Gierens, Klaus M.; Girard, Eric; Giraud, Vincent; Jakob, Christian; Jensen, Eric

    2000-01-01

    The GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS, GEWEX is the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) is a community activity aiming to promote development of improved cloud parameterizations for application in the large-scale general circulation models (GCMs) used for climate research and for numerical weather prediction. The GCSS strategy is founded upon the use of cloud-system models (CSMs). These are "process" models with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to represent individual cloud elements, but spanning a wide range of space and time scales to enable statistical analysis of simulated cloud systems. GCSS also employs single-column versions of the parametric cloud models (SCMs) used in GCMs. GCSS has working groups on boundary-layer clouds, cirrus clouds, extratropical layer cloud systems, precipitating deep convective cloud systems, and polar clouds.

  15. Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Models: A Project of the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David OC.; Benedetti, Angela; Boehm, Matt; Brown, Philip R. A.; Gierens, Klaus M.; Girard, Eric; Giraud, Vincent; Jakob, Christian; Jensen, Eric; Khvorostyanov, Vitaly; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS, GEWEX is the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) is a community activity aiming to promote development of improved cloud parameterizations for application in the large-scale general circulation models (GCMs) used for climate research and for numerical weather prediction (Browning et al, 1994). The GCSS strategy is founded upon the use of cloud-system models (CSMs). These are "process" models with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to represent individual cloud elements, but spanning a wide range of space and time scales to enable statistical analysis of simulated cloud systems. GCSS also employs single-column versions of the parametric cloud models (SCMs) used in GCMs. GCSS has working groups on boundary-layer clouds, cirrus clouds, extratropical layer cloud systems, precipitating deep convective cloud systems, and polar clouds.

  16. Results from IAG's Joint Study Group JSG0.3 on the Comparison of Current Methodologies in Regional Gravity Field Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael; Gerlach, Christian; Bentel, Katrin; Dettmering, Denise; Eicker, Annette; Herceg, Matija; Kusche, Jürgen; Lieb, Verena; Schall, Judith; Tscherning, Carl Christian

    2014-05-01

    For the period 2011-2015, the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) has established under the roof of its Inter-Commission Committee on Theory (ICCT) a Joint Study Group (JSG0.3) on the Comparison of Current Methodologies in Regional Gravity Field Modeling. The main objectives of JSG0.3 are (1) to collect information of available methodologies and strategies for regional modelling, (2) to analyze the collected information in order to find specific properties of the different approaches and to find, why certain strategies have been chosen, (3) to create a benchmark data set for comparative numerical studies, (4) to carry out numerical comparisons between different solution strategies for estimating the model parameters and to validate the results with other approaches, and (5) to quantify and interpret the differences of the comparisons with a focus on detection, explanation and treatment of inconsistencies and possible instabilities of the different approaches. Meanwhile the group has provided a set of synthetic gravity field observations representing data from terrestrial, airborne and satellite sensors. This benchmark data set is publicly available (http://jsg03.dgfi.badw.de) and free to all interested researchers to test and validate their modelling procedures. The aim of the present contribution is to analyze and compare results from different methodologies employing local basis functions of wavelet and spline type as well as reduced point mass modeling and the classical collocation approach following the above mentioned objectives of JSG0.3.

  17. Population studies in groups and clusters of galaxies. IV - Comparison of the luminosity functions and morphological-type distributions in seven nearby groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Henry C.; Sandage, Allan

    1991-01-01

    Published observational data on the Leo, Dorado, NGC 1400, NGC 5044, Antlia, Fornax, and Virgo groups of galaxies are analyzed in terms of the luminosity functions and morphological types of their members. The data sets employed are characterized, and the results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussed in detail. While the fractions of early and late galaxies in the groups are similar, the ratio of dwarfs to giants (D/G) in the early galaxies varies monotonically with the richness of the cluster, leading to artificial flattening at the faint end of the total luminosity function in environments with low D/G. The luminosity function for dwarfs in all environments is found to have a slope of about -1.3.

  18. Population studies in groups and clusters of galaxies. IV. Comparison of the luminosity functions and morphological-type distributions in seven nearby groups

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, H.C.; Sandage, A. Observatories of the Carnegie Institution, Pasadena, CA Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD )

    1991-03-01

    Published observational data on the Leo, Dorado, NGC 1400, NGC 5044, Antlia, Fornax, and Virgo groups of galaxies are analyzed in terms of the luminosity functions and morphological types of their members. The data sets employed are characterized, and the results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussed in detail. While the fractions of early and late galaxies in the groups are similar, the ratio of dwarfs to giants (D/G) in the early galaxies varies monotonically with the richness of the cluster, leading to artificial flattening at the faint end of the total luminosity function in environments with low D/G. The luminosity function for dwarfs in all environments is found to have a slope of about -1.3. 54 refs.

  19. Questionnaire Design in Broad-Based Evaluation Studies: Letting Someone Else Collect Comparison Group Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sheldon B.; Boser, Judith A.

    A context in which existing items may provide a convenient source of questions for questionnaires was explored through a case study making use of existing comparison groups. Two programs at Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), the Science and Engineering Research Semester (SERS) and the Laboratory Graduate Research Participation (Lab Grad)…

  20. An Analysis of the Utility of HEGIS Finance Data in Conducting Institutional and Higher Education Sector Comparisons: Proceedings of the Joint Study Group on the Utility of HEGIS Finance Data. (Washington, DC, May 22-23, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, James A.; And Others

    Proceedings of a study group that considered the utility of the Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS) finance data for institutional and higher educational sector comparisons are presented, as are issue papers and descriptive information. The study group of representatives from higher education institutions and organizations outlined…

  1. Comparison of single-dose oral grepafloxacin with cefixime for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea in men. The STD Study Group.

    PubMed

    Hook, E W; McCormack, W M; Martin, D; Jones, R B; Bean, K; Maroli, A N

    1997-08-01

    In a randomized open study, 351 male patients with uncomplicated gonorrhea were given single oral doses of grepafloxacin (400 mg) or cefixime (400 mg). In the 299 microbiologically evaluable patients, urethral infections were cured in 99% (147 of 149) of those receiving grepafloxacin and 97% (145 of 150) of those given cefixime. Eradication rates for both regimens were 100% in the 16% (47 of 299) of participants who were infected with penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae and 97% in the 21% (62 of 299) of participants infected with tetracycline-resistant strains. Grepafloxacin is a well-tolerated alternative to cefixime for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea in males.

  2. Comparison of single-dose oral grepafloxacin with cefixime for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea in men. The STD Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Hook, E W; McCormack, W M; Martin, D; Jones, R B; Bean, K; Maroli, A N

    1997-01-01

    In a randomized open study, 351 male patients with uncomplicated gonorrhea were given single oral doses of grepafloxacin (400 mg) or cefixime (400 mg). In the 299 microbiologically evaluable patients, urethral infections were cured in 99% (147 of 149) of those receiving grepafloxacin and 97% (145 of 150) of those given cefixime. Eradication rates for both regimens were 100% in the 16% (47 of 299) of participants who were infected with penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae and 97% in the 21% (62 of 299) of participants infected with tetracycline-resistant strains. Grepafloxacin is a well-tolerated alternative to cefixime for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea in males. PMID:9257777

  3. Long-term effects of political imprisonment: a group comparison study.

    PubMed

    Maercker, A; Schützwohl, M

    1997-11-01

    The study investigated the long-term effects of political imprisonment in the former German Democratic Republic. A group of non-treatment-seeking former political prisoners (n = 146) was compared with an age- and sex-matched group (n = 75). Assessments included the structured Diagnostic Interview for Psychiatric Disorders (German abbreviation: DIPS) for DSM-III-R/-IV diagnoses, a checklist of persecution and maltreatment, and other self-rated measures of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression, and dissociation. PTSD was assessed by the DIPS as current and lifetime diagnoses. Former political prisoners were imprisoned for 38 months on average. The former prisoners had a lower educational and lifetime occupational level than the comparison group. Results regarding diagnoses show a frequency of 30% current and 60% lifetime PTSD in the former prisoners group. Other anxiety disorders (e.g., claustrophobia, social phobia) outnumbered comorbid affective disorders. The level of dissociation was elevated in the former prisoners group. Intrusive recollections and hyperarousal were more common than avoidance/numbing symptoms. Despite differences in imprisonment duration between three historically defined eras of persecution, no differences appeared in the level of symptomatology. The results suggest that political imprisonment in the former German Democratic Republic had long-term psychological effects. Compared with an age- and sex-matched comparison group, the former political prisoners showed higher levels not only of post-traumatic symptomatology but also of other anxiety disorders and dissociation.

  4. The Iraq Study Group Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    resources in trying to understand the people who fabricate , plant, and explode those devices. 62 We were told that there are fewer than 10 analysts on...Eldredge, Hersh and Jardine , and also a consultant in the Washington, D.C., government relations firm The Tongour, Simpson, Holsclaw Group. He

  5. Group membership and everyday social comparison experiences

    PubMed Central

    SMITH, HEATHER J.; LEACH, COLIN W.

    2006-01-01

    In two everyday experience studies, we examined the degree to which everyday social comparisons are framed by group membership. In the first study, 30 undergraduates attending a public university in the United States completed short questionnaires about their social comparison experiences whenever they were signalled. In the second study, 34 ethnic minority undergraduates from the same university completed similar questionnaires about their social comparison experiences. Across both studies, comparisons in which participants viewed themselves as an ingroup member in comparison to an outgroup comprised less than 10% of the comparison experiences reported by participants. However, minorities in the second study who reported closer identification with their ethnic group reported more comparison experiences in which they mentioned their own or the comparison target's ethnicity. PMID:16691290

  6. The Influence of Social Comparison and Peer Group Size on Risky Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dawei; Zhu, Liping; Maguire, Phil; Liu, Yixin; Pang, Kaiyuan; Li, Zhenying; Hu, Yixin

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the influence of different social reference points and different comparison group sizes on risky decision-making. Participants were presented with a scenario describing an exam, and presented with the opportunity of making a risky decision in the context of different information provided about the performance of their peers. We found that behavior was influenced, not only by comparison with peers, but also by the size of the comparison group. Specifically, the larger the reference group, the more polarized the behavior it prompted. In situations describing social loss, participants were led to make riskier decisions after comparing themselves against larger groups, while in situations describing social gain, they become more risk averse. These results indicate that decision making is influenced both by social comparison and the number of people making up the social reference group.

  7. The Influence of Social Comparison and Peer Group Size on Risky Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dawei; Zhu, Liping; Maguire, Phil; Liu, Yixin; Pang, Kaiyuan; Li, Zhenying; Hu, Yixin

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the influence of different social reference points and different comparison group sizes on risky decision-making. Participants were presented with a scenario describing an exam, and presented with the opportunity of making a risky decision in the context of different information provided about the performance of their peers. We found that behavior was influenced, not only by comparison with peers, but also by the size of the comparison group. Specifically, the larger the reference group, the more polarized the behavior it prompted. In situations describing social loss, participants were led to make riskier decisions after comparing themselves against larger groups, while in situations describing social gain, they become more risk averse. These results indicate that decision making is influenced both by social comparison and the number of people making up the social reference group. PMID:27582723

  8. What's wrong with cross-cultural comparisons of subjective Likert scales?: The reference-group effect.

    PubMed

    Heine, Steven J; Lehman, Darrin R; Peng, Kaiping; Greenholtz, Joe

    2002-06-01

    Social comparison theory maintains that people think about themselves compared with similar others. Those in one culture, then, compare themselves with different others and standards than do those in another culture, thus potentially confounding cross-cultural comparisons. A pilot study and Study 1 demonstrated the problematic nature of this reference-group effect: Whereas cultural experts agreed that East Asians are more collectivistic than North Americans, cross-cultural comparisons of trait and attitude measures failed to reveal such a pattern. Study 2 found that manipulating reference groups enhanced the expected cultural differences, and Study 3 revealed that people from different cultural backgrounds within the same country exhibited larger differences than did people from different countries. Cross-cultural comparisons using subjective Likert scales are compromised because of different reference groups. Possible solutions are discussed.

  9. Comparison Groups in Yoga Research: A Systematic Review and Critical Evaluation of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Groessl, Erik; Maiya, Meghan; Sarkin, Andrew; Eisen, Susan V.; Riley, Kristen; Elwy, A. Rani

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Comparison groups are essential for accurate testing and interpretation of yoga intervention trials. However, selecting proper comparison groups is difficult because yoga comprises a very heterogeneous set of practices and its mechanisms of effect have not been conclusively established. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the control and comparison groups used in published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of yoga. Results We located 128 RCTs that met our inclusion criteria; of these, 65 included only a passive control and 63 included at least one active comparison group. Primary comparison groups were physical exercise (43%), relaxation/meditation (20%), and education (16%). Studies rarely provided a strong rationale for choice of comparison. Considering year of publication, the use of active controls in yoga research appears to be slowly increasing over time. Conclusions Given that yoga has been established as a potentially powerful intervention, future research should use active control groups. Further, care is needed to select comparison conditions that help to isolate the specific mechanisms of yoga’s effects. PMID:25440384

  10. An Empirical Comparison of Joint and Stratified Frameworks for Studying G × E Interactions: Systolic Blood Pressure and Smoking in the CHARGE Gene-Lifestyle Interactions Working Group.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yun Ju; Winkler, Thomas W; Manning, Alisa K; Aschard, Hugues; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B; Smith, Albert V; Boerwinkle, Eric; Brown, Michael R; Morrison, Alanna C; Fornage, Myriam; Lin, Li-An; Richard, Melissa; Bartz, Traci M; Psaty, Bruce M; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Marten, Jonathan; Rudan, Igor; Feitosa, Mary F; Kraja, Aldi T; Province, Michael A; Deng, Xuan; Fisher, Virginia A; Zhou, Yanhua; Bielak, Lawrence F; Smith, Jennifer; Huffman, Jennifer E; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Smith, Blair H; Ding, Jingzhong; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Bouchard, Claude; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rice, Treva K; Arnett, Donna; Schwander, Karen; Guo, Xiuqing; Palmas, Walter; Rotter, Jerome I; Alfred, Tamuno; Bottinger, Erwin P; Loos, Ruth J F; Amin, Najaf; Franco, Oscar H; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vojinovic, Dina; Chasman, Daniel I; Ridker, Paul M; Rose, Lynda M; Kardia, Sharon; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Rice, Kenneth; Borecki, Ingrid B; Rao, Dabeeru C; Gauderman, W James; Cupples, L Adrienne

    2016-07-01

    Studying gene-environment (G × E) interactions is important, as they extend our knowledge of the genetic architecture of complex traits and may help to identify novel variants not detected via analysis of main effects alone. The main statistical framework for studying G × E interactions uses a single regression model that includes both the genetic main and G × E interaction effects (the "joint" framework). The alternative "stratified" framework combines results from genetic main-effect analyses carried out separately within the exposed and unexposed groups. Although there have been several investigations using theory and simulation, an empirical comparison of the two frameworks is lacking. Here, we compare the two frameworks using results from genome-wide association studies of systolic blood pressure for 3.2 million low frequency and 6.5 million common variants across 20 cohorts of European ancestry, comprising 79,731 individuals. Our cohorts have sample sizes ranging from 456 to 22,983 and include both family-based and population-based samples. In cohort-specific analyses, the two frameworks provided similar inference for population-based cohorts. The agreement was reduced for family-based cohorts. In meta-analyses, agreement between the two frameworks was less than that observed in cohort-specific analyses, despite the increased sample size. In meta-analyses, agreement depended on (1) the minor allele frequency, (2) inclusion of family-based cohorts in meta-analysis, and (3) filtering scheme. The stratified framework appears to approximate the joint framework well only for common variants in population-based cohorts. We conclude that the joint framework is the preferred approach and should be used to control false positives when dealing with low-frequency variants and/or family-based cohorts. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  11. Target selection and comparison of mission design for space debris removal by DLR's advanced study group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Pas, Niels; Lousada, Joao; Terhes, Claudia; Bernabeu, Marc; Bauer, Waldemar

    2014-09-01

    Space debris is a growing problem. Models show that the Kessler syndrome, the exponential growth of debris due to collisions, has become unavoidable unless an active debris removal program is initiated. The debris population in LEO with inclination between 60° and 95° is considered as the most critical zone. In order to stabilize the debris population in orbit, especially in LEO, 5 to 10 objects will need to be removed every year. The unique circumstances of such a mission could require that several objects are removed with a single launch. This will require a mission to rendezvous with a multitude of objects orbiting on different altitudes, inclinations and planes. Removal models have assumed that the top priority targets will be removed first. However this will lead to a suboptimal mission design and increase the ΔV-budget. Since there is a multitude of targets to choose from, the targets can be selected for an optimal mission design. In order to select a group of targets for a removal mission the orbital parameters and political constraints should also be taken into account. Within this paper a number of the target selection criteria are presented. The possible mission targets and their order of retrieval is dependent on the mission architecture. A comparison between several global mission architectures is given. Under consideration are 3 global missions of which a number of parameters are varied. The first mission launches multiple separate deorbit kits. The second launches a mother craft with deorbit kits. The third launches an orbital tug which pulls the debris in a lower orbit, after which a deorbit kit performs the final deorbit burn. A RoM mass and cost comparison is presented. The research described in this paper has been conducted as part of an active debris removal study by the Advanced Study Group (ASG). The ASG is an interdisciplinary student group working at the DLR, analyzing existing technologies and developing new ideas into preliminary

  12. An Empirical Comparison of Joint and Stratified Frameworks for Studying GxE Interactions: Systolic Blood Pressure and Smoking in the CHARGE Gene-Lifestyle Interactions Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yun Ju; Winkler, Thomas W.; Manning, Alisa K.; Aschard, Hugues; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B.; Smith, Albert V.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Brown, Michael R.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Fornage, Myriam; Lin, Li-An; Richard, Melissa; Bartz, Traci M.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Marten, Jonathan; Rudan, Igor; Feitosa, Mary F.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Province, Michael A.; Deng, Xuan; Fisher, Virginia A; Zhou, Yanhua; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Smith, Jennifer; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Smith, Blair H.; Ding, Jingzhong; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Bouchard, Claude; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rice, Treva K.; Arnett, Donna; Schwander, Karen; Guo, Xiuqing; Palmas, Walter; Rotter, Jerome I.; Alfred, Tamuno; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Amin, Najaf; Franco, Oscar H.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vojinovic, Dina; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Kardia, Sharon; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Rice, Kenneth; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Gauderman, W. James; Cupples, L. Adrienne

    2016-01-01

    Studying gene-environment (GxE) interactions is important, as they extend our knowledge of the genetic architecture of complex traits and may help to identify novel variants not detected via analysis of main-effects alone. The main statistical framework for studying GxE interactions uses a single regression model that includes both the genetic main and GxE interaction effects (the ‘joint’ framework). The alternative ‘stratified’ framework combines results from genetic main-effect analyses carried out separately within the exposed and unexposed groups. Although there have been several investigations using theory and simulation, an empirical comparison of the two frameworks is lacking. Here, we compare the two frameworks using results from GWAS of systolic blood pressure for 3.2 million low frequency and 6.5 million common variants across 20 cohorts of European ancestry, comprising 79,731 individuals. Our cohorts have sample sizes ranging from 456 to 22,983 and include both family-based and population-based samples. In cohort-specific analyses, the two frameworks provided similar inference for population-based cohorts. The agreement was reduced for family-based cohorts. In meta-analyses, agreement between the two frameworks was less than that observed in cohort-specific analyses, despite the increased sample size. In meta-analyses, agreement depended on 1) the minor allele frequency, 2) inclusion of family-based cohorts in meta-analysis, and 3) filtering scheme. The stratified framework appears to approximate the joint framework well only for common variants in population-based cohorts. We conclude that the joint framework is the preferred approach and should be used to control false positives when dealing with low frequency variants and/or family-based cohorts. PMID:27230302

  13. Beyond social and temporal comparisons: the role of temporal inter-group comparisons in the context of dramatic social change in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    de la Sablonnière, Roxane; Tougas, Francine; Perenlei, Onon

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that the target of comparison should be taken into consideration when evaluating the associated outcomes of negative comparisons in the context of dramatic social change. To achieve this general goal, we considered five distinct targets of comparison: social (my group versus another group), temporal (my group across time), and temporal inter-group (my group versus another group across time). We hypothesised that in times of constant social change, two points of anchors (social and temporal) are simultaneously needed to evaluate one's position. A total of 236 high school and university students from Mongolia participated in the study. We used hierarchical regression analysis to test our hypotheses. As predicted, we found that temporal inter-group comparisons are better predictor of collective esteem than their social and temporal counterparts. Moreover, the link from past and future temporal inter-group comparisons to collective esteem was negative as hypothesized. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical implications.

  14. Randomised, double blind, multicentre comparison of hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, nitrendipine, and enalapril in antihypertensive treatment: results of the HANE study. HANE Trial Research Group.

    PubMed Central

    Philipp, T.; Anlauf, M.; Distler, A.; Holzgreve, H.; Michaelis, J.; Wellek, S.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness and tolerability of hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, nitrendipine, and enalapril in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. DESIGN: Randomised multicentre trial over 48 weeks with double blind comparison of treatments. SETTING: 48 centres in four countries. PATIENTS: 868 patients with essential hypertension (diastolic blood pressure 95-120 mm Hg) INTERVENTIONS: Initial treatment (step 1) consisted of 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide (n = 215), 25 mg atenolol (n = 215), 10 mg nitrendipine (n = 218), or 5 mg enalapril (n = 220) once daily. If diastolic blood pressure was not reduced to < 90 mm Hg within four weeks, doses were increased to 25 mg, 50 mg, 20 mg, 10 mg, respectively, once daily (step 2) and after two more weeks to twice daily (step 3). The eight week titration phase was followed by an additional 40 weeks for patients who had reached the target diastolic pressure. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Blood pressure by means of an automatic device with repeated measurements. RESULTS: After eight weeks the response rate for atenolol (63.7%) was significantly higher than for enalapril (50.0%), hydrochlorothiazide (44.7%), or nitrendipine (44.5%). After one year atenolol was still more effective (48.0%) than hydrochlorothiazide (35.4%) and nitrendipine (32.9%), but not significantly better than enalapril (42.7%). The treatment related dropout rate was higher (P < 0.001) in the nitrendipine group (n = 28). CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence of superiority for antihypertensive effectiveness or tolerability of the "new" classes of antihypertensives (calcium channel blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors). As these drugs are now widely used as treatment of first choice, our results further emphasise the need for studies confirming that they also reduce morbidity and mortality, as has been shown for diuretics and beta blockers. PMID:9251545

  15. Differential Item Functioning Detection across Two Methods of Defining Group Comparisons: Pairwise and Composite Group Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Halil Ibrahim; Huggins, Anne Corinne

    2015-01-01

    This study compares two methods of defining groups for the detection of differential item functioning (DIF): (a) pairwise comparisons and (b) composite group comparisons. We aim to emphasize and empirically support the notion that the choice of pairwise versus composite group definitions in DIF is a reflection of how one defines fairness in DIF…

  16. Differential Item Functioning Detection across Two Methods of Defining Group Comparisons: Pairwise and Composite Group Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Halil Ibrahim; Huggins, Anne Corinne

    2015-01-01

    This study compares two methods of defining groups for the detection of differential item functioning (DIF): (a) pairwise comparisons and (b) composite group comparisons. We aim to emphasize and empirically support the notion that the choice of pairwise versus composite group definitions in DIF is a reflection of how one defines fairness in DIF…

  17. The development and description of the comparison group in the Look AHEAD trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite more lifestyle intervention trials, there is little published information on the development of the comparison group intervention. This article describes the comparison group intervention, termed Diabetes Support and Education Intervention and its development for the Action for HEAlth in Dia...

  18. Measuring the effectiveness of small-group and web-based training methods in teaching clinical communication: a case comparison study.

    PubMed

    Artemiou, Elpida; Adams, Cindy L; Vallevand, Andrea; Violato, Claudio; Hecker, Kent G

    2013-01-01

    Current teaching approaches in human and veterinary medicine across North America, Europe, and Australia include lectures, group discussions, feedback, role-play, and web-based training. Increasing class sizes, changing learning preferences, and economic and logistical challenges are influencing the design and delivery of communication skills in veterinary undergraduate education. The study's objectives were to (1) assess the effectiveness of small-group and web-based methods for teaching communication skills and (2) identify which training method is more effective in helping students to develop communication skills. At the Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine (RUSVM), 96 students were randomly assigned to one of three groups (control, web, or small-group training) in a pre-intervention and post-intervention group design. An Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) was used to measure communication competence within and across the intervention and control groups. Reliability of the OSCEs was determined by generalizability theory to be 0.65 (pre-intervention OSCE) and 0.70 (post-intervention OSCE). Study results showed that (1) small-group training was the most effective teaching approach in enhancing communication skills and resulted in students scoring significantly higher on the post-intervention OSCE compared to the web-based and control groups, (2) web-based training resulted in significant though considerably smaller improvement in skills than small-group training, and (3) the control group demonstrated the lowest mean difference between the pre-intervention/post-intervention OSCE scores, reinforcing the need to teach communication skills. Furthermore, small-group training had a significant effect in improving skills derived from the initial phase of the consultation and skills related to giving information and planning.

  19. Upward and downward comparison in the intermediate-status group: the role of social stratification stability.

    PubMed

    Caricati, Luca

    2012-06-01

    This work analyses intergroup comparison choices made by intermediate-status group members. Seventy-six psychology students were categorized in an intermediate position with respect to other faculties. Stability was manipulated at three levels: stable, upwardly unstable, and downwardly unstable. Data on strength of comparison, comparison for enhancing, comparison for evaluation, and ingroup identification were collected. Results revealed that in the stable condition, participants were equally engaged in both upward and downward comparison. In the upwardly unstable condition, participants were more likely to compare themselves with the high-status group, whereas in the downwardly unstable condition, they were more likely to choose a downward comparison. In this latter condition, both downward comparison for enhancement and in-group identification were lower than in other conditions.

  20. [Movement and its significance: natural healing physiotherapy and modern pharmacological therapy of osteoporosis in the semantic differential. A quantitative study of a self-help group and two comparison groups].

    PubMed

    Konitzer, M; Fischer, G C; Doering, T J

    2003-06-01

    Physiotherapy is a frequently applied concomitant therapy for patients with osteoporosis. Compared to modern pharmacological therapy physiotherapy appears to receive sustained high regard, which should be further examined in view of the attribution pattern of the patients. Elements of physiotherapy and Kneipp therapy were quantitatively examined in terms of their semantic content in a three-dimensional space of meaning. This was done in comparison with elements of modern pharmacological therapy. The questions regarding possible patterns of the attributions and a possible hierarchy of the therapy forms were analyzed by a survey of a self-help group for osteoporosis patients and two control groups. According to the methods of semantic differentials, a self-help group for osteoporosis patients and two control groups (high-school female pupils, breast carcinoma patients) were queried about the individual elements of physiotherapy and modern pharmacological therapy in a polar profile of a questionnaire. The results were arranged onto a numerical matrix and by means of factor analysis, a location in a three-dimensional space of meaning was calculated for each element questioned. For purpose of illustration, the results were transferred to a succession of diagrams so that the assessments for the three axes of meaning became more distinct. The results are discussed on the background of a current neurolinguistic theory of meaning: Sensomotoric experience generates meaning in form of 'primary metaphors'; if reactivated e.g. by physiotherapy, these metaphors can give fundaments for an emergent and salutogenic system of meaning, which helps to reconstruct the patient's 'subjective anatomy' and helps to create new values of living one's life. If sensomotoric experience has a central function in generating meaning, the axis of 'motion' and therapies stressing on sensomotoric experience (e.g. exercise group) will show a corresponding profile of evaluation throughout the three

  1. Abstruse comparisons: the problems of numerical contrasts of two groups.

    PubMed

    Yueh, B; Feinstein, A R

    1999-01-01

    The most common quantitative comparison in medical literature is a contrast of two numbers, such as two means or two rates. The two numbers, A and B, can be compared as a direct increment (A-B), ratio (A/B), relative change ([A-B]/B), or other index of contrast. To appreciate the quantitative distinction, a reader must know the "setting" reflected by the basic values of A and B. For example, a ratio of 2.0 does not distinguish comparisons between rates of 60% versus 30% and 0.006% versus 0.003%. Despite the frequency of published comparisons, they can be expressed with two types of abstrusity: quantitatives, if the basic values for A and B are not readily evident; and qualitative, if the component underlying variables are unfamiliar and not suitably explained. Among the published articles during the first six months of 1995 for JAMA and New England Journal of Medicine, 57 that satisfied inclusion criteria were reviewed for compliance with standards for avoiding the two types of abstrusity. The standards for quantitative abstrusity were applied to the published abstract-summary, because it is often the only "sound bite" that is read and remembered by most readers. The standards for qualitative abstrusity, however, could be fulfilled in the text, not just in the abstract-summaries of each article. Among the 57 abstract-summaries, 30% were abstruse quantitatively, and 11 (48%) of 23 pertinent papers were qualitatively abstruse. Abstrusity can be eliminated if authors and editors insist that quantitative contrasts cite the basic numbers being compared and the meaning of the associated variables and their rating scales.

  2. Comparison of the inhibitory capacity of two groups of pure natural extract on the crystallization of two types of material compound urinary stones in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghalia, Mohamed; Ghalem, Said; Allali, Hocine

    2015-10-01

    Urolithiasis is defined as the result of an abnormal precipitation within the urinary tract. This precipitation is most often from the normal constituents of the urine. This is a fairly common condition in the population. She is happy and recurrent etiology is often unknown if hypothetical. In Algeria, as in many countries, a large number of patients use herbal medicines in the treatment of their diseases including urolithiasis. Thus the aim of this study is the most widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of aqueous extracts of medicinal plants, in the treatment of calcium urolithiasis oxalo-and magnesium-amoniaco in vitro. The study also examines the effect of these extracts on the states of crystallization (nucleation, crystal growth, crystal aggregation), followed by photography on polarized light microscope.In this regard, we are devoted to studying the crystallization steps from oxalo-calcium and phospho-calcic prepared as artificial urine and supersaturated aqueous solutions, maintained at 37 °C to remain close to biological conditions. Extracts of the first group of herbs: Ammodaucus leucotrichus, Ajuga iva, Globularia alypum, Atriplex halimus are studied on the crystallization calcium oxalate, we cite the Ammodaucus leucotrichus which acts on the stages of nucleation, growth and the aggregation with a total inhibition. The second group of extracts plants tested on calcium phosphate crystallization : Acacia raddiana, Citrullus colocynthis, Rhus tripartita, Pistacia lentiscu, Warionia saharae, are able to significantly reduce phosphate crystallization in vitro. It is easily proved by FTIR and optical microscope. In conclusion the results of our work allows us to confirm the use of these plants as an aqueous decoction, in the field of urolithiasis. These activities may help to strengthen the body in depressed situations.

  3. Comparison of zofenopril and lisinopril to study the role of the sulfhydryl-group in improvement of endothelial dysfunction with ACE-inhibitors in experimental heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Buikema, H; Monnink, S H J; Tio, R A; Crijns, H J G M; de Zeeuw, D; van Gilst, W H

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the role of SH-groups in improvement of endothelial dysfunction with ACE-inhibitors in experimental heart failure. To this end, we compared the vasoprotective effect of chronic treatment with zofenopril (plus SH-group) versus lisinopril (no SH-group), or N-acetylcysteine (only SH-group) in myocardial infarcted (MI) heart failure rats.After 11 weeks of treatment, aortas were obtained and studied as ring preparations for endothelium-dependent and -independent dilatation in continuous presence of indomethacin to avoid interference of vasoactive prostanoids, and the selective presence of the NOS-inhibitor L-NMMA to determine NO-contribution.Total dilatation after receptor-dependent stimulation with acetylcholine (ACh) was attenuated (−49%, P<0.05) in untreated MI (n=11), compared to control rats with no-MI (n=8). This was in part due to impaired NO-contribution in MI (−50%, P<0.05 versus no-MI). At the same time the capacity for generation of biologically active NO after receptor-independent stimulation with A23187 remained intact.Chronic treatment with n-acetylcysteine (n=8) selectively restored NO-contribution in total dilatation to ACh. In contrast, both ACE-inhibitors fully normalized total dilatation to ACh, including the part mediated by NO (no significant differences between zofenopril (n=10) and lisinopril (n=8)).Zofenopril, but not lisinopril, additionally potentiated the effect of endogenous NO after A23187-induced release from the endothelium (+100%) as well as that of exogenous NO provided by nitroglycerin (+22%) and sodium nitrite (+36%) (for all P<0.05 versus no-MI).We conclude that ACE-inhibition with a SH-group has a potential advantage in improvement of endothelial dysfunction through increased activity of NO after release from the endothelium into the vessel wall. Furthermore, this is the first study demonstrating the selective normalizing effect of N-actylcysteine on NO-contribution to ACh-induced dilatation in experimental heart

  4. [Aetiological classification of ischaemic strokes: comparison of the new A-S-C-O classification and the classification by the Spanish Society of Neurology's Cerebrovascular Disease Study Group].

    PubMed

    Sobrino García, P; García Pastor, A; García Arratibel, A; Vicente Peracho, G; Rodriguez Cruz, P M; Pérez Sánchez, J R; Díaz Otero, F; Vázquez Alén, P; Villanueva Osorio, J A; Gil Núñez, A

    2013-09-01

    The A-S-C-O classification may be better than other methods for classifying ischaemic stroke by aetiology. Our aims are to describe A-S-C-O phenotype distribution (A: atherosclerosis, S: small vessel disease, C: cardiac source, O: other causes; 1: potential cause, 2: causality uncertain, 3: unlikely to be a direct cause although disease is present) and compare them to the Spanish Society of Neurology's Cerebrovascular Disease Study Group (GEECV/SEN) classification. We will also find the degree of concordance between these classification methods and determine whether using the A-S-C-O classification delivers a smaller percentage of strokes of undetermined cause. We analysed those patients with ischaemic stroke admitted to our stroke unit in 2010 with strokes that were classified according to GEECV/SEN and A-S-C-O criteria. The study included 496 patients. The percentages of strokes caused by atherosclerosis and small vessel disease according to GEECV/SEN criteria were higher than the percentages for potential atherosclerotic stroke (A1) (14.1 vs. 11.9%; P=.16) and potential small vessel stroke (S1) (14.3 vs. 3%; P<.001). Cardioembolic stroke (C1) was more frequent (22.2 vs. 31%; P<.001). No differences between unusual cause of stroke and other potential causes (O1) were observed. Some degree of atherosclerosis was present in 53.5% of patients (A1, A2, or A3); 65.5% showed markers of small vessel disease (S1, S2, or S3), and 74.9% showed signs of cardioembolism (C1, C2, or C3). Fewer patients in the group without scores of 1 or 2 for any of the A-S-C-O phenotypes were identified as having a stroke of undetermined cause (46.6 vs. 29.2%; P<.001). The agreement between the 2 classifications ranged from κ<0.2 (small vessel and S1) to κ>0.8 (unusual causes and O1). Our results show that GEECV/SEN and A-S-C-O classifications are neither fully comparable nor consistent. Using the A-S-C-O classification provided additional information on co-morbidities and delivered a

  5. Comparison of the effect of anti-hyperlipidemic drugs from different groups on the phase profile of liposomal membrane-a fluorescence anisotropy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandary, Suman; Basu, Ruma; Das, Sukhen; Nandy, Papiya

    2010-07-01

    The study compares the effect of incorporation of three different groups of anti-hyperlipidemic drugs, namely niacin, simvastatin, and fenofibrate on the phase profile of liposomal membranes of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). The fluorescence anisotropy studies, using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene as fluorescent probe, have shown that the lipophilic molecule fenofibrate changes phase behavior of DPPC liposomal membrane to a greater extent compared to the changes produced by amphiphilic simvastatin and hydrophilic niacin. This variation in effect can be attributed to the nature of the drug molecules and hence their location in different parts of the liposomal membrane. We have also calculated the changes in van't Hoff enthalpy values in all these three cases and observed that these values decreased with increase in drug concentrations in the case of simvastatin but for fenofibrate and niacin the effect is completely the reverse. In order to get a better insight, the fraction of motionally restricted lipid molecules has been calculated.

  6. Social comparison orientation moderates the effects of group membership on the similarity-attraction relationship.

    PubMed

    Michinov, Estelle; Michinov, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined how the similarity-attraction relationship is affected by a combination of the tendency to compare oneself to other people (Social Comparison Orientation, SCO) and group membership. We expected that high-SCO individuals would prefer similar to dissimilar others only when the target belonged to their in-group and was relevant for the evaluation of their self-concept. It was also expected that among low-SCO individuals who are more certain about the self and less concerned about "being evaluated," a main effect of attitude similarity would appear, regardless of the group membership of the target. Results partially support these predictions and suggest that further research should be carried out into the combined effects of individual and group variables in the attraction literature.

  7. Comparison of the COPD Population Screener and International Primary Care Airway Group questionnaires in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama study.

    PubMed

    Tsukuya, Go; Samukawa, Takuya; Matsumoto, Koichiro; Fukuyama, Satoru; Kumamoto, Tomohiro; Uchida, Akifumi; Koriyama, Chihaya; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing worldwide. In Japan and other countries, epidemiological studies have found that many patients with COPD are underdiagnosed and untreated, and thus, early detection and treatment of COPD has been emphasized. Screening questionnaires may have utility in the initial detection of COPD. This study aimed to validate and compare the COPD Population Screener (COPD-PS) and the International Primary Care Airway Group (IPAG) questionnaires in a general Japanese population. Eligible subjects 40 years of age and older living in the town of Hisayama were solicited to participate in a health checkup in 2012. All subjects 40-79 years of age without physician-diagnosed asthma or lung resection were recruited, and 2,336 subjects who fully completed both questionnaires and who had valid spirometry measurements were analyzed. Persistent airflow obstruction (AO) was defined by a postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity <0.70. Receiver operating characteristic curves, net reclassification improvement, and integrated discrimination improvement were used to examine the ability of the COPD-PS and IPAG questionnaires to discriminate between subjects with and without AO. The overall area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the COPD-PS questionnaire was 0.747 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.707-0.788) and for the IPAG was 0.775 (95% CI, 0.735-0.816), with no significant difference (P=0.09). The net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement were -0.107 (95% CI, -0.273-0.058; P=0.203) and -0.014 (95% CI, -0.033-0.006; P=0.182), respectively. The five-item COPD-PS questionnaire was comparable to the eight-item IPAG for discriminating between subjects with and without AO. The COPD-PS is a simple and useful screening questionnaire for persistent AO.

  8. Report of the Public Cryptography Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC.

    Concerns of the National Security Agency (NSA) that information contained in some articles about cryptography in learned and professional journals and in monographs might be inimical to the national security are addressed. The Public Cryptography Study Group, with one dissenting opinion, recommends that a voluntary system of prior review of…

  9. Comparison of the COPD Population Screener and International Primary Care Airway Group questionnaires in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama study

    PubMed Central

    Tsukuya, Go; Samukawa, Takuya; Matsumoto, Koichiro; Fukuyama, Satoru; Kumamoto, Tomohiro; Uchida, Akifumi; Koriyama, Chihaya; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing worldwide. In Japan and other countries, epidemiological studies have found that many patients with COPD are underdiagnosed and untreated, and thus, early detection and treatment of COPD has been emphasized. Screening questionnaires may have utility in the initial detection of COPD. Objective This study aimed to validate and compare the COPD Population Screener (COPD-PS) and the International Primary Care Airway Group (IPAG) questionnaires in a general Japanese population. Patients and methods Eligible subjects 40 years of age and older living in the town of Hisayama were solicited to participate in a health checkup in 2012. All subjects 40–79 years of age without physician-diagnosed asthma or lung resection were recruited, and 2,336 subjects who fully completed both questionnaires and who had valid spirometry measurements were analyzed. Persistent airflow obstruction (AO) was defined by a postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity <0.70. Receiver operating characteristic curves, net reclassification improvement, and integrated discrimination improvement were used to examine the ability of the COPD-PS and IPAG questionnaires to discriminate between subjects with and without AO. Results The overall area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the COPD-PS questionnaire was 0.747 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.707–0.788) and for the IPAG was 0.775 (95% CI, 0.735–0.816), with no significant difference (P=0.09). The net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement were −0.107 (95% CI, −0.273–0.058; P=0.203) and −0.014 (95% CI, −0.033–0.006; P=0.182), respectively. Conclusion The five-item COPD-PS questionnaire was comparable to the eight-item IPAG for discriminating between subjects with and without AO. The COPD-PS is a simple and useful screening questionnaire for persistent AO. PMID

  10. Comparison of sparfloxacin and ciprofloxacin in the treatment of community-acquired acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women. Sparfloxacin Multicenter Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infection Study Group.

    PubMed

    Henry, D C; Nenad, R C; Iravani, A; Tice, A D; Mansfield, D L; Magner, D J; Dorr, M B; Talbot, G H

    1999-06-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common illness, with > or =30% of all women experiencing a UTI during their lifetime. Less than a decade ago, the standard therapy for acute uncomplicated UTIs involved treatment with > or =7 days of an antibacterial agent, but recent studies using a variety of newly introduced antibiotics, including the fluoroquinolones, have demonstrated that a 1- to 5-day treatment regimen can be equally effective. This randomized, double-masked, multicenter study was conducted to compare the efficacy and tolerability of a single dose of sparfloxacin with those of a 3-day regimen of sparfloxacin and a 7-day regimen of ciprofloxacin in the treatment of women with community-acquired acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection. A total of 1175 women were enrolled; 395 received sparfloxacin as a single 400-mg dose on day 1, 394 received sparfloxacin as a 400-mg loading dose on day 1 followed by 200 mg once daily for 2 additional days, and 386 received ciprofloxacin 250 mg twice daily for 7 days. Patients were comparable with respect to demographic characteristics and underlying conditions. A total of 954 patients were clinically assessable; 490 of these were also bacteriologically assessable. All patients treated were included in the tolerability analysis. Escherichia coli (75.4%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (4.9%), Enterococcus faecalis (4.6%), and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (4.1%) were the most commonly isolated organisms. In the all-treated population, clinical success was achieved 5 to 9 days after therapy in 91.8%, 92.2%, and 91.6% of patients in the single-dose sparfloxacin, 3-day sparfloxacin, and 7-day ciprofloxacin groups, respectively; bacteriologic success was observed in 91.7%, 92.6%, and 96.6% of those in the 3 groups. Sustained clinical success rates 4 to 6 weeks after therapy were 76.6%, 80.2%, and 79.5% in the single-dose sparfloxacin, 3-day sparfloxacin, and 7-day ciprofloxacin groups, respectively; sustained bacteriologic success

  11. Comparison of 12-step groups to mutual help alternatives for AUD in a large, national study: Differences in membership characteristics and group participation, cohesion, and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Zemore, Sarah E; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Mericle, Amy; Hemberg, Jordana

    2017-02-01

    Many studies suggest that participation in 12-step groups contributes to better recovery outcomes, but people often object to such groups and most do not sustain regular involvement. Yet, research on alternatives to 12-step groups is very sparse. The present study aimed to extend the knowledge base on mutual help group alternatives for those with an alcohol use disorder (AUD), sampling from large, active, abstinence-focused groups including Women for Sobriety (WFS), LifeRing, and SMART Recovery (SMART). This paper presents a cross-sectional analysis of this longitudinal study, using baseline data to describe the profile and participation characteristics of attendees of these groups in comparison to 12-step members. Data from participants 18 and over with a lifetime AUD (N=651) were collected using Web-based surveys. Members of alternative 12-step groups were recruited in collaboration with group directors, who helped publicize the study by emailing meeting conveners and attendees and posting announcements on social media. A comparison group of current (past-30-day) 12-step attendees was recruited from an online meeting hub for recovering persons. Interested parties were directed to a Webpage where they were screened, and eligible participants completed an online survey assessing demographic and clinical variables; in-person and online mutual help involvement; and group satisfaction and cohesion. Analyses involved comparing those identifying WFS, SMART, and LifeRing as their primary group to 12-step members on the above characteristics. Compared to 12-step members, members of the mutual help alternatives were less religious and generally higher on education and income. WFS and LifeRing members were also older, more likely to be married, and lower on lifetime drug and psychiatric severity; meanwhile, LifeRing and SMART members were less likely to endorse the most stringent abstinence goal. Finally, despite lower levels of in-person meeting attendance, members of all

  12. First direct comparison of clinical outcomes between European and Asian cohorts in transcatheter aortic valve implantation: the Massy study group vs. the PREVAIL JAPAN trial.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Hayashida, Kentaro; Takayama, Morimasa; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Nanto, Shinsuke; Takanashi, Shuichiro; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Kuratani, Toru; Tobaru, Tetsuya; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Lefèvre, Thierry; Sawa, Yoshiki; Morice, Marie-Claude

    2015-02-01

    The efficacy and safety of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in Asian populations were unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare directly the clinical outcomes of the first Japanese trial and a European single-center experience after TAVI. Between April 2010 and October 2011, 64 patients were included in the PREVAIL JAPAN multicenter trial which was set up to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Edwards SAPIEN XT™ (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) in high-risk Japanese patients with severe aortic stenosis. Between March 2010 and January 2012, 237 consecutive patients treated with TAVI using the Edwards SAPIEN XT™ prosthesis at Institut Cardiovasculaire Paris Sud were prospectively included in the Massy cohort. We compared the clinical outcomes of these two cohorts. Patients were of similar age (83.4±6.6 years vs. 84.5±6.1 years, p=0.25), but logistic EuroSCORE was higher in the Massy cohort (20.2±11.7% vs. 15.6±8.0%, p<0.01). Body surface area was smaller in the PREVAIL JAPAN cohort (1.41±0.14m(2) vs. 1.72±0.18m(2); p<0.01) as was the annulus diameter (20.4±1.46mm vs. 22.0±1.84mm, p<0.01). The transfemoral approach was used in 57.8% in the Japanese cohort vs. 51.5% in the Massy cohort. Device success was similar (89.1% vs. 94.1%, p=0.21, respectively), as well as 30-day and 6-month survival rates (92.2% vs. 90.7% and 89.1% vs. 83.1%, p=0.71 and p=0.25, respectively). The incidence of major vascular complications was not significantly different between the two groups (9.4% vs. 5.9%, p=0.23, respectively). A higher post-procedural mean pressure gradient was observed in the PREVAIL JAPAN cohort (12.7±11.4mmHg vs. 10.1±3.6mmHg, p=0.01), but satisfactory improvement in 6-month functional status was obtained in both cohorts (76.5% vs. 77.2%, p=0.91). Clinical outcomes after TAVI in the patients included in the PREVAIL JAPAN trial were acceptable and as safe as that of a single-center European cohort. Copyright © 2014 Japanese

  13. Standard care quality determines treatment outcomes in control groups of HAART-adherence intervention studies: implications for the interpretation and comparison of intervention effects.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Marijn; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Hospers, Harm J; Schaalma, Herman P; Kok, Gerjo

    2009-11-01

    Clinical trials of behavioral interventions seek to enhance evidence-based health care. However, in case the quality of standard care provided to control conditions varies between studies and affects outcomes, intervention effects cannot be directly interpreted or compared. The objective of the present study was to examine whether standard care quality (SCQ) could be reliably assessed, varies between studies of highly active antiretroviral HIV-adherence interventions, and is related to the proportion of patients achieving an undetectable viral load ("success rate"). Databases were searched for relevant articles. Authors of selected studies retrospectively completed a checklist with standard care activities, which were coded to compute SCQ scores. The relationship between SCQ and the success rates was examined using meta-regression. Cronbach's alpha, variability in SCQ, and relation between SCQ and success rate. Reliability of the SCQ instrument was high (Cronbach's alpha = .91). SCQ scores ranged from 3.7 to 27.8 (total range = 0-30) and were highly predictive of success rate (p = .002). Variation in SCQ provided to control groups may substantially influence effect sizes of behavior change interventions. Future trials should therefore assess and report SCQ, and meta-analyses should control for variability in SCQ, thereby producing more accurate estimates of the effectiveness of behavior change interventions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Mothers with intellectual disability, their experiences of maltreatment, and their children's attachment representations: a small-group matched comparison study.

    PubMed

    Granqvist, Pehr; Forslund, Tommie; Fransson, Mari; Springer, Lydia; Lindberg, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Maternal intellectual disability (ID) is regarded a risk factor in child development, but there is no scientific evidence on maternal ID in relation to children's attachment. Using a matched comparison design, a small group (n = 23) of mothers diagnosed with ID was studied to help fill this gap. Besides maternal ID, we examined the role of abuse/trauma/maltreatment (ATM) in the mothers' biographies, along with potential confounds. Comparison group mothers (n = 25) had normal variations in intelligence and matched mothers with ID on residential area, income, child age, and sex. History of maternal ATM was assessed using a semi-structured interview and was found to be significantly more likely in the ID group mothers' experience than the comparison group mothers. Children's (M age = 77 months) attachment representations were assessed with the Separation Anxiety Test. Among children of mothers with ID, a substantial minority (35%) had a secure and the vast majority (>80%) an organized attachment representation. Mothers with ID who had suffered elevated ATM were significantly more likely to have children who were scored high on disorganization and insecurity. We discuss possible implications of our findings for societal considerations regarding parenting and child attachment in the context of parental ID status.

  15. Semiautomated QT interval measurement in electrocardiograms from a thorough QT study: comparison of the grouped and ungrouped superimposed median beat methods.

    PubMed

    Hingorani, Pooja; Karnad, Dilip R; Ramasamy, Arumugam; Panicker, Gopi Krishna; Salvi, Vaibhav; Bhoir, Hemant; Kothari, Snehal

    2012-01-01

    We postulated that it may be easier to identify earliest Q onset and latest T offset when the median beats from 12 leads are separated vertically by 5 to 10 mm (ungrouped superimposed median beat [SMB] method) rather than when their baselines closely (but rarely perfectly) overlap (grouped SMB method). Three readers manually adjudicated annotations placed by an automated algorithm, using grouped (gSMB) and ungrouped (uSMB) methods in 2658 electrocardiograms (ECGs) recorded in 38 subjects in a crossover design thorough QT study at predose and 6 time points postdosing with placebo or moxifloxacin. Placebo-subtracted, moxifloxacin-induced QTcF prolongation was comparable with both methods. Maximum QTcF prolongation was seen at 2 hours--10.5 milliseconds (90% confidence interval, 7.9-13.1 milliseconds) with gSMB and 12.9 milliseconds (90% confidence interval, 9.9-15.8 milliseconds) by uSMB. Both methods showed good agreement; mean QT was 4 milliseconds greater by uSMB. Interreader variability of absolute differences in QT measurements was 1 millisecond lower with the uSMB method (6.8 ± 5.7 milliseconds by gSMB and 5.9 ± 4.5 milliseconds by uSMB). Mean QT was 4 milliseconds longer, and interreader variability, 1 millisecond lower with uSMB. Otherwise, both methods were comparable and detected the moxifloxacin effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypertension management initiative prospective cohort study: comparison between immediate and delayed intervention groups.

    PubMed

    Tobe, S W; Moy Lum-Kwong, M; Von Sychowski, S; Kandukur, K; Kiss, A; Flintoft, V

    2014-01-01

    The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario's Hypertension Management Initiative (HMI) was a pragmatic implementation of clinical practice guidelines for hypertension management in primary care clinics. The HMI was a prospective delayed phase cohort study of 11 sites enrolling patients in two blocks starting 9 months apart in 2007. The intervention was an evidence-informed chronic disease management program consisting of an interprofessional educational intervention with practice tools to implement the Canadian Hypertension Education Program's clinical practice guidelines. This study compares the change in blood pressure (BP) from baseline to 9 months after the intervention between groups. In the immediate intervention group, the mean BP at baseline was 134.6/79.1 mm Hg (18.2/11.5) and in the delayed intervention group 134.2/77.1 mm Hg (18.9/11.8). The fall in BP in the immediate intervention group from baseline to 9 months after the intervention was 7.3/3.6 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.9-8.7/2.6-4.5) and in the delayed group 8.1/3.3 mm Hg (95% CI: 7.0-9.3/2.5-4.1) (all P<0.0001 were compared from baseline to the end of 9 months of the program in both groups). This study is the first to demonstrate that implementation of an interprofessional knowledge integration initiative for the control of hypertension can rapidly lead to lower BP levels.

  17. Influence of Subclinical Neck Pain on the Ability to Perform a Mental Rotation Task: A 4-Week Longitudinal Study With a Healthy Control Group Comparison.

    PubMed

    Baarbé, Julianne K; Holmes, Michael W R; Murphy, Heather E; Haavik, Heidi; Murphy, Bernadette A

    2016-01-01

    Mental rotation of objects and the frame of reference of those objects are critical for executing correct and skillful movements and are important for object recognition, spatial navigation, and movement planning. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to compare the mental rotation ability of those with subclinical neck pain (SCNP) to healthy controls at baseline and after 4 weeks. Twenty-six volunteers (13 SCNP and 12 healthy controls) were recruited from a university student population. Subclinical neck pain participants had scores of mild to moderate on the Chronic Pain Grade Scale, and controls had minimal or no pain. For the mental rotation task, participants were presented with an object (letter "R") on a computer screen presented randomly in either normal or backwards parity at various orientations (0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, 180°, 225°, 270°, and 315°). Participants indicated the object's parity by pressing "N" for normal or "B" for backwards. Each orientation for normal and backward parities was presented 5 times, and the average response time for all letter presentations was calculated for each participant, at baseline and 4 weeks later. Both groups had overall improved response times from baseline to 4 weeks. Healthy participants had significantly improved response times compared to SCNP, both at baseline (P < .05) and 4 weeks (P < .05). Healthy participants performed better than the SCNP group at both time points. Subclinical neck pain may impair the ability to perform a complex mental rotation task involving cerebellar connections, possibly due to altered body schema. Copyright © 2016 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Facilitating Group Analysis of Two Case Studies Utilising Peer Tutoring: Comparison of Tasks and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Lin Siew

    2016-01-01

    Peer-tutoring sessions of two groups of advanced diploma in financial accounting students with mixed proficiency were analysed thoroughly in this study. Numerous studies in peer tutoring have produced favourable results to both tutors and tutees due to the scaffolding process which promotes effective learning. However, there is a lack of studies…

  19. Reducing Bias and Increasing Precision by Adding Either a Pretest Measure of the Study Outcome or a Nonequivalent Comparison Group to the Basic Regression Discontinuity Design: An Example from Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Yang; Cook, Thomas D.; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    Regression discontinuity design (RD) has been widely used to produce reliable causal estimates. Researchers have validated the accuracy of RD design using within study comparisons (Cook, Shadish & Wong, 2008; Cook & Steiner, 2010; Shadish et al, 2011). Within study comparisons examines the validity of a quasi-experiment by comparing its…

  20. Finding a Comparison Group: Is Online Crowdsourcing a Viable Option?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Tarek; Jacobson, Miriam R.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the viability of online crowdsourcing for creating matched-comparison groups. This exploratory study compares survey results from a randomized control group to survey results from a matched-comparison group created from Amazon.com's MTurk crowdsourcing service to determine their comparability. Study findings indicate…

  1. STUDIES ON THE HEMOPHILUS GROUP OF ORGANISMS

    PubMed Central

    Gilder, H.; Granick, S.

    1947-01-01

    The porphin requirements of the Hemophilus organisms have been studied. Organisms of the parainfluenzae group show quantitative differences in their ability to synthesize heme. The ability of the parainfluenzae organisms to grow appears to depend on the rate with which they synthesize heme and in part at least on the properties of the medium to protect the heme from peroxidative breakdown. Quantitative studies of the growth of H. influenzae Turner on various iron porphins have been made. Iron protoporphin gives greatest growth when supplied in excess, although iron mesoporphin appears more efficient at lower concentrations. Iron deutero- and iron hematoporphin are much less effective. This suggests that although the vinyl groups are not essential for growth of the Turner organism they may be required for some particular enzymes which aid in attaining maximum growth. A number of substances potentiate the growth-promoting properties of iron porphins. These substances include reducing agents and agents which destroy H2O2. E. influenzae Turner appears to require heme for anaerobic as well as aerobic growth. The possibility of an essential heme enzyme functioning under anaerobic conditions must therefore be considered. PMID:18896933

  2. Disability pension and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a prospective comparison of farmers and other occupational groups. The HUNT Study, Norway.

    PubMed

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Glasscock, David; Krokstad, Steinar

    2015-11-02

    Agriculture has undergone major changes, and farmers have been found to have a high prevalence of depression symptoms. We investigated the risk of work disability in Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups, as well as the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression and future disability pension. We linked working participants of the HUNT2 Survey (1995-97) aged 20-61.9 years, of whom 3495 were farmers and 25,521 had other occupations, to national registry data on disability pension, with follow-up until 31 December 2010. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of disability pension, and to investigate the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression caseness at baseline (score on the anxiety or depression subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) ≥8) and disability pension. Farmers had a twofold increased risk of disability pension (age-adjusted and sex-adjusted HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.80 to 2.38) compared with higher grade professionals. Farmers with symptoms of depression caseness had a 53% increased risk of disability pension (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.87) compared with farmers below the cut-off point of depression caseness symptoms, whereas farmers with symptoms of anxiety caseness had a 51% increased risk (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.86). Farmers have an increased risk of disability pension compared with higher grade professionals, but the risk is lower than in most other manual occupational groups. Farmers who report high levels of depression or anxiety symptoms are at substantially increased risk of future work disability, and the risk increase appears to be fairly similar across most occupational groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Disability pension and symptoms of anxiety and depression: a prospective comparison of farmers and other occupational groups. The HUNT Study, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Glasscock, David; Krokstad, Steinar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Agriculture has undergone major changes, and farmers have been found to have a high prevalence of depression symptoms. We investigated the risk of work disability in Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups, as well as the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression and future disability pension. Methods We linked working participants of the HUNT2 Survey (1995–97) aged 20–61.9 years, of whom 3495 were farmers and 25 521 had other occupations, to national registry data on disability pension, with follow-up until 31 December 2010. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of disability pension, and to investigate the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression caseness at baseline (score on the anxiety or depression subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) ≥8) and disability pension. Results Farmers had a twofold increased risk of disability pension (age-adjusted and sex-adjusted HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.80 to 2.38) compared with higher grade professionals. Farmers with symptoms of depression caseness had a 53% increased risk of disability pension (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.87) compared with farmers below the cut-off point of depression caseness symptoms, whereas farmers with symptoms of anxiety caseness had a 51% increased risk (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.86). Conclusions Farmers have an increased risk of disability pension compared with higher grade professionals, but the risk is lower than in most other manual occupational groups. Farmers who report high levels of depression or anxiety symptoms are at substantially increased risk of future work disability, and the risk increase appears to be fairly similar across most occupational groups. PMID:26525724

  4. Evaluating the Effect of Random Selection on Virtual Comparison Group Creation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Lingling; Cronin, John

    2009-01-01

    Virtual Comparison Groups (VCG) were developed by the Northwest Evaluation Association as an alternative to conventional controlled experiments for social science researchers working in the field of education. The VCG is generally a group of up to 51 students who are matched, based on key characteristics of the student and school, to a single…

  5. The Women in the Army Study Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    order to facilitate the above, several initiatives are ongoing or have been completed. As part of the study effort, a new methodology for...Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences has been tasked to validate maximum female content levels recommended by Training and...This point is supported throughout the study . It is clear that the original intent of Congress and, by extension, the intent of the American people

  6. The Performance of the Mantel-Haenszel DIF Statistic When Comparison Group Distributions Are Incongruent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pommerich, Mary; And Others

    The functioning of two population-based Mantel-Haenszel (MH) common-odds ratios was compared. One ratio is conditioned on the observed test score, while the other is conditioned on a latent trait or true ability score. When the comparison group distributions are incongruent or nonoverlapping to some degree, the observed score represents different…

  7. Life of Pizza Pie: The Implications of Sub-Group Comparisons in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Tara N.

    2013-01-01

    Current educational statistics have pitted subgroups against one another without consideration of the actual population sizes of each group. This paper is intended to provided a clearer understanding of the current usage of sub-group comparisons in American education. (Contains 4 figures.)

  8. Fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester: comparison between population groups from different ethnic origins.

    PubMed

    Papasozomenou, Panayiota; Athanasiadis, Apostolos P; Zafrakas, Menelaos; Panteris, Eleftherios; Loufopoulos, Aristoteles; Assimakopoulos, Efstratios; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2016-03-01

    To compare normal ranges of ultrasonographically measured fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester between different ethnic groups. A prospective, non-interventional study in order to establish normal ranges of fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester in a Greek population was conducted in 1220 singleton fetuses between 18 completed weeks and 23 weeks and 6 days of gestation. A literature search followed in order to identify similar studies in different population groups. Fetal nasal bone length mean values and percentiles from different population groups were compared. Analysis of measurements in the Greek population showed a linear association, i.e., increasing nasal bone length with increasing gestational age from 5.73 mm at 18 weeks to 7.63 mm at 23 weeks. Eleven studies establishing normal ranges of fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester were identified. Comparison of fetal nasal bone length mean values between the 12 population groups showed statistically significant differences (P<0.0001). Normal ranges of fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester vary significantly between different ethnic groups. Hence, distinct ethnic nomograms of fetal nasal bone length in the second trimester should be used in a given population rather than an international model.

  9. Efficacy and tolerability of citalopram in comparison with fluvoxamine in depressed outpatients: a double-blind, multicentre study. The LUCIFER Group.

    PubMed

    Haffmans, P M; Timmerman, L; Hoogduin, C A

    1996-09-01

    In 16 depression clinics in hospitals and outpatient facilities in the Netherlands, a study was performed to evaluate and compare the efficacy and tolerability of citalopram and fluvoxamine and to determine the difference in the incidence of gastrointestinal side-effects. A total of 217 patients with a depressive disorder (DSM-III-R criteria) and a score of at least 16 on the Hamilton rating scale for depression were randomized to treatment. The results of this study indicate that the two drugs are equally effective. The adverse events occurring during treatment show a similar pattern between the two drugs, but citalopram is better tolerated than fluvoxamine. Citalopram induces fewer gastrointestinal adverse events compared with fluvoxamine. However, this did not affect the drop-out rates.

  10. Double-blind comparison [correction of Double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison] of rabeprazole 20 mg vs. omeprazole 20 mg in the treatment of erosive or ulcerative gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. The European Rabeprazole Study Group.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, C P; Beker, J A; Thjodleifsson, B; Gabryelewicz, A; Bell, N E; Humphries, T J

    1999-01-01

    Rabeprazole sodium is the most recent member of a class of substituted benzimidazole molecules known as proton pump inhibitors. Other proton pump inhibitors have been shown to be effective in healing oesophagitis. In this randomised, double-blind, multicentre study, conducted at 27 European sites, the efficacy and safety of rabeprazole and omeprazole were compared in patients with erosive or ulcerative gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD).100 patients received rabeprazole 20 mg, and 102 patients omeprazole 20 mg once daily for 4 or 8 weeks, with healing monitored by endoscopy. Overall GERD healing rates observed and evaluated at weeks 4 and 8 were equivalent. Four-week healing rates for rabeprazole and omeprazole were 81%-81% and 92%-94% for 8-week healing. Rabeprazole-treated patients had similar relief of the frequency and intensity of heartburn to those treated with omeprazole. Both drugs were well tolerated over the 8-week treatment period. Mean changes in fasting serum gastrin were comparable. No significant differences in laboratory parameters were seen. Biopsies for argyrophil ECL cell histology at the end-point revealed a similar distributions of hyperplasia grades to those at baseline in both groups. Biopsies of body and antral mucosa for other parameters were similar between treatments for Helicobacter pylori colonization, presence or degree of inflammation, atrophy or intestinal metaplasia at the end-point. In this study, GERD healing rates following rabeprazole 20 mg once daily were equivalent to those obtained with omeprazole 20 mg once daily. Both treatments resulted in a comparable relief of the frequency and intensity of heartburn associated with this disease, and both were well tolerated.

  11. Comparison of Some Risk Factors for Diabetes Across Different Social Groups: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, A; Rathod, HK; Konda, M; Bhawalkar, JS

    2014-01-01

    prevalent among the medical students, while smokeless tobacco use was more among the other groups. Conclusions: Physical inactivity, obesity, including central obesity, alcohol and tobacco use were found in various degrees in the study samples. An important finding was that both obesity and central obesity ascertained by BMI and WHR respectively were highest among the rural population implying the impact of social change on diabetic risk factors. PMID:25506486

  12. Cost-comparison of different management policies for tuberculosis patients in Italy. AIPO TB Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Migliori, G. B.; Ambrosetti, M.; Besozzi, G.; Farris, B.; Nutini, S.; Saini, L.; Casali, L.; Nardini, S.; Bugiani, M.; Neri, M.; Raviglione, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    Although in developing countries the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) cases is among the most cost-effective health interventions, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of TB control in low-prevalence countries. The aim of the present study was to carry out an economic analysis in Italy that takes into account both the perspective of the resource-allocating authority (i.e. the Ministry of Health) and the broader social perspective, including a cost description based on current outcomes applied to a representative sample of TB patients nationwide (admission and directly observed treatment (DOT) during the initial intensive phase of treatment); a cost-comparison analysis of two alternative programmes: current policy based on available data (scenario 1) and an hypothetical policy oriented more towards outpatient care (scenario 2) (both scenarios included the option of including or not including DOT outside hospital admission, and incentives) were compared in terms of cost per case treated successfully. Indirect costs (such as loss of productivity) were included in considerations of the broader social perspective. The study was designed as a prospective monitoring activity based on the supervised collection of forms from a representative sample of Italian TB units. Individual data were collected and analysed to obtain a complete economic profile of the patients enrolled and to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. A separate analysis was done for each scenario to determine the end-point at different levels of cure rate (50-90%). The mean length of treatment was 6.6 months (i.e. patients hospitalized during the intensive phase; length of stay was significantly higher in smear-positive patients and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients). Roughly six direct smear and culture examinations were performed during hospital admission and three during ambulatory treatment. The cost of a single bed day was US$186.90, whereas that of a

  13. Comparison of the Ability of Different Clinical Treatment Scores to Estimate Prognosis in High-Risk Early Breast Cancer Patients: A Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group Study.

    PubMed

    Stavridi, Flora; Kalogeras, Konstantine T; Pliarchopoulou, Kyriaki; Wirtz, Ralph M; Alexopoulou, Zoi; Zagouri, Flora; Veltrup, Elke; Timotheadou, Eleni; Gogas, Helen; Koutras, Angelos; Lazaridis, Georgios; Christodoulou, Christos; Pentheroudakis, George; Laskarakis, Apostolos; Arapantoni-Dadioti, Petroula; Batistatou, Anna; Sotiropoulou, Maria; Aravantinos, Gerasimos; Papakostas, Pavlos; Kosmidis, Paris; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Fountzilas, George

    2016-01-01

    Early breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and, therefore, prognostic tools have been developed to evaluate the risk for distant recurrence. In the present study, we sought to develop a risk for recurrence score (RRS) based on mRNA expression of three proliferation markers in high-risk early breast cancer patients and evaluate its ability to predict risk for relapse and death. In addition the Adjuvant! Online score (AOS) was also determined for each patient, providing a 10-year estimate of relapse and mortality risk. We then evaluated whether RRS or AOS might possibly improve the prognostic information of the clinical treatment score (CTS), a model derived from clinicopathological variables. A total of 1,681 patients, enrolled in two prospective phase III trials, were treated with anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Sufficient RNA was extracted from 875 samples followed by multiplex quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for assessing RACGAP1, TOP2A and Ki67 mRNA expression. The CTS, slightly modified to fit our cohort, integrated the prognostic information from age, nodal status, tumor size, histological grade and treatment. Patients were also classified to breast cancer subtypes defined by immunohistochemistry. Likelihood ratio (LR) tests and concordance indices were used to estimate the relative increase in the amount of information provided when either RRS or AOS is added to CTS. The optimal RRS, in terms of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), was based on the co-expression of two of the three evaluated genes (RACGAP1 and TOP2A). CTS was prognostic for DFS (p<0.001), while CTS, AOS and RRS were all prognostic for OS (p<0.001, p<0.001 and p = 0.036, respectively). The use of AOS in addition to CTS added prognostic information regarding DFS (LR-Δχ2 8.7, p = 0.003), however the use of RRS in addition to CTS did not. For estimating OS, the use of either AOS or RRS in addition to CTS added significant prognostic

  14. The Holmes Group Plan vs. a Phenomenological Scenario for Teacher Education: An Epistemological Methodological Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Harriet B.

    The "Report of the Holmes Group: Tomorrow's Teachers" (1986) impacted the teacher education reform movement. The epistemological methodology inherent in its proposal requires consideration to establish its philosophical foundations and to appreciate the special nature of its teacher education model. Comparison with a dissimilar…

  15. A Comparison of the Lidocaine Patch 5% vs Naproxen 500 mg Twice Daily for the Relief of Pain Associated With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A 6-Week, Randomized, Parallel-Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Nalamachu, Srinivas; Crockett, R.S.; Gammaitoni, Arnold R.; Gould, Errol M.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common entrapment neuropathy caused by median nerve compression. This pilot clinical trial was designed to compare the safety and effectiveness of the lidocaine patch 5% to that of naproxen 500 mg twice daily for the treatment of neuropathic pain associated with CTS. Methods In this 6-week, randomized, parallel-group, open-label, multicenter study, participants from 2 practice sites, aged 18 to 75 years with clinical/electrodiagnostic evidence of CTS, were randomized to receive up to 3 lidocaine 5% patches every 24 hours or naproxen 500 mg twice daily for 6 weeks. Outcome assessments included mean changes between baseline and Week 6 average pain intensity (Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]: Question 5, Average Pain Intensity [API]), an Investigator Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I) over the course of the treatment period and a comparison of patient satisfaction (Clinical Global Assessment of Treatment [CGAT]). Results One hundred patients were randomized in this study, 52 in the lidocaine patch 5% group and 48 in the naproxen 500 mg twice daily group. Significant reductions in API scores were observed between baseline and Week 6 for both lidocaine patch 5% (P < .0001) and naproxen 500 mg twice daily (P = .0004); however, there were no statistically significant differences between treatments (P = .083). There was a significant (P = .016) difference in the CGI-I for lidocaine patch 5% (51.1%) compared with naproxen 500 mg twice daily (24.3%). Whereas 71.8% of the lidocaine patch 5% patients reported being “satisfied” to “very satisfied” with the treatment, only 63.2% of naproxen 500 mg twice daily patients reported likewise, although the difference was not statistically significant. Both treatments were well tolerated. Two patients reported treatment-related adverse events in the lidocaine patch 5% group and 6 in the naproxen 500 mg twice daily group, all of which were considered mild or moderate in

  16. Comparison of cold enrichment and U.S. Department of Agriculture methods for isolating Listeria monocytogenes from naturally contaminated foods. The Listeria Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, P S; Graves, L M; Ajello, G W; Swaminathan, B; Weaver, R E; Wenger, J D; Schuchat, A; Broome, C V

    1991-01-01

    We compared the cold enrichment (CE) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) methods for isolating Listeria monocytogenes by examining 402 food samples. The food samples were collected from refrigerators of listeriosis patients as part of a multistate active surveillance project to determine the role of foods in sporadic listeriosis in the United States. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 51 food samples (13%). The USDA method was significantly better (P less than 0.001) than the CE method. The isolation efficiencies of the USDA and CE methods were 96 and 59%, respectively. Quantitation of L. monocytogenes in the food samples revealed that many food samples containing less than 0.3 CFU/g were negative as determined by the CE method but positive as determined by the USDA method. PMID:1768082

  17. Report of the School Finance Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This document reports the findings of a study assessing the status of school finance in Wisconsin and recommending preferred methods for funding the public schools. Seventy-nine topics were considered in five areas: state support, general aid, categorical aid, factors affecting school costs, and other topics. The study's recommendations regarding…

  18. Safety impacts of platform tram stops on pedestrians in mixed traffic operation: A comparison group before-after crash study.

    PubMed

    Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Logan, David; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Tram stops in mixed traffic environments present a variety of safety, accessibility and transport efficiency challenges. In Melbourne, Australia the hundred year-old electric tram system is progressively being modernized to improve passenger accessibility. Platform stops, incorporating raised platforms for level entry into low floor trams, are being retro-fitted system-wide to replace older design stops. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety impacts of platform stops over older design stops (i.e. Melbourne safety zone tram stops) on pedestrians in the context of mixed traffic tram operation in Melbourne, using an advanced before-after crash analysis approach, the comparison group (CG) method. The CG method evaluates safety impacts by taking into account the general trends in safety and the unobserved factors at treatment and comparison sites that can alter the outcomes of a simple before-after analysis. The results showed that pedestrian-involved all injury crashes reduced by 43% after platform stop installation. This paper also explores a concern that the conventional CG method might underestimate safety impacts as a result of large differences in passenger stop use between treatment and comparison sites, suggesting differences in crash risk exposure. To adjust for this, a modified analysis explored crash rates (crash counts per 10,000 stop passengers) for each site. The adjusted results suggested greater reductions in pedestrian-involved crashes after platform stop installation: an 81% reduction in pedestrian-involved all injury crashes and 86% reduction in pedestrian-involved FSI crashes, both are significant at the 95% level. Overall, the results suggest that platform stops have considerable safety benefits for pedestrians. Implications for policy and areas for future research are explored.

  19. Prospective and randomized trial of lipiodol-transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: a comparison of epirubicin and doxorubicin (second cooperative study). The Cooperative Study Group for Liver Cancer Treatment of Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawai, S; Tani, M; Okamura, J; Ogawa, M; Ohashi, Y; Monden, M; Hayashi, S; Inoue, J; Kawarada, Y; Kusano, M; Kubo, Y; Kuroda, C; Sakata, Y; Shimamura, Y; Jinno, K; Takahashi, A; Takayasu, K; Tamura, K; Nagasue, N; Nakanishi, Y; Makino, M; Masuzawa, M; Yumoto, Y; Mori, T; Oda, T

    1997-04-01

    A randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted to compare the use of epirubicin (EPI) and doxorubicin (DOX) in Lipiodol (Laboratoire Guerbet, Roissy-Charles-de-Gaulle Cedex, France)-transcatheter arterial chemoembolization as a treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. One hundred ninety-two hospitals participated, and 415 patients were enrolled in the study during the period between October 1989 and December 1990. The patients were randomly allocated to group A (EPI) or group B (DOX) by a centralized telephone registration. The actual doses of EPI and DOX were 72 mg/body and 48 mg/body, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were, respectively, 69%, 44%, and 33% for group A and 73%, 54%, and 37% for group B. There were no statistically significant differences (P = .2296, log-rank test). When each group of patients was classified retrospectively into high-risk and low-risk subgroups based on the severity index calculated by the Cox regression model from the significant prognostic factors (the pretreatment tumor size, the pretreatment serum alpha-fetoprotein level, tumor encroachment, and Child's classification), the survival curve of the low-risk DOX subgroup was significantly superior to that of the low-risk EPI subgroup (P = .0182). However, there was no significant difference between the high-risk subgroups (P = .4606). The change in the serum alpha-fetoprotein level, the extent of Lipiodol accumulation in the tumor, and the extent of tumor reduction after the treatment did not show any significant differences between the groups. The white blood cell count in group B showed a tendency to decrease slightly more than in group A at 3 weeks after Lipiodol-transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. In conclusion, there was no statistically significant difference between the survival curves of the EPI and DOX groups in Lipiodol-transcatheter arterial embolization treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  20. Group heterogeneity increases the risks of large group size: a longitudinal study of productivity in research groups.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Jonathon N; Kiesler, Sara; Bosagh Zadeh, Reza; Balakrishnan, Aruna D

    2013-06-01

    Heterogeneous groups are valuable, but differences among members can weaken group identification. Weak group identification may be especially problematic in larger groups, which, in contrast with smaller groups, require more attention to motivating members and coordinating their tasks. We hypothesized that as groups increase in size, productivity would decrease with greater heterogeneity. We studied the longitudinal productivity of 549 research groups varying in disciplinary heterogeneity, institutional heterogeneity, and size. We examined their publication and citation productivity before their projects started and 5 to 9 years later. Larger groups were more productive than smaller groups, but their marginal productivity declined as their heterogeneity increased, either because their members belonged to more disciplines or to more institutions. These results provide evidence that group heterogeneity moderates the effects of group size, and they suggest that desirable diversity in groups may be better leveraged in smaller, more cohesive units.

  1. Protocol for the comparison of triflusal and clopidogrel in secondary prevention of stroke based on cytochrome P450 2C19 genotyping (MASETRO study): A multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Won; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ahn, Seong Hwan; Seo, Woo-Keun; Yu, Sungwook; Oh, Seung-Hun; Kim, Youn Nam; Lee, Kyung-Yul

    2016-06-01

    The antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel is reportedly influenced by cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) polymorphisms. However, there is no data concerning the relationship between stroke recurrence and CYP2C19 polymorphisms in patients treated with clopidogrel for secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. Triflusal may be an alternative therapy for clopidogrel in patients with poor genotype. The Comparison of Triflusal and Clopidogrel Effects in Secondary Prevention of Stroke Based on Cytochrome P450 2C19 Genotyping (MAESTRO) study will investigate the effect of antiplatelet agents based on CYP2C19 polymorphisms in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. Assuming that 55% of patients belong to the poor genotype group, the required sample size is 1080 patients with at least 24 months of follow-up. This study is designed as a prospective, multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, open-label, and blind genotype trial. Patients who experience their first non-cardiogenic ischemic stroke within 30 days prior to screening are eligible. Patients received 300 mg triflusal twice a day or 75 mg clopidogrel once daily during the trial. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01174693). The primary outcome is recurrent ischemic stroke or hemorrhagic stroke. Secondary outcomes consist of composite major vascular events including stroke, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, or vascular death. Personalized medicine may be essential for patients according to individual drug metabolism abilities. MAESTRO is the first prospective study designed to evaluate the effect of CYP2C19 polymorphism in secondary stroke prevention and will resolve several questions regarding preventive antiplatelet agents for recurrent stroke. © 2016 World Stroke Organization.

  2. Comparison of gait of persons with partial foot amputation wearing prosthesis to matched control group: observational study.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Michael P; Barker, Timothy M

    2008-01-01

    Our understanding of the gait mechanics of persons with partial foot amputation and the influence of prosthetic intervention has been limited by the reporting of isolated gait parameters in specific amputation levels and limited interpretation and discussion of results. This observational study aimed to more completely describe the gait patterns of persons with partial foot amputation wearing their existing prosthesis and footwear in comparison with a nonamputee control group. Major adaptations occurred once the metatarsal heads were compromised. Persons with transmetatarsal and Lisfranc amputation who were wearing insoles and slipper sockets maintained the center of pressure behind the end of the residuum until after contralateral heel contact. This gait pattern may be a useful adaptation to protect the residuum, moderate the requirement of the calf musculature, or compensate for the compliance of the forefoot. Power generation across the affected ankle was virtually negligible, necessitating increased power generation across the hip joints. The clamshell devices fitted to the persons with Chopart amputation restored their effective foot length and normalized many aspects of gait. These persons' ability to adopt this gait pattern may be the result of the broad anterior shell of the socket, a relatively stiff forefoot, and immobilization of the ankle. The hip joints still contributed significantly to the power generation required to walk.

  3. The Study in Group: A Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, Óscar; López-Marcos, Juan Carlos; Del Carmen Martínez, María

    In this work, we present an activity developed for the practical lessons into the subject Fundamentos Matemáticos de la Ingeniería which belongs to the graduate program of Ingeniero Técnico en Diseño Industrial (Industrial Design Technical Engineering).

  4. Report of the New Rings Study Group

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, S.D.; Dugan, G.; Marriner, J.

    1987-10-19

    We have taken the approach here of trying to understand both the feasibility and practicality of varied options for new rings at Fermilab, rather than trying to produce a single detailed design. In other words, this document is not a design report and should not be construed as such. Our perception of the potential needs for new rings (in order of priority) is as follows: Antiproton Storage and/or Recovery: A facility for storing up to 4 x 10/sup 12/ antiprotons is needed. Recovery of antiprotons from the collider becomes a viable option if the luminosity is indeed dominated by emittance dilution rather than beam loss. New or Post-Booster: The goal here would be to inject into the existing Main Ring above transition. Improved performance of the Main Ring would be anticipated. New Main Ring: Advantages would include better emittance preservation, a faster cycle time for antiproton production, and the removal of interference/backgrounds at the B0 and D0 detectors. We discuss in this paper various scenarios based on one or more combinations of the above possibilities. 14 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Artifact removal in the context of group ICA: A comparison of single-subject and group approaches.

    PubMed

    Du, Yuhui; Allen, Elena A; He, Hao; Sui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Calhoun, Vince D

    2016-03-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) has been widely applied to identify intrinsic brain networks from fMRI data. Group ICA computes group-level components from all data and subsequently estimates individual-level components to recapture intersubject variability. However, the best approach to handle artifacts, which may vary widely among subjects, is not yet clear. In this work, we study and compare two ICA approaches for artifacts removal. One approach, recommended in recent work by the Human Connectome Project, first performs ICA on individual subject data to remove artifacts, and then applies a group ICA on the cleaned data from all subjects. We refer to this approach as Individual ICA based artifacts Removal Plus Group ICA (IRPG). A second proposed approach, called Group Information Guided ICA (GIG-ICA), performs ICA on group data, then removes the group-level artifact components, and finally performs subject-specific ICAs using the group-level non-artifact components as spatial references. We used simulations to evaluate the two approaches with respect to the effects of data quality, data quantity, variable number of sources among subjects, and spatially unique artifacts. Resting-state test-retest datasets were also employed to investigate the reliability of functional networks. Results from simulations demonstrate GIG-ICA has greater performance compared with IRPG, even in the case when single-subject artifacts removal is perfect and when individual subjects have spatially unique artifacts. Experiments using test-retest data suggest that GIG-ICA provides more reliable functional networks. Based on high estimation accuracy, ease of implementation, and high reliability of functional networks, we find GIG-ICA to be a promising approach.

  6. The Attunement Principles: A Comparison of Nurture Group and Mainstream Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubeddu, Daniela; MacKay, Tommy

    2017-01-01

    Two key areas identified for research are differences in practice between nurture groups and mainstream classrooms, and nurturing approaches in rural and low-density populations. This study compared classroom practice in a nurture group serving a wide rural area with the four mainstream classes to which the five children in the group belonged. The…

  7. A COMPARISON OF THE CLUSTERING PROPERTIES BETWEEN GALAXIES AND GROUPS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Xinfa

    2013-03-01

    In this study, I apply cluster analysis and perform comparative studies of clustering properties between galaxies and groups of galaxies. It is found that the number of objects N{sub max} of the richest system and the maximal length D{sub max} of the largest system for groups in all samples are apparently larger than ones for galaxies, and that galaxies preferentially form isolated, paired, and small systems, while groups preferentially form grouped and clustered systems. These results show that groups are more strongly clustered than galaxies, which is consistent with statistical results of the correlation function.

  8. Quality control of involved-field radiotherapy for patients with early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma based on a central prospective review. Comparison of the results between two study generations of the German Hodgkin Study Group.

    PubMed

    Kriz, J; Bangard, C; Haverkamp, U; Bongartz, R; Baues, C; Engert, A; Mueller, R-P; Eich, H T

    2012-08-01

    Based on experience in trials HD10 and HD11 (1998-2003), the radiotherapy reference center of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) continued their central prospective radiation oncological review in trials HD13 and HD14. The purpose of this analysis was to identify the impact of this procedure on radiotherapeutic management and to compare findings with former trials. Between 2003 and 2009, 1,710 patients were enrolled in the HD13 trial (early favorable stages) and 2,039 patients in the HD14 trial (early unfavorable stages). All patients received a total of 30 Gy involved-field (IF) radiotherapy within a combined modality approach. For patients in HD13, there was a correction of disease involvement in 847/1,518 patients (56%), and for patients in HD14 in 1,370/1,905 patients (72%). Most discrepancies were observed in the lower mediastinum (19.2%), infraclavicular (31.7%), upper cervical (12.7%), and supraclavicular (10.8%) lymph nodes. This resulted in a change of disease stage in 241 (7%) patients and a shift into another study protocol in 66 (2%) patients. Due to the incorrect lymph node documentation of the participating study centers, the IF radiotherapy volume had to be enlarged in 1,063/3,423 patients (31%) and reduced in 244/3,423 patients (7.1%). These findings are comparable to the results of the quality control in the trials HD10 and HD11 (2,611 patients reviewed). Central review of the diagnostic imaging and clinical findings of Hodgkin's lymphoma patients shows a considerable number of discrepancies compared with the local evaluation. Thus, meticulous evaluation of all imaging information in close collaboration between the radiation oncologist and diagnostic radiologist is mandatory.

  9. Teaching Groups as Midlevel Sociocultural Contexts for Developing Teaching and Learning: A Case Study and Comparison to Microcultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Using a case-study approach, the structures, interactions and cultures in four teaching groups at a New Zealand university are explored. The aim of the research is to better understand the potential of teaching groups for assisting academic development. To contextualize this work, the case-study outcomes are compared to research on microcultures.…

  10. The Experiences of Expert Group Work Supervisors: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atieno Okech, Jane E.; Rubel, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of group work supervision literature suggests that description of expert group work supervisors' experiences could be useful for expanding existing group work supervision practices and models. This study provided a systematic exploration of the experiences of expert group work supervisors during the supervision process. Results indicate…

  11. 40 CFR 761.326 - Conducting the comparison study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conducting the comparison study. 761...-liquid PCB Remediation Waste Samples § 761.326 Conducting the comparison study. Extract or analyze the comparison study samples using the alternative method. For an alternative extraction method or alternative...

  12. 40 CFR 761.326 - Conducting the comparison study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conducting the comparison study. 761...-liquid PCB Remediation Waste Samples § 761.326 Conducting the comparison study. Extract or analyze the comparison study samples using the alternative method. For an alternative extraction method or alternative...

  13. 40 CFR 761.326 - Conducting the comparison study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conducting the comparison study. 761...-liquid PCB Remediation Waste Samples § 761.326 Conducting the comparison study. Extract or analyze the comparison study samples using the alternative method. For an alternative extraction method or alternative...

  14. Methodological issues regarding power of classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT)-based approaches for the comparison of patient-reported outcomes in two groups of patients - a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients-Reported Outcomes (PRO) are increasingly used in clinical and epidemiological research. Two main types of analytical strategies can be found for these data: classical test theory (CTT) based on the observed scores and models coming from Item Response Theory (IRT). However, whether IRT or CTT would be the most appropriate method to analyse PRO data remains unknown. The statistical properties of CTT and IRT, regarding power and corresponding effect sizes, were compared. Methods Two-group cross-sectional studies were simulated for the comparison of PRO data using IRT or CTT-based analysis. For IRT, different scenarios were investigated according to whether items or person parameters were assumed to be known, to a certain extent for item parameters, from good to poor precision, or unknown and therefore had to be estimated. The powers obtained with IRT or CTT were compared and parameters having the strongest impact on them were identified. Results When person parameters were assumed to be unknown and items parameters to be either known or not, the power achieved using IRT or CTT were similar and always lower than the expected power using the well-known sample size formula for normally distributed endpoints. The number of items had a substantial impact on power for both methods. Conclusion Without any missing data, IRT and CTT seem to provide comparable power. The classical sample size formula for CTT seems to be adequate under some conditions but is not appropriate for IRT. In IRT, it seems important to take account of the number of items to obtain an accurate formula. PMID:20338031

  15. Study Abroad: The Reality of Building Dynamic Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransbury, Molly K.; Harris, Sandra A.

    1994-01-01

    The collaborative effort of a professor of human development with expertise in group process and a general education professor with expertise in Greek mythology and culture uses a case study format to apply theoretical models of group dynamics to the travel and learning experience of study abroad. Implications for course design and group process…

  16. Carcinogenicity evaluation: comparison of tumor data from dual control groups in the CD-1 mouse.

    PubMed

    Baldrick, Paul; Reeve, Lesley

    2007-06-01

    Current regulatory thinking allows for the use of single control groups for rodent carcinogenicity testing although there has been a trend until recently to use dual control groups. To date, virtually nothing has been published on whether a shift from dual to single control groups will affect the identification of tumorigenic risk potential in these studies. A recent evaluation of dual control carcinogenicity data in the rat (Baldrick, Toxicol Pathol 2005, 33: 283-291) showed that although no major differences in tumor incidences between the control groups were found, some interstudy variation occurred and in cases were a notable difference was seen, the use of 2 control groups, as well as robust, contemporary background data, allowed an easier interpretation of findings in drug-treated groups. In this paper, the results of 10 mouse carcinogenicity studies, performed between 1991 and 2004, with 2 control groups, are presented. As in the rat, interstudy variation was seen and in some cases, the use of dual control groups assisted in the tumor risk assessment. Thus, the continued use of 2 control groups can have a vital role in mouse carcinogenicity studies. The paper also presents an update on survival, on the range and extent of background spontaneous neoplasms and comments on genetic drift in this commonly used mouse strain.

  17. Evaluating "Baby Think It Over" Infant Simulators: A Comparison Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Jerrold E.

    2006-01-01

    To test the efficacy of Baby-Think-It-Over (BTIO) infant simulators, two versions of a sexuality education program were compared. While the program was designed to include BTIO as an important teaching technique, two schools (49 students) opted not to use them. These students completed all elements of the program except the BTIO activities. Their…

  18. Evaluating "Baby Think It Over" Infant Simulators: A Comparison Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Jerrold E.

    2006-01-01

    To test the efficacy of Baby-Think-It-Over (BTIO) infant simulators, two versions of a sexuality education program were compared. While the program was designed to include BTIO as an important teaching technique, two schools (49 students) opted not to use them. These students completed all elements of the program except the BTIO activities. Their…

  19. Sleep and Daytime Functioning: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Three Preschool-Age Comparison Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Thomas; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Tang, Karen; Goodlin-Jones, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sleep, sleepiness, and daytime performance in 68 children with autism, 57 children with intellectual disability (ID), and 69 typically developing preschool children. Children in the autism and ID groups had poorer daytime performance and behaviors than the typically developing children. Children in the ID group also were…

  20. Draft Genome Comparison of Representatives of the Three Dominant Genotype Groups of Dairy Bacillus licheniformis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Rajat; Seale, R. Brent; Deeth, Hilton C.; Craven, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The spore-forming bacterium Bacillus licheniformis is a common contaminant of milk and milk products. Strains of this species isolated from dairy products can be differentiated into three major groups, namely, G, F1, and F2, using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis; however, little is known about the genomic differences between these groups and the identity of the fragments that make up their RAPD profiles. In this work we obtained high-quality draft genomes of representative strains from each of the three RAPD groups (designated strain G-1, strain F1-1, and strain F2-1) and compared them to each other and to B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 and Bacillus subtilis 168. Whole-genome comparison and multilocus sequence typing revealed that strain G-1 contains significant sequence variability and belongs to a lineage distinct from the group F strains. Strain G-1 was found to contain genes coding for a type I restriction modification system, urease production, and bacitracin synthesis, as well as the 8-kbp plasmid pFL7, and these genes were not present in strains F1-1 and F2-1. In agreement with this, all isolates of group G, but no group F isolates, were found to possess urease activity and antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus. Identification of RAPD band sequences revealed that differences in the RAPD profiles were due to differences in gene lengths, 3′ ends of predicted primer binding sites, or gene presence or absence. This work provides a greater understanding of the phylogenetic and phenotypic differences observed within the B. licheniformis species. PMID:24657871

  1. Draft genome comparison of representatives of the three dominant genotype groups of dairy Bacillus licheniformis strains.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Rajat; Seale, R Brent; Deeth, Hilton C; Craven, Heather; Turner, Mark S

    2014-06-01

    The spore-forming bacterium Bacillus licheniformis is a common contaminant of milk and milk products. Strains of this species isolated from dairy products can be differentiated into three major groups, namely, G, F1, and F2, using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis; however, little is known about the genomic differences between these groups and the identity of the fragments that make up their RAPD profiles. In this work we obtained high-quality draft genomes of representative strains from each of the three RAPD groups (designated strain G-1, strain F1-1, and strain F2-1) and compared them to each other and to B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 and Bacillus subtilis 168. Whole-genome comparison and multilocus sequence typing revealed that strain G-1 contains significant sequence variability and belongs to a lineage distinct from the group F strains. Strain G-1 was found to contain genes coding for a type I restriction modification system, urease production, and bacitracin synthesis, as well as the 8-kbp plasmid pFL7, and these genes were not present in strains F1-1 and F2-1. In agreement with this, all isolates of group G, but no group F isolates, were found to possess urease activity and antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus. Identification of RAPD band sequences revealed that differences in the RAPD profiles were due to differences in gene lengths, 3' ends of predicted primer binding sites, or gene presence or absence. This work provides a greater understanding of the phylogenetic and phenotypic differences observed within the B. licheniformis species.

  2. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention.

  3. Studying the HI content of the NGC 4930 group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfinger, Kathrin; Kilborn, Virginia; Koribalski, Baerbel

    2011-10-01

    We propose to observe the neutral hydrogen (HI) content of the spiral-rich NGC 4930 group using the ATCA. This notable group lies 2.5° east of the Centaurus cluster core and is probably infalling for the first time. Our primary goal is to trace the evolutionary changes of spirals in different environments and to map the first signs of interaction and transformation. Our aims of the ATCA observations are (i) to study the HI properties of the group, (ii) to determine if there is an HI deficiency in the members, (iii) to look for any signs of ram pressure stripping that would indicate an interaction with a hot intra-group medium and (iv) to conduct a ‘blind’ survey for new group members, such as dwarf companions within the survey volume. We will further test the latest galaxy finding routines such as Duchamp, which are vital for the success of the upcoming ASKAP HI surveys. The NGC 4930 group is covered in the HI Parkes All Sky Survey but only two out of the nine group members are detected in HI. We propose to make mosaic observations and we expect to detect all of the known galaxies in this group.

  4. Studying the Stellar Populations of the Local Group with VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstoy, Eline

    The best chance we have to understand star formation and how it proceeds in the Universe is going to come from detailed studies of the numerous different environments found within the Local Group (LG). Present day star formation in our Galaxy occurs exclusively in metal rich environments (Z ˜ Z_⊙), so if we want to study how low metallicity stars form (and thus understand observations of galaxies at high-redshift) we have to look beyond our Galaxy, to the smallest star forming dwarf galaxies, which can have extremely low metallicities (Z ˜ 0.02-0.05Z_⊙). Of course in its entirety a stellar population always contains the complete details of the star formation history of a galaxy, however this information is often hard to disentangle retroactively. We also have much to learn from the Magellanic Clouds (Z ˜ 0.1- 0.3Z_⊙), although because they are undergoing interactions with our Galaxy and each other their evolutionary picture and its general applicability less obvious. In our LG there are also a number of "remnants", or galaxies which which currently do not form stars (e.g. the dSph, such as Carina, Leo I, Ursa Minor, etc..). It is not straight forward to draw parallels between galaxies which are forming stars and those which aren't. This is of course because star formation has such a dramatic impact upon a galaxy, and alternative methods have to be used to make the most basic of comparisons of properties (e.g. metallicity, mass, luminosity evolution). It is necessary to put all the dwarf galaxies into a global picture if we are to draw meaningful conclusions about their star formation properties (e.g. Ferrara & Tolstoy 1999). Many of the small LG galaxies contain direct evidence of complicated star formation histories (e.g. Smecker-Hane et al. 1994; Tolstoy et al. 1998; Gallart et al. 1999), which suggests that star formation patterns can change dramatically over long time scales. This kind of evolutionary behaviour can have a dramatic impact upon the

  5. Is the Medium Really the Message? A Comparison of Face-to-Face, Telephone, and Internet Focus Group Venues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothberg, June; Applegate, Brooks; Reeves, Patricia; Kohler, Paula; Thurston, Linda; Peterson, Lori

    2013-01-01

    With increased use of technology in qualitative research, it is important to understand unintended, unanticipated, and unobvious consequences to the data. Using a side-by-side comparison of face-to-face, telephone, and Internet with video focus groups, we examined the yield differences of focus group venue (medium) to the data (message) rendered…

  6. Is the Medium Really the Message? A Comparison of Face-to-Face, Telephone, and Internet Focus Group Venues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothberg, June; Applegate, Brooks; Reeves, Patricia; Kohler, Paula; Thurston, Linda; Peterson, Lori

    2013-01-01

    With increased use of technology in qualitative research, it is important to understand unintended, unanticipated, and unobvious consequences to the data. Using a side-by-side comparison of face-to-face, telephone, and Internet with video focus groups, we examined the yield differences of focus group venue (medium) to the data (message) rendered…

  7. When the Private Sector Decamps and the Comparison Group Evaporates: What Went on Behind the Scenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronick, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    Describes what went on as a "Children's Plan" was being designed to meet the needs of children in a state with a very high juvenile incarceration rate. The state program was to be compared with a contemporaneous private sector program, but the private program was taken over by the state after two years, thus making comparison impossible. (JPS)

  8. Comparison of two doses of intravitreal bevacizumab as primary treatment for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion: results of the pan American collaborative retina study group at 24 months.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lihteh; Arevalo, J Fernando; Berrocal, Maria H; Maia, Mauricio; Roca, José A; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio; Alezzandrini, Arturo A; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the injection burden, central macular thickness (CMT), and change in best-corrected visual acuity after injecting 1.25 mg or 2.5 mg bevacizumab as needed in patients with primary macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion. This is an interventional, retrospective, comparative multicenter study of 86 eyes with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion that were treated primarily with intravitreal bevacizumab (44 eyes, 1.25 mg; 42 eyes, 2.5 mg). The main outcome measures were the CMT and the change of best-corrected visual acuity at 24 months. All patients completed at least 24 months of follow-up. The mean number of injections per eye were 7.2 for the 1.25-mg dose group and 8.1 for the 2.5-mg dose group (P = 0.4492). At 24 months, in the 1.25-mg dose group, the logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity improved from baseline 0.35 +/- 0.57 units (P < 0.0001) versus 0.27 +/- 0.68 units for the 2.5-mg dose group (P < 0.0001). These differences were not statistically significant between both dose groups. In the 1.25-mg dose group, 25 (56.8%) eyes gained >or=3 lines of Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity and 6 (13.6%) lost >or=3 lines of Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity. In the 2.5-mg dose group, 24 (57.1 %) eyes improved >or=3 lines of Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity and 7 (16.7%) lost >or=3 lines of Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity. The CMT in the 1.25-mg dose group improved from 635 +/- 324 microm to 264 +/- 160 microm (P < 0.0001) versus 528 +/- microm to 293 +/- 137 microm in the 2.5-mg dose group (P < 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference between both dose groups with regard to the CMT reduction. Intravitreal bevacizumab at doses up to 2.5 mg seems to be effective in improving visual acuity and reducing CMT in macular edema secondary to

  9. Comparison of the Variations of Sunspot Number, Number of Sunspot Groups, and Sunspot Area, 1875 -2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Examined are the yearly variations and ratios of sunspot number, the number of sunspot groups, and the total corrected sunspot area for the interval 1875-2013. While yearly sunspot number independently correlates strongly (r = 0.98) with the yearly number of sunspot groups (y = -2 + 11.99x) and the total corrected sunspot area (y = 5 + 0.059x), the strongest correlation (Ry12 = 0.99) is the one based on the bivariate fit of sunspot number against the combined variations of the number of sunspot groups and sunspot area (y = 1 + 5.88x1 + 0.031x2, where y refers to sunspot number, x1 refers to the number of sunspot groups, and x2 refers to the sunspot area). While all cycle minima based on the bivariate fit are concurrent with the observed minimum in sunspot number, cycle maxima are sometimes found to differ. For sunspot cycles 12, 19, 20, and 23, cycle maximum is inferred to have occurred in 1884, 1958, 1970, and 2002, respectively, rather than in 1883, 1957, 1968, and 2000, based on the observed sunspot number. Also, cycle 19's maximum amplitude based on observed sunspot number seems too high in comparison to that found using the bivariate fit. During the 139-year interval 1875-2013, the difference between the observed and predicted sunspot number based on the bivariate fit is <1 standard error of estimate (se) (<6.4) for 111 years, between 1 and <2 se (6.4 to <12.8) for 28 years, and =2 se (=12.8) for only 4 years, these years being 1957 (16.6), 1978 (-15.8), 1980 (23), and 1982 (-16.3). For sunspot cycle 24, the difference between observed and predicted values has been only -0.7 and 3.2 (=0.5 se).

  10. Cooperative Study Groups: Give Your Students the Home Team Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerma, Tony

    2007-01-01

    In this article I discuss the factors that led me to implement study groups in the teaching of mathematics. An important influence in this decision began with an experimental study conducted with two College Algebra classes in which students were randomly assigned to treatment groups. While there was no statistical difference between the study…

  11. The US LC Technology Comparison Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, Gerald

    2004-05-01

    At the request of the United States Linear Collider Steering Group (USLCSG), a study has been carried out to evaluate two options for a high-energy electron-positron linear collider sited in the United States. One option is based on normal-conducting X-band rf technology, similar to the design of the GLC/NLC Collaboration. The other option is based on superconducting L-band rf technology, similar to the design of the TESLA Collaboration. The reference designs for both options satisfy the physics-based machine requirements specified by the Physics/Detector Subcommittee of the USLCSG. Both options were developed in concert, using, as much as possible, similar approaches in technical design for similar accelerator systems, and a common approach to cost and schedule estimation, reliability design and evaluation, and project risk assessments. This talk will present the results of the study.

  12. The Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy: preliminary psychometrics and group comparisons in Italian physicians.

    PubMed

    Di Lillo, Mariangela; Cicchetti, Americo; Lo Scalzo, Alessandra; Taroni, Francesco; Hojat, Mohammadreza

    2009-09-01

    To examine the psychometrics of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) among a sample of Italian physicians. The JSPE was translated into Italian using back-translation procedures to ensure the accuracy of the translation. The translated JSPE was administered to 778 physicians at three hospitals in Rome, Italy in 2002. Individual empathy scores were calculated, as well as descriptive statistics at the item and scale level. Group comparisons of empathy scores were also made among men and women, physicians practicing in medical or surgical specialties, physicians working in different hospitals, and at physicians at various levels of career rank. Results are reported for 289 participants who completed the JSPE. Item-total score correlations were all positive and statistically significant. The prominent component of "perspective taking," which is the most important underlying construct of the scale, emerged in the factor analysis of the JSPE and was similar in both Italian and American samples. However, more factors appeared among Italian physicians, indicating that the underlying construct of empathy may be more complex among Italians. Cronbach coefficient alpha was .85. None of the group differences observed among physicians classified by gender, hospital of practice, specialty, or level of career rank reached statistical significance. Findings generally provide support for the construct validity and reliability of the Italian version of the JSPE. Further research is needed to determine whether the lack of statistically significant differences in empathy by gender and specialty is related to cultural peculiarities, the translation of the scale, or sampling.

  13. A Comparison of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Psychological Screening Inventory in a Delinquent Sample and a Comparison Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGurk, Barry J.; Bolton, Neil

    1981-01-01

    Compared the scores of reformatory inmates and technical college students on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Psychological Screening Inventory. Two factors accounted for most of the variance. Neuroticism was common to both groups. The second factor in the delinquent group was extraversion. (Author/JAC)

  14. Effectiveness of the surviving the Teens® suicide prevention and depression awareness program: an impact evaluation utilizing a comparison group.

    PubMed

    Strunk, Catherine M; King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Sorter, Michael T

    2014-12-01

    Youth suicide is a serious public health issue in the United States. It is currently the third leading cause of death for youth aged 10 to 19. School-based prevention programs may be an effective method of educating youth and enhancing their help-seeking. Most school-based suicide prevention programs have not been rigorously evaluated for their effectiveness. This evaluation employs a comparison group to measure whether program group participants differed significantly from comparison group participants on pretest-posttest measures while assessing the immediate impact of the Surviving the Teens® Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program. Findings indicate several positive outcomes in program group students' suicide and depression knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and behavioral intentions compared with the comparison group. Suicide prevention specialists and prevention planners may benefit from study findings.

  15. Clinical comparison of monophasic oral contraceptive preparations of gestodene/ethinyl estradiol and desogestrel/ethinyl estradiol. Latin American Oral Contraceptive Study Group.

    PubMed

    1994-09-01

    The efficacy, cycle control, subjective complaints, and safety of monophasic preparations of the oral contraceptives containing gestodene 75 mcg plus ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg versus desogestrel 150 mcg plus ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg were compared in a 6-cycle, open-label, parallel, randomized, multicenter phase IV clinical study in Latin America. Of a total of 176 women in each group, 163 in the gestodene group and 160 in the desogestrel group completed 6 cycles, providing data for 1,015 and 1,006 cycles, respectively. Subject compliance was excellent; pills were missed during only 6.9% of the cycles in each group. No woman became pregnant during the study. Gestodene group exhibited significantly better cycle control as evidenced by the lower incidence of breakthrough bleeding and spotting. Spotting in some cycles was reported by 11.9% of women taking the gestodene-combination compared with 21% of women taking the desogestrel-combination. Based on number of women, 86.4% of the gestodene group reported all cycles were normal (no BTB) compared with 76.7% of the desogestrel group. Also, the women in the gestodene group reported a significantly lower incidence of nuisance side effects during treatment cycles. No amenorrhea was observed for either group. There were no clinically significant differences between groups with respect to body weight, blood pressure, or laboratory evaluations. Seven women withdrew from the gestodene group and 8 women withdrew from the desogestrel group because of adverse reactions. The results of this study indicate that, although both OCs provided effective contraception, in comparison to the desogestrel-combination, the gestodene-containing OC is associated with better cycle control, less bleeding, and fewer subjective complaints.

  16. Comparison between the effects of muscle relaxation and support groups on the anxiety of nursing students: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Torabizadeh, Camellia; Bostani, Sanaz; Yektatalab, Shahrzad

    2016-11-01

    To compare the effects of the two methods of muscle relaxation and support group on the anxiety levels of the nursing students. In this randomized controlled trial, 150 nursing students who met the inclusion criteria were divided into three equal groups-muscle relaxation, support group, and control-using the permuted-block randomization method. The experimental groups received 5 sessions of intervention, while the control group did not receive any intervention at all. Using Spielberger's inventory, the researchers measured the anxiety levels of all three groups before and after the intervention. The results showed that both methods had a significant impact on anxiety levels of the nursing students; however, a comparison between their effects revealed that muscle relaxation had been more effective than support group. Considering the seriousness of the issue of anxiety for nursing students, it is important that measures be taken to reduce anxiety in this group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of the effects of ossein-hydroxyapatite complex and calcium carbonate on bone metabolism in women with senile osteoporosis: a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, controlled, prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ciria-Recasens, Manel; Blanch-Rubió, Josep; Coll-Batet, Mónica; Del Pilar Lisbona-Pérez, María; Díez-Perez, Adolfo; Carbonell-Abelló, Jordi; Manasanch, José; Pérez-Edo, Lluís

    2011-12-01

    Calcium and vitamin D supplementation is recommended in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis. One group that could benefit from this treatment is women with senile osteoporosis. Two sources of supplementary calcium are ossein-hydroxyapatite complex (OHC) and calcium carbonate, but, to date, their comparative effects on bone metabolism have not been studied in women with senile osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of OHC and calcium carbonate on bone metabolism in women with senile osteoporosis. This was a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, controlled, prospective study to compare the effects of OHC (treatment group) and calcium carbonate (control group) on bone metabolism. Patients were included between 2000 and 2004 and followed up for a maximum of 3 years. The study was carried out at the bone metabolism unit of two university hospitals in Barcelona, Spain. Subjects were women aged >65 years with densitometric osteoporosis of the lumbar spine or femoral neck. The treatment group received open-label OHC (Osteopor®) at a dose of two 830 mg tablets every 12 hours (712 mg elemental calcium per day). The control group received open-label calcium carbonate at a dose of 500 mg of elemental calcium every 12 hours (1000 mg elemental calcium per day). Both groups also received a vitamin D supplement (calcifediol 266 μg) at a dose of one vial orally every 15 days. Biochemical markers of bone remodelling (osteocalcin by electrochemiluminescence, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase using colorimetry) were measured at baseline and annually for 3 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck was also measured. One hundred and twenty women were included (55 in the OHC group and 65 in the calcium carbonate group), of whom 54 completed 3 years of follow-up. Levels of serum osteocalcin increased to a greater extent in the OHC group compared with the calcium carbonate group (by a mean ± SD of 0.84

  18. Carcinogenicity evaluation: comparison of tumor data from dual control groups in the Sprague-Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Baldrick, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Following recent clarification in Europe that a single control group is now acceptable for rodent carcinogenicity studies, the use of dual controls may be reduced or disappear. To date, virtually nothing has been published on whether this latter situation has improved the identification of tumorigenic risk potential in these studies. In this paper, the results of 13 rat carcinogenicity studies, performed between 1991 and 2002, with 2 control groups, are presented. Although no major differences in tumor incidences between these dual control groups were found, some interstudy variation occurred. In cases where a notable difference was seen, the use of 2 control groups, as well as robust, contemporary background data, allowed an easier interpretation of findings in drug-treated groups. Thus, the continued use of dual control groups has a vital role in the assessment of tumoriogenic risk. The paper also presents an update on survival, on the range and extent of background spontaneous neoplasms, and comments on genetic drift in this commonly used rat strain.

  19. Comparison between group and personal rehabilitation for dementia in a geriatric health service facility: single-blinded randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shigeya; Honda, Shin; Nakano, Hajime; Sato, Yuko; Araya, Kazufumi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of rehabilitation involving group and personal sessions on demented participants. This single-blinded randomized controlled trial included 60 elderly participants with dementia in a geriatric health service facility, or R oken. Staff members, who did not participate in the intervention, examined cognitive function, mood, communication ability, severity of dementia, objective quality of life, vitality, and daily behaviour. After a baseline assessment, participants were randomly divided into three groups: (i) group intervention; (ii) personal intervention; and (iii) control. The 1-h group intervention (3-5 subjects) and 20-min personal intervention (one staff member per participant) were performed twice a week for 12 weeks (24 total sessions). The cognitive rehabilitation programme consisted of reminiscence, reality orientation, and physical exercise, and it was based on five principles of brain-activating rehabilitation; (i) pleasant atmosphere; (ii) communication; (iii) social roles; (iv) praising; and (v) errorless support. Data were analyzed after the second assessment. Outcome measures were analyzed in 43 participants-14 in the control group, 13 in group intervention, and 16 in personal intervention. Repeated measure ancova showed a significant interaction for cognitive function score (Mini-Mental State Examination) between group intervention and controls ( F  = 5.535, P = 0.029). In the post-hoc analysis, group intervention showed significant improvement (P = 0.016). Global severity of dementia tended to improve (P = 0.094) in group intervention compared to control (Mann-Whitney U -test). There were no significant interactions or improvements for other measurements. Group rehabilitation for dementia is more effective for improving cognitive function and global severity of dementia than personal rehabilitation in Roken. © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  20. Population data of five genetic markers in the Turkish population: comparison with four American population groups.

    PubMed

    Kurtuluş-Ulküer, M; Ulküer, U; Kesici, T; Menevşe, S

    2002-09-01

    In this study, the phenotype and allele frequencies of five enzyme systems were determined in a total of 611 unrelated Turkish individuals and analyzed by using the exact and the chi 2 test. The following five red cell enzymes were identified by cellulose acetate electrophoresis: phosphoglucomutase (PGM), adenosine deaminase (ADA), phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), adenylate kinase (AK), and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD). The ADA, PGM and AK enzymes were found to be polymorphic in the Turkish population. The results of the statistical analysis showed, that the phenotype frequencies of the five enzyme under study are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Statistical analysis was performed in order to examine whether there are significant differences in the phenotype frequencies between the Turkish population and four American population groups. This analysis showed, that there are some statistically significant differences between the Turkish and the other groups. Moreover, the observed phenotype and allele frequencies were compared with those obtained in other population groups of Turkey.

  1. Observing eye movements and the influence of cognition during a symbol search task: a comparison across three age groups.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Maxine; Robillard, Manon; Roy-Charland, Annie

    2017-10-10

    This study examined eye movements during a visual search task as well as cognitive abilities within three age groups. The aim was to explore scanning patterns across symbol grids and to better understand the impact of symbol location in AAC displays on speed and accuracy of symbol selection. For the study, 60 students were asked to locate a series of symbols on 16 cell grids. The EyeLink 1000 was used to measure eye movements, accuracy, and response time. Accuracy was high across all cells. Participants had faster response times, longer fixations, and more frequent fixations on symbols located in the middle of the grid. Group comparisons revealed significant differences for accuracy and reaction times. The Leiter-R was used to evaluate cognitive abilities. Sustained attention and cognitive flexibility scores predicted the participants' reaction time and accuracy in symbol selection. Findings suggest that symbol location within AAC devices and individuals' cognitive abilities influence the speed and accuracy of retrieving symbols.

  2. Comparison of the Efficiency of Posterior Intravaginal Sling (PIVS) Procedure in Older and Younger Groups

    PubMed Central

    Sivaslioglu, Akin; Ilhan, Türkan; Uçar, Mustafa Gazi; Dolen, İsmail

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vaginal vault prolapsus is a challenging problem for the patients and physicians. There may be differences between young and elderly patients in terms of efficiency and safety of surgical procedures. Aim The aim of our study was to compare the efficiency of the Posterior Intravaginal Sling (PIVS) procedure in older versus younger patient groups. Materials and Methods A total of 40 patients who underwent the PIVS procedure were chosen. Twenty of these patients were younger than 60 years of age (Group I) while the other 20 patients were 60 years of age or older (Group II). Preoperative Pelvic Organ Prolapsed Quantification (POP-Q) reference points were compared with postoperative data at the first year following surgery. Student’s t-test was used to analyse continuous variables and the χ2 test was used to analyse categorical data. The Mann–Whitney test was used for data that were not normally distributed. Results Anatomical cure rates were 90 percent in both groups (p=1.00). There were significantly greater improvements in POP-Q points in group I than group II. Conclusion It could be concluded that PIVS as minimally invasive procedure for vaginal vault prolapsed and is effective in all age groups. PMID:27630908

  3. Grassroots Growth: The Evolution of a Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Dana; Moore, Terry; Taylor, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Four years ago, a group of teachers lingered after a district meeting, sharing a conversation about encouraging social responsibility in the school district of Tenafly, New Jersey. That conversation led to the eventual formation of a teacher study group, a grassroots professional learning community that has impacted its members and the school…

  4. Grassroots Growth: The Evolution of a Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Dana; Moore, Terry; Taylor, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Four years ago, a group of teachers lingered after a district meeting, sharing a conversation about encouraging social responsibility in the school district of Tenafly, New Jersey. That conversation led to the eventual formation of a teacher study group, a grassroots professional learning community that has impacted its members and the school…

  5. Recommendations for reporting economic evaluations of haemophilia prophylaxis: a nominal groups consensus statement on behalf of the Economics Expert Working Group of The International Prophylaxis Study Group.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, A; Berger, K; Bohn, R; Carcao, M; Fischer, K; Gringeri, A; Hoots, K; Mantovani, L; Schramm, W; van Hout, B A; Willan, A R; Feldman, B M

    2008-01-01

    The need for clearly reported studies evaluating the cost of prophylaxis and its overall outcomes has been recommended from previous literature. To establish minimal ''core standards'' that can be followed when conducting and reporting economic evaluations of hemophilia prophylaxis. Ten members of the IPSG Economic Analysis Working Group participated in a consensus process using the Nominal Groups Technique (NGT). The following topics relating to the economic analysis of prophylaxis studies were addressed; Whose perspective should be taken? Which is the best methodological approach? Is micro- or macro-costing the best costing strategy? What information must be presented about costs and outcomes in order to facilitate local and international interpretation? The group suggests studies on the economic impact of prophylaxis should be viewed from a societal perspective and be reported using a Cost Utility Analysis (CUA) (with consideration of also reporting Cost Benefit Analysis [CBA]). All costs that exceed $500 should be used to measure the costs of prophylaxis (macro strategy) including items such as clotting factor costs, hospitalizations, surgical procedures, productivity loss and number of days lost from school or work. Generic and disease specific quality of lífe and utility measures should be used to report the outcomes of the study. The IPSG has suggested minimal core standards to be applied to the reporting of economic evaluations of hemophilia prophylaxis. Standardized reporting will facilitate the comparison of studies and will allow for more rational policy decisions and treatment choices.

  6. When the group practice breaks up: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Group practices are increasingly common for primary care physicians worldwide. Although breakups are likely to happen frequently within group practices, their process has not been studied to date. The aims of this study were therefore to explore the reasons for breakups of group practices of general practitioners and to describe the associated feelings. Methods We conducted a qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews of 21 general practitioners and one secretary from past group practices in the Rhône-Alpes region, France, who experienced a breakup. Results When getting started in group practice for the first time, young doctors did not feel ready and supported, and did not necessarily share the same expectations as their partners. The reasons for the breakups involved imbalances within the groups, contrasting working and management styles, and breakdowns in communication. The breakup process often generated long-persistent feelings of suffering and failure for almost every partner who experienced a breakup, particularly for the partner who was leaving. Conclusions Weakening factors exist from the very beginning of a partnership, and problems are likely to increase at every change or event occurring in the group. We provide several recommendations, including fair management, a shared project based on a precise contract, the consultation of third parties as necessary and, in the worst case scenario, leaving the group practice in time. PMID:23642277

  7. Comparison of the interactions in the rare gas hydride and Group 2 metal hydride anions.

    PubMed

    Harris, Joe P; Manship, Daniel R; Breckenridge, W H; Wright, Timothy G

    2014-02-28

    We study both the rare gas hydride anions, RG-H(-) (RG = He-Rn) and Group 2 (Group IIa) metal hydride anions, MIIaH(-) (MIIa = Be-Ra), calculating potential energy curves at the CCSD(T) level with augmented quadruple and quintuple basis sets, and extrapolating the results to the basis set limit. We report spectroscopic parameters obtained from these curves; additionally, we study the Be-He complex. While the RG-H(-) and Be-He species are weakly bound, we show that, as with the previously studied BeH(-) and MgH(-) species, the other MIIaH(-) species are strongly bound, despite the interactions nominally also being between two closed shell species: M(ns(2)) and H(-)(1s(2)). We gain insight into the interactions using contour plots of the electron density changes and population analyses. For both series, the calculated dissociation energy is significantly less than the ion/induced-dipole attraction term, confirming that electron repulsion is important in these species; this effect is more dramatic for the MIIaH(-) species than for RG-H(-). Our analyses lead us to conclude that the stronger interaction in the case of the MIIaH(-) species arises from sp and spd hybridization, which allows electron density on the MIIa atom to move away from the incoming H(-).

  8. Study on dermatoses and their prevalence in groups of confirmed alcoholic individuals in comparison to a non-alcoholic group of individuals*

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Maria Cecilia Teixeira de Carvalho; Vilela, Maria Aparecida Constantino; de Oliveira, Carlos Alberto B. Mendes

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The direct relationship between alcoholism and dermatoses has been evaluated in recent researches. However, there are few objective surveys that demonstrate and prove a direct relationship between alcohol and a specific dermatosis. OBJECTIVES to verify the prevalence of dermatoses in alcoholics, analize the dermatological changes found in these patients and their evolution during alcoholic abstinence. Also, to compare the results obtained with a non-alcoholic control group and with the data found in medical literature. METHODS: the dermatologic conditions of 278 alcoholic patients (250 men, 28 women) were studied over a period of 4 years, and compared to those of a control group of 271 non-alcoholic individuals (249 men, 22 women), members of the Military Police Force. The individuals in both groups were between 20 and 60 years old. RESULTS Pellagra, nummular eczema, purpura pigmentosa chronica (also known as pigmented purpuric dermatosis) and psoriasis were more frequent in the group of alcoholics and, apparently, occurred in parallel with alcoholism that seems to play a role in the evolution of these dermatoses. The dermatopathies were more frequent before the age of forty, regardless of factors such as profession, race or gender. CONCLUSION the association of dermatoses and alcoholism was extremely significant according to the statistical data. Alcoholism can be considered a risk factor for pellagra, psoriasis, nummular eczema and purpura pigmentosa chronica dermatoses, which can, as well, be considered alcoholism indicators. PMID:23793198

  9. Study on dermatoses and their prevalence in groups of confirmed alcoholic individuals in comparison to a non-alcoholic group of individuals.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Maria Cecilia Teixeira de Carvalho; Vilela, Maria Aparecida Constantino; Oliveira, Carlos Alberto B Mendes de

    2013-01-01

    The direct relationship between alcoholism and dermatoses has been evaluated in recent researches. However, there are few objective surveys that demonstrate and prove a direct relationship between alcohol and a specific dermatosis. to verify the prevalence of dermatoses in alcoholics, analize the dermatological changes found in these patients and their evolution during alcoholic abstinence. Also, to compare the results obtained with a non-alcoholic control group and with the data found in medical literature. the dermatologic conditions of 278 alcoholic patients (250 men, 28 women) were studied over a period of 4 years, and compared to those of a control group of 271 non-alcoholic individuals (249 men, 22 women), members of the Military Police Force. The individuals in both groups were between 20 and 60 years old. Pellagra, nummular eczema, purpura pigmentosa chronica (also known as pigmented purpuric dermatosis) and psoriasis were more frequent in the group of alcoholics and, apparently, occurred in parallel with alcoholism that seems to play a role in the evolution of these dermatoses. The dermatopathies were more frequent before the age of forty, regardless of factors such as profession, race or gender. the association of dermatoses and alcoholism was extremely significant according to the statistical data. Alcoholism can be considered a risk factor for pellagra, psoriasis, nummular eczema and purpura pigmentosa chronica dermatoses, which can, as well, be considered alcoholism indicators.

  10. The Stranger Group in an Overseas Study Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Dennison; Tarr, Rhonda

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses the nature and problems of group interaction among American students participating in overseas study programs, with specific reference to a Junior Year program offered by the University of Connecticut in Rouen, France. (CLK)

  11. The Langer-Improved Wald Test for DIF Testing with Multiple Groups: Evaluation and Comparison to Two-Group IRT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.; Cai, Li; Wang, Mian

    2013-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when the probability of responding in a particular category to an item differs for members of different groups who are matched on the construct being measured. The identification of DIF is important for valid measurement. This research evaluates an improved version of Lord's chi [superscript 2]…

  12. Self-Concept and Native Language Background: A Study of Measurement Invariance and Cross-Group Comparisons in Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehaus, Kate; Adelson, Jill L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the measurement and interpretation of self-concept among the growing population of children who are English Language Learners (ELLs). More specifically, a 3-group analysis was conducted comparing native English-speaking children, Spanish-speaking ELLs, and ELLs from Asian language backgrounds. Data were drawn from the Early…

  13. Self-Concept and Native Language Background: A Study of Measurement Invariance and Cross-Group Comparisons in Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehaus, Kate; Adelson, Jill L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the measurement and interpretation of self-concept among the growing population of children who are English Language Learners (ELLs). More specifically, a 3-group analysis was conducted comparing native English-speaking children, Spanish-speaking ELLs, and ELLs from Asian language backgrounds. Data were drawn from the Early…

  14. The Knowledge-Based Reasoning of Physical Education Teachers: A Comparison between Groups with Different Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuker, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    The study addresses professional vision, including the abilities of selective attention and knowledge-based reasoning. This article focuses on the latter ability. Groups with different sport-specific and pedagogical expertise (n = 60) were compared according to their observation and interpretation of sport activities in a four-field design. The…

  15. The Knowledge-Based Reasoning of Physical Education Teachers: A Comparison between Groups with Different Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuker, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    The study addresses professional vision, including the abilities of selective attention and knowledge-based reasoning. This article focuses on the latter ability. Groups with different sport-specific and pedagogical expertise (n = 60) were compared according to their observation and interpretation of sport activities in a four-field design. The…

  16. A Spiderless Arachnophobia Therapy: Comparison between Placebo and Treatment Groups and Six-Month Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Granado, Laura Carmilo; Ranvaud, Ronald; Peláez, Javier Ropero

    2007-01-01

    We describe a new arachnophobia therapy that is specially suited for those individuals with severe arachnophobia who are reluctant to undergo direct or even virtual exposure treatments. In this therapy, patients attend a computer presentation of images that, while not being spiders, have a subset of the characteristics of spiders. The Atomium of Brussels is an example of such an image. The treatment group (n = 13) exhibited a significant improvement (time × group interaction: P = .0026) when compared to the placebo group (n = 12) in a repeated measures multivariate ANOVA. A k-means clustering algorithm revealed that, after 4 weeks of treatment, 42% of the patients moved from the arachnophobic to the nonarachnophobic cluster. Six months after concluding the treatment, a follow-up study showed a substantial consolidation of the recovery process where 92% of the arachnophobic patients moved to the nonarachnophobic cluster. PMID:17713595

  17. Group theories: relevance to group safety studies.

    PubMed

    Benevento, A L

    1998-01-01

    Promoting safety in the workplace has been attempted in a variety of ways. Increasingly, industries are using groups such as safety teams and quality circles to promote worker safety. Group influences on individual behavior and attitudes have long been studied in the social psychology literature, but the theories have not been commonly found outside the psychology arena. This paper describes the group theories of group polarization, risky shift, social loafing, groupthink and team think and attempts to apply these theories to existing studies that examine work group influences on safety. Interesting parallels were found but only one study examined group influences as their primary focus of research. Since groups are increasingly used for safety promotion, future research on safety that studies group influences with respect to current group theories is recommended.

  18. Comparison of the effects of bimatoprost and timolol on intraocular pressure and pulsatile ocular blood flow in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma: A prospective, open-label, randomized, two-arm, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    Vetrugno, Michele; Cardascia, Nicola; Cantatore, Francesco; Sborgia, Carlo

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background: The current objective of antiglaucomatous therapy is to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP), and thus to preserve visual function. Many ophthalmologists believe this objective is best achieved by methods that improve ocular blood flow to the optic nerve head. Beta-blockers are effective ocular hypotensive agents, but they can reduce choroidal blood flow. Bimatoprost, a new prostamide analogue, has been shown to have a better IOP-lowering effect compared with the nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor blocker timolol maleate, but little is known about its effects on the vascular bed of the eye. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of bimatoprost and timolol on IOP and choroidal blood flow (as measured using pulsatile ocular blood flow [pOBF]) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods: This prospective, open-label, randomized, 2-arm, parallel-group study was conducted at the Glaucoma Research Centre, Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Bari, Bari, Italy. Patients with POAG having well-controlled IOP (<16 mm Hg) on monotherapy with timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution (2 drops per affected eye BID) for ≥12 months but with a progressive decrease in pOBF during the same time period were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups. One group continued monotherapy with timolol, 2 drops per affected eye BID. The other group was switched (without washout) to bimatoprost 0.3% ophthalmic solution (2 drops per affected eye QD [9 pm]). Treatment was given for 180 days. IOP and pOBF were assessed at the diagnostic visit (pre-timolol), baseline (day 0), and treatment days 15, 30, 60, 90, and 180. Primary adverse effects (AEs) (ie, conjunctival hyperemia, conjunctival papillae, stinging, burning, foreign body sensation, and pigmentation of periorbital skin) were monitored throughout the study. Results: Thirty-eight patients were enrolled (22 men, 16 women; mean [SD] age, 51.7 [4.8] years; 19 patients per

  19. Comparison of the effects of bimatoprost and timolol on intraocular pressure and pulsatile ocular blood flow in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma: A prospective, open-label, randomized, two-arm, parallel-group study.

    PubMed

    Vetrugno, Michele; Cardascia, Nicola; Cantatore, Francesco; Sborgia, Carlo

    2004-11-01

    Abstract. The current objective of antiglaucomatous therapy is to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP), and thus to preserve visual function. Many ophthalmologists believe this objective is best achieved by methods that improve ocular blood flow to the optic nerve head. Beta-blockers are effective ocular hypotensive agents, but they can reduce choroidal blood flow. Bimatoprost, a new prostamide analogue, has been shown to have a better IOP-lowering effect compared with the nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor blocker timolol maleate, but little is known about its effects on the vascular bed of the eye. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of bimatoprost and timolol on IOP and choroidal blood flow (as measured using pulsatile ocular blood flow [pOBF]) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). This prospective, open-label, randomized, 2-arm, parallel-group study was conducted at the Glaucoma Research Centre, Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Bari, Bari, Italy. Patients with POAG having well-controlled IOP (<16 mm Hg) on monotherapy with timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution (2 drops per affected eye BID) for ≥12 months but with a progressive decrease in pOBF during the same time period were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups. One group continued monotherapy with timolol, 2 drops per affected eye BID. The other group was switched (without washout) to bimatoprost 0.3% ophthalmic solution (2 drops per affected eye QD [9 pm]). Treatment was given for 180 days. IOP and pOBF were assessed at the diagnostic visit (pre-timolol), baseline (day 0), and treatment days 15, 30, 60, 90, and 180. Primary adverse effects (AEs) (ie, conjunctival hyperemia, conjunctival papillae, stinging, burning, foreign body sensation, and pigmentation of periorbital skin) were monitored throughout the study. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled (22 men, 16 women; mean [SD] age, 51.7 [4.8] years; 19 patients per treatment group; 38 eligible eyes). At

  20. Study of the global environment of small galaxy groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duplancic, F.; Dávila, F.; Coldwell, G.

    2017-07-01

    The present work presents a study of the global density environment of small galaxy groups. To this end we use a catalog of small galaxy systems constructed from the 10th Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. To characterize the global environment of small galaxy groups we use different estimators, including the number of significant neighbors within a fixed aperture, the distance to the nearest neighbor and the number density profile of these systems. In order to perform a comparative study, we select different categories of systems considering galaxy pairs, triplets of galaxies and groups with at least four member galaxies. We found differences between the global environment of pairs compared to triplet of galaxies and groups. Galaxy pairs inhabit environments of lower global density than triplets and groups which are located in higher global density regions. This result is in agreement with different studies in the literature which propose that triplets of galaxies and compact groups have similarities in their fundamental properties and are different from galaxy pairs. Our findings suggest that the global density environment of small galaxy groups plays a fundamental role in the characterization of the main properties of these systems and their member galaxies.

  1. Receiving the Initial Down Syndrome Diagnosis: A Comparison of Prenatal and Postnatal Parent Group Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson Goff, Briana S.; Springer, Nicole; Foote, Laura Cline; Frantz, Courtney; Peak, Madison; Tracy, Courtney; Veh, Taylor; Bentley, Gail E.; Cross, Kayli A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the preliminary experiences of parents upon learning of their child's diagnosis of Down syndrome. Qualitative data from a web-based, national survey were analyzed based on two groups: prenatal ("n" = 46) or postnatal ("n" = 115) diagnosis. Three primary categories emerged from the data analysis:…

  2. The effective comparison between emotion-focused cognitive behavioral group therapy and cognitive behavioral group therapy in children with separation anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Afshari, Afrooz; Neshat-Doost, Hamid Taher; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Ahmady, Mozhgan Kar; Amiri, Shole

    2014-03-01

    Emotion-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (ECBT) is a new form of CBT with emotion regulation components. This form of treatment is suggested to be employed to improve dysregulation of anxiety and other kind of emotions in anxious children. This study observed and compared the effectiveness of CBT and ECBT on anxiety symptoms; sadness and anger management; and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD). This study is a randomized clinical trial. Subjects were 30 children from 9 to 13-years-old (15 girls and 15 boys) with diagnosis of SAD, being randomly assigned to CBT, ECBT, and control groups (five girls and five boys in each group). Subject children in CBT group participated in 10-h weekly sessions within Coping Cat manual; whereas, subject children in ECBT group contributed in 12-h weekly sessions within ECBT. The control group received no treatment. The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED; child and parent forms), Children's Emotion Management Scale (CEMS; anger and sadness forms), and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) tests administered to all subjects in pretest, posttest, and the follow-up measurement (3 months later). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) repeated measure and Kruskal-Wallis were applied to analyze data by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software package (v. 20). CBT and ECBT; demonstrated no significant difference in reducing separation anxiety and total anxiety symptoms from parent and children's reports. ECBT effectively increased anger coping and decreased negative cognitive strategies and dysregulation of anger in children, both in posttest and follow-up. Also, ECBT reduced sadness dysregulation and increased sadness coping, though these significant advantages were lost in 3 months later follow-up. CBT reduced negative cognitive strategies in follow-up and increased sadness coping in posttest. None of treatments affected on anger and

  3. Comparison of the clinical effects of carbomer-based lipid-containing gel and hydroxypropyl-guar gel artificial tear formulations in patients with dry eye syndrome: a 4-week, prospective, open-label, randomized, parallel-group, noninferiority study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsung-Jen; Wang, I-Jong; Ho, Jau-Der; Chou, Hsiu-Chu; Lin, Szu-Yuan; Huang, Man-Ching

    2010-01-01

    Most marketed artificial tears are substitutes for the aqueous layers of the tear film; therefore, frequent instillation of artificial tears is necessary. Newer gel-, cellulose-, and mineral oil-based formulations have been designed to overcome the disadvantages of current aqueous tear substitutes by offering prolonged retention times. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy, safety, and local tolerance of artificial tears containing carbomer-based lipids or hydroxypropyl (HP)-guar gel in patients with dry eye syndrome. A 4-week, prospective, randomized, parallel-group, comparative, noninferiority study was conducted at the Taipei Medical University Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan) in patients with dry eye syndrome who were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: the carbomer-based lipid-containing (CBLC) gel group and the HP-guar gel group. The primary end point was global assessment of study treatment by the patients at weeks 2 and 4. All patients met the diagnostic criteria of impaired tear function and ocular surface abnormalities. Outcomes measured at baseline and 2 and 4 weeks included Schirmer's test values, tear breakup time (TBUT), and a patient subjective assessment of symptoms. Safety and tolerability were assessed by clinically significant changes in terms of incidence of adverse events and conducted by unmasked investigators. A total of 30 Taiwanese patients with dry eye syndrome were included and randomly assigned to the 2 treatment groups: the mean (SD) age was 40.37 (14.96) years in the CBLC gel group and 49.49 (12.20) years in the HP-guar gel group. At baseline, the mean (SD) Schirmer's test value was 4.53 (2.28) mm in the right eye and 5.13 (2.42) mm in the left eye in the CBLC gel group; 4.40 (2.16) mm in the right eye and 4.20 (1.78) mm in the left eye for the HP-guar gel group. The mean (SD) for both eyes was 4.83 (2.36) mm in the CBLC gel group and 4.30 (2.08) mm in the HP-guar gel group. There was no statistically significant

  4. The role of magical thinking in hallucinations. Comparisons of clinical and non-clinical groups.

    PubMed

    García-Montes, José M; Pérez-Álvarez, Marino; Odriozola-González, Paula; Vallina-Fernández, Oscar; Perona-Garcelán, Salvador

    2014-11-01

    Magical thinking consists of accepting the possibility that events that, according to the causal concepts of a culture, cannot have any causal relationship, but might somehow nevertheless have one. Magical thinking has been related to both obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of magical thinking in hallucinations of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Four groups were recruited for this purpose from a clinical population (hallucinating schizophrenic patients, patients diagnosed with psychoses who had never hallucinated, obsessive-compulsive disorder patients and a clinical control group) and a non-clinical control group, who were given the Magical Ideation Scale. The results show that magical ideation differentiates the group of schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations from the rest of the groups that participated in the design. Items related to "mind reading", to the presence of auditory illusions in response to sound stimuli, and to the sense of sometimes being accompanied by an evil presence are the most closely related to the presence of auditory hallucinations. Magical thinking, understood as beliefs in non-consensual modes of causation, is closely linked to auditory hallucinations in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia.

  5. Group Comparisons of Mathematics Performance from a Cognitive Diagnostic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yi-Hsin; Ferron, John M.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Gorin, Joanna S.; Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional comparisons of test score means identify group differences in broad academic areas, but fail to provide substantive description of how the groups differ on the specific cognitive attributes required for success in the academic area. The rule space method (RSM) allows for group comparisons at the cognitive attribute level, which…

  6. Serum perfluoroalkyl substances and cardiometabolic consequences in adolescents exposed to the World Trade Center disaster and a matched comparison group.

    PubMed

    Koshy, Tony T; Attina, Teresa M; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Gilbert, Joseph; Burdine, Lauren K; Marmor, Michael; Honda, Masato; Chu, Dinh Binh; Han, Xiaoxia; Shao, Yongzhao; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Urbina, Elaine M; Trasande, Leonardo

    2017-09-07

    Large amounts of various chemical contaminants, including perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), were released at the time of the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster. Thousands of children who lived and/or attended school near the disaster site were exposed to these substances but few studies have examined the possible consequences related to these exposures. To examine the relationship of PFASs serum levels with cardiometabolic profile in children and adolescents enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry (WTCHR) and a matched comparison group. We evaluated WTCHR enrollees who resided in New York City and were born between September 11, 1993 and September 10, 2001, and a matched comparison group consisting of individuals who were ineligible for WTCHR participation upon distance of their home, school or work from the WTC and lack of participation in rescue and recovery activities. Matching was based on date of birth, sex, race, ethnicity, and income. We assessed exposure to PFASs, as measured by serum levels and association with cardiometabolic profile as measured by arterial wall stiffness, body mass index, insulin resistance, fasting total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides. A total of 402 participants completed the study and serum samples were analyzed from 308 participants, 123 in the WTCHR group and 185 in the comparison group. In multivariable regression analysis, after adjusting for relevant confounders, we observed a significant, positive association of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) with triglycerides (beta coefficient=0.14, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.27, 15.1% change), total cholesterol (beta coefficient=0.09, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.14, 9.2% change), and LDL cholesterol (beta coefficient=0.11, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.19, 11.5% change). Perfluorohexanesulfonic acid levels were associated with decreased insulin resistance (beta coefficient=-0.09, 95% CI: -0.18, -0.003, -8.6% change); PFOA and perfluorononanoic acid were associated with increased brachial artery distensibility

  7. Levels of the Staff's Exposure to Violence at Locked Psychiatric Clinics: A Comparison by Occupational Groups.

    PubMed

    Bilici, Rabia; Sercan, Mustafa; Izci, Filiz

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the rates of exposure to violence among physicians, nurses, and other health care staff members working at the locked psychiatric clinics, to examine the quantity and types of violence exposed, and to compare occupational groups by the level of exposure to violence. In parallel with the existing literature, the present study supports the proposition that physicians and nurses working at psychiatric units represent a risky group in terms of exposure to violence. The survey found that 87.6% of staff members viewed security measures insufficient. It is considered by the authors that preventive actions should be taken to reduce the risk of exposure to violence against the staff members working at the locked psychiatric clinics.

  8. International Neurocognitive Normative Study: Neurocognitive Comparison Data in Diverse Resource Limited Settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5271

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, K; Jiang, H; Evans, SR; Marra, CM; Berzins, B; Hakim, J; Sacktor, N; Silva, M Tulius; Campbell, TB; Nair, A; Schouten, J; Kumwenda, J; Supparatpinyo, K; Tripathy, S.; Kumarasamy, N; La Rosa, A; Montano, S; Mwafongo, A; Firnhaber, C; Sanne, I; Naini, L.; Amod, F; Walawander, A

    2016-01-01

    Summary ACTG A5271 collected neurocognitive normative comparison test data in 2400 at-risk HIV seronegative participants from Brazil, India, Malawi, Peru, South Africa, Thailand and Zimbabwe. The participants were enrolled in strata by site (10 levels), age (2 levels), education (2 levels), and gender (2 levels). These data provide necessary normative data infrastructure for future clinical research and care in these diverse resource limited settings. Infrastructure for conducting neurological research in resource limited settings (RLS) is limited. The lack of neurological and neuropsychological (NP) assessment, and normative data needed for clinical interpretation impede research and clinical care. Here we report on ACTG 5271, which provided neurological training of clinical site personnel, and collected neurocognitive normative comparison data in diverse settings. At 10 sites in seven RLS countries, we provided training for NP assessments. We collected normative comparison data on HIV- participants from Brazil (n=240), India (n=480), Malawi (n=481), Peru (n=239), South Africa (480), Thailand (n=240) and Zimbabwe (n=240). Participants had a negative HIV test within 30 days before standardized NP exams were administered at baseline, and 770 at six-months. Participants were enrolled in 8 strata, gender (female and male), education (<10 years and ≥ 10 years), and age (<35 years and ≥35 years). Of 2400 enrolled, 770 completed the six-month follow up. As expected, significant between-country differences were evident in all the neurocognitive test scores (p<.0001). There was variation between the age, gender and education strata on the neurocognitive tests. Age and education were important variables for all tests; older participants had poorer performance and those with higher education had better performance. Women had better performance on verbal learning/memory and speed of processing tests, while men performed better on motor tests. This study provides the

  9. The Comparison of Different Age Groups on the Attitudes toward and the Use of ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Different factors may be influencing the use of information and communication technology (ICT). One of the important factors is age. The society is divided into different groups according to age. A well-known age-based categorization, commonly used especially in the field of economics,, is based on whether people belong to the Millennial…

  10. The quality of control groups in nonrandomized studies published in the Journal of Hand Surgery.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Shepard P; Malay, Sunitha; Chung, Kevin C

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate control group selection in nonrandomized studies published in the Journal of Hand Surgery American (JHS). We reviewed all papers published in JHS in 2013 to identify studies that used nonrandomized control groups. Data collected included type of study design and control group characteristics. We then appraised studies to determine whether authors discussed confounding and selection bias and how they controlled for confounding. Thirty-seven nonrandomized studies were published in JHS in 2013. The source of control was either the same institution as the study group, a different institution, a database, or not provided in the manuscript. Twenty-nine (78%) studies statistically compared key characteristics between control and study group. Confounding was controlled with matching, exclusion criteria, or regression analysis. Twenty-two (59%) papers explicitly discussed the threat of confounding and 18 (49%) identified sources of selection bias. In our review of nonrandomized studies published in JHS, papers had well-defined controls that were similar to the study group, allowing for reasonable comparisons. However, we identified substantial confounding and bias that were not addressed as explicit limitations, which might lead the reader to overestimate the scientific validity of the data. Incorporating a brief discussion of control group selection in scientific manuscripts should help readers interpret the study more appropriately. Authors, reviewers, and editors should strive to address this component of clinical importance. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. International neurocognitive normative study: neurocognitive comparison data in diverse resource-limited settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5271.

    PubMed

    Robertson, K; Jiang, H; Evans, S R; Marra, C M; Berzins, B; Hakim, J; Sacktor, N; Silva, M Tulius; Campbell, T B; Nair, A; Schouten, J; Kumwenda, J; Supparatpinyo, K; Tripathy, S; Kumarasamy, N; la Rosa, A; Montano, S; Mwafongo, A; Firnhaber, C; Sanne, I; Naini, L; Amod, F; Walawander, A

    2016-08-01

    Infrastructure for conducting neurological research in resource-limited settings (RLS) is limited. The lack of neurological and neuropsychological (NP) assessment and normative data needed for clinical interpretation impedes research and clinical care. Here, we report on ACTG 5271, which provided neurological training of clinical site personnel and collected neurocognitive normative comparison data in diverse settings. At ten sites in seven RLS countries, we provided training for NP assessments. We collected normative comparison data on HIV- participants from Brazil (n = 240), India (n = 480), Malawi (n = 481), Peru (n = 239), South Africa (480), Thailand (n = 240), and Zimbabwe (n = 240). Participants had a negative HIV test within 30 days before standardized NP exams were administered at baseline and 770 at 6 months. Participants were enrolled in eight strata, gender (female and male), education (<10 and ≥10 years), and age (<35 and ≥35 years). Of 2400 enrolled, 770 completed the 6-month follow-up. As expected, significant between-country differences were evident in all the neurocognitive test scores (p < 0.0001). There was variation between the age, gender, and education strata on the neurocognitive tests. Age and education were important variables for all tests; older participants had poorer performance, and those with higher education had better performance. Women had better performance on verbal learning/memory and speed of processing tests, while men performed better on motor tests. This study provides the necessary neurocognitive normative data needed to build infrastructure for future neurological and neurocognitive studies in diverse RLS. These normative data are a much-needed resource for both clinicians and researchers.

  12. Successful Small Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francke, Amiel W.; Kaplan, Walter J.

    1977-01-01

    The authors examine their own experiences with the small study group method used in professional continuing education in the optometric profession, offering some observations and tentative conclusions for other professionals considering the method. (WL)

  13. Pairwise Multiple Comparisons in Single Group Repeated Measures Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcikowski, Robert S.; Elliott, Ronald S.

    Research was conducted to provide educational researchers with a choice of pairwise multiple comparison procedures (P-MCPs) to use with single group repeated measures designs. The following were studied through two Monte Carlo (MC) simulations: (1) The T procedure of J. W. Tukey (1953); (2) a modification of Tukey's T (G. Keppel, 1973); (3) the…

  14. Classifiers as a model-free group comparison test.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bommae; Oertzen, Timo von

    2017-04-03

    The conventional statistical methods to detect group differences assume correct model specification, including the origin of difference. Researchers should be able to identify a source of group differences and choose a corresponding method. In this paper, we propose a new approach of group comparison without model specification using classification algorithms in machine learning. In this approach, the classification accuracy is evaluated against a binomial distribution using Independent Validation. As an application example, we examined false-positive errors and statistical power of support vector machines to detect group differences in comparison to conventional statistical tests such as t test, Levene's test, K-S test, Fisher's z-transformation, and MANOVA. The SVMs detected group differences regardless of their origins (mean, variance, distribution shape, and covariance), and showed comparably consistent power across conditions. When a group difference originated from a single source, the statistical power of SVMs was lower than the most appropriate conventional test of the study condition; however, the power of SVMs increased when differences originated from multiple sources. Moreover, SVMs showed substantially improved performance with more variables than with fewer variables. Most importantly, SVMs were applicable to any types of data without sophisticated model specification. This study demonstrates a new application of classification algorithms as an alternative or complement to the conventional group comparison test. With the proposed approach, researchers can test two-sample data even when they are not certain which statistical test to use or when data violates the statistical assumptions of conventional methods.

  15. Comparison of Radiological Parameters between Normal and Patellar Dislocation Groups in Korean Population: A Rotational Profile CT-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jatin; Seon, Jong-Keun; Woo, Seong-Hwan; Jin, Cheng; Song, Eun-Kyoo

    2016-12-01

    Patellofemoral instability is a common cause of anterior knee pain in adolescents and young adults. Most normal and pathological values for diagnosing patellofemoral instability are based on Western literature. We conducted this radiological study to determine normal values for different patellofemoral parameters in a Korean population and to evaluate their usefulness in diagnosis. We retrospectively reviewed the rotational profile computerized tomography (CT) scans of the patellar dislocation and control groups. Trochlear, patellar, rotational profile, and trochleo-patellar alignment parameters were compared between the groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves were drawn for significant parameters, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the cut-off values. There were 48 patients in the patellar dislocation group and 87 patients in the control group. In the control group and patellar dislocation group, the mean sulcus angle was 132.5° and 143.3°, respectively, trochlear depth was 6.04 mm and 3.6 mm, bisect offset was 56.4% and 99.9%, lateral patellar tilting was 9.8° and 19.2°, patellar facet asymmetry was 63.5% and 45.16%, and the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance was 10.91 mm and 27.16 mm, respectively. The trochlear depth, bisect offset, patella tilting, and TT-TG distance were parameters that significantly contributed to patellar instability. Rotational profile CT can be considered a good diagnostic tool to assess all these parameters that help to identify anatomical aberration resulting in patellofemoral instability, thereby helping in formulating the most effective treatment plan.

  16. Comparison of Radiological Parameters between Normal and Patellar Dislocation Groups in Korean Population: A Rotational Profile CT-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jatin; Seon, Jong-Keun; Woo, Seong-Hwan; Jin, Cheng; Song, Eun-Kyoo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Patellofemoral instability is a common cause of anterior knee pain in adolescents and young adults. Most normal and pathological values for diagnosing patellofemoral instability are based on Western literature. We conducted this radiological study to determine normal values for different patellofemoral parameters in a Korean population and to evaluate their usefulness in diagnosis. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the rotational profile computerized tomography (CT) scans of the patellar dislocation and control groups. Trochlear, patellar, rotational profile, and trochleo-patellar alignment parameters were compared between the groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves were drawn for significant parameters, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the cut-off values. Results There were 48 patients in the patellar dislocation group and 87 patients in the control group. In the control group and patellar dislocation group, the mean sulcus angle was 132.5° and 143.3°, respectively, trochlear depth was 6.04 mm and 3.6 mm, bisect offset was 56.4% and 99.9%, lateral patellar tilting was 9.8° and 19.2°, patellar facet asymmetry was 63.5% and 45.16%, and the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance was 10.91 mm and 27.16 mm, respectively. Conclusions The trochlear depth, bisect offset, patella tilting, and TT-TG distance were parameters that significantly contributed to patellar instability. Rotational profile CT can be considered a good diagnostic tool to assess all these parameters that help to identify anatomical aberration resulting in patellofemoral instability, thereby helping in formulating the most effective treatment plan. PMID:27894178

  17. A Comparison of Web-based and Small-Group Palliative and End-of-Life Care Curricula: A Quasi-Randomized Controlled Study at One Institution

    PubMed Central

    Day, Frank C.; Srinivasan, Malathi; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Griffin, Erin; Hoffman, Jerome R.; Wilkes, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have compared the effect of web-based eLearning versus small-group learning on medical student outcomes. Palliative and end-of-life (PEOL) education is ideal for this comparison, given uneven access to PEOL experts and content nationally. Method In 2010, the authors enrolled all third-year medical students at the University of California, Davis School of Medicine into a quasi-randomized controlled trial of web-based interactive education (eDoctoring) compared to small-group education (Doctoring) on PEOL clinical content over two months. All students participated in three 3-hour PEOL sessions with similar content. Outcomes included a 24-item PEOL-specific self-efficacy scale with three domains (diagnosis/treatment [Cronbach’s alpha = 0.92, CI: 0.91–0.93], communication/prognosis [alpha = 0.95; CI: 0.93–0.96], and social impact/self-care [alpha = 0.91; CI: 0.88–0.92]); eight knowledge items; ten curricular advantage/disadvantages, and curricular satisfaction (both students and faculty). Results Students were randomly assigned to web-based eDoctoring (n = 48) or small-group Doctoring (n = 71) curricula. Self-efficacy and knowledge improved equivalently between groups: e.g., prognosis self-efficacy, 19%; knowledge, 10–42%. Student and faculty ratings of the web-based eDoctoring curriculum and the small group Doctoring curriculum were equivalent for most goals, and overall satisfaction was equivalent for each, with a trend towards decreased eDoctoring student satisfaction. Conclusions Findings showed equivalent gains in self-efficacy and knowledge between students participating in a web-based PEOL curriculum, in comparison to students learning similar content in a small-group format. Web-based curricula can standardize content presentation when local teaching expertise is limited, but may lead to decreased user satisfaction. PMID:25539518

  18. Laboratory Governance: Issues for the Study Group on Regional Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Thomas; Dominic, Joseph

    Background information and an analysis of issues involved in the governance of new regional educational laboratories are presented. The new laboratories are to be established through a 1984 competition administered by the National Institute of Education (NIE). The analysis is designed to assist the Study Group on Regional Laboratories to advise…

  19. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy for the Nonpurging Bulimic Individual: A Controlled Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilfrey, Denise E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) and group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for binge eating among 56 women with nonpurging bulimia. At posttreatment, both CBT and IPT conditions showed significant improvement in reducing binge eating, compared to waiting-list condition. Binge eating remained significantly…

  20. Reliability of the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test: Age and Ethnic Group Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark

    1981-01-01

    Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)

  1. Reliability of the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test: Age and Ethnic Group Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark

    1981-01-01

    Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)

  2. Women at work despite ill health: diagnoses and pain before and after personnel support. A prospective study of hospital cleaners/home-help personnel with comparison groups.

    PubMed

    Landstad, B J; Schüldt, K; Ekholm, J; Broman, L; Bergroth, A

    2001-09-01

    The present study sought to elicit the diagnoses behind the pain conditions causing complaints by female hospital cleaners and home-help personnel who were working despite their symptoms. We also wished to describe the prevalence of musculoskeletal diagnoses and the intensity, frequency and location of pain, and changes in the clinical picture and pain after personnel supporting interventions. A prospective study was carried out with intervention groups and non-randomized comparison groups. The hospital cleaners intervention programme comprised occupational organizational measures, competence development, physical and psychosocial working environmental measures and individual and rehabilitation measures on both an individual and a group basis. The home-help programme comprised a 2-week stay at an orthopaedic rehabilitation unit, training of supervisors, comrade massage, purchase of training equipment and stress management. Myalgia/ tendinitis occurred in 61% of shoulder girdle elevators, 18% of rotator cuffs, 16% of dorsal neck muscles and 29% of hip muscles. There was musculoskeletal pain in the lower back in 28% of cases. Referred pain from a musculoskeletal focus occurred in about one-sixth to one-third of individuals with the diagnosis in question. Neurogenic pain occurred in 6% of cases. No fibromyalgia syndrome was found. One-third of individuals felt pain all the time or almost all the time. The mean rated perceived "worst pain" was 70 mm on a visual analogue scale of 1-100 mm. Comparisons between intervention and reference groups indicated that some improvement in the clinical picture can be attained using this kind of general support programme for employees.

  3. Comparison study of the rates of manual peripheral blood smear review from 3 automated hematology analyzers, Unicel DxH 800, ADVIA 2120i, and XE 2100, using international consensus group guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sue Jung; Kim, Yoonjung; Shin, Saeam; Song, Jaewoo; Choi, Jong Rak

    2012-11-01

    In the clinical laboratory, it is important both to reduce the number of peripheral blood slide reviews to save time and money and to avoid reporting false results. To determine differences in the slide review rates of 3 widely used automated hematologic analyzers, the Unicel DxH 800 (Beckman Coulter Inc, Fullerton, California), ADVIA 2120i (Siemens Diagnostics, Tarrytown, New York), and XE 2100 (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan), using International Consensus Group for Hematology Review guidelines. A total of 1485 samples were tested, and 300 were manually reviewed. Slide review rates, sensitivity, specificity, and false-positive and false-negative rates were estimated using consensus group rules and compared using χ(2) tests, Fisher exact tests, or generalized estimating equations. Unicel DxH 800, ADVIA 2120i, and XE 2100 showed 22.8%, 20.2%, and 28.6% slide review rates; 14.3%, 14.3%, and 9.7% false-negative rates; and 13.7, 11.3%, and 17.3% false-positive rates, respectively. All analyzers showed significantly higher false-negative rates than that of the consensus group (2.9%). False-negative rates were higher than the recommended levels. Among 3 automated hematologic analyzers, XE 2100 showed the highest rate of slide review. Because the present study clearly shows that the slide review rates have distinct characteristics among the studied analyzers, each individual laboratory should consider selecting the most appropriate analyzer according to clinical characteristics. Analyzers with high sensitivity may be advantageous in outpatient settings for screening patients, whereas analyzers with high specificity may be beneficial in inpatient settings for efficient patient care.

  4. A study of the current group evaporation/combustion theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Hayley H.

    1990-01-01

    Liquid fuel combustion can be greatly enhanced by disintegrating the liquid fuel into droplets, an effect achieved by various configurations. A number of experiments carried out in the seventies showed that combustion of droplet arrays and sprays do not form individual flames. Moreover, the rate of burning in spray combustion greatly deviates from that of the single combustion rate. Such observations naturally challenge its applicability to spray combustion. A number of mathematical models were developed to evaluate 'group combustion' and the related 'group evaporation' phenomena. This study investigates the similarity and difference of these models and their applicability to spray combustion. Future work that should be carried out in this area is indicated.

  5. The Influence of Learner Strategies on Oral Presentations: A Comparison between Group and Individual Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Mu-hsuan

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative learning has frequently been used in language classrooms, from in-class task-based group work to group presentations. Research suggests that cooperative learning provides mutual support, as well as successful and effective learning outcomes of tasks. The present research addressed a number of problems discovered in group oral…

  6. The Influence of Learner Strategies on Oral Presentations: A Comparison between Group and Individual Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Mu-hsuan

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative learning has frequently been used in language classrooms, from in-class task-based group work to group presentations. Research suggests that cooperative learning provides mutual support, as well as successful and effective learning outcomes of tasks. The present research addressed a number of problems discovered in group oral…

  7. Unsolicited Reporting to Prescribers of Opioid Analgesics by a State Prescription Drug Monitoring Program: An Observational Study with Matched Comparison Group.

    PubMed

    Young, Leonard D; Kreiner, Peter W; Panas, Lee

    2017-04-04

     State prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) can help detect individuals with multiple provider episodes (MPEs; also referred to as doctor/pharmacy shopping), an indicator of prescription drug abuse and/or diversion. Although unsolicited reporting by PDMPs to prescribers of opioid analgesics is thought to be an important practice in reducing MPEs and the potential harm associated with them, evidence of its effectiveness is mixed. This exploratory research evaluates the impact of unsolicited reports sent by Massachusetts' PDMP to the prescribers of persons with MPEs.  Individuals with MPEs were identified from PDMP records between January 2010 and July 2011 as individuals having Schedule II prescriptions (at least one prescription being an opioid) from four or more distinct prescribers and four or more distinct pharmacies within six months. Based on available MA-PDMP resources, an unsolicited report containing the patient's 12-month prescription history was sent to prescribers of a subset of patients who met the MPE threshold; a comparison group closely matched on demographics and baseline prescription history, whose prescribers were not sent a report, was generated using propensity score matching. The prescription history of each group was examined for 12 months before and after the intervention.  There were eighty-four patients (intervention group) whose prescribers received an unsolicited report and 504 matched patients (comparison group) whose prescribers were not sent a report. Regression analyses indicated significantly greater decreases in the number of Schedule II opioid prescriptions ( P  < 0.01), number of prescribers visited ( P  < 0.01), number of pharmacies used ( P  < 0.01), dosage units ( P  < 0.01), total days' supply ( P  < 0.01), total morphine milligram equivalents (MME; P  < 0.01), and average daily MME ( P  < 0.05) for the intervention group relative to the comparison group. A post hoc analysis suggested

  8. TRICARE Fourth Generation Study Group - Exploring the Way Forward

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-26

    JAN 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TRICARE Fourth Generation Study Group - Exploring the...1ncludes all AD, AOFMIGRIGRFM, and unclef 65 RETIRETFMIOTH, exclucbng 65+ Albers Equal Area Prqect10n, 2011 2011 MHS Conference Five Models  TRICARE

  9. Towards power and sample size calculations for the comparison of two groups of patients with item response theory models.

    PubMed

    Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Amri, Sarah; Feddag, Mohand-Larbi; Sébille, Véronique

    2012-05-20

    Evaluation of patient-reported outcomes (PRO) is increasingly performed in health sciences. PRO differs from other measurements because such patient characteristics cannot be directly observed. Item response theory (IRT) is an attractive way for PRO analysis. However, in the framework of IRT, sample size justification is rarely provided or ignores the fact that PRO measures are latent variables with the use of formulas developed for observed variables. It might therefore be inappropriate and might provide inadequately sized studies. The objective was to develop valid sample size methodology for the comparison of PRO in two groups of patients using IRT. The proposed approach takes into account questionnaire's items parameters, the difference of the latent variables means, and its variance whose derivation is approximated using Cramer-Rao bound (CRB). We also computed the associated power. We realized a simulation study taking into account sample size, number of items, and value of the group effect. We compared power obtained from CRB with the one obtained from simulations (SIM) and with the power based on observed variables (OBS). For a given sample size, powers using CRB and SIM were similar and always lower than OBS. We observed a strong impact of the number of items for CRB and SIM, the power increasing with the questionnaire's length but not for OBS. In the context of latent variables, it seems important to use an adapted sample size formula because the formula developed for observed variables seems to be inadequate and leads to an underestimated study size.

  10. Ab-Initio Study of the Group 2 Hydride Anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Joe P.; Wright, Timothy G.; Manship, Daniel R.

    2013-06-01

    The beryllium hydride (BeH)- dimer has recently been shown to be surprisingly strongly bound, with an electronic structure which is highly dependent on internuclear separation. At the equilibrium distance, the negative charge is to be found on the beryllium atom, despite the higher electronegativity of the hydrogen. The current study expands this investigation to the other Group 2 hydrides, and attempts to explain these effects. M. Verdicchio, G. L. Bendazzoli, S. Evangelisti, T. Leininger J. Phys. Chem. A, 117, 192, (2013)

  11. Geothermal development of the Madison group aquifer: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    A geothermal well has been drilled at the St. Mary's Hospital in Pierre, South Dakota. The well is 2176 feet deep and artesian flows 375 gpm at 106/sup 0/F. The well is producing fluids from the Mississippian Madison Group, a sequence of carbonate rocks deposited over several western states. The project was funded to demonstrate the goethermal potential of this widespread aquifer. This case study describes the development of the project through geology, drilling, stimulation, and testing.

  12. International Study Tour Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John J.; McCaw, William P.; Kero, Patty; Stewart, Courtney; Haddouch, Reda

    2014-01-01

    Using the context of international study tour groups, this study examined the personal and professional transformation that occurred among host faculty and staff at The University of Montana-Missoula as a result of their interactions with traveling academics from other countries. Data were collected from participant responses (n = 27) using a…

  13. The comparison between carboxyl, amido and hydroxy group in influencing electrorheological performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huo; Li, Jun-Ran; Liao, Fu-Hui

    2011-03-01

    Three kinds of electrorheological (ER) materials with carboxyl, amido and hydroxyl group, respectively, were synthesized by a simple adsorption method. The powder of silicon dioxide as a substrate of the materials, as well as terephthalic acid [ p-C6H4(COOH)2, abbr.: phen-COOH], p-phenylenediamine [ p-C6H4(NH2)2, abbr.: phen-NH2] and hydroquinone [ p-C6H4(OH)2, abbr.: phen-OH] were chosen as starting materials. The ER properties of suspensions of the materials in silicon oil were studied. The suspension of the material adsorbing phen-COOH reveals the highest ER activity, the relative shear stress of the suspension (25 wt%), τr(=τE/τ0, τE and τ0 are the shear stresses at electric field strengths of E=4.2 and 0 kV/mm, respectively), reaches 220 under a DC electric field at a shear rate of 14.5 s-1. The shear stress of the suspension of the material adsorbing phen-NH2 is the largest at an high electric field strength. The ER activity of the material adsorbing phen-OH is the lowest among the three materials. The molecule structure is an importance factor in influencing ER performance of the materials for similar compounds with different polar function groups. The relationship between the ER activity and dielectric property of the materials was discussed.

  14. Preparing for Life after High School: The Characteristics and Experiences of Youth in Special Education. Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2012. Volume 2: Comparisons across Disability Groups. Full Report. NCEE 2017-4018

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscomb, Stephen; Hamison, Joshua; Liu Albert Y.; Burghardt, John; Johnson, David R.; Thurlow, Martha

    2017-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the 12 percent of all youth in American public schools who have disabilities comprise a set of students with distinct capacities and needs. Federal legislation, including the most recent updates to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 2004, identifies different disability groups and mandates that…

  15. Preparing for Life after High School: The Characteristics and Experiences of Youth in Special Education. Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2012. Volume 2: Comparisons across Disability Groups. Executive Summary. NCEE 2017-4019

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscomb, Stephen; Haimson, Joshua; Liu, Albert Y.; Burghardt, John; Johnson, David R.; Thurlow, Martha

    2017-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the 12 percent of all youth in American public schools who have disabilities comprise a set of students with distinct capacities and needs. Federal legislation, including the most recent updates to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 2004, identifies different disability groups and mandates that…

  16. Comparison of efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of rupatadine and olopatadine in patients of allergic rhinitis: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study

    PubMed Central

    Dakhale, Ganesh; Tathod, Yogesh; Patel, Seema; Pimpalkhute, Sonali; Raghute, Latesh; Khamkar, Ajita

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of rupatadine and olopatadine in patients of allergic rhinitis (AR). Materials and Methods: A 2-week, single-centered, randomized, double-blind, parallel group comparative clinical study was conducted on patients with AR. Following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 67 patients were recruited and randomized to two treatment groups and received the respective drugs for 2 weeks. At follow-up, parameters assessed were total nasal symptom score (TNSS), change in total and differential count of eosinophil. Results: In olopatadine group, there was a significantly higher reduction in TNSS (P < 0.05) than that of rupatadine. Both the drugs significantly reduced the absolute eosinophil count, but olopatadine (P < 0.001) was found to be superior. The incidence of adverse effects was found to be less in olopatadine group when compared with rupatadine group. Conclusion: Olopatadine is a better choice in AR in comparison to rupatadine due to its better efficacy and safety profile. PMID:28163538

  17. Substituent cross-interaction effects on the electronic character of the C=N bridging group in substituted benzylidene anilines--models for molecular cores of mesogenic compounds. A 13C NMR study and comparison with theoretical results.

    PubMed

    Neuvonen, Helmi; Neuvonen, Kari; Fülöp, Ferenc

    2006-04-14

    13C NMR chemical shifts delta(C)(C=N) were measured in CDCl3 for a wide set of mesogenic molecule model compounds, viz. the substituted benzylidene anilines p-X-C6H4CH=NC6H4-p-Y (X = NO2, CN, CF3, F, Cl, H, Me, MeO, or NMe2; Y = NO2, CN, F, Cl, H, Me, MeO, or NMe2). The substituent dependence of delta(C)(C=N) was used as a tool to study electronic substituent effects on the azomethine unit. The benzylidene substituents X have a reverse effect on delta(C)(C=N): electron-withdrawing substituents cause shielding, while electron-donating ones behave oppositely, the inductive effects clearly predominating over the resonance effects. In contrast, the aniline substituents Y exert normal effects: electron-withdrawing substituents cause deshielding, while electron-donating ones cause shielding of the C=N carbon, the strengths of the inductive and resonance effects being closely similar. Additionally, the presence of a specific cross-interaction between X and Y could be verified. The electronic effects of the neighboring aromatic ring substituents systematically modify the sensitivity of the C=N group to the electronic effects of the benzylidene or aniline ring substituents. Electron-withdrawing substituents on the aniline ring decrease the sensitivity of delta(C)(C=N) to the substitution on the benzylidine ring, while electron-donating substituents have the opposite effect. In contrast, electron-withdrawing substituents on the benzylidene ring increase the sensitivity of delta(C)(C=N) to the substituent on the aniline ring, while electron-donating substituents act in the opposite way. These results can be rationalized in terms of the substituent-sensitive balance of the electron delocalization (mesomeric effects). The present NMR characteristics are discussed as regards the computational literature data. Valuable information has been obtained on the effects of the substituents on the molecular core of the mesogenic model compounds.

  18. Self-estimates of intelligence: interaction effects of the comparison to a specific reference group and neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Bipp, T; Kleingeld, A

    2012-04-01

    An experiment that investigated the interaction effect of Neuroticism and the comparison to different reference groups on self-estimates of intelligence is reported. University students (100 men, 15 women) were randomly assigned to two experimental groups and asked to rate their own intelligence on a one-item measure, in IQ points, having been provided with reference values for either the general population or a student sample. Analysis of data confirmed that the accuracy of self-estimates of intelligence was influenced by the variation of the instruction. Participants provided more accurate estimations when confronted with comparison information about fellow students than about the general population. Persons scoring high on Neuroticism estimated their intelligence lower, but only when their estimation was based on a general reference group. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  19. Selecting Evaluation Comparison Groups: A Cluster Analytic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Todd Mclin; McLean, James E.

    A persistent problem in the evaluation of field-based projects is the lack of no-treatment comparison groups. Frequently, potential comparison groups are confounded by socioeconomic, racial, or other factors. Among the possible methods for dealing with this problem are various matching procedures, but they are cumbersome to use with multiple…

  20. Selecting Evaluation Comparison Groups: A Cluster Analytic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Todd Mclin; McLean, James E.

    A persistent problem in the evaluation of field-based projects is the lack of no-treatment comparison groups. Frequently, potential comparison groups are confounded by socioeconomic, racial, or other factors. Among the possible methods for dealing with this problem are various matching procedures, but they are cumbersome to use with multiple…

  1. A Comparison of Group and Individual Training Procedures on the Raven Learning Potential Measure with Black and White Special Class Students. Studies in Learning Potential, Volume 3, Number 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Louise; Budoff, Milton

    The Raven Progressive Matrices (RPM) were administered to groups of approximately 15 to 25 (for a total of 174) special class, educable mentally retarded Negro or white students, 5 1/2 to 10 1/2 years of age from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds to determine whether individual or group training with learning potential procedure was more…

  2. The HPV Vaccine: A Comparison of Focus Groups Conducted in South Africa and Ohio Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Mira L.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among women. Even though women in developing countries account for approximately 85 % of the cervical cancer cases and deaths, disparities in cervical cancer rates are also documented in developed countries like the United States (U.S.). Recently, formative research conducted in the U.S. and developing countries like South Africa have sought to gain a better understanding of the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes about cervical cancer prevention, HPV, and the acceptance of the HPV vaccine. This study compares findings from two independent focus group studies. One study was conducted in a segregated township in Johannesburg, South Africa (n = 24) and the other study was conducted in Ohio Appalachia (n = 19). The following seven themes emerged during the discussions from both studies: HPV and cervical cancer; health decision making; parent–child communication; healthy children; HPV vaccine costs; sexual abuse; and HPV vaccine education. Findings from both studies indicate the importance of the role of mothers and grandmothers in the health care decision-making process for children and a lack of awareness of HPV and its association with cervical cancer. While there was interest in the HPV vaccine, participants voiced concern about the vaccine’s cost and side effects. Some participants expressed concern that receipt of the HPV vaccine may initiate adolescent sexual behavior. However, other participants suggested that the HPV vaccine may protect young women who may experience sexual abuse. The importance of developing culturally appropriate educational materials and programs about cervical cancer prevention and the HPV vaccine were expressed by participants in both countries. PMID:22930347

  3. The Specificity of Emotional Switching in Borderline Personality Disorder in Comparison to Other Clinical Groups

    PubMed Central

    Houben, Marlies; Bohus, Martin; Santangelo, Philip; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Trull, Timothy; Kuppens, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to better understand the nature of emotion dysregulation in the daily lives of persons with a borderline personality disorder (BPD), Houben, Vansteelandt et al. (2015) recently identified emotional switching, which refers to the tendency to make large changes between positive and negative emotional states over time, as a possible defining characteristic of the emotion dynamics observed in BPD. The goal of this study was to examine the specificity of these previous findings in two samples, by comparing BPD patients (N = 43 in sample 1; N = 81 in sample 2) to patients with bulimia nervosa (N = 20) or posttraumatic stress disorder (N = 28) or healthy controls (N = 28) in sample 1, and to patients with depressive disorder (N = 50) in sample 2, with respect to measures of emotional switching. Analyses of these two experience sampling datasets revealed that contrary to expectations, BPD patients did not differ from the clinical groups regarding their mere tendency to switch between positive and negative emotional states on consecutive moments over time, and regarding the magnitude of such changes between positive and negative emotional states over time. However, all clinical groups did differ from healthy controls regarding all switch measures in dataset 1. These results indicate that emotional switching, similar to other more traditional indicators of overall changes in emotional intensity in daily life, might reflect a feature of emotional responding characterising a range of disorders with mood disturbances. PMID:26882282

  4. Comparison of the clinical success rates and quality of life effects of brimonidine tartrate 0.2% and betaxolol 0.25% suspension in patients with open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Brimonidine Outcomes Study Group II.

    PubMed

    Javitt, J; Goldberg, I

    2000-10-01

    To compare the clinical effectiveness and the impact on quality of life of twice-daily brimonidine 0.2% with those of twice-daily betaxolol 0.25% in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. A prospective, double-masked, randomized, comparative, multicenter, 4-month "real-life" clinical trial involving 188 patients. Medications were instilled twice daily. Efficacy was determined through measurement of intraocular pressure; safety and tolerability were measured using reports of adverse events, a quality of life survey (Glaucoma Disability Index), heart rate, and blood pressure. Patients with an inadequate response in intraocular pressure after 1 month or those who experienced significant adverse events in the first month were switched to the alternative study arm and remained taking the alternative medication for a total of 4 months or left the study. The main outcome measure was clinical success, as determined by evaluation of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of drug treatment, and was achieved when the investigator recommended that the patient continue the treatment after completion of the study. As initial therapy, clinical success was achieved in 74% of patients treated with brimonidine, as compared with 57% of patients treated with betaxolol (P = 0.027). The overall mean decrease in intraocular pressure from baseline was 5.9 mm Hg with brimonidine and 3.8 mm Hg with betaxolol. Both treatments were well tolerated, and there were no significant between-group differences in the incidence of adverse events or in the quality of life summary scores. Twice-daily brimonidine 0.2% and betaxolol 0.25% suspension were safe and effective as first-line therapy for glaucoma and ocular hypertension. In this study, brimonidine showed clinical effectiveness superior to that of betaxolol.

  5. External validation of Vascular Study Group of New England risk predictive model of mortality after elective abdominal aorta aneurysm repair in the Vascular Quality Initiative and comparison against established models.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Mohammad H; Rybin, Denis V; Doros, Gheorghe; Siracuse, Jeffrey J; Farber, Alik

    2017-08-11

    The purpose of this study is to externally validate a recently reported Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) risk predictive model of postoperative mortality after elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair and to compare its predictive ability across different patients' risk categories and against the established risk predictive models using the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) AAA sample. The VQI AAA database (2010-2015) was queried for patients who underwent elective AAA repair. The VSGNE cases were excluded from the VQI sample. The external validation of a recently published VSGNE AAA risk predictive model, which includes only preoperative variables (age, gender, history of coronary artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cerebrovascular disease, creatinine levels, and aneurysm size) and planned type of repair, was performed using the VQI elective AAA repair sample. The predictive value of the model was assessed via the C-statistic. Hosmer-Lemeshow method was used to assess calibration and goodness of fit. This model was then compared with the Medicare, Vascular Governance Northwest model, and Glasgow Aneurysm Score for predicting mortality in VQI sample. The Vuong test was performed to compare the model fit between the models. Model discrimination was assessed in different risk group VQI quintiles. Data from 4431 cases from the VSGNE sample with the overall mortality rate of 1.4% was used to develop the model. The internally validated VSGNE model showed a very high discriminating ability in predicting mortality (C = 0.822) and good model fit (Hosmer-Lemeshow P = .309) among the VSGNE elective AAA repair sample. External validation on 16,989 VQI cases with an overall 0.9% mortality rate showed very robust predictive ability of mortality (C = 0.802). Vuong tests yielded a significant fit difference favoring the VSGNE over then Medicare model (C = 0.780), Vascular Governance Northwest (0.774), and Glasgow Aneurysm Score (0

  6. Length of training, hostility and the martial arts: a comparison with other sporting groups.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, K; Thornton, E

    1992-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that training in the martial arts leads to a reduction in levels of hostility. However, such research has only compared hostility within martial arts groups. The present research compares two martial arts groups and two other sporting groups on levels of assaultive, verbal and indirect hostility. Moderated multiple regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between length of training in the respondent's stated sport and whether that sport was a martial art in predicting assaultive and verbal hostility. The form of the interaction suggests that participation in the martial arts is associated, over time, with decreased feelings of assaultive and verbal hostility. PMID:1422642

  7. [Anatomical contents in the Rorschach test: comparison between a population of nurses and a control group].

    PubMed

    Englebert, J; Thiltges, E; Wertz, C; Blavier, A

    2013-04-01

    The study of answer contents to a Rorschach test leads to numerous debates and controversies. From a pragmatic point of view, the recurrent question is to understand the meaning of a content (or its repetition) in a protocol. From a discursive and perceptive point of view, it is hazardous to give an interpretation other than descriptive and contextual. Indeed, no single interpretative theory or analysis method is able to determine with certainty and rigor a strict correlation between people's psychological functioning and the contents they perceive. In this empirical context, we studied the "anatomy" answers (frequencies and formal qualities) in a population of nurses (n=38) matched with a control group (non-medical subjects, n=38). The Rorschach test was administrated according to the recommendations of the Integrated System. The average of An+Xy answers was clearly and significantly higher in the nurse population (3.58) than in the control group (0.89) and than in the three comparative norms that we selected (from 0.96 to 1.83). Concerning the formal quality, the repeated-measures analysis of variance showed a significant interaction effect: although subjects in the control group gave a similar number of ordinary, unusual and minus forms for An+Xy answers, the nurses gave more erroneous (minus) forms (1.79) than unusual forms (1.21) and finally than ordinary forms (0.58). Two hypotheses may be suggested in order to explain our findings. On one hand, it is highly probable that our results are linked to the everyday body confrontation in a nurse's job. On the other hand, we suggest that by giving An+Xy answers, nurses tend to reveal some idiosyncratic characteristics in order to show their own identity. Indeed, our nurse subjects were selected because of their job, and so they complied with the social identity that was implicitly expected. This is congruent with the complex functioning in social reality: in a social group, people will not verbalize all of their

  8. Case-Control Study: Smoking History Affects the Production of Tumor Antigen-Specific Antibodies NY-ESO-1 in Patients with Lung Cancer in Comparison with Cancer Disease-Free Group.

    PubMed

    Myšíková, Dagmar; Adkins, Irena; Hradilová, Nad'a; Palata, Ondřej; Šimonek, Jan; Pozniak, Jiří; Kolařík, Jan; Skallová-Fialová, Anna; Špíšek, Radek; Lischke, Robert

    2017-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide; therefore, understanding the biological or clinical role of tumor-associated antigens and autoantibodies is of eminent interest for designing antitumor immunotherapeutic strategies. Here we prospectively analyzed the serum frequencies of New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 1 (NY-ESO-1), human epidermal growth factor 2/neu, and melanoma-associated antigen A4 (MAGE-A4) antibodies and expression of the corresponding antigens in tumors of 121 patients with NSCLC undergoing an operation without prior neoadjuvant chemotherapy and compared them with those in 57 control age-matched patients with no history of a malignant disease. We found that only antibodies specific for NY-ESO-1 (19.8% [n = 24 of 121]) were significantly increased in the group of patients with NSCLC compared with in the controls. NY-ESO-1 seropositivity was significantly positively associated with an active smoking history in patients with NSCLC but not in smokers from the control group. In tumors, the frequency of NY-ESO-1 mRNA expression was 6.3% (in four of 64 patients), the frequency of human epidermal growth factor 2/neu (HER 2/neu) expression was 11.9% (five of 42), and the frequency of MAGE-A4 expression was 35.1% (20 of 57). MAGE-A4 expression in tumors correlated with smoking status and male sex in patients with NSCLC. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma displayed higher expression of NY-ESO-1 and MAGE-A4 in tumors than did patients with adenocarcinoma. On the other hand, 94.7% of nonsmoking patients in our study had adenocarcinoma (of whom 73.7% were women). These results confirm the reported high immunogenicity of NY-ESO-1 and suggest that a smoking-induced chronic inflammatory state might potentiate the development of NY-ESO-1-specific immune responses. Moreover, smoking might contribute to the expression of other cancer/testis antigens such as MAGE-A4 at early stages of NSCLC development. Copyright © 2016

  9. Attempted suicide in the elderly: characteristics of suicide attempters 70 years and older and a general population comparison group.

    PubMed

    Wiktorsson, Stefan; Runeson, Bo; Skoog, Ingmar; Ostling, Svante; Waern, Margda

    2010-01-01

    To identify factors associated with attempted suicide in the elderly. Social, psychological, and psychiatric characteristics were compared in suicide attempters (70 years and older) and a representative population sample. Emergency departments at five hospitals in western Sweden and a representative sample of the elderly population. Persons with Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score <15 were excluded. One hundred forty persons who sought hospital treatment after a suicide attempt were eligible and 103 participated (57 women, 46 men, and mean age 80 years). Comparison subjects matched for gender and age group (N = 408) were randomly selected among participants in our general population studies. Symptoms were rated with identical instruments in cases and comparison subjects. The examination included the MMSE and tests of short- and long-term memory, abstract thinking, aphasia, apraxia, and agnosia. Depressive symptomatology was measured using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and major and minor depressions were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, using symptom algorithms. Factors associated with attempted suicide included being unmarried, living alone, low education level, history of psychiatric treatment, and previous suicide attempt. There was no association with dementia. Odds ratios were increased for both major (odds ratio [OR]: 47.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.1-117.7) and minor (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.5-4.7) depressions. An association was observed between perceived loneliness and attempted suicide; this relationship was independent of depression (OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3-6.1). Observed associations mirrored those previously shown for completed suicide. Results may help to inform clinical decisions regarding suicide risk evaluation in this vulnerable and growing age group.

  10. Density matrix renormalization group numerical study of the kagome antiferromagnet.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H C; Weng, Z Y; Sheng, D N

    2008-09-12

    We numerically study the spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice using the density-matrix renormalization group method. We find that the ground state is a magnetically disordered spin liquid, characterized by an exponential decay of spin-spin correlation function in real space and a magnetic structure factor showing system-size independent peaks at commensurate magnetic wave vectors. We obtain a spin triplet excitation gap DeltaE(S=1)=0.055+/-0.005 by extrapolation based on the large size results, and confirm the presence of gapless singlet excitations. The physical nature of such an exotic spin liquid is also discussed.

  11. Profit 󈨐 Summary Report. Report of the Profit Study Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-07

    Evaluation of the Test of the Employed Capital Concept Pro E,, a.l-.•iih•er Purpose VI-3 Approach V 1-5 Findings VI-12 M!osenile of Findings VI-19...development of a new profit policy. The Profit 󈨐 study group, with help from the Defense Contract 9 Audit Agency (DCAA), the General Accounting Office...attention were specifically organized for "in-depth" analysis. These "Major Issues" , are: /; (1) DPC 107 and the return-on-investment -- concept (2

  12. Yeast Communities of Diverse Drosophila Species: Comparison of Two Symbiont Groups in the Same Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, Jonathan A.; Kopp, Artyom

    2012-01-01

    The combination of ecological diversity with genetic and experimental tractability makes Drosophila a powerful model for the study of animal-associated microbial communities. Despite the known importance of yeasts in Drosophila physiology, behavior, and fitness, most recent work has focused on Drosophila-bacterial interactions. In order to get a more complete understanding of the Drosophila microbiome, we characterized the yeast communities associated with different Drosophila species collected around the world. We focused on the phylum Ascomycota because it constitutes the vast majority of the Drosophila-associated yeasts. Our sampling strategy allowed us to compare the distribution and structure of the yeast and bacterial communities in the same host populations. We show that yeast communities are dominated by a small number of abundant taxa, that the same yeast lineages are associated with different host species and populations, and that host diet has a greater effect than host species on yeast community composition. These patterns closely parallel those observed in Drosophila bacterial communities. However, we do not detect a significant correlation between the yeast and bacterial communities of the same host populations. Comparative analysis of different symbiont groups provides a more comprehensive picture of host-microbe interactions. Future work on the role of symbiont communities in animal physiology, ecological adaptation, and evolution would benefit from a similarly holistic approach. PMID:22885750

  13. The Group Reading Inventory in the Social Studies Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henk, William A.; Helfeldt, John P.

    1985-01-01

    The Group Reading Inventory (GRI) is a reading evaluation tool that can survey an entire class of students at the same time. A testing sequence using GRI that allows teachers to identify the functional reading levels of most students in three short examination sessions is presented. (RM)

  14. Report of the APS Neutrino Study Reactor Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Abouzaid, E.; Anderson, K.; Barenboim, G.; Berger, B.; Blucher, E.; Bolton, T.; Choubey, S.; Conrad, J.; Formaggio, J.; Freedman, S.; Finely, D.; Fisher, P.; Fujikawa, B.; Gai, M.; Goodman, M.; de Goueva, A.; Hadley, N.; Hahn, R.; Horton-Smith, G.; Kadel, R.; Kayser, B.; Heeger, K.; Klein, J.; Learned, J.; Lindner, M.; Link, J.; Luk, K.-B.; McKeown, R.; Mocioiu, I.; Mohapatra, R.; Naples, D.; Peng, J.; Petcov, S.; Pilcher, J.; Rapidis, P.; Reyna, D.; Shaevitz, M.; Shrock, R.; Stanton, N.; Stefanski, R.; Yamamoto, R.; Worcester, M.

    2004-10-28

    The worldwide program to understand neutrino oscillations and determine the neutrino mixing parameters, CP violating effects, and mass hierarchy will require a broad combination of measurements. The group believes that a key element of this future neutrino program is a multi-detector neutrino experiment (with baselines of {approx} 200 m and {approx} 1.5 km) with a sensitivity of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} = 0.01. In addition to oscillation physics, the reactor experiment may provide interesting measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} at Q{sup 2} = 0, neutrino couplings, magnetic moments, and mixing with sterile neutrino states. {theta}{sub 13} is one of the twenty-six parameters of the standard model, the best model of electroweak interactions for energies below 100 GeV and, as such, is worthy of a precision measurement independent of other considerations. A reactor experiment of the proposed sensitivity will allow a measurement of {theta}{sub 13} with no ambiguities and significantly better precision than any other proposed experiment, or will set limits indicating the scale of future experiments required to make progress. Figure 1 shows a comparison of the sensitivity of reactor experiments of different scales with accelerator experiments for setting limits on sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} if the mixing angle is very small, or for making a measurement of sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} if the angle is observable. A reactor experiment with a 1% precision may also resolve the degeneracy in the {theta}{sub 23} parameter when combined with long-baseline accelerator experiments. In combination with long-baseline measurements, a reactor experiment may give early indications of CP violation and the mass hierarchy. The combination of the T2K and Nova long-baseline experiments will be able to make significant measurements of these effects if sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} > 0.05 and with enhanced beam rates can improve their reach to the sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} > 0.02 level

  15. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) and Subsequent Bias in Group Comparisons using a Composite Measurement Scale: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Rouquette, Alexandra; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Coste, Joel

    To determine the conditions in which the estimation of a difference between groups for a construct evaluated using a composite measurement scale is biased if the presence of Differential Item Functioning (DIF) is not taken into account. Datasets were generated using the Partial Credit Model to simulate 642 realistic scenarios. The effect of seven factors on the bias on the estimated difference between groups was evaluated using ANOVA: sample size, true difference between groups, number of items in the scale, proportion of items showing DIF, DIF-size for these items, position of these items location parameters along the latent trait, and uniform/non-uniform DIF. For uniform DIF, only the DIF-size and the proportion of items showing DIF (and their interaction term) had meaningful effects. The effect of non-uniform DIF was negligible. The measurement bias resulting from DIF was quantified in various realistic conditions of composite measurement scale use.

  16. Comparison of fluticasone propionate with beclomethasone dipropionate in moderate to severe asthma treated for one year. International Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Fabbri, L.; Burge, P. S.; Croonenborgh, L.; Warlies, F.; Weeke, B.; Ciaccia, A.; Parker, C.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--High dose inhaled glucocorticosteroids are increasingly used in the management of patients with moderate to severe asthma. Although effective, they may cause systemic side effects. Fluticasone propionate is a topically active inhaled glucocorticosteroid which has few systemic effects at high doses. METHODS--Fluticasone propionate, 1.5 mg per day, was compared with beclomethasone dipropionate at the same dose for one year in patients with symptomatic moderate to severe asthma; 142 patients received fluticasone propionate and 132 received beclomethasone dipropionate. The study was multicentre, double blind and of a parallel design. For the first three months patients attended the clinic every four weeks and completed daily diary cards. For the next nine months they were only seen at three monthly intervals in the clinic. RESULTS--During the first three months diary card peak expiratory flow (PEF) rate and lung function measurements in the clinic showed significantly greater improvement in patients receiving fluticasone propionate (difference in morning PEF 15 l/min (95% CI 6 to 25)), and these differences were apparent at the end of the first week. The improved lung function was maintained throughout the 12 month period and the number of severe exacerbations in patients receiving fluticasone propionate was reduced by 8% compared with those receiving beclomethasone dipropionate. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in morning plasma cortisol levels, urinary free cortisol levels, or response to synthetic ACTH stimulation. In addition, both the rates of withdrawal and of adverse events were low, and there were fewer exacerbations of asthma with fluticasone propionate than beclomethasone dipropionate. CONCLUSIONS--This study shows that fluticasone propionate in a daily dose of 1.5 mg results in a significantly greater increase in PEF and asthma control than the same dose of beclomethasone dipropionate, with no increase in systemic

  17. A comparison of donor and control group quality of life.

    PubMed

    Tumin, Makmor; Abdul Talib Abdul Mutalib, Muzalwana; Mohd Satar, Nurulhuda; Abdullah, Nawi; Chong, Chin-Sieng; Ng, Kok-Peng; Lim, Soo-Kun

    2014-03-03

    Informed consent of prospective donors should include information about the quality of life (QoL) of existing donors, especially those within the relevant country. This study aimed to provide information on Malaysian organ donors' QoL relative to a control group. Using a shorter version of the SF-36, QoL of 80 donors from the University of Malaya Medical Center (UMMC), Malaysia was surveyed and compared to QoL of 80 selected healthy individuals. ANOVA and General Linear Model (GLM) procedure were each applied for the QoL comparison, which was based on gender and age. Donors recorded a better QoL relative to the control group. Comparison across gender revealed that differences are more obvious for males than females. Donor/control comparison across age groups reveals that donors aged 56 and above reported significantly better QoL in most domains relative to other age groups. Information on donor QoL should be made available to the public to present a comprehensive picture of the consequences of organ donation. Nonetheless, we also argue that, despite the merits of organ donation, caution is required before concluding that donors have better QoL because the present research outcomes may reflect a self-selection bias in which respondents only included donors engaging in regular follow-ups.

  18. Comparison of Debrecen and Mount Wilson/Kodaikanal sunspot group tilt angles and the Joy's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranyi, T.

    2015-02-01

    The study of active region tilt angles and their variations in different time-scales plays an important role in revealing the subsurface dynamics of magnetic flux ropes and in understanding the dynamo mechanism. In order to reveal the exact characteristics of tilt angles, precise long-term tilt angle data bases are needed. However, there are only a few different data sets at present, which are difficult to be compared and cross-calibrate because of their substantial deviations. In this paper, we describe new tilt angle data bases derived from the Debrecen Photoheliographic Data (DPD) (1974-) and from the SOHO/MDI-Debrecen Data (SDD) (1996-2010) sunspot catalogues. We compare them with the traditional sunspot group tilt angle data bases of Mount Wilson Observatory (1917-85) and Kodaikanal Solar Observatory (1906-87) and we analyse the deviations. Various methods and filters are investigated which may improve the sample of data and may help in deriving better results based on combined data. As a demonstration of the enhanced quality of the improved data set a refined diagram of Joy's law is presented.

  19. A Comparison of Workplace Groups with Groups in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.; James, Joyce E.

    The use of groups in both the workplace and schools has been increasing. In the workplace, groups reflective of a growing trend toward worker participation in management have been variously referred to as self-managing work teams, self-directed work groups, quality circles, autonomous work groups, and cross-functional teams. Schools have used many…

  20. [Comparison between 2 groups of nursing professionals on the knowledge of pediatric pain].

    PubMed

    Lobete Prieto, C; Rey Galán, C; Kiza, A H

    2015-01-01

    To compare infant pain knowledge between a group of nurses who work in a pediatric hospital and one that works in a general hospital. Descriptive study based on the use of a validated questionnaire for assessing the knowledge and attitudes of nurses about pediatric pain (Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge and Attitude Survey Regarding Pain [PNKAS]). PNKAS questionnaire was distributed to the nursing staff of a pediatric hospital and a general hospital and the results were compared. The average score obtained in the pediatric vs. the general hospital was: mean, 51.7% vs. 47.2%, 95% confidence interval, 47.5 to 56% vs. 43.6 to 50.8% (P=.098). There were no differences between the scores in the PNKAS questionnaire between nurses working exclusively with children and nurses working with general population. Training on pediatric pain needs to be improved in nurses caring for sick children. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of two control groups for estimation of oral cholera vaccine effectiveness using a case-control study design.

    PubMed

    Franke, Molly F; Jerome, J Gregory; Matias, Wilfredo R; Ternier, Ralph; Hilaire, Isabelle J; Harris, Jason B; Ivers, Louise C

    2017-10-13

    Case-control studies to quantify oral cholera vaccine effectiveness (VE) often rely on neighbors without diarrhea as community controls. Test-negative controls can be easily recruited and may minimize bias due to differential health-seeking behavior and recall. We compared VE estimates derived from community and test-negative controls and conducted bias-indicator analyses to assess potential bias with community controls. From October 2012 through November 2016, patients with acute watery diarrhea were recruited from cholera treatment centers in rural Haiti. Cholera cases had a positive stool culture. Non-cholera diarrhea cases (test-negative controls and non-cholera diarrhea cases for bias-indicator analyses) had a negative culture and rapid test. Up to four community controls were matched to diarrhea cases by age group, time, and neighborhood. Primary analyses included 181 cholera cases, 157 non-cholera diarrhea cases, 716 VE community controls and 625 bias-indicator community controls. VE for self-reported vaccination with two doses was consistent across the two control groups, with statistically significant VE estimates ranging from 72 to 74%. Sensitivity analyses revealed similar, though somewhat attenuated estimates for self-reported two dose VE. Bias-indicator estimates were consistently less than one, with VE estimates ranging from 19 to 43%, some of which were statistically significant. OCV estimates from case-control analyses using community and test-negative controls were similar. While bias-indicator analyses suggested possible over-estimation of VE estimates using community controls, test-negative analyses suggested this bias, if present, was minimal. Test-negative controls can be a valid low-cost and time-efficient alternative to community controls for OCV effectiveness estimation and may be especially relevant in emergency situations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Impact of tissue atrophy on high-pass filtered MRI signal phase-based assessment in large-scale group-comparison studies: A simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweser, Ferdinand; Dwyer, Michael G.; Deistung, Andreas; Reichenbach, Jürgen R.; Zivadinov, Robert

    2013-10-01

    The assessment of abnormal accumulation of tissue iron in the basal ganglia nuclei and in white matter plaques using the gradient echo magnetic resonance signal phase has become a research focus in many neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis or Parkinson’s disease. A common and natural approach is to calculate the mean high-pass-filtered phase of previously delineated brain structures. Unfortunately, the interpretation of such an analysis requires caution: in this paper we demonstrate that regional gray matter atrophy, which is concomitant with many neurodegenerative diseases, may itself directly result in a phase shift seemingly indicative of increased iron concentration even without any real change in the tissue iron concentration. Although this effect is relatively small results of large-scale group comparisons may be driven by anatomical changes rather than by changes of the iron concentration.

  3. Study Groups: Conduit for Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makibbin, Shirley S.; Sprague, Marsha M.

    This conference presentation describes study groups as a mechanism for changing teacher behavior. The history of study groups is discussed, beginning with the first American study groups organized by Benjamin Franklin; the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle; the waning of study groups in the early 20th century as college enrollment…

  4. Reexamining the Impact of Nonnormality in Two-Group Comparison Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Yoonjeong; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The authors performed a Monte Carlo simulation to empirically investigate the robustness and power of 4 methods in testing mean differences for 2 independent groups under conditions in which 2 populations may not demonstrate the same pattern of nonnormality. The approaches considered were the t test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, Welch-James test with…

  5. Reexamining the Impact of Nonnormality in Two-Group Comparison Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Yoonjeong; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The authors performed a Monte Carlo simulation to empirically investigate the robustness and power of 4 methods in testing mean differences for 2 independent groups under conditions in which 2 populations may not demonstrate the same pattern of nonnormality. The approaches considered were the t test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, Welch-James test with…

  6. Progress report of the IAU Commission 4 Working Group on Ephemeris Access and the comparison of high accuracy planetary ephemerides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    In September 2010 IAU Commission 4, Ephemerides, organized a working group to provide a recommendation for a preferred format for solar system ephemerides. The purpose of this recommendation is to provide easy access to a wide range of solar system ephemerides for users. The working group, chaired by Hilton, includes representatives from each of the major planetary ephemeris groups and representatives from the satellite and asteroid ephemeris communities. The working group has tentatively decided to recommend the SPK format developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility for use with its SPICE Toolkit. Certain details, however, must still be resolved before a final recommendation is made by the working group. An update is also provided to ongoing analysis comparing the three high accuracy planetary ephemerides, DE421, EPM2008, and INPOP10a. The principal topics of this update are: replacing the INPOP08 ephemeris with the INPOP10a ephemeris, making the comparisons with respect to DE421 rather than DE405, and comparing the TT - TDB values determined in EPM2008 and INPOP10a with the Fairhead & Bretagnon (1990, A&A, 229, 240) model used in DE421 as T_eph.

  7. Global Analysis and Comparison of the Transcriptomes and Proteomes of Group A Streptococcus Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Freiberg, Jeffrey A.; Le Breton, Yoann; Tran, Bao Q.; Scott, Alison J.; Harro, Janette M.; Ernst, Robert K.; Goo, Young Ah; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Goodlett, David R.; McIver, Kevin S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To gain a better understanding of the genes and proteins involved in group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) biofilm growth, we analyzed the transcriptome, cellular proteome, and cell wall proteome from biofilms at different stages and compared them to those of plankton-stage GAS. Using high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) shotgun proteomics, we found distinct expression profiles in the transcriptome and proteome. A total of 46 genes and 41 proteins showed expression across the majority of biofilm time points that was consistently higher or consistently lower than that seen across the majority of planktonic time points. However, there was little overlap between the genes and proteins on these two lists. In line with other studies comparing transcriptomic and proteomic data, the overall correlation between the two data sets was modest. Furthermore, correlation was poorest for biofilm samples. This suggests a high degree of regulation of protein expression by nontranscriptional mechanisms. This report illustrates the benefits and weaknesses of two different approaches to global expression profiling, and it also demonstrates the advantage of using proteomics in conjunction with transcriptomics to gain a more complete picture of global expression within biofilms. In addition, this report provides the fullest characterization of expression patterns in GAS biofilms currently available. IMPORTANCE Prokaryotes are thought to regulate their proteomes largely at the level of transcription. However, the results from this first set of global transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of paired microbial samples presented here show that this assumption is false for the majority of genes and their products in S. pyogenes. In addition, the tenuousness of the link between transcription and translation becomes even more pronounced when microbes exist in a biofilm or a stationary planktonic state

  8. Studies of nearby poor clusters - The Eridanus group

    SciTech Connect

    Willmer, C.N.A.; Focardi, P.; Da Costa, L.N.; Pellegrini, P.S. )

    1989-11-01

    Results are reported from dynamical study of the Eridanus group of galaxies. This system is quite prominent in one of the large-scale features found in the recently completed Southern Sky Redshift Survey (da Costa et al., 1988): the Eridanus-Fornax-Dorado filament. The irregualr aspect of Eridanus suggests the existence of subclustering, which is confirmed by statistical tests. These subclusters are bound, suggesting that the system is still condensing from the Hubble flow and may eventually form a cluster of about 10 to the 14th solar mass. By calculating the two-body orbital solution, it is found that the Eridanus complex and the Fornax cluster also form a bound system, although still in the expansion phase. 41 refs.

  9. Group Comparisons in the Presence of Missing Data Using Latent Variable Modeling Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.

    2010-01-01

    A latent variable modeling approach for examining population similarities and differences in observed variable relationship and mean indexes in incomplete data sets is discussed. The method is based on the full information maximum likelihood procedure of model fitting and parameter estimation. The procedure can be employed to test group identities…

  10. A Comparison of Punishment and Positive Reinforcement Group Contingencies in the Modification of Inappropriate Classroom Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonewille, Jack; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Measures the relative effectiveness of a short-term punishment versus a snort-term positive reinforcement contingency system for reducing the frequency of specific inappropriate behaviors of a group of senior elementary students. Students were directly involved in identifying the different types of discipline so that they might help determine the…

  11. Group Comparisons in the Presence of Missing Data Using Latent Variable Modeling Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.

    2010-01-01

    A latent variable modeling approach for examining population similarities and differences in observed variable relationship and mean indexes in incomplete data sets is discussed. The method is based on the full information maximum likelihood procedure of model fitting and parameter estimation. The procedure can be employed to test group identities…

  12. Parents' perspectives on the MMR immunisation: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Evans, M; Stoddart, H; Condon, L; Freeman, E; Grizzell, M; Mullen, R

    2001-11-01

    The uptake of the combined measles, mumps and rubella immunisation (MMR) in Britain has fallen since 1998, when a link was hypothesised with the development of bowel disorders and childhood autism. Despite reassurances about the safety of MMR, uptake levels remain lower than optimal. We need to understand what influences parents' decisions on whether to accept MMR or not so that health professionals can provide a service responsive to their needs. To investigate what influences parents' decisions on whether to accept or refuse the primary MMR immunisation and the impact of the recent controversy over its safety. Qualitative study using focus group discussions. Forty-eight parents, whose youngest child was between 14 months and three years old, attended groups at community halls in six localities in Avon and Gloucestershire. Purposive sampling strategy was used to include parents from a variety of socioeconomic backgrounds. Three groups comprised parents who had accepted MMR and three groups comprised parents who had refused MMR. Data analysis used modified grounded theory techniques incorporating the constant comparative method. All parents felt that the decision about MMR was difficult and stressful, and experienced unwelcome pressure from health professionals to comply. Parents were not convinced by Department of Health reassurances that MMR was the safest and best option for their children and many had accepted MMR unwillingly. Four key factors influenced parents' decisions: (a) beliefs about the risks and benefits of MMR compared with contracting the diseases, (b) information from the media and other sources about the safety of MMR, (c) confidence and trust in the advice of health professionals and attitudes towards compliance with this advice, and (d) views on the importance of individual choice within Government policy on immunisation. Parents wanted up-to-date information about the risks and benefits of MMR to be available in advance of their immunisation

  13. Comparison of Polyurethanes with Polyhydroxyurethanes: Effect of the Hydroxyl Group on Structure-Property Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitsch, Emily K.; Lombardo, Vince M.; Scheidt, Karl A.; Torkelson, John M.

    2014-03-01

    Polyurethanes (PUs) are commonly synthesized by rapid step-growth polymerization through the reaction of a multifunctional alcohol with a polyisocyanate. PUs can be prepared at ambient conditions utilizing a variety of starting material molecular weights and backbones, resulting in highly tunable thermal and physical properties. The urethane linkages as well as the nanophase separated morphology attainable in PU materials lead to desirable properties including elastomeric character and adhesion. The isocyanate-based monomers used in the synthesis of traditional PUs have come under increasing regulatory pressure and thus inspired the investigation of alternative routes for the formation of PU materials. We examine an alternative route to synthesize PU- the reaction of five-membered cyclic carbonate with amines. This reaction results in the formation of a urethane linkage with an adjacent alcohol group. The effects of this hydroxyl group on the thermal and mechanical properties of the resulting polymer are investigated and compared with an analogous traditional PU system.

  14. The Social Validation of Three Physical Restraint Procedures: A Comparison of Young People and Professional Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Andrew A.; Sturmey, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Forty-one special education professionals and classroom aides, 47 residential care staff, and 74 high school students rated the treatment acceptability of three forms of physical restraint. A chair method of restraint was rated as more acceptable than other floor restraint methods by all three groups. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  15. The Role of Focus Group Venue: A Comparative Study of Face-to-Face, Telephone, and Internet Video-Based Venues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothberg, June E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the equivalence or non-inferiority for comparisons of telephone focus group venue to face-to-face focus group venue, Internet video-based focus group venue to face-to-face focus group venue, and Internet video-based focus group venue to telephone focus group venue. Research questions examined the…

  16. Scandium in the open ocean: A comparison with other group 3 trivalent metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, C. E.; Brown, M. T.; Bruland, K. W.

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the distribution of scandium (Sc) in the open ocean. Since the 1970s there has been only one published depth profile of dissolved Sc. The work presented here reports depth profiles of dissolved Sc from GEOTRACES cruises in the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and South Pacific. This work also compares the reactivity of Sc with its trivalent periodic table groupmates in Group IIIB, yttrium (Y) and lanthanum (La), and Group IIIA, aluminum (Al) and gallium (Ga). Yttrium and La are classic nutrient-type metals that increase in concentration in aging deep water; Al and Ga are classic scavenged-type metals that do the opposite. Results indicate that Sc is a hybrid-type metal with an inferred residence time on the order of 1000 years, and that Sc's inorganic speciation and reactivity are similar to Fe's and have the potential to give insights into the nonnutrient side of oceanic Fe cycling.

  17. A Comparison of Approaches to Group Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimpfer, David G.; And Others

    This panel is based on the assumptions that: (1) group counseling has a valuable contribution to make, (2) group counseling is feasible in terms of time and space at local institutions, (3) group counseling is particularly concerned with affective material, and (4) group counseling probably cannot be conducted effectively in groups as large as 30.…

  18. Group therapy for women with substance use disorders: results from the Women's Recovery Group Study.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Shelly F; Sugarman, Dawn E; Freid, Cathryn M; Bailey, Genie L; Crisafulli, Michele A; Kaufman, Julia S; Wigderson, Sara; Connery, Hilary S; Rodolico, John; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M

    2014-09-01

    This Stage II trial builds on a Stage I trial comparing the single-gender Women's Recovery Group (WRG) to mixed-gender Group Drug Counseling (GDC) that demonstrated preliminary support for the WRG in treating women with substance use disorders. The Stage II trial aims were to (1) investigate effectiveness of the WRG relative to GDC in a sample of women heterogeneous with respect to substance of abuse and co-occurring psychiatric disorders, and (2) demonstrate the feasibility of implementing WRG in an open-enrollment group format at two sites. In this randomized clinical trial, participants were included if they were substance dependent and had used substances within the past 60 days (n=158). Women were randomized to WRG (n=52) or GDC (n=48); men were assigned to GDC (n=58). Substance use outcomes were assessed at months 1-6 and 9. Women in both the WRG and GDC had reductions in mean number of substance use days during treatment (12.7 vs 13.7 day reductions for WRG and GDC, respectively) and 6 months post-treatment (10.3 vs 12.7 day reductions); however, there were no significant differences between groups. The WRG demonstrated comparable effectiveness to standard mixed-gender treatment (i.e., GDC) and is feasibly delivered in an open-group format typical of community treatment. It provides a manual-based group therapy with women-focused content that can be implemented in a variety of clinical settings for women who are heterogeneous with respect to their substance of abuse, other co-occurring psychiatric disorders, and life-stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Life Design Group: A Case Study Vignette in Group Career Construction Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Susan R.; Stoltz, Kevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Providing cost efficient, yet effective, student services, including career services, is a critical component in higher education. Career services must include the perspectives of the 21st-century work place. We advocate for the delivery of career development services in a group format using a narrative approach to career counseling with college…

  20. The Life Design Group: A Case Study Vignette in Group Career Construction Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Susan R.; Stoltz, Kevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Providing cost efficient, yet effective, student services, including career services, is a critical component in higher education. Career services must include the perspectives of the 21st-century work place. We advocate for the delivery of career development services in a group format using a narrative approach to career counseling with college…

  1. Multicenter Evaluation of the Solana Group A Streptococcus Assay: Comparison with Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.; Daly, Judy A.; Marti, Tara N.

    2016-01-01

    We compared group A Streptococcus (GAS) culture with a rapid helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) method using 1,082 throat swab specimens. The HDA method demonstrated 98.2% sensitivity and 97.2% specificity. GAS prevalence by culture was 20.7%, and it was 22.6% using the HDA method. In 35 min, the HDA method provided rapid, sensitive GAS detection, making culture confirmation unnecessary. PMID:27358464

  2. Telehealth and the Deaf: A Comparison Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jaime A. B.; Wells, M. Gawain

    2009-01-01

    Within the deaf population, an extreme mental health professional shortage exists that may be alleviated with videoconferencing technology--also known as telehealth. Moreover, much needed mental health education within the deaf population remains largely inaccessible. Researchers have warned that the deaf population may remain underserved if…

  3. Telehealth and the Deaf: A Comparison Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jaime A. B.; Wells, M. Gawain

    2009-01-01

    Within the deaf population, an extreme mental health professional shortage exists that may be alleviated with videoconferencing technology--also known as telehealth. Moreover, much needed mental health education within the deaf population remains largely inaccessible. Researchers have warned that the deaf population may remain underserved if…

  4. Comparison groups on bills: Automated, personalized energy information

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Maithili; Kempton, Willett; Payne, Christopher

    2006-07-01

    A program called ``Innovative Billing?? has been developed to provide individualized energy information for a mass audience?the entireresidential customer base of an electric or gas utility. Customers receive a graph on the bill that compares that customer?s consumption with othersimilar customers for the same month. The program aims to stimulate customers to make ef?ciency improvements. To group as many as severalmillion customers into small ``comparison groups??, an automated method must be developed drawing solely from the data available to the utility.This paper develops and applies methods to compare the quality of resulting comparison groups.A data base of 114,000 customers from a utility billing system was used to evaluate Innovative Billing comparison groups, comparing fouralternative criteria: house characteristics (?oor area, housing type, and heating fuel); street; meter read route; billing cycle. Also, customers wereinterviewed to see what forms of comparison graphs made most sense and led to fewest errors of interpretation. We ?nd that good qualitycomparison groups result from using street name, meter book, or multiple house characteristics. Other criteria we tested, such as entire cycle, entiremeter book, or single house characteristics such as ?oor area, resulted in poor quality comparison groups. This analysis provides a basis forchoosing comparison groups based on extensive user testing and statistical analysis. The result is a practical set of guidelines that can be used toimplement realistic, inexpensive innovative billing for the entire customer base of an electric or gas utility.

  5. Disability and Family in the People's Republic of China: Implementation, Benefits, and Comparison of Two Mutual Support Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Helen; McCabe, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The authors and 2 Chinese parents established 2 support groups in China. One group was for parents of children with autism, and the other was for young adults with either mental health issues or intellectual disability, and their parents. The purpose of this study was to examine the meaning and effectiveness of these groups from the…

  6. Disability and Family in the People's Republic of China: Implementation, Benefits, and Comparison of Two Mutual Support Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Helen; McCabe, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The authors and 2 Chinese parents established 2 support groups in China. One group was for parents of children with autism, and the other was for young adults with either mental health issues or intellectual disability, and their parents. The purpose of this study was to examine the meaning and effectiveness of these groups from the…

  7. Comparison of cardiovascular risk profile between male employees of two automotives companies in France and Sweden. The Coeur Project Group.

    PubMed

    Simon, A; Dimberg, L; Levenson, J; Lanoiselée, C; Massonneau, M; Eriksson, B; Jern, S; Kumlin, L; Marin, P; Dahlöf, B; Hansson, L; Björntorp, P

    1997-12-01

    To determine whether or not the lower rate of coronary disease in France, in comparison with Sweden, might be explained by different cardiovascular risk profiles, a cross-sectional analysis (first step of a longitudinal study) of comparable samples of automotive workers was carried out in corporate occupational health clinics of Renault and Volvo. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were evaluated and the Framingham coronary risk was estimated for 1000 randomly selected 45-50 years old Caucasian males from each company. Compared with the Frenchmen, the Swedish men consisted of more white collar workers and were slightly older. After adjustment for age and blue/white collar status, the Swedish men showed lower body mass indexes, waist to hip rations and heart rates, lower frequency of treatment of hypercholesterolemia and diabetes than the Frenchmen. The Swedish males also exhibited higher averages of blood cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and glucose, but lower frequencies of hypercholestrolemia and diabetes, and a higher frequency of family histories of cardiovascular disease. Blood pressure, hypertension prevalence, triglycerides level, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) did not differ between the groups. The average number of traditional risk factors was 1.1/person for the Frenchmen and 0.8/person for the Swedes. However, the coronary risk as estimated using the Framingham index was not different between the groups. This, together with the more frequent family history of cardiovascular disease in Swedish men, suggests a lower susceptibility to risk factors as a possible explanation for the lower cardiovascular disease prevalence reported in France, and/or the possibility that factors not measured were involved.

  8. [A study of the occupational stress norm and it' s application for the technical group and scientific research group].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin-wei; Liu, Ze-jun; Zhao, Pei-qing; Bai, Shao-ying; Pang, Xing-huo; Wang, Zhi-ming; Jin, Tai-yi; Lan, Ya-jia

    2006-11-01

    A study of the occupational stress norm and it' s application for the technical group and scientific research group. In this study, cross-sectional study method is used, and a synthetic way of sorting and randomized sampling is adopted to deal with research targets(235 scientific research group, 857 technical group). Descriptive statistics for OSI-R scale scores for the technical group and scientific research group were modulated. Scale raw score to T-score conversion tables derived from the OSI-R normative sample for technical group and scientific research group were established. OSI-R profile from for technical group and scientific research group were established. For the ORQ and PSQ scales, scores at or above 70T indicate a strong levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 60T to 69T suggest middle levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 40T to 59T indicate normal levels of stress and strain. Score below 40T indicate a relative absence of occupational stress and strain. For the PRQ scales, score below 30T indicate a significant lack of coping resources. Score in the range of 30T to 39T suggest middle deficits in coping resources. Score in the range of 40T to 59T indicate average coping resources. Scores at or above 60T indicate a strong levels of coping resources. Different intervention measure should be take to reduce the occupational stress so as to improve the work ability.

  9. A Summary of Observational Data of the Local Group and a Comparison to ΛCDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yniguez, Basilio

    The Local group's dwarf galaxies may well be the key to connecting observation and theory in galaxy formation. I will use this thesis to outline contributions I have made to collecting data related the galaxies in the Local Group. I will also describe several uses of ΛCDM substructure to investigate seemingly anomalous distributions of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. The first such anomalous distribution is that of the Milky Way's brightest dwarf satellites which, while presumed to represent a complete sample, are quite different, both in number and in spacial distribution from ΛCDM AND from those of our nearest large neighbor, the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). The conclusion drawn from this mismatch is that the MW's bright dwarf galaxies are potentially quite incomplete. The second anomalous distribution of satellites is M31's so called Great Plane of Satellites (POS), which consists of 16 dwarf galaxies that lie at a root mean square (RMS) distance of 13 kpc from a common plane and appear to be co-rotating about M31. I find that only one of the 44 high resolution simulated host halos has a great POS that is this thin, which is not corotating while several or more of the halos' thinnest POS are corotating at rates comparable to that of M31. The subhalos of the ELVIS suite of high resolution simulations serves as a simple, yet powerful, empirical tool to relate mass to tracer velocity dispersion. Using this combined with spectroscopic data which I helped to collect, I determine an M31 virial mass of 1:2 x 1012 which is consistent with mass estimates calculated from different data sets.

  10. [Study on the occupational stress norm and it's application for the marketing group, public service/safety group and production laborer group].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Jin, Tai-Yi; Lan, Ya-Jia

    2006-09-01

    A study of the occupational stress norm and it's application for the marketing group, public service/safety group and production laborer group. In this study, cross-sectional study method is used, and a synthetic way of sorting and randomized sampling is adopted to deal with research targets (36 marketing group, 331 public service/safety group, 903 production laborer group). Descriptive statistics for OSI-R scale scores for the marketing group, public service/safety group and production laborer group were modulated. Scale raw score to T-score conversion tables derived from the OSI-R normative sample for marketing group public service/safety group and production laborer group were established. OSI-R profile from for marketing group, public service/safety group and production laborer group were established. For the ORQ and PSQ scales, scores at or above 70 indicate a strong levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 60 to 69 suggest middle levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 40 to 59 indicate normal levels of stress and strain. Score below 40 indicate a relative absence of occupational stress and strain. For the PRQ scales, score below 30 indicate a significant lack of coping resources. Score in the range of 30 to 39 suggest middle deficits in coping resources. Score in the range of 40 to 59 indicate average coping resources. Scores at or above 60 indicate a strong levels of coping resources. The authors combined subjective and objective environment match model of occupational stress. Different intervention measure should be take to reduce the occupational stress so as to improve the work ability.

  11. Two-Year Comparison of a Stream Macroinvertebrate Functional Group Bioassessment Protocol for the Republic of Palau Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesen, A. A.; Benbow, M. E.; Holm, T.; Burky, A. J.

    2005-05-01

    Macroinvertebrate functional feeding group data was collected in 2003 and 2004 to develop a rapid bioassessment protocol for Palauan streams. One reference stream, Ngardmau, was selected to test functional group ratios and associated ecosystem attributes against streams of variable impact. In both years qualitative samples were collected using 30s dip net samples in pool habitats and benthic scouring methods in cascades with additional quantitative cascade collections for sampling technique comparisons in 2004. In the reference stream riffle habitat, filtering-gatherers dominated the community (89.92% in 2003 and 47.37% in 2004) compared to all other functional groups. Among the impacted streams, riffle functional group composition was variable compared to the reference stream. In reference pool habitats, gathering-collectors and scrapers dominated in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Scrapers dominated pool habitats of impacted streams in 2004, with some functional groups missing. Changes in ecosystem attributes followed functional group variability depending on degree of impact. Functional group ratios indicated channel stability ratio ([filtering-collectors + scrapers]/[shredders + gathering-collectors]) was lowered with increasing impact, suggesting food and/or habitat quality for filtering-collectors was degraded in riffle habitats in 2003 with no trends in 2004. By this protocol streams were determined to be degraded in 2004 relative to 2003.

  12. Multicenter evaluation of antimicrobial resistance to six broad-spectrum beta-lactams in Colombia: comparison of data from 1997 and 1998 using the Etest method. The Colombian Antimicrobial Resistance Study Group.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, M A; Jones, R N; Doern, G V; Salazar, J C

    1999-11-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations of six broad-spectrum beta-lactam antimicrobial agents were determined in 1998 by use of the Etest versus a total of 823 bacteria in 11 Colombian hospital laboratories. These data were compared with results of a similar study conducted in 1997. The organisms tested included 532 recent clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, 108 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 94 Acinetobacter species, and 89 oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production was noted among 27.8 to 33.9% of Escherichia coli isolates and 41.7 to 46.7% of Klebsiella spp. isolates. Hyperproduction of Amp C cephalosporinases was observed with 10.5 to 31.4% of isolates of Enterobacter spp., Serratia spp., and Citrobacter spp. An increase in resistance to all of the beta-lactams was observed among Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter spp. and P. aeruginosa when 1998 results were compared with those obtained in 1997. The overall rank order of activity of the six beta-lactams tested in 1998 versus all clinical isolates was imipenem (93.2% susceptible) > cefoperazone/sulbactam (84.1%) > cefepime (80.9%) > ceftazidime (70.7%) > aztreonam (65.7%) > cefotaxime (65.6%). In contrast, the rank order of these same agents tested against a similar collection of Colombian isolates in 1997 was imipenem (96.6% susceptible) > cefepime (93.6%) > cefoperazone/sulbactam (90.5%) > cefotaxime (74.9%) > aztreonam (74.3%) > ceftazidime (73.2%).

  13. Comparison of usual podiatric care and early physical therapy intervention for plantar heel pain: study protocol for a parallel-group randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A significant number of individuals suffer from plantar heel pain (PHP) and many go on to have chronic symptoms and continued disability. Persistence of symptoms adds to the economic burden of PHP and cost-effective solutions are needed. Currently, there is a wide variation in treatment, cost, and outcomes of care for PHP with limited information on the cost-effectiveness and comparisons of common treatment approaches. Two practice guidelines and recent evidence of effective physical therapy intervention are available to direct treatment but the timing and influence of physical therapy intervention in the multidisciplinary management of PHP is unclear. The purpose of this investigation is to compare the outcomes and costs associated with early physical therapy intervention (ePT) following initial presentation to podiatry versus usual podiatric care (uPOD) in individuals with PHP. Methods A parallel-group, block-randomized clinical trial will compare ePT and uPOD. Both groups will be seen initially by a podiatrist before allocation to a group that will receive physical therapy intervention consisting primarily of manual therapy, exercise, and modalities, or podiatric care consisting primarily of a stretching handout, medication, injections, and orthotics. Treatment in each group will be directed by practice guidelines and a procedural manual, yet the specific intervention for each participant will be selected by the treating provider. Between-group differences in the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure 6 months following the initial visit will be the primary outcome collected by an independent investigator. In addition, differences in the European Quality of Life – Five Dimensions, Numeric Pain Rating Scale, Global Rating of Change (GROC), health-related costs, and cost-effectiveness at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year will be compared between groups. The association between successful outcomes based on GROC score and participant expectations of recovery

  14. Studies of Typing from the LNR Typing Research Group.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    transient signals having identical energy spectra. February, 1970. 11. Donald A. Norman. Remembrance of things past. June, 1970. 12. Norman I. Anderson...Differences in Skill Level, Errors, Hand Movements, and a Computer Simulation Donald R. Gentner F-’ Jonathan Grudin Serge Larochelle __ Donald A. Norman...Group: The Role of Context, Differences in Skill Level, Errors, Hand Movements, and a Computer Simulation The LNI Typing Research Group: Donald R

  15. The Healthy Immigrant (Migrant) Effect: In Search of a Better Native-Born Comparison Group*

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Tod G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates whether immigrants’ initial health advantage over their U.S.-born counterparts results primarily from characteristics correlated with their birth countries (e.g., immigrant culture) or from selective migration (e.g., unobserved characteristics such as motivation and ambition) by comparing recent immigrants’ health to that of recent U.S.-born interstate migrants (“U.S.-born movers”). Using data from the 1999–2013 waves of the March Current Population Survey, I find that, relative to U.S.-born adults (collectively), recent immigrants have a 6.1 percentage point lower probability of reporting their health as fair or poor. Changing the reference group to U.S.-born movers, however, reduces the recent immigrant health advantage by 28%. Similar reductions in the immigrant health advantage occurs in models estimated separately by either race/ethnicity or education level. Models that examine health differences between recent immigrants and U.S-born movers who both moved for a new job—a primary motivation behind moving for both immigrants and the U.S.-born—show that such immigrants have only a 1.9 percentage point lower probability of reporting their health as fair or poor. Together, the findings suggest that changing the reference group from U.S.-born adults collectively to U.S.-born movers reduces the identified immigrant health advantage, indicating that selective migration plays a significant role in explaining the initial health advantage of immigrants in the United States. PMID:26463553

  16. THE NORTH AMERICAN MERCURY MODEL INTER-COMPARISON STUDY (NAMMIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the North American Mercury Model Inter-comparison Study (NAMMIS). The NAMMIS is an effort to apply atmospheric Hg models in a tightly constrained testing environment with a focus on North America. With each model using the same input data sets for initial co...

  17. Negotiating the Inquiry Question: A Comparison of Whole Class and Small Group Strategies in Grade Five Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavagnetto, Andy R.; Hand, Brian; Norton-Meier, Lori

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of two strategies for negotiating the question for exploration during science inquiry on student achievement and teachers' perceptions. The study is set in the context of the Science Writing Heuristic. The first strategy (small group) consisted of each group of four students negotiating a question…

  18. Nutritional status assessment during Alzheimer's disease: results after one year (the REAL French Study Group).

    PubMed

    Guerin, O; Soto, M E; Brocker, P; Robert, P H; Benoit, M; Vellas, B

    2005-01-01

    Weight loss and malnutrition are frequent and serious complications of Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the present article was to describe the cognitive and behavioural characteristics of the test population within the frame of the PHRC REAL.FR cohort (for Réseau sur la Maladie d'Alzheimer Français), depending on their nutritional state, and to consider their evolution one year after the original inclusion. The study population' stratification was done in three groups according to their Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score: malnutrition group (MNA < 17.5), at risk of malnutrition group (MNA 17.5-23.5), and normal nutritional status group (MNA > or = 23.5). 561 patients were evaluated at inclusion time, 393 at one year. The evaluation included the following scales: Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Activities Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental Activities Daily Living (IADL), Neuro Psychiatric Inventory (NPI) and Zarit scale (ZARIT). Comparison and descriptive analysis for each MNA group at baseline and at one year has been performed. at baseline, the well-nourished and the malnutrition risk groups are significantly different concerning age, IADL and NPI; the well-nourished and undernutrition groups are different concerning MMSE, NPI and Zarit; the malnutrition risk and undernutrition groups are only different concerning NPI. At one year, the well-nourished and the malnutrition risk and undernutrition groups are different concerning one lonely variable, the NPI, in a significant way. The comparison of the three groups between baseline and one-year evaluation demonstrate for the well-nourished group an aggravation of MMSE, ADL, IADL, NPI, for the malnutrition risk group of MMSE and IADL, and for the undernutrition group of MMSE, IADL and NPI. Among the patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, the most malnutritioned worsen highly on cognitive and functional capacities. Furthermore, the nutritional aggravation seems

  19. Comparison of methods for the detection of node group membership in bipartite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawardecker, E. N.; Amundsen, C. A.; Sales-Pardo, M.; Amaral, L. A. N.

    2009-12-01

    Most real-world networks considered in the literature have a modular structure. Analysis of these real-world networks often are performed under the assumption that there is only one type of node. However, social and biochemical systems are often bipartite networks, meaning that there are two exclusive sets of nodes, and that edges run exclusively between nodes belonging to different sets. Here we address the issue of module detection in bipartite networks by comparing the performance of two classes of group identification methods - modularity maximization and clique percolation - on an ensemble of modular random bipartite networks. We find that the modularity maximization methods are able to reliably detect the modular bipartite structure, and that, under some conditions, the simulated annealing method outperforms the spectral decomposition method. We also find that the clique percolation methods are not capable of reliably detecting the modular bipartite structure of the bipartite model networks considered.

  20. The history and future of the Urologic Oncology Study Group (UOSG) of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG).

    PubMed

    Tobisu, Kenichi

    2012-05-01

    The Urologic Oncology Study Group (UOSG) of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group was founded in 2001. At the beginning, 41 collaborative institutions participated, and the first group representative was Kenichi Tobisu, from the Shizuoka Cancer Center. In the last 10 years, three JCOG studies have been conducted. In two of them, patient registration has been closed and they are now in the follow-up period. The third study has just started registration in 2011. At present, we have not yet completed the final data analyses in any of the studies. In the meantime, however, we have performed a few retrospective analyses by collecting clinical data from each of the participating institutions, and the results were published as important Japanese data. All the activities of the investigation were supported by the Health and Labor Sciences Research Grants for Clinical Research in Japan. The UOSG encountered great difficulties in planning the prospective study, completing the sophisticated protocol and recruiting the expected number of patients. It usually took a longer time than expected to achieve the final goal. This was probably due to insufficient experience in conducting sophisticated protocol studies and immaturity in managing a study group. Now, the UOSG consists of 38 institutions and is gradually overcoming these problems. In 2011, the UOSG changed its group representative to Yoshiyuki Kakehi from Kagawa University and continues to strive to meet the challenge of becoming a more active group. In this review, we provide an overview of the history and achievements of the UOSG over the past 10 years, along with a list of participating institutions.

  1. Comparison of hypercrosslinked polystyrene columns for the separation of nitrogen group-types in petroleum using High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Oro, Nicole E; Lucy, Charles A

    2010-10-01

    High performance liquid chromatography in a quasi-normal phase mode (QNP) is used to separate the nitrogen group-types (pyrrole and pyridine) that are found in petroleum. A new type of stationary phase, hypercrosslinked polystyrene, is used to achieve this separation. Three different hypercrosslinked polystyrene stationary phases are compared under quasi-normal phase mode; a commercial 5-HGN packing, and two hypercrosslinked phases on silica particles. The utility of the columns for petroleum-based separations was explored with the use of 21 analytical standards. Partial elucidation of adsorption retention mechanisms for the columns are shown, as well as a comparison of retention characteristics for the three columns. The silica particle column derived with toluene (HC-Tol) was found to have the best selectivity for nitrogen group-types and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), attaining a separation under gradient conditions in less than 30 min. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Life Cycle Leadership Theory vs. Theory on the Phases of Small Group Discussion: Comparisons, Contrasts, and Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Charles Thomas, Jr.

    The work of Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard on life-cycle leadership was compared and contrasted to three studies on group phase theories. The studies on group phases were conducted by Robert Bales and Fred Strodtbeck in 1951, Thomas Scheidel and Laura Crowell in 1964, and B. Aubrey Fisher in 1970. The two theoretical approaches were found to…

  3. The effect of bereavement groups on grief, anxiety, and depression - a controlled, prospective intervention study.

    PubMed

    Näppä, Ulla; Lundgren, Ann-Britt; Axelsson, Bertil

    2016-07-12

    Bereavement groups are believed to be beneficial as preventive interventions to reduce the development of complicated grief for people at risk after the death of a significant other. This study aimed to investigate whether measurable effects on grief, anxiety, and depression could be detected in those participating in bereavement groups compared to non-participating controls. Questionnaires covering the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and background questions were handed out pre-intervention, five weeks and one year post-intervention to bereaved caregivers invited to bereavement groups. The results were analysed with non-parametric methods. A total of 124 individuals answered the questionnaires, and were divided into three categories: participants, non-participants unable to participate, and non-participants not wanting to participate in bereavement groups. At the one-year follow up, participants and those unable to participate reported higher levels of grief and were more anxious than those not wanting to participate. Depression did not differ between the groups. Participation in bereavement groups did not produce any effects on grief, anxiety, or depression in comparison to non-participants who were unable to participate. Non-participants who did not want to participate reported lower levels of grief and anxiety than the other two groups.

  4. Comparison of five blood-typing methods for the feline AB blood group system.

    PubMed

    Seth, Mayank; Jackson, Karen V; Giger, Urs

    2011-02-01

    Objective-To compare the ease of use and accuracy of 5 feline AB blood-typing methods: card agglutination (CARD), immunochromatographic cartridge (CHROM), gel-based (GEL), and conventional slide (SLIDE) and tube (TUBE) agglutination assays. Sample Population-490 anticoagulated blood samples from sick and healthy cats submitted to the Transfusion or Clinical Laboratory at the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Procedures-Sample selection was purposely biased toward those from anemic, type B, or type AB cats or those with autoagglutination. All blood samples were tested by use of GEL, SLIDE, and TUBE methods. Fifty-eight samples were also tested by use of CARD and CHROM methods. The presence of alloantibodies in all cats expressing the B antigen as detected by use of any method was also assessed. Results-Compared with the historical gold-standard TUBE method, good to excellent agreement was achieved with the other typing tests: CARD, 53 of 58 (91% agreement); CHROM, 55 of 58 (95%); GEL, 487 of 490 (99%); and SLIDE, 482 of 487 (99%; 3 samples were excluded because of autoagglutination). Four of the samples with discordant test results originated from cats with FeLV-related anemia. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Current laboratory and in-clinic methods provide simple and accurate typing for the feline AB blood group system with few discrepancies. Retyping after in-clinic typing with the GEL or TUBE laboratory methods is recommended to confirm any type B or AB cats.

  5. Renormalization-group study of the four-body problem

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Richard; Moroz, Sergej

    2010-05-15

    We perform a renormalization-group analysis of the nonrelativistic four-boson problem by means of a simple model with pointlike three- and four-body interactions. We investigate in particular the region where the scattering length is infinite and all energies are close to the atom threshold. We find that the four-body problem behaves truly universally, independent of any four-body parameter. Our findings confirm the recent conjectures of others that the four-body problem is universal, now also from a renormalization-group perspective. We calculate the corresponding relations between the four- and three-body bound states, as well as the full bound-state spectrum and comment on the influence of effective range corrections.

  6. Final Report of the West Point Study Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-27

    effectively in the basic langu- ages of daily life-standard Eglish and scientific language . Likewise, an Academy education should emphasize the...behavioral sciences, language , and the humanities. This required grouping of courses is designed to estab- lish a foundation in the mathematical and...longer term will provide stability and continuity of policy and contribute to academic excellence. (p. 39) 2. Change the function of the Academic Board

  7. Azacitidine for Front-Line Therapy of Patients with AML: Reproducible Efficacy Established by Direct Comparison of International Phase 3 Trial Data with Registry Data from the Austrian Azacitidine Registry of the AGMT Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Pleyer, Lisa; Döhner, Hartmut; Dombret, Hervé; Seymour, John F.; Schuh, Andre C.; Beach, CL; Swern, Arlene S.; Burgstaller, Sonja; Stauder, Reinhard; Girschikofsky, Michael; Sill, Heinz; Schlick, Konstantin; Thaler, Josef; Halter, Britta; Machherndl Spandl, Sigrid; Zebisch, Armin; Pichler, Angelika; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Autzinger, Eva M.; Lang, Alois; Geissler, Klaus; Voskova, Daniela; Sperr, Wolfgang R.; Hojas, Sabine; Rogulj, Inga M.; Andel, Johannes; Greil, Richard

    2017-01-01

    We recently published a clinically-meaningful improvement in median overall survival (OS) for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), >30% bone marrow (BM) blasts and white blood cell (WBC) count ≤15 G/L, treated with front-line azacitidine versus conventional care regimens within a phase 3 clinical trial (AZA-AML-001; NCT01074047; registered: February 2010). As results obtained in clinical trials are facing increased pressure to be confirmed by real-world data, we aimed to test whether data obtained in the AZA-AML-001 trial accurately represent observations made in routine clinical practice by analysing additional AML patients treated with azacitidine front-line within the Austrian Azacitidine Registry (AAR; NCT01595295; registered: May 2012) and directly comparing patient-level data of both cohorts. We assessed the efficacy of front-line azacitidine in a total of 407 patients with newly-diagnosed AML. Firstly, we compared data from AML patients with WBC ≤ 15 G/L and >30% BM blasts included within the AZA-AML-001 trial treated with azacitidine (“AML-001” cohort; n = 214) with AAR patients meeting the same inclusion criteria (“AAR (001-like)” cohort; n = 95). The current analysis thus represents a new sub-analysis of the AML-001 trial, which is directly compared with a new sub-analysis of the AAR. Baseline characteristics, azacitidine application, response rates and OS were comparable between all patient cohorts within the trial or registry setting. Median OS was 9.9 versus 10.8 months (p = 0.616) for “AML-001” versus “AAR (001-like)” cohorts, respectively. Secondly, we pooled data from both cohorts (n = 309) and assessed the outcome. Median OS of the pooled cohorts was 10.3 (95% confidence interval: 8.7, 12.6) months, and the one-year survival rate was 45.8%. Thirdly, we compared data from AAR patients meeting AZA-AML-001 trial inclusion criteria (n = 95) versus all AAR patients with World Health Organization (WHO)-defined AML (“AAR (WHO

  8. Azacitidine for Front-Line Therapy of Patients with AML: Reproducible Efficacy Established by Direct Comparison of International Phase 3 Trial Data with Registry Data from the Austrian Azacitidine Registry of the AGMT Study Group.

    PubMed

    Pleyer, Lisa; Döhner, Hartmut; Dombret, Hervé; Seymour, John F; Schuh, Andre C; Beach, C L; Swern, Arlene S; Burgstaller, Sonja; Stauder, Reinhard; Girschikofsky, Michael; Sill, Heinz; Schlick, Konstantin; Thaler, Josef; Halter, Britta; Machherndl Spandl, Sigrid; Zebisch, Armin; Pichler, Angelika; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Autzinger, Eva M; Lang, Alois; Geissler, Klaus; Voskova, Daniela; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Hojas, Sabine; Rogulj, Inga M; Andel, Johannes; Greil, Richard

    2017-02-15

    We recently published a clinically-meaningful improvement in median overall survival (OS) for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), >30% bone marrow (BM) blasts and white blood cell (WBC) count ≤15 G/L, treated with front-line azacitidine versus conventional care regimens within a phase 3 clinical trial (AZA-AML-001; NCT01074047; registered: February 2010). As results obtained in clinical trials are facing increased pressure to be confirmed by real-world data, we aimed to test whether data obtained in the AZA-AML-001 trial accurately represent observations made in routine clinical practice by analysing additional AML patients treated with azacitidine front-line within the Austrian Azacitidine Registry (AAR; NCT01595295; registered: May 2012) and directly comparing patient-level data of both cohorts. We assessed the efficacy of front-line azacitidine in a total of 407 patients with newly-diagnosed AML. Firstly, we compared data from AML patients with WBC ≤ 15 G/L and >30% BM blasts included within the AZA-AML-001 trial treated with azacitidine ("AML-001" cohort; n = 214) with AAR patients meeting the same inclusion criteria ("AAR (001-like)" cohort; n = 95). The current analysis thus represents a new sub-analysis of the AML-001 trial, which is directly compared with a new sub-analysis of the AAR. Baseline characteristics, azacitidine application, response rates and OS were comparable between all patient cohorts within the trial or registry setting. Median OS was 9.9 versus 10.8 months (p = 0.616) for "AML-001" versus "AAR (001-like)" cohorts, respectively. Secondly, we pooled data from both cohorts (n = 309) and assessed the outcome. Median OS of the pooled cohorts was 10.3 (95% confidence interval: 8.7, 12.6) months, and the one-year survival rate was 45.8%. Thirdly, we compared data from AAR patients meeting AZA-AML-001 trial inclusion criteria (n = 95) versus all AAR patients with World Health Organization (WHO)-defined AML ("AAR (WHO-AML)" cohort; n

  9. A Comparison of the Responses of First and Second Year Veterinary Science Students to Group Project Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Paul C.; Woodall, Peter

    2004-01-01

    A change in curriculum permitted a direct and simultaneous comparison between first and second year responses to group project work while assuming similar prior experience with this method of learning. Responses were obtained by a survey form and by meetings with individual groups. Overall, there were no differences between first and second year…

  10. Interpreting Voucher Research: The Influence of Multiple Comparison Groups and Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Kim K.; Legan, Natalie A.

    2006-01-01

    School vouchers, particularly since the landmark U.S. Supreme Court ruling on the Cleveland program, are one of the most contentious issues in American education. Seemingly contradictory results across available studies have caused confusion among diverse audiences. The authors suggest that these divergent findings are, in part, due to three…

  11. A Comparison of Verbal and Nonverbal Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Virginia; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The FIRO-B by Schutz and the Personal Orientation Inventory by Shostrum were used to assess personality changes in a verbal and a nonverbal T-group. Personality measures used failed to find significant posttreatment differences between groups. Several significant differences occurred within groups. (Author)

  12. Comparison of Perception of Self-Competence among Five Ethnic Groups of Preschoolers in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambunathan, Saigeetha; Burts, Diane C.

    2003-01-01

    This study compared the perception of self-competence of immigrant Asian-American, Asian-Indian, Hispanic, native European-American, and African-American preschoolers. Self-competence is defined by Harter as the "feeling of confidence in achieving certain tasks." The development of self-competence emerges gradually as children acquire greater…

  13. Comparison of Developmental Patterns in Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Near, Janet P.

    1978-01-01

    Two well-known theories are empirically tested in relation to a self-analytic group; in addition, their generalizability to a similar sort of group, a therapy group, is explored. The theories explored are those of Schutz and Slater. (Author)

  14. The Use of Minimization to Form Comparison Groups in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torgerson, Carole J.; Torgerson, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials in educational research tend to be small. Small trials can have large, chance, imbalances in important covariates. For studies with sample sizes greater than 50, chance imbalances can be corrected using analysis of covariance; for small trials, however, statistical power is maximized if the trial is balanced and…

  15. Alcohol Habits in Patients with Long-Term Musculoskeletal Pain: Comparison with a Matched Control Group from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin Bronner, Kerstin Birgitta; Wennberg, Peter; Kallmen, Hakan; Schult, Marie-Louise Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to describe alcohol habits in patients with chronic pain compared with those in a matched control group from the general Swedish population. In total, 100 consecutive patients enrolled were matched against 100 individuals in a control group on the basis of age and sex. Alcohol habits were measured using the Alcohol Use…

  16. Alcohol Habits in Patients with Long-Term Musculoskeletal Pain: Comparison with a Matched Control Group from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin Bronner, Kerstin Birgitta; Wennberg, Peter; Kallmen, Hakan; Schult, Marie-Louise Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to describe alcohol habits in patients with chronic pain compared with those in a matched control group from the general Swedish population. In total, 100 consecutive patients enrolled were matched against 100 individuals in a control group on the basis of age and sex. Alcohol habits were measured using the Alcohol Use…

  17. Structural validity of the Movement ABC-2 test: factor structure comparisons across three age groups.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Joerg; Henderson, Sheila E; Sugden, David A; Barnett, Anna L

    2011-01-01

    The Movement ABC test is one of the most widely used assessments in the field of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Improvements to the 2nd edition of the test (M-ABC-2) include an extension of the age range and reduction in the number of age bands as well as revision of tasks. The total test score provides a measure of motor performance, which can be used to help make a diagnosis of DCD. M-ABC-2 also provides 3 sub-scales for Manual Dexterity, Aiming and Catching and Balance but the validity of these conceptually derived sub-scales has not previously been reported. To examine the factor structure of the M-ABC-2 test across the three age bands (AB): AB1 (3-6-year olds), AB2 (7-10-year olds) and AB3 (11-16-year olds). Data from the 2007 standardisation sample (N=1172) were used in this study. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) and structural equation modelling (LISREL 8.8) were employed to explore the relationship between the tasks within each of the 3 age bands. A model trimming approach was used to arrive at a well fitting model. In AB1 a complex factor structure emerged providing evidence for an independent general factor, as well as specific factors representing the 3 test components. In AB2 a final model emerged with four correlated factors, an additional distinction being drawn between static and dynamic balance. In addition, a 2nd order general factor explained a considerable amount of variance in each primary factor. In AB3 CFA supported the 3-factor structure of the M-ABC-2, with only modest correlations between each factor. The confirmatory factor analyses undertaken in this study further validate the structural validity of the M-ABC-2 as it has developed over time. Although its tasks are largely associated with the three sub-components within each age band, there was also clear evidence for a change in the factor structure towards differentiation in motor abilities with age. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Comparison of Sagittal Spinopelvic Parameters between Young Adult Patients with L5 Spondylolysis and Age-Matched Control Group.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Min; Choi, Ha Young; Eun, Jong Pil

    2013-09-01

    To compare spinopelvic parameters in young adult patients with spondylolysis to those in age-matched patients without spondylolysis and investigate the clinical impact of sagittal spinopelvic parameters in patients with L5 spondylolysis. From 2009 to 2012, a total of 198 young adult male patients with spondylolysis were identified. Eighty age-matched patients without spondylolysis were also selected. Standing lateral films that included both hip joints were obtained for each subject. Pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis angle, sacral inclination, lumbosacral angle, and sacral table angle were measured in both groups. A comparative study of the spinopelvic parameters of these two groups was performed using SPSS 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Among the aforementioned spinopelvic parameters, PI, SS and STA were significantly different between patients with spondylolysis and those without spondylolysis. PI and SS were higher in the spondylolysis group than in the control group, but STA was lower in the spondylolysis group than in the control group. PI and SS were higher in the spondylolysis group than in the control group, but STA was lower in the spondylolysis group than in the control group. Patients with spondylolysis have low STA at birth, which remains constant during growth; a low STA translates into high SS. As a result, PI is also increased in accordance with SS. Therefore, we suggest that STA is an important etiologic factor in young adult patients with L5 spondylolysis.

  19. The Comparison of Sagittal Spinopelvic Parameters between Young Adult Patients with L5 Spondylolysis and Age-Matched Control Group

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Young Min; Choi, Ha Young

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare spinopelvic parameters in young adult patients with spondylolysis to those in age-matched patients without spondylolysis and investigate the clinical impact of sagittal spinopelvic parameters in patients with L5 spondylolysis. Methods From 2009 to 2012, a total of 198 young adult male patients with spondylolysis were identified. Eighty age-matched patients without spondylolysis were also selected. Standing lateral films that included both hip joints were obtained for each subject. Pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis angle, sacral inclination, lumbosacral angle, and sacral table angle were measured in both groups. A comparative study of the spinopelvic parameters of these two groups was performed using SPSS 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results Among the aforementioned spinopelvic parameters, PI, SS and STA were significantly different between patients with spondylolysis and those without spondylolysis. PI and SS were higher in the spondylolysis group than in the control group, but STA was lower in the spondylolysis group than in the control group. Conclusion PI and SS were higher in the spondylolysis group than in the control group, but STA was lower in the spondylolysis group than in the control group. Patients with spondylolysis have low STA at birth, which remains constant during growth; a low STA translates into high SS. As a result, PI is also increased in accordance with SS. Therefore, we suggest that STA is an important etiologic factor in young adult patients with L5 spondylolysis. PMID:24278649

  20. Comparison of the Masaoka-Koga staging and the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/the International Thymic Malignancies Interest Group proposal for the TNM staging systems based on the Chinese Alliance for Research in Thymomas retrospective database.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guanghui; Gu, Zhitao; Li, Yin; Fu, Jianhua; Shen, Yi; Wei, Yucheng; Tan, Lijie; Zhang, Peng; Han, Yongtao; Chen, Chun; Zhang, Renquan; Chen, Keneng; Chen, Hezhong; Liu, Yongyu; Cui, Youbing; Wang, Yun; Pang, Liewen; Yu, Zhentao; Zhou, Xinming; Liu, Yangchun; Liu, Yuan; Fang, Wentao

    2016-04-01

    To compare the predictive effect of the Masaoka-Koga staging system and the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/the International Thymic Malignancies Interest Group (ITMIG) proposal for the new TNM staging on prognosis of thymic malignancies using the Chinese Alliance for Research in Thymomas (ChART) retrospective database. From 1992 to 2012, 2,370 patients in ChART database were retrospectively reviewed. Of these, 1,198 patients with complete information on TNM stage, Masaoka-Koga stage, and survival were used for analysis. Cumulative incidence of recurrence (CIR) was assessed in R0 patients. Overall survival (OS) was evaluated both in an R0 resected cohort, as well as in all patients (any R status). CIR and OS were first analyzed according to the Masaoka-Koga staging system. Then, they were compared using the new TNM staging proposal. Based on Masaoka-Koga staging system, significant difference was detected in CIR among all stages. However, no survival difference was revealed between stage I and II, or between stage II and III. Stage IV carried the highest risk of recurrence and worst survival. According to the new TNM staging proposal, CIR in T1a was significantly lower comparing to all other T categories (P<0.05) and there is a significant difference in OS between T1a and T1b (P=0.004). T4 had the worst OS comparing to all other T categories. CIR and OS were significantly worse in N (+) than in N0 patients. Significant difference in CIR and OS was detected between M0 and M1b, but not between M0 and M1a. OS was almost always statistically different when comparison was made between stages I-IIIa and stages IIIb-IVb. However, no statistical difference could be detected among stages IIIb to IVb. Compared with Masaoka-Koga staging, the IASLC/ITMIG TNM staging proposal not only describes the extent of tumor invasion but also provides information on lymphatic involvement and tumor dissemination. Further study using prospectively recorded

  1. Comparison of the Masaoka-Koga staging and the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/the International Thymic Malignancies Interest Group proposal for the TNM staging systems based on the Chinese Alliance for Research in Thymomas retrospective database

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Guanghui; Gu, Zhitao; Fu, Jianhua; Shen, Yi; Wei, Yucheng; Tan, Lijie; Zhang, Peng; Han, Yongtao; Chen, Chun; Zhang, Renquan; Chen, Keneng; Chen, Hezhong; Liu, Yongyu; Cui, Youbing; Wang, Yun; Pang, Liewen; Yu, Zhentao; Zhou, Xinming; Liu, Yangchun; Liu, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background To compare the predictive effect of the Masaoka-Koga staging system and the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/the International Thymic Malignancies Interest Group (ITMIG) proposal for the new TNM staging on prognosis of thymic malignancies using the Chinese Alliance for Research in Thymomas (ChART) retrospective database. Methods From 1992 to 2012, 2,370 patients in ChART database were retrospectively reviewed. Of these, 1,198 patients with complete information on TNM stage, Masaoka-Koga stage, and survival were used for analysis. Cumulative incidence of recurrence (CIR) was assessed in R0 patients. Overall survival (OS) was evaluated both in an R0 resected cohort, as well as in all patients (any R status). CIR and OS were first analyzed according to the Masaoka-Koga staging system. Then, they were compared using the new TNM staging proposal. Results Based on Masaoka-Koga staging system, significant difference was detected in CIR among all stages. However, no survival difference was revealed between stage I and II, or between stage II and III. Stage IV carried the highest risk of recurrence and worst survival. According to the new TNM staging proposal, CIR in T1a was significantly lower comparing to all other T categories (P<0.05) and there is a significant difference in OS between T1a and T1b (P=0.004). T4 had the worst OS comparing to all other T categories. CIR and OS were significantly worse in N (+) than in N0 patients. Significant difference in CIR and OS was detected between M0 and M1b, but not between M0 and M1a. OS was almost always statistically different when comparison was made between stages I–IIIa and stages IIIb–IVb. However, no statistical difference could be detected among stages IIIb to IVb. Conclusions Compared with Masaoka-Koga staging, the IASLC/ITMIG TNM staging proposal not only describes the extent of tumor invasion but also provides information on lymphatic involvement and tumor dissemination

  2. Comparison of self-report and electronic monitoring of 6MP intake in childhood ALL: A Children's Oncology Group study.

    PubMed

    Landier, Wendy; Chen, Yanjun; Hageman, Lindsey; Kim, Heeyoung; Bostrom, Bruce C; Casillas, Jacqueline N; Dickens, David S; Evans, William E; Maloney, Kelly W; Mascarenhas, Leo; Ritchey, A Kim; Termuhlen, Amanda M; Carroll, William L; Relling, Mary V; Wong, F Lennie; Bhatia, Smita

    2017-02-02

    Adequate exposure to oral 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) during maintenance therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is critical for sustaining durable remissions; the accuracy of self-reported 6MP intake is unknown. We aimed to directly compare self-report to electronic monitoring (Medication Event Monitoring System [MEMS]), and identify predictors of over-reporting in a cohort of 416 children with ALL in first remission over 4 study months per patient (1,344 patient-months for the cohort) during maintenance therapy. Patients were classified as "perfect reporters" (self-report=MEMS), "over reporters" (self-report>MEMS by ≥5 days/month for ≥50% of study months), and "others" (all patients not meeting criteria for perfect- or over-reporter). Multivariable logistic regression examined sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, 6MP dose-intensity, TPMT genotype, TGN levels, and 6MP non-adherence (MEMs-based adherence rate <95%) associated with the over-reporter phenotype; generalized estimating equations (GEE) compared 6MP intake by self-report and MEMS over the study period. Self-reported 6MP intake exceeded MEMS at least some of the time in 84% of patients. Fifty (12%) patients were classified as perfect reporters, 98 (23.6%) as over-reporters, 2 (0.5%) as under-reporters, and 266 (63.9%) as others. Multivariable logistic regression technique identified the following variables associated with the over-reporter phenotype: i) non-white race: Hispanic, odds ratio (OR)=2.4, 95%CI, 1.1-5.1, p=0.02; Asian, OR=3.1, 95%CI, 1.2-8.3, p=0.02; African-American, OR=5.4, 95%CI, 2.3-12.8, p=0.0001; ii) paternal education

  3. Septic arthritis of the knee: clinical and laboratory comparison of groups with different etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Helito, Camilo Partezani; Teixeira, Paulo Renan Lima; de Oliveira, Priscila Rosalba; de Carvalho, Vladimir Cordeiro; Pécora, José Ricardo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Lima, Ana Lucia Munhoz

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To clinically and epidemiologically characterize a population diagnosed with and treated for septic arthritis of the knee, to evaluate the treatment results and to analyze the differences between patients with positive and negative culture results, patients with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial isolates and patients with S. aureus- and non-S. aureus-related infections. METHODS: One hundred and five patients with septic knee arthritis were included in this study. The clinical and epidemiological data were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed to compare patients with and without an isolated causative agent, patients with Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens and patients with S. aureus-related and non S. aureus-related infections. RESULTS: Causative agents were isolated in 81 patients. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 65 patients and Gram-negative bacteria were isolated in 16 patients. The most commonly isolated bacterium was S. aureus. Comparing cases with an isolated pathogen to cases without an isolated pathogen, no differences between the studied variables were found except for the longer hospital stays of patients in whom an etiological agent was identified. When comparing Gram-positive bacteria with Gram-negative bacteria, patients with Gram-positive-related infections exhibited higher leukocyte counts. Patients with S. aureus-related infections were more frequently associated with healthcare-related environmental encounters. CONCLUSION: S. aureus is the most common pathogen of septic knee arthritis. Major differences were not observed between infections with isolated and non-isolated pathogens and between infections with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. S. aureus infections were more likely to be associated with a prior healthcare environment exposure. PMID:28076516

  4. Teenage pregnancy: a small comparison group of known mothers.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, T L; Muram, D; Tolley, E A; Mcalpine, J

    1993-01-01

    To obtain confirmation of the findings of the authors' earlier comparison of ever-pregnant and nonpregnant Black high school students from Tennessee, 16 students confirmed to be pregnant were substituted for the 33 subjects in the original study whose pregnancy status was based solely on self-report. The nonpregnant control group of 251 teens was utilized in both analyses. Although the confirmed pregnant group was too small to repeat the regression analysis, striking concordance of findings between the 2 studies emerged for all dependent variables except the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire anxiety scale. The lower anxiety scores recorded among subjects in the original study may be either a statistical artifact or a reflection of the fact that these pregnant teens remained in school while subjects in the second study were enrolled in programs centered around their pregnant status. Sexual activity scores were strong or moderate significantly more often in both groups of pregnant teens compared to their nonpregnant counterparts. Interesting was the finding that 81% of pregnant teens regarded romance novels and soap operas to be accurate portrayals of real-life dating relationships compared to only 49% of nonpregnant teens. On the other hand, only 56% of the pregnant subjects regarded their own relationships to have this romantic quality. In a future study, the role of such uncritical romantic ideals in adolescent pregnancy risk will be investigated in a larger sample.

  5. A Study of Group Dynamics in Educational Leadership Cohort and Non-Cohort Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Bobbie J.; Karanxha, Zorka

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group dynamics of educational leadership students in cohorts and make comparisons with the group dynamics characteristics of non-cohort students. Cohorts have emerged as dynamic and adaptive entities with attendant group dynamic processes that shape collective learning and action. Cohort (n=42) and…

  6. Motivational Differences among Students with ADHD Reading Disabilities, Combined Groups, and Typical Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jiyeon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess reading motivational differences of students with reading disabilities/difficulties (RD), attention deficit hyperactive disorders/at-risk for ADHD, combined groups (RD+ADHD), and non-disabled comparisons (ND). Most motivational research has made academic motivational comparisons with typical students without…

  7. Motivational Differences among Students with ADHD Reading Disabilities, Combined Groups, and Typical Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jiyeon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess reading motivational differences of students with reading disabilities/difficulties (RD), attention deficit hyperactive disorders/at-risk for ADHD, combined groups (RD+ADHD), and non-disabled comparisons (ND). Most motivational research has made academic motivational comparisons with typical students without…

  8. Isolating the Terrorists: The Abu Sayyaf Group Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-23

    was given by the Spanish colonizers to the Muslims in Mindanao whom they found to have the same religion and way oflife with the Moors of North... Basil an Province, the ASG became increasingly notorious with a series of bombings in Zamboanga City. This was followed by the treacherous attack on...usacac.leavenworth.army.mil/blog/blogs/llop/archive/2009/02/26/commander- interview-mgen-juancho-m-sabban.aspx, (accessed January 22, 2011) Clark, Yvorme. " Moors and

  9. The false memory syndrome: Experimental studies and comparison to confabulations

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, M.F.; Fras, I.A.

    2011-01-01

    False memories, or recollections that are factually incorrect but strongly believed, remain a source of confusion for both psychiatrists and neurologists. We propose model for false memories based on recent experimental investigations, particularly when analyzed in comparison to confabulations, which are the equivalent of false memories from neurological disease. Studies using the Deese/Roedinger–McDermott experimental paradigm indicate that false memories are associated with the need for complete and integrated memories, self-relevancy, imagination and wish fulfillment, familiarity, emotional facilitation, suggestibility, and sexual content. In comparison, confabulations are associated with the same factors except for emotional facilitation, suggestibility, and sexual content. Both false memories and confabulations have an abnormal sense of certainty for their recollections, and neuroanatomical findings implicate decreased activity in the ventromedial frontal lobe in this certainty. In summary, recent studies of false memories in comparison to confabulations support a model of false memories as internally-generated but suggestible and emotionally-facilitated fantasies or impulses, rather than repressed memories of real events. Furthermore, like confabulations, in order for false memories to occur there must be an attenuation of the normal, nonconscious, right frontal “doubt tag” regarding their certainty. PMID:21177042

  10. Veterans Administration Cooperative Dental Implant Study--comparisons between fixed partial dentures supported by blade-vent implants and removable partial dentures. Part I: Methodology and comparisons between treatment groups at baseline.

    PubMed

    Kapur, K K

    1987-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether fixed partial dentures supported by dental implants provide an acceptable alternative to conventional removable partial dentures in patients with Kennedy class I or class II edentulous conditions. The acceptability of the new treatment will be based on success rates, impact on the health of the remaining dentition, masticatory performance, patient satisfaction, and maintenance care and cost. The study was planned also to provide comparisons between two designs commonly used by dentists for fabricating removable partial dentures. The designs differed only in terms of the type of the retainer (clasp type) and tooth support (rest location). A total of 272 patients with Kennedy class I and class II edentulous conditions were assigned on a random basis to one of the treatment groups, 134 to receive a removable partial denture and 138 a fixed partial denture supported by a blade-vent implant. All of the patients were medically screened and met prespecified criteria for oral hygiene, bone support for abutment teeth, and size of the residual ridge. Thirty-four patients were eliminated from the study before completion of their treatment. An additional six patients with early implant failures were reentered in the study and followed up as a separate group. The remaining 232 patients received comprehensive dental care, including removable partial dentures for 118 and fixed partial dentures for 114 patients. A series of examinations, radiographs, masticatory performance tests, patient satisfaction, food selection questionnaires, and dietary history were completed before initiation of the treatment, 16 weeks after the insertion of an RPD or an implant, and thereafter at 6-, 18-, 36-, and 60-month intervals. In addition, patients were seen at 6-month intervals for a recall dental examination, oral prophylaxis, plaque instructions, radiographic survey of the implant, and any needed dental treatment. The randomization stratification

  11. Comparison of TAP2 frequencies in type 1 diabetes patients and healthy controls from three ethnic groups indicates an African origin for the TAP2 G allele.

    PubMed

    Hoarau, J J; Cesari, M; Dieye, A; Kotea, N; Surrun, S K; Moine, A; Caillens, H; Cadet, F; Pabion, M

    2003-06-01

    In order to determine the ethnic origin of the transporter associated with antigen processing 2 (TAP2) G allele, initially discovered by us in a group of type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) patients living on Reunion Island, HLA TAP2 typing was performed using the polymerase chain reaction-amplification refractory mutation system (PCR-ARMS) method in type 1 diabetes patients and unrelated healthy controls of three different ethnic groups (Caucasians, Indians and black Africans from Senegal and Mauritius). The comparison of TAP2 allele frequencies in controls showed significant racial (ethnic) differences. The TAP2*0101 and TAP2 C alleles were increased, respectively, in the Caucasian (50% in Caucasians vs. 40% in other groups) and Senegalese (27% in Senegalese vs. 10% in other groups) populations. In comparison with Caucasians, the TAP2*0201 variant was significantly increased in the Indian population and decreased in the Senegalese black population. In addition, the TAP2 G allele was observed in the two African populations studied but not in the Caucasian or Indian population. This observation is consistent with the view that this allele is restricted to populations of African origin. In addition, we have determined the large extended haplotype DQA1-DQB1-DRB1 associated with TAP2 G. We found that this allele is preferentially associated with the large conserved haplotype HLA DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201-DRB1*0301.

  12. An international investigation into O red blood cell unit administration in hospitals: the GRoup O Utilization Patterns (GROUP) study.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Michelle P; Barty, Rebecca; Aandahl, Astrid; Apelseth, Torunn O; Callum, Jeannie; Dunbar, Nancy M; Elahie, Allahna; Garritsen, Henk; Hancock, Helen; Kutner, José Mauro; Manukian, Belinda; Mizuta, Shuichi; Okuda, Makoto; Pagano, Monica B; Pogłód, Ryszard; Rushford, Kylie; Selleng, Kathleen; Sørensen, Claess Henning; Sprogøe, Ulrik; Staves, Julie; Weiland, Thorsten; Wendel, Silvano; Wood, Erica M; van de Watering, Leo; van Wordragen-Vlaswinkel, Maria; Ziman, Alyssa; Jan Zwaginga, Jaap; Murphy, Michael F; Heddle, Nancy M; Yazer, Mark H

    2017-10-01

    Transfusion of group O blood to non-O recipients, or transfusion of D- blood to D+ recipients, can result in shortages of group O or D- blood, respectively. This study investigated RBC utilization patterns at hospitals around the world and explored the context and policies that guide ABO blood group and D type selection practices. This was a retrospective study on transfusion data from the 2013 calendar year. This study included a survey component that asked about hospital RBC selection and transfusion practices and a data collection component where participants submitted information on RBC unit disposition including blood group and D type of unit and recipient. Units administered to recipients of unknown ABO or D group were excluded. Thirty-eight hospitals in 11 countries responded to the survey, 30 of which provided specific RBC unit disposition data. Overall, 11.1% (21,235/191,397) of group O units were transfused to non-O recipients; 22.6% (8777/38,911) of group O D- RBC units were transfused to O D+ recipients, and 43.2% (16,800/38,911) of group O D- RBC units were transfused to recipients that were not group O D-. Disposition of units and hospital transfusion policy varied within and across hospitals of different sizes, with transfusion of group O D- units to non-group O D- patients ranging from 0% to 33%. A significant proportion of group O and D- RBC units were transfused to compatible, nonidentical recipients, although the frequency of this practice varied across sites. © 2017 AABB.

  13. Comparison of the frequency of psychiatric disorders among patients with chronic low back pain and control group

    PubMed Central

    Farajirad, Elnaz; Tohidi, Hadi; Farajirad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common complaints of patients referred to the clinics. Studies indicated that psychosocial factors have great impact on the patients’ complaints and disability. The aim of this study was to evaluate a broad range of psychiatric disorders in patients with chronic LBP (CLBP) and compare them with those of the control group. Patients and Methods: We applied Symptom Checklist 90-R to compare 50 CLBP patients in the case group with 100 participants without it in the control group. The questionnaire measured somatization, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. Results: Average “global severity index” was 1.10 in the case and 0.5 in the control group. Average “positive symptom total” was 45.26 in the case and 27.41 in the control group. Average “positive symptom distress index” was 2.50 in the case and 1.50 in the control group. Average scores for all test dimensions were significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.00). Conclusions: All dimensions were significantly more common in CLBP patients. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of these disorders may improve the outcome of CLBP. PMID:27366258

  14. Therapy of locally unresectable pancreatic carcinoma: a randomized comparison of high dose (6000 rads) radiation alone, moderate dose radiation (4000 rads + 5-fluorouracil), and high dose radiation + 5-fluorouracil: the Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group. [X ray

    SciTech Connect

    Moertel, C.G.; Frytak, S.; Hahn, R.G.

    1981-10-15

    One-hundred-ninety-four eligible and evaluable patients with histologically confirmed locally unresectable adenocarcinoma of the pancreas were randomly assigned to therapy with high-dose (6000 rads) radiation therapy alone, to moderate-dose (4000 rads) radiation + 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and to high-dose radiation plus 5-FU. Median survival with radiation alone was only 5 1/2 months from date of diagnosis. Both 5-FU-containing treatment regimens produced a highly significant survival improvement when compared with radiation alone. Survival differences between 4000 rads plus 5-FU and 6000 rads plus 5-FU were not significant with an overall median survival of ten months. Significant prognostic variables, in addition to treatment, were pretreatment performance status and pretreatment CEA level. The toxic reactions related to the treatment are discussed.

  15. Context Matters: Volunteer Bias, Small Sample Size, and the Value of Comparison Groups in the Assessment of Research-Based Undergraduate Introductory Biology Lab Courses

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Sara E.; Kloser, Matthew J.; Fukami, Tadashi; Shavelson, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    The shift from cookbook to authentic research-based lab courses in undergraduate biology necessitates the need for evaluation and assessment of these novel courses. Although the biology education community has made progress in this area, it is important that we interpret the effectiveness of these courses with caution and remain mindful of inherent limitations to our study designs that may impact internal and external validity. The specific context of a research study can have a dramatic impact on the conclusions. We present a case study of our own three-year investigation of the impact of a research-based introductory lab course, highlighting how volunteer students, a lack of a comparison group, and small sample sizes can be limitations of a study design that can affect the interpretation of the effectiveness of a course. PMID:24358380

  16. Group sequential tests for long-term survival comparisons.

    PubMed

    Logan, Brent R; Mo, Shuyuan

    2015-04-01

    Sometimes in clinical trials, the hazard rates are anticipated to be nonproportional, resulting in potentially crossing survival curves. In these cases, researchers are usually interested in which treatment has better long-term survival. The log-rank test and the weighted log-rank test may not be appropriate or efficient to use here, because they are sensitive to differences in survival at any time and don't just focus on long-term outcomes. Also in a prospective clinical trial, patients are entered sequentially over calendar time, so that group sequential designs may be considered for ethical, administrative and economic concerns. Here we develop group sequential methods for testing the null hypothesis that the survival curves are identical after a prespecified time point. Several classes of tests are considered, including an integrated difference in survival probabilities after this time point, and linear or quadratic combinations of two component test statistics (pointwise comparisons of survival at the time point and comparisons of hazard rates after the time point). We examine the type I errors, stopping probabilities, and powers of these tests through simulation studies under the null and different alternatives, and we apply them to a real bone marrow transplant clinical trial.

  17. Application of Benford's law: a valuable tool for detecting scientific papers with fabricated data? : A case study using proven falsified articles against a comparison group.

    PubMed

    Hüllemann, S; Schüpfer, G; Mauch, J

    2017-06-26

    In naturally occurring numbers the frequencies of digits 1-9 in the leading position are counterintuitively distributed because the frequencies of occurrence are unequal. Benford-Newcomb's law describes the expected distribution of these frequencies. It was previously shown that known fraudulent articles consistently violated this law. To compare the features of 12 known fraudulent articles from a single Japanese author to the features of 13 articles in the same research field from other Japanese authors, published during the same time period and identified with a Medline database search. All 25 articles were assessed to determine whether the data violated the law. Formulas provided by the law were used to determine the frequencies of occurrence for the first two leading digits in manually extracted numbers. It was found that all the known fraudulent papers violated the law and 6 of the 13 articles used for comparison followed the law. Assuming that the articles in the comparison group were not falsified or fabricated, the sensitivity of assessing articles with Benford-Newcomb's law was 100% (95% confidence interval CI: 73.54-100%) but the specificity was only 46.15% (95% CI: 19.22-74.87%) and the positive predictive value was 63.16% (95% CI: 38.36-83.71%). All 12 of the known falsified articles violated Benford-Newcomb's law, which indicated that this analysis had a high sensitivity. The low specificity of the assessment may be explained by the assumptions made about the articles identified for comparison. Violations of Benford-Newcomb's law about the frequencies of the leading digits cannot serve as proof of falsification but they may provide a basis for deeper discussions between the editor and author about a submitted work.

  18. Structural Validity of the Movement ABC-2 Test: Factor Structure Comparisons across Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Joerg; Henderson, Sheila E.; Sugden, David A.; Barnett, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Movement ABC test is one of the most widely used assessments in the field of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Improvements to the 2nd edition of the test (M-ABC-2) include an extension of the age range and reduction in the number of age bands as well as revision of tasks. The total test score provides a measure of motor…

  19. Structural Validity of the Movement ABC-2 Test: Factor Structure Comparisons across Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Joerg; Henderson, Sheila E.; Sugden, David A.; Barnett, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Movement ABC test is one of the most widely used assessments in the field of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Improvements to the 2nd edition of the test (M-ABC-2) include an extension of the age range and reduction in the number of age bands as well as revision of tasks. The total test score provides a measure of motor…

  20. Final Recommendations of the Community College Financing Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cade, John A.; Heller, Henry B.

    This report presents findings and recommendations from a study conducted by the Maryland General Assembly examining options for increasing state formula aid and changing the distribution of aid to the state's 18 community colleges. Following a letter of transmittal providing background information on community college financing, the report…

  1. Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy in Breast Cancer: A Novel e-Health Approach in Optimizing Treatment for Seniors (OPTIMUM): A Two-Group Controlled Comparison Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tamblyn, Robyn; Meterissian, Sarkis; Law, Susan; Prchal, Jaroslav; Winslade, Nancy; Stern, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Background In women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer, adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) is associated with a significant survival advantage. Nonadherence is a particular challenge in older women, even though they stand to benefit the most from AET. Therefore, a novel eHealth tool (OPTIMUM) that integrates real-time analysis of health administrative claims data was developed to provide point-of-care decision support for clinicians. Objectives The objectives of the study are to determine the effectiveness of a patient-specific, real-time eHealth alert delivered at point-of-care in reducing rates of AET discontinuation and to understand patient-level factors related to AET discontinuation as well as to assess integration of eHealth alerts regarding deviations from best practices in administration of AET by cancer care teams. Methods A prospective, 2-group controlled comparison pilot study will be conducted at 2 urban, McGill University–affiliated hospitals, the Royal Victoria Hospital and St. Mary’s Hospital. A minimum of 43 patients per study arm will be enrolled through site-level allocation. Follow-up is 1.5 years. Health care professionals at the intervention site will have access to the eHealth tool, which will report to them in real-time medical events with known associations to AET discontinuation, an AET adherence monitor, and a discontinuation alert. Cox proportional hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals will estimate risks of AET discontinuation. Tests for significance will be 2-sided with a significance level of P<.05. Results This protocol has been approved and funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. The study will evaluate site-level differences between AET discontinuation and AET adherence and assess care team actions at the intervention site. Participant enrollment into this project is expected to start September 2016 with primary data ready to present by June 2018. Conclusion This study will offer an opportunity to

  2. Universal Design for Learning in K-12 Educational Settings: A Review of Group Comparison and Single-Subject Intervention Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crevecoeur, Yvel C.; Sorenson, Sarah E.; Mayorga, Victor; Gonzalez, Adriana P.

    2014-01-01

    This literature review on Universal Design for Learning (UDL) included articles from January 1984 through June 2014. We (a) investigated the UDL educational framework without the inclusion of other major K-12 educational frameworks in learning environments, (b) reported researchers' scope and depth of use of the UDL principles, and (c) focused our…

  3. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Three Group Treatments for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byom, Tianna K.

    2009-01-01

    Rising overweight and obesity rates in the United States and the accompanying health issues underscore the need for an effective treatment for weight loss. While most people tend to lose weight as a result of cognitive-behavioral treatment, the weight is often regained after treatment ends. Possible reasons for weight regain include not fully…

  4. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Three Group Treatments for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byom, Tianna K.

    2009-01-01

    Rising overweight and obesity rates in the United States and the accompanying health issues underscore the need for an effective treatment for weight loss. While most people tend to lose weight as a result of cognitive-behavioral treatment, the weight is often regained after treatment ends. Possible reasons for weight regain include not fully…

  5. Parental Attitudes Regarding the Characteristics of a "Best Teacher": Comparison by Gender and Ethnic Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Faite R-P.; And Others

    This investigation surveyed 505 parents of elementary school students enrolled in the Grand Rapids (Michigan) Public School District regarding the characteristics of a "best teacher." Approximately 50 percent of the parent responses were from minority parents (35.6 percent African American, 10.6 percent Hispanic, 2.4 percent Native…

  6. The Noticing of Physical Education Teachers: A Comparison of Groups with Different Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuker, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Teachers' important diagnostic abilities include noticing and interpreting students' behaviors and learning processes. By focusing on noticing, I refer to the theoretical framework of professional vision. Professional vision includes the ability to notice what is occurring in complex classroom situations (selective attention) and the…

  7. Evaluation of "The First Tee" in Promoting Positive Youth Development: Group Comparisons and Longitudinal Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Maureen R.; Bolter, Nicole D.; Kipp, Lindsay E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This manuscript represents the 3rd in a series of articles documenting our longitudinal evaluation of "The First Tee," a physical activity-based youth development program that uses golf as a vehicle for teaching life skills and enhancing developmental outcomes. Previous phases of our project: (a) established initial data-based…

  8. Evaluation of "The First Tee" in Promoting Positive Youth Development: Group Comparisons and Longitudinal Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Maureen R.; Bolter, Nicole D.; Kipp, Lindsay E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This manuscript represents the 3rd in a series of articles documenting our longitudinal evaluation of "The First Tee," a physical activity-based youth development program that uses golf as a vehicle for teaching life skills and enhancing developmental outcomes. Previous phases of our project: (a) established initial data-based…

  9. The Noticing of Physical Education Teachers: A Comparison of Groups with Different Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuker, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Teachers' important diagnostic abilities include noticing and interpreting students' behaviors and learning processes. By focusing on noticing, I refer to the theoretical framework of professional vision. Professional vision includes the ability to notice what is occurring in complex classroom situations (selective attention) and the…

  10. A Comparison of the Career Intentions of Enlisted Women to Work Group Factors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-02

    rates showed a general increase between fiscal year (FY) 80 and FY 83 for first term, second term and career enlisted women. Reenlistment rates for FY...COUNT MS The~j,4L FROM _____ To 14_AEFEPRYr.M..___5 AE ONSIIMS Tesi O1986 Senteber 2 72 "’ IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION 17, COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT

  11. An Open Label, Randomized, Comparative, Parallel Group, Multicenter, Prospective, Interventional, Clinical Study to Evaluate Efficacy and Safety of “AHPL/AYTOP/0113” in Comparison with “Framycetin Sulphate Cream” in Acute Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Nipanikar, Sanjay U; Gajare, Kamalakar V; Vaidya, Vidyadhar G; Kamthe, Amol B; Upasani, Sachin A; Kumbhar, Vidyadhar S

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of the present study was to assess efficacy and safety of AHPL/AYTOP/0113 cream, a polyherbal formulation in comparison with Framycetin sulphate cream in acute wounds. Methodology: It was an open label, randomized, comparative, parallel group and multi-center clinical study. Total 47 subjects were randomly assigned to Group-A (AHPL/AYTOP/0113 cream) and 42 subjects were randomly assigned to Group-B (Framycetin sulphate cream). All the subjects were advised to apply study drug, thrice daily for 21 days or up to complete wound healing (whichever was earlier). All the subjects were called for follow up on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 14, 17 and 21 or up to the day of complete wound healing. Data describing quantitative measures are expressed as mean ± SD. Comparison of variables representing categorical data was performed using Chi-square test. Results: Group-A subjects took significantly less (P < 0.05) i.e., (mean) 7.77 days than (mean) 9.87 days of Group-B subjects for wound healing. At the end of the study, statistically significant better (P < 0.05) results were observed in Group-A than Group-B in mean wound surface area, wound healing parameters and pain associated with wound. Excellent overall efficacy and tolerability was observed in subjects of both the groups. No adverse event or adverse drug reaction was noted in any subject of both the groups. Conclusion: AHPL/AYTOP/0113 cream proved to be superior to Framycetin sulphate cream in healing of acute wounds. PMID:28867855

  12. Description of Bacillus toyonensis sp. nov., a novel species of the Bacillus cereus group, and pairwise genome comparisons of the species of the group by means of ANI calculations.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Guillermo; Urdiain, Mercedes; Cifuentes, Ana; López-López, Aránzazu; Blanch, Anicet R; Tamames, Javier; Kämpfer, Peter; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Ramón, Daniel; Martínez, Juan F; Codoñer, Francisco M; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon

    2013-09-01

    Strain BCT-7112(T) was isolated in 1966 in Japan from a survey designed to obtain naturally occurring microorganisms as pure cultures in the laboratory for use as probiotics in animal nutrition. This strain, which was primarily identified as Bacillus cereus var toyoi, has been in use for more than 30 years as the active ingredient of the preparation TOYOCERIN(®), an additive for use in animal nutrition (e.g. swine, poultry, cattle, rabbits and aquaculture). Despite the fact that the strain was initially classified as B. cereus, it showed significant genomic differences from the type strains of the B. cereus group that were large enough (ANI values below 92%) to allow it to be considered as a different species within the group. The polyphasic taxonomic study presented here provides sufficient discriminative parameters to classify BCT-7112(T) as a new species for which the name Bacillus toyonensis sp. nov. is proposed, with BCT-7112(T) (=CECT 876(T); =NCIMB 14858(T)) being designated as the type strain. In addition, a pairwise comparison between the available genomes of the whole B. cereus group by means of average nucleotide identity (ANI) calculations indicated that besides the eight classified species (including B. toyonensis), additional genomospecies could be detected, and most of them also had ANI values below 94%. ANI values were on the borderline of a species definition only in the cases of representatives of B. cereus versus B. thuringiensis, and B. mycoides and B. weihenstephanensis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. How Can Comparison Groups Strengthen Regression Discontinuity Designs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Coady; Cook, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine some of the ways that different types of non-equivalent comparison groups can be used to strengthen causal inferences based on regression discontinuity design (RDD). First, they consider a design that incorporates pre-test data on assignment scores and outcomes that were collected either before the treatment…

  14. The effect of exercise on cardiovascular risk markers in Mexican school-aged children: comparison between two structured group routines.

    PubMed

    Balas-Nakash, Margie; Benítez-Arciniega, Alejandra; Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Valdés-Ramos, Roxana; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effects of two groups of exercise routines on cardiovascular disease risk markers. An intervention study was conducted with 319 Mexican school-aged children in which routines were implemented Monday through Friday for 12 weeks. Routine A was the reference group, with 20 min of less intense activity and routine B was the new group with 40 min of aerobic exercises. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass percentage (FM%), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, lipids, lipoproteins, glucose and insulin were measured before and after the intervention. Routine A had an effect on diastolic pressure, while routine B had an effect on BMI, FM%, blood pressure and triglycerides. Routine B had a greater effect on blood pressure than routine A. The prevalence of obesity, high blood pressure and hypertriglyceridemia decreased in both groups. Aerobic exercise is an effective health promotion strategy to reduce some cardiovascular disease risk markers.

  15. A Comparison of the Perceptions of Four Groups of University Constituents Concerning Institutional Effectiveness at a Private University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernecker, Kimberly James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the level of congruence in the perceptions of institutional effectiveness among four groups of stakeholders at a small, private university in the Southern United States. The constituency consisted of 923 on-campus students, 12 administrators, 60 faculty, and 120 staff members. A descriptive research design…

  16. Using Comparison Groups in School Counseling Research: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Sheri

    2006-01-01

    This article describes comparison group research designs and discusses how such designs can be used in school counseling research to demonstrate the effectiveness of school counselors and school counseling interventions. The article includes a review of internal and external validity constructs as they relate to this approach to research. Examples…

  17. The Comparison of the Effects of a Didactic Stress Management Program and Group Counselling on the Coping Strategies of School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coban, Aysel Esen; Hamamci, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a didactic stress management program, group counselling, and a control group on school counsellors' stress coping strategies. Thirty-four school counsellors were randomly assigned to either a didactic stress management group, group counselling, or a control group. The didactic stress management…

  18. The Comparison of the Effects of a Didactic Stress Management Program and Group Counselling on the Coping Strategies of School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coban, Aysel Esen; Hamamci, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a didactic stress management program, group counselling, and a control group on school counsellors' stress coping strategies. Thirty-four school counsellors were randomly assigned to either a didactic stress management group, group counselling, or a control group. The didactic stress management…

  19. Comparison of four methods for the biofunctionalization of gold nanorods by the introduction of sulfhydryl groups to antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuefeng; Mei, Zhong; Wang, Yanyan; Tang, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Introducing sulfhydryl groups to biomolecules to functionalize gold nanorods (GNRs) is an attractive method that involves the creation of a strong Au-S bond. Previously, we developed a facile method to functionalize GNR surfaces by thiolating antibodies using Traut's reagent. In the current study, we evaluated several methods for the introduction of thiol groups onto the surface of GNRs by using Traut's reagent, dithiotreitol (DTT), dithiolaromatic PEG6-CONHNH2, and thiol-polyethylene glycolamine (SH-PEG-NH2) combined with EDC reaction. We showed that the four above-mentioned thiolation methods can efficiently functionalize GNRs and simplify the functionalization procedures. The formed GNR-bioconjugates showed superior stability without compromising the biological activity. The GNR nanochip prepared with these four thiolated antibodies can detect human IgG targets with specificity. However, SH-PEG-NH2 combined with EDC reaction may affect the amount of functionalized GNRs because of the efficiency of thiol moiety linkage to antibodies, thereby affecting the sensitivity of the GNR sensor. The introduction of a thiol group to antibodies by using Traut's reagent, DTT, and PEG6-CONHNH2 allowed for direct immobilization onto the GNR surface, improved the efficacy of functionalized GNRs, and increased the sensitivity in response to target detection as a biosensor. Given that PEG6-CONHNH2 modification requires glycosylated biomolecules, Traut's reagent and DTT thiolation are recommended as universal applications of GNR biofunctionalization and can be easily extended to other sensing applications based on other gold nanostructures or new biomolecules.

  20. Safety of the use of group A plasma in trauma: the STAT study.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Nancy M; Yazer, Mark H

    2017-08-01

    Use of universally ABO-compatible group AB plasma for trauma resuscitation can be challenging due to supply limitations. Many centers are now using group A plasma during the initial resuscitation of traumatically injured patients. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of this practice on mortality and hospital length of stay (LOS). Seventeen trauma centers using group A plasma in trauma patients of unknown ABO group participated in this study. Eligible patients were group A, B, and AB trauma patients who received at least 1 unit of group A plasma. Data collected included patient sex, age, mechanism of injury, Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS) probability of survival, and number of blood products transfused. The main outcome of this study was in-hospital mortality differences between group B and AB patients compared to group A patients. Data on early mortality (≤24 hr) and hospital LOS were also collected. There were 354 B and AB patients and 809 A patients. The two study groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, TRISS probability of survival, and total number of blood products transfused. The use of group A plasma during the initial resuscitation of traumatically injured patients of unknown ABO group was not associated with increased in-hospital mortality, early mortality, or hospital LOS for group B and AB patients compared to group A patients. These results support the practice of issuing thawed group A plasma for the initial resuscitation of trauma patients of unknown ABO group. © 2017 AABB.

  1. Further Understanding the Systemic Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Comparison of Two Groups of Clinical Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Briana S.; Wampler, Karen S.

    2002-01-01

    Study compared female childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors and their male partners with a group of couples reporting no CSA. Both female CSA survivors and their partners reported higher symptoms of stress, suggesting support for the theory of secondary traumatic stress. Relationship impairment results did not support the hypothesis that CSA…

  2. Comparison of group vs self-directed music interventions to reduce chemotherapy-related distress and cognitive appraisal: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Chuan; Chou, Cheng-Chen; Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Lin, Mei-Feng

    2017-08-10

    The purpose of this study was to determine effects of group music intervention and self-directed music intervention on anxiety, depression, and cognitive appraisal among women with breast cancer. A quasi-experimental design randomly assigned 60 women undergoing chemotherapy to 3 groups: group music intervention, self-directed music intervention, or a control group. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale were administered before, after the 8-week interventions, and at 3-month follow-up. Of the 52 women completing the study, results indicated that group music intervention had a significant (p < .01) immediate effect to decrease helplessness/hopelessness and anxious preoccupation and significant effects for reducing anxiety, depression, helplessness/hopelessness, and cognitive avoidance compared to the other two groups at 3-month follow-up. Group music intervention can be considered an effective supportive care in alleviating the chemotherapy-related distress and enhancing cognition modification of women with breast cancer. Further research is needed to determine the role of cognitive appraisal in the illness trajectory.

  3. Further understanding the systemic effects of childhood sexual abuse: a comparison of two groups of clinical couples.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Briana S; Wampler, Karen S

    2002-01-01

    This study addressed the impact of traumatic experiences on dyadic relationships by comparing general stress and trauma symptoms and relationship impairment measures between two clinical groups: female childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors (n=15) and their male partners, and a control group of couples who reported no CSA (n=17). Both female CSA survivors and their partners reported higher symptoms of stress, suggesting support for the theory of secondary traumatic stress. Relationship impairment results did not support the hypothesis that CSA would negatively impact the dyadic functioning of couples. Clinical implications and recommendations for future research are provided.

  4. GRIN: “GRoup versus INdividual physiotherapy following lower limb intra-muscular Botulinum Toxin-A injections for ambulant children with cerebral palsy: an assessor-masked randomised comparison trial”: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood. Spasticity is a significant contributor to the secondary impairments impacting functional performance and participation. The most common lower limb spasticity management is focal intramuscular injections of Botulinum Toxin-Type A accompanied by individually-delivered (one on one) physiotherapy rehabilitation. With increasing emphasis on improving goal-directed functional activity and participation within a family-centred framework, it is timely to explore whether physiotherapy provided in a group could achieve comparable outcomes, encouraging providers to offer flexible models of physiotherapy delivery. This study aims to compare individual to group-based physiotherapy following intramuscular Botulinum Toxin-A injections to the lower limbs for ambulant children with cerebral palsy aged four to fourteen years. Methods/Design An assessor-masked, block randomised comparison trial will be conducted with random allocation to either group-based or individual physiotherapy. A sample size of 30 (15 in each study arm) will be recruited. Both groups will receive six hours of direct therapy following Botulinum Toxin-A injections in either an individual or group format with additional home programme activities (three exercises to be performed three times a week). Study groups will be compared at baseline (T1), then at 10 weeks (T2, efficacy) and 26 weeks (T3, retention) post Botulinum Toxin-A injections. Primary outcomes will be caregiver/s perception of and satisfaction with their child’s occupational performance goals (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure) and quality of gait (Edinburgh Visual Gait Score) with a range of secondary outcomes across domains of the International Classification of Disability, Functioning and Health. Discussion This paper outlines the study protocol including theoretical basis, study hypotheses and outcome measures for this assessor-masked, randomised

  5. Group dynamics during the EXEMSI isolation study. Experimental Campaign for the European Manned Space Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Cazes, C; Rosnet, E; Bachelard, C; Le Scanff, C; Rivolier, J

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the social behavior, interrelations, cohesion, efficiency and team formation of the crew during 60 days of isolation and confinement, to make a critical comparison of a variety of test methods used for this purpose and to formulate recommendations for their applications in selection, training and support for future studies of this kind. The study consisted of three phases: (1) the pre-isolation period, in which initial individual and group assessment were made to understand the motivation, characteristics, and styles of the crew members, the state of the crew, and to make a prognosis for the behavior of the group and its members, (2) the isolation period, with tests and observations to follow and analyze behavior and group dynamics of the crew, and to detect manifestations of stress, and (3) the post-isolation period with final assessment and debriefing. During these three periods individual and group tests were carried out. Direct methods, questionnaires and tests, as well as indirect methods, observations of behavior, were used. These had cognitive, affective-emotional and social components; they were quantitative, qualitative or a combination. Before isolation the crew members expressed strong confidence in the team and in their own personal capability. The leadership of the Commander seemed uncontested. Crew functioning during this period was conflict-free, but was structured in a rather rigid and defensive way (isolation of affects, denial of anxiety). Apparently, the members strongly needed to present a good image image of themselves. The relatively short period of the experiment, and the absence of real risk suggested that the crew would be able to maintain their cohesion, but in a real spaceflight situation this behavior could be inadequate and even dangerous. The pre-isolation prognosis for crew behavior during isolation was validated to a large extent. During isolation there were no clear manifestations of

  6. Negotiating the Inquiry Question: A Comparison of Whole Class and Small Group Strategies in Grade Five Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnetto, Andy R.; Hand, Brian; Norton-Meier, Lori

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of two strategies for negotiating the question for exploration during science inquiry on student achievement and teachers' perceptions. The study is set in the context of the Science Writing Heuristic. The first strategy (small group) consisted of each group of four students negotiating a question for inquiry with the teacher while the second strategy (whole class) consisted of the entire class negotiating a single question for inquiry with the teacher. The study utilized a mixed-method approach. A quasi-experimental repeated measures design was used to determine the effect of strategy on student achievement and semi-structured teacher interviews were used to probe the question of teacher perceptions of the two strategies. Teacher observations were conducted using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) to check for variation in implementation of the two strategies. Iowa Test of Basic Skills Science (ITBSS) (2005 and 2006) and teacher/researcher developed unit exams (pre and post) were used as student achievement measures. No statistically significant differences were found among students in the two treatment groups on the ITBSS or unit exams. RTOP observations suggest that teacher implementation was consistent across the two treatment strategies. Teachers disclosed personal preferences for the two strategies, indicating the whole class treatment was easier to manage (at least at the beginning of the school year) as students gained experience with science inquiry and the associated increased responsibility. Possible mechanisms linking the two strategies, negotiated questions, and student outcomes are discussed.

  7. Cost analysis for the prevention of variceal rebleeding: a comparison between transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and endoscopic sclerotherapy in a selected group of Italian cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Meddi, P; Merli, M; Lionetti, R; De Santis, A; Valeriano, V; Masini, A; Rossi, P; Salvatori, F; Salerno, F; de Franchis, R; Capocaccia, L; Riggio, O

    1999-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the cumulative cost of the first 18-month period in a selected group of Italian cirrhotic patients treated with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) versus endoscopic sclerotherapy (ES) to prevent variceal rebleeding. Thirty-eight patients enrolled in a controlled trial were considered (18 TIPS and 20 sclerotherapy). The number of days spent in the hospital for the initial treatment and during the follow-up period were defined as the costs of hospitalization. ES sessions, TIPS procedures, angioplasty or addition of a second stent to maintain the shunt patency, were defined as the costs of therapeutic procedures. The two groups were comparable for age, sex, and Child-Pugh score. During the observation period 4 patients died in the TIPS group, and 2 died and 1 was transplanted in the sclerotherapy group. The rebleeding rate was significantly higher in the sclerotherapy group. Despite this, the number of days spent in the hospital was similar in the two groups. This was because of a higher number of hospital admissions for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy and shunt insufficiency in the TIPS group. The therapeutic procedures were more expensive for TIPS. Consequently, the cumulative cost was higher for patients treated with TIPS than for those treated with sclerotherapy. The extra cost was because of the initial higher cost of the procedure and the difference was still maintained at the end of the 18-month follow-up. When the cumulative costs were expressed per month free of rebleeding, the disadvantage of TIPS disappeared. In conclusion, a program of prevention of variceal rebleeding with TIPS, despite the longer interval free of rebleeding, is not a cost-saving strategy in comparison with sclerotherapy.

  8. Through the Vanishing Point, Study Group Paper No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Harley W.

    Under the impact of electronic immediacy the world is being reorganized in sensory terms toward the primacy of the audile-tactile. In the educational system, emphasis remains on traditional methods of logical (visual) and sequential learning. The effect on literature is an increased interest in the spoken, as opposed to the written word. Through…

  9. Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, Judith M; Herzog, Holly; Clodfelter, Sharon; Bovee, Vicki; Schrage, Jon; Pritsos, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2) were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG) or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG) incorporating 1–2 meal replacement drinks or bars per day. Both groups had an energy-restricted goal of 5400 kJ/day. Dietary intake data was obtained using 3-Day Food records kept by the subjects at baseline, 6 months and one-year. For more uniform comparisons between groups, each diet intervention consisted of 18 small group sessions led by the same Registered Dietitian. Results Weight loss for the 73% (n = 70) completing this one-year study was not significantly different between the groups, but was significantly different (p ≤ .05) within each group with a mean (± standard deviation) weight loss of -6.1 ± 6.7 kg (TFG, n = 35) vs -5.0 ± 4.9 kg (MRG, n = 35). Both groups had macronutrient (Carbohydrate:Protein:Fat) ratios that were within the ranges recommended (50:19:31, TFG vs 55:16:29, MRG). Their reported reduced energy intake was similar (5729 ± 1424 kJ, TFG vs 5993 ± 2016 kJ, MRG). There was an improved dietary intake pattern in both groups as indicated by decreased intake of saturated fat (≤ 10%), cholesterol (<200 mg/day), and sodium (< 2400 mg/day), with increased total servings/day of fruits and vegetables (4.0 ± 2.2, TFG vs 4.6 ± 3.2, MRG). However, the TFG had a significantly lower dietary intake of several vitamins and minerals compared to the MRG and was at greater risk for inadequate intake. Conclusion In this one-year university-based intervention, both dietitian-led groups successfully lost weight while improving overall dietary adequacy. The group

  10. Lessons learned from the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry (PCMR) Study Group.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, James D; Westphal, Joslyn A; Bansal, Neha; Czachor, Jason D; Razoky, Hiedy; Lipshultz, Steven E

    2015-08-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a rare disorder of the heart muscle, affecting 1.13 cases per 100,000 children, from birth to 18 years of age. Cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of heart transplantation in children over the age of 1. The Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry funded in 1994 by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute was established to examine the epidemiology of the disease in children below 18 years of age. More than 3500 children across the United States and Canada have been enrolled in the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry, which has followed-up these patients until death, heart transplantation, or loss to follow-up. The Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry has provided the most in-depth illustration of this disease regarding its aetiology, clinical course, associated risk factors, and patient outcomes. Data from the registry have helped in guiding the clinical management of cardiomyopathy in children under 18 years of age; however, questions still remain regarding the most clinically effective diagnostic and treatment approaches for these patients. Future directions of the registry include the use of next-generation whole-exome sequencing and cardiac biomarkers to identify aetiology-specific treatments and improve diagnostic strategies. This article provides a brief synopsis of the work carried out by the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry since its inception, including the current knowledge on the aetiologies, outcomes, and treatments of cardiomyopathy in children.

  11. STUDIES ON THE FLEXNER GROUP OF DYSENTERY BACILLI

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, Walther F.; Binkley, Francis; Perlman, Ely

    1945-01-01

    1. Methods for the isolation of the specific antigens of Types V, W, Z, and Newcastle Shigella paradysenteriae are given. 2. The physical, chemical, toxic, and immunological properties of these substances are described. PMID:19871460

  12. Exploratory Studies on the Effects of a Career Exploration Group for Urban Chinese Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Munyi; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Yeh, Christine J.; Lee, Sarah J.; Pituc, Stephanie T.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies evaluating a school-based, culturally responsive career exploration and assessment group for low-income, urban Chinese immigrant youth are described. Mixed qualitative and quantitative methods compared the treatment (CEDAR group) versus the control group (no intervention). In Study 1, CEDAR group participants reported a significant…

  13. Comparison of four methods for the biofunctionalization of gold nanorods by the introduction of sulfhydryl groups to antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Zhong; Wang, Yanyan

    2017-01-01

    Introducing sulfhydryl groups to biomolecules to functionalize gold nanorods (GNRs) is an attractive method that involves the creation of a strong Au–S bond. Previously, we developed a facile method to functionalize GNR surfaces by thiolating antibodies using Traut’s reagent. In the current study, we evaluated several methods for the introduction of thiol groups onto the surface of GNRs by using Traut’s reagent, dithiotreitol (DTT), dithiolaromatic PEG6-CONHNH2, and thiol-polyethylene glycolamine (SH-PEG-NH2) combined with EDC reaction. We showed that the four above-mentioned thiolation methods can efficiently functionalize GNRs and simplify the functionalization procedures. The formed GNR-bioconjugates showed superior stability without compromising the biological activity. The GNR nanochip prepared with these four thiolated antibodies can detect human IgG targets with specificity. However, SH-PEG-NH2 combined with EDC reaction may affect the amount of functionalized GNRs because of the efficiency of thiol moiety linkage to antibodies, thereby affecting the sensitivity of the GNR sensor. The introduction of a thiol group to antibodies by using Traut’s reagent, DTT, and PEG6-CONHNH2 allowed for direct immobilization onto the GNR surface, improved the efficacy of functionalized GNRs, and increased the sensitivity in response to target detection as a biosensor. Given that PEG6-CONHNH2 modification requires glycosylated biomolecules, Traut’s reagent and DTT thiolation are recommended as universal applications of GNR biofunctionalization and can be easily extended to other sensing applications based on other gold nanostructures or new biomolecules. PMID:28326226

  14. Studies on the Nucleocapsid Structure of a Group A Arbovirus

    PubMed Central

    Horzinek, Marian; Mussgay, Manfred

    1969-01-01

    When Sindbis virus (273S) was treated with sodium desoxycholate, a nonhemagglutinating 136S particle was liberated from the virion, representing the viral nucleocapsid (core). Electron microscopically it appeared as a spherical particle 35 nm in diameter, showing ringlike morphological units 12 to 14 nm in diameter on its surface. When the one- and two-sided images of core particles were correlated, their structure could be demonstrated to have the T = 3 arrangement of 32 hexamer-pentamer morphological units within a symmetrical surface lattice. The core contained a further spherical structure (12 to 16 nm in diameter) which was designated as the central core component. Two proteins were found associated with the core, a third viral protein belonged to the hemagglutinating surface structures. The significance of these findings for virus classification is discussed. Images PMID:4186278

  15. How Terrorist Groups End: Studies of the Twentieth Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    main source is the detailed research in Donnatella della Porta , “Left Wing Terrorism in Italy,” in Terrorism in Context, ed. Martha Crenshaw...the office of Rep. James A. Courter (R-NJ) on the House Armed Services Committee, where I also had the honor of employment. 49. Donatella della ... Porta , “Left-Wing Terrorism in Italy,” in Terrorism in Context, ed. Martha Crenshaw (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 121. 50

  16. Report of the Northland School Division Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, W. H.; And Others

    Between July 1974 and July 1975, an overall review and appraisal was conducted to evaluate the functions, administration, operation, and services of Canada's Northland School Division Number 61 (a special division created in 1960 under the Northland School Division Act to improve educational services to the outlying, chiefly northern communities…

  17. Posthepatectomy liver failure: a definition and grading by the International Study Group of Liver Surgery (ISGLS).

    PubMed

    Rahbari, Nuh N; Garden, O James; Padbury, Robert; Brooke-Smith, Mark; Crawford, Michael; Adam, Rene; Koch, Moritz; Makuuchi, Masatoshi; Dematteo, Ronald P; Christophi, Christopher; Banting, Simon; Usatoff, Val; Nagino, Masato; Maddern, Guy; Hugh, Thomas J; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Greig, Paul; Rees, Myrddin; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Fan, Sheung Tat; Nimura, Yuji; Figueras, Joan; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Büchler, Markus W; Weitz, Jürgen

    2011-05-01

    Posthepatectomy liver failure is a feared complication after hepatic resection and a major cause of perioperative mortality. There is currently no standardized definition of posthepatectomy liver failure that allows valid comparison of results from different studies and institutions. The aim of the current article was to propose a definition and grading of severity of posthepatectomy liver failure. A literature search on posthepatectomy liver failure after hepatic resection was conducted. Based on the normal course of biochemical liver function tests after hepatic resection, a simple and easily applicable definition of posthepatectomy liver failure was developed by the International Study Group of Liver Surgery. Furthermore, a grading of severity is proposed based on the impact on patients' clinical management. No uniform definition of posthepatectomy liver failure has been established in the literature addressing hepatic surgery. Considering the normal postoperative course of serum bilirubin concentration and International Normalized Ratio, we propose defining posthepatectomy liver failure as the impaired ability of the liver to maintain its synthetic, excretory, and detoxifying functions, which are characterized by an increased international normalized ratio and concomitant hyperbilirubinemia (according to the normal limits of the local laboratory) on or after postoperative day 5. The severity of posthepatectomy liver failure should be graded based on its impact on clinical management. Grade A posthepatectomy liver failure requires no change of the patient's clinical management. The clinical management of patients with grade B posthepatectomy liver failure deviates from the regular course but does not require invasive therapy. The need for invasive treatment defines grade C posthepatectomy liver failure. The current definition of posthepatectomy liver failure is simple and easily applicable in clinical routine. This definition can be used in future studies to

  18. Machine intelligence and robotics: Report of the NASA study group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Opportunities for the application of machine intelligence and robotics in NASA missions and systems were identified. The benefits of successful adoption of machine intelligence and robotics techniques were estimated and forecasts were prepared to show their growth potential. Program options for research, advanced development, and implementation of machine intelligence and robot technology for use in program planning are presented.

  19. Report Out of the C4I Study Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    1 of the DoD M &S Master Plan states, “Provide a common technical framework for M &S.” Sub-objective 1 - 1 includes the establishment of a common, high...authenticated observers, etc. 4.3 LISI Model While not explicitly developed to codify cross- domain links to M &S, the LISI model (Figure 1 ) provides a...757-726-6896 brandtk@mitre.org Keywords: C4I, C4ISR, HLA, JTA, M &S, C4ISR-to-Simulation FOM, M &S-to-C4I Interoperability, C4I/ M &S TRM, SISO M &S-to-C4I

  20. Social support within a mother and child group: An ethnographic study situated in the UK.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jane; Skirton, Heather

    2013-06-01

    Social support has been associated with positive outcomes regarding the mothering experience, and professional interventions have therefore been developed in formal settings to promote this. An ethnographic approach was used to consider the subjective experiences of mothers attending a professionally-facilitated group for parents and children aged 0-4 years, focusing on relationships within the group and their importance within existing social networks. Qualitative data were collected from seven participants using interviews and participant observation. These were analyzed by the constant comparison method into codes, categories, and themes. Three themes emerged: past history, being a mother, and function of the group. To ensure mothers and children benefit from such groups, nurses who participate in developing and leading community interventions for mothers and their children need to be aware of the importance of maternal identity and the factors that can impact the relationships between mothers within group settings.

  1. Primary Metastatic Synovial Sarcoma: Experience of the CWS Study Group.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Monika; Dantonello, Tobias; Hallmen, Erika; Vokuhl, Christian; Leuschner, Ivo; Sparber-Sauer, Monika; Kazanowska, Bernarda; Niggli, Felix; Ladenstein, Ruth; Bielack, Stefan S; Klingebiel, Thomas; Koscielniak, Ewa

    2016-07-01

    Prognostic factors for localized synovial sarcoma are well defined. However, few data exist regarding patients with metastases at diagnosis. Poor outcome is described but the optimal therapeutic regimen remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the outcome, identify prognostic factors, and analyze treatment strategies. Patients <21 years with synovial sarcoma and primary distant metastases treated in the consecutive prospective European Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studiengruppe trials 1980-2010 were analyzed. Twenty-nine of 296 patients had primary metastases. Twenty-seven could be included. Median age was 16.7 years. Primaries were mainly located in the limbs (78%) and 74% were ≥10 cm. Metastases involved the lungs in all patients. Two patients presented with synchronous bone metastases. Sixty-three percent of patients achieved a first remission, whereas only 26% maintained it. Relapses were metastatic with pulmonary metastases in nearly all patients. Five-year event-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 26% and 30%, respectively. Prognosis was best for patients with oligometastatic lung metastases (5-year OS probability 85%). Prognosis was worse for patients with multiple bilateral lung metastases (5-year OS 13%) and even poorer for those with concurrent bone metastases. Treatment elements associated with superior survival were adequate local therapy of the primary tumor and, if feasible, for metastases, chemotherapy with an ifosfamide/doxorubicin-based regimen. The use of whole lung irradiation was not correlated with better outcomes. The overall prognosis of primary metastatic synovial sarcoma is poor. However, individuals with oligometastatic lung metastases had very good chance for long-term survival when treated with adequate multimodal therapy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Baseline characteristics and risk factors of retinal vein occlusion: a study by the Korean RVO Study Group.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Yong; Yoon, Young Hee; Kim, Ha Kyoung; Yoon, Hee Seong; Kang, Se Woong; Kim, June-Gone; Park, Kyu Hyung; Jo, Young Joon

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the demographic characteristics and risk factors of Korean patients with naÏve central or branch retinal vein occlusion (CRVO or BRVO). This study enrolled 41 clinical sites throughout Korea and included 557 consecutive patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) from May through November 2010. A total of 557 patients with new-onset RVO participated in this study. Two hundred and three (36.4%) patients were diagnosed with CRVO and 354 (63.6%) patients were diagnosed with BRVO. Comparisons between the two groups showed that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was significantly higher in CRVO patients and hypertension was significantly higher in BRVO patients (P = 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). Poor baseline visual acuity was significantly associated with female and old age in BRVO patients (P = 0.002 and 0.013, respectively), whereas the wide intraretinal hemorrhage (CRVO, P = 0.029; BRVO, P < 0.001) and the macular ischemia (CRVO, P < 0.001; BRVO, P < 0.001) were associated with both groups. The study results show the clinical features of RVO in Korean patients. Hypertension is strongly associated with BRVO and diabetes mellitus is more strongly associated with CRVO in Korean patients with RVO. As the first nationwide study performed by the Korean Retinal Society, the results of this study can be applied to future studies on RVO.

  3. The effects of group 1 versus group 2 carbapenems on imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Carmeli, Yehuda; Lidji, Shiri Klarfeld; Shabtai, Esther; Navon-Venezia, Shiri; Schwaber, Mitchell J

    2011-07-01

    Use of the group 2 carbapenems, imipenem and meropenem, may lead to emergence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance. The group 1 carbapenem ertapenem has limited activity against P. aeruginosa and is not associated with imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (IMP-R PA) in vitro. This retrospective, group-level, longitudinal study collected patient, antibiotic use, and resistance data from 2001 to 2005 using a hospital database containing information on 9 medical wards. A longitudinal data time series analysis was done to evaluate the association between carbapenem use (defined daily doses, or DDDs) and IMP-R PA. A total of 139 185 patient admissions were included, with 541 150 antibiotics DDDs prescribed: 4637 DDDs of group 2 carbapenems and 2130 DDDs of ertapenem. A total of 779 IMP-R PA were isolated (5.6 cases/1000 admissions). Univariate analysis found a higher incidence of IMP-R PA with group 2 carbapenems (P < 0.001), aminoglycosides (P = 0.034), and penicillins (P = 0.05), but not with ertapenem. Multivariate analysis showed a yearly increase in incidence of IMP-R-PA (3.8%, P < 0.001). Group 2 carbapenem use was highly associated with IMP-R PA, with a 20% increase in incidence (P = 0.0014) for each 100 DDDs. Group 2 carbapenem use tended to be associated with an increased proportion of IMP-R PA (P = 0.0625) in multivariate analysis. Ertapenem was not associated with IMP-R PA. These data would support preferentially prescribing ertapenem rather than group 2 carbapenems where clinically appropriate.

  4. Comparison of high group velocity accelerating structures

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, Z.D.; Wilson, P.B.

    1987-02-01

    It is well known that waveguides with no perturbations have phase velocities greater than the velocity of light c. If the waveguide dimensions are chosen so that the phase velocity is only moderately greater than c, only small perturbations are required to reduce the phase velocity to be synchronous with a high energy particle bunch. Such a lightly loaded accelerator structure will have smaller longitudinal and transverse wake potentials and hence will lead to lower emittance growth in an accelerated beam. Since these structures are lightly loaded, their group velocities are only slightly less than c and not in the order of 0.01c, as is the case for the standard disk-loaded structures. To ascertain that the peak and average power requirements for these structures are not prohibitive, we examine the elastance and the Q for several traveling wave structures: phase slip structures, bellows-like structures, and lightly loaded disk-loaded structures.

  5. Comparison of anxiety levels associated with noise in the dental clinic among children of age group 6-15 years.

    PubMed

    Muppa, Radhika; Bhupatiraju, Prameela; Duddu, Mahesh; Penumatsa, Narendra Varma; Dandempally, Arthi; Panthula, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Fear or anxiety due to noise produced in the dental clinic is rated third among the reasons to avoid dental visits. The aim of the present study was to determine anxiety levels associated with noise in a dental clinic. The study was done using a survey questionnaire containing 10 questions and was divided into two parts. The first part included demographic information such as name, age, gender, and school; the second half included questions regarding patient's feelings toward noise in the dental clinic and its possible link to dental anxiety. Two-hundred and fifty children and adolescents of age group 6-15 years participated in the study. Results of the study showed that 50% of females, 29% males avoided a visit to the dentist because of anxiety and fear, 38% subjects of age group 6-11 years reported that sound of the drill makes them uncomfortable, followed by having to wait in the reception area. Gender gap was also observed with more females feeling annoyed than males on the 1-10 annoyance level scale. More than 60% felt "annoyed" to "extremely annoyed" by noise in the dental clinic. 45% of subjects preferred watching television to cope with such noise. This study concludes that the noise produced in dental clinic is anxiety provoking and significantly contributes to avoidance of dental treatment and the best way opted by the majority of subjects to overcome this anxiety was audiovisual distraction method.

  6. A Study of the Effectiveness of Ability Grouping on the Academic Achievement of Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phares, Barbara Georgeson

    This study examined the effects of grouping students by ability or achievement on middle school students' academic achievement. Mathematics achievement scores from the California Test of Basic Skills (CTBS) were obtained from 25 seventh graders randomly selected from a group of 80 who had received instruction in an ability-grouped setting for…

  7. Pilot study of the Korean Parent Training Program using a partial group randomized experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjung; Cain, Kevin; Boutain, Doris; Chun, Jin-Joo; Kim, Sangho; Im, Hyesang

    2017-01-01

    Problems Korean American (KA) children experience mental health problems due to difficulties in parenting dysfunction complicated by living in two cultures. Methods Korean Parent Training Program (KPTP) was pilot tested with 48 KA mothers of children (ages 3–8) using partial group randomized controlled experimental study design. Self-report survey and observation data were gathered. Findings Analyses using generalized estimating equation indicated the intervention group mothers increased effective parenting and their children decreased behavior problems and reported less acculturation conflict with mothers. Conclusions The KPTP is a promising way to promote effective parenting and increase positive child mental health in KA families. PMID:24645901

  8. Attachment relationships of adolescents who spent their infancy in residential group care: The Greek Metera study.

    PubMed

    Vorria, Panayiota; Ntouma, Maria; Vairami, Maria; Rutter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A prospective longitudinal study beginning whilst the infants were living in the Metera Babies Centre showed that the great majority showed a disorganized attachment during the period of residential care, even though neither abuse/neglect nor subnutrition were involved. There was an initial follow-up post-adoption age at four years. This paper concerns a further follow-up of the 52 adopted adolescents aged 13 years who had spent their first two years of life in Metera Babies Centre. They were compared to 36 adolescents reared in their biological families who, during their infancy, attended full-time public day care. The key aim was to examine continuities and discontinuities between early and contemporary relationships. The Child Attachment Interview was employed in adolescence. The main findings were a significant decrease in the rate of disorganization and a lack of a significant difference between the previously institutionalized group and the family care comparison group on attachment qualities in adolescence. There was not sufficient statistical power, however, to detect a small difference.

  9. Mentoring First Year Study Groups--Benefits from the Mentors' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrberg, Nadia Rahbek; Michelsen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    The "study group concept" at the University of Southern Denmark (SDU) was implemented to aid first year students' transitional challenges. A mentor (an older student) is affiliated each study group to facilitate productive group work, bring awareness to study habits, and share his/her own experiences with life as a student. The study…

  10. A Comparison of Solar Cycle Variations in the Equatorial Rotation Rates of the Sun's Subsurface, Surface, Corona, and Sunspot Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaraiah, J.

    2013-10-01

    Using the Solar Optical Observing Network (SOON) sunspot-group data for the period 1985 - 2010, the variations in the annual mean equatorial-rotation rates of the sunspot groups are determined and compared with the known variations in the solar equatorial-rotation rates determined from the following data: i) the plasma rotation rates at 0.94R⊙,0.95R⊙,…,1.0R⊙ measured by the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) during the period 1995 - 2010, ii) the data on the soft-X-ray corona determined from Yohkoh/SXT full-disk images for the years 1992 - 2001, iii) the data on small bright coronal structures (SBCS) that were traced in Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/EIT images during the period 1998 - 2006, and iv) the Mount Wilson Doppler-velocity measurements during the period 1986 - 2007. A large portion (up to ≈ 30∘ latitude) of the mean differential-rotation profile of the sunspot groups lies between those of the internal differential-rotation rates at 0.94R⊙ and 0.98R⊙. The variation in the yearly mean equatorial-rotation rate of the sunspot groups seems to be lagging behind that of the equatorial-rotation rate determined from the GONG measurements by one to two years. The amplitude of the GONG measurements is very small. The solar-cycle variation in the equatorial-rotation rate of the solar corona closely matches that determined from the sunspot-group data. The variation in the equatorial-rotation rate determined from the Mount Wilson Doppler-velocity data closely resembles the corresponding variation in the equatorial-rotation rate determined from the sunspot-group data that included the values of the abnormal angular motions (> |3∘| day-1) of the sunspot groups. Implications of these results are pointed out.

  11. Comparison of Wits appraisal among different ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Zawawi, Khalid H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The Wits values for various ethnic groups are different and the applicability of the norms described in these analyses to different populations is difficult. The objectives of this study were to establish the normal values of Wits appraisal in a sample from the western region of Saudi Arabia and to evaluate the existence of gender dimorphism. Also, to compare the results with previously published Wits values. Materials and Methods: A total of 66 lateral cephalometric digital radiographs of Saudi patients from the western region (25 males and 41 females, mean age 19.32±8.16 years and 20.88±8.77 years, respectively). All subjects had angle class-I occlusion, well-balanced faces, all premolars had erupted and in occlusion, and no history of orthodontic treatment. Tracing was performed using the VistadentOC® software. Results: Wits mean values were greater in males (−0.73±2.48) than females (1.79±2.06), with significant gender difference (P<0.001). Comparisons with previously published showed that there is a significant differences between ethnic groups, especially in females’ data. Conclusion: Wits appraisal appears to be gender-specific and ethnicity-specific for female values. PMID:24987633

  12. Food groups and the risk of colorectal cancer: results from a Jordanian case-control study.

    PubMed

    Abu Mweis, Suhad S; Tayyem, Reema F; Shehadah, Ihab; Bawadi, Hiba A; Agraib, Lana M; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed

    2015-07-01

    The role of diet in colorectal cancer (CRC) in Jordan has not been studied previously. This study aimed at examining the association between food groups (including grains, fruits, vegetables, milk, and meat and legumes) and CRC risk in Jordan. We compared intakes of the different food groups among CRC patients (n=167) and matched controls (n=240) by age, sex, occupation, and marital status. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of quartiles of intakes of the different food groups with CRC risk. In addition, the association of selected food items with CRC risk was examined. Odds ratios (ORs) for the fourth versus the first quartile of intake were 2.92 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-6.08] for grains, 1.66 (95% CI: 0.81-3.40) for vegetables, 0.55 (95% CI: 0.26-1.16) for fruits, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.46-1.97) for milk, and 1.43 (95% CI: 0.68-2.98) for meat and legumes. In a comparison of the highest with the lowest weekly frequency of consumption, there was a direct association between the risk of CRC and the frequency of consumption of chicken (OR=2.52, 95% CI: 1.33-4.77). An increase in risk was observed with increased consumption of white bread (OR=3.13, 95% CI: 1.18-9.25), whereas consumption of whole bread was associated with a decreased risk for CRC (OR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.12-0.84). Our results support a role of diet in CRC. Direct associations were found for grains, white bread, and chicken, whereas an inverse relation was reported for whole bread.

  13. Group Work and the Learning of Critical Thinking in the Hong Kong Secondary Liberal Studies Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Dennis; Howe, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a one-year longitudinal study that investigated the impact of group work on the development of students' critical thinking in Hong Kong secondary schools. It explores whether the participation of teachers in a group-based teaching intervention adapted from an earlier study conducted in the United Kingdom (UK)…

  14. The Saginaw Teacher Study Group Movement: From Pilot to Districtwide Study Groups in Four Years. National Writing Project at Work. Volume 1, Number 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Mary K.; Calliari, Mary

    2004-01-01

    This monograph covers the Saginaw Teacher Study Group Movement from its inception in 1996 through its expansion to include the overwhelming majority of Saginaw teachers in 1999-2001. Since 1996, classroom teachers in Saginaw have been volunteering for study groups addressing the learning and teaching of students in poverty. In the first half of…

  15. Petroleum potential of the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa Group in Illinois: A coordinated geological and geochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, J.E.; Oltz, D.F. ); Kruge, M.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The Ordovician Maquoketa Group in Illinois, predominantly composed of shale, calcareous shale, and carbonates, has long been considered a potential source for Illinois basin hydrocarbons. Methods used to better define the petroleum potential of the Maquoketa in the Illinois basin were lithostratigraphic study, Rock-Eval (pyrolysis) analyses, comparison of molecular markers from whole-rock extracts and produced oil, and construction of burial history models. Organic-rich submature Maquoketa potential source rocks are present in western Illinois at shallow depths on the basin flank. Deeper in the basin in southern Illinois, Rock-Eval analyses indicate that the Maquoketa shale is within the oil window. Solvent extracts of the Maquoketa from western Illinois closely resemble the Devonian New Albany Shale, suggesting that past studies may have erroneously attributed Maquoketa-generated petroleum to a New Albany source or failed to identify mixed source oils. Subtle differences between Maquoketa and New Albany solvent extracts include differences in pristane/phytane ratios, proportions of steroids, and distribution of dimethyldibenzothiophene isomers. Maquoketa solvent extracts show little resemblance to Middle Ordovician oils from the Illinois or Michigan basins. Lithostratigraphic studies identified localized thick carbonate facies in the Maquoketa, suggesting depositional response to upper Ordovician paleostructures. Sandstone facies in the Maquoketa in southwestern Illinois offer a potential source/trap play, as well as serving as potential carrier beds for hydrocarbon migration. Maquoketa source and carrier beds may feed older Ordovician rocks in faulted areas along and south of the Cottage Grove fault system in southern Illinois.

  16. Comparison of mental distress in patients with low back pain and a population-based control group measured by Symptoms Check List--A case-referent study.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jan; Fisker, Annette; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Olsen, Lis Raabæk; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Hartvigsen, Jan; Langberg, Henning

    2015-08-01

    Mental distress is common in persons experiencing low back pain and who are sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed. It is, however, not known how mental distress measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 differs between patients with low back pain and the general population. The objective of this study was to compare mental symptoms and distress as measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 in sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed patients with low back pain with a population-based control group. Mental distress was compared in a group of patients with low back pain (n=770) and a randomly selected population-based reference group (n=909). Established Danish cut-off values for mental distress were used to evaluate the mental distress status in the low back pain and control group and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for the Global Severity Index and the symptom scales of the Symptoms Check List-90 while controlling for baseline demographic differences between the groups. Group mean scores showed that all symptom scales and the Global Severity Index for both sexes were statistically elevated in the low back pain group, except for interpersonal sensitivity in women. When the scores were dichotomized to cases and non-cases of mental distress, a significantly higher prevalence of cases was observed in the low back pain group compared to the reference group on all symptom check list scales, except for paranoid ideation for both sexes and interpersonal sensitivity for women. The biggest between-group difference was observed for the somatization symptom scale. Low back pain patients who are sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed, are more mentally distressed compared to a randomly selected sample of the general Danish population. Self-reported symptoms of somatization, anxiety, phobic anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, depression and hostility are all more common among patients with low back pain compared to the general population. © 2015 the

  17. The Women’s Recovery Group Study: A Stage I trial of women-focused group therapy for substance use disorders versus mixed-gender group drug counseling

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Shelly F.; Trucco, Elisa M.; McHugh, R. Kathryn; Lincoln, Melissa; Gallop, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this Stage I Behavioral Development Trial was to develop a manual-based 12-session Women’s Recovery Group (WRG) and to pilot test this new treatment in a randomized controlled trial against a mixed-gender Group Drug Counseling (GDC), an effective manual-based treatment for substance use disorders. After initial manual development, two pre-pilot groups of WRG were conducted to determine feasibility and initial acceptability of the treatment among subjects and therapists. In the pilot stage, women were randomized to either WRG or GDC. No significant differences in substance use outcomes were found between WRG and GDC during the 12-week group treatment. However, during the 6-month post-treatment follow-up, WRG members demonstrated a pattern of continued reductions in substance use while GDC women did not. In addition, pilot WRG women with alcohol dependence had significantly greater reductions in average drinks/drinking day than GDC women 6 months post-treatment (p < .03, effect size = 0.81). While satisfaction with both groups was high, women were significantly more satisfied with WRG than GDC (p < .009, effect size = 1.11). In this study, the newly developed 12-session women-focused WRG was feasible with high satisfaction among participants. It was equally effective as mixed-gender GDC in reducing substance use during the 12-week in-treatment phase, but demonstrated significantly greater improvement in reductions in drug and alcohol use over the post-treatment follow-up phase compared with GDC. A women-focused single-gender group treatment may enhance longer-term clinical outcomes among women with substance use disorders. PMID:17446014

  18. A single standardized practical training for surgical scrubbing according to EN1500: Effect Quantification, value of the standardized method and comparison with clinical reference groups

    PubMed Central

    Fichtner, Andreas; Haupt, Elke; Karwath, Tobias; Wullenk, Katharina; Pöhlmann, Christoph; Jatzwauk, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    The standardized training of practical competences in skills labs is relatively new among German Medical Faculties. The broad acceptance and outstanding evaluation results do not provide objective data on the efficiency and cost-efficiency of these trainings. This study aims on the quantification of the teaching effect of the surgical scrubbing technique EN1500 and its comparison with clinical references of OR personnel. Methods: 161 4th year medical students were randomized into intervention and control group. The intervention group received a 45 minute standardized peer-teaching training of practical competences necessary in the OR including the scrubbing according to EN1500. Fluorescence dye was mixed in the disinfectant solution. After hand disinfection, standardized fotographs and semi-automated digital processing resulted in quantification of the insufficiently covered hand area. These results were compared with the control group that received the training after the test. In order to provide information on the achieved clinical competence level, the results were compared with the two clinical reference groups. Results: The intervention group remained with 4,99% (SD 2,34) insufficiently covered hand area after the training compared to the control group 7,33% (SD 3,91), p<0,01. There was no significant difference between control group and reference groups: surgeons 9,32% (SD 4,97), scrub nurses 8,46% (SD 4,66). The student intervention group showed results that were significantly better than the clinical references. The methodic mistake remained negligible. In the sub-group analysis, the students with low or medium experience in surgical scrubbing and hand disinfection derived highest benefit from the training, whereas students with no or high experience did benefit less. All participants showed better results on hand palms compared to back of hand areas. Discussion: A single standardized peer-teaching of surgical scrubbing and hand disinfection according to EN

  19. A Comparison of the Effects of Group Dynamics on Individuals Assigned to Integral and Non-Integral Aircrews.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    34 Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 10: 149-165(1974). Cartwright , Dorwin and Alvin Zander. Group Dynamics Research and Theory. Row, Peterson and...Company, Evanston IL 1953. Cartwright , Dorwin and Alvin Zander. "The Nature of Group Cohesiveness," Group Dynamics, 91-109. Harper and Row, New York...other reasons. Cartwright and Zander propose that groups may either facilitate or inhibit tne attainment of desirable social objectives ( Cartwright and

  20. When are emotions related to group-based appraisals? A comparison between group-based emotions and general group emotions.

    PubMed

    Kuppens, Toon; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y

    2014-12-01

    In the literature on emotions in intergroup relations, it is not always clear how exactly emotions are group-related. Here, we distinguish between emotions that involve appraisals of immediate group concerns (i.e., group-based emotions) and emotions that do not. Recently, general group emotions, measured by asking people how they feel "as a group member" but without specifying an object for these emotions, have been conceptualized as reflecting appraisals of group concerns. In contrast, we propose that general group emotions are best seen as emotions about belonging to a group. In two studies, general group emotions were closely related to emotions that are explicitly measured as belonging emotions. Two further studies showed that general group emotions were not related to appraisals of immediate group concerns, whereas group-based emotions were. We argue for more specificity regarding the group-level aspects of emotion that are tapped by emotion measures.

  1. The performance of several indicators in detecting recall bias. European Study Group on Infertility and Subfecundity.

    PubMed

    Basso, O; Olsen, J; Bisanti, L; Karmaus, W

    1997-05-01

    Self-reported exposure data are vulnerable to differential recall, which threatens the internal validity and thus the credibility of the study. When a proxy measure of the exposure of interest is available, it may be possible to check for the presence of recall bias due to misclassification of the exposure information. We present a number of indicators of recall bias for case-control studies, and we describe their behavior by means of computer simulations. The indicators are all based upon a comparison between self-reported exposure data and data on job titles grouped into exposure-specific matrices. The indicators are based upon the assumption that job titles are reported without differential misclassification for cases as well as controls. We also assume that exposure data are reported with the same accuracy by workers in different jobs. Under these assumptions, the proposed indicators will provide valuable-although not conclusive-signs of recall bias. The principles elaborated in this paper can be applied to other situations in which self-reported exposure data are used.

  2. Qualitative analysis of the role of self-weighing as a strategy of weight control for weight-loss maintainers in comparison with a normal, stable weight group.

    PubMed

    Carrard, Isabelle; Kruseman, Maaike

    2016-10-01

    Self-weighing seems to have a primary role in weight-loss maintenance. The use of this strategy may help correct even slight weight regain and contribute to long-term weight stability. However, self-weighing has also been associated with negative psychological health consequences in specific subgroups. This study aimed to explore the use and the behavioral and psychological consequences of self-weighing in a group of weight-loss maintainers (WLoMs). We chose a qualitative design to conduct this investigation. Eighteen WLoMs were interviewed and compared to a matched comparison group of 18 participants with a lifelong normal stable weight (NSW). Analyses showed that most WLoMs needed regular self-weighing to be aware of their weight. The weight displayed on the scale helped WLoMs sustain the continuous efforts needed to maintain weight loss and also at times triggered corrective actions that were sometimes drastic. Weight changes generated both negative and positive affect among WLoMs, who could experience anxiety because of self-weighing or have their self-esteem impaired in the case of weight gain. In comparison, the NSW group rarely used self-weighing. They relied on a conscious way of living to control their weight and needed fewer strategies. NSW participants simply went back to their routine when they felt a slight increase in their weight, without experiencing consequences on their mood or self-esteem. Regular self-weighing as a component of weight-loss maintenance should be encouraged to help WLoMs regulate their food and physical activity, provided that potential consequences on psychological well-being, including self-esteem, are screened and addressed when needed.

  3. Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery Study Group.

    PubMed

    LoCicero, J

    1993-09-01

    Both patients and the medical profession are quick to embrace new technology, particularly when it may replace an existing surgical procedure. Unfortunately, the rapidity of acceptance is rarely associated with careful evaluation. Laparoscopy is a recent example of such widely embraced technology. Studies of laparoscopy that yielded good comparative data to more traditional methods were slow to accrue. This led to the exposure of its shortcomings through governmental reports and the lay press. To prevent this from happening in thoracoscopy, two types of studies are required so that valid conclusions about the new technology can be drawn. The first is an accounting of the new technology as procedures evolve around it. The data collected in such a study should contain basic information, including the indications for the procedure, how it was performed, procedure length, associated complications, and patient outcome. Such information provides a broad profile of the technology, emphasizing from the outset its potential strengths and weaknesses. The second type of study involves a more detailed concurrent comparison of the specific procedures utilizing this technology to the established traditional methods. Such randomized studies help to firmly establish through scientific process the place of the new technology. The Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery Study Group was organized in early 1992 to address these concerns. From an initial four surgeons the group has grown to include more than 41 institutions. Currently the group is collecting data in a registry and has established three clinical trials to evaluate video-assisted thoracic surgery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. The Efficacy of Two Improvement-over-Chance Effect Size Measures for Two-Group Univariate Comparisons under Variance Heterogeneity and Nonnormality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Brian; Olejnik, Stephen; Huberty, Carl J.

    The efficacy of two improvement-over-chance or "I" effect sizes, derived from predictive discriminant analysis (PDA) and logistic regression analysis (LRA), were investigated for two-group univariate mean comparisons. Data were generated under selected levels of population separation, variance pattern, sample size, and distribution…

  5. Comparison of conventional and low dose steroid in the treatment of PFAPA syndrome: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Yazgan, Hamza; Gültekin, Erhan; Yazıcılar, Osman; Sagun, Ömer Faruk; Uzun, Lokman

    2012-11-01

    Steroids have been widely used to relief symptoms in the patients with PFAPA syndrome. This study was constructed to show the effectiveness of low-dose steroid therapy in patients diagnosed with PFAPA syndrome. 41 patients (86 febrile attacks) who were diagnosed using the criteria suggested by Thomas et al. were involved in the study. The cases were classified into two groups and the selection of patients in groups was made randomly. Twenty patients received prednisolone at a dose of 2 mg/kg/day (first group: 40 attacks) and 21 patients received a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day (second group: 46 attacks). The effectiveness of the treatment was especially determined by the time needed to reduce the fever and the effect on the duration between the two attacks. The patients were re-examined 24 hours later, after a steroid treatment. The patients who were in the first group received 2mg/kg/day dose of prednisolone and their fever was dramatically decreased in 6-8 hours (7.6 ± 0.9 hours). The second group received 0.5mg/kg/day dose and 19 of these patients' fever was decreased in 8-12 hours. Two patients whose temperature did not decrease, received another dose of prednisolone 24 hours after the first dose and their fever was reduced 12 hours after the second dose (11.3 ± 6.4 hours). A comparison of the rate of fever reduction and the interval between the attacks (Group I: 5.11 ± 1.01 week and Group II: 5.2 ± 1.13 week) in the two groups did not show any statistical significance (p=0.104). Low-dose steroid treatment is as effective as normal dose in PFAPA syndrome but there is need to study with a larger group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pilot study of the Korean parent training program using a partial group-randomized experimental study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjung; Cain, Kevin; Boutain, Doris; Chun, Jin-Joo; Kim, Sangho; Im, Hyesang

    2014-08-01

    Korean American (KA) parents need a culturally tailored parent training that helps them bridge the Korean and American cultures and divergent parenting practices. The Korean Parent Training Program (KPTP) was pilot tested with 48 KA mothers of children between 3 and 8 years old using a partial group-randomized controlled experimental study design. Researchers gathered self-report survey and observation data. Analyses, which used generalized estimating equations, indicated the intervention group mothers increased use of effective parenting practices and their children decreased behavioral problems and reported less acculturation conflict with their mothers. The KPTP is a promising way to promote effective parenting and increase positive child mental health in KA families. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Moving Farmer Knowledge beyond the Farm Gate: An Australian Study of Farmer Knowledge in Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, J.; Curtis, A.

    1997-01-01

    Case study of Australian farmers participating in group extension instruction indicated that local knowledge may remain dormant unless social interaction allows it to emerge. Group interaction facilitated the integration of local and scientific knowledge. (SK)

  8. Geology orbiter comparison study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, J. A. J.; Blasius, K. R.; Davis, D. R.; Pang, K. D.; Shreve, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Instrument requirements of planetary geology orbiters were examined with the objective of determining the feasibility of applying standard instrument designs to a host of terrestrial targets. Within the basic discipline area of geochemistry, gamma-ray, X-ray fluorescence, and atomic spectroscopy remote sensing techniques were considered. Within the discipline area of geophysics, the complementary techniques of gravimetry and radar were studied. Experiments using these techniques were analyzed for comparison at the Moon, Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites. On the basis of these comparative assessments, the adaptability of each sensing technique was judged as a basic technique for many targets, as a single instrument applied to many targets, as a single instrument used in different mission modes, and as an instrument capability for nongeoscience objectives.

  9. Comparison of the Standard and Reliability of the Assessments of Practical Scientific Skills Using Groups of Different Sizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, J. I.; Seddon, G. M.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates differences in marking standard and reliability when experienced teachers carried out assessments of the performance on practical exercises. The results showed that there was no difference between the assessments from the groups containing 5 and 20 students. (Author/YP)

  10. Improving the Entrepreneurial Competencies of Dutch Dairy Farmers through the Use of Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergevoet, R. H. M.; Van Woerkum, Cees

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe and analyse the role that study groups might play in improving the entrepreneurial competencies of farmers. The most important competencies are described. Emphasis is placed on group learning processes and participatory approaches. Theories of adult learning and extension paradigms in relation to our…

  11. Improving the Entrepreneurial Competencies of Dutch Dairy Farmers through the Use of Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergevoet, R. H. M.; Van Woerkum, Cees

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe and analyse the role that study groups might play in improving the entrepreneurial competencies of farmers. The most important competencies are described. Emphasis is placed on group learning processes and participatory approaches. Theories of adult learning and extension paradigms in relation to our…

  12. Benchmark Problems of the Geothermal Technologies Office Code Comparison Study

    SciTech Connect

    White, Mark D.; Podgorney, Robert; Kelkar, Sharad M.; McClure, Mark W.; Danko, George; Ghassemi, Ahmad; Fu, Pengcheng; Bahrami, Davood; Barbier, Charlotte; Cheng, Qinglu; Chiu, Kit-Kwan; Detournay, Christine; Elsworth, Derek; Fang, Yi; Furtney, Jason K.; Gan, Quan; Gao, Qian; Guo, Bin; Hao, Yue; Horne, Roland N.; Huang, Kai; Im, Kyungjae; Norbeck, Jack; Rutqvist, Jonny; Safari, M. R.; Sesetty, Varahanaresh; Sonnenthal, Eric; Tao, Qingfeng; White, Signe K.; Wong, Yang; Xia, Yidong

    2016-12-02

    A diverse suite of numerical simulators is currently being applied to predict or understand the performance of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). To build confidence and identify critical development needs for these analytical tools, the United States Department of Energy, Geothermal Technologies Office has sponsored a Code Comparison Study (GTO-CCS), with participants from universities, industry, and national laboratories. A principal objective for the study was to create a community forum for improvement and verification of numerical simulators for EGS modeling. Teams participating in the study were those representing U.S. national laboratories, universities, and industries, and each team brought unique numerical simulation capabilities to bear on the problems. Two classes of problems were developed during the study, benchmark problems and challenge problems. The benchmark problems were structured to test the ability of the collection of numerical simulators to solve various combinations of coupled thermal, hydrologic, geomechanical, and geochemical processes. This class of problems was strictly defined in terms of properties, driving forces, initial conditions, and boundary conditions. Study participants submitted solutions to problems for which their simulation tools were deemed capable or nearly capable. Some participating codes were originally developed for EGS applications whereas some others were designed for different applications but can simulate processes similar to those in EGS. Solution submissions from both were encouraged. In some cases, participants made small incremental changes to their numerical simulation codes to address specific elements of the problem, and in other cases participants submitted solutions with existing simulation tools, acknowledging the limitations of the code. The challenge problems were based on the enhanced geothermal systems research conducted at Fenton Hill, near Los Alamos, New Mexico, between 1974 and 1995. The problems

  13. Prevalence of Types of Cancers in the Elderly Covered by Insurance of the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting Company in 2015 - Comparison with Younger Groups.

    PubMed

    Roshani, Zahra; Akbari Kamrani, Ahmad Ali; Shati, Mohsen; Sahaf, Robab

    2016-01-01

    Presently, the world population of the elderly is growing. By improving health hygiene and welfare indicators, mortality and birth rates decrease and life expectancy increases, making the present century the century of elderly. Aging is one of the main risk factors for development of cancer, which itself is the second cause of death in old people. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of cancer in the elderly covered by the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) insurance program and to obtain suitable programs for cancer screening and early detection, increase patient survival, improve elderly care and to reclaim the cost of treatment in comparison to the national and international statistics. This is a cross-sectional study conducted on all elderly patients diagnosed with malignancy based on their pathology reports. In this study, of the total 75,500 patients covered by IRIB insurance, 17.2% belonged to the elderly group, males accounting for 53.3%. The most common cancers in old men were prostatic cancer (61.3%), colon cancer (10.3%) cancer of the hematologic system, bladder cancer (9.6%), lung cancer (9.1%), thyroid cancer (3.9%) and brain tumors (1.3%). In the elderly women, the most common cancers were breast cancer (80.1%), colon cancer (5.1%), thyroid cancers (4.4%), bladder and hematologic system malignancies (3.6), lung cancer (2.9%) and brain tumors (0.7%). In addition, the prevalence of cancer was almost the same as national and international statistics. With the exception of non-melanoma skin cancer no difference was shown in prevalence of cancer between IRIB elderly patients and the other groups of cancer patients in Iran.

  14. Transcriptomic and Epigenetic Profiling of the Lung of Influenza-Infected Pigs: A Comparison of Different Birth Weight and Susceptibility Groups

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Jamie M.; Gunvaldsen, Rayna E.; Detmer, Susan E.; Dyck, Michael K.; Dixon, Walter T.; Foxcroft, George R.; Plastow, Graham S.; Harding, John C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza viruses are a common cause of respiratory disease in swine. Infections range in severity from asymptomatic to causing significant morbidity. The main objective of this study was to compare lung transcriptomic and epigenetic responses to influenza infection in pigs from high or low birth weight litters. The latter is a potential indicator of intrauterine growth restriction, a significant risk factor for prenatal programming effects. Individual pigs from high (HBW) or low birth weight (LBW) litters (n = 17) were inoculated with influenza A virus and euthanized 48 hours later. Lesion severity and viral loads were assessed as previously described. The transcriptional response to infection in LBW and HBW groups (n = 16) was assessed by microarray. A separate analysis of pigs classified as ‘Resilient’ (RES) or ‘Susceptible’ (SUS) (n = 6) on the basis of severity of lung pathology was also conducted. Eight genes were confirmed as differentially expressed for the birth weight comparison, including three antiviral genes with lower expression in LBW: ISG15, OAS1, and OAS2 (P<0.05). The promoter region methylation status of these three genes was assessed for each birth weight group, and no differences were found. These expression data are consistent with our previous finding that LBW pigs had less severe lesion scores and a trend towards lower viral titres in lung than the HBW cohort. The SUS v RES comparison identified 91 differentially expressed genes (FDR<0.05) that were enriched with functional annotation terms and pathways associated with inflammation. The cytokine genes IL6, IL8, and CCL2 were all upregulated in SUS pigs, and may have driven disease severity in these animals. In conclusion, this study found no evidence that the transcriptional immune response to influenza was adversely affected by low litter birth weight, but did identify several candidate genes for driving disease pathology. PMID:26393920

  15. Results of the eruptive column model inter-comparison study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, A.; Suzuki, Y. J.; Cerminara, M.; Devenish, B. J.; Ongaro, T. Esposti; Herzog, M.; Van Eaton, A. R.; Denby, L. C.; Bursik, M.; de'Michieli Vitturi, M.; Engwell, S.; Neri, A.; Barsotti, S.; Folch, A.; Macedonio, G.; Girault, F.; Carazzo, G.; Tait, S.; Kaminski, E.; Mastin, L. G.; Woodhouse, M. J.; Phillips, J. C.; Hogg, A. J.; Degruyter, W.; Bonadonna, C.

    2016-10-01

    This study compares and evaluates one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) numerical models of volcanic eruption columns in a set of different inter-comparison exercises. The exercises were designed as a blind test in which a set of common input parameters was given for two reference eruptions, representing a strong and a weak eruption column under different meteorological conditions. Comparing the results of the different models allows us to evaluate their capabilities and target areas for future improvement. Despite their different formulations, the 1D and 3D models provide reasonably consistent predictions of some of the key global descriptors of the volcanic plumes. Variability in plume height, estimated from the standard deviation of model predictions, is within 20% for the weak plume and 10% for the strong plume. Predictions of neutral buoyancy level are also in reasonably good agreement among the different models, with a standard deviation ranging from 9 to 19% (the latter for the weak plume in a windy atmosphere). Overall, these discrepancies are in the range of observational uncertainty of column height. However, there are important differences amongst models in terms of local properties along the plume axis, particularly for the strong plume. Our analysis suggests that the simplified treatment of entrainment in 1D models is adequate to resolve the general behaviour of the weak plume. However, it is inadequate to capture complex features of the strong plume, such as large vortices, partial column collapse, or gravitational fountaining that strongly enhance entrainment in the lower atmosphere. We conclude that there is a need to more accurately quantify entrainment rates, improve the representation of plume radius, and incorporate the effects of column instability in future versions of 1D volcanic plume models.

  16. Effect of topical anti-inflammatory treatment on the outcome of laser trabeculoplasty. The Fluorometholone-Laser Trabeculoplasty Study Group.

    PubMed

    Shin, D H; Frenkel, R E; David, R; Cheetham, J K

    1996-09-01

    We investigated the effect of anti-inflammatory treatment on the outcome of argon laser trabeculoplasty. In this multicenter, double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel comparison study, 140 chronic open-angle glaucoma patients received either 0.25% fluorometholone or vehicle four times a day unilaterally, beginning 24 hours before and continuing one week after argon laser trabeculoplasty. The laser surgeon placed 50 to 60 burns over the inferior 180 degrees of the trabecular meshwork. The patients were followed up frequently for five weeks after the procedure. Following argon laser trabeculoplasty, signs of anterior chamber inflammation were significantly lower in the fluorometholone group. However, there was no significant difference between the fluorometholone and the vehicle groups in the incidence of increased intraocular pressure in the immediate post-argon laser trabeculoplasty period. Intraocular pressure decreased significantly in both groups from day 1 throughout the follow-up period. A significant between-group difference in intraocular pressure decrease was found only at week 5 (7.83 +/- 6.27 [S.D.] mm Hg for the fluorometholone group vs 6.63 +/- 5.79 mm Hg for the vehicle group, P = .046). No drug-related clinically significant adverse events were observed. Use of fluorometholone is effective in attenuating inflammation and has no clinically significant impact on the outcome of argon laser trabeculoplasty or on the incidence of intraocular pressure spikes during the immediate post-argon laser trabeculoplasty period.

  17. Comparison of Safety and Immunogenicity of PVRV and PCECV Immunized in Patients with WHO Category II Animal Exposure: A Study Based on Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Man-Qing; Zhu, Zheng-Gang; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Hu, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the safety and immunogenicity between purified vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV) in patients with WHO category II animal exposure, especially in different age groups. Methodology/Principal Findings In one-year clinical observation after vaccination with PVRV or PCECV under Zagreb (2-1-1) or Essen (1-1-1-1-1) regimens, information collection for the demographic and adverse events (AEs) and rabies virus laboratory examination of neutralizing antibody (RVNA) titers were performed for all patients with WHO category II animal exposure in Wuhan city. The results showed no significant differences of safety and immunogenicity between PVRV and PCECV both in Zagreb and Essen regimens. However, when compared with other age groups, most systemic AEs (36/61) occurred in <5-year-old patients, and <5-year-old patients have significant lower RVNA titer and seroconversion rate (RVNA ≥0.5 IU/ml) at day 7 both in Zagreb and Essen regimens or PVRV and PCECV groups. Conclusions Our data showed that vaccination with PVRV is as safe and immunogenic as PCECV in patients of all age groups, but might be more popular for clinical use. When performing a vaccination with rabies vaccine in young children, the most optimal vaccine regimen should be selected. PMID:25522244

  18. Ochratoxin A Dietary Exposure of Ten Population Groups in the Czech Republic: Comparison with Data over the World.

    PubMed

    Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Frantisek; Dofkova, Marcela; Skarkova, Jarmila; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Ruprich, Jiri

    2015-09-10

    Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic and renal carcinogenic mycotoxin and is a common contaminant of various food commodities. Eighty six kinds of foodstuffs (1032 food samples) were collected in 2011-2013. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used for ochratoxin A determination. Limit of quantification of the method varied between 0.01-0.2 μg/kg depending on the food matrices. The most exposed population is children aged 4-6 years old. Globally for this group, the maximum ochratoxin A dietary exposure for "average consumer" was estimated at 3.3 ng/kg bw/day (lower bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 0) and 3.9 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 1/2 limit of quantification). Important sources of exposure for this latter group include grain-based products, confectionery, meat products and fruit juice. The dietary intake for "high consumers" in the group 4-6 years old was estimated from grains and grain-based products at 19.8 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound), from tea at 12.0 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound) and from confectionery at 6.5 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound). For men aged 18-59 years old beer was the main contributor with an intake of 2.60 ng/kg bw/day ("high consumers", middle bound). Tea and grain-based products were identified to be the main contributors for dietary exposure in women aged 18-59 years old. Coffee and wine were identified as a higher contributor of the OTA intake in the population group of women aged 18-59 years old compared to the other population groups.

  19. Ochratoxin A Dietary Exposure of Ten Population Groups in the Czech Republic: Comparison with Data over the World

    PubMed Central

    Ostry, Vladimir; Malir, Frantisek; Dofkova, Marcela; Skarkova, Jarmila; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Ruprich, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic and renal carcinogenic mycotoxin and is a common contaminant of various food commodities. Eighty six kinds of foodstuffs (1032 food samples) were collected in 2011–2013. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used for ochratoxin A determination. Limit of quantification of the method varied between 0.01–0.2 μg/kg depending on the food matrices. The most exposed population is children aged 4–6 years old. Globally for this group, the maximum ochratoxin A dietary exposure for “average consumer” was estimated at 3.3 ng/kg bw/day (lower bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 0) and 3.9 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound, considering the analytical values below the limit of quantification as 1/2 limit of quantification). Important sources of exposure for this latter group include grain-based products, confectionery, meat products and fruit juice. The dietary intake for “high consumers” in the group 4–6 years old was estimated from grains and grain-based products at 19.8 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound), from tea at 12.0 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound) and from confectionery at 6.5 ng/kg bw/day (middle bound). For men aged 18–59 years old beer was the main contributor with an intake of 2.60 ng/kg bw/day (“high consumers”, middle bound). Tea and grain-based products were identified to be the main contributors for dietary exposure in women aged 18–59 years old. Coffee and wine were identified as a higher contributor of the OTA intake in the population group of women aged 18–59 years old compared to the other population groups. PMID:26378578

  20. Comparison of the calystegine composition and content of potato sprouts and tubers from Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja and Solanum tuberosum Group Tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, D Wynne; Shepherd, Tom; Stewart, Derek

    2008-07-09

    The calystegines detected in tubers from 17 Phureja ( S. tuberosum Group Phureja) lines and five Tuberosum ( S. tuberosum Group Tuberosum) cultivars were identified as the A 3 and B 2 structural types. Their concentration in whole tubers was of a similar order of magnitude in both species, as was the variability in the ratio of B 2 to A 3. On average, calystegine concentrations in the peel were about 13 times that found in the flesh for the five Tuberosum cultivars, and 4 times higher for four Phureja lines. Removal of the peel reduced the calystegine content by an average of over 50% in Tuberosum but by only 30% in Phureja, despite the latter having the greater proportion of peel. The calystegine content of sprouts was also determined for five Tuberosum cultivars and four Phureja lines and was found to include small amounts of four additional types, B 3, B 4, N 1, and X 2, in addition to the more abundant A 3 and B 2. Concentrations in the sprouts of Tuberosum were on average 100 times higher than that in the tuber flesh and 8 times higher than in the peel, whereas for Phureja, the equivalent values were 30 and 7 times higher, respectively. No correlation was found between sprout concentration and either flesh or peel calystegine concentration.

  1. The 2016 update of the International Study Group (ISGPS) definition and grading of postoperative pancreatic fistula: 11 Years After.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Claudio; Marchegiani, Giovanni; Dervenis, Christos; Sarr, Micheal; Abu Hilal, Mohammad; Adham, Mustapha; Allen, Peter; Andersson, Roland; Asbun, Horacio J; Besselink, Marc G; Conlon, Kevin; Del Chiaro, Marco; Falconi, Massimo; Fernandez-Cruz, Laureano; Fernandez-Del Castillo, Carlos; Fingerhut, Abe; Friess, Helmut; Gouma, Dirk J; Hackert, Thilo; Izbicki, Jakob; Lillemoe, Keith D; Neoptolemos, John P; Olah, Attila; Schulick, Richard; Shrikhande, Shailesh V; Takada, Tadahiro; Takaori, Kyoichi; Traverso, William; Vollmer, Charles R; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Yeo, Charles J; Salvia, Roberto; Buchler, Marcus

    2017-03-01

    In 2005, the International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula developed a definition and grading of postoperative pancreatic fistula that has been accepted universally. Eleven years later, because postoperative pancreatic fistula remains one of the most relevant and harmful complications of pancreatic operation, the International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula classification has become the gold standard in defining postoperative pancreatic fistula in clinical practice. The aim of the present report is to verify the value of the International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula definition and grading of postoperative pancreatic fistula and to update the International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula classification in light of recent evidence that has emerged, as well as to address the lingering controversies about the original definition and grading of postoperative pancreatic fistula. The International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula reconvened as the International Study Group in Pancreatic Surgery in order to perform a review of the recent literature and consequently to update and revise the grading system of postoperative pancreatic fistula. Based on the literature since 2005 investigating the validity and clinical use of the original International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula classification, a clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula is now redefined as a drain output of any measurable volume of fluid with an amylase level >3 times the upper limit of institutional normal serum amylase activity, associated with a clinically relevant development/condition related directly to the postoperative pancreatic fistula. Consequently, the former "grade A postoperative pancreatic fistula" is now redefined and called a "biochemical leak," because it has no clinical importance and is no longer referred to a true pancreatic fistula. Postoperative pancreatic fistula grades B and C are confirmed but defined more strictly. In particular, grade B requires a

  2. Comparison of tinzaparin and acenocoumarol for the secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism: a multicentre, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Pérez-de-Llano, Luis A; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Golpe, Rafael; Núñez-Delgado, Jose M; Palacios-Bartolomé, Ana; Méndez-Marote, Lidia; Colomé-Nafria, Esteve

    2010-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and healthcare resource utilization of long-term treatment with tinzaparin in symptomatic patients with acute pulmonary embolism as compared to standard therapy. In this open-label trial, 102 patients with objectively confirmed pulmonary embolism were randomized to receive, after initial treatment with tinzaparin, either tinzaparin (175 IU/kg/day) or international normalized ratio-adjusted acenocoumarol for 6 months. Clinical endpoints were assessed during the 6 months of treatment. A pharmacoeconomic analysis was carried out to evaluate the cost of the long-term treatment with tinzaparin in comparison with the standard one. In an intention-to-treat analysis, one of 52 patients developed recurrent venous thromboembolism in the tinzaparin group compared with none of the 50 patients in the acenocoumarol group. One patient in each group had a major haemorrhagic complication. Six patients in the acenocoumarol group had minor bleeding compared with none in the tinzaparin group (P = 0.027). Median hospital length of stay was shorter in the tinzaparin group compared to the acenocoumarol group (7 versus 9 days; P = 0.014). When all the direct and indirect cost components were combined for the entire population, we found a slight, nonstatistically significant (mean difference €345; 95% CI 1382-2071; P = 0.69) reduction in total cost with tinzaparin. Symptomatic acute pulmonary embolism treatment with full therapeutic doses of tinzaparin for 6 months is a feasible alternative to conventional treatment with vitamin K antagonists.

  3. A comparison of the relationships between psychosocial factors, occupational strain, and work ability among 4 ethnic teacher groups in China.

    PubMed

    Lian, Yulong; Xiao, Jing; Zhang, Chen; Guan, Suzhen; Li, Fuye; Ge, Hua; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the level of occupational strain and work ability among Han, Hui, Uygur, Hui, and Kazakh teachers, and explored ethnic differences based on the associations of psychosocial factors at work, occupational strain, and work ability. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2,941 teachers in primary and secondary schools in Xinjiang Province, China. Psychosocial factors, occupational strain, and work ability were measured using the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition (OSI-R) and Work Ability Index. Han and Hui teachers experienced reduced work ability compared with Uygur and Kazakh teachers, and this finding was caused, in part, by exposure to psychosocial factors at work. The vocational and psychological strains caused by these factors play an important role in reduced work ability among all ethnic teacher groups. The findings indicate the importance of taking action to reduce occupational strain for promoting teachers' work ability in multiethnic workplaces.

  4. Comparison of the effects of treatment with celecoxib, loxoprofen, and acetaminophen on postoperative acute pain after arthroscopic knee surgery: A randomized, parallel-group trial.

    PubMed

    Onda, Akira; Ogoshi, Atsuko; Itoh, Mieko; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Kimura, Masashi

    2016-03-01

    Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, conventional non-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and acetaminophen have been adopted for the relief of mild to moderate acute and chronic pain. However, it remains unclarified whether the therapeutic differences in pain sensation exist among these agents. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of different types of analgesic agents for postoperative acute pain management. A single-center, randomized, controlled study was performed in consecutive patients who underwent the second-look procedure with removal of internal fixation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction or arthroscopic meniscal repair/meniscectomy. Celecoxib (400 mg for the first dose and then 200 mg), loxoprofen (60 mg), or acetaminophen (600 mg) was orally administered from postoperative 3 h. The pain intensity on a 100-mm VAS scale and subjective assessment of therapeutic pain-relief were compared among these three treatment groups until postoperative 2 days. The acquired data were analyzed according to the per-protocol analysis principle. A total of 432 patients were screened, and 160 were enrolled. The VAS score tended to decrease over time in all groups. There was a significant improvement in the pain score both at rest and on movement, and subjective impression in the celecoxib-treated group compared with acetaminophen at postoperative 2 days. On the other hand, loxoprofen resulted in the benefit only in the pain score at rest in comparison with acetaminophen. Any comparisons between celecoxib and loxoprofen showed insignificant differences throughout observations. No adverse effects were confirmed in each group. These obtained findings in our dose setting conditions suggest that celecoxib and loxoprofen treatments were superior to acetaminophen in pain-relief, though the superiority of loxoprofen over acetaminophen was modest. Overall, selective COX-2 inhibitors including conventional NSAIDs seem to

  5. A comparison of the diets of three major groups of primary consumers of Gabon (primates, squirrels and ruminants).

    PubMed

    Gautier-Hion, A; Emmons, L H; Dubost, G

    1980-05-01

    The diets of three major groups of frugivores-folivores of an African rain forest (squirrels, ruminants, primates) are compared and the relationship of food habits to body weight, habitat and foraging height examined. A number of common trends in the trophic patterns are found in the three groups. Over half of the fruit species identified in the diets of any one taxon are exploited in common with one or more of the others. The parts of fruit usually eaten are different for each group but for a number of species, the same fruit parts are searched for by the species of the three taxa.

  6. Acculturation via nature-based outdoor recreation: a comparison of Mexican and Chinese ethnic groups in the United States

    Treesearch

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker; H. Ken Cordell

    2005-01-01

    This research considers acculturation by Mexican and Chinese groups in the United States and how participation in five nature-based outdoor recreation activities may be an indicator of acculturation to American society. We argue that the greater incidence of professional human capital among Chinese immigrants helps this group acculturate more quickly than Mexicans,...

  7. Offender experiences and opinions of mixed-gender group work in the community: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Burrowes, Nina; Day, Jo

    2011-10-01

    The National Probation Service in England and Wales currently delivers community-based accredited offending behavior programs in mixed-gender groups. There is at present a lack of research on the potential impact of mixed-gender group work on female offenders, who are often the minority within the group. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the area using qualitative methods. Sixteen offenders who had participated in a mixed-gender offending behavior program were interviewed as part of this study. Themes from the interviews were analyzed using Grounded Theory techniques. The findings illustrated an overall preference among all participants for mixed-gender rather than single-gender group work. The specific advantages of mixed-gender group work included increased learning about the opposite sex and a more relaxed atmosphere within the group. Although this study reflects positive attitudes to mixed-gender group work, the findings need to be tested further using empirical methodology.

  8. A Controlled Comparison of Cognitive Therapy and Self-Help Support Groups in the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Annette; Blanchard, Edward B.

    1995-01-01

    Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (n=34) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment conditions for 8 weeks: individualized cognitive treatment, support group, or control. Results indicated significantly greater reductions in gastrointestinal symptoms and amelioration of depression and anxiety for the cognitive therapy group, and these results…

  9. A comparison of cycle control and effect on well-being of monophasic gestodene-, triphasic gestodene- and monophasic desogestrel-containing oral contraceptives. Gestodene Study Group.

    PubMed

    Bruni, V; Croxatto, H; De La Cruz, J; Dhont, M; Durlot, F; Fernandes, M T; Andrade, R P; Weisberg, E; Rhoa, M

    2000-04-01

    This was an open-label multicenter study to compare the cycle control and effect on well-being of two oral contraceptives containing gestodene and one containing desogestrel. A total of 2419 healthy women < or = 41 years of age were randomized to receive oral contraceptives containing monophasic gestodene (Minulet; n = 806, mean age 24.5 years), triphasic gestodene (Tri-Minulet; n = 808, mean age 24.6 years) or monophasic desogestrel (Mercilon; n = 805, mean age 24.6 years). Subjects were to participate in the study for up to 13 treatment cycles. A modified Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire was used to evaluate menstrual symptoms and to assess overall well-being. A total of 698 women were withdrawn from the study, 154 due to adverse events. Cycle control with gestodene was superior to that with desogestrel at almost all time points, particularly for breakthrough bleeding and/or spotting, which occurred significantly less frequently with gestodene than with desogestrel at cycles 1-7 and 9-11 (p < 0.05). Generally, the proportion of subjects with breakthrough bleeding and/or spotting was almost twice as great with desogestrel as with gestodene. The duration of bleeding was not consistently different between the gestodene and desogestrel groups; however, the intensity of bleeding was greater with gestodene at all time points (p < 0.05). The latent period before withdrawal bleeding was significantly longer for monophasic gestodene at cycles 1-5 and 8-10 (p < 0.05). Treatment significantly improved overall well-being at cycles 6 and 9 with triphasic gestodene and at cycle 13 with desogestrel; however, no statistically significant differences among treatment groups in overall well-being scores or individual factors of well-being could be identified. All three treatments were well tolerated. The most common drug-related adverse events were headache (14.2%), breast pain (6.2%), nausea (4.1%), metrorrhagia (3.9%) and abdominal pain (3.5%). The incidence of adverse

  10. Limitations of Species Delimitation Based on Phylogenetic Analyses: A Case Study in the Hypogymnia hypotrypa Group (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xinli; McCune, Bruce; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Li, Hui; Leavitt, Steven; Yamamoto, Yoshikazu; Tchabanenko, Svetlana; Wei, Jiangchun

    2016-01-01

    Delimiting species boundaries among closely related lineages often requires a range of independent data sets and analytical approaches. Similar to other organismal groups, robust species circumscriptions in fungi are increasingly investigated within an empirical framework. Here we attempt to delimit species boundaries in a closely related clade of lichen-forming fungi endemic to Asia, the Hypogymnia hypotrypa group (Parmeliaceae). In the current classification, the Hypogymnia hypotrypa group includes two species: H. hypotrypa and H. flavida, which are separated based on distinctive reproductive modes, the former producing soredia but absent in the latter. We reexamined the relationship between these two species using phenotypic characters and molecular sequence data (ITS, GPD, and MCM7 sequences) to address species boundaries in this group. In addition to morphological investigations, we used Bayesian clustering to identify potential genetic groups in the H. hypotrypa/H. flavida clade. We also used a variety of empirical, sequence-based species delimitation approaches, including: the “Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery” (ABGD), the Poisson tree process model (PTP), the General Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC), and the multispecies coalescent approach BPP. Different species delimitation scenarios were compared using Bayes factors delimitation analysis, in addition to comparisons of pairwise genetic distances, pairwise fixation indices (FST). The majority of the species delimitation analyses implemented in this study failed to support H. hypotrypa and H. flavida as distinct lineages, as did the Bayesian clustering analysis. However, strong support for the evolutionary independence of H. hypotrypa and H. flavida was inferred using BPP and further supported by Bayes factor delimitation. In spite of rigorous morphological comparisons and a wide range of sequence-based approaches to delimit species, species boundaries in the H. hypotrypa group remain uncertain. This study

  11. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'etude en didactique des mathematiques. Proceedings of the 1994 Annual Meeting (Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, June 3-7, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Martyn, Ed.

    These proceedings contain papers from the 1994 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group. Papers are divided into the following sections: (1) invited lectures; (2) working groups; (3) topic groups; (4) ad hoc groups; and (5) reports on ICMI (International Committee on Mathematical Instruction) studies. Papers include: (1)…

  12. The Roles of a University Professor in a Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Hui-Chin; Hung, Hsiu-Ting; Chen, Yi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The opportunities in which university professors collaborate with the practicing school teachers in a teacher study group are few. This study investigated how a university professor facilitated a collaborative teacher study group to enhance teachers' professional growth. Five primary school teachers and a university professor collaborated on…

  13. The Roles of a University Professor in a Teacher Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Hui-Chin; Hung, Hsiu-Ting; Chen, Yi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The opportunities in which university professors collaborate with the practicing school teachers in a teacher study group are few. This study investigated how a university professor facilitated a collaborative teacher study group to enhance teachers' professional growth. Five primary school teachers and a university professor collaborated on…

  14. [Urinary lithotripsy in children. Multicenter study of the Pediatric Urology Study Group].

    PubMed

    Van Kote, G; Lottmann, H; Fremond, B; Mourey, E; Dore, B; Daoud, S; Valla, J S; Garcia, S; Beurton, D; Poddevin, F; Biserte, J; Villar, F; Lacombe, A

    1999-01-01

    The authors present the results of a survey conducted among French paediatric urologists belonging to the Groupe d'Etudes en Urologie Pédiatrique (GEUP) (Paediatric Urology Study Group). This study, based on 122 cases observed in 13 centres, is not exhaustive, but is nevertheless statistically significant. The preoperative assessment confirms the usual findings of urinary stones in children: pyelonephritis, haematuria and abdominal pain, the usual presenting complaint, concomitant malformative uropathy (10% of cases) and a predominance of calcium stones. More than 200 stones were treated, larger than 10 millimeters in diameter in one-third of cases. Renal stones, mainly caliceal (more than 50%), included 11 staghorn calculi. This study also included 22 ureteric stones, mainly in the pelvic ureter, and 2 bladder stones. Lithotripsy was ultrasound-guided in 2/3 of cases and required general anaesthesia in about 3/4 of cases. Ureteric catheterization was required in 19 infants preoperatively, but in only 2 infants (stein strasse) postoperatively. One or two lithotripsy sessions were sufficient in most cases, but 4 sessions were necessary in 5 patients, to the same kidney in 1 case. The mean hospital stay was 2 to 3 days, but the procedure was performed on an outpatient basis in 15 cases. The immediate postoperative course was uneventful and asymptomatic. This survey revealed about 10% of complete failures, corresponding to solitary caliceal stones in 2/3 of cases; 29 partial failures were essentially due to lower caliceal stones and staghorn calculi; 84 successes (stone-free), mainly pelvic or simple caliceal stones. Scintigraphy did not reveal any immediate postoperative impairment of renal function. This study reported a success rate of about 70%, regardless of the type of apparatus used. Assessment of the results of ESWL requires sufficient follow-up both concerning the outcome of fragmented stones and evaluation of possible functional repercussions. This survey

  15. A randomized comparison of continuous combined transdermal delivery of estradiol-norethindrone acetate and estradiol alone for menopause. CombiPatch Study Group.

    PubMed

    Archer, D F; Furst, K; Tipping, D; Dain, M P; Vandepol, C

    1999-10-01

    To determine whether a continuous estradiol-norethindrone acetate transdermal delivery system reduces incidence of endometrial hyperplasia in postmenopausal women more than transdermal estradiol (E2) alone. Six hundred twenty-five postmenopausal women were assigned randomly to one of four treatments, transdermal E2 50 microg/day, or transdermal E2-norethindrone acetate with 50 microg E2 and 140, 250, or 400 microg/day of norethindrone acetate. Follow-up visits to collect information on safety and efficacy were scheduled at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after initiation of treatment. Endometrial biopsy for histologic evaluation was done at baseline and upon exit from the study (completion or withdrawal). Endometrial histology was evaluated by two independent gynecologic pathologists. In the event of a disparate reading, a third gynecologic pathologist evaluated the tissue using predetermined criteria. Endometrial hyperplasia was found in 37.9% (39 of 103) in the E2 alone group versus 0.8% (one of 123), 1% (one of 98), and 1.1% (one of 89) in the E2-norethindrone acetate 50-140, 50-250, and 50-400 groups, respectively (P < .001). Uterine bleeding was less frequent in the E2-norethindrone acetate 50-140 group than other treatments. The mean number of hot flushes per day decreased to less than one in each treatment group at endpoint. The E2-norethindrone acetate combination patch showed skin tolerance comparable to that of E2 alone. Continuous transdermal delivery of E2 combined with norethindrone acetate effectively prevented endometrial hyperplasia in healthy postmenopausal women. Continuous combined transdermal delivery systems provide increased dosing flexibility and might improve convenience and compliance with hormone replacement therapy.

  16. The Relationship between Students' Small Group Activities, Time Spent on Self-Study, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp, Rachelle J. A.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; van Berkel, Henk J. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the contributions students make to the problem-based tutorial group process as observed by their peers, self-study time and achievement. To that end, the Maastricht Peer Activity Rating Scale was administered to students participating in Problem-Based Learning tutorial groups.…

  17. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'etude en didactique des mathematiques. Proceedings of the 1993 Annual Meeting (York, Ontario, Canada, May 28-June 1, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Martyn, Ed.

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the 1993 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group. Papers are presented in four sections: (1) invited lectures; (2) working groups; (3) topic groups; and (4) ad hoc groups. Papers include: (1) "What is a Square Root? A Study of Geometrical Representation in Different…

  18. Neuropsychological Comparison of Children with Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and an IQ-Matched Comparison Group

    PubMed Central

    Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2012-01-01

    An objective in current research on children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is to determine neurobehavioral profiles to identify affected individuals. Deficits observed when children with FASD are compared to typically developing controls may be confounded by lower IQ scores in the subjects with FASD. To determine if prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with neurobehavioral deficits after controlling for IQ differences, multivariate analyses were conducted to compare alcohol-exposed (ALC) subjects to a comparison group closely matched on IQ (IQC). The initial analysis included a broad neuropsychological battery with measures of language, executive function, visual–motor integration, motor ability, and academic achievement. Additional, in depth comparisons focused on visual sustained attention, verbal learning and memory and parent/guardian-reported behavior problems. Group differences (ALC < IQC) were found on verbal learning and parent-rated behavior problems. Group differences were marginally significant (measures within the broad neuropsychological comparison) or not significant (visual attention, retention of verbal material) on the remaining comparisons. Therefore, some deficits (e.g., verbal learning and behavior problems) in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be explained by the lower FSIQ observed in the population. These areas of relative weakness could be useful in distinguishing children with FASD from other children with lowered IQ. PMID:21349236

  19. Neuropsychological comparison of children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and an IQ-matched comparison group.

    PubMed

    Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2011-05-01

    An objective in current research on children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is to determine neurobehavioral profiles to identify affected individuals. Deficits observed when children with FASD are compared to typically developing controls may be confounded by lower IQ scores in the subjects with FASD. To determine if prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with neurobehavioral deficits after controlling for IQ differences, multivariate analyses were conducted to compare alcohol-exposed (ALC) subjects to a comparison group closely matched on IQ (IQC). The initial analysis included a broad neuropsychological battery with measures of language, executive function, visual-motor integration, motor ability, and academic achievement. Additional, in depth comparisons focused on visual sustained attention, verbal learning and memory and parent/guardian-reported behavior problems. Group differences (ALC < IQC) were found on verbal learning and parent-rated behavior problems. Group differences were marginally significant (measures within the broad neuropsychological comparison) or not significant (visual attention, retention of verbal material) on the remaining comparisons. Therefore, some deficits (e.g., verbal learning and behavior problems) in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be explained by the lower FSIQ observed in the population. These areas of relative weakness could be useful in distinguishing children with FASD from other children with lowered IQ.

  20. Capturing Public Opinion on Public Health Topics: A Comparison of Experiences from a Systematic Review, Focus Group Study, and Analysis of Online, User-Generated Content.

    PubMed

    Giles, Emma Louise; Adams, Jean M

    2015-01-01

    Capturing public opinion toward public health topics is important to ensure that services, policy, and research are aligned with the beliefs and priorities of the general public. A number of approaches can be used to capture public opinion. We are conducting a program of work on the effectiveness and acceptability of health promoting financial incentive interventions. We have captured public opinion on financial incentive interventions using three methods: a systematic review, focus group study, and analysis of online user-generated comments to news media reports. In this short editorial-style piece, we compare and contrast our experiences with these three methods. Each of these methods had their advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include tailoring of the research question for systematic reviews, probing of answers during focus groups, and the ability to aggregate a large data set using online user-generated content. However, disadvantages include needing to update systematic reviews, participants conforming to a dominant perspective in focus groups, and being unable to collect respondent characteristics during analysis of user-generated online content. That said, analysis of user-generated online content offers additional time and resource advantages, and we found it elicited similar findings to those obtained via more traditional methods, such as systematic reviews and focus groups. A number of methods for capturing public opinions on public health topics are available. Public health researchers, policy makers, and practitioners should choose methods appropriate to their aims. Analysis of user-generated online content, especially in the context of news media reports, may be a quicker and cheaper alternative to more traditional methods, without compromising on the breadth of opinions captured.

  1. Validation of cytogenetic risk groups according to International Prognostic Scoring Systems by peripheral blood CD34+FISH: results from a German diagnostic study in comparison with an international control group

    PubMed Central

    Braulke, Friederike; Platzbecker, Uwe; Müller-Thomas, Catharina; Götze, Katharina; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A. N.; Lübbert, Michael; Greenberg, Peter L.; Bennett, John M.; Solé, Francesc; Mallo, Mar; Slovak, Marilyn L.; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Le Beau, Michelle M.; Tüchler, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Nösslinger, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Shirneshan, Katayoon; Aul, Carlo; Stauder, Reinhard; Sperr, Wolfgang R.; Valent, Peter; Fonatsch, Christa; Trümper, Lorenz; Haase, Detlef; Schanz, Julie

    2015-01-01

    International Prognostic Scoring Systems are used to determine the individual risk profile of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. For the assessment of International Prognostic Scoring Systems, an adequate chromosome banding analysis of the bone marrow is essential. Cytogenetic information is not available for a substantial number of patients (5%–20%) with dry marrow or an insufficient number of metaphase cells. For these patients, a valid risk classification is impossible. In the study presented here, the International Prognostic Scoring Systems were validated based on fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using extended probe panels applied to cluster of differentiation 34 positive (CD34+) peripheral blood cells of 328 MDS patients of our prospective multicenter German diagnostic study and compared to chromosome banding results of 2902 previously published patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. For cytogenetic risk classification by fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of CD34+ peripheral blood cells, the groups differed significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival by uni- and multivariate analyses without discrepancies between treated and untreated patients. Including cytogenetic data of fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of peripheral CD34+ blood cells (instead of bone marrow banding analysis) into the complete International Prognostic Scoring System assessment, the prognostic risk groups separated significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival. Our data show that a reliable stratification to the risk groups of the International Prognostic Scoring Systems is possible from peripheral blood in patients with missing chromosome banding analysis by using a comprehensive probe panel (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01355913). PMID:25344522

  2. Postoperative Complications in the Ahmed Baerveldt Comparison Study during Five Years of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Budenz, Donald L.; Feuer, William J.; Barton, Keith; Schiffman, Joyce; Costa, Vital P.; Godfrey, David G.; Buys, Yvonne M.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare the late complications in the Ahmed Baerveldt Comparison Study during 5 years of follow-up. DESIGN Multicenter, prospective, randomized clinical trial. METHODS SETTINGS Sixteen international clinical centers. STUDY POPULATION Two hundred seventy six subjects aged 18 to 85 years with previous intraocular surgery or refractory glaucoma with intraocular pressure of > 18 mmHg. INTERVENTIONS Ahmed Glaucoma Valve FP7 or Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant BG 101-350. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Late postoperative complications (beyond 3 months), reoperations for complications, and decreased vision from complications. RESULTS Late complications developed in 56 subjects (46.8 ± 4.8 5 year cumulative % ± SE) in the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve group and 67 (56.3 ± 4.7 5 year cumulative % ± SE) in the Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant group (P = 0.082). The cumulative rates of serious complications were 15.9% and 24.7% in the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve and Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant groups respectively (P = 0.034) although this was largely driven by subjects who had tube occlusions in the two groups (0.8% in the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve group and 5.7% in the Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant group, P = 0.037). Both groups had a relatively high incidence of persistent diplopia (12%) and corneal edema (20%), although half of the corneal edema cases were likely due to pre-existing causes other than the aqueous shunt. The incidence of tube erosion was 1% and 3% in the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve and Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant groups, respectively (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS Long term rates of vision threatening complications and complications resulting in reoperation were higher in the Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant than the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve group over 5 years of follow-up. PMID:26596400

  3. VAST PLANES OF SATELLITES IN A HIGH-RESOLUTION SIMULATION OF THE LOCAL GROUP: COMPARISON TO ANDROMEDA

    SciTech Connect

    Gillet, N.; Ocvirk, P.; Aubert, D.; Knebe, A.; Yepes, G.; Libeskind, N.; Gottlöber, S.; Hoffman, Y.

    2015-02-10

    We search for vast planes of satellites (VPoS) in a high-resolution simulation of the Local Group performed by the CLUES project, which improves significantly the resolution of previous similar studies. We use a simple method for detecting planar configurations of satellites, and validate it on the known plane of M31. We implement a range of prescriptions for modeling the satellite populations, roughly reproducing the variety of recipes used in the literature, and investigate the occurrence and properties of planar structures in these populations. The structure of the simulated satellite systems is strongly non-random and contains planes of satellites, predominantly co-rotating, with, in some cases, sizes comparable to the plane observed in M31 by Ibata et al. However, the latter is slightly richer in satellites, slightly thinner, and has stronger co-rotation, which makes it stand out as overall more exceptional than the simulated planes, when compared to a random population. Although the simulated planes we find are generally dominated by one real structure forming its backbone, they are also partly fortuitous and are thus not kinematically coherent structures as a whole. Provided that the simulated and observed planes of satellites are indeed of the same nature, our results suggest that the VPoS of M31 is not a coherent disk and that one-third to one-half of its satellites must have large proper motions perpendicular to the plane.

  4. The Distribution of Instructional Time and Its Effect on Group Cohesion in the Foreign Language Classroom: A Comparison of Intensive and Standard Format Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinger, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues for the influence of the distribution of instructional time on group cohesion in the foreign language classroom and postulates that concentrating classroom time enhances group cohesion. To test the hypothesis, a comparative classroom study of two groups of Spanish learners in their second year of learning, one following an…

  5. Model comparison on genomic predictions using high-density markers for different groups of bulls in the Nordic Holstein population.

    PubMed

    Gao, H; Su, G; Janss, L; Zhang, Y; Lund, M S

    2013-07-01

    This study compared genomic predictions based on imputed high-density markers (~777,000) in the Nordic Holstein population using a genomic BLUP (GBLUP) model, 4 Bayesian exponential power models with different shape parameters (0.3, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0) for the exponential power distribution, and a Bayesian mixture model (a mixture of 4 normal distributions). Direct genomic values (DGV) were estimated for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fertility, and mastitis, using deregressed proofs (DRP) as response variable. The validation animals were split into 4 groups according to their genetic relationship with the training population. Groupsmgs had both the sire and the maternal grandsire (MGS), Groupsire only had the sire, Groupmgs only had the MGS, and Groupnon had neither the sire nor the MGS in the training population. Reliability of DGV was measured as the squared correlation between DGV and DRP divided by the reliability of DRP for the bulls in validation data set. Unbiasedness of DGV was measured as the regression of DRP on DGV. The results indicated that DGV were more accurate and less biased for animals that were more related to the training population. In general, the Bayesian mixture model and the exponential power model with shape parameter of 0.30 led to higher reliability of DGV than did the other models. The differences between reliabilities of DGV from the Bayesian models and the GBLUP model were statistically significant for some traits. We observed a tendency that the superiority of the Bayesian models over the GBLUP model was more profound for the groups having weaker relationships with training population. Averaged over the 5 traits, the Bayesian mixture model improved the reliability of DGV by 2.0 percentage points for Groupsmgs, 2.7 percentage points for Groupsire, 3.3 percentage points for Groupmgs, and 4.3 percentage points for Groupnon compared with GBLUP. The results showed that a Bayesian model with intense shrinkage of the explanatory

  6. The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis and public perceptions of biomedical research: a focus group study.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Benjamin R.; Harris, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    African Americans are less likely than European Americans to participate in biomedical research. Researchers often attribute nonparticipation to the "Tuskegee effect." Using critical qualitative analysis of focus group data, we examined the public's use of the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis (TSUS) to discuss biomedical research. Our participants articulated three primary themes in relation to TSUS: 1) that TSUS made them suspicious about biomedical research; 2) that other values had to weigh against concerns about TSUS; and 3) that African Americans could take steps to resolve their concerns about TSUS. African Americans were more likely to discuss TSUS than were European Americans. African Americans did not use TSUS to express simple fear. African Americans suggested issues other than TSUS that influence the decision to participate in research. African Americans indicated specific reforms that would increase participation in research. We discuss how a better understanding of African Americans' use of TSUS can enhance research participation and allay concerns about "another Tuskegee." PMID:15303410

  7. Evaluation of Teaching Methods in Mass CPCR Training in Different Groups of the Society, an Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Hasani, Hamed; Bahrami, Mojtaba; Malekpour, Abdorrasoul; Dehghani, Mohammadreza; Allahyary, Elaheh; Amini, Mitra; Abdorahimi, Mehdi; khani, Sara; Kalantari Meibodi, Mohammad; Kojuri, Javad

    2015-05-01

    To determine the efficacy of different methods of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPCR) training in 3 different groups of the society. In a prospective and observational study of 2000 individuals in 3 different groups including G1, G2, and G3 4 different protocols of CPCR training were applied and their efficacy was compared between the groups. Also, 12 months after the study course, 460 participants from 3 groups were asked to take apart in a theoretical and practical examination to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the 4 protocols. Among 2000 individuals took a parted in the study, 950 (47.5%) were G1, 600 (30%) were G2, and 450 (22.5%) were G3. G1 in 4 groups were 2.37 and 2.65 times more successful in pretest theoretical and 2.61 and 18.20 times more successful in practical examinations compared with G2 and G3 and gained highest improvement in CPCR skills. Other groups also showed significantly improved CPCR skills. Comparison of different methods of CPCR learning showed that the workshop using interactive lecture as well as human model, educational film, and reference CPCR book has the highest efficacy in all groups. This protocol of CPCR training showed more efficacy in long-term postdelayed evaluation. On the contrary, medical students had better long-term outcomes from the course. Although G1 and G2 obtained better results in learning CPCR skills, in G3 also the theoretical and practical knowledge were improved significantly. This course increased confidence for doing CPCR in all groups of the study. Considering that the most of the bystanders at emergency states are general population, training this group of the society and increasing their confidence about performing CPCR can be so effective and lifesaving at emergency states. (Clinical trial. Gov registration: NCT02120573).

  8. Evaluation of Teaching Methods in Mass CPCR Training in Different Groups of the Society, an Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Hasani, Hamed; Bahrami, Mojtaba; Malekpour, Abdorrasoul; Dehghani, Mohammadreza; Allahyary, Elaheh; Amini, Mitra; Abdorahimi, Mehdi; khani, Sara; Kalantari Meibodi, Mohammad; Kojuri, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To determine the efficacy of different methods of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPCR) training in 3 different groups of the society. In a prospective and observational study of 2000 individuals in 3 different groups including G1, G2, and G3 4 different protocols of CPCR training were applied and their efficacy was compared between the groups. Also, 12 months after the study course, 460 participants from 3 groups were asked to take apart in a theoretical and practical examination to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the 4 protocols. Among 2000 individuals took a parted in the study, 950 (47.5%) were G1, 600 (30%) were G2, and 450 (22.5%) were G3. G1 in 4 groups were 2.37 and 2.65 times more successful in pretest theoretical and 2.61 and 18.20 times more successful in practical examinations compared with G2 and G3 and gained highest improvement in CPCR skills. Other groups also showed significantly improved CPCR skills. Comparison of different methods of CPCR learning showed that the workshop using interactive lecture as well as human model, educational film, and reference CPCR book has the highest efficacy in all groups. This protocol of CPCR training showed more efficacy in long-term postdelayed evaluation. On the contrary, medical students had better long-term outcomes from the course. Although G1 and G2 obtained better results in learning CPCR skills, in G3 also the theoretical and practical knowledge were improved significantly. This course increased confidence for doing CPCR in all groups of the study. Considering that the most of the bystanders at emergency states are general population, training this group of the society and increasing their confidence about performing CPCR can be so effective and lifesaving at emergency states. (Clinical trial. Gov registration: NCT02120573) PMID:26020392

  9. Merging Groups to Maximize Object Partition Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klastorin, T. D.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of objectively comparing two independently determined partitions of N objects or variables is discussed. A similarity measure based on the simple matching coefficient is defined and related to previously suggested measures. (Author/JKS)

  10. Merging Groups to Maximize Object Partition Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klastorin, T. D.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of objectively comparing two independently determined partitions of N objects or variables is discussed. A similarity measure based on the simple matching coefficient is defined and related to previously suggested measures. (Author/JKS)

  11. On the relationship between group functioning and study success in problem-based learning.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Juha; Sauri, Pekka; Lonka, Kirsti

    2006-01-01

    In problem-based learning (PBL), discussion in the tutorial group plays a central role in stimulating student learning. Problems are the principal input for stimulating discussion. The quality of discussion is assumed to influence student learning and, in the end, study success. To investigate the relationships between aspects of group functioning and study success. First-year medical students (n = 116), forming 12 PBL groups, completed a 21-item questionnaire on various aspects of a PBL session. At the end of the unit, a course examination was administered. Scales were constructed and reliability analyses conducted. Group functioning and case quality were strongly correlated with students' grades in a course examination. Further, students' perceptions of group functioning, case quality and the quality of their own contribution were linked strongly with each other. Group functioning, case quality and study success are associated with each other in PBL. The interaction between these aspects of PBL in promoting learning calls for further investigation.

  12. The Principal's Role in Fostering Collaborative Learning Communities through Faculty Study Group Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.; Hutinger, Janice L.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the leadership of school principals with respect to faculty study group development as a key element of the professional learning community. Questions asked concern the approaches that principals use to facilitate study group processes that, in turn. foster teacher learning and student achievement, and ways in which…

  13. NMR lineshape equations for hindered methyl group: a comparison of the semi-classical and quantum mechanical models.

    PubMed

    Bernatowicz, P; Szymański, S

    2003-09-01

    The semiclassical and quantum mechanical NMR lineshape equations for a hindered methyl group are compared. In both the approaches, the stochastic dynamics can be interpreted in terms of a progressive symmetrization of the spin density matrix. However, the respective ways of achieving the same limiting symmetry can be remarkably different. From numerical lineshape simulations it is inferred that in the regime of intermediate exchange, where the conventional theory predicts occurrence of a single Lorentzian, the actual spectrum can have nontrivial features. This observation may open new perspectives in the search for nonclassical effects in the stochastic behavior of methyl groups in liquid-phase NMR.

  14. Juvenile Group Sex Offenders: A Comparison of Group Leaders and Followers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate group sex offenses with regard to the role of leaders versus followers and to compare both groups on levels of psychopathology, intelligence, and psychosocial and offense-related characteristics. Eighty-nine adolescent group sex offenders (mean age = 14.9, SD = 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch child…

  15. Juvenile Group Sex Offenders: A Comparison of Group Leaders and Followers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate group sex offenses with regard to the role of leaders versus followers and to compare both groups on levels of psychopathology, intelligence, and psychosocial and offense-related characteristics. Eighty-nine adolescent group sex offenders (mean age = 14.9, SD = 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch child…

  16. Uni- Versus Multidimensional Comparison of Political Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Pamela J.

    Journalists view the left-right continuum as a dimension on which political entities array themselves in order to vie for a similarly arrayed public. Such a spatial measuring device is useful, since it allows journalists to compare political entities on a common scale that readers supposedly understand and on which they can relate their own…

  17. The educational legacy of unauthorized migration: comparisons across U.S.-immigrant groups in how parents' status affects their offspring.

    PubMed

    Bean, Frank D; Leach, Mark A; Brown, Susan K; Bachmeier, James D; Hipp, John R

    2011-01-01

    This research compares several national-origin groups in terms of how parents’ entry, legalization and naturalization (i.e., membership) statuses relate to their children’s educational attainment. In the case of Asian groups, the members of which predominantly come to the United States as permanent legal migrants, we hypothesize (1) that father’s and mother’s statuses will be relatively homogenous and few in number and (2) that these will exert minimal net effects on second-generation attainment. For Mexicans, many of whom initially come as temporary unauthorized migrants, we hypothesize (1) that parental status combinations will be heterogeneous and greater in number and (2) that marginal membership statuses will exert negative net effects on education in the second generation. To assess these ideas, we analyze unique intergenerational data from Los Angeles on the young adult members of second-generation national-origin groups and their parents. The findings show that Asian immigrant groups almost universally exhibit similar father–mother migration statuses and high educational attainment among children. By contrast, Mexicans manifest more numerous discrepant father–mother combinations, with those in which the mother remains unauthorized carrying negative implications for children’s schooling. The paper discusses the theoretical and policy implications of the delays in incorporation that result from Mexican Americans needing extra time and resources compared to the members of other groups to overcome their handicap of marginal membership status (i.e., being more likely to enter and remain unauthorized).

  18. Library on the Go: A Focus Group Study of the Mobile Web and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeholzer, Jamie; Salem, Joseph A., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores student use of the mobile Web in general and expectations for an academic library's mobile Web site in particular through focus groups with students at Kent State University. Participants expressed more interest in using their mobile Web device to interact with library resources and services than anticipated. Results showed an…

  19. Library on the Go: A Focus Group Study of the Mobile Web and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeholzer, Jamie; Salem, Joseph A., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores student use of the mobile Web in general and expectations for an academic library's mobile Web site in particular through focus groups with students at Kent State University. Participants expressed more interest in using their mobile Web device to interact with library resources and services than anticipated. Results showed an…

  20. Nutrient deficiency and obstetrical outcomes in pregnant women following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: A retrospective Danish cohort study with a matched comparison group.

    PubMed

    Hammeken, Lianna Hede; Betsagoo, Ramsina; Jensen, Ann Nygaard; Sørensen, Anne Nødgaard; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2017-09-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and small-for-gestational-age births are known to be associated although the etiology is not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate pregnancy outcomes and maternal nutritional status among pregnant women with a history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass using maternal anemia and gestational weight gain as indicators of micronutrient and macronutrient deficiency in pregnancy. The study was designed as a retrospective matched cohort study. All Roux-en-Y-gastric-bypass-operated pregnant women (n=151) who were followed in the outpatient obstetric clinic at Aalborg University Hospital in Denmark and gave birth between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013 were included. Each Roux-en-Y-gastric-bypass-operated woman was closely matched with a non-Roux-en-Y-gastric-bypass-operated woman. Primary outcomes were small-for-gestational-age birth, maternal anemia and gestational weight gain. The two groups (matched 1:1) were compared by paired tests on all measures, conditional logistic regression for paired binary data and the paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired continuous data. The risk of small-for-gestational-age birth (odds ratio (OR)=2.67, 95% confidence interval (CI); 1.04-6.82) and maternal anemia (OR=3.0, 95% CI; 1.09-8.25) were significantly increased for the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass group compared to the non-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass group. No significant difference was found in gestational weight gain (p=0.169) between women with a history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (11.51kg±8.97 standard deviation (SD)) and non- Roux-en-Y-gastric-bypass-operated women (12.18kg±6.28 SD). A history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery increases the risk of small-for-gestational-age birth and anemia, while a finding of differences in gestational weight gain is uncorroborated. Our findings suggest a role of micronutrient deficiency rather than reduced gestational weight gain in the etiology of small-for-gestational-age birth among

  1. Psychophysiological Responses to an Infant Cry: Comparison of Groups of Women in Different Phases of the Maternal Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleichfeld, Bruce; Moely, Barbara E.

    1984-01-01

    Investigates psychophysiological reactions of 60 women to an infant's cry and to a control sound. The 30-second pain cry evoked greater cardiac and electrodermal activity than did the control stimulus, although selected groups varied in the nature and extent of their reactions. Both maternal state and experience with infants affected reactions.…

  2. Comparison of azelaic acid and anthralin for the therapy of patchy alopecia areata: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sasmaz, Sezai; Arican, Ozer

    2005-01-01

    Although topical azelaic acid has been previously used for the treatment of alopecia, no controlled trials of azelaic acid for this condition have been conducted to date. The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of azelaic acid treatment in patients with patchy alopecia areata (AA) in comparison with anthralin (dithranol) treatment. This study included 31 subjects with patchy AA who did not receive any treatment for at least 1 month prior to the study. Demographic and clinical characteristics of these subjects were recorded at baseline. Subjects were randomized to apply either 20% azelaic acid (15 subjects) or 0.5% anthralin (16 subjects) for 12 consecutive weeks. In a subsequent 8-week follow-up period no cream was applied. Two independent investigators performed an efficacy evaluation with clinical examination using a terminal hair regrowth score (RGS) with a scale ranging from 0 (inadequate response) to 2 (complete response) at week 20. Partial response was accepted as score 1. Both groups were well matched for the relevant demographic and clinical indicators affecting treatment response at baseline. All subjects completed the trial. At week 20 the RGS was 1.27 +/- 0.9 in the azelaic acid group versus 1.37 +/- 0.8 in the anthralin group (p > 0.05). A complete response was observed in 53.3% of cases in the azelaic acid group (8 of 15) compared with 56.2% (9 of 16) in the anthralin group (p > 0.05). No serious adverse events were observed in either group during the study. The present pilot study showed that the use of azelaic acid gave similar results to anthralin with regard to hair regrowth, and that it can be an effective topical therapy for patchy AA. More extensive trials are necessary, however, to reach a definitive conclusion.

  3. Comparison of focus groups on cancer and employment conducted face to face or by telephone.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Linda M; Miller, Virginia A; Horbelt, Douglas V; Delmore, James E; Miller, Brigitte E; Paschal, Angelia M

    2010-05-01

    Findings from telephone focus groups have not been compared previously to findings from face-to-face focus groups. We conducted four telephone focus groups and five face-to-face focus groups in which a single moderator used the same open-ended questions and discussion facilitation techniques. This comparison was part of a larger study to gain a better understanding of employment experiences after diagnosis of gynecologic cancer. Offering the telephone option made it easier to recruit women from rural areas and geographically distant cities. Interaction between participants occurred in both types of focus group. Content analysis revealed that similar elements of the employment experience after cancer diagnosis were described by telephone and face-to-face participants. Participants disclosed certain emotionally sensitive experiences only in the telephone focus groups. Telephone focus groups provide useful data and can reduce logistical barriers to research participation. Visual anonymity might help some participants feel more comfortable discussing certain personal issues.

  4. The Fargo Study Group: Faculty Helping Themselves to Improve Their Instructional Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotnick, Henry B.

    The experiences of a group of seven physicians and medical school faculty who wished to improve their instructional capacities are described by the educational psychologist who led the study group. The participants held appointments at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine and had responsibility for teaching medical students in…

  5. The Effectiveness of Nurture Groups on Student Progress: Evidence from a National Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul; Whitebread, David

    2007-01-01

    Nurture groups (NGs) are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. Although the first groups were established over 30 years ago, growth in the number of NGs in the UK has been exponential over the past ten years. This study attempts to assess the effectiveness of NGs in promoting positive…

  6. The Female as Administrator: An Assessment and Comparison of Perceptions of Certain Groups of the El Camino College Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Janet Carol Gelder

    A study was conducted at El Camino College in Torrance, California to assess and compare the perceptions of students, faculty, and administrators toward women as administrators. The study focused on double-standard conflicts, promotional possibilities, advancement aspirations, and parity perceptions. Questionnaires were administered to all faculty…

  7. The Female as Administrator: An Assessment and Comparison of Perceptions of Certain Groups of the El Camino College Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Janet Carol Gelder

    A study was conducted at El Camino College in Torrance, California to assess and compare the perceptions of students, faculty, and administrators toward women as administrators. The study focused on double-standard conflicts, promotional possibilities, advancement aspirations, and parity perceptions. Questionnaires were administered to all faculty…

  8. Selecting a comparison group for 5-year oral and pharyngeal cancer survivors: two methods.

    PubMed

    Logan, Henrietta L; Tomar, Scott L; Chang, Myron; Turner, Glenn E; Mendenhall, William M; Riggs, Charles E

    2012-05-02

    To assess potential long-term consequences of cancer treatment, studies that include comparison groups are needed. These comparison groups should be selected in a way that allows the subtle long-range effects of cancer therapy to be detected and distinguishes them from the effects of aging and other risk factors. The purpose of this investigation was to test two methods of recruiting a comparison group for 5-year oral and pharyngeal cancer survivors (peer-nominated and listed sample) with emphasis on feasibility and the quality of the match. Participants were drawn from a pool of 5-year survivors treated at a large Southeastern hospital. A peer-nominated sample was solicited from the survivors. A listed sample matched on sex, age, and zip code was purchased. Telephone interviews were conducted by a professional call center. The following represent our key findings: The quality of matching between survivors and listed sample was better than that between survivors and peer-nominated group in age and sex. The quality of matching between the two methods on other key variables did not differ except for education, with the peer method providing a better match for the survivors than the listed sample. The yield for the listed sample method was greater than for the peer-nominated method. The cost per completed interview was greater for the peer-nominated method than the listed sample. This study not only documents the methodological challenges in selecting a comparison group for studies examining the late effects of cancer treatment among older individuals but also documents challenges in matching groups that potentially have disproportionate levels of comorbidities and at-risk health behaviors.

  9. A pilot study of the experience of participating in a Therapeutic Touch practice group.

    PubMed

    Moore, Theresa; Ting, Brigid; Rossiter-Thornton, Maria

    2008-09-01

    This pilot study explored the experience of participating in a Therapeutic Touch practice group. A qualitative descriptive-exploratory method was used, involving 12 members of practice groups in Ontario and British Columbia, Canada. Analysis of the data using an extraction-synthesis process yielded four themes: (a) learning with others through sharing and hands-on experience is valued; (b) connecting with a network of supportive relationships that sustain self and Therapeutic Touch practice; (c) comfort-discomfort arising with self, others, or ideas; and (d) meaningful changes emerge while experiencing group energy and Therapeutic Touch. The findings expand current knowledge about the positive aspects of participating in practice groups and provide a beginning understanding of member discomfort, which had not been previously reported. This knowledge will be useful to Therapeutic Touch organizations, practice group leaders, and group members. It will also guide health care agencies and practitioners of other healing modalities who may be considering establishing practice groups.

  10. Effective core potential study of multiply bonded transition metal complexes of the heavier main group elements

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, M.T.; Cundari, T.R.; Li, Yueping

    1994-12-31

    A computational study, using relativistic effective core potentials, is presented of transition metal-main group multiply bonded complexes, of interest in the context of catalysis and chemical vapor deposition of TM/MG materials. Model d{sup 0} transition metal complexes chosen are of the general form C1{sub n}ME where M = Zr (n = 2), Ta (n = 3), and W (n = 4). Main group elements of interest are the tetrels (E = C, Si, Ge, Sn), pnictogens (E = N, P, As, Sb), and chalcogens (E = O, S, Se, Te). A comparison between calculated metric data and available experimental data for a wide range of TM=MG complexes will help in further assessing efficient computational approaches to TM complexes, particularly of the heavier MG elements, as a function of metal, ligand and level of theory. In the present work, restricted Hartree Fock (RHF) and Moeller-Plesset second order perturbation theory (MP2) wavefunctions were employed. In most cases there are small differences between RHF and MP2 calculated geometries with both methods showing good agreement with experimental data, suggesting these approaches will be suitable for the study of larger, more experimentally relevant models. Changes in ZrE bond lengths for E = chalcogen (upon going from RHF to MP2) suggest a fundamentally different description between the Zr-oxo bond and heavier chalcogens, a result supported by recent experimental data for a series of Zr-chalcogenidos. Computational results show similar behavior among the heavier pnictogen complexes, i.e., L{sub n}M=EH(E=P, As, Sb), suggesting that strategies used to synthesize phosphinidenes may be suitable in; the search for the first L{sub n}M=AsR and L{sub n}M=SbR complexes. Additionally, calculations suggest that design of ligand sets which yield linearly coordinated phosphinidenes (and presumably As and Sb analogues) will lead to phosphinidenes with stronger metal-pnictogen bonds and increased thermodynamic stability versus nonlinearly coordinated examples.

  11. Reconsidering the gospel according to group studies: a neuropsychological case study approach to schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Laws, K R; McKenna, P J; McCarthy, R A

    1996-11-01

    Individual patterns of performance on tests of: visual perception, language, executive function, memory, and face-processing, were examined in 10 schizophrenic patients who were preselected for having current WAIS IQ and premorbid NART IQ scores in the normal range. Although the patients showed some heterogeneity in the type, pervasiveness, and degree of cognitive impairment, a majority had severely impaired verbal recall and familiar face-naming. This contrasted with the low incidence and severity of impairment on tests of executive function, visual recall, recognition memory, naming, and unfamiliar faceprocessing. Contrasts between individual patients indicated that verbal recall and executive performance are independent in some patients and that memory appears to be the core deficit. The profile of impaired and preserved cognitive function revealed some important dissimilarities from the pattern that has emerged from group studies. Finally, face-naming correlated highly with the learning of unrelated paired associates, confirming a similarity with neurological patients who have person name anomia. It is suggested that both deficits might reflect a problem with learning ''meaninglessness'' associations; this interpretation is discussed with reference to a deficit at the level of the Supervisory Attentional System (Shallice, 1988).

  12. Utilizing the Peer Group Method with Case Studies to Teach Pharmaceutics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Pamela J.

    1994-01-01

    A large-group (110 students) pharmaceutics course, designed to use small-group case-based problem solving to address pharmaceutical manufacturing problems, is described; and student response to the course is examined. The 11 case studies used in the curriculum are summarized. The peer evaluation form is included. (MSE)

  13. Modifications of the ionosphere prior to large earthquakes: report from the Ionosphere Precursor Study Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, K.-I.; Devi, M.; Ryu, K.; Chen, C. H.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, H.; Bankov, L.; Kodama, T.

    2016-12-01

    The current status of ionospheric precursor studies associated with large earthquakes (EQ) is summarized in this report. It is a joint endeavor of the "Ionosphere Precursor Study Task Group," which was formed with the support of the Mitsubishi Foundation in 2014-2015. The group promotes the study of ionosphere precursors (IP) to EQs and aims to prepare for a future EQ dedicated satellite constellation, which is essential to obtain the global morphology of IPs and hence demonstrate whether the ionosphere can be used for short-term EQ predictions. Following a review of the recent IP studies, the problems and specific research areas that emerged from the one-year project are described. Planned or launched satellite missions dedicated (or suitable) for EQ studies are also mentioned.

  14. [Multimodal group therapy for the elderly with chronic pain: concept and results in a before and after comparison].

    PubMed

    Mattenklodt, P; Ingenhorst, A; Wille, C; Flatau, B; Hafner, C; Geiss, C; Sittl, R; Ulrich, K; Griessinger, N

    2008-10-01

    Multimodal pain therapy programs are increasingly being recommended as an effective treatment option also for elderly patients with chronic pain. However, data from Germany are limited. A multimodal group program adapted to the specific needs of elderly pain patients over 70 years old (20 treatment days, over 10 weeks) was started in our pain clinic in June 2005. We evaluated clinical, psychometric and physical data at the beginning and at the end of the treatment program, and compared outcome results with a waiting list control group. A total of 24 patients (mean age 76.2+/-4.79 years) could be evaluated of which 21 patients suffered from musculoskeletal pain, 2 from neuropathic pain syndromes and 1 from headache. In the waiting-list control group 13 patients were included. There were no significant between-group differences regarding age, stages of chronification, pain intensity, duration of pain and pain diagnosis. A multimodal pain therapy program for elderly patients (over 70 years old) is an effective treatment option to reduce pain intensity and pain disability. Furthermore, life quality and physical performance improved. Long-term effects still have to be evaluated.

  15. Group physical therapy during inpatient rehabilitation for acute spinal cord injury: findings from the SCIRehab Study.

    PubMed

    Zanca, Jeanne M; Natale, Audrey; Labarbera, Jacqueline; Schroeder, Sally Taylor; Gassaway, Julie; Backus, Deborah

    2011-12-01

    Inpatient rehabilitation for spinal cord injury (SCI) includes the use of both individual and group physical therapy sessions. A greater understanding of group physical therapy use will help in the evaluation of the appropriateness of its use and contribute to the development of standards of practice. This report describes the extent to which group physical therapy is being used in inpatient rehabilitation for SCI, identifies group physical therapy interventions being delivered, and examines patterns in the types of activities being used for people with different levels and completeness of injury (ie, injury groups). The SCIRehab Study is a 5-year, multicenter investigation that uses practice-based evidence research methodology. Data on characteristics of participants and treatments provided were collected through detailed chart review and customized research documentation completed by clinicians at the point of care. The analyses described here included data from 600 participants enrolled during the first year of the project. Most of the participants (549/600) spent time in group physical therapy, and 23% of all documented physical therapy time was spent in group sessions. The most common group physical therapy activities were strengthening, manual wheelchair mobility, gait training, endurance activities, and range of motion/stretching. Time spent in group physical therapy and the nature of activities performed varied among the injury groups. Physical therapy use patterns observed in the 6 participating centers may not represent all facilities providing inpatient rehabilitation for SCI. Research documentation did not include all factors that may affect group physical therapy use, and some sessions were not documented. The majority of physical therapy was provided in individual sessions, but group physical therapy contributed significantly to total physical therapy time. Group physical therapy time and activities differed among the injury groups in patterns

  16. The use of group participation and an enquiry-based study guide with computer assisted learning.

    PubMed

    Botelho, M

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this investigation was to explore the use of group participation and an enquiry-based study guide to enhance the learning experience when using a computer assisted learning (CAL) program. Forty-eight students were asked to complete a CAL program on resin bonded bridges in groups of 2-4 with an enquiry-based study guide. An evaluation questionnaire of the learning experience was included with the study guide with paired positive and negative questions and open-ended questions for students to complete and return. The responses were collated and the nature of the comments qualitatively analysed. Thirty-two questionnaires were returned. There were almost three times the numbers of positive to negative responses relating to the usefulness of the enquiry based study guide, group participation and the CAL program. The majority of these positive responses related to the usefulness of the study guide and group participation in highlighting and guiding learning and creating opportunities for discussion, problem solving and peer teaching. A small number of negative responses cited the target-orientated nature of the study guide and the longer time needed for group work, due to the varying learning abilities of the participants and the need for discussion. The use of group participation and an enquiry-based study guide was reported to enhance the learning experience of CAL.

  17. Inactivation of the RTEM-1 cysteine beta-lactamase by iodoacetate. The nature of active-site functional groups and comparisons with the native enzyme.

    PubMed

    Knap, A K; Pratt, R F

    1991-01-01

    The pH-rate profile for inactivation of the RTEM-1 cysteine beta-lactamase by iodoacetate supports previous evidence [Knap & Pratt (1989) Proteins Struct. Funct. Genet. 6, 316-323] for the activation of the active-site thiol group by adjacent functional groups. The enhanced reactivity of iodoacetate, with respect to that of iodoacetamide, suggests the influence of a positive charge in the active site. The reactivity of iodoacetate is not affected by dissociation of an active-site functional group of pKa 6.7, which increases the reactivity of neutral reagents, probably because of a compensation phenomenon; it is, however, lost on dissociation of an acid of pKa 8.1. It is concluded that the active cysteine beta-lactamase has four functional groups at the active site, one nucleophilic thiolate of Cys-70, one neutral acid (most probably the carboxy group of Glu-166, from the crystal structures) and two cationic residues (most probably Lys-73 and Lys-234). A comparison of these results with the pH-dependence of reactivity of the native RTEM-2 beta-lactamase suggests that the active form of the latter enzyme is also monocationic, although the nucleophile (Ser-70) is likely to be neutral in this case and the carboxylic acid dissociated. A mechanism of class A beta-lactamase catalysis is discussed where the Glu-166 carboxylate acts as a general base/acid catalyst and Lys-73 is principally required for electrostatic stabilization of the anionic tetrahedral intermediate.

  18. The Tavistock Group Relations Conference: Description and Comparison with Laboratory Training. A CRUSK-ISR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowfoot, James E.

    Laboratory training and the Tavistock Conference, two types of experiential learning, contrast in important ways. They are designed to respond to different societal issues and make different types of responses to these issues. Tavistock conferences focus consciously and exclusively on group operation, role, role relationships, intergroup…

  19. School Finance and Technology: A Case Study Using Grid and Group Theory to Explore the Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Stephoni; Harris, Edward L.

    2014-01-01

    Using grid and group theory (Douglas 1982, 2011), the study described in this article examined the intersections of technology and school finance in four schools located in districts differing in size, wealth, and commitment to technology integration. In grid and group theory, grid refers to the degree to which policies and role prescriptions…

  20. School Finance and Technology: A Case Study Using Grid and Group Theory to Explore the Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Stephoni; Harris, Edward L.

    2014-01-01

    Using grid and group theory (Douglas 1982, 2011), the study described in this article examined the intersections of technology and school finance in four schools located in districts differing in size, wealth, and commitment to technology integration. In grid and group theory, grid refers to the degree to which policies and role prescriptions…

  1. The Linear Algebra Curriculum Study Group Recommendations for the First Course in Linear Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents five recommendations of the Linear Algebra Curriculum Study Group: (1) The syllabus must respond to the client disciplines; (2) The first course should be matrix oriented; (3) Faculty should consider the needs and interests of students; (4) Faculty should use technology; and (5) At least one follow-up course should be required. Provides a…

  2. The effectiveness of introducing Group Prenatal Care (GPC) in selected health facilities in a district of Bangladesh: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Marufa; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Ali, Nausad; Ahmed, Sayem; Islam, Ziaul; Khan, Jahangir A M; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque

    2017-01-31

    Despite high rates of antenatal care and relatively good access to health facilities, maternal and neonatal mortality remain high in Bangladesh. There is an immediate need for implementation of evidence-based, cost-effective interventions to improve maternal and neonatal health outcomes. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of the intervention namely Group Prenatal Care (GPC) on utilization of standard number of antenatal care, post natal care including skilled birth attendance and institutional deliveries instead of usual care. The study is quasi-experimental in design. We aim to recruit 576 pregnant women (288 interventions and 288 comparisons) less than 20 weeks of gestational age. The intervention will be delivered over around 6 months. The outcome measure is the difference in maternal service coverage including ANC and PNC coverage, skilled birth attendance and institutional deliveries between the intervention and comparison group. Findings from the research will contribute to improve maternal and newborn outcome in our existing health system. Findings of the research can be used for planning a new strategy and improving the health outcome for Bangladeshi women. Finally addressing the maternal health goal, this study is able to contribute to strengthening health system.

  3. Comparison of the impacts of hot and cold spells on mortality in individual seasons and population groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavcova, E.; Kysely, J.; Kyncl, J.; Kriz, B.

    2010-09-01

    Extreme temperature events influence human society in many ways, including impacts on morbidity and mortality. While the effects of hot summer periods are relatively direct in mid-latitudinal regions, much less is known and little consensus has been achieved about possible consequences of positive and negative temperature extremes in the other parts of year. The study examines links between hot and cold temperature anomalies and daily all-cause mortality in the population of the Czech Republic in individual seasons (DJF, MAM, JJA, SON) over 1986-2006. Hot (cold) spells are defined as periods of at least 2 days with anomalies of average daily temperature from the mean annual cycle above (below) the 95% (5%) quantile of their empirical distribution in a given part of year. Excess daily mortality is calculated as deviations of the observed number of deaths and the expected number of deaths, the latter taking into account effects of the long-term changes in mortality and the annual cycle. Periods when mortality is affected by influenza and acute respiratory infection outbreaks are identified and excluded from the datasets before the analysis. We focus on differences in the mortality impacts between individual seasons and population groups (males/females; the elderly/younger population). The analysis reveals that - the largest effects of either hot or cold spells are observed for hot spells in JJA; - much smaller but still significant effects are associated with hot spells in MAM; - the impacts of hot spells are more direct than those of cold spells, with shorter lags; - females are much more vulnerable to high temperatures than males; - cold spells are associated with excess mortality in DJF and to lesser extent in SON and MAM; - the lag with the largest impacts of cold spells in DJF is longer in the elderly (70+ yrs; around 10 days) than younger population (0-69 yrs; 4 days), which likely points to different prevailing physiological effects; - disproportionately large

  4. Examining the Underlying Values of Turkish and German Mathematics Teachers' Decision Making Processes in Group Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Yuksel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the values underlying the decision-making processes in group studies for Turkish and German mathematics teachers. This study presented a small part of a wider study investigating German and Turkish mathematics teachers' and their students' values (Values in Mathematics Teaching in Turkey and Germany…

  5. A Study of the Structure of Piagetian Logical and Infralogical Grouping Within the Concrete Operational Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettrick, Graham W.

    This study investigated a problem within the theoretical structure of cognitive development proposed by Jean Piaget, and used the concepts of classification and projective spatial relationships to investigate the nature of attainment and sequencing of three corresponding logical and infralogical groupings according to the models proposed by…

  6. The Effects on Students of Working in Cooperative Groups: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, David L.; And Others

    This study asks whether placing students in small, cooperative work groups results in redirecting student norms, climate and student interaction. Using a post-test only design, students in classes which daily used cooperative groups for the entire academic year were compared with comparable students from classes which used the lecture-discussion…

  7. Exploratory Study of MOOC Learners' Demographics and Motivation: The Case of Students Involved in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayeck, Rebecca Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary findings on students enrolled in a massive open online course, who were also assigned to work in groups. Part of a larger study on the effect of groups on retention and completion in MOOCs, the paper provides students' demographics (i.e., location, gender, education level, and employment status), and motivation for…

  8. Summary Report of the Defense Science Study Group, 1985-1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    8217 -,’Copy 24 of 150 Copies NIDA PAPER P-2310 Two I SUMMARY REPORT OF THE 0 DEFENSE SCIENCE STUDY GROUP 1985 - 1988 0 DTIC JAN 3 11990 Richard J...CARRUTHERS Head, Department of Physics University of Arizona * RUTH DAVIS** President The Pymatuning Group, Inc. ALEXANDER H. FLAX Private Consultant EUGENE

  9. Issues in Feminist Therapy: The Work of a Women's Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radov, Carol G.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Discusses attempts of study groups of women in mental health professions that was instrumental in developing thearetical formulations concerning feminist therapy. From experiences both in the group and with clients, concludes that the profession as a whole must increase its responsiveness to concerns of women and issues of feminist therapy.…

  10. The Bobath concept in stroke rehabilitation: a focus group study of the experienced physiotherapists' perspective.

    PubMed

    Lennon, S; Ashburn, A

    2000-10-15

    The Bobath concept, usually known as neuro-developmental treatment (NDT) in America, is one of the major approaches used to rehabilitate patients following stroke; however since the last publication of Bobath (1990), the concept has been taught via an oral tradition on postgraduate courses. This study therefore aimed to explore with experienced therapists firstly how the Bobath concept had changed since 1990, and secondly what they considered its main theoretical assumptions to be using a focus group research design. Eight peer-nominated expert physiotherapists agreed to participate in two focus groups organized according to specialist interest in either neurology (group A) or elderly care (group B). Therapists were asked to discuss six topics based on a review of published literature. Data analysis involved several readings of verbatim transcriptions, from which key themes and concepts were developed. All therapists agreed on the following core themes defining Bobath: analysis of normal movement, control of tone and facilitation of movement. Neuroplasticity was described as the primary rationale for treatment with therapists using afferent information to target the damaged central nervous system. In addition group A discussed motor learning, whereas group B discussed patient focused goals and relating treatment to function. This study highlighted changes in theory, terminology, and techniques. Tone remained a major problem in the rehabilitation management of the hemiplegic patient; however much attention was also directed towards the musculoskeletal system. Both facilitation of normal movement components and task specific practice using specific manual guidance were considered critical elements of the Bobath concept. For Bobath therapists, physiotherapy has an important impact on both the performance components of movement and functional outcomes. In view of the small numbers involved in this preliminary study, further studies are now needed to determine if these

  11. Exploring health preferences in sociodemographic and health related groups through the paired comparison of the items of the Nottingham Health Profile

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, L.; Alonso, J.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Preference weighted measures of health related quality of life are necessary for cost effectiveness calculations involving quality of life adjustment. There are conflicting data about the influence of factors such as sociodemographic and health related variables on health preferences.
STUDY OBJECTIVE—The relative values attached to the items of the Spanish version of the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) were assessed to make comparisons across social and health subgroups.
DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS—Preference values were obtained in sets of 250 to 253 persons (total n=1258) using the method of paired comparisons after all possible pairs of NHP items had been presented to respondents for judgement of severity. χ2 Tests and Spearman's correlations among item ranks were calculated.
MAIN RESULTS—Findings show that preferences elicited with the method of paired comparisons are consistent and independent of the sample from which they are obtained (mean correlation coefficients across subgroups range from 0.87 to 0.96). Conclusion—The evaluation of health did not seem to be related to sociodemographic variables (gender, age, social class) or to the health status of the respondents, suggesting that health preferences are stable across different populations.


Keywords: health preferences; Nottingham Health Profile; psychometrics PMID:10846197

  12. Communicating the Nature of Science through "The Big Bang Theory": Evidence from a Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Rashel; Orthia, Lindy A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a little-studied means of communicating about or teaching the nature of science (NOS)--through fiction television. We report some results of focus group research which suggest that the American sitcom "The Big Bang Theory" (2007-present), whose main characters are mostly working scientists, has influenced…

  13. Communicating the Nature of Science through "The Big Bang Theory": Evidence from a Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Rashel; Orthia, Lindy A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a little-studied means of communicating about or teaching the nature of science (NOS)--through fiction television. We report some results of focus group research which suggest that the American sitcom "The Big Bang Theory" (2007-present), whose main characters are mostly working scientists, has influenced…

  14. Eternal Triangulation: Case Studies in the Evaluation of Educational Software by Classroom-Based Teacher Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David; Keep, Ros

    1988-01-01

    Reviews some of the problems involved in the evaluation of educational software, and describes a classroom-based case study approach to software evaluation intended for application by autonomous self-programming groups of teachers. (20 references) (Author/CLB)

  15. [Quality analyses of the development of preterm infants: results of the Lower-Saxonian preterm infant follow-up project and a comparison group of term infants].

    PubMed

    Damm, Gabriele; Macha, Thorsten; Petermann, Franz; Voss, Wolfgang; Sens, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Based on perinatal and neonatal quality assurance programmes, a follow-up project for the high-risk group of extremely preterm infants, unparalleled in Germany, was initiated in the federal state of Lower Saxony in 2004. Here we describe the new approach of examining a comparison group of term infants, which, for the first time, allows a valid interpretation of the collection of area-wide long-term outcome data on preterm children. The prospective long-term outcome project investigates the medical care situation for children born at less than 28 weeks of gestation up to school age. Based on the information obtained about the children's development the quality of health care will be optimised. A standardised examining concept with established development tests at defined follow-up intervals (at the age of 6 months, 2, 5 and 10 years) is used. At the age of five years 75 % of the examined premature children exhibited impairments. In order to better assess remarkable results, a comparison group of term infants (n=305) selected by a matched-pairs method was examined at the age of five using an analogous concept in kindergartens in Lower Saxony. The results were compared with the first two age cohorts of the follow-up-project (n=226) and quality analyses performed. As expected, significant differences have been found in the children's motor, cognitive and linguistic development between the preterm and term infants examined. This fact draws attention to the importance of early support for the majority of extremely premature infants. Feedback on the results given to the medical staff involved allows for the implementation of best practices and quality improvements. Identifying potential for improvement in everyday health care will help to develop specific optimisation measures. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. Diagnostic power of laboratory tests for hereditary spherocytosis: a comparison study in 150 patients grouped according to molecular and clinical characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Paola; Fermo, Elisa; Vercellati, Cristina; Marcello, Anna P.; Porretti, Laura; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Barcellini, Wilma; Zanella, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background The laboratory diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis commonly relies on NaCl-based or glycerol-based red cell osmotic fragility tests; more recently, an assay directly targeting the hereditary spherocytosis molecular defect (eosin-5′-maleimide-binding test) has been proposed. None of the available tests identifies all cases of hereditary spherocytosis. Design and Methods We compared the performances of the eosin-5′-maleimide-binding test, NaCl-osmotic fragility studies on fresh and incubated blood, the glycerol lysis test, the acidified glycerol lysis test, and the Pink test on a series of 150 patients with hereditary spherocytosis grouped according to clinical phenotype and the defective protein, with the final aim of finding the combination of tests associated with the highest diagnostic power, even in the mildest cases of hereditary spherocytosis. Results The eosin-5′-maleimide-binding test had a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 98% for detecting hereditary spherocytosis: the sensitivity was independent of the type and amount of molecular defect and of the clinical phenotype. The acidified glycerol lysis test and Pink test showed comparable sensitivity (95% and 91%). The sensitivity of NaCl osmotic fragility tests, commonly considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis, was 68% on fresh blood and 81% on incubated blood, and further decreased in compensated cases (53% and 64%, respectively). The combination of the eosin-5′-maleimide-binding test and acidified glycerol lysis test enabled all patients with hereditary spherocytosis to be identified. The eosin-5′-maleimide-binding test showed the greatest disease specificity. Conclusions Each type of test fails to diagnose some cases of hereditary spherocytosis. The association of an eosin-5′-maleimide-binding test and an acidified glycerol lysis test enabled identification of all patients with hereditary spherocytosis in this series and, therefore

  17. Police officers: a high-risk group for the development of mental health disturbances? A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    van der Velden, Peter G; Rademaker, Arthur R; Vermetten, Eric; Portengen, Marie-Anne; Yzermans, Joris C; Grievink, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Policing is generally considered a high-risk profession for the development of mental health problems, but this assumption lacks empirical evidence. Research question of the present study is to what extent mental health disturbances, such as (very) severe symptoms of anxiety, depression and hostility are more prevalent among police officers than among other occupational groups. Design Multicomparative cross-sectional study using the data of several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in the Netherlands. Participants Two samples of police officers (N=144 and 503), employees of banks (N=1113) and employees of banks who were robbed (N=144); employees of supermarkets (N=335), and a psychiatric hospital (N=219), employees of a governmental social welfare organisation (N=76), employees who followed a training based on rational-motive therapy to strengthen their assertiveness (N=710), soldiers before deployment (N=278) and before redeployment (N=236) and firefighters (N=123). The numbers refer to respondents with complete data. Primary outcomes Prevalence of severe (subclinical level) and very severe symptoms (clinical level) were computed using the Dutch norm tables (80th percentile and 95th percentile, respectively) of the Symptom Check List Revised (SCL-90-R). All comparisons were controlled for age, gender and education. Results Multivariate logistic regression and analyses showed that the prevalence of clinical and subclinical levels of symptoms of anxiety, depression and hostility among police officers were not significantly higher than among comparison groups. The same pattern was found for the other SCL-90-R subscales. Conclusions We found no indications that self-reported mental health disturbances were more prevalent among police officers than among groups of employees that are not considered high-risk groups, such as employees of banks, supermarkets, psychiatric hospital and soldiers before deployment. PMID:23355659

  18. A Case Study of the Impact of Guided Reading Groups in Second Grade on Comprehension Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorent Deegan, Chanin E.

    2010-01-01

    This study combined both qualitative and quantitative research to determine the impact of instructional practices on comprehension improvement in second grade Guided Reading groups. Four second grade teachers and their 73 students ages seven through eight years old participated in this study. Additionally, the study examined the effects of Guided…

  19. The Effectiveness of Lecture-Integrated, Web-Supported Case Studies in Large Group Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzawi, May; Dawson, Maureen M.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of lecture-integrated and web-supported case studies in supporting a large and academically diverse group of undergraduate students was evaluated in the present study. Case studies and resource (web)-based learning were incorporated as two complementary interactive learning strategies into the traditional curriculum. A truncated…

  20. The Effectiveness of Lecture-Integrated, Web-Supported Case Studies in Large Group Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzawi, May; Dawson, Maureen M.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of lecture-integrated and web-supported case studies in supporting a large and academically diverse group of undergraduate students was evaluated in the present study. Case studies and resource (web)-based learning were incorporated as two complementary interactive learning strategies into the traditional curriculum. A truncated…

  1. Group Performance in Information Systems Project Groups: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahli, Bouchaib; Buyukkurt, Meral Demirbag

    2005-01-01

    The importance of teamwork in Information Systems Development (ISD) practice and education has been acknowledged but not studied extensively to date. This paper tests a model of how groups participating in ISD projects perform and examines the relationships between some antecedents of this performance based on group research theory well…

  2. Group Performance in Information Systems Project Groups: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahli, Bouchaib; Buyukkurt, Meral Demirbag

    2005-01-01

    The importance of teamwork in Information Systems Development (ISD) practice and education has been acknowledged but not studied extensively to date. This paper tests a model of how groups participating in ISD projects perform and examines the relationships between some antecedents of this performance based on group research theory well…

  3. The Project Approach Catalog 2 by the Project Approach Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Judy Harris, Ed.

    Projects are in-depth studies of a topic undertaken by a class, a group, or an individual child. Projects are intended to strengthen children's dispositions to be interested, absorbed, and involved in in-depth observation, investigation, and representation of worthwhile phenomena in their own environments. This Catalog on the Project Approach, the…

  4. The Project Approach Catalog 3 by the Project Approach Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Judy Harris, Ed.

    Projects are in-depth studies of a topic undertaken by a class, a group, or an individual child. Projects are intended to strengthen children's dispositions to be interested, absorbed, and involved in in-depth observation, investigation, and representation of worthwhile phenomena in their own environments. This Catalog on the Project Approach, the…

  5. Examining the role of oral contraceptive users as an experimental and/or control group in athletic performance studies.

    PubMed

    Elliott-Sale, Kirsty Jayne; Smith, Stephanie; Bacon, James; Clayton, David; McPhilimey, Martin; Goutianos, Georgios; Hampson, Jennifer; Sale, Craig

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of oral contraceptives on endogenous reproductive hormone levels in order to assess the suitability of oral contraceptive users as experimental and/or control groups in human performance studies. Ninety-five females who were taking a variety of oral contraceptives (2 types and 11 brands) were recruited. A single blood sample was analysed for endogenous concentrations of oestradiol and progesterone. There were significant differences (p<.05) in circulating oestradiol and progesterone as a result of oral contraceptive type and brand. Overall, oral contraceptive use resulted in low levels of oestradiol and progesterone and large variation in hormone concentration when multiple brands were analysed together. This study indicates that future studies should employ a single pill type and brand when using oral contraceptive users as either a control or experimental group and that comparison between oral contraceptive users as a control group and the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as an experimental group should be reconsidered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The American Cowboy: Developing Small Group Social Studies Interaction Experiences in the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Edward, Jr.

    Appropriate for elementary school students, this resource unit on the American cowboy provides four activities for small group work. The unit also lists objectives and discusses the organization and dynamics of small groups. The general objective is for the student to learn how to work within groups and how to resolve group conflict. The…

  7. The American Cowboy: Developing Small Group Social Studies Interaction Experiences in the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Edward, Jr.

    Appropriate for elementary school students, this resource unit on the American cowboy provides four activities for small group work. The unit also lists objectives and discusses the organization and dynamics of small groups. The general objective is for the student to learn how to work within groups and how to resolve group conflict. The…

  8. The Misuse of the Studies and Observation Group as a National Asset in Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    resources to meet the strategic goal of defeating international terrorists and the nations who sponsor them is a difficult problem. In the past, policy...administration. On 28 January 1961 President Kennedy convened his first National Security Council meeting to discuss the Vietnam situation. He received a...THE MISUSE OF THE STUDIES AND OBSERVATION GROUP AS A NATIONAL ASSET IN VIETNAM A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army

  9. The Adjustment of Offspring of Within-Group and Interracial/Intercultural Marriages: A Comparison of Personality Factor Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Nagoshi, Craig T.

    1986-01-01

    Results indicated offspring of within-group versus across-racial/ethnic marriages did not differ in personality test scores. As compared with offspring of within-group marriages, male offspring of across-group marriages scored higher on a factor measuring socially desirable traits and lower on a factor measuring intraception, while female…

  10. Improving the Reading Ability of Science Students through Study Groups and Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owolabi, Tunde; Okebukola, Foluso

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the effects of appropriate pedagogical skills (study groups and multiple intelligences) on students' efficiencies in reading skills. It employed a factorial design using three variables. A sample of 90 science students choosing from three intact classes were involved in the study. Data analyses were carried out using mean,…

  11. Matrixed business support comparison study.

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, Josh D.

    2004-11-01

    The Matrixed Business Support Comparison Study reviewed the current matrixed Chief Financial Officer (CFO) division staff models at Sandia National Laboratories. There were two primary drivers of this analysis: (1) the increasing number of financial staff matrixed to mission customers and (2) the desire to further understand the matrix process and the opportunities and challenges it creates.

  12. Methods of Costing in Universities. Brief Comparison Between the NCHEMS Approach and the Approach Used by the French-Speaking Research Group Associated with the IMHE Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossu, Claude

    1975-01-01

    A group of French universities modified the NCHEMS accounting method for use in a study of its budget control procedures and cost-evaluation methods. The conceptual differences in French university education (as compared to American higher education) are keyed to the adjustments in the accounting method. French universities, rather than being…

  13. Comparison of Helicobacter pylori Urease Inhibition by Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri and Berberine: Mechanisms of Interaction with the Sulfhydryl Group.

    PubMed

    Li, Cailan; Xie, Jianhui; Chen, Xiaoying; Mo, Zhizhun; Wu, Wen; Liang, Yeer; Su, Zuqing; Li, Qian; Li, Yucui; Su, Ziren; Yang, Xiaobo

    2016-03-01

    Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri, and berberine were reported to inhibit Helicobacter pylori. However, the underlying mechanism remained elusive. Urease plays a vital role in H. pylori colonization and virulence. In this work, aqueous extracts of Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri of different origins, and purified berberine were investigated against H. pylori urease and jack bean urease to elucidate the inhibitory capacity, kinetics, and mechanism. Results showed that berberine was the major chemical component in Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex Phellodendri, and the content of berberine in Rhizoma Coptidis was higher than in Cortex Phellodendri. The IC50 values of Rhizoma Coptidis were significantly lower than those Cortex Phellodendri and purified berberine, of which Coptis chinensis was shown to be the most active concentration- and time-dependent urease inhibitor. The Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis indicated that the inhibition pattern of C. chinensis against urease was noncompetitive for both H. pylori urease and jack bean urease. Thiol protectors (L-cysteine, glutathione, and dithiothreithol) significantly protected urease from the loss of enzymatic activity, while fluoride and boric acid showed weaker protection, indicating the active-site sulfhydryl group was possibly responsible for its inhibition. Furthermore, the urease inhibition proved to be reversible since C. chinensis-blocked urease could be reactivated by glutathione. The results suggested that the anti-urease activity of Rhizoma Coptidis was superior to that of Cortex Phellodendri and berberine, which was believed to be more likely to correlate to the content of total alkaloids rather than berberine monomer. The concentration- and time-dependent, reversible, and noncompetitive inhibition against urease by C. chinensis might be attributed to its interaction with the sulfhydryl group of the active site of urease.

  14. Farmers' mental health: A longitudinal sibling comparison - the HUNT study, Norway.

    PubMed

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Krokstad, Steinar

    2016-06-01

    Studies of the mental health of farmers have been largely cross-sectional and possibly confounded. We performed a prospective cohort study as well as a sibling comparison to control for unmeasured confounding. Our study included 76 583 participants aged ≥19 years from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study [HUNT1 (1984-1986), HUNT2 (1995-1997) and HUNT3 (2006-2008)]. We used the Anxiety and Depression Index (ADI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure symptoms of mental distress. We used logistic regression to investigate the association between occupation at baseline and symptoms of mental distress 11 years later and fixed effects conditional logistic regression to compare farmers with their siblings working in other occupations. In the prospective cohort study, farmers had similar odds of having symptoms of psychological distress and anxiety as other manual occupational groups. Among all the occupational groups in the study, farmers had the highest odds of having symptoms of depression [odds ratio (OR) 1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55-2.55, reference group: higher grade professionals]. Compared with their farming brothers and sisters, siblings in other occupations had lower odds of having high depression (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.55-0.89) and anxiety (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63-1.00) scores in 2006-2008. Farmers had higher odds of having high depression scores compared to both other occupational groups and their siblings who were not working as farmers, suggesting that working in agriculture may impact mental health.

  15. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health: Using Focus Groups to Inform Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruitment and retention of participants to large-scale, longitudinal studies can be a challenge, particularly when trying to target young women. Qualitative inquiries with members of the target population can prove valuable in assisting with the development of effective recruiting techniques. Researchers in the current study made use of focus group methodology to identify how to encourage young women aged 18-23 to participate in a national cohort online survey. Objective Our objectives were to gain insight into how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal health survey, as well as to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Methods The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health used focus group methodology to learn how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal Web-based health survey and to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Nineteen groups, involving 75 women aged 18-23 years, were held in remote, regional, and urban areas of New South Wales and Queensland. Results Focus groups were held in 2 stages, with discussions lasting from 19 minutes to over 1 hour. The focus groups allowed concord to be reached regarding survey promotion using social media, why personal information was needed, strategies to ensure confidentiality, how best to ask sensitive questions, and survey design for ease of completion. Recruitment into the focus groups proved difficult: the groups varied in size between 1 and 8 participants, with the majority conducted with 2 participants. Conclusions Intense recruitment efforts and variation in final focus group numbers highlights the “hard to reach” character of young women. However, the benefits of conducting focus group discussions as a preparatory stage to the recruitment of a large cohort for a longitudinal Web-based health survey were upheld. PMID:26902160

  16. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health: Using Focus Groups to Inform Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Tavener, Meredith; Mooney, Rosemary; Thomson, Clare; Loxton, Deborah

    2016-02-22

    Recruitment and retention of participants to large-scale, longitudinal studies can be a challenge, particularly when trying to target young women. Qualitative inquiries with members of the target population can prove valuable in assisting with the development of effective recruiting techniques. Researchers in the current study made use of focus group methodology to identify how to encourage young women aged 18-23 to participate in a national cohort online survey. Our objectives were to gain insight into how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal health survey, as well as to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health used focus group methodology to learn how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal Web-based health survey and to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Nineteen groups, involving 75 women aged 18-23 years, were held in remote, regional, and urban areas of New South Wales and Queensland. Focus groups were held in 2 stages, with discussions lasting from 19 minutes to over 1 hour. The focus groups allowed concord to be reached regarding survey promotion using social media, why personal information was needed, strategies to ensure confidentiality, how best to ask sensitive questions, and survey design for ease of completion. Recruitment into the focus groups proved difficult: the groups varied in size between 1 and 8 participants, with the majority conducted with 2 participants. Intense recruitment efforts and variation in final focus group numbers highlights the "hard to reach" character of young women. However, the benefits of conducting focus group discussions as a preparatory stage to the recruitment of a large cohort for a longitudinal Web-based health survey were upheld.

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Freshman Interest Groups at the University of Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinto, Vincent; Goodsell, Anne

    This paper reports on two studies, one quantitative and the other qualitative, on the effectiveness and influence of Freshman Interest Groups (FIGs) at the University of Washington. A quantitative panel study compared 442 freshmen participating in 21 FIGs with 1818 non-participating freshmen. Findings indicated that the FIG program provided a…

  18. Mathematical Retention Over the Summer. Teacher Corps Mathematics Work/Study Group. Working Paper No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begle, E.G.; And O