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Sample records for group organisms isolated

  1. Description of Mycobacterium conceptionense sp. nov., a Mycobacterium fortuitum group organism isolated from a posttraumatic osteitis inflammation.

    PubMed

    Adékambi, Toïdi; Stein, Andréas; Carvajal, Joseph; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2006-04-01

    A nonpigmented rapidly growing mycobacterium was isolated from wound liquid outflow, bone tissue biopsy, and excised skin tissue from a 31-year-old woman who suffered an accidental open right tibia fracture and prolonged stay in a river. The three isolates grew in 3 days at 24 to 37 degrees C. 16S rRNA sequence analyses over 1,483 bp showed that they were identical and shared 99.7% (4-bp difference) sequence similarity with that of Mycobacterium porcinum, the most closely related species. Partial rpoB (723 bp) sequence analyses showed that the isolates shared 97.0% sequence similarity with that of M. porcinum. Further polyphasic approaches, including biochemical tests, antimicrobial susceptibility analyses, and hsp65, sodA, and recA gene sequence analysis, as well as % G+C determination and cell wall fatty acid composition analysis supported the evidence that these isolates were representative of a new species. Phylogenetic analyses showed the close relationship with M. porcinum in the Mycobacterium fortuitum group. The isolates were susceptible to most antibiotics and exhibited evidence for penicillinase activity, in contrast to M. porcinum. We propose the name Mycobacterium conceptionense sp. nov. for this new species associated with posttraumatic osteitis. The type strain is D16(T) (equivalent to CIP 108544(T) and CCUG 50187(T)).

  2. Description of Mycobacterium conceptionense sp. nov., a Mycobacterium fortuitum Group Organism Isolated from a Posttraumatic Osteitis Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Adékambi, Toïdi; Stein, Andréas; Carvajal, Joseph; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2006-01-01

    A nonpigmented rapidly growing mycobacterium was isolated from wound liquid outflow, bone tissue biopsy, and excised skin tissue from a 31-year-old woman who suffered an accidental open right tibia fracture and prolonged stay in a river. The three isolates grew in 3 days at 24 to 37°C. 16S rRNA sequence analyses over 1,483 bp showed that they were identical and shared 99.7% (4-bp difference) sequence similarity with that of Mycobacterium porcinum, the most closely related species. Partial rpoB (723 bp) sequence analyses showed that the isolates shared 97.0% sequence similarity with that of M. porcinum. Further polyphasic approaches, including biochemical tests, antimicrobial susceptibility analyses, and hsp65, sodA, and recA gene sequence analysis, as well as % G+C determination and cell wall fatty acid composition analysis supported the evidence that these isolates were representative of a new species. Phylogenetic analyses showed the close relationship with M. porcinum in the Mycobacterium fortuitum group. The isolates were susceptible to most antibiotics and exhibited evidence for penicillinase activity, in contrast to M. porcinum. We propose the name Mycobacterium conceptionense sp. nov. for this new species associated with posttraumatic osteitis. The type strain is D16T (equivalent to CIP 108544T and CCUG 50187T). PMID:16597850

  3. Mycobacterium setense sp. nov., a Mycobacterium fortuitum-group organism isolated from a patient with soft tissue infection and osteitis.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Brigitte; Marchandin, Hélène; Hamitouche, Kamel; Laurent, Frédéric

    2008-02-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped acid-fast bacterium was isolated from a patient with a post-traumatic chronic skin abscess associated with osteitis. Morphological analysis, 16S rRNA, hsp65, sodA and rpoB gene sequence analysis, cell-wall fatty acid and mycolic acid composition analyses and biochemical tests showed that the isolate, designated ABO-M06(T), belonged to the genus Mycobacterium. Its phenotype was unique and genetic and phylogenetic findings suggest that strain ABO-M06(T) represents a novel species within the Mycobacterium fortuitum group. The name Mycobacterium setense sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with the type strain ABO-M06(T) (=CIP 109395(T)=DSM 45070(T)).

  4. Strong conservation of rhoptry-associated-protein-1 (RAP-1) locus organization and sequence among Babesia isolates infecting sheep from China (Babesia motasi-like phylogenetic group).

    PubMed

    Niu, Qingli; Valentin, Charlotte; Bonsergent, Claire; Malandrin, Laurence

    2014-12-01

    Rhoptry-associated-protein 1 (RAP-1) is considered as a potential vaccine candidate due to its involvement in red blood cell invasion by parasites in the genus Babesia. We examined its value as a vaccine candidate by studying RAP-1 conservation in isolates of Babesia sp. BQ1 Ningxian, Babesia sp. Tianzhu and Babesia sp. Hebei, responsible for ovine babesiosis in different regions of China. The rap-1 locus in these isolates has very similar features to those described for Babesia sp. BQ1 Lintan, another Chinese isolate also in the B. motasi-like phylogenetic group, namely the presence of three types of rap-1 genes (rap-1a, rap-1b and rap-1c), multiple conserved rap-1b copies (5) interspaced with more or less variable rap-1a copies (6), and the 3' localization of one rap-1c. The isolates Babesia sp. Tianzhu, Babesia sp. BQ1 Lintan and Ningxian were almost identical (average nucleotide identity of 99.9%) over a putative locus of about 31 Kb, including the intergenic regions. Babesia sp. Hebei showed a similar locus organization but differed in the rap-1 locus sequence, for each gene and intergenic region, with an average nucleotide identity of 78%. Our results are in agreement with 18S rDNA phylogenetic studies performed on these isolates. However, in extremely closely related isolates the rap-1 locus seems more conserved (99.9%) than the 18S rDNA (98.7%), whereas in still closely related isolates the identities are much lower (78%) compared with the 18S rDNA (97.7%). The particularities of the rap-1 locus in terms of evolution, phylogeny, diagnosis and vaccine development are discussed.

  5. Solid state {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation and isolated-molecule and cluster electronic structure calculations in organic molecular solids: The relationship between structure and methyl group and t-butyl group rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xianlong E-mail: pbeckman@brynmawr.edu; Mallory, Frank B.; Mallory, Clelia W.; Odhner, Hosanna R.; Beckmann, Peter A. E-mail: pbeckman@brynmawr.edu

    2014-05-21

    We report ab initio density functional theory electronic structure calculations of rotational barriers for t-butyl groups and their constituent methyl groups both in the isolated molecules and in central molecules in clusters built from the X-ray structure in four t-butyl aromatic compounds. The X-ray structures have been reported previously. We also report and interpret the temperature dependence of the solid state {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spin-lattice relaxation rate at 8.50, 22.5, and 53.0 MHz in one of the four compounds. Such experiments for the other three have been reported previously. We compare the computed barriers for methyl group and t-butyl group rotation in a central target molecule in the cluster with the activation energies determined from fitting the {sup 1}H NMR spin-lattice relaxation data. We formulate a dynamical model for the superposition of t-butyl group rotation and the rotation of the t-butyl group's constituent methyl groups. The four compounds are 2,7-di-t-butylpyrene, 1,4-di-t-butylbenzene, 2,6-di-t-butylnaphthalene, and 3-t-butylchrysene. We comment on the unusual ground state orientation of the t-butyl groups in the crystal of the pyrene and we comment on the unusually high rotational barrier of these t-butyl groups.

  6. Isolated galaxies, pairs, and groups of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuneva, I.; Kalinkov, M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors searched for isolated galaxies, pairs and groups of galaxies in the CfA survey (Huchra et al. 1983). It was assumed that the distances to galaxies are given by R = V/H sub o, where H sub o = 100 km s(exp -1) Mpc(exp -1) and R greater than 6 Mpc. The searching procedure is close to those, applied to find superclusters of galaxies (Kalinkov and Kuneva 1985, 1986). A sphere with fixed radius r (asterisk) is described around each galaxy. The mean spatial density in the sphere is m. Let G (sup 1) be any galaxy and G (sup 2) be its nearest neighbor at a distance R sub 2. If R sub 2 exceeds the 95 percent quintile in the distribution of the distances of the second neighbors, then G (sup 1) is an isolated galaxy. Let the midpoint of G (sup 1) and G (sup 2) be O sub 2 and r sub 2=R sub 2/2. For the volume V sub 2, defined with the radius r sub 2, the density D sub 2 less than k mu, the galaxy G (sup 2) is a single one and the procedure for searching for pairs and groups, beginning with this object is over and we have to pass to another object. Here the authors present the groups - isolated and nonisolated - with n greater than 3, found in the CfA survey in the Northern galactic hemisphere. The parameters used are k = 10 and r (asterisk) = 5 Mpc. Table 1 contains: (1) the group number, (2) the galaxy, nearest to the multiplet center, (3) multiplicity n, (4) the brightest galaxy if it is not listed in (2); (5) and (6) are R.A. and Dec. (1950), (7) - mean distance D in Mpc. Further there are the mean density rho (8) of the multiplet (galaxies Mpc (exp -3), (9) the density rho (asterisk) for r (asterisk) = 5 Mpc and (10) the density rho sub g for the group with its nearest neighbor. The parenthesized digits for densities in the last three columns are powers of ten.

  7. Biotypes of group A streptococci isolated from children.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Palani; Menon, Thangam; Lobo, Charmaine; Anbumani, N; Kumar, C P Girish; Shanmugasundaram, S

    2004-03-01

    Thirty-eight isolates of group A streptococci from patients with pharyngitis, 13 isolates from patients with pyoderma and 28 carrier strains were subjected to biotyping by carbohydrate fermentation tests and production of beta-glucuronidase. Biotype 10 was observed most frequently among clinical isolates and biotypes 3 and 4 were most common among carrier isolates.

  8. Autonomously Organized and Funded IT Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichol, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Central IT organizations under stress often cannot offer a high level of service to groups with above-average support needs. An example of such a group would be a well-funded, research-oriented computer science department. Several factors contribute to the increased demand on IT organizations. Given the availability of relatively…

  9. Organization of an undergraduate research group

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.; Noteboom, E.

    1995-04-01

    Traditionally, research groups consist of senior physicists, staff members, and graduate students. The physics department at Creighton University has formed a Relativistic Heavy Ion physics research group consisting primarily of undergraduate students. Although senior staff and graduate students are actively involved, undergraduate research and the education of undergraduates is the focus of the group. The presentation, given by two undergraduate members of the group, will outline progress made in the group`s organization, discuss the benefits to the undergraduate group members, and speak to the balance which must be struck between education concerns and research goals.

  10. Self-Disclosure in Isolated Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dalmas A.

    Analyses of self-disclosure behavior under multiple conditions of social isolation and confinement replicated earlier findings and generally confirmed hypotheses derived from social penetration theory. Major findings link self-disclosure to environmental parameters and interpersonal friction. In the Privacy without Stimulation condition, Ss…

  11. Evidence for two groups of banana bunchy top virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Karan, M; Harding, R M; Dale, J L

    1994-12-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) DNA component 1 from isolates from 10 different countries was cloned and sequenced and the sequences were aligned and compared. This analysis indicated two groups: the South Pacific group (isolates from Australia, Burundi, Egypt, Fiji, India, Tonga and Western Samoa) and the Asian group (isolates from the Philippines, Taiwan and Vietnam). The mean sequence difference within each group was 1.9 to 3.0% and between isolates from the two groups was approximately 10%, but some parts of the sequences differed more than others. However, the protein encoded by the major open reading frame, which is probably a replicase, differed by approximately 5%. The region from the beginning of the stem-loop sequence to the potential TATA box was identical in all isolates except for a two nucleotide change in the Western Samoan isolate and a single change in that of the NSW isolate. These results, together with other evidence, suggest that BBTV has spread to bananas after the initial movement of bananas from the Asian Pacific regions to Africa and the Americas.

  12. STUDIES ON THE HEMOPHILUS GROUP OF ORGANISMS

    PubMed Central

    Gilder, H.; Granick, S.

    1947-01-01

    The porphin requirements of the Hemophilus organisms have been studied. Organisms of the parainfluenzae group show quantitative differences in their ability to synthesize heme. The ability of the parainfluenzae organisms to grow appears to depend on the rate with which they synthesize heme and in part at least on the properties of the medium to protect the heme from peroxidative breakdown. Quantitative studies of the growth of H. influenzae Turner on various iron porphins have been made. Iron protoporphin gives greatest growth when supplied in excess, although iron mesoporphin appears more efficient at lower concentrations. Iron deutero- and iron hematoporphin are much less effective. This suggests that although the vinyl groups are not essential for growth of the Turner organism they may be required for some particular enzymes which aid in attaining maximum growth. A number of substances potentiate the growth-promoting properties of iron porphins. These substances include reducing agents and agents which destroy H2O2. E. influenzae Turner appears to require heme for anaerobic as well as aerobic growth. The possibility of an essential heme enzyme functioning under anaerobic conditions must therefore be considered. PMID:18896933

  13. [Characteristics of bacteria in the genus Proteus isolated from patients with sporadic and group intestinal diseases].

    PubMed

    Apollonin, A V; Romanenko, E E; Iorzh, A L; Zueva, L P

    1985-02-01

    The biochemical and biological properties of 148 Proteus strains isolated from patients both in sporadic intestinal infections and in a case of group infection in children's hospital was studied. The study revealed that the etiological factor of the group infection was P. mirabilis belonging to rare serovar 48:2. Proteus organisms isolated in sporadic infections belonged to a great number of serovars. No relationship between the isolated serovar and the nosological form of the intestinal disease was established. Among the Proteus strains under study, 82 strains showed atypical biochemical properties in 1 test or more. No correlation between the clinical diagnosis and the occurrence of atypical strains was established.

  14. Phylogenetic groups among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from Brazil: relationship with antimicrobial resistance and origin.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Maíra Espíndola Silva; Cabral, Adriane Borges; Maciel, Maria Amélia Vieira; da Silveira, Vera Magalhães; de Souza Lopes, Ana Catarina

    2011-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution of phylogenetic groups among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from Recife, Brazil and to assess the relationship between the groups and the isolation sites and resistance profile. Ninety four isolates of K. pneumoniae from hospital or community infections and from normal microbiota were analyzed by gyrA PCR-RFLP, antibiotic susceptibility, and adonitol fermentation. The results revealed the distinction of three phylogenetic groups, as it has also been reported in Europe, showing that these clusters are highly conserved within K. pneumoniae. Group KpI was dominantly represented by hospital and community isolates while groups KpII and KpIII displayed mainly normal microbiota isolates. The resistance to third generation cephalosporins, aztreonam, imipenem, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and streptomycin was only observed in KpI. The percentage of resistance was higher in KpI, followed by KpII and KpIII. The differences in the distribution of K. pneumoniae phylogenetic groups observed in this study suggest distinctive clinical and epidemiological characteristics among the three groups, which is important to understand the epidemiology of infections caused by this organism. This is the first study in Brazil on K. pneumoniae isolates from normal microbiota and community infections regarding the distribution of phylogenetic groups based on the gyrA gene.

  15. Phylogenetic Group Determination of Escherichia coli Isolated from Animals Samples

    PubMed Central

    Morcatti Coura, Fernanda; Diniz, Soraia de Araújo; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Mussi, Jamili Maria Suhet; Barbosa, Silvia Minharro; Lage, Andrey Pereira; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the occurrence and distribution of phylogenetic groups of 391 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry, cattle, and water buffalo. The frequency of the phylogroups was A = 19%, B1 = 57%, B2 = 2.3%, C = 4.6%, D = 2.8%, E = 11%, and F = 3.3%. Phylogroups A (P < 0.001) and F (P = 0.018) were associated with E. coli strains isolated from poultry, phylogroups B1 (P < 0.001) and E (P = 0.002) were associated with E. coli isolated from cattle, and phylogroups B2 (P = 0.003) and D (P = 0.017) were associated with E. coli isolated from water buffalo. This report demonstrated that some phylogroups are associated with the host analyzed and the results provide knowledge of the phylogenetic composition of E. coli from domestic animals. PMID:26421310

  16. Characterization of Campylobacter-like organisms isolated from homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Fennell, C L; Totten, P A; Quinn, T C; Patton, D L; Holmes, K K; Stamm, W E

    1984-01-01

    Thirteen Campylobacter-like organisms (CLOs) isolated from rectal cultures from homosexual men were studied. Like catalase-positive Campylobacter species, CLOs were curved gram-negative rods that did not grow aerobically, were motile, were oxidase- and catalase-positive, and did not utilize glucose. However, CLOs could not be classified within any of the Campylobacter species because they grew slowly and had unusual colony morphology; did not grow at 25 C, hydrolyze hippurate, produce H2S in triple sugar-iron agar, or tolerate 2% NaCl; were inhibited by 30-micrograms disks of nalidixic acid; and tolerated 1% glycine and 0.04% triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Three groups of CLOs were identified based on differences in nitrate reduction, growth at 42 C, and sensitivity to cephalothin. By the colony hybridization technique, whole-cell DNA isolated from a strain in each CLO group hybridized with DNA from other strains in the same group, but not with strains in other groups or with reference strains of catalase-positive Campylobacter species.

  17. Isolation and chemical characterization of dissolved and colloidal organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, G.; Leenheer, J.

    1993-01-01

    Commonly used techniques for the concentration and isolation of organic matter from water, such as preparative chromatography, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis, and the methods used to analyze the organic matter obtained by these methods are reviewed. The development of methods to obtain organic matter that is associated with fractions of the dissolved organic carbon other than humic substances, such as organic bases, hydrophilic organic acids and colloidal organic matter are discussed. Methods specifically used to study dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved organic phosphorous are also discussed. -from Authors

  18. Internal character dictates transition dynamics between isolation and cohesive grouping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, Pedro D.; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    2015-12-01

    We show that accounting for internal character among interacting heterogeneous entities generates rich transition behavior between isolation and cohesive dynamical grouping. Our analytical and numerical calculations reveal different critical points arising for different character-dependent grouping mechanisms. These critical points move in opposite directions as the population's diversity decreases. Our analytical theory may help explain why a particular class of universality is so common in the real world, despite the fundamental differences in the underlying entities. It also correctly predicts the nonmonotonic temporal variation in connectivity observed recently in one such system.

  19. Distributions of methyl group rotational barriers in polycrystalline organic solids

    SciTech Connect

    Beckmann, Peter A. E-mail: wangxianlong@uestc.edu.cn; Conn, Kathleen G.; Mallory, Clelia W.; Mallory, Frank B.; Rheingold, Arnold L.; Rotkina, Lolita; Wang, Xianlong E-mail: wangxianlong@uestc.edu.cn

    2013-11-28

    We bring together solid state {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation rate measurements, scanning electron microscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and electronic structure calculations for two methyl substituted organic compounds to investigate methyl group (CH{sub 3}) rotational dynamics in the solid state. Methyl group rotational barrier heights are computed using electronic structure calculations, both in isolated molecules and in molecular clusters mimicking a perfect single crystal environment. The calculations are performed on suitable clusters built from the X-ray diffraction studies. These calculations allow for an estimate of the intramolecular and the intermolecular contributions to the barrier heights. The {sup 1}H relaxation measurements, on the other hand, are performed with polycrystalline samples which have been investigated with scanning electron microscopy. The {sup 1}H relaxation measurements are best fitted with a distribution of activation energies for methyl group rotation and we propose, based on the scanning electron microscopy images, that this distribution arises from molecules near crystallite surfaces or near other crystal imperfections (vacancies, dislocations, etc.). An activation energy characterizing this distribution is compared with a barrier height determined from the electronic structure calculations and a consistent model for methyl group rotation is developed. The compounds are 1,6-dimethylphenanthrene and 1,8-dimethylphenanthrene and the methyl group barriers being discussed and compared are in the 2–12 kJ mol{sup −1} range.

  20. Two similar but atypical strains of coryneform group A-4 isolated from patients with endophthalmitis.

    PubMed Central

    Coudron, P E; Harris, R C; Vaughan, M G; Dalton, H P

    1985-01-01

    Corynebacterium species and other coryneform organisms isolated from clinical specimens are frequently considered contaminants. We isolated two strains of a gram-positive organism from the vitreous fluid of two patients with endophthalmitis who had previously received intraocular lens transplants. The biochemical characteristics and gas chromatographic patterns of both isolates were similar to those of coryneform group A-4 strains. Major differences included esculin hydrolysis, nitrate reduction, growth pigment, and lactic acid production. These two strains along with a limited number of strains collected at the Special Bacterial Pathogens Laboratory (Division of Bacterial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Ga.) may represent a subgroup of coryneform group A-4. Results of in vitro susceptibility testing performed with antimicrobial agents commonly used to treat patients with bacterial endophthalmitis underscore the importance of determining MBCs for slow-growing organisms. This report cautions microbiologists not to discard organisms frequently considered contaminants when isolated from body fluids that are normally sterile and from patients receiving local steroids. PMID:3935657

  1. Groups in Geological Education, Research, and Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romey, William D.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses different methods of instruction, such as the Keller Plan, audio-visual-tutorial methods, contract systems, and group seminars. Also discusses the role of groups in professional associations, particularly the National Association of Geology Teachers. (MLH)

  2. Grouping and Organizing for Instruction in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Flexibility is a key term to emphasize when grouping students for instruction, since a student might be in a different group for one academic area as compared to another academic area. This paper describes grouping for different methods of reading instruction and other disciplines. The paper discusses the following: using basal readers, using…

  3. Characteristics of CDC group 1 and group 1-like coryneform bacteria isolated from clinical specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Funke, G; Lucchini, G M; Pfyffer, G E; Marchiani, M; von Graevenitz, A

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen strains of CDC group 1 coryneform and biochemically similar bacteria were isolated from clinical specimens. Of the 15 strains isolated, 11 were derived from abscesses and purulent lesions, mostly from the upper part of the body, and 3 were grown from blood cultures. Nine strains were associated with mixed anaerobic but no other aerobic flora. Seven strains exhibited the classical biochemical profile of CDC coryneform group 1; however, eight strains were unable to reduce nitrate and were called "group 1-like." Other reactions to differentiate CDC group 1 and group 1-like coryneform rods include alpha-hemolysis on human blood agar, fermentation of adonitol, and the presence of alkaline phosphatase. Fifteen strains showed marked CAMP reactions on different erythrocyte agars. Gas-liquid chromatography of volatile and nonvolatile fatty acids as well as cellular fatty acid patterns and the composition of cell wall components suggest that CDC group 1 and group 1-like coryneform bacteria do not belong to the genus Corynebacterium but possibly to the genus Actinomyces or Arcanobacterium. DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed that group 1 and group 1-like strains represent different species. Images PMID:8263175

  4. Therapeutic impact of organism isolation in management of patients with pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Toshiya; Moriyama, Tokuhide; Maruo, Keishi; Inoue, Shinichi; Yoshiya, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    In management of patients with pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis, organism isolation by biopsy is generally considered to be of primary importance when constructing a treatment plan. In our clinical practice, however, patients can be successfully treated even without identifying the organisms. The objective of this study is to review our clinical experiences and clarify the therapeutic impact of organism isolation. Forty patients who were conservatively managed in our institution constituted the base of this study. The average follow-up period was 16.7 months. Among the study subjects, 13 patients underwent percutaneous needle biopsy and the organism was identified in 6 patients. Additionally, the organism was isolated from the sample obtained from blood and possible foci in 10 patients. In total, the causative organism was identified in 15 of the 40 patients (37.5%). Patients were divided into two groups based on whether the organism was identified by culture (Groups A and B, with and without organism isolation respectively). The duration of antibiotic therapy was not significantly different between the groups (Group A: 4.8 ± 1.6 months, Group B: 4.3 ± 2.1 months), while subsequent mortalities in Group A and B were 13.3% and 8% without significant intergroup difference. Organism isolation did not productively help select the effective antibiotics and reduce the treatment period or mortality rate in treatment of patients with pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis. Therefore, current strategic antibiotic therapy may be effective in eradicating infection even without identification of the causative organism in treatment of patients with pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis.

  5. Saudi Moumouvirus, the First Group B Mimivirus Isolated from Asia.

    PubMed

    Bajrai, Leena H; de Assis, Felipe L; Azhar, Esam I; Jardot, Priscilla; Robert, Catherine; Abrahão, Jônatas; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The number of novel giant viruses identified and characterized from the recently proposed order Megavirales has increased in recent years and new questions have been raised regarding viral diversity and evolution. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of Saudi moumouvirus (SDMV), a new giant virus belonging to Mimivirus lineage B, isolated from a sewage sample taken from the King Abdulaziz University hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. SDMV presented 500 nm icosahedral particles with a 1,046,087 bp genome, which is larger than moumouvirus-like genomes which have been described in the past. The SDMV genome was predicted to encode 868 ORFs, ranging in size from 54 to 2,914 amino acids, with a mean size of 349 aa. Furthermore, this genome was predicted to encode 40 new genes (ORFans) without similarity with other sequences (ORFan L850 transcript was detected by qPCR in infected amoeba), in addition to 42 hypothetical proteins (pseudo-ORFs) with less than 100 aa, which matched other sequences in the NCBI nr database. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SDMV clustered together with mimiviruses from lineage B, including moumouvirus-like strains. It is, therefore, the third Mimivirus to be isolated in Asia and the first of group B.

  6. Saudi Moumouvirus, the First Group B Mimivirus Isolated from Asia

    PubMed Central

    Bajrai, Leena H.; de Assis, Felipe L.; Azhar, Esam I.; Jardot, Priscilla; Robert, Catherine; Abrahão, Jônatas; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The number of novel giant viruses identified and characterized from the recently proposed order Megavirales has increased in recent years and new questions have been raised regarding viral diversity and evolution. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of Saudi moumouvirus (SDMV), a new giant virus belonging to Mimivirus lineage B, isolated from a sewage sample taken from the King Abdulaziz University hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. SDMV presented 500 nm icosahedral particles with a 1,046,087 bp genome, which is larger than moumouvirus-like genomes which have been described in the past. The SDMV genome was predicted to encode 868 ORFs, ranging in size from 54 to 2,914 amino acids, with a mean size of 349 aa. Furthermore, this genome was predicted to encode 40 new genes (ORFans) without similarity with other sequences (ORFan L850 transcript was detected by qPCR in infected amoeba), in addition to 42 hypothetical proteins (pseudo-ORFs) with less than 100 aa, which matched other sequences in the NCBI nr database. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SDMV clustered together with mimiviruses from lineage B, including moumouvirus-like strains. It is, therefore, the third Mimivirus to be isolated in Asia and the first of group B. PMID:28066355

  7. Metallocene catalyst containing bulky organic group

    DOEpatents

    Marks, Tobin J.; Ja, Li; Yang, Xinmin

    1996-03-26

    An ionic metallocene catalyst for olefin polymerization which comprises: (1) a cyclopentadienyl-type ligand, a Group IVB transition metal, and alkyl, aryl, or hydride substituents, as a cation, and (2) a weakly coordinating anion comprising boron substituted with halogenated, such as tetra fluoro, aryl substituents preferably containing silylalkyl substitution, such as para-silyl t-butyldimethyl.

  8. Metallocene catalyst containing bulky organic group

    DOEpatents

    Marks, T.J.; Ja, L.; Yang, X.

    1996-03-26

    An ionic metallocene catalyst for olefin polymerization which comprises: (1) a cyclopentadienyl-type ligand, a Group IVB transition metal, and alkyl, aryl, or hydride substituents, as a cation, and (2) a weakly coordinating anion comprising boron substituted with halogenated, such as tetrafluoro-aryl substituents preferably containing silylalkyl substitution, such as para-silyl t-butyldimethyl.

  9. Klebsiella and Enterobacter organisms isolated from horses.

    PubMed

    Platt, H; Atherton, J G; Orskov, I

    1976-12-01

    An account is given of K. pneumoniae capsule types occurring in horses, with particular reference to strains originating from the genital tract in the mare and the external genitalia of the stallion. A survey of the prevalence of K. pneumoniae and E. aerogenes strains in the preputial flora of healthy stallions is described. The majority of horses were found to be carriers of these organisms. The cultural characteristics of these preputial strains are described and compared with those of K. pneumoniae strains associated with epidemic metritis in mares. The epidemiological significance of certain K. pneumoniae capsule types is discussed.

  10. Prevalence and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from conventional and organic vegetables.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sara; Woo, Gun-Jo

    2014-10-01

    To compare the characteristics and to identify the epidemiological relationships of Escherichia coli isolated from organic and conventional vegetables, the antimicrobial resistance and genetic properties of E. coli were investigated from 2010 to 2011. E. coli was isolated from 1 of 111 (0.9%) organic vegetables and from 20 of 225 (8.9%) conventional vegetables. The majority of strains were isolated from the surrounding farming environment (n=27/150 vs. 49/97 in organic vs. conventional samples). The majority of the vegetable strains were isolated from the surrounding farming environments. E. coli isolated from organic vegetables showed very low antimicrobial resistance rates except for cephalothin, ranging from 0% to 17.9%, while the resistance rates to cephalothin (71%) were extremely high in both groups. E. coli isolates expressed various resistance genes, which most commonly included blaTEM, tet(A), strA, strB, and qnrS. However, none of the isolates harbored tet(D), tet(E), tet(K), tet(L), tet(M), or qnrA. The transferability of tet gene, tet(A), and tet(B) was identified in tetracycline-resistant E. coli, and the genetic relationship was confirmed in a few cases from different sources. With regard to the lower antimicrobial resistance found in organic produce, this production mode seems able to considerably reduce the selection of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria on vegetables.

  11. Methods for isolation and viability assessment of biological organisms

    DOEpatents

    Letant, Sonia Edith; Baker, Sarah Elyse; Bond, Tiziana; Chang, Allan Shih-Ping

    2015-02-03

    Isolation of biological or chemical organisms can be accomplished using a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) system. The SERS system can be a single or a stacked plurality of photonic crystal membranes with noble-metal lined through pores for flowing analyte potentially containing the biological or chemical organisms. The through pores can be adapted to trap individual biological or chemical organisms and emit SERS spectra, which can then be detected by a detector and further analyzed for viability of the biological or chemical organism.

  12. 26 CFR 56.4911-7 - Affiliated group of organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... may be members of an affiliated group of organizations). Example 8. G, H, I, and J are eligible organizations. G, H, and I have elected the expenditure test under section 501(h). The governing board of J has nine members. Under the governing instruments of J, organizations G, H, and I each designate...

  13. Biochemical characteristics and virulence of environmental group F bacteria isolated in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Seidler, R J; Allen, D A; Colwell, R R; Joseph, S W; Daily, O P

    1980-01-01

    Bacteria phenotypically resembling Aeromonas hydrophila, but requiring NaCl for growth, have been isolated form the New York Bight. The bacteria proved to be identical to group F organisms isolated from cases of human diarrhea in Indonesia and Bangladesh. Anaerogenic strains initiated responses in Y-1 tissue culture and rabbit ileal loop, consistent with those associated with cytotoxin- and enterotoxin-producing Aeromonas spp. strains. Separation on the basis of production of gas from glucose by group F strains was correlated with differences in mean guanine-plus-cytosine deoxyribonucleic acid base composition and in deoxyribonucleic acid relative reassociation. Both aerogenic and anaerogenic strains reassociated to a significantly greater extent with Vibrio spp. than with Aeromonas spp. and indeed should be considered a new species of the genus Vibrio. PMID:7425623

  14. Group dynamics during the EXEMSI isolation study. Experimental Campaign for the European Manned Space Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Cazes, C; Rosnet, E; Bachelard, C; Le Scanff, C; Rivolier, J

    1996-01-01

    stress. Nevertheless, the confinement and isolation were experienced as the major stress factors. The crew members described themselves as a heterogeneous but harmonious group that was successful in their mission. In fact, the team maintained its cohesion by opposing external authority, using management as a scapegoat. Occasionally, in times of crisis, they also criticized ground crew. The Commander supported this attitude. Strongly differences in personality and behavior were noted. Analysis of the sociometric data showed that the asserted harmony was more apparent than real. It is questionable whether the group cohesion would have persisted in a life threatening crisis or even in a prolongation of the experiment. The most reliable instruments for this type of survey seem to be: group methods, non-obstructive tests, indirect instruments, and qualitative tools. The least reliable are: strictly quantitative methods, self-evaluations, standard debriefing techniques, since these reinforced in most cases subjects' defenses in an unconscious avoidance of criticism. Several recommendations were made for the organization, definition of objectives, experiment selection, crew selection, roles of external management and personnel. In particular, it is felt to be necessary to explain the aims of the mission to the subjects, to give clear and complete information, to establish confident and cooperative relations with the crew. It is essential to allow dialogue, to take opinions and suggestions of the crew seriously, and to establish clear rules of confidentiality.

  15. 26 CFR 56.4911-7 - Affiliated group of organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... L are an affiliated group of organizations. Even though A is affiliated with K and L, A is not a... electing public charity's lobbying expenditures (as well as avoiding the $1,000,000 cap on a single... taking a position in the organization's name on legislation, authorizing any person to take a position...

  16. 26 CFR 56.4911-7 - Affiliated group of organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... L are an affiliated group of organizations. Even though A is affiliated with K and L, A is not a... electing public charity's lobbying expenditures (as well as avoiding the $1,000,000 cap on a single... taking a position in the organization's name on legislation, authorizing any person to take a position...

  17. Spectroscopic characterization of dissolved organic matter isolates from sediments and the association with phenanthrene binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Lee, Bo-Mi; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2014-09-01

    In this study, selected spectroscopic characteristics of sediment organic matter (SOM) were compared and discussed with respect to their different isolation methods, the source discrimination capabilities, and the association with the extent of phenanthrene binding. A total of 16 sediments were collected from three categorized locations including a costal lake, industrial areas, and upper streams, each of which is likely influenced by the organic sources of algal production, industrial effluent, and terrestrial input, respectively. The spectroscopic properties related to aromatic structures and terrestrial humic acids were more pronounced for alkaline extractable organic matter (AEOM) isolates than for the SOM isolates based on water soluble extracts and pore water. The three categorized sampling locations were the most differentiated in the AEOM isolates, suggesting AEOM may be the most representative SOM isolates in terms of describing the chemical properties and the organic sources of SOM. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) based on fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) showed that a combination of three fluorescent groups could represent all the fluorescence features of SOM. The three categorized sampling locations were well discriminated by the percent distributions of humic-like fluorescent groups of the AEOM isolates. The relative distribution of terrestrial humic-like fluorophores was well correlated with the extent of phenanthrene binding (r=0.571; p<0.05), suggesting that the presence of humic acids in SOM may contribute to the enhancement of binding with hydrophobic organic contaminants in sediments. Principal component analysis (PCA) further demonstrated that the extent of SOM's binding affinity might be affected by the degree of biogeochemical transformation in SOM.

  18. Chemical Characterization of Organisms Isolated from Leprosy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beaman, Blain L.; Kim, Kwang-Shin; Lanéelle, Marie A.; Barksdale, Lane

    1974-01-01

    Chemical analyses of the cell walls of organisms isolated in various parts of the world from cases of lepromatous and tuberculoid leprosy make possible their assignment to one of the three genera: Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, or Propionibacterium. One, bacterium 22M, remains unassigned. The combined chemical and enzymatic properties attributed to leprosy bacilli freshly harvested from lepromata are found collectively, but not individually, in these three genera. Images PMID:4813897

  19. Single step signal group-imidazole labeling of organic phosphate groups under aqueous conditions

    DOEpatents

    Giese, Roger W.; Wang, Poguang

    1996-01-01

    Compounds and methods for single step, covalent labeling of the phosphate group of an organic substance under aqueous conditions are described. The labeling compound includes any kind of detectable signal group covalently bound to an imidazole moiety, which can be imidazole or a substituted imidazole. A preferred labeling compound has the formula ##STR1##

  20. Single step signal group-imidazole labeling of organic phosphate groups under aqueous conditions

    DOEpatents

    Giese, R.W.; Wang, P.

    1996-04-30

    Compounds and methods for single step, covalent labeling of the phosphate group of an organic substance under aqueous conditions are described. The labeling compound includes any kind of detectable signal group covalently bound to an imidazole moiety, which can be imidazole or a substituted imidazole. A preferred labeling compound has the formula shown in the accompanying diagram. 4 figs.

  1. Detection of genetically diverse human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M and O isolates by PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Respess, R A; Butcher, A; Wang, H; Chaowanachan, T; Young, N; Shaffer, N; Mastro, T D; Biryahwaho, B; Downing, R; Tanuri, A; Schechter, M; Pascu, R; Zekeng, L; Kaptué, L; Gürtler, L; Eberle, J; Ellenberger, D; Fridlund, C; Rayfield, M; Kwok, S

    1997-01-01

    A panel of 136 genetically diverse group M and 5 group O adult isolates from outside the United States and Europe were evaluated by PCR with the Roche AMPLICOR HIV-1 test, a modified version of the AMPLICOR HIV-1 test, and a new primer pair/probe system. Detection of some of these isolates was less efficient with the AMPLICOR HIV-1 test; however, the assay was significantly improved by reducing the sample input and lowering the annealing temperature. The new primer pair/probe set detected 140 of 141 isolates, including the 5 group O isolates that were not detected with either of the AMPLICOR HIV-1 test formats. PMID:9114428

  2. Organic Mass Fragments and Organic Functional Groups in Aged Biomass Burning and Fossil Fuel Combustion Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, D. A.; Hawkins, L. N.; Russell, L. M.

    2009-12-01

    Organic functional group concentrations in submicron aerosol particles collected from 27 June to 17 September at the Scripps Pier in La Jolla, California as part of AeroSCOPE 2008 were quantified using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Organic and inorganic non-refractory components in the same air masses were quantified using a Quadrupole Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Q-AMS). Previous measurements at the Scripps pier indicate that a large fraction of submicron particle mass originates in Los Angeles and the port of Long Beach. Additional particle sources to the region include local urban emissions and periodic biomass burning during large wildfires. Three distinct types of organic aerosol components were identified from organic composition and elemental tracers, including biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion, and polluted marine components. Fossil fuel combustion organic aerosol was dominated by unsaturated alkane and was correlated with sulfur, vanadium, and nickel supporting ship and large trucks in and around the Los Angeles/Long Beach region as the dominant source. Biomass burning organic aerosol comprised a smaller unsaturated alkane fraction and larger fractions of non-acid carbonyl, amine, and carboxylic acid and was correlated with potassium and bromine. Polluted marine organic aerosol was dominated by organic hydroxyl and unsaturated alkane and was not correlated with any elemental tracers. Mass spectra of the organic aerosol support the aerosol sources determined by organic functional groups and elemental tracers and contain fragments commonly attributed to oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA), hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA), and biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA). Comparisons of the PMF-derived Q-AMS source spectra with FTIR source spectra and functional group composition provide additional information on the relationship between commonly reported organic aerosol factors and organic functional groups in specific organic aerosol

  3. A newly isolated organic solvent tolerant Staphylococcus saprophyticus M36 produced organic solvent-stable lipase.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yaowei; Lu, Zhaoxin; Lv, Fengxia; Bie, Xiaomei; Liu, Shu; Ding, Zhongyang; Xu, Weifeng

    2006-12-01

    Thirty-eight high lipase activity strains were isolated from soil, seawater, and Brassica napus. Among them, a novel organic solvent tolerant bacterium (strain M36) was isolated from the seawater in Jiangsu, China. Isolate M36 was able to grow at high concentration of benzene or toluene up to 40% (vol/vol), and later identified as Staphylococcus saprophyticus by biochemical test and 16s ribosomal DNA sequence. No work on Staphylococcus producing lipase with organic solvent tolerance has been reported so far. The lipase of strain M36 whose activity in liquid medium was 42 U mL(-1) at 24-h incubation time was stable in the presence of 25% (vol/vol) p-xylene, benzene, toluene, and hexane.

  4. Directional charge separation in isolated organic semiconductor crystalline nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labastide, J. A.; Thompson, H. B.; Marques, S. R.; Colella, N. S.; Briseno, A. L.; Barnes, M. D.

    2016-02-01

    One of the fundamental design paradigms in organic photovoltaic device engineering is based on the idea that charge separation is an extrinsically driven process requiring an interface for exciton fission. This idea has driven an enormous materials science engineering effort focused on construction of domain sizes commensurate with a nominal exciton diffusion length of order 10 nm. Here, we show that polarized optical excitation of isolated pristine crystalline nanowires of a small molecule n-type organic semiconductor, 7,8,15,16-tetraazaterrylene, generates a significant population of charge-separated polaron pairs along the π-stacking direction. Charge separation was signalled by pronounced power-law photoluminescence decay polarized along the same axis. In the transverse direction, we observed exponential decay associated with excitons localized on individual monomers. We propose that this effect derives from an intrinsic directional charge-transfer interaction that can ultimately be programmed by molecular packing geometry.

  5. Typing of feline calicivirus isolates from different clinical groups by virus neutralisation tests.

    PubMed

    Dawson, S; McArdle, F; Bennett, M; Carter, M; Milton, I P; Turner, P; Meanger, J; Gaskell, R M

    1993-07-03

    One hundred and thirteen isolates of feline calicivirus originating from seven different clinical groups were typed by virus neutralisation tests using eight different cat antisera. The clinical groups comprised 'healthy' cats, cases of acute oral/respiratory disease, chronic stomatitis, acute febrile lameness syndrome, vaccine reactions (clinical disease seen within 21 days of vaccination) and vaccine breakdowns (clinical disease seen more than 21 days after but within one year of vaccination). Isolates from the vaccine reaction cases were grouped into those associated with acute oral/respiratory disease alone and those associated with the lameness syndrome, and the latter group was further subdivided according to the vaccine used. Two groups appeared significantly different from others with some of the antisera. Thus the lameness vaccine reaction isolates associated with vaccine B were significantly different from the isolates from all the other clinical groups, including other lameness isolates, with a number of the antisera. In addition, the chronic stomatitis isolates were significantly different from those from the 'healthy' and the acute oral/respiratory disease groups with one or two of the antisera. Eighty-five to 88 per cent of the isolates were neutralised by antisera raised against F9 or F9-like vaccine strains at a dilution of 1 in 2. Twenty antibody units of such antisera neutralised 42 to 80 per cent of the isolates. A bivalent antiserum raised against a vaccine F9 strain and field strain LS015 neutralised 96 per cent of the isolates at a dilution of 1 in 2, and 20 antibody units neutralised 68 per cent of isolates. Antisera to field strain F65 neutralised all the remaining isolates at a dilution of 1 in 2 and 44 per cent of the remaining isolates at a dilution of 20 antibody units. Therefore, strains LS015 and F65 may be of use in the production of a polyvalent feline calicivirus vaccine, together with the widely used strain F9.

  6. Simple method of isolating humic acids from organic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, O.

    2009-04-01

    Humic substances particularly humic acids (HA) play a major role in soil conditioning e.g. erosion control, soil cation exchange capacity, complexation of heavy metal ions and pesticides, carbon and nitrogen cycles, plant growth and reduction of ammonia volatilization from urea. Humified substances such as coal, composts, and peat soils have substantial amounts of HA but the isolation of these acids is expensive, laborious, and time consuming. Factors that affect the quality and yield of HA isolated from these materials include extraction, fractionation, and purification periods. This work developed a simple, rapid, and cost effective method of isolating HA from peat soils. There was a quadratic relationship between extraction period and HA yield. Optimum extraction period was estimated at 4 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 48 h. There was no relationship between fractionation period and HA yield. As such 2 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 24 h fractionation period could be considered optimum. Low ash content (5%), remarkable reduction in K, coupled with the fact that organic C, E4/E6, carboxylic COOH, phenolic OH, and total acidity values of the HA were consistent with those reported by other authors suggest that the HA dealt with were free from mineral matter. This was possible because the distilled water used to purify the HA served as Bronsted-Lowry acid during the purification process of the HA. Optimum purification period using distilled waster was 1 h instead of the usual range of 1 and 7 days (uses HF and HCl and dialysis). Humic acids could be isolated from tropical peat soils within 7 h (i.e. 4 h extraction, 2 h fractionation, and 1 h purification) instead of the existing period of 2 and 7 days. This could facilitate the idea of producing organic fertilizers such as ammonium-humate and potassium-humate from humified substances since techniques devised in this study did not alter the true nature of the HA. Besides, the technique is rapid, simple

  7. Pancreatic Ductal Perfusion at Organ Procurement Enhances Islet Yield in Human Islet Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Masayuki; Kanak, Mazhar A.; Shahbazov, Rauf; Kunnathodi, Faisal; Lawrence, Michael C.; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Levy, Marlon F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pancreas preservation is a major factor influencing the results of islet cell transplantation. This study evaluated the effects of two different solutions for pancreatic ductal perfusion (PDP) at organ procurement. Methods Eighteen human pancreases were assigned to three groups: non-PDP (control), PDP with ET-Kyoto solution, and PDP with cold storage/purification stock solution. Pancreatic islets were isolated according to the modified Ricordi method. Results No significant differences in donor characteristics, including cold ischemia time, were observed between the three groups. All islet isolations in the PDP groups had >400,000 IEQ in total islet yield post-purification, a significant increase when compared with the control (P = 0.04 and <0.01). The islet quality assessments—including an in vivo diabetic nude mice assay and the response of high-mobility group box protein 1 to cytokine stimulation—also showed no significant differences. The proportion of TUNEL-positive cells showing apoptosis in islets in the PDP groups was significantly lower than in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion Both ET-Kyoto solution and cold storage/purification stock solution are suitable for PDP and consistently resulted in isolation success. Further studies with a larger number of pancreas donors should be done to compare the effects of the PDP solutions. PMID:25058879

  8. Functional group dependent dissociative electron attachment to simple organic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhudesai, Vaibhav S.; Nandi, Dhananjay; Kelkar, Aditya H.; Krishnakumar, E.

    2008-04-01

    Dissociative electron attachment (DEA) cross sections for simple organic molecules, namely, acetic acid, propanoic acid, methanol, ethanol, and n-propyl amine are measured in a crossed beam experiment. We find that the H- ion formation is the dominant channel of DEA for these molecules and takes place at relatively higher energies (>4eV) through the core excited resonances. Comparison of the cross sections of the H- channel from these molecules with those from NH3, H2O, and CH4 shows the presence of functional group dependence in the DEA process. We analyze this new phenomenon in the context of the results reported on other organic molecules. This discovery of functional group dependence has important implications such as control in electron induced chemistry and understanding radiation induced damage in biological systems.

  9. Aflatoxin Production of Species and Strains of the Aspergillus flavus Group Isolated from Field Crops

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, H. W.; Boller, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Peanuts, cottonseed, rice, and sorghum from Texas were sampled over a 3-year period. To insure adequate isolation of alfatoxin-producing species of fungi, low-quality lots were sampled at a rate greater than their respective proportional representation. Aflatoxins were found each year in peanut and cottonseed and were found in 2 of 3 years in rice and sorghum. Aflatoxins were detected in all four crops. The Aspergillus flavus group was much more prevalent in peanut and rice than in cottonseed and sorghum. Of the isolates of the A. flavus group, 96% from peanuts, 79% from cottonseed, 49% from sorghum, and 35% from rice produced aflatoxins. The average toxin production of isolates from rice was much less than that from peanuts, cottonseed, or sorghum. More than 90% of all isolates of the A. flavus group were identified as the species A. flavus. A. parasiticus was isolated from all four crops. Only A. parasiticus produced aflatoxin G. PMID:4197766

  10. Phylogenetic grouping, epidemiological typing, analysis of virulence genes, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from healthy broilers in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was to investigate the possible etiology of avian colibacillosis by examining Escherichia coli isolates from fecal samples of healthy broilers. Findings Seventy-eight E. coli isolates from fecal samples of healthy broilers in Japan were subjected to analysis of phylogenetic background, virulence-associated gene profiling, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), and antimicrobial resistance profiling. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that 35 of the 78 isolates belonged to group A, 28 to group B1, one to group B2, and 14 to group D. Virulence-associated genes iutA, iss, cvaC, tsh, iroN, ompT, and hlyF were found in 23 isolates (29.5%), 16 isolates (20.5%), nine isolates (11.5%), five isolates (6.4%), 19 isolates (24.4%), 23 isolates (29.5%), and 22 isolates (28.2%) respectively. Although the genetic diversity of group D isolates was revealed by MLST, the group D isolates harbored iutA (10 isolates, 71.4%), iss (6 isolates, 42.9%), cvaC (5 isolates, 35.7%), tsh (3 isolates, 21.4%), hlyF (9 isolates, 64.3%), iroN (7 isolates, 50.0%), and ompT (9 isolates, 64.3%). Conclusions Our results indicated that E. coli isolates inhabiting the intestines of healthy broilers pose a potential risk of causing avian colibacillosis. PMID:25061511

  11. Isolating factors that determine the organic enrichment of sea spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantt, B.; Morris, E.; Petters, M. D.; Meskhidze, N.

    2010-12-01

    the sea spray. We calculated organic aerosol enrichment, aerosol number emissions, and CCN number at 0.2% supersaturation as a function of bubble size (~200-1000 µm) and organic compound concentration (mass fractions 10-4 - 10-1 relative to sea salt). Our results indicate that organic film thickness at the artificial seawater surface and the bubble size play major roles in determining the organic enrichment and hygroscopicity of the aerosols formed in the experimental chamber. Decreasing the bubble diameter from 1000 to 200 µm decreased the κ-value of the emitted aerosols from ~1.2 to ~0.6. A κ-value of 0.6 suggests that the aerosol is composed of ~50% organic by volume, a fraction many orders of magnitude greater than organic compound-to-sea salt ratio in the artificial sea water. An organic film thickness > ~1µm at the surface decreases κ-values to < 0.6, reaching κ near 0 for films > 50 µm. This implies that despite the fact that a large number of particles are being emitted above the solution, a 50 µm thick film over the water reduced the number emission of aerosols capable of serving as CCN (at 0.2% super saturation) to near 0. Analysis of our results suggest that in current laboratory studies we were able to isolate several factors controlling organic enrichment and CCN formation potential of sea spray.

  12. Histoblood groups other than HLA in organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nydegger, U E; Riedler, G F; Flegel, W A

    2007-01-01

    Immunological matching of a living related donor and recipient of an allograft is precise, but for cadaver organs matching is controversial, including at least detection of specific sensitization in the recipient against the donor, especially for HLA-DR. With the publication of some cases of ABO histoblood group incompatible transplantations with favorable outcomes, transplantation immunologists now focus on many of the 29 International Society of Blood Transfusion-approved histoblood group systems. So far, research lags behind knowledge about which system occurs in which organ, but modern molecular biology tests, like basic local alignment search tools (BLAST) and the recent inclusion of some systems into the CD classification, make possible the tracking of some histoblood group epitopes to specific tissue components. We have conducted such a search. With respect to tissue distribution, mRNA transcripts, and expressed sequence tags (EST), we observed a huge variety of distribution patterns. The total number of EST in the embryo pool was 752,991 and in the adult pool 1,227,835. Representative results were described for umbilical cord, bone marrow, peripheral stem cells, the nervous system, and the embryo. The ABO histoblood group systems maintain high priority for matching, because of the occurrence of naturally occurring anti-A/B antibodies. Substantial progress has been made in monitoring their levels and immunoglobulin isotypes in recipients, which, beyond hemagglutination, can now be quantitated using ELISA or cytofluorometry. A picture of ever-improving compatibility matching in solid organ and stem cell transplantation beyond mere HLA typing is the consequence.

  13. Classification of Italian isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi into three genomic groups.

    PubMed

    Cinco, M; De Giovannini, R; Fattorini, P; Florian, F; Graziosi, G

    1993-10-01

    In this study we investigated the genotypic characteristics of some locally isolated strains of B. burgdorferi by three different methodologies: restriction endonuclease analysis (REA), Southern blot hybridization with whole DNAs from Borrelia strains and Southern blot hybridization with rRNA 16 + 23S genes derived from E. coli. REA fingerprintings were evaluated by cluster analysis, according to the principles of numerical taxonomy. The genomas of the locally isolated strains were compared with borreliae originating from different countries of Europe, including Sweden and with the American reference strain B31. Among the European strains, some already described by Baranton (Baranton et al., 1992) as representatives of different genomic groups Borrelia sensu stricto and Borrelia garinii were used. By the different techniques the isolates were included in three genomic groups which could correspond to the three genospecies identified by Baranton, namely B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii and B. group VS461: in fact two strains were included in a homogeneous group, probably corresponding to the VS461 genomic group, together with other European borreliae; one isolate was included in a group consisting of B31 and some other European strains already described as belonging to Borrelia burgdorferi in sensu stricto. Finally two isolates were ascribed to a third genomic group probably corresponding to the genospecies indicated as Borrelia garinii. These findings indicate that a small number of Borrelia strains isolated from a very restricted area can be genetically heterogeneous.

  14. Examination of organic compounds from insoluble organic matter isolated from some Antarctic carbonaceous chondrites by heating experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiya, M.; Shimoyama, A.; Harada, K.

    1993-02-01

    Insoluble organic matter isolated from five Antarctic CM2 chondrites was heated in a thermal analyzer from room temperature to 800 C under helium atmosphere. Organic compounds from the thermal decomposition of the Yamato-791198 sample were studied by a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The number of compounds identified was over 120, belonging mainly to the two following groups: (1) benzene and naphthalene, and their alkyl derivatives; and (2) sulfur-containing heterocycles and their alkyl derivatives. Small amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons and nitriles were also detected. Relative amounts of compounds released from the five chondrite samples were monitored by the MS with increasing temperature. Yamato-74662 and Yamato-791198 showed organic compounds mainly over the temperature range of 300-600 C, while the other three (Yamato-793321, Yamato-86720, and Belgica-7904) did not show any, except small amounts of benzene. These results indicate that the insoluble organics in Yamato-74662 and Yamato-791198 possess a thermally labile organic fraction, whereas those in Yamato-793321, Yamato-86720, and Belgica-7904 do not and are graphitic. The difference between the insoluble organic fractions may be related to aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism on the parent bodies.

  15. Comparative genetic organization of incompatibility group P degradative plasmids.

    PubMed Central

    Burlage, R S; Bemis, L A; Layton, A C; Sayler, G S; Larimer, F

    1990-01-01

    Plasmids that encode genes for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds are often examined only for characteristics of the degradative pathways and ignore regions that are necessary for plasmid replication, incompatibility, and conjugation. If these characteristics were known, then the mobility of the catabolic genes between species could be predicted and different catabolic pathways might be combined to alter substrate range. Two catabolic plasmids, pSS50 and pSS60, isolated from chlorobiphenyl-degrading strains and a 3-chlorobenzoate-degrading plasmid, pBR60, were compared with the previously described IncP group (Pseudomonas group P-1) plasmids pJP4 and R751. All three of the former plasmids were also members of the IncP group, although pBR60 is apparently more distantly related. DNA probes specific for known genetic loci were used to determine the order of homologous loci on the plasmids. In all of these plasmids the order is invariant, demonstrating the conservation of this "backbone" region. In addition, all five plasmids display at least some homology with the mercury resistance transposon, Tn501, which has been suggested to be characteristic of the beta subgroup of the IncP plasmids. Plasmids pSS50 and pSS60 have been mapped in detail, and repeat sequences that surround the suspected degradation genes are described. Images PMID:2254257

  16. Chromatin topology is coupled to Polycomb group protein subnuclear organization

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Ajazul H.; Boettiger, Alistair N.; Schorderet, Patrick; Ergun, Ayla; Münger, Christine; Sadreyev, Ruslan I.; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Kingston, Robert E.; Francis, Nicole J.

    2016-01-01

    The genomes of metazoa are organized at multiple scales. Many proteins that regulate genome architecture, including Polycomb group (PcG) proteins, form subnuclear structures. Deciphering mechanistic links between protein organization and chromatin architecture requires precise description and mechanistic perturbations of both. Using super-resolution microscopy, here we show that PcG proteins are organized into hundreds of nanoscale protein clusters. We manipulated PcG clusters by disrupting the polymerization activity of the sterile alpha motif (SAM) of the PcG protein Polyhomeotic (Ph) or by increasing Ph levels. Ph with mutant SAM disrupts clustering of endogenous PcG complexes and chromatin interactions while elevating Ph level increases cluster number and chromatin interactions. These effects can be captured by molecular simulations based on a previously described chromatin polymer model. Both perturbations also alter gene expression. Organization of PcG proteins into small, abundant clusters on chromatin through Ph SAM polymerization activity may shape genome architecture through chromatin interactions. PMID:26759081

  17. Human and tick spotted fever group Rickettsia isolates from Israel: a genotypic analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Manor, E; Ighbarieh, J; Sarov, B; Kassis, I; Regnery, R

    1992-01-01

    The genomes of spotted fever group rickettsiae isolated in different geographical areas of Israel (two from ticks and four from humans, obtained over a span of 20 years) were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction endonuclease fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The human isolates were obtained from patients suffering from rickettsial disease of different degrees of severity. The PCR products obtained with five pairs of oligonucleotide primers (two primer sets derived from the 190-kDa polypeptide gene and three from the 120-kDa polypeptide gene) and cleaved with restriction endonucleases were used to study the Israeli isolates and reference Rickettsia conorii isolates. Subtle differences between the PCR-RFLP patterns of Israeli isolates and the two R. conorii reference strains (Moroccan and no. 7) were seen when the PCR products derived from the 190-kDa gene-derived primer sets were digested. All of the Israeli isolates were identical by RFLP analysis using all of the primer sets. This study showed that the Israeli spotted fever group isolates (from both ticks and humans) were genetically homogeneous by the criteria used in this study, despite the time and location differences in their original isolation, and different as a group from R. conorii. Images PMID:1356998

  18. Molecular characterization of serotype III group B-streptococcus isolates causing neonatal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Bidet, Philippe; Brahimi, Naima; Chalas, Céline; Aujard, Yannick; Bingen, Edouard

    2003-10-15

    We studied a collection of 110 serotype III group B streptococcus (GBS) isolates causing neonatal meningitis, by means of both pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with SmaI and Southern hybridization with probes for genes potentially associated with virulence (neuA, cpsA, scpB, and hylB and, for mobile genetic elements [MGEs], GBSi1 and IS1548), in comparison with 44 serotype III GBS isolates colonizing healthy neonates. Using polymerase chain reaction, we assessed both the insertion of MGEs downstream of the scpB gene and the insertion of IS1548 within the hylB gene. PFGE clustered the isolates into 3 main groups. One PFGE group accounted for 80% of typeable cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) isolates, versus 24% of colonization isolates (P=1.8 x 10-9). GBSi1 was found in 67% of CSF isolates and in only 23% of colonization isolates (P=5.3 x 10-7). A 15-kbp SmaI restriction-DNA fragment bearing the neuA gene was significantly associated with CSF isolates (P=1.1 x 10-11).

  19. Group dynamics and catecholamines during long-duration confinement in an isolated environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Lyons, Terence J.; Binder, Heidi

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objectives of this study were to investigate possible relationships between catecholamine excretion and long-duration confinement in an isolated environment. METHODS: Stays of long duration were made by Group I (n = 4, all Russian, weeks 1-34), Group II (n = 4, mixed nationality, weeks 3-18), and Group III (n = 4, mixed nationality, weeks 22-38); other groups joined the residents for 1-wk intervals at weeks #13, #19, and #33. Data were collected from Groups I and III. RESULTS: In both Group I and Group III, the daily epinephrine excretion was significantly elevated during and after confinement compared with the pre-isolation baseline (p < 0.05), but remained mostly within normal limits during the experiment. During isolation, epinephrine excretion was significantly higher, compared with other weeks in isolation, during weeks #19 and #27 for Group I, and during week #30 for Group III. In both Group I and Group II, norepinephrine excretion increased significantly during and after isolation (p < 0.05) and was above the normal range. The daily norepinephrine excretion was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in Group I during weeks #12, #13, and #27, and during week #30 for Group III. DISCUSSION: Epinephrine excretion generally remained in the normal range. However, occasional elevations occurred due to psychological stress, which apparently correlate with changes in group dynamics. Norepinephrine excretion was above the normal range and was correlated with social events. These results suggest that to ensure optimum crew performance, entire crews along with their visiting crews should be selected collectively, rather than individually.

  20. Antibiotic resistance and penicillin tolerance in clinical isolates of group B streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Betriu, C; Gomez, M; Sanchez, A; Cruceyra, A; Romero, J; Picazo, J J

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility patterns of 100 group B streptococcal strains isolated in our hospital and to ascertain tolerance to penicillin by determining quantitative killing curves. We found two strains with intermediate susceptibility to penicillin and eight strains to ampicillin. Seventeen isolates were tolerant to penicillin, with bacterial counts decreasing 2 to 3 log during the first 8 h but still above 10(2) CFU/ml after 24 h. The kinetic study shows that penicillin tolerance is not rare among group B streptococci isolated in our hospital. PMID:7811042

  1. Clostridium botulinum Group II Isolate Phylogenomic Profiling Using Whole-Genome Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Weedmark, K. A.; Mabon, P.; Hayden, K. L.; Lambert, D.; Van Domselaar, G.; Austin, J. W.

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum group II isolates (n = 163) from different geographic regions, outbreaks, and neurotoxin types and subtypes were characterized in silico using whole-genome sequence data. Two clusters representing a variety of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) types and subtypes were identified by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and core single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. While one cluster included BoNT/B4/F6/E9 and nontoxigenic members, the other comprised a wide variety of different BoNT/E subtype isolates and a nontoxigenic strain. In silico MLST and core SNP methods were consistent in terms of clade-level isolate classification; however, core SNP analysis showed higher resolution capability. Furthermore, core SNP analysis correctly distinguished isolates by outbreak and location. This study illustrated the utility of next-generation sequence-based typing approaches for isolate characterization and source attribution and identified discrete SNP loci and MLST alleles for isolate comparison. PMID:26116673

  2. Clostridium botulinum Group II Isolate Phylogenomic Profiling Using Whole-Genome Sequence Data.

    PubMed

    Weedmark, K A; Mabon, P; Hayden, K L; Lambert, D; Van Domselaar, G; Austin, J W; Corbett, C R

    2015-09-01

    Clostridium botulinum group II isolates (n = 163) from different geographic regions, outbreaks, and neurotoxin types and subtypes were characterized in silico using whole-genome sequence data. Two clusters representing a variety of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) types and subtypes were identified by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and core single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. While one cluster included BoNT/B4/F6/E9 and nontoxigenic members, the other comprised a wide variety of different BoNT/E subtype isolates and a nontoxigenic strain. In silico MLST and core SNP methods were consistent in terms of clade-level isolate classification; however, core SNP analysis showed higher resolution capability. Furthermore, core SNP analysis correctly distinguished isolates by outbreak and location. This study illustrated the utility of next-generation sequence-based typing approaches for isolate characterization and source attribution and identified discrete SNP loci and MLST alleles for isolate comparison.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from organic chicken, conventional chicken, and turkey meat: a comparative survey.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J M; Guarddon, M; Mondragon, A; Vázquez, B I; Fente, C A; Cepeda, A; Franco, C M

    2007-04-01

    The mean counts of Enterococcus spp. were determined for 30 samples each of organic chicken meat, conventional chicken meat, and turkey meat, and differences for Enterococcus contamination in meat were determined. Two enterococci strains from each sample were isolated to obtain a total of 180 strains, and resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, and vancomycin was determined by a disk diffusion method. Average counts obtained showed that Enterococcus mean counts from organic chicken meat (3.18 log CFU/g) were significantly higher than those obtained from conventional chicken meat (2.06 log CFU/g) or conventional turkey meat (1.23 log CFU/g). However, the resistance data obtained showed that isolates from organic chicken meat were less resistant than enterococci isolates from conventional chicken meat to ampicillin (P = 0.0067), chloramphenicol (P = 0.0154), doxycycline (P = 0.0277), ciprofloxacin (P = 0.0024), erythromycin (P = 0.0028), and vancomycin (P = 0.0241). In addition, isolates from organic chicken were less resistant than conventional turkey meat isolates to ciprofloxacin (P = 0.001) and erythromycin (P = 0.0137). Multidrug-resistant isolates were found in every group tested, but rates of multidrug-resistant strains were significantly higher in conventional chicken and turkey than those obtained from organic chicken meat. Enterococcus faecalis was the most common species isolated from organic chicken (36.67%), whereas Enterococcus durans was the most common species isolated from conventional chicken (58.33%) and turkey (56.67%). The rates obtained for antimicrobial resistance suggest that although organic chicken meat may have higher numbers of Enterococcus, these bacteria present a lower level of antimicrobial resistance.

  4. Organized thiol functional groups in mesoporous core shell colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Marchena, Martin H.; Granada, Mara; Bordoni, Andrea V.; Joselevich, Maria; Troiani, Horacio; Williams, Federico J.; Wolosiuk, Alejandro

    2012-03-15

    The co-condensation in situ of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template results in the synthesis of multilayered mesoporous structured SiO{sub 2} colloids with 'onion-like' chemical environments. Thiol groups were anchored to an inner selected SiO{sub 2} porous layer in a bilayered core shell particle producing different chemical regions inside the colloidal layered structure. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) shows a preferential anchoring of the -SH groups in the double layer shell system, while porosimetry and simple chemical modifications confirm that pores are accessible. We can envision the synthesis of interesting colloidal objects with defined chemical environments with highly controlled properties. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous core shell SiO{sub 2} colloids with organized thiol groups. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Double shell mesoporous silica colloids templated with CTAB. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sequential deposition of mesoporous SiO{sub 2} layers with different chemistries. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XPS shows the selective functionalization of mesoporous layers with thiol groups.

  5. Association of social isolation and health across different racial and ethnic groups of older Americans.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2015-11-01

    Social isolation is a social and public health problem that affects people of all ages, especially elders. Previous studies have found that social isolation across numerous industrialised countries is associated with negative health outcomes. However, it is unknown whether and how this association differs by race/ethnicity and age. To begin to address this gap, this study examines the association of social isolation and physical and mental health among Black, White and Hispanic elders in the United States of America. Building on Cornwell and Waite's perceived isolation and social disconnectedness dimension model of social isolation, the author used multi-stage survey data from a nationally representative sample of 3,005 community-residing adults aged 57-85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Tests for association were conducted on health by age, gender, marital status, education and race/ethnicity separately. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to test the association of social isolation and health exclusively and separately among these three groups. Results showed that social isolation is strongly associated with physical and mental health. Both perceived isolation and social disconnectedness had a significant negative association with physical and mental health among White elders. For Blacks, social disconnectedness is negatively associated with their physical health while perceived isolation had a negative association with mental health. Among Hispanic elders, there seemed to be no association between social isolation and physical health, but a significant negative association was found with their mental health. Despite various associated patterns, however, social isolation overall was associated with health outcomes that were similar across three elder groups. By identifying factors influencing social isolation and health among minority older Americans, this study has relevance to the development of culturally sensitive health

  6. Association of social isolation and health across different racial and ethnic groups of older Americans

    PubMed Central

    MIYAWAKI, CHRISTINA E.

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation is a social and public health problem that affects people of all ages, especially elders. Previous studies have found that social isolation across numerous industrialised countries is associated with negative health outcomes. However, it is unknown whether and how this association differs by race/ethnicity and age. To begin to address this gap, this study examines the association of social isolation and physical and mental health among Black, White and Hispanic elders in the United States of America. Building on Cornwell and Waite's perceived isolation and social disconnectedness dimension model of social isolation, the author used multi-stage survey data from a nationally representative sample of 3,005 community-residing adults aged 57–85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Tests for association were conducted on health by age, gender, marital status, education and race/ethnicity separately. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to test the association of social isolation and health exclusively and separately among these three groups. Results showed that social isolation is strongly associated with physical and mental health. Both perceived isolation and social disconnectedness had a significant negative association with physical and mental health among White elders. For Blacks, social disconnectedness is negatively associated with their physical health while perceived isolation had a negative association with mental health. Among Hispanic elders, there seemed to be no association between social isolation and physical health, but a significant negative association was found with their mental health. Despite various associated patterns, however, social isolation overall was associated with health outcomes that were similar across three elder groups. By identifying factors influencing social isolation and health among minority older Americans, this study has relevance to the development of culturally sensitive health

  7. Report of the Organic Contamination Science Steering Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Beaty, D. W.; Anderson, M. S.; Aveni, G.; Bada, J. L.; Clemett, S. J.; DesMaris, D. J.; Douglas, S.; Dworkin, J. P.; Kern, R. G.

    2004-01-01

    The exploration of the possible emergence and duration of life on Mars from landed platforms requires attention to the quality of measurements that address these objectives. In particular, the potential impact of terrestrial contamination on the measurement of reduced carbon with sensitive in situ instruments must be addressed in order to reach definitive conclusions regarding the source of organic molecules. Following the recommendation of the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) at its September 2003 meeting [MEPAG, 2003], the Mars Program Office at NASA Headquarters chartered the Organic Contamination Science Steering Group (OCSSG) to address this issue. The full report of the six week study of the OCSSG can be found on the MEPAG web site [1]. The study was intended to define the contamination problem and to begin to suggest solutions that could provide direction to the engineering teams that design and produce the Mars landed systems. Requirements set by the Planetary Protection Policy in effect for any specific mission do not directly address this question of the potential interference from terrestrial contaminants during in situ measurements.

  8. Regulatory Organizations and Their Requirements. MAS-113. Waste Isolation Division (WID). Management and Supervisor Training (MAST) Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM.

    This learning module, which is part of a management and supervisor training program for managers and supervisors employed at the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Division, is designed to enable trainees to identify regulatory organizations and oversight groups and monitor and provide guidance in the implementation of the requirements of…

  9. Functional group analysis of natural organic colloids and clay association kinetics using C(1s) spectromicroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, T.; Hertkorn, N.; Artinger, R.; Claret, F.; Bauer, A.

    2003-03-01

    The quantification of natural humic colloid functional group content and chemical association of humic substances with clay minerals exerts a crucial role in the colloid-borne mobility of actinides due to the functional group dependent strong interaction with multivalent metal ions. Functional group quantification in isolated fulvic acids of the Gorleben groundwater (Lower Saxony, NW Germany) by comparison of high resolution C(1s) NEXAFS spectra deconvolution with ^{13}C-NMR measurements showed good correlation (r^2> 0.9) and gives a potential quantification tool in complex natural groundwater Systems. Time resolved soft X-ray spectromicroscopy on dissolved organic carbon stabilized SWy-2 smectite colloids revealed an enrichment of carboxyl groups on broken edges (silanol/aluminol groups) at short contact times (1h). With longer contact times (7d, 6 months) the clay associated organic carbon increases and significantly higher aromatic content associated with basal surfaces were detected. The enhanced sorption of aromatic compounds can be related to an increase in mineral surface hydrophobicity and/or preferential sorption on charged siloxane surfaces.

  10. Evaluation of colistin and nalidixic acid in Todd-Hewitt broth for selective isolation of group B streptocci.

    PubMed

    Fenton, L J; Harper, M H

    1979-02-01

    Todd-Hewitt broth (THB) containing colistin and nalidixic acid was compared with four other media with respect to efficacy of isolation of group B streptocci. It was effective as plain THB, THB with gentamicin and nalidixic acid and blood, and THB with colistin, nalidixic acid, and blood. THB with gentamicin and nalidixic acid, but without blood, was inhibitory to group B streptocci. The value of THB with colistin and nalidixic acid lies in its ability to successfully inhibit gram-negative organisms and still promote group B streptococcal growth without the addition of blood. This greatly reduces the time and expense of media preparation and permits early determination of bacterial growth, so that other means of rapidly identifying group B streptocci can be applied at the earliest possible time.

  11. Evaluation of colistin and nalidixic acid in Todd-Hewitt broth for selective isolation of group B streptocci.

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, L J; Harper, M H

    1979-01-01

    Todd-Hewitt broth (THB) containing colistin and nalidixic acid was compared with four other media with respect to efficacy of isolation of group B streptocci. It was effective as plain THB, THB with gentamicin and nalidixic acid and blood, and THB with colistin, nalidixic acid, and blood. THB with gentamicin and nalidixic acid, but without blood, was inhibitory to group B streptocci. The value of THB with colistin and nalidixic acid lies in its ability to successfully inhibit gram-negative organisms and still promote group B streptococcal growth without the addition of blood. This greatly reduces the time and expense of media preparation and permits early determination of bacterial growth, so that other means of rapidly identifying group B streptocci can be applied at the earliest possible time. PMID:372220

  12. Separate O-grouping schemes for serotyping clinical isolates of Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Penner, J L; Hennessy, J N

    1980-09-01

    Antisera were prepared against type strains of the original scheme of B. Perch (Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. 25:703-714, 1948) and against newly defined types to produce separate schemes for O-grouping Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis. In assessing the schemes for their effectiveness it was found that 82% of 208 P. vulgaris isolates and 88% of 194 P. mirabilis isolates from two hospitals were typable. Only 3.4% of the P. vulgaris isolates agglutinated in P. mirabilis antisera, and 1.5% of the P. mirabilis agglutinated in P. vulgaris antisera, indicating that separation of the schemes would be more advantageous in routine typing. P. mirabilis of groups O3, O6, O10, O29, and O30 were most frequently isolated. Of the P. vulgaris isolates, 25% belonged to newly defined O-groups, and one of these was the largest with 14% of all isolates of this species. The application of serotyping using separate schemes for each species was advocated in epidemiological studies.

  13. Classification of Isolates from the Pseudomonas fluorescens Complex into Phylogenomic Groups Based in Group-Specific Markers

    PubMed Central

    Garrido-Sanz, Daniel; Arrebola, Eva; Martínez-Granero, Francisco; García-Méndez, Sonia; Muriel, Candela; Blanco-Romero, Esther; Martín, Marta; Rivilla, Rafael; Redondo-Nieto, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The Pseudomonas fluorescens complex of species includes plant-associated bacteria with potential biotechnological applications in agriculture and environmental protection. Many of these bacteria can promote plant growth by different means, including modification of plant hormonal balance and biocontrol. The P. fluorescens group is currently divided into eight major subgroups in which these properties and many other ecophysiological traits are phylogenetically distributed. Therefore, a rapid phylogroup assignment for a particular isolate could be useful to simplify the screening of putative inoculants. By using comparative genomics on 71 P. fluorescens genomes, we have identified nine markers which allow classification of any isolate into these eight subgroups, by a presence/absence PCR test. Nine primer pairs were developed for the amplification of these markers. The specificity and sensitivity of these primer pairs were assessed on 28 field isolates, environmental samples from soil and rhizosphere and tested by in silico PCR on 421 genomes. Phylogenomic analysis validated the results: the PCR-based system for classification of P. fluorescens isolates has a 98.34% of accuracy and it could be used as a rapid and simple assay to evaluate the potential of any P. fluorescens complex strain. PMID:28360897

  14. Group B streptococcus colonization of Romanian women: phenotypic traits of isolates from vaginal swabs.

    PubMed

    Usein, Codruţa-Romaniţa; Petrini, Anca; Georgescu, Raluca; Grigore, Laura; Străuţ, Monica; Ungureanu, Vasilica

    2009-01-01

    In the attempt to enrich the local contemporary laboratory data regarding the group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization, isolates obtained from the vaginal swab cultures were characterized for their serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility. The 100 GBS isolates analyzed were collected during a four-month period of year 2009 from women screened in ambulatory for vaginal carriage of GBS. The GBS isolates were classified based on their capsular polysaccharide structures using commercially available antisera. Susceptibility to penicillin, ampicillin, erithromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, ofloxacin, and chloramphenicol was initially tested using antibiotic disk diffusion technique according to CLSI guidelines. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of erythromycin and tetracycline for the isolates with reduced susceptibility were evaluated according to the CLSI criteria and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) resistance was investigated by a double-disk test with erythromycin and clindamycin disks. All the GBS isolates were serotypeable. Their distribution comprised six different serotypes of which serotypes II (26%), III (26%), and Ia (19%) prevailed and no serotype VI, VII, and VIII isolates were found. Overall, the GBS isolates were fully susceptible to penicillin and ampicillin, but the rates of susceptibility to the other antimicrobial agents tested were decreased, ranging from 87% for chloramphenicol to 5% for tetracycline. Reduced susceptibility to clindamycin and erythromycin was detected in 18% and 19% of isolates, respectively. For the latter, 84% displayed a constitutive MLSB phenotype, 11% had an inducible MLSB phenotype, and M phenotype was expressed by 5% of them. Erythromycin-resistant GBS isolates displayed concurrently resistance to at least one more antibiotic. In conclusion, according to our study the most frequent GBS serotypes isolated from the vaginal microflora were II and III, followed by serotype Ia. While the GBS isolates

  15. Effect of Habitat Size, Quality, and Isolation on Functional Groups of Beetles in Hollow Oaks

    PubMed Central

    Pilskog, Hanne Eik; Birkemoe, Tone; Framstad, Erik; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest threats to biodiversity is land use change and habitat loss. Hollow oaks (Quercus spp. L.) are well-defined patches that are hotspots for biodiversity and red-listed species, but they are often rare and fragmented in the landscape. We investigated the effect of patch size, habitat quality, and isolation on functional groups and red-listed saproxylic beetles in hollow oaks (n = 40) in Norway. The groups were defined by host tree association, trophic grouping, and red-listed status. Habitat quality, represented by tree form was most important in explaining species richness for most groups. Patch size, represented by circumference and amount of dead branches, was most important in explaining abundance. Isolation, that is single oaks compared with oaks in groups, had a negative effect on the abundance of beetles feeding both on wood and fungi (xylomycethopagous), as well as on species associated with broadleaved trees (oak semi-specialists), but did not affect species richness. This indicates that at this scale and in this landscape, isolated oaks are as species rich and valuable for conservation as other oaks, although some functional groups may be more vulnerable to isolation than others. The red-listed species only responded to patch size, indicating that oaks with large circumference and many dead branches are especially important for red-listed species and for conservation. PMID:26945089

  16. Effect of Habitat Size, Quality, and Isolation on Functional Groups of Beetles in Hollow Oaks.

    PubMed

    Pilskog, Hanne Eik; Birkemoe, Tone; Framstad, Erik; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest threats to biodiversity is land use change and habitat loss. Hollow oaks (Quercus spp. L.) are well-defined patches that are hotspots for biodiversity and red-listed species, but they are often rare and fragmented in the landscape. We investigated the effect of patch size, habitat quality, and isolation on functional groups and red-listed saproxylic beetles in hollow oaks (n = 40) in Norway. The groups were defined by host tree association, trophic grouping, and red-listed status. Habitat quality, represented by tree form was most important in explaining species richness for most groups. Patch size, represented by circumference and amount of dead branches, was most important in explaining abundance. Isolation, that is single oaks compared with oaks in groups, had a negative effect on the abundance of beetles feeding both on wood and fungi (xylomycethopagous), as well as on species associated with broadleaved trees (oak semi-specialists), but did not affect species richness. This indicates that at this scale and in this landscape, isolated oaks are as species rich and valuable for conservation as other oaks, although some functional groups may be more vulnerable to isolation than others. The red-listed species only responded to patch size, indicating that oaks with large circumference and many dead branches are especially important for red-listed species and for conservation.

  17. Photosensitized degradation of amoxicillin in natural organic matter isolate solutions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haomin; Cooper, William J; Jung, Jinyoung; Song, Weihua

    2011-01-01

    Amoxicillin is a widely used antibiotic and has been detected in natural waters. Its environmental fate is in part determined by hydrolysis, and, direct and indirect photolysis. The hydrolysis rate in distilled water and water to which five different isolated of dissolved organic matter (DOM) was added, were evaluated. In the five different DOM solutions hydrolysis accounted for 5-18% loss of amoxicillin. Direct and indirect photolysis rates were determined using a solar simulator and it appeared that indirect photolysis was the dominant loss mechanism. Direct photolysis, in a solar simulator, accounted for 6-21% loss of amoxicillin in the simulated natural waters. The steady-state concentrations of singlet oxygen, (1)ΔO(2) (∼10(-13) M) and hydroxyl radical, •OH (∼10(-17) M) were obtained in aqueous solutions of five different dissolved organic matter samples using a solar simulator. The bimolecular reaction rate constant of (1)ΔO(2) with amoxicillin was measured in the different solutions, k(ΔO(2)) = 1.44 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1). The sunlight mediated amoxicillin loss rate with (1)ΔO(2) (∼10(-9) s(-1)), and with •OH (∼10(-7) s(-1)), were also determined for the different samples of DOM. While (1)ΔO(2) only accounted for 0.03-0.08% of the total loss rate, the hydroxyl radical contributed 10-22%. It appears that the direct reaction of singlet and triplet excited state DOM ((3)DOM(∗)) with amoxicillin accounts for 48-74% of the loss of amoxicillin. Furthermore, the pseudo first-order photodegradation rate showed a positive correlation with the sorption of amoxicillin to DOM, which further supported the assumption that excited state DOM∗ plays a key role in the photochemical transformation of amoxicillin in natural waters. This is the first study to report the relative contribution of all five processes to the fate of amoxicillin in aqueous solution.

  18. Portability of tag SNPs across isolated population groups: an example from India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar Roy, N; Farheen, S; Roy, N; Sengupta, S; Majumder, P P

    2008-01-01

    Isolated population groups are useful in conducting association studies of complex diseases to avoid various pitfalls, including those arising from population stratification. Since DNA resequencing is expensive, it is recommended that genotyping be carried out at tagSNP (tSNP) loci. For this, tSNPs identified in one isolated population need to be used in another. Unless tSNPs are highly portable across populations this strategy may result in loss of information in association studies. We examined the issue of tSNP portability by sampling individuals from 10 isolated ethnic groups from India. We generated DNA resequencing data pertaining to 3 genomic regions and identified tSNPs in each population. We defined an index of tSNP portability and showed that portability is low across isolated Indian ethnic groups. The extent of portability did not significantly correlate with genetic similarity among the populations studied here. We also analyzed our data with sequence data from individuals of African and European descent. Our results indicated that it may be necessary to carry out resequencing in a small number of individuals to discover SNPs and identify tSNPs in the specific isolated population in which a disease association study is to be conducted.

  19. Group extraction of organic compounds present in liquid samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnsen, Vilhelm J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An extraction device is disclosed comprising a tube containing a substantially inert, chemically non-reactive packing material with a large surface area to volume ratio. A sample which consists of organic compounds dissolved in a liquid, is introduced into the tube. As the sample passes through the packing material it spreads over the material's large surface area to form a thin liquid film which is held on the packing material in a stationary state. A particular group or family of compounds is extractable from the sample by passing a particular solvent system consisting of a solvent and selected reagents through the packing material. The reagents cause optimum conditions to exist for the compounds of the particular family to pass through the phase boundary between the sample liquid and the solvent of the solvent system. Thus, the compounds of the particular family are separated from the sample liquid and become dissolved in the solvent of the solvent system. The particular family of compounds dissolved in the solvent, representing an extract, exits the tube together with the solvent through the tube's nozzle, while the rest of the sample remains on the packing material in a stationary state. Subsequently, a different solvent system may be passed through the packing material to extract another family of compounds from the remaining sample on the packing material.

  20. Genotyping of erythromycin resistant group C & G streptococci isolated in Chennai, south India

    PubMed Central

    Prabu, D.; Menon, Thangam

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Increasing resistance to erythromycin has been observed worldwide in group C and group G streptococci (GCS/GGS). The information available from India is scanty. The aim of the study was to identify erythromycin resistant GCS/GGS isolates in Chennai, south India, and to compare erythromycin resistant genotypes with emm types. Methods: One hundred and thirty one GCS/GGS isolates were tested for erythromycin resistance by disc diffusion and agar dilution methods. Erythromycin resistance genotypes [erm(A), erm(B) and mef(A)] were determined by a multiplex PCR. emm types of erythromycin resistant GCS/GGS isolates was also assessed using emm gene sequencing method. Results: Sixteen of the 131 isolates (12.21%) were resistant to erythromycin. Majority of the isolates were GGS (15/16). Eight of the 16 (50%) were S. dysgalactiae subsps. equisimilis. Twelve isolates (75%) were MLSB phenotype and four (25%) were M phenotype. Of the 12 isolates which exhibited MLSB resistance, seven showed cMLSB phenotype and were positive for erm(B) gene. The remaining five were iMLSB phenotype of which three were positive for erm(A) gene and two for erm(B) gene. erm(A) was common among carriers whereas erm(B) was common among clinical isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: MLSB was the predominant phenotype and erm(B) was the common genotype in the present study. The emm type stC1400.0 was frequently associated with erythromycin resistant GCS/GGS in our study. PMID:23481067

  1. Whole-Genome Sequences of Four Corynebacterium CDC Group F-1 Strains Isolated from Urine

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, Anne-Marie; Peters, Geoffrey A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Three draft and one complete genome sequence from strains isolated from urine and consistent with Corynebacterium CDC group F-1 were assembled and studied. Genome sizes ranged between 2.3 and 2.44 Mb, with G+C content between 60.4% and 60.7%. PMID:28153894

  2. Clinical features of group B Streptococcus prosthetic joint infections and molecular characterization of isolates.

    PubMed

    Corvec, S; Illiaquer, M; Touchais, S; Boutoille, D; van der Mee-Marquet, N; Quentin, R; Reynaud, A; Lepelletier, D; Bémer, P

    2011-01-01

    Twelve group B Streptococcus (GBS) prosthetic joint infection (PJI) cases are reported. The mean patient age was 55 years. Eleven infections were caused by GBS alone. The associated isolates belonged to phylogenetic lineages different from those that cause neonatal meningitis. The clinical outcome was favorable for the eight patients for whom follow-up data were available.

  3. Clinical Features of Group B Streptococcus Prosthetic Joint Infections and Molecular Characterization of Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Corvec, S.; Illiaquer, M.; Touchais, S.; Boutoille, D.; van der Mee-Marquet, N.; Quentin, R.; Reynaud, A.; Lepelletier, D.; Bémer, P.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve group B Streptococcus (GBS) prosthetic joint infection (PJI) cases are reported. The mean patient age was 55 years. Eleven infections were caused by GBS alone. The associated isolates belonged to phylogenetic lineages different from those that cause neonatal meningitis. The clinical outcome was favorable for the eight patients for whom follow-up data were available. PMID:21068273

  4. Streptococcus anginosus (milleri) Group Strains Isolated in Poland (1996-2012) and their Antibiotic Resistance Patterns.

    PubMed

    Obszańska, Katarzyna; Kern-Zdanowicz, Izabella; Kozińska, Aleksandra; Machura, Katarzyna; Stefaniuk, Elzbieta; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Sitkiewicz, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus constellatus form a group of related streptococcal species, namely the Streptococcus Anginosus Group (SAG). The group, previously called "milleri" had been rarely described until 1980/1990 as source of infections. Nowadays SAG bacteria are often described as pathogens causing predominantly purulent infections. The number of infections is highly underestimated, as SAG strains are often classified in the microbiology laboratory as less virulent "viridans streptococci" Epidemiological situation regarding SAG infections in Poland has been unrecognized, therefore we performed a retrospective analysis of strains isolated between 1996 and 2012. Strains suspected of belonging to SAG were re-identified using an automated biochemical approach (Vitek2) and MALDI-TOF MS. We performed first analysis of antibiotic resistance among SAG strains isolated in Poland using automated methods (Vitek2), disk diffusion tests and E-Tests. We also performed PCR detection of resistance determinants in antibiotic resistant strains. Clonal structure of analyzed strains was evaluated with PFGE and MLVF methods. All three species are difficult to distinguish using automated diagnostic methods and the same is true for automated MIC evaluation. Our analysis revealed SAG strains are rarely isolated in Poland, predominantly from purulent infections. All isolates are very diverse on the genomic level as estimated by PFGE and MLVF analyses. All analyzed strains are sensitive to penicillin, a substantial group of strains is resistant to macrolides and the majority of strains are resistant to tetracycline.

  5. A method of isolating organic compounds present in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calder, G. V.; Fritz, J.; Junk, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    Water sample is passed through a column containing macroreticular resin, which absorbs only nonionic organic compounds. These compounds are selectively separated using aqueous eluents of varying pH, or completely exuded with small amount of an organic eluent.

  6. Development of EUCAST disk diffusion method for susceptibility testing of the Bacteroides fragilis group isolates.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Elisabeth; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Eitel, Zsuzsa; Urbán, Edit

    2015-02-01

    With the emergence of antibiotic resistance among Bacteroides fragilis group isolates the need of susceptibility testing in routine laboratories is increasing. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the disk diffusion method for susceptibility testing in case of different clinical isolates of Bacteroides spp by comparing zone diameter results with MICs obtained earlier during an Europe-wide antibiotic susceptibility surveillance, and to propose zone diameter breakpoints, which correlate for the EUCAST MIC breakpoints. We tested 381 clinical isolates of the B. fragilis group to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, tigecycline by agar dilution method previously. The inhibition zones of the same antibiotics including meropenem disc were determined by the disc diffusion on Brucella blood agar supplemented with haemin and vitamin K1. Plates were incubated at 37 °C in an anaerobic atmosphere for 24 h. The zone diameters were read at 100% inhibition. In case of discrepant results MICs were determined by gradient test and compared with the inhibition zones on the same plate. We found a good agreement between the inhibition zone diameters and the MICs for imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin and tigecyclin. The inhibition zone diameters of meropenem also separated clearly the isolates, which can be considered wild-type isolates. In case of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and piperacillin/tazobactam intermediate and susceptible isolates according to the MIC determination, overlap during the zone diameter determination. Isolates with an inhibition zone <23 mm for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and <25 mm for piperacillin/tazobactam should be retested by a MIC determination method. The 10 μg clindamycin disc clearly separated the resistant and the susceptible population of B. fragilis group strains. In the case of cefoxitin only resistant population could be separated with an inhibition

  7. Homochiral helical metal-organic frameworks of group 1 metals.

    PubMed

    Reger, Daniel L; Leitner, Andrew; Smith, Mark D; Tran, T Thao; Halasyamani, P Shiv

    2013-09-03

    The reactions of (S)-2-(1,8-naphthalimido)propanoic acid (HL(ala)) and (S)-2-(1,8-naphthalimido)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid (HL(ser)), protonated forms of ligands that contain a carboxylate donor group, an enantiopure chiral center, and a 1,8-naphthalimide π···π stacking supramolecular tecton and in the case of HL(ser) an alcohol functional group, with the appropriate alkali metal hydroxide followed by a variety of crystallization methods leads to the formation of crystalline K(L(ala))(MeOH) (1), K(L(ala))(H2O) (2), Na(L(ala))(H2O) (3), KL(ser) (4), CsL(ser) (5), and CsL(ala) (6). Each of these new complexes has a solid state structure based on six-coordinate metals linked into homochiral helical rod secondary building unit (SBU) central cores. In addition to the bonding of the carboxylate and solvent (in the case of L(ser) the ligand alcohol) to the metals, both oxygens on the 1,8-naphthalimide act as donor groups. One naphthalimide oxygen bonds to the same helical rod SBU as the carboxylate group of that ligand forming a chelate ring. The other naphthalimide oxygen bonds to adjacent SBUs. In complexes 1-3, this inter-rod link has a square arrangement bonding four other rods forming a three-dimensional enantiopure metal-organic framework (MOF) structure, whereas in 4-6 this link has a linear arrangement bonding two other rods forming a two-dimensional, sheet structure. In the latter case, the third dimension is supported exclusively by interdigitated π···π stacking interactions of the naphthalimide supramolecular tecton, forming enantiopure supramolecular MOF solids. Compounds 1-3 lose the coordinated solvent when heating above 100 °C. For 1, the polycrystalline powder reverts to 1 only by recrystallization from methanol, whereas compounds 2 and 3 undergo gas/solid, single-crystal to single-crystal transformations to form dehydrated compounds 2* and 3*, and rehydration occurs when crystals of these new complexes are left out in air. The reversible single

  8. Identification and characterization of genetic cluster groups of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans isolated from the human oral cavity.

    PubMed Central

    DiRienzo, J M; McKay, T L

    1994-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is recognized as a primary pathogen in localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP). Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) within a collection of subgingival plaque isolates of this bacterium were identified and characterized as the first step in understanding the pathogenesis of LJP. Over 800 isolates, from members of 18 families (LJP families) with at least one member with active LJP or a documented history of the disease and one or more siblings, less than 13 years of age, having no clinical evidence of LJP and 32 healthy control subjects, were assigned to one of 13 distinct RFLP groups (II to XIV) by using a previously characterized 4.7-kb DNA probe cloned from the reference strain FDC Y4. Isolates belonging to RFLP groups II, IV, V, and XIII predominated subgingival sites in the subjects. Members of RFLP groups II, IV, VII, VIII, X, and XI were recovered only from LJP family subjects, while group XIII and XIV variants were found exclusively in healthy controls. A synthetic oligonucleotide, homologous to the 5' end of the leukotoxin gene (lktA), and the A. actinomycetemcomitans plasmid, pVT745, were tested for their abilities to subdivide the 13 RFLP groups. The leukotoxin probe specifically identified all RFLP group II variants because of the absence of a HindIII site in the upstream noncoding region of the lkt gene complex. The plasmid probe was not as selective but may be useful for identifying clinical isolates belonging to RFLP group I. The use of these probes for the identification of genetic variants of A. actinomycetemcomitans that may be preferentially colonize diseased and healthy subjects will facilitate the study of the role of this important pathogen in periodontal diseases. Images PMID:7907346

  9. 75 FR 69469 - Health Net, Inc., Claims Processing Group and Systems Configuration Organization, Including On...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... Group and Systems Configuration Organization and provided application support and information technology... Employment and Training Administration Health Net, Inc., Claims Processing Group and Systems Configuration Organization, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services and Cognizant Technology Solutions,...

  10. Outbreeding lethality between toxic Group I and nontoxic Group III Alexandrium tamarense spp. isolates: Predominance of heterotypic encystment and implications for mating interactions and biogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosnahan, Michael L.; Kulis, David M.; Solow, Andrew R.; Erdner, Deana L.; Percy, Linda; Lewis, Jane; Anderson, Donald M.

    2010-02-01

    We report the zygotic encystment of geographically dispersed isolates in the dinoflagellate species complex Alexandrium tamarense, in particular, successful mating of toxic Group I and nontoxic Group III isolates. However, hypnozygotes produced in Group I/III co-cultures complete no more than three divisions after germinating. Previous reports have suggested a mate recognition mechanism whereby hypnozygotes produced in co-cultures could arise from either homotypic (inbred) or heterotypic (outbred) gamete pairs. To determine the extent to which each occurs, a nested PCR assay was developed to determine parentage of individual hypnozygotes. The vast majority of hypnozygotes from pairwise Group I/III co-cultures were outbred, so that inviability was a result of hybridization, not inbreeding. These findings support the assertion that complete speciation underlies the phylogenetic structure of the Alexandrium tamarense species complex. Additionally, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) copy numbers of both hybrid and single ribotype hypnozygotes were reduced substantially from those of haploid motile cells. The destruction of rDNA loci may be crucial for the successful mating of genetically distant conjugants and appears integral to the process of encystment. The inviability of Group I/III hybrids is important for public health because the presence of hybrid cysts may indicate ongoing displacement of a nontoxic population by a toxic one (or vice versa). Hybrid inviability also suggests a bloom control strategy whereby persistent, toxic Group I blooms could be mitigated by introduction of nontoxic Group III cells. The potential for hybridization in nature was investigated by applying the nested PCR assay to hypnozygotes from Belfast Lough, Northern Ireland, a region where Group I and III populations co-occur. Two hybrid cysts were identified in 14 successful assays, demonstrating that Group I and III populations do interbreed in that region. However, an analysis of mating data

  11. Isolation and characterization of hyaluronic acid from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Giji, Sadhasivam; Arumugam, Muthuvel

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) being a viscous slippery substance is a multifunctional glue with immense therapeutic applications such as ophthalmic surgery, orthopedic surgery and rheumatology, drug delivery systems, pulmonary pathology, joint pathologies, and tissue engineering. Although HA has been isolated from terrestrial origin (human umbilical cord, rooster comb, bacterial sources, etc.) so far, the increasing interest on this polysaccharide significantly aroused the alternative search from marine sources since it is at the preliminary level. Enthrallingly, marine environments are considered more biologically diverse than terrestrial environments. Although numerous methods have been described for the extraction and purification of HA, the hitch on the isolation methods which greatly influences the yield as well as the molecular weight of the polymer still exists. Adaptation of suitable method is essential in this venture. Stimulated by the developed technology, to sketch the steps involved in isolation and analytical techniques for characterization of this polymer, a brief report on the concerned approach has been reviewed.

  12. Genomic Characterization of Group C Orthobunyavirus Reference Strains and Recent South American Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu; Solórzano, Víctor Fiestas; Kuschner, Robert A.; Halsey, Eric S.; Jarman, Richard G.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2014-01-01

    Group C orthobunyaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus), discovered in the 1950s, are vector-borne human pathogens in the Americas. Currently there is a gap in genomic information for group C viruses. In this study, we obtained complete coding region sequences of reference strains of Caraparu (CARV), Oriboca (ORIV), Marituba (MTBV) and Madrid (MADV) viruses, and five clinical isolates from Peru and Bolivia, using an unbiased de novo approach consisting of random reverse transcription, random anchored PCR amplification, and high throughput pyrosequencing. The small, medium, and large segments encode for a 235 amino acid nucleocapsid protein, an approximately 1430 amino acid surface glycoprotein polyprotein precursor, and a 2248 amino acid RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Additionally, the S segment encodes for an 83 amino acid non-structural protein, although this protein is truncated or silenced in some isolates. Phylogenetically, three clinical isolates clustered with CARV, one clustered with MTBV, and one isolate appeared to be a reassortant or a genetic drift resulted from the high variability of the medium segment which was also seen in a few other orthobunyaviruses. These data represent the first complete coding region sequences for this serocomplex of pathogenic orthobunyaviruses. The genome-wide phylogeny of reference strains is consistent with the antigenic properties of the viruses reported in the original serological studies conducted in the 1960s. Comparative analysis of conserved protein regions across group C virus strains and the other orthobunyavirus groups revealed that these group C viruses contain characteristic domains of potential structural and functional significance. Our results provide the basis for the developments of diagnostics, further genetic analyses, and future epidemiologic studies of group C viruses. PMID:24633174

  13. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of "Streptococcus milleri" group isolates from a Veterans Administration hospital population.

    PubMed

    Clarridge, J E; Osting, C; Jalali, M; Osborne, J; Waddington, M

    1999-11-01

    Because identification of the species within the "Streptococcus milleri" group is difficult for the clinical laboratory as the species share overlapping phenotypic characteristics, we wished to confirm biochemical identification with identification by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Ninety-four clinical isolates previously identified as the "Streptococcus milleri" group were reclassified as S. anginosus, S. constellatus, or S. intermedius with the API 20 Strep system (bioMerieux Vikek, Hazelton, Mo.) and the Fluo-card (Key Scientific, Round Rock, Tex.). In addition, we determined the Lancefield group, hemolysis, colony size, colony texture, repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) pattern, and cellular fatty acid (CFA) profile (MIDI, Newark, Del.). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis with 40 selected representative strains showed three distinct groups, with S. constellatus and S. intermedius found to be more closely related to each other than to S. anginosus, and further distinguished a biochemically distinct group of urogenital isolates within the S. anginosus group of isolates. Except for strains unreactive with the Fluo-card (8%), all S. anginosus and S. intermedius strains identified by sequencing were similarly identified by biochemical testing. However, 23% of the selected S. constellatus isolates identified by sequencing (9% of all S. constellatus isolates) would have been identified as S. anginosus or S. intermedius by biochemical tests. Although most S. anginosus strains formed one unique cluster by CFA analysis and most S. constellatus strains showed similar rep-PCR patterns, neither method was sufficiently dependable for identification. Whereas Lancefield group or lactose fermentation did not correspond to sequence or biochemical type, S. constellatus was most likely to be beta-hemolytic and S. intermedius was most likely to have a dry colony type. The most frequent isolate in our population was S. constellatus, followed by S. anginosus. There was an

  14. Population biology of intestinal enterococcus isolates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Tedim, Ana P; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2015-03-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  15. Population Biology of Intestinal Enterococcus Isolates from Hospitalized and Nonhospitalized Individuals in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Tedim, Ana P.; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M.; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J.; Baquero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  16. Group Collaboration in Organizations: Architectures, Methodologies and Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    Communication (From Schrage, 1995). ....................13 Figure 2. Collaborative Model (From: Schrage, 1995...At different times Asynchronous Communication : Communication between parties that takes place at different time. The message is sent at one...together as a group Group Support Systems (GSS): Information systems that support the work of groups ( communication , decision making) xvi

  17. Amino Acid Composition of an Organic Brown Rice Protein Concentrate and Isolate Compared to Soy and Whey Concentrates and Isolates.

    PubMed

    Kalman, Douglas S

    2014-06-30

    A protein concentrate (Oryzatein-80™) and a protein isolate (Oryzatein-90™) from organic whole-grain brown rice were analyzed for their amino acid composition. Two samples from different batches of Oryzatein-90™ and one sample of Oryzatein-80™ were provided by Axiom Foods (Los Angeles, CA, USA). Preparation and analysis was carried out by Covance Laboratories (Madison, WI, USA). After hydrolysis in 6-N hydrochloric acid for 24 h at approximately 110 °C and further chemical stabilization, samples were analyzed by HPLC after pre-injection derivitization. Total amino acid content of both the isolate and the concentrate was approximately 78% by weight with 36% essential amino acids and 18% branched-chain amino acids. These results are similar to the profiles of raw and cooked brown rice except in the case of glutamic acid which was 3% lower in the isolate and concentrate. The amino acid content and profile of the Oryzatein-90™ isolate was similar to published values for soy protein isolate but the total, essential, and branched-chain amino acid content of whey protein isolate was 20%, 39% and 33% greater, respectively, than that of Oryzatein-90™. These results provide a valuable addition to the nutrient database of protein isolates and concentrates from cereal grains.

  18. Micro-organisms isolated from cadaveric samples of allograft musculoskeletal tissue.

    PubMed

    Varettas, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    Allograft musculoskeletal tissue is commonly used in orthopaedic surgical procedures. Cadaveric donors of musculoskeletal tissue supply multiple allografts such as tendons, ligaments and bone. The microbiology laboratory of the South Eastern Area Laboratory Services (SEALS, Australia) has cultured cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples for bacterial and fungal isolates since 2006. This study will retrospectively review the micro-organisms isolated over a 6-year period, 2006-2011. Swab and tissue samples were received for bioburden testing and were inoculated onto agar and/or broth culture media. Growth was obtained from 25.1 % of cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples received. The predominant organisms isolated were coagulase-negative staphylococci and coliforms, with the heaviest bioburden recovered from the hemipelvis. The rate of bacterial and fungal isolates from cadaveric allograft musculoskeletal tissue samples is higher than that from living donors. The type of organism isolated may influence the suitability of the allograft for transplant.

  19. New and bioactive natural products isolated from madagascar plants and marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Hou, Y; Harinantenaina, L

    2010-01-01

    Madagascar, the world's fourth biggest island has an unique biodiversity. The interest on the phytochemical investigation of Malagasy plants and marine natural products started from the isolation of the potent anti-cancerous bisindole alkaloids: vinblastine and vincristine. In this paper, works published in the last two decades (1991-2009) on 270 new natural products isolated from Madagascar higher plants, liverworts and marine organisms are reviewed. Several results on the bioassays of the isolated new natural products have been reported.

  20. Direct evidence of hierarchical assembly at low masses from isolated dwarf galaxy groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stierwalt, S.; Liss, S. E.; Johnson, K. E.; Patton, D. R.; Privon, G. C.; Besla, G.; Kallivayalil, N.; Putman, M.

    2017-01-01

    The demographics of dwarf galaxy populations have long been in tension with predictions from the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) paradigm 1-4 . If primordial density fluctuations were scale-free as predicted, dwarf galaxies should themselves host dark-matter subhaloes 5 , the most massive of which may have undergone star formation resulting in dwarf galaxy groups. Ensembles of dwarf galaxies are observed as sate­llites of more massive galaxies 6-9 , and there is observational 10 and theoretical 11 evidence to suggest that these satellites at redshift z = 0 were captured by the massive host halo as a group. However, the evolution of dwarf galaxies is highly susceptible to environment 12-14 , making these satellite groups imperfect probes of ΛCDM in the low-mass regime. Here we report one of the clearest examples yet of hierarchical structure formation at low masses: using deep multi-wavelength data, we identify seven isolated, spectroscopically confirmed groups of only dwarf galaxies. Each group hosts three to five known members, has a baryonic mass of ~4.4 × 109 to 2 × 1010 solar masses (M ⊙), and requires a mass-to-light ratio of <100 to be gravitationally bound. Such groups are predicted to be rare theoretically and found to be rare observationally at the current epoch, and thus provide a unique window into the possible formation mechanism of more massive, isolated galaxies.

  1. Structural environments of carboxyl groups in natural organic molecules from terrestrial systems. Part 1: Infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, Michael B.; Myneni, Satish C. B.

    2007-07-01

    Carboxyls play an important role in the chemistry of natural organic molecules (NOM) in the environment, and their behavior is dependent on local structural environment within the macromolecule. We studied the structural environments of carboxyl groups in dissolved NOM from the Pine Barrens (New Jersey, USA), and IHSS NOM isolates from soils and river waters using attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. It is well established that the energies of the asymmetric stretching vibrations of the carboxylate anion (COO -) are sensitive to the structural environment of the carboxyl group. These energies were compiled from previous infrared studies on small organic acids for a wide variety of carboxyl structural environments and compared with the carboxyl spectral features of the NOM samples. We found that the asymmetric stretching peaks for all NOM samples occur within a narrow range centered at 1578 cm -1, suggesting that all NOM samples examined primarily contain very similar carboxyl structures, independent of sample source and isolation techniques employed. The small aliphatic acids containing hydroxyl (e.g., D-lactate, gluconate), ether/ester (methoxyacetate, acetoxyacetate), and carboxylate (malonate) substitutions on the α-carbon, and the aromatic acids salicylate ( ortho-OH) and furancarboxylate ( O-heterocycle), exhibit strong overlap with the NOM range, indicating that similar structures may be common in NOM. The width of the asymmetric peak suggests that the structural heterogeneity among the predominant carboxyl configurations in NOM is small. Changes in peak area with pH at energies distant from the peak at 1578 cm -1, however, may be indicative of a small fraction of other aromatic carboxyls and aliphatic structures lacking α-substitution. This information is important in understanding NOM-metal and mineral-surface complexation, and in building appropriate structural and mechanistic models of humic materials.

  2. Fluorine-proton correlation from isolated trifluoromethyl groups using unresolved J-couplings.

    PubMed

    Howe, Peter W A

    2012-10-01

    Fluorine-containing compounds are rare in biological systems, so fluorine NMR spectroscopy can selectively detect and quantify fluorinated xenobiotics in crude biological extracts. The high sensitivity of fluorine NMR allows the detection of compounds containing isolated trifluoromethyl groups at nanogramme levels. However, it only provides limited structural information about trifluoromethyl-containing compounds owing to the difficulty of interpreting fluorine chemical shifts and the low sensitivity of HOESY experiments used to correlate fluorine nuclei with protons in the same compound. This paper demonstrates that long-range fluorine-proton J-couplings can be used to correlate isolated trifluoromethyl groups with nearby protons with significantly higher sensitivity than HOESY. Fluorine-observe fluorine-proton HMQC can even give correlations when the fluorine-proton J-couplings are less than the observed fluorine resonance linewidth, so it provides a useful alternative source of structural information about fluorinated xenobiotics.

  3. On the structural organization of isolated bovine lens fiber junctions.

    PubMed

    Zampighi, G; Simon, S A; Robertson, J D; McIntosh, T J; Costello, M J

    1982-04-01

    Junctions between fiber cells of bovine lenses have been isolated in milligram quantities, without using detergents or proteases. The structure of the isolated junctions has been studied by thin-section, negative-stain, and freeze-fracture electron microscopy and by x-ray diffraction. The junctions are large and most often have an undulating surface topology as determined by thin sectioning and freeze-fracture. These undulations resemble the tongue-and-groove interdigitations between lens fiber cells previously seen by others (D. H. Dickson and G. W. Crock, 1972, Invest. Ophthalmol. 11:809-815). In sections, the isolated junctions display a pentalamellar structure approximately 13-14 nm in overall thickness, which is significantly thinner than liver gap junctions. Each junctional membrane contains in the plane of the lipid bilayers distinct units arranged in a square lattice with a center-to-center spacing of 6.6 nm. Freeze-fracture replicas of the junctions fractured transversely show that the repeating units extend across the entire thickness of each membrane. Each unit is probably constructed from four identical subunits, with each subunit containing a protein of an apparent molecular weight of 27,000. We conclude that the lens junctions are structurally and chemically, different from gap junctions and could represent a new kind of intercellular contact, not simply another crystalline state of the gap junction protein.

  4. Presence of pathogenicity islands and virulence genes of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) in isolates from avian organic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Gazal, Luís Eduardo S; Puño-Sarmiento, Juan J; Medeiros, Leonardo P; Cyoia, Paula S; da Silveira, Wanderlei D; Kobayashi, Renata K T; Nakazato, Gerson

    2015-12-01

    Poultry litter is commonly used as fertilizer in agriculture. However, this poultry litter must be processed prior to use, since poultry have a large number of pathogenic microorganisms. The aims of this study were to isolate and genotypically and phenotypically characterize Escherichia coli from avian organic fertilizer. Sixty-four E. coli isolates were identified from avian organic fertilizer and characterized for ExPEC virulence factors, pathogenicity islands, phylogenetic groups, antimicrobial resistance, biofilm formation, and adhesion to HEp-2 cells. Sixty-three isolates (98.4%) showed at least one virulence gene (fimH, ecpA, sitA, traT, iutA, iroN, hlyF, ompT and iss). The predominant phylogenetic groups were groups A (59.3%) and B1 (34.3%). The pathogenicity island CFT073II (51.5%) was the most prevalent among the isolates tested. Thirty-two isolates (50%) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Approximately 90% of isolates adhered to HEp-2 cells, and the predominant pattern was aggregative adherence (74.1%). In the biofilm assay, it was observed that 75% of isolates did not produce biofilm. These results lead us to conclude that some E. coli isolates from avian organic fertilizer could be pathogenic for humans.

  5. Team Science: Organizing Classroom Experiments That Develop Group Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Marilyn

    This book contains classroom experiments designed to promote group skills. Each lesson has 4 parts: a 3-minute set-up; 5-minute warm-up, 25-minute experiment, and 5-minute clean-up. During each part, each member of the group is responsible for performing a specific task. Included are 34 labs that cover a range of topics: observations, physical…

  6. Bacteria isolated from the different developmental stages and larval organs of the obligate parasitic fly, Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    PubMed

    Tóth, E M; Hell, E; Kovács, G; Borsodi, A K; Márialigeti, K

    2006-01-01

    Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) is the major myiasis-causing fly species in the whole of Eurasia for most important domestic animals. The aim of the present work was to obtain data on the culturable bacteria isolated under aerobic conditions from this fly: bacteria were isolated from all developmental stages (larvae, pupa, and imago) of Wohlfahrtia magnifica, and the third-stage larval organs were also sampled. To determine the possible antagonistic effects between the dominant bacterial groups, an antibiosis assay was carried out. Plating and isolation of bacteria was performed by classical microbiological methods. Characterization of the isolated strains was carried out via a polyphasic approach; classical phenotypic tests, chemotaxonomical examinations, and 16S rDNA sequence analyses were also applied. In the case of maggot macerate samples, members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were characteristic. Members of a new genus (Schineria) belonging to the gamma subdivision of proteobacteria were also isolated. According to our data, the shifts in the Schineria and Proteus populations within the larvae are strongly influenced by their interactions with each other and among the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The pupa and imago samples contained several other Gram-negative bacteria (Stenotrophomonas, Brevundimonas, etc.). Among Gram-positive bacteria, in all maggot macerate samples, members of the genus Bacillus and the Arthrobacter-Micrococcus group of actinobacteria were dominant (neither of them was a producer or sensitive to the compounds of other microorganisms), and bacteria related to the genus Corynebacterium were also found. From the larvae Aureobacterium liquefaciens and Enterococcus faecalis were isolated, and from the pupae Dietzia maris and Enterococcus faecalis. In the samples of third-stage larval organs, the dominant groups were the same as in the third-stage larval macerate sample; however, several additional genera

  7. Isolation of organic acids from large volumes of water by adsorption chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, George R.

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon from most natural waters ranges from 1 to 20 milligrams carbon per liter, of which approximately 75 percent are organic acids. These acids can be chromatographically fractionated into hydrophobic organic acids, such as humic substances, and hydrophilic organic acids. To effectively study any of these organic acids, they must be isolated from other organic and inorganic species, and concentrated. Usually, large volumes of water must be processed to obtain sufficient quantities of material, and adsorption chromatography on synthetic, macroporous resins has proven to be a particularly effective method for this purpose. The use of the nonionic Amberlite XAD-8 and Amberlite XAD-4 resins and the anion exchange resin Duolite A-7 for isolating and concentrating organic acids from water is presented.

  8. Molecular Basis for Erythromycin Resistance in Group A Streptococcus Isolated From Skin and Soft Tissue Infections

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Thangam

    2015-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been an increase in the use of erythromycin in the treatment of infections caused by bacteria other than Group A Streptococcus (GAS), which has resulted in increased resistance to this antibiotic. Erythromycin and other macrolides are alternative agents for treating GAS infections in patients, who are allergic to penicillin and its derivatives. Aim The main aim of this study was to identify frequency, pattern and genetic determinant of erythromycin resistance among the GAS isolated from skin and soft tissue infections. Materials and Methods A total 100 isolates of GAS were screened for erythromycin resistance by phenotypic and genotypic method. Results The results of the present study showed that 38% isolates were resistant to erythromycin. The iMLS (inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin) phenotype was predominant (55.26%) followed by M phenotype (26.32%) and cMLS (constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin) (18.42%). Conclusion Phenotypic and genotypic analysis showed that the MLSB phenotype with ermB mediated mechanism of resistance was found the most common (76.31%) followed by mefA (20.51%). The ermTR genes was absent in all the isolates. PMID:26672671

  9. Prediction of crystal densities of organic explosives by group additivity

    SciTech Connect

    Stine, J R

    1981-08-01

    The molar volume of crystalline organic compound is assumed to be a linear combination of its constituent volumes. Compounds consisting only of the elements hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine are considered. The constituent volumes are taken to be the volumes of atoms in particular bonding environments and are evaluated from a large set of crystallographic data. The predicted density has an expected error of about 3%. These results are applied to a large number of explosives compounds.

  10. Isolation of Streptococcus tigurinus - a novel member of Streptococcus mitis group from a case of periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Dhotre, Shree V; Mehetre, Gajanan T; Dharne, Mahesh S; Suryawanshi, Namdev M; Nagoba, Basavraj S

    2014-08-01

    Streptococcus tigurinus is a new member of the Streptococcus viridians group and is closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis. The type strain AZ_3a(T) of S. tigurinus was originally isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis. Accurate identification of S. tigurinus is facilitated only by newer molecular methods like 16S rRNA gene analysis. During the course of study on bacteraemia and infective endocarditis with reference to periodontitis and viridians group of streptococci, a strain of S. tigurinus isolated from subgingival plaque of a patient with periodontitis identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis, which was originally identified as Streptococcus pluranimalium by Vitek 2. Confirmation by 16S rRNA gene analysis showed 99.39% similarity (1476/1485 bp) with S. tigurinus AZ_3a(T) (AORU01000002). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of S. tigurinus from the oral cavity of a periodontitis patient.

  11. Organizing Schools into Small Units: Alternatives to Homogeneous Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxley, Diana

    1994-01-01

    Large school size adversely affects attendance, school climate, student involvement. Dividing large schools into small units creates a learning and teaching context that is more stable, intimate, supportive, interdisciplinary. Kohn-Holweide, a comprehensive German secondary school, groups all students at a given grade level with the same teachers…

  12. Plasmid Isolation in Legionella pneumophila and Legionella-like Organisms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-22

    AD-A090 844 ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH INST OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES FR-ETC FIG 6/5 PLASMID ISOLATI ON IN LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA AND LEGIONELLA -LIKE--ETC(U... Legionella -like Organisms PERRY MIKESELL, J. W. EZZELL AND GREGORY B. KNUDSON United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases Fort... Hospital , Pittsburgh, Pa.). Growth conditions. Legionella -like bacteria were cultured on charcoal yeast extract agar (5), yeast extract broth (20) or

  13. Constants for mercury binding by organic matter isolates from the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benoit, J.M.; Mason, R.P.; Gilmour, C.C.; Aiken, G.R.

    2001-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) has been implicated as an important complexing agent for Hg that can affect its mobility and bioavailability in aquatic ecosystems. However, binding constants for natural Hg-DOM complexes are not well known. We employed a competitive ligand approach to estimate conditional stability constants for Hg complexes with DOM isolates collected from Florida Everglades surface waters. The isolates examined were the hydrophobic fraction of DOM from a eutrophic, sulfidic site (F1-HPoA) and the hydrophilic fraction from an oligotrophic, low-sulfide site (2BS-HPiA). Our experimental determinations utilized overall octanol-water partitioning coefficients (Dow) for 203Hg at 0.01 M chloride and across pH and DOM concentration gradients. Use of this radioisotope allowed rapid determinations of Hg concentrations in both water and octanol phases without problems of matrix interference. Conditional stability constants (1 = 0.06, 23??C) were log K??? = 11.8 for F1-HPoA and log K' = 10.6 for 2BS-HPiA. These are similar to previously published stability constants for Hg binding to low-molecular-weight thiols. Further, F1-HPoA showed a pH-dependent decline in Dow that was consistent with models of Hg complexation with thiol groups as the dominant Hg binding sites in DOM. These experiments demonstrate that the DOM isolates are stronger ligands for Hg than chloride ion or ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid. Speciation calculations indicate that at the DOM concentrations frequently measured in Everglades, 20 to 40 ??M, significant complexation of Hg by DOM would be expected in aerobic (sulfide-free) surface waters. Copyright ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  14. Development of a rapid identification method for Klebsiella pneumoniae phylogenetic groups and analysis of 420 clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Brisse, S; van Himbergen, T; Kusters, K; Verhoef, J

    2004-10-01

    A rapid method combining gyrA PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, parC PCR and adonitol fermentation was developed to identify Klebsiella pneumoniae phylogenetic groups KpI, KpII and KpIII. Analysis of 420 clinical isolates from 26 hospitals showed that the three groups were widespread geographically. KpI comprised 80.3% of 305 isolates from blood and 82.2-97.2% of isolates from other clinical sources. KpIII was never found among isolates from urinary tract infections. KpI isolates from blood were generally less susceptible than KpIII isolates to the ten antimicrobial agents tested, with KpII being intermediate. The frequencies of ceftazidime resistance were 21.6% and 8.6% in KpI and KpIII isolates, respectively (p 0.01).

  15. Seeking Shared Practice: A Juxtaposition of the Attributes and Activities of Organized Fossil Groups with Those of Professional Paleontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippen, Kent J.; Ellis, Shari; Dunckel, Betty A.; Hendy, Austin J. W.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to define the attributes and practices of organized fossil groups (e.g., clubs, paleontological societies) as amateur paleontologists, as well as those of professional paleontologists, and explore the potential for these two groups to work collaboratively as a formalized community. Such an investigation is necessary to develop design principles for an online environment that supports this community and encourages communication and shared practice among individuals with different backgrounds in paleontology and who are geographically isolated. A national survey of fossil group representatives and professional paleontologists was used to address the research questions. The results provide a rich description of the attributes and activities of both groups and are discussed in terms of three design principles for supporting the two groups in a form of collaboration and fellowship via a coherent shared practice within an online learning community.

  16. Exploring the biodiversity of two groups of Oenococcus oeni isolated from grape musts and wines: Are they equally diverse?

    PubMed

    Cruz-Pio, Liz Erika; Poveda, Marta; Alberto, María Rosa; Ferrer, Sergi; Pardo, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    One hundred and four Oenococcus oeni isolates were characterised by the carbohydrate fermentation (CH) profile and DNA fingerprinting. Forty-four isolates came from grape must, and 60 from wines sampled at the end of alcoholic fermentation or during malolactic fermentation. The grape must isolates fermented more CH than the wine isolates. In genotypical terms, no clear boundary between grape must and wine isolates was found. Diversities were deduced by considering the isolates of grape must and of wine separately and jointly. By considering only CH fermentation abilities, the group of grape must isolates gave higher diversity index (DICH) values than those isolated from wine; i.e., these isolates were metabolically more diverse. The contrary occurred when the DNA fingerprints were used to calculate DIRAPD-VNTR: wine isolates were genotypically more diverse than grape must ones. With a polyphasic approach, which considered metabolic and genotypic data, the diversity index of both isolate groups (from grape must and wine) was the same, 0.993, which was slightly lower than that calculated from all the isolates (0.997).

  17. Low-Temperature Isolation of Disease-Suppressive Bacteria and Characterization of a Distinctive Group of Pseudomonads

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, P. Maria; Wright, Sandra A. I.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors during isolation on the composition of potential biocontrol isolates is largely unknown. Bacterial isolates that efficiently suppressed wheat seedling blight caused by Fusarium culmorum were found by isolating psychrotrophic, root-associated bacteria and by screening them in a bioassay that mimicked field conditions. The impact of individual isolation factors on the disease-suppressive index (DSI) of almost 600 isolates was analyzed. The bacteria originated from 135 samples from 62 sites in Sweden and Switzerland. The isolation factors that increased the probability of finding isolates with high DSIs were sampling from arable land, Swiss origin of samples, and origination of isolates from plants belonging to the family Brassicaceae. The colony morphology of the isolates was characterized and compared to DSIs, which led to identification of a uniform morphological group containing 57 highly disease-suppressive isolates. Isolates in this group were identified as Pseudomonas sp.; they were fluorescent on King's medium B and had characteristic crystalline structures in their colonies. These isolates were morphologically similar to seven strains that had previously been selected for suppression of barley net blotch caused by Drechslera teres. Members of this morphological group grow at 1.5°C and produce an antifungal polyketide (2,3-deepoxy-2,3-didehydrorhizoxin [DDR]). They have similar two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profiles, phenotypic characteristics, and in vitro inhibition spectra of pathogens. In summary, in this paper we describe some isolation factors that are important for obtaining disease-suppressive bacteria in our system, and we describe a novel group of biocontrol pseudomonads. PMID:14602601

  18. Susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O isolates to antiretroviral agents: in vitro phenotypic and genotypic analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Descamps, D; Collin, G; Letourneur, F; Apetrei, C; Damond, F; Loussert-Ajaka, I; Simon, F; Saragosti, S; Brun-Vézinet, F

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the phenotypic and genotypic susceptibility of 11 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group O strains to nucleoside and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors and protease inhibitors in vitro. Phenotypic susceptibility was determined by using a standardized in vitro assay of RT inhibition, taking into account the replication kinetics of each strain. HIV-1 group M and HIV-2 isolates were used as references. DNA from cocultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells was amplified by using pol-specific group O primers and cloned for sequencing. Group O isolates were highly sensitive to nucleoside inhibitors, but six isolates were naturally highly resistant to all of the nonnucleoside RT inhibitors tested. Phylogenetic analysis of the pol gene showed that these isolates formed a separate cluster within group O, and genotypic analysis revealed a tyrosine-to-cysteine substitution at residue 181. Differences in susceptibility to saquinavir and ritonavir (RTV) were not significant between group O and group M isolates, although the 50% inhibitory concentration of RTV for group O isolates was higher than that for the HIV-1 subtype B strains. The study of HIV-1 group O susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs revealed that the viruses tested had specific phenotypic characteristics contrasting with the group M phenotypic expression. PMID:9343254

  19. Isolation and characterization of a unique group of slowly growing mycobacteria: description of Mycobacterium lentiflavum sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Springer, B; Wu, W K; Bodmer, T; Haase, G; Pfyffer, G E; Kroppenstedt, R M; Schröder, K H; Emler, S; Kilburn, J O; Kirschner, P; Telenti, A; Coyle, M B; Böttger, E C

    1996-01-01

    A distinct group of slowly growing mycobacteria was identified on the basis of growth characteristics, biochemical and lipid profiles, and nucleic acid analyses. The isolates showed growth at 22 to 37 degrees C, yellow pigmentation, and negative tests for Tween 80 hydrolysis, nicotinic acid, nitrate reductase, and urease; tests for arylsulfatase, pyrazinamidase, and heat-stable catalase were variable. Analysis of cellular fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography and mycolic acids by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography indicated a distinctive pattern which was unlike those of other species. Determination of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed a unique sequence closely related to Mycobacterium simiae and M. genavense. On the basis of DNA homology studies, we suggest that these organisms are representatives of a novel species, for which the name M. lentiflavum sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:8727884

  20. Extensive introgressive hybridization within the northern oriole group (Genus Icterus) revealed by three-species isolation with migration analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Frode; Omland, Kevin E

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, studies of divergence and gene flow among closely-related taxa were generally limited to pairs of sister taxa. However, organisms frequently exchange genes with other non-sister taxa. The “northern oriole” group within genus Icterus exemplifies this problem. This group involves the extensively studied hybrid zone between Baltimore oriole (Icterus galbula) and Bullock's oriole (I. bullockii), an alleged hybrid zone between I. bullockii and black-backed oriole (I. abeillei), and likely mtDNA introgression between I. galbula and I. abeillei. Here, we examine the divergence population genetics of the entire northern oriole group using a multipopulation Isolation-with-Migration (IM) model. In accordance with Haldane's rule, nuclear loci introgress extensively beyond the I. galbula–I. bullockii hybrid zone, while mtDNA does not. We found no evidence of introgression between I. bullockii and I. abeillei or between I. galbula and I. abeillei when all three species were analyzed together in a three-population model. However, traditional pairwise analysis suggested some nuclear introgression from I. abeillei into I. galbula, probably reflecting genetic contributions from I. bullockii unaccounted for in a two-population model. Thus, only by including all members of this group in the analysis was it possible to rigorously estimate the level of gene flow among these three closely related species. PMID:23145328

  1. Antifouling activity of secondary metabolites isolated from chinese marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Xin; Wu, Hui-Xian; Xu, Ying; Shao, Chang-Lun; Wang, Chang-Yun; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2013-10-01

    Biofouling results in tremendous economic losses to maritime industries around the world. A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has further raised demand for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, 49 secondary metabolites, including diterpenoids, steroids, and polyketides, were isolated from soft corals, gorgonians, brown algae, and fungi collected along the coast of China, and their antifouling activity was tested against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite. Twenty of the compounds were found to inhibit larval settlement significantly at a concentration of 25 μg ml(-1). Two briarane diterpenoids, juncin O (2) and juncenolide H (3), were the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates, with EC50 values less than 0.13 μg ml(-1) and a safety ratio (LC50/EC50) higher than 400. A preliminary structure-activity relationships study indicated that both furanon and furan moieties are important for antifouling activity. Intriguingly, the presence of hydroxyls enhanced their antisettlement activity.

  2. Susceptibility trends of Bacteroides fragilis group isolates from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fernández Canigia, L; Castello, L; Di Martino, A; Greco, G; Legaria, M C; Litterio, M; Predari, S C; Rollet, R; Rossetti, A; Carloni, G; Sarchi, M I; Bianchini, H

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the susceptibility trends to seven antibiotics of Bacteroides fragilis group isolates based on three survey studies performed by the Committee of Anaerobic Bacteria between 1989 and 2002. Fifty three, 82 and 65 B. fragilis group isolates were collected during each period. The antimicrobial agents included were: ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam (2:1), cefoxitin, piperacillin, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined according to the reference agar dilution method described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, formerly NCCLS). The most active antibiotics for B. fragilis and non-B. fragilis species throughout the three periods were: imipenem with 99.1 and 100% of activity, respectively, and metronidazole with 100% of activity. The susceptibility to ampicillin-sulbactam showed a decrease, from 100% to 90.3% and to 82.4 % in the last period, for both B. fragilis and non-B. fragilis species, respectively. The overall susceptibility rates for cefoxitin, piperacillin, and clindamycin were significantly different between B. fragilis and non-B. fragilis species (84.2% vs. 56.5%; 85.9% vs. 66.7% and 88.8% vs. 64.7%, respectively, p < 0.05). Cefoxitin was the antibiotic that showed more variations as regards periods and species. The susceptibility rates for clindamycin were low, about 60%, for non-B. fragilis species during the last two periods. The variations observed in the susceptibility patterns of the B. fragilis group isolates emphasize the need to continue monitoring the emergence of resistance in order to guide the election of the most appropriate antibiotic therapy scheme for anaerobic infections.

  3. Isolation and characterization of type III group B streptococcal mutants defective in biosynthesis of the type-specific antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, M K; Mattingly, S J

    1983-01-01

    Four classes of mutants of type III group B streptococcus were isolated by serial subculture of the wild-type strain in the presence of type III-specific rabbit antiserum. Class I mutants no longer synthesized sialic acid but still elaborated the core antigen. Class II mutants maintained the ability to synthesize sialic acid but could not attach it to the core antigen. Class III mutants did not produce the core antigen but still synthesized intracellular sialic acid. Class IV mutants synthesized the complete antigen; however, only approximately 4% of the antigen synthesized was found associated with the cell wall peptidoglycan (in the wild-type strain greater than 85% of the antigen synthesized is covalently attached to the cell wall peptidoglycan), whereas greater than 90% of the antigen was secreted into the growth medium. Production of other components (CAMP factor, group B antigen, beta-hemolysin, neuraminidase) by these mutants appeared similar to those of the wild-type strain. Mouse lethality studies of these strains indicated that all four classes have greater than 3 log10-higher 50% lethal dose values than that of the wild-type strain. To understand the basis for this variation, the invasive ability of the wild-type strain and the sialic acid-deficient mutant strain M-10 (class I) was examined. Mice received 10(5) CFU of each organism; they were then sacrificed at various times postinoculation, and viable group B streptococci from different organs were enumerated. Mice were able to clear M-10 more efficiently, with greater than 80% of M-10 cells being phagocytized by macrophages within 1 h, whereas the wild-type strain was able to evade phagocytic killing and disseminate to other tissues. These data, therefore, strongly indicate that the sialic acid moiety greatly enhances the virulence of the type III antigen. In addition, the level of cell-associated type-specific antigen appears to contribute significantly to the pathogenicity of the organism. PMID

  4. Enterotoxin production in natural isolates of Bacillaceae outside the Bacillus cereus group.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Rebecca J; McKillip, John L

    2002-06-01

    Thirty-nine Bacillus strains obtained from a variety of environmental and food sources were screened by PCR for the presence of five gene targets (hblC, hblD, hblA, nheA, and nheB) in two enterotoxin operons (HBL and NHE) traditionally harbored by Bacillus cereus. Seven isolates exhibited a positive signal for at least three of the five possible targets, including Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus lentimorbis, Bacillus pasteurii, and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. PCR amplicons were confirmed by restriction enzyme digest patterns compared to a positive control strain. Enterotoxin gene expression of each strain grown in a model food system (skim milk) was monitored by gene-specific reverse transcription-PCR and confirmed with the Oxoid RPLA and Tecra BDE commercial kits. Lecithinase production was noted on egg yolk-polymyxin B agar for all strains except B. lentimorbis, whereas discontinuous beta hemolysis was exhibited by all seven isolates grown on 5% sheep blood agar plates. The results of this study confirm the presence of enterotoxin genes in natural isolates of Bacillus spp. outside the B. cereus group and the ability of these strains to produce toxins in a model food system under aerated conditions at 32 degrees C.

  5. Isolation and purification of blood group antigens using immuno-affinity chromatography on short monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Mönster, Andrea; Hiller, Oliver; Grüger, Daniela; Blasczyk, Rainer; Kasper, Cornelia

    2011-02-04

    Monolithic columns have gained increasing attention as stationary phases for the separation of biomolecules and biopharmaceuticals. In the present work the performance of monolithic convective interaction media (CIM(®)) chromatography for the purification of blood group antigens was established. The proteins employed in this study are derived from blood group antigens Knops, JMH and Scianna, equipped both with a His-tag and with a V5-tag by which they can be purified. In a first step a monoclonal antibody directed against the V5-tag was immobilized on a CIM(®) Disk with epoxy chemistry. After this, the immobilized CIM(®) Disk was used in immuno-affinity chromatography to purify the three blood group antigens from cell culture supernatant. Up-scaling of the applied technology was carried out using CIM(®) Tubes. In comparison to conventional affinity chromatography, blood group antigens were also purified via His-tag using a HiTrap(®) metal-affinity column. The two purifications have been compared regarding purity, yield and purification speed. Using the monolithic support, it was possible to isolate the blood group antigens with a higher flow rate than using the conventional bed-packed column.

  6. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns and prevalence of group B Streptococcus isolated from pregnant women in Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, M; Pegels, E; Oviedo, P; Pereyra, E; Vergara, M

    2008-04-01

    This study was performed to determine the susceptibility patterns and the colonization rate of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in a population of pregnant women. From January 2004 to December 2006, vaginal-rectal swabs were obtained from 1105 women attending Dr. Ramón Madariaga Hospital, in Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. The carriage rate of GBS among pregnant women was 7.6%. A total of 62 GBS strains were randomly selected for in vitro susceptibility testing to penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, vancomycin, rifampicin, trimethoprim- sulfametoxazol, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, clindamycin and erythromycin, and determination of resistance phenotypes. No resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, and vancomycin was found. Of the isolates examined 96.8%, 98.3%, 46.8%, and 29.0% were susceptible to rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazol and tetracycline, respectively. Rank order of susceptibility for the quinolones was: gatifloxacin (98.4%) > levofloxacin (93.5%) > ciprofloxacin (64.5%). The rate of resistance to erythromycin (9.7%) was higher than that of other reports from Argentina. High-level resistance to gentamicin was not detected in any of the isolates. Based on our finding of 50% of GBS isolates with MIC to gentamicin equal o lower than 8 μg/ml, a concentration used in one of the selective media recommended for GBS isolation, we suggested, at least in our population, the use of nalidixic acid and colistin in selective media with the aim to improve the sensitivity of screening cultures for GBS carriage in women.

  7. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns and prevalence of group B Streptococcus isolated from pregnant women in Misiones, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Quiroga, M.; Pegels, E.; Oviedo, P.; Pereyra, E.; Vergara, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the susceptibility patterns and the colonization rate of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in a population of pregnant women. From January 2004 to December 2006, vaginal-rectal swabs were obtained from 1105 women attending Dr. Ramón Madariaga Hospital, in Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. The carriage rate of GBS among pregnant women was 7.6%. A total of 62 GBS strains were randomly selected for in vitro susceptibility testing to penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, vancomycin, rifampicin, trimethoprim- sulfametoxazol, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, clindamycin and erythromycin, and determination of resistance phenotypes. No resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, and vancomycin was found. Of the isolates examined 96.8%, 98.3%, 46.8%, and 29.0% were susceptible to rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazol and tetracycline, respectively. Rank order of susceptibility for the quinolones was: gatifloxacin (98.4%) > levofloxacin (93.5%) > ciprofloxacin (64.5%). The rate of resistance to erythromycin (9.7%) was higher than that of other reports from Argentina. High-level resistance to gentamicin was not detected in any of the isolates. Based on our finding of 50% of GBS isolates with MIC to gentamicin equal o lower than 8 μg/ml, a concentration used in one of the selective media recommended for GBS isolation, we suggested, at least in our population, the use of nalidixic acid and colistin in selective media with the aim to improve the sensitivity of screening cultures for GBS carriage in women. PMID:24031210

  8. Is Penicillin Plus Gentamicin Synergistic against Clinical Group B Streptococcus isolates?: An In vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Ruppen, Corinne; Lupo, Agnese; Decosterd, Laurent; Sendi, Parham

    2016-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is increasingly causing invasive infections in non-pregnant adults. Elderly patients and those with comorbidities are at increased risk. On the basis of previous studies focusing on neonatal infections, penicillin plus gentamicin is recommended for infective endocarditis (IE) and periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a synergism with penicillin and gentamicin is present in GBS isolates that caused IE and PJI. We used 5 GBS isolates, two clinical strains and three control strains, including one displaying high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR). The results from the checkerboard and time-kill assays (TKAs) were compared. For TKAs, antibiotic concentrations for penicillin were 0.048 and 0.2 mg/L, and for gentamicin 4 mg/L or 12.5 mg/L. In the checkerboard assay, the median fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) of all isolates indicated indifference. TKAs for all isolates failed to demonstrate synergism with penicillin 0.048 or 0.2 mg/L, irrespective of gentamicin concentrations used. Rapid killing was seen with penicillin 0.048 mg/L plus either 4 mg/L or 12.5 mg/L gentamicin, from 2 h up to 8 h hours after antibiotic exposure. TKAs with penicillin 0.2 mg/L decreased the starting inoculum below the limit of quantification within 4-6 h, irrespective of the addition of gentamicin. Fast killing was seen with penicillin 0.2 mg/L plus 12.5 mg/L gentamicin within the first 2 h. Our in vitro results indicate that the addition of gentamicin to penicillin contributes to faster killing at low penicillin concentrations, but only within the first few hours. Twenty-four hours after antibiotic exposure, PEN alone was bactericidal and synergism was not seen.

  9. Is Penicillin Plus Gentamicin Synergistic against Clinical Group B Streptococcus isolates?: An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruppen, Corinne; Lupo, Agnese; Decosterd, Laurent; Sendi, Parham

    2016-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is increasingly causing invasive infections in non-pregnant adults. Elderly patients and those with comorbidities are at increased risk. On the basis of previous studies focusing on neonatal infections, penicillin plus gentamicin is recommended for infective endocarditis (IE) and periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a synergism with penicillin and gentamicin is present in GBS isolates that caused IE and PJI. We used 5 GBS isolates, two clinical strains and three control strains, including one displaying high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR). The results from the checkerboard and time-kill assays (TKAs) were compared. For TKAs, antibiotic concentrations for penicillin were 0.048 and 0.2 mg/L, and for gentamicin 4 mg/L or 12.5 mg/L. In the checkerboard assay, the median fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) of all isolates indicated indifference. TKAs for all isolates failed to demonstrate synergism with penicillin 0.048 or 0.2 mg/L, irrespective of gentamicin concentrations used. Rapid killing was seen with penicillin 0.048 mg/L plus either 4 mg/L or 12.5 mg/L gentamicin, from 2 h up to 8 h hours after antibiotic exposure. TKAs with penicillin 0.2 mg/L decreased the starting inoculum below the limit of quantification within 4–6 h, irrespective of the addition of gentamicin. Fast killing was seen with penicillin 0.2 mg/L plus 12.5 mg/L gentamicin within the first 2 h. Our in vitro results indicate that the addition of gentamicin to penicillin contributes to faster killing at low penicillin concentrations, but only within the first few hours. Twenty-four hours after antibiotic exposure, PEN alone was bactericidal and synergism was not seen. PMID:27818657

  10. Isolation of Plasmids in Legionella pneumophila and Legionella-Like Organisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    isolates examined. Recent reports have established that certain University Hospital , Pittsburgh, Pa.). Pseudom- strains of bacteria, designated Legionella ...McI~ade, J1. E., D. .J. Brenner and F. MW. Bozenman. microorganisms. 19.79. Legionnaires ’ disease bacterium tsolatedl in 1947. Ann. Intern. Med. 90...INtF1(-r1iN ANt11;MM NITY. St.?? NAI 1 1271 2. Voj . NO .j toNO TES (Isolation of Plasmids in Legionella pneumophila and Legionella -Like Organisms

  11. Comparison of Selective Media for Isolation of Presumptive Group D Streptococci from Human Feces

    PubMed Central

    Sabbaj, Jacobo; Sutter, Vera L.; Finegold, Sydney M.

    1971-01-01

    Pfizer Selective Enterococcus (PSE) agar, a medium containing bile, sodium azide, and esculin, was evaluated for its sensitivity and selectivity for detection and enumeration of presumptive group D streptococci in human feces. SF broth and SF broth plus agar (1.5%), representing selective media in common use, were studied simultaneously. Presumptive group D streptococci were recovered on PSE agar from the feces of all 25 subjects. No growth was observed in 8% of specimens in SF broth. No gram-negative organisms were recovered in any medium. PSE agar has the advantages of selecting out Streptococcus bovis, earlier appearance of distinctive reactions, and lack of requirement for special incubation temperature. PMID:4944799

  12. Cluster of oral atypical Candida albicans isolates in a group of human immunodeficiency virus-positive drug users.

    PubMed Central

    Boerlin, P; Boerlin-Petzold, F; Durussel, C; Addo, M; Pagani, J L; Chave, J P; Bille, J

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-one chlamydospore-forming and germ tube-positive Candida albicans clinical isolates from 15 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and 3 HIV-negative patients were examined by two different genetic methods. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and hybridization with the C. albicans-specific Ca3 probe showed that such isolates can be split into two genetically distinct groups that can be clearly distinguished. One group mainly contained strains with atypical sugar assimilation patterns and could be distinguished from the other group by the absence of intracellular beta-glucosidase activity. All 13 strains belonging to this group were isolated from the oral cavities of asymptomatic HIV-positive drug users and may be less pathogenic than the eight strains from the other group isolated either from HIV-positive patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis or from HIV-negative patients with invasive candidiasis. PMID:7615716

  13. Spacing and Site Isolation of Amine Groups in 3-Aminopropyl-Grafted Silica Materials - The Role of Protecting Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, Jason C; Dabestani, Reza T; Buchanan III, A C; Jones, Christopher W

    2006-01-01

    The relative spacing of amines in 3-aminopropylsilyl-grafted silica is studied by solid-state fluorescence spectroscopy of 1-pyrenecarboxylic acid (PCA) and 1-pyrenebutyric acid (PBA) bound to traditionally prepared, deprotected benzyl- or deprotected trityl-spaced aminosilicas. Thermogravimetric analysis and FT-Raman spectroscopy results show evidence that the protected imine can be cleaved to yield the corresponding amine in essentially quantitative yield. The steady-state fluorescence spectroscopic data of either PCA or PBA indicate that the number of amine pairs on the surface separated by a distance of 1 nm or less decreases as the total amine loading decreases. Both the intensity ratio of the excimer band to the monomer band (I{sub 470}/I{sub 384} or I{sub exc}/I{sub mon}) and lifetime decay studies of the fluorophore are useful probes of the amine spacing. Separation of amines on the surface can be achieved by either use of a protected synthesis route or through reduction of the concentration of the unprotected 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane used in the grafting solution. However, the two routes lead to materials with significantly different average amine spacings. Due to clustering of unprotected amines in solution before grafting or on the surface during the grafting process, amine-amine distances on the surface of materials prepared by an unprotected synthesis are on average smaller than when a protected synthesis is used. With the protected synthesis, evidence suggests that the amines are more isolated, with larger average amine-amine distances when compared to corresponding materials with a similar amine loading prepared via an unprotected synthesis. This is attributed to both the steric influence of the protecting groups and a reduction in silane clustering in solution due to protection of the amines before grafting. Thus, the mechanism of surface amine spacing when using the protection-deprotection strategy appears to involve both of these factors

  14. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci isolated from organic and conventional retail chicken.

    PubMed

    Kilonzo-Nthenge, A; Brown, A; Nahashon, S N; Long, D

    2015-04-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria existing in agricultural environments may be transferred to humans through food consumption or more multifaceted environmental paths of exposure. Notably, enterococcal infections are becoming more challenging to treat as their resistance to antibiotics intensifies. In this study, the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profiles of enterococci in organic and conventional chicken from retail stores were analyzed. Of the total 343 retail chicken samples evaluated, 282 (82.2%) were contaminated with Enterococcus spp. The prevalence was higher in organic chicken (62.5%) than conventional chicken (37.5%). Enterococcus isolates were submitted to susceptibility tests against 12 antimicrobial agents. Among the isolates tested, streptomycin had the highest frequencies of resistance (69.1 and 100%) followed by erythromycin (38.5 and 80.0%), penicillin (14.1 and 88.5%), and kanamycin (11.3 and 76.9%) for organic and conventional isolates, respectively. Chloramphenicol had the lowest frequency (0.0 and 6.6%, respectively). The predominant species in raw chicken was E. faecium (27.3%), followed by E. gallinarum (6.0%), E. casseliflavus (2.1%), and E. durans (1.4%). These species were also found to be resistant to three or more antibiotics. The data indicated that antibiotic-resistant enterococci isolates were found in chicken whether it was organic or conventional. However, enterococci isolates that were resistant to antibiotics were less common in organic chicken (31.0%) when compared with those isolated from conventional chicken (43.6%). The results of this study suggest that raw retail organic and conventional chickens could be a source of antibiotic-resistant enterococci.

  15. Isolation and identification of yeasts and yeastlike organisms from clinical veterinary sources.

    PubMed Central

    Chengappa, M M; Maddux, R L; Greer, S C; Pincus, D H; Geist, L L

    1984-01-01

    A total of 229 isolates of yeasts and yeastlike organisms recovered from a variety of clinical specimens were identified by using the API 20C microsystem in conjunction with morphological characteristics and urea hydrolysis. Of the 229, 218 (95.1%) were from bovine, porcine, canine, and equine species and the remaining 11 (4.9%) were from feline and avian species. The gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts were the major sources of yeasts and yeastlike organisms, representing 60 (26.2%) and 28 (12.2%) isolates, respectively. PMID:6715511

  16. 76 FR 60495 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From the Patient Safety Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From the Patient Safety Group AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS... relinquishment from The Patient Safety Group of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The...

  17. Method of loading organic materials with group III plus lanthanide and actinide elements

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Zane W.; Huei-Ho, Chuen; Brown, Gilbert M.; Hurlbut, Charles

    2003-04-08

    Disclosed is a composition of matter comprising a tributyl phosphate complex of a group 3, lanthanide, actinide, or group 13 salt in an organic carrier and a method of making the complex. These materials are suitable for use in solid or liquid organic scintillators, as in x-ray absorption standards, x-ray fluorescence standards, and neutron detector calibration standards.

  18. 26 CFR 56.4911-9 - Application of section 501(h) to affiliated groups of organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... taxable year of an affiliated group of organizations, the calculations described in § 1.501(h)-3(b)(1) (i... organization (as defined in § 56.4911-7(e)(4)) at any time in the taxable year of the affiliated group shall be...)(3). For purposes of this section, the term base years generally means the taxable year of...

  19. Isolation and characterization of group II introns from Pseudomonas alcaligenes and Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Yeo, C C; Yiin, S; Tan, B H; Poh, C L

    2001-05-01

    Group II introns isolated from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867, Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9869, and P. putida KT2440 were closely related with nucleotide sequence identities of between 87 and 96%. The genome of P. alcaligenes also harbored a truncated group II intron of 682 bp that lacks the gene for the intron-encoded protein (IEP). Unlike most bacterial group II introns, the Pseudomonas introns were found to lack the Zn domains in their IEPs, did not appear to interrupt any genes, and were located downstream of open reading frames which were adjacent to hairpin loop structures that resemble rho-independent terminators. These structures also contain the intron binding sites 1 and 2 (IBS1 and IBS2 sequences) that were required for intron target site recognition in transposition. One of the group II introns found in P. alcaligenes, Xln3, was shown to have transposed from the chromosome to the endogenous pRA2 plasmid at a site adjacent to IBS1- and IBS2-like sequences.

  20. Phenotypic characterization and genomic DNA polymorphisms of Escherichia coli strains isolated as the sole micro-organism from vaginal infections.

    PubMed

    Lobos, Olga; Padilla, Carlos

    2009-03-01

    Vaginal infections such as vulvovaginal candiadiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis are common worldwide. Accurate diagnosis and prescription of appropriate treatments are important since these infections are linked to adverse outcomes for women during pregnancy and for newborns. Several aetiological agents are responsible for these infectious diseases; however, the presence of Escherichia coli in these infections is controversial. Thus, it is important to identify some phenotypic and genotypic properties of E. coli strains isolated from vaginal infections. Forty-six E. coli strains isolated from vaginal fluid as the sole micro-organism, and 20 other E. coli strains isolated from other samples (urinary tract infections, otitis and septicaemia) were analysed by several phenotypic tests. In addition, genotypic features were studied by RAPD-PCR techniques. Biochemical tests showed that the E. coli strains isolated from vaginal fluid could be grouped into a single cluster which is subdivided into two phenogroups. Analysis of the dendrogram based on fragment length polymorphisms of genomic DNA indicated that E. coli isolates from vaginal infections form a single cluster with two subdivisions. Further studies are needed to analyse the molecular structure and virulence characteristics of these E. coli strains in order to determine their potential role in vaginal infections.

  1. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Contents of... Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVV, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups As specified in § 63.5758(a)(6), when detailed organic HAP content data for...

  2. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Contents of... Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVV, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups As specified in § 63.5758(a)(6), when detailed organic HAP content data for...

  3. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Organic HAP Contents of... Boat Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVV, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups As specified in § 63.5758(a)(6), when detailed organic HAP...

  4. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Contents of... Boat Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVV, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups As specified in § 63.5758(a)(6), when detailed organic HAP...

  5. Demographic Histories, Isolation and Social Factors as Determinants of the Genetic Structure of Alpine Linguistic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Coia, Valentina; Capocasa, Marco; Anagnostou, Paolo; Pascali, Vincenzo; Scarnicci, Francesca; Boschi, Ilaria; Battaggia, Cinzia; Crivellaro, Federica; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B. J.; Capelli, Cristian; Maixner, Frank; Cipollini, Giovanna; Viazzo, Pier Paolo; Zink, Albert; Destro Bisol, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of “local ethnicity” on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet to be understood

  6. Identifying organic aerosol sources by comparing functional group composition in chamber and atmospheric particles.

    PubMed

    Russell, Lynn M; Bahadur, Ranjit; Ziemann, Paul J

    2011-03-01

    Measurements of submicron particles by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in 14 campaigns in North America, Asia, South America, and Europe were used to identify characteristic organic functional group compositions of fuel combustion, terrestrial vegetation, and ocean bubble bursting sources, each of which often accounts for more than a third of organic mass (OM), and some of which is secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from gas-phase precursors. The majority of the OM consists of alkane, carboxylic acid, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups. The organic functional groups formed from combustion and vegetation emissions are similar to the secondary products identified in chamber studies. The near absence of carbonyl groups in the observed SOA associated with combustion is consistent with alkane rather than aromatic precursors, and the absence of organonitrate groups can be explained by their hydrolysis in humid ambient conditions. The remote forest observations have ratios of carboxylic acid, organic hydroxyl, and nonacid carbonyl groups similar to those observed for isoprene and monoterpene chamber studies, but in biogenic aerosols transported downwind of urban areas the formation of esters replaces the acid and hydroxyl groups and leaves only nonacid carbonyl groups. The carbonyl groups in SOA associated with vegetation emissions provides striking evidence for the mechanism of esterification as the pathway for possible oligomerization reactions in the atmosphere. Forest fires include biogenic emissions that produce SOA with organic components similar to isoprene and monoterpene chamber studies, also resulting in nonacid carbonyl groups in SOA.

  7. Strain Diversity of Pseudomonas fluorescens Group with Potential Blue Pigment Phenotype Isolated from Dairy Products.

    PubMed

    Chierici, Margherita; Picozzi, Claudia; La Spina, Marisa Grazia; Orsi, Carla; Vigentini, Ileana; Zambrini, Vittorio; Foschino, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The blue discoloration in Mozzarella cheese comes from bacterial spoilage due to contamination with Pseudomonas. Fourteen Pseudomonas fluorescens strains from international collections and 55 new isolates of dominant bacterial populations from spoiled fresh cheese samples were examined to assess genotypic and phenotypic strain diversity. Isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and tested for the production of the blue pigment at various temperatures on Mascarpone agar and in Mozzarella preserving fluid (the salty water in which the cheese is conserved, which becomes enriched by cheese minerals and peptides during storage). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis after treatment with the endonuclease SpeI separated the isolates into 42 genotypes at a similarity level of 80%. Based on the pulsotype clustering, 12 representative strains producing the blue discoloration were chosen for the multilocus sequence typing targeting the gyrB, glnS, ileS, nuoD, recA, rpoB, and rpoD genes. Four new sequence typing profiles were discovered, and the concatenated sequences of the investigated loci grouped the tested strains into the so-called ''blue branch'' of the P. fluorescens phylogenetic tree, confirming the linkage between pigment production and a specific genomic cluster. Growth temperature affected pigment production; the blue discoloration appeared at 4 and 14°C but not at 30°C. Similarly, the carbon source influenced the phenomenon; the blue phenotype was generated in the presence of glucose but not in the presence of galactose, sodium succinate, sodium citrate, or sodium lactate.

  8. Differential abilities of capsulated and noncapsulated Staphylococcus aureus isolates from diverse agr groups to invade mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Buzzola, Fernanda R; Alvarez, Lucía P; Tuchscherr, Lorena P N; Barbagelata, María S; Lattar, Santiago M; Calvinho, Luis; Sordelli, Daniel O

    2007-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the bacterium most frequently isolated from milk of bovines with mastitis. Four allelic groups, which interfere with the regulatory activities among the different groups, have been identified in the accessory gene regulator (agr) system. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of the different agr groups in capsulated and noncapsulated S. aureus bacteria isolated from mastitic bovines in Argentina and whether a given agr group was associated with MAC-T cell invasion and in vivo persistence. Eighty-eight percent of the bovine S. aureus strains were classified in agr group I. The remainder belonged in agr groups II, III, and IV (2, 8, and 2%, respectively). By restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis after PCR amplification of the agr locus variable region, six agr restriction types were identified. All agr group I strains presented a unique allele (A/1), whereas strains from groups II, III, and IV exhibited more diversity. Bovine S. aureus strains defined as being in agr group I (capsulated or noncapsulated) showed significantly increased abilities to be internalized within MAC-T cells, compared with isolates from agr groups II, III, and IV. agr group II or IV S. aureus strains were cleared more efficiently than agr group I strains from the murine mammary gland. The results suggest that agr group I S. aureus strains are more efficiently internalized within epithelial cells and can persist in higher numbers in mammary gland tissue than S. aureus strains classified in agr group II, III, or IV.

  9. A study of psychrophilic organisms isolated from the manufacture and assembly areas of spacecraft to be used in the Viking mission, 1 January - 30 June 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, T. L.; Winans, L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Soil samples from the areas associated with the Viking spacecraft were analyzed for major generic groups of microorganisms and the percentage of obligate psychrophiles. Results are presented which show the distribution of organisms isolated at low temperatures and the methods employed for subjecting samples to simulated Martian conditions. Emphasis is placed on application of these results to the objectives of the quarantine program.

  10. Trihalomethanes formed from natural organic matter isolates: Using isotopic and compositional data to help understand sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergamaschi, B.A.; Fram, M.S.; Fujii, R.; Aiken, G.R.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    Over 20 million people drink water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta despite problematic levels of natural organic matter (NOM) and bromide in Delta water, which can form trihalomethanes (THMs) during the treatment process. It is widely believed that NOM released from Delta peat islands is a substantial contributor to the pool of THM precursors present in Delta waters. Dissolved NOM was isolated from samples collected at five channel sites within the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers and Delta, California, USA, and from a peat island agricultural drain. To help understand the sources of THM precursors, samples were analyzed to determine their chemical and isotopic composition, their propensity to form THMs, and the isotopic composition of the THMs. The chemical composition of the isolates was quite variable, as indicated by significant differences in carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and carbon-to-nitrogen concentration ratios. The lowest propensity to form THMs per unit of dissolved organic carbon was observed in the peat island agricultural drain isolate, even though it possessed the highest fraction of aromatic material and the highest specific ultraviolet absorbance. Changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of the isolates and the isotopic composition of the THMs suggest that the source of the THMs precursors was different between samples and between isolates. The pattern of variability in compositional and isotopic data for these samples was not consistent with simple mixing of river- and peat-derived organic material.

  11. Multiple Genes Cause Postmating Prezygotic Reproductive Isolation in the Drosophila virilis Group

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of speciation is a central problem in evolutionary biology. Studies of reproductive isolation have provided several insights into the genetic causes of speciation, especially in taxa that lend themselves to detailed genetic scrutiny. Reproductive barriers have usually been divided into those that occur before zygote formation (prezygotic) and after (postzygotic), with the latter receiving a great deal of attention over several decades. Reproductive barriers that occur after mating but before zygote formation [postmating prezygotic (PMPZ)] are especially understudied at the genetic level. Here, I present a phenotypic and genetic analysis of a PMPZ reproductive barrier between two species of the Drosophila virilis group: D. americana and D. virilis. This species pair shows strong PMPZ isolation, especially when D. americana males mate with D. virilis females: ∼99% of eggs laid after these heterospecific copulations are not fertilized. Previous work has shown that the paternal loci contributing to this incompatibility reside on two chromosomes, one of which (chromosome 5) likely carries multiple factors. The other (chromosome 2) is fixed for a paracentric inversion that encompasses nearly half the chromosome. Here, I present two results. First, I show that PMPZ in this species cross is largely due to defective sperm storage in heterospecific copulations. Second, using advanced intercross and backcross mapping approaches, I identify genomic regions that carry genes capable of rescuing heterospecific fertilization. I conclude that paternal incompatibility between D. americana males and D. virilis females is underlain by four or more genes on chromosomes 2 and 5. PMID:27729433

  12. PCR detection of cytK gene in Bacillus cereus group strains isolated from food samples.

    PubMed

    Oltuszak-Walczak, Elzbieta; Walczak, Piotr

    2013-11-01

    A method for detection of the cytotoxin K cytK structural gene and its active promoter preceded by the PlcR-binding box, controlling the expression level of this enterotoxin, was developed. The method was applied for the purpose of the analysis of 47 bacterial strains belonging to the Bacillus cereus group isolated from different food products. It was found that the majority of the analyzed strains carried the fully functional cytK gene with its PlcR regulated promoter. The cytK gene was not detected in four emetic strains of Bacillus cereus carrying the cesB gene and potentially producing an emetic toxin - cereulide. The cytotoxin K gene was detected in 4 isolates classified as Bacillus mycoides and one reference strain B. mycoides PCM 2024. The promoter region and the N-terminal part of the cytK gene from two strains of B. mycoides (5D and 19E) showed similarities to the corresponding sequences of Bacillus cereus W23 and Bacillus thuringiensis HD-789, respectively. It was shown for the first time that the cytK gene promoter region from strains 5D and 19E of Bacillus mycoides had a similar arrangement to the corresponding sequence of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. The presence of the cytK gene in Bacillus mycoides shows that this species, widely recognized as nonpathogenic, may pose potential biohazard to human beings.

  13. Macrolide and Clindamycin Resistance in Group a Streptococci Isolated From Children With Pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    DeMuri, Gregory P; Sterkel, Alana K; Kubica, Phillip A; Duster, Megan N; Reed, Kurt D; Wald, Ellen R

    2017-03-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is responsible for 15%-30% of cases of acute pharyngitis in children. Macrolides such as azithromycin have become popular for treating GAS pharyngitis. We report macrolide resistance rates in a primary care setting in our geographic area over the past 5 years and discuss the implications of resistance in making treatment decisions. Throat swabs were collected from children with pharyngitis from May 2011 to May 2015 in a primary care setting in Madison, Wisconsin. Susceptibility testing was performed for erythromycin and clindamycin using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. GAS was identified on 143 throat cultures. Overall, 15% of GAS isolates demonstrated nonsusceptibility for both clindamycin and erythromycin. Inducible resistance (positive D-test) was detected in 17 isolates (12%). The rate of detection of nonsusceptibility in each year of the study did not change over time. Azithromycin should only be used for patients with pharyngitis and substantial manifestations of penicillin hypersensitivity and when used, susceptibility testing should always be performed.

  14. Enhanced dissolution of cinnabar (mercuric sulfide) by dissolved organic matter isolated from the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ravichandran, Mahalingam; Aiken, George R.; Reddy, Michael M.; Ryan, Joseph N.

    1998-01-01

    Organic matter isolated from the Florida Everglades caused a dramatic increase in mercury release (up to 35 μM total dissolved mercury) from cinnabar (HgS), a solid with limited solubility. Hydrophobic (a mixture of both humic and fulvic) acids dissolved more mercury than hydrophilic acids and other nonacid fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Cinnabar dissolution by isolated organic matter and natural water samples was inhibited by cations such as Ca2+. Dissolution was independent of oxygen content in experimental solutions. Dissolution experiments conducted in DI water (pH = 6.0) had no detectable (<2.5 nM) dissolved mercury. The presence of various inorganic (chloride, sulfate, or sulfide) and organic ligands (salicylic acid, acetic acid, EDTA, or cysteine) did not enhance the dissolution of mercury from the mineral. Aromatic carbon content in the isolates (determined by 13C NMR) correlated positively with enhanced cinnabar dissolution. ζ-potential measurements indicated sorption of negatively charged organic matter to the negatively charged cinnabar (pHpzc = 4.0) at pH 6.0. Possible mechanisms of dissolution include surface complexation of mercury and oxidation of surface sulfur species by the organic matter.

  15. Enhanced dissolution of cinnabar (mercuric sulfide) by dissolved organic matter isolated from the Florida Everglades

    SciTech Connect

    Ravichandran, M.; Ryan, J.N.; Aiken, G.R.; Reddy, M.M.

    1998-11-01

    Organic matter isolated from the Florida Everglades caused a dramatic increase in mercury release from cinnabar (HgS), a solid with limited solubility. Hydrophobic (a mixture of both humic and fulvic) acids dissolved more mercury than hydrophilic acids and other nonacid fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Cinnabar dissolution by isolated organic matter and natural water samples was inhibited by cations such as Ca{sup 2+}. Dissolution was independent of oxygen content in experimental solutions. Dissolution experiments conducted in Dl water had no detectable dissolved mercury. The presence of various inorganic (chloride, sulfate, or sulfide) and organic ligands (salicylic acid, acetic acid, EDTA, or cysteine) did not enhance the dissolution of mercury from the mineral. Aromatic carbon content in the isolates correlated positively with enhanced cinnabar dissolution. {zeta}-potential measurements indicated sorption of negatively charged organic matter to the negatively charged cinnabar at pH 6.0. Possible mechanisms of dissolution include surface complexation of mercury and oxidation of surface sulfur species by the organic matter.

  16. Identification of "Streptococcus milleri" group isolates to the species level with a commercially available rapid test system.

    PubMed

    Flynn, C E; Ruoff, K L

    1995-10-01

    Clinical isolates of the "Streptococcus milleri" species group were examined by conventional methods and a rapid, commercially available method for the identification of these strains to the species level. The levels of agreement between the identifications obtained with the commercially available system (Fluo-Card Milleri; KEY Scientific, Round Rock, Tex.) and conventional methods were 98% for 50 Streptococcus anginosus strains, 97% for 31 Streptococcus constellatus strains, and 88% for 17 isolates identified as Streptococcus intermedius. Patient records were also studied in order to gain information on the frequency and sites of isolation of each of the three "S. milleri" group species.

  17. Genome Sequences of Three Spore-Forming Bacteria Isolated from the Feces of Organically Raised Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Victoria; Van Laar, Tricia A.; Aleru, Omoshola; Thomas, Michael; Ganci, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic feed supplements have been implicated in the rise of multidrug-resistant bacteria. An alternative to antibiotics is probiotics. Here, we report the genome sequences of two Bacillus and one Solibacillus species, all spore-forming, Gram-positive bacteria, isolated from the feces organically raised chicken feces, with potential to serve as probiotics. PMID:27587809

  18. 77 FR 42737 - Patient Safety Organizations: Delisting for Cause for The Steward Group PSO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Cause for The Steward Group PSO AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of delisting. SUMMARY: AHRQ has delisted The Steward Group PSO as a Patient Safety Organization... Steward Group PSO failed to respond to a Notice of Preliminary Finding of Deficiency sent by AHRQ...

  19. Content-Related Interactions and Methods of Reasoning within Self-Initiated Organic Chemistry Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Karen Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Students often use study groups to prepare for class or exams; yet to date, we know very little about how these groups actually function. This study looked at the ways in which undergraduate organic chemistry students prepared for exams through self-initiated study groups. We sought to characterize the methods of social regulation, levels of…

  20. Edge-Region Grouping in Figure-Ground Organization and Depth Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Brooks, Joseph L.

    2008-01-01

    Edge-region grouping (ERG) is proposed as a unifying and previously unrecognized class of relational information that influences figure-ground organization and perceived depth across an edge. ERG occurs when the edge between two regions is differentially grouped with one region based on classic principles of similarity grouping. The ERG hypothesis…

  1. Genetic polymorphism of Malassezia furfur isolates from Han and Tibetan ethnic groups in China using DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Ruifeng; Ran, Yuping; Dai, Yaling; Lu, Yao; Wang, Peng

    2010-12-01

    Reported isolation rates of Malassezia yeast from human skin show geographic variations. In China, the populations of the Han (1,182.95 million) and Tibetan (5.41 million) ethnic groups are distributed over 9.6 and 3.27 million square kilometers respectively, making biodiversity research feasible and convenient. Malassezia furfur clinical strains (n = 29) isolated from different individuals, with or without associated dermatoses, of these two ethnic groups (15 Han and 12 Tibetan) were identified and analyzed with DNA fingerprinting using single primers specific to minisatellites. Using the Bionumerics software, we found that almost all M. furfur clinical isolates and type strains formed five distinct group clusters according to their associated skin diseases and the ethnic groups of the patients. These findings are the first to focus on the genetic diversity and relatedness of M. furfur in the Tibetan and Han ethnic groups in China and reveal genetic variation associated with related diseases, host ethnicity and geographic origin.

  2. Toxin Profile, Biofilm Formation, and Molecular Characterization of Emetic Toxin-Producing Bacillus cereus Group Isolates from Human Stools.

    PubMed

    Oh, Su Kyung; Chang, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Sung-Wook; Ok, Gyeongsik; Lee, Nari

    2015-11-01

    Emetic toxin-producing Bacillus cereus group species are an important problem, because the staple food for Korean is grains such as rice. In this study, we determined the prevalence (24 of 129 isolates) of emetic B. cereus in 36,745 stool samples from sporadic food-poisoning cases in Korea between 2007 and 2008. The toxin gene profile, toxin production, and biofilm-forming ability of the emetic B. cereus isolates were investigated. Repetitive element sequence polymorphism polymerase chain reaction fingerprints (rep-PCR) were also used to assess the intraspecific biodiversity of these isolates. Emetic B. cereus was present in 0.07% of the sporadic food-poisoning cases. The 24 emetic isolates identified all carried the nheABC and entFM genes and produced NHE enterotoxin. However, they did not have hemolysin BL toxin or related genes. A relationship between biofilm formation and toxin production was not observed in this study. The rep-PCR fingerprints of the B. cereus isolates were not influenced by the presence of toxin genes, or biofilm-forming ability. The rep-PCR assay discriminated emetic B. cereus isolates from nonemetic isolates, even if this assay did not perfectly discriminate these isolates. Further study on emetic isolates possessing a high degree of diversity may be necessary to evaluate the performance of the subtyping assay to discriminate emetic and nonemetic B. cereus isolates and could provide a more accurate indication of the risk from B. cereus strains.

  3. Isolation, phylogenetic group, drug resistance, biofilm formation, and adherence genes of Escherichia coli from poultry in central China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Yi, Li; Wang, Yuxin; Wang, Yuanguo; Cai, Ying; Zhao, Wenpeng; Ding, Chan

    2016-12-01

    The isolation and identification, genetic typing, antibiotic sensitivity, and biofilm formation of avian Escherichia coli in central China was studied. A total of 256 isolates of E. coli were obtained, and classified into groups: A (50.78%, 130/256), B1 (11.72%, 30/256), B2 (17.58%, 45/256), and D (19.92%, 51/256). Drug susceptibility testing revealed that the strains showed a high drug resistance rate against penicillin, aztreonam, rifampicin, kanamycin, clindamycin, and gentamicin, with 92.19% of strains exhibiting multi-drug resistance. A biofilm assay revealed that 81.64% of isolates could form biofilms. Of the total isolates, 25.39% of isolates showed strong biofilm-formation ability, 31.25% showed moderate biofilm-formation ability, 28.90% showed weak biofilm-formation ability, and 18.36% were unable to form biofilms. Most adhesion-associated genes were distributed among 5 or 8 genes in strong biofilm-forming ability isolates. However, adhesion-associated genes distributed among 1 or 4 genes were found in weak biofilm-forming ability isolates and non-ability isolates. The results showed a high drug resistance rate and biofilm formation ability in E.coli strains isolated from poultry. The isolates which have strong biofilm-forming ability were mostly belong to pathogenic E. coli (B2, D). Furthermore, it was the first report to demonstrate a positive correlation between adhesion-encoding genes and biofilms phenotype.

  4. Molecular analysis of group A Streptococcus type emm18 isolates temporally associated with acute rheumatic fever outbreaks in Salt Lake City, Utah.

    PubMed

    Smoot, James C; Korgenski, E Kent; Daly, Judy A; Veasy, L George; Musser, James M

    2002-05-01

    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and subsequent rheumatic heart disease are rare but serious sequelae of group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections in most western countries. Salt Lake City (SLC), Utah, and the surrounding intermountain region experienced a resurgence of ARF in 1985 which has persisted. The largest numbers of cases were encountered in 1985-1986 and in 1997-1998. Organisms with a mucoid colony phenotype when grown on blood agar plates were temporally associated with the higher incidence of ARF. To develop an understanding of the molecular population genetic structure of GAS strains associated with ARF in the SLC region, 964 mucoid and nonmucoid pharyngeal isolates recovered in SLC from 1984 to 1999 were studied by sequencing the emm gene. Isolates with an emm18 allele were further characterized by sequencing the spa, covR, and covS genes. Peak periods of ARF were associated with GAS isolates possessing an emm18 allele encoding the protein found in serotype M18 isolates. Among the serotype M18 isolates, the difference in the number of C repeats produced three size variants. Variation was limited in spa, a gene that encodes a streptococcal protective antigen, and covR and covS, genes that encode a two-component regulatory system that, when inactivated, results in a mucoid phenotype and enhanced virulence in mouse infection models. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed a single restriction profile for serotype M18 organisms isolated during both peak periods of ARF. In SLC, the incidence of ARF coresurged with the occurrence of GAS serotype M18 isolates that have very restricted genetic variation.

  5. No Boundaries: Genomes, Organisms, and Ecological Interactions Responsible for Divergence and Reproductive Isolation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Revealing the genetic basis of traits that cause reproductive isolation, particularly premating or sexual isolation, usually involves the same challenges as most attempts at genotype–phenotype mapping and so requires knowledge of how these traits are expressed in different individuals, populations, and environments, particularly under natural conditions. Genetic dissection of speciation phenotypes thus requires understanding of the internal and external contexts in which underlying genetic elements are expressed. Gene expression is a product of complex interacting factors internal and external to the organism including developmental programs, the genetic background including nuclear–cytotype interactions, epistatic relationships, interactions among individuals or social effects, stochasticity, and prevailing variation in ecological conditions. Understanding of genomic divergence associated with reproductive isolation will be facilitated by functional expression analysis of annotated genomes in organisms with well-studied evolutionary histories, phylogenetic affinities, and known patterns of ecological variation throughout their life cycles. I review progress and prospects for understanding the pervasive role of host plant use on genetic and phenotypic expression of reproductive isolating mechanisms in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis and suggest how this system can be used as a model for revealing the genetic basis for species formation in organisms where speciation phenotypes are under the joint influences of genetic and environmental factors. PMID:25149252

  6. Adolescents' Information Behavior When Isolated from Peer Groups: Lessons from New Immigrant Adolescents' Everyday Life Information Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Joung Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate how isolated immigrant adolescents seek and use necessary information when they are not able to use significant information sources--their peer groups--in the period of transition before new peer groups are established. Method: To achieve the study's purpose, sixteen recently arrived (three…

  7. Isolation of a Mycobacterium microti-like organism from a rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) in a Canadian zoo.

    PubMed

    Lutze-Wallace, Cyril; Turcotte, Claude; Glover, Gordon; Cousins, Debby; Bell, John; Berlie-Surujballi, Gloria; Barbeau, Yvon; Randall, Geoff

    2006-10-01

    A Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organism was isolated from a zoo resident rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) imported into Canada from South Africa. The strain was identified biochemically as Mycobacterium microti. The spoligotype pattern obtained for this isolate was found to be rare. This represents the first report of isolation and spoligotyping of M. microti in North America.

  8. Antibiotic Susceptibility Evaluation of Group A Streptococcus Isolated from Children with Pharyngitis: A Study from Iran

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility of Group A streptococcus (GAS) to antibiotics usually used in Iran for treatment of GAS pharyngitis in children. Materials and Methods From 2011 to 2013, children 3-15 years of age with acute tonsillopharyngitis who attended Mofid Children's Hospital clinics and emergency ward and did not meet the exclusion criteria were enrolled in a prospective study in a sequential manner. The isolates strains from throat culture were identified as GAS by colony morphology, gram staining, beta hemolysis on blood agar, sensitivity to bacitracin, a positive pyrrolidonyl aminopeptidase (PYR) test result, and the presence of Lancefield A antigen determined by agglutination test. Antimicrobial susceptibility was identified by both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods. Results From 200 children enrolled in this study, 59 (30%) cases were culture positive for GAS. All isolates were sensitive to penicillin G. The prevalence of erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin resistance by broth dilution method was 33.9%, 57.6%, and 33.9%, respectively. Surprisingly, 8.4% of GAS strains were resistant to rifampin. In this study, 13.5% and 32.2% of the strains were resistant to clindamycin and ofloxacin, respectively. Conclusion The high rate of resistance of GAS to some antibiotics in this study should warn physicians, especially in Iran, to use antibiotics restrictedly and logically to prevent the rising of resistance rates in future. It also seems that continuous local surveillance is necessary to achieve the best therapeutic option for GAS treatment. PMID:26788405

  9. Use of radiocarbon and spectroscopic analyses to characterise soil organic matter pools isolated using different fractionation techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Gemma; Cloy, Joanna; Garnett, Mark; Sohi, Saran; Rees, Robert; Griffiths, Bryan

    2015-04-01

    Experimental division of soil organic matter (SOM) into functional pools has the potential to improve soil C modelling. Soil physical fractionation techniques seek to quantify these pools, however the fractions isolated vary in number, size, ecological role and composition. The use of different techniques to quantify soil C fractions in different studies presents a question - do similar fractions isolated by different methods fit the same conceptual definition? This study examined a sandy loam from the south-west of Scotland, sampled in summer, which had been under grassland management for at least 20 years. We compared average 14C ages of SOM fractions isolated using three published and frequently applied physical fractionation methods (1) a density separation technique isolating three fractions - free light (FLF) < 1.8 cm 3, intra-aggregate light (IALF) < 1.8 cm-3 after aggregate disruption, and organo-mineral (O-min) > 1.8 g cm 3 (Sohi et al, 2001); (2) a combined physical and chemical separation isolating five fractions: sand and aggregates (S+A) > 63 µm and > 1.8 g cm-3, particulate organic matter (POM) > 63 µm and < 1.8 g cm 3, silt and clay (s+c) < 63 but > 45 µm, residual organic carbon (rSOC) the residue left after s+c is oxidised with NaOCl, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) < 45 µm (Zimmermann et al, 2007); and (3) a hot water extraction method isolating two fractions: water soluble C (WSC) at 20 °C and hot water extractable C (HWEC) at 80 °C (Ghani et al, 2003). The fractions from Method 1 had the most distinct average 14C ages with O-min, FLF and IALF assessed as 206, 1965 and 6172 years before present (BP) respectively. The fractions from Method 2 fell into two age groups, < ~1000 years BP for s+c, rSOC and S+A and > 4000 years BP for DOC and POM. Both Method 3 fractions were dominated by modern C. The average 14C ages of FLF, IALF, DOC and POM were surprisingly higher than the mineral bound fractions, although they made up a relatively small

  10. Domesticated horses differ in their behavioural and physiological responses to isolated and group housing.

    PubMed

    Yarnell, Kelly; Hall, Carol; Royle, Chris; Walker, Susan L

    2015-05-01

    The predominant housing system used for domestic horses is individual stabling; however, housing that limits social interaction and requires the horse to live in semi-isolation has been reported to be a concern for equine welfare. The aim of the current study was to compare behavioural and physiological responses of domestic horses in different types of housing design that provided varying levels of social contact. Horses (n = 16) were divided equally into four groups and exposed to each of four housing treatments for a period of five days per treatment in a randomized block design. The four housing treatments used were single housed no physical contact (SHNC), single housed semi-contact (SHSC), paired housed full contact (PHFC) and group housed full contact (GHFC). During each housing treatment, adrenal activity was recorded using non-invasive faecal corticosterone metabolite analysis (fGC). Thermal images of the eye were captured and eye temperature was assessed as a non-invasive measure of the stress response. Behavioural analysis of time budget was carried out and an ease of handling score was assigned to each horse in each treatment using video footage. SHNC horses had significantly higher (p = 0.01) concentrations of fGC and were significantly (p = 0.003) more difficult to handle compared to the other housing types. GHFC horses, although not significantly different, had numerically lower concentrations of fGC and were more compliant to handling when compared to all other housing treatments. Eye temperature was significantly (p = 0.0001) lower in the group housed treatment when compared to all other treatments. These results indicate that based on physiological and behavioural measures incorporating social contact into the housing design of domestic horses could improve the standard of domestic equine welfare.

  11. Acinetobacter variabilis sp. nov. (formerly DNA group 15 sensu Tjernberg & Ursing), isolated from humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Krizova, Lenka; McGinnis, Jana; Maixnerova, Martina; Nemec, Matej; Poirel, Laurent; Mingle, Lisa; Sedo, Ondrej; Wolfgang, William; Nemec, Alexandr

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to define the taxonomic status of 16 strains which were phenetically congruent with Acinetobacter DNA group 15 described by Tjernberg & Ursing in 1989. The strains were isolated from a variety of human and animal specimens in geographically distant places over the last three decades. Taxonomic analysis was based on an Acinetobacter-targeted, genus-wide approach that included the comparative sequence analysis of housekeeping, protein-coding genes, whole-cell profiling based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), an array of in-house physiological and metabolic tests, and whole-genome comparative analysis. Based on analyses of the rpoB and gyrB genes, the 16 strains formed respective, strongly supported clusters clearly separated from the other species of the genus Acinetobacter. The distinctness of the group at the species level was indicated by average nucleotide identity values of ≤82 % between the whole genome sequences of two of the 16 strains (NIPH 2171(T) and NIPH 899) and those of the known species. In addition, the coherence of the group was also supported by MALDI-TOF MS. All 16 strains were non-haemolytic and non-gelatinase-producing, grown at 41 °C and utilized a rather limited number of carbon sources. Virtually every strain displayed a unique combination of metabolic and physiological features. We conclude that the 16 strains represent a distinct species of the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter variabilis sp. nov. is proposed to reflect its marked phenotypic heterogeneity. The type strain is NIPH 2171(T) ( = CIP 110486(T) = CCUG 26390(T) = CCM 8555(T)).

  12. The Isolation of Rubber from Milkweed Leaves. An Introductory Organic Chemistry Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volaric, Lisa; Hagen, John P.

    2002-01-01

    We present an introductory organic chemistry lab in which students isolate rubber from the leaves of milkweed plants (Asclepias syriaca). Students isolated rubber with a recovery of 2.4 ± 1.8% and 1.8 ± 0.7% for the microscale and macroscale procedures, respectively. Infrared spectra of their products were compared with the spectrum of synthetic rubber, cis-polyisoprene. Students tested for elasticity of their product by twisting it on a spatula and pulling; all students found some degree of elasticity.

  13. Comprehensive isolation of natural organic matter from water for spectral characterizations and reactivity testing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Croue, J.-P.; Benjamin, M.; Korshin, G.V.; Hwang, C.J.; Bruchet, A.; Aiken, G.R.

    2000-01-01

    A variety of approaches were tested to comprehensively isolate natural organic matter (NOM) from water. For waters with high NOM concentrations such as the Suwannee River, Georgia, approaches that used combinations of membrane concentrations, evaporative concentrations, and adsorption on nonionic XAD resins, ion exchange resins and iron oxide coated sand isolated over 90% of the NOM. However, for waters with low NOM concentrations, losses of half of the NOM were common and desalting of NOM isolates was a problem. A new comprehensive approach was devised and tested on the Seine River, France in which 100 L of filtered water was sodium softened by ion exchange and vacuum evaporated to 100 mL. Colloids (32% of the NOM) were isolated using a 3,500 Dalton membrane by dialysis against 0.1 M HCl and 0.2 M HF to remove salts and silica. On the membrane permeate, hydrophobic NOM (42%) was isolated using XAD-8 resin and hydrophilic NOM (26%) was isolated using a variety of selective desalting precipitations. The colloid fraction was characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy as N-acetylamino sugars. ?? 2000 American Chemical Society.

  14. A non-aqueous procedure to synthesize amino group bearing nanostructured organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Göring, M; Seifert, A; Schreiter, K; Müller, P; Spange, S

    2014-09-04

    Amino-functionalized organic-inorganic hybrid materials with a narrow distributed nanostructure of 2-4 nm in size were obtained by means of a template-free and non-aqueous procedure. Simultaneous twin polymerization of novel amino group containing twin monomers with 2,2'-spirobi[4H-1,3,2-benzodioxasiline] has been applied for this purpose. The amino groups of the organic-inorganic hybrid material are useful for post derivatization.

  15. ["Group" and organization: a dimension of collaboration of anthropology and epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Song, Lei-ming; Wang, Ning

    2012-04-01

    "Group" is a key concept in epidemiological research and "organization" is a core concept in anthropology. Group takes focus on the specific characteristics of the subjects, while organization takes focus on the relationship between the objects. For the characteristics and relationship of the objects that interacting with each other, the two concepts could be complementary in specific studies, and this will be the basic dimension of Interdisciplinary collaboration of anthropology and epidemiology.

  16. A self organizing map approach to physiological data analysis for enhanced group performance.

    SciTech Connect

    Doser, Adele Beatrice; Merkle, Peter Benedict

    2004-10-01

    A Self Organizing Map (SOM) approach was used to analyze physiological data taken from a group of subjects participating in a cooperative video shooting game. The ultimate aim was to discover signatures of group cooperation, conflict, leadership, and performance. Such information could be fed back to participants in a meaningful way, and ultimately increase group performance in national security applications, where the consequences of a poor group decision can be devastating. Results demonstrated that a SOM can be a useful tool in revealing individual and group signatures from physiological data, and could ultimately be used to heighten group performance.

  17. GENETIC FINGERPRINTING OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) ORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM HOSPITAL PATIENTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A particularly pathogenic group of mycobacteria belong to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which includes M. avium and M. intracellulare. MAC organisms cause disease in children, the elderly, and immuno-compromised individuals. A critical step in preventing MAC infections...

  18. Interfaces Leading Groups of Learners to Make Their Shared Problem-Solving Organization Explicit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moguel, P.; Tchounikine, P.; Tricot, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider collective problem-solving challenges and a particular structuring objective: lead groups of learners to make their shared problem-solving organization explicit. Such an objective may be considered as a way to lead learners to consider building and maintaining a shared organization, and/or as a way to provide a basis for…

  19. Chemkarta: A Card Game for Teaching Functional Groups in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudtson, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Students in undergraduate organic chemistry courses are frequently overwhelmed by the volume and complexity of information they are expected to learn. To aid in students' learning of organic functional groups, a novel card game "ChemKarta" is reported that can serve as a useful alternative to flashcards. This pedagogy is a simple…

  20. Less sensitive oxygen-rich organic peroxides containing geminal hydroperoxy groups.

    PubMed

    Gamage, Nipuni-Dhanesha H; Stiasny, Benedikt; Stierstorfer, Jörg; Martin, Philip D; Klapötke, Thomas M; Winter, Charles H

    2015-09-04

    A series of oxygen-rich organic peroxide compounds each containing two bis(hydroperoxy)methylene groups is described. Energetic testing shows that these compounds are much less sensitive toward impact and friction than existing classes of organic peroxides. The compounds are highly energetic, which may lead to practical peroxide-based explosives.

  1. Isolation of hydrophilic organic acids from water using nonionic macroporous resins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, G.R.; McKnight, Diane M.; Thorn, K.A.; Thurman, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    A method has been developed for the isolation of hydrophilic organic acids from aquatic environments using Amberlite* * Use of trade names in this report is for identification purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey. XAD-4 resin. The method uses a two column array of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins in series. The hydrophobic organic acids, composed primarily of aquatic fulvic acid, are removed from the sample on XAD-8, followed by the isolation of the more hydrophilic organic acids on XAD-4. For samples from a number of diverse environments, more of the dissolved organic carbon was isolated on the XAD-8 resin (23-58%) than on the XAD-4 resin (7-25%). For these samples, the hydrophilic acids have lower carbon and hydrogen contents, higher oxygen and nitrogen contents, and are lower in molecular weight than the corresponding fulvic acids. 13C NMR analyses indicate that the hydrophilic acids have a lower concentration of aromatic carbon and greater heteroaliphatic, ketone and carboxyl content than the fulvic acid. ?? 1992.

  2. Effects of polar and nonpolar groups on the solubility of organic compounds in soil organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.; Kile, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Vapor sorption capacities on a high-organic-content peat, a model for soil organic matter (SOM), were determined at room temperature for the following liquids: n-hexane, 1,4-dioxane, nitroethane, acetone, acetonitrile, 1-propanol, ethanol, and methanol. The linear organic vapor sorption is in keeping with the dominance of vapor partition in peat SOM. These data and similar results of carbon tetrachloride (CT), trichloroethylene (TCE), benzene, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME), and water on the same peat from earlier studies are used to evaluate the effect of polarity on the vapor partition in SOM. The extrapolated liquid solubility from the vapor isotherm increases sharply from 3-6 wt % for low-polarity liquids (hexane, CT, and benzene) to 62 wt % for polar methanol and correlates positively with the liquid's component solubility parameters for polar interaction (??P) and hydrogen bonding (??h). The same polarity effect may be expected to influence the relative solubilities of a variety of contaminants in SOM and, therefore, the relative deviations between the SOM-water partition coefficients (Kom) and corresponding octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) for different classes of compounds. The large solubility disparity in SOM between polar and nonpolar solutes suggests that the accurate prediction of Kom from Kow or Sw (solute water solubility) would be limited to compounds of similar polarity.

  3. Determination of members of a Borrelia afzelii-related group isolated from Ixodes nipponensis in Korea as Borrelia valaisiana.

    PubMed

    Masuzawa, T; Fukui, T; Miyake, M; Oh, H B; Cho, M K; Chang, W H; Imai, Y; Yanagihara, Y

    1999-10-01

    The 16S rRNA sequences of the Korean Borrelia strains 5MT and 9MT, isolated from Ixodes nipponensis, showed identities of 99.0-99.1% to that of B. afzelii. The strains were tentatively classified as belonging to the B. afzelii-related group. In this study, Korean isolates, including these strains, were characterized further and compared with recently described new species. These strains generated a RFLP pattern that has not been found previously in RFLP analysis of the 5S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer and the flagellin gene. When phylogenetic trees were constructed, based on the 5S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer, flagellin gene and 16S rRNA sequences, these Korean isolates formed a cluster with the Borrelia strain Am501 isolated from Ixodes columnae in Japan and Borrelia valaisiana strains VS116T and UK isolated from Ixodes ricinus in Europe and were distinguishable from the other species. However, these three groups of strains were divergent from each other in the molecular masses of the putative outer surface protein A (OspA) and in the sequences of the ospA gene. These findings suggest that these Korean isolates and one Japanese isolate are members of B. valaisiana and that OspA of this species is divergent, as is that of Borrelia garinii. This led to the speculation that B. valaisiana strains are adapted to the vector ticks found in each locality.

  4. A few sequence polymorphisms among isolates of Maize bushy stunt phytoplasma associate with organ proliferation symptoms of infected maize plants

    PubMed Central

    Orlovskis, Zigmunds; Canale, Maria Cristina; Haryono, Mindia; Lopes, João Roberto Spotti

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Maize bushy stunt phytoplasma (MBSP) is a bacterial pathogen of maize (Zea mays L.) across Latin America. MBSP belongs to the 16SrI-B sub-group within the genus ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma’. MBSP and its insect vector Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) are restricted to maize; both are thought to have coevolved with maize during its domestication from a teosinte-like ancestor. MBSP-infected maize plants show a diversity of symptoms. and it is likely that MBSP is under strong selection for increased virulence and insect transmission on maize hybrids that are widely grown in Brazil. In this study it was investigated whether the differences in genome sequences of MBSP isolates from two maize-growing regions in South-east Brazil explain variations in symptom severity of the MBSP isolates on various maize genotypes. Methods MBSP isolates were collected from maize production fields in Guaíra and Piracicaba in South-east Brazil for infection assays. One representative isolate was chosen for de novo whole-genome assembly and for the alignment of sequence reads from the genomes of other phytoplasma isolates to detect polymorphisms. Statistical methods were applied to investigate the correlation between variations in disease symptoms of infected maize plants and MBSP sequence polymorphisms. Key Results MBSP isolates contributed consistently to organ proliferation symptoms and maize genotype to leaf necrosis, reddening and yellowing of infected maize plants. The symptom differences are associated with polymorphisms in a phase-variable lipoprotein, which is a candidate effector, and an ATP-dependent lipoprotein ABC export protein, whereas no polymorphisms were observed in other candidate effector genes. Lipoproteins and ABC export proteins activate host defence responses, regulate pathogen attachment to host cells and activate effector secretion systems in other pathogens. Conclusions Polymorphisms in two putative virulence genes among MBSP isolates

  5. Preparation of Microcrystals of Organic Compounds with Polar Groups and Inorganic Salts by Reprecipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongxu; Lv, Chunxu; Liu, Dabin; Guo, Liwei; Fu, Tingming

    2005-07-01

    Reprecipitation is a useful method of preparing organic microcrystals. However, microcrystals of compounds with polar groups are difficult to prepare by this method. A method of preparing microcrystals of organic compounds with polar groups and inorganic salts using isooctane as an organic nonsolvent has been developed. Microcrystals of HMX, NH4NO3 and NH4ClO4 have been successfully prepared. Drop weight impact testing shows that HMX microcrystals of nanoscale size are much less sensitive to impact than HMX bulk crystals.

  6. Laboratory and field evaluation of selective media for isolation of group B streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, B M; Pass, M A; Dillon, H C

    1979-01-01

    Problems encountered with currently recommended selective media for group B streptococci (GBS) (selective broth medium and CNA agar) prompted a searach for alternative culture methods in ongoing epidemiological studies. Previously recommended inhibitory agents were tested in vitro. Gentamicin, alone or in combination with nalidixic acid, proved inhibitory for many GBS strains. Among other agents tested, polymyxin was most complementary to the gram-negative spectrum of nalidixic acid, without compromising GBS growth. Crystal violet provided the simplest, most economical staphylococcal inhibitor. Broth and agar media, constituted with these three agents and designated NPC, were evaluated in vitro and in field studies. This investigation represents the first direct comparison of broth media containing inhibitory agents for the preferential isolation of GBS. In maternal colonization studies, NPC broth proved superior to Todd-Hewitt broth containing nalidixic acid and gentamicin at concentrations employed in the previously described selective broth medium (95% versus 59% recovery). Our comparisons were done without added sheep blood since GBS grow well in Todd-Hewitt broth. NPC broth proved more sensitive than NPC agar for detecting GBS colonization in newborns. The NPC agar medium was useful for further purification of broth cultures and quantitative culture techniques. PMID:379037

  7. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Default Organic HAP Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Petroleum Solvent Groups 6 Table 6 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Contents of Petroleum Solvent Groups As specified in § 63.5758(a)(6), when detailed organic HAP content..., Naphthol Spirits, Petroleum Spirits, Petroleum Oil, Petroleum Naphtha, Solvent Naphtha, Solvent Blend.) 3...

  8. Comparison of Body Weights, Organ Weights and Histological Features of Selected Organs of Gnotobiotic, Conventional and Isolator-reared Contaminated Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Waxler, G. L.; Drees, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-seven pigs from three litters were used in a comparison of body weights, organ weights, and selected histological features of germfree, conventional and isolator-reared contaminated pigs. At three weeks of age conventional pigs were heavier than pigs of the other two groups. The mandibular lymphnodes, stomachs, and small intestines of contaminated pigs were significantly heavier than the same organs of germfree pigs. This difference was not found in superficial inguinal or prefemoral lymph nodes. Other statistically significant organ weight differences were found. Histologically, the lymph nodes of conventional and contaminated pigs were much more active than those of germfree pigs, although secondary nodules were occasionally found in lymph nodes of germfree pigs. Greater quantities of iron-containing pigment were found in the spleens of germfree pigs than in spleens of the other two groups. Hepatic interlobular septa were somewhat more developed in conventional pigs than in germfree or contaminated pigs. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:4261841

  9. Structural characterization of amphiphilic siderophores produced by a soda lake isolate, Halomonas sp. SL01, reveals cysteine-, phenylalanine- and proline-containing head groups.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Luis O'mar Serrano; Schwarz, Benjamin; Richards, Abigail M

    2015-11-01

    Soap Lake, located in Washington State, is a naturally occurring saline and alkaline lake. Several organisms inhabiting this lake have been identified as producers of siderophores that are unique in structure. Bacterial isolates, enriched from Soap Lake sediment and water samples, were screened for siderophore production using both the chrome azurol S (CAS) agar plate and liquid methods. Bacterial isolate Halomonas sp. SL01 was found to produce relatively high concentrations of siderophores in liquid medium (up to 40 µM). Siderophores from the isolate were separated from the culture supernatant using solid phase extraction and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Siderophore structure was determined using LC/MS/MS (liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry) and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) GC. Two distinct new families of amphiphilic siderophores were produced by isolate SL01. All siderophores ranged in size from 989 to 1096 atomic mass units and consisted of a conserved peptidic head group (per family), which coordinates iron, coupled to fatty acid moieties. The fatty acyl moieties were C10-C14 in length and some with hydroxyl substitutions at the third α position. These siderophores resembled amphiphilic aquachelin siderophores produced by Halomonas aquamarina strain DS40M3, a marine bacterium as well as siderophores from isolate Halomonas sp. SL28 that was found to produce amphiphilic siderophores. Bacteria thriving under saline and alkaline conditions are capable of producing unique siderophores resembling those produced by microbes inhabiting marine environments.

  10. Type-Specific Antigens in the Psittacosis-Lymphogranuloma Venereum Group of Organisms1

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, C. E. Ovid; Berman, David T.

    1965-01-01

    Fraser, C. E. Ovid (University of Wisconsin, Madison), and David T. Berman. Type-specific antigens in the psittacosis-lymphogranuloma venereum group of organisms. J. Bacteriol. 89:943–948. 1965.—Antigens of 14 strains of the psittacosis-lymphogranuloma venereum (PLV) group of organisms were prepared by treating purified particles with deoxycholate and trypsin. In complement-fixation tests of these antigens with the homologous and heterologous antisera, specific serotype differences were observed. Application of the method of specificity differences permitted placement of the 14 strains into 7 subgroups. The possible value of these techniques in immunology, epizootiology, and taxonomy of the PLV group is discussed. PMID:14276119

  11. Method of identification and isolation of organs of endocrine secretion in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kashirina, N.K.

    1987-10-01

    The authors describe a procedure based on electron autoradiography for isolating and determining the morphology of the adrenal, pituitary, and thyroid glands in albino mice, and use the procedure to give a description, in this paper, of the configuration, location, and physiological interaction of these glands relative to the other organs in these laboratory animals. The procedure overcomes the difficulties encountered in such determinations owing to factors such as smallness.

  12. Isolation of plant DNA for PCR and genotyping using organic extraction and CTAB.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathan M

    2010-11-01

    A general difficulty in isolation of DNA from plant cells is the presence of a cell wall. It is necessary to degrade plant cell walls, either physically or enzymatically, in order to effectively isolate plant DNA. Additionally, some tissues (such as endosperm) or some species contain high levels of starches or phenolic compounds that can complicate DNA isolation. A number of plant DNA isolation protocols are designed to overcome species-specific difficulties. This is a relatively simple protocol that uses an extraction buffer containing cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB); it can be used for many plant species. It provides a substantial amount of high-quality DNA that is suitable for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures and is stable for long periods of time. The cost per sample is very low. In addition, this protocol is relatively robust and can be performed by individuals who have had relatively little training. A typical undergraduate student can perform ~200-300 isolations in a day using this protocol. The disadvantages are that it requires a freeze-dryer and a mill or paint-shaker-like device and that it utilizes an organic extraction step, requiring the use of a fume hood.

  13. Nasal Histopathology and Intracage Ammonia Levels in Female Groups and Breeding Mice Housed in Static Isolation Cages.

    PubMed

    Mexas, Angela M; Brice, Angela K; Caro, Adam C; Hillanbrand, Troy S; Gaertner, Diane J

    2015-09-01

    Many factors influence ammonia levels in rodent cages, and high intracage ammonia has been associated with specific types of abnormal nasal pathology in mice. The use of autoclaved corncob bedding and the maintenance of low room humidity reduce the accumulation of ammonia in mouse cages. However, there are no engineering standards that define the limits of ammonia exposure for mice housed in static isolation cages. Regulatory guidance indicates that solid bottom cages must be sanitized at least weekly and that cage components in direct contact with animals must be sanitized at least every 2 wk. Common practice is to replace the bottoms and bedding of static isolation cages once weekly. To determine whether changing static isolation cages once weekly is an appropriate performance standard for mice, we prospectively evaluated the relationship between ammonia levels, nasal histopathology, and housing densities in various grouping strategies of mice housed in static isolation cages. Here, we report that the average nasal pathology score per cage and intracage ammonia levels were correlated, but nasal pathology scores did not differ among mice housed in breeding pairs, breeding trios, or female groups. In light of ammonia levels and histopathology scores as performance standards, these results suggest that a weekly cage-change frequency for static isolation cages does not result in adverse effects. Our results provide evidence to support current practices in the use of static isolation cages for housing laboratory mice in modern vivaria.

  14. Nasal Histopathology and Intracage Ammonia Levels in Female Groups and Breeding Mice Housed in Static Isolation Cages

    PubMed Central

    Mexas, Angela M; Brice, Angela K; Caro, Adam C; Hillanbrand, Troy S

    2015-01-01

    Many factors influence ammonia levels in rodent cages, and high intracage ammonia has been associated with specific types of abnormal nasal pathology in mice. The use of autoclaved corncob bedding and the maintenance of low room humidity reduce the accumulation of ammonia in mouse cages. However, there are no engineering standards that define the limits of ammonia exposure for mice housed in static isolation cages. Regulatory guidance indicates that solid bottom cages must be sanitized at least weekly and that cage components in direct contact with animals must be sanitized at least every 2 wk. Common practice is to replace the bottoms and bedding of static isolation cages once weekly. To determine whether changing static isolation cages once weekly is an appropriate performance standard for mice, we prospectively evaluated the relationship between ammonia levels, nasal histopathology, and housing densities in various grouping strategies of mice housed in static isolation cages. Here, we report that the average nasal pathology score per cage and intracage ammonia levels were correlated, but nasal pathology scores did not differ among mice housed in breeding pairs, breeding trios, or female groups. In light of ammonia levels and histopathology scores as performance standards, these results suggest that a weekly cage-change frequency for static isolation cages does not result in adverse effects. Our results provide evidence to support current practices in the use of static isolation cages for housing laboratory mice in modern vivaria. PMID:26424245

  15. Comparative analysis of Edwardsiella isolates from fish in the eastern United States identifies two distinct genetic taxa amongst organisms phenotypically classified as E. tarda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Matt J.; Quiniou, Sylvie M.; Cody, Theresa; Tabuchi, Maki; Ware, Cynthia; Cipriano, Rocco C.; Mauel, Michael J.; Soto, Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Edwardsiella tarda, a Gram-negative member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, has been implicated in significant losses in aquaculture facilities worldwide. Here, we assessed the intra-specific variability of E. tarda isolates from 4 different fish species in the eastern United States. Repetitive sequence mediated PCR (rep-PCR) using 4 different primer sets (ERIC I & II, ERIC II, BOX, and GTG5) and multi-locus sequence analysis of 16S SSU rDNA, groEl, gyrA, gyrB, pho, pgi, pgm, and rpoA gene fragments identified two distinct genotypes of E. tarda (DNA group I; DNA group II). Isolates that fell into DNA group II demonstrated more similarity to E. ictaluri than DNA group I, which contained the reference E. tarda strain (ATCC #15947). Conventional PCR analysis using published E. tarda-specific primer sets yielded variable results, with several primer sets producing no observable amplification of target DNA from some isolates. Fluorometric determination of G + C content demonstrated 56.4% G + C content for DNA group I, 60.2% for DNA group II, and 58.4% for E. ictaluri. Surprisingly, these isolates were indistinguishable using conventional biochemical techniques, with all isolates demonstrating phenotypic characteristics consistent with E. tarda. Analysis using two commercial test kits identified multiple phenotypes, although no single metabolic characteristic could reliably discriminate between genetic groups. Additionally, anti-microbial susceptibility and fatty acid profiles did not demonstrate remarkable differences between groups. The significant genetic variation (<90% similarity at gyrA, gyrB, pho, phi and pgm; <40% similarity by rep-PCR) between these groups suggests organisms from DNA group II may represent an unrecognized, genetically distinct taxa of Edwardsiella that is phenotypically indistinguishable from E. tarda.

  16. Isolation of a citrus promoter specific for reproductive organs and its functional analysis in isolated juice sacs and tomato.

    PubMed

    Sorkina, Alina; Bardosh, Gabriel; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Fridman, Ifat; Schlizerman, Ludmila; Zur, Naftali; Or, Etti; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

    2011-09-01

    While searching for genes expressed in acid lemon but not in acidless lime pulp, we isolated clone Cl111 which showed the following expression phenotypes: (1) while it was expressed in the ovaries in both varieties, its mRNA was detected only in the pulp of the acid fruit, (2) no or very low expression of the gene was detected in vegetative organs. These expression patterns suggested that Cl111 is an ovary- and pulp-specific gene. The ability of ~2-kb fragments upstream of the transcription start site of the lemon and lime genes to confer reporter-gene activity was investigated by transient expression in isolated juice vesicles of both varieties. Whereas Cl111 promoter from lemon showed faint activity in lemon and lime juice vesicles, no activity was evident with the lime promoter. The activities of the 2-kb fragments and their delimited fragments were further investigated in tomato. The results indicated that the promoters were active in a manner similar to that in acid lemon and acidless lime: the lemon promoter generated activity in the fruit endocarp, analogous to citrus fruit pulp. The delimitation analyses identified an expression-conferring region which, in the lemon promoter, contained a sequence homologous to a fruit-specific element of the melon cucumisin gene. Another region, which reduced promoter activity, contained an I-Box-like sequence, identified as a fruit-specific negative element. Taken together, Cl111 promoter was confirmed to be pulp- and flower-specific. Differences in the expression of Cl111 between the two varieties could be attributable to changes in the gene promoter region.

  17. Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods

    DOE PAGES

    Petters, M. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2016-01-19

    A wealth of recent laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that organic aerosol composition evolves with time in the atmosphere, leading to changes in the influence of the organic fraction to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra. There is a need for tools that can realistically represent the evolution of CCN activity to better predict indirect effects of organic aerosol on clouds and climate. This work describes a model to predict the CCN activity of organic compounds from functional group composition. Following previous methods in the literature, we test the ability of semi-empirical group contribution methods in Köhler theory to predict themore » effective hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. However, in our approach we also account for liquid–liquid phase boundaries to simulate phase-limited activation behavior. Model evaluation against a selected database of published laboratory measurements demonstrates that kappa can be predicted within a factor of 2. Simulation of homologous series is used to identify the relative effectiveness of different functional groups in increasing the CCN activity of weakly functionalized organic compounds. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote CCN activity while methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit CCN activity. The model can be incorporated into scale-bridging test beds such as the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) to evaluate the evolution of kappa for a complex mix of organic compounds and to develop suitable parameterizations of CCN evolution for larger-scale models.« less

  18. Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petters, M. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of recent laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that organic aerosol composition evolves with time in the atmosphere, leading to changes in the influence of the organic fraction to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra. There is a need for tools that can realistically represent the evolution of CCN activity to better predict indirect effects of organic aerosol on clouds and climate. This work describes a model to predict the CCN activity of organic compounds from functional group composition. Following previous methods in the literature, we test the ability of semi-empirical group contribution methods in Köhler theory to predict the effective hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. However, in our approach we also account for liquid-liquid phase boundaries to simulate phase-limited activation behavior. Model evaluation against a selected database of published laboratory measurements demonstrates that kappa can be predicted within a factor of 2. Simulation of homologous series is used to identify the relative effectiveness of different functional groups in increasing the CCN activity of weakly functionalized organic compounds. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote CCN activity while methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit CCN activity. The model can be incorporated into scale-bridging test beds such as the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) to evaluate the evolution of kappa for a complex mix of organic compounds and to develop suitable parameterizations of CCN evolution for larger-scale models.

  19. A novel method for isolating and analyzing organic acids in biological cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Polman, K.

    1995-12-31

    Fermentatively produced organic acids have significant potential as chemical feedstocks for the production of various commodity materials. Such acids include acetic and succinic acids. Fermentations frequently result in the simultaneous production of two or more organic acids, and often other fermentation products as well. This necessitates separation of these products from each other, so that quantification and purification can be achieved. A multitude of methodologies for the identification, purification, and quantitation of organic acids has been developed and described; both liquid and gas chromatography have been used for such separations. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) media used for the separation of organic acids have included C18 columns, Aminex HPX-87H (ion-moderated partition resin), TEAP-Si 100 Polyol (strongly basic anion-exchange resin), Dowex 1 (cation-exchange column), Shodex Ionpak KC811, and others. Methodologies for HPLC analysis of organic acids also vary in these aspects: (1) Sample pretreatment (e.g., pretreatment with Sep-Pak C18 cartridges or with DEAE-Sephadex); (2) Mobile-phase composition (e.g., dilute sulfuric acid or formic acid); and (3) Method of organic acid detection (e.g., refractive index or light absorption). In this study, we present a methodology for isolating and quantifying organic acids found in fermentation broths. The methodology is simple, utilizes dual separation chemistries to effect an enhanced separation capacity, and is durable in terms of HPLC column life.

  20. Virulence of human and bovine isolates of group B streptococci (types Ia and III) in experimental pregnant mouse models.

    PubMed Central

    Poutrel, B; Dore, J

    1985-01-01

    Two experimental mouse models were tested for their suitability in measuring virulence of two human and two bovine isolates (types Ia and III) of group B streptococci. In the first model, the kinetics of the number of bacteria in the spleen, liver, and placenta of mice inoculated intravenously on day 16 of pregnancy were monitored for 48 h after infection. In the second model, lethality and abortion were recorded for mice inoculated on day 13 of pregnancy. Levels of colonization in spleens or livers and lethality were significantly greater (P less than 0.001) for human isolates than for bovine isolates. In contrast, no statistically significant differences in the ability to colonize placentas and to induce abortions were noted between human and bovine isolates. The results showed that pregnant mice were more sensitive than nonpregnant mice to a challenge with group B streptococci. The results also suggest that placental colonization and abortion could be a suitable mouse model in evaluating the virulence of human and bovine isolates of group B streptococci. PMID:3880731

  1. Incidence, diversity and toxin gene characteristics of Bacillus cereus group strains isolated from food products marketed in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Samapundo, S; Heyndrickx, M; Xhaferi, R; Devlieghere, F

    2011-10-17

    The major objectives of this study were to determine the incidence, diversity and characteristics of Bacillus cereus group spp. isolated from food products marketed in Belgium. The food products investigated in this study included cooked pasta, lasagna, béchamel sauce, bolognaise sauce, fresh minced beef, fresh-cut vegetables and raw basmati rice. B. cereus group spp. were detected in 56.3% (324 of 575) of the samples giving rise to 380 strains. The highest incidence (100%) occurred in the raw basmati rice. Although only 10 (2.6%) of the 380 isolates were determined to be psychrotolerant (able to grow at ≤7°C), 25 (6.2%), 189 (49.7%) and 334 (87.9%) isolates were able to grow at mild temperature abuse conditions of 8°C, 9°C and 10°C, respectively. The large diversity of the isolates obtained (overall and between isolates obtained from the same product type) was highlighted by the results of the (GTG)(5) PCR fingerprinting of 80 selected isolates. Sixty-one of these 80 isolates belonged to 15 distinct clusters (≥85% Pearson correlation) whereas the remaining 19 were each clustered separately. Further diversity was also found in the distribution of toxin genes as 16 different profiles were observed in the 80 selected isolates. Whilst none of 80 selected strains harboured the ces gene required for the production of the emetic toxin cereulide, 42 strains (52.5%) carried all seven genes required for the production of the diarrhoeal enterotoxins: haemolytic BL, non-haemolytic enterotoxin and cytotoxin K. The results of this study highlight not only the omnipresence but also the highly diverse ecology of B. cereus spp. within and across several food product types available on the retail market in Belgium. They should also provide the impetus for more studies to enable detailed risk assessment studies to be performed.

  2. Social integration of robots into groups of cockroaches to control self-organized choices.

    PubMed

    Halloy, J; Sempo, G; Caprari, G; Rivault, C; Asadpour, M; Tâche, F; Saïd, I; Durier, V; Canonge, S; Amé, J M; Detrain, C; Correll, N; Martinoli, A; Mondada, F; Siegwart, R; Deneubourg, J L

    2007-11-16

    Collective behavior based on self-organization has been shown in group-living animals from insects to vertebrates. These findings have stimulated engineers to investigate approaches for the coordination of autonomous multirobot systems based on self-organization. In this experimental study, we show collective decision-making by mixed groups of cockroaches and socially integrated autonomous robots, leading to shared shelter selection. Individuals, natural or artificial, are perceived as equivalent, and the collective decision emerges from nonlinear feedbacks based on local interactions. Even when in the minority, robots can modulate the collective decision-making process and produce a global pattern not observed in their absence. These results demonstrate the possibility of using intelligent autonomous devices to study and control self-organized behavioral patterns in group-living animals.

  3. Thermodynamic Modeling of Organic-Inorganic Aerosols with the Group-Contribution Model AIOMFAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuend, A.; Marcolli, C.; Luo, B. P.; Peter, T.

    2009-04-01

    Liquid aerosol particles are - from a physicochemical viewpoint - mixtures of inorganic salts, acids, water and a large variety of organic compounds (Rogge et al., 1993; Zhang et al., 2007). Molecular interactions between these aerosol components lead to deviations from ideal thermodynamic behavior. Strong non-ideality between organics and dissolved ions may influence the aerosol phases at equilibrium by means of liquid-liquid phase separations into a mainly polar (aqueous) and a less polar (organic) phase. A number of activity models exists to successfully describe the thermodynamic equilibrium of aqueous electrolyte solutions. However, the large number of different, often multi-functional, organic compounds in mixed organic-inorganic particles is a challenging problem for the development of thermodynamic models. The group-contribution concept as introduced in the UNIFAC model by Fredenslund et al. (1975), is a practical method to handle this difficulty and to add a certain predictability for unknown organic substances. We present the group-contribution model AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients), which explicitly accounts for molecular interactions between solution constituents, both organic and inorganic, to calculate activities, chemical potentials and the total Gibbs energy of mixed systems (Zuend et al., 2008). This model enables the computation of vapor-liquid (VLE), liquid-liquid (LLE) and solid-liquid (SLE) equilibria within one framework. Focusing on atmospheric applications we considered eight different cations, five anions and a wide range of alcohols/polyols as organic compounds. With AIOMFAC, the activities of the components within an aqueous electrolyte solution are very well represented up to high ionic strength. We show that the semi-empirical middle-range parametrization of direct organic-inorganic interactions in alcohol-water-salt solutions enables accurate computations of vapor-liquid and liquid

  4. Summary of presentation for research on social structure, agreement, and conflict in groups in extreme and isolated environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Despite a vast amount of research, little is known concerning the effect of group structure, and individuals' understanding of that structure, on conflict in Antarctic groups. The overall objective of the research discussed is to determine the interrelationships of group structure, social cognition, and group function and conflict in isolated and extreme environments. In the two decades following WWII, a large body of research focused on the physiological, psychological, and social psychological factors affecting the functioning of individuals and groups in a variety of extreme and isolated environments in both the Arctic and Antarctic. There are two primary reasons for further research of this type. First, Antarctic polar stations are considered to be natural laboratories for the social and behavioral sciences and provide an opportunity to address certain theoretical and empirical questions concerned with agreement and conflict in social groups in general and group behavior in extreme, isolated environments in particular. Recent advances in the analysis of social networks and intracultural variation have improved the methods and have shifted the theoretical questions. The research is motivated by three classes of questions: (1) What are the characteristics of the social relations among individuals working and living together in extreme and isolated environments?; (2) What do individuals understand about their group, how does that understanding develop, and how is it socially distributed?; and (3) What is the relationship between that understanding and the functioning of the social group? Answers to these questions are important if we are to advance our knowledge of how individuals and groups adapt to extreme environments. Second, although Antarctic winter-over candidates may be evaluated as qualified on the basis of individual characteristics, they may fail to adapt because of certain characteristics of the social group. Consequently, the ability of winter-over-groups

  5. Characterization of some efficient cellulase producing bacteria isolated from paper mill sludges and organic fertilizers

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Miranda L; Broere, Michael; Leung, Kam Tin; Qin, Wensheng

    2011-01-01

    The wide variety of bacteria in the environment permits screening for more efficient cellulases to help overcome current challenges in biofuel production. This study focuses on the isolation of efficient cellulase producing bacteria found in organic fertilizers and paper mill sludges which can be considered for use in large scale biorefining. Pure isolate cultures were screened for cellulase activity. Six isolates: S1, S2, S3, S4, E2, and E4, produced halos greater in diameter than the positive control (Cellulomonas xylanilytica), suggesting high cellulase activities. A portion of the 16S rDNA genes of cellulase positive isolates were amplified and sequenced, then BLASTed to determine likely genera. Phylogenetic analysis revealed genera belonging to two major Phyla of Gram positive bacteria: Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. All isolates were tested for the visible degradation of filter paper; only isolates E2 and E4 (Paenibacillus species) were observed to completely break down filter paper within 72 and 96 h incubation, respectively, under limited oxygen condition. Thus E2 and E4 were selected for the FP assay for quantification of total cellulase activities. It was shown that 1% (w/v) CMC could induce total cellulase activities of 1652.2±61.5 and 1456.5±30.7 μM of glucose equivalents for E2 and E4, respectively. CMC could induce cellulase activities 8 and 5.6X greater than FP, therefore CMC represented a good inducing substrate for cellulase production. The genus Paenibacillus are known to contain some excellent cellulase producing strains, E2 and E4 displayed superior cellulase activities and represent excellent candidates for further cellulase analysis and characterization. PMID:21969070

  6. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of group G streptococci in Israel: comparison of invasive, non-invasive and carriage isolates.

    PubMed

    Halperin, T; Levine, H; Korenman, Z; Burstein, S; Amber, R; Sela, T; Valinsky, L

    2016-10-01

    Beta-hemolytic group G streptococci (GGS) are increasingly recognized as a source of substantial morbidity, causing mild to severe sporadic infections as well as outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance of GGS in Israel in order to aid in prevention and control. A total of 325 GGS isolates were collected in Israel between 2007 and 2011 from three determined settings: (1) carriage (n = 60), an observational longitudinal carriage study in the IF, (2) non-invasive (n = 166), clinical sporadic and epidemic non-invasive cases in the IDF, and (3) invasive (n = 99) cases of bacteremia collected during this period in Israel from a similar age group, at the national Streptococcal Reference Center. All isolates were characterized genetically and by their antibiotic-resistance profile. emm typing revealed 35 distinct types and subtypes among 228 S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) isolates, with high genetic diversity. An additional 97 GGS were identified as Streptococcus anginosus (SAG). The proportion of SDSE was higher in the invasive (100 %) and non-invasive (63.8 %) isolates compared to the carriage ones (38.3 %). Clindamycin, erythromycin, azithromycin and tetracycline resistance was detected in 6.6 %, 8.6 %, 9.7 % and 37.6 % of isolates, respectively. Overall, the most resistant isolates were in the invasive group and the fewest were in the SAG group. Considerable genetic diversity and common antibiotic resistance were revealed among GGS strains which differed according to the epidemiologic settings. Further clinical, epidemiological and basic research of GGS as a pathogen is warranted.

  7. The New Zealand World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) Group.

    PubMed

    Billington, D Rex; Landon, Jason; Krägeloh, Christian U; Shepherd, Daniel

    2010-05-28

    With the approval of the World Health Organization (WHO), AUT University has established a new centre to develop and promote the use of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) assessment instruments for health and health-related studies in New Zealand. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the NZ WHOQOL Group and to describe the structure and properties of the questionnaires in order to help the reader decide whether the instruments are suitable for their research and their use.

  8. An Atypical Clostridium Strain Related to the Clostridium botulinum Group III Strain Isolated from a Human Blood Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ruimy, Raymond; Bouchier, Christiane; Faucher, Nathalie; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel R.

    2014-01-01

    A nontoxigenic strain isolated from a fatal human case of bacterial sepsis was identified as a Clostridium strain from Clostridium botulinum group III, based on the phenotypic characters and 16S rRNA gene sequence, and was found to be related to the mosaic C. botulinum D/C strain according to a multilocus sequence analysis of 5 housekeeping genes. PMID:24088855

  9. Species identification of Streptococcus bovis group isolates causing bacteremia: a comparison of two MALDI-TOF MS systems.

    PubMed

    Agergaard, Charlotte N; Knudsen, Elisa; Dargis, Rimtas; Nielsen, Xiaohui C; Christensen, Jens J; Justesen, Ulrik S

    2017-02-20

    This study compared two MALDI-TOF MS systems (Biotyper and VITEK MS) on clinical Streptococcus bovis group isolates (n=66). The VITEK MS gave fewer misidentifications and a higher rate of correct identifications than the Biotyper. Only the identification of S. lutetiensis by the VITEK MS was reliable. Additional optimization of the available system databases is needed.

  10. An atypical Clostridium strain related to the Clostridium botulinum group III strain isolated from a human blood culture.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Philippe; Ruimy, Raymond; Bouchier, Christiane; Faucher, Nathalie; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel R

    2014-01-01

    A nontoxigenic strain isolated from a fatal human case of bacterial sepsis was identified as a Clostridium strain from Clostridium botulinum group III, based on the phenotypic characters and 16S rRNA gene sequence, and was found to be related to the mosaic C. botulinum D/C strain according to a multilocus sequence analysis of 5 housekeeping genes.

  11. Effect of concentration of dispersed organic matter on optical maturity parameters: Interlaboratory results of the organic matter concentration working group of the ICCP.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendonca, Filho J.G.; Araujo, C.V.; Borrego, A.G.; Cook, A.; Flores, D.; Hackley, P.; Hower, J.C.; Kern, M.L.; Kommeren, K.; Kus, J.; Mastalerz, Maria; Mendonca, J.O.; Menezes, T.R.; Newman, J.; Ranasinghe, P.; Souza, I.V.A.F.; Suarez-Ruiz, I.; Ujiie, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to study the effect of the kerogen isolation procedures on maturity parameters of organic matter using optical microscopes. This work represents the results of the Organic Matter Concentration Working Group (OMCWG) of the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP) during the years 2008 and 2009. Four samples have been analysed covering a range of maturity (low and moderate) and terrestrial and marine geological settings. The analyses comprise random vitrinite reflectance measured on both kerogen concentrate and whole rock mounts and fluorescence spectra taken on alginite. Eighteen participants from twelve laboratories from all over the world performed the analyses. Samples of continental settings contained enough vitrinite for participants to record around 50 measurements whereas fewer readings were taken on samples from marine setting. The scatter of results was also larger in the samples of marine origin. Similar vitrinite reflectance values were in general recorded in the whole rock and in the kerogen concentrate. The small deviations of the trend cannot be attributed to the acid treatment involved in kerogen isolation but to reasons related to components identification or to the difficulty to achieve a good polish of samples with high mineral matter content. In samples difficult to polish, vitrinite reflectance was measured on whole rock tended to be lower. The presence or absence of rock fabric affected the selection of the vitrinite population for measurement and this also had an influence in the average value reported and in the scatter of the results. Slightly lower standard deviations were reported for the analyses run on kerogen concentrates. Considering the spectral fluorescence results, it was observed that the ??max presents a shift to higher wavelengths in the kerogen concentrate sample in comparison to the whole-rock sample, thus revealing an influence of preparation methods (acid treatment) on

  12. Persistence of Two Isolates of Trichomonas gallinae in Simulated Bird Baths With and Without Organic Material.

    PubMed

    Purple, Kathryn E; Gerhold, Richard W

    2015-12-01

    Trichomonas gallinae, a well-documented protozoan parasite of avian hosts, has been implicated in major passerine mortality events recently and historically throughout the literature. It has been suggested that bird baths and artificial water sources could serve as a source of infection for naive birds; however, trichomonad persistence in water is not well understood. We measured the persistence of T. gallinae isolates from two avian hosts in distilled water and distilled water with the addition of organic material. We inoculated plastic containers in a laboratory setting with 1 × 10(6) trichomonads and then sampled 500 μl from each container at various time points postinoculation (0-20 hr). The 500-μl aliquots were inoculated into flasks with 5 ml of modified Diamond media at each time point. Flasks were incubated at 37 C and examined by light microscopy for five consecutive days for the characteristic movements of live trichomonads. The maximum persistence was 16 hr with a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) isolate in the organic material treatment, far longer than the 1 hr persistence previously reported. We show that T. gallinae isolates are capable of persisting for long periods of time in water, illustrating that bird baths may be validated as a potential source of transmission in epidemics.

  13. Arsenic methylation by micro-organisms isolated from sheepskin bedding materials.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Corinne R; Polishchuk, Elena; Delisle, Marie-Chantal; Franz, Catherine; Cullen, William R

    2003-06-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has been associated with the volatilization of arsenic, antimony or phosphorus compounds from infants' bedding material by micro-organisms, the so-called 'toxic gas hypothesis'. The volatilization of arsenic by aerobic micro-organisms isolated from new sheepskin bedding material, as well as on material used by a healthy infant and by an infant who perished of SIDS, was examined. Three fungi were isolated from a piece of sheepskin bedding material on which an infant perished of SIDS, which methylated arsenic to form trimethylarsenic(V) species, precursors to volatile trimethylarsine. These three fungi were identified as Scopulariopsis koningii, Fomitopsis pinicola and Penicillium gladioli by their 26S-ribosomal RNA polymerase chain reaction products. These fungi were not previously known to methylate arsenic. The volatilization of arsenic by these three fungi was then examined. Only P. gladioli volatilized arsenic and only under conditions such that the production of sufficient trimethylarsine to be acutely toxic to an infant is unlikely. S. brevicaulis grew on the sheepskin bedding material and evolved a trace amount of trimethylarsine. Known human pathogens such as Mycobacterium neoaurum and Acinetobacter junii were isolated from used bedding.

  14. Species identification of members of the Streptococcus milleri group isolated from the vagina by ID 32 Strep system and differential phenotypic characteristics.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmet, Z; Warren, M; Houang, E T

    1995-01-01

    The importance of bacterial vaginosis as a risk factor in obstetric and gynecological infections has recently been recognized. The bacterial vaginosis group of organisms includes members of the Streptococcus milleri group, the identification of which has caused much confusion. We prospectively surveyed the rates of carriage of S. milleri group organisms in 397 high vaginal swabs received in our laboratory. For the identification of 99 clinical isolates and 23 control strains, we compared the results obtained by the rapid ID 32 Strep system (Analytab Products) and by a scheme utilizing six differential phenotypic characteristics (presence of beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, alpha-glucosidase, beta-D-fucosidase, beta-galactosidase, beta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, and beta-glucosidase) as described by Whiley et al. (R. A. Whiley, H. Fraser, J. M. Hardie, and D. Beighton, J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:1497-1501, 1990). We identified Streptococcus anginosus in 18% and Streptococcus constellatus in 0.05% of the specimens examined. Of the isolates of S. anginosus that reacted with grouping antisera, 20 of 25 belonged to Lancefield group F. The incubation conditions for bacterial cultures and for reaction mixtures affected the results of phenotypic characterization in the production of alpha-glucosidase, beta-galactosidase, and beta-glucosidase. However, by using bacterial cultures grown under hypercapnic conditions and incubating the reaction mixtures aerobically, consistent phenotypic characteristics were obtained, allowing identification similar to that obtained by the ID 32 Strep system. We therefore recommend the phenotypic scheme as an inexpensive, reliable, and convenient method for the initial identification of species of the S. milleri group. PMID:7650193

  15. Variability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O strains isolated from Cameroonian patients living in France.

    PubMed Central

    Loussert-Ajaka, I; Chaix, M L; Korber, B; Letourneur, F; Gomas, E; Allen, E; Ly, T D; Brun-Vézinet, F; Simon, F; Saragosti, S

    1995-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleotide sequences encoding p24Gag and the Env C2V3 region were obtained from seven patients who were selected on the basis of having paradoxical seronegativity on a subset of HIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection kits and having atypical Western blot (immunoblot) reactivity. Sequence analyses showed that all of these strains were more closely related to the recently described Cameroonian HIV isolates of group O (HIV-1 outlier) than to group M (HIV-1 major). All seven patients had Cameroonian origins but were living in France at the time the blood samples were taken. Characterization of a large number of group M strains has to date revealed eight distinct genetic subtypes (A to H). Genetic distances between sequences from available group O isolates were generally comparable to those observed in M intersubtype sequence comparisons, showing that the group O viruses are genetically very diverse. Analysis of sequences from these seven new viral strains, combined with the three previously characterized group O strains, revealed few discernable phylogenetic clustering patterns among the 10 patients' viral sequences. The level of diversity among group O sequences suggests that they may have a comparable (or greater) age than the M group sequences, although for unknown reasons, the latter group dispersed first and is the dominant lineage in the pandemic. PMID:7637010

  16. Variability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O strains isolated from Cameroonian patients living in France.

    PubMed

    Loussert-Ajaka, I; Chaix, M L; Korber, B; Letourneur, F; Gomas, E; Allen, E; Ly, T D; Brun-Vézinet, F; Simon, F; Saragosti, S

    1995-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleotide sequences encoding p24Gag and the Env C2V3 region were obtained from seven patients who were selected on the basis of having paradoxical seronegativity on a subset of HIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection kits and having atypical Western blot (immunoblot) reactivity. Sequence analyses showed that all of these strains were more closely related to the recently described Cameroonian HIV isolates of group O (HIV-1 outlier) than to group M (HIV-1 major). All seven patients had Cameroonian origins but were living in France at the time the blood samples were taken. Characterization of a large number of group M strains has to date revealed eight distinct genetic subtypes (A to H). Genetic distances between sequences from available group O isolates were generally comparable to those observed in M intersubtype sequence comparisons, showing that the group O viruses are genetically very diverse. Analysis of sequences from these seven new viral strains, combined with the three previously characterized group O strains, revealed few discernable phylogenetic clustering patterns among the 10 patients' viral sequences. The level of diversity among group O sequences suggests that they may have a comparable (or greater) age than the M group sequences, although for unknown reasons, the latter group dispersed first and is the dominant lineage in the pandemic.

  17. [Organization of domestic groups in the hinterlands of Lisbon: a study of different conducts].

    PubMed

    Da Silva, A F

    1993-01-01

    The author analyzes "methods of domestic organization in a hinterland area in Lisbon, [Portugal, particularly] in Oeiras, between 1730 and 1810. Results show the existence of two systems of domestic group organization: farmers and workers. The [farmers] set up a succession strategy associated with the defence of familiar heritage.... Workers consider that their organization strategy is based on both setting up new families and giving up any system of generation succession by which the principal aim is the perpetuation of the familiar heritage.... Both systems are the results of different economic and hierarchical positions in the Oeiras society." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE AND SPA)

  18. Organic functional group transformations in water at elevated temperature and pressure: Reversibility, reactivity, and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipp, Jessie; Gould, Ian R.; Herckes, Pierre; Shock, Everett L.; Williams, Lynda B.; Hartnett, Hilairy E.

    2013-03-01

    Many transformation reactions involving hydrocarbons occur in the presence of H2O in hydrothermal systems and deep sedimentary systems. We investigate these reactions using laboratory-based organic chemistry experiments at high temperature and pressure (300 °C and 100 MPa). Organic functional group transformation reactions using model organic compounds based on cyclohexane with one or two methyl groups provided regio- and stereochemical markers that yield information about reversibility and reaction mechanisms. We found rapidly reversible interconversion between alkanes, alkenes, dienes, alcohols, ketones, and enones. The alkane-to-ketone reactions were not only completely reversible, but also exhibited such extensive reversibility that any of the functional groups along the reaction path (alcohol, ketone, and even the diene) could be used as the reactant and form all the other groups as products. There was also a propensity for these ring-based structures to dehydrogenate; presumably from the alkene, through a diene, to an aromatic ring. The product suites provide strong evidence that water behaved as a reactant and the various functional groups showed differing degrees of reactivity. Mechanistically-revealing products indicated reaction mechanisms that involve carbon-centered cation intermediates. This work therefore demonstrates that a wide range of organic compound types can be generated by abiotic reactions at hydrothermal conditions.

  19. Protection and deprotection approach for the introduction of functional groups into metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Teppei; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2009-05-13

    A noncoordinating hydroxyl group was introduced into a metal-organic framework (MOF) by a procedure involving a protection, complexation, and deprotection (PCD) reaction sequence, and the crystal structure of a novel MOF, [Zn(dhybdc)(bpy)] x 4 DMF (1), was determined. 1 did not have an interpenetrated structure. The three-dimensional pores had large apertures. Results showed that the PCD method is a novel synthetic method for the introduction of various functional groups into MOFs.

  20. Isolation of nonvolatile, organic solutes from natural waters by zeotrophic distillation of water from N,N-dimethylformamide

    SciTech Connect

    Leenheer, J.A.; Brown, P.A.; Stiles, E.A.

    1987-05-01

    Nonvolatile, organic solutes that comprise the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in saline waters were isolated by removal of the water by distillation from a N,N-dimethylformamide-formic acid-acetonitrile mixture. Salts isolated with the DOC were removed by crystallization of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate from the solvent mixture, removal of silicic acid by acidification and precipitation, removal of boric acid by methylation and volatilization, and removal of phosphate by zinc acetate precipitation. Chemical alteration of the organic solutes was minimized during evaporative concentration steps by careful control of acid concentrations in the solvent mixture and was minimized during drying by conversion of the samples to pyridinium and sodium salts. Recoveries of various hydrophilic organic standards from aqueous salt solutions and recoveries of natural organic solutes from various water samples varied from 60 to 100%. Losses of organic solutes during the isolation procedure were nonselective and related to the number of salt- and precipitate-washing cycles in the procedure.

  1. Isolation of nonvolatile, organic solutes from natural waters by zeotrophic distillation of water from N,N-dimethylformamide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Brown, P.A.; Stiles, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    Nonvolatile, organic solutes that comprise the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in saline waters were isolated by removal of the water by distillation from a N,N-dimethylformamideformic acid-acetonitrile mixture. Salts isolated with the DOC were removed by crystallization of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate from the solvent mixture, removal of silicic acid by acidification and precipitation, removal of boric acid by methylation and volatilization, and removal of phosphate by zinc acetate precipitation. Chemical alteration of the organic solutes was minimized during evaporative concentration steps by careful control of acid concentrations in the solvent mixture and was minimized during drying by conversion of the samples to pyridinium and sodium salts. Recoveries of various hydrophilic organic standards from aqueous salt solutions and recoveries of natural organic solutes from various water samples varied from 60 to 100%. Losses of organic solutes during the isolation procedure were nonselective and related to the number of salt- and precipitate-washing cycles in the procedure.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance and epidemiological study of Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated in Portugal. The Multicentre Study Group.

    PubMed

    Bajanca-Lavado, M P; Casin, I; Vaz Pato, M V

    1996-10-01

    In the course of a multicentric surveillance study, nine laboratories sent 375 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae to the Sector de Resistência aos Antibióticos (SRA) from the National Institute of Health in Lisbon, between 1 January and 31 December 1992. The majority of the H. influenzae isolates were from the respiratory tract (84.8%); only 5.1% were of invasive origin. Overall resistance for ampicillin was 11.7%, tetracycline 3.7%, and chloramphenicol 2.4%. All isolates tested were fully susceptible to cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. Multiresistance was rare, occurring only in 2.4% of the isolates, although 50% of the ampicillin resistant strains had at least one additional resistance marker. Forty two isolates (11.2%) produced a TEM-1 type beta-lactamase, as shown by isoelectric focusing. beta-lactamase production was not detected in two of the ampicillin resistant strains. Fifteen of the 42 beta-lactamase producing strains (35.7%) contained detectable DNA plasmid: nine harboured large plasmids with an apparent molecular mass of 45 or 54 kb depending on their resistance phenotype and six harboured a small plasmid of 5 kb. In order to study transfer of resistance in both ampicillin and multiresistant strains conjugation experiments were performed for 14 isolates, seven of which harboured a large plasmid and seven had no detectable plasmid DNA. All 14 transferred their resistance phenotype but only a single large plasmid could be demonstrated in ten transconjugants. Restriction endonuclease analysis of plasmids from six representative transconjugants, isolated in different hospitals, revealed that there was no dissemination of a single R plasmid, which suggests an independent process of acquisition of resistance genes.

  3. Nest-Gallery Development and Caste Composition of Isolated Foraging Groups of the Drywood Termite, Incisitermes minor (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae)

    PubMed Central

    Himmi, S. Khoirul; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Yanase, Yoshiyuki; Oya, Masao; Torigoe, Toshiyuki; Akada, Masanori; Imadzu, Setsuo

    2016-01-01

    An X-ray computed-tomographic examination of nest-gallery development from timbers naturally infested by foraging groups of Incisitermes minor colonies was conducted. This study documents the colonization process of I. minor to new timbers and how the isolated groups maintain their nest-gallery system. The results suggested that development of a nest-gallery within a suitable wood item is not random, but shows selection for softer substrate and other adaptations to the different timber environments. Stigmergic coordinations were expressed in dynamic changes of the nest-gallery system; indicated by fortification behavior in sealing and re-opening a tunnel approaching the outer edge of the timber, and accumulating fecal pellets in particular chambers located beneath the timber surface. The study also examines the caste composition of isolated groups to discover how I. minor sustains colonies with and without primary reproductives. PMID:27455332

  4. Nest-Gallery Development and Caste Composition of Isolated Foraging Groups of the Drywood Termite, Incisitermes minor (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Himmi, S Khoirul; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Yanase, Yoshiyuki; Oya, Masao; Torigoe, Toshiyuki; Akada, Masanori; Imadzu, Setsuo

    2016-07-22

    An X-ray computed-tomographic examination of nest-gallery development from timbers naturally infested by foraging groups of Incisitermes minor colonies was conducted. This study documents the colonization process of I. minor to new timbers and how the isolated groups maintain their nest-gallery system. The results suggested that development of a nest-gallery within a suitable wood item is not random, but shows selection for softer substrate and other adaptations to the different timber environments. Stigmergic coordinations were expressed in dynamic changes of the nest-gallery system; indicated by fortification behavior in sealing and re-opening a tunnel approaching the outer edge of the timber, and accumulating fecal pellets in particular chambers located beneath the timber surface. The study also examines the caste composition of isolated groups to discover how I. minor sustains colonies with and without primary reproductives.

  5. Checking rounds for isolation precautions in the control of multidrug-resistant organisms: reduction achieved.

    PubMed

    Barbadoro, P; Martini, E; Gioia, M G; Stoico, R; Savini, S; Manso, E; Serafini, G; Prospero, E; D'Errico, M M

    2017-02-07

    The objective of this investigation was to analyze the effectiveness of a quality improvement initiative in limiting the spread of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in the hospital setting. During the period 2011-2013, a multimodal intervention was activated at a tertiary care center in Italy. The intervention included: laboratory-based surveillance, interdisciplinary training sessions, monitoring the adoption of isolation precautions and daily supervision provided by infection control nurses, and a monthly feedback. Time series analysis was used to evaluate the trends and correlations between the MDROs rate, intensity of checking rounds, and hospital-wide data (i.e., transfer of patients, patients' days, site of isolation, etc.). A total of 149,251 patients were included in the study. The proportion of patients undergoing transmission-based isolation precautions within 24 h from a positive laboratory finding increased from 83% in 2011 to 99% in 2013 (p < 0.05). The wards appropriately adopting the correct isolation precaution increased from 83% in 2011 to 97.6% in 2013 (p < 0.05). The frequency of controls was significantly reduced after the observation of compliance in the appropriate wards (p < 0.05). After three years, the incidence rate changed from 5.8/1000 days of stay [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.6-6.1] in 2011 to 4.7 (95% CI 4.4-4.9) in 2013 (p < 0.0001). Moreover, microorganisms isolated from different types of specimens showed variable potential for transmission (i.e., skin as the most potential and urine the least). The results demonstrate the efficacy of the multimodal intervention, with sustained reduction of MDROs rate, besides check reduction, and highlight the long-term efficacy of checking rounds in changing professionals' behaviors.

  6. The Community-based Organizations Working Group of the Space Science Education Support Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, J. H.; Lowes, L. L.; Asplund, S.

    2004-12-01

    The NASA Space Science Support Network Community-based Organizations Working Group (CBOWG) has been working for the past two years on issues surrounding afterschool programs and programs for youth (e.g., Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, Boys and Girls Clubs, 4-H, summer camps, afterschool and weekend programs for various ages, programs with emphases on minority youth). In this session the co-leaders of the CBOWG will discuss the challenges of working with community-based organizations on a regional or national level. We will highlight some ties that we have forged with the National Institute for Out of School Time (NIOST) and the National Afterschool Association (NAA). We will also talk about efforts to coordinate how various entities within NASA cooperate with community-based organizations to serve the best interests of these groups. We will give a couple of examples of how NASA space science organizations have partnered with community-based organizations. The session will include some handouts of information and resources that the CBOWG has found useful in developing an understanding of this segment of informal education groups. We would like to thank NASA for providing resources to support the work of the CBOWG.

  7. An Annotated Bibliography of Materials Designed and Organized for Adult Use in Discussion Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, John W.

    This first annotated bibliography of materials designed and organized for adult use in disucssion groups includes both book and nonbook material. Areas dealt with are: art, censorship, change, child guidance, communication, crime, democracy, economics, education, evolution, food, foreign affairs, forgetting, generation gap, gold, good and evil,…

  8. The Referential Function of Internal Communication Groups in Complex Organizations: An Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, James A.; Farace, Richard V.

    This paper argues that people who interact regularly and repetitively among themselves create a conjoint information space wherein common values, attitudes, and beliefs arise through the process of information transmission among the members in the space. Three major hypotheses concerning informal communication groups in organizations were tested…

  9. 10 CFR 51.122 - List of interested organizations and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false List of interested organizations and groups. 51.122 Section 51.122 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy...

  10. 10 CFR 51.122 - List of interested organizations and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false List of interested organizations and groups. 51.122 Section 51.122 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy...

  11. 10 CFR 51.122 - List of interested organizations and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false List of interested organizations and groups. 51.122 Section 51.122 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy...

  12. 10 CFR 51.122 - List of interested organizations and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false List of interested organizations and groups. 51.122 Section 51.122 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy...

  13. 10 CFR 51.122 - List of interested organizations and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false List of interested organizations and groups. 51.122 Section 51.122 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy...

  14. A FUNCTIONAL GROUP CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC PM 2.5 EXPOSURE: RESULTS FROM THE RIOPA STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The functional group (FG) composition of urban residential outdoor, indoor, and personal fine particle (PM2.5) samples is presented and used to provide insights relevant to organic PM2.5 exposure. PM2.5 samples (48 h) were collected during the Rel...

  15. A microporous metal-organic framework with polarized trifluoromethyl groups for high methane storage.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ganggang; Li, Bin; Wang, Hailong; Bao, Zongbi; Yildirim, Taner; Yao, Zizhu; Xiang, Shengchang; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Banglin

    2015-10-11

    A novel NbO-type metal-organic framework UTSA-88a with polarized trifluoromethyl groups exhibits a notably high methane storage capacity of 248 cm(3) (STP) cm(-3) (at room temperature and 65 bar) and a working capacity of 185 cm(3) (STP) cm(-3).

  16. An Epistemological Inquiry into Organic Chemistry Education: Exploration of Undergraduate Students' Conceptual Understanding of Functional Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkuzu, Nalan; Uyulgan, Melis Arzu

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine the levels of conceptual understanding of undergraduate students regarding organic compounds within different functional groups. A total of 60 students who were enrolled in the Department of Secondary Science and Mathematics Education of a Faculty of Education at a state university in Turkey and who had followed an…

  17. Characterization and copper binding of humic and nonhumic organic matter isolated from the South Platte River: Evidence for the presence of nitrogenous binding site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Croue, J.-P.; Benedetti, M.F.; Violleau, D.; Leenheer, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Humic substances typically constitute 40-60% of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface waters. However, little information is available regarding the metal binding properties of the nonhumic hydrophilic portion of the DOM. In this study, humic and nonhumic DOM samples were isolated from the South Platte River (Colorado, DOC = 2.6 mg??L-1, SUVA254 = 2.4 L/mg??m) using a two-column array of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins. The three major isolated fractions of DOM, which accounted for 57% of the bulk DOM, were characterized using a variety of analytical tools. Proton and copper binding properties were studied for each fraction. The main objective of this work was to compare the structural and chemical characteristics of the isolated fractions and test models describing DOM reactivity toward metal ions. The characterization work showed significant structural differences between the three isolated fractions of DOM. The hydrophobic acid fraction (i.e., humic substances isolated from the XAD-8 resin) gave the largest C/H, C/O, and C/N ratios and aromatic carbon content among the three isolated fractions. The transphilic acid (TPHA) fraction ("transphilic" meaning fraction of intermediate polarity isolated from the XAD-4 resin) was found to incorporate the highest proportion of polysaccharides, whereas the transphilic neutral (TPHN) fraction was almost entirely proteinaceous. The gradual increase of the charge with pH for the three DOM fractions is most likely caused by a large distribution of proton affinity constants for the carboxylic groups, as well as a second type of group more generally considered to be phenolic. In the case of the DOM fraction enriched in proteinaceous material (i.e., TPHN fraction), the results showed that the amino groups are reponsible for the charge reversal. For low copper concentrations, nitrogen-containing functional groups similar to those of amino acids are likely to be involved in complexation, in agreement with previously published data.

  18. A comparison of surface water natural organic matter in raw filtered water samples, XAD, and reverse osmosis isolates.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Patricia A; Pullin, Michael J; Cabaniss, Stephen E; Zhou, Qunhui; Namjesnik-Dejanovic, Ksenija; Aiken, George R

    2002-05-01

    This research compared raw filtered waters (RFWs), XAD resin isolates (XAD-8 and XAD-4), and reverse osmosis (RO) isolates of several surface water samples from McDonalds Branch, a small freshwater fen in the New Jersey Pine Barrens (USA). RO and XAD-8 are two of the most common techniques used to isolate natural organic matter (NOM) for studies of composition and reactivity; therefore, it is important to understand how the isolates differ from bulk (unisolated) samples and from one another. Although, any comparison between the isolation methods needs to consider that XAD-8 is specifically designed to isolate the humic fraction, whereas RO concentrates a broad range of organic matter and is not specific to humics. The comparison included for all samples: weight average molecular weight (Mw), number average molecular weight (Mn), polydispersity (rho), absorbance at 280 nm normalized to moles C (epsilon280) (RFW and isolates); and for isolates only: elemental analysis, % carbon distribution by 13C NMR, and aqueous FTIR spectra. As expected, RO isolation gave higher yield of NOM than XAD-8, but also higher ash content, especially Si and S. Mw decreased in the order: RO > XAD-8 > RFW > XAD-4. The Mw differences of isolates compared with RFW may be due to selective isolation (fractionation), or possibly in the case of RO to condensation or coagulation during isolation. 13C NMR results were roughly similar for the two methods, but the XAD-8 isolate was slightly higher in 'aromatic' C and the RO isolate was slightly higher in heteroaliphatic and carbonyl C. Infrared spectra indicated a higher carboxyl content for the XAD-8 isolates and a higher ester:carboxyl ratio for the RO isolates. The spectroscopic data thus are consistent with selective isolation of more hydrophobic compounds by XAD-8, and also with potential ester hydrolysis during that process, although further study is needed to determine whether ester hydrolysis does indeed occur. Researchers choosing between

  19. A comparison of surface water natural organic matter in raw filtered water samples, XAD, and reverse osmosis isolates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maurice, P.A.; Pullin, M.J.; Cabaniss, S.E.; Zhou, Q.; Namjesnik-Dejanovic, K.; Aiken, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    This research compared raw filtered waters (RFWs), XAD resin isolates (XAD-8 and XAD-4), and reverse osmosis (RO) isolates of several surface water samples from McDonalds Branch, a small freshwater fen in the New Jersey Pine Barrens (USA). RO and XAD-8 are two of the most common techniques used to isolate natural organic matter (NOM) for studies of composition and reactivity; therefore, it is important to understand how the isolates differ from bulk (unisolated) samples and from one another. Although, any comparison between the isolation methods needs to consider that XAD-8 is specifically designed to isolate the humic fraction, whereas RO concentrates a broad range of organic matter and is not specific to humics. The comparison included for all samples: weight average molecular weight (Mw), number average molecular weight (Mn), polydispersity (??), absorbance at 280nm normalized to moles C (??280) (RFW and isolates); and for isolates only: elemental analysis, % carbon distribution by 13C NMR, and aqueous FTIR spectra. As expected, RO isolation gave higher yield of NOM than XAD-8, but also higher ash content, especially Si and S. Mw decreased in the order: RO>XAD-8>RFW>XAD-4. The Mw differences of isolates compared with RFW may be due to selective isolation (fractionation), or possibly in the case of RO to condensation or coagulation during isolation. 13C NMR results were roughly similar for the two methods, but the XAD-8 isolate was slightly higher in 'aromatic' C and the RO isolate was slightly higher in heteroaliphatic and carbonyl C. Infrared spectra indicated a higher carboxyl content for the XAD-8 isolates and a higher ester:carboxyl ratio for the RO isolates. The spectroscopic data thus are consistent with selective isolation of more hydrophobic compounds by XAD-8, and also with potential ester hydrolysis during that process, although further study is needed to determine whether ester hydrolysis does indeed occur. Researchers choosing between XAD and RO

  20. Group work in a Dutch home care organization: does it improve the quality of working life?

    PubMed

    Schouteten, Roel

    2004-01-01

    Home care in The Netherlands is facing a trend towards increasing workloads, giving it the image of an unattractive sector to work in. To deal with increasing workloads and their effects, many solutions have been developed, including the concept of team or group work. This paper will address the possibilities, conditions and effects involved in the implementation of group work in home care as a means of improving the quality of working life (QWL) in this sector. To this end I have studied QWL in three jobs in two organizations for home care, one of which implemented group work. This comparison concludes that jobs in the team-based organization are more complete and challenging, bringing more job decision latitude, but also higher work pressure.

  1. Isolation of organic acids from large volumes of water by adsorption on macroporous resins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, George R.; Suffet, I.H.; Malaiyandi, Murugan

    1987-01-01

    Adsorption on synthetic macroporous resins, such as the Amberlite XAD series and Duolite A-7, is routinely used to isolate and concentrate organic acids from forge volumes of water. Samples as large as 24,500 L have been processed on site by using these resins. Two established extraction schemes using XAD-8 and Duolite A-7 resins are described. The choice of the appropriate resin and extraction scheme is dependent on the organic solutes of interest. The factors that affect resin performance, selectivity, and capacity for a particular solute are solution pH, resin surface area and pore size, and resin composition. The logistical problems of sample handling, filtration, and preservation are also discussed.

  2. Comparative study of the hygienic behavior of Carniolan and Africanized honey bees directed towards grouped versus isolated dead brood cells.

    PubMed

    Gramacho, K P; Gonçalves, L S

    2009-06-30

    In Apis mellifera, hygienic behavior involves recognition and removal of sick, damaged or dead brood from capped cells. We investigated whether bees react in the same way to grouped versus isolated damaged capped brood cells. Three colonies of wild-type Africanized honey bees and three colonies of Carniolan honey bees were used for this investigation. Capped worker brood cells aged 12 to 14 days old were perforated with the pin-killing method. After making holes in the brood cells, the combs were placed back into the hives; 24 h later the number of cleaned cells was recorded in areas with pin-killed and control brood cells. Four repetitions were made in each colony. Isolated cells were more frequently cleaned than grouped cells, though variance analysis showed no significant difference (P = 0.1421). Carniolan bees also were somewhat, though not significantly more hygienic than Africanized honey bees (P = 0.0840). We conclude that honey bees can detect and remove both isolated and grouped dead brood. The tendency towards greater hygienic efficiency directed towards grouped pin-killed brood may be a consequence of a greater concentration of volatiles emanating from the wounds in the dead pupae.

  3. Emergence of Carbapenem resistant Gram negative and vancomycin resistant Gram positive organisms in bacteremic isolates of febrile neutropenic patients: A descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Irfan, Seema; Idrees, Faiza; Mehraj, Vikram; Habib, Faizah; Adil, Salman; Hasan, Rumina

    2008-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to evaluate drug resistance amongst bacteremic isolates of febrile neutropenic patients with particular emphasis on emergence of carbapenem resistant Gram negative bacteria and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus species. Methods A descriptive study was performed by reviewing the blood culture reports from febrile neutropenic patients during the two study periods i.e., 1999–00 and 2001–06. Blood cultures were performed using BACTEC 9240 automated system. Isolates were identified and antibiotic sensitivities were done using standard microbiological procedures. Results Seven twenty six febrile neutropenic patients were admitted during the study period. A total of 5840 blood cultures were received, off these 1048 (18%) were culture positive. Amongst these, 557 (53%) grew Gram positive bacteria, 442 (42%) grew Gram negative bacteria, 43 (4%) fungi and 6 (1%) anaerobes. Sixty (5.7%) out of 1048 positive blood cultures were polymicrobial. In the Gram negative bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae was the predominant group; E. coli was the most frequently isolated organism in both study periods. Amongst non- Enterobacteriaceae group, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the commonest organism isolated during first study period followed by Acinetobacter spp. However, during the second period Acinetobacter species was the most frequent pathogen. Enterobacteriaceae group showed higher statistically significant resistance in the second study period against ceftriaxone, quinolone and piperacillin/tazobactam, whilst no resistance observed against imipenem/meropenem. The susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species shifted from sensitive to highly resistant one with significant p values against ceftriaxone, quinolone, piperacillin/tazobactam and imipenem/meropenem. Amongst Gram positive bacteria, MRSA isolation rate remained static, vancomycin resistant Enterococcus species emerged in second study period while no Staphylococcus species resistant to

  4. Novel organic solvent-tolerant esterase isolated by metagenomics: insights into the lipase/esterase classification.

    PubMed

    Berlemont, Renaud; Spee, Olivier; Delsaute, Maud; Lara, Yannick; Schuldes, Jörg; Simon, Carola; Power, Pablo; Daniel, Rolf; Galleni, Moreno

    2013-01-01

    in order to isolate novel organic solvent-tolerant (OST) lipases, a metagenomic library was built using DNA derived from a temperate forest soil sample. A two-step activity-based screening allowed the isolation of a lipolytic clone active in the presence of organic solvents. Sequencing of the plasmid pRBest recovered from the positive clone revealed the presence of a putative lipase/esterase encoding gene. The deduced amino acid sequence (RBest1) contains the conserved lipolytic enzyme signature and is related to the previously described OST lipase from Lysinibacillus sphaericus 205y, which is the sole studied prokaryotic enzyme belonging to the 4.4 α/β hydrolase subgroup (abH04.04). Both in vivo and in vitro studies of the substrate specificity of RBest1, using triacylglycerols or nitrophenyl-esters, respectively, revealed that the enzyme is highly specific for butyrate (C4) compounds, behaving as an esterase rather than a lipase. The RBest1 esterase was purified and biochemically characterized. The optimal esterase activity was observed at pH 6.5 and at temperatures ranging from 38 to 45 °C. Enzymatic activity, determined by hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl esters, was found to be affected by the presence of different miscible and non-miscible organic solvents, and salts. Noteworthy, RBest1 remains significantly active at high ionic strength. These findings suggest that RBest1 possesses the ability of OST enzymes to molecular adaptation in the presence of organic compounds and resistance of halophilic proteins.

  5. Survey of strain distribution and antibiotic resistance pattern of group B streptococci (Streptococcus agalactiae) isolated from clinical specimens

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Masoud; Nasaj, Mona; Hosseini, Seyed Mostafa; Arabestani, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aims of the present study were to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profils with particular emphasis on susceptible or resistant strains to macrolides and lincosamids antibiotics and to determine possible antibiotic resistance mechanisms occurring in group B streptococci (GBS) strains using PCR assay and disk diffusion method. Methods: A total of 62 clinical GBS strains were investigated. Antibacterial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method and inducible resistance test for clindamycin by standard double disk diffusion or D-zone test for all isolates to differentiate macrolide resistance phenotype (M), constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B phenotype (cMLSB) and induced macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B phenotype (iMLSB). In addition, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of penicillin were determined for all isolates. Finally, possible existence of antibiotic resistance genes for erythromycin (ermTR, ermB and mefA/E) and for clindamycin (linB) were examined among isolates using PCR assay. Results: All 62 isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, linezolid, cefazoline and vancomycin. However, 93.5% (n=58) of isolates showed an increased MIC to penicillin. The overall rate of erythromycin resistance was 35.5% (n=22). All erythromycin-resistant isolates displayed the M phenotype (100%, n=22). All three erythromycin resistance genes (i.e. ermTR, ermB and mefA/E) were found in erythromycin-resistant isolates. Conclusion: It was concluded that prescribing antibiotic without antibacterial susceptibility tests should be prevented because of the high prevalence of erythromycin-resistant GBS strains and the fact that erythromycin-resistant GBS strains has shown an increased MIC to penicillin, as the drug of choice for treating GBS infections. PMID:27648402

  6. Bonded-phase extraction column isolation of organic compounds in groundwater at a hazardous waste site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Pereira, W.E.; Ratcliff, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure for isolation of hazardous organic compounds from water for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis Is presented and applied to creosote- and pentachlorophenol-contaminated groundwater resulting from wood-treatment processes. This simple procedure involved passing a 50-100-mL sample through a bonded-phase extraction column, eluting the trapped organic compounds from the column with 2-4 mL of solvent, and evaporating the sample to 100 ??L with a stream of dry nitrogen, after which the sample was ready for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Representative compounds indicative of creosote contamination were used for recovery and precision studies from the cyclohexyl-bonded phase. Recovery of these compounds from n-octyl-, n-octadecyl-, cyclohexyl-, and phenyl-bonded phases was compared. The bonded phase that exhibited the best recovery and least bias toward acidic or basic cmpounds was the n-octadecyl phase. Detailed compound Identification Is given for compounds Isolated from creosote- and pentachlorophenol-contaminated groundwater using the cyclohexyl-bonded phase.

  7. Bonded-phase extraction column isolation of organic compounds in groundwater at a hazardous waste site

    SciTech Connect

    Rostad, C.E.; Pereira, W.E.; Ratcliff, S.M.

    1984-12-01

    A procedure for isolation of hazardous organic compounds from water for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis is presented and applied to creosote- and pentachlorophenol-contaminated groundwater resulting from wood-treatment processes. This simple procedure involved passing a 50-100 mL sample through a bonded-phase extraction column, eluting the trapped organic compounds from the column with 2-4 mL of solvent, and evaporating the sample to 100 micro-L with a stream of dry nitrogen, after which the sample was ready for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Representative compounds indicative of creosote contamination were used for recovery and precision studies from the cyclohexyl-bonded phase. Recovery of these compounds from n-octyl-, n-octadecyl-, cyclohexyl-, and phenyl-bonded phases was compared. The bonded phase that exhibited the best recovery and least bias toward acidic or basic compounds was the n-octadecyl phase. Detailed compound identification is given for compounds isolated from creosote- and pentrachlorophenol-contaminated groundwater using the cyclohexyl-bonded phase. 12 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  8. Isolation, identification and removal of filamentous organism from SND based SBR degrading nitrophenols.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, P M

    2012-06-01

    Four identical lab scale sequencing batch reactors R, R1, R2, and R3, were used to assess nitrophenol biodegradation using a single sludge biomass containing Thiosphaera pantotropha. Nitrophenols [4-Nitrophenol (4-NP), 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (2,4,6-TNP)] were biotransformed by heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification (SND). Reactor R was used as background control, whereas R1, R2, and R3 were fed with 4-NP, 2,4-DNP, and 2,4,6-TNP, respectively. The concentration of each nitrophenol was gradually increased from 2.5 to 200 mg/l along with increase in COD, during acclimation studies. The final COD maintained was 4,500 mg/l with each nitrophenolic loading of 200 mg/l. During late phase of acclimation and HRT study, a filamentous organism started appearing in 2,4-DNP and 2,4,6-TNP bioreactors. Filaments were never found in 4-NP and background control reactor. Biochemistry and physiology behind filamentous organism development, was studied to obtain permanent solution for its removal. The effect of different input parameters such as COD loading, DO levels, SVI etc. were analyzed. The morphology and development of filamentous organism were examined extensively using microscopic techniques involving ESEM, oil immersion, phase contrast, and dark field microscopy. The organism was grown and isolated on selective agar plates and was identified as member of Streptomyses species.

  9. 40 CFR 63.1428 - Process vent requirements for group determination of PMPUs using a nonepoxide organic HAP to make...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determination of PMPUs using a nonepoxide organic HAP to make or modify the product. 63.1428 Section 63.1428... group determination of PMPUs using a nonepoxide organic HAP to make or modify the product. (a) Process... with the use of nonepoxide organic HAP to make or modify the product is a Group 1 combination of...

  10. Phylogenetic Analysis of a Novel Molecular Isolate of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae from Northern Peru

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    ompA, and sca4) from two molecular isolates of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae from two ticks ( Amblyomma maculatum and Ixodes boliviensis) col- lected...andeanae from two ticks ( Amblyomma maculatum and Ixodes boliviensis) collected from domestic horses liv- ing in two separate locations in Northern Peru...scribed previously.2 However, new primers were used for PCR and sequencing in this study (TABLE 1). The sequences (both forward and reverse) were

  11. Isolation and characterization of the unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium Group C TW3 from the tropical western Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Taniuchi, Yukiko; Chen, Yuh-ling Lee; Chen, Houng-Yung; Tsai, Mei-Ling; Ohki, Kaori

    2012-03-01

    A unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium strain of Group C, designated TW3, was isolated from the oligotrophic Kuroshio Current of the western Pacific Ocean. To our knowledge, this represents the first successful laboratory culture of a Group C unicellular diazotroph from oceanic water. TW3 cells are green rods, 2.5-3.0 µm in width and 4.0-6.0 µm in length. Phylogenetic analyses of both 16S rRNA and nifH gene fragments indicated that the TW3 sequences were over 98% identical to those of the previously isolated Cyanothece sp. ATCC51142 and Gloeocapsa sp., suggesting that TW3 is a member of the Group C unicellular diazotrophs. In addition, both TW3 and Cyanothece sp. ATCC51142 share morphological characteristics; both strains are sheathless and rod-shaped, display binary fission in a single plane, and possess dispersed thylakoids. TW3 grows aerobically in nitrogen-deficient artificial seawater, and exhibited the highest observed growth rate of 0.035 h(-1) when cultured at 30°C and 140 µmol m(-2) s(-1) of light intensity. The nitrogen fixation rate, when grown optimally using a 12 h/12 h light-dark cycle, was 7.31 × 10(-15) mol N cell(-1) day(-1) . Immunocytochemical staining using Trichodesmium sp. NIBB1067 nitrogenase antiserum revealed the existence of diazotrophic cells sharing morphological characteristics of TW3 in the Kuroshio water from which TW3 was isolated.

  12. SIPCAn (Separation, Isolation, Purification, Characterization, and Analysis): A One-Term, Integrated Project for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dintzner, Matthew R.; Kinzie, Charles R.; Pulkrabek, Kimberly A.; Arena, Anthony F.

    2011-01-01

    SIPCAn, an acronym for separation, isolation, purification, characterization, and analysis, is presented as a one-term, integrated project for the first-term undergraduate organic laboratory course. Students are assigned two mixtures of unknown organic compounds--a mixture of two liquid compounds and a mixture of two solid compounds--at the…

  13. Spread of consensus in self-organized groups of individuals: Hydrodynamics matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosis, A.; Lévêque, E.; Ubertini, S.; Succi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Nature routinely presents us with spectacular demonstrations of organization and orchestrated motion in living species. Efficient information transfer among the individuals is known to be instrumental to the emergence of spatial patterns (e.g. V-shaped formations for birds or diamond-like shapes for fishes), responding to a specific functional goal such as predatory avoidance or energy savings. Such functional patterns materialize whenever individuals appoint one of them as a leader with the task of guiding the group towards a prescribed target destination. It is here shown that, under specific conditions, the surrounding hydrodynamics plays a critical role in shaping up a successful group dynamics to reach the desired target.

  14. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Nnnn of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for...—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction values in... formulation data. Solvent type Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by...

  15. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... MMMM of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass... manufacturer's formulation data. Solvent type Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent...

  16. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction... formulation data. Solvent type Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by...

  17. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for...—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction values in... formulation data. Solvent type Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by...

  18. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Nnnn of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for...—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction values in... formulation data. Solvent type Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by...

  19. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for...—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction values in... formulation data. Solvent type Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by...

  20. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for...—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction values in... formulation data. Solvent type Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by...

  1. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction... formulation data. Solvent type Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by...

  2. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Nnnn of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for...—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction values in... formulation data. Solvent type Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by...

  3. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Rrrr of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups 1 You May Use the Mass Fraction Values in the...: Solvent type Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic percent HAP, by mass Aliphatic 2 0.03...

  4. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... MMMM of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass... manufacturer's formulation data. Solvent type Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent...

  5. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... MMMM of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass... manufacturer's formulation data. Solvent type Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent...

  6. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Rrrr of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups 1 You May Use the Mass Fraction Values in the...: Solvent type Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic percent HAP, by mass Aliphatic 2 0.03...

  7. A policy-capturing study of the simultaneous effects of fit with jobs, groups, and organizations.

    PubMed

    Kristof-Brown, Amy L; Jansen, Karen J; Colbert, Amy E

    2002-10-01

    The authors report an experimental policy-capturing study that examines the simultaneous impact of person-job (PJ), person-group (PG), and person-organization (PO) fit on work satisfaction. Using hierarchical linear modeling, the authors determined that all 3 types of fit had important, independent effects on satisfaction. Work experience explained systematic differences in how participants weighted each type of fit. Multiple interactions also showed participants used complex strategies for combining fit cues.

  8. Hygroscopic properties of humic-like organics isolated from atmospheric fine aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gysel, M.; Nyeki, S.; Weingartner, E.; Galambos, I.; Kiss, G.; Baltensperger, U.

    2003-04-01

    Organic species are a major fraction of the fine aerosol mode and it has been suggested that water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) compounds may play an important role in cloud formation. Fine aerosol samples (diameter D < 1.5 μm) from the continental rural site K-puszta, Hungary, were characterized using a solid phase extraction method. The total water-soluble content (WSC) was composed of 49 % inorganics, 14 % highly water-soluble organics, and 37 % of less soluble organics. The latter, called isolated organic matter (ISOM), is assumed to be mainly composed of humic-like substances. Hygroscopic growth factors (HGF) of nebulised WSC and ISOM extracts, as well as reference substances NRFA and NRHA (fulvic and humic acids), were measured with an H-TDMA. Under increasing RH dry ISOM particles (D{_o} = 100 nm) dissolved in the range RH = 30 - 60 %, followed by continuous growth above this deliquescence transition, resulting in HGFs of D/D{_o} 1.14 at 90 % RH. Particles from WSC extracts exhibited HGFs of D/D{_o} 1.61 at 90 % RH. This is close to the HGF of pure ammonium sulfate (D/D{_o} = 1.69 at 90 % RH), indicating that ISOM contributes significantly to water uptake of mixed WSC particles. Although ISOM is distinctly less hygroscopic than pure inorganic salt particles, its role in the hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric particles is important because of the large abundance and relatively low deliquescence RH. HGFs of NRFA and NRHA were 1.15 and 1.07 at 90 % RH, and deliquescence was at 80 and 90 % RH, respectively. Their hygroscopic behavior was qualitatively similar to ISOM samples, but quantitative differences might be a result of larger average molecular size of the reference substances.

  9. Reproductive isolation revealed in preliminary crossbreeding experiments using field collected Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from three ITS–2 defined groups

    PubMed Central

    García, Mauricio; Menes, Marianela; Dorn, Patricia L.; Monroy, Carlota; Richards, Bethany; Panzera, Francisco; Bustamante, Dulce María

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma dimidiata, a Chagas disease vector distributed in Mexico, Central America, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru and Ecuador, has been studied using genetic markers and four groups have been defined by ITS–2 sequences: 1A, 1B, 2 and 3. To gather evidence on the divergence and reproductive isolation among T. dimidiata ITS–2 groups, we carried out 15 crossbreeding experiments with field–collected sylvan and domestic T. dimidiata from Guatemala where three groups are found: 1A, 2 and 3. Reciprocal crosses between individuals from groups 1A and 2, and a cross between group 2 individuals from different habitats, produced an average 129.78±42.29 eggs with hatching success ranging from 31.6% to 90.1%. The offspring of these crosses reached the adult stage, and crosses between F1 insects produced eggs. These results suggest that there are no pre– or post– zygotic reproductive barriers between groups 1A and 2, or within group 2. Crosses between group 3 females and males from groups 1A or 2 produced on average 85.67±30.26 eggs and none of them hatched. These results support the existence of pre– zygotic barriers between T. dimidiata group 3 and groups 1A and 2. The group 3 individuals were collected in sylvatic environments in Yaxha, Peten, Guatemala. Previously, distinct chromosomal characteristics (cytotype 3) were described in individuals from this population. Based on this evidence we suggest that this population is divergent at the species level from other T. dimidiata populations. PMID:24041592

  10. Comparison of Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Organic and Conventional Dairy Herds in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Sato, K.; Bartlett, P. C.; Kaneene, J. B.; Downes, F. P.

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. isolates from bovine feces were compared between organic and conventional dairy herds. Thirty organic dairy herds, where antimicrobials are rarely used for calves and never used for cows, were compared with 30 neighboring conventional dairy farms, where antimicrobials were routinely used for animals for all ages. Fecal specimens from 10 cows and 10 calves on 120 farm visits yielded 332 Campylobacter isolates. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in organic and conventional farms was 26.7 and 29.1%, and the prevalence was not statistically different between the two types of farms. Campylobacter prevalence was significantly higher in March than in September, higher in calves than in cows, and higher in smaller farms than in large farms. The rates of retained placenta, pneumonia, mastitis, and abortion were associated with the proportion of Campylobacter isolation from fecal samples. The gradient disk diffusion MIC method (Etest) was used for testing susceptibility to four antimicrobial agents: ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Two isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and none of isolates was resistant to gentamicin or erythromycin. Resistance to tetracycline was 45% (148 of 332 isolates). Tetracycline resistance was found more frequently in calves than in cows (P = 0.042), but no difference was observed between organic and conventional farms. When we used Campylobacter spp. as indicator bacteria, we saw no evidence that restriction of antimicrobial use on dairy farms was associated with prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. PMID:15006764

  11. Comparison of prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. isolates from organic and conventional dairy herds in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Bartlett, P C; Kaneene, J B; Downes, F P

    2004-03-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. isolates from bovine feces were compared between organic and conventional dairy herds. Thirty organic dairy herds, where antimicrobials are rarely used for calves and never used for cows, were compared with 30 neighboring conventional dairy farms, where antimicrobials were routinely used for animals for all ages. Fecal specimens from 10 cows and 10 calves on 120 farm visits yielded 332 Campylobacter isolates. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in organic and conventional farms was 26.7 and 29.1%, and the prevalence was not statistically different between the two types of farms. Campylobacter prevalence was significantly higher in March than in September, higher in calves than in cows, and higher in smaller farms than in large farms. The rates of retained placenta, pneumonia, mastitis, and abortion were associated with the proportion of Campylobacter isolation from fecal samples. The gradient disk diffusion MIC method (Etest) was used for testing susceptibility to four antimicrobial agents: ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Two isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and none of isolates was resistant to gentamicin or erythromycin. Resistance to tetracycline was 45% (148 of 332 isolates). Tetracycline resistance was found more frequently in calves than in cows (P = 0.042), but no difference was observed between organic and conventional farms. When we used Campylobacter spp. as indicator bacteria, we saw no evidence that restriction of antimicrobial use on dairy farms was associated with prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, erythromycin, and tetracycline.

  12. Rapid Determination of Macrolide and Lincosamide Resistance in Group B Streptococcus Isolated from Vaginal-Rectal Swabs

    PubMed Central

    Dela Cruz, Wilfred P.; Richardson, Joann Y.; Broestler, Judith M.; Thornton, Jennifer A.; Danaher, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Our objective was to assess the ability of real-time PCR to predict in vitro resistance in isolates of group B streptococcus (GBS). Methods. The first real-time PCR assays for the genes known to confer resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin in GBS were developed. Three hundred and forty clinical GBS isolates were assessed with these assays and compared with conventional disk diffusion. Results. The presence of an erythromycin ribosome methylation gene (ermB or ermTR variant A) predicted in vitro constitutive or inducible resistance to clindamycin with a sensitivity of 93% (95% CI 86%–97%), specificity of 90% (95% CI 85%–93%), positive predictive value of 76% (95% CI 67%–84%), and negative predictive value of 97% (95% CI 94%–99%). Conclusion. This rapid and simple assay can predict in vitro susceptibility to clindamycin within two hours of isolation as opposed to 18–24 hours via disk diffusion. The assay might also be used to screen large numbers of batched isolates to establish the prevalence of resistance in a given area. PMID:17710240

  13. Increasing antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius group bacteria and emergence of MRSP in the UK.

    PubMed

    Beever, L; Bond, R; Graham, P A; Jackson, B; Lloyd, D H; Loeffler, A

    2015-02-14

    Frequencies of antimicrobial resistance were determined amongst 14,555 clinical Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) isolates from UK dogs and cats to estimate resistance trends and quantify the occurrence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). Reports from two diagnostic laboratories (13,313 general submissions, 1242 referral centre only submissions) were analysed retrospectively (2003/2006-2012). MRSP were defined by phenotypic resistance to meticillin and concurrent broad β-lactam resistance; a subset was confirmed genetically (SIG-specific nuc and mecA). Trends were analysed by Cochran-Armitage test. Resistance remained below 10 per cent for cefalexin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and the fluoroquinolones. Increasing resistance trends were seen in both laboratories for ampicillin/amoxicillin (both P<0.001), cefovecin (both P<0.046) and enrofloxacin (both P<0.02). Resistance to cefalexin increased over time in referral hospital isolates (P<0.001) to clindamycin (P=0.01) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (P=0.001) amongst general laboratory submissions. Overall, 106 MRSP were isolated (0.7 per cent of submissions) including 32 (2.6 per cent of submissions, all genetically confirmed) from the referral centre population (inter-laboratory difference P<0.001). Against a background of widely susceptible SIG isolates, a new trend of increasing resistance to important antimicrobials was identified overtime and the emergence of MRSP from UK clinical cases was confirmed. Attention to responsible use of antibacterial therapy in small animal practice is urgently needed.

  14. Isolation of heart- and kidney-binding protein from group A streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Stinson, M W; Bergey, E J

    1982-01-01

    Tritium-labeled, water-soluble components of Streptococcus pyogenes type M6 absorbed to cardiac tissue in vitro. Tissue binding was time dependent, saturable, and reversible. Chromatography of the crude bacterial extract on Bio-Gel P-300 indicated a molecular weight greater than 300,000 for the heart-binding component. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) dissociated this aggregate into a protein of 18,000 to 20,000 daltons as determined by Sephacryl S-200 chromatography and SDS-polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis. The tissue-binding protein was also purified from streptococcal extracts by absorption to immobilized heart components. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the protein desorbed from tissue revealed a radioactive band of 19,000 daltons. Indirect immunofluorescence tests on cardiac tissue treated with streptococcal extract showed an accumulation of a bacterial antigen on the sarcolemmal sheaths. Streptococcal components also adsorbed to basement membranes of kidney. Antisera prepared to isolated cytoplasmic membranes and water-soluble extracts of S. pyogenes type M6 were the most sensitive reagents for the detection of bacterial components bound to tissue. Antisera prepared to isolated cell walls and to intact bacteria were weakly reactive in these assays. Images PMID:7033140

  15. Physicochemical and conformational properties of buckwheat protein isolates: influence of polyphenol removal with cold organic solvents from buckwheat seed flours.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chuan-He; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Fu; Wang, Chang-Sheng

    2009-11-25

    The effects of polyphenol removal from common buckwheat seed flours with cold aqueous organic solvents (including 95% ethanol, 70% 2-propanol, and 80% methanol, v/v) on the physicochemical and conformational properties of their protein isolates (BPI) were investigated. The extraction resulted in considerable reduction in its polyphenol content, especially protein-bound polyphenol content, and concomitant increase in its protein content. The efficiency of the removal of the polyphenols was much better in the 2-propanol case than in other two cases. The surface hydrophobicity of the proteins changed slightly, while the disulfide bond contents remarkably increased, partially at the expense of free sulfhydryl group contents. The protein solubility in the pH range of 7.0-11.0 and the proportion of undenatured globulins in BPI products were variably improved by the organic solvent extraction, and the extent of the improvements was highest in the 2-propanol case. Intrinsic emission fluorescence and far-UV and/or near-UV CD spectra showed that polyphenol removal resulted in significant changes in tertiary and/or secondary conformations of the proteins in BPI, and the changes were also related to the efficiency of the removal of the polyphenols. These results suggest that the physicochemical and conformational properties of BPI are closely related to its polyphenol level, and there is also a close relationship between its physicochemical properties and tertiary and/or secondary conformations.

  16. Identification and Genomic Analysis of a Novel Group C Orthobunyavirus Isolated from a Mosquito Captured near Iquitos, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Treangen, Todd J.; Schoeler, George; Phillippy, Adam M.; Bergman, Nicholas H.; Turell, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Group C orthobunyaviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses found in both South and North America. Until very recently, and despite their status as important vector-borne human pathogens, no Group C whole genome sequences containing all three segments were available in public databases. Here we report a Group C orthobunyavirus, named El Huayo virus, isolated from a pool of Culex portesi mosquitoes captured near Iquitos, Peru. Although initial metagenomic analysis yielded only a handful of reads belonging to the genus Orthobunyavirus, single contig assemblies were generated for L, M, and S segments totaling over 200,000 reads (~0.5% of sample). Given the moderately high viremia in hamsters (>107 plaque-forming units/ml) and the propensity for Cx. portesi to feed on rodents, it is possible that El Huayo virus is maintained in nature in a Culex portesi/rodent cycle. El Huayo virus was found to be most similar to Peruvian Caraparu virus isolates and constitutes a novel subclade within Group C. PMID:27074162

  17. Self-organized flexible leadership promotes collective intelligence in human groups.

    PubMed

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Wolf, Max; Naguib, Marc; Krause, Jens

    2015-12-01

    Collective intelligence refers to the ability of groups to outperform individual decision-makers. At present, relatively little is known about the mechanisms promoting collective intelligence in natural systems. We here test a novel mechanism generating collective intelligence: self-organization according to information quality. We tested this mechanism by performing simulated predator detection experiments using human groups. By continuously tracking the personal information of all members prior to collective decisions, we found that individuals adjusted their response time during collective decisions to the accuracy of their personal information. When individuals possessed accurate personal information, they decided quickly during collective decisions providing accurate information to the other group members. By contrast, when individuals had inaccurate personal information, they waited longer, allowing them to use social information before making a decision. Individuals deciding late during collective decisions had an increased probability of changing their decision leading to increased collective accuracy. Our results thus show that groups can self-organize according to the information accuracy of their members, thereby promoting collective intelligence. Interestingly, we find that individuals flexibly acted both as leader and as follower depending on the quality of their personal information at any particular point in time.

  18. Self-organized flexible leadership promotes collective intelligence in human groups

    PubMed Central

    Kurvers, Ralf H. J. M.; Wolf, Max; Naguib, Marc; Krause, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Collective intelligence refers to the ability of groups to outperform individual decision-makers. At present, relatively little is known about the mechanisms promoting collective intelligence in natural systems. We here test a novel mechanism generating collective intelligence: self-organization according to information quality. We tested this mechanism by performing simulated predator detection experiments using human groups. By continuously tracking the personal information of all members prior to collective decisions, we found that individuals adjusted their response time during collective decisions to the accuracy of their personal information. When individuals possessed accurate personal information, they decided quickly during collective decisions providing accurate information to the other group members. By contrast, when individuals had inaccurate personal information, they waited longer, allowing them to use social information before making a decision. Individuals deciding late during collective decisions had an increased probability of changing their decision leading to increased collective accuracy. Our results thus show that groups can self-organize according to the information accuracy of their members, thereby promoting collective intelligence. Interestingly, we find that individuals flexibly acted both as leader and as follower depending on the quality of their personal information at any particular point in time. PMID:27019718

  19. Comparative analysis of antibiotic resistance characteristics of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from laying hens and eggs in conventional and organic keeping systems in Bavaria, Germany.

    PubMed

    Schwaiger, K; Schmied, E-M V; Bauer, J

    2008-09-01

    By investigating the prevalence and resistance characteristics of Gram-negative bacteria from organic and conventional kept laying hens against 31 (Campylobacter: 29) different antibiotics using the microdilution method, we determined to what extent different keeping systems influence bacterial resistance patterns. For this purpose, samples from 10 organic and 10 conventional flocks in Bavaria (Germany) were investigated four times between January 2004 and April 2005. Altogether, 799 cloacal swabs and 800 eggs (contents and shells) were examined. The bacterial investigation performed with standardized cultural methods showed prevalence for all bacteria groups in about the same order of magnitude in the two different keeping systems: Salmonella spp. 3.5% (organic ([org])) versus 1.8% (conventional ([con])); Campylobacter spp. 34.8%(org) versus 29.0%(con) and E. coli 64.4%(org) versus 69.0%(con). Coliforms (Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Pantoea) were only isolated in single cases. In eggs, generally less bacteria were detected, predominantly Escherichia; Salmonella and Campylobacter were only scarcely isolated. Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (n=10) were resistant to up to nine, S. of the serogroup B (n=4) up to six antibiotics. All tested Salmonella (n=23) proved to be resistant to spectinomycin. Escherichia coli (n=257(org) and 276(con)) from organic layers showed significant lower resistance rates and higher rates of susceptible isolates to nine agents, namely amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefaclor, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, doxycycline, mezlocillin, neomycin and piperacillin. In contrast, only two antibiotics turned out to be more effective in conventional isolates (gentamicin and tobramycin). In the case of Campylobacter jejuni (n=118(org) and 99(con)), statistically significantly better rates were observed for isolates from organic flocks concerning imipenem and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, whereas fosfomycin was more potent in

  20. Photometric hydroxyl radical scavenging analysis of standard natural organic matter isolates.

    PubMed

    Donham, J E; Rosenfeldt, E J; Wigginton, K R

    2014-04-01

    Hydroxyl radical (˙OH) scavenging reaction rate constants of standard natural organic matter (NOM) isolates (k˙OH,NOM) were measured with a rapid background scavenging method, to expand the dataset of published k˙OH,NOM values. The proposed method relies on ˙OH generation with a simple UV/H₂O₂ AOP-based system. The associated decay of a ˙OH probe compound is monitored with a field-deployable spectrophotometer and k˙OH,NOM is determined through competition kinetics. The resulting k˙OH,NOM values for the six NOM standard isolates ranged from 1.02 (±0.10) × 10(8) MC(-1) s(-1) for Suwannee River Fulvic Acid I Standard to 2.03 (±0.12) × 10(8) MC(-1) s(-1) for Pony Lake Fulvic Acid Reference NOM, which is within the range reported with more elaborate and time-consuming k˙OH,NOM methods. A slight correlation between nitrogen content and scavenging rate constant was evident while no significant correlation between k˙OH,NOM and atomic composition, carbon structure, weight-average molecular weight, UV absorbance (SUVA₂₅₄), or fluorescence index (FI) was observed. Overall, the results demonstrate that k˙OH,NOM can be rapidly assessed in NOM isolate samples. The results suggest that this type of rapid field-deployable spectrophotometric method may minimize the need for expensive and time-consuming background scavenging methods, and for models that predict k˙OH,NOM based on other NOM characteristics.

  1. Symmetry breaking in the opinion dynamics of a multi-group project organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhen-Tao; Zhou, Jing; Li, Ping; Chen, Xing-Guang

    2012-10-01

    A bounded confidence model of opinion dynamics in multi-group projects is presented in which each group's opinion evolution is driven by two types of forces: (i) the group's cohesive force which tends to restore the opinion back towards the initial status because of its company culture; and (ii) nonlinear coupling forces with other groups which attempt to bring opinions closer due to collaboration willingness. Bifurcation analysis for the case of a two-group project shows a cusp catastrophe phenomenon and three distinctive evolutionary regimes, i.e., a deadlock regime, a convergence regime, and a bifurcation regime in opinion dynamics. The critical value of initial discord between the two groups is derived to discriminate which regime the opinion evolution belongs to. In the case of a three-group project with a symmetric social network, both bifurcation analysis and simulation results demonstrate that if each pair has a high initial discord, instead of symmetrically converging to consensus with the increase of coupling scale as expected by Gabbay's result (Physica A 378 (2007) p. 125 Fig. 5), project organization (PO) may be split into two distinct clusters because of the symmetry breaking phenomenon caused by pitchfork bifurcations, which urges that apart from divergence in participants' interests, nonlinear interaction can also make conflict inevitable in the PO. The effects of two asymmetric level parameters are tested in order to explore the ways of inducing dominant opinion in the whole PO. It is found that the strong influence imposed by a leader group with firm faith on the flexible and open minded follower groups can promote the formation of a positive dominant opinion in the PO.

  2. A 2D zinc-organic network being easily exfoliated into isolated sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guihong; Li, Ruiqing; Leng, Zhihua; Gan, Shucai

    2016-08-01

    A metal-organic aggregate, namely {Zn2Cl2(BBC)}n (BBC = 4,4‧,4‧‧-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl-tris(benzene-4,1-diyl))tribenzoate) was obtained by solvothermal synthesis. Its structure is featured with the Zn2(COO)3 paddle-wheels with two chloride anions on axial positions and hexagonal pores in the layers. The exclusion of water in the precursor and the solvent plays a crucial role in the formation of target compound. This compound can be easily dissolved in alkaline solution and exfoliated into isolated sheets, which shows a novel way for the preparation of 2D materials.

  3. High-Concentration Piperine: Capsaicin-Sensitive and -Insensitive Effects on Isolated Organs.

    PubMed

    Bencsik, Timea; Sandor, Zsolt; Bartho, Lorand

    2015-01-01

    Piperine (P), a sensory stimulant in black pepper, is an agonist on TRPV1 receptors. Earlier work has showed capsaicin-sensitive and -insensitive mechanisms of the contractile action of P on the intestine. The current isolated organ study in the guinea-pig ileum, urinary bladder and trachea (a) confirms the presence of such components of effect (ileum and bladder); (b) indicates TRPV1 involvement in the effect of 5 or 30 µmol/l of P on the basis of an inhibitory action of the antagonist BCTC (ileum); (c) indicates that HC 030031-sensitive TRPA1 receptors and nifedipine-sensitive Ca(2+) channels contribute to the capsaicin-resistant contraction to 30 µmol/l P (ileum) and (d) shows that the contractile effect of P up to 100 µmol/l (guinea-pig trachea) or 30 µmol/l (guinea-pig urinary bladder) is capsaicin-sensitive and mediated by TRPV1 receptors/channels.

  4. A Novel Peptide from Soybean Protein Isolate Significantly Enhances Resistance of the Organism under Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Heran; Liu, Rui; Zhao, Ziyuan; Zhang, Zhixian; Cao, Yue; Ma, Yudan; Guo, Yi; Xu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that protein hydrolysates have broad biological effects. In the current study we describe a novel antioxidative peptide, FDPAL, from soybean protein isolate (SPI). The aim of this study was to purify and characterize an antioxidative peptide from SPI and determine its antioxidative mechanism. LC–MS/MS was used to isolate and identify the peptide from SPI. The sequence of the peptide was determined to be Phe-Asp-Pro-Ala-Leu (FDPAL, 561 Da). FDPAL can cause significant enhancement of resistance to oxidative stress both in cells as well as simple organisms. In Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), FDPAL can up-regulate the expression of certain genes associated with resistance. The antioxidant activity of this peptide can be attributed to the presence of a specific amino acid sequence. Results from our work suggest that FDPAL can facilitate potential applications of proteins carrying this sequence in the nutraceutical, bioactive material and clinical medicine areas, as well as in cosmetics and health care products. PMID:27455060

  5. Intense, hyperthermal source of organic radicals for matrix-isolation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Friderichsen, Anders V.; Nandi, Sreela; Ellison, G. Barney; David, Donald E.; McKinnon, J. Thomas; Lindeman, Theodore G.; Dayton, David C.; Nimlos, Mark R.

    2003-06-01

    We have incorporated a pulsed, hyperthermal nozzle with a cryostat to study the matrix-isolated infrared spectroscopy of organic radicals. The radicals are produced by pyrolysis in a heated, narrow-bore (1-mm-diam) SiC tube and then expanded into the cryostat vacuum chamber. The combination of high nozzle temperature (up to 1800 K) and near-sonic flow velocities (on the order of 104cm s-1) through the length of the 2 cm tube allows for high yield of radicals (approximately 1013 radicals pulse-1) and low residence time (on the order of 10 μs) in the nozzle. We have used this hyperthermal nozzle/matrix isolation experiment to observe the IR spectra of complex radicals such as allyl radical (CH2CHCH2), phenyl radical (C6H5), and methylperoxyl radical (CH3OO). IR spectra of samples produced with a hyperthermal nozzle are remarkably clean and relatively free of interfering radical chemistry. By monitoring the unimolecular thermal decomposition of allyl ethyl ether in the nozzle using matrix IR spectroscopy, we have derived the residence time (τnozzle) of the gas pulse in the nozzle to be around 30 μs.

  6. Evaluation of four chromogenic media for the isolation of Group B Streptococcus from vaginal specimens in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Salem, Nahim; Anderson, Jeffrey J

    2015-10-01

    Direct culture onto four commercial chromogenic media, selective for the isolation of Group B Streptococcus (GBS), were compared with the conventional pre-enrichment Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) method for the ability to isolate GBS from 242 pregnant women's self-collected vaginal/perineal swabs. The sensitivities and specificities for direct culture on to chromogenic agar were 92% and 100% for StrepBSelect (Bio-Rad Laboratories), 96% and 100% for Brilliance GBS (Thermo-Fisher Scientific), 94% and 100% for CHROMagar StrepB (CHROMagar, Dutec Diagnostics), 86% and 100% for ChromID Strepto B (bioMerieux). CDC recommended broth pre-enrichment then culture on blood containing selective agar had a sensitivity and specificity of 90.0% and 100% respectively. The chromogenic agar tested produced comparable results to the pre-enrichment CDC method.

  7. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from organic and conventional poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J M; Vázquez, B I; Fente, C A; Calo-Mata, P; Cepeda, A; Franco, C M

    2008-12-01

    The presence of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes was determined in 55 samples of organic poultry meat and in 61 samples of conventional poultry meat. A total of 220 E. coli, 192 S. aureus, and 71 L. monocytogenes strains were analyzed by an agar disk diffusion assay for their resistance to ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, fosfomycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole (E. coli); chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, oxacillin, and sulfisoxazole (S. aureus); and chloramphenicol, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, sulfisoxazole, and vancomycin (L. monocytogenes). The results indicated a significantly higher (P < 0.0001) prevalence of E. coli but not of S. aureus and L. monocytogenes in organic poultry meat as compared with conventional poultry meat. E. coli isolated from organic poultry meat exhibited lower levels of antimicrobial resistance against 7 of the 10 antimicrobials tested as compared with isolates recovered from conventional meat. In the case of S. aureus and L. monocytogenes isolated from conventional poultry, antimicrobial resistance was significantly higher only for doxycycline as compared with strains isolated from organic poultry. In the case of E. coli, the presence of multiresistant strains was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in conventional poultry meat as compared with organic poultry meat. Organically farmed poultry samples showed significantly lower development of antimicrobial resistance in intestinal bacteria such as E. coli.

  8. Structural characterization of neutral oligosaccharides with blood-group A and H activity isolated from bovine submaxillary mucin.

    PubMed Central

    Savage, A V; D'Arcy, S M; Donoghue, C M

    1991-01-01

    In this study we investigated the structures of 11 neutral oligosaccharides released from bovine submaxillary mucin by alkaline borohydride treatment and isolated by h.p.l.c. One hexa-, one penta-, three tetra-, four tri- and two di-saccharides containing core types 1, 2, 3 or 4 were obtained. We report their structures, determined by a combination of one- and two-dimensional 1H n.m.r. spectroscopy at 270 MHz and methylation analysis involving g.l.c.-m.s., along with their approximate molar ratios. Only three of these oligosaccharides have previously been reported in this source. Of the new oligosaccharides, one contains the blood-group-A antigenic determinant, two contain the blood-group-H type 2 determinant, while another contains the blood-group-H type 3 determinant. The oligosaccharide GlcNAc beta (1----6)[GlcNAc beta (1----3)]GalNAcol, although previously found as a core structure, has been isolated here as a novel trisaccharide. PMID:1718265

  9. Contribution of methyl group to secondary organic aerosol formation from aromatic hydrocarbon photooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lijie; Qi, Li; Cocker, David R.

    2017-02-01

    The complete atmospheric oxidation pathways leading to secondary organic aerosol remain elusive for aromatic compounds including the role of methyl substitutes on oxidation. This study investigates the contribution of methyl group to Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formation during the photooxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons under low NOx condition by applying methyl carbon labeled aromatic hydrocarbons ((13C2) m-xylene and (13C2) p-xylene). Particle and gas phase oxidation products are analyzed by a series of mass spectrometers (HR-TOF-AMS, PTR-MS and SIFT-MS). The methyl group carbon containing oxidation products partition to the particle-phase at a lower rate than the carbons originating from the aromatic ring as a result of ring opening reactions. Further, the methyl carbon in the original aromatic structure is at least 7 times less likely to be oxidized when forming products that partition to SOA than the aromatic ring carbon. Therefore, oxidation of the methyl group in xylenes exerts little impact on SOA formation in current study. This study provides supporting evidence for a recent finding - a similarity in the SOA formation and composition from aromatic hydrocarbons regardless of the alkyl substitutes.

  10. Dialkylenecarbonate-Bridged Polysilsesquioxanes. Hybrid Organic Sol-Gels with a Thermally Labile Bridging Group

    SciTech Connect

    Loy, D.A.; Beach, J.V.; Baugher, B.M.; Assink, R.A.; Shea, K.J.; Tran, J.; Small, J.H.

    1999-04-21

    In this paper, we introduce a new approach for altering the properties of bridged polysilsesquioxane xerogels using post-processing modification of the polymeric network. The bridging organic group contains latent functionalities that can be liberated thermally, photochemically, or by chemical means after the gel has been processed to a xerogel. These modifications can produce changes in density, volubility, porosity, and or chemical properties of the material. Since every monomer possesses two latent functional groups, the technique allows for the introduction of high levels of functionality in hybrid organic-inorganic materials. Dialkylenecarbonate-bridged polysilsesquioxane gels were prepared by the sol-gel polymerization of bis(triethoxysilylpropyl)carbonate (1) and bis(triethoxysilylisobutyl)-carbonate (2). Thermal treatment of the resulting non-porous xerogels and aerogels at 300-350 C resulted in quantitative decarboxylation of the dialkylenecarbonate bridging groups to give new hydroxyalkyl and olefinic substituted polysilsesquioxane monolithic xerogels and aerogels that can not be directly prepared through direct sol-gel polymerization of organotrialkoxysilanes.

  11. Systems approach to studying animal sociality: individual position versus group organization in dynamic social network models.

    PubMed

    Hock, Karlo; Ng, Kah Loon; Fefferman, Nina H

    2010-12-23

    Social networks can be used to represent group structure as a network of interacting components, and also to quantify both the position of each individual and the global properties of a group. In a series of simulation experiments based on dynamic social networks, we test the prediction that social behaviors that help individuals reach prominence within their social group may conflict with their potential to benefit from their social environment. In addition to cases where individuals were able to benefit from improving both their personal relative importance and group organization, using only simple rules of social affiliation we were able to obtain results in which individuals would face a trade-off between these factors. While selection would favor (or work against) social behaviors that concordantly increase (or decrease, respectively) fitness at both individual and group level, when these factors conflict with each other the eventual selective pressure would depend on the relative returns individuals get from their social environment and their position within it. The presented results highlight the importance of a systems approach to studying animal sociality, in which the effects of social behaviors should be viewed not only through the benefits that those provide to individuals, but also in terms of how they affect broader social environment and how in turn this is reflected back on an individual's fitness.

  12. Managing the market. Focusing on a select group of customers can keep an organization competitive.

    PubMed

    MacStravic, R S

    1989-05-01

    The real challenge in healthcare marketing today is managing markets, focusing on selected groups of customers rather than on the organization or its services. Market management includes three distinct but related levels: Strategic market management assesses current and potential markets and chooses those the organization can serve best; segment management focuses on the needs and wants of subsets of chosen customers; and customer management reinforces long-term commitments to the organization. The patient care experience can be broken down into specific contacts with each staff member. The key to managing the experience is to identify and achieve standards of performance for each contact by examining what each event means to the patients and how patients judge each staff member, as well as the overall care experience. Regular feedback helps. An unavoidable risk in market management is that a given segment may decline in size, in need for services, or in cohesiveness as a segment. Yet those organizations which can identify the right segments and "manage" them effectively will have an advantage in a competitive market.

  13. Expression of group XIIA phospholipase A2 in human digestive organs.

    PubMed

    Peuravuori, Heikki; Kollanus, Sinikka; Nevalainen, Timo J

    2014-12-01

    Cellular distribution of group XIIA phospholipase A2 (GXIIA PLA2) was studied in human digestive organs by immunohistochemistry. GXIIA PLA2 protein was detected in epithelial cells of normal gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder and pancreatic acinar cells. The GXIIA PLA2 protein was evenly distributed in the cytoplasm in contrast to secretory granular distribution of GIB PLA2 and GIIA PLA2 in pancreatic acinar cells and small intestinal Paneth cells respectively. Epithelial cells of intestinal glands in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis expressed abundant GXIIA PLA2 , whereas inflammatory cells were devoid of the enzyme protein. Tumour cells in colonic adenomas and carcinomas and pancreatic ductogenic carcinomas expressed GXIIA PLA2 protein at varying intensity levels. The putative functions of GXIIA PLA2 remain to be investigated and its role in healthy and diseased digestive organs can only be speculated on at present.

  14. Organic thin-film transistors based on solution-processable benzodithiophene dimers modified with hexyl groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Takeshi; Toake, Hitoshi; Osuga, Hideji; Uno, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Ichiro

    2017-04-01

    Benzodithiophene dimers modified with hexyl groups (2C6-BDT-dimer) were investigated as solution-processable organic semiconductors for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). Since 2C6-BDT-dimer crystals have an anisotropic shape, flow coating was adopted to grow polycrystalline films. The flow-coated films were inferior to the vacuum-evaporated ones in terms of their crystallinity estimated from X-ray diffraction data. However, the hole mobility of the OTFTs with the flow-coated films, which was 1.7 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 at maximum, was higher than that of the OTFTs with vacuum-evaporated films because the one-dimensional thin crystals of the flow-coated films were aligned in the flow-coating direction.

  15. Women's groups and professional organizations in advocacy for sexual and reproductive health and rights.

    PubMed

    Germain, Adrienne; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2009-08-01

    After the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in 1994 and the Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995, sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) have improved in many countries, and been supported by awareness raised by women's health advocates, increasingly by youth groups, and also by organizations of health professionals. In the HIV/AIDS area, involvement of organizations of people living with HIV/AIDS is crucial to improve prevention and care. However, after victories during the 1990s, combating opposition by social and political conservatives has taken up much energy in recent years. Continuous advocacy to broaden acceptance of the fundamental importance of SRHR, their role in meeting the Millennium Development Goals, and the imperative to increase funding, is essential.

  16. Nitrogen enriched dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolates and their affinity to form emerging disinfection by-products.

    PubMed

    Dotson, A; Westerhoff, P; Krasner, S W

    2009-01-01

    Increased contributions from wastewater discharges and algal activity in drinking water supplies can lead to elevated levels of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), which can increase the likelihood for the formation of emerging nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) of health concern. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolated from five waters, using a newly developed DOM isolation method specific to DON fractionation, produced thirty-four isolates of suitable mass. Each isolate was treated with free chlorine or chloramines under formation potential conditions. The DBP yields were determined for three halogenated DBPs (trichloromethane, dichloroacetonitrile, and trichloronitromethane) and one non-halogenated DBP (N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]). Halogenated DBP yields were greater during the application of free chlorine, however chloramination produced significant levels of halogenated N-DBPs for some isolates. NDMA was only observed to form from selected nitrogen-enriched isolates (DOC/DON ratio < 20 mg/mg), especially those isolated from treated wastewater. Other results indicated that nitrogen-enriched DOM resulted in increased yields of the other N-DBPs studied.

  17. The formation of halogen-specific TOX from chlorination and chloramination of natural organic matter isolates.

    PubMed

    Kristiana, Ina; Gallard, Hervé; Joll, Cynthia; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2009-09-01

    The formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) is a public health concern. An important way to evaluate the presence of DBPs is in terms of the total organic halogen (TOX), which can be further specified into total organic chlorine (TOCl), bromine (TOBr), and iodine (TOI). The formation and distribution of halogen-specific TOX during chlorination and chloramination of natural organic matter (NOM) isolates in the presence of bromide and iodide ions were studied. As expected, chloramination produced significantly less TOX than chlorination. TOCl was the dominant species formed in both chlorination and chloramination. TOI was always produced in chloramination, but not in chlorination when high chlorine dose was used, due to the limited presence of HOI in chlorination as a result of the oxidation of iodide to iodate in the presence of excess chlorine. The formation of TOI during chloramination increased as the initial iodide ion concentration increased, with a maximum of approximately 60% of the initial iodide ion becoming incorporated into NOM. Iodine incorporation in NOM was consistently higher than bromine incorporation, demonstrating that the competitive reactions between bromine and iodine species in chloramination favoured the formation of HOI and thus TOI, rather than TOBr. Correlations between the aromatic character of the NOM isolates (SUVA(254) and % aromatic C) and the concentrations of overall TOX and halogen-specific TOX in chloramination were observed. This indicates that the aromatic moieties in NOM, as indicated by SUVA(254) and % aromatic C, play an important role in the formation of overall TOX and halogen-specific TOX in chloramination. THMs comprised only a fraction of TOX, up to 7% in chloramination and up to 47% in chlorination. Although chloramine produces less TOX than chlorine, it formed proportionally more non-THM DBPs than chlorine. These non-THM DBPs are mostly unknown, corresponding to unknown health risks. Considering the higher

  18. WHO's in second?: A practical review of World Health Organization group 2 pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hansdottir, Sif; Groskreutz, Dayna J; Gehlbach, Brian K

    2013-08-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) group 2 pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to left-side heart disease (ie, heart failure or left-sided valvular heart disease) is the most common form of PH in western countries. Distinguishing patients with WHO group 2 PH, particularly the subset of patients with PH due to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), from those with WHO group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is challenging. Separating the two conditions is of vital importance because treatment strategies differ completely. Furthermore, therapies that are indicated for WHO group 1 PAH may be harmful in patients with WHO group 2 PH. We review the somewhat confusing PH nomenclature and the WHO classification system and rationale behind it. We then focus on left-side heart disorders that cause PH. An aging population and advances in the medical management of common cardiovascular disorders have caused the prevalence of heart failure to rise significantly, with more than one-half of patients having HFpEF. We review contemporary studies that focus on clinical and echocardiographic findings that help to distinguish HFpEF from PAH in the patient with PH. We discuss the typical, and sometimes atypical, hemodynamic profiles that characterize these two groups, review challenges in the interpretation of data obtained by right-sided heart catheterization, and highlight special maneuvers that may be required for accurate diagnosis. Finally, we review the largely disappointing studies on the use of PAH-specific therapies in patients with WHO group 2 PH, including the use of prostacyclins, endothelin receptor antagonists, and the more promising phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors.

  19. From Grouping to Coupling: A New Perceptual Organization in Vision, Psychology, and Biology.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Baingio; Porcheddu, Daniele; Deiana, Katia

    2016-01-01

    In this work, perceptual organization has been studied with the same spirit and phenomenological methods used by Gestalt psychologists. This was accomplished through new conditions that cannot be explained in terms of the classical principles of grouping. Perceptual grouping represents the way through which our visual system builds integrated elements on the basis of the maximal homogeneity among the components of the stimulus pattern. Our results demonstrated the inconsistency of organization by grouping, and more importantly, the inconsistency of the principle of similarity. On the contrary, they suggested the unique role played by the principle of dissimilarity among elements that behaves like an accent or a visual emphasis within a whole. The principle of accentuation was here considered as imparting a directional structure to the elements and to the whole object thus creating new phenomena. The salience of the resulting phenomena reveals the supremacy of dissimilarity in relation to similarity and the fact that it belongs to a further organization dynamics that we called "coupling." In biology, coupling and its principle of accentuation are very strongly related to disruptive camouflage. Moreover, they are source of sexual attraction. They advertise the presence and elicit species identification/communication. In human beings accentuation is needed to show ourselves to others, to understand the way we dress, choose, and create clothes or invent fashion, the way we change our body accentuating several parts and hiding some others, the way we use maquillage. The existence of maquillage itself is derived from the need to accentuate something with the purpose to increase sexual attraction, to exhibit physical strength and beauty, to show or hide social status (e.g., being the king, a warrior, a priest, etc.). Last but not least, accentuation plays a basic role also in making it easier or difficult to read and understand written words.

  20. From Grouping to Coupling: A New Perceptual Organization in Vision, Psychology, and Biology

    PubMed Central

    Pinna, Baingio; Porcheddu, Daniele; Deiana, Katia

    2016-01-01

    In this work, perceptual organization has been studied with the same spirit and phenomenological methods used by Gestalt psychologists. This was accomplished through new conditions that cannot be explained in terms of the classical principles of grouping. Perceptual grouping represents the way through which our visual system builds integrated elements on the basis of the maximal homogeneity among the components of the stimulus pattern. Our results demonstrated the inconsistency of organization by grouping, and more importantly, the inconsistency of the principle of similarity. On the contrary, they suggested the unique role played by the principle of dissimilarity among elements that behaves like an accent or a visual emphasis within a whole. The principle of accentuation was here considered as imparting a directional structure to the elements and to the whole object thus creating new phenomena. The salience of the resulting phenomena reveals the supremacy of dissimilarity in relation to similarity and the fact that it belongs to a further organization dynamics that we called “coupling.” In biology, coupling and its principle of accentuation are very strongly related to disruptive camouflage. Moreover, they are source of sexual attraction. They advertise the presence and elicit species identification/communication. In human beings accentuation is needed to show ourselves to others, to understand the way we dress, choose, and create clothes or invent fashion, the way we change our body accentuating several parts and hiding some others, the way we use maquillage. The existence of maquillage itself is derived from the need to accentuate something with the purpose to increase sexual attraction, to exhibit physical strength and beauty, to show or hide social status (e.g., being the king, a warrior, a priest, etc.). Last but not least, accentuation plays a basic role also in making it easier or difficult to read and understand written words. PMID:27471483

  1. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's report on the Organic Geochemistry of Deep Groundwaters from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Fenster, D.F.; Brookins, D.G.; Harrison, W.; Seitz, M.G.; Lerman, A.; Stamoudis, V.C.

    1984-08-01

    This report summarizes Argonne's review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's (ONWI's) final report entitled The Organic Geochemistry of Deep Ground Waters from the Palo Duro Basin, Texas, dated September 1983. Recommendations are made for improving the ONWI report. The main recommendation is to make the text consistent with the title and with the objective of the project as stated in the introduction. Three alternatives are suggested to accomplish this.

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from dental unit waterlines can be divided in two distinct groups, including one displaying phenotypes similar to isolates from cystic fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet, Myriam M.; Leduc, Annie; Nadeau, Christine; Barbeau, Jean; Charette, Steve J.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa displays broad genetic diversity, giving it an astonishing capacity to adapt to a variety of environments and to infect a wide range of hosts. While many P. aeruginosa isolates of various origins have been analyzed, isolates from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have received the most attention. Less is known about the genetic and phenotypic diversity of P. aeruginosa isolates that colonize other environments where flourishing biofilms can be found. In the present study, 29 P. aeruginosa isolates from dental unit waterlines and CF patients were collected and their genetic and phenotypes profiles were compared to determine whether environmental and clinical isolates are related. The isolates were first classified using the random amplified polymorphic DNA method. This made it possible to distribute the isolates into one clinical cluster and two environmental clusters. The isolates in the environmental cluster that were genetically closer to the clinical cluster also displayed phenotypes similar to the clinical isolates. The isolates from the second environmental cluster displayed opposite phenotypes, particularly an increased capacity to form biofilms. The isolates in this cluster were also the only ones harboring genes that encoded specific epimerases involved in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharides, which could explain their increased ability to form biofilms. In conclusion, the isolates from the dental unit waterlines could be distributed into two clusters, with some of the environmental isolates resembled the clinical isolates. PMID:25653647

  3. Introduction of bridging and pendant organic groups into mesoporous alumina materials.

    PubMed

    Grant, Stacy M; Woods, Stephan M; Gericke, Arne; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2011-11-01

    Incorporation of organic functionalities into soft-templated mesoporous alumina was performed via organosilane-assisted evaporation induced self-assembly using aluminum alkoxide precursors and block copolymer templates. This strategy permits one to obtain mesoporous alumina-based materials with tailorable adsorption, surface and structural properties. Isocyanurate, ethane, mercaptopropyl, and ureidopropyl-functionalized mesoporous alumina materials were synthesized with relatively high surface area and large pore volume with uniform and wormhole-like mesopores. The presence of organosilyl groups within these hybrid materials was confirmed by IR or Raman spectroscopy and their concentration was determined by elemental analysis.

  4. Career Education: The Role of School-Related Youth Groups and Voluntary Organizations. Information Series No. 108.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylton, V. Wendell

    Purposes and activities of existing youth groups and voluntary organizations are reviewed in this information analysis paper to determine their relationship to career education. Addressed to youth groups and voluntary organization leaders and sponsors, school administrators and state department vocational education personnel, the paper also…

  5. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a 7 Table 7 to Subpart KKKK of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction values in...

  6. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a 7 Table 7 to Subpart KKKK of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction values in...

  7. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a 7 Table 7 to Subpart KKKK of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction values in...

  8. Multilocus sequence typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from high-somatic-cell-count cows and the environment of an organic dairy farm in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Smith, E M; Green, L E; Medley, G F; Bird, H E; Dowson, C G

    2005-09-01

    An outbreak of Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections on an organic dairy farm was monitored for 10 months. Environmental and milk samples were collected from a total of 26 cows and a group of 21 purchased heifers about to be introduced into the milking herd. There was variation in the rate of isolation of S. aureus (9.5 to 43.8%) from individual mammary quarters, although no S. aureus isolates were detected in the milk samples collected from the heifers. One hundred ninety-one S. aureus isolates were detected from cow milk samples (n = 182), milking machine clusters (n = 4), farm personnel (n = 4), and the environment (n = 1). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) had a typeability of 100% when it was applied to the 191 isolates. Among the 191 isolates there was limited strain diversity, with seven sequence types (STs) dominated by two strains with closely related STs that differed at a single locus. Within individual mammary quarters there were naturally occurring dual infections, although this was identified in only 0.4% of milk samples. Different strains were associated with variable persistence within quarters. MLST is clearly a very suitable tool for the differentiation and analysis of S. aureus populations detected on dairy cattle farms.

  9. Uneven frequency of Vibrio alginolyticus-group isolates among different populations of Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    PubMed

    Thaller, Maria C; Ciambotta, Marco; Sapochetti, Manuela; Migliore, Luciana; Tapia, Whashington; Cedeño, Virna; Gentile, Gabriele

    2010-02-01

    The presence of Vibrio isolates was investigated in cloacal swabs from the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhyncus cristatus). Such unique iguana is endemic to the Galápagos Archipelago, it is listed as vulnerable in the IUCN Red List (2009), and is strictly protected by CITES and Ecuador laws. Our results revealed an uneven isolation frequency of vibrios from animals living in different settings: maximal among the Santa Fe population, scarce at Bahía Tortuga but practically absent in the samples from Puerto Ayora and Plaza Sur. A 16S sequencing confirmed that the isolates belonged to the genus Vibrio, placing them within the V. alginolyticus group; the biochemical identification was, indeed, consistent with V. alginolyticus features. The reason of the observed discrepancy is not clear, but could be either linked to a higher pollution in the inhabited or more touristic places or to differential influence of chemical and physical parameters at a local scale. As V. alginolyticus is an opportunistic pathogen for man and it is known to cause disease in sea-living animals, the ability of these vibrios to enter and persist to a certain extent in the marine iguana gut should be regarded as a risk for health of both the animals and the human personnel involved in monitoring activities.

  10. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Pppp of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction values in the.... Solvent type Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass Aliphatic b 0.03...

  11. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Pppp of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction... formulation data. Solvent type Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass...

  12. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Pppp of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction... formulation data. Solvent type Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass...

  13. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Pppp of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction... formulation data. Solvent type Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass...

  14. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIi of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass... manufacturer's formulation data Solvent type Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent...

  15. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIi of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction values in the... Solvent type Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass Aliphatic b 0.03...

  16. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Oooo of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction... formulation data: Solvent type Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass...

  17. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Oooo of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... OOOO of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass... manufacturer's formulation data: Solvent type Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent...

  18. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Oooo of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... OOOO of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass... manufacturer's formulation data: Solvent type Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent...

  19. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIi of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass... manufacturer's formulation data Solvent type Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent...

  20. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIi of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction values in the... Solvent type Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass Aliphatic b 0.03...

  1. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Oooo of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction... formulation data: Solvent type Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass...

  2. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Oooo of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... OOOO of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass... manufacturer's formulation data: Solvent type Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent...

  3. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIi of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass... manufacturer's formulation data Solvent type Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent...

  4. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Pppp of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a You may use the mass fraction values in the.... Solvent type Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical organic HAP, percent by mass Aliphatic b 0.03...

  5. Statement of the Declaration of Istanbul Custodian Group Regarding Payments to Families of Deceased Organ Donors.

    PubMed

    Capron, Alexander Morgan; Delmonico, Francis L; Dominguez-Gil, Beatriz; Martin, Dominique Elizabeth; Danovitch, Gabriel M; Chapman, Jeremy

    2016-09-01

    Governmental and private programs that pay next of kin who give permission for the removal of their deceased relative's organs for transplantation exist in a number of countries. Such payments, which may be given to the relatives or paid directly for funeral expenses or hospital bills unrelated to being a donor, aim to increase the rate of donation. The Declaration of Istanbul Custodian Group-in alignment with the World Health Organization Guiding Principles and the Council of Europe Convention Against Trafficking in Human Organs-has adopted a new policy statement opposing such practices. Payment programs are unwise because they produce a lower rate of donations than in countries with voluntary, unpaid programs; associate deceased donation with being poor and marginal in society; undermine public trust in the determination of death; and raise doubts about fair allocation of organs. Most important, allowing families to receive money for donation from a deceased person, who is at no risk of harm, will make it impossible to sustain prohibitions on paying living donors, who are at risk. Payment programs are also unethical. Tying coverage for funeral expenses or healthcare costs to a family allowing organs to be procured is exploitative, not "charitable." Using payment to overcome reluctance to donate based on cultural or religious beliefs especially offends principles of liberty and dignity. Finally, while it is appropriate to make donation "financially neutral"-by reimbursing the added medical costs of evaluating and maintaining a patient as a potential donor-such reimbursement may never be conditioned on a family agreeing to donate.

  6. Isolation of a very high molecular weight polylactosamine from an ovarian cyst mucin of blood group

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, A.S.S.; Bush, C.A.

    1986-05-01

    Treatment of a blood group A active ovarian cyst mucin glycoprotein with alkaline borohydride under conditions expected to cleave-O-glycosidically linked carbohydrate chains releases a polysaccharide of average molecular weight 25,000 daltons. It contains no peptide or mannose at the 1% level and carbohydrate analysis gives fuc:galNAc:gal:glcNAc in the ratio of 1:1:2.5:2.5. The /sup 13/C and /sup 1/H NMR spectra show that the polysaccharide has non-reducing terminal side chains of the structure galNAc(..cap alpha..-1 ..-->.. 3)(fuc(..cap alpha..-1 ..-->.. 2)) gal(..beta..-1 ..-->.. 3) glcNAc (i.e. a type 1 chain). Periodate oxidation removes all the fucose and galNAc from the non-reducing terminal but leaves intact the backbone composed of ..beta..-linked gal and glcNAc as would be expected for a polylactosamine. They conclude that this is a high molecular weight polylactosamine which is related to the asparagine linked polylactosamine chains of cell surface glycoproteins which have been implicated in cell differentiation. However, the blood group A polysaccharide from the ovarian cyst mucin is unique in several respects. It has a much larger molecular weight than even the erythroglycan of the red cell membrane protein, band 3, and is linked to the protein by an -O-glycosidic bond rather than the -N-asparagine linkage of the previously known polylactosamines which have a trimannosyl core. Its blood group A side chains are on a type one core rather than type 2 which is found on other polylactosamines.

  7. Wetting properties of model interphases coated with defined organic functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woche, Susanne K.; Goebel, Marc-O.; Guggenberger, Georg; Tunega, Daniel; Bachmann, Joerg

    2013-04-01

    Surface properties of soil particles are of particular interest regarding transport of water and sorption of solutes, especially hazardous xenobiotic species. Wetting properties (e.g. determined by contact angle, CA), governed by the functional groups exposed, are crucial to understand sorption processes in water repellent soils as well as for the geometry of water films sustaining microbial processes on the pore scale. Natural soil particle surfaces are characterized by a wide variety of mineralogical and chemical compounds. Their composition is almost impossible to identify in full. Hence, in order to get a better understanding about surface properties, an option is the usage of defined model surfaces, whereas the created surface should be comparable to natural soil interphases. We exposed smooth glass surfaces to different silane compounds, resulting in a coating covalently bound to the surface and exhibiting defined organic functional groups towards the pore space. The wetting properties as evaluated by CA and the surface free energy (SFE), calculated according to the Acid-Base Theory, were found to be a function of the specific functional group. Specifically, the treated surfaces showed a large variation of CA and SFE as function of chain length and polarity of the organic functional group. The study of wetting properties was accompanied by XPS analysis for selective detection of chemical compounds of the interphase. As the reaction mechanism of the coating process is known, the resulting interphase structure can be modeled based on energetic considerations. A next step is to use same coatings for the defined modification of the pore surfaces of porous media to study transport and sorption processes in complex three phase systems.

  8. Prevalence and antimicrogram of Staphylococcus intermedius group isolates from veterinary staff, companion animals, and the environment in veterinary hospitals in Korea.

    PubMed

    Youn, Jung-Ho; Yoon, Jang Won; Koo, Hye Cheong; Lim, Suk-Kyung; Park, Yong Ho

    2011-03-01

    The Staphylococcus intermedius bacterial group (SIG) includes 3 distinct genetically heterogenous species: S. intermedius, S. pseudintermedius, and S. delphini. This pathogen group is associated with many opportunistic skin and ear infections in companion animals. Human infections with S. intermedius and S. pseudintermedius isolates and the emergence of methicillin-resistant isolates have been recently reported, which emphasizes the importance of nationwide identification of SIG isolate prevalence and antibiotic resistance in veterinary clinics. In the present study, a total of 178 SIG isolates were obtained from veterinary staff (n  =  40), companion animals (n  =  115), and the local environment (n  =  23) in 8 Korean veterinary hospitals. Isolates were differentiated into 167 S. pseudintermedius (93.8%) and 11 S. intermedius (6.2%) isolates; S. delphini isolates were not identified. The most effective antibiotics against these isolates included amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, amikacin, nitrofloxacin, imipenem, and vancomycin; whereas ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were not effective. Surprisingly, the 128 SIG isolates (71.9%) displayed multiple drug resistance (MDR) against 3 or more antibiotic classes. Out of 52 SIG isolates carrying the methicillin-resistance gene (mecA), only 34 (65.4%) were oxacillin-resistant, and 49 (94.2%) methicillin-resistant SIG were multidrug resistant. This finding suggests the presence of greater numbers of MDR phenotypes than other isolates (P < 0.05).

  9. Comparison of phenotypically indistinguishable but geographically distinct Neisseria meningitidis Group B isolates in a serum bactericidal antibody assay.

    PubMed

    Findlow, Jamie; Holland, Ann; Andrews, Nick; Weynants, Vincent; Sotolongo, Franklin; Balmer, Paul; Poolman, Jan; Borrow, Ray

    2007-11-01

    The "gold standard" assay for measuring serologic protection against Neisseria meningitidis group B (MenB) is the serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay. Of vital importance to the outcome of the SBA assay is the choice of the target strain(s), which is often chosen on the basis of phenotype or genotype. We therefore investigated the effect on the results produced by the SBA assay of using phenotypically indistinguishable but geographically distinct MenB isolates. Nine PorA P1.19,15 and 11 PorA P1.7-2,4 MenB isolates were incorporated into the SBA assay using human complement and were assayed against sera obtained either before or after outer membrane vesicle vaccination. Large differences in the results produced by the isolates in the SBA assay were demonstrated. These included differences as great as 5.8-fold in SBA geometric mean titers and in the proportions of subjects with SBA titers of >/=4. Ranges of as many as 9 SBA titers were achieved by individual sera across the panels of isolates. To determine the reasons for the differences observed, investigations into the expression of capsular polysaccharide, PorA, PorB, Opc, and lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and into LOS sialylation were completed. However, minor differences were found between strains, indicating similar expression and no antigen masking. These results have implications for the choice of MenB target strains for inclusion in future studies of MenB vaccines and highlight the requirement for standardization of target strains between laboratories.

  10. Functional network organizations of two contrasting temperament groups in dimensions of novelty seeking and harm avoidance.

    PubMed

    Kyeong, Sunghyon; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Hae-Jeong; Hwang, Dong-Uk

    2014-08-05

    Novelty seeking (NS) and harm avoidance (HA) are two major dimensions of temperament in Cloninger׳s neurobiological model of personality. Previous neurofunctional and biological studies on temperament dimensions of HA and NS suggested that the temperamental traits have significant correlations with cortical and subcortical brain regions. However, no study to date has investigated the functional network modular organization as a function of the temperament dimension. The temperament dimensions were originally proposed to be independent of one another. However, a meta-analysis based on 16 published articles found a significant negative correlation between HA and NS (Miettunen et al., 2008). Based on this negative correlation, the current study revealed the whole-brain connectivity modular architecture for two contrasting temperament groups. The k-means clustering algorithm, with the temperamental traits of HA and NS as an input, was applied to divide the 40 subjects into two temperament groups: 'high HA and low NS' versus 'low HA and high NS'. Using the graph theoretical framework, we found a functional segregation of whole brain network architectures derived from resting-state functional MRI. In the 'high HA and low NS' group, the regulatory brain regions, such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), are clustered together with the limbic system. In the 'low HA and high NS' group, however, brain regions lying on the dopaminergic pathways, such as the PFC and basal ganglia, are partitioned together. These findings suggest that the neural basis of inhibited, passive, and inactive behaviors in the 'high HA and low NS' group was derived from the increased network associations between the PFC and limbic clusters. In addition, supporting evidence of topological differences between the two temperament groups was found by analyzing the functional connectivity density and gray matter volume, and by computing the relationships between the morphometry and function of the brain.

  11. Further enhancement of the second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) coefficient and the stability of NLO polymers that contain isolation chromophore moieties by using the "suitable isolation group" concept and the Ar/Ar(F) self-assembly effect.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenbo; Ye, Cheng; Qin, Jingui; Li, Zhen

    2013-08-01

    For the first time, a series of second-order NLO poly(arylene-ethynylene)s, in which an isolation chromophore was introduced to enhance the NLO coefficients, were successfully designed and synthesized. Thanks to the isolation chromophore, these polymers demonstrated good NLO activities and optical transparency. To further improve the comprehensive performance of the polymers, different isolation groups of various sizes were introduced to subtly modify the structure of the polymers according to the "suitable isolation group" concept. The naphthalene (Np) group was found to be a "suitable isolation group" in this series of polymers and polymer P3 demonstrated the highest d33 value (122.1 pm V(-1)) of these five polymers. Interestingly, polymer P5, which contained a pentafluorophenyl ring as an isolation group, exhibited a much higher NLO effect and stability than polymer P2, which just contained normal phenyl rings as isolation groups (97.2 versus 62.5 pm V(-1)), thus indicating the advantages of the Ar-Ar(F) self-assembly effect in the field of non-linear optics.

  12. Graphene oxide-rare earth metal-organic framework composites for the selective isolation of hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Yue; Chen, Xu-Wei; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2014-07-09

    Graphene oxide-La(BTC)(H2O)6 (H3BTC=1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid) metal organic framework composites (LaMOF-GOn, n = 1-6, corresponding to the percentage of GO at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10%) are prepared through a simple and large-scale method at room temperature. The obtained composites are characterized by ATR-FTIR spectra, SEM, XRD, TGA, and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm. The presence of GO significantly changes the morphologies of the composites from spindly rectangular rods to irregular thick blocks and increases their surface area from 14.8 cm(2) g(-1) (LaMOFs) to 26.6 cm(2) g(-1) (LaMOF-GO3), whereas at the same time, the crystalline structure of La(BTC)(H2O)6 is maintained. As a novel solid-phase adsorbent the LaMOF-GO composite exhibits outstanding adsorption properties for proteins. The strong hydrophobic interaction, especially π-π interaction between protein and the composite, is the main driving force for protein adsorption. In particular, highly selective isolation of hemoglobin (Hb) is achieved by using LaMOF-GO3 composite as sorbent in 4 mM B-R buffer containing 0.05 mol L(-1) NaCl at pH 8. The retained Hb could be effectively recovered with a 1 mM B-R buffer at pH 10, giving rise to a recovery of 63%. The practical applicability of the LaMOF-GO3 composite is demonstrated by the selective adsorption of Hb from human whole blood, and SDS-PAGE assays indicate that Hb could be selectively isolated with high purity from biological samples of complex matrixes.

  13. Does kinship affect spatial organization in a small and isolated population of a solitary felid: The Eurasian lynx?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Krzysztof; Davoli, Francesca; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Randi, Ettore

    2016-09-01

    Social organization in wild carnivores is mostly determined by patterns of family bonds, which may shape the degree of relatedness among individuals in the population. We studied kinship in a small and isolated population of a solitary carnivore, the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) to evaluate its effect on spatial distribution of individuals. We investigated the relationship between spatial location and pair-wise kinship among 28 lynx individuals identified in 2004-2011 by telemetry, non-invasive sampling and genotyping with the use of 12 autosomal microsatellites in the Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland. The average relatedness of the lynx population was relatively low (Lynch and Ritland's R = 0.03). Females were significantly more related to each other than males with other males. The inferred pedigree showed that the population was dominated by only 2 familial groups. We did not find significant correlations between the relatedness and the extent of home range overlap or the straight-line distances between the home ranges' central points. These results suggest that the dynamics of kinship in this solitary felid may not differ from the random mating processes described in social carnivores. Although the chances of random mating could be limited to a few resident males and females, the presence of unrelated floaters may provide a "breeding buffer" that may prevent an increase of relatedness and likely inbreeding in the population. This system is likely to fail in preserving genetic diversity in small, highly isolated populations; therefore, restoring habitat connectivity is crucial to ensure sufficient immigration from neighboring populations.

  14. Discrimination and divergence among Lactobacillus plantarum-group (LPG) isolates with reference to their probiotic functionalities from vegetable origin.

    PubMed

    Devi, Sundru Manjulata; Aishwarya, Subramanian; Halami, Prakash M

    2016-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the diversity and probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum-group cultures from vegetable origin. First, genotypic diversity of L. plantarum (n=34) was achieved by PCR of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and recA gene-specific multiplex PCR. The isolates were segregated into five groups namely, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus arizonensis, Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum and argentoratensis. Further discrimination was achieved by restriction fragment length polymorphism of probiotic adhesion genes viz.fbp, mub and msa gene. As determined by nucleotide sequence analysis and bioinformatics Pfam database, the putative Fbp protein had only one FBP domain, whereas Mub protein had 8-10 MUB domain repeats. However, L. pentosus (except CFR MFT9), L. plantarum subsp. argentoratensis (except CFR MFT5) and L. arizonensis (except CFR MFT2) isolates gave no amplicon for the tested marker genes. Selected cultures (n=15) showed tolerance to simulated digestive fluids (20-85%), exhibited auto-aggregation (10-77%), cellular hydrophobicity (12-78%), and broad spectrum of anti-microbial activity. Concurrently, high adherence capacity to mucin was achieved for L. plantarum subsp. plantarum (MCC 2974 and CFR MFT1) and L. paraplantarum (MTCC 9483, MCC 2977, MCC 2978), which had an additional MUB domain repeat.

  15. Functionalization of metal-organic frameworks through the postsynthetic transformation of olefin side groups.

    PubMed

    Hindelang, Konrad; Kronast, Alexander; Vagin, Sergei I; Rieger, Bernhard

    2013-06-17

    For the first time, the adaptability of the C=C double bond as a versatile precursor for the postsynthetic modification (PSM) of microporous materials was extensively investigated and evaluated. Therefore, an olefin-tagged 4,4'-bipyridine linker was synthesized and successfully introduced as pillar linker within a 9,10-triptycenedicarboxylate (TDC) zinc paddle-wheel metal-organic framework (MOF) through microwave-assisted synthesis. Different reactions, predominately used in organic chemistry, were tested, leading to the development of new postsynthetic reactions for the functionalization of solid materials. The postsynthetic oxidation of the olefin side groups applying osmium tetroxide (OsO₄) as a catalyst led to the formation of a microporous material with free vicinal diol functionalities. The epoxidation with dimethyldioxirane (DMDO) enabled the synthesis of epoxy-functionalized MOFs. In addition to that, reaction procedures for a postsynthetic hydroboration with borane dimethyl sulfide as well as a photoinduced thiol-ene click reaction with ethyl mercaptan were developed. For all of these PSMs, yields of more than 90% were obtained, entirely maintaining the crystallinity of the MOFs. Since the direct introduction of the corresponding groups by means of pre-synthetic approaches is hardly possible, these new PSMs are useful tools for the functionalization of porous solids towards applications such as selective adsorption, separation, and catalysis.

  16. Cooperative Networks: Altruism, Group Solidarity, Reciprocity, and Sanctioning in Ugandan Producer Organizations.

    PubMed

    Baldassarri, Delia

    2015-09-01

    Repeated interaction and social networks are commonly considered viable solutions to collective action problems. This article identifies and systematically measures four general mechanisms--that is, generalized altruism, group solidarity, reciprocity, and the threat of sanctioning--and tests which of them brings about cooperation in the context of Ugandan producer organizations. Using an innovative methodological framework that combines "lab-in-the-field" experiments with survey interviews and complete social networks data, the article goes beyond the assessment of a relationship between social networks and collective outcomes to study the mechanisms that favor cooperative behavior. The article first establishes a positive relationship between position in the network structure and propensity to cooperate in the producer organization and then uses farmers' behavior in dictator and public goods games to test different mechanisms that may account for such a relationship. Results show that cooperation is induced by patterns of reciprocity that emerge through repeated interaction rather than other-regarding preferences like altruism or group solidarity.

  17. Versatile Oxidation Methods for Organic and Inorganic Substrates Catalyzed by Platinum-Group Metals on Carbons.

    PubMed

    Sawama, Yoshinari; Asai, Shota; Monguchi, Yasunari; Sajiki, Hironao

    2016-02-01

    Platinum-group metals on activated carbon catalysts, represented by Pd/C, Ru/C, Rh/C, etc., are widely utilized to accomplish green and sustainable organic reactions due to their favorable features, such as easy handling, recoverability, and reusability. The efficient oxidation methods of various organic compounds using heterogeneous platinum-group metals on carbons with or without added oxidants are summarized in this Personal Account. The oxidation of internal alkynes into diketones was effectively catalyzed by Pd/C in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide and molecular oxygen or pyridine N-oxide. The Pd/C-catalyzed mild combustion of gaseous hydrogen with molecular oxygen provided hydrogen peroxide, which could be directly utilized for the oxidation of sulfide derivatives into sulfoxides. Furthermore, the Ru/C-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols gave the corresponding aldehydes and ketones, respectively. On the other hand, the dehydrogenative oxidation of secondary alcohols into ketones was achieved using Rh/C in water, and primary alcohols were effectively dehydrogenated by Pd/C in water under mildly reduced pressure to produce carboxylic acids.

  18. [Hazardous health effect of isolation. A clinical study of 2 groups of persons in custody].

    PubMed

    Gamman, T

    1995-08-10

    The possible effects of solitary confinement on prisoners' health were studied using a prospective design. 27 secluded prisoners were compared with 27 others who were held in custody. The latter group of prisoners was able to see other prisoners, visitors, friends and family members, and could participate in prison activities. The results showed that secluded prisoners had more health problems than prisoners serving less restrictive prison sentences did. The most usual complaints were headache, pain in the neck, stomach and shoulders, anxiety and depression. Psychotic symptoms were rare. The complaints tended to last for the whole period of solitary confinement and were difficult to treat while the prisoners remained secluded. Patients with chronic somatic diseases tended to deteriorate in solitary confinement. Most patients recovered when the seclusion was terminated.

  19. Group Composition of Guinea Baboons (Papio papio) at a Water Place Suggests a Fluid Social Organization.

    PubMed

    Patzelt, Annika; Zinner, Dietmar; Fickenscher, Gisela; Diedhiou, Sarany; Camara, Becaye; Stahl, Daniel; Fischer, Julia

    2011-06-01

    Baboon social systems are among the most studied in primates. Solid knowledge of the hamadryas and savannah baboon systems has accumulated, leading to a dichotomic view of baboon social systems. Hamadryas baboons live in multilayered troops based on 1-male units whereas savannah baboons live in multimale multifemale groups based on a network of related females. Less attention has been paid to their West African congenerics, the Guinea baboons, Papio papio. To fill this gap, in 2007 we initiated a long-term study of a baboon troop ranging in the Niokolo Koba National Park in southeastern Senegal. Earlier studies suggested a tendency for a multilayered social system in Guinea baboons, similar to the hamadryas baboon organization. Therefore, as a first approach to analyzing variability in party size and composition, we observed members of the troop crossing an open area from a fixed point for 3 mo during the dry and wet seasons. We counted individuals and recorded changes in composition of both arriving and departing parties. Party size and composition were highly variable on both a daily and a seasonal basis; 45.9% of the arriving parties changed in composition while crossing the open area, either splitting into smaller parties or fusing into larger ones, suggesting a fluid organization. Our data support the existence of neither a hamadryas baboon-like multilayered social organization nor a stable medium-sized multimale multifemale group as in savannah baboons. In light of our data we may need to revise the dichotomic view of baboon social systems and include space for greater variability of their social systems.

  20. Preservation of martian organic and environmental records: final report of the Mars biosignature working group.

    PubMed

    Summons, Roger E; Amend, Jan P; Bish, David; Buick, Roger; Cody, George D; Des Marais, David J; Dromart, Gilles; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L; Knoll, Andrew H; Sumner, Dawn Y

    2011-03-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has an instrument package capable of making measurements of past and present environmental conditions. The data generated may tell us if Mars is, or ever was, able to support life. However, the knowledge of Mars' past history and the geological processes most likely to preserve a record of that history remain sparse and, in some instances, ambiguous. Physical, chemical, and geological processes relevant to biosignature preservation on Earth, especially under conditions early in its history when microbial life predominated, are also imperfectly known. Here, we present the report of a working group chartered by the Co-Chairs of NASA's MSL Project Science Group, John P. Grotzinger and Michael A. Meyer, to review and evaluate potential for biosignature formation and preservation on Mars. Orbital images confirm that layered rocks achieved kilometer-scale thicknesses in some regions of ancient Mars. Clearly, interplays of sedimentation and erosional processes govern present-day exposures, and our understanding of these processes is incomplete. MSL can document and evaluate patterns of stratigraphic development as well as the sources of layered materials and their subsequent diagenesis. It can also document other potential biosignature repositories such as hydrothermal environments. These capabilities offer an unprecedented opportunity to decipher key aspects of the environmental evolution of Mars' early surface and aspects of the diagenetic processes that have operated since that time. Considering the MSL instrument payload package, we identified the following classes of biosignatures as within the MSL detection window: organism morphologies (cells, body fossils, casts), biofabrics (including microbial mats), diagnostic organic molecules, isotopic signatures, evidence of biomineralization and bioalteration, spatial patterns in chemistry, and biogenic gases. Of these, biogenic organic molecules and biogenic atmospheric gases are

  1. Preservation of Martian Organic and Environmental Records: Final Report of the Mars Biosignature Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summons, Roger E.; Amend, Jan P.; Bish, David; Buick, Roger; Cody, George D.; Des Marais, David J.; Dromart, Gilles; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Sumner, Dawn Y.

    2011-03-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has an instrument package capable of making measurements of past and present environmental conditions. The data generated may tell us if Mars is, or ever was, able to support life. However, the knowledge of Mars' past history and the geological processes most likely to preserve a record of that history remain sparse and, in some instances, ambiguous. Physical, chemical, and geological processes relevant to biosignature preservation on Earth, especially under conditions early in its history when microbial life predominated, are also imperfectly known. Here, we present the report of a working group chartered by the Co-Chairs of NASA's MSL Project Science Group, John P. Grotzinger and Michael A. Meyer, to review and evaluate potential for biosignature formation and preservation on Mars. Orbital images confirm that layered rocks achieved kilometer-scale thicknesses in some regions of ancient Mars. Clearly, interplays of sedimentation and erosional processes govern present-day exposures, and our understanding of these processes is incomplete. MSL can document and evaluate patterns of stratigraphic development as well as the sources of layered materials and their subsequent diagenesis. It can also document other potential biosignature repositories such as hydrothermal environments. These capabilities offer an unprecedented opportunity to decipher key aspects of the environmental evolution of Mars' early surface and aspects of the diagenetic processes that have operated since that time. Considering the MSL instrument payload package, we identified the following classes of biosignatures as within the MSL detection window: organism morphologies (cells, body fossils, casts), biofabrics (including microbial mats), diagnostic organic molecules, isotopic signatures, evidence of biomineralization and bioalteration, spatial patterns in chemistry, and biogenic gases. Of these, biogenic organic molecules and biogenic atmospheric gases are

  2. Phylogenentic and enzymatic characterization of psychrophilic and psychrotolerant marine bacteria belong to γ-Proteobacteria group isolated from the sub-Antarctic Beagle Channel, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cristóbal, Héctor A; Benito, Juliana; Lovrich, Gustavo A; Abate, Carlos M

    2015-05-01

    The phylogenetic and physiological characteristics of cultivable-dependent approaches were determined to establish the diversity of marine bacteria associated with the intestines of benthonic organisms and seawater samples from the Argentina's Beagle Channel. A total of 737 isolates were classified as psychrophlic and psychrotolerant culturable marine bacteria. These cold-adapted microorganisms are capable of producing cold-active glycosyl hydrolases, such as β-glucosidases, celulases, β-galactosidases, xylanases, chitinases, and proteases. These enzymes could have potential biotechnological applications for use in low-temperature manufacturing processes. According to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of part of genes encoding 16S ribosomal DNA (ARDRA) and DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB-RFLP), 11 operational taxonomic units (OTU) were identified and clustered in known genera using InfoStat software. The 50 isolates selected were sequenced based on near full sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and gyrB sequences and identified by their nearest neighbors ranging between 96 and 99 % of identities. Phylogenetic analyses using both genes allowed relationships between members of the cultured marine bacteria belonging to the γ-Proteobacteria group (Aeromonas, Halteromonas, Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Shewanella, Serratia, Colwellia, Glacielocola, and Psychrobacter) to be evaluated. Our research reveals a high diversity of hydrolytic bacteria, and their products actuality has an industrial use in several bioprocesses at low-temperature manufacturing.

  3. A century of Gestalt psychology in visual perception: I. Perceptual grouping and figure-ground organization.

    PubMed

    Wagemans, Johan; Elder, James H; Kubovy, Michael; Palmer, Stephen E; Peterson, Mary A; Singh, Manish; von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    2012-11-01

    In 1912, Max Wertheimer published his paper on phi motion, widely recognized as the start of Gestalt psychology. Because of its continued relevance in modern psychology, this centennial anniversary is an excellent opportunity to take stock of what Gestalt psychology has offered and how it has changed since its inception. We first introduce the key findings and ideas in the Berlin school of Gestalt psychology, and then briefly sketch its development, rise, and fall. Next, we discuss its empirical and conceptual problems, and indicate how they are addressed in contemporary research on perceptual grouping and figure-ground organization. In particular, we review the principles of grouping, both classical (e.g., proximity, similarity, common fate, good continuation, closure, symmetry, parallelism) and new (e.g., synchrony, common region, element and uniform connectedness), and their role in contour integration and completion. We then review classic and new image-based principles of figure-ground organization, how it is influenced by past experience and attention, and how it relates to shape and depth perception. After an integrated review of the neural mechanisms involved in contour grouping, border ownership, and figure-ground perception, we conclude by evaluating what modern vision science has offered compared to traditional Gestalt psychology, whether we can speak of a Gestalt revival, and where the remaining limitations and challenges lie. A better integration of this research tradition with the rest of vision science requires further progress regarding the conceptual and theoretical foundations of the Gestalt approach, which is the focus of a second review article.

  4. A Century of Gestalt Psychology in Visual Perception I. Perceptual Grouping and Figure-Ground Organization

    PubMed Central

    Wagemans, Johan; Elder, James H.; Kubovy, Michael; Palmer, Stephen E.; Peterson, Mary A.; Singh, Manish; von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    2012-01-01

    In 1912, Max Wertheimer published his paper on phi motion, widely recognized as the start of Gestalt psychology. Because of its continued relevance in modern psychology, this centennial anniversary is an excellent opportunity to take stock of what Gestalt psychology has offered and how it has changed since its inception. We first introduce the key findings and ideas in the Berlin school of Gestalt psychology, and then briefly sketch its development, rise, and fall. Next, we discuss its empirical and conceptual problems, and indicate how they are addressed in contemporary research on perceptual grouping and figure-ground organization. In particular, we review the principles of grouping, both classical (e.g., proximity, similarity, common fate, good continuation, closure, symmetry, parallelism) and new (e.g., synchrony, common region, element and uniform connectedness), and their role in contour integration and completion. We then review classic and new image-based principles of figure-ground organization, how it is influenced by past experience and attention, and how it relates to shape and depth perception. After an integrated review of the neural mechanisms involved in contour grouping, border-ownership, and figure-ground perception, we conclude by evaluating what modern vision science has offered compared to traditional Gestalt psychology, whether we can speak of a Gestalt revival, and where the remaining limitations and challenges lie. A better integration of this research tradition with the rest of vision science requires further progress regarding the conceptual and theoretical foundations of the Gestalt approach, which will be the focus of a second review paper. PMID:22845751

  5. EFFECTS OF REVERSE OSMOSIS ISOLATION ON REACTIVITY OF NATURALLY OCCURRING DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROCESSES. (R828045)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field reverse osmosis system was used to isolate dissolved organic matter (DOM) from two lacustrine and two riverine surface water sources. The rejection of DOM was on the order of 99% and did not vary significantly with pressure. A simple mass balance model using a single m...

  6. How representative are dissolved organic matter (DOM) extracts? A comprehensive study of sorbent selectivity for DOM isolation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Harir, Mourad; Uhl, Jenny; Kanawati, Basem; Lucio, Marianna; Smirnov, Kirill S; Koch, Boris P; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Hertkorn, Norbert

    2017-03-19

    Solid phase extraction (SPE) has become a widespread method for isolating dissolved organic matter (DOM) of diverse origin such as fresh and marine waters. This study investigated the DOM extraction selectivity of 24 commercially available SPE sorbents under identical conditions (pH = 2, methanol elution) on the example of Suwannee River (SR) water and North Sea (NS) water by using DOC analysis and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy was employed to assess leaching behavior, and HLB sorbent was found to leach substantially, among others. Variable DOC recoveries observed for SR DOM and NS DOM were primarily caused by the respective molecular composition, with subordinated and heterogeneous contributions of relative salinity. Scatter of average H/C and O/C elemental ratios and gross alignment in mass-edited H/C ratios according to five established coarse SPE characteristics was near identical for SR DOM and NS DOM. FTMS-based principal component analysis (PCA) provided essentially analogous alignment of SR DOM and NS DOM molecular compositions according to the five established groups of SPE classification, and corroborated the sorption-mechanism-based selectivity of DOM extraction in both cases. Evaluation of structural blanks and leaching of SPE cartridges requires NMR spectroscopy because FT-ICR mass spectrometry alone will not reveal inconspicuous displacements of continual bulk signatures caused by leaching of SPE resin constituents.

  7. The central role of ketones in reversible and irreversible hydrothermal organic functional group transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ziming; Gould, Ian R.; Williams, Lynda B.; Hartnett, Hilairy E.; Shock, Everett L.

    2012-12-01

    Studies of hydrothermal reactions involving organic compounds suggest complex, possibly reversible, reaction pathways that link functional groups from reduced alkanes all the way to oxidized carboxylic acids. Ketones represent a critical functional group because they occupy a central position in the reaction pathway, at the point where Csbnd C bond cleavage is required for the formation of the more oxidized carboxylic acids. The mechanisms for the critical bond cleavage reactions in ketones, and how they compete with other reactions are the focus of this experimental study. We studied a model ketone, dibenzylketone (DBK), in H2O at 300 °C and 70 MPa for up to 528 h. Product analysis was performed as a function of time at low DBK conversions to reveal the primary reaction pathways. Reversible interconversion between ketone, alcohol, alkene and alkane functional groups is observed in addition to formation of radical coupling products derived from irreversible Csbnd C and Csbnd H homolytic bond cleavage. The product distributions are time-dependent but the bond cleavage products dominate. The major products that accumulate at longer reaction times are toluene and larger, dehydrogenated structures that are initially formed by radical coupling. The hydrogen atoms generated by dehydrogenation of the coupling products are predominantly consumed in the formation of toluene. Even though bond cleavage products dominate, no carboxylic acids were observed on the timescale of the reactions under the chosen experimental conditions.

  8. Antipoliovirus Activity of the Organic Extract of Eupatorium buniifolium: Isolation of Euparin as an Active Compound

    PubMed Central

    Visintini Jaime, María Florencia; Campos, Rodolfo H.; Martino, Virginia S.; Cavallaro, Lucía V.; Muschietti, Liliana V.

    2013-01-01

    The antiviral activity of the organic extract (OE) of Eupatorium buniifolium against poliovirus type 1 was determined by in vitro assays with an effective concentration 50 (EC50) of 23.3 ± 3.3 µg/mL. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the OE allowed the isolation of an active principle that was identified by spectroscopic methods (1H- and 13C-NMR, EI-MS, UV, and IR spectroscopy) as the benzofuran euparin. The plaque reduction assay in Vero cells was used to assess the antiviral activity of euparin against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 with EC50 values of 0.47, 0.12, and 0.15 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, this compound showed high selectivity indexes of 284.9, 1068, and 854.7, respectively. In order to identify the mechanism by which euparin exerts its antiviral activity, the virucidal effect, the pretreatment of Vero cells, and the time of action on one viral replication cycle were evaluated. Results obtained demonstrated that euparin exerts its effect during the early events of the replication cycle, from the virus adsorption to cells up to the first twenty minutes after infection. This is the first report on the presence of euparin in E. buniifolium and its antiviral activity. PMID:23956770

  9. Compositions and constituents of freshwater dissolved organic matter isolated by reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yulong; Huang, Wen; Ran, Yong; Mao, Jingdong

    2014-08-15

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) from riverine and lacustrine water was isolated using a reverse osmosis (RO) system. Solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) was used to quantitatively evaluate the compositions and constituents of DOM, which are compared with previous investigations on marine DOM. Results indicated that concentration factor (CF) was a key metric controlling yield and sorption of DOM on the RO system. The sorption was likely non-selective, based on the (13)C NMR and δ(13)C analyses. Carbohydrates and lipids accounted for 25.0-41.5% and 30.2-46.3% of the identifiable DOM, followed by proteins (18.2-19.8%) and lignin (7.17-12.8%). The freshwater DOM contained much higher alkyl and aromatic C but lower alkoxyl and carboxyl C than marine DOM. The structural difference was not completely accounted for by using structure of high molecular weight (HMW) DOM, suggesting a size change involved in transformations of DOM during the transport from rivers to oceans.

  10. Group analysis of self-organizing maps based on functional MRI using restricted Frechet means

    PubMed Central

    Fournel, Arnaud P.; Reynaud, Emanuelle; Brammer, Michael J.; Simmons, Andrew; Ginestet, Cedric E.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of functional MRI data are increasingly concerned with the estimation of differences in spatio-temporal networks across groups of subjects or experimental conditions. Unsupervised clustering and independent component analysis (ICA) have been used to identify such spatio-temporal networks. While these approaches have been useful for estimating these networks at the subject-level, comparisons over groups or experimental conditions require further methodological development. In this paper, we tackle this problem by showing how self-organizing maps (SOMs) can be compared within a Frechean inferential framework. Here, we summarize the mean SOM in each group as a Frechet mean with respect to a metric on the space of SOMs. The advantage of this approach is twofold. Firstly, it allows the visualization of the mean SOM in each experimental condition. Secondly, this Frechean approach permits one to draw inference on group differences, using permutation of the group labels. We consider the use of different distance functions, and introduce one extension of the classical sum of minimum distance (SMD) between two SOMs, which take into account the spatial pattern of the fMRI data. The validity of these methods is illustrated on synthetic data. Through these simulations, we show that the two distance functions of interest behave as expected, in the sense that the ones capturing temporal and spatial aspects of the SOMs are more likely to reach significance under simulated scenarios characterized by temporal, spatial [and spatio-temporal] differences, respectively. In addition, a re-analysis of a classical experiment on visually-triggered emotions demonstrates the usefulness of this methodology. In this study, the multivariate functional patterns typical of the subjects exposed to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli are found to be more similar than the ones of the subjects exposed to emotionally neutral stimuli. In this re-analysis, the group-level SOM output units with the

  11. Investigation of the interaction modes between nonpolar organic pollutants with ionizable functional groups and natural organic matter via AuNP-based colorimetric assays.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hongyun; Wang, Saihua; Tan, Yixin; Cai, Yaqi

    2015-12-14

    For the first time, natural organic matter (NOM) modified AuNPs have been used as sensors to "observe" the specific interactions (such as hydrogen-bonds and halogen-bonds) between functional groups of organic compounds and NOM using colorimetric assays.

  12. Thiol groups controls on arsenite binding by organic matter: new experimental and modeling evidence.

    PubMed

    Catrouillet, Charlotte; Davranche, Mélanie; Dia, Aline; Bouhnik-Le Coz, Martine; Pédrot, Mathieu; Marsac, Rémi; Gruau, Gérard

    2015-12-15

    Although it has been suggested that several mechanisms can describe the direct binding of As(III) to organic matter (OM), more recently, the thiol functional group of humic acid (HA) was shown to be an important potential binding site for As(III). Isotherm experiments on As(III) sorption to HAs, that have either been grafted with thiol or not, were thus conducted to investigate the preferential As(III) binding sites. There was a low level of binding of As(III) to HA, which was strongly dependent on the abundance of the thiols. Experimental datasets were used to develop a new model (the modified PHREEQC-Model VI), which defines HA as a group of discrete carboxylic, phenolic and thiol sites. Protonation/deprotonation constants were determined for each group of sites (pKA=4.28±0.03; ΔpKA=2.13±0.10; pKB=7.11±0.26; ΔpKB=3.52±0.49; pKS=5.82±0.052; ΔpKS=6.12±0.12 for the carboxylic, phenolic and thiols sites, respectively) from HAs that were either grafted with thiol or not. The pKS value corresponds to that of single thiol-containing organic ligands. Two binding models were tested: the Mono model, which considered that As(III) is bound to the HA thiol site as monodentate complexes, and the Tri model, which considered that As(III) is bound as tridentate complexes. A simulation of the available literature datasets was used to validate the Mono model, with logKMS=2.91±0.04, i.e. the monodentate hypothesis. This study highlighted the importance of thiol groups in OM reactivity and, notably, determined the As(III) concentration bound to OM (considering that Fe is lacking or at least negligible) and was used to develop a model that is able to determine the As(III) concentrations bound to OM.

  13. Aeromonas jandaei (formerly genospecies DNA group 9 A. sobria), a new sucrose-negative species isolated from clinical specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Carnahan, A; Fanning, G R; Joseph, S W

    1991-01-01

    . The esculin-, sucrose-, and cellobiose-negative and colistin-resistant profile distinguished A. jandaei from other Aeromonas species. These A. jandaei strains were isolated from blood (two strains), wounds (two strains), diarrheal stools (four strains), and a prawn (one strain). The blood and wound isolates, in particular, suggest that there is a possible clinical significance for this species and justify identification of and further research on this group of motile aeromonads. PMID:2037673

  14. Materials design by evolutionary optimization of functional groups in metal-organic frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Sean P.; Daff, Thomas D.; Piotrkowski, Sarah S.; Woo, Tom K.

    2016-01-01

    A genetic algorithm that efficiently optimizes a desired physical or functional property in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) by evolving the functional groups within the pores has been developed. The approach has been used to optimize the CO2 uptake capacity of 141 experimentally characterized MOFs under conditions relevant for postcombustion CO2 capture. A total search space of 1.65 trillion structures was screened, and 1035 derivatives of 23 different parent MOFs were identified as having exceptional CO2 uptakes of >3.0 mmol/g (at 0.15 atm and 298 K). Many well-known MOF platforms were optimized, with some, such as MIL-47, having their CO2 adsorption increase by more than 400%. The structures of the high-performing MOFs are provided as potential targets for synthesis. PMID:28138523

  15. Biodiversity of bacteriophages: morphological and biological properties of a large group of phages isolated from urban sewage

    PubMed Central

    Jurczak-Kurek, Agata; Gąsior, Tomasz; Nejman-Faleńczyk, Bożena; Bloch, Sylwia; Dydecka, Aleksandra; Topka, Gracja; Necel, Agnieszka; Jakubowska-Deredas, Magdalena; Narajczyk, Magdalena; Richert, Malwina; Mieszkowska, Agata; Wróbel, Borys; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Węgrzyn, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    A large scale analysis presented in this article focuses on biological and physiological variety of bacteriophages. A collection of 83 bacteriophages, isolated from urban sewage and able to propagate in cells of different bacterial hosts, has been obtained (60 infecting Escherichia coli, 10 infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 4 infecting Salmonella enterica, 3 infecting Staphylococcus sciuri, and 6 infecting Enterococcus faecalis). High biological diversity of the collection is indicated by its characteristics, both morphological (electron microscopic analyses) and biological (host range, plaque size and morphology, growth at various temperatures, thermal inactivation, sensitivity to low and high pH, sensitivity to osmotic stress, survivability upon treatment with organic solvents and detergents), and further supported by hierarchical cluster analysis. By the end of the research no larger collection of phages from a single environmental source investigated by these means had been found. The finding was confirmed by whole genome analysis of 7 selected bacteriophages. Moreover, particular bacteriophages revealed unusual biological features, like the ability to form plaques at low temperature (4 °C), resist high temperature (62 °C or 95 °C) or survive in the presence of an organic solvents (ethanol, acetone, DMSO, chloroform) or detergent (SDS, CTAB, sarkosyl) making them potentially interesting in the context of biotechnological applications. PMID:27698408

  16. Chemical history of isolated dwarf galaxies of the Local Group - I. dSphs: Cetus and Tucana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila-Vergara, N.; Carigi, L.; Hidalgo, S. L.; Durazo, R.

    2016-04-01

    For the first time, we obtain chemical evolution models (CEMs) for Tucana and Cetus, two isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group. The CEMs have been built from the star formation histories (SFHs) and the metallicity histories, both obtained independently by the Local Cosmology from Isolated Dwarfs (LCID) project from deep colour-magnitude diagrams. Based on our models, we find that the chemical histories were complex and can be divided into different epochs and scenarios. In particular, during 75 per cent of the SFH, the galaxies behaved as closed boxes and, during the remaining 25 per cent, either received a lot of primordial gas by accretion or they lost metals through metal-rich winds. In order to discriminate between these two scenarios, abundances ratios in old stars are needed. At t ˜ 4.5 Gyr, the galaxies lost most of their gas due to a short-strong, well-mixed wind. We obtain very similar CEMs for both galaxies, although Cetus is twice as massive as Tucana. We conclude that the star formation in both galaxies began with only 1.5 per cent of the baryonic mass fraction predicted by Λ cold dark matter.

  17. Niemeyer Virus: A New Mimivirus Group A Isolate Harboring a Set of Duplicated Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase Genes

    PubMed Central

    Boratto, Paulo V. M.; Arantes, Thalita S.; Silva, Lorena C. F.; Assis, Felipe L.; Kroon, Erna G.; La Scola, Bernard; Abrahão, Jônatas S.

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognized that gene duplication/acquisition is a key factor for molecular evolution, being directly related to the emergence of new genetic variants. The importance of such phenomena can also be expanded to the viral world, with impacts on viral fitness and environmental adaptations. In this work we describe the isolation and characterization of Niemeyer virus, a new mimivirus isolate obtained from water samples of an urban lake in Brazil. Genomic data showed that Niemeyer harbors duplicated copies of three of its four aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes (cysteinyl, methionyl, and tyrosyl RS). Gene expression analysis showed that such duplications allowed significantly increased expression of methionyl and tyrosyl aaRS mRNA by Niemeyer in comparison to APMV. Remarkably, phylogenetic data revealed that Niemeyer duplicated gene pairs are different, each one clustering with a different group of mimivirus strains. Taken together, our results raise new questions about the origins and selective pressures involving events of aaRS gain and loss among mimiviruses. PMID:26635738

  18. Reproductive Performance, Udder Health, and Antibiotic Resistance in Mastitis Bacteria isolated from Norwegian Red cows in Conventional and Organic Farming

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to investigate whether there were differences between Norwegian Red cows in conventional and organic farming with respect to reproductive performance, udder health, and antibiotic resistance in udder pathogens. Methods Twenty-five conventional and 24 organic herds from south-east and middle Norway participated in the study. Herds were matched such that geographical location, herd size, and barn types were similar across the cohorts. All organic herds were certified as organic between 1997 and 2003. All herds were members of the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System. The herds were visited once during the study. The relationship between the outcomes and explanatory variables were assessed using mixed linear models. Results There were less > 2nd parity cows in conventional farming. The conventional cows had higher milk yields and received more concentrates than organic cows. Although after adjustment for milk yield and parity, somatic cell count was lower in organic cows than conventional cows. There was a higher proportion of quarters that were dried off at the herd visit in organic herds. No differences in the interval to first AI, interval to last AI or calving interval was revealed between organic and conventional cows. There was no difference between conventional and organic cows in quarter samples positive for mastitis bacteria from the herd visit. Milk yield and parity were associated with the likelihood of at least one quarter positive for mastitis bacteria. There was few S. aureus isolates resistance to penicillin in both management systems. Penicillin resistance against Coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from subclinically infected quarters was 48.5% in conventional herds and 46.5% in organic herds. Conclusion There were no large differences between reproductive performance and udder health between conventional and organic farming for Norwegian Red cows. PMID:20141638

  19. Employed Family Physician Satisfaction and Commitment to Their Practice, Work Group, and Health Care Organization

    PubMed Central

    Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Beasley, John W; Brown, Roger L

    2010-01-01

    Objective Test a model of family physician job satisfaction and commitment. Data Sources/Study Setting Data were collected from 1,482 family physicians in a Midwest state during 2000–2001. The sampling frame came from the membership listing of the state's family physician association, and the analyzed dataset included family physicians employed by large multispecialty group practices. Study Design and Data Collection A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data about physician working conditions, job satisfaction, commitment, and demographic variables. Principal Findings The response rate was 47 percent. Different variables predicted the different measures of satisfaction and commitment. Satisfaction with one's health care organization (HCO) was most strongly predicted by the degree to which physicians perceived that management valued and recognized them and by the extent to which physicians perceived the organization's goals to be compatible with their own. Satisfaction with one's workgroup was most strongly predicted by the social relationship with members of the workgroup; satisfaction with one's practice was most strongly predicted by relationships with patients. Commitment to one's workgroup was predicted by relationships with one's workgroup. Commitment to one's HCO was predicted by relationships with management of the HCO. Conclusions Social relationships are stronger predictors of employed family physician satisfaction and commitment than staff support, job control, income, or time pressure. PMID:20070386

  20. Organic Crystal Growth Facility (OCGF) and Radiation Monitoring Container Device (RMCD) Groups in

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured are activities of the Organic Crystal Growth Facility (OCGF) and Radiation Monitoring Container Device (RMCD) groups in the SL POCC during the IML-1 mission.

  1. The occurrence and distribution of a group of organic micropollutants in Mexico City's water sources.

    PubMed

    Félix-Cañedo, Thania E; Durán-Álvarez, Juan C; Jiménez-Cisneros, Blanca

    2013-06-01

    The occurrence and distribution of a group of 17 organic micropollutants in surface and groundwater sources from Mexico City was determined. Water samples were taken from 7 wells, 4 dams and 15 tanks where surface and groundwater are mixed and stored before distribution. Results evidenced the occurrence of seven of the target compounds in groundwater: salicylic acid, diclofenac, di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP), butylbenzylphthalate (BBP), triclosan, bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP). In surface water, 11 target pollutants were detected: same found in groundwater as well as naproxen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and gemfibrozil. In groundwater, concentration ranges of salicylic acid, 4-NP and DEHP, the most frequently found compounds, were 1-464, 1-47 and 19-232 ng/L, respectively; while in surface water, these ranges were 29-309, 89-655 and 75-2,282 ng/L, respectively. Eleven target compounds were detected in mixed water. Concentrations in mixed water were higher than those determined in groundwater but lower than the detected in surface water. Different to that found in ground and surface water, the pesticide 2,4-D was found in mixed water, indicating that some pollutants can reach areas where they are not originally present in the local water sources. Concentration of the organic micropollutants found in this study showed similar to lower to those reported in water sources from developed countries. This study provides information that enriches the state of the art on the occurrence of organic micropollutants in water sources worldwide, notably in megacities of developing countries.

  2. Functional Group Composition of Semivolatile Compounds Present in Submicron Organic Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, G.; Modini, R. L.; Iannarelli, R.; Rossi, M. J.; Takahama, S.

    2014-12-01

    Semivolatile organic compounds can partition between gas and particle phase in atmospheric conditions and can be volatilized and lost when the aerosol sampling is performed onto PTFE filters (Eatough et al., 1993). In this work, semivolatile compounds are collected onto carbon impregnated glass fiber-cellulose filters placed in series after an activated carbon denuder and PTFE filter which collects submicron aerosol particles of low volatility (Subramanian et al., 2004). The semivolatile compounds accumulated on the cellulose-glass fiber filters are desorbed by vacuum and injected into a stainless steel chamber that enables cold-trapping. The vapors in this chamber are condensed onto a low-temperature silicon window, and the composition of deposited vapors are analysed by transmission-mode Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy (Delval and Rossi, 2004). Functional group composition of semivolatile compounds that can be desorbed from the aerosol phase and its relationship with the apparent low-volatile fraction composition will be presented. Eatough, D.J., Wadsworth, A., Eatough, D.A., Crawford, J.W., Hansen, L.D., Lewis, E.A., 1993. A multiple-system, multi-channel diffusion denuder sampler for the determination of fine-particulate organic material in the atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment. Part A. General Topics 27, 1213-1219. Subramanian, R., Khlystov, A.Y., Cabada, J.C., Robinson, A.L., 2004. Positive and negative artifacts in particulate organic carbon measurements with denuded and undenuded sampler configurations. Aerosol Science and Technology 38, 27-48. Delval, C., Rossi, M.J., 2004. The kinetics of condensation and evaporation of H2O from pure ice in the range 173-223 K: a quartz crystal microbalance study. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 6, 4665-4676.

  3. Site-specific distribution and competitive ability of indigenous bean-nodulating rhizobia isolated from organic fields in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Wongphatcharachai, Manoosak; Wang, Ping; Staley, Christopher; Chun, Chan Lan; Ferguson, John A; Moncada, Kristine M; Sheaffer, Craig C; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-11-20

    Organic dry bean production systems have received increasing interest in many regions of the US, including Minnesota. Thus, improving biological N2 fixation would be highly beneficial for organic crop production. To date, only limited work has been done to select efficient N2-fixing rhizobia for organic dry bean production. In this study, soil samples from 25 organic fields in Minnesota, with a previous cropping history of dry beans, soybeans or both, were collected during May to July 2012. Genetic diversity of indigenous dry bean-rhizobia (511 isolates) was determined by using horizontal, fluorophore-enhanced, repetitive, extragenic, and palindromic-PCR (HFERP) DNA fingerprinting and isolates were classified as belonging to 58 different genotypes. The more abundant rhizobia isolated from bean nodules comprised 35.6% of the population. None of the isolates were identical to commonly-used commercial strains used in the U.S., including Rhizobium tropici CIAT899. Seventeen predominant genotypes were shown to represent two main species, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli (67.1%) and Rhizobium etli (30.2%). One of the indigenous strains, orgK9, displayed efficient N2-fixation and competitive ability relative to the commercial strains tested. The lack of large numbers of indigenous dry bean-rhizobia at most study sites will be useful to avoid competition problems between inoculant strains and indigenous rhizobia. This will allow inoculation with highly effective N2-fixing rhizobia, thus resulting in improved crop productivity. Our results highlight the existence of site-specific rhizobial genotypes in different organic fields and identify strains that may prove useful as novel inoculants for organic dry bean production systems.

  4. Organization of the human LU gene and molecular basis of the Lu(a)/Lu(b) blood group polymorphism.

    PubMed

    El Nemer, W; Rahuel, C; Colin, Y; Gane, P; Cartron, J P; Le Van Kim, C

    1997-06-15

    The Lutheran (Lu) blood group antigens and the B-cell adhesion molecule (B-CAM) epithelial cancer antigen are carried by recently cloned integral glycoproteins that belong to the Ig superfamily. We have previously shown that the Lu and B-CAM antigens are encoded by the same gene, LU, and that alternative splicing of the primary transcript most likely accounts for the presence of both antigens on two isoforms that differ by the length of their cytoplasmic tails. In the present report, we isolated the human LU gene by cloning a 20-kb HindIII fragment from Lu(a - b+) genomic DNA. The LU gene is organized into 15 exons distributed over 12.5 kb. Alternative splicing of intron 13 generates the 2.5- and 4.0-kb transcript spliceoforms encoding the long tail and the short tail Lu polypeptides, respectively. Sequencing of the major mRNA species (2.5 kb) amplified from human bone marrow, kidney, placenta, and skeletal muscle did not suggest the presence of tissue-specific Lu glycoprotein isoforms. The same transcription initiation point, located 22 bp upstream from the initiation codon, was characterized in several tissues. In agreement with the wide tissue distribution of the Lu messengers, the GC-rich proximal 5' flanking region of the LU gene does not contain TATA or CAAT boxes, but includes several potential binding sites for the ubiquitous Sp1 transcription factor. In addition, the distal 5' region, encompassing nucleotides -673 to -764, contains clustered binding sequences for the GATA, CACCC, and Ets transcription factors. Analysis of the coding sequences amplified from genomic DNA of Lu(a + b-) or Lu(a - b+) donors showed a single nucleotide change in exon 3 (A229G) that correlates with an Aci I restriction site polymorphism and results in a His77Arg amino-acid substitution. Polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis indicated that the A229G mutation is associated with the Lu(a)/Lu(b) blood group polymorphism. When expressed in Chinese

  5. Trace elements in organisms of different trophic groups in the White Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budko, D. F.; Demina, L. L.; Martynova, D. M.; Gorshkova, O. M.

    2015-09-01

    Concentrations of trace elements (Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd, As, Co, and Se) have been studied in different trophic groups of organisms: primary producers (seston, presented mostly by phytoplankton), primary consumers (mesozooplankton, macrozooplankton, and bivalves), secondary consumers (predatory macrozooplankton and starfish), and consumers of higher trophic levels (fish species), inhabiting the coastal zone of Kandalaksha Bay and the White Sea (Cape Kartesh). The concentrations of elements differ significantly for the size groups of Sagitta elegans (zooplankton) and blue mussel Mytilus edulis, as well as for the bone and muscle tissues of studied fish species, Atlantic cod Gadus morhua marisalbi and Atlantic wolffish Anarhichas lupus. The concentrations of all the studied elements were lower among the primary consumers and producers, but increased again at higher trophic levels, from secondary consumers to tertiary consumers ("mesozooplankton → macrozooplankton Sagitta elegans" and "mussels → starfish"). Ni and Pb tended to decline through the food chains seston→…→cod and mesozooplankton→…→stickleback. Only the concentrations of Fe increased in all the trophic chains along with the increase of the trophic level.

  6. Thermal stability and molecular ordering of organic semiconductor monolayers: effect of an anchor group.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew O F; Knauer, Philipp; Resel, Roland; Ringk, Andreas; Strohriegl, Peter; Werzer, Oliver; Sferrazza, Michele

    2015-06-08

    The thermal stability and molecular order in monolayers of two organic semiconductors, PBI-PA and PBI-alkyl, based on perylene derivatives with an identical molecular structure except for an anchor group for attachment to the substrate in PBI-PA, are reported. In situ X-ray reflectivity measurements are used to follow the stability of these monolayers in terms of order and thickness as temperature is increased. Films have thicknesses corresponding approximately to the length of one molecule; molecules stand upright on the substrate with a defined structure. PBI-PA monolayers have a high degree of order at room temperature and a stable film exists up to 250 °C, but decomposes rapidly above 300 °C. In contrast, stable physisorbed PBI-alkyl monolayers only exist up to 100 °C. Above the bulk melting point at 200 °C no more order exists. The results encourage using anchor groups in monolayers for various applications as it allows enhanced stability at the interface with the substrate.

  7. The abundance and organization of polypeptides associated with antigens of the Rh blood group system.

    PubMed

    Gardner, B; Anstee, D J; Mawby, W J; Tanner, M J; von dem Borne, A E

    1991-06-01

    Twelve murine monoclonal antibodies, which react with human red cells of common Rh phenotype but give weak or negative reactions with Rh null erythrocytes, were used in quantitative binding assays and competitive binding assays to investigate the abundance and organization of polypeptides involved in the expression of antigens of the Rh blood group system. Antibodies of the R6A-type (R6A, BRIC-69, BRIC-207) and the 2D10-type (MB-2D10, LA18.18, LA23.40) recognize related structures and 100,000-200,000 molecules of each antibody bind maximally to erythrocytes of common Rh phenotype. Antibodies of the BRIC-125 type (BRICs 32, 122, 125, 126, 168, 211) recognize structures that are unrelated to those recognized by R6A-type and 2D10-type antibodies and between 10,000 and 50,000 antibody molecules bind maximally to erythrocytes of the common Rh phenotype. The binding of antibodies of the R6A-type and the 2D10-type, but not of antibodies of the BRIC-125-type could be partially inhibited by human anti-D antibodies (polyclonal and monoclonal) and a murine anti-e-like antibody. These results are consistent with evidence (Moore & Green 1987; Avent et al., 1988b) that the Rh blood group antigens are associated with a complex that comprises two groups of related polypeptides of M(r) 30,000 and M(r) 35,000-100,000, respectively, and suggest that there are 1-2 x 10(5) copies of this complex per erythrocyte. The polypeptide recognized by antibodies of the BRIC-125 type is likely to be associated with this complex.

  8. Fluid Forces Enhance the Performance of an Aspirant Leader in Self-Organized Living Groups

    PubMed Central

    De Rosis, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of an individual aiming at guiding a self-organized group is numerically investigated. A collective behavioural model is adopted, accounting for the mutual repulsion, attraction and orientation experienced by the individuals. Moreover, these represent a set of solid particles which are supposed to be immersed in a fictitious viscous fluid. In particular, the lattice Boltzmann and Immersed boundary methods are used to predict the fluid dynamics, whereas the effect of the hydrodynamic forces on particles is accounted for by solving the equation of the solid motion through the time discontinuous Galerkin scheme. Numerical simulations are carried out by involving the individuals in a dichotomous process. On the one hand, an aspirant leader (AL) additional individual is added to the system. AL is forced to move along a prescribed direction which intersects the group. On the other hand, these tend to depart from an obstacle represented by a rotating lamina which is placed in the fluid domain. A numerical campaign is carried out by varying the fluid viscosity and, as a consequence, the hydrodynamic field. Moreover, scenarios characterized by different values of the size of the group are investigated. In order to estimate the AL's performance, a proper parameter is introduced, depending on the number of individuals following AL. Present findings show that the sole collective behavioural equations are insufficient to predict the AL's performance, since the motion is drastically affected by the presence of the surrounding fluid. With respect to the existing literature, the proposed numerical model is enriched by accounting for the presence of the encompassing fluid, thus computing the hydrodynamic forces arising when the individuals move. PMID:25501965

  9. Fluid forces enhance the performance of an aspirant leader in self-organized living groups.

    PubMed

    De Rosis, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of an individual aiming at guiding a self-organized group is numerically investigated. A collective behavioural model is adopted, accounting for the mutual repulsion, attraction and orientation experienced by the individuals. Moreover, these represent a set of solid particles which are supposed to be immersed in a fictitious viscous fluid. In particular, the lattice Boltzmann and Immersed boundary methods are used to predict the fluid dynamics, whereas the effect of the hydrodynamic forces on particles is accounted for by solving the equation of the solid motion through the time discontinuous Galerkin scheme. Numerical simulations are carried out by involving the individuals in a dichotomous process. On the one hand, an aspirant leader (AL) additional individual is added to the system. AL is forced to move along a prescribed direction which intersects the group. On the other hand, these tend to depart from an obstacle represented by a rotating lamina which is placed in the fluid domain. A numerical campaign is carried out by varying the fluid viscosity and, as a consequence, the hydrodynamic field. Moreover, scenarios characterized by different values of the size of the group are investigated. In order to estimate the AL's performance, a proper parameter is introduced, depending on the number of individuals following AL. Present findings show that the sole collective behavioural equations are insufficient to predict the AL's performance, since the motion is drastically affected by the presence of the surrounding fluid. With respect to the existing literature, the proposed numerical model is enriched by accounting for the presence of the encompassing fluid, thus computing the hydrodynamic forces arising when the individuals move.

  10. Genome sequence of the Roseovarius mucosus type strain (DSM 17069T), a bacteriochlorophyll a-containing representative of the marine Roseobacter group isolated from the dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Roseovarius mucosus Biebl et al. 2005 is a bacteriochlorophyll a-producing representative of the marine Roseobacter group within the alphaproteobacterial family Rhodobacteraceae, which was isolated from the dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The marine Roseobacter group was found to be abundant in the ocean and plays an important role for global and biogeochemical processes. Here we describe the features of the R. mucosus strain DFL-24T together with its genome sequence and annotation generated from a culture of DSM 17069T. The 4,247,724 bp containing genome sequence encodes 4,194 protein-coding genes and 57 RNA genes. In addition to the presence of four plasmids, genome analysis revealed the presence of genes associated with host colonization, DMSP utilization, cytotoxins, and quorum sensing that could play a role in the interrelationship of R. mucosus with the dinoflagellate A. ostenfeldii and other marine organisms. Furthermore, the genome encodes genes associated with mixotrophic growth, where both reduced inorganic compounds for lithotrophic growth and a photoheterotrophic lifestyle using light as additional energy source could be used. PMID:26203330

  11. Determination of staphylococcal exotoxins, SCCmec types, and genetic relatedness of Staphylococcus intermedius group isolates from veterinary staff, companion animals, and hospital environments in Korea.

    PubMed

    Youn, Jung-Ho; Koo, Hye Cheong; Ahn, Kuk Ju; Lim, Suk-Kyung; Park, Yong Ho

    2011-09-01

    The Staphylococcus (S.) intermedius group (SIG) has been a main research subject in recent years. S. pseudintermedius causes pyoderma and otitis in companion animals as well as foodborne diseases. To prevent SIG-associated infection and disease outbreaks, identification of both staphylococcal exotoxins and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types among SIG isolates may be helpful. In this study, it was found that a single isolate (one out of 178 SIG isolates examined) harbored the canine enterotoxin SEC gene. However, the S. intermedius exfoliative toxin gene was found in 166 SIG isolates although the S. aureus-derived exfoliative toxin genes, such as eta, etb and etd, were not detected. SCCmec typing resulted in classifying one isolate as SCCmec type IV, 41 isolates as type V (including three S. intermedius isolates), and 10 isolates as non-classifiable. Genetic relatedness of all S. pseudintermedius isolates recovered from veterinary staff, companion animals, and hospital environments was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Strains having the same band patterns were detected in S. pseudintermedius isolates collected at 13 and 18 months, suggesting possible colonization and/or expansion of a specific S. pseudintermedius strain in a veterinary hospital.

  12. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a 7 Table 7 to Subpart KKKK of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Metal Cans Pt. 63, Subpt. KKKK, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart KKKK of Part 63—Default Organic HAP...

  13. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups a 7 Table 7 to Subpart KKKK of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Metal Cans Pt. 63, Subpt. KKKK, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart KKKK of Part 63—Default Organic HAP...

  14. The Organization of Collective Group Movements in Wild Barbary Macaques (Macaca sylvanus): Social Structure Drives Processes of Group Coordination in Macaques.

    PubMed

    Seltmann, Anne; Majolo, Bonaventura; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Social animals have to coordinate activities and collective movements to benefit from the advantages of group living. Animals in large groups maintain cohesion by self-organization processes whereas in smaller groups consensus decisions can be reached. Where consensus decisions are relevant leadership may emerge. Variation in the organization of collective movements has been linked to variation in female social tolerance among macaque species ranging from despotic to egalitarian. Here we investigated the processes underlying group movements in a wild macaque species characterized by a degree of social tolerance intermediate to previously studied congeneric species. We focused on processes before, during and after the departure of the first individual. To this end, we observed one group of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in the Middle Atlas, Morocco using all-occurrence behaviour sampling of 199 collective movements. We found that initiators of a collective movement usually chose the direction in which more individuals displayed pre-departure behavior. Dominant individuals contributed to group movements more than subordinates, especially juveniles, measured as frequencies of successful initiations and pre-departure behaviour. Joining was determined by affiliative relationships and the number of individuals that already joined the movement (mimetism). Thus, in our study group partially shared consensus decisions mediated by selective mimetism seemed to be prevalent, overall supporting the suggestion that a species' social style affects the organization of group movements. As only the most tolerant species show equally shared consensus decisions whereas in others the decision is partially shared with a bias to dominant individuals the type of consensus decisions seems to follow a stepwise relation. Joining order may also follow a stepwise, however opposite, relationship, because dominance only determined joining in highly despotic, but not in intermediate and

  15. The Organization of Collective Group Movements in Wild Barbary Macaques (Macaca sylvanus): Social Structure Drives Processes of Group Coordination in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Seltmann, Anne; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2013-01-01

    Social animals have to coordinate activities and collective movements to benefit from the advantages of group living. Animals in large groups maintain cohesion by self-organization processes whereas in smaller groups consensus decisions can be reached. Where consensus decisions are relevant leadership may emerge. Variation in the organization of collective movements has been linked to variation in female social tolerance among macaque species ranging from despotic to egalitarian. Here we investigated the processes underlying group movements in a wild macaque species characterized by a degree of social tolerance intermediate to previously studied congeneric species. We focused on processes before, during and after the departure of the first individual. To this end, we observed one group of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in the Middle Atlas, Morocco using all-occurrence behaviour sampling of 199 collective movements. We found that initiators of a collective movement usually chose the direction in which more individuals displayed pre-departure behavior. Dominant individuals contributed to group movements more than subordinates, especially juveniles, measured as frequencies of successful initiations and pre-departure behaviour. Joining was determined by affiliative relationships and the number of individuals that already joined the movement (mimetism). Thus, in our study group partially shared consensus decisions mediated by selective mimetism seemed to be prevalent, overall supporting the suggestion that a species’ social style affects the organization of group movements. As only the most tolerant species show equally shared consensus decisions whereas in others the decision is partially shared with a bias to dominant individuals the type of consensus decisions seems to follow a stepwise relation. Joining order may also follow a stepwise, however opposite, relationship, because dominance only determined joining in highly despotic, but not in intermediate

  16. First Report of Group CTX-M-9 Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases in Escherichia coli Isolates from Pediatric Patients in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Merida-Vieyra, Jocelin; De Colsa, Agustin; Calderon Castañeda, Yair; Arzate Barbosa, Patricia; Aquino Andrade, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the presence of group CTX-M-9 extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in clinical Escherichia coli isolates from pediatric patients. A total of 404 non-repeated positive ESBL E. coli isolates were collected from documented clinical infections in pediatric patients over a 2-year period. The identification and susceptibility profiles were determined using an automated system. Isolates that suggested ESBL production based on their resistance profiles to third and fourth generation cephalosporin and monobactam were selected. ESBL production was phenotypically confirmed using a diffusion method with cefotaxime and ceftazidime discs alone and in combination with clavulanic acid. blaESBL gene identification was performed through PCR amplification and sequencing. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) were performed to establish the clonal relationships of the E. coli isolates. CTX-M-9-type ESBLs were detected in 2.5% of the isolates. The subtypes corresponded to blaCTX-M-14 (n = 4) and blaCTX-M-27 (n = 6). Additionally, coexistence with other beta-lactamases was observed. A clonal relationship was established in three isolates; the rest were classified as non-related. We found seven different sequence type (ST) in CTX-M-9- producing E. coli isolates. ST38 was the most frequent. This study is the first report in Mexico to document the presence of group CTX-M-9 ESBLs in E. coli isolates from pediatric patients. PMID:27992527

  17. Spread of the blaOXA–23-Containing Tn2008 in Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates Grouped in CC92 from China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yisheng; Gao, Jing; Zhang, Haomin; Ying, Chunmei

    2017-01-01

    The rapid expansion of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) clinical isolates is a big issue. We investigated the antibiotic susceptibility, molecular epidemiology and resistance gene of A. baumannii collected at two hospitals in Shanghai, China. Besides, the A. baumannii PCR-based replicon typing method (AB-PBRT) was conducted to categorize the plasmids into homogeneous groups on the basis of replicase genes. Most CRAB isolates showed high-level resistance to almost all antibiotics but retain susceptibility to colistin and tigecycline. A total of 101 isolates carried blaOXA-51-like gene. Sequencing identified the presence of blaOXA-66 for CRAB isolates. blaOXA–23 gene were discovered in all CRAB isolates. Each CRAB isolate contained 1–3 of 19 different plasmid replicase (rep) gene homology groups (GRs) and the GR6 (repAci6) was ubiquitous. Genotyping by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) showed seven defined MLST patterns and three novel STs were found. eBURST analysis indicated they were all grouped in CC92 (GCII) with the most frequent ST208 (50%). Two blaOXA–23-bearing transposons were found: Tn2006 and Tn2008. Tn2008 were detected in 54 (96.4%) isolates and Tn2006 in two remaining isolates. The blaOXA–23 carbapenem gene was vitally associated with repAci6 plasmid belong to CC92 clonal group. Our survey revealed severe drug resistance in A. baumannii isolates. Tn2008-containing CC92 A. baumannii were endemic, which may facilitate the blaoxa23 dissemination. PMID:28220115

  18. Synthesis of Nine-atom Deltahedral Zintl Ions of Germanium and their Functionalization with Organic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Gillett-Kunnath, Miriam M.; Sevov, Slavi C.

    2012-01-01

    Although the first studies of Zintl ions date between the late 1890's and early 1930's they were not structurally characterized until many years later.1,2 Their redox chemistry is even younger, just about ten years old, but despite this short history these deltahedral clusters ions E9n- (E = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; n = 2, 3, 4) have already shown interesting and diverse reactivity and have been at the forefront of rapidly developing and exciting new chemistry.3-6 Notable milestones are the oxidative coupling of Ge94- clusters to oligomers and infinite chains,7-19 their metallation,14-16,20-25 capping by transition-metal organometallic fragments,26-34 insertion of a transition-metal atom at the center of the cluster which is sometimes combined with capping and oligomerization,35-47 addition of main-group organometallic fragments as exo-bonded substituents,48-50 and functionalization with various organic residues by reactions with organic halides and alkynes.51-58 This latter development of attaching organic fragments directly to the clusters has opened up a new field, namely organo-Zintl chemistry, that is potentially fertile for further synthetic explorations, and it is the step-by-step procedure for the synthesis of germanium-divinyl clusters described herein. The initial steps outline the synthesis of an intermetallic precursor of K4Ge9 from which the Ge94- clusters are extracted later in solution. This involves fused-silica glass blowing, arc-welding of niobium containers, and handling of highly air-sensitive materials in a glove box. The air-sensitive K4Ge9 is then dissolved in ethylenediamine in the box and then alkenylated by a reaction with Me3SiC≡CSiMe3. The reaction is followed by electrospray mass spectrometry while the resulting solution is used for obtaining single crystals containing the functionalized clusters [H2C=CH-Ge9-CH=CH2]2-. For this purpose the solution is centrifuged, filtered, and carefully layered with a toluene solution of 18-crown-6. Left

  19. Synthesis of nine-atom deltahedral Zintl ions of germanium and their functionalization with organic groups.

    PubMed

    Gillett-Kunnath, Miriam M; Sevov, Slavi C

    2012-02-11

    Although the first studies of Zintl ions date between the late 1890's and early 1930's they were not structurally characterized until many years later. Their redox chemistry is even younger, just about ten years old, but despite this short history these deltahedral clusters ions E9(n-) (E = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; n = 2, 3, 4) have already shown interesting and diverse reactivity and have been at the forefront of rapidly developing and exciting new chemistry. Notable milestones are the oxidative coupling of Ge9(4-) clusters to oligomers and infinite chains, their metallation, capping by transition-metal organometallic fragments, insertion of a transition-metal atom at the center of the cluster which is sometimes combined with capping and oligomerization, addition of main-group organometallic fragments as exo-bonded substituents, and functionalization with various organic residues by reactions with organic halides and alkynes. This latter development of attaching organic fragments directly to the clusters has opened up a new field, namely organo-Zintl chemistry, that is potentially fertile for further synthetic explorations, and it is the step-by-step procedure for the synthesis of germanium-divinyl clusters described herein. The initial steps outline the synthesis of an intermetallic precursor of K4Ge9 from which the Ge9(4-) clusters are extracted later in solution. This involves fused-silica glass blowing, arc-welding of niobium containers, and handling of highly air-sensitive materials in a glove box. The air-sensitive K4Ge9 is then dissolved in ethylenediamine in the box and then alkenylated by a reaction with Me3SiC≡CSiMe3. The reaction is followed by electrospray mass spectrometry while the resulting solution is used for obtaining single crystals containing the functionalized clusters [H2C=CH-Ge9-CH=CH2](2-). For this purpose the solution is centrifuged, filtered, and carefully layered with a toluene solution of 18-crown-6. Left undisturbed for a few days, the so

  20. Complete sequence of three plasmids from Bacillus thuringiensis INTA-FR7-4 environmental isolate and comparison with related plasmids from the Bacillus cereus group.

    PubMed

    Amadio, Ariel F; Benintende, Graciela B; Zandomeni, Rubén O

    2009-11-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an insect pathogen used worldwide as a bioinsecticide. It belongs to the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group as well as Bacillus anthracis and B. cereus. Plasmids from this group of organisms have been implicated in pathogenicity as they carry the genes responsible for different types of diseases that affect mammals and insects. Some plasmids, like pAW63 and pBT9727, encode a functional conjugation machinery allowing them to be transferred to a recipient cell. They also share extensive homology with the non-functional conjugation apparatus of pXO2 from B. anthracis. In this study we report the complete sequence of three plasmids from an environmental B. thuringiensis isolate from Argentina, obtained by a shotgun sequencing method. We obtained the complete nucleotide sequence of plasmids pFR12 (12,095bp), pFR12.5 (12,459bp) and pFR55 (55,712bp) from B. thuringiensis INTA-FR7-4. pFR12 and pFR12.5 were classified as cryptic as they do not code for any obvious functions besides replication and mobilization. Both small plasmids were classified as RCR plasmids due to similarities with the replicases they encode. Plasmid pFR55 showed a structural organization similar to that observed for plasmids pAW63, pBT9727 and pXO2. pFR55 also shares a tra region with these plasmids, containing genes related to T4SS and conjugation. A comparison between pFR55 and conjugative plasmids led to the postulation that pFR55 is a conjugative plasmid. Genes related to replication functions in pFR55 are different to those described for plasmids with known complete sequences. pFR55 is the first completely sequenced plasmid with a replication machinery related to that of ori44. The analysis of the complete sequence of plasmids from an environmental isolate of B. thuringiensis permitted the identification of a near complete conjugation apparatus in pFR55, resembling those of plasmids pAW63, pBT9727 and pXO2. The availability of this sequence is a step forward in the study

  1. Use of single-strand conformation polymorphism of amplified 16S rDNA for grouping of bacteria isolated from foods.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hajime; Kimura, Bon; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Mori, Mayumi; Yokoi, Asami; Fujii, Tateo

    2008-04-01

    The grouping method for isolated strains from foods using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) after PCR amplification of a portion of 16S rDNA was developed. This method was able to group the strains from various food samples based on 16S rDNA sequence. As 97.8% of the isolated strains from various foods were grouped correctly, use of the PCR-SSCP method enables the prompt and labor-saving analysis of microbial population of food-derived bacterial strains. Advantages in speed and accuracy of bacterial population identification by the PCR-SSCP method have practical application for food suppliers and testing laboratories.

  2. Observing Engineering Student Teams from the Organization Behavior Perspective Using Linguistic Analysis of Student Reflections and Focus Group Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Kerri S.; Damron, Rebecca; Sohoni, Sohum

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates group/team development in computer engineering courses at a University in the Central USA from the perspective of organization behavior theory, specifically Tuckman's model of the stages of group development. The investigation, conducted through linguistic analysis of student reflection essays, and through focus group…

  3. Seeking Shared Practice: A Juxtaposition of the Attributes and Activities of Organized Fossil Groups with Those of Professional Paleontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent J.; Ellis, Shari; Dunckel, Betty A.; Hendy, Austin J. W.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to define the attributes and practices of organized fossil groups (e.g., clubs, paleontological societies) as amateur paleontologists, as well as those of professional paleontologists, and explore the potential for these two groups to work collaboratively as a formalized community. Such an investigation is necessary to develop…

  4. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Rrrr of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Petroleum Solvent Groups 1 4 Table 4 to Subpart RRRR of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Petroleum Solvent Groups 1 You May Use the Mass Fraction Values in the..., Petroleum Spirits, Petroleum Oil, Petroleum Naphtha, Solvent Naphtha, Solvent Blend. 3 E.g.,...

  5. Survey of the bp/tee genes from clinical group A streptococcus isolates in New Zealand - implications for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Steemson, John D; Moreland, Nicole J; Williamson, Deborah; Morgan, Julie; Carter, Philip E; Proft, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is responsible for a wide range of diseases ranging from superficial infections, such as pharyngitis and impetigo, to life-threatening diseases, such as toxic shock syndrome and acute rheumatic fever (ARF). GAS pili are hair-like extensions protruding from the cell surface and consist of highly immunogenic structural proteins: the backbone pilin (BP) and one or two accessory pilins (AP1 and AP2). The protease-resistant BP builds the pilus shaft and has been recognized as the T-antigen, which forms the basis of a major serological typing scheme that is often used as a supplement to M typing. A previous sequence analysis of the bp gene (tee gene) in 39 GAS isolates revealed 15 different bp/tee types. In this study, we sequenced the bp/tee gene from 100 GAS isolates obtained from patients with pharyngitis, ARF or invasive disease in New Zealand. We found 20 new bp/tee alleles and four new bp/tee types/subtypes. No association between bp/tee type and clinical outcome was observed. We confirmed earlier reports that the emm type and tee type are associated strongly, but we also found exceptions, where multiple tee types could be found in certain M/emm type strains, such as M/emm89. We also reported, for the first time, the existence of a chimeric bp/tee allele, which was assigned into a new subclade (bp/tee3.1). A strong sequence conservation of the bp/tee gene was observed within the individual bp/tee types/subtypes (>97 % sequence identity), as well as between historical and contemporary New Zealand and international GAS strains. This temporal and geographical sequence stability provided further evidence for the potential use of the BP/T-antigen as a vaccine target.

  6. Distribution of G (VP7) and P (VP4) genotypes in buffalo group A rotaviruses isolated in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pisanelli, Giuseppe; Martella, Vito; Pagnini, Ugo; De Martino, Luisa; Lorusso, Eleonora; Iovane, Giuseppe; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2005-09-30

    Group A rotaviruses are established agents of disease in buffalo calves. Early epidemiological studies in Italian buffalo herds revealed the predominance of strains with G8 specificity and detected strains with the rare, RRV-like, VP4 P[3] genotype. To acquire additional information on the VP4 and VP7 specificities of buffalo rotaviruses, a total of 125 fecal samples were collected from buffalo calves affected with diarrhoea, in seven dairy farms in Southern Italy. Rotaviruses were detected in 21 samples (16.8%) by an immunochromatographic assay and by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Analysis of the VP7 gene revealed that 57% (12 of 21) of the isolates were G6, 23.8% were G8 (5 of 21) and 19% (4 of 21) were G10. Analysis of the VP4 revealed that 71.4% (15 of 21) of the isolates were P[5] and that 28.6% (6 of 21) were P[1]. The most common combination of G and P types was P[5],G6 (57%), followed by P[1],G10 (19%), P[5],G8 (14%) and P[1],G8 (9.5%). While P[5],G6 rotaviruses are very common in Italian bovine herds, the antigenic combination P[1],G10 is unusual and presumably derives from reassortment between P[1] and G10 strains, that appear to be more frequent in buffaloes and bovines, respectively. The presence of bovine-like G and P serotypes suggests that in Italy the epidemiology of buffalo rotaviruses overlaps the epidemiology of bovine rotaviruses, presumably because of the strict species affinity and/or of the intermingled distribution over the same geographical areas of the buffalo and bovine herds.

  7. Characterization and comparison of hydrophobic neutral and hydrophobic acid dissolved organic carbon isolated from three municipal landfill leachates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nanny, Mark A.; Ratasuk, Nopawan

    2002-01-01

    The acid-precipitated (AP) and acid-soluble (AS) fractions of the combined hydrophobic neutral and hydrophobic acid dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were isolated from leachate collected from three municipal landfills of different age and redox conditions. The AP and the AS combined hydrophobic neutral and hydrophobic acid DOC comprised 6–15% and 51–66%, respectively, of the leachate nonpurgable organic carbon. Elemental analysis, infra-red spectroscopy, 13C CP-MAS nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and dipolar dephasing experiments, and thermochemolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry results showed that the AP and AS fractions of hydrophobic neutral and hydrophobic acid DOC are highly aliphatic, with linear and branching moieties, and less oxidized than most terrestrial and aquatic humic substances. Very little, if any, polysaccharide or cellulose, lignin, or cutin components comprise these fractions. It is hypothesized that a majority of the organic carbon in these fractions originates highly branched, cyclic aliphatic organic compounds.

  8. MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Since 1994, Brucella strains have been isolated from a wide range of marine mammals. They are currently recognized as two new Brucella species, B. pinnipedialis for the pinniped isolates and B. ceti for the cetacean isolates in agreement with host preference and specific phenotypic and molecular markers. In order to investigate the genetic relationships within the marine mammal Brucella isolates and with reference to terrestrial mammal Brucella isolates, we applied in this study the Multiple Loci VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats) Analysis (MLVA) approach. A previously published assay comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16) that has been shown to be highly relevant and efficient for typing and clustering Brucella strains from animal and human origin was used. Results 294 marine mammal Brucella strains collected in European waters from 173 animals and a human isolate from New Zealand presumably from marine origin were investigated by MLVA-16. Marine mammal Brucella isolates were shown to be different from the recognized terrestrial mammal Brucella species and biovars and corresponded to 3 major related groups, one specific of the B. ceti strains, one of the B. pinnipedialis strains and the last composed of the human isolate. In the B. ceti group, 3 subclusters were identified, distinguishing a cluster of dolphin, minke whale and porpoise isolates and two clusters mostly composed of dolphin isolates. These results were in accordance with published analyses using other phenotypic or molecular approaches, or different panels of VNTR loci. The B. pinnipedialis group could be similarly subdivided in 3 subclusters, one composed exclusively of isolates from hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) and the two others comprising other seal species isolates. Conclusion The clustering analysis of a large collection of marine mammal Brucella isolates from European waters significantly strengthens the current view of the population structure of these two species, and their

  9. Firing range soils yield a diverse array of fungal isolates capable of organic acid production and Pb mineral solubilization.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Tarah S; Gottel, Neil R; Basta, Nicholas; Jardine, Philip M; Schadt, Christopher W

    2012-09-01

    Anthropogenic sources of lead contamination in soils include mining and smelting activities, effluents and wastes, agricultural pesticides, domestic garbage dumps, and shooting ranges. While Pb is typically considered relatively insoluble in the soil environment, some fungi may potentially contribute to mobilization of heavy metal cations by means of secretion of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs). We sought to better understand the potential for metal mobilization within an indigenous fungal community at an abandoned shooting range in Oak Ridge, TN, where soil Pb contamination levels ranged from 24 to >2,700 mg Pb kg dry soil(-1). We utilized culture-based assays to determine organic acid secretion and Pb-carbonate dissolution of a diverse collection of soil fungal isolates derived from the site and verified isolate distribution patterns within the community by 28S rRNA gene analysis of whole soils. The fungal isolates examined included both ascomycetes and basidiomycetes that excreted high levels (up to 27 mM) of a mixture of LMWOAs, including oxalic and citric acids, and several isolates demonstrated a marked ability to dissolve Pb-carbonate at high concentrations up to 10.5 g liter(-1) (18.5 mM) in laboratory assays. Fungi within the indigenous community of these highly Pb-contaminated soils are capable of LMWOA secretion at levels greater than those of well-studied model organisms, such as Aspergillus niger. Additionally, these organisms were found in high relative abundance (>1%) in some of the most heavily contaminated soils. Our data highlight the need to understand more about autochthonous fungal communities at Pb-contaminated sites and how they may impact Pb biogeochemistry, solubility, and bioavailability, thus consequently potentially impacting human and ecosystem health.

  10. Firing Range Soils Yield a Diverse Array of Fungal Isolates Capable of Organic Acid Production and Pb Mineral Solubilization

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Tarah S.; Gottel, Neil R.; Basta, Nicholas; Jardine, Philip M.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic sources of lead contamination in soils include mining and smelting activities, effluents and wastes, agricultural pesticides, domestic garbage dumps, and shooting ranges. While Pb is typically considered relatively insoluble in the soil environment, some fungi may potentially contribute to mobilization of heavy metal cations by means of secretion of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs). We sought to better understand the potential for metal mobilization within an indigenous fungal community at an abandoned shooting range in Oak Ridge, TN, where soil Pb contamination levels ranged from 24 to >2,700 mg Pb kg dry soil−1. We utilized culture-based assays to determine organic acid secretion and Pb-carbonate dissolution of a diverse collection of soil fungal isolates derived from the site and verified isolate distribution patterns within the community by 28S rRNA gene analysis of whole soils. The fungal isolates examined included both ascomycetes and basidiomycetes that excreted high levels (up to 27 mM) of a mixture of LMWOAs, including oxalic and citric acids, and several isolates demonstrated a marked ability to dissolve Pb-carbonate at high concentrations up to 10.5 g liter−1 (18.5 mM) in laboratory assays. Fungi within the indigenous community of these highly Pb-contaminated soils are capable of LMWOA secretion at levels greater than those of well-studied model organisms, such as Aspergillus niger. Additionally, these organisms were found in high relative abundance (>1%) in some of the most heavily contaminated soils. Our data highlight the need to understand more about autochthonous fungal communities at Pb-contaminated sites and how they may impact Pb biogeochemistry, solubility, and bioavailability, thus consequently potentially impacting human and ecosystem health. PMID:22729539

  11. Mutagenic Organized Recombination Process by Homologous IN vivo Grouping (MORPHING) for directed enzyme evolution.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Perez, David; Molina-Espeja, Patricia; Garcia-Ruiz, Eva; Alcalde, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Approaches that depend on directed evolution require reliable methods to generate DNA diversity so that mutant libraries can focus on specific target regions. We took advantage of the high frequency of homologous DNA recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to develop a strategy for domain mutagenesis aimed at introducing and in vivo recombining random mutations in defined segments of DNA. Mutagenic Organized Recombination Process by Homologous IN vivo Grouping (MORPHING) is a one-pot random mutagenic method for short protein regions that harnesses the in vivo recombination apparatus of yeast. Using this approach, libraries can be prepared with different mutational loads in DNA segments of less than 30 amino acids so that they can be assembled into the remaining unaltered DNA regions in vivo with high fidelity. As a proof of concept, we present two eukaryotic-ligninolytic enzyme case studies: i) the enhancement of the oxidative stability of a H2O2-sensitive versatile peroxidase by independent evolution of three distinct protein segments (Leu28-Gly57, Leu149-Ala174 and Ile199-Leu268); and ii) the heterologous functional expression of an unspecific peroxygenase by exclusive evolution of its native 43-residue signal sequence.

  12. Mutagenic Organized Recombination Process by Homologous In Vivo Grouping (MORPHING) for Directed Enzyme Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Perez, David; Molina-Espeja, Patricia; Garcia-Ruiz, Eva; Alcalde, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Approaches that depend on directed evolution require reliable methods to generate DNA diversity so that mutant libraries can focus on specific target regions. We took advantage of the high frequency of homologous DNA recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to develop a strategy for domain mutagenesis aimed at introducing and in vivo recombining random mutations in defined segments of DNA. Mutagenic Organized Recombination Process by Homologous IN vivo Grouping (MORPHING) is a one-pot random mutagenic method for short protein regions that harnesses the in vivo recombination apparatus of yeast. Using this approach, libraries can be prepared with different mutational loads in DNA segments of less than 30 amino acids so that they can be assembled into the remaining unaltered DNA regions in vivo with high fidelity. As a proof of concept, we present two eukaryotic-ligninolytic enzyme case studies: i) the enhancement of the oxidative stability of a H2O2-sensitive versatile peroxidase by independent evolution of three distinct protein segments (Leu28-Gly57, Leu149-Ala174 and Ile199-Leu268); and ii) the heterologous functional expression of an unspecific peroxygenase by exclusive evolution of its native 43-residue signal sequence. PMID:24614282

  13. Organic petrology and coalbed gas content, Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene), northern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, P.C.; Warwick, P.D.; Breland, F.C.

    2007-01-01

    Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene) coal and carbonaceous shale samples collected from four coalbed methane test wells in northern Louisiana were characterized through an integrated analytical program. Organic petrographic analyses, gas desorption and adsorption isotherm measurements, and proximate-ultimate analyses were conducted to provide insight into conditions of peat deposition and the relationships between coal composition, rank, and coalbed gas storage characteristics. The results of petrographic analyses indicate that woody precursor materials were more abundant in stratigraphically higher coal zones in one of the CBM wells, consistent with progradation of a deltaic depositional system (Holly Springs delta complex) into the Gulf of Mexico during the Paleocene-Eocene. Comparison of petrographic analyses with gas desorption measurements suggests that there is not a direct relationship between coal type (sensu maceral composition) and coalbed gas storage. Moisture, as a function of coal rank (lignite-subbituminous A), exhibits an inverse relationship with measured gas content. This result may be due to higher moisture content competing for adsorption space with coalbed gas in shallower, lower rank samples. Shallower ( 600??m) coal samples containing less moisture range from under- to oversaturated with respect to their CH4 adsorption capacity.

  14. Third European Influenza Summit: organized by the European Scientific Working group on Influenza (ESWI).

    PubMed

    McElhaney, Janet; Osterhaus, Ab

    2013-12-16

    On 2 May 2013, the European Scientific Working group on Influenza (ESWI) held its third influenza summit at the Institute of European Studies at the Free University of Brussels. ESWI brought together more than 90 representatives of organizations of healthcare providers, senior citizens, at-risk patients and public health authorities for a day of tailored lectures, Q&A sessions and networking. Since recent studies, surveys and reviews have shed new light on some of the most intriguing influenza issues, the Summit faculty translated the newest scientific data into practice. The first part of the Summit programme focused on the current flu status in Europe, paying special attention to the protection of pregnant women and the elderly as well as to the issues of vaccine safety and effectiveness. The programme continued to highlight future challenges and evolutions like novel antiviral drugs against influenza, improved flu vaccines and the prospect of a universal flu vaccine. The annual ESWI flu summits are the pinnacles of ESWI's efforts to bridge the gap between science and society. ESWI's members are convinced that the fight against influenza can only be won when all parties are well informed and ready to work together.

  15. Conformation study of helical main-group polymers: Organic and inorganic, trans and gauche

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, C.X.; Kertesz, M. )

    1989-06-07

    In this paper electronic structures of some helical polymers, which range from typical organic polymers such as polyethylene and poly(oxymethylene) to standard inorganic polymers such as polymeric sulfur to main-group (P, B, etc.) atomic chains in crystals (such as NaP, CrB, etc.), have been investigated by means of our helical modifications of solid-state band theory programs based on modified neglect of diatomic overlap (MNDO) and extended Hueckel theory (EHT). The analysis of orbital interactions shows that the all-trans conformation for the polymer with either less or more than six valence electrons in the repeat unit is energetically favorable as compared with the gauche conformation while the polymers having valence electrons close to six in the repeat unit are more likely to be found in a gauche conformation, except for polyethylene and polysilane, for which both conformations are stable. The stability of all-trans-polyethylene and -polysilane is attributed to the weak repulsions between C-H and Si-H bonding electron pairs. A quadratic relationship between band width and the corresponding closed-shell repulsion for an energy band is established.

  16. The organization of primary afferent depolarization in the isolated spinal cord of the frog

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, D. O.; Rudomin, P.

    1973-01-01

    1. The organization of primary afferent depolarization (PAD) produced by excitation of peripheral sensory and motor nerves was studied in the frog cord isolated with hind limb nerves. 2. Dorsal root potentials from sensory fibres (DR-DRPs) were evoked on stimulation of most sensory nerves, but were largest from cutaneous, joint and flexor muscle afferents. With single shock stimulation the largest cutaneous and joint afferent fibres gave DR-DRPs, but potentials from muscle nerves resulted from activation of sensory fibres with thresholds to electrical stimulation higher than 1·2-1·5 times the threshold of the most excitable fibres in the nerve. This suggests that PAD from muscle afferents is probably due to excitation of extrafusal receptors. 3. Dorsal root potentials produced by antidromic activation of motor fibres (VR-DRPs) were larger from extensor muscles and smaller or absent from flexor muscles. The VR-DRPs were produced by activation of the lowest threshold motor fibres. 4. Three types of interactions were found between test and conditioning DRPs from the same or different nerves. With maximal responses occlusion was usually pronounced. At submaximal levels linear summation occurred. Near threshold the conditioning stimulus frequently resulted in a large facilitation of the test DRP. All three types of interactions were found with two DR-DRPs, two VR-DRPs or one DR-DRP and one VR-DRP. 5. The excitability of sensory nerve terminals from most peripheral nerves was increased during the DR-DRP. The magnitude of the excitability increase varied roughly with the magnitude of the DR-DRP evoked by the conditioning stimulus. 6. There was a marked excitability increase of cutaneous and extensor muscle afferent terminals during the VR-DRP. Flexor muscle afferent terminals often showed no excitability changes to ventral root stimulation. In those experiments where afferent terminals from flexor muscles did show an excitability increase, the effects were smaller than

  17. Serum Jo-1 Autoantibody and Isolated Arthritis in the Antisynthetase Syndrome: Review of the Literature and Report of the Experience of AENEAS Collaborative Group.

    PubMed

    Cavagna, Lorenzo; Nuño, Laura; Scirè, Carlo Alberto; Govoni, Marcello; Longo, Francisco Javier Lopez; Franceschini, Franco; Neri, Rossella; Castañeda, Santos; Sifuentes Giraldo, Walter Alberto; Caporali, Roberto; Iannone, Florenzo; Fusaro, Enrico; Paolazzi, Giuseppe; Pellerito, Raffaele; Schwarting, Andreas; Saketkoo, Lesley Ann; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Quartuccio, Luca; Bartoloni, Elena; Specker, Christof; Pina Murcia, Trinitario; La Corte, Renato; Furini, Federica; Foschi, Valentina; Bachiller Corral, Javier; Airò, Paolo; Cavazzana, Ilaria; Martínez-Barrio, Julia; Hinojosa, Michelle; Giannini, Margherita; Barsotti, Simone; Menke, Julia; Triantafyllias, Kostantinos; Vitetta, Rosetta; Russo, Alessandra; Bogliolo, Laura; Bajocchi, Gianluigi; Bravi, Elena; Barausse, Giovanni; Bortolotti, Roberto; Selmi, Carlo; Parisi, Simone; Salaffi, Fausto; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; González-Gay, Miguel Angel

    2017-02-01

    Anti-Jo-1 is the most frequently detectable antibody in the antisynthetase syndrome (ASSD), an autoimmune disease characterized by the occurrence of arthritis, myositis, and interstitial lung disease (ILD). Recently, we organized an international collaborative group called American and European NEtwork of Antisynthetase Syndrome (AENEAS) for the study of this rare and fascinating disease. The group collected and published one of the largest series of ASSD patients ever described and with one of the longer follow-up ever reported. The number of participating centers is steadily increasing, as well as the available cohort. In the first paper, we showed that arthritis, myositis, and ILD may be frequently the only feature at disease onset, raising problems to reach a correct diagnosis of this syndrome. Nevertheless, we first observed that the ex novo appearance of further manifestations is common during the follow-up, strengthening the importance of a correct diagnosis. In our cohort, the 24 % of the 243 patients up to now collected had isolated arthritis as a presenting feature. These patients represent the most intriguing group in terms of differential diagnosis and clinical time course. Furthermore, data on this aspect are scanty, the reason that lead us to evaluate these aspects in our cohort of patients, reviewing also available literature. In fact, the most relevant aspect is that ASSD is rarely suspected in this setting of patients, in particular in case of poliarticular involvement, positive rheumatoid factor (RF), or anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA) or evidence of joint erosions at plain radiographs. These findings were not rare in our cohort, and they have been also described in other series. Furthermore, manifestations such as Raynaud's phenomenon, mechanic's hands, and fever that may lead to the suspect of ASSD are observed only in a third of cases. If we consider the high rate of clinical picture progression in these patients, we feel

  18. ISOLATING AND FRACTIONATING ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN SEDIMENTS: EVALUATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most solid-phase sediment TIE techniques for organic chemicals have been focused on solid phase sorptive techniques, such as amending contaminated sediments with the carbonaceousresin, Ambersorb coconut charcoal, or XAD resin to reduce toxicity caused by organic contaminants. Cha...

  19. Fluoroquinolone Resistance Mutations in the parC, parE, and gyrA Genes of Clinical Isolates of Viridans Group Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    González, Irene; Georgiou, Marios; Alcaide, Fernando; Balas, Delia; Liñares, Josefina; de la Campa, Adela G.

    1998-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the parC and gyrA genes from seven ciprofloxacin-resistant (Cpr) isolates of viridans group streptococci (two high-level Cpr Streptococcus oralis and five low-level Cpr Streptococcus mitis isolates) were determined and compared with those obtained from susceptible isolates. The nucleotide sequences of the QRDRs of the parE and gyrB genes from the five low-level Cpr S. mitis isolates and from the NCTC 12261 type strain were also analyzed. Four of these low-level Cpr isolates had changes affecting the subunits of DNA topoisomerase IV: three in Ser-79 (to Phe or Ile) of ParC and one in ParE at a position not previously described to be involved in quinolone resistance (Pro-424). One isolate did not show any mutation. The two high-level Cpr S. oralis isolates showed mutations affecting equivalent residue positions of ParC and GyrA, namely, Ser-79 to Phe and Ser-81 to Phe or Tyr, respectively. The parC mutations were able to transform Streptococcus pneumoniae to ciprofloxacin resistance, while the gyrA mutations transformed S. pneumoniae only when mutations in parC were present. These results suggest that DNA topoisomerase IV is a primary target of ciprofloxacin in viridans group streptococci, DNA gyrase being a secondary target. PMID:9797205

  20. Genetic analysis and antigenic characterization of human respiratory syncytial virus group A viruses isolated in Germany 1996-2008.

    PubMed

    Adams, Ortwin; Werzmirzowsky, Judith; Hengel, Hartmut

    2013-10-01

    The genetic and antigenic variability of 18 human respiratory syncytial virus group A viruses isolated in Germany from 1996 to 2008 was evaluated by nucleotide sequencing of the complete G and F genes and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis with anti-G and anti-F monoclonal antibodies. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the G-proteins clustered into the two genotypes GA2 and GA5. The antigenic analysis of G-gene was carried out with a panel of anti-G and anti-F monoclonal antibodies that recognized strain-specific or variable epitopes which were originally derived against long strain (subtype GA1) and MON-3-88 strain (GA2). An amino acid substitution was found in a potential O-glycosylation site leading to a loss of reactivity with a strain-specific MAb. A score was calculated for quantifying the overall reactivity of the antibodies. If reactivity of all MAbs was totalized, a net sum loss of reactivity was seen over the time suggesting that antigenic drift due to immune selection may be occurring.

  1. Tofla virus: A newly identified Nairovirus of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever group isolated from ticks in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Satoshi; Aoki, Kotaro; Nabeshima, Takeshi; Fuxun, Yu; Kurosaki, Yohei; Shiogama, Kazuya; Onouchi, Takanori; Sakaguchi, Miako; Fuchigami, Takeshi; Ono, Hokuto; Nishi, Kodai; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Uchida, Leo; Takamatsu, Yuki; Yasuda, Jiro; Tsutsumi, Yutaka; Fujita, Hiromi; Morita, Kouichi; Hayasaka, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Ixodid ticks transmit several important viral pathogens. We isolated a new virus (Tofla virus: TFLV) from Heamaphysalis flava and Heamaphysalis formsensis in Japan. The full-genome sequences revealed that TFLV belonged to the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae. Phylogenetic analyses and neutralization tests suggested that TFLV is closely related to the Hazara virus and that it is classified into the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever group. TFLV caused lethal infection in IFNAR KO mice. The TFLV-infected mice exhibited a gastrointestinal disorder, and positron emission tomography-computed tomography images showed a significant uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in the intestinal tract. TFLV was able to infect and propagate in cultured cells of African green monkey-derived Vero E6 cells and human-derived SK-N-SH, T98-G and HEK-293 cells. Although TFLV infections in humans and animals are currently unknown, our findings may provide clues to understand the potential infectivity and to develop of pre-emptive countermeasures against this new tick-borne Nairovirus. PMID:26863911

  2. ATR-FTIR characterization of organic functional groups and inorganic ions in ambient aerosols at a rural site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coury, Charity; Dillner, Ann M.

    An Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic method was used to measure organic functional groups and inorganic ions at Tonto National Monument (TNM), an Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) sampling site in a rural area near Phoenix, Arizona. Functional groups and ions from common aerosol compound classes such as aliphatic and aromatic CH, methylene, methyl, aldehydes/ketones, carboxylic acids, ammonium sulfate and nitrate as well as functional groups from difficult to measure compound classes such as esters/lactones, acid anhydrides, carbohydrate hydroxyl and ethers, amino acids, and amines were quantified. On average, ˜33% of the PM 1.0 mass was composed of organic aerosol. The average (standard deviation) composition of the organic aerosol at TNM was 34% (6%) biogenic functional groups, 21% (5%) oxygenated functional groups, 28% (7%) aliphatic hydrocarbon functional groups (aliphatic CH, methylene and methyl) and 17% (1%) aromatic hydrocarbon functional groups. Compositional analysis, functional group correlations, and back trajectories were used to identify three types of events with source signatures: primary biogenic-influenced, urban-influenced, and regional background. The biogenic-influenced event had high concentrations of amino acids and carbohydrate hydroxyl and ether, as well as aliphatic CH and aromatic CH functional groups and qualitatively high levels of silicate. The urban-influenced events had back trajectories traveling directly from the Phoenix area and high concentrations of hydrocarbons, oxygenated functional groups, and inorganic ions. This aerosol characterization suggests that both primary emissions in Phoenix and secondary formation of aerosols from Phoenix emissions had a major impact on the aerosol composition and concentration at TNM. The regional background source had low concentrations of all functional groups, but had higher concentrations of biogenic functional

  3. Prevotella falsenii sp. nov., a Prevotella intermedia-like organism isolated from monkey dental plaque.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Kumada, Hidefumi; Hamada, Nobushiro; Takahashi, Yusuke; Okamoto, Masaaki; Bakir, Mohammad Abdul; Benno, Yoshimi

    2009-02-01

    Eight anaerobic, pigmented, non-spore-forming, Gram-negative, rod-shaped strains isolated from monkey oral cavities were characterized phenotypically and chemotaxonomically and their phylogenetic positions were determined using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that these isolates represent a single species of the genus Prevotella. These strains were most closely related to Prevotella intermedia ATCC 25611(T), with 95.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The next most closely related species were Prevotella pallens and Prevotella nigrescens (92.7 and 92.1 % similarity to the respective type strains). The phenotypic and biochemical characteristics of the isolates were the same as those of P. intermedia JCM 12248(T) and P. nigrescens JCM 12250(T). The isolates could be differentiated from P. pallens JCM 11140(T) on the basis of mannose fermentation and alpha-fucosidase activity. The isolates could not be distinguished from P. intermedia or P. nigrescens using conventional biochemical tests. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed the genomic distinctiveness of these eight strains with respect to P. pallens JCM 11140(T), P. intermedia JCM 12248(T) and P. nigrescens JCM 12250(T). On the basis of these data, strains 04013, 04021, 04043, 04052(T), 0406, 04113, 04111 and 04161 represent a novel Prevotella species, for which the name Prevotella falsenii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 04052(T) (=JCM 15124(T) =CCUG 56137(T)).

  4. 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Electron Paramagnetic Spectroscopic Comparison of Hydrophobic Acid, Transphilic Acid, and Reverse Osmosis May 2012 Isolates of Organic Matter from the Suwannee River

    PubMed Central

    Nwosu, Ugwumsinachi G.; Cook, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is found in most natural waters at concentrations low enough to make DOM isolation methodologies critical to full analytical characterization and preservation. During the last few decades, two major protocols have been developed for the extraction of DOM isolates from natural waters. These methods utilize XAD resins and reverse osmosis (RO). In this work, the hydrophobic acid (May 2012 HPOA) and transphilic acid (May 2012 TPIA) isolates from XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins, respectively, were compared with the RO (May 2012 RO) natural organic matter isolate of the Suwannee River water using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. 13C NMR analysis showed that the May 2012 RO isolate could be viewed as a hybrid of the more hydrophobic May 2012 HPOA isolate and more hydrophilic May 2012 TPIA isolate. The May 2012 HPOA isolate is shown to be higher in alkyl and aromatic moieties, while the May 2012 TPIA isolate is higher in O-alkyl moieties. EPR analysis revealed that the May 2012 TPIA and, in particular, May 2012 HPOA isolates had higher radical concentrations than the May 2012 RO isolate. It is postulated that some of the radical concentrations came from the use of base during the isolation procedures, especially in the XAD method. PMID:25565761

  5. Group vector space method for estimating enthalpy of vaporization of organic compounds at the normal boiling point.

    PubMed

    Wenying, Wei; Jinyu, Han; Wen, Xu

    2004-01-01

    The specific position of a group in the molecule has been considered, and a group vector space method for estimating enthalpy of vaporization at the normal boiling point of organic compounds has been developed. Expression for enthalpy of vaporization Delta(vap)H(T(b)) has been established and numerical values of relative group parameters obtained. The average percent deviation of estimation of Delta(vap)H(T(b)) is 1.16, which show that the present method demonstrates significant improvement in applicability to predict the enthalpy of vaporization at the normal boiling point, compared the conventional group methods.

  6. Characterization of clay minerals and organic matter in shales: Application to high-level nuclear waste isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Gueven, N.; Landis, C.R.; Jacobs, G.K.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of the Sedimentary Rock Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is to conduct investigations to assess the potential for shale to serve as a host medium for the isolation of high-level nuclear wastes. The emphasis on shale is a result of screening major sedimentary rock types (shale, sandstone, carbonate , anhydrite, and chalk) for a variety of attributes that affect the performance of repositories. The retardation of radionuclides was recognized as one of the potentially favorable features of shale. Because shale contains both clay minerals and organic matter, phases that may provide significant sorption of radioelement, the characterization of these phases is essential. In addition, the organic matter in shale has been identified as a critical area for study because of its potential to play either a favorable (reductant) or deleterious (organic ligands) role in the performance of a repository sited in shale. 36 refs., 36 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Biomarker distributions in different types of sedimentary organic matter isolated from the same sample: Implications for biomarker correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.B.

    1994-06-01

    The observation of qualitatively and quantitatively distinct biomarker distributions in the pyrolysates of Type II and Type III organic matter isolated from the same sample is reported. This demonstrates the clear need for a greater understanding of the relationship between biomarker distributions present in the different components of sedimentary organic matter, and those observed in liquid products generated by maturation. The data imply that it is possible that the biomarker distributions observed in petroleums derived from inhomogeneous source rocks may be disproportionately derived from the various organic components of the sediment. This may result in spurious conclusions concerning oil/source relationships and other geochemical parameters, which suggests that further investigations of these phenomena is well merited.

  8. Enhanced Butanol Production Through Adding Organic Acids and Neutral Red by Newly Isolated Butanol-Tolerant Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cheng; Cao, Guangli; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Ying; Song, Jinzhu; Cong, Hua; Zhang, Junzheng; Yang, Qian

    2016-12-01

    As alternative microorganisms for butanol production with high butanol tolerant and productivity are in high demand, one excellent butanol-tolerant bacterium, S10, was isolated and identified as Clostridium acetobutylicum S10. In order to enhance the performance of butanol production, organic acids and neutral red were added during butanol fermentation. Synergistic effects were exhibited in the combinations of organic acids and neutral red to promote butanol production. Consequently, the optimal concentrations of combined acetate, butyrate, and neutral red were determined at sodium acetate 1.61 g/L, sodium butyrate 1.88 g/L, and neutral red 0.79 g/L, respectively, with the butanol yield of 6.09 g/L which was 20.89 % higher than that in control. These results indicated that combination of adding organic acid and neutral red is a potential effective measure to improve butanol production.

  9. Selective extraction of isolated mitotic apparatus. Evidence that typical microtubule protein is extracted by organic mercurial.

    PubMed

    Bibring, T; Baxandall, J

    1971-02-01

    Mitotic apparatus isolated from sea urchin eggs has been treated with meralluride sodium under conditions otherwise resembling those of its isolation. The treatment causes a selective morphological disappearance of microtubules while extracting a major protein fraction, probably consisting of two closely related proteins, which constitutes about 10% of mitotic apparatus protein. Extraction of other cell particulates under similar conditions yields much less of this protein. The extracted protein closely resembles outer doublet microtubule protein from sea urchin sperm tail in properties considered typical of microtubule proteins: precipitation by calcium ion and vinblastine, electrophoretic mobility in both acid and basic polyacrylamide gels, sedimentation coefficient, molecular weight, and, according to a preliminary determination, amino acid composition. An antiserum against a preparation of sperm tail outer doublet microtubules cross-reacts with the extract from mitotic apparatus. On the basis of these findings it appears that microtubule protein is selectively extracted from isolated mitotic apparatus by treatment with meralluride, and is a typical microtubule protein.

  10. Characterisation of geographically and temporally diverse Yersinia ruckeri isolates: evidence that UK and mainland European biotype 2 isolates represent different clonal groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There have been increased reports of outbreaks of Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM) caused by Yersinia ruckeri in previously-vaccinated salmonids in Europe, with some of these outbreaks attributed to emergent non-motile, Tween 80 negative, biotype 2 isolates. To gain information about their likely orig...

  11. Variations of SSU rDNA group I introns in different isolates of Cordyceps militaris and the loss of an intron during cross-mating.

    PubMed

    Lian, Tiantian; Yang, Tao; Sun, Junde; Guo, Suping; Yang, Huaijun; Dong, Caihong

    2014-08-01

    Cordyceps militaris, the type species of genus Cordyceps, is one of the most popular mushrooms and a nutraceutical in eastern Asia. It is considered a model organism for the study of Cordyceps species because it can complete its life cycle when cultured in vitro. In the present study, the occurrence and sequence variation of SSU rDNA group I introns, Cmi.S943 and Cmi.S1199, among different isolates of C. militaris were analyzed. Based on the secondary structure predictions, the Cmi.S943 intron has been placed in subgroup IC1, and the Cmi.S1199 intron has been placed in subgroup IE. No significant similarity between Cmi.S943 and Cmi.S1199 suggested different origins. Three genotypes, based on the frequency and distribution of introns, were described to discriminate the 57 surveyed C. militaris strains. It was found that the genotype was related to the stroma characteristics. The stromata of all of the genotype II strains, which possessed only Cmi.S943, could produce perithecium. In contrast, the stromata of all genotype III strains, which had both Cmi.S943 and Cmi.S1199, could not produce perithecium. Cmi.S1199 showed the lowest level of intra-specific variation among the tested strains. Group I introns can be lost during strain cross-mating. Therefore, we presumed that during cross-mating and recombination, intron loss could be driven by positive Darwinian selection due to the energetic cost of transcribing long introns.

  12. End-group-directed self-assembly of organic compounds useful for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Beaujuge, Pierre M.; Lee, Olivia P.; Yiu, Alan T.; Frechet, Jean M.J.

    2016-05-31

    The present invention provides for an organic compound comprising electron deficient unit covalently linked to two or more electron rich units. The present invention also provides for a device comprising the organic compound, such as a light-emitting diode, thin-film transistor, chemical biosensor, non-emissive electrochromic, memory device, photovoltaic cells, or the like.

  13. Elemental composition and functional groups in soil labile organic matter fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Labile organic matter fractions are major components involved in nutrient cycle in soil. In this chapter, we examine three labile organic matter fraction: light fraction (LF), humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (HA) in Alabama cotton soils (ultisol) amended with chemical fertilizer (NH4NO3) and poult...

  14. Influences on Member Assimilation in Work Groups in High-Reliability Organizations: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Karen Kroman; McPhee, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    This multilevel investigation examined the effect of group interaction and its influence on individual-level membership variables and group assimilation. The study is based on a model of group socialization developed by Moreland and Levine (1982) and was modified in this study to investigate the development and maintenance of highly interdependent…

  15. Langerhans cell tropism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype A through F isolates derived from different transmission groups.

    PubMed Central

    Dittmar, M T; Simmons, G; Hibbitts, S; O'Hare, M; Louisirirotchanakul, S; Beddows, S; Weber, J; Clapham, P R; Weiss, R A

    1997-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that some subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), especially subtype E, are more likely to infect mature Langerhans cells (mLC), we titrated a panel of 26 primary HIV-1 isolates of subtypes A through F on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and mLC. The majority of HIV-1 isolates from heterosexually infected patients did not show a preferred tropism for mLC compared to homosexually transmitted HIV-1 isolates. Only 6 of 26 isolates, 2 from patients infected by homosexual contact and 4 from patients infected by heterosexual contact, showed a higher infectivity for mLC than for PBMC. Both syncytium-inducing and non-syncytium-inducing isolates were able to infect mLC which express mRNA for the chemokine receptors CCR3, CCR5, and CXCR4. PMID:9311896

  16. Attitudes and beliefs about deceased organ donation in the Arabic-speaking community in Australia: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Ralph, Angelique F; Alyami, Ali; Allen, Richard D M; Howard, Kirsten; Craig, Jonathan C; Chadban, Steve J; Irving, Michelle; Tong, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the beliefs and attitudes to organ donation in the Arabic-speaking community. Design Arabic-speaking participants were purposively recruited to participate in 6 focus groups. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Participants 53 participants, aged 19–77 years, and originating from 8 countries, participated in 1 of 6 focus groups. Participants identified as Christian (73%), Islam (26%), Buddhist (2%) or did not identify with any religion (2%). Results 6 themes (with subthemes) were identified; religious conviction; invisibility of organ donation; medical suspicion; owning the decision; and reciprocal benefit. Conclusions Although organ donation is considered a generous life-saving ‘gift’, representative members of the Arabic-speaking community in Australia were unfamiliar with, unnerved by and sceptical about the donation process. Making positive decisions about organ donation would likely require resolving tensions between respecting family, community and religious values versus their individual autonomy. Providing targeted education about the process and benefits of organ donation within the Arabic community may clarify ambiguities surrounding cultural and religious-based views on organ donation, reduce taboos and suspicion towards donation, and in turn, lead to increased organ donation rates. PMID:26787253

  17. Advancing allele group-specific amplification of the complete HLA-C gene--isolation of novel alleles from three allele groups (C*04, C*07 and C*08).

    PubMed

    Cisneros, E; Martínez-Pomar, N; Vilches, M; Martín, P; de Pablo, R; Nuñez Del Prado, N; Nieto, A; Matamoros, N; Moraru, M; Vilches, C

    2013-10-01

    A variety of strategies have been designed for sequence-based HLA typing (SBT) and for the isolation of new human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, but unambiguous characterization of complete genomic sequences remains a challenge. We recently reported a simple method for the group-specific amplification (GSA) and sequencing of a full-length C*04 genomic sequence in isolation from the accompanying allele. Here we build on this strategy and present homologous methods that enable the isolation of HLA-C alleles belonging to another two allele groups. Using this approach, which can be applied to sequence-based typing in some clinical settings, we have successfully characterized three novel HLA-C alleles (C*04:128, C*07:01:01:02, and C*08:62).

  18. Genetic and antigenic analysis of betanodaviruses isolated from aquatic organisms in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chi, S C; Shieh, J R; Lin, S J

    2003-08-04

    Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) is a worldwide disease among marine fishes. In Taiwan, NNN disease was first identified in 2 species of hatchery-reared grouper, Epinephelus fuscogutatus and E. akaaya in 1994. Since then, increasing mortalities have occurred among groupers Epinephelus spp., and also among European eels Anguilla anguilla L., yellow-wax pompano Trachinotus falcatus, firespot snapper Lutaanus erythropterus B., barramundi Lates calcarifer, cobias Rachycentron canadum, humpback groupers Cromileptes altivelis and Chinese catfish Parasilurus asotus. In the present study, samples were collected from affected fishes and processed for reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR amplification and virus isolation in cell culture. Infected cells (GF-1 cell line) exhibited cytopathic-effect characteristics of grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV). A RT-PCR product of approximately 830 bp was amplified from the brain homogenate of tested samples and sequenced. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the amplified RT-PCR products from all isolates were strongly homologous (> 97 %) with the corresponding region of the published sequence of red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNVV). Therefore, all Taiwan NNV (nervous necrosis virus) isolates studied in this report belong to the RGNNV genotype. We used 5 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against GNNV to analyze the antigenic relationship of Taiwan NNV isolates and striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV). The results of neutralization tests revealed that all Taiwan NNV isolates were closely related, but antigenically different from SJNNV in 3 neutralizing epitopes. To our knowledge, this is the first description of NNV infection in European eels, yellow-wax pompano, firespot snapper, cobia and Chinese catfish, and the first reported instance of natural NNV infection in freshwater fishes causing high mortality.

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of the epidemic multiresistant Escherichia coli ST131 clonal group among extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli isolates in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Bente; Hansen, Dennis S; Nilsson, Frida; Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Leihof, Rikke Fleron; Struve, Carsten; Scheutz, Flemming; Johnston, Brian; Krogfelt, Karen A; Johnson, James R

    2013-06-01

    We report the characteristics of 115 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli clinical isolates, from 115 unique Danish patients, over a 1-year study interval (1 October 2008 to 30 September 2009). Forty-four (38%) of the ESBL isolates represented sequence type 131 (ST13)1, from phylogenetic group B2. The remaining 71 isolates were from phylogenetic groups D (27%), A (22%), B1 (10%), and B2 (3%). Serogroup O25 ST131 isolates (n = 42; 95% of ST131) comprised 7 different K antigens, whereas two ST131 isolates were O16:K100:H5. Compared to non-ST131 isolates, ST131 isolates were associated positively with CTX-M-15 and negatively with CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-14. They also were associated positively with 11 virulence genes, including afa and dra (Dr family adhesins), the F10 papA allele (P fimbria variant), fimH (type 1 fimbriae), fyuA (yersiniabactin receptor), iha (adhesin siderophore), iutA (aerobactin receptor), kpsM II (group 2 capsules), malX (pathogenicity island marker), ompT (outer membrane protease), sat (secreted autotransporter toxin), and usp (uropathogenicity-specific protein) and negatively with hra (heat-resistant agglutinin) and iroN (salmochelin receptor). The consensus virulence gene profile (>90% prevalence) of the ST131 isolates included fimH, fyuA, malX, and usp (100% each), ompT and the F10 papA allele (95% each), and kpsM II and iutA (93% each). ST131 isolates were also positively associated with community acquisition, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) status, and the O25, K100, and H4 antigens. Thus, among ESBL E. coli isolates in Copenhagen, ST131 was the most prevalent clonal group, was community associated, and exhibited distinctive and comparatively extensive virulence profiles, plus a greater variety of capsular antigens than reported previously.

  20. Isolation of Vibrio vulnificus from Internal Organs of a Suddenly Expired Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    were recovered from internal organs of another bottlenose dolphin which had expired under similar conditions from blastomycosis . Based on these results...recovered - - from internal organs of another bottlenose dolphin which F: V1/.)I. had expired under similar conditions from blastomycosis . ’t .4/ Based

  1. THE ACS LCID PROJECT. IV. DETECTION OF THE RED GIANT BRANCH BUMP IN ISOLATED GALAXIES OF THE LOCAL GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Monelli, M.; Hidalgo, S. L; Aparicio, A.; Gallart, C.; Cassisi, S.; Bernard, E. J.; Skillman, E. D. E-mail: carme@iac.e E-mail: shidalgo@iac.e E-mail: ejb@roe.ac.u

    2010-08-01

    We report the detection and analysis of the red giant branch (RGB) luminosity function bump in a sample of isolated dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. We have designed a new analysis approach comparing the observed color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with theoretical best-fit CMDs derived from precise estimates of the star formation histories of each galaxy. This analysis is based on studying the difference between the V magnitude of the RGB bump and the horizontal branch at the level of the RR Lyrae instability strip ({Delta}V {sup bump}{sub HB}) and we discuss here a technique for reliably measuring this quantity in complex stellar systems. By using this approach, we find that the difference between the observed and predicted values of {Delta}V {sup bump}{sub HB} is +0.13 {+-} 0.14 mag. This is smaller, by about a factor of 2, than the well-known discrepancy between theory and observation at low metallicity commonly derived for Galactic globular clusters (GCs). This result is confirmed by a comparison between the adopted theoretical framework and empirical estimates of the {Delta}V {sup bump}{sub HB} parameter for both a large database of Galactic GCs and for four other dwarf spheroidal galaxies for which this estimate is available in the literature. We also investigate the strength of the RGB bump feature (R{sub bump}), and find very good agreement between the observed and theoretically predicted R{sub bump} values. This agreement supports the reliability of the evolutionary lifetimes predicted by theoretical models of the evolution of low-mass stars.

  2. Genome sequence of Shimia str. SK013, a representative of the Roseobacter group isolated from marine sediment

    DOE PAGES

    Kanukollu, Saranya; Voget, Sonja; Pohlner, Marion; ...

    2016-03-12

    Shimia strain SK013 is an aerobic, Gram-negative, rod shaped alphaproteobacterium affiliated with the Roseobacter group within the family Rhodobacteraceae. The strain was isolated from surface sediment (0-1 cm) of the Skagerrak at 114 m below sea level. The 4,049,808 bp genome of Shimia str. SK013 comprises 3,981 protein-coding genes and 47 RNA genes. It contains one chromosome and no extrachromosomal elements. The genome analysis revealed the presence of genes for a dimethylsulfoniopropionate lyase, demethylase and the trimethylamine methyltransferase (mttB) as well as genes for nitrate, nitrite and dimethyl sulfoxide reduction. This indicates that Shimia str. SK013 is able to switchmore » from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism and thus is capable of aerobic and anaerobic sulfur cycling at the seafloor. Among the ability to convert other sulfur compounds it has the genetic capacity to produce climatically active dimethyl sulfide. Growth on glutamate as a sole carbon source results in formation of cell-connecting filaments, a putative phenotypic adaptation of the surface-associated strain to the environmental conditions at the seafloor. Genome analysis revealed the presence of a flagellum (fla1) and a type IV pilus biogenesis, which is speculated to be a prerequisite for biofilm formation. This is also related to genes responsible for signalling such as N-acyl homoserine lactones, as well as quip-genes responsible for quorum quenching and antibiotic biosynthesis. Pairwise similarities of 16S rRNA genes (98.56 % sequence similarity to the next relative S. haliotis) and the in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (21.20 % sequence similarity to S. haliotis) indicated Shimia str. SK013 to be considered as a new species. In conclusion, the genome analysis of Shimia str. SK013 offered first insights into specific physiological and phenotypic adaptation mechanisms of Roseobacter-affiliated bacteria to the benthic environment.« less

  3. [Job performance in work organizations: the effects of management by group goals and job interdependence].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Hisataka

    2015-04-01

    cThis study examined the interactive effect of management by group goals and job interdependence on employee's activities in terms of task and contextual performance. A survey was conducted among 140 Japanese employees. Results indicated that management by group goals was related only to contextual performance. Job interdependence, however, had a direct effect on both task and contextual performance. Moreover, moderated regression analyses revealed that for work groups requiring higher interdependence among employees, management by group goals had a positive relation to contextual performance but not to task performance. When interdependence was not necessarily required, however, management by group goals had no relation to contextual performance and even negatively impacted task performance, respectively. These results show that management by group goals affects task and contextual performance, and that this effect is moderated by job interdependence. This provides a theoretical extension as well as a practical application to the setting and management of group goals.

  4. Use of organic functional group concentrations as a means of screening for energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Burgeson, I.E.; Bryan, S.A.; Camaioni, D.M.; Hallen, R.T.; Lerner, B.D.; Scheele, R.D.

    1996-06-01

    One of the safety concerns associated with the waste tanks on the Hanford site is the presence of organics in a highly oxidizing environment that could potentially act as a fuel source to maintain a propagating reaction. To determine this risk, it is necessary to determine the amount of high enthalpy organics present in the tanks. Currently, the primary ways of obtaining this information are to either rely on tank-fill histories, which are often unreliable and do not account for waste-aging processes, or obtain samples from the tank and speciate the organics present through a series of analytical procedures. While organic speciation has been successful in providing very valuable information about organics present in the tanks and the waste aging processes that are occurring in general, it can be costly and time consuming analyzing a large number of waste tanks. Differential scanning calorimetry has previously been used to obtain heat of reaction measurements of Hanford tank waste samples. However, differential scanning calorimetry is shown here to inadequately measure calculated heats of reaction of simulant tank mixtures. Overall, the preliminary results presented here, suggest that indeed Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy would be useful screening tools for determination of C-H and COO- organic content in tank waste samples analyzed in a hot cell environment. These techniques however, are not truly quantitative for this application and would be primarily used for identifying tanks of potential safety concern that would require further, more detailed confirmatory analysis by organic speciation techniques.

  5. Soil organic matter functional group composition in relation to organic C, N and P fractions in organically managed tomato fields characterized by mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemical composition of soil organic matter (SOM) can be an important determinant of the nutrient supply capacity of soils. This is especially relevant for low-input or organic agricultural systems dependent on SOM mineralization for crop nutrient supply. The objectives of this study were first ...

  6. FT-IR quantification of the carbonyl functional group in aqueous-phase secondary organic aerosol from phenols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Kathryn M.; Ruthenburg, Travis C.; Smith, Jeremy; Yu, Lu; Zhang, Qi; Anastasio, Cort; Dillner, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formed from aqueous-phase reactions of some organic species, including phenols, contribute significantly to particulate mass in the atmosphere. In this study, we employ a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic technique to identify and quantify the functional group makeup of phenolic SOA. Solutions containing an oxidant (hydroxyl radical or 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde) and either one phenol (phenol, guaiacol, or syringol) or a mixture of phenols mimicking softwood or hardwood emissions were illuminated to make SOA, atomized, and collected on a filter. We produced laboratory standards of relevant organic compounds in order to develop calibrations for four functional groups: carbonyls (Cdbnd O), saturated C-H, unsaturated C-H and O-H. We analyzed the SOA samples with transmission FT-IR to identify and determine the amounts of the four functional groups. The carbonyl functional group accounts for 3-12% of the SOA sample mass in single phenolic SOA samples and 9-14% of the SOA sample mass in mixture samples. No carbonyl functional groups are present in the initial reactants. Varying amounts of each of the other functional groups are observed. Comparing carbonyls measured by FT-IR (which could include aldehydes, ketones, esters, and carboxylic acids) with eight small carboxylic acids measured by ion chromatography indicates that the acids only account for an average of 20% of the total carbonyl reported by FT-IR.

  7. Effects of resource-building group intervention on career management and mental health in work organizations: randomized controlled field trial.

    PubMed

    Vuori, Jukka; Toppinen-Tanner, Salla; Mutanen, Pertti

    2012-03-01

    A resource-building group intervention was developed to enhance career management, mental health, and job retention in work organizations. The in-company training program provided employees with better preparedness to manage their own careers. The program activities were universally implemented using an organization-level, 2-trainer model with trainers from the human resources management and occupational health services. The study was a within-organizations, randomly assigned field experimental study; it investigated the impacts of the intervention on immediate career management preparedness and later mental health and intentions to retire early. A total of 718 eligible individuals returned a questionnaire in 17 organizations and became voluntary participants. The respondents were randomly assigned to either an intervention (N = 369) or a comparison group (N = 349). Those in the intervention group were invited to group intervention workshops, whereas those in the comparison group received printed information about career and health-related issues. The 7-month follow-up results showed that the program significantly decreased depressive symptoms and intentions to retire early and increased mental resources among the group participants compared to the others. The mediation analyses demonstrated that the increase in career management preparedness as a proximal impact of the intervention mediated the longer term mental health effects. Those who benefited most from the intervention as regards their mental health were employees with elevated levels of depression or exhaustion and younger employees, implying additional benefits of a more targeted use of the intervention. The results demonstrated the benefits of the enhancement of individual-level career management and resilience resources as career and health promotion practice in work organizations.

  8. Effects of bonding types and functional groups on CO2 capture using novel multiphase systems of liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2011-08-01

    Novel liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) which possess unique features including negligible vapor pressure and a high degree of tunability were synthesized and their physical and chemical properties as well as CO(2) capture capacities were investigated. NOHMs can be classified based on the synthesis methods involving different bonding types, the existence of linkers, and the addition of task-specific functional groups including amines for CO(2) capture. As a canopy of polymeric chains was grafted onto the nanoparticle cores, the thermal stability of the resulting NOHMs was improved. In order to isolate the entropy effect during CO(2) capture, NOHMs were first prepared using polymers that do not contain functional groups with strong chemical affinity toward CO(2). However, it was found that even ether groups on the polymeric canopy contributed to CO(2) capture in NOHMs via Lewis acid-base interactions, although this effect was insignificant compared to the effect of task-specific functional groups such as amine. In all cases, a higher partial pressure of CO(2) was more favorable for CO(2) capture, while a higher temperature caused an adverse effect. Multicyclic CO(2) capture tests confirmed superior recyclability of NOHMs and NOHMs also showed a higher selectivity toward CO(2) over N(2)O, O(2) and N(2).

  9. Organic functionalization of group IV semiconductor surfaces: principles, examples, applications, and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bent, Stacey F.

    2002-03-01

    Organic functionalization is emerging as an important area in the development of new semiconductor-based materials and devices. Direct, covalent attachment of organic layers to a semiconductor interface provides for the incorporation of many new properties, including lubrication, optical response, chemical sensing, or biocompatibility. Methods by which to incorporate organic functionality to the surfaces of semiconductors have seen immense progress in recent years, and in this article several of these approaches are reviewed. Examples are included from both dry and wet processing environments. The focus of the article is on attachment strategies that demonstrate the molecular nature of the semiconductor surface. In many cases, the surfaces mimic the reactivity of their molecular carbon or organosilane counterparts, and examples of functionalization reactions are described in which direct analogies to textbook organic and inorganic chemistry can be applied. This article addresses the expected impact of these functionalization strategies on emerging technologies in nanotechnology, sensing, and bioengineering.

  10. Multifractality to Photonic Crystal & Self-Organization to Metamaterials through Anderson Localizations & Group/Gauge Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidajatullah-Maksoed, Widastra

    2015-04-01

    Arthur Cayley at least investigate by creating the theory of permutation group[F:∖∖Group_theory.htm] where in cell elements addressing of the lattice Qmf used a Cayley tree, the self-afine object Qmf is described by the combination of the finite groups of rotation & inversion and the infinite groups of translation & dilation[G Corso & LS Lacena: ``Multifractal lattice and group theory'', Physica A: Statistical Mechanics &Its Applications, 2005, v 357, issue I, h 64-70; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/articel/pii/S0378437105005005 ] hence multifractal can be related to group theory. Many grateful Thanks to HE. Mr. Drs. P. SWANTORO & HE. Mr. Ir. SARWONO KUSUMAATMADJA.

  11. Transfer and scaffolding of perceptual grouping occurs across organizing principles in 3- to 7-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Paul C; Bhatt, Ramesh S

    2009-08-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that organizational principles become functional over different time courses of development: Lightness similarity is available at 3 months of age, but form similarity is not readily in evidence until 6 months of age. We investigated whether organization would transfer across principles and whether perceptual scaffolding can occur from an already functional principle to a not-yet-operational principle. Six- to 7-month-old infants (Experiment 1) and 3- to 4-month-old infants (Experiment 2) who were familiarized with arrays of elements organized by lightness similarity displayed a subsequent visual preference for a novel organization defined by form similarity. Results with the older infants demonstrate transfer in perceptual grouping: The organization defined by one grouping principle can direct a visual preference for a novel organization defined by a different grouping principle. Findings with the younger infants suggest that learning based on an already functional organizational process enables an organizational process that is not yet functional through perceptual scaffolding.

  12. Genome Sequencing of Bacillus subtilis SC-8, Antagonistic to the Bacillus cereus Group, Isolated from Traditional Korean Fermented-Soybean Food

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, In-Cheol; Lee, Nam Keun

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis SC-8 is a Gram-positive bacterium displaying narrow antagonistic activity for the Bacillus cereus group. B. subtilis SC-8 was isolated from Korean traditional fermented-soybean food. Here we report the draft genome sequence of B. subtilis SC-8, including biosynthetic genes for antibiotics that may have beneficial effects for control of food-borne pathogens. PMID:22207744

  13. Kenyan isolates of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici from 2008 to 2014: Virulence to SrTmp in the Ug99 race group and implications for breeding programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frequent emergence of new variants in the Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) Ug99 race group in Kenya has made pathogen survey a priority. We analyzed 140 isolates from 78 Pgt samples collected in Kenya between 2008 and 2014 and identified six races, including three not detected prior to 2013. G...

  14. Principles of demineralization: modern strategies for the isolation of organic frameworks. Part I. Common definitions and history.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Hermann; Koutsoukos, Petros G; Demadis, Konstantinos D; Pokrovsky, Oleg S

    2008-12-01

    In contrast to biomineralization phenomena, that are among the most widely studied topics in modern material and earth science and biomedicine, much less is systematized on modern view of demineralization. Biomineralized structures and tissues are composites, containing a biologically produced organic matrix and nano- or microscale amorphous or crystalline minerals. Demineralization is the process of removing the inorganic part, or the biominerals, that takes place in nature via either physiological or pathological pathways in organisms. In vitro demineralization processes, used to obtain mechanistic information, consist in the isolation of the mineral phase of the composite biomaterials from the organic matrix. Physiological and pathological demineralization include, for example, bone resorption mediated by osteoclasts. Bioerosion, a more general term for the process of deterioration of the composite biomaterials represents chemical deterioration of the organic and mineral phase followed by biological attack of the composite by microorganisms and enzymes. Bioerosional organisms are represented by endolithic cyanobacteria, fungi, algae, plants, sponges, phoronids and polychaetes, mollusks, fish and echinoids. In the history of demineralization studies, the driving force was based on problems of human health, mostly dental caries. In this paper we summarize and integrate a number of events, discoveries, milestone papers and books on different aspect of demineralization during the last 400 years. Overall, demineralization is a rapidly growing and challenging aspect of various scientific disciplines such as astrobiology, paleoclimatology, geomedicine, archaeology, geobiology, dentistry, histology, biotechnology, and others to mention just a few.

  15. PREDICTION OF THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS TO THE FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMALAS) USING A GROUP CONTRIBUTION METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    A group contribution method has been developed to correlate the acute toxicity (96 h LC50) to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) for 379 organic chemicals. Multilinear regression and computational neural networks (CNNs) were used for model building. The multilinear linear m...

  16. Carcinogenicity predictions for a group of 30 chemicals undergoing rodent cancer bioassays based on rules derived from subchronic organ toxicities

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yongwon; Buchanan, B.G.; Rosenkranz, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    Rodent carcinogenicities for a group of 30 chemicals which form the subject of the Second NIEHS Predictive-Toxicology Evaluation Experiment are predicted based on their subchronic organ toxicities. Predictions are made by rules learned by the rule learning (RL) induction program. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  17. Environmental Involvement. Sources of Information (Including Directories and Lists) on Organizations, Institutions, Agencies, Groups, Etc., Concerned with Environmental Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinsmore, John

    Sources of information for environmental involvement are presented in this bibliography, designed not only as a single reference work but also to demonstrate the variety of sources which exist. Catalogued are organizations, institutions, agencies, and groups concerned with environmental affairs and providing international, continental, national,…

  18. Biomaterial characteristics and application of silicone rubber and PVA hydrogels mimicked in organ groups for prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Pan; Jiang, Shan; Yu, Yan; Yang, Jun; Yang, Zhiyong

    2015-09-01

    It is definite that transparent material with similar structural characteristics and mechanical properties to human tissue is favorable for experimental study of prostate brachytherapy. In this paper, a kind of transparent polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel and silicone rubber are developed as suitable substitutions for human soft tissue. Segmentation and 3D reconstruction of medical image are performed to manufacture the mould of organ groups through rapid prototyping technology. Micro-structure observation, force test and CCD deformation test have been conducted to investigate the structure and mechanical properties of PVA hydrogel used in organ group mockup. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image comparison results show that PVA hydrogel consisting of 3 g PVA, 17 g de-ionized water, 80 g dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO), 4 g NaCl, 1.5 g NaOH, 3 g epichlorohydrin (ECH) and 7 freeze/thaw cycles reveals similar micro-structure to human prostate tissue. Through the insertion force comparison between organ group mockup and clinical prostate brachytherapy, PVA hydrogel and silicone rubber are found to have the same mechanical properties as prostate tissue and muscle. CCD deformation test results show that insertion force suffers a sharp decrease and a relaxation of tissue deformation appears when needle punctures the capsule of prostate model. The results exhibit that organ group mockup consisting of PVA hydrogel, silicone rubber, membrane and agarose satisfies the needs of prostate brachytherapy simulation in general and can be used to mimic the soft tissues in pelvic structure.

  19. Complete Nucleotide Sequences and Genome Organization of Two Pepper Mild Mottle Virus Isolates from Capsicum annuum in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung-Kook; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Kwon, Sun-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV)-P2 and -P3 were determined by the Sanger sequencing method. Although PMMoV-P2 and PMMoV-P3 have different pathogenicity in some pepper cultivars, the complete genome sequences of PMMoV-P2 and -P3 are composed of 6,356 nucleotides (nt). In this study, we report the complete genome sequences and genome organization of PMMoV-P2 and -P3 isolates from pepper species in South Korea. PMID:27198033

  20. Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Epiphytic and Endophytic Fungi from Marine Organisms: Isolation, Bioassay and Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Feng, Yan; Kang, Yue; Zhang, Jia; Gu, Peng-Juan; Wang, Yu; Ma, Li-Fang; Zhu, Yan-Hua

    2009-01-01

    In the search for new marine derived antibiotics, 43 epi- and endophytic fungal strains were isolated from the surface or the inner tissue of different marine plants and invertebrates. Through preliminary and secondary screening, 10 of them were found to be able to produce broad-spectrum antimicrobial metabolites. By morphological and molecular biological methods, three active strains were characterized to be Penicillium glabrum, Fusarium oxysporum, and Alternaria alternata. PMID:19597575

  1. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial epiphytic and endophytic fungi from marine organisms: isolation, bioassay and taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Feng, Yan; Kang, Yue; Zhang, Jia; Gu, Peng-Juan; Wang, Yu; Ma, Li-Fang; Zhu, Yan-Hua

    2009-04-17

    In the search for new marine derived antibiotics, 43 epi- and endophytic fungal strains were isolated from the surface or the inner tissue of different marine plants and invertebrates. Through preliminary and secondary screening, 10 of them were found to be able to produce broad-spectrum antimicrobial metabolites. By morphological and molecular biological methods, three active strains were characterized to be Penicillium glabrum, Fusarium oxysporum, and Alternaria alternata.

  2. Inhibition of precipitation and aggregation of metacinnabar (mercuric sulfide) by dissolved organic matter isolated from the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ravichandran, M.; Aiken, G.R.; Ryan, J.N.; Reddy, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Precipitation and aggregation of metacinnabar (black HgS) was inhibited in the presence of low concentrations (???3 mg C/L) of humic fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolated from the Florida Everglades. At low Hg concentrations (??? x 10-8 M), DOM prevented the precipitation of metacinnabar. At moderate Hg concentrations (5 x 10-5 M), DOM inhibited the aggregation of colloidal metacinnabar (Hg passed through a 0.1 ??m filter but was removed by centrifugation). At Hg concentrations greater than 5 x 10-4 M, mercury formed solid metacinnabar particles that were removed from solution by a 0.1 ??m filter. Organic matter rich in aromatic moleties was preferentially removed with the solid. Hydrophobic organic acids (humic and fulvic acids) inhibited aggregation better than hydrophilic organic acids. The presence of chloride, acetate, salicylate, EDTA, and cysteine did not inhibit the precipitation or aggregation of metacinnabar. Calcium enhanced metacinnabar aggregation even in the presence of DOM, but the magnitude of the effect was dependent on the concentrations of DOM, Hg, and Ca. Inhibition of metacinnabar precipitation appears to be a result of strong DOM-Hg binding. Prevention of aggregation of colloidal particles appears to be caused by adsorption of DOM and electrostatic repulsion.Precipitation and aggregation of metacinnabar (black HgS) was inhibited in the presence of low concentrations (???3 mg C/L) of humic fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolated from the Florida Everglades. At low Hg concentrations (???5??10-8 M), DOM prevented the precipitation of metacinnabar. At moderate Hg concentrations (5??10-5 M), DOM inhibited the aggregation of colloidal metacinnabar (Hg passed through a 0.1 ??m filter but was removed by centrifugation). At Hg concentrations greater than 5??10-4 M, mercury formed solid metacinnabar particles that were removed from solution by a 0.1 ??m filter. Organic matter rich in aromatic moieties was preferentially

  3. ISOLATING AND EVALUATING ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN SEDIMENTS: EVALUATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most solid-phase sediment toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) techniques for organic chemicals have been focused on solid phase sorptive techniques, such as amending contaminated sediments with the carbonaceous resin, Ambersorb, coconut charcoal, or XAD resin to reduce t...

  4. Recovery of an unusual Flavobacterium group IIb-like isolate from a hand infection following pig bite.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, E J; Citron, D M; Merkin, T E; Pickett, M J

    1990-01-01

    An unusual gram-negative rod (RMA 1571) was isolated from a hand infection following a pig bite. This unclassified isolate was characterized by growth requirements, microscopic examination, biochemical characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility tests, and cellular fatty acid analysis. It was indole positive and produced yellow-pigmented growth, which placed it in the genus Flavobacterium, but its other features, including cellular fatty acid analysis, did not appear to be those of a named species. PMID:2351726

  5. The Identification of Complex Organic Molecules in the Interstellar Medium: Using Lasers and Matrix Isolation Spectroscopy to Simulate the Interstellar Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Bradley M.

    1998-01-01

    The Astrochemistry Group at NASA Ames Research Center is interested in the identification of large organic molecules in the interstellar medium Many smaller organic species (e.g. hydrocarbons, alcohols, etc.) have been previously identified by their radiofrequency signature due to molecular rotations. However, this becomes increasingly difficult to observe as the size of the molecule increases. Our group in interested in the identification of the carriers of the Diffuse Interstellar Bands (absorption features observed throughout the visible and near-infrared in the spectra of stars, due to species in the interstellar medium). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related molecules are thought to be good candidates for these carriers. Laboratory experiments am performed at Ames to simulate the interstellar environment, and to compare spectra obtained from molecules in the laboratory to those derived astronomically. We are also interested in PAHs with respect to their possible connection to the UIR (Unidentified infrared) and ERE (Extended Red Emission) bands - emission features found to emanate from particular regions of our galaxy (e.g. Orion nebula, Red Rectangle, etc.). An old, "tried and proven spectroscopic technique, matrix isolation spectroscopy creates molecular conditions ideal for performing laboratory astrophysics.

  6. A Behavior Analysis of Individuals' Use of the Fairness Heuristic when Interacting with Groups and Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goltz, Sonia M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present analysis the author utilizes the groups as patches model (Goltz, 2009, 2010) to extend fairness heuristic theory (Lind, 2001) in which the concept of fairness is thought to be a heuristic that allows individuals to match responses to consequences they receive from groups. In this model, individuals who are reviewing possible groups…

  7. Organic geochemical characterization of the New Albany Shale group in the Illinois Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Dickerson, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Benzene extractable aliphatic hydrocarbons from the New Albany Shale in the Illinois Basin were characterized by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and the total organic matter of the shale was characterized by solid state carbon-13 cross polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance. Core samples from a northwest-trending cross-section of the Illinois Basin were studied. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis (GC/MS) data indicate a regional variation of the aliphatic composition of the shale extracts. A positive, linear relationship between the two ratios, pristane/n-C17 and phytane/n-C18, is indicated. The NMR results indicated that organic matter deposited in northwestern Illinois shale is relatively high in aliphatic hydrocarbon content while, in contrast, organic matter found in southeastern Illinois shale is relatively low in aliphatic hydrocarbon content. Our findings suggest that the organic variation of the shale is mainly due to the differences in thermal maturity of the shale organic matter and the use of pristane/n-C17 ratio as a thermal parameter in the study of oil may be extended to the study of the ancient sediments. ?? 1985.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular characterization of virulence genes, phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli isolated from diarrheic and healthy camel-calves in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Bessalah, Salma; Fairbrother, John Morris; Salhi, Imed; Vanier, Ghyslaine; Khorchani, Touhami; Seddik, Mouldi Mabrouk; Hammadi, Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of virulence genes, serogroups, antimicrobial resistance and phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic and healthy camel calves in Tunisia. From 120 fecal samples (62 healthy and 58 diarrheic camel calves aged less than 3 months), 70 E. coli isolates (53 from diarrheic herds and 17 from healthy herds) were examined by PCR for detection of the virulence genes associated with pathogenic E. coli in animals. A significantly greater frequency of the f17 gene was observed in individual camels and in herds with diarrhea, this gene being found in 44.7% and 41.5% of isolates from camels and herds with diarrhea versus 22.5% and 11.7% in camels (p=0.05) and herds without diarrhea (p=0.02). The aida, cnf1/2, f18, stx2 and paa genes were found only in isolates from camels with diarrhea, although at a low prevalence, 1.8%, 3.7%, 1.8%, 3.7% and 11.3%, respectively. Prevalence of afa8, cdtB, eae, east1, iroN, iss, kpsMTII, paa, sfa, tsh and papC genes did not differ significantly between herds with or without diarrhea. Genes coding for faeG, fanC, f41, estI, estII, CS31a and eltA were not detected in any isolates. All isolates were sensitive to amikacin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and ceftiofur and the highest frequency of resistance was observed to tetracycline, and ampicillin (52.8% and 37.1% respectively). The phylogenetic groups were identified by conventional triplex PCR. Results showed that E. coli strains segregated mainly in phylogenetic group B1, 52.8% in diarrheic herds and 52.9% in healthy herds.

  9. In vitro activities of eight macrolide antibiotics and RP-59500 (quinupristin-dalfopristin) against viridans group streptococci isolated from blood of neutropenic cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, F; Carratala, J; Liñares, J; Gudiol, F; Martin, R

    1996-09-01

    From January 1988 to December 1994, 66 consecutive blood culture isolates of viridans group streptococci collected from febrile neutropenic cancer patients were tested for antimicrobial susceptibilities by the agar dilution method. The antibiotics studied were erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, dirithromycin, azithromycin, josamycin, diacetyl-midecamycin, spiramycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin. A total of 26 (39.4%) strains were resistant to erythromycin with an MIC range of 0.5 to > 128 micrograms/ml. The strains were classified into three groups according to their penicillin susceptibility: 42 (63.6%) were susceptible, 8 (12.1%) were intermediately resistant, and 16 (24.3%) were highly resistant. The percentages of erythromycin-resistant strains in each group were 23.8, 62.5, and 68.8%, respectively. Streptococcus mitis was the species most frequently isolated (83.3%) and showed the highest rates of penicillin (40%) and erythromycin (43.6%) resistance. MICs of all macrolide antibiotics tested and of quinupristin-dalfopristin were higher for penicillin-resistant strains than for penicillin-susceptible strains. All macrolide antibiotics tested had cross-resistance to erythromycin, which was not observed with quinupristin-dalfopristin. Our study shows a high rate of macrolide resistance among viridans group streptococci isolated from blood samples of neutropenic cancer patients, especially those infected with penicillin-resistant strains. These findings make macrolides unsuitable prophylactic agents against viridans group streptococcal bacteremia in this patient population.

  10. In vitro activities of eight macrolide antibiotics and RP-59500 (quinupristin-dalfopristin) against viridans group streptococci isolated from blood of neutropenic cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Alcaide, F; Carratala, J; Liñares, J; Gudiol, F; Martin, R

    1996-01-01

    From January 1988 to December 1994, 66 consecutive blood culture isolates of viridans group streptococci collected from febrile neutropenic cancer patients were tested for antimicrobial susceptibilities by the agar dilution method. The antibiotics studied were erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, dirithromycin, azithromycin, josamycin, diacetyl-midecamycin, spiramycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin. A total of 26 (39.4%) strains were resistant to erythromycin with an MIC range of 0.5 to > 128 micrograms/ml. The strains were classified into three groups according to their penicillin susceptibility: 42 (63.6%) were susceptible, 8 (12.1%) were intermediately resistant, and 16 (24.3%) were highly resistant. The percentages of erythromycin-resistant strains in each group were 23.8, 62.5, and 68.8%, respectively. Streptococcus mitis was the species most frequently isolated (83.3%) and showed the highest rates of penicillin (40%) and erythromycin (43.6%) resistance. MICs of all macrolide antibiotics tested and of quinupristin-dalfopristin were higher for penicillin-resistant strains than for penicillin-susceptible strains. All macrolide antibiotics tested had cross-resistance to erythromycin, which was not observed with quinupristin-dalfopristin. Our study shows a high rate of macrolide resistance among viridans group streptococci isolated from blood samples of neutropenic cancer patients, especially those infected with penicillin-resistant strains. These findings make macrolides unsuitable prophylactic agents against viridans group streptococcal bacteremia in this patient population. PMID:8878591

  11. Comparative analysis of agr groups and virulence genes among subclinical and clinical mastitis Staphylococcus aureus isolates from sheep flocks of the Northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Lara M; de Almeida, Mayra Zilta P R B; de Mendonça, Carla L; Mamizuka, Elsa M

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent mastitis causative agents in small ruminants. The expression of most virulence genes of S. aureus is controlled by an accessory gene regulator (agr) locus. This study aimed to ascertain the prevalence of the different agr groups and to evaluate the occurrence of encoding genes for cytotoxin, adhesins and toxins with superantigen activity in S. aureus isolates from milk of ewes with clinical and subclinical mastitis in sheep flocks raised for meat production The agr groups I and II were identified in both cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis. Neither the arg groups III and IV nor negative agr were found. The presence of cflA gene was identified in 100% of the isolates. The frequency of hla and lukE-D genes was high - 77.3 and 82.8%, respectively and all isolates from clinical mastitis presented these genes. The sec gene, either associated to tst gene or not, was identified only in isolates from subclinical mastitis. None of the following genes were identified: bbp, ebpS, cna, fnbB, icaA, icaD, bap, hlg, lukM-lukF-PV and se-a-b-d-e.

  12. Further characterization of a new recombinant group of Plum pox virus isolates, PPV-T, found in orchards in the Ankara province of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Serçe, Ciğdem Ulubaş; Candresse, Thierry; Svanella-Dumas, Laurence; Krizbai, Laszlo; Gazel, Mona; Cağlayan, Kadriye

    2009-06-01

    Sixteen Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates collected in the Ankara region of Turkey were analyzed using available serological and molecular typing assays. Surprisingly, despite the fact that all isolates except one, which was a mix infection, were typed as belonging to the PPV-M strain in four independent molecular assays, nine of them (60%) reacted with both PPV-M specific and PPV-D specific monoclonal antibodies. Partial 5' and 3' genomic sequence analysis on four isolates demonstrated that irrespective of their reactivity towards the PPV-D specific monoclonal antibody, they were all closely related to a recombinant PPV isolate from Turkey, Ab-Tk. All three isolates for which the relevant genomic sequence was obtained showed the same recombination event as Ab-Tk in the HC-Pro gene, around position 1566 of the genome. Complete genomic sequencing of Ab-Tk did not provide evidence for additional recombination events in its evolutionary history. Taken together, these results indicate that a group of closely related PPV isolates characterized by a unique recombination in the HC-Pro gene is prevalent under field conditions in the Ankara region of Turkey. Similar to the situation with the PPV-Rec strain, we propose that these isolates represent a novel strain of PPV, for which the name PPV-T (Turkey) is proposed. Given that PPV-T isolates cannot be identified by currently available typing techniques, it is possible that their presence has been overlooked in other situations. Further efforts should allow a precise description of their prevalence and of their geographical distribution in Turkey and, possibly, in other countries.

  13. Does the Organization of Instruction Differ in Charter Schools? Ability Grouping and Students' Mathematics Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berends, Mark; Donaldson, Kristi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although we have learned a good deal from lottery-based and quasi-experimental studies of charter schools, much of what goes on inside of charter schools remains a "black box" to be unpacked. Grounding our work in neoclassical market theory and institutional theory, we examine differences in the social organization of schools…

  14. Group Work in a Classroom: An Analogy with Organisms in a Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Šorgo, Andrej

    2007-01-01

    There is a large number of relationships between organisms in communities, and these relationships comprise the following types: predation and parasitism, commensalism, protocooperation and mutualism, neutralism, amensalism, and competition. The possible effects of the relationship between two species are that one or the other can benefit (+),…

  15. Qualitative Organic Analysis: An Efficient, Safer, and Economical Approach to Preliminary Tests and Functional Group Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhingra, Sunita; Angrish, Chetna

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative organic analysis of an unknown compound is an integral part of the university chemistry laboratory curriculum. This type of training is essential as students learn to approach a problem systematically and to interpret the results logically. However, considerable quantities of waste are generated by using conventional methods of…

  16. 26 CFR 56.4911-10 - Members of a limited affiliated group of organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Grass roots expenditures. A controlling member organization for which the expenditure test election is in effect shall include in its grass roots expenditures for its taxable year the grass roots... name, identification number, and the lobbying expenditures and grass roots expenditures on...

  17. Private Assistance in Outdoor Recreation. A Directory of Organizations Providing Aid to Individuals and Public Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    In an effort to aid private recreation area developers and operators, and other individuals interested in outdoor recreation, this Bureau of Outdoor Recreation publication lists a number of professional societies and national organizations providing low-cost publications and other aids to planning, development, and operation of outdoor recreation…

  18. Reading for Change: Social Justice Unionism Book Groups as an Organizing Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Kathleen Riley begins this article by providing quotes from James H. Lytle, and Anissa Weinraub, which were published in "Perspectives on Urban Education" in the summer of 2013. While they hold different professional positions (Lytle is a retired administrator and professor; Weinraub is a teacher and organizer), both wrote as…

  19. Distribution of emm genotypes among group A streptococcus isolates from patients with severe invasive streptococcal infections in Japan, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Ikebe, T; Hirasawa, K; Suzuki, R; Ohya, H; Isobe, J; Tanaka, D; Katsukawa, C; Kawahara, R; Tomita, M; Ogata, K; Endoh, M; Okuno, R; Tada, Y; Okabe, N; Watanabe, H

    2007-10-01

    We surveyed emm genotypes of group A streptococcus (GAS) isolates from patients with severe invasive streptococcal infections during 2001-2005 and compared their prevalence with that of the preceding 5 years. Genotype emm1 remained dominant throughout 2001 to 2005, but the frequency rate of this type decreased compared with the earlier period. Various other emm types have appeared in recent years indicating alterations in the prevalent strains causing severe invasive streptococcal infections. The cover of the new 26-valent GAS vaccine fell from 93.5% for genotypes of isolates from 1996-2000 to 81.8% in 2001-2005.

  20. A Functional Group Approach for Prediction of APPI Response of Organic Synthetic Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhurov, Konstantin O.; Menin, Laure; Di Franco, Thomas; Tsybin, Yury O.

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) is a technique of choice for ionization of non-polar molecules in mass spectrometry (MS). Reported APPI-based studies tend to focus on a selected compound class, which may contain a variety of functional groups. These studies demonstrate that APPI response frequently differs substantially, indicating a certain dependence on the functional group present. Although this dependence could be employed for APPI response prediction, its systematic use is currently absent. Here, we apply APPI MS to a judiciously-compiled set of 63 compounds containing a number of diverse functional groups commonly utilized in synthesis, reactive functional groups, as well as those containing boron and silicon. Based on the outcome of APPI MS of these compounds, we propose and evaluate a simple guideline to estimate the APPI response for a novel compound, the key properties of which have not been characterized in the gas phase. Briefly, we first identify key functional groups in the compound and gather knowledge on the known ionization energies from the smallest analogues containing said functional groups. We then consider local inductive and resonance effects on said ionization energies for the compounds of interest to estimate the APPI response. Finally, application of APPI MS to compounds of interest considered herein demonstrated extended upper mass ionization limit of 3.5 kDa for non-polymeric compounds.

  1. Inhibition of precipitation and aggregation of metacinnabar (mercuric sulfide) by dissolved organic matter isolated from the Florida Everglades

    SciTech Connect

    Ravichandran, M.; Ryan, J.N.; Aiken, G.R.; Reddy, M.M.

    1999-05-01

    Precipitation and aggregation of metacinnabar (black HgS) was inhibited in the presence of low concentrations of humic fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolated from the Florida Everglades. At low Hg concentrations, DOM prevented the precipitation of metacinnabar. At moderate Hg concentrations, DOM inhibited the aggregation of colloidal metacinnabar At Hg concentrations greater than 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M, mercury formed solid metacinnabar particles that were removed from solution by a 0.1 {micro}m filter. Organic matter rich in aromatic moieties was preferentially removed with the solid. Hydrophobic organic acids inhibited aggregation better than hydrophilic organic acids. The presence of chloride, acetate, salicylate, EDTA, and cysteine did not inhibit the precipitation or aggregation of metacinnabar. Calcium enhanced metacinnabar aggregation even in the presence of DOM,m but the magnitude of the effect was dependent on the concentrations of DOM, Hg, and Ca. Inhibition of metacinnabar precipitation appears to be a result of strong DOM-Hg binding. Prevention of aggregation of colloidal particles appears to be caused by adsorption of DOM and electrostatic repulsion.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Mouse Antral Oocytes Based on Nucleolar Chromatin Organization.

    PubMed

    Monti, Manuela; Redi, Carlo Alberto

    2016-01-07

    This protocol describes a simple and quick method to isolate and characterize mouse antral GV (Germinal Vesicle) oocytes as able (SN, Surrounded Nucleolus) or unable (NSN, Not Surrounded Nucleolus) to develop to the blastocyst stage after in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF). It makes use of Hoeschst33342 (or any other DNA intercalating dye) able to bind to the heterochromatin of the nucleolus showing a ring in the SN oocytes or not, like in the NSN oocytes. This represents the easiest and quickest way to sort both antral oocytes that can be eventually used for IVM or IVF procedures. Briefly, the protocol consists of the following steps: hormone injection to stimulate follicular growth; isolation of the oocytes at the GV stage from the antral compartment by puncturing the ovary with a sterile needle; preparation of thin glass pipettes for mouth pipetting of the oocytes; sorting of the oocytes with Hoechst33342 prepared at a supravital concentration; IVM, IVF or any other molecular/cellular analysis. Unfortunately there are still few evidences to sort SN and NSN oocytes using less invasive techniques. If and once they will be identified, they could be potentially applied to human assisted reproductive technologies, although with several aspects that should be modified. To date, this technique has potential implications to dramatically increase IVM and IVF successful procedures in both endangered and species with economic interest.

  3. Isolation of Tasmanian Rickettsia-like organism (RLO) from farmed salmonids: identification of multiple serotypes and confirmation of pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Morrison, R N; Young, N D; Knowles, G; Cornish, M C; Carson, J

    2016-12-21

    Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. farmed in south-east Tasmania, Australia, are susceptible to infection by the Tasmanian Rickettsia-like organism (TRLO), a Gram-negative bacterium. Here, we report the first isolation of TRLO from south-east Tasmania in pure culture and show that the bacterium is culturable on both specialised enriched agar and in cell culture using the CHSE-214 cell line. In vitro cultured TRLO was used to reproducibly elicit disease in Atlantic salmon parr held in fresh water. In inoculated fish, TRLO was observed intracytoplasmically in peripheral blood leucocytes, suggesting that these cells are responsible for haematogenous dispersal of the bacterium within the host. Fish with experimentally induced disease presented with gross and histopathological changes similar to TRLO-infected fish at commercial marine farms. TRLO was also isolated in culture from farmed Atlantic salmon in the Tamar River and Macquarie Harbour production areas in Tasmania, both of which have no history of TRLO-associated disease. These TRLO isolates appear to be serologically distinct from each other as well as from isolates obtained from south-east Tasmania, linking each serotype to a specific geographical location within Tasmania. Despite the lack of clinical evidence of TRLO-linked disease in fish grown in the Tamar River and Macquarie Harbour, experimental infection trials demonstrably showed the pathogenic potential of these TRLO serovars. Together, these data provide evidence that TRLO is a fastidious, facultative intracellular bacterium and confirm TRLO as a pathogen of Atlantic salmon, causing a disease designated Tasmanian salmonid rickettsiosis.

  4. Multiplex real-time PCR for detecting and typing Clostridium botulinum group III organisms and their mosaic variants.

    PubMed

    Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; Woudstra, Cédric; Fach, Patrick; Fiore, Alfonsina; Skarin, Hanna; Bano, Luca; Segerman, Bo; Knutsson, Rickard; De Medici, Dario

    2013-09-01

    Botulism is a neuroparalytic disease that can occur in all warm-blooded animals, birds, and fishes. The disease in animals is mainly caused by toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum strains belonging to group III, although outbreaks due to toxins produced by group I and II organisms have been recognized. Group III strains are capable of producing botulinum toxins of type C, D, and C/D and D/C mosaic variants. Definitive diagnosis of animal botulism is made by combining clinical findings with laboratory investigations. Detection of toxins in clinical specimens and feed is the gold standard for laboratory diagnosis. Since toxins may be degraded by organisms contained in the gastrointestinal tract or may be present at levels below the detection limit, the recovery of C. botulinum from sick animal specimens is consistent for laboratory confirmation. In this article we report the development and in-house validation of a new multiplex real-time PCR for detecting and typing the neurotoxin genes found in C. botulinum group III organisms. Validation procedures have been carried out according to ISO 16140, using strains and samples recovered from cases of animal botulism in Italy and France.

  5. The Impact of Conservation Management on the Community Composition of Multiple Organism Groups in Eutrophic Interconnected Man-Made Ponds

    PubMed Central

    Lemmens, Pieter; Mergeay, Joachim; Van Wichelen, Jeroen; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, Steven A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Ponds throughout the world are subjected to a variety of management measures for purposes of biodiversity conservation. Current conservation efforts typically comprise a combination of multiple measures that directly and indirectly impact a wide range of organism groups. Knowledge of the relative impact of individual measures on different taxonomic groups is important for the development of effective conservation programs. We conducted a field study of 28 man-made ponds, representing four management types differing in the frequency of periodic pond drainage and the intensity of fish stock management. We disentangled the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of pond management measures on the community composition of phytoplankton, zooplankton, aquatic macro-invertebrates, submerged and emergent vascular plants. With the exception of phytoplankton, pond management had strong effects on the community composition of all investigated biota. Whether management affected communities directly or indirectly through its impact on fish communities or local environmental conditions in the pond varied between organism groups. Overall, the impact of pond drainage regime and fish community characteristics on the community composition of target organism groups were more important than local environmental conditions. The majority of taxa were negatively associated with fish density, whereas multiple emergent plant species and several taxa of aquatic macro-invertebrates were positively affected by increased drainage frequency. The effects of fish community and drainage tended to be largely independent. The present study indicates that pond drainage is an important element for biodiversity conservation in eutrophicated shallow and interconnected man-made ponds. PMID:26422390

  6. Multiplex Real-Time PCR for Detecting and Typing Clostridium botulinum Group III Organisms and Their Mosaic Variants

    PubMed Central

    Auricchio, Bruna; Woudstra, Cédric; Fach, Patrick; Fiore, Alfonsina; Skarin, Hanna; Bano, Luca; Segerman, Bo; Knutsson, Rickard; De Medici, Dario

    2013-01-01

    Botulism is a neuroparalytic disease that can occur in all warm-blooded animals, birds, and fishes. The disease in animals is mainly caused by toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum strains belonging to group III, although outbreaks due to toxins produced by group I and II organisms have been recognized. Group III strains are capable of producing botulinum toxins of type C, D, and C/D and D/C mosaic variants. Definitive diagnosis of animal botulism is made by combining clinical findings with laboratory investigations. Detection of toxins in clinical specimens and feed is the gold standard for laboratory diagnosis. Since toxins may be degraded by organisms contained in the gastrointestinal tract or may be present at levels below the detection limit, the recovery of C. botulinum from sick animal specimens is consistent for laboratory confirmation. In this article we report the development and in-house validation of a new multiplex real-time PCR for detecting and typing the neurotoxin genes found in C. botulinum group III organisms. Validation procedures have been carried out according to ISO 16140, using strains and samples recovered from cases of animal botulism in Italy and France. PMID:23971808

  7. The Impact of Conservation Management on the Community Composition of Multiple Organism Groups in Eutrophic Interconnected Man-Made Ponds.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Pieter; Mergeay, Joachim; Van Wichelen, Jeroen; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, Steven A J

    2015-01-01

    Ponds throughout the world are subjected to a variety of management measures for purposes of biodiversity conservation. Current conservation efforts typically comprise a combination of multiple measures that directly and indirectly impact a wide range of organism groups. Knowledge of the relative impact of individual measures on different taxonomic groups is important for the development of effective conservation programs. We conducted a field study of 28 man-made ponds, representing four management types differing in the frequency of periodic pond drainage and the intensity of fish stock management. We disentangled the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of pond management measures on the community composition of phytoplankton, zooplankton, aquatic macro-invertebrates, submerged and emergent vascular plants. With the exception of phytoplankton, pond management had strong effects on the community composition of all investigated biota. Whether management affected communities directly or indirectly through its impact on fish communities or local environmental conditions in the pond varied between organism groups. Overall, the impact of pond drainage regime and fish community characteristics on the community composition of target organism groups were more important than local environmental conditions. The majority of taxa were negatively associated with fish density, whereas multiple emergent plant species and several taxa of aquatic macro-invertebrates were positively affected by increased drainage frequency. The effects of fish community and drainage tended to be largely independent. The present study indicates that pond drainage is an important element for biodiversity conservation in eutrophicated shallow and interconnected man-made ponds.

  8. Coupling reverse osmosis with electrodialysis to isolate natural organic matter from fresh waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was undertaken to solve the problem of removal of sulfate and silica from solutions of natural organic matter (NOM) that have been pre-concentrated by reverse osmosis. The goal is the development of a method by which NOM can be concentrated and desalted to obtain a low...

  9. SEPARATION AND ISOLATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING VACUUM DISTILLATION WITH GC/MS DETERMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vacuum distillation of water, soil, oil, and fish samples is presented as an alternative technique for determining volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Analyses of samples containing VOCs and non-VOCs at 50ppb concentrations were performed to evaluate method limitations. Analyte re...

  10. CONSTANTS FOR MERCURY BINDING BY DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER ISOLATES FROM THE FLORIDA EVERGLADES. (R827653)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) has been implicated as an important complexing agent for Hg that can affect its mobility and bioavailability in aquatic ecosystems. However, binding constants for natural Hg-DOM complexes are not well known. We employed a competitive ligand appro...

  11. Demography-based adaptive network model reproduces the spatial organization of human linguistic groups.

    PubMed

    Capitán, José A; Manrubia, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of human linguistic groups presents a number of interesting and nontrivial patterns. The distributions of the number of speakers per language and the area each group covers follow log-normal distributions, while population and area fulfill an allometric relationship. The topology of networks of spatial contacts between different linguistic groups has been recently characterized, showing atypical properties of the degree distribution and clustering, among others. Human demography, spatial conflicts, and the construction of networks of contacts between linguistic groups are mutually dependent processes. Here we introduce an adaptive network model that takes all of them into account and successfully reproduces, using only four model parameters, not only those features of linguistic groups already described in the literature, but also correlations between demographic and topological properties uncovered in this work. Besides their relevance when modeling and understanding processes related to human biogeography, our adaptive network model admits a number of generalizations that broaden its scope and make it suitable to represent interactions between agents based on population dynamics and competition for space.

  12. Demography-based adaptive network model reproduces the spatial organization of human linguistic groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitán, José A.; Manrubia, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of human linguistic groups presents a number of interesting and nontrivial patterns. The distributions of the number of speakers per language and the area each group covers follow log-normal distributions, while population and area fulfill an allometric relationship. The topology of networks of spatial contacts between different linguistic groups has been recently characterized, showing atypical properties of the degree distribution and clustering, among others. Human demography, spatial conflicts, and the construction of networks of contacts between linguistic groups are mutually dependent processes. Here we introduce an adaptive network model that takes all of them into account and successfully reproduces, using only four model parameters, not only those features of linguistic groups already described in the literature, but also correlations between demographic and topological properties uncovered in this work. Besides their relevance when modeling and understanding processes related to human biogeography, our adaptive network model admits a number of generalizations that broaden its scope and make it suitable to represent interactions between agents based on population dynamics and competition for space.

  13. Religious behaviors as strategies for organizing groups of people: A social contingency analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    A social contingency analysis of religion is presented, arguing that individual religious behaviors are principally maintained by the many powerful benefits of participating in social groups rather than by any immediate or obvious consequences of the religious behaviors. Six common strategies are outlined that can shape the behaviors of large groups of people. More specifically, religious behavior is shaped and maintained by making already-existing contingencies contingent upon low-probability, but socially beneficial, group behaviors. Many specific examples of religious themes are then analyzed in terms of these common strategies for social shaping, including taboos, rituals, totems, personal religious crises, and symbolic expression. For example, a common view is that people are anxious about life, death, and the unknown, and that the direct function of religious behaviors is to provide escape from such anxiety. Such an explanation is instead reversed—that any such anxiety is utilized or created by groups through having escape contingent upon members performing less probable behaviors that nonetheless provide important benefits to most individual group members. These generalized beneficial outcomes, rather than escape from anxiety, maintain the religious behaviors and this fits with observations that religions typically act to increase anxiety rather than to reduce it. An implication of this theory is that there is no difference in principle between religious and nonreligious social control, and it is demonstrated that the same social strategies are utilized in both contexts, although religion has been the more historically important form of social control. PMID:22478297

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from organic dairy farms, conventional dairy farms, and county fairs in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seongbeom; Fossler, Charles P; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Wells, Scott J; Hedberg, Craig W; Kaneene, John B; Ruegg, Pamela L; Warnick, Lorin D; Bender, Jeffrey B

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the antimicrobial susceptibility of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates from organic dairy farms, conventional dairy farms, and Minnesota county fairs. A total of 83 STEC isolates (43 O157 and 40 non-O157 STEC) were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility as determined by the automated broth microdilution method. Resistance to tetracycline was identified in 19 (23%) isolates and to sulphadimethoxine in 40 (48%) isolates. Half of the STEC isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent was observed in 18 (62%) isolates from conventional farms and in 11 (48%) isolates from organic farms. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent was more frequent in isolates from calves (77%) than from cows (39%). Multidrug resistant patterns were more common in non-O157 STEC than O157 STEC. This study provides data to document the degree of STEC antimicrobial resistance from dairy cattle sources in Minnesota. The use of antimicrobial agents on farms, and other environmental influences, may affect resistance patterns in isolates from cattle sources. Systematic surveillance of STEC from cattle could potentially detect emergence of antimicrobial resistance that may be spread to humans through the food chain.

  15. Heterogeneity of functional groups in a metal-organic framework displays magic number ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Sue, Andrew C.-H.; Mannige, Ranjan V.; Deng, Hexiang; Cao, Dennis; Wang, Cheng; Gándara, Felipe; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Whitelam, Stephen; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2015-05-20

    Multiple organic functionalities can now be apportioned into nanoscale domains within a metal-coordinated framework, posing the following question: how do we control the resulting combination of “heterogeneity and order”? Here, we report the creation of a metal–organic framework, MOF-2000, whose two component types are incorporated in a 2:1 ratio, even when the ratio of component types in the starting solution is varied by an order of magnitude. Statistical mechanical modeling suggests that this robust 2:1 ratio has a nonequilibrium origin, resulting from kinetic trapping of component types during framework growth. Our simulations show how other “magic number” ratios of components can be obtained by modulating the topology of a framework and the noncovalent interactions between component types, a finding that may aid the rational design of functional multicomponent materials.

  16. Heterogeneity of functional groups in a metal-organic framework displays magic number ratios.

    PubMed

    Sue, Andrew C-H; Mannige, Ranjan V; Deng, Hexiang; Cao, Dennis; Wang, Cheng; Gándara, Felipe; Stoddart, J Fraser; Whitelam, Stephen; Yaghi, Omar M

    2015-05-05

    Multiple organic functionalities can now be apportioned into nanoscale domains within a metal-coordinated framework, posing the following question: how do we control the resulting combination of "heterogeneity and order"? Here, we report the creation of a metal-organic framework, MOF-2000, whose two component types are incorporated in a 2:1 ratio, even when the ratio of component types in the starting solution is varied by an order of magnitude. Statistical mechanical modeling suggests that this robust 2:1 ratio has a nonequilibrium origin, resulting from kinetic trapping of component types during framework growth. Our simulations show how other "magic number" ratios of components can be obtained by modulating the topology of a framework and the noncovalent interactions between component types, a finding that may aid the rational design of functional multicomponent materials.

  17. Heterogeneity of functional groups in a metal–organic framework displays magic number ratios

    PubMed Central

    Sue, Andrew C.-H.; Mannige, Ranjan V.; Deng, Hexiang; Cao, Dennis; Wang, Cheng; Gándara, Felipe; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Whitelam, Stephen; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple organic functionalities can now be apportioned into nanoscale domains within a metal-coordinated framework, posing the following question: how do we control the resulting combination of “heterogeneity and order”? Here, we report the creation of a metal–organic framework, MOF-2000, whose two component types are incorporated in a 2:1 ratio, even when the ratio of component types in the starting solution is varied by an order of magnitude. Statistical mechanical modeling suggests that this robust 2:1 ratio has a nonequilibrium origin, resulting from kinetic trapping of component types during framework growth. Our simulations show how other “magic number” ratios of components can be obtained by modulating the topology of a framework and the noncovalent interactions between component types, a finding that may aid the rational design of functional multicomponent materials. PMID:25901326

  18. Prediction of the carcinogenicity of a second group of organic chemicals undergoing carcinogenicity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.P.; Sussman, N.; Macina, O.T.

    1996-10-01

    Twenty-four organic compounds currently undergoing testing within cancer bioassays under the aegis of the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) were submitted to the computer automated structure evaluation (CASE) and multiple computer automated structure evaluation (MULTICASE) system for predictions of activity. Individual predictions resulting from the NTP combined rodent, NTP mouse, Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) combined rodent, and CPDB mouse databases were combined using Bayes` theorem to yield an overall probability of rodent carcinogenicity. 17 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Supporting continuous learning in a large organization: the role of group and organizational perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mulholland, Paul; Zdrahal, Zdenek; Domingue, John

    2005-03-01

    Many organizations recognize the need to continuously adapt and learn in order to survive and remain competitive. Learning and therefore change in organizations is driven in two ways. First, there is strategically driven learning, motivated by high-level factors such as market changes, company mergers and newly emerging approaches to organizational management and workplace learning. These changes reveal themselves in the introduction of new training programmes, recruitment strategies and knowledge management methodologies. Second, there is local, continuous learning occurring from the ground up. This is revealed as workers become more adept at their job through experience and collaboration with colleagues. Continuous learning is more gradual and requires local autonomy. This paper describes an experiment in supporting local, continuous learning, and its dissemination, but driven by a strategic initiative of the organization. This work raised many issues concerning the difficulty of integrating local and global organizational influences on learning. We outline lessons learned and suggestions as to the extent to which it is possible to align continuous learning with a company-wide perspective.

  20. Distribution of virulence factors and association with emm polymorphism or isolation site among beta-hemolytic group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis.

    PubMed

    Lo, Hsueh-Hsia; Cheng, Wei-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Distribution of virulence factors and association with emm polymorphism or isolation site among beta-hemolytic group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE), the dominant human pathogenic species among group G streptococci, is the causative agent of several invasive and non-invasive diseases worldwide. However, limited information is available about the distribution of virulence factors among SDSE isolates, or their association with emm types and the isolation sites. In this study, 246 beta-hemolytic group G SDSE isolates collected in central Taiwan between February 2007 and August 2011 were under investigation. Of these, 66 isolates were obtained from normally sterile sites and 180 from non-sterile sites. emm typing revealed 32 types, with the most prevalent one being stG10.0 (39.8%), followed by stG245.0 (15.4%), stG840.0 (12.2%), stG6.1 (7.7%), and stG652.0 (4.1%). The virulence genes lmb (encoding laminin-binding protein), gapC (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase), sagA (streptolysin S), and hylB (hyaluronidase) existed in all isolates. Also, 99.2% of the isolates possessed slo (streptolysin O) and scpA (C5a peptidase) genes. In addition, 72.8%, 14.6%, 9.4%, and 2.4% of the isolates possessed the genes ska (streptokinase), cbp (putative collagen-binding protein, SDEG_1781), fbp (putative fibronectin-binding protein, SDEG_0161), and sicG (streptococcal inhibitor of complement), respectively. The only superantigen gene detected was spegg (streptococcus pyrogenic exotoxin G(dys) ), which was possessed by 74.4% of the isolates; these isolates correlated with non-sterile sites. Positive correlations were observed between the following emm types and virulence genes: stG10.0 and stG840.0 with spegg, stG6.1 and stG652.0 with ska, and stG840.0 with cbp. On the other hand, negative correlations were observed between the following: stG245.0, stG6.1, and stG652.0 types with spegg, stG10.0 with ska

  1. A viral agent isolated from a case of "non-paralytic poliomyelitis" and pathogenic for suckling mice: its possible relation to the coxsackie group of viruses.

    PubMed

    CHEEVER, F S; DANIELS, J B; HERSEY, E F

    1950-08-01

    1. A viral agent, Powers, causing myocarditis, adipositis, pancreatitis, hepatitis, and encephalomyelitis but not myositis in suckling mice 1 to 2 days old has been isolated from the stool of a patient in whom the clinical diagnosis was "non-paralytic poliomyelitis." 2. Serological evidence linking the virus to the clinical disease observed was clear only in the case of "non-paralytic poliomyelitis" from which it was isolated. 3. The possible relation of this agent to the Coxsackie group of viruses is discussed. No serological relationship with the Connecticut 5, Ohio R, and High Point strains was demonstrated. 4. A second virus, Matulaitis, has been isolated from a concurrent case of "non-paralytic poliomyelitis" in the same area. Lesions produced in infant mice by the two agents show certain differences.

  2. Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K.; Fileman, Elaine S.; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2014-01-01

    Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m−3. The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota. PMID:24681661

  3. Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K; Fileman, Elaine S; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S

    2014-03-31

    Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m(-3). The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota.

  4. Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K.; Fileman, Elaine S.; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2014-03-01

    Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m-3. The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota.

  5. Environmental Vibrio spp., isolated in Mozambique, contain a polymorphic group of integrative conjugative elements and class 1 integrons.

    PubMed

    Taviani, Elisa; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Lazaro, Nivalda; Bani, Stefania; Cappuccinelli, Piero; Colwell, Rita R; Colombo, Mauro M

    2008-04-01

    Circulation of mobile genetic elements linked to drug resistance spread was studied in Vibrio strains isolated from surface urban water (river and sea) and shellfish samples in 2002-2003 in Maputo, Mozambique. Class 1 integrons and integrating conjugative elements (ICE) were investigated by PCR and mating experiments in strains of major health interest: 10 Vibrio cholerae, six Vibrio parahaemolyticus, two Vibrio alginolyticus and one Vibrio fluvialis. Resistance to at least two antibiotics (predominantly beta-lactams) was detected in all the strains, with additional resistances to sulfamethoxazole, spectinomycin, streptomycin and/or trimethoprim. Class 1 integrons contributed partially to the expression of drug resistance and were found in five isolates: four V. cholerae (blaP1 cassette, one strain also contained the dfrA15 cassette) and one V. alginolyticus (aadA2 cassette). ICEs, apparently devoid of resistance genes, were found in eight V. cholerae, three V. parahaemolyticus and one V. fluvialis isolates. A wide variability was observed by molecular characterization of ICEs. Five ICEs were included in the SXT/R391 family and seven ICEs were not classified. Our results indicate that the SXT/R391 family and related ICEs comprise a large class of polymorphic genetic elements widely circulating in environmental Vibrio strains in Africa, beside those evidently linked to drug resistance in clinical isolates.

  6. On-line electrodialytic matrix isolation for chromatographic determination of organic acids in wine.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Kuhara, Kenta; Shigetomi, Aki; Yamasaki, Takayuki; Kodama, Yuko; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Toda, Kei

    2014-10-31

    Chromatographic determination of organic acids is widely performed, but the matrix often calls for lengthy and elaborate sample preparation prior to actual analysis. Matrix components, e.g., proteins, non-ionics, lipids etc. are typically removed by a combination of centrifugation/filtration and solid phase extraction (SPE) that may include the use of ion-exchange media. Here we report the quantitative electrodialytic transfer of organic acids from complex samples to ultrapure water in seconds using cellulose membranes modified with N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate, which essentially eliminates the negative ζ-potential of a regenerated cellulose membrane surface. The transfer characteristics of the ion transfer device (ITD) were evaluated with linear carboxylic acids. While the ion transfer efficiencies may be affected by the acid dissociation constants, in most cases it is possible to achieve quantitative transfer under optimized device residence time (solution flow rate) and the applied voltage. In addition, the transfer efficiency was unaffected by the wide natural variation of pH represented in real samples. The approach was applied to organic acids in various samples, including red wine, considered to represent an especially difficult matrix. While quantitative transfer of the organic acids (as judged by agreement with standard pretreatment procedures involving SPE) was achieved, transfer of other matrix components was <5%. The processed samples could then be chromatographically analyzed in a straightforward manner. We used ion exclusion chromatography with direct UV detection; in treated samples; there was a dramatic reduction of the large early peaks observed compared to only 0.45μm membrane filtered samples.

  7. Influence of social mixing and group size on skin lesions and mounting in organic entire male pigs.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, R; Edwards, S A; Rousing, T; Labouriau, R; Sørensen, J T

    2016-07-01

    Alternatives to surgical castration are needed, due to stress and pain caused by castration of male pigs. One alternative is production of entire male pigs. However, changed behaviour of entire males compared with castrated males might adversely affect the welfare of entire males and changes in management procedures and production system might be needed. Elements from the organic pig production system might be beneficial in this aspect. The aim of this article is to investigate the effect of grouping strategy including social mixing and group size on levels of mounting behaviour and skin lesions, hypothesising that procedures that disrupt the social stability (e.g. regrouping) will have a larger negative effect in small groups compared with large groups. Approximately 1600 organic entire male pigs of the breed (Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc were reared in parallel in five organic herds, distributed across four batches in a 2×2 factorial design in order to test the influence of social mixing (presence or absence of social mixing at relocation) and group size (15 and 30 animals). Animals were able to socialise with piglets from other litters during the lactation period, and were all mixed across litters at weaning. A second mixing occurred at insertion to fattening pens for pigs being regrouped. Counting of skin lesions (1348 or 1124 pigs) and registration of mounting behaviour (1434 or 1258 pigs) were done on two occasions during the experimental period. No interactive effects were found between social mixing and group size on either skin lesions or mounting frequency. Herd differences were found for both mounting frequency and number of skin lesions. No association between skin lesions and mounting were revealed. Social mixing and group size were shown as interacting effects with herds on mounting frequency (P<0.0001), but with no consistent pattern across all herds. In addition, no effect of social mixing was found on mean number of skin lesions, but more lesions

  8. Using Groups to Change the Department Head Role: An Organization Development Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Sheila; London, Chad; Huisman, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a detailed description and analysis of how one Canadian institution used groups of department heads as change agents to address their most acute department head role tensions. It is demonstrated that this institution's change initiative aligned very closely to the recommendations proposed, in both the literature pertaining to…

  9. What do individuals in different science groups within a life sciences organization think about genetic modification?

    PubMed

    Fisher, Mark; Small, Bruce; Roth, Hein; Mallon, Mary; Jerebine, Bryce

    2005-07-01

    An assessment was undertaken of the attitudes of individuals within the science community towards a program to produce genetically modified cattle for altered milk composition, expectantly allowing for research into the treatment of multiple sclerosis in humans. The majority of respondents to an electronic survey expressed favorable attitudes to the program, thought it beneficial, respected individual freedom and was fair and just and disagreed that it was harmful. A passion for science and having a suitable lifestyle were the most important motivating factors for individuals. Finally, there were a wide range of responses to a number of cultural beliefs or myths. Science grouping significantly affected the responses. Compared with Systems and Land groups, Plant and Reproduction groups more strongly agreed with the project, thought it less harmful to interest groups, felt that genetic modification of animals was more morally acceptable, and more strongly agreed with the myth statements. These results indicate a diversity of beliefs and attitudes towards genetic modification amongst those within the science community, and highlight the importance of understanding ethics and myths in dealing with them. It is suggested that the diversity of beliefs could be better used to help shape public policy and understanding of biotechnology.

  10. The Organization of Group Care Environments: The Infant Day Care Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldo, Michael F.; Risley, Todd R.

    In designing group day care for infants, special attention has been given to efficient care practices, so that all the children's health needs can be met and so that the staff will have ample time to interact with the children. One efficient method is to assign each staff member the responsibility of a particular area rather than a particular…

  11. Characterization of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from organic Brazil nuts using a polyphasic approach.

    PubMed

    Reis, T A; Baquião, A C; Atayde, D D; Grabarz, F; Corrêa, B

    2014-09-01

    Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), an important non-timber forest product from Amazonia, is commercialized in worldwide markets. The main importers of this nut are North America and European countries, where the demand for organic products has grown to meet consumers concerned about food safety. Thus, the precise identification of toxigenic fungi is important because the Brazil nut is susceptible to colonization by these microorganisms. The present study aimed to characterize by polyphasic approach strains of Aspergillus section Flavi from organic Brazil nuts. The results showed Aspergillus flavus as the main species found (74.4%), followed by Aspergillus nomius (12.7%). The potential mycotoxigenic revealed that 80.0% of A. flavus were toxin producers, 14.3% of which produced only aflatoxin B (AFB), 22.85% of which produced only cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), and 42.85% produced both them. All strains of A. nomius were AFB and AFG producers and did not produce CPA. There is no consensus about what Aspergillus species predominates on Brazil nuts. Apparently, the origin, processing, transport and storage conditions of this commodity influence the species that are found. The understanding about population of fungi is essential for the development of viable strategies to control aflatoxins in organic Brazil nuts.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus Isolates with Reduced Susceptibility to Glycopeptides Belong to Accessory Gene Regulator Group I or II

    PubMed Central

    Verdier, Isabelle; Reverdy, Marie-Elisabeth; Etienne, Jerome; Lina, Gérard; Bes, Michèle; Vandenesch, François

    2004-01-01

    We used multiplex PCR to determine the agr group membership of 18 European glycopeptide heterointermediate and intermediate-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Of the 15 agr group I strains, 13 were resistant and 2 were susceptible to methicillin. The remaining three strains, like the United States and Japanese control strains, belonged to agr group II. PMID:14982800

  13. Triplet photochemistry of effluent and natural organic matter in whole water and isolates from effluent-receiving rivers.

    PubMed

    Bodhipaksha, Laleen C; Sharpless, Charles M; Chin, Yu-Ping; Sander, Michael; Langston, William K; MacKay, Allison A

    2015-03-17

    Effluent organic matter (EfOM), contained in treated municipal wastewater, differs in composition from naturally occurring dissolved organic matter (DOM). The presence of EfOM may thus alter the photochemical production of reactive intermediates in rivers that receive measurable contributions of treated municipal wastewater. Quantum yield coefficients for excited triplet-state OM (3OM*) and apparent quantum yields for singlet oxygen (1O2) were measured for both whole water samples and OM isolated by solid phase extraction from whole water samples collected upstream and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plant discharges in three rivers receiving differing effluent contributions: Hockanum R., CT (22% (v/v) effluent flow), E. Fork Little Miami R., OH (11%), and Pomperaug R., CT (6%). While only small differences in production of these reactive intermediates were observed between upstream and downstream whole water samples collected from the same river, yields of 3OM* and 1O2 varied by 30-50% between the rivers. Apparent quantum yields of 1O2 followed similar trends to those of 3OM*, consistent with 3OM* as a precursor to 1O2 formation. Higher 3OM* reactivity was observed for whole water samples than for OM isolates of the same water, suggesting differential recoveries of photoreactive moieties by solid phase extraction. 3OM* and 1O2 yields increased with increasing E2/E3 ratio (A254 nm divided by A365 nm) and decreased with increasing electron donating capacities of the samples, thus exhibiting trends also observed for reference humic and fulvic acid isolates. Mixing experiments with EfOM and DOM isolates showed evidence of quenching of triplet DOM by EfOM when measured yields were compared to theoretical yields. Together, the results suggest that effluent contributions of up to 25% (v/v) to river systems have a negligible influence on photochemical production of 3OM* and 1O2 apparently because of quenching of triplet DOM by EfOM. Furthermore, the results

  14. Genomic Analysis Reveals Multi-Drug Resistance Clusters in Group B Streptococcus CC17 Hypervirulent Isolates Causing Neonatal Invasive Disease in Southern Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Campisi, Edmondo; Rosini, Roberto; Ji, Wenjing; Guidotti, Silvia; Rojas-López, Maricarmen; Geng, Guozhu; Deng, Qiulian; Zhong, Huamin; Wang, Weidong; Liu, Haiying; Nan, Cassandra; Margarit, Immaculada; Rinaudo, C. D.

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal invasive disease caused by group B Streptococcus (GBS) represents a significant public health care concern globally. However, data related to disease burden, serotype distribution, and molecular epidemiology in China and other Asian countries are very few and specifically relative to confined regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic characteristics of GBS isolates recovered from neonates with invasive disease during 2013–2014 at Guangzhou and Changsha hospitals in southern mainland China. We assessed the capsular polysaccharide type, pilus islands (PIs) distribution and hvgA gene presence in a panel of 26 neonatal clinical isolates, of which 8 were recovered from Early Onset Disease and 18 from Late Onset Disease (LOD). Among 26 isolates examined, five serotypes were identified. Type III was the most represented (15 cases), particularly among LOD strains (n = 11), followed by types Ib (n = 5), V (n = 3), Ia (n = 2) and II (n = 1). We performed whole-genome sequencing analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing on the 14 serotype III isolates belonging to the hypervirulent Clonal Complex 17 (serotype III-CC17). The presence of PI-2b alone was associated with 13 out of 14 serotype III-CC17 strains. Genome analysis led us to identify two multi-drug resistance gene clusters harbored in two new versions of integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), carrying five or eight antibiotic resistance genes, respectively. These ICEs replaced the 16 kb-locus that normally contains the PI-1 operon. All isolates harboring the identified ICEs showed multiple resistances to aminoglycoside, macrolide, and tetracycline antibiotic classes. In conclusion, we report the first whole-genome sequence analysis of 14 GBS serotype III-CC17 strains isolated in China, representing the most prevalent lineage causing neonatal invasive disease. The acquisition of newly identified ICEs conferring multiple antibiotic resistance could in part explain the spread

  15. High-mobility group box 1 is dispensable for autophagy, mitochondrial quality control, and organ function in vivo.

    PubMed

    Huebener, Peter; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Pradere, Jean-Philippe; Quinzii, Catarina M; Friedman, Richard; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Trent, Chad M; Mederacke, Ingmar; Zhao, Enpeng; Dapito, Dianne H; Lin, Yuxi; Goldberg, Ira J; Czaja, Mark J; Schwabe, Robert F

    2014-03-04

    In vitro studies have demonstrated a critical role for high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in autophagy and the autophagic clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria, resulting in severe mitochondrial fragmentation and profound disturbances of mitochondrial respiration in HMGB1-deficient cells. Here, we investigated the effects of HMGB1 deficiency on autophagy and mitochondrial function in vivo, using conditional Hmgb1 ablation in the liver and heart. Unexpectedly, deletion of Hmgb1 in hepatocytes or cardiomyocytes, two cell types with abundant mitochondria, did not alter mitochondrial structure or function, organ function, or long-term survival. Moreover, hepatic autophagy and mitophagy occurred normally in the absence of Hmgb1, and absence of Hmgb1 did not significantly affect baseline and glucocorticoid-induced hepatic gene expression. Collectively, our findings suggest that HMGB1 is dispensable for autophagy, mitochondrial quality control, the regulation of gene expression, and organ function in the adult organism.

  16. Determination of thiol functional groups on bacteria and natural organic matter in environmental systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anandha Rao, Balaji; Lin, Hui; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2014-01-01

    Organic thiols (R-SH) are known to react and form complexes with some toxic soft metals such as mercury (Hg) in both biotic and abiotic systems. However, a clear understanding of these interactions is currently limited because quantifying thiols in environmental matrices is difficult due to their low abundance, susceptibility to oxidation, and measurement interference by non-thiol compounds in samples. Here, we report a fluorescence-labeling method using a maleimide containing probe, ThioGlo-1 (TG-1), to determine total thiols directly on bacterial cells and natural organic matter (NOM). We systematically evaluated the optimal thiol labeling conditions and interference from organic compounds such as disulfide, methionine, thiourea, and amine, and inorganic ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, and SCN-, and found that the method is highly sensitive and selective. Only relatively high levels of sulfide (S2-) and sulfite (SO32-) significantly interfere with the thiol analysis. The method was successful in determining thiols in a bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and its mutants in a phosphate buffered saline solution. The measured value of ~2.1 104 thiols cell-1 (or ~0.07 mol g-1 wet cells) is in good agreement with that observed during reactions between Hg and PCA cells. Using the standard addition, we determined the total thiols of two reference NOM samples, the reduced Elliot soil humic acid and Suwanee River NOM, to be 3.6 and 0.7 mol g-1, respectively, consistent with those obtained based on their reactions with Hg.

  17. Determination of thiol functional groups on bacteria and natural organic matter in environmental systems.

    PubMed

    Rao, Balaji; Simpson, Carolyne; Lin, Hui; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2014-02-01

    Organic thiols (R-SH) are known to react and form complexes with some toxic soft metals such as mercury (Hg) in both biotic and abiotic systems. However, a clear understanding of these interactions is currently limited because quantifying thiols in environmental matrices is difficult due to their low abundance, susceptibility to oxidation, and measurement interference by non-thiol compounds in samples. Here, we report a fluorescence-labeling method using a maleimide containing probe, ThioGlo-1 (TG-1), to determine total thiols directly on bacterial cells and natural organic matter (NOM). We systematically evaluated the optimal thiol labeling conditions and interference from organic compounds such as disulfide, methionine, thiourea, and amine, and inorganic ions such as Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Fe(2+), Cl(-), SO4(2-), HCO3(-), and SCN(-), and found that the method is highly sensitive and selective. Only relatively high levels of sulfide (S(2-)) and sulfite (SO3(2-)) significantly interfere with the thiol analysis. The method was successful in determining thiols in a bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and its mutants in a phosphate buffered saline solution. The measured value of ~2.1 × 10(4) thiols cell(-1) (or ~0.07 µmol g(-1) wet cells) is in good agreement with that observed during reactions between Hg and PCA cells. Using the standard addition, we determined the total thiols of two reference NOM samples, the reduced Elliot soil humic acid and Suwanee River NOM, to be 3.6 and 0.7 µmol g(-1), respectively, consistent with those obtained based on their reactions with Hg.

  18. Correlations between major risk factors and closely related Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates grouped by three current enotyping procedures: a population-based study in northeast Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Peñuelas-Urquides, Katia; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe; Enciso-Moreno, José Antonio; Molina-Salinas, Gloria María; Silva-Ramírez, Beatriz; Padilla-Rivas, Gerardo Raymundo; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Torres-de-la-Cruz, Víctor Manuel; Martínez-Martínez, Yazmin Berenice; Ortega-García, Jorge Luis; Garza-Treviño, Elsa Nancy; Enciso-Moreno, Leonor; Saucedo-Cárdenas, Odila; Becerril-Montes, Pola; Said-Fernández/, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) patients related to a chain of recent TB transmissions were investigated. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates (120) were genotyped using the restriction fragment length polymorphism-IS6110 (R), spacer oligotyping (S) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (M) methods. The MTB isolates were clustered and the clusters were grouped according to the similarities of their genotypes. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients between the groups of MTB isolates with similar genotypes and those patient characteristics indicating a risk for a pulmonary TB (PTB) chain transmission were ana- lysed. The isolates showing similar genotypes were distributed as follows: SMR (5%), SM (12.5%), SR (1.67%), MR (0%), S (46.67%), M (5%) and R (0%). The remaining 35 cases were orphans. SMR exhibited a significant correlation (p < 0.05) with visits to clinics, municipalities and comorbidities (primarily diabetes mellitus). S correlated with drug consumption and M with comorbidities. SMR is needed to identify a social network in metropolitan areas for PTB transmission and S and M are able to detect risk factors as secondary components of a transmission chain of TB. PMID:25317710

  19. Selenol protecting groups in organic chemistry: special emphasis on selenocysteine Se-protection in solid phase peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Flemer, Stevenson

    2011-04-18

    The appearance of selenium in organic synthesis is relatively rare, and thus examples in the literature pertaining to the masking of its co