This paper is an adaptation of Kohlenberg and Tsai's work, Functional Analytical Psychotherapy (1991), or FAP, to group psychotherapy. This author applied a behavioral rationale for interpersonal process groups by illustrating key points with a hypothetical client. Suggestions are also provided for starting groups, identifying goals, educating…
Verdeli, Helen; Clougherty, Kathleen; Bolton, Paul; Speelman, Liesbeth; Lincoln, Ndogoni; Bass, Judith; Neugebauer, Richard; Weissman, Myrna M
The current prevalence of depressive symptoms in Southwest Uganda, an area greatly affected by the HIV epidemic, has been shown to be as high as 21%. Traditional healers have expressed inability to treat these symptoms. The lack of physicians and high cost of medication make the use of antidepressants unfeasible. Therefore, an evidence-based psychotherapy was considered a reasonable treatment option by a team of health researchers familiar with the local culture, who designed a randomized controlled clinical trial. Interpersonal psychotherapy in a group format (IPT-G) was selected because it was time limited, was described in a manual, and had evidence of efficacy from clinical trials. Moreover, its focus on interpersonal triggers of depression was considered compatible with the culture. This paper describes the process of adapting the psychotherapy manual and the training of the group leaders who undertook the first psychotherapy clinical trial in Africa. PMID:16946913
VERDELI, HELEN; CLOUGHERTY, KATHLEEN; BOLTON, PAUL; SPEELMAN, LIESBETH; LINCOLN, NDOGONI; BASS, JUDITH; NEUGEBAUER, RICHARD; WEISSMAN, MYRNA M
The current prevalence of depressive symptoms in Southwest Uganda, an area greatly affected by the HIV epidemic, has been shown to be as high as 21%. Traditional healers have expressed inability to treat these symptoms. The lack of physicians and high cost of medication make the use of antidepressants unfeasible. Therefore, an evidence-based psychotherapy was considered a reasonable treatment option by a team of health researchers familiar with the local culture, who designed a randomized controlled clinical trial. Interpersonal psychotherapy in a group format (IPT-G) was selected because it was time limited, was described in a manual, and had evidence of efficacy from clinical trials. Moreover, its focus on interpersonal triggers of depression was considered compatible with the culture. This paper describes the process of adapting the psychotherapy manual and the training of the group leaders who undertook the first psychotherapy clinical trial in Africa. PMID:16946913
Swarr, Ralph R.; Ewing, Thomas N.
A focused 5-year research program used a large number of clients (45), groups (10), and co-therapists (20) to assess group psychotherapy outcome in a homeogeneous diagnostic population (severly disturbed college student neurotics) and therapist-treatment modality (eclectic, interpersonal learning based, with insight and behavior change goals).…
Wilfrey, Denise E.; And Others
Evaluated effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) and group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for binge eating among 56 women with nonpurging bulimia. At posttreatment, both CBT and IPT conditions showed significant improvement in reducing binge eating, compared to waiting-list condition. Binge eating remained significantly…
Wilfley, D E; Agras, W S; Telch, C F; Rossiter, E M; Schneider, J A; Cole, A G; Sifford, L A; Raeburn, S D
This study evaluated the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) and group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for binge eating. Fifty-six women with nonpurging bulimia were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: CBT, IPT, or a wait-list control (WL). Treatment was administered in small groups that met for 16 weekly sessions. At posttreatment, both group CBT and group IPT treatment conditions showed significant improvement in reducing binge eating, whereas the WL condition did not. Binge eating remained significantly below baseline levels for both treatment conditions at 6-month and 1-year follow-ups. These data support the central role of both eating behavior and interpersonal factors in the understanding and treatment of bulimia. PMID:8473584
Markowitz, John C.
This article briefly reviews the past and present and speculates on the future of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), a time-limited, empirically supported treatment for depression and other psychiatric syndromes. IPT and other psychotherapies face a role transition in adjusting to an economically and otherwise turbulent future. The author speculates on the outcome in clinical, research, and other domains. PMID:9292443
Verdeli, Helen; Clougherty, Kathleen; Onyango, Grace; Lewandowski, Eric; Speelman, Liesbeth; Betancourt, Teresa S; Neugebauer, Richard; Stein, Traci R; Bolton, Paul
This article reviews the use of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) with depressed youth living in Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camps in North Uganda. This youth has been exposed to severe losses and disruptions in relationships with caregivers, family, and community members; limited access to formal education; exposure to malnutrition and infections; and pressure to prematurely assume adult family roles. The process of adaptation to the content and training of IPT for these youth is presented and illustrated with case examples. PMID:18558315
Gallagher, Meagan E; Tasca, Giorgio A; Ritchie, Kerri; Balfour, Louise; Maxwell, Hilary; Bissada, Hany
Yalom and Leszcz (2005) indicated that interpersonal learning is a key therapeutic factor in group psychotherapy. In this study, we conceptualized interpersonal learning as the convergence over time between an individual's and the group's perception of the individual's cohesion to the group. First, we developed parallel measures of: (a) an individual's self-rated cohesion to the group (Cohesion Questionnaire-Individual Version [CQ-I]), and (b) the group's rating of the individual's cohesion to the group (CQ-G) based on the original Cohesion Questionnaire (CQ; Piper, Marache, Lacroix, Richardsen, & Jones, 1983). Second, we used these parallel scales to assess differences between an individual's self-rating and the mean of the group's ratings of the individual's cohesion to the group. Women with binge eating disorder (N = 102) received Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Participants were assigned to homogeneously composed groups of either high or low attachment anxiety. Outcomes were measured pre- and post-treatment, and the CQ-I and CQ-G were administered every fourth group session. We found significant convergence over time between the CQ-I and mean CQ-G scale scores in both attachment anxiety conditions. Participants with higher attachment anxiety had lower individual self-ratings of cohesion and had greater discrepancies between the CQ-I and CG-G compared with those with lower attachment anxiety. There was a significant relationship between greater convergence in cohesion ratings and improved self-esteem at post-treatment. More accurate self-perceptions through feedback from group members may be a key factor in facilitating increased self-esteem in group therapy. Group therapists may facilitate such interpersonal learning, especially for those higher in attachment anxiety, by noting discrepancies and then encouraging convergence between an individual and the group in their perceptions of cohesion to the group. PMID:23398038
Champion, Lorna; Power, Michael J
Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a leading evidence-based treatment for those eating disorders in which binge eating is a feature. This article begins with a consideration of the rationale for using IPT to treat patients with eating disorders. This is followed by a review of the evidence supporting its use and a brief description of treatment including an illustrative clinical case vignette. The article closes with a discussion of possible future directions for research on IPT for eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message IPT for eating disorders (IPT-ED) closely resembles IPT for depression and primarily focuses on current interpersonal problems. It is well suited for helping patients to address interpersonal difficulties which appear to be maintaining the eating disorder. PMID:22362599
Hewitt, Paul L; Mikail, Samuel F; Flett, Gordon L; Tasca, Giorgio A; Flynn, Carol A; Deng, Xiaolei; Kaldas, Janet; Chen, Chang
This study sought to determine whether clinically significant improvement could be obtained using a psychodynamic/interpersonal group treatment based on a comprehensive conceptualization of perfectionism. A sample of 71 community-recruited perfectionistic individuals participated in the University of British Columbia Perfectionism Treatment Study. Eighteen of these participants were initially nonrandomly assigned to a waitlist control condition. All participants completed measures of perfectionism traits, perfectionistic self-presentation, and automatic perfectionistic thoughts, as well as measures of distress including depression, anxiety, and interpersonal problems at pretreatment, posttreatment, and at a 4-month follow-up. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that perfectionism levels decreased with large effect sizes and that these decreases were associated with reductions in distress measures. Clinically significant decreases were found in all perfectionism components, and posttreatment scores on most variables were significantly lower in the treatment condition versus the waitlist control condition. The findings suggest that psychodynamic/interpersonal group treatment is effective in treating components of perfectionism. PMID:25985044
Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Frase, Lukas
In this article, we will introduce interpersonal psychotherapy as an effective short-term treatment strategy in major depression. In IPT, a reciprocal relationship between interpersonal problems and depressive symptoms is regarded as important in the onset and as a maintaining factor of depressive disorders. Therefore, interpersonal problems are the main therapeutic targets of this approach. Four interpersonal problem areas are defined, which include interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, complicated bereavement, and interpersonal deficits. Patients are helped to break the interactions between depressive symptoms and their individual interpersonal difficulties. The goals are to achieve a reduction in depressive symptoms and an improvement in interpersonal functioning through improved communication, expression of affect, and proactive engagement with the current interpersonal network. The efficacy of this focused and structured psychotherapy in the treatment of acute unipolar major depressive disorder is summarized. This article outlines the background of interpersonal psychotherapy, the process of therapy, efficacy, and the expansion of the evidence base to different subgroups of depressed patients. PMID:22955493
Young, Jami F; Benas, Jessica S; Schueler, Christie M; Gallop, Robert; Gillham, Jane E; Mufson, Laura
Given the rise in depression disorders in adolescence, it is important to develop and study depression prevention programs for this age group. The current study examined the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group prevention program for adolescent depression, in comparison to group programs that are typically delivered in school settings. In this indicated prevention trial, 186 adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST delivered by research staff or group counseling (GC) delivered by school counselors. Hierarchical linear modeling examined differences in rates of change in depressive symptoms and overall functioning from baseline to the 6-month follow-up assessment. Cox regression compared rates of depression diagnoses. Adolescents in IPT-AST showed significantly greater improvements in self-reported depressive symptoms and evaluator-rated overall functioning than GC adolescents from baseline to the 6-month follow-up. However, there were no significant differences between the two conditions in onset of depression diagnoses. Although both intervention conditions demonstrated significant improvements in depressive symptoms and overall functioning, results indicate that IPT-AST has modest benefits over groups run by school counselors which were matched on frequency and duration of sessions. In particular, IPT-AST outperformed GC in reduction of depressive symptoms and improvements in overall functioning. These findings point to the clinical utility of this depression prevention program, at least in the short-term. Additional follow-up is needed to determine the long-term effects of IPT-AST, relative to GC, particularly in preventing depression onset. PMID:26638219
Miller, Lisa; Gur, Merav; Shanok, Arielle; Weissman, Myrna
The objective of this study was to test the feasibility, acceptability and helpfulness of group Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT-PA) for depression in pregnant adolescents. Method: Two open clinical trials were conducted of IPT-PA delivered in group format in a New York City public school for pregnant girls. Study 1 tests IPT-PA for management of…
Markowitz, John C.; Petkova, Eva; Neria, Yuval; Van Meter, Page E.; Zhao, Yihong; Hembree, Elizabeth; Lovell, Karina; Biyanova, Tatyana; Marshall, Randall D.
Background Exposure to trauma reminders has been considered imperative in psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). No treatment benefits all patients, however. We tested Interpersonal Psychotherapy, which has demonstrated antidepressant efficacy and showed promise in pilot PTSD research, as a non-exposure-based, non-cognitive behavioral PTSD treatment. Methods A randomized, fourteen-week trial compared Interpersonal Psychotherapy; Prolonged Exposure, an exposure-based exemplar; and Relaxation Therapy, an active control psychotherapy. Subjects were 110 unmedicated patients having DSM-IV chronic PTSD and Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) score >50. Randomization stratified for comorbid major depression. We hypothesized Interpersonal Psychotherapy would be no more than minimally inferior (CAPS difference <12.5 points) to Prolonged Exposure. Results All therapies had large within-group pre/post effect sizes (d=1.32–1.88). Response rates (>30% CAPS improvement) were: Interpersonal Psychotherapy 63%, Prolonged Exposure 47%, Relaxation Therapy 38% (n.s.). Interpersonal psychotherapy and Prolonged Exposure CAPS outcome differed by 5.5 points (n.s.); the null hypothesis of more than minimal Interpersonal Psychotherapy inferiority was rejected (p=0.035). Patients with comorbid major depression dropped out from Prolonged Exposure nine times more than non-depressed Prolonged Exposure patients. Interpersonal Psychotherapy and Prolonged Exposure improved quality of life and social functioning more than Relaxation Therapy. Conclusions This first controlled study of individual Interpersonal Psychotherapy for PTSD demonstrated non-inferiority to the “gold standard” PTSD treatment. Interpersonal Psychotherapy had (non-significantly) lower attrition and higher response rates than Prolonged Exposure. Contradicting a widespread clinical belief, PTSD treatment may not require cognitive behavioral exposure to trauma reminders. Moreover, as differential
Markowitz, John C.; Leon, Andrew C.; Miller, Nina L.; Cherry, Sabrina; Clougherty, Kathleen F.; Villalobos, Liliana
There has been much outcome research on interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) but little investigation of its components. This study assessed interrater reliability of IPT therapists in identifying interpersonal problem areas and treatment foci from audiotapes of initial treatment sessions. Three IPT research psychotherapists assessed up to 18 audiotapes of dysthymic patients, using the Interpersonal Problem Area Rating Scale. Cohen's kappa was used to examine concordance between raters. Kappas for presence or absence of each of the four IPT problem areas were 0.87 (grief), 0.58 (role dispute), 1.0 (role transition), and 0.48 (interpersonal deficits). Kappa for agreement on a clinical focus was 0.82. IPT therapists agreed closely in rating problem areas and potential treatment foci, providing empirical support for potential therapist consistency in this treatment approach. PMID:10896737
Markowitz, J C; Leon, A C; Miller, N L; Cherry, S; Clougherty, K F; Villalobos, L
There has been much outcome research on interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) but little investigation of its components. This study assessed interrater reliability of IPT therapists in identifying interpersonal problem areas and treatment foci from audiotapes of initial treatment sessions. Three IPT research psychotherapists assessed up to 18 audiotapes of dysthymic patients, using the Interpersonal Problem Area Rating Scale. Cohen's kappa was used to examine concordance between raters. Kappas for presence or absence of each of the four IPT problem areas were 0.87 (grief), 0.58 (role dispute), 1.0 (role transition), and 0.48 (interpersonal deficits). Kappa for agreement on a clinical focus was 0.82. IPT therapists agreed closely in rating problem areas and potential treatment foci, providing empirical support for potential therapist consistency in this treatment approach. PMID:10896737
Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Woody, Erik; Ethier, Nicole; Sadler, Pamela
To demonstrate how a novel computer joystick coding method can illuminate the study of interpersonal processes in psychotherapy sessions, we applied it to Shostrom's (1966) well-known films in which a client, Gloria, had sessions with 3 prominent psychotherapists. The joystick method, which records interpersonal behavior as nearly continuous flows on the plane defined by the interpersonal dimensions of control and affiliation, provides an excellent sampling of variability in each person's interpersonal behavior across the session. More important, it yields extensive information about the temporal dynamics that interrelate clients' and therapists' behaviors. Gloria's 3 psychotherapy sessions were characterized using time-series statistical indices and graphical representations. Results demonstrated that patterns of within-person variability tended to be markedly asymmetric, with a predominant, set-point-like interpersonal style from which deviations mostly occurred in just 1 direction (e.g., occasional submissive departures from a modal dominant style). In addition, across each session, the therapist and client showed strongly cyclical variations in both control and affiliation, and these oscillations were entrained to different extents depending on the therapist. We interpreted different patterns of moment-to-moment complementarity of interpersonal behavior in terms of different therapeutic goals, such as fostering a positive alliance versus disconfirming the client's interpersonal expectations. We also showed how this method can be used to provide a more detailed analysis of specific shorter segments from each of the sessions. Finally, we compared our approach to alternative techniques, such as act-to-act lagged relations and dynamic systems and pointed to a variety of possible research and training applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24001123
Budge, Stephanie L
Interpersonal therapy (IPT) is a particularly useful approach to use when working with clients who identify as transgender or gender nonconforming. All transgender individuals will experience changes and adjustment throughout their identity process, often referred to as transitioning. IPT offers specific interventions for psychotherapists to use with clients whose presenting concerns are specifically related to transitions. The current article outlines a case example of a transgender man who is experiencing difficulty with "role transitions" and offers four transgender-specific clinical intervention strategies derived within the traditional IPT framework. PMID:24000851
Poleshuck, Ellen L.; Gamble, Stephanie A.; Cort, Natalie; Hoffman-King, Debra; Cerrito, Beth; Rosario-McCabe, Luis A.; Giles, Donna E.
Up to 37% of individuals experience chronic pain during their lifetimes. Approximately one-fourth of primary care patients with chronic pain also meet criteria for major depression. Many of these individuals fail to receive psychotherapy or other treatment for their depression; moreover when they do, physical pain is often not addressed directly. Women, socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals, African Americans and Latinos all report higher rates of pain and depression compared to other groups. This article describes a version of Interpersonal Psychotherapy tailored for patients with comorbid depression and chronic pain, Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depression and Pain (IPT-P). While IPT-P potentially could be delivered to many different patient populations in a range of clinical settings, this article focuses on its delivery within primary care settings for socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Adaptations include a brief 8-session protocol that incorporates strategies for anticipating barriers to psychotherapy, accepting patients’ conceptualization of their difficulties, encouraging patients to consider the impact of their pain on their roles and relationships, emphasizing self-care, incorporating pain management techniques, and flexible scheduling. In addition, IPT-P is designed as an adjunct to usual medical pain treatment, and seeks to engage non-treatment seeking patients in psychotherapy by focusing on accessibility and relevance of the intervention to concerns common among patients with pain. Identifying patients with comorbid depression and chronic pain and offering IPT-P as a treatment option has the potential to improve clinical outcomes for individuals with depression and chronic pain. PMID:21191470
Rounsaville, Bruce J.; And Others
Examined relation between general dimensions of psychotherapy process, rated with the Vanderbilt Psychotherapy Process Scale (VPPS), and a manual-guided psychotherapy, Short-Term Interpersonal Psychotherapy of Depression (IPT). VPPS-rated dimensions of patients and therapist behaviors were significantly correlated with IPT competence ratings.…
O'Malley, Stephanie S.; And Others
Examined whether therapist's level of competence in conducting interpersonal psychotherapy of depression was associated with patient improvement. Used data from 35 depressed outpatients receiving interpersonal psychotherapy. Results showed that measures of therapist performance contributed significantly to prediction of patient-rated change and…
Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria
This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress. PMID:26401793
Miniati, Mario; Callari, Antonio; Calugi, Simona; Rucci, Paola; Savino, Mario; Mauri, Mauro; Dell'Osso, Liliana
Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a dynamically informed and present-focused psychotherapy originally conceived for patients with unipolar depression and subsequently modified for other disorders, including postpartum depression (PPD). The aim of this paper is to review the evidence on the efficacy of IPT for PPD. We conducted a systematic review of studies published between 1995 and April 2013 assessing the efficacy of IPT for PPD using PubMed and PsycINFO. We included the following: (i) articles that presented a combination of at least two of the established terms in the abstract, namely, interpersonal [all fields] and ("psychotherapy" [MeSH terms] or psychotherapy [all fields]) and (perinatal [all fields] or postpartum [all fields]) and ("depressive disorder" [MeSH terms] or ("depressive" [all fields] and "disorder" [all fields]) or depressive disorder [all fields] or "depression" [all fields] or depression [MeSH terms]); (ii) manuscripts in English; (iii) original articles; and (iv) prospective or retrospective observational studies (analytical or descriptive), experimental, or quasi-experimental. Exclusion criteria were as follows: (i) other study designs, such as case reports, case series, and reviews; (ii) non-original studies including editorials, book reviews, and letters to the editor; and (iii) studies not specifically designed and focused on IPT. We identified 11 clinical primary trials assessing the efficacy of IPT for PPD, including 3 trials with group interventions (G-IPT) and one that required the presence of the partner (PA-IPT). We also identified six studies interpersonal-psychotherapy-oriented preventive interventions for use in pregnancy. IPT studies showed overall clinical improvement in the most commonly used depression measures in postpartum depressed women (EPDS, HDRS, BDI) and often-full recovery in several cases of treated patients. Evidence from clinical trials indicates that, when administered in monotherapy (or in combination with
The paper presents an overview of the national developments of group psychotherapy (GPS) in Sweden during the period from World War II until the present time. Methods and concepts, imported primarily from England and the United States, inspired trainings and widespread psychodynamic and group analytic applications in schools, health treatment, and social care. Education in psychotherapy and GPS at universities opened new therapeutic and vocational areas during the period 1970-2005. Increasing criticism of psychodynamics, as in other Western societies, but more radical in Sweden, has in the last decades made group analytic GPS diminish in favor of cognitive behavioral therapy models. Prospects for GPS further development may presently look bleak but, in a longer perspective, are promising. PMID:26401795
Van Denburg, Todd F.; And Others
Reviews instruments, methodologies, and strategies available to assess clients' interpersonal functioning. Focuses on instruments that provide characterizations of clients' and counselors' overt interpersonal behavior and covert reactions translated onto interpersonal circle models. Presents suggested interpersonal assessment battery; describes…
Bechelli, Luiz Paulo de C; Santos, Manoel Antônio Dos
This study examines the concept of transference, focusing on its peculiarities in the group context. The nature of the therapeutic situation and the broad freedom given to patients in order to access the unconscious material at their own pace, within a safe environment and with as little censorship as can be managed, transference gradually takes place. Through displacement, the psychotherapist and group members are perceived not as they are, with their real attributes, but as one or more objects that arouse emotions coming from the infant world, more precisely from the collection of deep affective influences. One peculiarity of the group situation when compared to individual psychotherapy is that, in the former, multiple transferences coexist, which group members establish among themselves, enabling a wide range of possible feelings. Both treatment modes share the assumption that unresolved conflicts which stimulated patients to seek for help can be reduced or even abolished through the interpretation and working through of transference, which functions as a process of change throughout the psychotherapy. PMID:16532247
RAFAELI, ALEXANDRA KLEIN; MARKOWITZ, JOHN C.
Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT), a time-limited, evidence-based treatment, has shown efficacy in treating major depressive disorder and other psychiatric conditions. Interpersonal Psychotherapy focuses on the patient’s current life events and social and interpersonal functioning for understanding and treating symptoms. This case report demonstrates the novel use of IPT as treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Preliminary evidence suggests IPT may relieve PTSD symptoms without focusing on exposure to trauma reminders. Thus IPT may offer an alternative for patients who refuse (or do not respond to) exposure-based approaches. Interpersonal Psychotherapy focuses on two problem areas that specifically affect patients with PTSD: interpersonal difficulties and affect dysregulation. This case report describes a pilot participant from a study comparing 14 weekly sessions of IPT to treatment with two other psychotherapies. We describe the session-by-session IPT protocol, illustrating how to formulate the case, help the patient identify and address problematic affects and interpersonal functioning, and to monitor treatment response. PMID:22032045
Hilbert, Anja; Saelens, Brian E.; Stein, Richard I.; Mockus, Danyte S.; Welch, R. Robinson; Matt, Georg E.; Wilfley, Denise E.
The present study examined pretreatment and process predictors of individual nonresponse to psychological group treatment of binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized trial, 162 overweight patients with BED were treated with either group cognitive-behavioral therapy or group interpersonal psychotherapy. Treatment nonresponse, which was defined…
Hilbert, Anja; Saelens, Brian E; Stein, Richard I; Mockus, Danyte S; Welch, R Robinson; Matt, Georg E; Wilfley, Denise E
The present study examined pretreatment and process predictors of individual nonresponse to psychological group treatment of binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized trial, 162 overweight patients with BED were treated with either group cognitive-behavioral therapy or group interpersonal psychotherapy. Treatment nonresponse, which was defined as nonabstinence from binge eating, was assessed at posttreatment and at 1 year following treatment completion. Using 4 signal detection analyses, greater extent of interpersonal problems prior to treatment or at midtreatment were identified as predictors of nonresponse, both at posttreatment and at 1-year follow-up. Greater pretreatment and midtreatment concerns about shape and weight, among those patients with low interpersonal problems, were predictive of posttreatment nonresponse. Lower group cohesion during the early treatment phase predicted nonresponse at 1-year follow-up. Attention to specific pre- or intreatment predictors could allow for targeted selection into differential or augmented care and could thus improve response to group psychotherapy for BED. PMID:17663618
Lichtmacher, Jonathan; Eisendrath, Stuart J.; Haller, Ellen
Objective: Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for depression is a brief, well researched treatment for acute major depression. This article describes the implementation of IPT as an evidence-based treatment for depression in a psychiatry residency program. Method: The authors tracked the implementation process over 5 years as interpersonal…
Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Davies, Mark
Background: Indicated interventions for adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms may help decrease rates of depression. The current study reports on the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group indicated preventive intervention. Methods: Forty-one adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were…
Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Talbot, Nancy; King, Deborah
Older adults in the U.S. and many countries around the world die by suicide at elevated rates compared to younger adults. However, relatively little is known about psychotherapeutic approaches to managing and treating suicide risk among older adults. The patient in this case presented with elevated suicide risk and was treated with Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) informed by the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide. This theoretical model proposes that thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness are causes of suicide ideation. IPT guides therapists to look for one of four interpersonal stressors that may be present in a client’s life – grief, role transitions, interpersonal disputes, and interpersonal sensitivity (i.e., skills deficits). The Interpersonal Theory provides a rationale for choosing one problem focus over another. Specifically, the problem area that allows the therapist and patient to target and ameliorate thwarted belongingness and/or perceived burdensomeness is selected. The positive outcome of reduced suicide risk in this case illustrates how targeting the constructs of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness with Interpersonal Psychotherapy may help older adults resolve suicide ideation and prevent recurrences of suicidal crises. PMID:27087791
Existential issues in group psychotherapy derive from existential thought both as a philosophy and as a value system. Its origins derive from the weakening of traditional values and the growing alienation of man from himself. The unique features of existentialism can be applied to all forms of therapy. These features are universal to humankind. They are finiteness, aloneness, guilt, responsibility, and freedom. In including existential concerns as part of group psychotherapy, therapist and patients move more closely to bilateral relationships and subjective interactions. PMID:11928200
Clark, Carlton F. "Perk"
Transpersonal group psychotherapy is a carpet of theory, technique, and experiences woven from threads of contemporary psychology, mysticism, and a perennial philosophy many centuries old. Introduces the basic concepts of transpersonal group psychotherapy, proposes a model of transpersonal group psychotherapy, discusses the training of…
O'Shea, Gabrielle; Spence, Susan H; Donovan, Caroline L
The aim of this study was to investigate whether depressed adolescents differed from non-depressed adolescents in terms of constructs consistent with those that are proposed to underpin interpersonal psychotherapy. In particular, it was hypothesized that compared with non-depressed adolescents, depressed adolescents would demonstrate a greater number of negative life events associated with interpersonal loss and major life transitions, a more insecure attachment style and poorer communication skills, interpersonal relationships and social support. Thirty-one clinically diagnosed depressed adolescents were matched with 31 non-depressed adolescents on age, gender and socio-economic status. The 62 participants were aged between 12 and 19 years and comprised 18 male and 44 female adolescents. On a self-report questionnaire, depressed adolescents reported a greater number of negative interpersonal life events, a less secure attachment style and scored higher on all insecure attachment styles compared with the non-depressed adolescents. In addition, depressed adolescents demonstrated lower levels of social skill (on both adolescent and parent report), a poorer quality of relationship with parents (on both adolescent and parent report) and lower social competence (adolescent report only). Parents of depressed adolescents also reported more negative parental attitudes and behaviours towards their adolescent compared with parents of non-depressed adolescents. Thus, the results of this study are consistent with the constructs underlying interpersonal psychotherapy and suggest their usefulness in the assessment, conceptualization and treatment of adolescent depression. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23801523
FRANK, ELLEN; RITCHEY, FIONA C.; LEVENSON, JESSICA C.
We employed standard literature search techniques and surveyed participants on the International Society for Interpersonal Psychotherapy listserve (firstname.lastname@example.org) to catalogue the multiple and highly creative ways in which Klerman’s and Weissman’s original concept of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) has been modified to meet the needs of a vast range of patient populations. Focusing first on adaptations of the individual treatment model for subgroups of adult patients, we next describe further adaptations of four major off-shoots of IPT: interpersonal counseling (IPC), IPT for adolescents (IPT-A), group IPT (IPT-G) and most recently, brief IPT (IPT-B). We then discuss IPT “in-laws,” those treatments that have married IPT with of other forms of psychotherapy for patients with bipolar disorder, panic symptomatology, and substance abuse. We conclude with that although there have been myriad successful adaptations of IPT, there remain some conditions for which IPT adaptations have not been found to be efficacious. PMID:26453344
This article provides a particular view on the use of Functional Analytical Psychotherapy (FAP) in a group therapy format. This view is based on the author's experiences as a supervisor of Functional Analytical Psychotherapy Groups, including groups for women with depression and groups for chronic pain patients. The contexts in which this approach…
Hall, Elisabeth Baerg; Mufson, Laura
This article describes the treatment of a depressed adolescent (15 years of age) boy using Interpersonal Psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A). IPT-A is an empirically supported psychosocial intervention for adolescents suffering from a depressive episode. It is delivered as an individual psychotherapy with a minimum of parental…
Hoffart, Asle; Borge, Finn-Magnus; Sexton, Harold; Clark, David M.
The purpose of this study was to test cognitive and interpersonal models for improving social phobia. Eighty patients with social phobia were randomized to 10-week residential cognitive (RCT) or residential interpersonal psychotherapy (RIPT). They completed process measures every Thursday and a sub-outcome measure every Monday. The ratings were…
Bowen, Sarah; Haworth, Kevin; Grow, Joel; Tsai, Mavis; Kohlenberg, Robert
Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP; Kohlenberg & Tsai, 1991) aims to improve interpersonal relationships through skills intended to increase closeness and connection. The current trial assessed a brief mindfulness-based intervention informed by FAP, in which an interpersonal element was added to a traditional intrapersonal mindfulness…
MacLennan, Beryce W.; Felsenfeld, Naomi
Intended as an aid in conceptualizing group programs for adolescents and as a basic text on group methods, the book examines the goals and processes of socialization and rehabilitation. Areas treated include the group as an agent of change, the adolescent and his culture, general considerations in group counseling and group psychotherapy, process…
Three groups of patients (N = 30) distributed as well as possible according to indication among standard psychoanalytic therapy, analytic group therapy and dynamic psychotherapy were submitted to testing in order to investigate the risk indices for stress factors (Dührssen) and to factor analysis with the aid of the Freiburg Personality Inventory, the Giessen-Test, and the Extended Giessen Complaint Sheet. A fourth group of Patients (N = 30), originally assigned to group therapy but having discontinued treatment, was used as control group. It was found that among patients assigned to any of these types of therapy the stress index was significantly higher than among patients seeing the physician for merely an initial examination and the taking of their case histories. Furthermore, the different groups showed different indices for stress factors: Patients in dynamic psychotherapy had by far the highest index of stress, followed by the patients who had discontinued group therapy. Group therapy patients who completed their treatment had again a slightly higher risk index than those who had been assigned to standard psychoanalytic therapy. Application of the above mentioned tests or complaint sheets revealed significant differences between the specific groups. But therapy also resulted in significant improvement of isolated aspects. An investigation concerned with the number of days of hospitalization and the number of days of disablement in a randomly selected group of patients in 1977 showed a statistically significant reduction of these numbers in the five-year period following therapy when compared to the last five years prior to therapy. On the whole the investigation has made it apparent that any comparative psychotherapy study is more or less futile when the patients under observation are parallelized merely according to age, sex, and symptoms while the respective risk indices with the accompanying stress factors in childhood and adolescence are being neglected
Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B; Young, Jami F; Wilfley, Denise E
This article presents a brief case study of "Jane Doe," a 13-year-old, non-Hispanic White girl 2 participating in a clinical research trial of interpersonal psychotherapy-weight gain (IPT-WG). Girls at-risk for adult obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) were randomly assigned to take part in 12 weeks of preventative group treatment. Jane's IPT-WG group included five other early adolescent girls (mostly aged 12-13) at risk for adult obesity and BED. The case of Jane illustrates a successful example of IPT-WG for the prevention of excessive weight gain and for the prevention of BED. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27267503
Fincke, Janna I.; Möller, Heidi; Taubner, Svenja
Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of trainees’ interpersonal behavior on work involvement (WI) and compared their social behavior within professional and private relationships as well as between different psychotherapeutic orientations. Methods: The interpersonal scales of the Intrex short-form questionnaire and the Work Involvement Scale (WIS) were used to evaluate two samples of German psychotherapy trainees in psychoanalytic, psychodynamic, and cognitive behavioral therapy training. Trainees from Sample 1 (N = 184) were asked to describe their interpersonal behavior in relation to their patients when filling out the Intrex, whereas trainees from Sample 2 (N = 135) were asked to describe the private relationship with a significant other. Results: Interpersonal affiliation in professional relationships significantly predicted the level of healing involvement, while stress involvement was predicted by interpersonal affiliation and interdependence in trainees’ relationships with their patients. Social behavior within professional relationships provided higher correlations with WI than private interpersonal behavior. Significant differences were found between private and professional relation settings in trainees’ interpersonal behavior with higher levels of affiliation and interdependence with significant others. Differences between therapeutic orientation and social behavior could only be found when comparing trainees’ level of interdependence with the particular relationship setting. Conclusion: Trainees’ interpersonal level of affiliation in professional relationships is a predictor for a successful psychotherapeutic development. Vice versa, controlling behavior in professional settings can be understood as a risk factor against psychotherapeutic growth. Both results strengthen an evidence-based approach for competence development during psychotherapy training. PMID:26106347
Heird, Emily Benton; Steinfeldt, Jesse A.
Research has shown that disruptive circumstances in an athlete's career (temporary injury, permanent injury, retirement) can pose significant difficulties, especially if the athlete has developed a salient athletic identity at the expense of a multidimensional self-concept. The authors present an interpersonal psychotherapy approach to case…
Rounsaville, Bruce J.; And Others
Reviews findings from manual-guided training programs in short-term interpersonal psychotherapy for depression, an exploratory treatment focusing on symptom reduction and improvement of social functioning. Discusses literature findings which suggest that the use of manuals and systematic therapist training may be useful for the conduct of…
Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Davies, Mark
Objective: To assess the impact of comorbid anxiety on treatment for adolescent depression in an effectiveness study of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A). Method: A randomized clinical trial was conducted from April 1, 1999, through July 31, 2002. Sixty-three depressed adolescents, ages 12 to 18, received either IPT-A…
Sburlati, Elizabeth S.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Mufson, Laura H.; Schniering, Carolyn A.
In order to treat adolescent depression, a number of empirically supported treatments (ESTs) have been developed from both the cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-A) frameworks. Research has shown that in order for these treatments to be implemented in routine clinical practice (RCP), effective therapist…
Nylen, Kimberly J.; O'Hara, Michael W.; Brock, Rebecca; Moel, Joy; Gorman, Laura; Stuart, Scott
Objective: We examined the course and predictors of postpartum depression in the 18 months following interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). Method: We enrolled 120 community women with major depression in a 12-week randomized trial of individual IPT during the postpartum period (O'Hara, Stuart, Gorman, & Wenzel, 2000). At 6, 12, and 18 months…
Young, Jami F.; Makover, Heather B.; Cohen, Joseph R.; Mufson, Laura; Gallop, Robert J.; Benas, Jessica S.
Given the frequent comorbidity of anxiety and depression, it is important to study the effects of depression interventions on anxiety and the impact of comorbid anxiety on depression outcomes. This article reports on pooled anxiety and depression data from two randomized trials of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a…
Markowitz, John C.; Lipsitz, Joshua; Milrod, Barbara L.
Background Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) has demonstrated efficacy in treating mood and eating disorders. This article critically reviews outcome research testing IPT for anxiety disorders, a diagnostic area where cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has dominated research and treatment. Methods A literature search identified six open and five controlled trials of IPT for social anxiety disorder (SAD), panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Results Studies were generally small, underpowered, and sometimes methodologically compromised. Nonetheless, minimally adapted from its standard depression strategies, IPT for anxiety disorders yielded positive results in open trials for the three diagnoses. In controlled trials, IPT fared better than waiting list (N = 2), was equipotent to supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy (N = 1), but less efficacious than CBT for SAD (N = 1), and CBT for panic disorder (N = 1) in a methodologically complicated study. IPT equaled CBT in a group residential format (N = 1). Conclusions IPT shows some promise for anxiety disorders but has thus far shown no advantages in controlled trials relative to other therapies. Methodological and ecological issues have complicated testing of IPT for anxiety disorders, clouding some findings. The authors discuss difficulties of conducting non-CBT research in a CBT-dominated area, investigator bias, and the probable need to further modify IPT for anxiety disorders. Untested therapies deserve the fairest possible testing. Depression and Anxiety 00:1–10, 2014. PMID:24493661
Homosexual or bisexual men, dissatisfied with, or indirectly because of, their sexual orientation, were treated in a psychotherapy group led by a male-female cotherapy team. Of the 66 patients in this series, almost half made heterosexuality an explicit treatment goal. Of these, 85 percent experienced at least partial heterosexual shifts. (Author)
Szwabo, Peggy; Thale, Thomas T.
Traditionally, the elderly have not been viewed as appropriate candidates for dynamic psychotherapy. To examine the effectiveness of a psycho-dynamically oriented group (focusing on the issues of aging, conflict resolution, and self-actualization) on 6 older adult participants, ages 63 to 87 years, systematic clinical observations of group…
Chevron, Eve S.; And Others
The training of psychotherapists has been an ongoing process in psychiatry and clinical psychology. Recently, however, a growing demand to operationalize competence criteria to enable independent evaluation of therapists' skills in specifically defined psychotherapies has occurred. To examine this phenomenon, evaluation procedures were developed…
Tasca, Giorgio A
The application of attachment theory to adult psychotherapy represents a growing area of research and practice. Despite the conceptual overlap between group therapeutic factors, attachment theory, and therapeutic tasks as outlined by Bowlby (1988), there is little research on attachment functioning in group therapy. Hence, there remain substantial questions about the role of attachment theory in understanding group therapy processes and outcomes. The three studies in this special section advance the research in some of these important areas, including showing that positive changes in self-reported attachment insecurity among clients persist long after group therapy ends; attachment anxiety affects the level and rate of interpersonal learning in groups; and change in attachment to the therapy group has an impact on longer term change in individual group members' attachment. Each article also examines the impact of these attachment concepts on treatment outcomes. Numerous areas remain to be explored when it comes to the implications of attachment theory for understanding and conducting group therapy, including the conceptual and practical overlap between attachment concepts such as security and exploration with group therapeutic factors such as cohesion and interpersonal learning. The articles in this special section begin to address some of these issues related to attachment theory and its implications for group therapists. PMID:24377399
Background Many studies have shown the efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) on depression; however, there are limited studies concerning the universality of the IPT problem areas in different countries. This study identifies whether the interpersonal problem areas defined in the IPT manual are endorsed by Thai depressed patients. Methods The Thai Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Thai HRSD) and Thai Interpersonal Questionnaire were used to assess 90 depressed and 90 non-depressed subjects in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, during July 2007 - January 2008. The association between interpersonal problem areas/sociodemographic variables and depressive disorder were analyzed by chi-square test. A multivariable analysis was performed by using logistic regression to identify the remaining factors associated with depressive disorder. Results Most of the subjects were young to middle-aged females living in Bangkok and the Central Provinces. All four interpersonal problem areas (grief, interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, and interpersonal deficits) were increased in the depressed subjects as compared to the non-depressed subjects, as were the sociodemographic variables (low education, unemployment, low income, and having a physical illness). Logistic regression showed that all interpersonal problem areas still remained problems associated with depression (grief: adjusted OR = 6.01, 95%CI = 1.93 - 18.69, p < 0.01; interpersonal role disputes: adjusted OR = 6.01, 95%CI = 2.18 - 16.52, p < 0.01; role transitions: adjusted OR = 26.30, 95%CI = 7.84 - 88.25, p < 0.01; and interpersonal deficits: adjusted OR = 2.92, 95%CI = 1.12 - 7.60, p < 0.05). Conclusion All four interpersonal problem areas were applicable to Thai depressed patients. PMID:20964850
Cassidy, Omni; Sbrocco, Tracy; Vannucci, Anna; Nelson, Beatrice; Jackson-Bowen, Darlene; Heimdal, James; Mirza, Nazrat; Wilfley, Denise E.; Osborn, Robyn; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Young, Jami F.; Waldron, Heather; Carter, Michele
Objective To obtain focus group data regarding the perspectives of rural African American (AA) girls, parents/guardians, and community leaders on obesity, loss of control (LOC) eating, relationships, and interpersonal psychotherapy for the prevention of excessive weight gain (IPT-WG). Methods 7 focus groups (N = 50 participants) were moderated and the transcripts analyzed by Westat researchers using widely accepted methods of qualitative and thematic analysis. A session was held with experts in health disparities to elucidate themes. Results Participants understood LOC eating; however, they had culturally specific perceptions including usage of alternative terms. Relationships were highly valued, specifically those between mothers and daughters. IPT-WG program components generally resonated with participants, although modifications were recommended to respect parental roles. Experts interpreted focus group themes and discussed potential barriers and solutions to recruitment and participation. Conclusion Findings suggest that adapting IPT-WG may be acceptable to rural AA families. This research is the first step in developing a sustainable excessive weight gain and binge eating disorder prevention program for rural AA adolescents. PMID:23678135
Huang, Teresa Chen-Chieh; Hill, Clara E; Strauss, Nicole; Heyman, Michelle; Hussain, Mahum
In posttherapy interviews with 31 clients who had recently terminated from individual open-ended psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy, 18 reported having had at least 1 corrective relational experience (CRE) during psychotherapy, whereas 13 did not report any CREs. CREs typically occurred in the context of therapeutic relationships that were primarily positive but also had minor difficulties. Therapists typically facilitated CREs by identifying or questioning client behavior patterns and conveying trustworthiness. Corrective shifts for clients typically involved a new understanding of the therapy experience and variantly involved gaining a new understanding of behavior patterns. Consequences generally included improvements in the therapy relationship and intrapersonal well-being. Qualitatively, the 13 non-CRE clients more frequently reported wishing the therapist's theoretical orientation was a better match than did the 18 CRE clients. Quantitatively, the CRE clients rated themselves as having more interpersonal problems at intake on the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-32 (Barkham, Hardy, & Startup, 1996), had marginally significant improvements in interpersonal functioning over time, rated their therapy alliances higher on the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Revised (Hatcher & Gillaspy, 2006) midtherapy, and rated their therapy alliances higher over time compared with the non-CRE clients. Implications for practice and research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26651212
Hatcher, Robert L
Professional practice in psychology is anchored in interpersonal or relational skills. These skills are essential to successful interactions with clients and their families, students, and colleagues. Expertise in these skills is desired and expected for the practicing psychologist. An important but little-studied aspect of interpersonal skills is what Stiles and colleagues (Stiles, Honos-Webb, & Surko, 1998; Stiles, 2009, 2013) have called appropriate responsiveness. In treatment relationships, appropriate responsiveness is the therapist's ability to achieve optimal benefit for the client by adjusting responses to the current state of the client and the interaction. This article was designed to clarify this aspect of responsiveness, showing its links to empathy, illustrating how responsiveness has been detected in controlled clinical trials, discussing how educators and supervisors have worked to enhance students' responsiveness, and considering how appropriate responsiveness has been assessed. The article also discusses the development of skills underlying appropriate responsiveness and the role of stable differences in talent in training of professional psychologists. Notwithstanding other pessimistic reports on psychologists' expertise, demonstrable expertise may exist in the effective, responsive use of these skills in treatment settings. Appropriate responsiveness may be a variety of executive functioning, organizing and guiding the use of many specific competencies. As such it may be a metacompetency, with implications for the design of competency schemes. Key to all of these considerations is the distinction between therapeutic techniques and their responsive use, which involves astute judgment as to when and how to utilize these responses to best effect in the treatment situation. PMID:26618963
Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is a chronic disorder that results in a high degree of psychological impairment for many women. This article presents a description of Interpersonal Therapy for Group (IPT-G), an evidence-based approach for the treatment of BN. The author presents a rationale for the use of IPT-G, an outline of the group model, and provides…
Lenze, Shannon N.; Rodgers, Jennifer; Luby, Joan
Perinatal depression is a major public health burden impacting both mothers and their offspring. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the acceptability and feasibility of a novel psychotherapeutic intervention that integrates an evidence-based intervention for depression, interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), with postpartum dyadic psychotherapy focused on emotional development in the context of the mother-infant relationship. Nine women between 12 and 30 weeks gestation with Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) scores >12 were entered into treatment. Three out of nine women dropped out of the study after initiating treatment (one lost to follow-up antepartum; two lost to follow-up post-partum). Seven out of eight women (87 %) reported clinically significant improvements in EDS scores from baseline to 37–39 weeks gestation, and all women had clinically significant improvements at 12 months postpartum. A small randomized controlled trial is underway to further examine the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. PMID:25604869
Howard, Jonathan K.
Research on therapeutic factors of group psychotherapy for adult alcoholics is reviewed. The research in this area has focused on determining whether or not group psychotherapy is an effective treatment modality for alcoholics. This review examines therapeutic factors in three phases of treatment: (1) preadmission, (2) primary intervention, and…
In the course of group analytic psychotherapy, where we discovered the power of the therapeutic effects, there occurred the need of group analytic psychotherapy researches. Psychotherapeutic work in general, and group psychotherapy in particular, are hard to measure and put into some objective frames. Researches, i. e. measuring of changes in psychotherapy is a complex task, and there are large disagreements. For a long time, the empirical-descriptive method was the only way of research in the field of group psychotherapy. Problems of researches in group psychotherapy in general, and particularly in group analytic psychotherapy can be reviewed as methodology problems at first, especially due to unrepeatability of the therapeutic process. The basic polemics about measuring of changes in psychotherapy is based on the question whether a change is to be measured by means of open measuring of behaviour or whether it should be evaluated more finely by monitoring inner psychological dimensions. Following the therapy results up, besides providing additional information on the patient's improvement, strengthens the psychotherapist's self-respect, as well as his respectability and credibility as a scientist. PMID:25478094
TSCHUSCHKE, VOLKER; MACKENZIE, K. ROY; HAASER, BARBARA; JANKE, GUNDULA
Process and outcome measures were compared in two long-term psychotherapy groups. Measures of Self-Disclosure and Feedback were based on analysis of videotaped sessions by use of Bales’s SYMLOG three-axial system. These measures were then combined to form a measure of Interpersonal Work. High Interpersonal Work scores, both in early sessions and throughout treatment, predicted better outcome for individual members at 18-month follow-up. Interpersonal Work scores in later group sessions were not related to outcome. Findings suggest that early sessions are a critical time for members to develop a working style in the group. Members who fail to do so have a less successful outcome even if their working styles improve in later sessions. PMID:22700263
Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin
BACKGROUND. Drop-out from psychotherapy is common and represents a considerable problem in clinical practice and research. Aim. To explore pre-treatment predictors of early and late drop-out from psychodynamic group therapy in a public outpatient unit for non-psychotic disorders in Denmark. Methods. Naturalistic design including 329 patients, the majority with mood, neurotic and personality disorders referred to 39-session group therapy. Predictors were socio-demographic and clinical variables, self-reported symptoms (Symptom Check List-90-Revised) and personality style (Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II). Drop-out was classified into early and late premature termination excluding patients who dropped out for external reasons. Results. Drop-out comprised 20.6% (68 patients) of the sample. Logistic regression revealed social functioning, vocational training, alcohol problems and antisocial behavior to be related to drop-out. However, early drop-outs had prominent agoraphobic symptoms, lower interpersonal sensitivity and compulsive personality features, and late drop-outs cognitive and somatic anxiety symptoms and antisocial personality features. Clinical and psychological variables accounted for the major part of variance in predictions of drop-out, which ranged from 15.6% to 19.5% (Nagelkerke Pseudo R-Square). Conclusion. Social functioning was consistently associated with drop-out, but personality characteristics and anxiety symptoms differentiated between early and late drop-out. Failure to discriminate between stages of premature termination may explain some of the inconsistencies in the drop-out literature. Clinical implications. Before selection of patients to time-limited psychodynamic groups, self-reported symptoms should be thoroughly considered. Patients with agoraphobic symptoms should be offered alternative treatment. Awareness of and motivation to work with interpersonal issues may be essential for compliance with group therapy. PMID:24754466
Objective: Psychotherapy instructors have used video technology to train residents for over 40 years. Though it has met with some controversy, many will argue that videotape review is essential for self-directed learning and accurate psychotherapy supervision. Methods: The author describes a technique of small-group videotape training as provided…
Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Swartz, Holly A.; Frank, Ellen
Objective: To minimize barriers to care, ameliorate antenatal depression, and prevent postpartum depression, we conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of providing brief interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-B) to depressed, pregnant patients on low incomes in an obstetrics and gynecological (OB/GYN) clinic. Method: Twelve pregnant,…
McBride, Carolina; Atkinson, Leslie; Quilty, Lena C.; Bagby, R. Michael
Anxiety and avoidance dimensions of adult attachment insecurity were tested as moderators of treatment outcome for interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Fifty-six participants with major depression were randomly assigned to these treatment conditions. Beck Depression Inventory-II, Six-Item Hamilton Rating Scale…
Mufson, Laura H.; Dorta, Kristen Pollack; Olfson, Mark; Weissman, Myrna M.; Hoagwood, Kimberly
This paper describes the process of modifying and transporting an evidence-based treatment, Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents (IPT-A), from a university setting to school-based health clinics. It addresses conceptual issues involved in the shift from efficacy to effectiveness research as well as operational issues specific to…
Budman, S H; Cooley, S; Demby, A; Koppenaal, G; Koslof, J; Powers, T
This article describes a model of time-limited psychotherapy for patients with personality disorders that emphasizes the group as a social microcosm. The patient population described is relatively high functioning, although the majority of the group members meet DSM-III-R (American Psychiatric Association, 1987) criteria for an Axis II diagnosis. The clinical model's key theoretical concepts, for example, interpersonal focus; active therapist stance; emphasis on group interaction and processes; use of time limits; primary care/intermittent treatment philosophy; and emphasis on patients' strengths, goals, and resources are described. The relationships between the phases of group therapy and the key theoretical concepts are delineated. PMID:8753151
MILLER, MARK D.; FRANK, ELLEN; CORNES, CLEON; IMBER, STANLEY D.; ANDERSON, BARBARA; EHRENPREIS, LIN; MALLOY, JULIE; SILBERMAN, REBECCA; WOLFSON, LEE; ZALTMAN, JEAN; REYNOLDS, CHARLES F.
The efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) as a treatment for outpatients with major depression has been documented in several controlled trials. Recently, IPT has been adapted specifically for depression in late life. The authors report on their experience in applying IPT to geriatric patients whose depression is temporally linked to the loss of their spouses. Detailed treatment techniques are illustrated with case vignettes. Preliminary treatment outcomes are presented for 6 subjects who showed a mean change on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression from 18.5 ± 2.3 SD to 7.2 ± 4.6 after an average of 17 weekly IPT sessions. IPT appears to be an effective short-term treatment for bereavement-related depression in elderly subjects. PMID:22700188
We systematically reviewed the research literature on spiritually and religiously integrated group psychotherapy to answer the following three questions: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group psychotherapy; and, third, what is the outcome of the group psychotherapies? We searched in two databases: PsycINFO and PubMed. Inclusion and exclusion criteria and checklists from standardized assessment tools were applied to the research literature. Qualitative and quantitative papers were included. In total, 8 articles were considered eligible for the review. Findings from the evaluation suggested that the concepts of spirituality and religiosity were poorly conceptualized and the way in which spiritual and religious factors were integrated into such group psychotherapies, which distinguished it from other types of group psychotherapies, was not fully conceptualized or understood either. However, clear and delimited conceptualization of spiritual and religious factors is crucial in order to be able to conclude the direct influences of spiritual or religious factors on outcomes. Implications for spiritually or religiously integrated group psychotherapy and conducting research in this field are propounded. PMID:24288557
Lenze, Shannon N; Rodgers, Jennifer; Luby, Joan
Perinatal depression is a major public health burden impacting both mothers and their offspring. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the acceptability and feasibility of a novel psychotherapeutic intervention that integrates an evidence-based intervention for depression, interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), with postpartum dyadic psychotherapy focused on emotional development in the context of the mother-infant relationship. Nine women between 12 and 30 weeks gestation with Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) scores >12 were entered into treatment. Three out of nine women dropped out of the study after initiating treatment (one lost to follow-up antepartum; two lost to follow-up postpartum). Seven out of eight women (87 %) reported clinically significant improvements in EDS scores from baseline to 37-39 weeks gestation, and all women had clinically significant improvements at 12 months postpartum. A small randomized controlled trial is underway to further examine the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. PMID:25604869
Ollila, Pekka; Knekt, Paul; Heinonen, Erkki; Lindfors, Olavi
Information on how the patient's interpersonal problems predict alliance development during long-term therapy is lacking. The aim of this study was to explore how the patient's pre-treatment interpersonal problems predict the development of alliance in long-term psychotherapy. Altogether 128 adult outpatients experiencing mood or anxiety disorder were assigned to long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy in the Helsinki Psychotherapy Study. The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP) total score and the eight octant scores, assessed at baseline, were used as predictors. The trajectories of change in patient- and therapist-rated Working Alliance Inventory (WAI) were used as outcome measures at 7, 12, and 36 months of follow-up after baseline. Study of the changes by time showed that the patient-rated alliance was significantly improved by the 36-month follow-up, i.e. the most usual end-point of therapy, in persons with higher pre-treatment level of the IIP total score. Low total IIP score and low to moderate level of hostile type problems showed no slope of improvement of patient-rated alliance during follow-up. The therapist-rated alliance showed a similar course as the patient-rated alliance with the exception of a faster improvement for higher IIP scores. In conclusion, a higher level of patients' interpersonal problems predicted favorable alliance development. PMID:27173654
Altenstein, David; Krieger, Tobias; Grosse Holtforth, Martin
Interpersonal theories of psychotherapy hypothesize that the success of therapy depends on the therapist's and patient's dominant and affiliative behaviors as well as their interplay (complementarity). This study sought to investigate (a) how in-session interpersonal microprocesses predict postsession evaluations of the therapeutic alliance as well as cognitive-emotional processing and (b) how complementarity develops over the course of a therapy session. Twenty depressed patients were treated at a university-based outpatient clinic with a variant of cognitive therapy. One session was analyzed from each therapy's middle phase using a novel real-time rating procedure (joystick method) to assess the patients' and therapists' affiliative and dominant behaviors as well as their resulting complementarity over the course of the session. The therapeutic alliance and cognitive-emotional processing were assessed by self-reports directly after the respective session. As predicted, more emotional arousal was associated with deviations from complementarity, whereas a positive alliance was related to affiliative patient behavior. Moreover, marginally significant trends suggest that refraining from answering to the pull of patient hostility might benefit both the alliance as well as cognitive-emotional processing. Overall, multilevel growth modeling revealed a significant cubic trend of complementarity over the course of the session. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:23647390
Franks, V; Watts, M; Fabricius, J
The dissatisfaction of patients with communication in health care has largely been addressed by providing more communication skills training. Research into why skills training might be ineffective has identified various factors, which include organizational resistance, personal defences against anxiety and a need for personal reflection and support. In one college of nurse education small group discussion and reflection had become established practice for students in their first and second clinical experience. The groups met once weekly and were facilitated by a nurse teacher. Discussion was unstructured and focused on the nurse's interpersonal relationship with his or her patients. This project examined one such group and sought to examine the use of small group reflective discussion by nurses about their patients as a means of improving interpersonal communication. The research was conducted over a period of 6 months with nine student nurses meeting once weekly during their first two episodes of clinical experience. Kelly's personal construct theory was used and two repertory grids were constructed by the group. One grid examined processes and change in intrapersonal construing, and the other grid examined processes and change in construing about certain patients. These grids were completed by the students at the beginning and at the termination of the groups. Notes were taken after each group meeting, which recorded impressions and processes; these were discussed once weekly with supervision. The notes were analysed using a grounded theory methodology. The results show some changes in patterns of constructing in relation to self which indicate an increase in anxiety and reluctance to self-reflect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7860864
Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L; Handley, Elizabeth D
Genetic moderation of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) efficacy for economically disadvantaged women with major depressive disorder was examined. Specifically, we investigated whether genotypic variation in corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) and the linked polymorphic region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) moderated effects of IPT on depressive symptoms over time. We also tested genotype moderation of IPT mechanisms on social adjustment and perceived stress. Non-treatment-seeking urban women at or below the poverty level with infants were recruited from the community (N = 126; M age = 25.33 years, SD = 4.99; 54.0% African American, 22.2% Caucasian, and 23.8% Hispanic/biracial) and randomized to individual IPT or Enhanced Community Standard groups. The results revealed that changes in depressive symptoms over time depended on both intervention group and genotypes (5-HTTLPR and CRHR1). Moreover, multiple-group path analysis indicated that IPT improved depressive symptoms, increased social adjustment, and decreased perceived stress at posttreatment among women with the 0 copies of the CRHR1 TAT haplotype only. Finally, improved social adjustment at postintervention significantly mediated the effect of IPT on reduced depressive symptoms at 8 months postintervention for women with 0 copies of the TAT haplotype only. Post hoc analyses of 5-HTTLPR were indicative of differential susceptibility, albeit among African American women only. PMID:25640828
Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.; Handley, Elizabeth D.
Genetic moderation of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) efficacy for economically disadvantaged women with major depressive disorder was examined. Specifically, we investigated whether genotypic variation in corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) and the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) moderated effects of IPT on depressive symptoms over time. We also tested genotype moderation of IPT mechanisms social adjustment and perceived stress. Non-treatment seeking urban women at or below the poverty level with infants were recruited from the community (N = 126; M age = 25.33; SD = 4.99; 54.0% African-American, 22.2% Caucasian, and 23.8% Hispanic/biracial) and randomized to individual IPT or enhanced community standard (ECS). Results revealed that changes in depressive symptoms over time depended on both intervention group and genotypes (5-HTTLPR and CRHR1). Moreover, multiple-group path analysis indicated that IPT improved depressive symptoms, increased social adjustment and decreased perceived stress at post-treatment among women with the 0 copies of the CRHR1 TAT haplotype only. Finally, improved social adjustment at post-intervention significantly mediated the effect of IPT on reduced depressive symptoms at 8 months post-intervention for women 0 copies of the TAT haplotype only. Post-hoc analyses of 5-HTTLPR were indicative of differential susceptibility, albeit among African-American women only. PMID:25640828
Young, Jami F.; Makover, Heather B.; Cohen, Joseph R.; Mufson, Laura; Gallop, Robert; Benas, Jessica S.
Objective Given the frequent comorbidity of anxiety and depression, it is important to study the effects of depression interventions on anxiety and the impact of comorbid anxiety on depression outcomes. Method This paper reports on pooled anxiety and depression data from two randomized trials of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a depression prevention program. Ninety-eight adolescents were randomized to receive IPT-AST or school counseling (SC). Outcome and predictor analyses were performed utilizing hierarchical linear models. Results IPT-AST adolescents had significantly greater reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms than SC adolescents during the intervention. Baseline anxiety symptoms predicted change in depressive symptoms for adolescents in both intervention conditions, with adolescents low in baseline anxiety demonstrating more rapid change in depressive symptoms than adolescents high in baseline anxiety. Conclusions These findings indicate that IPT-AST is effective at decreasing both depressive and anxiety symptoms. For adolescents with comorbid symptoms of anxiety, there may be slower rates of change in depressive symptoms following prevention programs. PMID:22891881
Razaghi, Emran Mohammad; Tabatabaee, Maryam; Pourramzani, Ali; Shirali Mohammadpour, Reza; Mousazade Moghaddam, Arezou; Yahyavi, Seyyed Taha
In Iran, inpatient group psychotherapy has been limited to transient practices for research purposes or fulfilling personal interest of therapists. The goal of this paper is to share and explain the experience of developing an inpatient group psychotherapy program in Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital, Tehran, Iran. After theoretical delineation and preparation of a draft of the program guideline, two pilot sessions were held. Based on this initial experience a final treatment guideline was prepared. Afterwards, the program was continued for more than 1 year in a female ward at Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. The output of this exercise was a guideline that covers important topics in development of inpatient group psychotherapy. It is concluded that inpatient group psychotherapy has its unique challenges. Of the most important challenges that can be mentioned in this regard are the participation of patients with significant differences in levels of psychopathology and psychiatric signs and symptoms, and high comorbidity with specific personality traits or disorders. Other challenges relevant to the structure of the group include items such as very limited time for working through and inevitable out-of-group contacts. PMID:26576176
Group psychotherapy was used with socio-economically deprived adolescents whose capacity for self-expression was promising. Non-psychotic acting out characters and passive inadequate personalities participated, and discussion, role playing, and psychodrama were the techniques utilized. After one year the following changes were seen: (1) increased…
Kellett, S; Beail, N
This article presents a single-case experimental study of a woman suffering a traumatized reaction to a road traffic accident (RTA). In addition to meeting the DSM-IV (APA, 1994) criteria for the diagnosis of PTSD, the client suffered recurrent bizarre nightmares. The client reported at assessment, that each night her dreams were dominated by a terrifying hooded cloaked faceless figure. The central aim of the study therefore was to assess the efficacy of a psychodynamic-interpersonal (PI) style psychotherapy in the context of an unusual PTSD reaction. The methodology employed an A/B multiple baseline time series design, with six month follow-up. A and B represent a series of dream diary observations under two conditions: assessment/baseline (A) and treatment/intervention (B). Treatment consisted of a manualized psychodynamic-interpersonal (PI) psychotherapy to facilitate insight into the content and meaning of the nightmares. The intervention reduced the frequency and associated distress of the nightmares to zero. Follow-up at six months noted the long-term efficacy of the psychotherapy. The study is discussed with reference to the assimilation model of psychotherapeutic change. PMID:9093749
Bozzatello, Paola; Bellino, Silvio
Few investigations evaluated the long-term effects of psychotherapies in borderline personality disorder (BPD). In a previous study, we compared efficacy of combination of fluoxetine and interpersonal psychotherapy adapted to BPD (IPT-BPD) versus single fluoxetine administered for 32 weeks. This study is aimed to investigate whether the results obtained with the addition of IPT-BPD persist during a follow-up period. Forty-four patients who completed the 32 weeks trial underwent 24 months of follow-up receiving fluoxetine 20-40 mg/day. Clinical Global Impression Severity (CGI-S), Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression and Anxiety (HDRS, HARS), Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS), Satisfaction Profile (SAT-P), and Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index (BPDSI) were repeated at 6, 12, and 24 months. Statistical analysis was performed with the general linear model. Results showed that most of the differences between combined therapy and single pharmacotherapy at the end of the 32 weeks trial were maintained after 24 months follow-up. The addition of IPT-BPD to medication produced greater effects on BPD symptoms (impulsivity and interpersonal relationships) and quality of life (perception of psychological and social functioning) that endured after termination of psychotherapy. On the contrary, different effects on anxiety symptoms and affective instability were lost after 6 months. PMID:27107668
Betts, Kevin R; Hinsz, Verlin B
An extensive research literature has examined the reactions of individuals facing interpersonal rejection. Small groups can also be rejected, but current research tells us little about the experiences of groups and their members directly. We integrate findings from various literatures to gain insight into shared rejection experiences and their outcomes. Of most practical importance, we argue that groups can be expected to react with more hostility than individuals when rejected. Four existing models that account for how group processes might alter such reactions are examined: a need-threat model, a rejection-identification model, a multimotive model, and a dual attitudes model. Aspects of these models are then integrated into a unifying framework that is useful for understanding hostile reactions to group marginalization. Implications for natural groups such as terrorist cells, school cliques, racial and ethnic minorities, and gangs are discussed. PMID:23928559
Martinez-Taboada, Cristina; Amutio, Alberto; Elgorriaga, Edurne; Arnoso, Ainara
(1) What is the history and the theoretical orientation of group therapy in Spain? (2) How is training organized? (3) What role does group psychotherapy play in the health system in Spain? (4) What is the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice in Spain? (5) What topics can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Spain? (6) How are group-related issues important within the social background of Spain? and (7) What does group work hold for the future? Although not even a century has passed since the birth of this discipline, there have already been many events associated with the management of power and knowledge, the development of a sense of community, and the evolution of the political and social life of our country. Group therapy training is still evolving and is properly supported and accredited by prestigious institutions. In the 2013 Symposium of the Spanish Society of Group Psychotherapy and Group Techniques (SEPTG), the need for joint group theories and techniques within the profession's activities was clearly highlighted. Further, the enthusiasm of group psychotherapists to open themselves to specific social perspectives (health, education, community prevention, organizations) is a way of encouraging society to untangle conscious and unconscious knots that are created in social interaction. PMID:26401792
... patients with BPD. 6 Interpersonal Therapy Interpersonal therapy (IPT) is most often used on a one-on- ... of depression). The current manual-based form of IPT used today was developed in the 1980's by ...
Dietz, Laura J.; Weinberg, Rebecca J.; Brent, David A.; Mufson, Laura
Objective To conduct a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of family-based interpersonal psychotherapy (FB-IPT) for treating depression in preadolescents (ages 7–12) as compared to child-centered therapy (CCT), a supportive and nondirective treatment that closely approximates the standard of care for pediatric depression in community mental health. Method Preadolescents with depression (N=42) were randomly assigned FB-IPT or CCT. Pre- and posttreatment assessments included clinician-administered measures of depression, parent- and child-reported depression and anxiety symptoms, and parent-child conflict and interpersonal impairment with peers. Results Preadolescents receiving FB-IPT had higher rates of remission (66.0% vs. 31%), a greater decrease in depressive symptoms from pre- to posttreatment, and lower depressive symptoms at posttreatment (R2=0.35, Δ R2 = 0.22; B= -8.15, SE= 2.61, t(37)= -3.13, p=0.002, F2=0.28) than did preadolescents with depression receiving CCT. Furthermore, preadolescents in the FB-IPT condition reported significant reductions in anxiety and interpersonal impairment than did preadolescents in the CCT condition. Changes in social and peer impairment from pre- to posttreatment were associated with preadolescents’ posttreatment depressive symptoms. There was a significant indirect effect for decreased social impairment accounting for the association between the FB-IPT and preadolescents’ posttreatment depressive symptoms. Conclusion Findings indicate FB-IPT is an effective treatment for preadolescent depression and support further investigation of interpersonal mechanisms by which FB-IPT may reduce preadolescent depression. Clinical trial registration information Phase II Study of Family Based Interpersonal Psychotherapy (FB-IPT) for Depressed Preadolescents; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02054312; NCT02054312. PMID:25721184
Schlapobersky, John R
In the United Kingdom (U.K.), group therapy is one of the most widely practiced methods, with a broad range of applications and an extensive literature. The terminology used here is based on the author's chapter in The New Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry (Schlapobersky & Pines, 2008). We used two factors-therapeutic goals and group leadership-to provide a classification of different models and applications. We described group therapy as a method, group analysis (for example) as a model, and an in-patient or weekly group as an application of a model. PMID:26401800
Azima, Fern J.
This paper defines a useful strategy for therapists working with adolescents which includes: (1) a general model of the group leader's responsibilities and (2) a cataloguing of some of the specific impediments for both adolescent peers and the therapist that prevent effective communication. The goal of the group therapy is to identify the specific…
Ettin, Mark F; Cohen, Bertram D
Macropolitical evolution, starting with authoritarian monarchism, has moved through anarchistic transitions either to the totalitarianism of fascism and communism or to liberal and social democracy. We posit analogous micropolitical development in process-oriented therapy groups: "dependence" and "counterdependence" corresponding to monarchism and anarchism; and "independence" and "interdependence" to liberal and social democracy, respectively. Transition from counterdependence to independence and interdependence may be: (1) facilitated through group members' cooperative experience of rebellion, or (2) blocked by collective identification, the internalization of dystopian or utopian fantasies that coalesce as "group-self" perceptions. We explore how group therapists work clinically with and through these several "political cultures" in the service of group and self transformation. PMID:14562523
The aim of this research is try to expose and to debate the groupal psychotherapy experience of homosexual males older than 65 years, in Buenos Aires. The starting point for this work is based on that homogeneous groups are effective in some contexts, what is demonstrated by the results at the beginning and at the end of the samples of the BSI and SAS, although this data are not, like it was supposed, commonly linked with the selected biographical antecedents (abuse of power, bereavements during the last military dictatorships, bereavements as result of the AIDS epidemic and the difficulties in the economic survival). PMID:12478313
Kibel, H D
The author reviews the history of the literature on inpatient group psychotherapy. Key observations of early workers--the central role of the group leader, the experiential benefits of the group, and the relationship to the milieu--have not resulted in wide application of this form of therapy because of limitations of previous conceptual models. The model presented draws on concepts of general systems and object relations theory. General systems theory explains how the small therapy group symbolically reflects the dynamic process of the psychiatric unit. Object relations theory provides a unique understanding of the central regulatory function of the therapist and the beneficial effects of the group. The author provides clinical illustrations of these points. PMID:7446787
Ettin, M F
Practitioners of analytical psychology were late in coming to the practice of group psychotherapy because Carl Jung effectively forbade the treatment of individuals in stranger groups. This article explores Jung's objections to group therapy and, by way of a conceptual review of the literature, expands on the practice that grew up proximate to his death. It is argued that Jungian theory is especially conducive to collective treatment because it is concerned with the relationship between oppositions (whether in persons or between people) and uses synthetic and symbolic processes to bring about an integration of the one with the many. For Jungians who espouse a theory of symbolic transformation, archetype, and myth, the group is embodied in individuals and can be accessed by working with individuals in groups. PMID:7558501
Pigeon, Wilfred R.; May, Pamela E.; Perlis, Michael L.; Ward, Erin A.; Lu, Naiji; Talbot, Nancy L.
Insomnia frequently occurs with trauma exposure and depression, but can ameliorate with improvements in depression. Insomnia was assessed by the insomnia subscale of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression in 106 women with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and major depression receiving Interpersonal Psychotherapy in an uncontrolled pilot (n = 36) and an immediately subsequent randomized controlled trial (n = 70) comparing IPT to treatment as usual. Depression improved in each study and in both treatment conditions; insomnia had smaller, non-significant improvements. Overall, 95 women (90%) endorsed insomnia on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV at baseline and, of those, 90% endorsed insomnia following treatment. Despite improvements in depression, insomnia persists for most women with CSA. PMID:19885874
Cooper, Zafra; Allen, Elizabeth; Bailey-Straebler, Suzanne; Basden, Shawnee; Murphy, Rebecca; O'Connor, Marianne E; Fairburn, Christopher G
Consistent predictors, and more especially moderators, of response to psychological treatments for eating disorders have not been identified. The present exploratory study examined predictors and moderators of outcome in adult patients who took part in a randomised clinical trial comparing two leading treatments for these disorders, enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT-E) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). Four potentially important findings emerged. Firstly, patients with a longer duration of disorder were less likely to benefit from either treatment. Second, across the two treatments the presence, at baseline, of higher levels of over-evaluation of the importance of shape predicted a less good treatment outcome. Third DSM-IV diagnosis did not predict treatment outcome. Fourth, with the exception of patients with baseline low self-esteem who achieved a better outcome with CBT-E, it was generally not possible to identify a subgroup of patients who would differentially benefit from one or other treatment. PMID:27423373
Crenshaw, David A.
This paper describes a group approach to the treatment of mildly retarded and borderline adolescents in a residential school setting. The program attempts to develop the requisite interpersonal skills for a successful return to community life. The approach utilizes strong reality orientation and role playing. (Author/MS)
Duncan, W. Jack; Beeland, James L.
Investigates seven task-oriented groups which examine consistency of social choice across a range of behavioral criteria (friendship, leadership, followship, and evaluation criteria of social interaction). Results suggest that some criteria of interpersonal relations are interdependent: acceptance and rejection choices are not opposite ends of…
Opiyo, Elizabeth; Ongeri, Linnet; Rota, Grace; Verdeli, Helen; Neylan, Thomas; Meffert, Susan
We examine the efficacy of nonspecialists delivering interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) to HIV-positive (HIV+) women. We describe a case in which local personnel without prior mental health training delivered IPT for the treatment of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder in an HIV+ woman who reported experiencing gender-based violence and was enrolled in HIV care at the Family AIDS, Care, Education and Services program in Kisumu, Kenya. PMID:27463639
Does Interpersonal Psychotherapy improve clinical care for adolescents with depression attending a rural child and adolescent mental health service? Study protocol for a cluster randomised feasibility trial
Bearsley-Smith, Cate; Browne, Mark Oakley; Sellick, Ken; Villanueva, Elmer V; Chesters, Janice; Francis, Karen; Reddy, Prasuna
Background Depression amongst adolescents is a costly societal problem. Little research documents the effectiveness of public mental health services in mapping this problem. Further, it is not clear whether usual care in such services can be improved via clinician training in a relevant evidence based intervention. One such intervention, found to be effective and easily learned amongst novice clinicians, is Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT). The study described in the current paper has two main objectives. First, it aims to investigate the impact on clinical care of implementing Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Adolescents for the treatment of adolescent depression within a rural mental health service compared with Treatment as Usual (TAU). The second objective is to record the process and challenges (i.e. feasibility, acceptability, sustainability) associated with implementing and evaluating an evidence-based intervention within a community service. This paper outlines the study rationale and design for this community based research trial. Methods/design The study involves a cluster randomisation trial to be conducted within a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service in rural Australia. All clinicians in the service will be invited to participate. Participating clinicians will be randomised via block design at each of four sites to (a) training and delivery of IPT, or (b) TAU. The primary measure of impact on care will be a clinically significant change in depressive symptomatology, with secondary outcomes involving treatment satisfaction and changes in other symptomatology. Participating adolescents with significant depressive symptomatology, aged 12 to 18 years, will complete assessment measures at Weeks 0, 12 and 24 of treatment. They will also complete a depression inventory once a month during that period. This study aims to recruit 60 adolescent participants and their parent/guardian/s. A power analysis is not indicated as an intra-class correlation
van Schaik, Digna JF; van Marwijk, Harm WJ; Beekman, Aartjan TF; de Haan, Marten; van Dyck, Richard
Background Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) is recommended in most depression treatment guidelines and proved to be a suitable treatment for elderly depressed patients. Despite the favorable results of IPT in research populations, the dissemination to general practice is surprisingly limited. Little is known about uptake and satisfaction when this therapy is introduced into real-life general practice. Methods Motivation and evaluation of patients, GPs and therapists were recorded and organizational barriers described alongside a randomized controlled trial. IPT, given by mental health workers, was compared with usual general practitioner (GP) care. Included were patients (≥55 years) who met the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder. Results Patients were motivated for the psychotherapy intervention: of the 205 eligible patients, 143 (70%) entered the study, and of the 69 patients who were offered IPT, 77% complied with the treatment. IPT proved to be an attractive therapy for patients as well as for therapists from mental health organizations. General practitioners evaluated the intervention positively afterwards, mainly because of the time-limited and structured approach. Organizational barriers: no IPT therapists were available; an IPT trainer and supervisor had to be trained and training materials had to be developed and translated. Additionally, there was a lack of office space in some general practices; for therapists from private practices it was not feasible to participate because of financial reasons. IPT was superior to usual care in patients with moderate to severe depression. Conclusion As we succeeded in delivering IPT in primary care practice, and as IPT was superior to usual care, there are grounds to support the implementation of IPT for depressed elderly patients within general practice, as long as the practices have room for the therapists and financial barriers can be overcome. Consolidation may be achieved by making this intervention
Swartz, Holly A; Zuckoff, Allan; Frank, Ellen; Spielvogle, Heather N; Shear, M Katherine; Fleming, M A Dana; Scott, John
Major depression affects one out of five women during her lifetime. Depressed mothers with psychiatrically ill children represent an especially vulnerable population. Challenged by the demands of caring for ill children, these mothers often put their own needs last; consequently, their depressions remain untreated. This population is especially difficult to engage in treatment. We have developed a nine-session intervention, an engagement session followed by eight sessions of brief interpersonal psychotherapy designed to increase maternal participation in their own psychotherapy, resolve symptoms of maternal depression, and enhance relationships (IPT-MOMS). This open-label trial assesses the feasibility and acceptability of providing this treatment to depressed mothers. Thirteen mothers meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression were recruited from a pediatric mental health clinic where their school-age children were receiving psychiatric treatment. Subjects (mothers) were treated openly with IPT-MOMS. Eighty-five percent (11/13) completed the study. Subjects were evaluated with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and completed self-report measures of quality of life and functioning at three time points: baseline, after treatment completion, and 6-months posttreatment. A signed rank test was used to compare measurement changes between assessment time points. Subjects showed significant improvement from baseline to posttreatment on measures of maternal symptoms and functioning. These gains were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Therapy was well tolerated and accepted by depressed mothers, who are typically difficult to engage in treatment. A high proportion of subjects completed treatment and experienced improvements in functioning. Future randomized clinical trials are needed to establish the efficacy of this approach. PMID:16841341
Tasca, Giorgio A; Francis, Kylie; Balfour, Louise
Trainees may experience greater effectiveness as therapists by conceptualizing group therapy interactions as occurring at different levels of functioning. We teach group therapy trainees to be aware of and flexibly direct their interventions to three levels of the group: (a) the intraindividual level, (b) the interpersonal level, and (3) the group-as-a-whole level. Within this conceptualization, we also encourage trainees to reinforce the group structure especially related to safety and secure base and to help group members to self-reflect about their interactions within the group. In this clinical process commentary, we describe a process of pregroup assessment and preparation that includes evaluating individual core relational patterns (CRPs) and how these patterns might express themselves in the three levels of group functioning. A running case presentation provides examples of a CRP formulation, levels of group functioning, and therapist interventions that are specific to each level. Making use of each group level within every session may allow the novice group therapist to sort the complex information they receive in a meaningful way. A therapist who can flexibly attend to and work within each group level will optimize the effectiveness of their interventions. PMID:24059738
Huibers, Marcus J. H.; Cohen, Zachary D.; Lemmens, Lotte H. J. M.; Arntz, Arnoud; Peeters, Frenk P. M. L.; Cuijpers, Pim; DeRubeis, Robert J.
Introduction Although psychotherapies for depression produce equivalent outcomes, individual patients respond differently to different therapies. Predictors of outcome have been identified in the context of randomized trials, but this information has not been used to predict which treatment works best for the depressed individual. In this paper, we aim to replicate a recently developed treatment selection method, using data from an RCT comparing the effects of cognitive therapy (CT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). Methods 134 depressed patients completed the pre- and post-treatment BDI-II assessment. First, we identified baseline predictors and moderators. Second, individual treatment recommendations were generated by combining the identified predictors and moderators in an algorithm that produces the Personalized Advantage Index (PAI), a measure of the predicted advantage in one therapy compared to the other, using standard regression analyses and the leave-one-out cross-validation approach. Results We found five predictors (gender, employment status, anxiety, personality disorder and quality of life) and six moderators (somatic complaints, cognitive problems, paranoid symptoms, interpersonal self-sacrificing, attributional style and number of life events) of treatment outcome. The mean average PAI value was 8.9 BDI points, and 63% of the sample was predicted to have a clinically meaningful advantage in one of the therapies. Those who were randomized to their predicted optimal treatment (either CT or IPT) had an observed mean end-BDI of 11.8, while those who received their predicted non-optimal treatment had an end-BDI of 17.8 (effect size for the difference = 0.51). Discussion Depressed patients who were randomized to their predicted optimal treatment fared much better than those randomized to their predicted non-optimal treatment. The PAI provides a great opportunity for formal decision-making to improve individual patient outcomes in depression. Although
Binder, Jeffrey L; Betan, Ephi J
Therapeutic discourse combines inquiry and dialogue strategies, which correspond, respectively, to the construction and deconstruction of a patient's maladaptive personal story line. This story line refers to a pattern of dysfunctional thinking/emotional management and a corresponding maladaptive interpersonal pattern that has been identified as the root cause of the patient's presenting problems. Identifying and critically examining a patient's personal story line is the superordinate technical strategy that guides our work each session. More specific technical guidance is provided by the change processes that we attempt to activate in each session: cognitive insight around emotionally loaded issues, corrective emotional/interpersonal experiences, and practice implementing the insights gained during a therapy session. PMID:24000865
Fassone, G; Valcella, F; Pallini, S; Scarcella, F; Tombolini, L; Ivaldi, A; Prunetti, E; Manaresi, F; Liotti, G
Assessing Interpersonal Motivations in Transcripts (AIMIT) is a coding system aiming to systematically detect the activity of interpersonal motivational systems (IMS) in the therapeutic dialogue. An inter- and intra-rater reliability study has been conducted. Sixteen video-recorded psychotherapy sessions were selected and transcribed according to the AIMIT criteria. Sessions relate to 16 patients with an Axis II diagnosis, with a mean Global Assessment of Functioning of 51. For the intra-rater reliability evaluation, five sessions have been selected and assigned to five independent coders who where asked to make a first evaluation, and then a second independent one 14 days later. For the inter-rater reliability study, the sessions coded by the therapist-coder were jointly revised with another coder and finally classified as gold standard. The 16 standard sessions were sent to other evaluators for the independent coding. The agreement (κ) was estimated according to the following parameters for each coding unit: evaluation units supported by the 'codable' activation of one or more IMS; motivational interaction with reference to the ongoing relation between patient and therapist; an interaction between the patient and another person reported/narrated by the patient; detection of specific IMS: attachment (At), caregiving (CG), rank (Ra), sexuality (Se), peer cooperation (PC); and transitions from one IMS to another were also scored. The intra-rater agreement was evaluated through the parameters 'cod', 'At', 'CG', 'Ra', 'Se' and 'PC' described above. A total of 2443 coding units were analysed. For the nine parameters on which the agreement was calculated, eight ['coded (Cod)', 'ongoing relation (Rel)', 'narrated relation (Nar)', 'At', 'CG', 'Ra', 'Se' and 'PC'] have κ values comprised between 0.62 (CG) and 0.81 (Cod) and were therefore satisfactory. The scoring of 'transitions' showed agreement values slightly below desired cut-off (0.56). Intra-rater reliability was
Verdeli, Helen; Therosme, Tatiana; Eustache, Eddy; Hilaire, Olissaint St; Joseph, Benissois; Sönmez, Cemile Ceren; Raviola, Giuseppe
After the 2010 Haiti earthquake, Zanmi Lasante, a local health care organization, implemented a collaborative stepped-care model to address depression in community and primary care settings in rural Haiti. Specialized community health workers, the ajans santé, collaborate with local psychologists and primary care doctors to offer home-based evaluation, support, and follow-up. The services include brief interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and/or medication to persons who met locally defined criteria for depression. A cross-national (Haiti-United States) expert mental health team has been overseeing the program. The present IPT supervision case of a severely depressed, physically abused, and pregnant young woman illustrates the U.S.-based supervisor's internal struggle to reconcile awareness of and respect for local norms while maintaining a human rights-based framework. It also highlights the critical role of community health workers in addressing the mental health treatment gap in regions plagued by extreme poverty and adversity. PMID:27532745
Strauss, Bernhard; Spangenberg, Lena; Brähler, Elmar; Bormann, Bianca
Based upon observations indicating decreasing attractiveness of groups within and outside the clinical field, the present study aimed to determine attitudes toward, and expectations of, groups in a representative sample of 2512 German citizens. The survey also included questions specifically related to group psychotherapy and its acceptance. In addition, psychological characteristics of respondents (measures of narcissism, psychological impairment, and emotion regulation) and socio-demographic variables were assessed to examine their potential association with group-related attitudes. In total, the survey revealed a relatively positive picture of attitudes and expectations toward groups in general and psychotherapy groups in particular. Those with more open attitudes towards groups were comparatively less distressed, anxious, and depressed; they favored emotional reappraisal instead of suppression as the dominant strategy to regulate their emotions. Contrary to prediction, narcissism did not influence attitudes towards groups. The results are related to current discussions of the attractiveness of groups and to implications for the practice of group psychotherapy. PMID:24963534
Griffin-Shelley, Eric; Wendel, Sandra
Describes group psychotherapy at an inpatient, psychiatric hospital serving priests, nuns, and religious brothers. Discusses formation of and differences among four groups: a low-level group for sisters; an interactional group for sisters; a high-level, Gestalt-oriented group for sisters; and an interactional group for priests and brothers. (ABL)
Fairburn, Christopher G.; Bailey-Straebler, Suzanne; Basden, Shawnee; Doll, Helen A.; Jones, Rebecca; Murphy, Rebecca; O'Connor, Marianne E.; Cooper, Zafra
Eating disorders may be viewed from a transdiagnostic perspective and there is evidence supporting a transdiagnostic form of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E). The aim of the present study was to compare CBT-E with interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), a leading alternative treatment for adults with an eating disorder. One hundred and thirty patients with any form of eating disorder (body mass index >17.5 to <40.0) were randomized to either CBT-E or IPT. Both treatments involved 20 sessions over 20 weeks followed by a 60-week closed follow-up period. Outcome was measured by independent blinded assessors. Twenty-nine participants (22.3%) did not complete treatment or were withdrawn. At post-treatment 65.5% of the CBT-E participants met criteria for remission compared with 33.3% of the IPT participants (p < 0.001). Over follow-up the proportion of participants meeting criteria for remission increased, particularly in the IPT condition, but the CBT-E remission rate remained higher (CBT-E 69.4%, IPT 49.0%; p = 0.028). The response to CBT-E was very similar to that observed in an earlier study. The findings indicate that CBT-E is potent treatment for the majority of outpatients with an eating disorder. IPT remains an alternative to CBT-E, but the response is less pronounced and slower to be expressed. Current controlled trials ISRCTN 15562271. PMID:26000757
Lo Coco, Gianluca; Gullo, Salvatore; Di Fratello, Carla; Giordano, Cecilia; Kivlighan, Dennis M
Groups are more effective when positive bonds are established and interpersonal conflicts resolved in early sessions and work is accomplished in later sessions. Previous research has provided mixed support for this group development model. We performed a test of this theoretical perspective using group members' (actors) and aggregated group members' (partners) perceptions of positive bonding, positive working, and negative group relationships measured early and late in interpersonal growth groups. Participants were 325 Italian graduate students randomly (within semester) assigned to 1 of 16 interpersonal growth groups. Groups met for 9 weeks with experienced psychologists using Yalom and Leszcz's (2005) interpersonal process model. Outcome was assessed pre- and posttreatment using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and group relationships were measured at Sessions 3 and 6 using the Group Questionnaire. As hypothesized, early measures of positive bonding and late measures of positive working, for both actors and partners, were positively related to improved interpersonal problems. Also as hypothesized, late measures of positive bonding and early measures of positive working, for both actors and partners, were negatively related to improved interpersonal problems. We also found that early actor and partner positive bonding and negative relationships interacted to predict changes in interpersonal problems. The findings are consistent with group development theory and suggest that group therapists focus on group-as-a-whole positive bonding relationships in early group sessions and on group-as-a-whole positive working relationships in later group sessions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27379603
Oshiro, Claudia Kami Bastos; Kanter, Jonathan; Meyer, Sonia Beatriz
Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is emerging as an effective psychotherapy for psychiatric clinical cases. However, there is little research demonstrating the process of change of FAP. The present study evaluated the introduction and withdrawal of FAP interventions on therapy-interfering verbal behaviors of two participants who were in…
Moreno, J. Kelly
Fifteen women with long-standing histories of eating disorders and other disordered behavior participated in a psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy group over a three-year period. Provides several observations on the group and describes how a variety of variables combined to help, as well as, hinder favorable outcomes in group members.…
Little, Linda F.
Gestalt therapy respects parents' perceptions of their children and does not attempt to train parents to become therapists for their children. To examine the impact of Gestalt group psychotherapy on parents' perceptions of children identified as problematic, an experimental group of 10 parents participated in 10 2-hour Gestalt sessions. A group of…
Gunther, Marianne; Crandles, Sheila; Williams, Gillian; Swain, Margaret
Describes Project HOPE (New York), a psycho-social support program for noninfected children of HIV-positive parents, including the challenges of starting and implementing the program's psychotherapy group for grieving adolescents and clinical examples of group process and effective interventions in group leadership. Explicates the four stages in…
Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Wilfley, Denise E.; Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Glasofer, Deborah R.; Salaita, Christine G.
The most prevalent disordered eating pattern described in overweight youth is loss of control (LOC) eating, during which individuals experience an inability to control the type or amount of food they consume. LOC eating is associated cross-sectionally with greater adiposity in children and adolescents, and appears to predispose youth to gain weight or body fat above that expected during normal growth, thus likely contributing to obesity in susceptible individuals. No prior studies have examined whether LOC eating can be decreased by interventions in children or adolescents without full-syndrome eating disorders, or whether programs reducing LOC eating prevent inappropriate weight gain attributable to LOC eating. Interpersonal psychotherapy, a form of therapy that was designed to treat depression and has been adapted for the treatment of eating disorders, has demonstrated efficacy in reducing binge eating episodes and inducing weight stabilization among adults diagnosed with binge eating disorder. In this paper, we propose a theoretical model of excessive weight gain in adolescents at high-risk for adult obesity who engage in LOC eating and associated overeating patterns. A rationale is provided for interpersonal psychotherapy as an intervention to slow the trajectory of weight gain in at-risk youth, with the aim of preventing or ameliorating obesity in adulthood. PMID:17557971
Devi, Akasha; Fenn, Edwin
This paper describes a systematic thematic analysis of one particular latency-aged children's group and includes a discussion about potentially helpful outcomes measures. The impetus for our small, practice-based qualitative research project came from the two papers by Reid (1999) and Canham (2002) about children's psychotherapy groups,…
McCarrick, Anne K.; And Others
Examined changes in response control patterns exhibited by five married couples who participated in two brief psychotherapy groups. Used the Ericson-Rogers Relational Coding System to score the control direction of interactions between group members. Found individual flexibility increased for each of these relationships over the course of group…
Cooker, Philip G.; Nero, Randall S.
Examined effects of videotaped feedback on aspects of self-concept of patients in an aftercare psychotherapy group. All subjects (N=62) completed three administrations of the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale; the 32 treatment patients also viewed videotaped interactions of their group therapy. The results suggest that videotaped feedback produces…
Corder, Billie F.; Whiteside, Reid
Describes application of techniques for structuring interchange and feedback process in adolescent psychotherapy groups, including random assignment of "roles" for each member during sessions, "parent hot seat" exercises, group goal booklets, and negotiation exercises. Techniques discussed have proven helpful in ensuring effective group…
Trachsel, Manuel; Itten, Simon; Stauffer, Barbara; Holtforth, Martin Grosse; Hofer, Dieter
Individual therapy goals of psychotherapy patients either focus on symptom relief (disorder specific) or on improvements also in other functional areas (generic). The present study with 62 outpatients in a cognitive behavioral group psychotherapy (CBGT) investigated whether patients attain their disorder specific goals better than their generic therapy goals. Results indicated that patients reached disorder specific goals to a higher degree than the generic goals, although the group treatment specifically targeted the disorder specific goals. Implications of the results for the assessment and therapy of phobic patients are discussed. PMID:18092280
Watzke, Birgit; Scheel, Sylvia; Bauer, Christina; Rüddel, Heinz; Jürgensen, Ralph; Andreas, Sylke; Koch, Uwe; Schulz, Holger
Research concerning the question, whether and to what extent cognitive-behavioral (CB) and psychodynamic (PD) therapy consist of differing process components under clinical representative conditions, is relevant especially for a valid interpretation of comparative outcome research, for identifying differential beneficial factors of psychotherapy and for a systematic indication for, respectively assignment of, patients to the two treatments. In this study it is investigated whether PD and CB differ concerning the realisation of factors of group experience, respectively of beneficial group elements (e. g. cohesion, catharsis, learning by feedback). For this purpose, in a naturalistic design, a stratified sample (N = 36) of 104 videotaped sessions (PD groups, interactional CB groups and indicative CB groups; N = 171 patients with a broad spectrum of F-diagnoses of ICD-10, especially F3/F4) were rated by observers using the Kieler-Gruppenpsychotherapie-Prozess-Skala (KGPPS). Analyses of variance and a priori Helmert-contrasts reveal differences between PD and CB with at least medium effect sizes in 12 of the 16 factors of group experience. However, differences also were found between the two CB group treatments (9 factors of group experience with differences with large effect sizes). The results suggest that the different treatment approaches foster different qualities and quantities of group experience and that the latter seems not to evolve from the group context "per se" (i. e. by the plurality of the group). PMID:15343476
Priebe, S.; Savill, M.; Wykes, T.; Bentall, R. P.; Reininghaus, U.; Lauber, C.; Bremner, S.; Eldridge, S.; Röhricht, F.
Background Negative symptoms of schizophrenia have a severe impact on functional outcomes and treatment options are limited. Arts therapies are currently recommended but more evidence is required. Aims To assess body psychotherapy as a treatment for negative symptoms compared with an active control (trial registration: ISRCTN84216587). Method Schizophrenia out-patients were randomised into a 20-session body psychotherapy or Pilates group. The primary outcome was negative symptoms at end of treatment. Secondary outcomes included psychopathology, functional, social and treatment satisfaction outcomes at treatment end and 6-months later. Results In total, 275 participants were randomised. The adjusted difference in negative symptoms was 0.03 (95% CI −1.11 to 1.17), indicating no benefit from body psychotherapy. Small improvements in expressive deficits and movement disorder symptoms were detected in favour of body psychotherapy. No other outcomes were significantly different. Conclusions Body psychotherapy does not have a clinically relevant beneficial effect in the treatment of patients with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:27151073
Harris, Ben; Lightner, Jean
Most histories of psychology and psychiatry attribute the first group psychotherapy to Joseph Pratt's 1905 class for tuberculosis patients. Pratt's actual treatment procedures are examined. They are shown to have consisted primarily of operant and social-learning techniques, aimed at increasing patient compliance with a demanding therapeutic…
Stillion, Judith M.
Suggests that research aimed at examining the effect of death education courses may be limited by the instructor's lack of awareness of the conditions necessary to promote change. Explores the parallels between death education and group psychotherapy and the factors inherent in seminar-type death education courses. (Author/JAC)
This article describes how a social systems approach to psychopathology can be applied to treatment goals in group psychotherapy with mentally retarded individuals. Treatment models blending behavioral and psychodynamic interventions are covered. Suggestions for maintaining cost-effective linkages between mental health and mental retardation…
Marotta, Sylvia A.; Asner, Kimberly K.
Demonstrates the wide range of adequacy of current studies on group psychotherapy for women with incest histories. Because the studies differed in methodology and reporting, they were categorized and assessed by six criteria: design, sample, inclusion criteria, replicability, analysis, and outcome. Implications for both researchers and…
Anchor, Kenneth N.
Findings indicate that it is both feasible and important to draw a distinction between high- and low-risk self-revelation in group psychotherapy. Vulnerability of members appears to be perceived as a function of the amount and quality of their own self-disclosing utterances. Institutionalized patients may be less capable of appropriate…
Silbergeld, Sam; And Others
Examined impacts of brief group psychotherapy on the marital and sex roles of five volunteer couples. Results show interactional correlates of traditional marital and sex role variations are attenuated, that communication between spouses is improved, and that the therapeutic quality of verbal behavior is enhanced over the course of therapy.…
Steuer, Joanne L.; And Others
Assessed whether depressed geriatric patients (N=33) would respond to group psychotherapy and, if they would respond differently to cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic modes. Results indicated that patients showed statistically and clinically significant reductions on observer-rated measures of depression and anxiety, as well as on self-report…
Background Substantial data indicate potential health consequences of untreated postpartum depression (PPD) on the mother, infant, and family. Studies have evaluated interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) as treatment for PPD; however, the results are questionable due to methodological limitations. A comprehensive review of maternal treatment preferences suggests that mothers favor ‘talking therapy’ as a form of PPD treatment. Unfortunately, IPT is not widely available, especially in rural and remote areas. To improve access to care, telepsychiatry has been introduced, including the provision of therapy via the telephone. Methods/Design The purpose of this randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the effect of telephone-based IPT on the treatment of PPD. Stratification is based on self-reported history of depression and province. The target sample is 240 women. Currently, women from across Canada between 2 and 24 weeks postpartum are able to either self-identify as depressed and refer themselves to the trial or they may be referred by a health professional based on a score >12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Following contact by the trial coordinator, a detailed study explanation is provided. Women who fulfill the eligibility criteria (including a positive diagnostic assessment for major depression) and consent to participate are randomized to either the control group (standard postpartum care) or intervention group (standard postpartum care plus 12 telephone-based IPT sessions within 12 to 16 weeks, provided by trained nurses). Blinded research nurses telephone participants at 12, 24, and 36 weeks post-randomization to assess for PPD and other outcomes including depressive symptomatology, anxiety, couple adjustment, attachment, and health service utilization. Results from this ongoing trial will: (1) develop the body of knowledge concerning the effect of telephone-based IPT as a treatment option for PPD; (2) advance our understanding of
Harris, Sandra A.
Combining childhood roles and interpersonal theory produces a schematic model that includes all adult children of alcoholics, enhances understanding of the group dynamic, and suggests specific group treatment strategies. (Author)
Chida, Yoichi; Schrempft, Stephanie; Steptoe, Andrew
This randomized controlled trial aimed to examine the effect of the Happy Science doctrine-based group psychotherapy on depressive symptoms in 118 Japanese mental disorder outpatients. The treatment group (n = 58) took part in five 90-min sessions at one-week intervals, while the control group (n = 60) received standard care including medication. Depressive symptoms were assessed before the intervention, 5 weeks after the intervention, and at 3-month follow-up. Compared to the control group, the treatment group showed a significant reduction in depressive symptoms both at post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. In conclusion, this group psychotherapy might be of benefit in treating depressive symptoms. PMID:26320001
In relation to self-psychology narcissism-construct is important in analytic-oriented psychotherapy theoretical and practical and is more superior to emotional-relationship based conception by practical and living operalization opposite Roger's conception. We found based on variables-oriented multidimensional psychodiagnostical tests for neurotics in group-psychotherapy that questionnaires are suitable to diagnose narcissism in psychodynamical psychotherapy. Throughout on the one hand single scales of narcissism-states correlate with social desirability on the other hand are related to hypochondria, to psychastenic, depressive and schizoid tendencies. Through those patients having difficults to work reflexive and are attaining higher scores in narcissism-questionnaire opposite patients are optimal working, higher narcissism-scores are not condition for therapy success or unsuccess. In clusters of unsuccessful patients are reacting with defensive behaviour in group-psychotherapy in relation to higher narcissism-scores. Successful patients are more emotional-stable and additional more social-oriented and optimistic. These findings in study are therapy-valide with research-results in Psychoanalyse. PMID:1946903
Skinner, Kay Lesley; Hyde, Sarah J.; McPherson, Kerstin B. A.; Simpson, Maree D.
Health professional students must be equipped with the skills necessary to interact with patients. Effective interpersonal skills are difficult to both learn and teach, requiring development, practise and evaluation in both educational and clinical settings. In professions such as physiotherapy, traditional approaches to teaching these skills have…
Discusses research designs in which psychotherapy treatments are compared to placebo conditions, and suggests that chemotherapy and psychotherapy research efforts are complementary rather than analogous. Recommends the elimination of placebo groups in psychotherapy research. Discusses the negative connotation of psychotherapy as a placebo. (JAC)
Drakulić, Aleksandra Mindoljević
Modern history of short-term group psychotherapy dates back to the late 1950-ies. From then to present day, this psychotherapeutic method has been used in various forms, from dynamic-oriented to cognitive behavioural psychotherapies. Although it has always been considered rather controversial, due its cost-effectiveness, it has been capturing more and more popularity. This paper presents the specificities of first session short-term psychotherapy psychodrama group through session work with two examined groups: a group of 20 adult women who suffer from mild or moderate forms of unipolar depression and a group of 20 students of the School of Medicine in Zagreb without any psychiatric symptomatology. The results indicate the high importance of having structure in first psychodrama session, of relating it with the previously thoroughly conducted, initial, clinical, interviews, and of the clarity and focus in terms of determining the goals of therapy, especially in a clinical context. This study also confirmed assumptions regarding the need for different approaches of warming-up in psychodrama, both in the clinical and in non-clinical samples. A psychodrama psychotherapist should have good time managing skills and capability to convert the time available into an opportunity for directly boosting the group energy and work on therapeutic alliance. PMID:21661367
Anchor, Kenneth N.
This study examined the occurrence of high and low risk self-disclosure in 12 therapy groups. Eight groups were conducted for clients served by a community mental health center on an out-patient basis, and four groups were composed of extremely maladjusted in-patient clients at a state hospital. The Group Interaction Profile, an instrument which…
Simon, Gregory E; Ding, Victoria; Hubbard, Rebecca; Fishman, Paul; Ludman, Evette; Morales, Leo; Operskalski, Belinda; Savarino, James
Administrative data were used to examine early dropout among 16,451 health plan members calling to request psychotherapy for depression. Compared to members referred to group-model therapists, those referred to network-model therapists were more likely to drop out before the initial visit (OR 2.33, 95% CI 2.17 – 2.50) but less likely to drop out after the first visit (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.43 – 0.48). These differences were unaffected by adjustment for neighborhood income and educational attainment, antidepressant use, or generosity of insurance coverage. Efforts to increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy may required different strategies in group- and network-model practice. PMID:21710256
Luthar, Suniya S.; Suchman, Nancy E.
The Relational Psychotherapy Mothers’ Group (RPMG), a developmentally informed, supportive psychotherapy designed to serve heroin-addicted mothers with children up to 16 years of age, aims at addressing psychosocial vulnerabilities, and facilitating optimal parenting, among at-risk mothers. We present preliminary evidence on the efficacy of RPMG as an “add on” treatment in comparison with standard methadone counseling alone. At the end of the 24-week treatment period, mothers receiving RPMG plus standard methadone counseling demonstrated lower levels of risk for child maltreatment, greater involvement with their children, and more positive psychosocial adjustment than women who received methadone counseling alone. Children of RPMG participants also reflected fewer problems in multiple areas. At 6 months posttreatment, RPMG recipients continued to be at a relative advantage, although the magnitude of group differences was often attenuated. Notably, urinalyses indicated that RPMG mothers showed greater improvements in levels of opioid use over time than comparison mothers. PMID:10847626
Restek-Petrović, Branka; Orešković-Krezler, Nataša; Grah, Majda; Mayer, Nina; Bogović, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate
Work with dreams in the group analysis represents an important part of the analytical work, with insight into unconscious experiences of the individual dreamer, and his transferrential relations with the therapist, other members of the group, and with the group as a whole. The way dreams are addressed varies from one therapist to another, and in line with that, members of the group have varying frequency of dreams. In groups of psychotic patients dreams are generally rarely discussed and interpreted by the group, with analysis mainly resting on the manifested content. This paper describes a long-term group of psychotic patients which, after sharing the dreams of several members and daydreams of one female patient, their interpretation and reception in the group achieved better cohesion and improved communication and interaction, i.e. created a group matrix. Furthermore, through the content of dreams in the group, traumatic war experiences of several of the group members were opened and discussed, which brought with it recollections of the traumatic life situations of other group members. In expressing a daydream, a female member of the group revealed the background for her behaviour which was earlier interpreted as a negative symptom of the illness. PMID:23995198
Gross, J M
Knowledge of the basic economic factors underlying managed mental health care directly impacts the clinical practitioners' ability to make constructive changes in the system. To aid understanding this article introduces the managed care marketplace model, the interactive relationship between medical necessity and patient co-payment, and demand management economics. The author encourages practitioners to develop strategies to overcome specific economic obstacles that prevent the promotion of group psychotherapy. PMID:9314700
Toro, Paul A.; Rappaport, Julian
In recent years, mutual help groups have been formed to address problems in substance abuse, chronic physical illness, mental illness, marital disruption, and child abuse. Despite the proliferation of these groups, little research has been conducted to assess their efficacy or what happens in them. The nature of mutual help groups (N=32) was…
Barkowski, Sarah; Schwartze, Dominique; Strauss, Bernhard; Burlingame, Gary M; Barth, Jürgen; Rosendahl, Jenny
Group psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD) is an established treatment supported by findings from primary studies and earlier meta-analyses. However, a comprehensive summary of the recent evidence is still pending. This meta-analysis investigates the efficacy of group psychotherapy for adult patients with SAD. A literature search identified 36 randomized-controlled trials examining 2171 patients. Available studies used mainly cognitive-behavioral group therapies (CBGT); therefore, quantitative analyses were done for CBGT. Medium to large positive effects emerged for wait list-controlled trials for specific symptomatology: g=0.84, 95% CI [0.72; 0.97] and general psychopathology: g=0.62, 95% CI [0.36; 0.89]. Group psychotherapy was also superior to common factor control conditions in alleviating symptoms of SAD, but not in improving general psychopathology. No differences appeared for direct comparisons of group psychotherapy and individual psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy. Hence, group psychotherapy for SAD is an efficacious treatment, equivalent to other treatment formats. PMID:26953823
Miklowitz, David J.
Objective Psychotherapy has long been recommended as adjunctive to pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder, but it is unclear which interventions are effective for which patients, over what intervals, and for what domains of outcome. This article reviews randomized trials of adjunctive psychotherapy for bipolar disorder. Method Eighteen trials of individual and group psychoeducation, systematic care, family therapy, interpersonal therapy, and cognitive-behavioral therapy are described. Relevant outcome variables include time to recovery, recurrence, duration of episodes, symptom severity, and psychosocial functioning. Results The effects of the treatment modalities varied according to the clinical condition of patients at the time of random assignment and the polarity of symptoms at follow-up. Family therapy, interpersonal therapy, and systematic care appeared to be most effective in preventing recurrences when initiated after an acute episode, whereas cognitive-behavioral therapy and group psychoeducation appeared to be most effective when initiated during a period of recovery. Individual psychoeducational and systematic care programs were more effective for manic than depressive symptoms, whereas family therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy were more effective for depressive than manic symptoms. Conclusions Adjunctive psychotherapy enhances the symptomatic and functional outcomes of bipolar disorder over 2-year periods. The various modalities differ in content, structure, and associated mediating mechanisms. Treatments that emphasize medication adherence and early recognition of mood symptoms have stronger effects on mania, whereas treatments that emphasize cognitive and interpersonal coping strategies have stronger effects on depression. The placement of psychotherapy within chronic care algorithms and its role as a preventative agent in the early stages of the disorder deserve investigation. PMID:18794208
Zimmermann, Peter; Kröger, Norbert; Willmund, Gerd; Ströhle, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas; Hahne, Hans Heiner
Objective: This study is to assess the efficacy of short-term group psychotherapy rooted in depth psychology for Bundeswehr soldiers suffering from depressive, neurotic, stress, or personality disorders. Method: 103 participants in the in-patient, closed group setting were evaluated prospectively and compared with a non-randomized waitlisted control group. Results: In all relevant SCL-90-R (Symptom-Check-List-90) and MMPI-K (Minnesota-Multiphasic-Personality-Inventory short-form) scales therapy resulted in significant improvements as compared with the initial values. The control group did not show any significant changes, the therapy group was significantly superior to the control group in the scales of MMPI-K and the GSI-Scale of the SCL-90-R. For soldiers with a stress-reactive disorder (F43), no differences in efficacy could be identified compared with the other diagnosis groups. Conclusion: The results were considered to indicate that in-patient, short-term group psychotherapy may, in combination with additional setting components, be helpful in improving psychological symptoms in German soldiers. The indication range of group therapy offered to Bundeswehr soldiers should be expanded to also include primary prophylaxis and the treatment of mental-health problems following deployments abroad, if applicable. PMID:19742280
Raufman, Ravit; Nesher, Ronit; Weinberg, Haim
In Israel, the sense of belonging carries special meaning for historical and contemporary reasons. Since its establishment, Israel, with a background of centuries of persecution of the Jews, has been subjected to a consistent threat of war and terror that makes it a traumatized society. On the one hand, this intensifies social cohesiveness, especially in times of war. Yet many of the threats pose existential, political, and ideological dilemmas. The trauma of the Holocaust coupled with the continuous existence of wars enhanced the development of special kinds of groups. No wonder group therapy in Israel flourishes, perhaps more than in any other Western country (Nuttman-Shwartz & Weinberg, 2002). PMID:26401803
Marks, Michael W.; Vestre, Norris D.
College students (N=27) were assigned to a time-extended or a marathon group or a control condition to evaluate the effects of encounter experiences on self-perception and interpersonal behavior. Both experimental groups showed significantly greater changes in self-perceptions from pretest to posttest than the control group. (Author)
Marmarosh, Cheri L
Despite a large literature applying attachment to individual, family, and couple psychotherapy, it has taken much longer for clinicians to apply attachment theory to group psychotherapy. The lack of research attention in this area makes these three studies in this special section even more important to the field. They contribute significant findings that have the potential to help group leaders facilitate more cohesive and effective treatments for patients as well as move the field forward. Not only do we see the long-term impact of group treatment for those with insecure attachments, but we also learn how attachment anxiety impacts the group process, and how the attachment to the therapy group itself relates to changes in group member's personal attachment styles. The greatest contribution is the drawing of our attention to the many future studies that are needed to fully understand how group therapy facilitates change and how attachment theory plays a critical role in this process. Clinical implications are presented. PMID:24059737
This article discusses group psychotherapy as a possible crisis intervention technique for children and juveniles with behavioral problems at school or whose families are going through divorce, or as an intervention technique in trouble some school classes. The therapeutic group work at the Children and Juvenile Educational Counselling Centre in Bern, Switzerland, is described - "mythodrama" or the "tales, fiction and horror technique", a therapeutic approach which was developed during the last couple of years. The tale at the beginning of the article serves as an introduction and is followed by a description of the different phases of mythodrama. Finally, the main elements of this approach are summarized. PMID:1438057
Poteat, V. Paul; Mereish, Ethan H.; Birkett, Michelle
Social development theories highlight the centrality of peer groups during adolescence and their role in socializing attitudes and behaviors. In this longitudinal study, we tested the effects of group-level prejudice on ensuing positive and negative interpersonal interactions among peers over a 7-month period. We used social network analysis to…
Marcus, David K.; Holahan, William
Describes investigation in which participants in time-limited group therapy reported impressions of fellow group members via Impact Message Inventory. Social relations analysis of data indicated that subjects' perceptions included both assimilation and consensus. Suggests results demonstrate utility of social relations model for group therapy…
Authier, Jerry; Fix, A. James
Step-group therapy is a program designed to help adult impatients increase their interpersonal communications skills. Using microcounseling formats, psychiatric patients have been taught the skills of eye contact, verbal following, relaxed pasture and eventually, the use of feedback and self-disclosure. (Author)
Peterson, Sarah E.; Schreiber, James B.
We report the results of two replication studies using attribution theory to analyze personal and interpersonal motivation for collaborative projects. Undergraduate students responded to questionnaires containing hypothetical vignettes depicting success or failure outcomes due to ability or effort for dyads working on a group project. Dependent…
Breitbart, William; Rosenfeld, Barry; Gibson, Christopher; Pessin, Hayley; Poppito, Shannon; Nelson, Christian; Tomarken, Alexis; Timm, Anne Kosinski; Berg, Amy; Jacobson, Colleen; Sorger, Brooke; Abbey, Jennifer; Olden, Megan
Objectives An increasingly important concern for clinicians who care for patients at the end of life is their spiritual well-being and sense of meaning and purpose in life. In response to the need for short-term interventions to address spiritual well-being, we developed Meaning Centered Group Psychotherapy (MCGP) to help patients with advanced cancer sustain or enhance a sense of meaning, peace and purpose in their lives, even as they approach the end of life. Methods Patients with advanced (stage III or IV) solid tumor cancers (N = 90) were randomly assigned to either MCGP or a supportive group psychotherapy (SGP). Patients were assessed before and after completing the 8-week intervention, and again 2 months after completion. Outcome assessment included measures of spiritual well-being, meaning, hopelessness, desire for death, optimism/pessimism, anxiety, depression and overall quality of life. Results MCGP resulted in significantly greater improvements in spiritual well-being and a sense of meaning. Treatment gains were even more substantial (based on effect size estimates) at the second follow-up assessment. Improvements in anxiety and desire for death were also significant (and increased over time). There was no significant improvement on any of these variables for patients participating in SGP. Conclusions MCGP appears to be a potentially beneficial intervention for patients’ emotional and spiritual suffering at the end of life. Further research, with larger samples, is clearly needed to better understand the potential benefits of this novel intervention. PMID:19274623
Richarz, Bernhard; Römisch, Sylvelin
In group processes, acting-out has diverse functions, all of them equally important. It has an intrapsychic, interpersonal, and group dynamic function. Not only may it be understood as a form of resistance, but also in its communicative and reparative potential. The authors investigate the thesis that acting-out also contains the seed for change, thus helping patients divest themselves of pathological behavior. Using a group process as an example, this article shows how boundaries can be drawn between past and present experiences while using the communicative and reparative functions of acting-out. Unconscious psychodynamics can then be transformed from acting-out into dreams. PMID:12082675
Rucci, P; Frank, E; Scocco, P.; Calugi, S.; Miniati, M.; Fagiolini, A.; Cassano, G.B.
Background To date, few randomized controlled trials (RCT) of major depression have examined suicidal ideation as an outcome measure. Our aim is to determine the incidence of treatment-emergent suicidal ideation (ESI) and behaviors during the acute phase of treatment with an SSRI antidepressant or interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) in patients with unipolar major depression. Methods In a two-site RCT, 291 adult outpatients with non-psychotic major depression and a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score ≥15 were randomly allocated to IPT or SSRI. Participants who did not remit with monotherapy received augmentation with the other treatment. ESI was defined as a post-baseline HDRS suicidality item score ≥2 or a post-baseline Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) score ≥2 in patients with a baseline score <=1. Results Of the 231 participants who had no suicidal ideation at baseline, 32 (13.8%) subsequently exhibited ESI on at least one post-baseline visit. Time to suicidal ideation was significantly longer in patients allocated to SSRI compared to those allocated to IPT (HR=2.21, 95% CI 1.04-4.66, p=0.038), even after controlling for treatment augmentation, benzodiazepine use and comorbidity with anxiety disorders. Worsening of suicidal ideation occurred in 7/60 patients who had suicidal ideation at baseline. In the large majority of cases, suicidal ideation was successfully managed with the study protocol. Conclusions In the context of careful monitoring and frequent contact, SSRI was associated with a lower risk of ESI that IPT and both SSRI and IPT appeared to be safe treatments for patients with past suicide attempts, none of whom exhibited ESI during the study. PMID:21308882
Meeker, B. F.; Weitzel-O'Neill, P. A.
The sociological theory that men are instrument or task specialists and that women are expressive or social specialists has been weakened by research on small groups, families and personality. This paper suggests that sex differences in task-oriented situations may be explained by status processes, men having higher status than women. (Author/JM)
Davis, James A.; Leinhardt, Samuel
The authors sought to test Homans' proposition that small groups inevitably generate a social structure which combines subgroups (cliques) and a ranking system. We present a graph theoretical model of such a structure and prove that a necessary and sufficient condition for its existence is the absence of seven particular triad types. Expected…
Dowlatabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahmadi, Seyed Mojtaba; Sorbi, Mohammad Hossein; Beiki, Omid; Razavi, Tayebeh Khademeh; Bidaki, Reza
Background Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in women in the world. It causes fear, despair, and takes a tremendous toll on psychological status. Objective To determine the effectiveness of group positive psychotherapy on the depression and happiness of breast cancer patients. Methods This randomized controlled trial was conducted with 42 breast cancer patients in The Oncology Center at Kermanshah, Iran in 2015. The Data were gathered before intervention and ten weeks afterwards. The data were collected using Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Oxford’s happiness Inventory (OHI). The data were analyzed by SPSS-16, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S), chi-squared, and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Results The results showed a significant reduction in the depression of the group on positive psychotherapy compared with the control group. Also the positive psychotherapy group experienced a significant increase in the patients’ happiness, while there was no significant increase in the control group. Conclusion The results of this research showed the effectiveness of positive psychotherapy on the reduction of mental pressure and the improvement of the mental status of breast cancer patients. This economical therapy can be used to increase patients’ psychological health. Clinical Trial Registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRST) with the identification number IRCT2013101410063N4. Funding The authors received financial support for the research from Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. PMID:27123227
Sanua, Victor D.
There are problems in using the traditional approaches of psychotherapy with various ethnic minority and national groups in the United States. Mental health practitioners, besides making errors in diagnosis, may also be handicapped in developing a therapeutic relationship with the patient. Numerous studies indicate that sociocultural factors tend…
Belt, Ritva; Punamaki, Raija-Leena
In this article we present a novel method of outpatient care: brief, dynamic mother-infant group psychotherapy with mothers who have substance use problems. In this therapy, substance abuse treatment is part of mental health and parenting interventions. The focus is on preventing disturbance in the mother-infant relationship in this high-risk…
Psychoanalysis has paid limited attention to disability, and at times the approach has lacked political awareness. Over recent decades the international disability rights movement has argued that disabled people constitute an oppressed, systemically disadvantaged minority. Lately, a critical psychoanalytic view has connected disablist discrimination to universal unconscious conflicts evoked by impairment. Corresponding evocations emerge in the therapeutic frame, producing countertransference responses to the impaired body. Drawing on psychoanalytically oriented group psychotherapy with severely physically impaired adults, countertransference phenomena were studied in developing discussion on disability-related clinical work. The complex, uncertain role of psychoanalytic practice in combating oppression was also examined. Key issues include challenges to the traditional frame, the crossing of psychic boundaries, anxieties relating to not knowing, and the role of unconscious factors in marginalizing disabled experience. PMID:22676787
Burlingame, G M; Barlow, S H
The outcome of clients who saw one of four "expert" professional group therapists selected by peer nomination or four "natural helper" nonprofessional nominated by students is contrasted in a 15-session psychotherapy group. Process measures tapping specific group and "common factors" were drawn from sessions 3, 8, and 14; outcome was assessed at pre, mid, posttreatment, and a 6-month follow-up. Results were examined by leader condition (professional vs. nonprofessional therapists) and time (group development). Virtually no reliable differences were found on measures of outcome primarily because of a floor effect on several measures. Therapist differences on the process measures tapping the "common factors" of therapeutic alliance, client expectancy, and perception of therapists were either nonsignificant or disappeared by the end of treatment. A complex picture of differences on one therapeutic factor (insight), common factor measures and subtle variation in the outcome data suggests a distinct pattern of change, however. Methodological limitations are also addressed including problems inherent in large-scale clinical-trial studies, ethical concerns raised by using nonprofessional leaders, and problems with generalizability, given the absence of significant psychopathology in group members. PMID:8898485
Dion, Kenneth L
The issues of interpersonal and group processes in long-term spacecrews from the perspectives of social and organizational psychology are considered here. A contrast between the Amundsen vs. Scott expeditions to the South Pole 90 yrs. ago highlights the importance of personnel selection and attention to interpersonal and group dynamics in expeditions to extreme and dangerous environments, such as long-term spaceflights today. Under the rubric of personnel selection, some further psychological "select-in" and "select-out" criteria are suggested, among them implicit measures of human motivation, intergroup attitudes ("implicit" and "explicit" measures of prejudice, social dominance orientation, and right-wing authoritarianism), attachment styles, and dispositional hardiness. The situational interview and the idea of "selection for teams," drawn from current advances in organizational psychology, are recommended for selecting members for future spacecrews. Under the rubrics of interpersonal and group processes, the social relations model is introduced as a technique for modeling and understanding interdependence among spacecrew members and partialling out variance in behavioral and perceptual data into actor/perceiver, partner/target, and relationship components. Group cohesion as a multidimensional construct is introduced, along with a consideration of the groupthink phenomenon and its controversial link to cohesion. Group composition issues are raised with examples concerning cultural heterogeneity and gender composition. Cultural value dimensions, especially power distance and individual-collectivism, should be taken into account at both societal and psychological levels in long-term space missions. Finally, intergroup processes and language issues in crews are addressed. The recategorization induction from the common ingroup identity model is recommended as a possible intervention for overcoming and inhibiting intergroup biases within spacecrews and between space
Schamess, G; Streider, F H; Connors, K M
Cumulatively traumatized children frequently benefit from theme-centered, trauma-focused psychotherapy groups, which promote recovery from trauma and enhance ego functioning. Unfortunately, even as children's group programs proliferate, therapists are still routinely assigned to supervisors who neither understand nor appreciate the modality. Modality-specific supervision is critical in treating traumatized children in groups, because such children are at significant risk of retraumatization. This article surveys and discusses problematic supervisory practices; advocates modality-specific supervision focusing on peer interaction, multiple transference enactments, and group culture; and describes a process-oriented consultation group that facilitates modality-specific cognitive and affective learning. PMID:9314695
Wang, Zuoming; Walther, Joseph B.; Hancock, Jeffrey T.
This study investigates the influence of interpersonal communication and intergroup identification on members' evaluations of computer-mediated groups. Participants (N= 256) in 64 four-person groups interacted through synchronous computer chat. Subgroup assignments to minimal groups instilled significantly greater in-group versus out-group…
Seyedi Asl, Seyed Teymur; Sadeghi, Kheirollah; Bakhtiari, Mitra; Ahmadi, Seyed Mojtaba; Nazari Anamagh, Alireza; Khayatan, Tayebeh
Background Positive psychotherapy is one of the new approaches in psychology which is innovated for treating psychological disorders and enhancing positive emotions. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of the group positive psychotherapy on elevation of life satisfaction and quality of life in infertile women. Materials and Methods In a randomized trial study, Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and clinical interview were used in a pre-test post-test control group design. After analyzing the result of the questionnaire, 36 infertile women who showed signs of mild to moderate depression were randomly placed into two following groups: control (n=18) and intervention (n=18). Before the treatment, the members of both groups answered BDI-II, Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) and 12 item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12). The intervention group received six sessions of group positive psychotherapy, but the treatment of the control group began six weeks after the intervention group. Results The results showed that the life satisfaction scores of the intervention group were significantly elevated from 22.66 in pre-test to 26.13 in post-test (P<0.001), while this improvement was not significant in the control group (P=0.405). The difference between life satisfaction scores of the intervention and the control groups was also significant (F=8.92, P=0.006). However, no significant change in the quality of life level of the intervention and control groups was observed (P=0.136). Conclusion Thus it can be deduced from the findings that this treatment method could be introduced as solution to increase the life satisfaction in infertile women, but not as a treatment for elevating their quality of life (Registration Number: IRCT2013042810063N3). PMID:27123207
Passos, Pedro; Milho, João; Fonseca, Sofia; Borges, João; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith
The authors examined whether, similar to collective agent behaviors in complex, biological systems (e.g., schools of fish and colonies of ants), performers in team sports displayed functional coordination tendencies, based on local interaction rules during performance. To investigate this issue, they used videogrammetry and digitizing procedures to observe interpersonal interactions in common 4 versus 2 + 2 subphases of the team sport of rugby union, involving 16 participants aged between 16 and 17 years of age. They observed pattern-forming dynamics in attacking subunits (n = 4 players) attempting to penetrate 2 defensive lines (n = 2 players in each). Data showed that within each attacking subunit, the 4 players displayed emergent functional grouping tendencies that differed between the 2 defensive lines. Results confirmed that grouping tendencies in attacking subunits of team games are sensitive to different task constraints, such as relative positioning to nearest defenders. It was concluded that running correlations were particularly useful for measuring the level of interpersonal coordination in functional grouping tendencies within attacking subunits. PMID:21400329
Picardi, Angelo; Gaetano, Paola
In the last decades, psychotherapy has gained increasing acceptance as a major treatment option for mood disorders. Empirically supported treatments for major depression include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioural therapy and, to a lesser extent, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. Meta-analytic evidence suggests that psychotherapy has a significant and clinically relevant, though not large, effect on chronic forms of depression. Psychotherapy with chronic patients should take into account several important differences between patients with chronic and acute depression (identification with their depressive illness, more severe social skill deficits, persistent sense of hopelessness, need of more time to adapt to better circumstances). Regarding adolescent depression, the effectiveness of IPT and CBT is empirically supported. Adolescents require appropriate modifications of treatment (developmental approach to psychotherapy, involvement of parents in therapy). The combination of psychotherapy and medication has recently attracted substantial interest; the available evidence suggests that combined treatment has small but significant advantages over each treatment modality alone, and may have a protective effect against depression relapse or recurrence. Psychobiological models overcoming a rigid brain-mind dichotomy may help the clinician give patients a clear rationale for the combination of psychological and pharmacological treatment. In recent years, evidence has accumulated regarding the effectiveness of psychological therapies (CBT, family-focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, psychoeducation) as an adjunct to medication in bipolar disorder. These therapies share several common elements and there is considerable overlap in their actual targets. Psychological interventions were found to be useful not only in the treatment of bipolar depressive episodes, but in all phases of the disorder. PMID
Byrne, Ciara; Bond, Lynne A.; London, Miv
This quasi-experimental study compared a group mindfulness-based intervention (MI) with an interpersonal process (IP) group intervention and a no-treatment (NT) control condition in reducing psychological distress among 112 students at 2 universities. At postintervention, IP and MI group participants exhibited significant reductions in anxiety,…
Reinheimer, Robert Edward
This study focused on the role played by two factors--interpersonal attractiveness of group members and pattern of distribution of task-relevant information--in forming an influence base in task-oriented discussion groups. For purposes of the study, members of discussion groups who were confederates in the study were assigned attitudinal…
Presents field of brief individual psychotherapy as coherent set of conventions, despite its diverse origins in schools of dynamic, behavioral, interpersonal or cognitive, and strategic psychotherapy. Proposes advantages and drawbacks of shared conventions and discusses how neighboring field could help field of family therapy reduce its errors.…
Lee, Eun Jin
The aim of the current study was to describe participants' experiences and examine the effects of group therapy on self-esteem and state anger among the adolescent children of immigrants in the US. A quasi-experimental design and qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Group therapy was conducted for 8weeks. Thirty-three adolescents took part in the study. Quantitative results revealed that group therapy improved self-esteem (t=2.222. p<.05) but not state anger. However, qualitative results suggested that group therapy helped improve interpersonal relationships and communication skills, the forgiveness of others, and the management of anger. Furthermore, group therapy utilizing positive psychology strategies improved self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, and communication skills. PMID:25858203
Background Meaning-focused coping may be at the core of adequate adjustment to life after cancer. Cancer survivors who experience their life as meaningful are better adjusted, have better quality of life and psychological functioning. Meaning-Centered Group Psychotherapy for Cancer Survivors (MCGP-CS) was designed to help patients to sustain or enhance a sense of meaning and purpose in their lives. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of MCGP-CS. Methods/Design Survivors diagnosed with cancer in the last 5 years and treated with curative intent, are recruited via several hospitals in the Netherlands. After screening, 168 survivors are randomly assigned to one of the three study arms: 1. Meaning-Centered Group Psychotherapy (MCGP-CS) 2. Supportive group psychotherapy (SGP) 3. Care as usual (CAU). Baseline assessment takes place before randomisation, with follow up assessments post-intervention and at 3, 6 and 12 months follow-up. Primary outcome is meaning making (PMP, PTGI, SPWB). Secondary outcome measures address quality of life (EORTC-30), anxiety and depression (HADS), hopelessness (BHS), optimism (LOT-R), adjustment to cancer (MAC), and costs (TIC-P, EQ-5D, PRODISQ). Discussion Meaning-focused coping is key to adjustment to life after cancer, however, there is a lack of evidence based psychological interventions in this area. Many cancer survivors experience feelings of loneliness and alienation, and have a need for peer support, therefore a group method in particular, can be beneficial for sustaining or enhancing a sense of meaning. If this MCGP-CS is effective for cancer survivors, it can be implemented in the practice of psycho-oncology care. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register, NTR3571 PMID:24467861
Tasca, Giorgio A
This is a commentary on 3 case studies of relationship-focused therapies for eating disorders. The 3 approaches vary along a number of dimensions, but nevertheless share important similarities especially related to the role played by variables such as interpersonal problems and affect dysregulation. I briefly review research on interpersonal- and attachment-based models of eating disorders that provide the evidence-base for theories of therapy that are relationship-focused. The Interpersonal Psychotherapy case presented by Tanofsky-Kraff, Shomaker, Young, and Wilfley (2016) illustrates how a group context can facilitate change in key role disputes and role transitions in an adolescent at risk of developing an eating disorder later in her life. The Integrative-Dynamic Therapy case presented by Richards, Shingleton, Goldman, Siegel, and Thompson-Brenner (2016) is a novel sequential combination of cognitive-behavioral therapy followed by dynamic psychotherapy for a young adult with bulimia nervosa that likely reflects what most clinicians do in everyday practice. The Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy case presented by Lunn, Poulsen, and Daniel (2016) of a patient with severe personality pathology demonstrates how treatments for eating disorders sometimes must address complex attachment dysfunction, self-organization, and therapist countertransference in order to provide a useful therapeutic experience. Relationship-focused theories and therapies for eating disorders have come a long way over the past decades, thus providing therapists with a wider range of approaches that can be truly personalized to their clients. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27267506
Breitbart, William; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Applebaum, Allison; Kulikowski, Julia; Lichtenthal, Wendy G.
Purpose To test the efficacy of meaning-centered group psychotherapy (MCGP) to reduce psychological distress and improve spiritual well-being in patients with advanced or terminal cancer. Patients and Methods Patients with advanced cancer (N = 253) were randomly assigned to manualized eight-session interventions of either MCGP or supportive group psychotherapy (SGP). Patients were assessed before and after completing the treatment and 2 months after treatment. The primary outcome measures were spiritual well-being and overall quality of life, with secondary outcome measures assessing depression, hopelessness, desire for hastened death, anxiety, and physical symptom distress. Results Hierarchical linear models that included a priori covariates and only participants who attended ≥ three sessions indicated a significant group × time interaction for most outcome variables. Specifically, patients receiving MCGP showed significantly greater improvement in spiritual well-being and quality of life and significantly greater reductions in depression, hopelessness, desire for hastened death, and physical symptom distress compared with those receiving SGP. No group differences were observed for changes in anxiety. Analyses that included all patients, regardless of whether they attended any treatment sessions (ie, intent-to-treat analyses), and no covariates still showed significant treatment effects (ie, greater benefit for patients receiving MCGP v SGP) for quality of life, depression, and hopelessness but not for other outcome variables. Conclusion This large randomized controlled study provides strong support for the efficacy of MCGP as a treatment for psychological and existential or spiritual distress in patients with advanced cancer. PMID:25646186
McClintock, Shawn M.; Brandon, Anna R.; Husain, Mustafa M.; Jarrett, Robin B.
Objective Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective treatments for severe Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). However, after acute phase treatment and initial remission, relapse rates are significant. Strategies to prolong remission include continuation phase ECT, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or their combinations. This systematic review synthesizes extant data regarding the combined use of psychotherapy with ECT for the treatment of patients with severe MDD and offers the hypothesis that augmenting ECT with depression-specific psychotherapy represents a promising strategy for future investigation. Methods The authors performed two independent searches in PsychInfo (1806 – 2009) and MEDLINE (1948 – 2009) using combinations of the following search terms: Electroconvulsive Therapy (including ECT, ECT therapy, electroshock therapy, EST, shock therapy) and Psychotherapy (including cognitive behavioral, interpersonal, group, psychodynamic, psychoanalytic, individual, eclectic, and supportive). We included in this review a total of six articles (English language) that mentioned ECT and psychotherapy in the abstract, and provided a case report, series, or clinical trial. We examined the articles for data related to ECT and psychotherapy treatment characteristics, cohort characteristics, and therapeutic outcome. Results Although research over the past seven decades documenting the combined use of ECT and psychotherapy is limited, the available evidence suggests that testing this combination has promise and may confer additional, positive functional outcomes. Conclusions Significant methodological variability in ECT and psychotherapy procedures, heterogeneous patient cohorts, and inconsistent outcome measures prevent strong conclusions; however, existing research supports the need for future investigations of combined ECT and psychotherapy in well-designed, controlled clinical studies. Depression-specific psychotherapy approaches may need special
Weissman, M M
A review of epidemiologic and clinical data on depression suggests that psychotherapy is both an important alternative as well as a supplement to medication for the maintenance treatment of depression. Psychotherapy is an alternative for patients during periods when medication may not be suitable or feasible (e.g. pregnancy, nursing, before or during major surgery, or in the elderly). Psychotherapy also has a role in maintenance treatment in dealing with the social and interpersonal consequences or triggers of recurrent depression. Although the number of continuation or maintenance treatment trials that include psychotherapy is quite limited, the efficacy of maintenance treatment in the delay of recurrence and enhancement of social functioning is best established for interpersonal psychotherapy. There are also some results concerning cognitive and behavioural therapies for maintenance treatment of depression. PMID:7873137
Callaghan, Glenn M.
The interpersonal behavior therapy, Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) has been empirically investigated and described in the literature for a little over a decade. Still, little has been written about the process of supervision in FAP. While there are many aspects of FAP supervision shared by other contemporary behavior therapies and…
Applebaum, Allison J.; Lichtenthal, Wendy G.; Pessin, Hayley A.; Radomski, Julia N.; Gökbayrak, N. Simay; Katz, Aviva M.; Rosenfeld, Barry; Breitbart, William
Objective The generalizability of palliative care intervention research is often limited by high rates of study attrition. This study examined factors associated with attrition from a randomized controlled trial comparing meaning-centered group psychotherapy (MCGP), an intervention designed to help advanced cancer patients sustain or enhance their sense of meaning to the supportive group psychotherapy (SGP), a standardized support group. Methods Patients with advanced solid tumor cancers (n = 153) were randomized to eight sessions of either the MCGP or SGP. They completed assessments of psychosocial, spiritual, and physical well-being pretreatment, midtreatment, and 2 months post-treatment. Attrition was assessed in terms of the percent of participants who failed to complete these assessments, and demographic, psychiatric, medical, and study-related correlates of attrition were examined for the participants in each of these categories. Results The rates of attrition at these time points were 28.1%, 17.7%, and 11.1%, respectively; 43.1% of the participants (66 of 153) completed the entire study. The most common reason for dropout was patients feeling too ill. Attrition rates did not vary significantly between study arms. The participants who dropped out pretreatment reported less financial concerns than post-treatment dropouts, and the participants who dropped out of the study midtreatment had poorer physical health than treatment completers. There were no other significant associations between attrition and any demographic, medical, psychiatric, or study-related variables. Conclusions These findings highlight the challenge of maintaining advanced cancer patients in longitudinal research and suggest the need to consider alternative approaches (e.g., telemedicine) for patients who might benefit from group interventions but are too ill to travel. PMID:21751295
Bychkova, Tetyana; Hillman, Saul; Midgley, Nick; Schneider, Celeste
An innovative methodology is presented for describing the therapeutic processes involved in five types of adolescent treatments: psychoanalysis, psychodynamic psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy, mentalisation-based treatment and interpersonal psychotherapy. Using the "Adolescent Psychotherapy Q-Set" (APQ), 18 experienced clinicians…
Background: Self-Concept Clarity (SCC) describes the extent to which the schemas of the self are internally integrated, well defined, and temporally stable. This article presents a theoretical model that describes how different shapes of SCC change (especially stable increase and “V” shape) observed in the course of psychotherapy are related to the therapy outcome. Linking the concept of Jean Piaget and the dynamic systems theory, the study postulates that a stable SCC increase is needed for the participants with a rather healthy personality structure, while SCC change characterized by a “V” shape or fluctuations is optimal for more disturbed patients. Method: Correlational study in a naturalistic setting with repeated measurements (M = 5.8) was conducted on the sample of 85 patients diagnosed with neurosis and personality disorders receiving intensive eclectic group psychotherapy under routine inpatient conditions. Participants filled in the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCCS), Symptoms' Questionnaire KS-II, and Neurotic Personality Questionnaire KON-2006 at the beginning and at the end of the course of psychotherapy. The SCCS was also administered every 2 weeks during psychotherapy. Results: As hypothesized, among the relatively healthiest group of patients the stable SCC increase was related to positive treatment outcome, while more disturbed patients benefited from the fluctuations and “V” shape of SCC change. Conclusions: The findings support the idea that for different personality dispositions either a monotonic increase or transient destabilization of SCC is a sign of a good treatment prognosis. PMID:26579001
Hilsenroth, Mark J.; And Others
Investigates the differences between 97 patients who had prematurely terminated psychotherapy and 81 who had participated in individual psychotherapy for at least 6 months and 24 sessions on selected Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and Rorschach variables. Theoretical implications of interpersonal variables are discussed in…
Asgharipoor, Negar; Asgharnejad Farid, Aliasghar; Arshadi, Hamidreza; Sahebi, Ali
Objective: Aim of this experimental study is evaluating the effectiveness of two different approaches towards the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD): Positive-oriented psychotherapy and group cognitive-behavior therapy. Methods: Eighteen out-patients suffering from major depression were randomly divided into two groups to be treated according to either of these two approaches. Both groups undertook the treatments for 12 weeks. All the subjects were tested by Beck Depression Inventory, Subjective Wellbeing Scale, Oxford test of Happiness, and the scale of Subjective Units of Distress before and after the treatments. Results: The results show significant differences between the two groups in terms of the variables of happiness and mental distress, suggesting that effectiveness of positive psychotherapy is more than cognitive-behavioral therapy in increasing happiness. These two approaches were significantly different in neither decreasing the acuteness of depression symptoms nor increasing subjective wellbeing. Conclusion: As a whole, the results of this comparative study indicate that positive psychotherapy is more effective in increasing happiness among MDD patients. PMID:24644480
Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike
This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of "Doing Anger Differently" (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1,…
Darrow, Sabrina M.; Dalto, Georgia; Follette, William C.
Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is an interpersonal behavior therapy that relies on a therapist's ability to contingently respond to in-session client behavior. Valued behavior change in clients results from the therapist shaping more effective client interpersonal behaviors by providing effective social reinforcement when these behaviors…
Moskowitz, Joel A.; Defries, Zira
This paper is an attempt to show the difference in the course of treatment of two successive groups of university students which functioned significantly differently in the manner and degree to which they examined defenses and manifested transference problems. (Author)
Seligman, Martin E P; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C
Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported them to be "life-changing." Delivered on the Web, positive psychology exercises relieved depressive symptoms for at least 6 months compared with placebo interventions, the effects of which lasted less than a week. In severe depression, the effects of these Web exercises were particularly striking. This address reports two preliminary studies: In the first, PPT delivered to groups significantly decreased levels of mild-to-moderate depression through 1-year follow-up. In the second, PPT delivered to individuals produced higher remission rates than did treatment as usual and treatment as usual plus medication among outpatients with major depressive disorder. Together, these studies suggest that treatments for depression may usefully be supplemented by exercises that explicitly increase positive emotion, engagement, and meaning. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115810
Westefeld, John S.
Current models and issues related to psychotherapy supervision are examined. These include ethical and legal issues, problems of interpersonal competence, and multicultural issues. As a part of this analysis, interviews about supervision with five prominent counseling psychologists are included to provide their perspectives. Implications for the…
Porter, J; Wilson, C; Frisch, G R
Scores of 82 distressed university students receiving psychotherapy were compared on the SCL-90-R with those of 21 distressed students waiting for treatment and those of 126 nondistressed normative students. The Posttreatment group showed significant reductions in scores indicating distress, with 36 Posttreatment men reporting lower scores on hostility and suspiciousness than their 60 normative peers. PMID:7892397
Tisdale, John R.
Based on an earlier list of characteristics, ten assertions were derived about the nature of psychotherapy upon which it was believed that humanistic therapists would agree. These assertions were then submitted to three groups of therapists (111 returns) listed in the "National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology": behaviorists,…
Fagan, Joen; And Others
This group of articles discusses various aspects of Gestalt Therapy including its major contributions, role in psychotherapy, and contributions of Gestalt psychology in general. There is some discussion of the philosophical background of Gestalt therapy along with Gestalt theory of emotion. A case study and an annotated bibliography are included…
Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Spiegel, David
Reviews research indicating that group psychotherapy is an effective adjunctive therapy to medical treatment for women with breast cancer. States that Supportive-Expressive group therapy has been effective in assisting patients in reducing anxiety related to death and dying, strengthening interpersonal relationships, and improving the quality of…
Gushue, George V.; Brazaitis, Sarah J.
A new class of medications, protease inhibitors, has dramatically improved the health of many people with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). This development has had a major impact on the lives of those affected by HIV/AIDS. This article considers how a group is affected by the larger systems of…
Begovac, Branka; Begovac, Ivan
This article presents, in the form of a clinical illustration, a therapeutic group of bereaved mothers with special reference to their dreams about their deceased children. The article presents descriptions of the emotions of these mothers and countertransference feelings, a topic that, to our knowledge, has not been frequently studied. The group…
Lazar, Susan G
Psychotherapy is an effective and often highly cost-effective medical intervention for many serious psychiatric conditions. Psychotherapy can also lead to savings in other medical and societal costs. It is at times the firstline and most important treatment and at other times augments the efficacy of psychotropic medication. Many patients are in need of more prolonged and intensive psychotherapy, including those with personality disorders and those with chronic complex psychiatric conditions often with severe anxiety and depression. Many patients with serious and complex psychiatric illness have experienced severe early life trauma in an atmosphere in which family members or caretakers themselves have serious psychiatric disorders. Children and adolescents with learning disabilities and those with severe psychiatric disorders can also require more than brief treatment. Other diagnostic groups for whom psychotherapy is effective and cost-effective include patients with schizophrenia, anxiety disorders (including posttraumatic stress disorder), depression, and substance abuse. In addition, psychotherapy for the medically ill with concomitant psychiatric illness often lowers medical costs, improves recovery from medical illness, and at times even prolongs life compared to similar patients not given psychotherapy. While "cost-effective" treatments can yield savings in healthcare costs, disability claims, and other societal costs, "cost-effective" by no means translates to "cheap" but instead describes treatments that are clinically effective and provided at a cost that is considered reasonable given the benefit they provide, even if the treatments increase direct expenses. In the current insurance climate in which Mental Health Parity is the law, insurers nonetheless often use their own non-research and non-clinically based medical necessity guidelines to subvert it and limit access to appropriate psychotherapeutic treatments. Many patients, especially those who need
Lagana, Luciana; Fobair, Patricia; Spiegel, David
The need for the psychosexual rehabilitation of breast cancer survivors and their intimate partners is underscored by the high prevalence of multiple psychosexual difficulties encountered by this patient population. Concerns about health, sexuality, and emotional distress are common among women with breast cancer and are often related to the side effects of cancer treatment. Additionally, both intimate relationship problems and partners’ distress are likely to influence patients’ psychosexual health. A clearer understanding of these complex clinical issues is needed in order to implement effective psychosexual rehabilitation interventions. In this article, we extended the use of the manualized and empirically validated Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy (SEGT) model to target the specific psychosexual needs of couples with breast (as well as other types of) cancer. In view of the pertinent literature in this area and based on our clinical experience utilizing this group therapy model with different patient populations, we have discussed how clinicians involved in the psychosexual care of oncology patients could apply such a model within a couples group therapy format. PMID:27239398
Smith, Bruce L.
This study examined the effects of discounting behavior ("put downs") on the quantity and quality of ideas produced by a group and on the group climate. Subjects were 52 college students divided into 8 groups. Groups in which discounting occurred produced significantly fewer ideas, and the emotional response to the group process was significantly…
Pomnitz, Fabiane; Strauß, Berhard; Wünsch-Leiteritz, Wally; Leiteritz, Andreas; Schreiber-Willnow, Karin; Dobersch, Johannes; Moffenter, Judith; Nickel, Ralf; Huber, Thomas; Braks, Karsten; Linsenmeier, Meinrad; Greiner, Wolf; Koschke, Mandy; Seidler, Klaus-Peter; Weber, Rainer; Subic-Wrana, Claudia
The study describes an application of the Inter-Session-Questionnaire (ISF) related to inpatient group psychotherapy. The instrument should be tested with the extension of differentiating intersession experiences related to the person of the therapist as well as the group. In a cross sectional study performed in 13 different hospitals, 702 patients were assessed. These patients were treated in rehab hospitals, acute hospitals as well as special hospitals providing treatment for eating disorders. The sample should be relatively representative for psychosomatic and psychotherapeutic hospitals in Germany. Besides the type of the hospital, we also analysed the influence of group characteristics (size of group, type of group and number of completed sessions) as well as the patients' sex. Surprisingly, there were almost no marked differences of inter-session-experiences related to the the therapist or the group. The profiles of the item judgements of the ISF were similar to those reported for outpatient and day treatment samples. Inter-session-experiences differed in part according to our expectation depending on the variables mentioned above which suggests to use the ISF in specific studies dealing with the process and outcome of inpatient group psychotherapy as well as the differentiation of relevant subgroups. PMID:26764902
Kearns, Patricia M.
This thesis is an analysis of data concerning drug usage among three groups of young soldiers and isolates significant factors relating to characteristic interpersonal and intrafamilial relationships prevalent in these groups. Those soldiers dependent on drugs all came from families that they considered disharmonious. The following variables…
Philipsen, Alexandra; Richter, Harald; Peters, Julia; Alm, Barbara; Sobanski, Esther; Colla, Michael; Münzebrock, Mirka; Scheel, Corinna; Jacob, Christian; Perlov, Evgeniy; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Hesslinger, Bernd
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious mental disorder that often persists in adulthood. In a pilot study, a structured skills training group program for adult ADHD led to significant symptomatic improvements. The present study evaluated the program's effectiveness, feasibility, and patient acceptability in a multicenter setting. Seventy-two adult ADHD patients were assigned to 13 two-hour weekly sessions at 4 different therapy sites. The therapy was well tolerated and led to significant improvements of ADHD, depressive symptoms, and personal health status (p < 0.001). The factors treatment site and medication did not contribute to the overall improvement. Patients regarded the program topics "behavioral analyses," "mindfulness," and "emotion regulation" as the most helpful. In this multicenter study, the therapy program showed therapist-independent effects and seemed to be disorder-specific. This warrants the effort of organizing further controlled studies. PMID:18091195
Zhou, Xinyu; Hetrick, Sarah E; Cuijpers, Pim; Qin, Bin; Barth, Jürgen; Whittington, Craig J; Cohen, David; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Liu, Yiyun; Michael, Kurt D; Zhang, Yuqing; Weisz, John R; Xie, Peng
Previous meta-analyses of psychotherapies for child and adolescent depression were limited because of the small number of trials with direct comparisons between two treatments. A network meta-analysis, a novel approach that integrates direct and indirect evidence from randomized controlled studies, was undertaken to investigate the comparative efficacy and acceptability of psychotherapies for depression in children and adolescents. Systematic searches resulted in 52 studies (total N=3805) of nine psychotherapies and four control conditions. We assessed the efficacy at post-treatment and at follow-up, as well as the acceptability (all-cause discontinuation) of psychotherapies and control conditions. At post-treatment, only interpersonal therapy (IPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) were significantly more effective than most control conditions (standardized mean differences, SMDs ranged from −0.47 to −0.96). Also, IPT and CBT were more beneficial than play therapy. Only psychodynamic therapy and play therapy were not significantly superior to waitlist. At follow-up, IPT and CBT were significantly more effective than most control conditions (SMDs ranged from −0.26 to −1.05), although only IPT retained this superiority at both short-term and long-term follow-up. In addition, IPT and CBT were more beneficial than problem-solving therapy. Waitlist was significantly inferior to other control conditions. With regard to acceptability, IPT and problem-solving therapy had significantly fewer all-cause discontinuations than cognitive therapy and CBT (ORs ranged from 0.06 to 0.33). These data suggest that IPT and CBT should be considered as the best available psychotherapies for depression in children and adolescents. However, several alternative psychotherapies are understudied in this age group. Waitlist may inflate the effect of psychotherapies, so that psychological placebo or treatment-as-usual may be preferable as a control condition in psychotherapy
Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.
Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…
In the past decade, stimulated by public concern with issues of mental health, there has been a new spurt of interest in techniques of brief treatment with circumscribed goals. These are applicable to groups as well as to the single patient. There are still differences of opinion about the effectiveness of brief psychotherapy, particularly the lastingness and depth of the results obtained, yet it is often highly beneficial, especially to previously well-functioning individuals who are involved in a situational crisis. Although probably the best results of brief psychotherapy are with disturbances of moderate severity and recent onset, in practice, it is often tried with a wide spectrum of patients. Brief psychotherapy aims at relief of the patient's major current conflicts rather than at change of his personality structure, which generally requires long-term treatment. Brief psychotherapy is of special relevance for the general physician because the patients whom he sees in large numbers are precisely those best suited for this form of treatment. PMID:6075465
Page, Richard C.; Bridges, Ned
Assessed how illegal drug users (N=12) related to one another during a 16-hour unstructured group marathon. Interaction analysis supported the effectiveness of the marathon group. Members and facilitators were able to relate to each other by confronting significant behaviors and receiving feedback about ways to cope with personal problems. (JAC)
Project REAL (Relationship skills, Education on violence prevention, Academics, Leadership and decision-making skills) was a practicum designed to increase the academic achievement of middle school students exposed to domestic violence. Eleven students and their parents participated in a 12-week interpersonal-cognitive counseling group and its…
Studt, Hans Henning
The development and state of the art is presented for inpatient psychotherapy in neurotic and psychosomatic patients. The question is then posed whether time-tested inpatient psychotherapy can survive the introduction of "diagnosis-related groups" (DRG) with its threat of flat-rate case billing. Thus, the development of an "in- and outpatient network" has been considered as a possible alternative, in which hospitals and private practices combine intervals of inpatient and outpatient psychotherapy. PMID:14733063
Background Continuous feedback on patient improvement and the therapeutic alliance may reduce the number of dropouts and increase patient outcome. There are, however, only three published randomized trials on the effect of feedback on the treatment of eating disorders, showing inconclusive results, and there are no randomized trials on the effect of feedback in group therapy. Accordingly the current randomized clinical trial, initiated in September 2012 at the outpatient clinic for eating disorders at Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Centre, aims to investigate the impact of continuous feedback on attendance and outcome in group psychotherapy. Methods/design The hypothesis is that continuous feedback to both patient and therapist on treatment progress and alliance will increase attendance and treatment outcome. The trial is set up using a randomized design with a minimum of 128 patients allocated to either an experimental or control group at a ratio of 1:1. The experimental group will receive standard treatment (systemic and narrative group psychotherapy) with feedback intervention, whereas the control group will receive standard treatment only. The participants are diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or an eating disorder not otherwise specified, according to the DSM-IV. In the experimental group feedback to the participants, based on the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) and the Group Session Rating Scale (GSRS), is actively added to standard treatment. The ORS assesses areas of life functioning known to change as a result of therapeutic intervention. The GSRS assesses key dimensions of effective therapeutic relationships. In the control group, the patients fill out the Outcome Rating Scale only, and feedback is not provided. The primary outcome is the rate of attendance to treatment sessions. The secondary outcome is the severity of eating disorder symptoms. Exploratory outcomes are the level of psychological and social functioning, and suicide or self
Bottai, T; Biloa-Tang, M; Christophe, S; Dupuy, C; Jacquesy, L; Kochman, F; Meynard, J-A; Papeta, D; Rahioui, H; Adida, M; Fakra, E; Kaladjian, A; Pringuey, D; Azorin, J-M
Bipolar disorder is common, recurrent, often severe and debiliting disorder. All types of bipolar disorder have a common determinant: depressive episode. It is justify to propose a psychotherapy which shown efficacy in depression. Howewer, perturbations in circadian rhythms have been implicated in the genesis of each episode of the illness. Biological circadian dysregulation can be encouraged by alteration of time-givers (Zeitgebers) or occurrence of time-disturbers (Zeitstörers). Addition of social rhythm therapy to interpersonal psychotherapy leads to create a new psychotherapy adaptated to bipolar disorders: InterPersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy (IPSRT). IPSRT, in combinaison with medication, has demonstrated efficacy as a treatment for bipolar disorders. IPSRT combines psychoeducation, behavioral strategy to regularize daily routines and interpersonal psychotherapy which help patients cope better with the multiple psychosocial and relationship problems associated with this chronic disorder. The main issues of this psychotherapy are: to take the history of the patient's illness and review of medication, to help patient for "grief for the lost healthy self" translated in the french version in "acceptance of a long-term medical condition", to give the sick role, to examinate the current relationships and changes proximal to the emergence of mood symptoms in the four problem areas (unresolved grief, interpersonal disputes, role transitions, role déficits), to examinate and increase daily routines and social rhythms. French version of IPSRT called TIPARS (with few differences), a time-limited psychotherapy, in 24 sessions during approximatively 6 months, is conducted in three phases. In the initial phase, the therapist takes a thorough history of previous episodes and their interpersonal context and a review of previous medication, provides psychoeducation, evaluates social rhythms, introduces the Social Rhythm Metric, identifies the patient's main interpersonal
Slaten, Christopher D.; Elison, Zachary M.
Youth mental health is an area of profound disparity between the demand and supply of services, particularly in schools that serve students at risk of school dropout. This article describes the conceptual foundations and implementation of "MAGNIFY", a program that provides free group counseling to small alternative schools with students…
The New Beginnings program was developed at the Anna Freud Centre and originally piloted in Her Majesty Prisons in the United Kingdom. This study aimed to explore the use of this manualized parent-infant psychotherapy group model in an African setting with high-risk mother-infant dyads, and describes the implementation and investigation of this 12-week group psychotherapy intervention in two Johannesburg shelters for homeless women. The measures used to investigate treatment efficacy were the Parent Development Interview (A. Slade, J.L. Aber, I. Bresgi, B. Berger, & M. Kaplan,), the Emotional Availability Scales (Z. Biringen, J.L. Robinson, & R.N. Emde,), the Kessler-10 (R.C. Kessler et al.,), and the Griffiths Scales of Mental Development (D. Luiz et al., . At pretesting, infants exhibited delays in a number of developmental areas, and mothers showed high levels of depression and generally low capacities for reflective function. While significant shifts in the mothers' capacities for reflective function were not found in the treatment condition, significant shifts were found in the infants' speech abilities and in the mothers' abilities to structure their interactions with their infants. This suggests that the program enabled mothers to become more sensitized to their infants' needs in interaction and that communication between mother and infant increased. The number of sessions attended by the dyads correlated with improvements made by the mothers and their infants. PMID:25798508
Lasky, R G; Salomone, P R
Therapist-patient age similarity and therapist status were examined in relation to interpersonal attraction in the psychotherapy dyad. Psychiatric inpatients who comprised three age groupings were assigned randomly to one of four audiovisual treatments that depicted a dyadic psychotherapy situation (N = 60). For each treatment, therapist age and status were differentially presented on color slides with the same accompanying audiotape. Results indicated that age similarity was significantly (p less than .05) more relevant for the younger patients, whereas therapist status had greater significance for older patients. There were several significant interactions that concerned therapist-patient age similarity and therapist status effects on psychotherapeutic attraction. These results suggest that therapist-patient matching on age and/or therapist status should be considered carefully as a potential influence on therapeutic outcome. PMID:858795
Nozawa, Takayuki; Sasaki, Yukako; Sakaki, Kohei; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Kawashima, Ryuta
Research of interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) hyperscanning is an expanding nascent field. This field still requires the accumulation of findings and establishment of analytic standards. In this study, we therefore intend to extend fNIRS-based INS research in three directions: (1) verifying the enhancement of frontopolar INS by natural and unstructured verbal communication involving more than two individuals; (2) examining timescale dependence of the INS modulation; and (3) evaluating the effects of artifact reduction methods in capturing INS. We conducted an fNIRS hyperscanning study while 12 groups of four subjects were engaged in cooperative verbal communication. Corresponding to the three objectives, our analyses of the data (1) confirmed communication-enhanced frontopolar INS, as expected from the region's roles in social communication; (2) revealed the timescale dependency in the INS modulation, suggesting the merit of evaluating INS in fine timescale bins; and (3) determined that removal of the skin blood flow component engenders substantial improvement in sensitivity to communication-enhanced INS and segregation from artifactual synchronization, and that caution for artifact reduction preprocessing is needed to avoid excessive removal of the neural fluctuation component. Accordingly, this study provides a prospective technical basis for future hyperscanning studies during daily communicative activities. PMID:27039144
Deckersbach, Thilo; Peters, Amy T.; Sylvia, Louisa; Urdahl, Anna; Magalhães, Pedro V.S.; Otto, Michael W.; Frank, Ellen; Miklowitz, David J.; Berk, Michael; Kinrys, Gustavo; Nierenberg, Andrew
Objective At least 50% of individuals with bipolar disorder have a lifetime anxiety disorder. Individuals with both bipolar disorder and a co-occurring anxiety disorder experience longer illness duration, greater illness severity, and poorer treatment response. The study explored whether comorbid lifetime anxiety in bipolar patients moderates psychotherapy treatment outcome. Method In the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program randomized controlled trial of psychotherapy for bipolar depression, participants received up to 30 sessions of intensive psychotherapy (family-focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, or cognitive-behavioral therapy) or collaborative care, a three-session comparison treatment, plus pharmacotherapy. Using the number needed to treat, we computed effect sizes to analyze the relationship between lifetime anxiety disorders and rates of recovery across treatment groups after 1 year. Results A total of 269 patients (113 women) with a comorbid lifetime anxiety disorder (N=177) or without a comorbid lifetime anxiety disorder (N=92) were included in the analysis. Participants with a lifetime anxiety disorder were more likely to recover with psychotherapy than with collaborative care (66% compared with 49% recovered over 1 year; number needed to treat=5.88, small to medium effect). For patients without a lifetime anxiety disorder, there was no difference between rates of recovery in psychotherapy compared with collaborative care (64% compared with 62% recovered; number needed to treat=50, small effect). Participants with one lifetime anxiety disorder were likely to benefit from intensive psychotherapy compared with collaborative care (84% compared with 53% recovered; number needed to treat=3.22, medium to large effect), whereas patients with multiple anxiety disorders exhibited no difference in response to the two treatments (54% compared with 46% recovered; number needed to treat=12.5, small effect). Conclusions Depressed patients
Windholz, Michael J.; Silberschatz, George
Replicated two earlier studies undertaken by the Vanderbilt Psychotherapy Research Group to investigate relation between process and outcome of brief psychotherapy. Rated audiotaped segments of 38 brief psychodynamic psychotherapies with adult outpatients. Found significant correlations between therapist ratings of outcome and two process…
Manickam, L. S. S.
The articles that appeared in Indian Journal of Psychiatry were related to different areas of psychotherapy. Case reports dealt with a wide variety of cases. The review papers focused on the suitability of psychotherapy in the Indian context, different approaches in psychotherapy, psychotherapy training and supervision. Psychotherapy has been viewed very close to faith orientation. There were attempts to identify the indigenous concepts that are applicable to psychotherapy. Empirical studies are low in number. Concerted effort is needed to generate interest in psychotherapy, conduct more research on evidence-based therapies as well as on psychotherapeutic process variables. PMID:21836707
Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M
This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy. PMID:26401805
Johnson, Jennifer E.
In this article, I review my research applying interpersonal treatments and interpersonal principles from psychotherapy for major depression and substance use to broader public health goals for incarcerated women and other vulnerable populations. A public health focus has led me to expand the boundaries of psychotherapy research to include partners such as prisons, parole officers, and bachelor's level providers; behaviors like risky sex; service delivery challenges; and ultimately to research with an eye toward informing policy and advocacy. A public health perspective provides context and rationale for conducting sound psychotherapy research; the combination of public health and psychotherapy-specific perspectives can lead to novel research. PMID:24188727
Bhatia, Subhash C.; Madabushi, Jayakrishna; Kolli, Venkata; Bhatia, Shashi K.; Madaan, Vishal
The Bhagavad Gita is based on a discourse between Lord Krishna and Arjuna at the inception of the Kurukshetra war and elucidates many psychotherapeutic principles. In this article, we discuss some of the parallels between the Gita and contemporary psychotherapies. We initially discuss similarities between psychodynamic theories of drives and psychic structures, and the concept of three gunas. Arjuna under duress exhibits elements of distorted thinking. Lord Krishna helps remedy this through a process akin to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). We ascertain the analogies between the principles of Gita and CBT, grief emancipation, role transition, self-esteem, and motivation enhancement, as well as interpersonal and supportive psychotherapies. We advocate the pragmatic application of age old wisdom of the Gita to enhance the efficacy of psychotherapeutic interventions for patients from Indian subcontinent and to add value to the art of western psychotherapies. PMID:23858274
Markowitz, John C.; Milrod, Barbara; Bleiberg, Kathryn; Marshall, Randall D.
Exposure to reminders of trauma underlies the theory and practice of most treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet exposure may not be the sole important treatment mechanism. Interpersonal features of PTSD influence its onset, chronicity, and possibly its treatment. The authors review interpersonal factors in PTSD, including the critical but underrecognized role of social support as both protective posttrauma and as a mechanism of recovery. They discuss interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) as an alternative treatment for PTSD and present encouraging findings from two initial studies. Highlighting the potential importance of attachment and interpersonal relationships, the authors propose a mechanism to explain why improving relationships may ameliorate PTSD symptoms. PMID:19339847
Swartz, Holly A.; Swanson, Joshua
Although pharmacotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for bipolar disorder, medication offers only partial relief for patients. Treatment with pharmacologic interventions alone is associated with disappointingly low rates of remission, high rates of recurrence, residual symptoms, and psychosocial impairment. Bipolar-specific therapy is increasingly recommended as an essential component of illness management. This review summarizes the available data on psychotherapy for adults with bipolar disorder. We conducted a search of the literature for outcome studies published between 1995 and 2013 and identified 35 reports of 28 randomized controlled trials testing individual or group psychosocial interventions for adults with bipolar disorder. These reports include systematic trials investigating the efficacy and effectiveness of individual psychoeducation, group psychoeducation, individual cognitive-behavioral therapy, group cognitive-behavioral therapy, family therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, and integrated care management. The evidence demonstrates that bipolar disorder-specific psychotherapies, when added to medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder, consistently show advantages over medication alone on measures of symptom burden and risk of relapse. Whether delivered in a group or individual format, those who receive bipolar disorder-specific psychotherapy fare better than those who do not. Psychotherapeutic strategies common to most bipolar disorder-specific interventions are identified. PMID:26279641
Bonow, Jordan T.; Maragakis, Alexandros; Follette, William C.
Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) targets a client's interpersonal behavior for change with the goal of improving his or her quality of life. One question guiding FAP case conceptualization is, "What interpersonal behavioral repertoires will allow a specific client to function optimally?" Previous FAP writings have suggested that a therapist…
Clinical psychologists face unique challenges in developing Southeast Asian countries because mental health care has not received the kind of attention it deserves. In part, this has been the result of lack of knowledge or misunderstanding about mental health and adherence to various religious and traditional beliefs. In this article, the practice of psychotherapy in Brunei Darussalam is reviewed and then illustrated with a typical case, Mrs. A. Asian psychotherapists need more comprehensive knowledge of prevailing cultural beliefs and religious practices among multiethnic population groups. PMID:17603780
Barolin, Gerhard S; Kaiser-Rekkas, Agnes
In "Integrated psychotherapy" we indicate necessity of combining psychotherapy with all other psychotherapeutic and medical methods (drugs, physiotherapy, etc.) in order to obtain best result. We distinguish between "professional" and "basic" psychotherapy. The latter also has effect on mood and by it on health for patients. Furthermore it is an important facilitating means for a special psychotherapy. We emphasize to teach this in systematic professional education as well for doctors as for all social professions. PMID:17928944
The social and intellectual climate of the late 1940s and early 1950s in America helped nourish humanistic, person-centered views of human behavior. During that time, psychologists such as Gordon Allport, Abraham Maslow, David McClelland, Harry Murray, and Carl Rogers emphasized the positive growth potential in human character. The psychiatrist Harry Stack Sullivan proposed that personality can best be understood within the context of interpersonal transactions, and he provided a practical, street-smart understanding of psychiatric symptoms that was quite an advance over the traditional medical and psychoanalytic viewpoints. These ideas, along with the concept of dimensionalizing traits rather than categorizing them, inspired my colleagues and I to conduct our cooperative work on the interpersonal circumplex, which culminated in the publication of my monograph. Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality (Leary, 1957). PMID:16367702
Stein, Myron; Ronald, Doris
Educational psychotherapy for preschool children and its functioning are described in detail. Also described is the process of training teachers to do this work. The educational psychotherapy process attempts to operate at the interface between education and psychotherapy. The components of catharsis, recall, sharpening and correcting of…
Perry, Jonathan; Linsley, Sue
Nominal group technique is a semi-quantitative/qualitative evaluative methodology. It has been used in health care education for generating ideas to develop curricula and find solutions to problems in programme delivery. This paper aims to describe the use of nominal group technique and present the data from nominal group evaluations of a developing module which used novel approaches to the teaching and assessment of interpersonal skills. Evaluations took place over 3 years. Thirty-six students took part in annual groups. Analysis of the data produced the following themes based on items generated in the groups: role play, marking, course content, teaching style and user involvement. Findings indicate that students valued the role play, feedback from service users and emphasis on engagement and collaboration elements of the module. The areas which participants found difficult and desired change included anxiety during experiential practice, the "snap shot" nature of assessment and the use of specific interventions. Indications are also given regarding the impact of changes made by teaching staff over the 3 year evaluation period. The findings support themes within the existing literature on the teaching of interpersonal skills and may to some extent point the way toward best practice in this area. The paper discusses these findings and their implications for nurse education. PMID:16481073
Mellin, Elizabeth Anne
In an attempt of fill the gap in theoretical and empirical information available for treatment of adolescent depression, interpersonal therapy for adolescents (IPT-A) was developed. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a brief, time-limited therapy originally developed for use with adults diagnosed with major depression. Several outcome studies…
Bonete, Saray; Calero, María Dolores; Fernández-Parra, Antonio
Adults with Asperger syndrome show persistent difficulties in social situations which psychosocial treatments may address. Despite the multiple studies focusing on social skills interventions, only some have focused specifically on problem-solving skills and have not targeted workplace adaptation training in the adult population. This study describes preliminary data from a group format manual-based intervention, the Interpersonal Problem-Solving for Workplace Adaptation Programme, aimed at improving the cognitive and metacognitive process of social problem-solving skills focusing on typical social situations in the workplace based on mediation as the main strategy. A total of 50 adults with Asperger syndrome received the programme and were compared with a control group of typical development. The feasibility and effectiveness of the treatment were explored. Participants were assessed at pre-treatment and post-treatment on a task of social problem-solving skills and two secondary measures of socialisation and work profile using self- and caregiver-report. Using a variety of methods, the results showed that scores were significantly higher at post-treatment in the social problem-solving task and socialisation skills based on reports by parents. Differences in comparison to the control group had decreased after treatment. The treatment was acceptable to families and subject adherence was high. The Interpersonal Problem-Solving for Workplace Adaptation Programme appears to be a feasible training programme. PMID:24569569
Hamm, Jay A; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Kukla, Marina; Lysaker, Paul H
Although the role and relative prominence of psychotherapy in the treatment of schizophrenia has fluctuated over time, an analysis of the history of psychotherapy for schizophrenia, focusing on findings from the recovery movement, reveals recent trends including the emergence of the development of integrative psychotherapy approaches. The authors suggest that the recovery movement has revealed limitations in traditional approaches to psychotherapy, and has provided opportunities for integrative approaches to emerge as a mechanism for promoting recovery in persons with schizophrenia. Five approaches to integrative psychotherapy for persons with schizophrenia are presented, and a shared conceptual framework that allows these five approaches to be compatible with one another is proposed. The conceptual framework is consistent with theories of recovery and emphasizes interpersonal attachment, personal narrative, and metacognitive processes. Implications for future research on integrative psychotherapy are considered. PMID:23950665
Bradshaw, William; Roseborough, David; Pahwa, Rohini; Jordan, James
This study describes an evaluation of the effectiveness of psychodynamic psychotherapy provided in an outpatient community mental health clinic. The study used a single group pretest-posttest design involving 78 clients. Clinical outcomes included overall psychosocial functioning and quality of life, level of subjective distress, interpersonal functioning and role functioning, measured by the Outcome Questionnaire (Lambert, Hansen, Umpress, Lunnen Okilshi, & Burlingame, 2000). Clients showed statistically significant improvement from pretest (first sessions) to completion of treatment in overall functioning, and quality of life, level of subjective distress, interpersonal functioning and role functioning. Eighty-five percent of clients made statistically and clinically significant change. Calculation of effect sizes for each outcome found moderate to strong change effects ranging from d = .4 to .9. The study illustrates a method of intervention research that therapists and agencies can use to integrate practical evaluation methods into their clinical services in order to improve mental health service to clients, to demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions, and to provide data to support coverage for needed services for clients. PMID:20001199
Mellin, Elizabeth A.; Beamish, Patricia M.
This article provides mental health counselors with information about the prevalence and course of adolescent depression, other empirically tested treatments for adolescent depression, an explanation of Interpersonal psychotherapy for adolescents (IPT-A) treatment protocol, and results of outcome studies on the effectiveness of IPT-A. Suggestions…
Mahendran, Rathi; Tan, Joyce Yi Siang; Griva, Konstadina; Lim, Haikel Asyraf; Ng, Hui Ying; Chua, Joanne; Lim, Siew Eng; Kua, Ee Heok
Introduction Despite the rising trend of cancer prevalence and increase in family caregiving, little attention has been paid to the efficacy of psychosocial interventions among Asian caregiver samples, particularly support groups, given the benefits that have been shown in studies on Western populations. This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot 4-week group psychotherapy for Singaporean family caregivers of patients receiving outpatient care. Methods and analysis Facilitated by a clinical psychologist, this intervention is primarily based on the brief integrative psychological therapy with a supportive-expressive intent. Participants will be recruited while they are accompanying their care recipients for outpatient consultations. Since this is a pilot study, a sample size of 120 participants is targeted on the basis of sample sizes of previous studies. The study adopts a quasi-experimental design, as participants are assigned the intervention or control arms based on their availability to attend the intervention. A mixed methods approach is used to evaluate the outcomes of the intervention. A self-administered battery of tests is completed at four time points: baseline, postintervention and follow-up at 1-month and 2-month postinterventions; semi-structured interviews are conducted at baseline and post-intervention. Primary outcomes are quality of life and anxious and depressive symptoms; secondary outcomes are stress and basic psychological needs. Analysis using analysis of covariance would be conducted to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Ethics and dissemination This study protocol has ethics approval from the National Healthcare Group Domain Specific Review Board (NHG DSRB Ref: 2013/00662). Written informed consent is obtained from every participant. Results will be disseminated through journals and conferences, and will be particularly relevant for clinicians intending to implement similar support groups to address the
Dawood, Sindes; Pincus, Aaron L
The interpersonal paradigm of personality assessment provides a rich nomological net for describing and assessing constructs of interpersonal functioning. The aim of this article is to demonstrate for clinicians how the use of a multisurface interpersonal assessment (MSIA) battery can augment psychotherapy (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy). We present 2 clinical case examples and specify interpretative guidelines for MSIA that integrate multiple circumplex profiles (e.g., problems, traits, sensitivities, strengths, values, and efficacies) for each patient. Subsequently, we demonstrate how this approach provides a context to better understand patient symptoms and difficulties, and discuss how it can inform case conceptualization, treatment planning, and intervention. PMID:27070943
de Figueiredo, John M; Gostoli, Sara
In most societies, members of a culture have attempted to help each other in times of trouble with various types of healing methods. Demoralization - an individual experience related to a group phenomenon - responds to certain elements shared by all psychotherapies. This article has three objectives: (1) to review the theoretical background leading to our current views on culture and demoralization in psychotherapy, (2) to discuss the methodological challenges faced in the cross-cultural study of demoralization and psychotherapy, and (3) to describe the clinical applications and research prospects of this area of inquiry. Demoralization follows a shattering of the individual's assumptive world and it is different from homeostatic responses to a stressful situation or from depressive disorders. Only a few comparative studies of this construct across cultures have been undertaken. The presentation of distress may vary widely from culture to culture and even within the same culture. To avoid 'category fallacy', it is important to understand the idioms of distress peculiar to a cultural group. A cultural psychiatrist or psychotherapist would have to identify patient's values and sentiments, reconstruct his/her personal and collective ambient worlds, and only then study demoralization. The limitations of our current diagnostic systems have resulted in methodological challenges. Cultural clinicians should consider using a combination of both 'clinimetric' and 'perspectivistic' approaches in order to arrive at a diagnosis and identify the appropriate intervention. The presenting problem has to be understood in the context of the patient's individual, social and cultural background, and patients unfamiliar with Western-type psychotherapies have to be prepared to guide their own expectations before the former are used. Future research should identify the gaps in knowledge on the effectiveness of cultural psychotherapy at reversing or preventing demoralization. PMID:23816865
DeRubeis, Robert J.; Gelfand, Lois A.; German, Ramaris E.; Fournier, Jay C.; Forand, Nicholas R.
We identify difficulties researchers encounter in psychotherapy process-outcome investigations, and we describe several limitations of the popular “variance accounted for” approach to understanding the effects of psychotherapy. Using data simulations, we show how the expected correlation between an excellent measure of therapy quality and outcome would be surprisingly small (approximately .25) under conditions likely to be common in psychotherapy research. Even when we modeled conditions designed to increase the likelihood that strong process-outcome relationships would be observed, we found that the expected correlations were still only in the modest range (.38 – .51). We discuss the implications of our analysis for the interpretation of process-outcome findings as well as for design considerations in future investigations. PMID:24219275
Spiegel, Jeremy; Severino, Sally K.; Morrison, Nancy K.
The authors propose to clarify concepts of emotional attunement and failures of attunement in early development derived from theoretical and clinical work (Kohut) and infant psychiatry (Stern). Early attunement failures are experienced as shameful by the infant/child, and without repair they form a nidus for later destructive adult interpersonal relationships, “social blindness,” and depression. The authors present a case illustrating these ideas. The role of empathic attunement experienced in the unique setting/structure of psychotherapy emerges as the single critical variable for a successful outcome. PMID:10608906
Peres, Julio F P
There is increasing recognition of the need to take into account the cultural environment and belief systems of psychotherapy patients because these values reflect basic assumptions about man's nature and the cognitive references used to cope with psychological difficulties. Currently accepted psychotherapeutic approaches take no account of the belief in life after death held by most of the world's population. The World Values Survey (http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org) showed that there are large numbers of reincarnationists around the world, and whatever the reasons for believing in reincarnation, psychotherapeutic approaches should not ignore this significant group of people. Respect for patient opinions and subjective realities is a therapeutic need and an ethical duty, even though therapists may not share the same beliefs. Guidelines are suggested for professionals to develop collaborative models that help patients mobilize their intrinsic intelligence to find solutions to their complaints. PMID:22297317
Layne, Christopher M.; Saltzman, William R.; Poppleton, Landon; Burlingame, Gary M.; Pasalic, Alma; Durakovic, Elvira; Music, Mirjana; Campara, Nihada; Dapo, Nermin; Arslanagic, Berina; Steinberg, Alan M.; Pynoos, Robert S.
The study assesses the comparative efficacy of a classroom-based psycho-education and skills intervention and a school-based trauma- and grief-focused group treatment of a three-tiered mental health program for adolescents exposed to severe war-trauma, traumatic bereavement, and postwar adversity. The two-tier approach, combined with…
Touhey, John C.
As no experimental study has examined the effects of congruency on attraction, the present investigation orthogonally varied attitude similarity and interpersonal congruency in order to compare the two independent variables as determinants of interpersonal attraction. (Author/RK)
The author reviews the role of play within psychotherapy. She does not discuss the formal play therapy especially popular for young children, nor play from the Jungian perspective that encourages the use of the sand tray with adults. Instead, she focuses on the informal use of play during psychotherapy as it is orchestrated intuitively. Because…
Koole, Sander L.; Tschacher, Wolfgang
During psychotherapy, patient and therapist tend to spontaneously synchronize their vocal pitch, bodily movements, and even their physiological processes. In the present article, we consider how this pervasive phenomenon may shed new light on the therapeutic relationship– or alliance– and its role within psychotherapy. We first review clinical research on the alliance and the multidisciplinary area of interpersonal synchrony. We then integrate both literatures in the Interpersonal Synchrony (In-Sync) model of psychotherapy. According to the model, the alliance is grounded in the coupling of patient and therapist’s brains. Because brains do not interact directly, movement synchrony may help to establish inter-brain coupling. Inter-brain coupling may provide patient and therapist with access to another’s internal states, which facilitates common understanding and emotional sharing. Over time, these interpersonal exchanges may improve patients’ emotion-regulatory capacities and related therapeutic outcomes. We discuss the empirical assessment of interpersonal synchrony and review preliminary research on synchrony in psychotherapy. Finally, we summarize our main conclusions and consider the broader implications of viewing psychotherapy as the product of two interacting brains. PMID:27378968
Moskowitz, D. S.; Zuroff, David C.
Three studies were conducted using the interpersonal grid, a method for assessing perceptions of agentic and communal behavior based on the interpersonal circumplex. The 1st examined consistency across perceivers and convergence between perceiver and the perceived person. The 2nd examined whether responses to the interpersonal grid were sensitive…
Interpersonal, Nonverbal, and Small Group Communication: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1980 (Vol. 41 Nos. 1 through 6).
ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.
This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 21 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) interpersonal communication patterns in whole families, (2) interpersonal conflict and cognitive complexity, (3) adult conceptualization of interpersonal…
van der Want, Anna C.; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Claessens, Luce C. A.; Pennings, Helena J. M.
This article investigates the link between teachers' appraisal of specific interpersonal situations in classrooms and their more general interpersonal identity standard, which together form their interpersonal role identity. Using semi-structured and video-stimulated interviews, data on teachers' appraisals and interpersonal identity standards…
Thomas, Lori P Montross; Meier, Emily A; Irwin, Scott A
Caring for patients with cancer involves addressing their myriad physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs. Although many cancer treatments focus on physical or psychological needs, few treatments specifically target the basic need for meaning and spiritual well-being in this population. This article describes the creation and evolution of a new psychotherapy devoted to these needs, a therapy termed "meaning-centered psychotherapy." In this article, a detailed description of meaning-centered psychotherapy is provided. An explanation of the current research findings related to this treatment are also offered, with information about the various group and individual treatments as well as the new expansions for use with cancer survivors or nursing staff. Overall, meaning-centered psychotherapy shows promise for enhancing meaning and spiritual well-being among patients with cancer and offers exciting possibilities for future research in other areas. PMID:25182513
Meier, Emily A.; Irwin, Scott A.
Caring for patients with cancer involves addressing their myriad physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs. Although many cancer treatments focus on physical or psychological needs, few treatments specifically target the basic need for meaning and spiritual well-being in this population. This article describes the creation and evolution of a new psychotherapy devoted to these needs, a therapy termed “meaning-centered psychotherapy.” In this article, a detailed description of meaning-centered psychotherapy is provided. An explanation of the current research findings related to this treatment are also offered, with information about the various group and individual treatments as well as the new expansions for use with cancer survivors or nursing staff. Overall, meaning-centered psychotherapy shows promise for enhancing meaning and spiritual well-being among patients with cancer and offers exciting possibilities for future research in other areas. PMID:25182513
Based on different theoretical concepts, psychotherapeutic methods in the treatment of schizophrenia reach from clinical pragmatism, psychoanalysis, learning theory, cognition and communication psychology to concepts of systems-theory. Both the German (DGPPN) and the American (APA) practice guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenic patients don't separate psychotherapy, social and rehabilitation measures strictly. So a specific psychotherapy for psychotic patients seems to be missing. A better relationship between patient and expert is fundamental for building up a ??? therapeutic liaison. For that purpose, the disease concepts of both sides must be carefully explained and integrated ("Basic psychotherapy"). PMID:11533865
Fisch, J M
This paper presents Kohut's position regarding the use of introspection and empathy as the predominant tools of observation for any approach to be called psychological. This translates into the need to maintain a consistent focus on the patient's self experience, and for interpretations to be "experience near." The concept of selfobject and the specific selfobject transferences are reviewed, and the model of Muslin and Val is used to differentiate supportive psychotherapy, psychoanalytic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. A case illustration is presented demonstrating psychoanalytic psychotherapy where the therapeutic work focused on the patient's relationship outside the treatment, the "extra-transference object." The indications for and therapeutic value of this approach are discussed. PMID:7928295
Cuijpers, Pim; Koole, Sander L.; van Dijke, Annemiek; Roca, Miquel; Li, Juan; Reynolds, Charles F.
Background There is controversy about whether psychotherapies are effective in the treatment of subclinical depression, defined by clinically relevant depressive symptoms in the absence of a major depressive disorder. Aims To examine whether psychotherapies are effective in reducing depressive symptoms, reduce the risk of developing major depressive disorder and have comparable effects to psychological treatment of major depression. Method We conducted a meta-analysis of 18 studies comparing a psychological treatment of subclinical depression with a control group. Results The target groups, therapies and characteristics of the included studies differed considerably from each other, and the quality of many studies was not optimal. Psychotherapies did have a small to moderate effect on depressive symptoms against care as usual at the post-test assessment (g = 0.35, 95% CI 0.23-0.47; NNT = 5, 95% CI 4-8) and significantly reduced the incidence of major depressive episodes at 6 months (RR = 0.61) and possibly at 12 months (RR = 0.74). The effects were significantly smaller than those of psychotherapy for major depressive disorder and could be accounted for by non-specific effects of treatment. Conclusions Psychotherapy may be effective in the treatment of subclinical depression and reduce the incidence of major depression, but more high-quality research is needed. PMID:25274315
Wiswede, Daniel; Taubner, Svenja; Buchheim, Anna; Münte, Thomas F.; Stasch, Michael; Cierpka, Manfred; Kächele, Horst; Roth, Gerhard; Erhard, Peter; Kessler, Henrik
Objective Neurobiological models of depression posit limbic hyperactivity that should normalize after successful treatment. For psychotherapy, though, brain changes in patients with depression show substantial variability. Two critical issues in relevant studies concern the use of unspecific stimulation experiments and relatively short treatment protocols. Therefore changes in brain reactions to individualized stimuli were studied in patients with depression after eight months of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Methods 18 unmedicated patients with recurrent major depressive disorder were confronted with individualized and clinically derived content in a functional MRI experiment before (T1) and after eight months (T2) of psychodynamic therapy. A control group of 17 healthy subjects was also tested twice without intervention. The experimental stimuli were sentences describing each participant's dysfunctional interpersonal relationship patterns derived from clinical interviews based on Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnostics (OPD). Results At T1 patients showed enhanced activation compared to controls in several limbic and subcortical regions, including amygdala and basal ganglia, when confronted with OPD sentences. At T2 the differences in brain activity between patients and controls were no longer apparent. Concurrently, patients had improved significantly in depression scores. Conclusions Using ecologically valid stimuli, this study supports the model of limbic hyperactivity in depression that normalizes after treatment. Without a control group of untreated patients measured twice, though, changes in patients' brain activity could also be attributed to other factors than psychodynamic therapy. PMID:25275317
Dukes, Denzel; And Others
Frederic Leer's article "Running as an Adjunct to Psychotherapy" (January 1980 issue of this journal) is criticized by three authors. They focus on the psychological and social effects of running and its usefulness as a treatment for depressed adults. (LAB)
Varma, V K
Conventional Western-model psychotherapy is based on a number of premises regarding its rationale and technique. The increasing experience in psychotherapy globally is questioning the universality of these premises, suggesting that these could be to a large extent culture-specific, having developed in a particular culture at a particular time. Hence, the need to move from a dogmatic approach to psychotherapy to a flexible approach taking into account the socio-cultural reality. The paper identifies a number of cultural variables involving the intrapsychic mechanisms (e.g. cognitive and expressive), social relatedness (e.g. autonomy, social distance) and religious-philosophical belief systems (concept of sin, and belief in fatalism and after-life/reincarnation) and discusses their role in the approach to and process of psychotherapy, illustrating it with the situation in the Indian setting. PMID:3410660
Riches, Simon; Schrank, Beate; Rashid, Tayyab; Slade, Mike
Positive psychotherapy (PPT) is an established psychological intervention initially validated with people experiencing symptoms of depression. PPT is a positive psychology intervention, an academic discipline that has developed somewhat separately from psychotherapy and focuses on amplifying well-being rather than ameliorating deficit. The processes targeted in PPT (e.g., strengths, forgiveness, gratitude, savoring) are not emphasized in traditional psychotherapy approaches to psychosis. The goal in modifying PPT is to develop a new clinical approach to helping people experiencing psychosis. An evidence-based theoretical framework was therefore used to modify 14-session standard PPT into a manualized intervention, called WELLFOCUS PPT, which aims to improve well-being for people with psychosis. Informed by a systematic review and qualitative research, modification was undertaken in 4 stages: qualitative study, expert consultation, manualization, and stake-holder review. The resulting WELLFOCUS PPT is a theory-based 11-session manualized group therapy. PMID:25961372
Beuchot, Alberto; Bullen, Mark
This longitudinal study evaluated the amount and type of interaction and interpersonal content in messages posted by online graduate students in small group asynchronous forums. It also assessed the relationship between interpersonality and interactivity. To achieve this, a new coding scheme was developed to categorize the content of online…
Nichols, Michael P.
This comparison (with University Health Service patients) between emotive psychotherapy and insight oriented analytic therapy confirmed effectiveness of emotive psychotherapy in producing catharsis leading to therapeutic improvement. (Author/EK)
Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders; Akbar, Maysa D.; Bazile, Anita
The attitudes and beliefs about utilization of mental health services of 201 African Americans, 18 years and older, are explored. One hundred and thirty-four females and 66 males participated in mixed sex focus groups conducted in an urban, Midwestern city. Discussion probes addressed participant perceptions of psychotherapists and psychotherapy,…
Champney, Timothy F.; Schulz, E. Matthew
Smith et al. (1980) analyzed 475 psychotherapy studies and concluded that individuals receiving treatment were better off than 80 percent of the untreated control groups. These studies were criticized on methodological grounds, particularly for failing to enable calculation of an index of effect size. To address these methodological issues, 20…
This article presents an introduction to cross-cultural psychotherapy, with reference to historical theories of art, symbols and myth, and to the therapist working with the client--both individual and groups. Cross-cultural dimensions of art therapy are delineated with a support for further research and cooperation between cultures, with attention…
Goldstein, William N.
This book provides a practice guide for students and mental health professionals who provide psychotherapy. It begins by looking at who the patients are and discussing why they come for therapy. A classification system divides all patients into one of four large groups: (1) normal-neurotic; (2) narcissistic; (3) borderline; and (4) psychotic. This…
Gunlicks-Stoessel, Meredith; Mufson, Laura; Jekal, Angela; Turner, J. Blake
Objective: Aspects of depressed adolescents' perceived interpersonal functioning were examined as moderators of response to treatment among adolescents treated with interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A; Mufson, Dorta, Moreau, & Weissman, 2004) or treatment as usual (TAU) in school-based health clinics. Method: Sixty-three…
Sammons, Mark T
Compulsive helpfulness, an anxiety-laden need by the therapist to feel helpful, akin to the notion of rescuing others, is a potential pitfall in developing an effective psychotherapy group. It can be regarded variously: (1) as a reaction formation against feelings of boredom and frustration stimulated by such phenomena as group resistance or the enactment of inauthentic relationships in the group; (2) as a therapist style driven by a transferential reaction to be regarded as competent and worthy; (3) as an induced countertransference enactment tied to group members' frustration and passivity about their own interpersonal inadequacies; (4) and as a manic defense against despair over the feeling that one's loving has not done any good. In this essay, the author explores his struggle to identify and come to terms with compulsive helpfulness as a dominant theme in the early stages of his tenure as leader of a psychotherapy group. PMID:22676782
Karasu, T B
The author examines new frontiers in psychotherapy from the perspective of four major movements in clinical psychiatry today: (1) the science of psychotherapy, (2) time-limited and tailored treatment, (3) governmental guidelines and public policy-making, and (4) conceptual and clinical rapprochement. Attempts to standardize psychotherapy are evidenced by more refined diagnostic and statistical instruments, operationalized training and treatment manuals, and use of the computer in human simulation. The second movement is manifested by innovative short-term therapies, particularly tailored to depressed populations. The third direction is more extrinsic as cost-effectiveness increasingly becomes the guiding criterion of mental health care. The final frontier reflects attempts to weld various polarities in the field, not only by drawing on a vast psychological armamentarium but by providing new neurobiologic models for complex "psychological" phenomena, from dreams to dependency. PMID:2644242
In this paper, I will review why psychotherapy is relevant to the question of how consciousness relates to brain plasticity. A great deal of the research and theorizing on consciousness and the brain, including my own on hallucinations for example (Collerton and Perry, 2011) has focused upon specific changes in conscious content which can be related to temporal changes in restricted brain systems. I will argue that psychotherapy, in contrast, allows only a focus on holistic aspects of consciousness; an emphasis which may usefully complement what can be learnt from more specific methodologies. PMID:24046752
Mindfulness-based psychotherapy is rooted in the Far East meditation culture. In the context of psychotherapy mindfulness-based treatment programs mostly include mindfulness as modular components aiming at acceptance of aversive circumstances or emotions and on improvement of metacognitive awareness. Currently there are five mindfulness-based concepts with different proof of effectiveness: mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) can be classified as effective in reducing the risk of relapse in patients with recurrent depression, whereas the popular mindfulness-based stress reduction program (MBSR) reveals only small effect sizes. In summary, mindfulness used as one component in modular conceptualized treatment programs seems to be both acceptable and effective. PMID:23069894
Karasu, T B
The author schematically describes the three predominating themes in the development of the psychotherapies: dynamic, behavioral, and experiential. These themes represent different conceptualizations of the fundamental nature of man and his ills, therapeutic processes or change agents, the basic nature of the physician-patient relationship, and the primary techniques and methods used. Although there appears to be some unifying thread connecting the four different areas within each theme, a comparable bond does not exist across the three themes. The author questions the potential unification of the psychotherapies and poses specific dimensions for further exploration. PMID:327833
Hadjipavlou, George; Hernandez, Carlos A Sierra; Ogrodniczuk, John S
Objective: American data suggest a declining trend in the provision of psychotherapy by psychiatrists. Nevertheless, the extent to which such findings generalize to psychiatric practice in other countries is unclear. We surveyed psychiatrists in British Columbia to examine whether the reported decline in psychotherapy provision extends to the landscape of Canadian psychiatric practice. Method: A survey was mailed to the entire population of fully licensed psychiatrists registered in British Columbia (n = 623). The survey consisted of 30 items. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and psychotherapy practice patterns. Associations between variables were evaluated using nonparametric tests. Results: A total of 423 psychiatrists returned the survey, yielding a response rate of 68%. Overall, 80.9% of psychiatrists (n = 342) reported practicing psychotherapy. A decline in the provision of psychotherapy was not observed; in fact, there was an increase in psychotherapy provision among psychiatrists entering practice in the last 10 years. Individual therapy was the predominant format used by psychiatrists. The most common primary theoretical orientation was psychodynamic (29.9%). Regarding actual practice, supportive psychotherapy was practiced most frequently. Professional time constraints were perceived as the most significant barrier to providing psychotherapy. The majority (85%) of clinicians did not view remuneration as a significant barrier to treating patients with psychotherapy. Conclusions: Our findings challenge the prevailing view that psychotherapy is in decline among psychiatrists. Psychiatrists in British Columbia continue to integrate psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in clinical practice, thus preserving their unique place in the spectrum of mental health services. PMID:26175328
Hendricks, C. Bret; Bradley, Loretta J.
Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-A) is a brief, time-limited therapy developed for use with adolescents diagnosed with major depression. IPT-A has been shown to be effective with adolescents in family counseling milieus. Music therapy techniques also have been successfully used to treat adolescent depression. This article provides mental health…
Interpersonal, Nonverbal, and Small Group Communication: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1982 (Vol. 42, Nos. 7 through 12).
ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.
This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 21 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) factors affecting interpersonal attraction and perceived appropriateness; (2) the effect of self-esteem, relationship satisfaction, conceptual complexity, and…
Terr, Lenore C.; McDermott, John F.; Benson, Ronald M.; Blos, Peter, Jr.; Deeney, John M.; Rogers, Rita R.; Zrull, Joel P.
In the summer of 2004, a number of psychotherapists with old ties to the University of Michigan or UCLA decided to write 500-word vignettes that attempted to capture a turning point in one of their child patient's psychotherapies. What did the child and adolescent psychiatrist do to elicit such a moment? Upon receiving seven vignettes, one of us…
Gabbard, Glen O.
Although personality disorders are often regarded as “untreatable” by third-party payers, there is actually a growing empirical literature suggesting that Axis II conditions may be eminently treatable by psychotherapy. This literature is critically reviewed, the implications for length of treatment are discussed, and cost-effectiveness issues are examined. PMID:10608903
Del Giacco, Maureen
The purpose of my paper is to identify the difference between psychotherapy and art therapy. Then to introduce a technique within the field of art therapy that is relevant to neuro-plasticity Del Giacco Neuro Art Therapy. The paper identifies the importance of the amygdala and the hippocampus within the role of art therapy. Supporting…
Responds to previous article (Stiles and Shapiro, this issue) that suggests abandoning model of drug research in exploring psychotherapy effectiveness. Contends that Stiles and Shapiro's analysis can be challenged on methodological grounds involving failure to use multivariate analytic approaches, incomplete exploitation of advantages of growth…
Clark, Frances Vaughan
Emerging paradigms in transpersonal psychotherapy are discussed in relation to values and attitudes of the therapist and the place of transpersonal experience in the growth process, which goes beyond self-actualization to self-transcendence. Transpersonal therapy is not identified with specific techniques, but three distinct stages of therapy are…
The present paper discusses the advent and significance of erotic feelings in psychotherapy based on the intersubjective theory. It briefly reviews the coalescence of the tradition of avoidance of physical contact in psychotherapy, and the classical and contemporary approaches to erotic transference. A clinical case is presented in an attempt to expand the significance attributed to erotic feelings in therapy and ways of relating to it: in their intrapersonal and interpersonal meanings and in the dialectics between them. I will later discuss the father figure in feminine development and its transferential and metaphoric meaning against the background of a clinical case, and the importance of the erotic component in the processes of change and development. The paper includes mythological metaphors illustrating the issues in a cultural perspective that constitutes the traditional framework of thinking relevant to the issues which are the subject of this paper. PMID:15895768
Freeman, C P L; Barry, F; Dunkeld-Turnbull, J; Henderson, A
In a randomised controlled trial of different types of psychotherapy for bulimia 92 women were assigned to receive cognitive-behaviour therapy (n=32), behaviour therapy (30), or group therapy (30) for 15 weeks and a further 20 (controls) assigned to remain on a waiting list for 15 weeks. Eating behaviour and psychopathology were assessed by standard methods. At the end of the trial the controls had significantly higher scores than the treated groups on all measures of bulimic behaviour. In terms of behavioural change all three treatments were effective, 71 (77%) of the 92 women having stopped bingeing. In addition, scores on eating and depression questionnaires were reduced and self esteem improved. Follow up was continuing, but of 24 women available at one year, 21 were not bingeing and had maintained their improved scores on psychometric scales. Bulimia nervosa is amenable to treatment by once weekly structured psychotherapy in either individual or group form. PMID:3126890
Steffen, Patrick R.; Fidalgo, Louise; Schmuck, Dominic; Tsui, Yoko; Brown, Tracy
Accumulating evidence indicates that psychotherapy participants show increased physiological responsiveness to stress. The purpose of the present study was to examine differences between individuals participating in outpatient psychotherapy and matched controls using an experimental design. Forty-two psychotherapy participants and 48 matched controls were assessed on cardiovascular and cortisol functioning at baseline, during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and during a 20-min recovery period. Psychotherapy participants and matched controls did not differ at baseline or during the TSST on the physiological measures but psychotherapy participants had higher cortisol and heart rate (HR) during the recovery period. In regards to reactivity, cortisol increased during the recovery period for the psychotherapy participants but decreased for those in the matched control group. Psychotherapy participants experiencing clinically significant levels of distress displayed elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure and HR during the TSST when compared to psychotherapy participants not experiencing clinically significant levels of distress. Overall, physiological reactivity to stress appears to be an important issue for those in psychotherapy and directly addressing this issue may help improve psychotherapy outcomes. PMID:25120511
Zamm, Anna; Wellman, Chelsea; Palmer, Caroline
Interpersonal synchrony, the temporal coordination of actions between individuals, is fundamental to social behaviors from conversational speech to dance and music-making. Animal models indicate constraints on synchrony that arise from endogenous rhythms: Intrinsic periodic behaviors or processes that continue in the absence of change in external stimulus conditions. We report evidence for a direct causal link between endogenous rhythms and interpersonal synchrony in a music performance task, which places high demands on temporal coordination. We first establish that endogenous rhythms, measured by spontaneous rates of individual performance, are stable within individuals across stimulus materials, limb movements, and time points. We then test a causal link between endogenous rhythms and interpersonal synchrony by pairing each musician with a partner who is either matched or mismatched in spontaneous rate and by measuring their joint behavior up to 1 year later. Partners performed melodies together, using either the same or different hands. Partners who were matched for spontaneous rate showed greater interpersonal synchrony in joint performance than mismatched partners, regardless of hand used. Endogenous rhythms offer potential to predict optimal group membership in joint behaviors that require temporal coordination. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26820249
MacDonald, Peter J.; Brown, Alan
A large number of patients with psychosocial or psychiatric disorders present to family physicians, and the family physician needs a model of psychotherapy with which to cope with their problems. A model of brief psychotherapy is presented which is time limited, goal directed and easy to learn. It consists of four facets drawn from established areas of psychotherapy: characteristics of the therapist; characteristics of the patient; Eriksonian developmental stages; and the process of therapy as described by Carkhuff. These facets fit together in a way which is useful to the family physician in managing those patient problems for which brief psychotherapy is indicated. PMID:21267176
Sheth, Hitesh C.
There is long-standing debate about superiority of mind over brain, in other words about superiority of mind over matter. And outcome of this debate is going to decide future of psychiatry. The psychiatrists believing in materialism may say that brain is all and by changing neurotransmitters level with new molecules of drugs would cure all illnesses. On the other hand, antipsychiatry activists and some psychotherapists oppose all types of treatment despite of convincing evidence that drug therapy is effective (although sometimes it is not as effective as it claims to be). However, truth lies somewhere in between. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy are like two legs of psychiatry and psychiatry cannot walk into a future on one leg. The studies have shown that judicious use of pharmacotherapy along with psychotherapy gives better outcome than any one of them used alone. We must heal dichotomy between mind and brain before we heal the patients. PMID:21938085
WEISSMAN, MYRNA M.; HANKERSON, SIDNEY H.; SCORZA, PAMELA; OLFSON, MARK; VERDELI, HELENA; SHEA, STEVEN; LANTIGUA, RAFAEL; WAINBERG, MILTON
Interpersonal Counseling (IPC) comes directly from interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), an evidenced-based psychotherapy developed by Klerman and Weissman. It [IPC?] is a briefer, more structured version for use primarily in non-mental health settings, such as primary care clinics when treating patients with symptoms of depression. National health-care reform, which will bring previously uninsured persons into care and provide mechanisms to support mental health training of primary care providers, will increase interest in briefer psychotherapy. This paper describes the rationale, development, evidence for efficacy, and basic structure of IPC and also presents an illustrated clinical vignette. The evidence suggests that IPC is efficacious in reducing symptoms of depression; that it can be used by mental health personnel of different levels of training, and that the number of sessions is flexible depending on the context and resources. More clinical trials are needed, especially ones comparing IPC to other types of care used in the delivery of mental health services in primary care. PMID:26453343
Gold, Jerry; Stricker, George
This article addresses the issue of failures in psychodynamic psychotherapy. Drawing on the clinical and research literatures, and utilizing our clinical experiences, we first describe and define criteria for success and failure in treatment. We then review five factors that can lead to failure: client factors, therapist factors, technical factors, relationship factors, and environmental factors. We illustrate our presentation with a case example, and conclude by discussing ways in which the likelihood of failures in psychodynamic treatment can be lowered. PMID:21935934
Keats, C. J.; McGlashan, T. H.
The literature on strategies of investigative psychotherapy of schizophrenia is selectively reviewed, and a case history is presented. The format is modelled on the authors' research technique of contrasting theory with practice. While long-term observation of single cases does not address cause and effect, descriptions of cases with a variety of known outcomes can help to build a typology of treatment processes. PMID:4049907
MAHONEY, MICHAEL J.; GRANVOLD, DONALD K.
Constructivism is a metatheoretical perspective that embraces diverse traditions in medicine, philosophy, psychology, and spiritual wisdom. Constructive psychotherapy emphasizes complex cycles in the natural ordering and reorganizing processes that characterize all development in living systems. Individuals are encouraged to view themselves as active participants in their lives. Within rich contexts of human relationship and symbol systems, people make new meanings as they develop. Techniques from many different traditions can help people find and refine their sense of balance as they develop. PMID:16633512
SAPORTA, JOSÉ A.; GANS, JEROME S.
The authors examine the process of taking an initial history of childhood abuse and trauma in psychodynamic psychotherapy. In exploring the advantages, complexities, and potential complications of this practice, they hope to heighten the sensitivities of clinicians taking trauma histories. Emphasis on the need to be active in eliciting important historical material is balanced with discussion of concepts that can help therapists avoid interpersonal dynamics that reenact and perpetuate the traumas the therapy seeks to treat. Ensuring optimal psychotherapeutic treatment for patients who have experienced childhood trauma requires attention to the following concepts: a safe holding environment, destabilization, compliance, the repetition compulsion, and projective identification. PMID:22700250
van Naerssen, A
Clinical experiences with 36 males, between the ages of 21 and 60 are described. All of them felt an enduring sexual attraction for boys. Sixteen males were treated for sexual identity conflicts. For eight of them this ended in a positive self-labeling as pedophile, the others had severe problems with accepting sexuality as positive and lustful. Twenty males were treated for identity management problems and counseled how to handle their relationships with boys. Several modalities of interpersonal interaction in man-boy relationships are proposed and the ways conflicts can arise within these frames of reference are explored in counseling and psychotherapy. PMID:2086630
It is impossible to think about psychotherapy without reference to the cultural context. In order to understand the development of this domain it is helpful to apply the concept of cultural discourse. When we think about the over one hundred years' history of psychotherapy it becomes clear that understanding of a person, his/her difficulties, psychopathology, the role of a psychotherapist, psychotherapy and its limitations have been changing. It depended on the acknowledged epistemological horizon. Therefore it is important to observe the process of creating discourses related to psychotherapeutic "reality". These discourses are not simply descriptive but they participate in creation of reality. They are not neutral, on the contrary, their application has broad practical, theoretical, ethical and legal consequences. An attempt to describe the culture, or better cultures, we are immersed in, is an attempt to describe the identity of contemporary psychotherapists. This article, referring to the constructionists' perspective and works of Michael Foucault, presents how cultural changes influence psychotherapists' ways of thinking, their practice and presence in social space. PMID:22220490
Dye, Carol J.
Psychotherapy with older dying patients can lead to problems of countertransference for the clinician. Working with dying patients requires flexibility to adapt basic therapeutics to the institutional setting. Goals of psychotherapy must be reconceptualized for dying clients. The problems of countertransference arise because clinicians themselves…
Dauer, Steven J.
Although supervisors report important commonalities among beginning and more advanced psychotherapy trainees, individual differences in supervisees' background, personality, and ability are influential factors affecting the nature of the supervision process. For students who are just beginning to do psychotherapy, the overriding task is to manage…
Patterson, C. H.
Considers various ways that values enter into counseling or psychotherapy, with particular attention to goals of the process and methods or procedures by which counselor or therapist implements process. Suggests approach to counseling and psychotherapy that recognizes and incorporates values basic to democratic philosophy and the goal of…
Clarici, Andrea; Pellizzoni, Sandra; Guaschino, Secondo; Alberico, Salvatore; Bembich, Stefano; Giuliani, Rosella; Short, Antonia; Guarino, Giuseppina; Panksepp, Jaak
Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that is active in the central nervous system and is generally considered to be involved in prosocial behaviors and feelings. In light of its documented positive effect on maternal behavior, we designed a study to ascertain whether oxytocin exerts any therapeutic effects on depressive symptoms in women affected by maternal postnatal depression. A group of 16 mothers were recruited in a randomized double-blind study: the women agreed to take part in a brief course of psychoanalytic psychotherapy (12 sessions, once a week) while also being administered, during the 12-weeks period, a daily dose of intranasal oxytocin (or a placebo). The pre-treatment evaluation also included a personality assessment of the major primary-process emotional command systems described by Panksepp () and a semi-quantitative assessment by the therapist of the mother’s depressive symptoms and of her personality. No significant effect on depressive symptomatology was found following the administration of oxytocin (as compared to a placebo) during the period of psychotherapy. Nevertheless, a personality trait evaluation of the mothers, conducted in our overall sample group, showed a decrease in the narcissistic trait only within the group who took oxytocin. The depressive (dysphoric) trait was in fact significantly affected by psychotherapy (this effect was only present in the placebo group so it may reflect a positive placebo effect enhancing the favorable influence of psychotherapy on depressive symptoms) but not in the presence of oxytocin. Therefore, the neuropeptide would appear to play some role in the modulation of cerebral functions involved in the self-centered (narcissistic) dimension of the suffering that can occur with postnatal depression. Based on these results, there was support for our hypothesis that what is generally defined as postnatal depression may include disturbances of narcissistic affective balance, and oxytocin supplementation can
Zimpfer, David G.
Lists 21 new publications in group work, of which 9 are reviewed. Those discussed include publications on group counseling and psychotherapy, structured groups, support groups, psychodrama, and social group work. (Author/NB)
Wampold, Bruce E.
Although it is well established that psychotherapy is remarkably effective, the change process in psychotherapy is not well understood. Psychotherapy is compared with medicine and cultural healing practices to argue that critical aspects of psychotherapy involve human processes that are used in religious, spiritual, and cultural healing practices.…
... abuse, multi-family, parent support, etc.). Interpersonal Therapy (IPT) is a brief treatment specifically developed and tested ... to treat a variety of other clinical conditions. IPT therapists focus on how interpersonal events affect an ...
BARBER, JACQUES P.
The author outlines the history of brief dynamic psychotherapy, describes some of its characteristics, and addresses methodological requirements for assessing the efficacy of psychotherapy. Review of two major meta-analyses suggests that manual-based brief dynamic psychotherapy by trained therapists is likely to be as effective as other forms of psychotherapy and more effective than no treatment. More studies are needed that 1) compare brief dynamic psychotherapy with other forms of treatment for specific psychiatric disorders; 2) use theory-specific measures of outcome in addition to measures of symptoms; and 3) compare brief dynamic psychotherapy with long-term psychotherapy. PMID:22700185
Benish, Steven G.; Quintana, Stephen; Wampold, Bruce E.
Psychotherapy is a culturally encapsulated healing practice that is created from and dedicated to specific cultural contexts (Frank & Frank, 1993; Wampold, 2007; Wrenn, 1962). Consequently, conventional psychotherapy is a practice most suitable for dominant cultural groups within North America and Western Europe but may be culturally incongruent…
Nezu, Christine M.; Nezu, Arthur M.
Reviews literature concerning effective outpatient psychotherapy alternatives for adults with mental retardation. Focuses on psychodynamic, behavioral, and group psychotherapy approaches for those with dual diagnosis of mental retardation and psychological difficulties. Offers research agenda for future directions and includes model of clinical…
Gilchrist, A A
This paper defines therapeutic potency in terms of constructive as opposed to destructive intervention. In judging the degree of success in psychotherapy we may use either a medical or a growth model. Whichever criterion is adopted the conclusion stands that potency will be at a maximum whenever the therapist selects the most efficient technique for working with his client regardless of the school which gave birth to it. An eclectic approach views the differences between schools as exaggerated by the use of divergent psychological models and terminology, and sees value in various explanatory concepts such as 'reinforcement' 'conditioning', 'insight' and 'cognitive restructuring'. PMID:1067838
Horowitz, Jason L.; Garber, Judy; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura
This study evaluated the efficacy of 2 programs for preventing depressive symptoms in adolescents. Participants were 380 high school students randomly assigned to a cognitive-behavioral program (CB), an interpersonal psychotherapy-adolescent skills training program (IPT-AST), or a no-intervention control. The interventions involved eight 90-min…
Liebherz, Sarah; Rabung, Sven
Background In Germany, inpatient psychotherapy plays a unique role in the treatment of patients with common mental disorders of higher severity. In addition to psychiatric inpatient services, psychotherapeutic hospital treatment and psychosomatic rehabilitation are offered as independent inpatient treatment options. This meta-analysis aims to provide systematic evidence for psychotherapeutic hospital treatment in Germany regarding its effects on symptomatic and interpersonal impairment. Methodology Relevant papers were identified by electronic database search and hand search. Randomized controlled trials as well as naturalistic prospective studies (including post-therapy and follow-up assessments) evaluating psychotherapeutic hospital treatment of mentally ill adults in Germany were included. Outcomes were required to be quantified by either the Symptom-Checklist (SCL-90-R or short versions) or the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64 or short versions). Effect sizes (Hedges’ g) were combined using random effect models. Principal Findings Sixty-seven papers representing 59 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis yielded a medium within-group effect size for symptom change at discharge (g = 0.72; 95% CI 0.68–0.76), with a small reduction to follow-up (g = 0.61; 95% CI 0.55–0.68). Regarding interpersonal problems, a small effect size was found at discharge (g = 0.35; 95% CI 0.29–0.41), which increased to follow-up (g = 0.48; 95% CI 0.36–0.60). While higher impairment at intake was associated with a larger effect size in both measures, longer treatment duration was related to lower effect sizes in SCL GSI and to larger effect sizes in IIP Total. Conclusions Psychotherapeutic hospital treatment may be considered an effective treatment. In accordance with Howard’s phase model of psychotherapy outcome, the present study demonstrated that symptom distress changes more quickly and strongly than interpersonal problems
Vyskocilová, Jana; Hruby, Radovan; Slepecky, Milos; Latalova, Klara; Prasko, Jan
Justice is one of the fundamental concepts of right ordering of human relationships. Justice is a regulative idea for the arrangement of society preceding the law and already seen in animals; the sense of justice is observed as early as in young children. The ability to altruistic behavior, sense of fairness, reciprocity and mutual help are probably genetically determined as a disposition, which may further develop or be deformed by education. Although justice issues are common in psychotherapy, they may not be reflected and processed in the course of therapy. In psychotherapy, justice issues appear directly in what the client says (mostly about injustice), but more frequently the issues are implicitly contained in complaints and stories against a background of conflicts and problems. They may be related to the client's story, his or her problems with other people, and the therapeutic process itself, including client´s selection of therapy, therapeutic relationship, and therapeutic change strategies. By increasing receptiveness to the issue of justice, the therapist may help improve the therapeutic process. Problems with justice between the therapist and the client may be revealed by honest therapist self-reflection or high-quality supervision. PMID:26812291
Karasu, T Byram
Psychotherapy is an instrument for remediation of psychological deficits and conflict resolution, as well as an instrument for growth and self-cultivation. In fact, psychotherapy is the finest form of life education. All of this is done without psychotherapists' playing a teacher, a minister, a priest, a rabbi, an imam, or a Buddhist monk, but by being familiar with what they know and more. That "more" is about understanding "the attributes" of gods and religions as they serve the all-too-human needs of believing and belonging. It is about the distillation of common psychological, sociological, moral, and philosophical attributes of religions, and the recognition that the attributes themselves are faith and God. Attributes that serve the affiliative needs define faith, for example, belonging is faith; attributes that serve the divine needs define God, for example, compassion is God. Those who have recovered from their primitive innocence need to formulate their ideas of God and religion, regardless of their affiliation with a religious community. One may need to resonate emotionally with the God of his or her religion, but intellectually need to transcend all its dogma and cultivate a personal concept of divinity free from any theological structure. Such an enlightened person achieves enduring equanimity by striving to own the attributes of Gods--to be godly. This is equally true for psychotherapists as it is for their patients. PMID:26802419
Demorest, Amy P
This article considers the value of script theory for understanding psychological maladjustment and psychotherapy. Scripts are implicit expectations that individuals develop to understand and deal with emotionally significant life experiences. Script theory provides a way to understand the complex patterns of thinking, feeling, and behavior that characterize personal consistency, as well as a way to address personality development and change. As such it is a vital model for understanding both personality and clinical phenomena. The article begins by describing script theory and noting similar models in personality and clinical psychology. It then outlines both idiographic and nomothetic methods for assessing scripts and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each. A survey of the author's program of research follows, using a nomothetic method to examine the role of interpersonal scripts in psychological maladjustment and psychotherapy. The article concludes by presenting a promising method for future research synthesizing idiographic and nomothetic approaches and raising important questions for future research on the role of scripts in psychological maladjustment and psychotherapy. PMID:22924968
Schneider, Kirk J; Längle, Alfried
This special section highlights the renewal of humanism in psychotherapy. For the purposes of this special section, humanism is defined as a philosophical perspective whose subject matter is the whole human being. In psychotherapy, humanism places special emphasis on the personal, interpersonal, and contextual dimensions of therapy and on clients' reflections on their relationship with self, others, and the larger psychosocial world. The contributors to this special section-Bruce Wampold, David Elkins, Steven Hayes, Robert Stolorow, Jurgen Kriz, Lillian Comas-Diaz, and the authors of this introduction-are each leaders in their respective therapeutic specialties: research and training, cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychoanalytic therapy, European therapy, and multicultural therapy. In the manner of a "roundtable," each contributor was asked to provide a short article on the renewal of humanism in his or her respective specialty followed by brief comments on the initial round of articles. The conclusion of these reflections is that the renewal of humanism is a viable and growing phenomenon among the leading specialty areas of psychotherapy. The corollary conclusion is that although many theoretical and practical questions remain, humanism is (1) a foundational element of therapeutic effectiveness; (2) a pivotal (and needed) dimension of therapeutic training; and (3) a critical contributor to societal well-being. PMID:23205823
Del Grande da Silva, Giovanna; Wiener, Carolina David; Barbosa, Luana Porto; Gonçalves Araujo, Jaciana Marlova; Molina, Mariane Lopez; San Martin, Pedro; Oses, Jean Pierre; Jansen, Karen; Dias de Mattos Souza, Luciano; Azevedo da Silva, Ricardo
Depression is a serious condition that is associated with great psychic suffering and major impairments on the patient's general health, quality of life, and social and occupational activities. In some cases, it may lead to suicide. Regardless of the innumerous research works that have already addressed depression in wide and specific facets, there is still a lot to grasp in order to effectively help preventing and treating depression. This work presents data from a randomized clinical trial that sought to evaluate the effectiveness of two brief psychotherapeutic for Depression: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Supportive-Expressive Dynamic Psychotherapy (SEDP). This was a convenience sample composed of 46 individuals that were evaluated using a structured diagnostic interview and then randomly allocated to the SEDP group. We examined baseline and post-intervention serum levels of the Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α) in addition to the severity of depressive symptoms according to the Outcome Questionnaire - 45.2 (OQ-45.2) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results show that serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels, as well as the scores from the OQ-45.2 and the BDI significantly decreased after 16 sessions of SEDP (p < 0.001), except for the Interpersonal Relationship domain from the OQ-45. Despite the reduction of serum cytokines levels and OQ-45 and BDI scores, they were only significantly correlated regarding the social role domain from the OQ-45. Nonetheless, our data suggests an effective role of brief psychodynamic psychotherapy in the reduction of depressive symptoms and serum inflammatory levels that are associated with depression. PMID:26802811
Karasu, T B
Individual psychotherapy, the pivotal modality of psychiatry, has undergone a constant revolution since the inception of psychoanalysis; over the years the treatment models have shifted from dynamic to behavioral to experiential. The author discusses forces, such as economic pressures to establish cost-effectiveness, that have precipitated these changes. After reviewing comparative studies of the efficacy of psychotherapy, he examines new developments in individual psychotherapy such as brief treatment and cognitive therapy for depressive disorders. The efficacy of combined techniques, the impact of diagnostic tools and training manuals, and ethical issues, such as sexism, are also explored. PMID:6420312
Anchor, Kenneth N.; Sandler, Howard M.
The present follow-up study was undertaken to determine the extent to which avoidance of self-disclosure was as characteristic of the middle sessions of psychotherapy as it is of the initial sessions. (Author)
Do Personality Problems Improve During Psychodynamic Supportive-Expressive Psychotherapy? Secondary Outcome Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial for Psychiatric Outpatients with Personality Disorders
Vinnars, Bo; Thormählen, Barbro; Gallop, Robert; Norén, Kristina; Barber, Jacques P.
Studies involving patients with personality disorders (PD) have not focused on improvement of core aspects of the PD. This paper examines changes in quality of object relations, interpersonal problems, psychological mindedness, and personality traits in a sample of 156 patients with DSM-IV PD diagnoses being randomized to either manualized or non manualized dynamic psychotherapy. Effect sizes adjusted for symptomatic change and reliable change indices were calculated. We found that both treatments were equally effective at reducing personality pathology. Only in neuroticism did the non manualized group do better during the follow-up period. The largest improvement was found in quality of object relations. For the remaining variables only small and clinically insignificant magnitudes of change were found. PMID:20161588
Moseley, Sullivan; Briggs, Wanda P.; Magnus, Virginia
The authors review the literature on the prevalence of sex offenders; multiple treatment modalities; and implications of the use of hypnotic psychotherapy, coupled with cognitive behavioral treatment programs, for treating sex offenders. (Contains 2 tables.)
Wright, Jesse H.; Wright, Andrew S.
The rationale for using computers in psychotherapy includes the possibility that therapeutic software could improve the efficiency of treatment and provide access for greater numbers of patients. Computers have not been able to reliably duplicate the type of dialogue typically used in clinician-administered therapy. However, computers have significant strengths that can be used to advantage in designing treatment programs. Software developed for computer-assisted therapy generally has been well accepted by patients. Outcome studies have usually demonstrated treatment effectiveness for this form of therapy. Future development of computer tools may be influenced by changes in health care financing and rapid growth of new technologies. An integrated care delivery model incorporating the unique attributes of both clinicians and computers should be adopted for computer-assisted therapy. PMID:9292446
Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Book, Howard E.; Rasolzadeh Tabatabai, Kazem; Taherim, Hassan; Kashifard, Mehrdad
Objective: Functional Dyspepsia (FD) is a common symptom of upper gastrointestinal discomfort. Few data are available on the role of psychotherapy in the treatment of dyspeptic syndromes. This study assesses whether brief core conflictual relationship theme (CCRT) psychoanalytic psychotherapy improves gastrointestinal and psychiatric symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia. Methods: A randomized, controlled trial was planned in two educational hospitals in city of Babol. Forty-nine patients with FD were randomly assigned to receive standard medication treatment with CCRT psychotherapy (24 participants) or standard medication treatment alone (25 participants). The participants completed the Patient Assessment of Upper Gastrointestinal Symptom Severity Index (PAGI-SYM) and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) questionnaires before the trial, after the treatment and at 1 and 12-month follow-ups. The mixed-effects (regression) model was used to analyze the data. Results: The results showed that CCRT psychotherapy improved all of the FD symptoms (heartburn/regurgitation, nausea/vomiting, fullness, bloating, upper abdominal pain, and lower abdominal pain) and many of the psychiatric symptoms (depression, anxiety, somatization, interpersonal sensitivity and paranoid ideation) after the treatment and at 1-month and 12-month follow-ups. Conclusion: Brief CCRT psychoanalytic psychotherapy can serve as an effective intervention for promoting gastrointestinal and psychiatric symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia. PMID:26005480
Lipsitz, Joshua D; Gur, Merav; Vermes, Donna; Petkova, Eva; Cheng, Jianfeng; Miller, Nina; Laino, Joseph; Liebowitz, Michael R; Fyer, Abby J
Seventy patients seeking treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD) were randomly assigned to 14 weekly individual sessions of interpersonal therapy (IPT) or supportive therapy (ST). We hypothesized that IPT, a psychotherapy with established efficacy for depression and other psychiatric disorders, would lead to greater improvement than ST. Patients in both groups experienced significant improvement from pretreatment to posttreatment. However, improvement with IPT was not superior to improvement with ST. Mean scores on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale decreased from 67.7 to 46.9 in the IPT group and 64.5 to 49.8 in the ST group. There were also no differences in proportion of responders between IPT and ST. Only for a scale measuring concern about negative evaluation (Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale) was IPT superior. Limitations of this initial controlled trial of IPT include a nonsequential recruitment strategy and overlap in the administration of the two therapies. It is recommended that future studies of IPT for SAD include a more carefully defined control therapy condition, different therapists administering each therapy, a larger sample, and a more rigorous strategy for long-term follow-up assessments. PMID:17941096
Feinstein, Robert E.; Yager, Joel
Background/Objective: Guided by ACGME's requirements, psychiatric residency training in psychotherapy currently focuses on teaching school-specific forms of psychotherapy (i.e., cognitive-behavioral, supportive, and psychodynamic psychotherapy). On the basis of a literature review of common factors affecting psychotherapy outcomes and…
Clinical decision-making about suitability for psychological therapies is hampered by limitations of psychotherapy research and our lack of understanding of therapeutic mechanisms. Watzke et al's important randomised controlled study offers apparent validation for clinical judgement in relation to suitability for psychodynamic psychotherapy but also highlights the negative effects of unselected assignment to this type of treatment. Here, I consider why systematic selection for this form of treatment may be important and suggest how the limited effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy for an unselected group of patients may be addressed by more systematic treatment delivery and the ongoing monitoring of intermediate treatment outcomes. PMID:20679254
Schultz, Pamela N; Remick-Barlow, G Ann; Robbins, Leslie
Equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) is a specialized form of psychotherapy using the horse as a therapeutic tool. This modality is designed to address self-esteem and personal confidence, communication and interpersonal effectiveness, trust, boundaries and limit-setting, and group cohesion. Substantial numbers of children witness family violence. There is evidence that violence between parents has adverse effects on the children in the family. These children are at greater risk of behavioural problems and mental health disorders, including anxiety, anger, depression and suicidal ideations, withdrawal, low self-esteem, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The purpose of the present pilot study was to test the efficacy of EAP in a cross-sectional group of children referred to a psychotherapist for various childhood behavioural and mental health issues over an 18-month period (June 2003-January 2005). Sixty-three children received a mean number of 19 EAP sessions. Scores on the Children's Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale were determined pre- and post-treatment. The mean (+/- standard deviation, SD) pretreatment score was 54.1 (SD 3.2) and post treatment mean score was 61.7 +/- 5.0 (t = 9.06, d.f. = 96, P < 0.001). All children showed improvement in GAF scores, and there was a statistically significant correlation between the percentage improvement in the GAF scores and the number of sessions given (r = 0.73, P = 0.001). Univariate analysis showed that the greatest improvement in the GAF scores occurred in the youngest of the subjects. Children in the group who had a history of physical abuse and neglect had a statistically significant greater percentage improvement in GAF scores after treatment than those who did not have a history of abuse and neglect. This study has demonstrated a quick response to EAP, especially in younger children, but it remains to be determined what kind of long-term effects this type of intervention may provide. PMID
Stoten, J.; Goos, W.
This study uses Bales' Interaction Process Analysis (I. P. A.) to identify significant process elements in counselling and psychotherapy. For this purpose, the film "Three Approaches to Psychotherapy" was analysed. (Editor)
VAUGHAN, SUSAN C.; MARSHALL, RANDALL D.; MACKINNON, ROGER A.; ROOSE, STEVEN P.
This paper describes a study to assess the feasibility of applying the methodology and instruments used in brief-term psychotherapy outcome research to long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. PMID:22700201
Pedersen, Eric R.; Callaghan, Glenn M.; Prins, Annabel; Nguyen, Hong; Tsai, Mavis
Evidence-based treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) may be enhanced by Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP; Kohlenberg & Tsai, 1991; Tsai et al., 2009). As PTSD can include a variety of problems with interpersonal relationships (e.g., trust of others), manualized treatments may not afford clinicians enough time and flexibility to…
Trimble, Joseph E.
The article extends the scholarship, observations, and recommendations provided in Joseph Gone's article, "Psychotherapy and Traditional Healing for American Indians: Prospects for Therapeutic Integration" (2010 [this issue]). The overarching thesis is that for many Indian and Native clients, interpersonal and interethnic problems can emerge when…
Fraenkel, William A.
One clinical psychologist worked with terminally ill, end-stage Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients in a hospice type setting for an 18-month time period. Interventions included individual psychotherapy, mental status assessments, staff group sessions, and supportive services for families and significant others. During that time,…
Bringmann, Wolfgang G.; Abston, Nathaniel, Jr.
Research on the cognitive activity of clinicians during the initial interview has revealed that mental health professionals are often guided by social stereotypes of attractiveness in their choice of patients for intensive individual or group psychotherapy. Specifically, YAVIS patients (young, attractive, verbal, intelligent, successful) are…
A study assessed the relationship of the independent variables of interpersonal attraction to the dependent variables of feeling good, relational safety, and uncertainty level. Subjects were 75 elementary and secondary school teachers, 61 communication students, 18 child development professionals, and 8 service club members. Each subject completed…
Tuckman, Bruce W.
The Tuckman Teacher Feedback Form identifies five interpersonal teaching factors and styles: organized (managerial), dynamic (charismatic), flexible (laissez-faire), warm/accepting (personable), and creative (imaginative). The feedback generated can help student teachers adjust teaching style prior to service. (SK)
Saunders, William S.
Higher education does not address the central challenges of daily interpersonal life--being a parent, spouse, friend, and offspring; dealing with change, loss, sickness, death. But education can instill "tacit knowing"--knowing in the bones, prior to conceptualization or verbalization. This knowing can be imparted by great literature. (MLW)
Andreoli, A; Burnand, Y; Cochennec, M-F; Ohlendorf, P; Frambati, L; Gaudry-Maire, D; Di Clemente, Th; Hourton, G; Lorillard, S; Canuto, A; Frances, A
To determine whether ambulatory psychotherapy targeted to abandonment experiences and fears can reduce suicidality and improve outcome in borderline patients referred to the emergency room with major depressive disorder and self-destructive behavior severe enough to require medical/surgical treatment and a brief psychiatric hospitalization. A total of 170 subjects were randomized at hospital discharge into three treatment groups: treatment as usual (TAU), abandonment psychotherapy delivered by certified psychotherapists, and abandonment psychotherapy delivered by nurses. Assessments were performed before randomization and at 3-month follow-up. Continued suicidality and other outcome measures were significantly worse in the treatment-as-usual as compared to both abandonment psychotherapy groups, but there were no differences between the two psychotherapy groups. These results suggest the efficacy of manualized psychotherapy that specifically targets the abandonment fears and experiences that are so common as precipitants to suicidal and self-destructive acts in borderline patients. It does not appear that formal psychotherapy training is associated with better outcomes. PMID:26111250
Verheul, Roel; Herbrink, Marjolein
The aim of this paper is to review the level of empirical evidence for four different formats and settings that are available for psychotherapy delivery, i.e., group psychotherapy, out-patient individual psychotherapy, day hospital psychotherapy, and in-patient psychotherapy. The focus is on studies which include a wide range of DSM-IV-TR Axis II personality disorders. The results show that various psychotherapeutic treatments have proven to be efficacious with respect to reducing symptomatology and personality pathology, and improving social functioning in patients with Cluster A, B, C, or not-otherwise-specified personality disorders. This is especially true for cognitive-behaviorally or psychodynamically oriented out-patient individual psychotherapies. However, some evidence indicates that this also applies to (1) long-term, psychodynamically oriented group psychotherapy, (2) short-term, psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy in a day hospital setting, and (3) various duration variants of psychodynamically oriented, in-patient psychotherapy programmes. The available evidence mostly applies to borderline, dependent, avoidant and not-otherwise-specified personality disorder, and perhaps also paranoid, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal personality disorder. It is unknown whether these conclusions also apply to schizoid, antisocial, narcissistic, and histrionic personality disorder. PMID:17365156
Deakin, Elisabeth; Gastaud, Marina; Nunes, Maria Lucia Tiellet
This study aims to discuss the most recent data about child psychotherapy dropout, especially child psychoanalytical psychotherapy. The authors also try to offer some possible alternatives to prevent such a phenomenon. The definition of "child psychotherapy dropout" is extensively discussed. The goal has been to attempt to create a standardised…
Scheier, Michael F.; Schulz, Richard
This study focuses on the impact of age on interpersonal evaluation of persons, particularly the elderly as individuals and not as a group. Using a 75-year-old target and a 23-year-old target, the experimenter predicted and found support for the idea that personal information contained in a transcript would evoke sympathy, and thereby lead…
Blau, Peter M.; And Others
The microstructures of interpersonal networks in China and the United States contain many consistent patterns, despite the countries' great differences. In-group choices and network diversity are analyzed with regard to age, sex, educational attainment, occupation, socioeconomic status, and proportion of kin in the network. Contains 21 references…
Earle, Timothy C.
The study of human learning has neglected interpersonal learning, mainly because of its complexity. However, with the recent development of a new methodology and research paradigm, empirical studies have been initiated. This is a report on one such study, involving 40 male University of Oregon students divided into two groups of 10 pairs of…
Gorman, Jack M
Many patients with depression, anxiety disorders, and other psychiatric disorders are treated with combinations of psychodynamic psychotherapy and medication. Whether this is better than monotherapy is an empirical question that requires much more extensive research than is currently available. When medications were first introduced to treat psychiatric illnesses, some psychopharmacologists insisted that it heralded a new area of "biological psychiatry" that would ultimately render psychotherapy obsolete. Psychodynamic theorists and practitioners, on the other hand, argued that psychopharmacology offered only a superficial approach to treatment. Fortunately, these battles are now largely supplanted by the belief that whatever treatment offers the patient the best outcome should be employed, regardless of the therapist's theoretical outlook. This should motivate more extensive study of the value of combination treatment. So far, the few studies that have been done suggest that the combination of psychodynamic psychotherapy and medication may be superior for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, but most of these studies have small sample sizes and involve only short-term psychotherapy. An examination of the neuroscience of mood and anxiety disorders and of the mechanism of action of psychodynamic psychotherapy and of antidepressant medication suggests several routes by which the two treatment modalities could be synergistic: stimulation of hippocampal neurogenesis; epigenetic regulation of gene expression; dendritic remodeling; enhanced prefrontal cortical control of limbic system activity; and action at specific neurohormonal and neurotransmitter targets. The evidence for each of these mechanisms is reviewed with an eye toward potential experiments that might be relevant to them. PMID:27200462
Whilst pastoral work is aimed at the consciousness of men, the duty of the psychotherapist is to turn the subconscious into the conscious. After clarifying the situation in his inner world the patient should be able to take free decisions. The psychotherapist is not responsible for the decision made by the person, which means that the conscious area is the responsibility of the individual. The psychotherapist must not manipulate the conscious parts just as the clergy must not manipulate the subconscious. So whilst there is a difference in both areas that must be maintained, that difference is less than the two have in common. The common aim or goal is: 1. The basis of both areas is a 'Socratic optimism' rooted in the fact that pastoral work and psychotherapy want the person to discover his or her own truth which cannot be told to him or her. However, it can be found by the person with assistance. 2. Both are characterised by a pragmatic individualism that says that it is worth listening to a single person for days, weeks, months or years until it is ascertained what the soul suffers from. 3. Both are convinced that the truth of a person cannot be described in moral categories. Social and ethical standards don't help but they may reflect the symptoms and the distress of the person. 4. Taking into consideration the dimension of the subconscious in pastoral duty as well, human decisions and activity can be understood much better. PMID:10544459
Lindner, R; Schneider, B
Psychotherapy is an important therapeutic option in the treatment of suicidality. Irrespective of the different treatment settings the psychotherapeutic attitudes, strategies and techniques are presented as they were developed on the basis of cognitive behavioral therapy and psychoanalysis. Starting from the common basic attitude of an active, approachable and for the patient recognizable therapist, the cognitive behavioral attitude is defined by the concept of a "team" involving patient and therapist, which fights against suicidality. The problems that led to suicidal ideation have to be exactly defined and specific behavioral strategies should aim at a modification of the behavioral repertoire and of cognitive strategies. A psychodynamic strategy starting from the analysis of the therapist's inner reaction, the countertransference comes from a primary involvement of both patient and therapist, which the therapist has to recognize and interpret to the patient in a "digestible" way. The experience of an approachable therapist who unexpectedly behaves differently than usual or feared, enables the patient to come to insights and new relational patterns which make suicidal destruction unnecessary. Finally, empirical evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral and psychodynamic treatment of suicidality is presented. PMID:27056189
Introducing questions of individual purpose and meaning into psychotherapy was an important contribution of Viktor Frankl and a necessary supplement to traditional psychotherapy. V. Frankls "Logotherapy" (logos = meaning) however has found its main application in counselling (especially bereavement and grief processes) and prophylactic endeavours (e.g. pedagogics). Suffering from meaninglessness, on the other hand, showed up to be a respectively rare indication for psychotherapeutic interventions in its proper sense. Thus the question was arising how to apply Frankl's valuable meaning-centered concept of man (which he called "Existential Analysis") in a genuine way to other neurosis and to personality disorders, so far "unspecific indications" to Logotherapy. This paper gives an outline and methodological foundation of "Existential Analysis Psychotherapy". A case study finally is illustrating its phenomenological proceeding. PMID:2251867
Whitehouse, Richard M.; Tudway, Jeremy A.; Look, Roger; Kroese, Biza Stenfert
Background: Historically, adults with intellectual disabilities have had little access to individual psychotherapy. Over the last 20 years an increasing body of literature has described psychotherapy with this client group and reported methods for adapting traditional psychotherapeutic techniques. Method: The current review identified the…
Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J.; Brown, Elaine N.; Brook, David W.
Research on stability and change in delinquent behavior over time has important implications for both the individual and the criminal justice system. The present research looks at this issue by examining the associations between the trajectories of delinquent behavior in adolescence and adult functioning. Data for the present study are from a four-wave longitudinal study of African American and Hispanic participants. Participants provided information at mean ages 14, 19, 24, and 29. We used growth mixture modeling to extract trajectory groups of delinquent behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. Regression analyses were conducted to examine whether memberships in the trajectory groups of delinquent behavior from mean age 14 to mean age 24 were associated with violence, substance abuse and dependence, partner discord, peer substance use, and residence in a high-crime neighborhood at mean age 29 when compared with the reference trajectory group of participants with low or no delinquent behavior. Four trajectory groups of delinquent behavior were identified: the no/low, the decreasing, the moderate, and the high persistent trajectory groups. Memberships in the trajectory groups were significantly correlated with variations in adult functioning. Memberships in some trajectory groups of delinquent behavior are significant predictors of later violent behavior, substance abuse and dependence, partner discord, peer substance use, and residence in a high-crime neighborhood. The findings reinforce the importance of investing in interventions to address different patterns of delinquent behavior. Findings are discussed in relation to previous investigations with non-Hispanic White samples. PMID:23813412
Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J; Brown, Elaine N; Brook, David W
Research on stability and change in delinquent behavior over time has important implications for both the individual and the criminal justice system. The present research looks at this issue by examining the associations between the trajectories of delinquent behavior in adolescence and adult functioning. Data for the present study are from a four-wave longitudinal study of African American and Hispanic participants. Participants provided information at mean ages 14, 19, 24, and 29. We used growth mixture modeling to extract trajectory groups of delinquent behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. Regression analyses were conducted to examine whether memberships in the trajectory groups of delinquent behavior from mean age 14 to mean age 24 were associated with violence, substance abuse and dependence, partner discord, peer substance use, and residence in a high-crime neighborhood at mean age 29 when compared with the reference trajectory group of participants with low or no delinquent behavior. Four trajectory groups of delinquent behavior were identified: the no/low, the decreasing, the moderate, and the high persistent trajectory groups. Memberships in the trajectory groups were significantly correlated with variations in adult functioning. Memberships in some trajectory groups of delinquent behavior are significant predictors of later violent behavior, substance abuse and dependence, partner discord, peer substance use, and residence in a high-crime neighborhood. The findings reinforce the importance of investing in interventions to address different patterns of delinquent behavior. Findings are discussed in relation to previous investigations with non-Hispanic White samples. PMID:23813412
WEINGARTEN, CAROL P.; STRAUMAN, TIMOTHY J.
Objective This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. Method We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. Results We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. Conclusions The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research. PMID:24527694
Wiltink, Jörg; Hoyer, Jürgen; Beutel, Manfred E.; Ruckes, Christian; Herpertz, Stephan; Joraschky, Peter; Koranyi, Susan; Michal, Matthias; Nolting, Björn; Pöhlmann, Karin; Salzer, Simone; Strauss, Bernhard
Objectives Little is known about patient characteristics as predictors for outcome in manualized short term psychodynamic psychotherapy (PDT). No study has addressed which patient variables predict outcome of PDT for social anxiety disorder. Research Design and Methods In the largest multicenter trial on psychotherapy of social anxiety (SA) to date comparing cognitive therapy, PDT and wait list condition N = 230 patients were assigned to receive PDT, of which N = 166 completed treatment. Treatment outcome was assessed based on diverse parameters such as endstate functioning, remission, response, and drop-out. The relationship between patient characteristics (demographic variables, mental co-morbidity, personality, interpersonal problems) and outcome was analysed using logistic and linear regressions. Results Pre-treatment SA predicted up to 39 percent of variance of outcome. Only few additional baseline characteristics predicted better treatment outcome (namely, lower comorbidity and interpersonal problems) with a limited proportion of incremental variance (5.5 to 10 percent), while, e.g., shame, self-esteem or harm avoidance did not. Conclusions We argue that the central importance of pre-treatment symptom severity for predicting outcomes should advocate alternative treatment strategies (e.g. longer treatments, combination of psychotherapy and medication) in those who are most disturbed. Given the relatively small amount of variance explained by the other patient characteristics, process variables and patient-therapist interaction should additionally be taken into account in future research. Trial Registration Controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN53517394 PMID:26785255
Dietz, Laura J.; Marshal, Michael P.; Burton, Chad M.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kolko, David; Duffy, Jamira N.; Brent, David A.
Objective Changes in adolescent interpersonal behavior before and after an acute course of psychotherapy were investigated as outcomes and mediators of remission status in a previously described treatment study of depressed adolescents. Maternal depressive symptoms were examined as moderators of the association between psychotherapy condition and changes in adolescents’ interpersonal behavior. Method Adolescents (n = 63, mean age = 15.6 years, 77.8% female, 84.1% Caucasian) engaged in videotaped interactions with their mothers before randomization to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), systemic behavior family therapy (SBFT), or nondirective supportive therapy (NST), and after 12–16 weeks of treatment. Adolescent involvement, problem solving and dyadic conflict were examined. Results Improvements in adolescent problem solving were significantly associated with CBT and SBFT. Maternal depressive symptoms moderated the effect of CBT, but not SBFT, on adolescents’ problem solving; adolescents experienced increases in problem solving only when their mothers had low or moderate levels of depressive symptoms. Improvements in adolescents’ problem solving were associated with higher rates of remission across treatment conditions, but there were no significant indirect effects of SBFT on remission status through problem solving. Exploratory analyses revealed a significant indirect effect of CBT on remission status through changes in adolescent problem solving, but only when maternal depressive symptoms at study entry were low. Conclusions Findings provide preliminary support for problem solving as an active treatment component of structured psychotherapies for depressed adolescents and suggest one Pathway by which maternal depression may disrupt treatment efficacy for depressed adolescents treated with CBT. PMID:24491077
A method of supplying consultation services to school districts is reported. The philosophy underlying this approach is that teaching front line personnel better methods and techniques of handling mental health problems will ultimately lead to true prevention by way of curricular change, changes in teaching techniques, and clearer definition of…
Sunblad, Gerd; Sigrell, Bo; John, Larke Knutsson; Lindkvist, Cecilia
Compares two groups of psychotherapy students with regard to their educational training in a three-year program. One of the groups attended a traditional psychotherapy program based on conventional lectures while the other attended a problem-based learning (PBL) program. The traditionally trained group reported a significantly higher level of…
Interpersonal, Nonverbal, and Small Group Communication: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1985 (Vol. 46 Nos. 1 through 6).
ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.
This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 18 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: (1) ways of conceptualizing and evaluating group discussion; (2) participant observations of communication themes in families facing death; (3) perceptions of…
Interpersonal, Nonverbal, and Small Group Communication: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1984, (Vol. 44 Nos. 7 through 12).
ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.
This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 12 titles deal with the following topics: (1) communication style in initial meetings of small groups; (2) gender orientation, communicative competency, and communication satisfaction in acquaintance dyads; (3) attitudinal,…
Interpersonal, Nonverbal, and Small Group Communication: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1979 (Vol. 39 Nos. 7 through 12).
ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.
This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 19 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: group communication; effects of communication skills training on marital interaction; relationship among assertiveness, manifest anxiety, and self-esteem; dyadic…
Town, Joel M.; Abbass, Allan
Background. Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP), as developed by Habib Davanloo, is an intensive emotion-focused psychodynamic therapy with an explicit focus on handling resistance in treatment. A core assumption in ISTDP is that psychotherapeutic effects are dependent on in-session emotional processing in the form of rise in complex transference feelings that occurs when treatment resistance is challenged. Recent research indicates that an unlocking of the unconscious, a powerful emotional breakthrough achieved at a high rise in complex transference feelings, can potentially enhance ISTDP’s effectiveness. While ISTDP has a growing evidence base, most of the research conducted has used small samples and has tested therapy delivered by expert therapists. The aims of this study were to evaluate the overall effectiveness of ISTDP when delivered in a tertiary psychotherapy service, and to investigate if having an unlocking of the unconscious during therapy predicted enhanced treatment effectiveness. Methods. A total of 412 patients were included in the analyses. The average length of treatment was 10.2 sessions (SD 13.3). Multilevel growth curve modeling was used to evaluate treatment effectiveness and the association between unlocking the unconscious and outcome. A number of control predictors including type of treatment resistance were selected and included in the analyses. Outcome measures were the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP). About half of the patients in the study were treated by therapists in training and the other half by more experienced therapists. Results. Growth curve analyses using the full intention-to-treat sample revealed significant within-group effects of ISTDP on both the BSI and the IIP. Effect sizes were large (>0.80). Unlocking the unconscious during therapy was associated with significantly larger treatment outcome. The relationship was further moderated by type of treatment
Haggerty, Greg; Blanchard, Mark; Baity, Matthew R.; Defife, Jared A; Stein, Michelle B.; Siefert, Caleb J.; Sinclair, Samuel J.; Zodan, Jennifer
The Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale-Global Rating Method (SCORS-G) is a clinical rating system assessing eight domains of self and interpersonal relational experience which can be applied to narrative response data (e.g., Thematic Apperception Test [TAT; Murray, 1943]; early memories narratives) or oral data (e.g., psychotherapy narratives, Relationship Anecdotal Paradigms). In the current study, seventy-two psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents consented and were rated by their individual and group therapist using the SCORS-G. Clinicians also rated therapy engagement, personality functioning, quality of peer relationships, school functioning, global assessment of functioning (GAF), history of eating disordered behavior and history of nonsuicidal self-injury. SCORS-G composite ratings achieved an acceptable level of inter-rater reliability and were associated with theoretically predicted variables (e.g., engagement in therapy; history of nonsuicidal self-injury). SCORS-G ratings also incrementally improved the prediction of therapy engagement and global functioning beyond what was accounted for by GAF scores. This study further demonstrates the clinical utility of the SCORS-G with adolescents. PMID:25010080
Peterkin, Allan D.; Dworkind, Michael
Most family physicians state that they “do psychotherapy” and yet are often unclear as to whether they are using a supportive or an insight-oriented approach. This paper discusses short-term psychotherapy with an emphasis on the theoretical differences between these two approaches, as well as suggestions for learning them. PMID:21229014
Silverman, Wade H.
This article reviews seven trends that were identified several years ago that have impacted the field of psychotherapy, especially such estimated changes as psycho-economics, managed care, wellness promotion, gender, and elderly care. Six new trends are described that are emerging and are leading the profession into the future: psychotherapy…
Research into the use of videoconferencing for clinical purposes, in particular psychotherapy, is gradually expanding. A number of case studies and case series have suggested that videoconferencing can be clinically effective and acceptable to patients. Nevertheless, there is a lack of methodologically rigorous studies with adequate sample sizes…
Goin, M K; Burgoyne, R W; Kline, F; Woods, S M; Peck, J S
Experience with a seminar demonstrating psychotherapy, interviews with 12 of the treated patients, and a survey of 23 residents have shown the value of this teaching method and its effect on the participants. Generally the patients felt helped and residents were enthusiastic. The teaching format has many valuable features--most important being the inclusion of a faculty-observer. PMID:1259051
Psychotherapy has a long history but its practice has always been strewn with controversy. In this review, the current status of psychotherapy is examined by setting its development in historical perspective. While previous practice was often based on the pronouncements of "masters", current approaches are almost always embedded in both rigorous theoretical formulations and frequently also in empirically derived data on efficacy. A fundamental understanding about the mechanisms of action of psychotherapy is a promising new development that is emanating from modern techniques of neurosciences and neuroimaging. Whether such understanding will lead to a renaissance in the clinical utility of psychotherapy is still early to say. However, there is little doubt that the provision of a holistic care for patients with psychological and mental disorders in particular, and most physical conditions in general, should be informed by an appreciation of the bi-directional nature of the relationship between the mind and the body and should therefore include the provision of appropriate psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:15287283
Lazarus, Arnold A.
Outlines tenets of multimodal therapy (MMT) and argues for its cost-effective yet comprehensive value as a brief psychotherapy model. Describes MMT as an integrated, seven-modality model of personality and provides clinical examples of its use. Argues that MMT approach will be an important future alternative to more expensive, time-consuming, and…
Sisson, Lee Hansen
A new model for psychotherapy, mandated by current evolution to a pluralistic society, is proposed in this paper. After describing the Big Island of Hawaii as a microcosm of pluralistic society, the author discusses her clinical and educational practice and explores the multi-ethnic population. An individual assessment and treatment matrix is…
Allen, S N; Bloom, S L
A central feature of PTSD is its effect on social relationships. Trauma affects groups of people, not just individuals. Family systems, neighborhoods, and even whole generations may feel the results of psychological trauma. Because of the social nature of the effects of trauma, post-trauma treatment must address an individual's relationship to others. Group and family psychotherapy are ideally suited to this and are important components of a multimodal approach to PTSD treatment. Group and family psychotherapies provide superb opportunities for social support, social reintegration, and interpersonal learning. As with any powerful technique, these methods must be carefully applied. Although not all patients are appropriate for exposure-based treatments, improved interpersonal coping skills will likely be beneficial to many PTSD patients. Patients should be carefully evaluated for treatment types and assessed for treatment response. Although group and family therapies currently provide relief and growth for PTSD patients, many considerations remain for the future. For example, how can patients be matched with various treatments for optimal results? How should acute and chronic PTSD treatments be similar and different? What is the effectiveness of group and family therapies for PTSD? What are the social and legal implications of a prolonged course of treatment for a victim whose children meanwhile are being traumatized by the parent's relatively poor parenting skills secondary to their inadequacies and disabilities? Finally, at a global level, how do we improve systems therapy technology to enable us more radically, effectively, and quickly to bring about total systems change? Because families and groups are the "cells" that compose the "vital organs" we call nations, and these nations in turn make the total body of humankind, the answers to these questions may have a significant determining effect on the future survival of us all. PMID:7937368
Dermody, Sarah S; Quilty, Lena C; Bagby, R Michael
Personality, as characterized by the Five-Factor Model, predicts response to psychotherapy for depression. To explain how personality impacts treatment response, the present study investigated patient and therapist interpersonal processes in treatment sessions as an explanatory pathway. A clinical trial was conducted in which 103 outpatients (mean age: 41.17 years, 65% female) with primary major depressive disorder completed 16-20 weeks of cognitive-behavioral or interpersonal therapy. Before treatment, patients completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory to assess personality domains (neuroticism, extraversion, openness-to-experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). After 3 and 13 weeks, patient interpersonal behavior was rated by the therapist and vice versa to determine levels of patient and therapist communal and agentic behaviors. Depression levels were measured before and after treatment. Structural equation modeling supported that patients' interpersonal behavior during therapy mediated the associations between pretreatment personality and depression treatment outcome. Specifically, extraversion, conscientiousness, and neuroticism (inverse) predicted higher levels of patient communion throughout treatment, which was in turn associated with improved treatment outcomes. Furthermore, patient agreeableness was inversely associated with agency throughout treatment, which was linked to poorer treatment response. Therapist interpersonal behavior was not a significant mediator. Results suggest that patient interpersonal behavior during treatment may be one way that patient personality impacts clinical outcomes in depression. Results underscore the clinical utility of Five-Factor Model domains in treatment process and outcome. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27031606
PARDINI, DUSTIN A.; LOEBER, ROLF
The current study examined the relation between interpersonal callousness trajectories during adolescence (ages 14 to 18) and characteristics of antisocial personality and internalizing problems in young adulthood (age 26), using a community sample of 506 boys. The influence of several parent and peer factors on callousness trajectories during adolescence was also explored. Although the mean interpersonal callousness trajectory for the entire sample was relatively flat, there was substantial individual variability in both the initial status and rate of change of interpersonal callousness over time. Trajectories of interpersonal callousness were associated with higher levels of antisocial personality features in early adulthood but were unrelated to adult internalizing problems. Conduct problems and parent–child communication difficulties were the best predictors of elevated levels of interpersonal callousness throughout adolescence. However, none of the parenting and peer factors examined predicted substantive changes in interpersonal callousness over time. PMID:21394215
Behere, Prakash B.; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P.
The perfect balance of mind, body and soul is considered as complete health in Ayurveda. Ayurveda has its own identity as most ancient and traditional System of Medicine in India. Even Ayurveda emphasizes its treatment modalities into three parts viz. Satwawajay Chikitsa, Yuktivyapashray and Daivyapashray Chikitsa. Sattvavajaya therapy mentioned in Charakasamhita and it used as new concept of psychotherapy in Ayurveda. The effectiveness of “traditional mental health promoting practices” was identified as health regimens (swasthvrtt), correct behavior (sadvrtt), and yoga. Sattvavajaya as psychotherapy, is the mental restraint, or a “mind control” as referred by Caraka, is achieved through “spiritual knowledge, philosophy, fortitude, remembrance and concentration. Ayurvedic psychotherapy would play a dual role: First, as a revival of authentic medical culture, the exercise of a practice with an assumed primordial dimension, and second as a discovery of authentic subjectivity, the revelation of a self with an assumed interior depth. When we integrate the contemporary art of psychotherapy with the ancient science of Ayurveda, it becomes a powerful combination that is called Psycho Veda. The integration of Psycho and Veda is motivated by the complete integration of the immense but fairly contemporary view of the mind, emotions and psyche and how this performs in our lives. Integrating Psychotherapy and Vedic principles teaches us how to rediscover critical knowledge and awareness of the natural forces and rhythms that compliment and strengthen our human experience, through the understanding of the psyche and what our inner experiences are and also involving practical daily activities with thorough attention to our total environment to bring about radical changes in our mental outlook and in physical health. PMID:23858273
Mortensen, Erik L.; Lotz, Martin
Background. Psychodynamic group psychotherapy may not be an optimal treatment for anxiety and agoraphobic symptoms. We explore remission of SCL-90-R Global Severity Index (GSI) and target symptoms in 39 sessions of psychodynamic group therapy. Methods. SCL-90-R “target symptom” profile and GSI remission according to Danish norms were identified in 239 patients and evaluated according to reliable and clinical significant change. Results. Four major groups of target symptom cases (depression, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, and phobic anxiety) covered 95.7% of the sample. As opposite to phobic anxiety and anxiety patients, patients with interpersonal sensitivity obtained overall the most optimal outcome. The phobic anxiety scale, social network support, and years of school education were independent predictors of GSI remission, and a low anxiety score and absence of phobic anxiety target symptoms were independent predictors of remission of target symptom pathology. Conclusions. The negative results as associated with the SCL-90-R phobic anxiety scale and the phobic anxiety target symptom group are largely in agreement with recent studies. In contrast, whatever the diagnoses, patients with interpersonal sensitivity target symptom may be especially suited for psychodynamic group therapy. The SCL-90-R subscales may allow for a more complex symptom-related differentiation of patients compared with both diagnoses and GSI symptom load. PMID:23738219
Sumin, A N; Khaĭredinova, O P; Sumina, L Iu; Variushkina, E V; Doronin, D V; Galimzianov, D M; Masin, A N; Gol'dberg, G A
Of 103 patients with acute coronary syndrome (mean age 51.6 +/- 0.9 years) 47 patients participated in 5 group psychotherapeutic sessions added to conversional rehabilitation program. Psychotherapy included progressive muscular relaxation, neurolinguistic programming, eriksonian hypnosis, therapeutic metaphora. Psychotherapy decreased the hear rate, number of ventricular extrasystoles, stimulated tonicity of the parasympathetic nervous system. Compared to the controls, the test patients developed higher exercise tolerance and lower reactivity of the central hemodynamics in all the exercise tests. PMID:10900863
Hautzinger, M; Meyer, T D
Mood stabilisers show convincing evidence of relapse prevention in patients suffering from bipolar affective disorder. However, despite continuous medication the majority of patients suffer from relapses. It seems logical to apply principles of psychological intervention to bipolar patients. Elements of psychotherapy are: psychoeducation about symptoms, prodromal states, and course of illness; symptom monitoring; and influencing cognitive and behavioural strategies to improve symptomatology, social functioning, compliance, and relapse prevention. The goal of this review is to summarise the current status of controlled studies including psychological approaches to bipolar patients, to describe the efficacy of psychotherapy, and to address lack of knowledge and future trends in this clinical field. We located 461 reports about psychological interventions with bipolar patients but identified only 28 controlled and methodologically sound studies. In those studies 2294 patients were treated. Almost all (over 90%) fulfilled bipolar I criteria. All psychotherapies include psychoeducation and information about bipolar affective disorders and ask patients to self-monitor daily symptoms and other daily events. The majority of psychotherapies are cognitive-behaviorally oriented and treat patients in a one-to-one setting, but family oriented approaches and group settings were also prevalent. Studies show evidence that psychotherapy in combination with mood stabilizers improved depressive (to less extent manic) symptoms (d=0.39) and almost doubled the period of time between two episodes (d=0.71). Open questions are: indicators and predictors of successful outcome, length and intensity of treatment, essential elements of helpful intervention, long-term follow-up, and prevention of bipolar disorders in high-risk groups. PMID:17604972
Gallace, Alberto; Spence, Charles
Surprisingly little scientific research has been conducted on the topic of interpersonal touch over the years, despite the importance of touch in our everyday social interactions from birth through to adulthood and old age. In this review, we critically evaluate the results of the research on this topic that have emerged from disciplines, such as cognitive and social psychology, neuroscience, and cultural anthropology. We highlight some of the most important advances to have been made in our understanding of this topic: For example, research has shown that interpersonal tactile stimulation provides an effective means of influencing people's social behaviors (such as modulating their tendency to comply with requests, in affecting people's attitudes toward specific services, in creating bonds between couples or groups, and in strengthening romantic relationships), regardless of whether or not the tactile contact itself can be remembered explicitly. What is more, interpersonal touch can be used to communicate emotion in a manner similar to that demonstrated previously in vision and audition. The recent growth of studies investigating the potential introduction of tactile sensations to long-distance communication technologies (by means of mediated or 'virtual' touch) are also reviewed briefly. Finally, we highlight the synergistic effort that will be needed by researchers in different disciplines if we are to develop a more complete understanding of interpersonal touch in the years to come. PMID:18992276
Blatt, Sidney J; Shahar, Golan
Consistent with the call to consider person-by-treatment interactions in intervention research, Blatt (1992) found that anaclitic and introjective patients responded differently to psychoanalysis and supportive-expressive therapy (SEP) in the Menninger Psychotherapy Research Project (MPRP). Psychoanalysis was significantly more effective than SEP in reducing malevolent, destructive imagery on the Rorschach among introjective patients, those patients who are primarily preoccupied with control and self-definition. Conversely, SEP was significantly more effective than psychoanalysis in reducing these malevolent, destructive images among anaclitic patients, those patients who are primarily preoccupied with interpersonal relatedness. The present analyses of data from the MPRP demonstrate the stability of this statistically significant patient-by-treatment interaction even in the subsample of patients for whom the anaclitic-introjective distinction was ambiguous, reaffirming the validity of both the anaclitic-introjective distinction and the importance of considering patient characteristics in psychotherapy research and practice. PMID:15113032
Campbell, Linda F; Smith, Thomas P
This article describes a systematic and integral method of incorporating self-help books into psychotherapy as a collaborative function. We address the distinctions between self-help and bibliotherapy, consider bibliotherapy as adjunctive or integrative to psychotherapy, and outline the multiple uses of bibliotherapy for clinical purposes. How to apply self-help books in psychotherapy and ways to select books are illustrated by a case example. Indications and contraindications for bibliotherapy in therapy are outlined. PMID:12552626
Brown, Ottilia; Elkonin, Diane; Naicker, Samantha
The use of religion and spirituality in psychotherapy has been a contentious issue for decades. This paper explores and describes whether psychologists would use religion and spirituality in psychotherapy as well as enablers and barriers in this regard. A qualitative exploratory descriptive method was followed using purposive sampling to obtain a sample of clinical and counselling psychologists. The focus group strategy was used to collect the data, and Tesch's model of content analysis was used to analyse the qualitative findings. Most participants expressed a willingness to discuss religion and spirituality with their clients. Participants also highlighted specific enablers and barriers to incorporating religion and spirituality in psychotherapy. This article has the potential to influence professional training in psychology and psychotherapy. PMID:22076048
Eberhart, Nicole K; Hammen, Constance L
Hammen (1991) provided evidence for a stress generation process in which individuals with a history of depression contributed to the occurrence of stressors, especially interpersonal and conflict events. However, few studies have examined the factors contributing to stress generation. This study examines aspects of individuals' interpersonal style, operationalized as attachment, dependency, and reassurance seeking, as predictors of conflict stress generation within romantic relationships. These effects were examined both prospectively over a 4-week period and cross-sectionally using a 14-day daily diary in a sample of female college students. Overall, there was significant evidence that interpersonal style contributes to the occurrence of interpersonal stressors. Specifically, anxious attachment and reassurance seeking prospectively predicted romantic conflict stress over a 4-week period, and a variety of interpersonal behaviors were associated with romantic conflict stressors on a daily basis. These results are interpreted in relation to previous literature, and limitations and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19171775
Stepp, Stephanie D.; Smith, Tiffany D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Pilkonis, Paul A.
This study examined the prospective relationships among borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms, interpersonal problems, and types of aggressive behaviors (i.e., experiencing psychological and physical victimization and perpetrating psychological and physical aggression) in a psychiatric sample (N = 139) over the course of 2 years. We controlled for other PD symptoms and demographic variables. BPD symptoms at baseline were associated with interpersonal sensitivity, interpersonal ambivalence, interpersonal aggression, need for social approval, and lack of sociability 6 months later. In turn, interpersonal sensitivity predicted not experiencing physical aggression, interpersonal aggression predicted experiencing physical aggression and perpetrating both psychological and physical aggression, need for social approval predicted experiencing both psychological and physical aggression, and lack of sociability predicted perpetrating physical aggression 2 years later. Results demonstrated that interpersonal problems mediated the relationship between BPD and later violent behaviors. Our findings suggest the importance of distinguishing between these groups of aggressive behaviors in terms of etiological pathways, maintenance processes, and treatment interventions. PMID:21859760
Emotional control may be observed to be (1) too excessive as in avoidant behaviors during psychotherapy, (2) suitable to a frank expression of feelings, or (3) lacking in regulation causing too intense affective experiences. This article offers a theory that may help clinicians make observations about this range of possible states, formulate the patient's defensive processes, and choose if, how, and when to act. The observations and formulations presented focus on specific and present moment situations rather than habitual defense mechanisms. PMID:27603803
Presents fundamental principles of short-term psychotherapy in reference to psychotic patients. Emphasizes empirical hermeneutical research into group process within the phenomenological approach. Presents case study of short-term psychotherapy with psychotic patients. Outlines four-stage approach to short-term therapy. (Author/ABL)
Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela
This study examined the influence of interpersonal functioning as a mediator in the relationship between child sexual abuse and depression symptoms, after accounting for the influence of child physical abuse. The research questions build on the existing knowledge base by examining mechanisms of adult adjustment among child sexual abuse survivors. In the current study, 2,892 young adult women (18-29 years old; M = 19.06) reported on child sexual and physical abuse, 5 domains of interpersonal functioning, and depression symptoms. The results supported aggression, sensitivity, ambivalence, and lack of sociability as mediators in the relationship between child sexual abuse and depression symptoms. These results suggest that interpersonal difficulties related to hostility, emotional reactivity, inability to collaborate, and isolation may be of particular interest when understanding depression in child sexual abuse survivors. The findings support interpersonal problems as a key mechanism of depression symptoms following child sexual abuse and is even demonstrated when examining long-term outcomes and controlling for child physical abuse. The hypotheses and findings are discussed in the context of interpersonal psychotherapy for depression. PMID:25774421
Harrison, A. A.; Connors, M. M.
The crucial importance of a thorough understanding of the psychological and interpersonal dimensions of Mars flights is indicated. This is necessary both to reduce the chances that psychological problems or interpersonal frictions will threaten the success of Mars missions and to enhance the quality of life of the people involved. Adaptation to interplanetary flight will depend on an interplay of the psychological stresses imposed by the missions and the psychological strengths and vulnerabilities of the crewmembers involved. Stresses may be reduced through environmental engineering, manipulating crew composition, and the structuring of situations and tasks. Vulnerabilities may be reduced through improving personnel selection procedures, training personnel in psychological and group dynamics, and providing mechanisms for emotional support. It is essential to supplement anecdotal evidence regarding the human side of space travel with the results of carefully conducted scientific research.
Makay, John J.
The argument of this paper is that psychotherapy is essentially a rhetorical process that, as an alternative to or substitute for religious rhetoric, seeks to lead people to a secular state of grace. The paper first acknowledges the work of four scholars who have written about the rhetoric of psychotherapy: Erling Eng, Pedro Lain Entralgo, Lloyd…
This Practice Parameter describes the principles of psychodynamic psychotherapy with children and is based on clinical consensus and available research evidence. It presents guidelines for the practice of child psychodynamic psychotherapy, including indications and contraindications, the setting, verbal and interactive (play) techniques, work with…
Carson, David K.; Becker, Kent W.
Creativity is paramount to the therapeutic process. This article explored the role of creativity in counseling and psychotherapy through a critical analysis of several key articles in a special issue of The Journal of Clinical Activities, Assignments, & Handouts in Psychotherapy Practice (L. L. Hecker, 2002). Implications for counselors/therapists…
Maitland, Daniel W. M.; Gaynor, Scott T.
Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a form of therapy grounded in behavioral principles that utilizes therapist reactions to shape target behavior. Despite a growing literature base, there is a paucity of research to establish the efficacy of FAP. As a general approach to psychotherapy, and how the therapeutic relationship produces change,…
Koss, Mary P.; And Others
After a concise overview of the technical characteristics that define brief psychotherapy, the current use and misuse of these methods in clinical research on the outcome and process of treatment is examined. Suggests that brief psychotherapy methods possess unique technical advantages to the researcher. (Author/BL)
Kernberg, Paulina F; Ritvo, Rachel; Keable, Helene
This Practice Parameter describes the principles of psychodynamic psychotherapy with children and is based on clinical consensus and available research evidence. It presents guidelines for the practice of child psychodynamic psychotherapy, including indications and contraindications, the setting, verbal and interactive (play) techniques, work with the parents, and criteria for termination. PMID:22525961
Hirsch, R D
Symptoms presented by patients with Alzheimer-type dementia do not only reflect organic disturbances only but require a holistic and person-oriented view. Affective and behavioral disturbances are not necessarily secondary to cognitive impairment. Guidelines are presented for a multidimensional treatment involving the significant other. Socio- and psychotherapy are essential for this treatment. Their approaches have greatly increased in number and diversity in the past few years. Sociotherapy is based on milieu therapy and includes different training- and group activities. Several psychosocial treatment modalities are available, including validation, dementia care mapping, reminiscence therapy, cognitive training and psychoeducational group work. Psychotherapeutic approaches include relaxation techniques, and psychodynamic oriented- and behavioral modalities. The indication for a specific modality is based on an assessment of the disturbances present and available resources. Of special importance are also services to family carers, including counseling, psychotherapy, as well as support and modification of the care-setting. Even though there are only limited empirical data available on the effects of socio- and psychotherapy for patients with Alzheimer-type dementia, the available evidence is indicative of a positive influence on symptoms of this illness. Diversity of symptoms and individualized, variable course of the illness may point to the importance of psychological and social factors in this illness, by far larger than presently recognized. PMID:11393010
Armstrong, Cameron B.; Rubin, Alan M.
Examines whether talk radio serves different purposes for listeners who phone in, compared to those who do not. Finds that talk radio provides callers with an accessible and nonthreatening alternative to interpersonal communication. (MS)
Introduction Although a plethora of studies have delineated the relationship between childhood trauma and onset, symptom severity, and course of depression and anxiety disorders, there has been little evidence that childhood trauma may lead to interpersonal problems among adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders. Given the lack of prior research in this area, we aimed to investigate characteristics of interpersonal problems in adult patients who had suffered various types of abuse and neglect in childhood. Methods A total of 325 outpatients diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorders completed questionnaires on socio-demographic variables, different forms of childhood trauma, and current interpersonal problems. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to measure five different forms of childhood trauma (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, physical neglect, and sexual abuse) and the short form of the Korean-Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scale (KIIP-SC) was used to assess current interpersonal problems. We dichotomized patients into two groups (abused and non-abused groups) based on CTQ score and investigated the relationship of five different types of childhood trauma and interpersonal problems in adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders using multiple regression analysis. Result Different types of childhood abuse and neglect appeared to have a significant influence on distinct symptom dimensions such as depression, state-trait anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity. In the final regression model, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse during childhood were significantly associated with general interpersonal distress and several specific areas of interpersonal problems in adulthood. No association was found between childhood physical neglect and current general interpersonal distress. Conclusion Childhood emotional trauma has more influence on interpersonal problems in adult patients with
Lee, Jin Joo; Knox, W. Bradley; Wormwood, Jolie B.; Breazeal, Cynthia; DeSteno, David
We present a computational model capable of predicting—above human accuracy—the degree of trust a person has toward their novel partner by observing the trust-related nonverbal cues expressed in their social interaction. We summarize our prior work, in which we identify nonverbal cues that signal untrustworthy behavior and also demonstrate the human mind's readiness to interpret those cues to assess the trustworthiness of a social robot. We demonstrate that domain knowledge gained from our prior work using human-subjects experiments, when incorporated into the feature engineering process, permits a computational model to outperform both human predictions and a baseline model built in naiveté of this domain knowledge. We then present the construction of hidden Markov models to investigate temporal relationships among the trust-related nonverbal cues. By interpreting the resulting learned structure, we observe that models built to emulate different levels of trust exhibit different sequences of nonverbal cues. From this observation, we derived sequence-based temporal features that further improve the accuracy of our computational model. Our multi-step research process presented in this paper combines the strength of experimental manipulation and machine learning to not only design a computational trust model but also to further our understanding of the dynamics of interpersonal trust. PMID:24363649
Weiner, I B; Exner, J E
Over a period of several years, repeat Rorschach testing was done with two groups of patients receiving outpatient psychotherapy, a long-term group (n = 88) engaged in intensive, dynamically oriented psychotherapy and a short-term group (n = 88) involved in behavioral or gestalt therapy. Rorschach protocols were obtained at the beginning of the treatment and on three subsequent occasions, 1 year, 2 1/2 years, and 4 years later, when most of the long-term and all of the short-term patients had completed their therapy. The findings demonstrate generally beneficial effects of psychotherapy, greater change in long-term than in short-term therapy, and the validity of the Rorschach for measuring these effects and changes. PMID:1907657
Vaughan, Barney; Goldstein, Michael H.; Alikakos, Maria; Cohen, Lisa J.; Serby, Michael J.
Background Psychopharmacology and psychotherapy are the two main therapies in mental health. It is common practice to consider adverse events (AEs) of medications, but it’s not clear this occurs with psychotherapy. Aim This study investigates the frequency with which reports of AEs occur in clinical trials using either psychopharmacology alone, psychotherapy alone, or combined approaches. Methods Forty-five articles of randomized trials published in high-impact journals were chosen from a Medline search, and separated into three groups of 15 articles: pharmacotherapy alone (M), psychotherapy alone (T) and combined studies that looked at the effect of both a psychotherapeutic (CT) and psychopharmacologic (CM) intervention. Criteria for what defines an AE were established and the papers were rated for mentions of AEs in papers as a whole and by each section. Results The χ2-analysis of AE mentions showed significant differences between the four study conditions in terms of each paper as a whole (χ2: 10.1, p < 0.018), and by section. Medication (M + CM) and psychotherapy papers (T + CT) were then combined into two groups to compare the odds that one was more likely to mention AEs than the other. Bivariate logistic regression yielded statistically significant odds ratios ranging from 9.33 to 20.99, with medications being far more likely to mention AEs. Conclusion We believe the difference in reports of AEs mirrors the attitudes researchers and providers. It’s critical to consider, and standardize the definition of, AEs in psychotherapy, and imperative to identify and address potential AEs in psychotherapy research. PMID:24630200
Body centered Psychotherapy IKP is treated in this article under the aspect of a holistic approach. First the theory and the system of science are summarised and shown as to which amount they are changing concerning knowledge of details and wholeness. It is pointed out that the actual paradigma "to the depth" has to be completed by that of "wideness". The way of holistic-multirelational thinking, stating a diagnosis and doing therapy is demonstrated along a case study going on at the background of a therapeutic encounter-relationship which is emotionally warm (Gestalt-approach). PMID:8900884
Bellino, Silvio; Brunetti, Chiara; Bozzatello, Paola
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) represents a significant therapeutic challenge. Critical factors in psychotherapeutic treatment of patients with BPD are noticeable and strictly related to the psychopathological dimensions of this disorder: affective and relational instability, behavioral impulsivity and precarious definition of identity. These features are emphasized by therapeutic intervention and become evident during the course of the treatment. Psychotherapeutic setting induces BPD patient to actualize the dysfunctional relational patterns that have been acquired during childhood. Specific critical factors concern the characteristics of the patient (risk of suicide, aggressive behaviors, chronic course of the disorder, disorganized attachment style), of the therapist (therapeutic skills, training, countertransference, risk of burnout) and of the setting of psychotherapy (patients selection, therapeutic alliance, need to set limits, duration and end of therapy). In Otto Kernberg's and Marsha Linehan's models of psychotherapy specific for DBP the authors identify substantially overlapping objectives and modalities of intervention. In particular, therapists should take care of patient safety, maintain boundaries of therapeutic setting and promote the development of psychotherapeutic process. The aim of this article is to analyze the main critical factors affecting psychotherapeutic process in patients with BPD. Objectives and priorities that therapist should consider to address these issues will be discussed. We will also try to make clear why interpersonal psychotherapy adapted to DBP can represent one of the therapeutic models that may be useful to manage and resolve these difficulties. PMID:27030345
Since the 1990s several research projects and empirical studies (process and outcome) on Jungian Psychotherapy have been conducted mainly in Germany and Switzerland. Prospective, naturalistic outcome studies and retrospective studies using standardized instruments and health insurance data as well as several qualitative studies of aspects of the psychotherapeutic process will be summarized. The studies are diligently designed and the results are well applicable to the conditions of outpatient practice. All the studies show significant improvements not only on the level of symptoms and interpersonal problems, but also on the level of personality structure and in every day life conduct. These improvements remain stable after completion of therapy over a period of up to six years. Several studies show further improvements after the end of therapy, an effect which psychoanalysis has always claimed. Health insurance data show that, after Jungian therapy, patients reduce health care utilization to a level even below the average of the total population. Results of several studies show that Jungian treatment moves patients from a level of severe symptoms to a level where one can speak of psychological health. These significant changes are reached by Jungian therapy with an average of 90 sessions, which makes Jungian psychotherapy an effective and cost-effective method. Process studies support Jungian theories on psychodynamics and elements of change in the therapeutic process. So finally, Jungian psychotherapy has reached the point where it can be called an empirically proven, effective method. PMID:25379256
Hapkiewicz, Walter G.; Roden, Aubrey H.
Sixty second grade children were randomly assigned to same sex pairs and each pair was randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: aggressive cartoon, nonaggressive cartoon, and no cartoon. Results indicated that there was no difference among the groups on measures of interpersonal aggression although boys exhibited significantly more…
Ferro García, Rafael; Valero Aguayo, Luis; López Bermúdez, Miguel A
Functional Analytic Psychotherapy is based on the principles of radical behaviourism. It emphasises the impact of events occurring during therapeutic sessions, the therapist-client interaction context, functional equivalence of environments, natural reinforcement, and shaping by the therapist. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy makes use of both the basic principles of behaviour analysis: individual functional assessment and application of in vivo treatment. This paper analyses novelties and new contributions of this therapy. New contributions are classified in various categories: integration with other psychotherapies, improvement of therapeutic skills, methods for evaluation and data recording in therapy, its application to several clinical problems, and studies of its efficacy. PMID:17617985
Goldberg, David A.
A multiaxial model that structures educational goals for psychodynamic psychotherapy has been developed. It specifies core aspects of psychodynamic psychotherapy, clusters them in categories that further define and link related areas, and presents a sequence that enables educators and students to focus on training goals in a consistent progression. This model has been used by the Director of Education as a basis for developing the curriculum, by students as a way of focusing learning and giving perspective to current work, and by supervisors to link individual teaching to the goals of the training program. This method has enhanced consistency, clarity, and efficiency in the psychotherapy program. PMID:9407472
Linden, David E J
The development of psychotherapy has been based on psychological theories and clinical effects. However, an investigation of the neurobiological mechanisms of psychological interventions is also needed in order to improve indication and prognosis, inform the choice of parallel pharmacotherapy, provide outcome measures and potentially even aid the development of new treatment protocols. This neurobiological investigation can be informed by animal models, for example of learning and conditioning, but will essentially need the non-invasive techniques of functional neuroimaging in order to assess psychotherapy effects on patients' brains, which will be reviewed here. Most research so far has been conducted in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety disorders and depression. Effects in OCD were particularly exciting in that both cognitive behavioural therapy and medication with a selective serotonin inhibitor led to a reduction in blood flow in the caudate nucleus. In phobia, brief courses of behavioural therapy produced marked reductions of paralimbic responses to offensive stimuli in line with the clinical improvement. Findings in depression are less consistent, with both increases and decreases in prefrontal metabolism being reported. However, they are important in pointing to different mechanisms for the clinical effects of pharmacotherapy (more "bottom up") and psychotherapy (more "top down"). For the future it would be desirable if the findings of psychotherapy changes to brain activation patterns were confirmed in larger groups with homogenous imaging protocols. Functional imaging has already made great contributions to the understanding of the neural correlates of psychopathology. For example, evidence converges to suggest that the subgenual cingulate is crucial for mood regulation. One current clinical application of these findings is deep brain stimulation in areas highlighted by such imaging studies. I will discuss their initial application in depression
Harman, Marsha J.
Presents recent investigations and reports related to group psychotherapy in cancer patients' treatment. Describes primary characteristics and results of studies examining evidence of therapeutic factors, psychosocial support groups, women's adjustment to mastectomies, training in stress management and coping skills, pain and mood disturbance, and…
Dowell, Kathy A.; Ogles, Benjamin M.
Forty-eight child psychotherapy outcome studies offering direct comparisons of an individual child treatment group to a combined parent-child/family therapy treatment group were included in this meta-analytic review. Results indicate that combined treatments produced a moderate effect beyond the outcomes achieved by individual child treatments,…
A review of the historical trends in LSD research clearly indicates that LSD and similar drugs are too powerful and unique in their psychological effects to be mistaken for and studied as just another group of psychotropic compounds. The importance of the theoretical understanding and expectations of the researchers in determining the subjective effects and results of LSD treatment is undeniable. In addition, double-blind controlled studies have been demonstrated to be an inappropriate methodology for studying LSD, because it is not feasible to create an effective blind for LSD with either an active or inactive placebo. It must be realized that when attempting to scientifically study such ephemeral and easily influenced processes as those involving human consciousness, methods of study may influence the process and outcome of the research. In 1937 Werner Heisenberg demonstrated the uncertainty principle in relation to any attempt to measure with accuracy the minute processes of electrons in the atom. One must consider the possibility that current tools and methods for studying the effects of LSD are presently so crude as to demonstrate a similar uncertainty principle in LSD research: The methods of measuring actually influence the process under study to such a degree that the results that are garnered are primarily the effects of attempts at measurement. The continuing crisis in psychiatric and psychological treatment demands that the most powerful of the psychoactive drugs cannot simply be shelved and forgotten. The need is too strong to advance knowledge of the role and function of the human mind in health and disease. LSD and similar drugs hold a tremendous promise for humankind if only ways can be found to further understanding of how to use them responsibly and appropriately. Perhaps other societies that have integrated these substances into the very fabric of their social order may offer models. As Silberman (1970) has written: "No approach is more
Alfonsson, Sven; Parling, Thomas; Ghaderi, Ata
The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa. PMID:25268019
The institutionalization of the subject of psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy at German universities has been implicated by the Approbationsordnung of 1970. Since then, this topic is a compulsory subject for medical students. This allowed the creation of a nearly complete covering supply of the teaching demands by various teaching organization forms, as interview groups and students' Balint groups. A study questioning 158 medical students at the Medical Faculty of the University of Bonn showed how this topic was assessed and accepted. The ambition of the students was to have an instruction focusing on more practical aspects and a more powerful consideration of psychosomatic aspects in the curriculum of the medical faculty. Finally, a short overview will be given on the postgraduate training of physicians as well as on the implications of psychosomatics in general health care. Also several aspects to the subtitle psychosomatics and psychotherapy as well as to the title psychotherapy in general medicine are given. PMID:7892672
Ceballos, Angela Milena Gomez; Andrade, Ana Claudia; Markowitz, Talia; Verdeli, Helen
Interpersonal counseling (IPC), a briefer and simplified adaptation of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), was used with internally displaced women (IDW) in Bogotá, Colombia, an implementation study of a mental health care pathway funded by Grand Challenges Canada. Preliminary evidence suggests that IPC led to positive outcomes for IDW and may be a feasible first line treatment for displaced women with elevated symptoms of common mental disorders. The case study demonstrates the use of IPC as an intervention to treat depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms in one participant across 11 sessions, from the case formulation through the termination phase. PMID:27467690
This paper examines the world of psychotherapy by applying a systemic and psychodynamic understanding of the family business as a way of understanding the dilemmas and challenges of leadership succession. Oedipal factors are explored as an important theme within the succession process. This exploration is set within the context of what function psychotherapy has performed in society over the last thirty years. The hypothesis is that the first generation of leaders aimed to provide containment for the individual citizen at a time of failed dependency in society. The suggestion is that this gave way to the primary task for the second generation, which has been to focus on the therapist in training. The challenge for the third generation is to develop a meaningful role for psychotherapy today and to ensure survival at a time when other shorter therapies such as CBT are gaining ascendancy over longer term psychoanalytic psychotherapy. PMID:19012582
Bemak, Fred; Chung, Rita Chi-Ying
Reviews the literature on Amerasians and offers suggestions for directions in psychotherapy. Provides a brief chronology of Amerasian emigration and associated psychological issues, followed by a discussion of myths and generalizations about Amerasians, research findings, and adjustment issues. (RJM)
Increasingly the philosophical discipline of hermeneutics is being applied to a systematic study of the human sciences. Yet a hermeneutic approach to psychotherapy has barely been considered. In this paper, the possible significance of a hermeneutic approach to the field of child psychotherapy is explored. Despite the fundamental differences between the two disciplines, both are faced with the task of understanding and interpreting the meaning of human expressions through words and images. Both encounter texts that call for deciphering. The author focuses first on the central concepts of experience, understanding and interpretation which lie at the heart of both disciplines. Subsequently, a hermeneutic approach to the expressions of experience in the form of child play and narratives is explored and some implications for child psychotherapy are drawn. Finally, a possible hermeneutic approach towards child psychotherapy is discussed. PMID:1958654
Ball, Samuel A; Cobb-Richardson, Patricia; Connolly, Adrian J; Bujosa, Cesar T; O'neall, Thomas W
This study evaluated the psychiatric symptoms, psychosocial problems, and treatment response of personality-disordered substance abusers receiving services within a homeless drop-in center. Fifty-two homeless clients were assessed after program admission and randomly assigned to receive either individual psychotherapy focused on personality disorder and substance abuse relapse prevention (dual-focus schema therapy [DFST]) or standard group substance abuse counseling (SAC). Client functioning was assessed using measures of personality disorder, psychiatric symptoms, early maladaptive schemas, interpersonal problems, and addiction-related psychosocial impairment. Therapy retention (total weeks in treatment) and utilization (number of weeks in which sessions were attended) were the primary outcomes. Although rates of cluster B personality disorders were comparable to other substance dependent samples, clusters A and C disorders were disproportionately more common. Clients reported significant psychiatric symptoms, criminality, and psychosocial impairment, yet made limited lifetime use of mental health services. Overall, there was greater utilization of individual DFST than group SAC. However, clients with more severe personality disorder symptoms demonstrated better utilization of SAC than DFST. PMID:16122538
Kalyva, Efrosini; Agaliotis, Ioannis
Since many children with learning disabilities (LD) face interpersonal conflict resolution problems, this study examines the efficacy of social stories in helping them choose more appropriate interpersonal conflict resolution strategies. A social story was recorded and played to the 31 children with LD in the experimental group twice a week for a…
Lewis, Marilyn W.; Cavanagh, Paul K.; Ahn, Grace; Yoshioka, Marianne R.
Prior history of trauma may sensitize individuals to subsequent trauma, including terrorist attacks. Using a convenience sample of secondary, cross-sectional data, pregnant women were grouped based on lifetime interpersonal violence history. Cumulative risk theory was used to evaluate the association of lifetime interpersonal violence history and…
Kubey, Robert W.; Peluso, Thea
Describes a diffusion study that examined how a group of college students learned about the explosion of the Space Shuttle Challenger, and how they employed interpersonal exchanges and the media to cope with the news. The relationship between mass and interpersonal communication is discussed, and future studies are suggested. (19 references) (LRW)
Psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective as an approach to understanding the psychological conflicts and the psychiatric symptoms of cancer patients as well as to planning useful psychological interventions. The author recommends that the psychotherapist who treats cancer patients be familiar with the following: 1) the natural course and treatment of the illness, 2) a flexible approach in accord with the medical status of the patient, 3) a common sense approach to defenses, 4) a concern with quality-of-life issues, and 5) counter- transference issues as they relate to the treatment of very sick patients. Case reports illustrate the unique problems facing psychotherapists who are treating cancer patients. Further, these cases show the effective use of psychodynamic principles to inform the therapist of successful psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:9407471
There are many special issues that therapists will face while providing psychotherapy services for victims of violence. The primary goal of such intervention must be to reempower the victim so that she perceives herself as the survivor she must become. To do this, she has to deal with the trauma, integrate it into her past, and then, get on with her life. Various problems could occur during custody evaluations, forensic consultations and media exposure. Monitoring confidentiality issues when working with this kind of victims may be crucial to prevent placing them in any further danger. Given the special vulnerability of violence victims, it is essential for the therapist to act in an ethical manner at all times. PMID:15887615
There does not as yet exist a clearly unifying concept of brief psychotherapy with children. Various forms of shortened treatment have been reported as successful. The technique described in this paper is a form of individual therapy based on psychoanalytic principles, especially those of ego psychology. It is primarily recommended for children who have suffered a real of symbolic object loss. Distinctive features include the early definition of a focus, a predetermined time limit, and careful attention to termination issues. The goals are relatively ambitious. When successful the therapy results in persistent psychodynamic changes. Case examples are used to illustrate how these positive results may occur through the medium of identification with the therapist, which permits a resolution or lessening of ambivalent dependence. This in turn allows the treatment experience to act as a model for future relationships with limited givers. PMID:7158671
Zepf, Siegfried; Mengele, Ute; Hartmann, Sebastian
This paper presents the results of a study of the state of adult outpatient psychotherapy in Germany after the PTG came into force. 1042 psychotherapists were questioned on certain issues. One result was that patients have to wait 4.6 months for psychotherapy and that every second patient asking for a diagnostic interview and possible treatment was refused. Of those who were given a diagnostic interview 35 % were not taken into treatment, although disturbances were diagnosed--such as tinnitus, pain, organic disturbances with psychic complications, suicidal tendencies, anorexia nervosa, addiction, psychosomatic illnesses, personality disorders, psychotic disorders--would normally demand psychotherapeutic treatment. Furthermore only 56 % of those patients who Löcherbach et al. considered needing and wanting psychotherapeutic treatment were actually in a G IV psychotherapy. Apart from this the possibility of getting psychotherapy as well as the kind of psychotherapy proved to be dependent on the kind of medical insurance. Different payments by the insurance companies caused longer waiting times for patients and determined the choice of psychotherapy by the psychotherapists. PMID:12649759
Eder, Kelly C.; Whiston, Susan C.
This article provides a brief overview of the outcome research on psychotherapy with children and adolescents. Outcome research indicates that psychotherapy can be effective with both children and adolescents, with meta-analyses indicating that youth who participated in this type of intervention tended to score on the outcome measures half of a…
Mattenklodt, P; Leonhardt, C
Systematic reviews of psychosocial assessment and effectiveness of psychotherapy for chronic pain syndromes in older patients are rare. However, it is of particular importance to consider the psychosocial aspects of elderly people with chronic pain. This narrative review describes recommended German-language assessments of the psychosocial dimensions of pain and summarizes existing studies of psychological therapy approaches for chronic pain in old age. Effective psychometric instruments are available for the assessment of cognitive function, pain-specific attitudes, depression, fear of falling, interpersonal processes and social activities, pain management, pain acceptance, disability, psychological well-being, and quality of life. Further experience with the use of these instruments with cognitively impaired or geriatric patients is required. The efficacy of age-adapted cognitive behavioral therapy and multimodal therapy for older patients has been documented. However, there is often a lack of supporting documentation about important result parameters (e.g., quality of life, functioning in everyday life, or pain acceptance). Overall, chronic pain in elderly people requires a biopsychosocial-spiritual model of pain. More attention should be given in research and daily practice to religiosity/spirituality as a possible means of coping, while mindfulness- and acceptance-based therapies should be further explored. PMID:26024645
Collado, Anahí; Lim, Aaron C; MacPherson, Laura
For decades, the literature has reported persistent treatment disparities among depressed Latinos. Fortunately, treatment development and evaluation in this underserved population has expanded in recent years. This review summarizes outcomes across 36 unique depression treatment studies that reported treatment outcomes for Latinos. Results indicated that there was significant variability in the quality of RCT and type/number of cultural adaptations. The review suggested that there might a relation between cultural adaptations with treatment outcomes; future studies are warranted to confirm this association. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy was the most evaluated treatment (CBT; n=18, 50% of all evaluations), followed by Problem Solving Therapy (PST; n=4), Interpersonal Therapy (IPT; n=4), and Behavioral Activation (BA; n=3). CBT seems to fare better when compared to usual care, but not when compared to a contact-time matched control condition or active treatment. There is growing support for PST and IPT as efficacious depression interventions among Latinos. IPT shows particularly positive results for perinatal depression. BA warrants additional examination in RCT. Although scarce, telephone and in-home counseling have shown efficacy in reducing depression and increasing retention. Promotora-assisted trials require formal assessment. Limitations and future directions of the depression psychotherapy research among Latinos are discussed. PMID:27113679
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and interpersonal cognitive distortions. Participants were 338 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale were used. The relationships between self-compassion and interpersonal cognitive distortions…
Simon, Sarah; Cain, Nicole M; Wallner Samstag, Lisa; Meehan, Kevin B; Muran, J Christopher
The context-free diagnoses outlined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders might not provide enough information to represent the heterogeneity observed in depressed patients. Interpersonal factors have been linked to depression in a mutually influencing pathoplastic relationship where certain problems, like submissiveness, are related to symptom chronicity. This study evaluated interpersonal pathoplasticity in a range of depressive presentations. We examined archival data collected from 407 participants who met criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD), dysthymic disorder (DD), or subthreshold depression (sD). Latent profile analysis (LPA) identified 5 interpersonal subtypes (vindictive, intrusive, socially avoidant, exploitable, and cold). Apart from gender, the subtypes did not differ significantly on demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, or self-report depression severity. Socially avoidant participants were more likely to meet criteria for a clinical depression diagnosis (MDD or DD), whereas vindictive participants were more likely to have sD. Our results indicate that interpersonal problems could account for heterogeneity observed in depression. PMID:25803309
Street, Richard L., Jr.; Murphy, Thomas L.
Indicates that (1) males with low interpersonal orientation (IO) were least vocally active and expressive and least consistent in their speech performances, and (2) high IO males and low IO females tended to demonstrate greater speech convergence than either low IO males or high IO females. (JD)
Wiemann, John M.; Krueger, Dorothy Lenk
The ways in which people described their own interpersonal relationships were examined along the universally acknowledged relational dimensions control and affiliation. A total of 216 undergraduate communication students wrote about one of three types of relationships they had: best liked friend of the opposite sex, (60), best liked friend of the…
Anderson, Craig A.
Research has shown that attributing failure to lack of ability leads to lower motivation than does attributing the failure to lack of effort. An attributional model of motivation and performance following failure was tested with college students (N=63), who were preselected on the basis of their attributional styles for interpersonal failures, as…
Educators are continuously faced with a wide range of communication challenges. Only by self-examining one's own approaches to interpersonal communication and being willing to improve can one put better communication to work in meeting those challenges--whether they are part of one's personal or professional life. Four principles are addressed…
McCallum, Debra Moehle; And Others
Interpersonal power has been defined as the ability of an agent to alter the behavior of a target through means-control, attractiveness, and credibility. To identify and delineate situations of influence in personal relationships, undergraduate students either wrote influence descriptions (N=96), made similarity judgments on the original 96…
Deane, Nancy; Hovland, Michael
Practical advice is offered, to managers and supervisors at any level, on recognizing and analyzing interpersonal conflicts, managing such conflicts and making them productive, and ensuring that performance reviews result in progress for both supervisor and employee. Conflict is seen as inevitable, an opportunity to take action, and manageable.…
Locke, K D
Three studies describe the development, psychometric properties, and potential utility of a new self-report measure, the Circumplex Scales of Interpersonal Values (CSIV). The CSIV was designed to complement other interpersonal circumplex measures that assess interpersonal behavior by efficiently assessing a comprehensive set of agentic and communal values. The eight 8-item scales of the CSIV were shown to have good internal consistency and test-retest reliability and a circumplex structure. The CSIV showed convergent and discriminant validity with measures of interpersonal traits (the Bem Sex Role Inventory; Bem, 1974), interpersonal problems (the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex; Horowitz, 2000), implicit interpersonal motives (the Thematic Apperception Test; see Atkinson, 1958), and interpersonal goals (the Interpersonal Goals Inventory; Dryer & Horowitz, 1997). Finally, the locations of the MCMI-III (Millon, 1994) personality disorder scales on the CSIV circumplex generally mirrored the locations of personality disorders on other interpersonal circumplex measures. PMID:11020143
The founding Editor of Psychotherapy offers some recollections of how the journal Psychotherapy came into being, and also provides a larger professional context for this event in the American Psychological Association at that time. PMID:24295453
Mandracchia, Jon T.; Smith, Phillip N.
The interpersonal theory of suicide proposes that severe suicidal ideation is caused by the combination of thwarted belongingness (TB) and perceived burdensomeness (PB), yet few studies have actually examined their interaction. Further, no studies have examined this proposal in male prisoners, a particularly at-risk group. To address this gap, the current study surveyed 399 male prisoners. TB and PB interacted to predict suicidal ideation while controlling for depression and hopelessness. High levels of both TB and PB were associated with more severe suicidal ideation. The interpersonal theory may aid in the detection, prevention, and treatment of suicide risk in prisoners. PMID:25312533
Mandracchia, Jon T; Smith, Phillip N
The interpersonal theory of suicide proposes that severe suicide ideation is caused by the combination of thwarted belongingness (TB) and perceived burdensomeness (PB), yet few studies have actually examined their interaction. Further, no studies have examined this proposal in male prisoners, a particularly at-risk group. To address this gap, the current study surveyed 399 male prisoners. TB and PB interacted to predict suicide ideation while controlling for depression and hopelessness. High levels of both TB and PB were associated with more severe suicide ideation. The interpersonal theory may aid in the detection, prevention, and treatment of suicide risk in prisoners. PMID:25312533
Ferguson, Merideth; Barry, Bruce
Using social information processing theory, we explore how interpersonally directed deviance affects work group members who observe or are aware of these insidious behaviors. In a field study, we find that indirect knowledge of work group member interpersonal deviance leads to subsequent interpersonal deviance of a focal individual. We also find that when work group cohesion is high, direct observation of deviance is more likely to result in subsequent bystander deviance. These findings add concretely to theory and research on the bystander effects of workplace deviance. PMID:21280946
Eckloff, Maurine C.; Petelle, John
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive abstractness levels, interpersonal perception abilities, and task type (factual or social problem solving) on group performance as measured by time consumed and adequacy of solutions. Eighteen college classes from Kearney State College participated in testing of perceptual…
Critelli, Joseph W.; Neumann, Karl F.
Examined the extent to which subjects disclosed positive and negative trait information to each of three friends in the course of their relationships. Self-disclosure and feedback grouped themselves as suggested by Leary's model of interpersonal behavior, indicating that relationships are characterized more by affiliative than by dominant…
Kaplan, Betty Ann; Venza, James
The Parent-Child Psychotherapy Program (PPP) is a multifamily group therapy intervention for parents and young children at high risk for intergenerational patterns of neglect, abuse, and disorganized attachment. A "developmental and experiential model" that incorporates principles of attachment theory, the PPP addresses parent and child needs…
Monti, Fiorella; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Ricci Bitti, Pio Enrico
This work aimed to evaluate the short-term effectiveness of psychotherapy delivered at the counselling service of the University of Bologna (Italy), by means of a single group longitudinal study including a 6-months follow-up. To this end, sixty-six students completed the 6-months follow-up and filled in the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ) three times,…
Baskin, Thomas W.; Slaten, Christopher D.; Crosby, Nicole R.; Pufahl, Tiffany; Schneller, Cali L.; Ladell, Monica
This study investigated the efficacy of counseling and psychotherapy interventions for youth in schools. Data were examined for 107 studies that included 132 treatment interventions. Overall efficacy was d = 0.45 and was significantly different from zero. Interventions for adolescents outperformed those of children, treatment groups that were…
Ottens, Allen J.; Klein, James F.
The authors show how theoretical and empirical findings from the common factors and psychotherapy integration literatures possess potential for infusing soul into psychotherapy. They describe the term soul, outline how the definition translates into soul-nurturing psychotherapy, examine the common factors and integration literatures, and discuss…
Comunian, Anna Laura
According to Duke and Newicki, the distance maintained by a subject towards an approach stimulus is closely related to the internal structures of his personality. The test puts the subject's projective personality and the perception that the group has of the subject into relief. Duke and Newiski's "Comfortable Interpersonal Distance" (C.I.D.) was…
Clemens, Norman A; Plakun, Eric M; Lazar, Susan G; Mellman, Lisa
Though psychiatric residents are expected to be competent psychotherapists on graduation, further growth in skill and versatility requires continued experience in their ongoing career. Maturity as a psychotherapist is essential because a psychiatrist is the only mental health provider who, as a physician, can assume full responsibility for biopsychosocial patient care and roles as supervisor, consultant, and team leader. Graduating residents face an environment in which surveys show a steady and alarming decline in practice of psychotherapy by psychiatrists, along with a decline in job satisfaction. High educational debts, practice structures, intrusive management, and reimbursement policies that devalue psychotherapy discourage early career psychiatrists from a practice style that enables providing it. For the early-career psychiatrist there is thus the serious risk of being unable to develop a critical mass of experience or a secure identity as a psychiatric psychotherapist. Implementation of parity laws and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will affect the situation in unpredictable ways that call for vigilance and active response. Additional service and administrative demands may result from the ACA, creating ethical dilemmas about meeting urgent patient needs versus biopsychosocial standards of care. The authors recommend 1) vigorous advocacy for better payment levels for psychotherapy and freedom from disruptive management; 2) aggressive action against violations of the parity act, 3) active preparation of psychiatric residents for dealing with career choices and the environment for providing psychotherapy in their practice, and 4) post-graduate training in psychotherapy through supervision/consultation, continuing education courses, computer instruction, and distance learning. PMID:25211434
Hook, Joshua N; Watkins, C Edward; Davis, Don E; Owen, Jesse; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Ramos, Marciana J
As a core component of multicultural orientation, cultural humility can be considered an important attitude for clinical supervisees to adopt and practically implement. How can cultural humility be most meaningfully incorporated in supervision? In what ways can supervisors stimulate the development of a culturally humble attitude in our supervisees? We consider those questions in this paper and present a model for addressing cultural humility in clinical supervision. The primary focus is given to two areas: (a) modeling and teaching of cultural humility through interpersonal interactions in supervision, and (b) teaching cultural humility through outside activities and experiences. Two case studies illustrating the model are presented, and a research agenda for work in this area is outlined. PMID:27329404
Dawood, Sindes; Thomas, Katherine M.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.
This study extended previous theory and research on interpersonal heterogeneity in depression by identifying groups of depressed young adults who differ in their type and degree of interpersonal problems, and by examining patterns of pathological personality traits and alcohol abuse among these groups. We examined the interpersonal problems, personality traits, and alcohol-related problems of 172 college students with at least moderate levels of self-reported depression on the Patient Health Questionnaire (Spitzer, Kroenke, & Williams, 1999). Scores from the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems – Short Circumplex (Soldz, Budman, Demby, & Merry, 1995) were subjected to latent profile analysis, which classified individuals into five distinct groups defined by the types of interpersonal problems they experience (dominant, warm, submissive, cold, and undifferentiated). As hypothesized, groups did not differ in depression severity, but did show predicted patterns of differences on normative and maladaptive personality traits, as well as alcohol-related problems. The presence of clinically meaningful interpersonal heterogeneity in depression may have important implications for designing more individualized treatments and prevention efforts for depression that target diverse associated interpersonal problems. PMID:23560433
Lenze, Shannon N.; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Anderson, Barbara; Frank, Ellen
Although much research has focused on the role of severe life events as risk factors for depression onset, less is known about the relationship between nonsevere life events and depression recurrence. The current study examined the cumulative effects of nonsevere and positive life events on depression recurrence in an outpatient sample of…
Kilmann, Peter R; Finch, Holmes; Parnell, Michele M; Downer, Jason T
This study investigated partner attachment and interpersonal characteristics in 134 nonclinical couples in long-term marriages. Irrespective of gender, spouses with greater anxiety over abandonment or discomfort with closeness endorsed dysfunctional relationship beliefs to a greater extent. On the anxiety over abandonment dimension, husbands with higher scores were rated less aggressive, less controlling, and more rebellious, whereas wives with higher scores were rated more dependent, more self-critical, and less competitive. Husbands higher on discomfort with closeness were rated less cooperative and responsible and were rated more aggressive and rebellious. Matched secure couples reported lower marital dissatisfaction than matched insecure or mismatched couples. Future research should contrast samples of nonclinical and clinical couples by marital duration to identify specific partner behaviors that are likely to foster marital dissatisfaction within particular attachment pairings. The authors' findings suggest the importance of marital therapists being attuned to the attachment-related beliefs and interpersonal styles uniquely operating within each couple. PMID:23252639
Murstein, B I; Hadjolian, S E
Concluding from our survey of the literature that fingertip auras (Kirlian effect) might be associated with interpersonal attraction, four hypotheses were advanced to test this assertion. It was hypothesized that individuals would respond with bigger auras to (1) opposite-sex photographers as compared to same-sex photographers, (2) to seductive opposite-sex photographers as opposed to normally behaving opposite-sex photographers, (3) to opposite-sex unknown peers as opposed to same-sex unknown peers, and (4) to liked as opposed to disliked same-sex persons. All hypotheses except (2) were supported. The second hypothesis was significant in a direction contrary to hypothesis. Fingertip auras are seen as a promising measurement device in the study of interpersonal attraction. PMID:16367230
Baxter, Carol; Clark, Thomas D.
Through the use of student involvement in classroom committees, they participate in decision-making, practice interpersonal communication skills, small group interactive skills, and planning and coordinating skills. (HOD)
Lotterman, Andrew C
The paper describes how standard psychotherapy techniques need to be modified to suit the specialized needs of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Patients with psychosis often have lost their ability to use words to describe their inner states. As a result, traditional forms of psychotherapy which depend so crucially on the use of language are compromised. The goal of treatment at the start is to help the patient recover his ability to use language to describe his inner life. Eventually, this enables the patient to make use of more traditional forms of psychodynamic treatment. PMID:27052606
Lipsitz, Joshua D.; Markowitz, John C.
Although interpersonal therapy (IPT) has demonstrated efficacy for mood and other disorders, little is known about how IPT works. We present interpersonal change mechanisms that we hypothesize account for symptom change in IPT. IPT’s interpersonal model integrates both relational theory, building on work by Sullivan, Bowlby, and others, and insights based on research findings regarding stress, social support, and illness to highlight contextual factors thought to precipitate and maintain psychiatric disorders. IPT frames therapy around a central interpersonal problem in the patient’s life, a current crisis or relational predicament that is disrupting social support and increasing interpersonal stress. By mobilizing and working collaboratively with the patient to resolve (better manage or negotiate) this problem, IPT seeks to activate several interpersonal change mechanisms. These include: 1) enhancing social support, 2) decreasing interpersonal stress, 3) facilitating emotional processing, and 4) improving interpersonal skills. We hope that articulating these mechanisms will help therapists to formulate cases and better maintain focus within an IPT framework. We propose interpersonal mechanisms that might explain how IPT’s interpersonal focus leads to symptom change. Future work needs to specify and test candidate mediators in clinical trials of IPT. We anticipate that pursuing this more systematic strategy will lead to important refinements and improvements in IPT and enhance its application in a range of clinical populations. PMID:24100081
Malmberg, Lena; Fenton, Mark; Rathbone, John
Background People with schizophrenia and severe mental illness may require considerable support from health care professionals, in most cases over a long period of time. Research on the effects of psychotherapy for schizophrenia has shown mixed results. Although pharmacological interventions remain the treatment of choice, the effects of treatments focusing on psychosocial factors affecting schizophrenia are important. Objectives To review the effects of psychodynamic psychotherapy, psychoanalysis, or both, for people with schizophrenia or severe mental illness. Search methods For the updated review, we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (June 2008) which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. Selection criteria We sought all randomised trials of individual psychodynamic psychotherapy or psychoanalysis for people with schizophrenia or severe mental illness. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis using a fixed-effect model. We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) and weighted mean differences (WMD) using a fixed-effect model. Main results We included four randomised trials (total 528 participants, 5 comparisons). All used a psychodynamic approach and reported limited data. For individual psychodynamic therapy versus medication alone we found significantly more participants in the therapy group were unable to be discharged (n=92, RR 8.35 CI 2.0 to 34.3, NNH 3 CI 2 to 6). We found no significant difference between groups in the number of participants who were re-hospitalised (n=24, RR 0.63 CI 0.3 to 1.4) during long-term analyses. At 12 months, fewer participants in the psychotherapy groups needed additional medications compared with those who did receive
Müller, Mario; Forstmeier, Simon; Wagner, Birgit; Maercker, Andreas
Stress response syndromes like adjustment disorders or complicated grief are assumed to be shaped by social-cultural factors in addition to biological and psychological factors. In previous research, value orientations and interpersonal factors were found to jointly predict those syndromes (Maercker, A., Mohiyeddini, C., Müller, M., Xie, W., Hui Yang, Z., Wang, J., & Müller, J. ( 2009 ). Traditional versus modern values, self-perceived interpersonal factors, and posttraumatic stress in Chinese and German crime victims. Psychology and Psychotherapy, 82(Pt 2), 219-232.). In addition to the previous finding, the current study using Swiss elderly (65-97 years) aimed to replicate patterns of predictors leading to stress responses in people with recent bereavement or severe life events. Traditional (conformity, tradition and benevolence) and modern values (stimulation, hedonism and achievement) and two self-perceived interpersonal mediator processes (disclosure intentions and social acknowledgement as a victim) were assessed. The current study confirms the previous model in parts, that is, the indirect path from social acknowledgment to stress response syndrome is mediated by disclosure intentions. Traditional values and not modern values explained substantial variance for disclosure intentions and are therefore indirectly linked to worse mental health outcomes whereas the direct association appears somewhat controversial in light of previous findings. PMID:21678201
Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Westen, Drew
Data from naturalistic samples provide an important complement to findings from randomized trials of psychotherapy. A random national sample of US clinicians provided data on 145 completed treatments of patients with bulimic symptoms. We attempted to characterize the nature of treatments in the community and to examine the relation between treatment variables and outcome. Clinicians of all theoretical orientations report using interventions with polysymptomatic cases designed to address clinically significant personality characteristics and interpersonal patterns. Whereas cognitive-behavioral therapy is associated with more rapid remission of eating symptoms, psychodynamic interventions and increased treatment length predict better global outcome across treatment modalities, suggesting the importance of integrative treatments for the broad range of pathology seen in patients with bulimic symptoms. PMID:16131941
Gelo, Omar Carlo Gioacchino; Salvatore, Sergio
Notwithstanding the many methodological advances made in the field of psychotherapy research, at present a metatheoretical, school-independent framework to explain psychotherapy change processes taking into account their dynamic and complex nature is still lacking. Over the last years, several authors have suggested that a dynamic systems (DS) approach might provide such a framework. In the present paper, we review the main characteristics of a DS approach to psychotherapy. After an overview of the general principles of the DS approach, we describe the extent to which psychotherapy can be considered as a self-organizing open complex system, whose developmental change processes are described in terms of a dialectic dynamics between stability and change over time. Empirical evidence in support of this conceptualization is provided and discussed. Finally, we propose a research design strategy for the empirical investigation of psychotherapy from a DS approach, together with a research case example. We conclude that a DS approach may provide a metatheoretical, school-independent framework allowing us to constructively rethink and enhance the way we conceptualize and empirically investigate psychotherapy. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27177027
Tasca, Giorgio A; Sylvestre, John; Balfour, Louise; Chyurlia, Livia; Evans, Jane; Fortin-Langelier, Benjamin; Francis, Kylie; Gandhi, Jasmine; Huehn, Linda; Hunsley, John; Joyce, Anthony S; Kinley, Jackie; Koszycki, Diana; Leszcz, Molyn; Lybanon-Daigle, Vanessa; Mercer, Deanna; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Presniak, Michelle; Ravitz, Paula; Ritchie, Kerri; Talbot, Jeanne; Wilson, Brian
Practice research networks may be one way of advancing knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) in psychotherapy. In this study, we document this process by first asking clinicians what they want from psychotherapy research. Eighty-two psychotherapists in 10 focus groups identified and discussed psychotherapy research topics relevant to their practices. An analysis of these discussions led to the development of 41 survey items. In an online survey, 1,019 participants, mostly practicing clinicians, rated the importance to their clinical work of these 41 psychotherapy research topics. Ratings were reduced using a principal components analysis in which 9 psychotherapy research themes emerged, accounting for 60.66% of the variance. Two postsurvey focus groups of clinicians (N = 22) aided in interpreting the findings. The ranking of research themes from most to least important were-Therapeutic Relationship/Mechanisms of Change, Therapist Factors, Training and Professional Development, Client Factors, Barriers and Stigma, Technology and Adjunctive Interventions, Progress Monitoring, Matching Clients to Therapist or Therapy, and Treatment Manuals. Few differences were noted in rankings based on participant age or primary therapeutic orientation. Postsurvey focus group participants were not surprised by the top-rated items, as they were considered most proximal and relevant to therapists and their work with clients during therapy sessions. Lower ranked items may be perceived as externally imposed agendas on the therapist and therapy. We discuss practice research networks as a means of creating new collaborations consistent with KTE goals. Findings of this study can help to direct practitioner-researcher collaborations. PMID:25528356
Huffman, David D.; Fernando, Delini M.
Group work literature acknowledges that the group co-leader relationship influences the development of group members and the group as a whole. However, little direction has been offered for supervisors of group co-leaders to facilitate the development of the co-leader relationship. Reis and Shaver's (1988) interpersonal process model of intimacy…
Manssour, Ana Beatriz Benites
Man and work histories are interlaced to tell us how the interaction among different human groups have helped in the development of intellectual capacities of our species. Creativity is mostly seen as a gift or an individual quality, for whose bloom and exercise there are internal and external factors, understood as stimulants of the creative process. Research for a master's thesis had, as its principal aim, the analysis of the subjective impact of telework on the workers personal satisfaction. Our second category authenticates the importance of interpersonal communication among fellow workers as incentive to personal creativity. The study was developed with columnists of a great newspaper with a big circulation in the south of Brazil, because telework is a tool of the press media, and creativity is a requirement for journalistic employment. PMID:12650562
Geuens, Nina; Leemans, Annemie; Bogaerts, Annick; Van Bogaert, Peter; Franck, Erik
Organisational and work-related challenges faced by midwives make them vulnerable to burnout, but individual factors, such as interpersonal behaviour, can also contribute. A study in eight hospitals in the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium investigated the prevalence of burnout among Flemish midwives, assessed their interpersonal behaviour, and explored the relationship between interpersonal behaviour, burnout, job satisfaction and intention to leave. This article describes the study and reports the findings. PMID:26602486
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. Mascaro and Graves (1973) argued that a contrast effect on perception of similarity mediated interpersonal attraction. In the present experiment, it was hypothesized that topic familiarity moderated the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. One hundred twenty-two (122) female students were randomly assigned to four groups, formed by two levels of topic familiarity and two levels of similarity for the background stimulus person. They saw the attitudes of two stimulus persons together, and were asked to rate perceived similarity and interpersonal attraction. Results showed that in familiar topic condition, contrast effect was not found for attitude similarity judgement, but it was found for interpersonal attraction. The finding suggested that presence of a background stimulus person immediately led to the contrast effect on interpersonal attraction. PMID:11140256
This document provides a series of reflections by a practicing psychologist on the uses of aerobic workouts in psychotherapy. Two case histories are cited to illustrate the contention that the mode of exercise, rather than simply its presence or absence, is the significant indicator of a patient's emotional well-being or psychopathology. The first…
Schachter, Robert S.
Kinetic Psychotherapy consists of young children's games which facilitate interaction and mobilize feelings. When used as a mode of family therapy, this process enables the therapist to catalize and observe change in the family's patterns of communication, interaction, and level of functioning while involving members in a relatively nonthreatening…
Findings from a clinical project aiming to make psychodynamic psychotherapy more effective for children with disruptive disorders are summarised and discussed. In this project a supportive expressive model was used and the therapists worked with both children and parents. Nine boys aged 6-10 years were treated; all were reported to function better…
Watts, Richard E., Ed.; Carlson, Jon, Ed.
This book acknowledges the contributions of Alfred Adler and illustrates the many ways in which Adlerian ideas underpin and influence contemporary therapeutic approaches. It brings together today's leading thinkers to address the practice of counseling and psychotherapy from a social-cognitive perspective. Contributors apply the basic ideas of…
American Journal of Play, 2014
Terry Marks-Tarlow is a clinical and consulting psychologist and psychotherapist and a member of the teaching faculty at the Reiss Davis Child Study Center in Los Angeles. She is the author of "Awakening Clinical Intuition: An Experiential Workbook for Psychotherapists"; "Psyche's Veil: Psychotherapy, Fractals, and…
Wilk, Carole A.
This paper provides a personal account of the process of psychotherapy for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients, as seen from both the client's and the psychotherapist's perspective, with a focus on countertransference issues found in the early phases of treatment. Based on case material, the discussion explores themes presented by…
Brain imaging studies have demonstrated that psychotherapy alters brain structure and function. Learning and memory, both implicit and explicit, play central roles in this process through the creation of new genetic material that leads to increased synaptic efficiency through the creation of new neuronal connections. Although there is substantial…
Swift, Joshua K.; Callahan, Jennifer L.
Delay discounting (DD) procedures are emerging as an important new method for psychotherapy researchers. In this paper a framework for conceptualizing existing, seemingly discrepant, research findings on termination is introduced and new directions for research are described. To illustrate the value of a DD framework, the common psychotherapy…
Functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP) is defined as behavior-analytically conceptualized talk therapy. In contrast to the technique-oriented educational format of cognitive behavior therapy and the use of structural mediational models, FAP depends on the functional analysis of the moment-to-moment stream of interactions between client and…
Owen, Jesse; Leach, Mark M.; Wampold, Bruce; Rodolfa, Emil
In this rejoinder, the authors address several issues raised by R. L. Worthington and F. R. Dillon (2011) and C. R. Ridley and M. Shaw-Ridley (2011) regarding (a) the measurement of multicultural competencies (MCCs), (b) sampling considerations in multicultural research, and (c) the conceptual frame of multicultural psychotherapy research. The…
Thompson, Larry W.; And Others
Treated 91 elders with a major depressive disorder (MDD) using behavioral, cognitive, or brief psychodynamic psychotherapy. By the end of six weeks patients in all three treatment conditions showed improvement equally, whereas controls did not. Overall, 52 percent of the treatment sample attained remission by termination. The remainder still met…
Common factors contributing to the effectiveness of psychotherapy have come to be recognized. These include: (1) establishment of a safe, trusting, and supportive relationship; (2) encouragement of clients to engage in activities they had avoided; (3) provision of accurate feedback to clients; and (4) provision of a framework for clients to…
Barlow, David H.
In this article, the author responds to a set of comments on his original article, "Psychological Treatments." The author responds to each comment. Hal Arkowitz (2005) misread the proposed distinction between "psychological treatments" and "psychotherapy" by presuming that the author was implying that the former is evidence based and the latter is…
Entin, Alan D.
Photographs and family albums are helpful in marriage and family psychotherapy to aid in the understanding of family processes, relationship patterns, goals, expectations, values, traditions, and ideals. Based on the assumption that a photograph is a form of communication, photography can be used to: (1) examine typical family picture-taking…
Counseling and psychotherapy are not the same, but rather represent two modalities with different theoretical premises which use different techniques and pursue different goals. Counseling always focuses on a specific subject and the interaction between the counselor and the client is generally goal-directed. The counselor focuses on the acute…
Eagle, Morris N.
This article, a commentary, discusses questions and issues generated by 7 articles (see records EJ750759, EJ750761, EJ750764, EJ750765, EJ750767, EJ750768, and EJ750769) on the relationship between attachment theory and research, and psychotherapy and clinical assessment. The issues include the following: attachment-based therapeutic…
McElfresh, Thomas A.
Effective psychotherapy supervision calls for a variety of supervisory roles and addresses a range of student needs. The particular student need should be the determining factor in selecting an appropriate supervisory role. The supervisor needs a range of role alternatives, a framework in which to fit student needs, a specified area of focus…
Grimm, Donald W.
Examines nature of therapist spiritual and religious values and impact of these values on psychotherapy practice. Suggests that integration of therapist spiritual and religious values with therapist epistemic values to accommodate spiritual and religious needs of both client and counselor should be goal of effective treatment. Includes 28…
Garcia, Rafael Ferro
Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP), based on the principles of radical behaviorism, emphasizes the impact of eventualities that occur during therapeutic sessions, the therapist-client interaction context, functional equivalence between environments, natural reinforcement and shaping by the therapist. This paper reviews recent studies of FAP…
Leva, Richard A.
The views of Carl Rogers and Milton H. Erickson are combined in this book on psychotherapy. The first section focuses on belief systems, views of man, new views of the unconscious, and a philosophy for change. Erickson and his relationship to myth, the nature of man and the goal of counseling, trance, and a radical view of the unconscious are…
Strack, Stephen; Millon, Theodore
In this article we present personalized psychotherapy, a treatment approach for people with a wide range of personality problems and clinical syndromes that is a central part of Theodore Millon's unified clinical science model of personality and psychopathology. Because the intervention strategy is fully integrated with an evolutionary perspective on human development, we offer it in this context. We begin with a historical overview of Millon's model and its relationship to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). We then present his basic theoretical principles and personality taxonomy, and discuss variations in personality functioning across the normal-abnormal continuum. We move on to describe assessment measures that were developed to operationalize his concepts and ideas, and which are used as the basis for creating treatment plans. The premises and principles of personalized psychotherapy are described to show how the intervention model is squarely focused on the integrated unity of the person. We look at presenting problems of all kinds from the point of view of how they emanate from, and are related to, the individual's unique combination of temperament, traits, preferences, behavioral patterns, and coping strategies. We then specify multimodal interventions (e.g., a combination of pharmacologic, cognitive, behavioral, phenomenological, interpersonal, and/or intrapsychic treatments) and apply them in a particular sequence to maximize their impact, not only on the target symptoms, but on the underlying personality elements believed to be their primary cause. PMID:23072423
Tavormina, Romina; Tavormina, Maurilio Giuseppe Maria; Nemoianni, Eugenio
Psychosocial rehabilitation and in particular group dances allow the recovery of lost or compromised ability of patients with mental illness, and they facilitate their reintegration into the social context. The dance group has enabled users of the Day Centre of the Unit of Mental Health Torre del Greco ASL NA 3 south to achieve the objectives of rehabilitation such as: taking care of themselves, of their bodies and their interests, improving self-esteem , the management of pathological emotions, socialization and integration, overcoming the psychotic closing and relational isolation. In particular, patients with schizophrenia, psychotic and mood disorders had a concrete benefit from such rehabilitation activities, facilitating interpersonal relationships, therapy compliance and significantly improved mood, quality of life, providing them with the rhythm and the security in their relationship with each other. The dance group and for some individuals, also psychotherapy and drug therapy, have facilitated social inclusion, improved the quality of life and cured their diseases. The work is carrying out in a group with patients, practitioners, family members, volunteers, social community workers, following the operating departmental protocols. Using the chorus group "Sing that you go" as an operational tool for psychosocial rehabilitation and therapeutic element we promote the psychological well-being and the enhancement of mood. PMID:25413534
Widom, Cathy Spatz
Interpersonal behavior in psychopaths was explored using the Prisoner's Dilemma game. Various personality characteristics frequently cited as distinguishing psychopaths from others were operationalized and studied. (Editor)
Hatcher, Robert L.; Rogers, Daniel T.
An Inventory of Interpersonal Strengths (IIS) was developed and validated in a series of large college student samples. Based on interpersonal theory and associated methods, the IIS was designed to assess positive characteristics representing the full range of interpersonal domains, including those generally thought to have negative qualities…
Crits-Christoph, Paul; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly; Temes, Christina M.; Elkin, Irene; Gallop, Robert
Objective: The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the interpersonal accuracy of interventions in cognitive therapy and interpersonal therapy as a predictor of the outcome of treatment for patients with major depressive disorder. Method: The interpersonal accuracy of interventions was rated using transcripts of treatment sessions…
Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly; Thompson, Sarah M.; Mack, Rachel A.; Lee, Jacqueline K.; Crits-Christoph, Paul
Objective We explored whether patients with varied levels of baseline deficits in compensatory skills and self-understanding had different outcomes across cognitive and dynamic therapies. Method The assessment battery was administered at intake and termination (N=97; 66% female, 81% Caucasian). We conducted regression analyses predicting symptom change from baseline levels of self-understanding and compensatory skills. We also evaluated the interaction between baseline skill levels and treatment condition in the prediction of psychotherapy outcome. Results There was a significant interaction between treatment group and baseline compensatory skills in the prediction of HAMD symptom change, F(1,76) = 4.59, p = .035. Baseline deficits in compensatory skills were significantly related to symptom change for patients who received cognitive treatment, ηρ = .40, p = .037, while baseline levels of self-understanding were not significantly predictive of treatment outcome in either condition. Baseline skill variables did not predict symptom change as measured by the HAMA. Conclusions The findings support a capitalization model of cognitive therapy, whereby patients with relative strengths in compensatory skills at baseline have better treatment outcomes. PMID:25779087
Tanzer, Michal; Shahar, Golan; Avidan, Galia
The aim of the proposed theoretical model is to illuminate personal and interpersonal resilience by drawing from the field of emotional face perception. We suggest that perception/recognition of emotional facial expressions serves as a central link between subjective, self-related processes and the social context. Emotional face perception constitutes a salient social cue underlying interpersonal communication and behavior. Because problems in communication and interpersonal behavior underlie most, if not all, forms of psychopathology, it follows that perception/recognition of emotional facial expressions impacts psychopathology. The ability to accurately interpret one’s facial expression is crucial in subsequently deciding on an appropriate course of action. However, perception in general, and of emotional facial expressions in particular, is highly influenced by individuals’ personality and the self-concept. Herein we briefly outline well-established theories of personal and interpersonal resilience and link them to the neuro-cognitive basis of face perception. We then describe the findings of our ongoing program of research linking two well-established resilience factors, general self-efficacy (GSE) and perceived social support (PSS), with face perception. We conclude by pointing out avenues for future research focusing on possible genetic markers and patterns of brain connectivity associated with the proposed model. Implications of our integrative model to psychotherapy are discussed. PMID:25165439
McCullough, James P; Lord, Benjamin D; Martin, Aaron M; Conley, Kathryn A; Schramm, Elisabeth; Klein, Daniel N
An interpersonal-emotional history procedure, the Significant Other History, is administered to the early-onset chronically depressed patient during the second therapy session in the Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP). Patients are asked to name up to six significant others and answer two questions: (1) What was it like growing up with or being around this person? (2) What is the emotional "stamp" you take from this relationship that informs who you are today? An interpersonal-emotional theme reflecting the early learning history of the patient is derived from these "stamps" or causal theory conclusions. One transference hypothesis (TH) is derived from the Significant Other History (SOH) and is formulated in one sentence, such as "If I do this, then the therapist will likely do that" (e.g., "If I make a mistake around Dr. E, then Dr. E will label me 'stupid' or 'incompetent"). The transference hypothesis highlights the interpersonal content that most likely informs the patient's expectancy of the therapist's reactions toward him or her. Throughout the therapy process, the therapist will proactively employ the transference hypothesis in a technique known as the Interpersonal Discrimination Exercise to help patients cognitively and emotionally discriminate the practitioner from hurtful significant others. The goal here is to increase the patient's felt safety within the therapeutic dyad and eventually to generalize the felt safety to the patient's other relationships. PMID:22032046
Tanzer, Michal; Shahar, Golan; Avidan, Galia
The aim of the proposed theoretical model is to illuminate personal and interpersonal resilience by drawing from the field of emotional face perception. We suggest that perception/recognition of emotional facial expressions serves as a central link between subjective, self-related processes and the social context. Emotional face perception constitutes a salient social cue underlying interpersonal communication and behavior. Because problems in communication and interpersonal behavior underlie most, if not all, forms of psychopathology, it follows that perception/recognition of emotional facial expressions impacts psychopathology. The ability to accurately interpret one's facial expression is crucial in subsequently deciding on an appropriate course of action. However, perception in general, and of emotional facial expressions in particular, is highly influenced by individuals' personality and the self-concept. Herein we briefly outline well-established theories of personal and interpersonal resilience and link them to the neuro-cognitive basis of face perception. We then describe the findings of our ongoing program of research linking two well-established resilience factors, general self-efficacy (GSE) and perceived social support (PSS), with face perception. We conclude by pointing out avenues for future research focusing on possible genetic markers and patterns of brain connectivity associated with the proposed model. Implications of our integrative model to psychotherapy are discussed. PMID:25165439
Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Witte, Tracy K.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.; Braithwaite, Scott; Selby, Edward A.; Joiner, Thomas E.
Suicidal behavior is a major problem worldwide and at the same time has received relatively little empirical attention. This relative lack of empirical attention may be due in part to a relative absence of theory development regarding suicidal behavior. The current paper presents the Interpersonal Theory of Suicidal Behavior. We propose that the most dangerous form of suicidal desire is caused by the simultaneous presence of two interpersonal constructs—thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness (and hopelessness about these states)—and further, that the capability to engage in suicidal behavior is separate from the desire to engage in suicidal behavior. According to the theory, the capability for suicidal behavior emerges, via habituation and opponent processes, in response to repeated exposure to physically painful and/or fear-inducing experiences. In the current paper, the theory’s hypotheses are more precisely delineated than in previous presentations (Joiner, 2005), with the aim of inviting scientific inquiry and potential falsification of the theory’s hypotheses. PMID:20438238
Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang
Objective: The coordination of patient’s and therapist’s bodily movement – nonverbal synchrony – has been empirically shown to be associated with psychotherapy outcome. This finding was based on dynamic movement patterns of the whole body. The present paper is a new analysis of an existing dataset (Ramseyer and Tschacher, 2011), which extends previous findings by differentiating movements pertaining to head and upper-body regions. Method: In a sample of 70 patients (37 female, 33 male) treated at an outpatient psychotherapy clinic, we quantified nonverbal synchrony with an automated objective video-analysis algorithm (motion energy analysis). Head- and body-synchrony was quantified during the initial 15 min of video-recorded therapy sessions. Micro-outcome was assessed with self-report post-session questionnaires provided by patients and their therapists. Macro-outcome was measured with questionnaires that quantified attainment of treatment goals and changes in experiencing and behavior at the end of therapy. Results: The differentiation of head- and body-synchrony showed that these two facets of motor coordination were differentially associated with outcome. Head-synchrony predicted global outcome of therapy, while body-synchrony did not, and body-synchrony predicted session outcome, while head-synchrony did not. Conclusion: The results pose an important amendment to previous findings, which showed that nonverbal synchrony embodied both outcome and interpersonal variables of psychotherapy dyads. The separation of head- and body-synchrony suggested that distinct mechanisms may operate in these two regions: Head-synchrony embodied phenomena with a long temporal extension (overall therapy success), while body-synchrony embodied phenomena of a more immediate nature (session-level success). More explorations with fine-grained analyses of synchronized phenomena in nonverbal behavior may shed additional light on the embodiment of psychotherapy process. PMID
Swap, Walter C.; Rubin, Jeffrey Z.
The construct Interpersonal Orientation (IO) refers to the degree to which a person is responsive to the interpersonal aspects of his relationships with other people. A self-report measure of IO was devised whose construct validity was supported by correlational data. Two experiments were conducted to assess the potential usefulness of IO in…
Tokuda, Yasuharu; Inoguchi, Takashi
Our main objective in this paper is to evaluate the possible association between interpersonal mistrust and unhappiness among Japanese people. Based on cross-sectional data for the Japanese general population from the Asia Barometer Survey (2003-2006), we analyzed the relationship between interpersonal mistrust and unhappiness using a logistic…
Knupfer, Nancy Nelson; McLellan, Hilary
Computer networks have provided a foundation for interpersonal computing, and new tools are emerging, the centerpiece of which is called "groupware." Groupware technology is reviewed, and the theoretical framework that will underlie interpersonal collaborative computing is discussed. Groupware can consist of hardware, software, services, and…
As an important dimension of interpersonal function in SFL, appraisal has attracted a lot of attentions from the linguists home and abroad. This thesis is an attempt to analyze the interpersonal functions of EFL teachers' evaluative discourse with in the framework of Palladian Systemic-functional Grammar (SFG) and Martin's Appraisal theory. The…
Hopwood, Christopher J.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pincus, Aaron L.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that personality pathology is, at its core, fundamentally interpersonal. We review the proposed DSM-5 Section 3 redefinition of personality pathology involving self and interpersonal dysfunction, which we regard as a substantial improvement over the DSM-IV (and DSM-5 Section 2) definition. We note similarities between the proposed scheme and contemporary interpersonal theory and interpret the DSM-5 Section 3 definition using the underlying assumptions and evidence base of the interpersonal paradigm in clinical psychology. We describe how grounding the proposed DSM-5 Section 3 definition in interpersonal theory, and in particular a focus on the “interpersonal situation”, adds to its theoretical texture, empirical support, and clinical utility. We provide a clinical example that demonstrates the ability of contemporary interpersonal theory to augment the DSM-5 definition of personality pathology. We conclude with directions for further research that could clarify the core of personality pathology, and how interpersonal theory can inform research aimed at enhancing the DSM-5 Section 3 proposal and ultimately justify its migration to DSM-5 Section 2. PMID:23735037
A validation study of 30 married females and 30 married males was conducted on a theoretical model of stages in interpersonal development developed by Bar-Yam Hassan (Bar-Yam Hassan & Bar-Yam, 1987). According to the model, the five stages of adult interpersonal development are: (1) Social Relatedness versus Self-Insistence, or need for Approval;…
Cichy, Kelly E.; Fingerman, Karen L.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.
This study examined age differences in topics that generate interpersonal tensions as well as relationship level characteristics that may account for variability in the content of interpersonal tensions. Participants aged 13 to 99 years (N = 184) diagramed their close and problematic social networks, and then provided open-ended descriptions of…
Borghans, Lex; Weel, Bas ter; Weinberg, Bruce A.
This paper develops a framework of the role of interpersonal interactions in the labor market. Effective interpersonal interactions involve caring and directness. The ability to perform these tasks varies with personality and the importance of these tasks varies across jobs. An assignment model shows that people are most productive in jobs that…
Kunce, Joseph T.; And Others
Investigated the relationships between computer-simulated, in-vitro interactional personality behavior and various indices of interpersonal relationships using data collected from 31 families. Analysis showed that strife was allied most closely with rigid, unstable interpersonal interactions. Concluded that the systems approach offers a unique,…
Franklin, H. Carolyn
Attention to teaching and developing spirituality in interpersonal communication is timely. Today's technology usurps the "human" in human being. Humankind is displaced by computers, e-mail, and various websites which substitute for the "person" in interpersonal communication. This technology, combined with the emergence of widespread cultural…
Benjafield, John; Green, T. R. G.
A model of the organization of interpersonal judgments, based on the hypothesis that people tend to organize their judgments in Golden Section ratios, was presented. A theory of the process of interpersonal judgment, based on the notion that people judge acquaintances using a Fibonacci-like decision rule, was then developed. A computer simulation…
Yarnold, Paul R.; Grimm, Laurence G.
Exploratory research has indicated that interpersonal dominance is one of the strongest correlates of Type A behavior, although little effort has been made to demonstrate a link between the behavioral manifestation of interpersonal dominance and Pattern A responding. To establish such a link two studies were conducted. In the first study, extreme…
Callender, J S
Psychotherapy is an activity which takes many forms and which has many aims. The present paper argues that it can be viewed as a form of moral suasion. Kant's concepts of free will and ethics are described and these are then applied to the processes and outcome of psychotherapy. It is argued that his ideas, by linking rationality, free will and ethics into a single philosophical system, offer a valuable theoretical framework for thinking about aims and ethical issues in psychotherapy. PMID:9752632
Swanson, J. G.
To determine how family physicians perceive the support they get for psychotherapy and counseling, we surveyed a random sample of Ontario College of Family Physicians members. Of 100 physicians who had family medicine residency training with psychotherapy experience, 43% indicated that such training was inadequate for their current needs. Because family physicians often provide psychotherapy and counseling, their training should reflect the needs found in practice. PMID:8080505
de Greck, Moritz; Bölter, Annette F.; Lehmann, Lisa; Ulrich, Cornelia; Stockum, Eva; Enzi, Björn; Hoffmann, Thilo; Tempelmann, Claus; Beutel, Manfred; Frommer, Jörg; Northoff, Georg
Somatoform disorder patients show a variety of emotional disturbances including impaired emotion recognition and increased empathic distress. In a previous paper, our group showed that several brain regions involved in emotional processing, such as the parahippocampal gyrus and other regions, were less activated in pre-treatment somatoform disorder patients (compared to healthy controls) during an empathy task. Since the parahippocampal gyrus is involved in emotional memory, its decreased activation might reflect the repression of emotional memories (which—according to psychoanalytical concepts—plays an important role in somatoform disorder). Psychodynamic psychotherapy aims at increasing the understanding of emotional conflicts as well as uncovering repressed emotions. We were interested, whether brain activity in the parahippocampal gyrus normalized after (inpatient) multimodal psychodynamic psychotherapy. Using fMRI, subjects were scanned while they shared the emotional states of presented facial stimuli expressing anger, disgust, joy, and a neutral expression; distorted stimuli with unrecognizable content served as control condition. 15 somatoform disorder patients were scanned twice, pre and post multimodal psychodynamic psychotherapy; in addition, 15 age-matched healthy control subjects were investigated. Effects of psychotherapy on hemodynamic responses were analyzed implementing two approaches: (1) an a priori region of interest approach and (2) a voxelwise whole brain analysis. Both analyses revealed increased hemodynamic responses in the left and right parahippocampal gyrus (and other regions) after multimodal psychotherapy in the contrast “empathy with anger”—“control.” Our results are in line with psychoanalytical concepts about somatoform disorder. They suggest the parahippocampal gyrus is crucially involved in the neurobiological mechanisms which underly the emotional deficits of somatoform disorder patients. PMID:23966922
Kauth, Michael R.; Hudson, Sonora; Martin, Lindsey A.; Ramsey, David J.; Daily, Lawrence; Rader, John
Abstract Background: Increasing access to psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a primary focus of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system. Delivery of treatment via video telehealth can expand availability of treatment and be equally effective as in-person treatment. Despite VA efforts, barriers to establishing telehealth services remain, including both provider acceptance and organizational obstacles. Thus, development of specific strategies is needed to implement video telehealth services in complex healthcare systems, like the VA. Materials and Methods: This project was guided by the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework and used external facilitation to increase access to psychotherapy via video telehealth. The project was conducted at five VA Medical Centers and their associated community clinics across six states in the South Central United States. Results: Over a 21-month period, 27 video telehealth clinics were established to provide greater access to evidence-based psychotherapies for PTSD. Examination of change scores showed that participating sites averaged a 3.2-fold increase in unique patients and a 6.5-fold increase in psychotherapy sessions via video telehealth for PTSD. Differences between participating and nonparticipating sites in both unique patients and encounters were significant (p=0.041 and p=0.009, respectively). Two groups emerged, separated by degree of engagement in the facilitation intervention. Facilitation was perceived as useful by providers. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study of external facilitation as an implementation strategy for telehealth. Our findings suggest that external facilitation is an effective and acceptable strategy to support providers as they establish clinics and make complex practice changes, such as implementing video telehealth to deliver psychotherapy. PMID:25714664
How do we culturally adapt psychotherapy for ethnic minorities? Although there has been growing interest in doing so, few therapy adaptation frameworks have been developed. The majority of these frameworks take a top-down theoretical approach to adapting psychotherapy. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a community-based developmental approach to modifying psychotherapy for ethnic minorities. The Formative Method for Adapting Psychotherapy (FMAP) is a bottom-up approach that involves collaborating with consumers to generate and support ideas for therapy adaptation. It involves 5-phases that target developing, testing, and reformulating therapy modifications. These phases include: (a) generating knowledge and collaborating with stakeholders (b) integrating generated information with theory and empirical and clinical knowledge, (c) reviewing the initial culturally adapted clinical intervention with stakeholders and revising the culturally adapted intervention, (d) testing the culturally adapted intervention, and (e) finalizing the culturally adapted intervention. Application of the FMAP is illustrated using examples from a study adapting psychotherapy for Chinese Americans, but can also be readily applied to modify therapy for other ethnic groups. PMID:20625458
Churchill, Rachel; Davies, Philippa; Caldwell, Deborah; Moore, Theresa HM; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all integrative therapies compared with treatment as usual/waiting list/attention placebo control conditions for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different integrative therapies (IPT, CAT, psychodynamic-interpersonal therapy, cognitive behavioural analysis system of psychotherapy and counselling) compared with treatment as usual/waiting list/attention placebo control conditions for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all integrative therapies compared with different types of comparator (standard care, no treatment, waiting list, attention placebo) for acute depression. PMID:25411560
Grosse Holtforth, Martin; Kramer, Ueli; Dauwalder, Jean-Pierre
The article gives an overview of psychological psychotherapy in Switzerland. We describe the legal status of psychological psychotherapists, their position and role within the Swiss health-care system, the professional context they practice in, the format of psychotherapy training, various employment models of psychological psychotherapists, as well as the currently insufficient reimbursement situation of psychological psychotherapy. Reimbursement by mandatory health insurance is highlighted as the most important current challenge psychological psychotherapists face in Switzerland, on their way to be fully acknowledged as independent providers of psychotherapy. PMID:27203532
Ross, T; Fontao, M I
In the last two decades, forensic psychotherapy has become a specialised area of scholarship, predominantly in the UK and Germany. However, scientific research with respect to set goals, methods and the application of treatments has been heterogeneous and not very extensive. Focussing on offender treatment, the status quo of research schemes based on clinical experience is discussed, and a strategy is suggested as how to develop a research framework for forensic psychotherapy which makes use of the specific methods and treatment interventions applied in this field. It is concluded that forensic psychotherapy research will greatly benefit from the methodological framework of general psychotherapy research, especially when competing for scarce financial resources. PMID:16758539