Sample records for group streptococci vgs

  1. [Classical and new approaches in laboratory diagnosis of viridans streptococci].

    PubMed

    Ergin, Alper

    2010-07-01

    Viridans group streptococci (VGS) are gram-positive microorganisms that can form alpha-hemolytic colonies on sheep blood agar. They reside as normal flora in oral cavity, respiratory, gastrointestinal, urogenital tract and on skin. They can cause bacteremia, endocarditis, meningitis and septicemia following dental procedures. The diagnosis of VGS are difficult since the taxonomic classification and species na-mes may change due in time. Viridans group streptococci are classified into 5 groups (Sanguinis, Mitis, Mutans, Salivarius, Anginosus) according to biochemical reactions and 16S rRNA sequencing. Since Streptococcus pneumoniae is a member of the Mitis group, the other important species in this group deserves investigation. Genetic exchange between Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis and S.pneumoniae by transformation and lysis mechanisms occur continously as they share the same anatomical region. These mechanisms play role in exchanging capsular and antibiotic resistance genes between these species. The cultivation of VGS usually starts with the inoculation of various patient specimens into sheep blood agar and the detection of alpha-hemolytic colonies. Observation of gram-positive cocci microscopically, the detection of optochin-resistant and bile insoluble colonies with few exceptions are the further important steps in laboratory diagnosis. VGS are then identified at species level by using biochemical reactions, automated diagnostic systems and molecular methods. The last step in the laboratory diagnosis of VGS is antibiotic susceptibility testing which is of outmost importance as penicillin and erythromycin resistance are on rise. In this review article, classification of VGS, similarities between S.pneumoniae and Mitis group streptococci and the laboratory diagnosis of VGS have been discussed.

  2. Effect of Periodontal Therapy With Amoxicillin-Metronidazole on Pharyngeal Carriage of Penicillin- and Erythromycin-Resistant Viridans Streptococci.

    PubMed

    Mombelli, Andrea; Cionca, Norbert; Almaghlouth, Adnan; Cherkaoui, Abdessalam; Schrenzel, Jacques; Giannopoulou, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have focused on antibiotic resistance of Gram-negative bacteria before and after periodontal therapy. The purpose of this analysis is to assess changes in resistance patterns of the commensal Gram-positive microbiota. The viridans group streptococci (VGS) have been suggested to serve as reservoirs of resistance genes for more pathogenic streptococci and may be implicated in some non-oral infections. In this randomized clinical trial, 80 patients with periodontitis are distributed randomly into two groups. In group A, patients received 375 mg amoxicillin and 500 mg metronidazole three times per day for 7 days during the non-surgical treatment phase (T1). In group B, the antibiotics were administered during the surgical phase (T2). Resistance of VGS to penicillin and erythromycin was determined by the epsilometer test. At baseline, VGS from 12.5% (group A) and 11.8% (group B) of patients had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) >2 μg/mL to penicillin. Three months after T1, VGS from 15.6% and 16.7% of patients had an MIC >2 μg/mL, respectively. Six months after T2 VGS from 5.9% and 5.9% and 12 months after T2 VGS from 6.1% and 6.3% patients had an MIC >2 μg/mL. There was no effect of therapy with antibiotics, administered either in T1 or T2, on the carriage of penicillin-resistant VGS. Erythromycin resistance was high at baseline and remained unchanged throughout the study. MICs for penicillin and erythromycin were correlated (P <0.05). Amoxicillin plus metronidazole did not significantly affect the resistance pattern of the VGS to penicillin or erythromycin.

  3. Effective oral health in infective endocarditis: efficacy of high-street mouthwashes against the viridans group streptococci.

    PubMed

    Elshibly, Ahmed; Coulter, Wilson A; Millar, Beverley Cherie; Prendergast, Bernard D; Thornhill, Martin; Irwin, Christopher; Goldsmith, Colin E; Moore, John E

    2014-05-01

    Recent UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines state that there is no longer a need for oral antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing dental procedures who are at risk of infective endocarditis (IE), and advocate the importance of maintaining good oral health. As viridans group streptococci (VGS) are common etiological agents of IE and inhabitants of the mouth, the purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of common high-street mouthwashes against four classes of VGS organisms (salivarius, mitis, anginosus, and mutans groupings). The survival of VGS, Streptococcus gordonii (National Collection of Type Cultures [NCTC] 7865), Streptococcus intermedius (NCTC 11324), Streptococcus mutans (NCTC 10449), Streptococcus oralis (NCTC 11427), Streptococcus pneumoniae (NCTC 7465, NCTC 7978, & American Type Culture Collection 49619) and Streptococcus salivarius (NCTC 8618) was assessed in vitro following treatment of approximately 10(7) c.f.u. in planktonic state with four mouthwashes. No organisms were culturable following 1-min exposure, and were not recovered following non-selective enrichment following incubation in Brain Heart Infusion broth supplemented with 0.8% (w/v) yeast extract. These data indicate that such mouthwashes are able to completely kill VGS organisms tested in planktonic solution, where their use would promote good oral hygiene in patients at risk of IE. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Erythromycin and penicillin resistance mechanisms among viridans group streptococci isolated from blood cultures of adult patients with underlying diseases.

    PubMed

    Ergin, Alper; Eser, Özgen Köseoğlu; Hasçelik, Gülşen

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the species distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility and erythromycin-penicillin resistance mechanisms of viridans streptococci (VGS) isolates from blood cultures of adult patients with underlying diseases. Fifty VGS blood culture isolates were screened for their antibiotic susceptibilities against penicillin G, erythromycin and tetracycline by E-test. Clindamycin, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, levofloxacin, linezolid and vancomycin susceptibility were performed by broth microdilution method. Erythromycin and penicillin resistance genotypes, ermB and mefA/E, pbp1a, pbp2b and pbp2x are amplified using PCR method. The clinical isolates included Streptococcus mitis (n. 19), S.oralis (n. 13), S.sanguinis, S.parasanguinis (n. 6, each), S.salivarius, S.vestibularis (n. 2, each), S.constellatus, S.sobrinus (n. 1, each). The percentage resistance against erythromycin and penicillin was 36% and 30%, respectively. The genotypic carriage rate of erythromycin resistance genes were: 56% ermB, 28% mefE, 8% ermB+mefE. Penicillin-resistant isolates carried pbp2b (33.3%) and pbp2x (20%) genes. Twenty-four VGS isolates were recovered from patients with cancer. S.mitis and S.oralis predominated among patients with cancer who had erythromycin and penicillin resistance isolates. The importance of classical antimicrobial agents like penicillin and erythromycin warrants the continuous surveillance of invasive VGS isolates and can guide better treatment options especially in patients with underlying diseases.

  5. Identification of species of viridans group streptococci in clinical blood culture isolates by sequence analysis of the RNase P RNA gene, rnpB.

    PubMed

    Westling, Katarina; Julander, Inger; Ljungman, Per; Vondracek, Martin; Wretlind, Bengt; Jalal, Shah

    2008-03-01

    Viridans group streptococci (VGS) cause severe diseases such as infective endocarditis and septicaemia. Genetically, VGS species are very close to each other and it is difficult to identify them to species level with conventional methods. The aims of the present study were to use sequence analysis of the RNase P RNA gene (rnpB) to identify VGS species in clinical blood culture isolates, and to compare the results with the API 20 Strep system that is based on phenotypical characteristics. Strains from patients with septicaemia or endocarditis were analysed with PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the rnpB gene. Clinical data were registered as well. One hundred and thirty two VGS clinical blood culture isolates from patients with septicaemia (n=95) or infective endocarditis (n=36) were analysed; all but one were identified by rnpB. Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii strains were most common in the patients with infective endocarditis. In the isolates from patients with haematological diseases, Streptococcus mitis and S. oralis dominated. In addition in 76 of the isolates it was possible to compare the results from rnpB analysis and the API 20 Strep system. In 39/76 (51%) of the isolates the results were concordant to species level; in 55 isolates there were no results from API 20 Strep. Sequence analysis of the RNase P RNA gene (rnpB) showed that almost all isolates could be identified. This could be of importance for evaluation of the portal of entry in patients with septicaemia or infective endocarditis.

  6. Colonization with group B streptococci in pregnancy and adverse outcome. VIP Study Group.

    PubMed

    Regan, J A; Klebanoff, M A; Nugent, R P; Eschenbach, D A; Blackwelder, W C; Lou, Y; Gibbs, R S; Rettig, P J; Martin, D H; Edelman, R

    1996-04-01

    Our purpose was to study the association of cervicovaginal colonization with group B streptococci with pregnancy and neonatal outcome. A prospective study was conducted at seven medical centers between 1984 and 1989. Genital tract cultures were obtained at 23 to 26 weeks' gestation and at delivery. Prematurity and neonatal sepsis rates were compared between group B streptococci positive and negative women. Group B streptococci was recovered from 2877 (21%) of 13,646 women at enrollment. Heavy colonization was associated with a significant risk of delivering a preterm infant who had a low birth weight (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 1.9). Heavily colonized women given antibiotics effective against group B streptococci had little increased risk of a preterm, low-birth-weight birth. Women with light colonization were at the same risk of adverse outcome as the uncolonized women. Neonatal group B streptococci sepsis occurred in 2.6 of 1000 live births in women with and 1.6 of 1000 live births in women without group B streptococci at 23 to 26 weeks' gestation (p = 0.11). However, sepsis occurred in 16 of 1000 live births to women with and 0.4 of 1000 live births to women without group B streptococci at delivery (p < 0.001). Heavy group B streptococci colonization of 23 to 26 weeks' gestation was associated with an increased risk of delivering a preterm, low-birth-weight infant. Cervicovaginal colonization with group B streptococci at 23 to 26 weeks' gestation was not a reliable predictor of neonatal group B streptococci sepsis. Colonization at delivery was associated with sepsis.

  7. Non-group A streptococci in the pharynx. Pathogens or innocent bystanders?

    PubMed

    Hayden, G F; Murphy, T F; Hendley, J O

    1989-07-01

    To determine whether beta-hemolytic streptococci from groups other than A are an important cause of sporadic pharyngitis in children. Cross-sectional, case-referent survey. General pediatric clinic at a military base in Ohio. One hundred fifty children with symptomatic pharyngitis and 150 controls matched for age and time of presentation over a 20-month study period. None. Anaerobic culture technique was used to improve isolation of beta-hemolytic streptococci. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci were detected significantly more often among the ill children than among the controls (39% vs 16%, respectively). In contrast, non-group A beta-hemolytic streptococci were isolated in similar frequency from the ill and control children (17% vs 21%, respectively). Non-group A beta-hemolytic streptococci from groups B, C, F, and G were each isolated in similar frequency among the ill and control children. The isolation rate of non-group A organisms increased with age among both patients and controls. Non-group A beta-hemolytic streptococci seemed not to be an important cause of sporadic pharyngitis in this pediatric population.

  8. Presumptive identification and antibiotic susceptibility of group B streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Jokipii, A M; Jokipii, L

    1976-01-01

    The comparative performance of three presumptive identification tests for group B haemolytic streptococci was investigated, using 371 different clinical isolates of group B streptococci. Hippurate was hydrolysed by 96-1%, the CAMP reaction was positive in 95-0%, and pigment was produced by 97-3%. A combination of any two tests would have detected over 99-8%. On bile esculin agar 99-0% were able to grow, but non hydrolysed esculin; 5-1% were susceptible to bacitracin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of five antibiotics for 279 group B streptococci were determined. All were susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin, cephalothin, and erythromycin, while 80% were resistant to tetracycline. The MIC distributions were independent of the results of any identification test. PMID:783206

  9. Successful Continuation of Pregnancy After Treatment of Group A Streptococci Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Alhousseini, Ali; Layne, Mia E; Gonik, Bernard; Bryant, David; Patwardhan, Sanjay; Patwardhan, Manasi

    2017-05-01

    Invasive group A streptococci infections in pregnancy have historically led to severe maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. We are reporting a rare and novel case of successful treatment of third-trimester group A streptococci infection with early, aggressive intervention and maintenance of the pregnancy to term. A 35 year old woman initially presented with fever, flu-like symptoms, and preterm contractions at 34 weeks of gestation. She demonstrated signs of early stages of septic shock, ultimately attributed to group A streptococci bacteremia. Early, aggressive intervention allowed the pregnancy to continue until 38 weeks of gestation with normal maternal and neonatal outcomes. Early and aggressive treatment of invasive group A streptococci infection during pregnancy can potentially avoid severe maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality with a successful continuation of pregnancy.

  10. Predictors and outcomes of viridans group streptococcal infections in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: from the Canadian infections in AML research group.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Victor; Yanofsky, Rochelle; Mitchell, David; Dix, David; Ethier, Marie-Chantal; Gillmeister, Biljana; Johnston, Donna; Michon, Bruno; Stobart, Kent; Portwine, Carol; Silva, Mariana; Cellot, Sonia; Price, Victoria; Bowes, Lynette; Zelcer, Shayna; Brossard, Josee; Beyene, Joseph; Sung, Lillian

    2014-02-01

    Viridans group streptococci (VGS) cause significant morbidity in children treated for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Our goals were to determine the occurrence and impact of these infections in children treated for AML and to understand the factors that increase the risk of VGS infections and viridans streptococcal shock syndrome (VSSS) in this population. We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study that included children ≤18 years of age with de novo AML treated at 15 Canadian centers. We evaluated factors related to VGS infection and VSSS. Among 341 children with AML, VGS occurred in 78 (22.9%) children over the entire course of therapy and 16 had recurrent episodes. VGS infection occurred in 97 of 1277 courses of chemotherapy (7.6%). VSSS occurred in 19.6% of these episodes and included 11 patients who required intensive care services with 2 VGS infections resulting in death. In multiple regression analysis, factors independently related to VGS included treatment on a Medical Research Council-based protocol (odds ratio (OR) 2.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53-5.39; P = 0.001), cytarabine dose per gram/m² (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07; P = 0.002) and prolonged neutropenia (OR 1.58, 95% CI: 0.97-2.56; P = 0.06). None of the evaluated factors were predictive of VSSS. VGS infections occur in 7.6% of chemotherapy courses and remain an important cause of morbidity and even mortality in children being treated for AML. Interventions to reduce VGS need to be identified.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility against penicillin, ampicillin and vancomycin of viridans group Streptococcus in oral microbiota of patients at risk of infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Süzük, Serap; Kaşkatepe, Banu; Çetin, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    The viridans group Streptococci (VGS) are most abundant in the mouth; in some instances they might emerge as pathogens particularly in infective endocarditis (IE). In this study, we aimed to define and determine the susceptibility against antibiotics of VGS that are members of the oral microbiota of patients exhibiting a risk of developing IE. Forty-nine patients at risk of infective endocarditis were included in the study. Identification of the bacteria was performed using API STREP (bioMérieux, France). Gradient test strips (E-Test, France) were used to determine MIC of the bacteria against penicillin, ampicillin, and vancomycin. The distribution of the isolated VGS groups was determined as follows: Streptococcus mitis 32.6% and anginosus group - 32.6%, S. sanguinis group - 16.3%, S. mutans group - 12.2%, and S. salivarius group - 6.1%. The rates of resistance and reduced sensitivity of the isolates for penicillin and ampicillin were determined at 61.2% and 55.1%, respectively. However, all isolates were found to be susceptible to vancomycin. We conclude that the antimicrobial resistance of VGS should be determined on a regular basis locally, and decisions on therapeutic and prophylactic interventions should be given taking this resistance into consideration.

  12. Colonisation of babies and their families by group B streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Weindling, A M; Hawkins, J M; Coombes, M A; Stringer, J

    1981-01-01

    A high incidence of group B streptococcal disease of the newborn in West Berkshire led to a prospective study of the condition. Cultures taken from 1090 babies shortly after birth showed that 65 (6%) were colonised with the streptococcus. Thirty of these babies were assigned to group 1. Bacteriological samples were taken from babies and mothers at birth and at four, eight, and 12 weeks, and also from fathers and siblings. Fifty uncolonised babies and their families were similarly studied and served as controls (group 2). In group 1,28 of the 30 mothers and 14 of the 28 fathers examined were colonised by group B streptococci. In group 2 the streptococci were isolated from three babies, 12 mothers, and 11 out of 45 fathers during follow-up. These findings suggest that group B streptococci are carried predominantly in the lower gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. Most families are lightly colonised, but in others maternal colonisation is stable and heavy and the incidence of paternal colonisation high. Results of serotyping suggest that sexual transmission occurs, which may explain the difficulty in eradicating the organism during pregnancy. PMID:6799041

  13. Comparison of Directigen Group A Strep Test with a traditional culture technique for detection of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    McCusker, J J; McCoy, E L; Young, C L; Alamares, R; Hirsch, L S

    1984-01-01

    The Directigen Group A Strep Test (DGAST), a new rapid method of detecting group A beta-hemolytic streptococci directly from throat swabs, was compared with a traditional culture technique for the detection of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Five hundred oropharyngeal swabs from pediatric and adult patients were cultured and then processed by using the DGAST. Of the 144 specimens positive by culture, 131 were DGAST positive (sensitivity, 90.9%). Of the 356 specimens negative by culture, 353 were DGAST negative (specificity, 99.2%). Twelve of the 13 false-negative DGAST results were from pediatric patients. One hundred isolates of non-group A beta-hemolytic streptococci were recovered, primarily groups C, F, and G. The DGAST is easy to perform, rapid, sensitive, and very specific for detection of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci directly from swabs. Supplementing the DGAST with a culture on a 5% sheep blood agar plate would enhance detection of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci, especially in pediatric patients. PMID:6386884

  14. Group B streptococci in women fitted with intrauterine devices.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, R G; Guillebaud, J; Day, D G

    1977-01-01

    A survey was made of group B streptococcal carriage at various sites in 100 women attending a clinic for the insertion of an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD). Twenty-three women carried streptococci at one or more sites at the preinsertion visit, the vaginal carriage rate being 16%. Six months after insertion changes in carrier status were noted and there was evidence of a change of strain in four patients. Twenty-nine women were carriers at one or more sites at some stage of the study. There was no evidence that symptoms attributable to infection in patients fitted with an IUD were caused by group B streptococci. PMID:338639

  15. Association between group A beta-haemolytic streptococci and vulvovaginitis in adult women: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bruins, M J; Damoiseaux, R A M J; Ruijs, G J H M

    2009-08-01

    Guidelines for the management of vaginal discharge mention Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae as causes and do not recommend full microbiological culture. The role of non-group B beta-haemolytic streptococci in vaginal cultures is unclear, except for group A streptococci that are known to cause vulvovaginitis in children. In a case-control study, we investigated the association between non-group B beta-haemolytic streptococci and vulvovaginitis in adult women. Cases were women with recurrent vaginal discharge from whom a sample was cultured. Controls were asymptomatic women who consented to submitting a vaginal swab. Group A streptococci were isolated from 49 (4.9%) of 1,010 cases and not from the 206 controls (P < 0.01). Isolation rates of group C, F and G streptococci were low and did not differ statistically between cases and controls. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci are associated with vaginal discharge in adult women. The other non-group B streptococci require more study. For the adequate management of vaginal discharge, culturing is necessary if initial treatment fails. Guidelines should be amended according to these results.

  16. Mitis group streptococci express variable pilus islet 2 pili.

    PubMed

    Zähner, Dorothea; Gandhi, Ashish R; Yi, Hong; Stephens, David S

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguinis are members of the Mitis group of streptococci and agents of oral biofilm, dental plaque and infective endocarditis, disease processes that involve bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions. Their close relative, the human pathogen S. pneumoniae uses pilus-islet 2 (PI-2)-encoded pili to facilitate adhesion to eukaryotic cells. PI-2 pilus-encoding genetic islets were identified in S. oralis, S. mitis, and S. sanguinis, but were absent from other isolates of these species. The PI-2 islets resembled the genetic organization of the PI-2 islet of S. pneumoniae, but differed in the genes encoding the structural pilus proteins PitA and PitB. Two and three variants of pitA (a pseudogene in S. pneumoniae) and pitB, respectively, were identified that showed ≈20% difference in nucleotide as well as corresponding protein sequence. Species-independent combinations of pitA and pitB variants indicated prior intra- and interspecies horizontal gene transfer events. Polyclonal antisera developed against PitA and PitB of S. oralis type strain ATCC35037 revealed that PI-2 pili in oral streptococci were composed of PitA and PitB. Electronmicrographs showed pilus structures radiating >700 nm from the bacterial surface in the wild type strain, but not in an isogenic PI-2 deletion mutant. Anti-PitB-antiserum only reacted with pili containing the same PitB variant, whereas anti-PitA antiserum was cross-reactive with the other PitA variant. Electronic multilocus sequence analysis revealed that all PI-2-encoding oral streptococci were closely-related and cluster with non-PI-2-encoding S. oralis strains. This is the first identification of PI-2 pili in Mitis group oral streptococci. The findings provide a striking example of intra- and interspecies horizontal gene transfer. The PI-2 pilus diversity provides a possible key to link strain-specific bacterial interactions and/or tissue tropisms with pathogenic traits

  17. Lysis of grouped and ungrouped streptococci by lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Coleman, S E; van de Rijn, I; Bleiweis, A S

    1970-11-01

    Thirty strains of streptococci were tested for lysis with lysozyme, and 29 of these could be lysed by the following method: (i) suspension of the cells to a Klett reading of 200 units (no. 42 filter) in 0.01 m tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer, pH 8.2, after washing twice with the buffer; (ii) addition of lysozyme to a final concentration of 250 mug/ml with incubation for 60 min at 37 C; (iii) addition of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) to a final concentration of 0.2% and incubation up to an additional 15 min at 37 C. Significant lysis was obtained only after the addition of SLS. (Strains of groups A, E, and G were treated with trypsin at a concentration of 200 mug/ml for 2 hr at 37 C before exposure to lysozyme.) These parameters for optimal lysis of streptococci by lysozyme were established by testing the group D Streptococcus faecalis strain 31 which lyses readily with lysozyme and the group H strain Challis which is less susceptible to the action of the enzyme. Viability of S. faecalis decreased 96% after 3 min of exposure to 250 mug of lysozyme per ml, whereas the more resistant strain Challis retained 27% of the initial viability after the same period. After 60 min, there was almost total loss of viability in each case. Variations of three methods of lysing streptococci with lysozyme were compared with respect to the decrease in turbidity and the release of protein and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) effected by each variation. The method presented in this paper allowed the greatest release of these cytoplasmic constituents from S. faecalis and strain Challis. Transformation experiments using DNA obtained from strain Challis (streptomycinresistant) by this method showed that the DNA released is biologically active.

  18. FACTORS AFFECTING THE CHAIN LENGTH OF GROUP A STREPTOCOCCI

    PubMed Central

    Ekstedt, Richard D.; Stollerman, Gene H.

    1960-01-01

    Group A streptococci which grew in long chains in the presence of homologous anti-M antibody were split into their original length by the addition of an excess of homologous M protein to the culture. The chain-splitting reaction showed temperature and pH optima (37°C., 7.5) and was completely inhibited at 0°C. or by heat-killing the long chains at 56°C. prior to the addition of M protein. Addition of sublethal doses of HgCl2, or of penicillin, inhibited the chain-splitting reaction. Pneumococci behaved in entirely comparable fashion to streptococci in similar experiments. Virulent strains of streptococci formed the shortest chains when broth media was enriched with serum. The chain-shortening effect of serum enrichment of the media was most apparent with encapsulated strains and under cultural conditions that favored capsule formation. Loss of capsules by mutation or by unfavorable growth conditions resulted in increase in chain length. The activity of the chain-splitting mechanism seemed to be independent of M protein, however, since encapsulated M-negative variants also formed very short chain in serum-enriched media. The physical presence of the capsule was not essential for chain shortening since enzymatic removal of the capsule with hyaluronidase during growth did not affect chain length. These results strongly suggest that chain-splitting of streptococci and pneumococci occurs by an active metabolic mechanism, presumably enzymatic, which is inhibited by the union of surface antigens with specific antibody. PMID:13726267

  19. Production of broad-spectrum bacteriocin-like activity by group A streptococci of particular M-types.

    PubMed

    Hynes, W L; Tagg, J R

    1985-04-01

    Application of a bacteriocin production (P)-typing scheme to group A streptococci has shown that approximately 10% of the tested strains inhibit the growth of all 9 indicator bacteria, an activity referred to as P-type 777. Production of such activity was found to be restricted to 14 M-serotypes and within these M-types the incidence of P-type 777 activity was very high. There was no evidence of any correlation with the T-antigenic composition of the bacteria. Investigations of the conditions for production of P-type 777 activity and of its spectrum of activity indicate that the same inhibitory substance(s) are responsible for this inhibition in the various M-types of streptococci. Group C streptococcus strain T277 produces an inhibitor which has a similar activity spectrum to that of the P-type 777 group A streptococci, but there were considerable differences in the production conditions. Whereas the group C inhibitor was particularly dependent on conditions of incubation (37 degrees C, anaerobic) the group A activity was more dependent on the composition of the test medium (source of blood agar base and blood requirement). All of the tested P-type 777 group A streptococci had identical inhibitory spectra. This was principally directed against gram-positive bacteria, including the producer strains themselves. Of interest was the occurrence of some insensitive strains in otherwise susceptible species of bacteria and the discovery of one sensitive gram-negative strain, Bacteroides intermedius. Production of P-type 777 activity does not appear to correlate with production of various streptococcal enzymes, including protease, hemolysin, DNase and amylase. Many P-type 777 strains are producers of opacity factor, another M-type-associated product of group A streptococci. It is suggested that by the combined testing of group A streptococci for P-type 777 activity and for opacity factor it would be possible to narrow the choice of M-antisera to be used for typing purposes.

  20. Evaluation of a new selective enrichment broth for detection of group B streptococci in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Heelan, Judith S; Struminsky, Judith; Lauro, Patricia; Sung, C James

    2005-02-01

    Studies at two Brown Medical School-affiliated hospitals were undertaken to evaluate a new selective broth medium (GBS broth) and to compare it to the LIM broth currently used to culture for group B streptococci. Beta-hemolytic group B streptococci produce a carotenoid pigment that turns GBS broth an orange color. From a total of 580 pregnant women, duplicate vaginal-rectal swabs were collected at 35 to 37 weeks of gestation and cultured for group B streptococci, using either LIM broth (a selective broth containing antibiotics) or GBS broth for enrichment. Specimens were either transported to the laboratory or immediately placed in the respective enrichment broths and delivered to the laboratory. GBS broth medium had sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 87.8, 100, 100, and 95.1% when planted in the laboratory and 90.3, 100, 100 and 97.6%, respectively, when inoculated at bedside. Use of GBS broth would satisfy Centers for Disease Control and Prevention requirements and would provide faster, more-sensitive, and cost-effective detection of group B streptococci in pregnant women.

  1. THE PRESENCE OF A GROUP A VARIANT-LIKE ANTIGEN IN STREPTOCOCCI OF OTHER GROUPS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO GROUP N

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, S. D.; Hayward, John; Liu, T. Y.

    1971-01-01

    A Group A variant-like antigen has been detected in streptococci belonging to Groups D, E, G, M, and N. In Groups D and N the variant-like antigen was located in the streptococcal cell walls. In two strains of Group N streptococci (C559 and B209) the cell walls were chemically different and serologically distinct. In strain C559 N-acetylgalactosamine, and in strain B209, N-acetylglucosamine were the major determinants of serological specificity. The cell walls of strain C559 contained at least three serologically reactive components: a rhamnose-containing fraction that precipitated with an antiserum to Group A-variant carbohydrate; a strain-specific polysaccharide composed of galactosamine and glucosamine, both in the N-acetylated form and probably polymerized with an unidentified phosphorylated substance; and a component of unknown composition serologically related to a Group D streptococcus strain C3 (S. durans). An analogy is drawn between the cell wall structure in streptococcus and Salmonella. PMID:5111438

  2. Prevention and elimination of upper respiratory colonization of mice by group A streptococci by using a bacteriophage lytic enzyme.

    PubMed

    Nelson, D; Loomis, L; Fischetti, V A

    2001-03-27

    Bacteriophage lytic enzymes quickly destroy the cell wall of the host bacterium to release progeny phage. Because such lytic enzymes specifically kill the species in which they were produced, they may represent an effective way to control pathogenic bacteria without disturbing normal microflora. In this report, we studied a murein hydrolase from the streptococcal bacteriophage C(1) termed lysin. This enzyme is specific for groups A, C, and E streptococci, with little or no activity toward several oral streptococci or other commensal organisms tested. Using purified lysin in vitro, we show that 1,000 units (10 ng) of enzyme is sufficient to sterilize a culture of approximately 10(7) group A streptococci within 5 seconds. When a single dose of lysin (250 units) is first added to the oral cavity of mice, followed by 10(7) live group A streptococci, it provides protection from colonization (28.5% infected, n = 21) compared with controls without lysin (70.5% infected, n = 17) (P < 0.03). Furthermore, when lysin (500 units) was given orally to 9 heavily colonized mice, no detectable streptococci were observed 2 h after lysin treatment. In all, these studies show that lysin represents a unique murein hydrolase that has a rapid lethal effect both in vitro and in vivo on group A streptococci, without affecting other indigenous microorganisms analyzed. This general approach may be used to either eliminate or reduce streptococci from the upper respiratory mucosal epithelium of either carriers or infected individuals, thus reducing associated disease.

  3. Identification and molecular characterization of serological group C streptococci isolated from diseased pigs and monkeys in Indonesia.

    PubMed Central

    Soedarmanto, I; Pasaribu, F H; Wibawan, I W; Lämmler, C

    1996-01-01

    The present study was designed to comparatively investigate 34 beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from infected pigs and monkeys from various islands in Indonesia. According to the serological and biochemical data, all 34 isolates were Lancefield's serological group C streptococci and could be identified as Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Of the 34 group C streptococci investigated, 28 grew on solid media in large, mucoid colonies, in fluid media at a uniform turbidity, and in soft agar in diffuse colonies. A decapsulation test with a hyaluronidase-producing Staphylococcus aureus strain revealed the hyaluronic acid nature of the capsular material. The remaining six streptococci grew on solid media in small, nonmucoid colonies, in fluid media as sediment with clear supernatant, and in soft agar in compact colonies. Determination of surface hydrophobicity by salt aggregation revealed a hydrophilic surface for the encapsulated bacteria and a hydrophobic surface for the unencapsulated group C streptococci. To further analyze the epidemiological relationships, all 34 mucoid and nonmucoid isolates from pigs and monkeys were subjected to protein and DNA fingerprinting. The latter was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The protein profiles of all 34 isolates and the DNA profiles of 32 isolates appeared to be identical, with the DNA profiles of 2 isolates being closely related, indicating that a single virulent clone is responsible for this disease outbreak in Indonesia. PMID:8862585

  4. Association of viridans group streptococci from pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis and upper genital tract infection.

    PubMed Central

    Rabe, L K; Winterscheid, K K; Hillier, S L

    1988-01-01

    The prevalence and role of viridans group streptococci in the female genital tract have not been well described. In this study of 482 pregnant women, 147 (30%) were culture positive for viridans group streptococci. Of 392 women with predominant Lactobacillus morphotypes by Gram stain (normal), 110 (28%) were colonized with viridans group streptococci, compared with 37 (41%) of 90 women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) (P = 0.02). To determine whether any species were associated with BV, 177 consecutively isolated viridans group streptococci from the vagina were identified to the species level by using the Facklam scheme. The most frequently isolated species from the vagina was Streptococcus intermedius (13%), followed by Streptococcus acidominimus (6%), Streptococcus constellatus (5%), Streptococcus sanguis II (4%), Streptococcus mitis (2%), Streptococcus salivarius (2%), Streptococcus morbillorum (2%), Streptococcus sanguis I (1%), Streptococcus mutans (0.2%), and Streptococcus uberis (0.2%) with an average of 1.2 species per woman. The distribution of the species among women with BV compared with normal women was not significantly different, with the exception of two species which were associated with BV: S. acidominimus (18% versus 3%, P less than 0.001) and S. morbillorum (6% versus 0.7%, P = 0.005). Amniotic fluid and placenta cultures yielded 54 isolates: S. sanguis II (13 isolates), S. acidominimus (9 isolates), S. intermedius (10 isolates), S. constellatus (3 isolates), S. mitis (4 isolates), S. sanguis I (4 isolates), S. morbillorum (5 isolates), S. mutans (2 isolates), S. uberis (1 isolate), mannitol-positive S. intermedius (1 isolate), and 2 isolates which were not classified. The distribution of species isolated from the upper genital tract was not a reflection of the distribution in the lower genital tract. Dextran-producing species of viridans group streptococci may have a greater pathogenic potential in the placenta than the non

  5. Association of viridans group streptococci from pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis and upper genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Rabe, L K; Winterscheid, K K; Hillier, S L

    1988-06-01

    The prevalence and role of viridans group streptococci in the female genital tract have not been well described. In this study of 482 pregnant women, 147 (30%) were culture positive for viridans group streptococci. Of 392 women with predominant Lactobacillus morphotypes by Gram stain (normal), 110 (28%) were colonized with viridans group streptococci, compared with 37 (41%) of 90 women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) (P = 0.02). To determine whether any species were associated with BV, 177 consecutively isolated viridans group streptococci from the vagina were identified to the species level by using the Facklam scheme. The most frequently isolated species from the vagina was Streptococcus intermedius (13%), followed by Streptococcus acidominimus (6%), Streptococcus constellatus (5%), Streptococcus sanguis II (4%), Streptococcus mitis (2%), Streptococcus salivarius (2%), Streptococcus morbillorum (2%), Streptococcus sanguis I (1%), Streptococcus mutans (0.2%), and Streptococcus uberis (0.2%) with an average of 1.2 species per woman. The distribution of the species among women with BV compared with normal women was not significantly different, with the exception of two species which were associated with BV: S. acidominimus (18% versus 3%, P less than 0.001) and S. morbillorum (6% versus 0.7%, P = 0.005). Amniotic fluid and placenta cultures yielded 54 isolates: S. sanguis II (13 isolates), S. acidominimus (9 isolates), S. intermedius (10 isolates), S. constellatus (3 isolates), S. mitis (4 isolates), S. sanguis I (4 isolates), S. morbillorum (5 isolates), S. mutans (2 isolates), S. uberis (1 isolate), mannitol-positive S. intermedius (1 isolate), and 2 isolates which were not classified. The distribution of species isolated from the upper genital tract was not a reflection of the distribution in the lower genital tract. Dextran-producing species of viridans group streptococci may have a greater pathogenic potential in the placenta than the non

  6. Cell surface hydrophobicity of group D and viridans streptococci isolated from patients with septicaemia.

    PubMed

    Ljungh, A; Osterlind, M; Wadström, T

    1986-05-01

    Sixty-three strains of Group D streptococci and viridans streptococci isolated from blood cultures during a two year period were typed to the species level with conventional biochemical tests and API Strep. Streptococcus faecalis was the most common species isolated followed by S. sanguis, S. mitis and S. constellatus (S. milleri). One of the two isolates of S. faecium was a contamination. The reported increasing frequency of this organism and other Group D and viridans streptococci as well as the association of S. bovis with malignant bowel disease indicate the need for full identification of streptococcal isolates from blood cultures. Pronounced surface hydrophobicity as measured with the salt aggregation test (SAT) was expressed by 59/63 (94%) of the blood culture isolates whereas strains isolated from commercial fermentation products and strains passaged several times were hydrophilic. In the presence of human serum albumin which binds to lipoteichoic acid only one strain decreased in surface hydrophobicity. The surface hydrophobicity of two strains even slightly increased indicating that lipoteichoic acid but marginally contributes to surface hydrophobicity of streptococcal cells from these species.

  7. Presumptive identification of streptococci with a new test system.

    PubMed Central

    Facklam, R R; Thacker, L G; Fox, B; Eriquez, L

    1982-01-01

    A test is described that could replace bacitracin susceptibility for presumptive identification of group A streptococci as well as 6.5% NaCl agar tolerance for presumptive identification of enterococcal streptococci. The L-pyrrolidonyl-beta-naphthylamide test, based on hydrolysis of pyrrolidonyl-beta-naphthylamide, was used in conjunction with the CAMP and bile-esculin tests to presumptively identify the streptococci. Among the beta-hemolytic streptococci; 98% of 50 group A, 98% of 46 group B, and 100% of 70 strains that were not group A, B, or D were correctly identified by the new presumptive test scheme. Among the non-beta-hemolytic streptococci; 96% of 74 group D enterococcal, 100% of 30 group D nonenterococcal, and 82% of 112 viridans strains were correctly identified by the new presumptive test scheme. PMID:7050157

  8. Throat carriage rate and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of group A Streptococci (GAS) in healthy Ethiopian school children.

    PubMed

    Abdissa, Alemseged; Asrat, Daniel; Kronvall, Göran; Shitu, Belay; Achiko, Dilachew; Zeidan, Mohammed; Yamuah, Lawrence K; Aseffa, Abraham

    2011-04-01

    Group A Streptococci (GAS) or Streptococcus pyogenes are the most frequent cause of pharyngitis and skin infection in children and lead to post infection complications including acute rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis. Pharyngeal carriage rates of GAS among healthy school children vary with geographical location and seasons. There is not much information on the screening of children for carriage of GAS in Ethiopia. The study aimed at assessing the carriage rate of Group A Streptococci and antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates in healthy Ethiopian school children. A total of 937 children residing in Addis Ababa (n=491), Gondar (n=265) and Dire-Dawa (n=181) were investigated during a period between November 2004 and January 2005. Throat specimens were collected and cultured using standard procedure. Beta haemolytic streptococci were serogrouped by agglutination tests using specific antisera. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates was performed by diffusion method. The median and the mean ages of the study participants were 11 (range 6-14) years. Girls constituted 52% (486/937) of the study participants. A total of 167 (17.8%) beta haemolytic streptococci were recovered from 937 children investigated GAS accounted for 91/167 (54.5%) of beta hemolytic streptococcal isolates. The carrier rate for GAS was 9.7% (91/937) of the screened children followed by group G with 3.2% (30/937) and group C streptococci with 2.2% (21/937). All GAS isolates were sensitive to oxacillin, penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. Lower frequency of resistance was observed against tetracycline and vanocmycin. The present study revealed that GAS was the most predominant beta-haemolytic streptococcus among healthy Ethiopian school children. Our results showed that pharyngeal carriage of GAS in school children should not be underestimated. Therefore it is recommended to conduct regular screening and GAS surveillance in schools, and

  9. Can group B streptococci cause symptomatic vaginitis?

    PubMed Central

    Honig, E; Mouton, J W; van der Meijden, W I

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal cervicovaginal colonization with Lancefield group B streptococci (GBS) is an important risk factor for neonatal morbidity and mortality. About 15% of women are carriers of GBS. Usually, they are asymptomatic. CASES: We describe two patients with symptomatic vaginitis for which no apparent cause was found. Both patients were heavily colonized with GBS. After antibiotic treatment, both became asymptomatic and culture negative, but after recolonization with GBS, symptoms resumed. This phenomenon was repeatedly observed. After emergence of resistance to antibiotics, local application of chlorhexidine appeared to be the only useful treatment. CONCLUSION: We hypothesize that GBS-vaginitis may be a possible disease entity. Although at present it is not clear why some patients become symptomatic, we speculate that the immunologic response is somehow selectively hampered in such patients. PMID:10449271

  10. Viridans Group Streptococcal Infections in Children After Chemotherapy or Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Maryke J.; Claxton, Sarah; Pizer, Barry; Lane, Steven; Cooke, Richard P.D.; Paulus, Stéphane; Carrol, Enitan D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Viridans Group Streptococci (VGS) are associated with high mortality rates in febrile neutropenia; yet there are no recent European pediatric studies to inform antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics, outcome, and resistance patterns of children with VGS bacteremia (VGSB) undergoing treatment of malignancy or hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Patients aged 0 to 18 years, admitted to a tertiary pediatric hemato-oncology center with VGSB, from 2003 to 2013, were included in the study. All data were collected retrospectively from medical records. A total of 54 bacteremic episodes occurred in 46 patients. The most common underlying diagnosis was relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Streptococcus mitis was the most frequent organism. A total of 30% of isolates were resistant to penicillin and 100% sensitive to vancomycin. There were 8 episodes (14.8%) of Viridans Group Streptococcal Shock Syndrome; 6 resulted in admission to intensive care and 3 of these patients died of multiorgan failure. The potentially fatal nature of VGSB is confirmed. The high risk in relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia is of note. Research is needed to develop risk-stratification scores that identify children at risk of Viridans Group Streptococcal Shock Syndrome to guide empirical antimicrobial therapy in febrile neutropenia. PMID:26945409

  11. Group F streptococci in the pharynx: pathogens or innocent bystanders?

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; McCoy, P; Hayden, G F; Hallas, G

    1986-08-01

    beta-Hemolytic streptococci (BHS) of Lancefield group F were isolated in moderate to heavy growth from throat cultures taken from 46 children and adolescents with symptomatic pharyngitis. In most instances, oxygen deprivation by means of an anaerobe jar was required for these beta-hemolytic organisms to grow. In relation to a comparison group of children with throat cultures positive for group A BHS, children with group F isolates were more likely to be adolescents and less likely to have fever and cervical adenopathy. It appears that group F BHS are not a major cause of nonepidemic pharyngitis in the pediatric age group. More precise determination of how commonly these organisms cause pharyngitis will require either comparison of isolation rates of group F BHS from the throats of both sick and well children, or further elucidation of the serologic response to these organisms so as to distinguish invasive infection from asymptomatic carriage.

  12. Effects of medium composition on penicillin-induced hydrolysis and loss of RNA and culture turbidity in group A streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, T D; Reed, K E

    1989-01-01

    Exposure to penicillin G of exponentially growing cultures of group A streptococci growing in chemically defined medium (CDM) can lead to extensive loss of culture turbidity. Significant reductions in culture turbidity did not accompany comparable treatments of group A streptococci growing in Todd-Hewitt broth (THB). Studies with THB and a high-molecular-weight (greater than 12,000) fraction of THB demonstrated that components in this complex medium inhibited the efflux of RNA hydrolysis products from otherwise intact cells. Hydrolysis products accumulated intracellularly and inhibited the extensive hydrolysis of RNA and consequently the loss of culture turbidity. Results of survival studies with cultures of group A streptococci exposed to penicillin G in THB demonstrated that this treatment protocol produces conditions of phenotypic tolerance relative to exposure in CDM. In combination, these findings provide further support for the hypothesis of RNA hydrolysis as the bactericidal mechanism of penicillin G action in this nonlytic death phenotype. PMID:2480343

  13. Effects of medium composition on penicillin-induced hydrolysis and loss of RNA and culture turbidity in group A streptococci.

    PubMed

    McDowell, T D; Reed, K E

    1989-12-01

    Exposure to penicillin G of exponentially growing cultures of group A streptococci growing in chemically defined medium (CDM) can lead to extensive loss of culture turbidity. Significant reductions in culture turbidity did not accompany comparable treatments of group A streptococci growing in Todd-Hewitt broth (THB). Studies with THB and a high-molecular-weight (greater than 12,000) fraction of THB demonstrated that components in this complex medium inhibited the efflux of RNA hydrolysis products from otherwise intact cells. Hydrolysis products accumulated intracellularly and inhibited the extensive hydrolysis of RNA and consequently the loss of culture turbidity. Results of survival studies with cultures of group A streptococci exposed to penicillin G in THB demonstrated that this treatment protocol produces conditions of phenotypic tolerance relative to exposure in CDM. In combination, these findings provide further support for the hypothesis of RNA hydrolysis as the bactericidal mechanism of penicillin G action in this nonlytic death phenotype.

  14. STUDIES ON THE PATHOGENICITY OF GROUP A STREPTOCOCCI

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Marie Judith; Smith, Mary Ruth; Wood, W. Barry

    1959-01-01

    Four strains of Group A streptococci, possessing different degrees of virulence for both mice and rats, were tested for susceptibility to phagocytosis on glass slides, in glass roller tubes, and on the surfaces of freshly excised tissues and moistened filter paper. All of the tests were performed in the absence of serum to exclude the possible presence of opsonins. Only under conditions which allowed surface phagocytosis to take place was there a correlation between virulence and susceptibility to phagocytosis. A similar relationship between virulence and surface phagocytosis was also demonstrable in vivo during the early stages of experimental streptococcal peritonitis. Systematic study of the evolution of the peritonitis revealed that its outcome was determined by the phagocytic reaction which occurred in the first few hours of the infection. PMID:13823727

  15. Species Differentiation of Group D Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Papavassiliou, J.

    1962-01-01

    Three hundred and fourteen strains of group D streptococci were studied by means of a number of tests. The majority of the strains were identified as Streptococcus faecalis (83 strains), Streptococcus faecium (131 strains), or Streptococcus bovis (32 strains). Several strains (47 or nearly 15%) either shared characteristics of two species or were completely atypical. S. faecalis and S. bovis were more easily identified than S. faecium, which is not sharply defined from the other species and could be subdivided into several fermentative types on the basis of fermentation of arabinose, mannitol, sorbitol, glycerol, and sucrose. The value of some characteristics in species identification is discussed. Growth in the presence of potassium tellurite 1:2,500 and in the presence of 6.5% NaCl and fermentation of arabinose, glycerol, and raffinose are very important tests for the identification of the three species. The reduction of tetrazolium salts, the reduction of litmus milk, and the fermentation of sorbitol may serve as complementary tests for the same purpose. For the differentiation of these three species the “pattern of reactions” is more important than single tests. PMID:14483707

  16. SXT and Taxo A Disks for Presumptive Identification of Group A and B Streptococci in Throat Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Bruce A.

    1976-01-01

    A bacitracin (0.04 units, BBL)-SXT (trimethoprim, 1.25 mg, plus sulfamethoxazole, 23.75 mg, BBL) susceptibility test was 94% accurate in presumptively identifying streptococci as either group A, B or not group A and B. PMID:965480

  17. [Occurrence and drug-resistance of beta-hemolytic streptococci].

    PubMed

    Mikołajczyk, Dorota; Budzyńska, Anna; Kaczmarek, Agnieszka; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was the analysis of drug-resistance and frequency appearance of beta-hemolytic streptococci strains which were isolated in 2003-2005 in the University Hospital at the L. Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz University of Nicolaus Copernicus in Toruń. Among investigeted beta-hemolytic streptococci the most frequency isolated species was S. agalactiae. All isolates examined in our study were susceptible to penicillin, the higest rate of resistance was found for tetracycline. The rates of resistence to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (phenotyp MLS(B)) were as follows: S. agalactiae (18.7%), S. pyogenes (10.1%), group G streptococci (10.6%) and group C streptococci (8.0%). In our study we presented also a special case patient from which in investigeted period S. agalactiae was isolated twenty eight times. For ten chromosomal DNA isolated from this patient three different PFGE profiles were obtained.

  18. Capsular typing of Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B streptococci) from fish using multiplex PCR and serotyping

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Streptococcus spp. including Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B streptococci) are considered emerging pathogens responsible for approximately $1 billion USD in annual losses to the global tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) aquaculture industry. This study evaluated a published multiplex PCR capsul...

  19. High frequency of fluoroquinolone- and macrolide-resistant streptococci among clinically isolated group B streptococci with reduced penicillin susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kouji; Nagano, Noriyuki; Nagano, Yukiko; Suzuki, Satowa; Wachino, Jun-ichi; Shibayama, Keigo; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2013-03-01

    Recently several clinical isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae [also known as group B Streptococcus (GBS)] that have acquired reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS) by amino acid substitutions in the penicillin-binding protein 2X have emerged. The frequency of fluoroquinolone (FQ)- and macrolide-resistant streptococci among PRGBS is not yet known. Fifty-seven GBS [19 PRGBS and 38 penicillin-susceptible GBS (PSGBS)], isolated from different medical institutions in Japan, were studied. For GBS, the MICs of penicillin G, levofloxacin and erythromycin were determined using the agar dilution method. Nineteen PRGBS were previously confirmed as genetically diverse streptococci by PFGE. Further, the mechanisms underlying penicillin, FQ and macrolide non-susceptibility/resistance were analysed. The frequency of non-susceptibility to FQs among PSGBS was 18.4% (7/38), whereas that among PRGBS was 100% (19/19). The frequency of resistance to erythromycin among PSGBS was 7.9% (3/38), while that among PRGBS was 47.4% (9/19). Statistical significance was determined using Fisher's exact test between reduced penicillin susceptibility and FQ non-susceptibility (P ≤ 0.0001) and macrolide resistance (P=0.0012). The resistance/non-susceptibility mechanisms among PRGBS were diverse, suggesting that the PRGBS examined were not clonal. PRGBS isolates tend to show resistance to FQs and/or macrolides. Because the drug choice for treating these multidrug-resistant GBS is more limited than that for usual GBS, these strains may present future public health challenges.

  20. Defining the ABC of gene essentiality in streptococci.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Amelia R L; Forman, Oliver P; Cain, Amy K; Newland, Graham; Robinson, Carl; Boursnell, Mike; Parkhill, Julian; Leigh, James A; Maskell, Duncan J; Waller, Andrew S

    2017-05-31

    Utilising next generation sequencing to interrogate saturated bacterial mutant libraries provides unprecedented information for the assignment of genome-wide gene essentiality. Exposure of saturated mutant libraries to specific conditions and subsequent sequencing can be exploited to uncover gene essentiality relevant to the condition. Here we present a barcoded transposon directed insertion-site sequencing (TraDIS) system to define an essential gene list for Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, the causative agent of strangles in horses, for the first time. The gene essentiality data for this group C Streptococcus was compared to that of group A and B streptococci. Six barcoded variants of pGh9:ISS1 were designed and used to generate mutant libraries containing between 33,000-66,000 unique mutants. TraDIS was performed on DNA extracted from each library and data were analysed separately and as a combined master pool. Gene essentiality determined that 19.5% of the S. equi genome was essential. Gene essentialities were compared to those of group A and group B streptococci, identifying concordances of 90.2% and 89.4%, respectively and an overall concordance of 83.7% between the three species. The use of barcoded pGh9:ISS1 to generate mutant libraries provides a highly useful tool for the assignment of gene function in S. equi and other streptococci. The shared essential gene set of group A, B and C streptococci provides further evidence of the close genetic relationships between these important pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, the ABC of gene essentiality reported here provides a solid foundation towards reporting the functional genome of streptococci.

  1. Viridans Group Streptococcal Infections in Children After Chemotherapy or Stem Cell Transplantation: A 10-year Review From a Tertiary Pediatric Hospital.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Maryke J; Claxton, Sarah; Pizer, Barry; Lane, Steven; Cooke, Richard P D; Paulus, Stéphane; Carrol, Enitan D

    2016-03-01

    Viridans Group Streptococci (VGS) are associated with high mortality rates in febrile neutropenia; yet there are no recent European pediatric studies to inform antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics, outcome, and resistance patterns of children with VGS bacteremia (VGSB) undergoing treatment of malignancy or hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Patients aged 0 to 18 years, admitted to a tertiary pediatric hemato-oncology center with VGSB, from 2003 to 2013, were included in the study. All data were collected retrospectively from medical records. A total of 54 bacteremic episodes occurred in 46 patients. The most common underlying diagnosis was relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Streptococcus mitis was the most frequent organism. A total of 30% of isolates were resistant to penicillin and 100% sensitive to vancomycin. There were 8 episodes (14.8%) of Viridans Group Streptococcal Shock Syndrome; 6 resulted in admission to intensive care and 3 of these patients died of multiorgan failure. The potentially fatal nature of VGSB is confirmed. The high risk in relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia is of note. Research is needed to develop risk-stratification scores that identify children at risk of Viridans Group Streptococcal Shock Syndrome to guide empirical antimicrobial therapy in febrile neutropenia.

  2. Invasion of human aortic endothelial cells by oral viridans group streptococci and induction of inflammatory cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Nagata, E; de Toledo, A; Oho, T

    2011-02-01

    Oral viridans group streptococci are the major commensal bacteria of the supragingival oral biofilm and have been detected in human atheromatous plaque. Atherosclerosis involves an ongoing inflammatory response, reportedly involving chronic infection caused by multiple pathogens. The aim of this study was to examine the invasion of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) by oral viridans group streptococci and the subsequent cytokine production by viable invaded HAECs. The invasion of HAECs by bacteria was examined using antibiotic protection assays and was visualized by confocal scanning laser microscopy. The inhibitory effects of catalase and cytochalasin D on the invasion of HAECs were also examined. The production of cytokines by invaded or infected HAECs was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and a real-time polymerase chain reaction method was used to evaluate the expression of cytokine messenger RNA. The oral streptococci tested were capable of invading HAECs. The number of invasive bacteria increased with the length of the co-culture period. After a certain co-culture period, some organisms were cytotoxic to the HAECs. Catalase and cytochalasin D inhibited the invasion of HAECs by the organism. HAECs invaded by Streptococcus mutans Xc, Streptococcus gordonii DL1 (Challis), Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558 and Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419 produced more cytokine(s) (interleukin-6, interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) than non-invaded HAECs. The HAECs invaded by S. mutans Xc produced the largest amounts of cytokines, and the messenger RNA expression of cytokines by invaded HAECs increased markedly compared with that by non-invaded HAECs. These results suggest that oral streptococci may participate in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Streptococcus mitis Strains Causing Severe Clinical Disease in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sahasrabhojane, Pranoti; Saldana, Miguel; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Horstmann, Nicola; Thompson, Erika; Flores, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    The genetically diverse viridans group streptococci (VGS) are increasingly recognized as the cause of a variety of human diseases. We used a recently developed multilocus sequence analysis scheme to define the species of 118 unique VGS strains causing bacteremia in patients with cancer; Streptococcus mitis (68 patients) and S. oralis (22 patients) were the most frequently identified strains. Compared with patients infected with non–S. mitis strains, patients infected with S. mitis strains were more likely to have moderate or severe clinical disease (e.g., VGS shock syndrome). Combined with the sequence data, whole-genome analyses showed that S. mitis strains may more precisely be considered as >2 species. Furthermore, we found that multiple S. mitis strains induced disease in neutropenic mice in a dose-dependent fashion. Our data define the prominent clinical effect of the group of organisms currently classified as S. mitis and lay the groundwork for increased understanding of this understudied pathogen. PMID:24750901

  4. STREPTOCOCCI OCCURRING IN SOUR MILK

    PubMed Central

    Jones, F. S.

    1921-01-01

    A well defined group of rod-like and coccoid organisms arranged in pairs and chains has been encountered in sour milk. The group comprises at least three species; the largest number ferment dextrose, lactose, maltose, mannitol, and salicin, and fail to ferment saccharose, raffinose, and inulin. A smaller number ferment saccharose in addition to dextrose, lactose, maltose, mannitol, and salicin. A few fail to attack mannitol. All three types grow luxuriantly at room temperature, coagulate milk, reduce litmus, and produce large amounts of acid in fermented bouillon containing dextrose. Specific morphological and cultural differences exist between the lactic acid streptococci and those associated with mastitis and those occurring in the udder. The lactic acid organisms outgrow the udder streptococci in the milk-souring process. When both types are implanted in sterile milk the udder type soon disappears. PMID:19868477

  5. A new curvature compensation technique for CMOS voltage reference using |VGS| and ΔVBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuemin, Li; Mao, Ye; Gongyuan, Zhao; Yun, Zhang; Yiqiang, Zhao

    2016-05-01

    A new mixed curvature compensation technique for CMOS voltage reference is presented, which resorts to two sub-references with complementary temperature characteristics. The first sub-reference is the source-gate voltage |VGS|p of a PMOS transistor working in the saturated region. The second sub-reference is the weighted sum of gate-source voltages |VGS|n of NMOS transistors in the subthreshold region and the difference between two base-emitter voltages ΔVBE of bipolar junction transistors (BJTs). The voltage reference implemented utilizing the proposed curvature compensation technique exhibits a low temperature coefficient and occupies a small silicon area. The proposed technique was verified in 0.18 μm standard CMOS process technology. The performance of the circuit has been measured. The measured results show a temperature coefficient as low as 12.7 ppm/°C without trimming, over a temperature range from -40 to 120 °C, and the current consumption is 50 μA at room temperature. The measured power-supply rejection ratio (PSRR) is -31.2 dB @ 100 kHz. The circuit occupies an area of 0.045 mm2. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61376032).

  6. Improved Differentiation of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Other S. mitis Group Streptococci by MALDI Biotyper Using an Improved MALDI Biotyper Database Content and a Novel Result Interpretation Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Harju, Inka; Lange, Christoph; Kostrzewa, Markus; Maier, Thomas; Rantakokko-Jalava, Kaisu; Haanperä, Marjo

    2017-03-01

    Reliable distinction of Streptococcus pneumoniae and viridans group streptococci is important because of the different pathogenic properties of these organisms. Differentiation between S. pneumoniae and closely related Sreptococcus mitis species group streptococci has always been challenging, even when using such modern methods as 16S rRNA gene sequencing or matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. In this study, a novel algorithm combined with an enhanced database was evaluated for differentiation between S. pneumoniae and S. mitis species group streptococci. One hundred one clinical S. mitis species group streptococcal strains and 188 clinical S. pneumoniae strains were identified by both the standard MALDI Biotyper database alone and that combined with a novel algorithm. The database update from 4,613 strains to 5,627 strains drastically improved the differentiation of S. pneumoniae and S. mitis species group streptococci: when the new database version containing 5,627 strains was used, only one of the 101 S. mitis species group isolates was misidentified as S. pneumoniae , whereas 66 of them were misidentified as S. pneumoniae when the earlier 4,613-strain MALDI Biotyper database version was used. The updated MALDI Biotyper database combined with the novel algorithm showed even better performance, producing no misidentifications of the S. mitis species group strains as S. pneumoniae All S. pneumoniae strains were correctly identified as S. pneumoniae with both the standard MALDI Biotyper database and the standard MALDI Biotyper database combined with the novel algorithm. This new algorithm thus enables reliable differentiation between pneumococci and other S. mitis species group streptococci with the MALDI Biotyper. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. [Evaluation of Prolex for the rapid identification of streptococci isolated in medical microbiology].

    PubMed

    Loubinoux, J; Mihaila-Amrouche, L; Bouvet, A

    2004-10-01

    The need to rapidly identify streptococci responsible for acute infectious diseases has led to the development of agglutination techniques that are able to identify streptococcal group antigens (A, B, C, D, F, and G) directly from primoculture colonies on blood agar. The Prolex agglutination tests (Pro-Lab Diagnostics, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada), distributed in France by i2a, have been used for the determination of group antigens of 166 isolates of streptococci and enterococci previously identified in the National Reference Center for Streptococci. The results obtained with the Prolex reagents have permitted to correctly identify all pyogenic beta-hemolytic streptococci (23 Streptococcus pyogenes, 21 Streptococcus agalactiae, 33 Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis including 6 group C and 27 group G, and 5 Streptococcus porcinus including 4 group B). Four differences between unexpected agglutinations (A or F) and species identifications have been obtained. These differences were observed for four non-hemolytic isolates of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus infantarius, and Streptococcus suis. The anti-D reagent has been of value as a marker for isolates of enterococci. Thus, these results confirm the abilities of these agglutination tests for the grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococci. Moreover, the use of Prolex has the advantage to be rapid because of the non-enzymatic but chemical extraction of streptococcal antigens.

  8. Garenoxacin treatment of experimental endocarditis caused by viridans group streptococci.

    PubMed

    Anguita-Alonso, Paloma; Rouse, Mark S; Piper, Kerryl E; Steckelberg, James M; Patel, Robin

    2006-04-01

    The activity of garenoxacin was compared to that of levofloxacin or penicillin in a rabbit model of Streptococcus mitis group (penicillin MIC, 0.125 microg/ml) and Streptococcus sanguinis group (penicillin MIC, 0.25 microg/ml) endocarditis. Garenoxacin and levofloxacin had MICs of 0.125 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively, for both study isolates. Rabbits with catheter-induced aortic valve endocarditis were given no treatment, penicillin at 1.2x10(6) IU/8 h intramuscularly, garenoxacin at 20 mg/kg of body weight/12 h intravenously, or levofloxacin at 40 mg/kg/12 h intravenously. For both isolates tested, garenoxacin area under the curve (AUC)/MIC and maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax)/MIC ratios were 368 and 91, respectively. Rabbits were sacrificed after 3 days of treatment; cardiac valve vegetations were aseptically removed and quantitatively cultured. For S. mitis group experimental endocarditis, all studied antimicrobial agents were more active than no treatment (P<0.001), whereas for S. sanguinis group endocarditis, no studied antimicrobial agents were more active than no treatment. We conclude that AUC/MIC and Cmax/MIC ratios may not predict activity of some quinolones in experimental viridans group endocarditis and that garenoxacin and levofloxacin may not be ideal choices for serious infections caused by some quinolone-susceptible viridans group streptococci.

  9. Lysogenic Transfer of Group A Streptococcus Superantigen Gene among Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Vojtek, Ivo; Pirzada, Zaid A.; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Mastny, Markus; Janapatla, Rajendra P.; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2010-01-01

    A group A Streptococcus(GAS) isolate,serotypeM12,recovered from a patient with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome was analyzed for superantigen-carrying prophages, revealing 149, which encodes superantigen SSA. Sequence analysis of the att-L proximal region of 149 showed that the phage had a mosaic nature. Remarkably, we successfully obtained lysogenic conversion of GAS clinical isolates of various M serotypes (M1, M3, M5, M12, M19, M28, and M94), as well as of group C Streptococcus equisimilis (GCSE) clinical isolates, via transfer of a recombinant phage 149::Kmr. Phage149::Kmr from selected lysogenized GAS and GCSE strains could be transferred back to M12 GAS strains. Our data indicate that horizontal transfer of lysogenic phages among GAS can occur across the M-type barrier; these data also provide further support for the hypothesis that toxigenic conversion can occur via lysogeny between species. Streptococci might employ this mechanism specifically to allow more efficient adaptation to changing host challenges, potentially leading to fitter and more virulent clones. PMID:18179387

  10. Stimulation of complement component C3 synthesis in macrophagelike cell lines by group B streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Goodrum, K J

    1987-01-01

    Complement levels and complement activation are key determinants in streptococcus-induced inflammatory responses. Activation of macrophage functions, such as complement synthesis, by group B streptococci (GBS) was examined as a possible component of GBS-induced chronic inflammation. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, secreted C3 from mouse macrophagelike cell lines (PU5-1.8 and J774A.1) was monitored after cultivation with GBS. Whole, heat-killed GBS (1 to 10 CFU per macrophage) of both type Ia and III strains induced 25 to 300% increases in secreted C3 in both cell lines after a 24-h cultivation. GBS-treated cell lines exhibited increases in secreted lysozyme (10%) and in cellular protein (25 to 50%). Inhibition of macrophage phagocytosis by cytochalasin B inhibited GBS stimulation of C3. Purified cell walls of GBS type III strain 603-79 (1 to 10 micrograms/ml) also enhanced C3 synthesis. Local enhancement of macrophage C3 production by ingested streptococci or by persistent cell wall antigens may serve to promote chronic inflammatory responses. PMID:3552987

  11. INDUCTION OF RABBIT ANTIBODY WITH MOLECULAR UNIFORMITY AFTER IMMUNIZATION WITH GROUP C STREPTOCOCCI

    PubMed Central

    Eichmann, Klaus; Lackland, Henry; Hood, Leroy; Krause, Richard M.

    1970-01-01

    Antibodies with uniform properties may occur in rabbits after immunization with Group C streptococci. These precipitating antibodies possess specificity for the group-specific carbohydrate. Not uncommonly, their concentration is between 20 and 40 mg/ml of antiserum. Evidence for molecular uniformity in the case of one of these antibodies, described in detail here, includes: individual antigenic specificity; monodisperse distribution of the light chains by alkaline urea polyacrylamide disc electrophoresis; and a single amino acid in each of the first three N-terminal positions of the light chains. When the amino acid sequence of rabbit antibody b+ light chains (κ type) are aligned against their human κ counterparts, a definite homology is observed between the N-terminus of the human and the rabbit variable region. PMID:5409946

  12. Efficacy of BMY-28142 in experimental bacteremia and meningitis caused by Escherichia coli and group B streptococci.

    PubMed

    Kim, K S; Bayer, A S

    1985-07-01

    We evaluated the activity of BMY-28142 against a K1 E. coli strain and a type III group B streptococcal strain in vitro and in vivo and compared the results with those of cefotaxime and penicillin G, respectively. In vitro, the MICs and MBCs of BMY-28142 were close to those of cefotaxime (less than or equal to 2-fold difference) for E. coli and fourfold less than those of penicillin G for group B streptococci. In vivo studies with an experimental bacteremia and meningitis model in newborn rats revealed that the mean penetration of BMY-28142 into the cerebrospinal fluid was 15% that of concomitant levels in serum and that significantly greater bactericidal titers were achieved in blood and cerebrospinal fluid for both test organisms with BMY-28142 than with cefotaxime and penicillin G. However, the overall efficacy of BMY-28142 was similar to that of cefotaxime for the E. coli infection and that of penicillin G for the group B streptococcal infection. This was shown by similar rates of bacterial clearance from blood and cerebrospinal fluid and similar mortality rates. These findings indicate that the activity of BMY-28142 is bactericidal in vitro and in vivo against E. coli and group B streptococci, suggesting that this agent may be a suitable alternative for the therapy of E. coli and group B streptococcal bacteremia and meningitis.

  13. X-Ray Diffraction Studies on Metal Deposition in Group D Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Fayne L.; Thomas, John W.; Appleman, Milo D.; Goodman, Stewart H.; Donohue, Jerry

    1966-01-01

    Tucker, Fayne L. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles), John W. Thomas, Milo D. Appleman, Stewart H. Goodman, and Jerry Donohue. X-ray diffraction studies on metal deposition in group D streptococci. J. Bacteriol. 92:1311–1314. 1966.—Streptococcus faecalis N83 and S. faecium K6A reduced several compounds of Group VI elements to the elemental form, but reduced none of several compounds tested containing elements of other groups. The elemental tellurium deposited by S. faecium K6A was in general of a larger particle size than that deposited by S. faecalis N83 as judged from X-ray diffraction analysis. The particle size of the deposited tellurium was correlated with the blackness of the precipitate produced by cells growing in the presence of tellurite. A black and gray variation was observed in S. faecium K6A which was considered to be due to particle size, the amount of tellurium present, and the location of the deposited tellurium. The gray color of S. faecium K6A was not due to the presence of any oxidized tellurium products. PMID:4958879

  14. Microbial Diversity in Milk of Women With Mastitis: Potential Role of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci, Viridans Group Streptococci, and Corynebacteria.

    PubMed

    Mediano, Pilar; Fernández, Leonides; Jiménez, Esther; Arroyo, Rebeca; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; Rodríguez, Juan M; Marín, María

    2017-05-01

    Lactational mastitis constitutes a significant cause of premature weaning. However, its etiology, linked to the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, has been scarcely reported. Research aim: The aim of this study was to describe the microbial diversity in milk samples from women suffering from lactational mastitis and to identify more accurately a collection of isolates belonging to coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci, and coryneform bacteria. This is a cross-sectional descriptive one-group study. A total of 5,009 isolates from 1,849 mastitis milk samples was identified by culture, biochemical, and/or molecular methods at the species or genus level. A more precise identification of a collection of 211 isolates was carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Mean total bacterial count in milk samples was 4.11 log 10 colony-forming units/ml, 95% confidence interval [4.08, 4.15]. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common species being isolated from 91.56% of the samples, whereas Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 29.74%. Streptococci and corynebacteria constituted the second (70.20%) and third (16.60%) most prevalent bacterial groups, respectively, found in this study. In contrast, Candida spp. was present in only 0.54% of the samples. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed a high diversity of bacterial species among identified isolates. Many coagulase-negative staphylococci, viridans group streptococci, and corynebacteria, usually dismissed as contaminant bacteria, may play an important role as etiologic agents of mastitis. Proper diagnosis of mastitis should be established after performing microbiological testing of milk based on standardized procedures. A reliable analysis must identify the mastitis-causing pathogen(s) at the species level and its(their) concentration(s).

  15. STREPTOCOCCI IN INFECTIOUS (ATROPHIC) ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATIC FEVER.

    PubMed

    Nye, R N; Waxelbaum, E A

    1930-11-30

    The question of the relationship of streptococci to the etiology of infectious arthritis and of rheumatic fever is of the utmost importance. If a streptococcus or group of streptococci could be shown to be associated See PDF for Structure with either disease, some form of specific treatment might be available. The possibility of primary streptococcic infection as the cause of rheumatic fever, and, to a less extent, of acute infectious arthritis would seem to be a reasonable conjecture because of the frequency of associated throat, sinus or other focal infection. To consider that these same streptococci remain in or about the affected joint and to such an extent that they are found in the blood stream in cases of chronic infectious arthritis of years' duration demands a rather unique conception. Recent investigative work has certainly tended to confirm the importance of streptococci in these diseases, but, if all the published reports are considered as a group, one can not help being impressed with the inconsistency and peculiarities of the findings. In blood cultures from cases of rheumatic fever Clawson (7) recovered Streptococcus viridans, Small (8) and Birkhaug (9) non-hemolytic (gamma type) streptococci, and Cecil et al. (3) Streptococcus viridans, rarely hemolytic and non-hemolytic streptococci. In blood cultures from cases of infectious arthritis Cecil et al. (2) recovered attenuated hemolytic streptococci and occasionally Streptococcus viridans, non-hemolytic streptococci and diphtheroids and Margolis and Dorsey (10) green-producing and indifferent streptococci and diphtheroids, whereas from synovial fluids and regional lymph nodes Forkner, Shands and Poston (4) and Poston (5) obtained Streptococcus viridans and Margolis and Dorsey (11) recovered green-producing and indifferent streptococci and diphtheroids from epiphyseal marrows, bones and synovial membranes. On the other hand, Jordan (12) and Nye and Seegal (13) and the work reported in this paper have

  16. Soluble antigens from group B streptococci induce cytokine production in human blood cultures.

    PubMed Central

    von Hunolstein, C; Totolian, A; Alfarone, G; Mancuso, G; Cusumano, V; Teti, G; Orefici, G

    1997-01-01

    Group B streptococcal antigens stimulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6 production in human blood cultures in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion. The minimal concentrations of type-specific polysaccharides, lipoteichoic acid, and group-specific polysaccharide required to produce these effects were, respectively, 0.01, 1, and 10 microg/ml. Cell separation experiments indicated that monocytes were the cell type mainly responsible for cytokine production. Time course studies indicated that TNF-alpha was released before the other cytokines. TNF-alpha, however, did not appear to directly induce IL-1beta, as shown by blockade experiments with anti-TNF-alpha antibodies. IL-6 levels were moderately but significantly decreased by anti-TNF-alpha. These data indicate that several products from group B streptococci are able to directly stimulate human monocytes to release TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6. These findings may be clinically relevant, since proinflammatory cytokines can mediate pathophysiologic changes during sepsis. PMID:9317001

  17. What Happened to the Streptococci: Overview of Taxonomic and Nomenclature Changes

    PubMed Central

    Facklam, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Since the division of the Streptococcus genus into enterococci, lactococci, and streptococci in 1984, many changes in the nomenclature and taxonomy of the Streptococcus genus have taken place. The application of genetic comparisons has improved the proper classification of the different species. The Lancefield system of serogrouping the streptococci by the expression of beta-hemolysis on blood agar plates is still very useful for the identification of streptococci for patient management. The Lancefield grouping system cannot be used in itself for accurate identification of specific beta-hemolytic species, but it can be a useful part of the identification procedure. Except for identification of the “Streptococcus bovis group” of species and Streptococcus suis, Lancefield grouping is of little value in identification of the non-beta-hemolytic streptococci and related genera. In fact, identification of the non-beta-hemolytic species is problematic for conventional as well as commercially available identification procedures. A combination of conventional tests and specific chromogenic tests suggested by several investigators is presented and discussed. Tables are included that suggest tests and procedures to guide investigators attempting to identify all the species. PMID:12364372

  18. Presumptive speciation of Streptococcus bovis and other group D streptococci from human sources by using arginine and pyruvate tests.

    PubMed Central

    Gross, K C; Houghton, M P; Senterfit, L B

    1975-01-01

    A simplified method for speciation of group D streptococci is described. A total of 4,156 streptococcal isolates from human clinical material was tested for ability to hydrolyze esculin in the presence of 40% bile, ferment pyruvate, hydrolyze arginine, and grow in media containing 40% bile or 6.5% NaCl. Streptococci which hydrolyzed esculin in 40% bile, but which did not hydrolyze arginine, were also tested for their ability to ferment raffinose or sorbose. Sixty percent (2,503) of the isolates hydrolyzed esculin in the presence of 40% bile and were thus presumptively identified as group D. By application of the other criteria, 84% of these were speciated as Streptococcus faecalis, 7% were speciated as S. faecium, 6% were speciated as S. bovis, 2% were speciated as S. avium, and 1% were not identified. This scheme was shown to be both reliable and practical for use in the diagnostic laboratory. S. avium and S. bovis isolates were characterized, and 18 S. bovis isolates from patients with bacterial endocarditis were compared physiologically with 151 isolates of this species from other sources. PMID:1176592

  19. Short-term effect of mechanical plaque control on salivary mutans streptococci in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Ge, Lihong; Zheng, Shuguo; Yuan, Chao; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect of mechanical tooth cleaning by toothbrush and dental floss on mutans streptococci in the saliva of preschool children. This blinded, randomised controlled clinical trial included 54 3-year-old preschool children with detectable mutans streptococci in saliva. The children were randomly divided into a test and a control group. Dental college students cleaned the teeth of test group participants with toothbrush and dental floss under the indication of a plaque disclosing agent once a day. The control group received no intervention. Dentocult SM Strip mutans (D-SM) strips were used to test the mutans streptococci in saliva. The D-SM test scores declined from 1.82 to 0.95 for the test group after the teeth were cleaned 10 times (P < 0.001) and the scores increased to 1.62 after tooth cleaning ceased for 2 weeks (P > 0.05 compared with baseline). The D-SM level of the control group did not change significantly. Meticulous and continuous plaque control with toothbrush and dental floss can decrease the mutans streptococci level in preschool children. However, the effect ceased as the intervention ceased.

  20. [Count of salivary Streptococci mutans in pregnant women of the metropolitan region of Chile: cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Villagrán, E; Linossier, A; Donoso, E

    1999-02-01

    Salivary Streptococci mutans contamination is considered the main microbiological risk factor for the initiation of caries. To assess the oral health of pregnant women, counting Salivary Streptococci mutants. One hundred seventy four pregnant women, in the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, aged 27 +/- 5 years old, consulting at a public primary health center, were studied. Puerperal women that had their delivery two months before, were studied as a control group. Salivary samples were obtained and Streptococci mutans colonies were counted using quantitative and semiquantitative methods. There was a good concordance between both counting methods. No differences in Streptococci mutans counts were observed among the three groups of pregnant women, but the latter as a group had higher counts than puerperal women. Women with more than 5 caries had also higher counts. Semiquantitative Streptococci mutans counts are easy, rapid and non invasive and have a good concordance with quantitative counts in saliva.

  1. Viridans Streptococci in Peritoneal Dialysis Peritonitis: Clinical Courses and Long-Term Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Lee, Szu-Ying; Yang, Wei-Shun; Chen, Huei-Wen; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Yen, Chung-Jen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen

    2015-01-01

    ♦ Background: The clinical courses and long-term outcomes of viridans streptococcus (VS) peritoneal dialysis (PD) peritonitis remain unclear. ♦ Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all PD patients in a single center with gram-positive cocci (GPC) peritonitis between 2005 and 2011, and divided them into 3 groups: VS, other streptococci and other GPC (apart from VS). Clinical characteristics and outcomes of the VS group were compared with the other streptococci and other GPC groups, with prognostic factors determined. ♦ Results: A total of 140 patients with 168 episodes of GPC peritonitis (44% of all peritonitis) were identified over 7 years. Among these, 18 patients (13%) developed VS peritonitis, while 14 patients (10%) developed other streptococcal peritonitis. Patients with VS peritonitis had a high cure rate by antibiotic alone (94%), despite a high polymicrobial yield frequency (28%). We found that VS peritonitis carried a lower risk of Tenckhoff catheter removal and relapsing episodes than other GPC peritonitis (6% vs 11%), and a lower mortality than other streptococci peritonitis (0% vs 7%). However, after the index peritonitis episodes, VS, other streptococci, and other GPC group had a significantly increased peritonitis incidence compared with the period before the index peritonitis (all p < 0.01). Patients with VS peritonitis had a significantly higher incidence of refractory peritonitis compared with other streptococci or other GPC peritonitis in the long term (both p < 0.01). ♦ Conclusions: VS poses a higher risk of subsequent refractory peritonitis after the index episode as compared with other streptococcal or GPC peritonitis. It might be prudent to monitor the technique of these patients with VS peritonitis closely to avoid further peritonitis episodes. PMID:24497584

  2. Probiotics reduce mutans streptococci counts in humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Laleman, Isabelle; Detailleur, Valentine; Slot, Dagmar Else; Slomka, Vera; Quirynen, Marc; Teughels, Wim

    2014-07-01

    Systematically review the available literature regarding the caries-preventive effect of probiotics. An electronic search was conducted in three databases (PubMed MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane Library) to identify all suitable studies. The outcomes had to be presented as the effect of probiotics on the incidence of caries or on the levels of mutans streptococci and/or Lactobacillus species. Human studies, written in English, with at least 15 participants, comparing a probiotic product with a placebo/no probiotic were included. Where possible, a meta-analysis was performed to obtain quantitative data. Since only two articles presented useful data on the caries incidence, we focused on the surrogate endpoints: mutans streptococci and/or Lactobacillus counts. The meta-analysis showed that when the probiotic and control group are compared after treatment, significantly more patients in the probiotic group had low mutans streptococci (<10(5) CFU/ml) counts and significantly less patients had high (>10(6) CFU/ml) counts. Regarding the Lactobacillus counts, comparing the probiotic and control group at the end of the probiotic use, no significant differences could be observed, neither in low (<10(4) CFU/ml) nor in high Lactobacillus (>10(6) CFU/ml) counts. Within the limitations of the available data, it may be concluded that probiotics decrease the mutans streptococci counts. This suggests that probiotics could have a positive effect in the prevention of caries. There is insufficient evidence that probiotics can prevent caries, but they can reduce the mutans streptococci counts.

  3. Bile-Esculin Test for Presumptive Identification of Enterococci and Streptococci: Effects of Bile Concentration, Inoculation Technique, and Incubation Time

    PubMed Central

    Chuard, C.; Reller, L. B.

    1998-01-01

    The bile-esculin test is used to differentiate enterococci and group D streptococci from non-group D viridans group streptococci. The effects on test performance of the concentration of bile salts, inoculum, and duration of incubation were examined with 110 strains of enterococci, 30 strains of Streptococcus bovis, and 110 strains of non-group D viridans group streptococci. Optimal sensitivity (>99%) and specificity (97%) of the bile-esculin test can be obtained with a bile concentration of 40%, a standardized inoculum of 106 CFU, and incubation for 24 h. PMID:9542954

  4. Bile-esculin test for presumptive identification of enterococci and streptococci: effects of bile concentration, inoculation technique, and incubation time.

    PubMed

    Chuard, C; Reller, L B

    1998-04-01

    The bile-esculin test is used to differentiate enterococci and group D streptococci from non-group D viridans group streptococci. The effects on test performance of the concentration of bile salts, inoculum, and duration of incubation were examined with 110 strains of enterococci, 30 strains of Streptococcus bovis, and 110 strains of non-group D viridans group streptococci. Optimal sensitivity (> 99%) and specificity (97%) of the bile-esculin test can be obtained with a bile concentration of 40%, a standardized inoculum of 10(6) CFU, and incubation for 24 h.

  5. [Results from the Central Laboratory for Streptococci Research in Kiel from 1965 to 1980 - group D-streptococci (enterococci) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hahn, G

    1981-11-01

    In accordance with previous papers published within a series of publications which describe the results obtained from the Central Laboratory for Streptococcal Research in Kiel (1. Survey, 2. Mastitis-Streptococci) the group of Enterococci is discussed herewith. On the basis of more than 6000 strains which are stored in our databank including all biological characteristics, the distribution of the cultural, biochemical and serological parameters is listed in percentages, and the usefulness and reliability for the identification of the enterococcal group and also the differentiation of particular species is discussed. The results are tabulated for every single species and additionally, for serologic-positive and negative strains. For example, it can be shown that a third of all Str. faecium strains are motile, that lack of growth at 45 degrees C varies between 1.1% and 31.3% and that lack of serological reaction with group D-serum between 0.9% and 70%. In a comprehensive table and flow diagram these figures result in a proposal for a simple but sufficient identification procedure on different stages (enterococci, faecalis- or faecium-group, single species) depending on the individual requirements. With regard to the incidence of enterococci in man and animals, which was presented in the first paper, the organ sources of the different species are compared now. Apart from some interesting findings it can be stated that a typical predominance of the faecalis and faecium-group resp. in man or animals cannot be confirmed. But there seems to be a relation between the species and the organ source. For example, in humans the faecium-group predominates in the respiratory tract, but in the urogenital tract the presence of Str. faecalis is seven times higher than the faecium-group. The above results may also be of interest for ecological reasons and may be important for the pathogenesis and epidemiology of this streptococcal group.

  6. Hydrogen Peroxide Contributes to the Epithelial Cell Death Induced by the Oral Mitis Group of Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Okahashi, Nobuo; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Nakata, Masanobu; Sakurai, Atsuo; Kuwata, Hirotaka; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2014-01-01

    Members of the mitis group of streptococci are normal inhabitants of the commensal flora of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract of humans. Some mitis group species, such as Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus sanguinis, are primary colonizers of the human oral cavity. Recently, we found that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by S. oralis is cytotoxic to human macrophages, suggesting that streptococcus-derived H2O2 may act as a cytotoxin. Since epithelial cells provide a physical barrier against pathogenic microbes, we investigated their susceptibility to infection by H2O2-producing streptococci in this study. Infection by S. oralis and S. sanguinis was found to stimulate cell death of Detroit 562, Calu-3 and HeLa epithelial cell lines at a multiplicity of infection greater than 100. Catalase, an enzyme that catalyzes the decomposition of H2O2, inhibited S. oralis cytotoxicity, and H2O2 alone was capable of eliciting epithelial cell death. Moreover, S. oralis mutants lacking the spxB gene encoding pyruvate oxidase, which are deficient in H2O2 production, exhibited reduced cytotoxicity toward Detroit 562 epithelial cells. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays revealed that both S. oralis and H2O2 induced interleukin-6 production in Detroit 562 epithelial cells. These results suggest that streptococcal H2O2 is cytotoxic to epithelial cells, and promotes bacterial evasion of the host defense systems in the oral cavity and upper respiratory tracts. PMID:24498253

  7. Outcome of the Vaginal Infections and Prematurity Study: results of a clinical trial of erythromycin among pregnant women colonized with group B streptococci.

    PubMed

    Klebanoff, M A; Regan, J A; Rao, A V; Nugent, R P; Blackwelder, W C; Eschenbach, D A; Pastorek, J G; Williams, S; Gibbs, R S; Carey, J C

    1995-05-01

    Our purpose was to determine whether erythromycin treatment of pregnant women colonized with group B streptococci would reduce the occurrence of low birth weight (< 2500 gm) and preterm (< 37 completed weeks) birth. In a double-blind clinical trial, 938 carriers of group B streptococci were randomized to receive erythromycin base (333 mg three times a day) or matching placebo beginning during the third trimester and before 30 weeks and continuing for 10 weeks or until 35 weeks 6 days of pregnancy. Pregnancy outcomes were available for 97% of randomized women; 14% of subjects withdrew from the trial. Birth weight < 2500 gm occurred in 8.6% of the erythromycin and 6.1% of the placebo recipients (relative risk 1.4, 0.9 to 2.2, p = 0.16). Preterm delivery occurred in 11.4% of women randomized to erythromycin and in 12.3% randomized to placebo (relative risk 0.9, 95% confidence limits 0.6 to 1.3, p = 0.65). Greater benefit of erythromycin in reducing these outcomes was not observed among women reporting the best compliance. In this study of pregnant women colonized with group B streptococci treatment with erythromycin was not shown to be effective at prolonging gestation or reducing low birth weight. Greater than anticipated complicating factors, including spontaneous clearance of the organism, use of nontrial antibiotics, and density of colonization, may have resulted in population sizes too small to detect a benefit of treatment. Future studies should take these factors into account in determining sample sizes.

  8. [Neonatal sepsis caused by group B streptococci: atypical and recurrent disease episodes].

    PubMed

    van Zanten, Eva; Dekker, Sarah; van der Meer-Kappelle, Laura H; Noordzij, Jeroen G

    2013-01-01

    Both neonates of male twins born at 30 weeks and 3 days gestation presented with late-onset sepsis caused by an infection with group B streptococci (GBS), shortly after one another. Although the younger twin recovered with a standard regimen of 10 days penicillin G i.v., the older twin had three recurrent episodes with GBS positive blood cultures. Oropharyngeal, faecal, urine, liquor and breast milk cultures were GBS negative. Using echocardiography and a PET/CT scan, a persistent endovascular focus was discovered. We treated him with penicillin G i.v. for 4 weeks, after which he recovered completely. Another male neonate born at 26 weeks gestation presented with GBS sepsis and developed an erythematous swelling of the right mandibula within 12 hours. Ultrasound revealed parotitis, which is rare in neonates (3.8 per 10,000). Risk factors for parotitis include prematurity, low birth weight and dehydration (i.e., diuretic usage). Parotitis can be complicated by abscess formation.

  9. Extraction of Cell-Wall Polysaccharide Antigen from Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Hutton D.

    1965-01-01

    Slade, Hutton D. (Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Ill., and Max-Planck Institut für Immunbiologie, Freiburg, Germany). Extraction of cell-wall polysaccharide antigen from streptococci. J. Bacteriol. 90:667–672. 1965.—The carbohydrate grouping antigens in the cell walls of streptococci belonging to groups A, E, G, L, and T were extracted with 5% trichloroacetic acid at 90 C. The antigens were removed also from dry whole cells by extraction with trichloroacetic acid followed by treatment with phenol-water. Details of the methods are presented. The antigens obtained by use of either of these procedures were suitable for studies on immunological specificity and chemical structure. Quantitative enzymatic and chemical analyses of two group E antigens and one group T preparation showed the presence of l-rhamnose (22 to 44%), d-glucose (7 to 22%), d-galactose (T antigen only, 26%), glucosamine (2 to 16%), and galactosamine (T antigen only, 3%). In addition, analyses of A and G antigen preparations are presented. The protein and phosphate content of the A and E antigens were about 1% each. Quantitative precipitin curves of these antigens are presented. PMID:16562065

  10. Glycosyltransferase-mediated Sweet Modification in Oral Streptococci.

    PubMed

    Zhu, F; Zhang, H; Wu, H

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial glycosyltransferases play important roles in bacterial fitness and virulence. Oral streptococci have evolved diverse strategies to survive and thrive in the carbohydrate-rich oral cavity. In this review, we discuss 2 important biological processes mediated by 2 distinct groups of glycosyltransferases in oral streptococci that are important for bacterial colonization and virulence. The first process is the glycosylation of highly conserved serine-rich repeat adhesins by a series of glycosyltransferases. Using Streptococcus parasanguinis as a model, we highlight new features of several glycosyltransferases that sequentially modify the serine-rich glycoprotein Fap1. Distinct features of a novel glycosyltransferase fold from a domain of unknown function 1792 are contrasted with common properties of canonical glycosyltransferases. The second biological process we cover is involved in building sticky glucan matrix to establish cariogenic biofilms by an important opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus mutans through the action of a family of 3 glucosyltransferases. We focus on discussing the structural feature of this family as a glycoside hydrolase family of enzymes. While the 2 processes are distinct, they all produce carbohydrate-coated biomolecules, which enable bacteria to stick better in the complex oral microbiome. Understanding the making of the sweet modification presents a unique opportunity to develop novel antiadhesion and antibiofilm strategies to fight infections by oral streptococci and beyond. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  11. Glycosyltransferase-mediated Sweet Modification in Oral Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, F.; Zhang, H.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial glycosyltransferases play important roles in bacterial fitness and virulence. Oral streptococci have evolved diverse strategies to survive and thrive in the carbohydrate-rich oral cavity. In this review, we discuss 2 important biological processes mediated by 2 distinct groups of glycosyltransferases in oral streptococci that are important for bacterial colonization and virulence. The first process is the glycosylation of highly conserved serine-rich repeat adhesins by a series of glycosyltransferases. Using Streptococcus parasanguinis as a model, we highlight new features of several glycosyltransferases that sequentially modify the serine-rich glycoprotein Fap1. Distinct features of a novel glycosyltransferase fold from a domain of unknown function 1792 are contrasted with common properties of canonical glycosyltransferases. The second biological process we cover is involved in building sticky glucan matrix to establish cariogenic biofilms by an important opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus mutans through the action of a family of 3 glucosyltransferases. We focus on discussing the structural feature of this family as a glycoside hydrolase family of enzymes. While the 2 processes are distinct, they all produce carbohydrate-coated biomolecules, which enable bacteria to stick better in the complex oral microbiome. Understanding the making of the sweet modification presents a unique opportunity to develop novel antiadhesion and antibiofilm strategies to fight infections by oral streptococci and beyond. PMID:25755271

  12. Cis-encoded non-coding antisense RNAs in streptococci and other low GC Gram (+) bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyu Hong; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Due to recent advances of bioinformatics and high throughput sequencing technology, discovery of regulatory non-coding RNAs in bacteria has been increased to a great extent. Based on this bandwagon, many studies searching for trans-acting small non-coding RNAs in streptococci have been performed intensively, especially in the important human pathogen, group A and B streptococci. However, studies for cis-encoded non-coding antisense RNAs in streptococci have been scarce. A recent study shows antisense RNAs are involved in virulence gene regulation in group B streptococcus, S. agalactiae. This suggests antisense RNAs could have important roles in the pathogenesis of streptococcal pathogens. In this review, we describe recent discoveries of chromosomal cis-encoded antisense RNAs in streptococcal pathogens and other low GC Gram (+) bacteria to provide a guide for future studies. PMID:25859258

  13. Species identification of mutans streptococci by groESL gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wei-Chung; Tsai, Jui-Chang; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Chia, Jean-San; Teng, Lee-Jene

    2005-09-01

    The near full-length sequences of the groESL genes were determined and analysed among eight reference strains (serotypes a to h) representing five species of mutans group streptococci. The groES sequences from these reference strains revealed that there are two lengths (285 and 288 bp) in the five species. The intergenic spacer between groES and groEL appears to be a unique marker for species, with a variable size (ranging from 111 to 310 bp) and sequence. Phylogenetic analysis of groES and groEL separated the eight serotypes into two major clusters. Strains of serotypes b, c, e and f were highly related and had groES gene sequences of the same length, 288 bp, while strains of serotypes a, d, g and h were also closely related and their groES gene sequence lengths were 285 bp. The groESL sequences in clinical isolates of three serotypes of S. mutans were analysed for intraspecies polymorphism. The results showed that the groESL sequences could provide information for differentiation among species, but were unable to distinguish serotypes of the same species. Based on the determined sequences, a PCR assay was developed that could differentiate members of the mutans streptococci by amplicon size and provide an alternative way for distinguishing mutans streptococci from other viridans streptococci.

  14. Differentiation of Cariogenic Streptococci by Fluorescent Antibody1

    PubMed Central

    Jablon, James M.; Zinner, Doran D.

    1966-01-01

    Jablon, J. M. (University of Miami, Miami, Fla.), and D. D. Zinner. Differentiation of cariogenic streptococci by fluorescent antibody. J. Bacteriol. 92:1590–1596. 1966.—Eight strains of streptococci were isolated from human carious lesions by the fluorescent-antibody (FA) technique. Seven of these strains produced experimental caries in hamsters or rats maintained on a high sucrose diet. The eighth strain was noncariogenic in animals but possessed some antigenic components in common with the cariogenic strains. On the basis of antigen-antibody reactions by microprecipitin and agar-gel diffusion patterns, the strains were divided into four groups; these groups differed with regard to their cariogenic activity in hamsters. Fluorescein-conjugated antisera, prepared against the human strains, showed some cross-reactions which interfered with the efficacy of the FA technique in differentiating between the related streptococcal groups. To eliminate these cross-reactions, a small amount of related-strain antisera was added to the fluorescein-conjugated antisera to the cariogenic strains. This technique is effective in blocking cross-reactions and should be tried wherever cross-reactions are encountered in the FA technique. Images PMID:5334765

  15. Effect of mixed mutans streptococci colonization on caries development.

    PubMed

    Seki, M; Yamashita, Y; Shibata, Y; Torigoe, H; Tsuda, H; Maeno, M

    2006-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical importance of mixed mutans streptococci colonization in predicting caries in preschool children. Caries prevalence was examined twice, with a 6-month interval, in 410 preschool children aged 3-4 years at baseline. A commercial strip method was used to evaluate the mutans streptococci score in plaque collected from eight selected interdental spaces and in saliva. Mutans streptococci typing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays (Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus mutans, including serotypes c, e, and f) were performed using colonies on the strips as template. Twenty variables were examined in a univariate analysis to predict caries development: questionnaire variables, results of clinical examination, mutans streptococci scores, and PCR detection of S. sobrinus and S. mutans (including serotypes c, e, and f). Sixteen variables showed statistically significant associations (P < 0.04) in the univariate analysis. However, when entered into a logistic regression, only five variables remained significant (P < 0.05): caries experience at baseline; mixed colonization of S. sobrinus and S. mutans including S. mutans serotypes; high plaque mutans streptococci score; habitual use of sweet drinks; and nonuse of fluoride toothpaste. 'Mixed mutans streptococci colonization' is a novel measure correlated with caries development in their primary dentition.

  16. Effect of removable orthodontic appliances on oral colonisation by mutans streptococci in children.

    PubMed

    Batoni, G; Pardini, M; Giannotti, A; Ota, F; Giuca, M R; Gabriele, M; Campa, M; Senesi, S

    2001-12-01

    Little is known about the effect of removable orthodontic appliances on oral colonisation by mutans streptococci (MS). In the present study, the frequency of isolation and serotype distribution of MS were evaluated in two groups of children, one undergoing therapy with removable appliances and the other not subjected to any kind of orthodontic treatment, respectively. Streptococci isolated from dental plaque samples from both groups of children were identified as mutans streptococci on the basis of their morphological and biochemical properties and were then serotyped in an enzyme immuno-assay using monoclonal antibodies. The number of subjects harbouring MS in their dental plaque was statistically higher in the group of orthodontic children without caries experience (CF) in comparison with CF children of the control group (10/12, 83.3% vs. 15/44, 34%). No clear difference was observed in the distribution of the different MS serotypes between the experimental and control group: S. mutans c,f serotype was the most frequently isolated in both groups of children followed by S. mutans serotype e and S. sobrinus serotype g. Such results suggest that the use of removable appliances may lead to the creation of new retentive areas and surfaces, which favour the local adherence and growth of MS. The data obtained stress the importance of a careful monitoring of patients treated orthodontically for risk of caries development.

  17. In vitro activities of eight macrolide antibiotics and RP-59500 (quinupristin-dalfopristin) against viridans group streptococci isolated from blood of neutropenic cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Alcaide, F; Carratala, J; Liñares, J; Gudiol, F; Martin, R

    1996-01-01

    From January 1988 to December 1994, 66 consecutive blood culture isolates of viridans group streptococci collected from febrile neutropenic cancer patients were tested for antimicrobial susceptibilities by the agar dilution method. The antibiotics studied were erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, dirithromycin, azithromycin, josamycin, diacetyl-midecamycin, spiramycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin. A total of 26 (39.4%) strains were resistant to erythromycin with an MIC range of 0.5 to > 128 micrograms/ml. The strains were classified into three groups according to their penicillin susceptibility: 42 (63.6%) were susceptible, 8 (12.1%) were intermediately resistant, and 16 (24.3%) were highly resistant. The percentages of erythromycin-resistant strains in each group were 23.8, 62.5, and 68.8%, respectively. Streptococcus mitis was the species most frequently isolated (83.3%) and showed the highest rates of penicillin (40%) and erythromycin (43.6%) resistance. MICs of all macrolide antibiotics tested and of quinupristin-dalfopristin were higher for penicillin-resistant strains than for penicillin-susceptible strains. All macrolide antibiotics tested had cross-resistance to erythromycin, which was not observed with quinupristin-dalfopristin. Our study shows a high rate of macrolide resistance among viridans group streptococci isolated from blood samples of neutropenic cancer patients, especially those infected with penicillin-resistant strains. These findings make macrolides unsuitable prophylactic agents against viridans group streptococcal bacteremia in this patient population. PMID:8878591

  18. Detection of group B streptococci in Lim broth by use of group B streptococcus peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization and selective and nonselective agars.

    PubMed

    Montague, Naomi S; Cleary, Timothy J; Martinez, Octavio V; Procop, Gary W

    2008-10-01

    The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the detection of group B streptococci from Lim enrichment broth with sheep blood agar (SBA), with selective Streptococcus agar (SSA), and by a peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) assay were as follows: for culture on SBA, 68.4%, 100%, 100%, and 87.9%, respectively; for culture on SSA, 85.5%, 100%, 100%, and 94.1%, respectively; and for the PNA FISH assay, 97.4%, 98.3%, 96.1%, and 98.9%, respectively.

  19. Linear response of mutans streptococci to increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN43479664

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Kiet A; Milgrom, Peter; Roberts, Marilyn C; Yamaguchi, David K; Rothen, Marilynn; Mueller, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Background Xylitol is a naturally occurring sugar substitute that has been shown to reduce the level of mutans streptococci in plaque and saliva and to reduce tooth decay. It has been suggested that the degree of reduction is dependent on both the amount and the frequency of xylitol consumption. For xylitol to be successfully and cost-effectively used in public health prevention strategies dosing and frequency guidelines should be established. This study determined the reduction in mutans streptococci levels in plaque and unstimulated saliva to increasing frequency of xylitol gum use at a fixed total daily dose of 10.32 g over five weeks. Methods Participants (n = 132) were randomized to either active groups (10.32 g xylitol/day) or a placebo control (9.828 g sorbitol and 0.7 g maltitol/day). All groups chewed 12 pieces of gum per day. The control group chewed 4 times/day and active groups chewed xylitol gum at a frequency of 2 times/day, 3 times/day, or 4 times/day. The 12 gum pieces were evenly divided into the frequency assigned to each group. Plaque and unstimulated saliva samples were taken at baseline and five-weeks and were cultured on modified Mitis Salivarius agar for mutans streptococci enumeration. Results There were no significant differences in mutans streptococci level among the groups at baseline. At five-weeks, mutans streptococci levels in plaque and unstimulated saliva showed a linear reduction with increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use at the constant daily dose. Although the difference observed for the group that chewed xylitol 2 times/day was consistent with the linear model, the difference was not significant. Conclusion There was a linear reduction in mutans streptococci levels in plaque and saliva with increasing frequency of xylitol gum use at a constant daily dose. Reduction at a consumption frequency of 2 times per day was small and consistent with the linear-response line but was not statistically significant. PMID:16556326

  20. Linear response of mutans streptococci to increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN43479664].

    PubMed

    Ly, Kiet A; Milgrom, Peter; Roberts, Marilyn C; Yamaguchi, David K; Rothen, Marilynn; Mueller, Greg

    2006-03-24

    Xylitol is a naturally occurring sugar substitute that has been shown to reduce the level of mutans streptococci in plaque and saliva and to reduce tooth decay. It has been suggested that the degree of reduction is dependent on both the amount and the frequency of xylitol consumption. For xylitol to be successfully and cost-effectively used in public health prevention strategies dosing and frequency guidelines should be established. This study determined the reduction in mutans streptococci levels in plaque and unstimulated saliva to increasing frequency of xylitol gum use at a fixed total daily dose of 10.32 g over five weeks. Participants (n = 132) were randomized to either active groups (10.32 g xylitol/day) or a placebo control (9.828 g sorbitol and 0.7 g maltitol/day). All groups chewed 12 pieces of gum per day. The control group chewed 4 times/day and active groups chewed xylitol gum at a frequency of 2 times/day, 3 times/day, or 4 times/day. The 12 gum pieces were evenly divided into the frequency assigned to each group. Plaque and unstimulated saliva samples were taken at baseline and five-weeks and were cultured on modified Mitis Salivarius agar for mutans streptococci enumeration. There were no significant differences in mutans streptococci level among the groups at baseline. At five-weeks, mutans streptococci levels in plaque and unstimulated saliva showed a linear reduction with increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use at the constant daily dose. Although the difference observed for the group that chewed xylitol 2 times/day was consistent with the linear model, the difference was not significant. There was a linear reduction in mutans streptococci levels in plaque and saliva with increasing frequency of xylitol gum use at a constant daily dose. Reduction at a consumption frequency of 2 times per day was small and consistent with the linear-response line but was not statistically significant.

  1. Detection of Group B Streptococci in Lim Broth by Use of Group B Streptococcus Peptide Nucleic Acid Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and Selective and Nonselective Agars▿

    PubMed Central

    Montague, Naomi S.; Cleary, Timothy J.; Martinez, Octavio V.; Procop, Gary W.

    2008-01-01

    The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the detection of group B streptococci from Lim enrichment broth with sheep blood agar (SBA), with selective Streptococcus agar (SSA), and by a peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) assay were as follows: for culture on SBA, 68.4%, 100%, 100%, and 87.9%, respectively; for culture on SSA, 85.5%, 100%, 100%, and 94.1%, respectively; and for the PNA FISH assay, 97.4%, 98.3%, 96.1%, and 98.9%, respectively. PMID:18667597

  2. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a screen for attenuation of Lancefield group C streptococci and a model for streptococcal pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Borst, L B; Patterson, S K; Lanka, S; Suyemoto, M M; Maddox, C W

    2013-05-01

    Group C streptococci are highly contagious pyogenic bacteria responsible for respiratory tract, lymph node, urogenital tract, and wound infections. Wild-type strains of Streptococcus equi ssp equi (S. equi) and Streptococcus equi ssp zooepidemicus (S. zoo) as well as a commercially available modified live vaccine strain of S. equi were evaluated for virulence in zebrafish. Survival times, histologic lesions, and relative gene expression were compared among groups. Based on the intramuscular route of infection, significantly shorter survival times were observed in fish infected with wild-type strain when compared to modified live vaccine and S. zoo strains. Histologically, S. zoo-infected fish demonstrated a marked increase in inflammatory infiltrates (predominantly macrophages) at the site of infection, as well as increased cellularity in the spleen and renal interstitium. In contrast, minimal cellular immune response was observed in S. equi-injected fish with local tissue necrosis and edema predominating. Based on whole comparative genomic hybridization, increased transcription of positive acute-phase proteins, coagulation factors, and antimicrobial peptides were observed in S. equi-injected fish relative to S. zoo-injected fish, while mediators of cellular inflammation, including CXC chemokines and granulin, were upregulated in S. zoo-injected fish relative to S. equi-injected fish. In a screen of 11 clinical isolates, S. equi strains with a single nucleotide deletion in the upstream region of szp, a known virulence factor of streptococci, were found to be significantly attenuated in zebrafish. These collective findings underscore the value of the zebrafish as a model of streptococcal pathogenesis.

  3. Semi-Quantitative Method for Streptococci Magnetic Detection in Raw Milk.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Carla; Costa, Tiago; Carneiro, Carla; Soares, Rita; Jitariu, Andrei; Cardoso, Susana; Piedade, Moisés; Bexiga, Ricardo; Freitas, Paulo

    2016-04-27

    Bovine mastitis is the most costly disease for dairy farmers and the most frequent reason for the use of antibiotics in dairy cattle; thus, control measures to detect and prevent mastitis are crucial for dairy farm sustainability. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a sensitive method to magnetically detect Streptococcus agalactiae (a Group B streptococci) and Streptococcus uberis in raw milk samples. Mastitic milk samples were collected aseptically from 44 cows with subclinical mastitis, from 11 Portuguese dairy farms. Forty-six quarter milk samples were selected based on bacterial identification by conventional microbiology. All samples were submitted to PCR analysis. In parallel, these milk samples were mixed with a solution combining specific antibodies and magnetic nanoparticles, to be analyzed using a lab-on-a-chip magnetoresistive cytometer, with microfluidic sample handling. This paper describes a point of care methodology used for detection of bacteria, including analysis of false positive/negative results. This immunological recognition was able to detect bacterial presence in samples spiked above 100 cfu/mL, independently of antibody and targeted bacteria used in this work. Using PCR as a reference, this method correctly identified 73% of positive samples for streptococci species with an anti-S. agalactiae antibody, and 41% of positive samples for an anti-GB streptococci antibody.

  4. Clinical Significance and Characterization of Streptococcus tigurinus Isolates in an Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Lori; Clarridge, J E

    2015-11-01

    Streptococcus tigurinus is a newly described member of the Streptococcus mitis group. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing viridans group streptococci (VGS) by phenotype, analysis of 16S rRNA sequences is necessary for the accurate identification of most species. Through a laboratory policy of analyzing all clinically significant isolates from the VGS group by16S rRNA gene sequencing, we identified 14 S. tigurinus isolates from 11 patients. The Vitek 2 system most commonly gave an excellent rating to an incorrect identification (e.g., Streptococcus mitis), as did matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) (e.g., Streptococcus oralis). S. tigurinus strains were recovered from numerous body sites, including the blood, peritoneal fluid, bone, synovial fluid, a perianal abscess, and an arm wound. Retrospective chart review indicated that most isolates were clinically significant, with bacteremia (n = 5), soft tissue infections (n = 3) osteomyelitis (n = 2), infected joint prosthesis (n = 2), and peritonitis (n = 2) being the most common, thus expanding the spectrum of disease associated with S. tigurinus. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Antibody against Surface-Bound C5a Peptidase Is Opsonic and Initiates Macrophage Killing of Group B Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qi; Carlson, Brian; Pillai, Sub; Eby, Ron; Edwards, Lorri; Olmsted, Stephen B.; Cleary, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    The capsular polysaccharides of group B streptococci (GBS) are a primary focus of vaccine development. Immunogenicity and long-lasting protection are best achieved by conjugating polysaccharides to a T-cell-dependent protein antigen. Streptococcal C5a peptidase (SCPB) is a conserved surface protein that is expressed by all streptococcal serotypes tested to date, and it is a possible carrier protein that could itself induce a protective immune response. Clearance of GBS from lungs, mucosal surfaces, or blood probably depends on the opsonophagocytic response of tissue-specific macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). In this study, we examined the potential of antibody directed against SCPB from a serotype II strain to enhance the capacity of mouse bone marrow macrophages (from primary cultures) and human PMNs in whole blood to kill GBS in vitro. Our experiments demonstrated that Streptococcus serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V, preopsonized with anti-SCPB antibody, were killed more rapidly by cultured macrophages and PMNs in whole blood than were nonopsonized GBS. The increased rate of killing was accompanied by an increased macrophage oxidative burst. Furthermore, opsonization was serotype transparent. Immunization with SCPB conjugated to capsular polysaccharide type III produced polysaccharide-specific antibodies. It is interesting that this antiserum promoted serotype-independent killing of streptococci. These data support the use of SCPB in a GBS polysaccharide conjugate vaccine. SCPB not only enhanced the immunogenicity of polysaccharide components of the vaccine, but it might also induce additional serotype-independent protective antibodies. PMID:11254587

  6. Antibody against surface-bound C5a peptidase is opsonic and initiates macrophage killing of group B streptococci.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Q; Carlson, B; Pillai, S; Eby, R; Edwards, L; Olmsted, S B; Cleary, P

    2001-04-01

    The capsular polysaccharides of group B streptococci (GBS) are a primary focus of vaccine development. Immunogenicity and long-lasting protection are best achieved by conjugating polysaccharides to a T-cell-dependent protein antigen. Streptococcal C5a peptidase (SCPB) is a conserved surface protein that is expressed by all streptococcal serotypes tested to date, and it is a possible carrier protein that could itself induce a protective immune response. Clearance of GBS from lungs, mucosal surfaces, or blood probably depends on the opsonophagocytic response of tissue-specific macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). In this study, we examined the potential of antibody directed against SCPB from a serotype II strain to enhance the capacity of mouse bone marrow macrophages (from primary cultures) and human PMNs in whole blood to kill GBS in vitro. Our experiments demonstrated that Streptococcus serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V, preopsonized with anti-SCPB antibody, were killed more rapidly by cultured macrophages and PMNs in whole blood than were nonopsonized GBS. The increased rate of killing was accompanied by an increased macrophage oxidative burst. Furthermore, opsonization was serotype transparent. Immunization with SCPB conjugated to capsular polysaccharide type III produced polysaccharide-specific antibodies. It is interesting that this antiserum promoted serotype-independent killing of streptococci. These data support the use of SCPB in a GBS polysaccharide conjugate vaccine. SCPB not only enhanced the immunogenicity of polysaccharide components of the vaccine, but it might also induce additional serotype-independent protective antibodies.

  7. Identification of Anion Channels Responsible for Fluoride Resistance in Oral Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Toru; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been reported that eriC and crcB are involved in bacterial fluoride resistance. However, the fluoride-resistance mechanism in oral streptococci remains unclear. BLAST studies showed that two types of eriCs (eriC1 and eriC2) and two types of crcBs (crcB1 and crcB2) are present across 18 oral streptococci, which were identified in ≥ 10% of 166 orally healthy subjects with ≥ 0.01% of the mean relative abundance. They were divided into three groups based on the distribution of these four genes: group I, only eriC1; group II, eriC1 and eriC2; and group III, eriC2, crcB1, and crcB2. Group I consisted of Streptococcus mutans, in which one of the two eriC1s predominantly affected fluoride resistance. Group II consisted of eight species, and eriC1 was responsible for fluoride resistance, but eriC2 was not, in Streptococcus anginosus as a representative species. Group III consisted of nine species, and both crcB1 and crcB2 were crucial for fluoride resistance, but eriC2 was not, in Streptococcus sanguinis as a representative species. Based on these results, either EriC1 or CrcBs play a role in fluoride resistance in oral streptococci. Complementation between S. mutans EriC1 and S. sanguinis CrcB1/CrcB2 was confirmed in both S. mutans and S. sanguinis. However, neither transfer of S. sanguinis CrcB1/CrcB2 into wild-type S. mutans nor S. mutans EriC1 into wild-type S. sanguinis increased the fluoride resistance of the wild-type strain. Co-existence of different F− channels (EriC and CrcB) did not cause the additive effect on fluoride resistance in oral Streptococcus species. PMID:27824896

  8. Role of interleukin 12 in experimental neonatal sepsis caused by group B streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, G; Cusumano, V; Genovese, F; Gambuzza, M; Beninati, C; Teti, G

    1997-01-01

    Cytokines are suspected to play an important role in systemic infections by group B streptococci (GBS), an important cause of neonatal sepsis. This work was undertaken to determine if interleukin 12 (IL-12) is produced in mouse pups infected with GBS and has a role in this sepsis model. IL-12 elevations were measured by both an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a bioassay in plasma samples obtained from 12 to 72 h after GBS challenge. Pretreatment with neutralizing anti-IL-12 antibodies significantly increased lethality and blood CFU (P < 0.05). Conversely, either prophylactically or therapeutically administered recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12) significantly improved survival time and decreased blood CFU. Since these beneficial effects were associated with increased spleen gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) production, we examined whether the latter cytokine mediated the observed rIL-12 effects. Pretreatment with neutralizing anti-IFN-gamma monoclonal antibodies significantly counteracted the beneficial effects of rIL-12 on lethality. Our data indicate that rIL-12 is a possible candidate for treatment of GBS sepsis and that its activities in this model are at least partially mediated by IFN-gamma. PMID:9284145

  9. Reduced salivary flow and colonization by mutans streptococci in children with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Areias, Cristina; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; de Lurdes Pereira, Maria; Azevedo, Álvaro; Melo, Paulo; Andrade, Casimiro; Scully, Crispian

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although individuals with Down syndrome have considerable oral disease, the prevalence of dental caries in this group is low. The present study aimed to compare known risk factors for dental caries development in children with Down syndrome and a matched population (siblings). In both populations, the number of acidogenic microorganisms, such as mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species, and the paraffin-stimulated pH, flow rate and IgA concentration in whole saliva were evaluated and compared. METHOD: Saliva was collected, and the caries index was evaluated in 45 sibling pairs aged between 6 and 18 years old. The salivary IgA concentration was determined by immunoturbidimetry. Salivary mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species were quantified on mitis salivarius agar containing bacitracin and 20% sucrose, rogosa agar supplemented with glacial acetic acid and sabouraud agar supplemented with chloramphenicol, respectively. RESULTS: Down syndrome children had a higher caries-free rate (p<0.05) and lower salivary mutans streptococci counts (p<0.03) compared to their siblings. Similar numbers of lactobacilli and Candida species were found in both groups. Salivary flow rates were 36% lower in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings (p<0.05). The salivary pH did not differ between Down syndrome children and controls. The Down syndrome children had an IgA secretion rate 29% lower than that of their siblings, but this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the lower number of mutans streptococci in the saliva may be one of the factors contributing to the lower caries rate observed in Down syndrome children, despite evidence of hyposalivation. PMID:23018295

  10. Human Leucocyte Antigen Profile and Transmission of Mutans Streptococci in Mother-Child Pairs.

    PubMed

    Wallengren, Marie L; Hedström, Kristin; Zbroszczyk, Katarzyna; Hamberg, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    To investigate possible association between the transmission of mutans streptococci and sharing the immune system component Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) class II in mother-child pairs. Plaque samples from 43 mother-child pairs were cultivated and screened for mutans streptococci. In 14 pairs where both mother and child harboured the bacteria, the strains were genotyped by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and samples were run on PAGE gels. Analysis of genetic identity between mother and child strains was performed with help of software and Dice similarity index. The distribution of HLA of serogroup DR4 (HLA DR4) was studied in relation to maternal transmission and mutans streptococci colonisation in children. The study hypothesis was that in pairs where both mother and child were HLA DR4 positive, transmission of mutans streptococci was more likely. No correlation between the presence of HLA DR4 in mother and child and maternal transmission of mutans streptococci was established. However, the results showed no linkage between mutans streptococci colonisation and HLA DR 4. Of 15 children with mutans streptococci, 12 were HLA DR4 positive. The result suggests that presence of HLA DR4 could be a predisposing factor for colonisation with mutans streptococci in children.

  11. Recolonization of mutans Streptococci after application of chlorhexidine gel.

    PubMed

    Vale, Glauber Campos; Cury, Altair Antoninha Del Bel; Arthur, Rodrigo Alex; Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Tabchoury, Cínthia Pereira Machado

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is specifically suppressed by intensive treatment with chlorhexidine gel, but the time for recolonization and the effect on other oral bacteria are not totally clear. In this study, recolonization of mutans streptococci was evaluated in nine healthy adult volunteers, who were highly colonized with this microorganism. Stimulated saliva was collected before (baseline) and at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after application of 1% chlorhexidine gel on volunteers' teeth for two consecutive days. On each day, the gel was applied using disposable trays for 3 x 5 min with intervals of 5 min between each application. Saliva was plated on blood agar to determine total microorganisms (TM); on mitis salivarius agar to determine total streptococci (TS) and on mitis salivarius agar plus bacitracin to determine mutans streptococci (MS). Chlorhexidine was capable of reducing the counts of MS and the proportion of MS with regard to total microorganisms (%MS/TM) (p<0.05), but these values did not differ statistically from baseline (p>0.05) after 14 days for MS and 21 days for %MS/TM. The counts of TM and TS and the proportion of MS to total streptococci did not differ statistically from baseline (p>0.05) after chlorhexidine treatment. The results suggest that the effect of chlorhexidine gel treatment on suppression of mutans streptococci is limited to less than a month in highly colonized individuals.

  12. Rapid identification of pneumococci, enterococci, beta-haemolytic streptococci and S. aureus from positive blood cultures enabling early reports.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Marie C; Karlsson, Ewa; Woksepp, Hanna; Frölander, Kerstin; Mårtensson, Agneta; Rashed, Foad; Annika, Wistedt; Schön, Thomas; Serrander, Lena

    2014-03-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic tests in order to introduce a diagnostic strategy to identify the most common gram-positive bacteria (pneumococci, enterococci, β-haemolytic streptococci and S. aureus) found in blood cultures within 6 hours after signalling growth. The tube coagulase test was optimized and several latex agglutination tests were compared and evaluated before a validation period of 11 months was performed on consecutive positive blood culture patient samples from Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden. During the validation period 150 (91%) of a total of 166 gram-positive cocci (119 in clusters, 45 in chains or pairs and 2 undefined morphology) were correctly identified as S. aureus, CoNS, Pneumococci, Enterococci or group A streptococci (GAS), group B streptococci (GBS), group G streptococci (GGS) within 6 hours with a minimal increase in work-load and costs. The remaining samples (9%) were correctly identified during the next day. No samples were incorrectly grouped with this diagnostic strategy and no patient came to risk by early reporting. A simple strategy gives reliable and cost-effective reporting of >90% of the most common gram-positive cocci within 6 hours after a blood cultures become positive. The high specificity of the tests used makes preliminary reports reliable. The reports can be used to indicate the focus of infection and not the least, support faster administration of proper antimicrobial treatment for patients with serious bacterial infections.

  13. Activities of potential therapeutic and prophylactic antibiotics against blood culture isolates of viridans group streptococci from neutropenic patients receiving ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed Central

    McWhinney, P H; Patel, S; Whiley, R A; Hardie, J M; Gillespie, S H; Kibbler, C C

    1993-01-01

    All 47 sequential blood culture isolates of viridans group streptococci obtained from febrile neutropenic patients receiving quinolone prophylaxis were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, and imipenem. Resistance to benzylpenicillin (MIC for 50% of isolates [MIC50], 0.125 microgram/ml) and ceftazidime (MIC50, 4 micrograms/ml) was common. Most isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid at a 2:1 ratio by weight), azlocillin, clarithromycin, and erythromycin, with azithromycin showing comparable activity. The MIC90 of sparfloxacin was 1 microgram/ml; those for ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were > 16 and 16 micrograms/ml, respectively. PMID:8285642

  14. Semi-Quantitative Method for Streptococci Magnetic Detection in Raw Milk

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Carla; Costa, Tiago; Carneiro, Carla; Soares, Rita; Jitariu, Andrei; Cardoso, Susana; Piedade, Moisés; Bexiga, Ricardo; Freitas, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is the most costly disease for dairy farmers and the most frequent reason for the use of antibiotics in dairy cattle; thus, control measures to detect and prevent mastitis are crucial for dairy farm sustainability. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a sensitive method to magnetically detect Streptococcus agalactiae (a Group B streptococci) and Streptococcus uberis in raw milk samples. Mastitic milk samples were collected aseptically from 44 cows with subclinical mastitis, from 11 Portuguese dairy farms. Forty-six quarter milk samples were selected based on bacterial identification by conventional microbiology. All samples were submitted to PCR analysis. In parallel, these milk samples were mixed with a solution combining specific antibodies and magnetic nanoparticles, to be analyzed using a lab-on-a-chip magnetoresistive cytometer, with microfluidic sample handling. This paper describes a point of care methodology used for detection of bacteria, including analysis of false positive/negative results. This immunological recognition was able to detect bacterial presence in samples spiked above 100 cfu/mL, independently of antibody and targeted bacteria used in this work. Using PCR as a reference, this method correctly identified 73% of positive samples for streptococci species with an anti-S. agalactiae antibody, and 41% of positive samples for an anti-GB streptococci antibody. PMID:27128950

  15. Effect of xylitol on cariogenic and beneficial oral streptococci: a randomized, double-blind crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Bahador, A; Lesan, S; Kashi, N

    2012-01-01

    Background/purpose Although habitual consumption of xylitol reduces cariogenic streptococci levels, its effect on beneficial oral streptococci is less clear. The main aim of the study is to investigate the effect of short-term xylitol consumption on the oral beneficial streptococci level of saliva, Streptococcus sanguinis and S. mitis. Material and Methods Twenty four volunteers with a median age of 23.7 years (range: 20-28) harboring Streptococcus mutans, S. sobrinus, S. sanguinis and S. mitis participated in the randomized, double-blind, cross-over study. The experimental chewing gum (1.5 g/pellet) contained 70% xylitol w/w while the control gum contained 63% sorbitol w/w. Saliva samples were collected before and after two three-week test periods with a four-week washout interval. Colony-forming units (CFU)/ml were enumerated for the estimation of S. mutans levels on Mitis Salivarius-Mutans valinomycin (MS-MUTV), S. sobrinus on Mitis Salivarius-Sobrinus (MS-SOB), S. sanguinis on Modified Medium 10-Sucrose (MM10-S) and S. mitis on Mitis Salivarius Agar with Tellurite (MSAT) media. Results The S. mutans and S. sobrinus counts of the saliva samples decreased significantly (p = 0.01 and p = 0.011, respectively) in the xylitol gum group but not in the sorbitol gum group. The salivary S. sanguinis and S. mitis counts did not decrease in both xylitol and sorbitol gum groups. Conclusions Based on the findings of this study, xylitol consumption reduced S. mutans and S. sobrinus counts in saliva but appeared not to effect numbers of S. sanguinis and S. mitis in saliva. So, habitual consumption of xylitol reduces cariogenic streptococci levels without any effect on beneficial sterptococci for the oral cavity. PMID:22973473

  16. Nature and mechanism of action of the CAMP protein of group B streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Bernheimer, A W; Linder, R; Avigad, L S

    1979-01-01

    The extracellular product of group B streptococci responsible for the CAMP reaction was purified to near homogeneity. It is a relatively thermostable protein having a molecular weight of 23,500 and an isoelectric pH of 8.3. It was found that the CAMP reaction could be simulated by substituting [14C]glucose-containing liposomes prepared from sphingomyelin, cholesterol, and dicetyl phosphate for sheep erythrocytes. In the belief that the liposome system is a valid model, the mechanism of the CAMP reaction was further investigated by using liposomes in which N-acylsphingosine (ceramide) was substituted for sphingomyelin. In this system disruption of liposomes, as measured by release of trapped [14C]glucose, was effected by CAMP protein alone. As judged from thin-layer chromatography, CAMP protein caused no reduction in the amount of ceramide present in ceramide-containing liposomes, nor were split products demonstrable. However, binding of CAMP protein to ceramide-containing liposomes could be shown. It is inferred that in sheep erythrocytes CAMP protein reacts nonenzymatically with membrane ceramide formed by the prior action of staphylococcal sphingomyelinase and that binding of CAMP protein to ceramide disorganizes the lipid bilayer to an extent that results in cell lysis. Images PMID:378839

  17. The effect of a probiotic strain (Lactobacillus acidophilus) on the plaque formation of oral Streptococci.

    PubMed

    Tahmourespour, Arezoo; Kermanshahi, Rooha Kasra

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of biofilm formation among mutans and non mutans oral streptococci and to determine the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus DSM 20079 as a probiotic strain on the adhesion of selected streptococcal strains on the surfaces. The sample comprised 40 isolates of oral streptococci from dental plaque and caries of volunteer persons. Streptococcus mutans ATCC35668 (no24) was as an standard strain. The probiotic strain was Lactobacillus acidophilus DSM 20079. The ability of biofilm formation was investigated with colorimetric method and the strongest isolates were selected. Then the effect of probiotic strain on the adhesion of streptococci isolates was determined in polystyrene microtiter plate simultaneously and 30 minutes before streptococci entrance to the system. The results showed that 42% of mutans streptococci were strongly adherent (SA) and in non mutans streptococci, only 23.5% of isolates were found strongly adherent. The strong biofilm forming bacterium isolated was Streptococcus mutans strain22. In the next step, in the presence of probiotic strain the streptococcal adhesion were reduced, and this reduction was non significantly stronger if the probiotic strain was inoculated to the system before the oral bacteria. The Lactobacillus acidophilus had more effect on adherence of mutans streptococci than non mutans streptococci with significant difference (p < 0.05). Adhesion reduction is likely due to bacterial interactions and colonization of adhesion sites with probiotic strain before the presence of streptococci. Adhesion reduction can be an effective way on decreasing cariogenic potential of oral streptococci.

  18. Metabolic traits of pathogenic streptococci.

    PubMed

    Willenborg, Jörg; Goethe, Ralph

    2016-11-01

    Invasive and noninvasive diseases caused by facultative pathogenic streptococci depend on their equipment with virulence factors and on their ability to sense and adapt to changing nutrients in different host environments. The knowledge of the principal metabolic mechanisms which allow these bacteria to recognize and utilize nutrients in host habitats is a prerequisite for our understanding of streptococcal pathogenicity and the development of novel control strategies. This review aims to summarize and compare the central carbohydrate metabolic and amino acid biosynthetic pathways of a selected group of streptococcal species, all belonging to the naso-oropharyngeal microbiome in humans and/or animals. We also discuss the urgent need of comprehensive metabolomics approaches for a better understanding of the streptococcal metabolism during host-pathogen interaction. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  19. Genetic studies on reference strains of mutans streptococci.

    PubMed

    Ota, Fusao; Yamato, Masayuki; Hayashi, Mie; Ota, Masayuki; Koga, Tetsuro; Sherin, Ahmed; Mukai, Chiharu; Sakai, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2002-01-01

    Twenty four reference strains (serotype a-h) belonging to the mutans group of streptococci were compared for DNA fragment patterns of rDNA after treatment with Hind III. It was shown that Streptococcus cricetus (serotype a), S. rattus (serotype b), and S. downei (serotype h) reveals comparatively homogeneous patterns while S. mutans (serotype c, e and f) exhibits differences between the different serotypes as well as within single serotypes. S. sobrinus had an intermediary diversity. These data support the previous findings that S. mutans is heterogeneous at the serological, biochemical and genetical level.

  20. Antibiotic modulation of the plasminogen binding ability of viridans group streptococci.

    PubMed

    Teles, Cristina; Smith, Andrew; Lang, Sue

    2012-01-01

    The ability of viridans group streptococci to bind human plasminogen and its subsequent activation into plasmin may contribute to the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis (IE) by leading to a decreased stability of the streptococcal vegetation and facilitating dehiscence of emboli. At levels greater than or equal to their MICs, penicillin, vancomycin, and linezolid are efficacious in the treatment of streptococcal endocarditis. However, at sub-MICs, antibiotics can modulate the expression of bacterial genes, including virulence-associated genes, which can have counterproductive effects on the treatment of endocarditis. The effects of 1/8× and 1/4× MICs of penicillin, vancomycin, and linezolid on the plasminogen binding ability of IE isolates Streptococcus mitis 881/956, Streptococcus oralis 12601, and Streptococcus sanguinis 12403 were assessed phenotypically and the expression of plasminogen receptors α-enolase and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase of S. oralis 12601 when exposed to 1/4× MIC of penicillin, was analyzed through quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR. The plasminogen binding ability of S. mitis 881/956 and S. sanguinis 12403 remained unaffected by exposure to sub-MICs of all of the antibiotics tested, while that of S. oralis 12601 was significantly enhanced by all of the antibiotics tested at sub-MICs. qRT-PCR analysis of S. oralis 12601 demonstrated an upregulation of the eno and gapdh genes, indicating an overexpression of plasminogen receptors. These findings suggest that for some endocarditis isolates, the effect of antibiotic sub-MICs, in addition to a reduced antibacterial effect, may influence the clinical response to nonsurgical therapy. It remains difficult to accurately predict isolate responses to sub-MIC antimicrobials since there appears to be interspecies variation.

  1. The Antibacterial Effect of Ethanol Extract of Polish Propolis on Mutans Streptococci and Lactobacilli Isolated from Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Dziedzic, Arkadiusz; Kubina, Robert; Wojtyczka, Robert D.; Kabała-Dzik, Agata; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Morawiec, Tadeusz

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries occurrence is caused by the colonization of oral microorganisms and accumulation of extracellular polysaccharides synthesized by Streptococcus mutans with the synergistic influence of Lactobacillus spp. bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine ex vivo the antibacterial properties of ethanol extract of propolis (EEP), collected in Poland, against the main cariogenic bacteria: salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. The isolation of mutans streptococci group bacteria (MS) and Lactobacillus spp. (LB) from stimulated saliva was performed by in-office CRT bacteria dip slide test. The broth diffusion method and AlamarBlue assay were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of EEP, with the estimation of its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The biochemical composition of propolis components was assessed. The mean MIC and MBC values of EEP, in concentrations ranging from 25 mg/mL to 0.025 mg/mL, for the MS and LB were found to be 1.10 mg/mL versus 0.7 mg/mL and 9.01 mg/mL versus 5.91 mg/mL, respectively. The exposure to an extract of Polish propolis affected mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp. viability, exhibiting an antibacterial efficacy on mutans streptococci group bacteria and lactobacilli saliva residents, while lactobacilli were more susceptible to EEP. Antibacterial measures containing propolis could be the local agents acting against cariogenic bacteria. PMID:23606887

  2. Xylitol gum and maternal transmission of mutans streptococci.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Y; Shinga-Ishihara, C; Kaji, M; Moriya, K; Murakami-Yamanaka, K; Takimura, M

    2010-01-01

    An important caries prevention strategy for children includes measures to interfere with transmission of mutans streptococci (MS). This study confirmed the effectiveness of maternal early exposure to xylitol chewing gum on mother-child transmission of MS. After screening, 107 pregnant women with high salivary MS were randomized into two groups: xylitol gum (Xylitol; n = 56) and no gum (Control; n = 51) groups. Maternal chewing started at the sixth month of pregnancy and terminated 13 months later in the Xylitol group. Outcome measures were the presence of MS in saliva or plaque of the children until age 24 months. The Xylitol-group children were significantly less likely to show MS colonization than Control-group children aged 9-24 months. The Control-group children acquired MS 8.8 months earlier than those in the Xylitol group, suggesting that maternal xylitol gum chewing in Japan shows beneficial effects similar to those demonstrated in Nordic countries.

  3. [Group B streptococcal perinatal infection: A Global, Latin American and Mexican Overview].

    PubMed

    Palacios-Saucedo, Gerardo C; Hernández-Hernández, Talyha Itzel; Rivera-Morales, Lydia Guadalupe; Briones-Lara, Evangelina; Caballero-Trejo, Amílcar; Vázquez-Guillén, José M; Amador-Patiño, Gustavo I; García-Cabello, Ricardo; Solórzano-Santos, Fortino; Rodríguez-Padillacs, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Group B streptococci (Streptococcus agalactiae) cause a number of infections in women during pregnancy and postpartum, such as urinary tract infection, chorioamnionitis and endometritis, consequently may affect the newborn. Group B streptococci is the most common cause of severe infections in newborns in developed countries. Studies on the epidemiology of group B streptococci infections in Latin America are still limited. This information is also unknown in Mexico, but studies carried out in the center of the country have found high rates of vaginal colonization in pregnant women and there are case series and case reports of newborns. Microbiological and molecular epidemiology studies in Mexico have shown that populations of group B streptococci have a clonal distribution and that there are clones with genetic and phenotypic characteristics of high virulence that appear to be responsible for most of perinatal pathology. However, the actual role of group B streptococci in perinatal pathology in Mexico is unknown. Consequently, whether to perform or not the screening for determining the group B streptococci colonization status in pregnant women, and the indication or not for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent neonatal group B streptococci infection in Mexico, are still controversial.

  4. PCR detection and identification of oral streptococci in saliva samples using gtf genes.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tomonori; Kawaguchi, Mamoru; Shimizu, Noriko; Hoshino, Naoko; Ooshima, Takashi; Fujiwara, Taku

    2004-03-01

    Oral streptococci are major constituents of dental plaque, and their prevalence is implicated in various pathologies. Therefore, accurate identification of oral streptococci would be valuable for studies of cariogenic plaque and for diagnostic use in infective endocarditis. Many oral streptococci possess glucosyltransferase enzymes that synthesize glucan, which is an obligate component of dental plaque. We established a rapid and precise method to identify oral streptococci by PCR using the species-specific region from the glucosyltransferase gene. With the species-specific primers, Streptococcus mutans, S. sobrinus, S. salivarius, S. sanguinis, S. oralis, and S. gordonii could be successfully distinguished. Further, we developed a simple method to extract the bacterial DNA from saliva. Using the resultant DNA as a template, the proposed PCR detection was performed. Their distribution was in accord with results of conventional biochemical tests. These findings indicate that the present PCR method is useful for the analysis of oral streptococci and can be successfully used in clinical applications to identify pathogenic bacteria associated with oral infectious disease and/or endocarditis.

  5. Short communication: Genotypic and phenotypic identification of environmental streptococci and association of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis with intramammary infections among different dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Werner, B; Moroni, P; Gioia, G; Lavín-Alconero, L; Yousaf, A; Charter, M E; Carter, B Moslock; Bennett, J; Nydam, D V; Welcome, F; Schukken, Y H

    2014-11-01

    Lactococcus species are counted among a large and closely related group of environmental streptococci and streptococci-like bacteria that include bovine mastitis pathogenic Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Aerococcus species. Phenotypic and biochemical identification methods can be inaccurate and unreliable for species within this group, particularly for Lactococcus spp. As a result, the incidence of Lactococcus spp. on the farm may have been historically underreported and consequently little is known about the clinical importance of this genus as a mastitis pathogen. We used molecular genetic identification methods to accurately differentiate 60 environmental streptococci and streptococci-like bacteria isolated from cows with high somatic cell count and chronic intramammary infection (IMI; >2 somatic cell scores above 4) among 5 geographically distinct farms in New York and Minnesota that exhibited an observed increase in IMI. These isolates were phenotypically identified as Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus spp. Genetic methods identified 42 isolates (70%) as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, including all 10 isolates originally phenotypically identified as Streptococcus uberis. Antibiotic inhibition testing of all Lc. lactis ssp. lactis showed that 7 isolates were resistant to tetracycline. In the present study, a predominance of Lc. lactis ssp. lactis was identified in association with chronic, clinical bovine IMI among all 5 farms and characterized antimicrobial resistance for treatment therapies. Routine use by mastitis testing labs of molecular identification methods for environmental streptococci and streptococci-like bacteria can further define the role and prevalence of Lc. lactis ssp. lactis in association with bovine IMI and may lead to more targeted therapies. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Coaggregation-Mediated Interactions of Streptococci and Actinomyces Detected in Initial Human Dental Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Jr., Robert J.; Gordon, Sharon M.; Cisar, John O.; Kolenbrander, Paul E.

    2003-01-01

    Streptococci and actinomyces that initiate colonization of the tooth surface frequently coaggregate with each other as well as with other oral bacteria. These observations have led to the hypothesis that interbacterial adhesion influences spatiotemporal development of plaque. To assess the role of such interactions in oral biofilm formation in vivo, antibodies directed against bacterial surface components that mediate coaggregation interactions were used as direct immunofluorescent probes in conjunction with laser confocal microscopy to determine the distribution and spatial arrangement of bacteria within intact human plaque formed on retrievable enamel chips. In intrageneric coaggregation, streptococci such as Streptococcus gordonii DL1 recognize receptor polysaccharides (RPS) borne on other streptococci such as Streptococcus oralis 34. To define potentially interactive subsets of streptococci in the developing plaque, an antibody against RPS (anti-RPS) was used together with an antibody against S. gordonii DL1 (anti-DL1). These antibodies reacted primarily with single cells in 4-h-old plaque and with mixed-species microcolonies in 8-h-old plaque. Anti-RPS-reactive bacteria frequently formed microcolonies with anti-DL1-reactive bacteria and with other bacteria distinguished by general nucleic acid stains. In intergeneric coaggregation between streptococci and actinomyces, type 2 fimbriae of actinomyces recognize RPS on the streptococci. Cells reactive with antibody against type 2 fimbriae of Actinomyces naeslundii T14V (anti-type-2) were much less frequent than either subset of streptococci. However, bacteria reactive with anti-type-2 were seen in intimate association with anti-RPS-reactive cells. These results are the first direct demonstration of coaggregation-mediated interactions during initial plaque accumulation in vivo. Further, these results demonstrate the spatiotemporal development and prevalence of mixed-species communities in early dental plaque. PMID

  7. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococci (PANDAS): update.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Stanford T

    2009-02-01

    To review recent developments related to the proposed entity Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococci (so-called 'PANDAS'). The relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or tics/Tourette's syndrome in childhood to antecedent group A streptococci (GAS) is unclear. One recent prospective cohort study found that more than 85% of clinical exacerbations in OCD/tic behavior in patients who met criteria for PANDAS had no relationship to GAS infection. Another study found no correlation between clinical exacerbations and changes in a variety of markers of brain autoimmunity, the proposed pathogenesis of PANDAS. A third recent study concluded that, compared with specialty clinic diagnoses, patients diagnosed with tics or Tourette's by physicians in the community were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with PANDAS without meeting the proposed criteria, most lacked supporting laboratory evidence of GAS infection, and they were more likely to be treated with unjustified short-term to chronic antibiotic and/or immunomodulatory therapy. Despite continued research in the field, the relationship between GAS and specific neuropsychiatric disorders (PANDAS) remains elusive. It is possible that GAS infection may be but one of the many stressors that can exacerbate tic/Tourette's or OCD in a subset of such patients.

  8. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with two photosensitizers on two oral streptococci: an in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahabi, S.; Fekrazad, R.; Ayremlou, S.; Taheri, S.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Kalhori, K. A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Periodontal diseases are caused by infection of tissues supporting the teeth due to complex aggregate of bacteria known as biofilm and firstly colonized by streptococci. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of Radachlorin® and Toluidine Blue O (TBO)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) on the viability of two oral streptococci. Bacterial suspensions of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis were subjected to either TBO or Radachlorin®, Then exposed to two different diode laser light at energy densities of 3, 6 J/cm2 at 633 nm and 6, 12 J/cm2 at 662 nm, respectively. The control groups were subjected to laser light alone, photosensitizer alone or received neither photosensitizer nor light exposure. The suspensions were then spread over specific agar mediums and viable microorganisms were counted after overnight incubation aerobically at 37°C, 5% CO2 and then reported as colony forming unit. The results indicated that photosensitization by the energy density of 6 J/cm2 with Radachlorin® and both 3 and 6 J/cm2 with TBO caused significant reduction in bacterial colony formation ( p < 0.05). Radachlorin® and TBO-mediated photodynamic therapy seem to show excellent potential in significantly killing of two oral streptococci in vitro.

  9. Susceptibility to β-lactams in β-hemolytic streptococci.

    PubMed

    Bonofiglio, Laura; Gagetti, Paula; García Gabarrot, Gabriela; Kaufman, Sara; Mollerach, Marta; Toresani, Inés; Vigliarolo, Laura; von Specht, Martha; Lopardo, Horacio A

    2018-03-13

    Group A (GAS), B (GBS), C (GCS) and G (GGS) β-hemolytic streptococci are important human pathogens. They cause infections of different severity and frequency. Nowadays, after 70 years of use, penicillin is still universally active against GAS, GCS and GGS. However, therapeutic failures have been recorded in 2-28% of pharyngitis cases (median: 12%) attributable to different causes. By contrast, some GBS with reduced susceptibility to penicillin have been described, especially in Japan. In this group of bacteria, it is important to highlight that confirmation by reference methods is mandatory when decreased susceptibility to penicillin is suspected as well as checked for the detection of the mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry identification of large colony beta-hemolytic streptococci containing Lancefield groups A, C, and G.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christian Salgård; Dam-Nielsen, Casper; Arpi, Magnus

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether large colony beta-hemolytic streptococci containing Lancefield groups A, C, and G can be adequately identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF). Previous studies show varying results, with an identification rate from below 50% to 100%. Large colony beta-hemolytic streptococci containing Lancefield groups A, C, and G isolated from blood cultures between January 1, 2007 and May 1, 2012 were included in the study. Isolates were identified to the species level using a combination of phenotypic characteristics and 16s rRNA sequencing. The isolates were subjected to MALDI-ToF analysis. We used a two-stage approach starting with the direct method. If no valid result was obtained we proceeded to an extraction protocol. Scores above 2 were considered valid identification at the species level. A total of 97 Streptococcus pyogenes, 133 Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and 2 Streptococcus canis isolates were tested; 94%, 66%, and 100% of S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis, respectively, were correctly identified by MALDI-ToF. In most instances when the isolates were not identified by MALDI-ToF this was because MALDI-ToF was unable to differentiate between S. pyogenes and S. dysgalactiae. By removing two S. pyogenes reference spectra from the MALDI-ToF database the proportion of correctly identified isolates increased to 96% overall. MALDI-ToF is a promising method for discriminating between S. dysgalactiae, S. canis, and S. equi, although more strains need to be tested to clarify this.

  11. Dominance of serotype Ia among group B Streptococci causing invasive infections in nonpregnant adults in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Martins, E R; Melo-Cristino, J; Ramirez, M

    2012-04-01

    The population of group B streptococci (GBS) associated with invasive infections in nonpregnant adults from 2001 to 2008 was analyzed in isolates submitted from 24 hospital laboratories in Portugal (n = 225). The isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and surface protein gene profiling. GBS invasive cases were found more frequently among men in all age groups. In addition, serotype Ia was the most frequent in our collection, whereas serotype V is dominant elsewhere. Serotype Ia was represented mainly by a single PFGE cluster defined by sequence type 23 (ST23) and surface protein gene eps and by ST24 and bca, similarly to neonatal invasive infections in Portugal, indicating that the same genetic lineages can be responsible for both vaginal colonization and invasive disease in all age groups. In contrast, the hypervirulent serotype III/ST17 neonatal lineage was responsible for a minority of infections. Serotype V isolates were distributed into two genetic lineages, one defined by ST1 and surface protein gene alp3 and macrolide resistant, and another presenting with ST2 and eps and fully susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. The erm(TR) gene was the most frequently found among erythromycin-resistant isolates, while the bovine-associated tet(O) gene was found in a minority of tetracycline-resistant isolates. Our data emphasize the importance of local identification of the genetic lineages responsible for GBS invasive infections in nonpregnant adults. The dominance of serotype Ia in invasive disease in Portugal highlights the importance of this serotype in GBS pathogenesis.

  12. Inorganic Cation Transport and Energy Transduction in Enterococcus hirae and Other Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Kakinuma, Yoshimi

    1998-01-01

    Energy metabolism by bacteria is well understood from the chemiosmotic viewpoint. We know that bacteria extrude protons across the plasma membrane, establishing an electrochemical potential that provides the driving force for various kinds of physiological work. Among these are the uptake of sugars, amino acids, and other nutrients with the aid of secondary porters and the regulation of the cytoplasmic pH and of the cytoplasmic concentration of potassium and other ions. Bacteria live in diverse habitats and are often exposed to severe conditions. In some circumstances, a proton circulation cannot satisfy their requirements and must be supplemented with a complement of primary transport systems. This review is concerned with cation transport in the fermentative streptococci, particularly Enterococcus hirae. Streptococci lack respiratory chains, relying on glycolysis or arginine fermentation for the production of ATP. One of the major findings with E. hirae and other streptococci is that ATP plays a much more important role in transmembrane transport than it does in nonfermentative organisms, probably due to the inability of this organism to generate a large proton potential. The movements of cations in streptococci illustrate the interplay between a variety of primary and secondary modes of transport. PMID:9841664

  13. Isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay applied to the detection of group B streptococci in vaginal/anal samples.

    PubMed

    Daher, Rana K; Stewart, Gale; Boissinot, Maurice; Bergeron, Michel G

    2014-04-01

    Group B streptococcal infections are the leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in newborns. A rapid and reliable method for the detection of this pathogen at the time of delivery is needed for the early treatment of neonates. Isothermal amplification techniques such as recombinase polymerase amplification have advantages relative to PCR in terms of the speed of reaction and simplicity. We studied the clinical performance of recombinase polymerase amplification for the screening of group B streptococci in vaginal/anal samples from 50 pregnant women. We also compared the limit of detection and the analytical specificity of this isothermal assay to real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Compared to RT-PCR, the recombinase polymerase amplification assay showed a clinical sensitivity of 96% and a clinical specificity of 100%. The limit of detection was 98 genome copies and the analytical specificity was 100% for a panel of 15 bacterial and/or fungal strains naturally found in the vaginal/anal flora. Time-to-result for the recombinase polymerase amplification assay was <20 min compared to 45 min for the RT-PCR assay; a positive sample could be detected as early as 8 min. We demonstrate the potential of isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay as a clinically useful molecular diagnostic tool that is simple and faster than PCR/RT-PCR. Recombinase polymerase amplification offers great potential for nucleic acid-based diagnostics at the point of care.

  14. [Enterococcal endocarditis: a multicenter study of 76 cases].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Marcos, Francisco Javier; Lomas-Cabezas, José Manuel; Hidalgo-Tenorio, Carmen; de la Torre-Lima, Javier; Plata-Ciézar, Antonio; Reguera-Iglesias, José María; Ruiz-Morales, Josefa; Márquez-Solero, Manuel; Gálvez-Acebal, Juan; de Alarcón-González, Arístides

    2009-12-01

    Although enterococci occupy the third position among microorganisms producing infectious endocarditis (IE) following streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus, few multicenter studies have provided an in-depth analysis of enterococcal IE. Description of the characteristics of 76 cases of enterococcal left-sided infectious endocarditis (LSIE) (native: 59, prosthetic: 17) retrieved from the database of the Cardiovascular Infections Study Group of the Andalusian Society of Infectious Diseases, with emphasis on the comparison with non-enterococcal LSIE. Enterococci were the causal agent in 76 of the 696 episodes of LSIE (11%). Compared with non-enterococcal LSIE, enterococcal LSIE was more commonly seen in patients older than 65 (47.4% vs. 27.6%, P<0.0005), and those with chronic diseases (75% vs. 54.6%, P<0.001), calcified valves (18.6% vs. 10%, P<0.05), and previous urinary (30.3% vs. 2.1%, P<0.00001) or abdominal (10.5% vs. 3.1%, P<0.01) infections, and produced a higher rate of relapses (6.6% vs. 2.3%, P<0.05). Enterococcal LSIE was associated with fewer peripheral vascular or skin manifestations (14.5% vs. 27.1%, P<0.05) and fewer immunological phenomena (10.5% vs. 24%, P<0.01). Among the total of patients with enterococcal LSIE, 36.8% underwent valve surgery during hospitalization. In-hospital mortality was 32.9% for enterococcal LSIE, 9.3% for viridans group streptococci (VGS) LSIE and 48.6% for S. aureus LSIE (enterococci vs VGS: P<0.0001; enterococci vs S. aureus: P=0.02). Enterococcal LSIE patients treated with the combination of a penicillin or vancomycin plus an aminoglycoside (n=60) and those treated with ampicillin plus ceftriaxone (n=6) showed similar in-hospital mortality (26.7% vs 33.3%, P=0.66). High-level resistance to gentamicin was detected in 5 of 38 episodes of enterococcal LSIE (13.1%). Enterococcal LSIE appears in patients with well-defined clinical characteristics, and causes few peripheral vascular or skin manifestations and few immunological

  15. The Interaction between Heterotrophic Bacteria and Coliform, Fecal Coliform, Fecal Streptococci Bacteria in the Water Supply Networks.

    PubMed

    Amanidaz, Nazak; Zafarzadeh, Ali; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in water supply networks. This study was conducted during 2013 on water supply distribution network in Aq Qala City, Golestan Province, Northern Iran and standard methods were applied for microbiological analysis. The surface method was applied to test the heterotrophic bacteria and MPN method was used for coliform, fecal coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria measurements. In 114 samples, heterotrophic bacteria count were over 500 CFU/ml, which the amount of fecal coliform, coliform, and fecal streptococci were 8, 32, and 20 CFU/100 ml, respectively. However, in the other 242 samples, with heterotrophic bacteria count being less than 500 CFU/ml, the amount of fecal coliform, coliform, and fecal streptococci was 7, 23, and 11 CFU/100ml, respectively. The relationship between heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms and fecal streptococci was highly significant (P<0.05). We observed the concentration of coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria being high, whenever the concentration of heterotrophic bacteria in the water network systems was high. Interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in the Aq Qala City water supply networks was not notable. It can be due to high concentrations of organic carbon, bio-films and nutrients, which are necessary for growth, and survival of all microorganisms.

  16. The Interaction between Heterotrophic Bacteria and Coliform, Fecal Coliform, Fecal Streptococci Bacteria in the Water Supply Networks

    PubMed Central

    AMANIDAZ, Nazak; ZAFARZADEH, Ali; MAHVI, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in water supply networks. Methods: This study was conducted during 2013 on water supply distribution network in Aq Qala City, Golestan Province, Northern Iran and standard methods were applied for microbiological analysis. The surface method was applied to test the heterotrophic bacteria and MPN method was used for coliform, fecal coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria measurements. Results: In 114 samples, heterotrophic bacteria count were over 500 CFU/ml, which the amount of fecal coliform, coliform, and fecal streptococci were 8, 32, and 20 CFU/100 ml, respectively. However, in the other 242 samples, with heterotrophic bacteria count being less than 500 CFU/ml, the amount of fecal coliform, coliform, and fecal streptococci was 7, 23, and 11 CFU/100ml, respectively. The relationship between heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms and fecal streptococci was highly significant (P<0.05). We observed the concentration of coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria being high, whenever the concentration of heterotrophic bacteria in the water network systems was high. Conclusion: Interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in the Aq Qala City water supply networks was not notable. It can be due to high concentrations of organic carbon, bio-films and nutrients, which are necessary for growth, and survival of all microorganisms. PMID:26811820

  17. Interference of alpha-hemolytic streptococci isolated from tonsillar surface on beta-hemolytic streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes)--a methodological study.

    PubMed

    Grahn, E; Holm, S E; Ekedahl, C; Roos, K

    1983-07-01

    The interference between alpha-streptococcal strains obtained from patients with repeated tonsillitis and a collection of group A streptococcal strains were studied. For this purpose three in vitro methods were designed and compared. The results obtained by a simple plating technique suitable for screening purposes were found to correlate well with those using more laborious techniques. In a limited scale some of the alpha- and beta-streptococcal combinations were tested under in vivo conditions using a tissue cage model allowing repeated sampling. In most instances agreement between the results of the in vitro and in vivo methods was registered. Several alpha-strains having inhibitory capacity to the majority of a collection of group A streptococci belonging to different serotypes were found, but also alpha-strains with an inhibitory activity restricted to few group A isolates within a certain serotype. Also beta-streptococcal strains with growth inhibiting activity towards some alpha-strains were found. As the methods were chosen to eliminate many of the unspecific inhibitory factors and the beta-hemolytic test strains showed a pattern of inhibition that varied for each of the reference alpha-strains the activity is most likely attributed to bacteriocin-like substances.

  18. Differences in SpeB protease activity among group A streptococci associated with superficial, invasive, and autoimmune disease

    PubMed Central

    Walwyn, Odaelys L.; Tanz, Robert R.; Shulman, Stanford T.; Kabat, William

    2017-01-01

    The secreted cysteine proteinase SpeB is an important virulence factor of group A streptococci (GAS), whereby SpeB activity varies widely among strains. To establish the degree to which SpeB activity correlates with disease, GAS organisms were recovered from patients with pharyngitis, impetigo, invasive disease or acute rheumatic fever (ARF), and selected for analysis using rigorous sampling criteria; >300 GAS isolates were tested for SpeB activity by casein digestion assays, and each GAS isolate was scored as a SpeB-producer or non-producer. Highly significant statistical differences (p < 0.01) in SpeB production are observed between GAS recovered from patients with ARF (41.5% SpeB-non-producers) compared to pharyngitis (20.5%), invasive disease (16.7%), and impetigo (5.5%). SpeB activity differences between pharyngitis and impetigo isolates are also significant, whereas pharyngitis versus invasive isolates show no significant difference. The disproportionately greater number of SpeB-non-producers among ARF-associated isolates may indicate an altered transcriptional program for many rheumatogenic strains and/or a protective role for SpeB in GAS-triggered autoimmunity. PMID:28545045

  19. A comparative study of plaque mutans streptococci levels in children receiving glass ionomer cement and amalgam restorations.

    PubMed

    Ertuğrul, Fahinur; Eltem, Rengin; Eronat, Cemal

    2003-01-01

    The restorative materials amalgam (Standalloy F) and glass ionomer cements (Chelon Silver) were comparatively investigated to determine the number of mutans streptococci Saliva and plaque were collected from patients before and 40 days after the insertion of their restorations. Total bateria and mutans streptococci counts were found to be statistically significantly reduced when compared with the prerestoration counts in the saliva samples (P<0.001). Microbiological analysis of the dental plaque showed that the number of mutans streptococci in the glass ionomer cements was significantly lower than in the amalgam restorations (P<0.001). This study showed that silver glass ionomer cements inhibited the growth of mutans streptococci.

  20. In vitro activity of RP 59500, a semisynthetic injectable pristinamycin, against staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci.

    PubMed Central

    Fass, R J

    1991-01-01

    The in vitro activity of RP 59500, a semisynthetic pristinamycin, was compared with the activities of vancomycin, oxacillin, ampicillin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin against five Staphylococcus species, five Streptococcus species, and four Enterococcus species. For staphylococci, MICs were 0.13 to 1 microgram/ml and the MICs for 90% of the strains tested (MIC90s) were 0.13 to 0.5 microgram/ml; there were no differences between oxacillin-susceptible and -resistant strains. For streptococci, MICs were 0.03 to 4 micrograms/ml and MIC90s were 0.25 to 2 micrograms/ml; viridans group streptococci were the least susceptible streptococci. For enterococci, MICs were 0.25 to 32 micrograms/ml and MIC90s were 2 to 4 micrograms/ml; Enterococcus faecalis was the least susceptible. Vancomycin was the only comparative drug with consistent activity against all species of gram-positive cocci. With RP 59500, raising the inoculum 100-fold, lowering the pH of cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth to 5.5, or omitting cation supplementation had little effect on MICs, but 50% serum increased MICs 2 to 4 dilution steps. The differences between MBCs and MICs were greater for staphylococci and enterococci than for streptococci. Time-kill studies with 24 strains indicated that RP 59500 concentrations 2-, 4-, and 16-fold greater than the MICs usually killed bacteria of each species at similar rates; reductions in CFU per milliliter were less than those observed with oxacillin or vancomycin against staphylococci and less than those observed with ampicillin against enterococci. RP 59500 antagonized the bactericidal activities of oxacillin and gentamicin against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and that of ampicillin against E. faecalis ATCC 29212. Against the latter, combination with gentamicin was indifferent. RP 59500 has a broad spectrum of in vitro activity against gram-positive cocci; combining it with other drugs is not advantageous. PMID:1903912

  1. Induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha by the group- and type-specific polysaccharides from type III group B streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, G; Tomasello, F; von Hunolstein, C; Orefici, G; Teti, G

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) may have a pathophysiologic role in experimental neonatal sepsis induced by group B streptococci (GBS). This study was undertaken to investigate the ability of the type III and group-specific polysaccharides of GBS to induce TNF-alpha production and TNF-alpha-dependent lethality in neonatal rats. The cytokine was detected in plasma samples by the L929 cytotoxicity assay. Intracardiac injections of either polysaccharide induced dose-dependent, transient elevations in plasma TNF-alpha levels that returned to baseline values after 5 h. The group-specific antigen induced significantly higher mean peak TNF-alpha levels than the type III antigen (125 +/- 47 versus 44 +/- 15 U/ml with 70 mg/kg of body weight). Glycogen (70 mg/kg), used as a negative control, did not induce TNF-alpha. The lipopolysaccharide-neutralizing agent polymyxin B did not decrease TNF-alpha levels induced by either polysaccharide, ruling out contamination with endotoxin as a possible cause of TNF-alpha induction. Fifty percent lethal doses of the type III and group-specific antigens given as intracardiac injections were 105 and 16 mg/kg, respectively. Salmonella endotoxin, used as a positive control, had a 50% lethal dose of 0.1 mg/kg. The lethal activities of GBS polysaccharides, as well as endotoxin, were completely prevented by pretreatment of neonatal rats with the respective specific antibodies or anti-murine TNF-alpha serum. To assess the relative importance of the type-specific substance in TNF-alpha induction by whole bacteria, two unrelated GBS transposon mutants devoid of only the type-specific capsular polysaccharide (COH1-13 and COH31-15) were employed. Each of the heat-killed unencapsulated mutants was able to produce plasma TNF-alpha level elevations or TNF-alpha-dependent lethality but was significantly less efficient in these activities than the corresponding encapsulated wild-type strain. These data

  2. Oral streptococci with genetic determinants similar to the glucosyltransferase regulatory gene, rgg.

    PubMed Central

    Vickerman, M M; Sulavik, M C; Clewell, D B

    1995-01-01

    The Streptococcus gordonii Challis glucosyltransferase structural gene, gtfG, is positively regulated by the upstream gene, rgg, the only described gtf regulatory determinant in oral streptococci. Southern hybridization analyses indicated that rgg-like and gtfG-like determinants were present on the same HindIII fragment in strains of S. gordonii, Streptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus oralis, whereas no rgg-like determinants were detected in mutans streptococci, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus salivarius. PMID:7591096

  3. Streptococci Engage TLR13 on Myeloid Cells in a Site-Specific Fashion.

    PubMed

    Kolter, Julia; Feuerstein, Reinhild; Spoeri, Evelyne; Gharun, Kourosh; Elling, Roland; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Goldmann, Tobias; Waskow, Claudia; Chen, Zhijian J; Kirschning, Carsten J; Deshmukh, Sachin D; Henneke, Philipp

    2016-03-15

    Streptococci are common human colonizers with a species-specific mucocutaneous distribution. At the same time, they are among the most important and most virulent invasive bacterial pathogens. Thus, site-specific cellular innate immunity, which is predominantly executed by resident and invading myeloid cells, has to be adapted with respect to streptococcal sensing, handling, and response. In this article, we show that TLR13 is the critical mouse macrophage (MΦ) receptor in the response to group B Streptococcus, both in bone marrow-derived MΦs and in mature tissue MΦs, such as those residing in the lamina propria of the colon and the dermis, as well as in microglia. In contrast, TLR13 and its chaperone UNC-93B are dispensable for a potent cytokine response of blood monocytes to group B Streptococcus, although monocytes serve as the key progenitors of intestinal and dermal MΦs. Furthermore, a specific role for TLR13 with respect to MΦ function is supported by the response to staphylococci, where TLR13 and UNC-93B limit the cytokine response in bone marrow-derived MΦs and microglia, but not in dermal MΦs. In summary, TLR13 is a critical and site-specific receptor in the single MΦ response to β-hemolytic streptococci. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. Preventive effects of a phospholipid polymer coating on PMMA on biofilm formation by oral streptococci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Yukie; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Fukazawa, Kyoko; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2016-12-01

    The regulation of biofilm formation on dental materials such as denture bases is key to oral health. Recently, a biocompatible phospholipid polymer, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate) (PMB) coating, was reported to inhibit sucrose-dependent biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic bacterium, on the surface of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) denture bases. However, S. mutans is a minor component of the oral microbiome and does not play an important role in biofilm formation in the absence of sucrose. Other, more predominant oral streptococci must play an indispensable role in sucrose-independent biofilm formation. In the present study, the effect of PMB coating on PMMA was evaluated using various oral streptococci that are known to be initial colonizers during biofilm formation on tooth surfaces. PMB coating on PMMA drastically reduced sucrose-dependent tight biofilm formation by two cariogenic bacteria (S. mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus), among seven tested oral streptococci, as described previously [N. Takahashi, F. Iwasa, Y. Inoue, H. Morisaki, K. Ishihara, K. Baba, J. Prosthet. Dent. 112 (2014) 194-203]. Streptococci other than S. mutans and S. sobrinus did not exhibit tight biofilm formation even in the presence of sucrose. On the other hand, all seven species of oral streptococci exhibited distinctly reduced glucose-dependent soft biofilm retention on PMB-coated PMMA. We conclude that PMB coating on PMMA surfaces inhibits biofilm attachment by initial colonizer oral streptococci, even in the absence of sucrose, indicating that PMB coating may help maintain clean conditions on PMMA surfaces in the oral cavity.

  5. Food-borne outbreak of group G streptococcal sore throat in an Israeli military base.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, D.; Ferne, M.; Rouach, T.; Bergner-Rabinowitz, S.

    1987-01-01

    A food-borne outbreak of sore throat caused by Lancefield group G beta-haemolytic streptococci and involving 50 persons occurred in May 1983 in an Israeli military camp. All of the patients available for clinical examination had sore throat and difficulty in swallowing. Exudative tonsillitis occurred in 46% of the patients and the body temperature was above 37.5 degrees C in 81%. The pattern of attack was uniform over the base and 37 became ill during the night and morning of the 5 May. Thirty-two (84%) of the throat cultures taken from 37 patients grew group G beta-haemolytic streptococci. Eight of 29 contacts were positive for group G beta-haemolytic streptococci and 6 of the 28 foodhandlers examined had positive cultures of the same group. The organism was also isolated from one food sample. The epidemiological and laboratory investigations indicated that a food handler, a convalescent carrier of group G streptococci, might have been the source of infection. Assumptions on the potential of non-group A streptococci to cause epidemics are discussed. PMID:3678389

  6. Interference of oral hygiene products with an adhesion-based assay of salivary mutans streptococci.

    PubMed

    Söderling, E; Ketola, T; Parviainen, T

    1991-04-01

    The effect of several oral hygiene products on an adhesion-based assay for salivary mutans streptococci (Dentocult-SM Strip Mutans) was studied in three women. The mutans streptococci levels were recorded for up to 24 h after a 1-min rinse with the product. The chlorhexidine (0.05%) and stanno-amine fluoride solutions (corresponding 0.025% F) interfered selectively with the adhesion-based assay. No such effect was observed for a polyvidoneiodine solution (10 micrograms/ml) or two toothpastes containing either sodium lauryl sulfate or amine fluorides. The results indicate that antimicrobial agents showing retention in the oral cavity may interfere for several hours after their use with adhesion-based assays of salivary mutans streptococci.

  7. Comparison of oral streptococci biofilm in caries-free and caries-affected preschool Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Martinez, Rita E; Fujiwara, Taku; Patiño-Marin, Nuria; Hoshino, Tomonori; Wilson, Michael; Loyola-Rodríguez, Juan P

    2012-01-01

    Interaction of oral streptococci biofilm is the main etiological factor for dental caries. The aim of the study was to compare oral streptococci (OS) distribution in the biofilm of primary dentition from caries-free and caries-affected preschool Mexican children. This cross-sectional study involved 40 caries-free and 40 caries-affected children with primary dentition. Each child was examined using the dmfs index, DNA was extracted from saliva and presence of OS was determined by PCR. Data obtained showed no statistical difference regarding age and gender (P > 0.05). Streptococcus mutans (Smut), Streptococcus sobrinus (Ssob) and their combination showed significant statistical differences between groups (P < 0.05). Smut, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii had an inverse relation with dmfs index and Ssob had a direct relation similar to combined with Smut. Smut-Ssob combined with other OS showed statistical differences (P < 0.05). In free-caries group Streptococcus gordonii was more frequently identified than Smut. The ratio Smut/Streptococcus sanguinis could represent a high risk of dental caries development; this ratio was higher in the caries-affected (1.18) than in the caries-free group (0.32). In conclusion, OS play an important role in dental caries predisposition and severity, not only the presence of Smut and Srob, but also the complexity and distribution of OS in the biofilm.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a specific receptor for human albumin on a group L Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Lämmler, C

    1988-08-01

    Certain group L streptococci demonstrate surface receptors for human albumin. Binding of 125I-albumin to group L streptococci could be inhibited by unlabelled albumin preparations from humans, dogs, mice and bovines, but not by albumin from rabbits. The albumin-binding proteins (ABP) could be solubilized from the streptococcal surface by hot acid treatment of the bacteria and isolated by affinity chromatography on human-albumin sepharose. ABP and specific antisera produced against ABP inhibited 125I-albumin binding to group L streptococci. The molecular weight of ABP determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting, was approximately 48,000 Dalton. ABP preparations of group G streptococci isolated from bovines and humans demonstrated cross reactivity with antiserum produced against group L streptococcal ABP.

  9. A genome-wide study of two-component signal transduction systems in eight newly sequenced mutans streptococci strains

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mutans streptococci are a group of gram-positive bacteria including the primary cariogenic dental pathogen Streptococcus mutans and closely related species. Two component systems (TCSs) composed of a signal sensing histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR) play key roles in pathogenicity, but have not been comparatively studied for these oral bacterial pathogens. Results HKs and RRs of 8 newly sequenced mutans streptococci strains, including S. sobrinus DSM20742, S. ratti DSM20564 and six S. mutans strains, were identified and compared to the TCSs of S. mutans UA159 and NN2025, two previously genome sequenced S. mutans strains. Ortholog analysis revealed 18 TCS clusters (HK-RR pairs), 2 orphan HKs and 2 orphan RRs, of which 8 TCS clusters were common to all 10 strains, 6 were absent in one or more strains, and the other 4 were exclusive to individual strains. Further classification of the predicted HKs and RRs revealed interesting aspects of their putative functions. While TCS complements were comparable within the six S. mutans strains, S. sobrinus DSM20742 lacked TCSs possibly involved in acid tolerance and fructan catabolism, and S. ratti DSM20564 possessed 3 unique TCSs but lacked the quorum-sensing related TCS (ComDE). Selected computational predictions were verified by PCR experiments. Conclusions Differences in the TCS repertoires of mutans streptococci strains, especially those of S. sobrinus and S. ratti in comparison to S. mutans, imply differences in their response mechanisms for survival in the dynamic oral environment. This genomic level study of TCSs should help in understanding the pathogenicity of these mutans streptococci strains. PMID:22475007

  10. Genetic variability of mutans streptococci revealed by wide whole-genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mutans streptococci are a group of bacteria significantly contributing to tooth decay. Their genetic variability is however still not well understood. Results Genomes of 6 clinical S. mutans isolates of different origins, one isolate of S. sobrinus (DSM 20742) and one isolate of S. ratti (DSM 20564) were sequenced and comparatively analyzed. Genome alignment revealed a mosaic-like structure of genome arrangement. Genes related to pathogenicity are found to have high variations among the strains, whereas genes for oxidative stress resistance are well conserved, indicating the importance of this trait in the dental biofilm community. Analysis of genome-scale metabolic networks revealed significant differences in 42 pathways. A striking dissimilarity is the unique presence of two lactate oxidases in S. sobrinus DSM 20742, probably indicating an unusual capability of this strain in producing H2O2 and expanding its ecological niche. In addition, lactate oxidases may form with other enzymes a novel energetic pathway in S. sobrinus DSM 20742 that can remedy its deficiency in citrate utilization pathway. Using 67 S. mutans genomes currently available including the strains sequenced in this study, we estimates the theoretical core genome size of S. mutans, and performed modeling of S. mutans pan-genome by applying different fitting models. An “open” pan-genome was inferred. Conclusions The comparative genome analyses revealed diversities in the mutans streptococci group, especially with respect to the virulence related genes and metabolic pathways. The results are helpful for better understanding the evolution and adaptive mechanisms of these oral pathogen microorganisms and for combating them. PMID:23805886

  11. Prevalence, distribution of serotypes, and cariogenic potential in hamsters of mutans streptococci from elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, D B; Fitzgerald, R J; Adams, B O; Morhart, R E

    1983-08-01

    The prevalence of mutans streptococci (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus cricetus, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Streptococcus rattus) was determined in the salivas of 169 elderly individuals ranging in age from 60 to 87 years. Approximately 40% of these individuals were edentulous and wore full upper and lower dentures. With the exception of a higher proportion of saliva counts below 1,000 CFU/ml in the full-denture wearers, the prevalence and the serotype and species distributions of the mutans streptococci were similar in the denture wearers and individuals with natural teeth only. The species and serotype distributions of mutans streptococci in this elderly population were also consistent with reported observations of other workers on younger, more caries-prone populations. A total of 87 representative isolates of the mutans streptococci were tested for cariogenic potential in a hamster model system. A considerable degree of variation in virulence between different strains was observed. However, these differences were not relatable to individual species or serotypes or to whether the organisms were isolated from denture wearers or naturally dentate subjects. The results of our studies indicate that elderly individuals with either natural or artificial dentitions may be a hitherto unrecognized reservoir of mutans streptococci having varying degrees of potential cariogenicity. Hence, in close family situations they could serve, along with parents and siblings, as vectors in the initial transmission of cariogenic microorganisms to young children.

  12. Mutagenesis of a bacteriophage lytic enzyme PlyGBS significantly increases its antibacterial activity against group B streptococci.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qi; Fischetti, Vincent A

    2007-04-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) are the leading cause of neonatal meningitis and sepsis worldwide. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) is the current prevention strategy given to pregnant women with confirmed vaginal GBS colonization. Due to antibiotic resistance identified in GBS, we previously developed another strategy using a bacteriophage lytic enzyme, PlyGBS, to reduce vaginal GBS colonization. In this study, various DNA mutagenesis methods were explored to produce PlyGBS mutants with increased lytic activity against GBS. Several hyperactive mutants were identified that contain only the endopeptidase domain found in the N-terminal region of PlyGBS and represent only about one-third of the wild-type PlyGBS in length. Significantly, these mutants not only have 18-28-fold increases in specific activities compared to PlyGBS, but they also have a similar activity spectrum against several streptococcal species. One of the hyperactive mutants, PlyGBS90-1, reduced the GBS colonization from >5 logs of growth per mouse to <50 colony-forming units (cfu) 4 h post treatment ( approximately 4-log reduction) using a single dose in a mouse vaginal model. A reduction in GBS colonization before delivery should significantly reduce neonatal GBS infection providing a safe alternative to IAP.

  13. Oral streptococci utilize a Siglec-like domain of serine-rich repeat adhesins to preferentially target platelet sialoglycans in human blood.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lingquan; Bensing, Barbara A; Thamadilok, Supaporn; Yu, Hai; Lau, Kam; Chen, Xi; Ruhl, Stefan; Sullam, Paul M; Varki, Ajit

    2014-12-01

    Damaged cardiac valves attract blood-borne bacteria, and infective endocarditis is often caused by viridans group streptococci. While such bacteria use multiple adhesins to maintain their normal oral commensal state, recognition of platelet sialoglycans provides an intermediary for binding to damaged valvular endocardium. We use a customized sialoglycan microarray to explore the varied binding properties of phylogenetically related serine-rich repeat adhesins, the GspB, Hsa, and SrpA homologs from Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis species, which belong to a highly conserved family of glycoproteins that contribute to virulence for a broad range of Gram-positive pathogens. Binding profiles of recombinant soluble homologs containing novel sialic acid-recognizing Siglec-like domains correlate well with binding of corresponding whole bacteria to arrays. These bacteria show multiple modes of glycan, protein, or divalent cation-dependent binding to synthetic glycoconjugates and isolated glycoproteins in vitro. However, endogenous asialoglycan-recognizing clearance receptors are known to ensure that only fully sialylated glycans dominate in the endovascular system, wherein we find these particular streptococci become primarily dependent on their Siglec-like adhesins for glycan-mediated recognition events. Remarkably, despite an excess of alternate sialoglycan ligands in cellular and soluble blood components, these adhesins selectively target intact bacteria to sialylated ligands on platelets, within human whole blood. These preferred interactions are inhibited by corresponding recombinant soluble adhesins, which also preferentially recognize platelets. Our data indicate that circulating platelets may act as inadvertent Trojan horse carriers of oral streptococci to the site of damaged endocardium, and provide an explanation why it is that among innumerable microbes that gain occasional access to the bloodstream, certain viridans group streptococci have a

  14. Effectiveness of Healthy Relationships Video-Group—A Videoconferencing Group Intervention for Women Living with HIV: Preliminary Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Buhi, Eric R.; Baldwin, Julie; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Ayesha; Lynn, Vickie; Glueckauf, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Expanded access to efficacious interventions is needed for women living with human immunodeficiency virus (WLH) in the United States. Availability of “prevention with (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV)] positives” interventions in rural/remote and low HIV prevalence areas remains limited, leaving WLH in these communities few options for receiving effective behavioral interventions such as Healthy Relationships (HR). Offering such programs via videoconferencing groups (VGs) may expand access. This analysis tests the effectiveness of HR-VG (versus wait-list control) for reducing sexual risk behavior among WLH and explores intervention satisfaction. Subjects and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial unprotected vaginal/anal sex occasions over the prior 3 months reported at the 6-month follow-up were compared across randomization groups through zero-inflated Poisson regression modeling, controlling for unprotected sex at baseline. Seventy-one WLH were randomized and completed the baseline assessment (n=36 intervention and n=35 control); 59 (83% in each group) had follow-up data. Results: Among those who engaged in unprotected sex at 6-month follow-up, intervention participants had approximately seven fewer unprotected occasions than control participants (95% confidence interval 5.43–7.43). Intervention participants reported high levels of satisfaction with HR-VG; 84% reported being “very satisfied” overall. Conclusions: This study found promising evidence for effective dissemination of HIV risk reduction interventions via VGs. Important next steps will be to determine whether VGs are effective with other subpopulations of people living with HIV (i.e., men and non-English speakers) and to assess cost-effectiveness. Possibilities for using VGs to expand access to other psychosocial and behavioral interventions and reduce stigma are discussed. PMID:24237482

  15. Growth inhibition of oral mutans streptococci and candida by commercial probiotic lactobacilli - an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Probiotic bacteria are suggested to play a role in the maintenance of oral health. Such health promoting bacteria are added to different commercial probiotic products. The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of a selection of lactobacilli strains, used in commercially available probiotic products, to inhibit growth of oral mutans streptococci and C. albicans in vitro. Methods Eight probiotic lactobacilli strains were tested for growth inhibition on three reference strains and two clinical isolates of mutans streptococci as well as two reference strains and three clinical isolates of Candida albicans with an agar overlay method. Results At concentrations ranging from 109 to 105 CFU/ml, all lactobacilli strains inhibited the growth of the mutans streptococci completely with the exception of L. acidophilus La5 that executed only a slight inhibition of some strains at concentrations corresponding to 107 and 105 CFU/ml. At the lowest cell concentration (103 CFU/ml), only L. plantarum 299v and L. plantarum 931 displayed a total growth inhibition while a slight inhibition was seen for all five mutans streptococci strains by L. rhamnosus LB21, L. paracasei F19, L. reuteri PTA 5289 and L. reuteri ATCC 55730. All the tested lactobacilli strains reduced candida growth but the effect was generally weaker than for mutans streptococci. The two L. plantarum strains and L. reuteri ATCC 55730 displayed the strongest inhibition on Candida albicans. No significant differences were observed between the reference strains and the clinical isolates. Conclusion The selected probiotic strains showed a significant but somewhat varying ability to inhibit growth of oral mutans streptococci and Candida albicans in vitro. PMID:20598145

  16. Growth inhibition of oral mutans streptococci and candida by commercial probiotic lactobacilli--an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Hasslöf, Pamela; Hedberg, Maria; Twetman, Svante; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    2010-07-02

    Probiotic bacteria are suggested to play a role in the maintenance of oral health. Such health promoting bacteria are added to different commercial probiotic products. The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of a selection of lactobacilli strains, used in commercially available probiotic products, to inhibit growth of oral mutans streptococci and C. albicans in vitro. Eight probiotic lactobacilli strains were tested for growth inhibition on three reference strains and two clinical isolates of mutans streptococci as well as two reference strains and three clinical isolates of Candida albicans with an agar overlay method. At concentrations ranging from 109 to 105 CFU/ml, all lactobacilli strains inhibited the growth of the mutans streptococci completely with the exception of L. acidophilus La5 that executed only a slight inhibition of some strains at concentrations corresponding to 107 and 105 CFU/ml. At the lowest cell concentration (103 CFU/ml), only L. plantarum 299v and L. plantarum 931 displayed a total growth inhibition while a slight inhibition was seen for all five mutans streptococci strains by L. rhamnosus LB21, L. paracasei F19, L. reuteri PTA 5289 and L. reuteri ATCC 55730. All the tested lactobacilli strains reduced candida growth but the effect was generally weaker than for mutans streptococci. The two L. plantarum strains and L. reuteri ATCC 55730 displayed the strongest inhibition on Candida albicans. No significant differences were observed between the reference strains and the clinical isolates. The selected probiotic strains showed a significant but somewhat varying ability to inhibit growth of oral mutans streptococci and Candida albicans in vitro.

  17. Population-based study of invasive disease due to beta-hemolytic streptococci of groups other than A and B.

    PubMed

    Broyles, Laura N; Van Beneden, Chris; Beall, Bernard; Facklam, Richard; Shewmaker, P Lynn; Malpiedi, Paul; Daily, Pamala; Reingold, Arthur; Farley, Monica M

    2009-03-15

    Beta-hemolytic streptococci of groups other than A and B (NABS) are increasingly recognized as causes of clinically significant disease, but precise information about this heterogeneous group is lacking. We report the incidence of NABS infection and describe the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics. Active, population-based surveillance for invasive NABS was performed over a 2-year period in the 8-county metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, area and the 3-county San Francisco Bay, California, area. Clinical records were reviewed, and available isolates were sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta) for additional microbiologic characterization. Incidences were calculated using year-appropriate US Census Bureau data. A total of 489 cases of invasive NABS infection were identified (3.2 cases per 100,000 population). The median age of patients was 55 years; 64% of patients were males, and 87% had underlying diseases. The incidence was higher among black persons than white persons (4.0 vs. 2.5 cases per 100,000 population; P < .01) and increased with age among all races. Infections were community acquired in 416 cases (85%). Among the 450 patients (94%) with NABS infection who were hospitalized, 55 (12%) died. Of 266 isolates (54%) speciated at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 212 (80%) were Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis; 46 (17%) were members of the Streptococcus anginosus group. S. dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis primarily presented as skin and soft-tissue infection in older patients, whereas individuals with invasive S. anginosus group infections were more likely to be younger patients with intra-abdominal infections. NABS comprise multiple distinct species that cause a significant number of community-acquired invasive infections. Clinical manifestations differ by species. Thus, speciation of invasive NABS may be warranted in clinical settings.

  18. Class II glass ionomer/silver cermet restorations and their effect on interproximal growth of mutans streptococci.

    PubMed

    Berg, J H; Farrell, J E; Brown, L R

    1990-02-01

    The release of fluoride from glass ionomer materials is one of the most important features of this newly implemented material, and the remineralization effects of this phenomenon have been documented (Hicks and Silverstone 1986). This paper examines the effects of glass ionomer/silver cermet restorations on the plaque levels of interproximal mutans streptococci. Fifteen patients with Class II lesions in primary molars were selected for study. Interproximal plaque samples were obtained from each of the lesion sites and from one caries-free site approximal to a primary molar. One lesion was restored with composite resin to serve as a treated control to the glass ionomer/silver cermet (Ketac Silver, ESPE/Premier Sales Corp., Norristown, Pennsylvania) test site. A sound (unaltered) interproximal site served as the untreated control site. Plaque samples were collected before and at one week, one month, and three months post-treatment. Samples were serially diluted to enable colony counts of mutans streptococci. One week post-treatment counts showed that the glass ionomer/silver cermet restorations significantly reduced (P less than 0.05) the approximal plaque levels of mutans streptococci. Conversely, the untreated and treated control sites did not exhibit reductions in approximal plaque levels of mutans streptococci. These results indicate that glass ionomer restorations may be inhibitory to the growth of mutans streptococci in dental plaque approximal to this restorative material in the primary dentition.

  19. The role of complex carbohydrate catabolism in the pathogenesis of invasive streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Shelburne, Samuel A.; Davenport, Michael T.; Keith, David B.; Musser, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, the study of bacterial catabolism of complex carbohydrates has contributed to understanding basic bacterial physiology. Recently, however, genome-wide screens of streptococcal pathogenesis have identified genes encoding proteins involved in complex carbohydrate catabolism as participating in pathogen infectivity. Subsequent studies have focused on specific mechanisms by which carbohydrate utilization proteins might contribute to the ability of streptococci to colonize and infect the host. Moreover, transcriptome and biochemical analyses have uncovered novel regulatory pathways by which streptococci link environmental carbohydrate availability to virulence factor production. Herein we review new insights into the role of complex carbohydrates in streptococcal host-pathogen interaction. PMID:18508271

  20. Molecular Relationships and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Viridans Group Streptococci Isolated from Blood of Neutropenic Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wisplinghoff, H.; Reinert, R. R.; Cornely, O.; Seifert, H.

    1999-01-01

    From January 1995 to May 1998, 57 episodes of bacteremia due to viridans group streptococci were identified in 50 febrile neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies. Four patients experienced two separate episodes of streptococcal bacteremia, and one patient had four separate episodes of streptococcal bacteremia. Strains were identified to species level as Streptococcus mitis (n = 37), Streptococcus oralis (n = 19), and Streptococcus salivarius (n = 1). Epidemiologic relatedness of these strains was studied by using PCR-based fingerprinting with M13 and ERIC-2 primers and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with restriction enzyme SmaI. All strains that were isolated from different patients exhibited unique fingerprint patterns, thus suggesting that viridans group streptococcal bacteremia usually derives from an endogenous source. Cross-transmission of strains between patients could not be established. Four S. mitis isolates recovered during four separate bacteremic episodes in a single patient had identical fingerprint patterns. Susceptibility testing was carried out by broth microdilution technique according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. The MICs at which 90% of the isolates are inhibited were (in milligrams per liter) as follows: 0.5 (penicillin), 0.5 (amoxicillin), 0.25 (cefotaxime), 2 (chloramphenicol), 4 (erythromycin), 0.5 (clindamycin), ≥32 (tetracycline), ≥32 (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole), 4 (ciprofloxacin), 0.5 (sparfloxacin), 0.5 (vancomycin), 0.25 (teicoplanin), and 1 (quinupristin-dalfopristin). High-level penicillin resistance (MIC, ≥4 mg/liter) was found in one isolate only, but intermediate penicillin resistance was noted in 11 isolates (19%). Resistance rates to other drugs were as follows: 7% (amoxicillin), 4% (cefotaxime), 4% (chloramphenicol), 32% (erythromycin), 9% (clindamycin), 39% (tetracycline), 68% (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole), 23% (ciprofloxacin), 0% (sparfloxacin), 0% (vancomycin), 0

  1. Use of Cefazolin for Group B Streptococci Prophylaxis in Women Reporting a Penicillin Allergy Without Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Briody, Victoria A; Albright, Catherine M; Has, Phinnara; Hughes, Brenna L

    2016-03-01

    To estimate the proportion of group B streptococci (GBS)-colonized women with a reported penicillin allergy without anaphylaxis receiving appropriate intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. We performed a retrospective cohort study of GBS-colonized, penicillin-allergic women delivering at term receiving intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis during labor. Scheduled cesarean deliveries were excluded. The primary outcome was the proportion of women who received appropriate antibiotic coverage, defined as penicillin or cefazolin. Secondary outcomes included neonatal outcomes such as Apgar score, blood draws, antibiotic use, length of hospital stay, and composite morbidity. Of 165 women reporting a penicillin allergy without anaphylaxis, 73 (44.2%) received an appropriate antibiotic and 92 (55.8%) received an inappropriate antibiotic. Of those receiving an inappropriate antibiotic, 56 (60.9%) were given clindamycin, 1 (1.1%) erythromycin, and 35 (38.0%) vancomycin. Women reporting rash as a penicillin reaction were more likely to receive cefazolin than another antibiotic (44 [60.3%] compared with 24 [26.1%], respectively; P<.001), whereas women whose reaction was not documented were less likely to receive cefazolin (18 [24.7%] compared with 63 [68.5%], respectively; P<.001). Among neonates whose mothers received appropriate compared with inappropriate antibiotics, there were no differences in Apgar score, number of blood draws, antibiotic use, length of hospital stay, or composite morbidity. More than half of women allergic to penicillin without anaphylaxis received an antibiotic other than penicillin or cefazolin as prophylaxis, indicating poor adherence to national guidelines.

  2. Use of phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses to identify nonhemolytic streptococci isolated from bacteremic patients.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tomonori; Fujiwara, Taku; Kilian, Mogens

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate molecular and phenotypic methods for the identification of nonhemolytic streptococci. A collection of 148 strains consisting of 115 clinical isolates from cases of infective endocarditis, septicemia, and meningitis and 33 reference strains, including type strains of all relevant Streptococcus species, were examined. Identification was performed by phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of four housekeeping genes, ddl, gdh, rpoB, and sodA; by PCR analysis of the glucosyltransferase (gtf) gene; and by conventional phenotypic characterization and identification using two commercial kits, Rapid ID 32 STREP and STREPTOGRAM and the associated databases. A phylogenetic tree based on concatenated sequences of the four housekeeping genes allowed unequivocal differentiation of recognized species and was used as the reference. Analysis of single gene sequences revealed deviation clustering in eight strains (5.4%) due to homologous recombination with other species. This was particularly evident in S. sanguinis and in members of the anginosus group of streptococci. The rate of correct identification of the strains by both commercial identification kits was below 50% but varied significantly between species. The most significant problems were observed with S. mitis and S. oralis and 11 Streptococcus species described since 1991. Our data indicate that identification based on multilocus sequence analysis is optimal. As a more practical alternative we recommend identification based on sodA sequences with reference to a comprehensive set of sequences that is available for downloading from our server. An analysis of the species distribution of 107 nonhemolytic streptococci from bacteremic patients showed a predominance of S. oralis and S. anginosus with various underlying infections.

  3. Efficacy of direct Gram stain in differentiating staphylococci from streptococci in blood cultures positive for gram-positive cocci.

    PubMed Central

    Agger, W A; Maki, D G

    1978-01-01

    A preponderance of clusters seen on direct Gram stain of blood cultures positive for gram-positive cocci was 98% sensitive and 100% specific for identification of staphylococcal species or of Peptococcus. A preponderance of chains, pairs, or both was 100% sensitive and 98% specific for identifying streptococci. Further presumptive identification of either staphylococci or streptococci based on microscopic morphology was unreliable. The direct Gram stain is highly reliable for differentiating staphylococci from streptococci and should be of considerable value to clinicians selecting initial antimicrobial therapy. PMID:75888

  4. Highly Variable Streptococcus oralis Strains Are Common among Viridans Streptococci Isolated from Primates.

    PubMed

    Denapaite, Dalia; Rieger, Martin; Köndgen, Sophie; Brückner, Reinhold; Ochigava, Irma; Kappeler, Peter; Mätz-Rensing, Kerstin; Leendertz, Fabian; Hakenbeck, Regine

    2016-01-01

    Viridans streptococci were obtained from primates (great apes, rhesus monkeys, and ring-tailed lemurs) held in captivity, as well as from free-living animals (chimpanzees and lemurs) for whom contact with humans is highly restricted. Isolates represented a variety of viridans streptococci, including unknown species. Streptococcus oralis was frequently isolated from samples from great apes. Genotypic methods revealed that most of the strains clustered on separate lineages outside the main cluster of human S. oralis strains. This suggests that S. oralis is part of the commensal flora in higher primates and evolved prior to humans. Many genes described as virulence factors in Streptococcus pneumoniae were present also in other viridans streptococcal genomes. Unlike in S. pneumoniae, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) gene clusters were common among viridans streptococci, and many S. oralis strains were type PI-2 (pilus islet 2) variants. S. oralis displayed a remarkable diversity of genes involved in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan (penicillin-binding proteins and MurMN) and choline-containing teichoic acid. The small noncoding cia-dependent small RNAs (csRNAs) controlled by the response regulator CiaR might contribute to the genomic diversity, since we observed novel genomic islands between duplicated csRNAs, variably present in some isolates. All S. oralis genomes contained a β-N-acetyl-hexosaminidase gene absent in S. pneumoniae, which in contrast frequently harbors the neuraminidases NanB/C, which are absent in S. oralis. The identification of S. oralis-specific genes will help us to understand their adaptation to diverse habitats. IMPORTANCE Streptococcus pneumoniae is a rare example of a human-pathogenic bacterium among viridans streptococci, which consist of commensal symbionts, such as the close relatives Streptococcus mitis and S. oralis. We have shown that S. oralis can frequently

  5. Highly Variable Streptococcus oralis Strains Are Common among Viridans Streptococci Isolated from Primates

    PubMed Central

    Denapaite, Dalia; Rieger, Martin; Köndgen, Sophie; Brückner, Reinhold; Ochigava, Irma; Kappeler, Peter; Mätz-Rensing, Kerstin; Leendertz, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viridans streptococci were obtained from primates (great apes, rhesus monkeys, and ring-tailed lemurs) held in captivity, as well as from free-living animals (chimpanzees and lemurs) for whom contact with humans is highly restricted. Isolates represented a variety of viridans streptococci, including unknown species. Streptococcus oralis was frequently isolated from samples from great apes. Genotypic methods revealed that most of the strains clustered on separate lineages outside the main cluster of human S. oralis strains. This suggests that S. oralis is part of the commensal flora in higher primates and evolved prior to humans. Many genes described as virulence factors in Streptococcus pneumoniae were present also in other viridans streptococcal genomes. Unlike in S. pneumoniae, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)–CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) gene clusters were common among viridans streptococci, and many S. oralis strains were type PI-2 (pilus islet 2) variants. S. oralis displayed a remarkable diversity of genes involved in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan (penicillin-binding proteins and MurMN) and choline-containing teichoic acid. The small noncoding cia-dependent small RNAs (csRNAs) controlled by the response regulator CiaR might contribute to the genomic diversity, since we observed novel genomic islands between duplicated csRNAs, variably present in some isolates. All S. oralis genomes contained a β-N-acetyl-hexosaminidase gene absent in S. pneumoniae, which in contrast frequently harbors the neuraminidases NanB/C, which are absent in S. oralis. The identification of S. oralis-specific genes will help us to understand their adaptation to diverse habitats. IMPORTANCE Streptococcus pneumoniae is a rare example of a human-pathogenic bacterium among viridans streptococci, which consist of commensal symbionts, such as the close relatives Streptococcus mitis and S. oralis. We have shown that S. oralis can

  6. Serological diversity demonstrable by a set of monoclonal antibodies to eight serotypes of the mutans streptococci.

    PubMed

    Ota, F; Ota, M; Mahmud, Z H; Mohammad, A; Yamato, M; Kassu, A; Kato, Y; Tomotake, H; Batoni, G; Campa, M

    2006-01-01

    A set of monoclonal antibodies were prepared by the conventional cell fusion of myeloma cells (SP2/0-Ag14) with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunised with whole cells of a strain of mutans streptococci. Their specificities were examined against 35 reference strains of mutans streptococci, 34 reference strains of other oral streptococci and 8 reference strains of other microorganisms often inhabiting the oral cavity. Specificity was examined by enzyme immunoassay using whole cells. A total of 52 strains, consisting of 19 strains isolated in Japan, 19 strains isolated in Italy and 14 strains isolated in England, were characterised by conventional physiological and biochemical tests and then serotyped by the use of 8 monoclonal antibodies with different specificities. They were also confirmed by guanine-plus-cytosine contents of their nucleic acid and DNA-DNA hybridisation test. The results indicated that all monoclonal antibodies are useful for identification of 8 serotypes of the mutans streptococci responsible for dental caries. They also suggest the existence of more serological varieties among mutans species.

  7. Beta-haemolytic group A streptococci emm75 carrying altered pyrogenic exotoxin A linked to scarlet fever in adults.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongjun; Xu, Guozhang; Li, Shuhua; Song, Qifa; Liu, Shijian; Lin, Hui; Chai, Yibiao; Zhou, Aimin; Fang, Ting; Zhang, Hongwei; Jin, Chunguang; Lu, Wei; Cao, Guangwen

    2008-04-01

    To determine the etiological cause of a food-borne outbreak of scarlet fever in adults. Swabs from the throats of the patients and asymptomatic control were cultured on blood agar plates individually. Biochemical identification of all isolates was performed with a VITEX automated system. Antibiotic susceptibility was examined by using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. emm gene and extracellular pyrogenic exotoxins of each isolate were amplified by using polymerase chain reaction and subjected to DNA sequencing. Sequence differences between the isolated and the highly similar reference sequences were compared on BLAST. Bioinformatics was used to predict protein structures. Beta-haemolytic group A streptococci (GAS) emm75 were identified from 10 of 13 available patients. The isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, cefatriaxone, ofloxacin, linezolid and quinupristin. All of the isolates carried pyrogenic exotoxin A (speA) and cysteine protease (speB). Isolated speA was phylogenetically different from 30 highly similar references on BLAST. Differences in the primary sequence of the deduced protein were 14.37-20.12% between the speA and each of 11 references. Secondary protein structure of the speA was different from the references at the N-terminal. GAS emm75 encoding altered speA was responsible for the food-borne outbreak of scarlet fever in adults.

  8. Mutans Streptococci Colonization in Relation to Feeding Practices, Age and the Number of Teeth in 6 to 30-Month-Old Children: An in vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, AR; Gaur, Anupama

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Early childhood caries has been characterized as first affecting the primary maxillary anterior teeth, followed by the involvement of the primary molars. Other terms for dental caries in preschool children, which inappropriately may imply cause for the disease, includes baby bottle tooth decay, nursing caries, milk bottle syndrome, baby bottle caries, nursing bottle mouth and nursing mouth. Aim: To explore the relationships of feeding practices, age and number of teeth present with mutans streptococci colonization in infants. Design and setting: A comparative clinical study conducted on 160 children aged from 6 to 30 months in the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Bapuji Dental College and Hospital in collaboration with Child Health Institute and Research Center and Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Bapuji Dental College and Hospital, Davangere. Materials and methods: Baseline data collection included: (i) Parents of the infants were asked open ended questions about the baby feeding practices, (ii) The age of the subjects were obtained from the immunization register maintained at Child Health Institute and Research Center and were grouped into group I (6-11 months), group II (12-17 months), group III (18-23 months) and group IV (24-30 months), (iii) Clinical examination of children was done by using mouth mirror and explorer in flash light.6 For each child number and location of erupted teeth was recorded, (iv) Microbial screening for mutans streptococci involved sampling of saliva from each child was performed by placing a sterile wooden tongue blade on the dorsum of the tongue and the number of colony forming units (CFU) were recorded. Results: According to feeding practices, 34 children were in breastfed category, 39 were in baby bottle category and 87 children reported no bottle usage. Out of 160 children examined, a total 142 children were colonized with mutans streptococci. 18 children were found to be

  9. Myosin: A Link between Streptococci and Heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisher, Karen; Cunningham, Madeleine W.

    1985-01-01

    Murine monoclonal antibodies to Streptococcus pyogenes reacted with skeletal muscle myosin. High molecular weight proteins in extracts of human heart tissue that reacted with an antibody to S. pyogenes also reacted with a monoclonal antibody to ventricular myosin. Adsorption of the antibody to streptococci with S. pyogenes simultaneously removed reactivity of the antibody for either S. pyogenes or myosin. These results indicate that myosin shares immunodeterminants with a component of S. pyogenes.

  10. Taking the Starch out of Oral Biofilm Formation: Molecular Basis and Functional Significance of Salivary α-Amylase Binding to Oral Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Nikitkova, Anna E.; Haase, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    α-Amylase-binding streptococci (ABS) are a heterogeneous group of commensal oral bacterial species that comprise a significant proportion of dental plaque microfloras. Salivary α-amylase, one of the most abundant proteins in human saliva, binds to the surface of these bacteria via specific surface-exposed α-amylase-binding proteins. The functional significance of α-amylase-binding proteins in oral colonization by streptococci is important for understanding how salivary components influence oral biofilm formation by these important dental plaque species. This review summarizes the results of an extensive series of studies that have sought to define the molecular basis for α-amylase binding to the surface of the bacterium as well as the biological significance of this phenomenon in dental plaque biofilm formation. PMID:23144140

  11. [The electron microscopic observation of the effect of monoclonal antibody on the form and structure of mutans streptococci OMZ176].

    PubMed

    Wen, L; Yue, S

    1996-01-01

    The effect of monoclonal antibody on the form and structure of Mutans Streptococci OMZ176 was studied. The result showed that a great number of Mutans Streptococci OMZ176 was agglutianated after treating with monoclonal antibody prepared by a cell wall protein antigen (molecular weight 220 kd) of Mutans Streptococci OMZ176. Bacterial cells were swollen obviously. The gap between cell wall and cytoplasmic was widened. The electronic density of cell plasm was greatly decreased.

  12. Human T-cell responses to oral streptococci in human PBMC-NOD/SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Salam, M A; Nakao, R; Yonezawa, H; Watanabe, H; Senpuku, H

    2006-06-01

    We investigated cellular and humoral immune responses to oral biofilm bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Streptococcus sanguinis, in NOD/SCID mice immunized with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hu-PBMC-NOD/SCID mice) to explore the pathogenicity of each of those organisms in dental and oral inflammatory diseases. hu-PBMC-NOD/SCID mice were immunized by intraperitoneal injections with the whole cells of the streptococci once a week for 3 weeks. FACS analyses were used to determine the percentages of various hu-T cell types, as well as intracellular cytokine production of interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma. Serum IgG and IgM antibody levels in response to the streptococci were also determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. S. anginosus induced a significant amount of the proinflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in comparison with the other streptococci. However, there was no significant differences between the streptococci in interleukin-4 production by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells after inoculation. Further, S. mutans significantly induced human anti-S. mutans IgG, IgG(1), IgG(2), and IgM antibodies in comparison with the other organisms. In conclusion, S. anginosus up-regulated Th1 and Tc1 cells, and S. mutans led to increasing levels of their antibodies, which was associated with the induction of Th2 cells. These results may contribute to a better understanding of human lymphocyte interactions to biofilm bacteria, along with their impact on dental and mucosal inflammatory diseases, as well as endocarditis.

  13. Detection of oral streptococci in dental unit water lines after therapy with air turbine handpiece: biological fluid retraction more frequent than expected.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano; Moroni, Catia; Messano, Giuseppe Alessio; Polimeni, Antonella

    2013-03-01

    Oral streptococci detected in water from dental unit water lines (DUWLs) are a surrogate marker of patients' biological fluid retraction during therapy. We investigated oral streptococci detection rate in DUWLs in a representative sample of private offices in real-life conditions. Samples of nondisinfected water (100 ml) were collected from the DUWL designated for the air turbine handpiece in 81 dental units, immediately after dental treatment of patients with extensive air turbine handpiece use. Water was filtered and plated on a selective medium for oral streptococci and, morphologically, typical colonies of oral streptococci were counted. The lowest detection limit was 0.01 CFU/ml. The oral streptococci detection rate was 72% (95% CI: 62-81%), with a mean level of 0.7 CFU/ml. Oral streptococci detection was not affected by handpiece age or dental treatment type, but was associated with dental unit age. Biological fluid retraction into DUWLs during patient treatment and, possibly, the risk for patient-to-patient blood- or air-borne pathogen transmission are more frequent than expected.

  14. Comparative genomics and evolution of the amylase-binding proteins of oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Haase, Elaine M; Kou, Yurong; Sabharwal, Amarpreet; Liao, Yu-Chieh; Lan, Tianying; Lindqvist, Charlotte; Scannapieco, Frank A

    2017-04-20

    Successful commensal bacteria have evolved to maintain colonization in challenging environments. The oral viridans streptococci are pioneer colonizers of dental plaque biofilm. Some of these bacteria have adapted to life in the oral cavity by binding salivary α-amylase, which hydrolyzes dietary starch, thus providing a source of nutrition. Oral streptococcal species bind α-amylase by expressing a variety of amylase-binding proteins (ABPs). Here we determine the genotypic basis of amylase binding where proteins of diverse size and function share a common phenotype. ABPs were detected in culture supernatants of 27 of 59 strains representing 13 oral Streptococcus species screened using the amylase-ligand binding assay. N-terminal sequences from ABPs of diverse size were obtained from 18 strains representing six oral streptococcal species. Genome sequencing and BLAST searches using N-terminal sequences, protein size, and key words identified the gene associated with each ABP. Among the sequenced ABPs, 14 matched amylase-binding protein A (AbpA), 6 matched amylase-binding protein B (AbpB), and 11 unique ABPs were identified as peptidoglycan-binding, glutamine ABC-type transporter, hypothetical, or choline-binding proteins. Alignment and phylogenetic analyses performed to ascertain evolutionary relationships revealed that ABPs cluster into at least six distinct, unrelated families (AbpA, AbpB, and four novel ABPs) with no phylogenetic evidence that one group evolved from another, and no single ancestral gene found within each group. AbpA-like sequences can be divided into five subgroups based on the N-terminal sequences. Comparative genomics focusing on the abpA gene locus provides evidence of horizontal gene transfer. The acquisition of an ABP by oral streptococci provides an interesting example of adaptive evolution.

  15. Removal of Group B Streptococci Colonizing the Vagina and Oropharynx of Mice with a Bacteriophage Lytic Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qi; Nelson, Daniel; Zhu, Shiwei; Fischetti, Vincent A.

    2005-01-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) are the leading cause of neonatal meningitis and sepsis worldwide. The current treatment strategy is limited to intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis in pregnant women to prevent early-onset neonatal diseases, but considering the potential for antibiotic resistance, the risk of losing control over the disease is high. To approach this problem, we have developed a bacteriophage (phage) lytic enzyme to remove colonizing GBS. Bacteriophage muralytic enzymes, termed lysins, are highly evolved molecules designed to degrade the cell wall of host bacteria to release phage particles from the bacterial cytoplasm. Several different lysins have been developed to specifically kill bacterial pathogens both on mucosal surfaces and in blood and represent a novel approach to control infection. A lysin cloned from a phage infecting GBS was found to contain two putative catalytic domains and one putative binding domain, which is similar to the domain organization of some staphylococcal phage lysins. The lysin (named PlyGBS) was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified PlyGBS efficiently killed all tested GBS serotypes in vitro. In a mouse model, a single dose of PlyGBS significantly reduced bacterial colonization in both the vagina and oropharynx. As an alternative strategy for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, this approach may be used to reduce vaginal GBS colonization in pregnant women before delivery or to decontaminate newborns, thus reducing the incidence of GBS-associated neonatal meningitis and sepsis. PMID:15616283

  16. [Significance of group A streptococcal infections in human pathology].

    PubMed

    Cvjetković, Dejan; Jovanović, Jovana; Hrnjaković-Cvjetković, Ivana; Aleksić-Dordević, Mirjana; Stefan-Mikić, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Group A streptococci is the causative agent in 80 percents of human streptococcal infections. The only member of this group is Streptococcus pyogenes. CLINICALFEATURES OF GAS INFECTIONS: The various clinical entities and related complications caused by pyogenic streptococci are reviewed in the article. Pharyngitis, scarlet fever, skin and soft tissue infections (pyoderma, cellulitis, perianal dermatitis, necrotising fasciitis) and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome are described. The way of setting the diagnosis including epidemiological data, clinical features and the course of illness, laboratory findings and supportive diagnostic methods are represented in the article. The most important clinical entities which should be discussed in differential diagnosis of diseases caused by pyogenic streptococci are listed. The major principles of etiologic treatment through widely accepted strategies related to first choice antibiotics and alternatives are reviewed.

  17. Risk-based screening combined with a PCR-based test for group B streptococci diminishes the use of antibiotics in laboring women.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohammed R; Uldbjerg, Niels; Thorsen, Poul B; Henriksen, Birgitte; Møller, Jens K

    2017-08-01

    To assess the performance of a polymerase chain reaction - group B streptococci test (PCR-GBS test) - in deciding antibiotic prophylaxis in term laboring women. In this observational study, we enrolled 902 unselected Danish term pregnant women. During labor, midwives obtained vaginal swabs that were used for both GBS cultures (reference standard) and for the PCR-GBS test. Furthermore, we recorded the presence of risk factors for EOGBS (Early Onset Group B Streptococcal disease): (1) Bacteriuria during current pregnancy, (2) Prior infant with EOGBS (3) Temperature above 38.0°C during labor, and (4) Rupture of membranes ≥18h. The prevalence of GBS carriers was 12% (104 of 902), the sensitivity of the PCR-GBS test 83% (86 of 104), and the specificity 97% (774 of 798). Among the 108 with one or more EOGBS-risk factors, GBS was present in 23% (25 of 108), the sensitivity 92% (23 of 25), and the specificity 89% (74 of 83). In programs that aim to treat all laboring women with vaginal GBS-colonization (12% in the present study) with penicillin, the PCR-GBS will perform well (sensitivity 83% and specificity 97%). In programs aiming to treat only GBS-carriers among those with risk factors of EOGBS, a reduction of penicillin usage by two-thirds from 12% to 4% may be possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Group B streptococci causing neonatal infections in barcelona are a stable clonal population: 18-year surveillance.

    PubMed

    Martins, E R; Andreu, A; Correia, P; Juncosa, T; Bosch, J; Ramirez, M; Melo-Cristino, J

    2011-08-01

    We analyzed 212 group B streptococci (GBS) from newborns with invasive infections in the area of Barcelona, Spain, between 1992 and 2009, with the aim of documenting changes in the prevalences of serotypes, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic lineages and evaluating their associations with either early-onset disease (EOD) or late-onset disease (LOD). Serotypes III (n = 118) and Ia (n = 47) together accounted for nearly 78% of the isolates. All isolates carried an alpha or alpha-like protein gene, and specific associations between genes and serotypes, such as serotype Ib and bca, serotype II and bca, serotype III and rib, and serotype V and alp3, reflected the presence of particular genetic lineages. Macrolide resistance (14.2%) was significantly associated with serotype V. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) clustering was an excellent predictor of serotype and antibiotic resistance. The combination of PFGE and multilocus sequence typing revealed a large number of genetically distinct lineages. Still, specific lineages were dominant in our collection, particularly the serotype III/ST17/rib lineage, which had enhanced potential to cause LOD. Serotype Ia was concentrated in a single PFGE cluster composed of two genetic lineages: ST23/eps and ST24/bca. The ST24/bca sublineage of serotype Ia, which is found infrequently elsewhere, may be emerging as an important cause of neonatal invasive infections in the Mediterranean region. In spite of the introduction of prophylaxis, resulting in a pronounced decline in the frequency of EOD, the study revealed a remarkably stable clonal structure of GBS causing neonatal infections in Barcelona over a period of 18 years.

  19. Group B Streptococci Causing Neonatal Infections in Barcelona Are a Stable Clonal Population: 18-Year Surveillance▿

    PubMed Central

    Martins, E. R.; Andreu, A.; Correia, P.; Juncosa, T.; Bosch, J.; Ramirez, M.; Melo-Cristino, J.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed 212 group B streptococci (GBS) from newborns with invasive infections in the area of Barcelona, Spain, between 1992 and 2009, with the aim of documenting changes in the prevalences of serotypes, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic lineages and evaluating their associations with either early-onset disease (EOD) or late-onset disease (LOD). Serotypes III (n = 118) and Ia (n = 47) together accounted for nearly 78% of the isolates. All isolates carried an alpha or alpha-like protein gene, and specific associations between genes and serotypes, such as serotype Ib and bca, serotype II and bca, serotype III and rib, and serotype V and alp3, reflected the presence of particular genetic lineages. Macrolide resistance (14.2%) was significantly associated with serotype V. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) clustering was an excellent predictor of serotype and antibiotic resistance. The combination of PFGE and multilocus sequence typing revealed a large number of genetically distinct lineages. Still, specific lineages were dominant in our collection, particularly the serotype III/ST17/rib lineage, which had enhanced potential to cause LOD. Serotype Ia was concentrated in a single PFGE cluster composed of two genetic lineages: ST23/eps and ST24/bca. The ST24/bca sublineage of serotype Ia, which is found infrequently elsewhere, may be emerging as an important cause of neonatal invasive infections in the Mediterranean region. In spite of the introduction of prophylaxis, resulting in a pronounced decline in the frequency of EOD, the study revealed a remarkably stable clonal structure of GBS causing neonatal infections in Barcelona over a period of 18 years. PMID:21697333

  20. [In vitro utilization of fructooligosaccharide by streptococci mutans].

    PubMed

    Linardi, M M; Rosa, O P; Buzalaf, M A; Torres, S A

    2001-01-01

    Neosugar is the trade name of a fructooligosaccharide (FOS) whose utilization by oral bacteria is not well known yet. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of this product on the growth, fermentation and production of plaque by mutans streptococci: S. mutans, serotypes c, e and f, S. sobrinus, serotype d, S. downei, serotype h, S. cricetus, serotype a and S. rattus, serotype b. The evaluation of growth was carried out in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broths containing or not sucrose and FOS and in buffered broths having glucose or FOS as carbon sources, through optical density reading in spectrophotometer after 24 hours of incubation at 37 degrees C. Thereafter the reading of pH was made in the same media. The plaque produced on glass sticks in BHI broths containing 5% sucrose or FOS was weighed and carbohydrates and proteins were assayed. The possible cariogenicity of Neosugar was confirmed, since it sustained the same growth and intensity of fermentation of sucrose in BHI broth for all streptococci and permitted in vitro production of plaque by some of them. The amount of plaque as well as its content of proteins and carbohydrates were smaller than those produced with sucrose, although the difference was statistically significant only for carbohydrates.

  1. Streptococcus sinensis may react with Lancefield group F antiserum.

    PubMed

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Teng, Jade L L; Leung, Kit-wah; Lau, Susanna K P; Tse, Herman; Wong, Beatrice H L; Yuen, Kwok-yung

    2004-11-01

    Lancefield group F streptococci have been found almost exclusively as members of the 'Streptococcus milleri' group, although they have been reported very occasionally in some other streptococcal species. Among 302 patients with bacteraemia caused by viridans streptococci over a 6-year period, three cases were caused by Streptococcus sinensis (type strain HKU4T, HKU5 and HKU6). All three patients had infective endocarditis complicating their underlying chronic rheumatic heart diseases. Gene sequencing showed no base differences between the 16S rRNA gene sequences of HKU5 and HKU6 and that of HKU4T. All three strains were Gram-positive, non-spore-forming cocci arranged in chains. All grew on sheep blood agar as alpha-haemolytic, grey colonies of 0.5-1 mm in diameter after 24 h incubation at 37 degrees C in ambient air. Lancefield grouping revealed that HKU5 and HKU6 were Lancefield group F, but HKU4T was non-groupable with Lancefield groups A, B, C, D, F or G antisera. HKU4T was identified by the Vitek system (GPI), API system (20 STREP) and ATB system (ID32 STREP) as 99 % Streptococcus intermedius, 51.3 % S. intermedius and 99.9 % Streptococcus anginosus, respectively. Using the same tests, HKU5 was identified as 87 % Streptococcus sanguinis/Streptococcus gordonii, 59 % Streptococcus salivarius and 99.6 % S. anginosus, respectively, and HKU6 as 87 % S. sanguinis/S. gordonii, 77 % Streptococcus pneumoniae and 98.3 % S. anginosus, respectively. The present data revealed that a proportion of Lancefield group F streptococci could be S. sinensis. Lancefield group F streptococci should not be automatically reported as 'S. milleri'.

  2. Quantitative analysis of changes in salivary mutans streptococci after orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Jung, Woo-Sun; Kim, Ho; Park, So-Yoon; Cho, Eun-Jung; Ahn, Sug-Joon

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the initial changes in salivary mutans streptococci levels after orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. Our subjects consisted of 58 adults. Whole saliva and simplified oral hygiene index values were obtained at 4 time points: at debonding (T1), 1 week after debonding (T2), 5 weeks after debonding (T3), and 13 weeks after debonding (T4). Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine the time-related differences in salivary bacterial levels and the simplified oral hygiene index values among the 4 time points after quantifying the salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, and total bacteria with real-time polymerase chain reaction. Simplified oral hygiene index values and total bacteria significantly decreased, but salivary mutans streptococci levels significantly increased after orthodontic treatment. The amounts of total bacteria in saliva significantly decreased at T3 (T1, T2 > T3, T4), and the simplified oral hygiene index values decreased at T2 (T1 > T2, T3, T4). However, salivary S mutans and S sobrinus significantly increased at T3 and T4, respectively (T1, T2 < T3 < T4). Furthermore, the proportion of mutans streptococci to total bacteria significantly increased at T4 (T1, T2, T3 < T4). This study suggests that careful hygienic procedures are needed to reduce the risk for dental caries after orthodontic treatment, despite overall improved oral hygiene status. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Alkali production associated with malolactic fermentation by oral streptococci and protection against acid, oxidative, or starvation damage

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Jiangyun; Baldeck, Jeremiah D.; Nguyen, Phuong T.M.; Quivey, Robert G.; Marquis, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Alkali production by oral streptococci is considered important for dental plaque ecology and caries moderation. Recently, malolactic fermentation (MLF) was identified as a major system for alkali production by oral streptococci, including Streptococcus mutans. Our major objectives in the work described in this paper were to further define the physiology and genetics of MLF of oral streptococci and its roles in protection against metabolic stress damage. l-Malic acid was rapidly fermented to l-lactic acid and CO2 by induced cells of wild-type S. mutans, but not by deletion mutants for mleS (malolactic enzyme) or mleP (malate permease). Mutants for mleR (the contiguous regulator gene) had intermediate capacities for MLF. Loss of capacity to catalyze MLF resulted in loss of capacity for protection against lethal acidification. MLF was also found to be protective against oxidative and starvation damage. The capacity of S. mutans to produce alkali from malate was greater than its capacity to produce acid from glycolysis at low pH values of 4 or 5. MLF acted additively with the arginine deiminase system for alkali production by Streptococcus sanguinis, but not with urease of Streptococcus salivarius. Malolactic fermentation is clearly a major process for alkali generation by oral streptococci and for protection against environmental stresses. PMID:20651853

  4. Alkali production associated with malolactic fermentation by oral streptococci and protection against acid, oxidative, or starvation damage.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jiangyun; Baldeck, Jeremiah D; Nguyen, Phuong T M; Quivey, Robert G; Marquis, Robert E

    2010-07-01

    Alkali production by oral streptococci is considered important for dental plaque ecology and caries moderation. Recently, malolactic fermentation (MLF) was identified as a major system for alkali production by oral streptococci, including Streptococcus mutans. Our major objectives in the work described in this paper were to further define the physiology and genetics of MLF of oral streptococci and its roles in protection against metabolic stress damage. L-Malic acid was rapidly fermented to L-lactic acid and CO(2) by induced cells of wild-type S. mutans, but not by deletion mutants for mleS (malolactic enzyme) or mleP (malate permease). Mutants for mleR (the contiguous regulator gene) had intermediate capacities for MLF. Loss of capacity to catalyze MLF resulted in loss of capacity for protection against lethal acidification. MLF was also found to be protective against oxidative and starvation damage. The capacity of S. mutans to produce alkali from malate was greater than its capacity to produce acid from glycolysis at low pH values of 4 or 5. MLF acted additively with the arginine deiminase system for alkali production by Streptococcus sanguinis, but not with urease of Streptococcus salivarius. Malolactic fermentation is clearly a major process for alkali generation by oral streptococci and for protection against environmental stresses.

  5. Inhibition by yeast killer toxin-like antibodies of oral Streptococci adhesion to tooth surfaces in an ex vivo model.

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Stefania; Magliani, Walter; Arseni, Simona; Frazzi, Raffaele; Salati, Antonella; Ravanetti, Lara; Polonelli, Luciano

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Monoclonal (KTmAb) and recombinant (KTscFv) anti-idiotypic antibodies, representing the internal image of a yeast killer toxin, proved to be microbicidal in vitro against important eukaryotic and prokaryotic pathogens such as Candida albicans, Pneumocystis carinii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. haemolyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, including multidrug-resistant strains. KTmAb and KTscFv exerted a strong therapeutic effect in well-established animal models of candidiasis and pneumocystosis. Streptococcus mutans is the most important etiologic agent of dental caries that might result from the metabolic end products of dental plaque. Effective strategies to reduce the disease potential of dental plaque have considered the possibility of using antibiotics or antibodies against oral streptococci in general and S. mutans in particular. In this study, the activity of KTmAb and KTscFv against S. mutans and the inhibition and reduction by KTmAb of dental colonization by S. mutans and other oral streptococci in an ex vivo model of human teeth were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: KTscFv and KTmAb were used in a conventional colony forming unit (CFU) assay against a serotype C strain of S. mutans, and other oral streptococci (S. intermedius, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. salivarius). An ex vivo model of human teeth submerged in saliva was used to establish KTmAb potential of inhibiting or reducing the adhesion to dental surfaces by S. mutans and other oral streptococci. RESULTS: KTmAb and KTscFv kill in vitro S. mutans and other oral streptococci. KTmAb inhibit colonization of dental surfaces by S. mutans and oral streptococci in the ex vivo model. CONCLUSIONS: Killer antibodies with antibiotic activity or their engineered derivatives may have a potential in the prevention of dental caries in vivo. PMID:12428062

  6. Inhibition by yeast killer toxin-like antibodies of oral Streptococci adhesion to tooth surfaces in an ex vivo model.

    PubMed

    Conti, Stefania; Magliani, Walter; Arseni, Simona; Frazzi, Raffaele; Salati, Antonella; Ravanetti, Lara; Polonelli, Luciano

    2002-06-01

    Monoclonal (KTmAb) and recombinant (KTscFv) anti-idiotypic antibodies, representing the internal image of a yeast killer toxin, proved to be microbicidal in vitro against important eukaryotic and prokaryotic pathogens such as Candida albicans, Pneumocystis carinii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. haemolyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, including multidrug-resistant strains. KTmAb and KTscFv exerted a strong therapeutic effect in well-established animal models of candidiasis and pneumocystosis. Streptococcus mutans is the most important etiologic agent of dental caries that might result from the metabolic end products of dental plaque. Effective strategies to reduce the disease potential of dental plaque have considered the possibility of using antibiotics or antibodies against oral streptococci in general and S. mutans in particular. In this study, the activity of KTmAb and KTscFv against S. mutans and the inhibition and reduction by KTmAb of dental colonization by S. mutans and other oral streptococci in an ex vivo model of human teeth were investigated. KTscFv and KTmAb were used in a conventional colony forming unit (CFU) assay against a serotype C strain of S. mutans, and other oral streptococci (S. intermedius, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. salivarius). An ex vivo model of human teeth submerged in saliva was used to establish KTmAb potential of inhibiting or reducing the adhesion to dental surfaces by S. mutans and other oral streptococci. KTmAb and KTscFv kill in vitro S. mutans and other oral streptococci. KTmAb inhibit colonization of dental surfaces by S. mutans and oral streptococci in the ex vivo model. Killer antibodies with antibiotic activity or their engineered derivatives may have a potential in the prevention of dental caries in vivo.

  7. Environment and Colonisation Sequence Are Key Parameters Driving Cooperation and Competition between Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cystic Fibrosis Strains and Oral Commensal Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Whiley, Robert A.; Fleming, Emily V.; Makhija, Ridhima; Waite, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patient airways harbour diverse microbial consortia that, in addition to the recognized principal pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, include other bacteria commonly regarded as commensals. The latter include the oral (viridans) streptococci, which recent evidence indicates play an active role during infection of this environmentally diverse niche. As the interactions between inhabitants of the CF airway can potentially alter disease progression, it is important to identify key cooperators/competitors and environmental influences if therapeutic intervention is to be improved and pulmonary decline arrested. Importantly, we recently showed that virulence of the P. aeruginosa Liverpool Epidemic Strain (LES) could be potentiated by the Anginosus-group of streptococci (AGS). In the present study we explored the relationships between other viridans streptococci (Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis) and the LES and observed that co-culture outcome was dependent upon inoculation sequence and environment. All four streptococcal species were shown to potentiate LES virulence factor production in co-culture biofilms. However, in the case of S. oralis interactions were environmentally determined; in air cooperation within a high cell density co-culture biofilm occurred together with stimulation of LES virulence factor production, while in an atmosphere containing added CO2 this species became a competitor antagonising LES growth through hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, significantly altering biofilm population dynamics and appearance. Streptococcus mitis, S. gordonii and S. sanguinis were also capable of H2O2 mediated inhibition of P. aeruginosa growth, but this was only visible when inoculated as a primary coloniser prior to introduction of the LES. Therefore, these observations, which are made in conditions relevant to the biology of CF disease pathogenesis, show that the pathogenic and

  8. Evaluation of the API 20 STREP system for species identification of "viridans" streptococci isolated from bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Teng, L J; Luh, K T; Ho, S W

    1985-11-01

    Species identifications of 71 strains of viridans streptococci isolated from blood and 4 reference strains were made by the API 20 STREP system (API system S. A., Montalieu-Vercien, France) and the conventional method. There are high levels of agreement between results obtained with the both methods for determining acidification from carbohydrate except inulin. The API 20 STREP system correctly identified 74.7% of the viridans streptococci with 9.3% low descrimination, 12% incorrect and 4% unidentified. All strains of S. mitis, S. mutans, S. salivarius and S. anginosus-constellatus were correctly identified. The correct identification rates for S. sanguis I, S. sanguis II and S. MG-intermedius were 88.9%, 68% and 61% respectively. The difference of inulin reaction and the taxonomy discrepancy may be the cause of different identification. The study indicates that the API 20 STREP system has a good potentiality for species identification of viridans streptococci at present time, however, further refinement in needed.

  9. Correlation between dental caries experience and mutans streptococci counts using saliva and plaque as microbial risk indicators in 3-8 year old children. A cross Sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Jasmine; Sachdev, Vinod; Sandhu, Meera; Deep-Singh-Nanda, Kanwar

    2015-02-01

    Determination of the relative amounts of mutans streptococcus in both saliva and plaque and to study its correlation with dental caries in children. The study comprised of 60 children aged 3-8 years divided into 2 groups (30 children in each): Group A- Children with more than 4 carious teeth and Group B- Children without caries. Saliva and plaque was collected from children of both the groups with the help of Dentocult SM strip test kit (Orion Diagnostic). Following incubation, mutans streptococcus scores (from 0 to 3) in each individual was evaluated and compared between both the groups. On comparing the two groups, mean ± SD of saliva score and plaque score was 2.40 ± 0.675 and 2.40 ± 0.621 respectively in group A, whereas it was 0.60 ± 0.498 and 0.83 ± 0.531 in children of group B showing a significant correlation (p = < 0.001) between mutans streptococci scores in both saliva and plaque and dental caries experience. There is a direct and strong co-relation between the salivary and plaque mutans streptococcus counts and caries activity in children aged 3-8 years. Key words:Mutans streptococci, dentocult, dental caries.

  10. In vitro activity of an aqueous allicin extract and a novel allicin topical gel formulation against Lancefield group B streptococci.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Ronald R; Odent, Michel; Hajj-Ahmad, Hussein; Maharjan, Sunil; Bennett, Norman J; Josling, Peter D; Ball, Vanessa; Hatton, Paulette; Dall'Antonia, Martino

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown the efficacy of intra-partum antibiotics in preventing early-onset group B streptococcal sepsis. This approach results in a high intra-partum antibiotic use. Worryingly, the same antibiotics used in prophylaxis are also first-line treatment for neonatal sepsis, and antibiotic exposure in the peri-natal period has been shown to be a risk factor for late-onset serious bacterial infections and allergic disease. Antibiotic exposure in the peri-natal period is becoming a major public health issue; alternative strategies are needed. Garlic has been traditionally used to treat vaginal infections. Allicin is the main antibacterial agent isolated from garlic. The aim of the study was to investigate the in vitro activity of a novel allicin extract in aqueous and gel formulation against 76 clinical isolates of Lancefield group B streptococci (GBS). MICs and MBCs of allicin were determined for 76 GBS isolates by agar dilution and microtitre plate methods. Killing kinetics were determined for a selected 16 of the 76 strains. Agar diffusion tests were compared for allicin liquid and gel (500 mg/L). MICs and MBCs of allicin liquid were 35 to 95 mg/L and 75 to 315 mg/L, respectively. Time/dose kill curves produced a 2-3 log reduction in cfu/mL within 3 h and no detectable growth at 8 and 24 h. A novel 500 mg/L allicin gel produced an average zone size of 23+/-6 mm compared with 21+/-6 mm for allicin in water. Aqueous allicin is bactericidal against GBS isolates and maintains activity in a novel gel formulation.

  11. Roles of the bacterial cell wall and capsule in induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha by type III group B streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo, J G; Baker, C J; Edwards, M S

    1996-01-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) are the major cause of sepsis and fatal shock in neonates in the United States. The precise role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the development of human GBS sepsis has not been defined; however, whole GBS have been shown to induce the production of this inflammatory cytokine. We sought to determine which bacterial cell wall components of GBS are responsible for triggering TNF-alpha production. Human cord blood monocytes were stimulated with encapsulated (COH1) or unencapsulated (COH1-13) whole type III GBS or with purified bacterial components, including type III capsular polysaccharide (III-PS), group B polysaccharide (GB-PS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), or peptidoglycan (PG). Lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli served as a control. Supernatants were harvested at specific timed intervals, and TNF-alpha levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Monocytes exposed to COH1 and COH1-13 induced similar amounts of TNF-alpha. III-PS, GB-PS, LTA, and PG each induced TNF-alpha in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. However, TNF-alpha release was significantly greater after stimulation by the GB-PS or PG than after stimulation by III-PS or LTA (P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that GB-PS and PG are the bacterial cell wall components primarily evoking TNF-alpha release. These, alone or in concert with other factors, may be responsible for septic shock accompanying GBS sepsis. PMID:8945544

  12. [Invasive infection caused Streptococcus group A and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome].

    PubMed

    Danilova, T A

    2001-01-01

    Modern data on the etiology and pathogenesis of invasive streptococcal infection and the syndrome of streptococcal toxic shock are presented. In the course of the last 10-15 years essential changes in the system of interaction of group A streptococci and the macroorganism have been noted. The growth of morbidity in severe invasive forms of streptococcal infection with different clinical manifestations, including the syndrome of toxic shock, is observed. Most often this disease develops in elderly people, making up a group of risk, but sometimes affects healthy young people. Different pathogenicity factors of streptococci, capable of inducing the development of infection, are analyzed. Special attention is given to superantigens: pyrogenic toxins and M-protein. The suggestion that the development of the disease is seemingly linked with the state of specific protective immunity is substantiated. In spite of achievements in the field of the microbiology and immunology of group A streptococci, the causes of the appearance and development of invasive streptococcal infection have not yet been determined.

  13. Salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli modulations in young children on consumption of probiotic ice-cream containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La5.

    PubMed

    Singh, Richa Polka; Damle, Satyawan Gangaram; Chawla, Amrita

    2011-11-01

    To compare the levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in saliva of school children, before and after consumption of probiotic and control ice-cream. A double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial was carried out in forty, 12-14 year-old children, with no clinically detectable caries. The selected children were randomized equally into two groups I and II. Following an initial run-in period of 1 week, children in group I and II were given ice-creams 'A' and 'B', respectively, for 10 days. Being a cross-over study, the ice-creams were interchanged in the two groups after a 2-week wash-out period. Saliva samples at baseline and follow-up were assessed using Dentocult SM and Dentocult LB kits. On statistical evaluation, it was seen that probiotic ice-cream brought about a statistically significant reduction (p-value = 0.003) in salivary mutans streptococci levels with no significant effect on lactobacilli levels. In conclusion, probiotic ice-cream containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 ATCC27536 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 can reduce the levels of certain caries-associated micro-organisms in saliva.

  14. Unexpected individual clinical site variation in eradication rates of group a streptococci by penicillin in multisite clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Edward L; Oakes, J Michael; Johnson, Dwight R

    2007-12-01

    Previously, we reported an unexpectedly large percentage of failures by penicillin to eradicate group A streptococci (GAS) from the upper respiratory tract. Because penicillin has been the recommended therapy for the treatment of GAS pharyngitis, our report prompted controversy. Data from clinical trials in which our laboratory has participated demonstrated marked variation in GAS eradication rates among clinical sites. The reasons for such variation have never been adequately examined. We performed statistical analyses of site variation in eradication rates to assess the potential effect on reported reduced penicillin efficacy. Penicillin GAS eradication rates were compared using data from 4 large multisite pharyngitis treatment trials (75 clinical sites; 1158 subjects). Variation in eradication rates among clinical sites was statistically evaluated [chi(2) tests and generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression models]. There was significant site-to-site variation in GAS eradication rates in each of the trials (range, 17-100%; P < 0.005) as well as between separate trials (mean range, 58-69%; P < 0.033). GEE modeling indicated that GAS eradication rates were significantly higher for clinical sites participating in more than one clinical trial. The statistically significant site-to-site variation in penicillin eradication rates was related to factors (dependencies) at individual sites. Such factors may affect assessment of therapeutic efficacy and indicate a necessity for considering clinical site variation before reporting pooled efficacy data from multiple sites; combined data may result in misleading clinical implications. This is the first report documenting significant variation resulting from individual clinical site-related factors and offers a possible explanation for reduced penicillin eradication.

  15. Which is the best method to trace group A streptococci in sore throat patients: culture or GAS antigen test?

    PubMed

    Lindbaek, Morten; Høiby, Ernst Arne; Lermark, Gro; Steinsholt, Inger Marie; Hjortdahl, Per

    2004-12-01

    To compare an antigen detection test (GAS antigen test) with the results from combinations of two various bacteriological test media in general practice patients with sore throat. Furthermore to assess the diagnostic properties of the chosen GAS antigen test and to compare semi-quantitative results of this test with the bacterial load found in the throat culture. Two Norwegian general practices in Stokke and Kongsberg communities. 306 patients with sore throat lasting less than 7 days; 244 were adults, 62 were children under 10 years old, mean age 23.9 years (SD 15.0), 40% were men. Results from GAS antigen test, and distribution of bacteriological findings in throat cultures, compared with the results of our GAS antigen test; semi-quantitative results of the GAS antigen test compared with the bacterial load by culture. In the primary culture 110 patients harboured group A streptococci (GAS) infection, while the second culture identified another 17, giving a total of 127 patients. Some 33 patients harboured large-colony groups C and G. The GAS antigen test used had a sensitivity of 97% and specificity of 95% regarding GAS when compared with the two cultures. We found a significant correlation between the bacterial loads by culture and the semi-quantitative results of the GAS antigen test. By using a second, different set of bacteriological media, we identified an additional 17 patients with GAS infections. This raises the question of validity of frequently used reference standards in studies related to streptococcal infections. Compared with the combined results of the two throat cultures, the GAS antigen test used showed high sensitivity and specificity. Semi-quantitative evaluations of the rapid immunological test may also be of clinical value.

  16. Differentiation of Streptococcus lactis var. maltigenes from Other Lactic Streptococci1

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, D. F.; Morgan, M. E.; Tucker, J. S.

    1963-01-01

    Strains of lactic streptococci isolated from samples of raw milk which had developed a malty aroma were subjected to the cultural, physiological, and serological tests commonly employed in the classification of streptococci. None of the strains could be differentiated from Streptococcus lactis by these tests. Resting cells of strains which produced an organoleptically detectable malty aroma when cultured in milk were usually found to possess an active α-ketoacid decarboxylase, indicating the presence of the mechanism responsible for the characteristic aroma production. This decarboxylase activity was either weak or nonexistent in the nonmalty strains, and no activity was detected in known strains of S. lactis, S. cremoris, or S. diacetilactis. The malty strains usually produced higher acidities in milk than did the nonmalty strains, and, in most instances, they developed a granular type of growth sediment in broth, as opposed to a viscid sediment. Many of them gave weakly positive Voges-Proskauer tests in glucose broth with or without added citrate and appeared to be somewhat more resistant to nisin than the nonmalty strains. PMID:13949187

  17. VARIATION IN THE GROUP-SPECIFIC CARBOHYDRATE OF GROUP A STREPTOCOCCI

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Maclyn

    1956-01-01

    Soil organisms have been isolated which elaborate induced enzymes capable of attacking group A and variant (V) streptococcal carbohydrates. The V enzyme hydrolyzes V carbohydrate extensively to dialyzable split products with resultant total loss of precipitating activity with homologous antisera. The split products inhibit the reaction between intact V carbohydrate and its antiserum: evidence is presented which indicates that rhamnose oligosaccharides are responsible for the inhibitory effect. The serological specificity of the V carbohydrate thus appears to be primarily dependent on a rhamnose-rhamnose linkage. The effect of the A enzyme on A carbohydrate is characterized by the removal of 50 to 70 per cent of the total glucosamine in the form of free N-acetyl-glucosamine. As a result of this treatment, the residual carbohydrate loses its reactivity with specific group A antisera and at the same time develops markedly increased cross-reactivity with V antisera. This cross-reactivity is in turn eliminated by treatment with V enzyme. The evidence suggests that the specificity of group A carbohydrate is determined to a large extent by side chains of N-acetyl-glucosamine which also serve to mask underlying rhamnose-rhamnose linkages with V specificity. PMID:13367334

  18. Antimicrobial effect of sophoraflavanone G isolated from Sophora flavescens against mutans streptococci.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chun Sung; Park, Soon-Nang; Ahn, Sug-Joon; Seo, Young-Woo; Lee, Young-Ju; Lim, Yun Kyong; Freire, Marcelo Oliveira; Cho, Eugene; Kook, Joong-Ki

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the antibacterial properties of sophoraflavanone G isolated from the methanol extract of Sophora flavescens were tested against 16 strains of mutans streptococci to screen and determine the optimal concentration of anti-caries natural extract. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by measuring minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The cell viability of normal human gingival fibroblast (NHGF) cells was tested using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay after exposure to sophoraflavanone G. The data showed that sophoraflavanone G had a remarkable antimicrobial effect on the bacteria tested with an MBC ranging from 0.5 μg/ml to 4 μg/ml. Sophoraflavanone G had no cytotoxic effect on NHGF cells at concentrations where it produced an antimicrobial effect. These findings demonstrate that sophoraflavanone G has strong antimicrobial activity against mutans streptococci and could be useful in the development of novel oral hygiene products, such as a gargle solution or dentifrice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of saliva viscosity on the co-aggregation between oral streptococci and Actinomyces naeslundii.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Katsuhiro; Oho, Takahiko

    2012-06-01

    The co-aggregation of oral bacteria leads to their clearance from the oral cavity. Poor oral hygiene and high saliva viscosity are common amongst the elderly; thus, they frequently suffer from pneumonia caused by the aspiration of oral microorganisms. To examine the direct effect of saliva viscosity on the co-aggregation of oral streptococci with actinomyces. Fifteen oral streptococcal and a single actinomyces strain were used. Co-aggregation was assessed by a visual assay in phosphate buffer and a spectrophotometric assay in the same buffer containing 0-60% glycerol or whole saliva. Nine oral streptococci co-aggregated with Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC12104 in the visual assay and were subsequently used for the spectrophotometric analysis. All tested strains displayed a decrease in co-aggregation with increasing amounts of glycerol in the buffer. The co-aggregation of Streptococcus oralis with A. naeslundii recovered to baseline level following the removal of glycerol. The per cent co-aggregation of S. oralis with A. naeslundii was significantly correlated with the viscosity in unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva samples (correlation coefficients: -0.52 and -0.48, respectively). This study suggests that saliva viscosity affects the co-aggregation of oral streptococci with actinomyces and that bacterial co-aggregation decreases with increasing saliva viscosity. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE): application in population structure studies of bovine mastitis-causing streptococci.

    PubMed

    Santos-Sanches, Ilda; Chambel, Lélia; Tenreiro, Rogério

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) separates large DNA molecules by the use of an alternating electrical field, such that greater size resolution can be obtained when compared to normal agarose gel electrophoresis. PFGE is often employed to track pathogens and is a valuable typing scheme to detect and differentiate strains. Particularly, the contour-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF) PFGE system is considered to be the gold standard for use in epidemiological studies of many bacterial pathogens. Here we describe a PFGE protocol that was applicable to the study of bovine streptococci, namely, Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (group C Streptococcus, GCS), and Streptococcus uberis-which are relevant pathogens causing mastitis, a highly prevalent and costly disease in dairy industry due to antibiotherapy and loss in milk production.

  1. Evaluation of Pfizer selective enterococcus and KF media for recovery of fecal streptococci from water by membrane filtration.

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, M H; Schiemann, D A

    1976-01-01

    Pfizer selective enterococcus (PSE) and KF agars were compared for their recovery of fecal streptococci from sewage effluent on membrane filters. The results showed that PSE agar is highly selective for the enterococci. The tan color resulting from esculin hydrolysis, which was not always visible on the surfaces of the colonies, is not considered a necessary differential characteristic on PSE agar since more than 90% of all colonies recovered on membrane filters were confirmed as fecal streptococci and 86% were confirmed as enterococci. The detection of esculin hydrolysis on membrane filters was not improved by using the new Millipore type HC filter. KF agar recovered significantly greater numbers of organisms but was not as selective, with 83% of the typical colonies being confirmed as fecal streptococci and 54% as enterococci. An attempt to improve the selectivity of KF agar while retaining its inclusiveness by incubation at 45 C was not successful. PMID:818956

  2. Evaluation of the Granada agar plate for detection of vaginal and rectal group B streptococci in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Gil, E G; Rodríguez, M C; Bartolomé, R; Berjano, B; Cabero, L; Andreu, A

    1999-08-01

    Granada medium was evaluated for the detection of group B streptococci (GBS) in vaginal and rectal swabs compared with selective Columbia blood agar and selective Lim broth. From May 1996 to March 1998, 702 pregnant women (35 to 37 weeks of gestation) participated in this three-phase study; 103 (14.7%) of these women carried GBS. In the first phase of the experiment (n = 273 women), vaginorectal specimens were collected on the same swab; the sensitivities of Granada tube, selective Columbia blood agar, and Lim broth were 31.4, 94.3, and 74.3%, respectively. In the second and third phases (n = 429 women), vaginal and rectal specimens were collected separately; the sensitivities of Granada plate, selective Columbia blood agar, and Lim broth (subcultured at 4 h on selective Columbia agar in the second phase and at 18 to 24 h in Granada plate in the third phase) were 91.1, 83.9, and 75%, respectively, in the second phase and 88.5, 90.4, and 63.5%, respectively, in the third phase. There were no statistically significant differences in GBS recovery between the Granada agar plate and selective Columbia blood agar, but the Granada plate provided a clear advantage; the characteristic red-orange colonies produced overnight by GBS can be identified by the naked eye and is so specific that further identification is unnecessary. The use of the Granada tube and Lim broth did not result in increased isolation of GBS. In conclusion, the Granada agar plate is highly sensitive for detecting GBS in vaginal and rectal swabs from pregnant women and can provide results in 18 to 24 h.

  3. A case of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome due to Group G streptococci identified as Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis.

    PubMed

    Nei, Takahito; Akutsu, Koichi; Shima, Ayaka; Tsuboi, Ippei; Suzuki, Hiroomi; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Tanaka, Keiji; Shinoyama, Akihiro; Kojima, Yoshiko; Washio, Yohei; Okawa, Sakina; Sonobe, Kazunari; Norose, Yoshihiko; Saito, Ryoichi

    2012-12-01

    A 79-year-old man with a 3-month history of lymphedema of the lower limbs, and diabetes mellitus, was admitted to our hospital for suspected deep venous thrombosis. Several hours after admission, leg pain and purpura-like skin color appeared. On the 2nd hospital day, he was referred to our department for possible acute occlusive peripheral artery disease (PAD) and skin necrosis with blisters; however, computed tomography with contrast showed no occlusive lesions. He had already developed shock and necrotizing deep soft-tissue infections of the left lower leg. Laboratory findings revealed renal dysfunction and coagulation system collapse. Soon after PAD was ruled out, clinical findings suggested necrotizing deep soft-tissue infections, shock state, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and multiple organ failure. These symptoms led to a high suspicion of the well-recognized streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). With a high suspicion of STSS, we detected Group G β-hemolytic streptococci (GGS) from samples aspirated from the leg bullae, and the species was identified as Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) by 16S-ribosomal RNA sequencing. However, unfortunately, surgical debridement was impossible due to the broad area of skin change. Despite adequate antimicrobial therapy and intensive care, the patient died on the 3rd hospital day. The M-protein gene (emm) typing of the isolated SDSE was revealed to be stG6792. This type of SDSE is the most frequent cause of STSS due to GGS in Japan. We consider it to be crucial to rapidly distinguish STSS from acute occlusive PAD to achieve life-saving interventions in patients with severe soft-tissue infections.

  4. PRImary care Streptococcal Management (PRISM) study: identifying clinical variables associated with Lancefield group A β-haemolytic streptococci and Lancefield non-Group A streptococcal throat infections from two cohorts of patients presenting with an acute sore throat

    PubMed Central

    Little, Paul; Moore, Michael; Hobbs, F D R; Mant, David; McNulty, Cliodna; Williamson, Ian; Cheng, Edith; Stuart, Beth; Kelly, Joanne; Barnett, Jane; Mullee, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between features of acute sore throat and the growth of streptococci from culturing a throat swab. Design Diagnostic cohort. Setting UK general practices. Participants Patients aged 5 or over presenting with an acute sore throat. Patients were recruited for a second cohort (cohort 2, n=517) consecutively after the first (cohort 1, n=606) from similar practices. Main outcome Predictors of the presence of Lancefield A/C/G streptococci. Results The clinical score developed from cohort 1 had poor discrimination in cohort 2 (bootstrapped estimate of area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve (0.65), due to the poor validity of the individual items in the second data set. Variables significant in multivariate analysis in both cohorts were rapid attendance (prior duration 3 days or less; multivariate adjusted OR 1.92 cohort, 1.67 cohort 2); fever in the last 24 h (1.69, 2.40); and doctor assessment of severity (severely inflamed pharynx/tonsils (2.28, 2.29)). The absence of coryza or cough and purulent tonsils were significant in univariate analysis in both cohorts and in multivariate analysis in one cohort. A five-item score based on Fever, Purulence, Attend rapidly (3 days or less), severely Inflamed tonsils and No cough or coryza (FeverPAIN) had moderate predictive value (bootstrapped area under the ROC curve 0.73 cohort 1, 0.71 cohort 2) and identified a substantial number of participants at low risk of streptococcal infection (38% in cohort 1, 36% in cohort 2 scored ≤1, associated with a streptococcal percentage of 13% and 18%, respectively). A Centor score of ≤1 identified 23% and 26% of participants with streptococcal percentages of 10% and 28%, respectively. Conclusions Items widely used to help identify streptococcal sore throat may not be the most consistent. A modified clinical scoring system (FeverPAIN) which requires further validation may be clinically helpful in identifying individuals who are

  5. PRImary care Streptococcal Management (PRISM) study: identifying clinical variables associated with Lancefield group A β-haemolytic streptococci and Lancefield non-Group A streptococcal throat infections from two cohorts of patients presenting with an acute sore throat.

    PubMed

    Little, Paul; Moore, Michael; Hobbs, F D R; Mant, David; McNulty, Cliodna; Williamson, Ian; Cheng, Edith; Stuart, Beth; Kelly, Joanne; Barnett, Jane; Mullee, Mark

    2013-10-25

    To assess the association between features of acute sore throat and the growth of streptococci from culturing a throat swab. Diagnostic cohort. UK general practices. Patients aged 5 or over presenting with an acute sore throat. Patients were recruited for a second cohort (cohort 2, n=517) consecutively after the first (cohort 1, n=606) from similar practices. Predictors of the presence of Lancefield A/C/G streptococci. The clinical score developed from cohort 1 had poor discrimination in cohort 2 (bootstrapped estimate of area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve (0.65), due to the poor validity of the individual items in the second data set. Variables significant in multivariate analysis in both cohorts were rapid attendance (prior duration 3 days or less; multivariate adjusted OR 1.92 cohort, 1.67 cohort 2); fever in the last 24 h (1.69, 2.40); and doctor assessment of severity (severely inflamed pharynx/tonsils (2.28, 2.29)). The absence of coryza or cough and purulent tonsils were significant in univariate analysis in both cohorts and in multivariate analysis in one cohort. A five-item score based on Fever, Purulence, Attend rapidly (3 days or less), severely Inflamed tonsils and No cough or coryza (FeverPAIN) had moderate predictive value (bootstrapped area under the ROC curve 0.73 cohort 1, 0.71 cohort 2) and identified a substantial number of participants at low risk of streptococcal infection (38% in cohort 1, 36% in cohort 2 scored ≤1, associated with a streptococcal percentage of 13% and 18%, respectively). A Centor score of ≤1 identified 23% and 26% of participants with streptococcal percentages of 10% and 28%, respectively. Items widely used to help identify streptococcal sore throat may not be the most consistent. A modified clinical scoring system (FeverPAIN) which requires further validation may be clinically helpful in identifying individuals who are unlikely to have major pathogenic streptococci.

  6. Lancefield grouping and smell of caramel for presumptive identification and assessment of pathogenicity in the Streptococcus milleri group.

    PubMed Central

    Brogan, O; Malone, J; Fox, C; Whyte, A S

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate Lancefield grouping and caramel smell for presumptive identification of the Streptococcus milleri group, and to find whether Lancefield group, species, or protein profile correlated with virulence or infection site. METHODS: Prospective studies were made of 100 consecutive streptococcal isolates in blood cultures or pus from 100 patients in whom the severity of infection was categorised as serious, moderate, or not significant. The usefulness of Lancefield group and the caramel smell for presumptive identification was examined, and the relation of the S milleri species, Lancefield group, and SDS-PAGE protein analysis to severity of infection and infection site was investigated. Lower respiratory tract and genital tract specimens, strict anaerobes, group D streptococci, and strains identified as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, or Streptococcus agalactiae were excluded. RESULTS: Most streptococci occurring in pure or significant growth density were S milleri group (87/100; 87%, 95% confidence interval 0.81-0.93). Of these, 89.7% (78/87; 0.84-0.96) were associated with infection. Lancefield group F antigen predominated (41/87; 47.1%, 0.38-0.56). Lancefield group F alone or accompanied by the caramel smell had a specificity of 100%, but a sensitivity of only 47.3% for group F alone, and 19.5% for group F accompanied by the caramel smell. There was no significant association between species, Lancefield group, and severity of infection, site of infection, or pathogenicity. SDS-PAGE analysis failed to discriminate between strains. CONCLUSIONS: Neither species nor Lancefield antigen was related to the site of infection. The presence of Lancefield group F antigen alone or accompanied by a caramel smell was a useful indicator for the S milleri group when present, but was too insensitive to use as a screening test. Most streptococci occurring in pure culture or in significant growth density were of clinical importance. Such organisms should

  7. The pathogenic persona of community associated oral streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Sarah E.; Lamont, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The mitis group streptococci (MGS) are widespread in the oral cavity and are traditionally associated with oral health. However, these organisms have many attributes that contribute to the development of pathogenic oral communities. MGS adhere rapidly to saliva-coated tooth surfaces, thereby providing an attachment substratum for more overtly pathogenic organisms such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, and the two species assemble into heterotypic communities. Close physical association facilitates physiologic support, and pathogens such as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans display resource partitioning to favour carbon sources generated by streptococcal metabolism. MGS exchange information with community members through a number of interspecies signaling systems including AI-2 and contact dependent mechanisms. Signal transduction systems induced in P. gingivalis are based on protein dephosphorylation mediated by the tyrosine phosphatase Ltp1, and converge on a LuxR-family transcriptional regulator, CdhR. Phenotypic responses in P. gingivalis include regulation of hemin uptake systems and gingipain activity, processes that are intimately linked to the virulence of the organism. Furthermore, communities of S. gordonii with P. gingivalis or with A. actinomycetemcomitans are more pathogenic in animal models than the constituent species alone. We propose that MGS should be considered accessory pathogens, organisms whose pathogenic potential only becomes evident in the context of a heterotypic microbial community. PMID:21635580

  8. The pathogenic persona of community-associated oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Sarah E; Lamont, Richard J

    2011-07-01

    The mitis group streptococci (MGS) are widespread in the oral cavity and are traditionally associated with oral health. However, these organisms have many attributes that contribute to the development of pathogenic oral communities. MGS adhere rapidly to saliva-coated tooth surfaces, thereby providing an attachment substratum for more overtly pathogenic organisms such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, and the two species assemble into heterotypic communities. Close physical association facilitates physiologic support, and pathogens such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans display resource partitioning to favour carbon sources generated by streptococcal metabolism. MGS exchange information with community members through a number of interspecies signalling systems including AI-2 and contact dependent mechanisms. Signal transduction systems induced in P. gingivalis are based on protein dephosphorylation mediated by the tyrosine phosphatase Ltp1, and converge on a LuxR-family transcriptional regulator, CdhR. Phenotypic responses in P. gingivalis include regulation of hemin uptake systems and gingipain activity, processes that are intimately linked to the virulence of the organism. Furthermore, communities of S. gordonii with P. gingivalis or with A. actinomycetemcomitans are more pathogenic in animal models than the constituent species alone. We propose that MGS should be considered accessory pathogens, organisms whose pathogenic potential only becomes evident in the context of a heterotypic microbial community. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Group A streptococcal infections of the pharynx in a rural population in south India.

    PubMed

    Menon, Thangam; Shanmugasundaram, S; Kumar, M Palani; Kumar, C P Girish

    2004-05-01

    There has been a resurgence in the incidence of rheumatic heart disease all over the world and hence surveillance and strain characterization are important. The aim of this study was to screen children in a rural community in south India for throat carriage of group A streptococci and to clinically assess them for signs of rheumatic heart disease. Throat swabs were collected from children (5-14 yr) in the village of Orathur, Tamil Nadu and cultured on tryptose blood agar plates. Beta haemolytic streptococci were serogrouped using Streptex kit and biotyped based on their ability to ferment carbohydrates and production of beta-glucuronidase enzyme. Blood samples were also collected and antibodies to streptolysin O demonstrated by latex agglutination tests. All the children were examined by a paediatrician; ECG and echocardiography were performed to assess cardiac function. Eighty of the 310 children included in the study had symptoms of acute respiratory infections; 16 of them grew beta haemolytic streptococci of which 8 belonged to group A (10%). Biotype 4 was most common. Antistreptolysin O (ASO) test did not correlate with culture results. Two of 310 children had rheumatic heart disease but both were culture negative. Pharyngeal carriage of group A streptococci was common in this population. The prevalence of rheumatic heart disease was 0.6 per cent. The study emphasizes the need for active surveillance and characterization of GAS isolates.

  10. Clinical Characteristics of and Preventative Strategies for Peripartum Group A Streptococcal Infections.

    PubMed

    Shinar, Shiri; Fouks, Yuval; Amit, Sharon; Pauzner, David; Tarabeia, Jalal; Schechner, Vered; Many, Ariel

    2016-02-01

    To describe clinical characteristics in parturients with group A streptococcal infection and suggest preventive strategies. We performed a retrospective review of all group A streptococci cultures from women presenting with peripartum fever or abdominal tenderness between January 2008 and May 2015 in a university hospital. Records and epidemiologic investigations of patients and staff were reviewed. Thirty-seven patients with group A streptococci cultures were identified, with an incidence of one identified postpartum group A streptococcal infection per 2,837 deliveries. Eighty-nine percent of infections occurred postpartum with isolates obtained mainly from the genital tract. Symptoms for group A streptococcal puerperal sepsis were high fever and abdominal tenderness, mostly appearing within 48 hours postpartum. More than one fifth of patients (n=7) developed streptococcal toxic shock syndrome often complicated by multiorgan failure, hysterectomy, and hospitalization in the intensive care unit. There were no uniform risk factors before infection. Epidemiologic investigations suggested that only 23% of infections were nosocomially acquired and that 77% were community-acquired. The high morbidity and the scarcity of distinct risk factors related to parturient group A streptococcal infections in the face of often community-acquired group A streptococci call for reassessing preventive strategies. These may include improved microbiological screening during pregnancy in high-prevalence areas or clinical and microbiological risk stratification in the immediate prepartum and peripartum period.

  11. Epidemiology of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus and mastitis streptococci in a dairy cattle herd with a history of recurrent clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Vlkova, H; Babak, V; Vrtkova, I; Cervinkova, D; Marosevic, D; Moravkova, M; Jaglic, Z

    2017-03-28

    The aim of the present work was to examine a dairy herd with an anamnesis of recurrent clinical mastitis and decreased milk production. A total of 239 individual cow milk samples originating from asymptomatic cows were collected at four-month intervals and examined mainly for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and mastitis streptococci using standard cultivation methods. In total, 29.7% and 9.2% samples were positive for S. aureus and mastitis streptococci, respectively. Unlike for mastitis streptococci, the prevalence of animals positive for S. aureus had an increasing trend (p<0.05; Chi-squared test for trend) with rising parity. Despite in vitro susceptibility of S. aureus to potentiated penicillins and cephalosporins, the persistence of S. aureus was observed in cows undergoing intramammary treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (a potentiated penicillin antibiotic). All isolates of S. aureus were biofilm-positive and had the same macrorestriction pattern. Furthermore, no dependence was observed between the occurrence of S. aureus in milk and previous cases of clinical mastitis, reproductive and periparturient disorders and administration of antibiotics. In contrast to S. aureus, the occurrence of mastitis streptococci in milk was linked with previous cases of clinical mastitis and intramammary administration of antibiotics.

  12. Development of resistance of mutans streptococci and Porphyromonas gingivalis to chlorhexidine digluconate and amine fluoride/stannous fluoride-containing mouthrinses, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Eva M; Waltimo, Tuomas; Weiger, Roland; Schweizer, Irene; Lenkeit, Krystyna; Filipuzzi-Jenny, Elisabeth; Walter, Clemens

    2015-07-01

    The aim if this study was to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations of chlorhexidine digluconate and an amine fluoride/stannous fluoride-containing mouthrinse against Porphyromonas gingivalis and mutans streptococci during an experimental long-term subinhibitory exposition. Five P. gingivalis strains and four mutans streptococci were subcultivated for 20-30 passages in subinhibitory concentrations of chlorhexidine digluconate or an amine fluoride/stannous fluoride-containing mouthrinse. Pre-passaging minimal inhibitory concentrations for chlorhexidine ranged from 0.5 to 2 mg/l for mutans streptococci and from 2 to 4 mg/l for the P. gingivalis isolates. For the amine fluoride/stannous fluoride-containing mouthrinse minimal inhibitory values from 0.125 to 0.25% for the mutans streptococci and from 0.063 to 0.125% for the P. gingivalis isolates were determined. Two- to fourfold increased minimal inhibitory concentrations against chlorhexidine were detected for two of the five P. gingivalis isolates, whereas no increase in minimal inhibitory concentrations was found for the mutans streptococci after repeated passaging through subinhibitory concentrations. Repeated exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of the amine fluoride/stannous fluoride-containing mouthrinse did not alter the minimally inhibitory concentrations of the bacterial isolates tested. Chlorhexidine and the amine fluoride/stannous fluoride-containing mouthrinse are effective inhibitory agents against the oral bacterial isolates tested. No general development of resistance against chlorhexidine or the amine fluoride/stannous fluoride-containing mouthrinse was detected. However, some strains showed potential to develop resistance against chlorhexidine after prolonged exposure. The use of chlorhexidine should be limited to short periods of time. The amine fluoride/stannous fluoride-containing mouthrinse appears to have the potential to be used on a long-term basis.

  13. Selective intrapartum anti-bioprophylaxy of group B streptococci infection of neonates: a prospective study in 2454 subsequent deliveries.

    PubMed

    Poulain, P; Betremieux, P; Donnio, P Y; Proudhon, J F; Karege, G; Giraud, J R

    1997-04-01

    To investigate the efficacy of a selective intrapartum prophylaxy of group B streptococci (GBS) infection of the neonates. A prospective protocol of universal antepartum screening of GBS and selective intrapartum treatment from the 1st February 1994 to the 31st December 1995, on 2454 subsequent deliveries was designed. Our policy included: (1) antepartum screening as soon as possible after 28 weeks by a single vaginal and perianal sample for culture; (2) intrapartum recognition of one condition of high risk of fetal contamination during labor (these conditions included: a temperature of 38 degrees C during labor, rupture of membranes for more than 12 h or prolonged labor for more than 12 h with rupture of membranes, prematurity, twins, maternal diabetes, previous pregnancy with GBS infection of the neonate); and (3) intrapartum anti-bioprophylaxy (amoxicillin) for women with positive screening during pregnancy and one condition of high risk of fetal contamination during labor. We studied the outcome of neonates during this period to look for immediate GBS severe infection of the neonates in the form of bacteraemia or meningitis and compared the results with the rate of neonatal infection before this protocol (4.5/1000 live births in 1993). We noted that 11% of pregnant women were carriers, 25% of which led to antibiotic chemoprophylaxis during the labor. We noticed four cases of neonatal bacteraemia of GBS. One case arose from the group of carriers (but no condition of risk of fetal contamination during the labor and no chemoprophylaxy). The three other cases were from women with a negative antepartum screening. There was no case of meningitis and all four babies were in good health at day 10 of life. Comparing with results prior to the study, we noticed that the rate of neonatal bacteraemia dropped from 4.5 to 1.6 per 1000 livebirths (P < 0.0001). This protocol of intrapartum anti-bioprophylaxy significantly decreases the rate of GBS neonatal sepsis. We propose to

  14. Determination of the In Vitro and In Vivo Antimicrobial Activity on Salivary Streptococci and Lactobacilli and Chemical Characterisation of the Phenolic Content of a Plantago lanceolata Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Lia; Ingenito, Aniello; Roscetto, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Plant extracts may be suitable alternative treatments for caries. Aims. To investigate the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial effects of Plantago lanceolata herbal tea (from flowers and leaves) on cariogenic bacteria and to identify the major constituents of P. lanceolata plant. Materials and Methods. The MIC and MBC against cariogenic bacteria were determined for P. lanceolata tea. Subsequently, a controlled random clinical study was conducted. Group A was instructed to rinse with a P. lanceolata mouth rinse, and Group B received a placebo mouth rinse for seven days. The salivary colonisation by streptococci and lactobacilli was investigated prior to treatment and on the fourth and seventh days. Finally, the P. lanceolata tea was analysed for its polyphenolic content, and major phenolics were identified. Results and Discussion. P. lanceolata teas demonstrate good in vitro antimicrobial activity. The in vivo test showed that Group A subjects presented a significant decrease in streptococci compared to Group B. The phytochemical analysis revealed that flavonoids, coumarins, lipids, cinnamic acids, lignans, and phenolic compounds are present in P. lanceolata infusions. Conclusions. P. lanceolata extract could represent a natural anticariogenic agent via an antimicrobial effect and might be useful as an ancillary measure to control the proliferation of cariogenic flora. PMID:25767805

  15. Levofloxacin versus azithromycin on the oropharyngeal carriage and selection of antibacterial- resistant streptococci in the microflora of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Nord, Carl Erik; Peterson, Janet; Ambruzs, Mary; Fisher, Alan C

    2009-06-01

    To determine the proportion of subjects with oropharyngeal streptococci resistant to either levofloxacin or azithromycin prior to and during antibacterial exposure, and to follow temporal changes in the proportion of resistant and susceptible isolates through 6 weeks post-exposure. This randomized, open-label, single-center study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT00821782). A total of 143 healthy volunteers (levofloxacin, n = 71; azithromycin, n = 72) without antibacterial exposure in the previous 90 days received either levofloxacin 750 mg once daily for 5 days or azithromycin 500 mg once daily on day 1 and 250 mg once daily on days 2 through 5. Oropharyngeal cultures were obtained pre-exposure, at day 5, and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks post-dosing. Bacterial strains were identified and the minimum inhibitory concentrations for levofloxacin and azithromycin were determined. At study entry 117 streptococci were isolated from 72 subjects randomized to azithromycin and 53 (45.3%) were azithromycin-resistant. None of the 121 streptococci isolated from 71 subjects randomized to.levofloxacin were colonized by a levofloxacin-resistant microorganism prior to dosing. At the end of dosing, the number of subjects with resistant streptococci (S. mitis, S. salivarius, S. sanguis, or alpha streptococcus species [spp.]) increased in azithromycin-exposed subjects and resistant isolates remained through 6 weeks post-dosing. In contrast, a small number of levofloxacin-resistant streptococci were observed at the end of dosing but decreased by week 2 post-dosing and continued to decrease through the 6-week evaluation period (p < 0.001 azithromycin vs. levofloxacin for S. mitis, S. salivarius, S. sanguis and alpha streptococcus spp. at week 6). Limitations of this study included the fact that, since previous antibiotic use was self-reported, genetic typing was not done. The results of this study may not be completely generalizable, because subjects in this study received

  16. Interspecies Communication among Commensal and Pathogenic Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Laura C.; LaSarre, Breah; Federle, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Quorum sensing (QS) regulates diverse and coordinated behaviors in bacteria, including the production of virulence factors, biofilm formation, sporulation, and competence development. It is now established that some streptococci utilize Rgg-type proteins in concert with short hydrophobic peptides (SHPs) to mediate QS, and sequence analysis reveals that several streptococcal species contain highly homologous Rgg/SHP pairs. In group A streptococcus (GAS), two SHPs (SHP2 and SHP3 [SHP2/3]) were previously identified to be important in GAS biofilm formation. SHP2/3 are detected by two antagonistic regulators, Rgg2 and Rgg3, which control expression of the shp genes. In group B streptococcus (GBS), RovS is a known virulence gene regulator and ortholog of Rgg2, whereas no apparent Rgg3 homolog exists. Adjacent to rovS is a gene (shp1520) encoding a peptide nearly identical to SHP2. Using isogenic mutant strains and transcriptional reporters, we confirmed that RovS/SHP1520 comprise a QS circuit in GBS. More important, we performed experiments demonstrating that production and secretion of SHP1520 by GBS can modulate Rgg2/3-regulated gene expression in GAS in trans; likewise, SHP2/3 production by GAS can stimulate RovS-mediated gene regulation in GBS. An isolate of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis also produced a secreted factor capable of simulating the QS circuits of both GAS and GBS, and sequencing confirms the presence of an orthologous Rgg2/SHP2 pair in this species as well. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of bidirectional signaling between streptococcal species in coculture and suggests a role for orthologous Rgg/SHP systems in interspecies communication between important human pathogens. PMID:23882015

  17. Body weight maintenance and levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in a group of Swedish women seven years after completion of a Weight Watchers' diet.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Birgitta; Andreén, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    The long-term effect of the WW programme on weight and oral cariogenic bacteria was evaluated after 7 yr. All WW who completed the 8-wk dietary regimen in an earlier study (n=33) and the persons in the reference group (REF) (n=27) were invited to participate. The salivary secretion rate, numbers of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (lbc) were determined. The WW were weighed. Sustaining a 5% weight loss from the initial weight was regarded as successful weight maintenance. An interview according to a standardised questionnaire was conducted on medication,the intake of antimicrobial agents, dietary changes and experience of dental caries during the last 7 yr. 25 WW and 21 REF qualified to participate. On a group basis, weight, salivary MS and lbc displayed pre-diet levels after 7yr. 15 of the WW (60%) were below their initial weight. Successful weight maintenance was achieved by 32%. Reported changes in the intake of fat-rich products differed significantly between the WW and the REF. Nine WW reported fewer carious lesions after joining the WW. Ninety per cent of REF did not regard caries as a problem. Comparisons of pre- and post-diet data and 7 yr data indicated short-term compliance and varying outcome in terms of long-term compliance. No association was found between salivary levels of bacteria and long-term weight maintenance on a group basis. However,further well-designed longitudinal studies are required to confirm whether salivary MS could be used on an individual basis to validate reported sucrose intake in a dietary regimen.

  18. Cross-reactions between alpha-streptococci and Omniserum, a polyvalent pneumococcal serum, demonstrated by direct immunofluorescence, immunoelectroosmophoresis, and latex agglutination.

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, H; Danielsson, D; Hardie, J; Krook, A; Whiley, R

    1985-01-01

    In recent years several groups have used serological methods to demonstrate pneumococcal capsular antigens in sputum. In the present study 123 strains of alpha-hemolytic streptococci (including 97 strains from sputum or pharyngeal specimens) were tested for cross-reactions with a polyvalent antipneumococcal serum (Omniserum). Representatives of the following species were included: Streptococcus bovis, S. equinus, S. intermedius, S. lactis, S. milleri, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. sobrinus, S. salivarius, S. sanguis, S. suis, and Aerococcus viridans. Serological reactions were detected by direct immunofluorescence, immunoelectroosmophoresis, and latex agglutination. Fifteen (12%) of the strains gave positive reactions by all three methods. Positive reactions were also observed with another 32 strains (26%) with two of the methods, whereas 37 strains (30%) gave positive reactions by just one technique. Altogether 84 (68%) strains gave positive reactions with one or more of the methods. Latex agglutination gave positive reactions with 26 (21%) strains compared with 57 (46%) in immunofluorescence and 63 (51%) in immunoelectroosmophoresis. Absorption of the antiserum with one alpha-hemolytic strain reduced but did not entirely eliminate the cross-reactions with five tested strains. These findings indicate a potential risk of cross-reactions with polyvalent antipneumococcal serum in tests carried out on sputa or other specimens which may be contaminated with alpha-hemolytic streptococci. PMID:3889046

  19. Prevalence and drug susceptibility pattern of group B Streptococci (GBS) among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) in Nekemte Referral Hospital (NRH), Nekemte, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mengist, Hylemariam Mihiretie; Zewdie, Olifan; Belew, Adugna; Dabsu, Regea

    2017-08-10

    The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and drug susceptibility pattern of group B Streptococci (GBS) among pregnant women. The specific objectives include; (1) To determine the prevalence of GBS colonization among pregnant women (2) To determine the drug susceptibility pattern of GBS among pregnant women and (3) To identify associated risk factors with GBS colonization among pregnant women. The median age of the participants was 24.5 years (range 16-38) and 86% participants were urban residents. The total prevalence of maternal GBS colonization from vaginal swab culture was 12.2% (22/180). The prevalence of GBS colonization rate was significantly higher in those pregnant women above 37 weeks of gestation [AOR, 95% CI 2.1 (1.2, 11.6), P = 0.03] and married ones [AOR, 95% CI 3.2 (1.8, 11.6), P < 0.021]. Twenty (91%) of GBS isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and the highest resistance was observed against penicillin G (77.3%). The prevalence of GBS colonization in this study was significantly high and differed by gestational age and marital status. None of the GBS isolates were resistant to vancomycin but higher resistance was shown against Penicillin G.

  20. Antibiotic susceptibilities, streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin gene profiles among clinical isolates of group C or G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis & of group G S. anginosus group at a tertiary care centre.

    PubMed

    Behera, Bijayini; Mathur, Purva; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Jain, Neetu; Misra, M C; Kapil, Arti; Singh, Sarman

    2014-03-01

    Group C and group G streptococci (together GCGS) are often regarded as commensal bacteria and their role in streptococcal disease burden is under-recognized. While reports of recovery of GCGS from normally sterile body sites are increasing, their resistance to macrolides, fluoroquinolone further warrants all invasive β haemolytic streptococci to be identified to the species level and accurately tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence, clinical profile, antimicrobial susceptibility and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin gene profile (speA, speB, speC, speF, smeZ, speI, speM, speG, speH and ssa) of GCGS obtained over a period of two years at a tertiary care centre from north India. The clinical samples were processed as per standard microbiological techniques. β-haemolytic streptococci (BHS) were characterized and grouped. Antimicrobial susceptibility of GCGS was performed using disk diffusion method. All GCGS were characterized for the presence of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (spe) and spe genes were amplified by PCR method. GCGS (23 GGS, 2GCS) comprised 16 per cent of β haemolytic streptococci (25/142 βHS, 16%) isolated over the study period. Of the 25 GCGS, 22 (88%) were recovered from pus, two (8%) from respiratory tract, whereas one isolate was recovered from blood of a fatal case of septicaemia. Of the total 23 GGS isolates, 18 (78%) were identified as Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp equisimilis (SDSE, large-colony phenotype), five (21%) were Streptococcus anginosus group (SAG, small-colony phenotype). The two GCS were identified as SDSE. All GCGS isolates were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin, and linezolid. Tetracycline resistance was noted in 50 per cent of SDSE isolates. The rates of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance in SDSE were low. Twelve of the 20 SDSE isolates were positive for one or more spe genes, with five of the SDSE isolates simultaneously carrying speA+ speB+ smeZ+ speF or spe

  1. Validity of rapid antigen detection testing in group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Oznur; Biçer, Suat; Giray, Tuba; Cöl, Defne; Erdağ, Gülay Ciler; Gürol, Yeşim; Kaspar, Ciğdem E; Vitrinel, Ayça

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the utility of rapid antigen detection testing (RADT) for the diagnosis of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis in children, and to detect the sensitivity and specificity of rapid antigen detection of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci from throat specimen compared with throat culture. Rapid antigen detection and throat culture results for group A beta-hemolytic streptococci from outpatients attending university hospital between 1st January 2011 and 31st of December 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. The antigen test negative-throat culture positive patients were investigated for streptococcal carriage. For this purpose, the throat culture results taken from these patients were reviewed after treatment. Eight hundred and ninetytwo children were included in the studywith a mean age of 5.34 y. There were 639 and 253 children in two groups with age of 0-6 and 7-17 y, RADT sensitivity and specificity were found to be 59.5 % and 97.2 %, respectively. The positive predictive value was 87.1 %, whereas negative predictive value was 88.4 %. After treatment of 74 patients with throat culture positive and antigen test negative. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci were isolated in 12 of them (16.2 %) and accepted as a carrier. The low sensitivity of the RADT may be related to streptococcal carriage in some patients. The throat culture should be repeated after treatment to detect streptococcal carriage.

  2. Allelic variation of polymorphic locus lytB, encoding a choline-binding protein, from streptococci of the mitis group.

    PubMed

    Moscoso, Miriam; Obregón, Virginia; López, Rubens; García, José L; García, Ernesto

    2005-12-01

    The choline-binding protein LytB, an N-acetylglucosaminidase of Streptococcus pneumoniae, is the key enzyme for daughter cell separation and is believed to play a critical pathogenic role, facilitating bacterial spreading during infection. Because of these peculiarities LytB is a putative vaccine target. To determine the extent of LytB polymorphism, the lytB alleles from seven typical, clinical pneumococcal isolates of various serotypes and from 13 additional streptococci of the mitis group (12 atypical pneumococci and the Streptococcus mitis type strain) were sequenced. Sequence alignment showed that the main differences among alleles were differences in the number of repeats (range, 12 to 18) characteristic of choline-binding proteins. These differences were located in the region corresponding to repeats 11 to 17. Typical pneumococcal strains contained either 14, 16, or 18 repeats, whereas all of the atypical isolates except strains 1283 and 782 (which had 14 and 16 repeats, respectively) and the S. mitis type strain had only 12 repeats; atypical isolate 10546 turned out to be a DeltalytB mutant. We also found that there are two major types of alternating repeats in lytB, which encode 21 and 23 amino acids. Choline-binding proteins are linked to the choline-containing cell wall substrate through choline residues at the interface of two consecutive choline-binding repeats that create a choline-binding site. The observation that all strains contained an even number of repeats suggests that the duplication events that gave rise to the choline-binding repeats of LytB involved two repeats simultaneously, an observation that is in keeping with previous crystallographic data. Typical pneumococcal isolates usually grew as diplococci, indicating that an active LytB enzyme was present. In contrast, most atypical isolates formed long chains of cells that did not disperse after addition of purified LytB, suggesting that in these strains chains were produced through

  3. Adherence of oral streptococci: evidence for nonspecific adsorption to saliva-coated hydroxylapatite surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Staat, R H; Peyton, J C

    1984-01-01

    It is proposed that binding of oral streptococci to saliva-coated hydroxylapatite (SHA) surfaces is a multifactorial process involving both specific and nonspecific receptors. In this context, specific binding is described as a high-affinity, saturable interaction between the cell and binding surface. Conversely, nonspecific binding is considered to be a nonsaturable, generalized, low-affinity reaction. Experimental differentiation of specific binding from nonspecific binding was achieved with a competition assay which utilized a large excess of nonradiolabeled bacteria to compete with the 3H-labeled cells for attachment to receptors on 1.5 mg of SHA crystals. Competition assays of Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis adhesion clearly demonstrated that the total binding isotherm was composed of a saturable specific binding reaction and a minor nonspecific binding component. This was further substantiated by analysis of nonlinear Scatchard plots of the total binding data. The competition data for Streptococcus mutans binding indicated that ca. 50% of the S. mutans binding appeared to be specific, although saturation of the SHA surfaces with bacterial cells could not be demonstrated. Experiments measuring desorption of radiolabeled cells from SHA crystals into buffer showed that ca. 50% of the bound S. mutans cells were removed after 4 h, whereas less than 5% of the S. sanguis cells were eluted from the SHA surfaces. The kinetics of attachment were studied by using an extract of Persea americana as a noncompetitive inhibitor of adherence. The total cell binding data for these experiments suggested a very rapid binding reaction followed by a slower rate of attachment. It was concluded from these three different experimental approaches that adherence of selected oral streptococci to SHA surfaces involves specific, high-affinity and nonspecific, low-affinity binding reactions. The concept is developed that in vitro streptococcal attachment to SHA can be

  4. Numbers of fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli in fresh and dry cattle, horse, and sheep manure.

    PubMed

    Weaver, R W; Entry, J A; Graves, Alexandria

    2005-10-01

    Livestock are known contributors to stream pollution. Numbers of fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli in manure naturally deposited by livestock in the field are needed for activities related to bacterial source tracking and determining maximum daily bacterial loading of streams. We measured populations of fecal streptococci and E. coli in fresh and dry manure from cattle (Bos taurus L.), horses (Equus caballus L.), and sheep (Ovis aires L.) on farms in southern Idaho. Populations of indicator bacteria in dry manure were often as high as that in fresh manure from horse and sheep. There was a 2 log10 drop in the population of fecal coliform numbers in dry cattle manure from cattle in pastures but not from cattle in pens. Bacterial isolates used in source tracking should include isolates from both fresh and dry manure to better represent the bacterial source loading of streams.

  5. Effect of Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri on Salivary Cariogenic Bacterial Counts among Groups of Preschool Children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Alamoudi, Najlaa M; Almabadi, Eman S; El Ashiry, Eman A; El Derwi, Douaa A

    2018-05-15

    To evaluate the effect of probiotic Lactobacilli reuteri lozenges on caries-associated salivary bacterial counts (Mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus), dental plaque accumulation, and salivary buffer capacity in a group of preschool children. The study group consisted of 178 healthy children (aged 3-6 years). Children were randomly grouped: the experimental group (n = 90) received L. reuteri probiotic lozenges and the control group (n = 88) received placebo lozenges, twice daily, for 28 days. Salivary Mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus counts, and buffer capacity were assessed using chair-side caries-risk test (CRT®) kits. The Simplified Oral Hygiene index (OHI-S) was used to assess dental plaque accumulation at baseline and after 28 days. After 28 days, the experimental group had a statistically significant reduction in Mutans streptococci and lactobacilli (p = 0.000 and p = 0.020, respectively) and both groups had less plaque accumulation than at baseline. While the buffer capacity in the experimental group increased more than in the control group, it was not statistically significant (p = 0.577). Compliance was 90%, with no adverse events. Consumption of probiotic lozenges containing L. reuteri reduces caries-associated bacterial counts significantly. Probiotics consumption may have a beneficial caries-preventive effect.

  6. Baseline dental plaque activity, mutans streptococci culture, and future caries experience in children.

    PubMed

    Hallett, Kerrod B; O'Rourke, Peter K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a chairside caries risk assessment protocol utilizing a caries prediction instrument, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) activity in dental plaque, mutans streptococci (MS) culture, and routine dental examination in five- to 10-year-old children at two regional Australian schools with high caries experience. Clinical indicators for future caries were assessed at baseline examination using a standardized prediction instrument. Plaque ATP activity was measured directly in relative light units (RLU) using a bioluminescence meter, and MS culture data were recorded. Each child's dentition was examined clinically and radiographically, and caries experience was recorded using enamel white spot lesions and decayed, missing, and filled surfaces for primary and permanent teeth indices. Univariate one-way analysis of variance between selected clinical indicators, ATP activity, MS count at baseline, and future new caries activity was performed, and a generalized linear model for prediction of new caries activity at 24 months was constructed. Future new caries activity was significantly associated with the presence of visible cavitations, reduced saliva flow, and orthodontic appliances at baseline (R(2)=0.2, P<.001). Baseline plaque adenosine triphosphate activity and mutans streptococci counts were not significantly associated with caries activity at 24 months.

  7. [Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococcal infections in child: French national reference center data].

    PubMed

    Bidet, P; Plainvert, C; Doit, C; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Bonacorsi, S; Lepoutre, A; Bouvet, A; Poyart, C; Bingen, E

    2010-02-01

    Since the 1980s, infections due to Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococci (GAS) were marked by the increase in invasive infections and the emergence of clones which were resistant to macrolides. Those challenges led the French national reference center for streptococci to enhance the epidemiological survey and the characterization of GAS strains, in collaboration with the National Institute for Public Health Surveillance. Active surveillance is of major importance for implementation of therapeutic and prophylactic guidelines and for evaluation of future streptococcal vaccines. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. New method for the isolation of Streptococcus mutans and its differentiation from other oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Linke, H A

    1977-06-01

    A new, improved agar medium for the isolation of Streptococcus mutans, the etiological agent of dental caries, was developed. In contrast to mitis-salivarius agar, this medium not only recovers a greater number of S. mutans strains from most oral specimens but, because of its mannitol and sorbitol content, it also facilitates the differentiation of S. mutans from other oral streptococci, e.g., S. salivarius, S. mitis, and S. sanguis, which do not grow or produce scanty growth only after 10 days of incubation. The medium is easy to prepare because of its simple and unique composition, is characterized by the presence of an acid indicator, and can be utilized under aerobic and anaerobic conditions as well. The medium cannot be used to distinguish among the eight serotypes, a to g and SL-1, of S. mutans. Mannitol-utilizing bacteria such as streptococci (e.g., S. faecalis) and other microorganisms (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus) are able to grow on this medium and can be distinguished from S. mutans by their unique colony morphology.

  9. Insight into the Diversity of Penicillin-Binding Protein 2x Alleles and Mutations in Viridans Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    van der Linden, Mark; Otten, Julia; Bergmann, Carina; Latorre, Cristina; Liñares, Josefina

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The identification of commensal streptococci species is an everlasting problem due to their ability to genetically transform. A new challenge in this respect is the recent description of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae as a new species, which was distinguished from closely related pathogenic S. pneumoniae and commensal S. mitis by a variety of physiological and molecular biological tests. Forty-one atypical S. pneumoniae isolates have been collected at the German National Reference Center for Streptococci (GNRCS). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) confirmed 35 isolates as the species S. pseudopneumoniae. A comparison with the pbp2x sequences from 120 commensal streptococci isolated from different continents revealed that pbp2x is distinct among penicillin-susceptible S. pseudopneumoniae isolates. Four penicillin-binding protein x (PBPx) alleles of penicillin-sensitive S. mitis account for most of the diverse sequence blocks in resistant S. pseudopneumoniae, S. pneumoniae, and S. mitis, and S. infantis and S. oralis sequences were found in S. pneumoniae from Japan. PBP2x genes of the family of mosaic genes related to pbp2x in the S. pneumoniae clone Spain23F-1 were observed in S. oralis and S. infantis as well, confirming its global distribution. Thirty-eight sites were altered within the PBP2x transpeptidase domains of penicillin-resistant strains, excluding another 37 sites present in the reference genes of sensitive strains. Specific mutational patterns were detected depending on the parental sequence blocks, in agreement with distinct mutational pathways during the development of beta-lactam resistance. The majority of the mutations clustered around the active site, whereas others are likely to affect stability or interactions with the C-terminal domain or partner proteins. PMID:28193649

  10. The significance of oral streptococci in patients with pneumonia with risk factors for aspiration: the bacterial floral analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Akata, Kentaro; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Kei; Kawanami, Toshinori; Naito, Keisuke; Noguchi, Shingo; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Hatsumi; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2016-05-11

    Aspiration pneumonia has been a growing interest in an aging population. Anaerobes are important pathogens, however, the etiology of aspiration pneumonia is not fully understood. In addition, the relationship between the patient clinical characteristics and the causative pathogens in pneumonia patients with aspiration risk factors are unclear. To evaluate the relationship between the patient clinical characteristics with risk factors for aspiration and bacterial flora in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in pneumonia patients, the bacterial floral analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene was applied in addition to cultivation methods in BALF samples. From April 2010 to February 2014, BALF samples were obtained from the affected lesions of pneumonia via bronchoscopy, and were evaluated by the bacterial floral analysis of 16S rRNA gene in addition to cultivation methods in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). Factors associated with aspiration risks in these patients were analyzed. A total of 177 (CAP 83, HCAP 94) patients were enrolled. According to the results of the bacterial floral analysis, detection rate of oral streptococci as the most detected bacterial phylotypes in BALF was significantly higher in patients with aspiration risks (31.0 %) than in patients without aspiration risks (14.7 %) (P = 0.009). In addition, the percentages of oral streptococci in each BALF sample were significantly higher in patients with aspiration risks (26.6 ± 32.0 %) than in patients without aspiration risks (13.8 ± 25.3 %) (P = 0.002). A multiple linear regression analysis showed that an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) of ≥3, the presence of comorbidities, and a history of pneumonia within a previous year were significantly associated with a detection of oral streptococci in BALF. The bacterial floral analysis of 16S rRNA gene revealed that oral streptococci were mostly

  11. StreptoBase: An Oral Streptococcus mitis Group Genomic Resource and Analysis Platform.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenning; Tan, Tze King; Paterson, Ian C; Mutha, Naresh V R; Siow, Cheuk Chuen; Tan, Shi Yang; Old, Lesley A; Jakubovics, Nicholas S; Choo, Siew Woh

    2016-01-01

    The oral streptococci are spherical Gram-positive bacteria categorized under the phylum Firmicutes which are among the most common causative agents of bacterial infective endocarditis (IE) and are also important agents in septicaemia in neutropenic patients. The Streptococcus mitis group is comprised of 13 species including some of the most common human oral colonizers such as S. mitis, S. oralis, S. sanguinis and S. gordonii as well as species such as S. tigurinus, S. oligofermentans and S. australis that have only recently been classified and are poorly understood at present. We present StreptoBase, which provides a specialized free resource focusing on the genomic analyses of oral species from the mitis group. It currently hosts 104 S. mitis group genomes including 27 novel mitis group strains that we sequenced using the high throughput Illumina HiSeq technology platform, and provides a comprehensive set of genome sequences for analyses, particularly comparative analyses and visualization of both cross-species and cross-strain characteristics of S. mitis group bacteria. StreptoBase incorporates sophisticated in-house designed bioinformatics web tools such as Pairwise Genome Comparison (PGC) tool and Pathogenomic Profiling Tool (PathoProT), which facilitate comparative pathogenomics analysis of Streptococcus strains. Examples are provided to demonstrate how StreptoBase can be employed to compare genome structure of different S. mitis group bacteria and putative virulence genes profile across multiple streptococcal strains. In conclusion, StreptoBase offers access to a range of streptococci genomic resources as well as analysis tools and will be an invaluable platform to accelerate research in streptococci. Database URL: http://streptococcus.um.edu.my.

  12. Salivary secretory IgA, pH, flow rates, mutans streptococci and Candida in children with rampant caries.

    PubMed

    Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit; Nakornchai, Siriruk; Jitmaitree, Sukritta

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of secretory IgA (SIgA), pH, flow rates, mutans streptococci (MS) and Candida in saliva of children with rampant caries compared to those caries-free. Thirty children (age 62-123 months) were enrolled and divided into two groups: Group I, children with rampant caries, Group II, caries-free children. The average salivary flow rate was measured from the volume yielded within 5 minutes and the pH was determined using a pH-electrode. Measurement of SIgA was performed using an immunoassay kit. The levels of MS and Candida were determined by culture on Mitis-Salivarius Bacitracin agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar. It was found that children with rampant caries presented with significantly higher levels of salivary SIgA, MS and Candida. However, the mean values for salivary flow rates and pH were similar between the groups. The results reveal that children with rampant caries had significantly higher levels of SIgA, MS and Candida in their oral cavities. This finding tends to support the hypothesis that higher levels of salivary SIgA may reflect a past exposure of the host to cariogenic microorganisms.

  13. Opsonic Antibodies to the Surface M Protein of Group A Streptococci in Pooled Normal Immunoglobulins (IVIG): Potential Impact on the Clinical Efficacy of IVIG Therapy for Severe Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Basma, Hesham; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; McGeer, Allison; Low, Donald E.; El-Ahmedy, Omar; Dale, James B.; Schwartz, Benjamin; Kotb, Malak

    1998-01-01

    The surface M protein of group A streptococci (GAS) is one of the major virulence factors for this pathogen. Antibodies to the M protein can facilitate opsonophagocytosis by phagocytic cells present in human blood. We investigated whether pooled normal immunoglobulin G (IVIG) contains antibodies that can opsonize and enhance the phagocytosis of type M1 strains of GAS and whether the levels of these antibodies vary for different IVIG preparations. We focused on the presence of anti-M1 antibodies because the M1T1 serotype accounts for the majority of recent invasive GAS clinical isolates in our surveillance studies. The level of anti-M1 antibodies in three commercial IVIG preparations was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the opsonic activity of these antibodies was determined by neutrophil-mediated opsonophagocytosis of a representative M1T1 isolate. High levels of opsonic anti-M1 antibodies were found in all IVIG preparations tested, and there was a good correlation between ELISA titers and opsonophagocytic activity. However, there was no significant difference in the levels of opsonic anti-M1 antibodies among the various IVIG preparations or lots tested. Adsorption of IVIG with M1T1 bacteria removed the anti-M1 opsonic activity, while the level of anti-M3 opsonophagocytosis was unchanged. Plasma was obtained from seven patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome who received IVIG therapy, and the level of anti-M1 antibodies was assessed before and after IVIG administration. A significant increase in the level of type M1-specific antibodies was found in the plasma of all patients who received IVIG therapy (P < 0.006). The results reveal another potential mechanism by which IVIG can ameliorate severe invasive group A streptococcal infections. PMID:9573118

  14. Prenatal nutrition intervention to reduce mutans streptococci among low-income women.

    PubMed

    Reisine, Susan; Douglass, Joanna; Aseltine, Robert; Shanley, Ellen; Thompson, Colleen; Thibodeau, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a prenatal nutrition intervention to reduce sugar intake and mutans streptococci (mutans) among low-income women. Pregnant women were recruited from the obstetrics service at a community health center in Connecticut. Inclusion criteria were ≥18 years of age; mutans levels >10, 000 colony forming units/ml as determined by Dentocult SM® kits (Orion Diagnostica Oy, Espoo, Finland); and >3 months pregnant. Women were randomized to receive education alone [education intervention (EI)] or education and a 1-hour nutrition group session at 9 months and 6 weeks postpartum [education and nutrition intervention (EIN)]. Mutans and questionnaire data were collected at baseline, 9 months, 6 weeks, and 3 months postpartum. One hundred twenty completed the baseline visit and 93 (77%) completed all four visits. Sugar intake was assessed by the Food Frequency Questionnaire and clinical information was abstracted from medical charts. Mean age was 26.3 years [standard deviation (SD)= 6], 73% were Hispanic, 29% had lived in the United States < 6 years; 48% completed high school; 27% were married; mean total sugar intake at baseline was 149g (SD = 85). Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that mutans levels declined significantly in both groups, but that the EI group had significantly lower mutans levels at the final assessment compared with EIN. Sugar intake also declined significantly, but there were no significant differences between groups. The study demonstrated the following: a) the feasibility of conducting the intervention at community health center sites among low-income pregnant women; b) the effectiveness of education to reduce mutans/sugar intake; and c) the need to improve the nutrition intervention to obtain additional gains in mutans reduction. © 2011 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  15. Antimicrobial effects of herbal extracts on Streptococcus mutans and normal oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Hoon

    2013-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans is associated with dental caries. A cariogenic biofilm, in particular, has been studied extensively for its role in the formation of dental caries. Herbal extracts such as Cudrania tricuspidata, Sophora flavescens, Ginkgo biloba, and Betula Schmidtii have been used as a folk remedy for treating diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the antibacterial activity of herbal extracts against normal oral streptococci, planktonic and biofilm of S. mutans. Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguinis, and S. mutans were cultivated with brain heart infusion broth and susceptibility assay for the herbal extracts was performed according to the protocol of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute. Also, S. mutans biofilm was formed on a polystyrene 12-well plate and 8-well chamber glass slip using BHI broth containing 2% sucrose and 1% mannose after conditioning the plate and the glass slip with unstimulated saliva. The biofilm was treated with the herbal extracts in various concentrations and inoculated on Mitis-Salivarius bacitracin agar plate for enumeration of viable S. mutans by counting colony forming units. Planktonic S. mutans showed susceptibility to all of the extracts and S. mutans biofilm exhibited the highest level of sensitivity for the extracts of S. flavescens. The normal oral streptococci exhibited a weak susceptibility in comparison to S. mutans. S. oralis, however, was resistant to all of the extracts. In conclusion, the extract of S. flavescens may be a potential candidate for prevention and management of dental caries.

  16. [Streptococcus group B in a maternity home with a decentralized system of newborn infant care (of the mother-child type)].

    PubMed

    Shevchuk, M S; Bochkov, I A; Semina, N A; Severov, A M; Jelinková, J; Motlová, I; Cherkasskaia, R S; Darbeeva, O S

    1991-03-01

    In a maternity hospital with the decentralized system of infant care the presence of the group B streptococcal colonization of puerperants (13.0 +/- 4.5%), newborn infants (25.0 +/- 4.4%) and medical staff (16.9 +/- 3.2%) was established. The strains isolated in this hospital belonged to 13 different serotypes and antigenic combinations with type 1 a/c dominating among them (28.7 +/- 4.8%). Group B streptococci were found to be transmitted by the vertical way in one out of two colonized mother-child pairs, in all other cases the nosocomial spread of streptococci occurred.

  17. STUDIES ON NON-HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCI ISOLATED FROM THE RESPIRATORY TRACT OF MAN

    PubMed Central

    Horsfall, Frank L.

    1951-01-01

    The type specific immunological properties of certain non-hemolytic streptococci, including Str. salivarius type I and type II, present in the respiratory tract of human beings appear to be dependent upon the presence of capsular polysaccharides. The levans formed from sucrose by Str. salivarius (encapsulated S cells or non-encapsulated R variants), or by cell-free enzymes derived from these microorganisms, are indistinguishable immunologically and show no evidence of type specificity. Such levans appear to be immunologically distinct from and unrelated to the capsular polysaccharides of the microorganisms which produce them. PMID:14824398

  18. UDDER INFECTION WITH STREPTOCOCCI OF THE SCARLET FEVER TYPE

    PubMed Central

    Jones, F. S.; Little, Ralph B.

    1928-01-01

    The clinical and bacteriological findings in two cows the udders of which became infected under natural conditions with hemolytic streptococci of the scarlet fever type are discussed. One of the cows was found in a herd supplying raw milk to a small town where a milkborne outbreak of scarlet fever had occurred a short time before. When small numbers of the streptococcus obtained from this case were injected into the udder of a normal cow severe mastitis accompanied by a well marked general reaction resulted. Evidence leads to the conclusion that a severe attack of mastitis due to this organism in one quarter does not sufficiently immunize the other quarters to protect them completely since the streptococcus can be readily implanted in them. The secondary infections were much milder than the original process. PMID:19869456

  19. Comparison of species identification of endocarditis associated viridans streptococci using rnpB genotyping and 2 MALDI-TOF systems.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Jenny; Rasmussen, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Stadler, Liselott Svensson; Kurland, Siri; Olaison, Lars; Ek, Elisabeth; Herrmann, Björn

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus spp. are important causes of infective endocarditis but challenging in species identification. This study compared identification based on sequence determination of the rnpB gene with 2 systems of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, MALDI Biotyper (Bruker) and VITEK MS IVD (bioMérieux). Blood culture isolates of viridans streptococci from 63 patients with infective endocarditis were tested. The 3 methods showed full agreement for all 36 isolates identified in the Anginosus, Bovis, and Mutans groups or identified as Streptococcus cristatus, Streptococcus gordonii, or Streptococcus sanguinis. None of the methods could reliably identify the 23 isolates to the species level when designated as Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, or Streptococcus tigurinus. In 7 isolates classified to the Mitis group, the rnpB sequences deviated strikingly from all reference sequences, and additional analysis of sodA and groEL genes indicated the occurrence of yet unidentified Streptococcus spp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An outbreak of food-borne group A Streptococcus (GAS) tonsillopharyngitis among residents of a dormitory.

    PubMed

    Sarvghad, M R; Naderi, H R; Naderi-Nassab, M; Majdzadeh, R; Javanian, M; Faramarzi, H; Fatehmanesh, P

    2005-01-01

    Epidemics of food-borne pharyngitis due to group A Streptococcus are rarely reported. Here we present an outbreak of food-borne tonsillopharyngitis in female dormitories in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Throat swabs and cultures were performed on a number of patients, and of specimens from the nasopharynx and hands of staff who were involved in food processing. We planned a case-control study for assessing the source of epidemics. 11 out of 17 throat swabs of students were positive for Streptococcus group A and also 2 throat samples from asymptomatic cooks were positive. A DNA fingerprinting study showed that Streptococcus group A strains of 11 students and 1 cook had the same T agglutination pattern and M protein factor (M3/T13). It is suggested that group A streptococci as well as group C and G streptococci can cause epidemic food-borne pharyngitis. Regular health surveillance of food handlers and food preparation processes are important for prevention of such outbreaks.

  1. Children with severe early childhood caries: streptococci genetic strains within carious and white spot lesions.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Kenneth; Joseph, Raphael; Vo, Alex; Patel, Trusha; Chaudhry, Samiya; Nguyen, Uyen; Trevor, Amy; Robinson, Erica; Campbell, Margaret; McLennan, John; Houran, Farielle; Wong, Tristan; Flann, Kendra; Wages, Melissa; Palmer, Elizabeth A; Peterson, John; Engle, John; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A

    2014-01-01

    Mutans streptococci (MS) are one of the major microbiological determinants of dental caries. The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC), and assess if cariogenic MS and non-cariogenic streptococci might independently exist as primary bacterial strains on distinct sites within the dentition of individual children. Dental plaque from children (N=20; aged 3-6) with S-ECC was collected from carious lesions (CLs), white spot lesions (WSLs) and non-carious enamel surfaces. Streptococcal isolates (N=10-20) from each site were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify MS, and arbitrarily primed-PCR for assignment of genetic strains. Primary strains were identified as ≥50% of the total isolates surveyed at any site. In several cases, strains were characterized for acidurity using ATP-driven bioluminescence and subjected to PCR-determination of potential MS virulence products. Identification of non-MS was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Sixty-four independent MS or non-MS streptococcal strains were identified. All children contained 1-6 strains. In many patients (N=11), single primary MS strains were identified throughout the dentition. In other patients (N=4), primary MS strains were identified within CLs that were distinct from primary strains found on enamel. Streptococcus gordonii strains were identified as primary strains on enamel or WSLs in four children, and in general were less aciduric than MS strains. Many children with S-ECC contained only a single primary MS strain that was present in both carious and non-carious sites. In some cases, MS and non-cariogenic S. gordonii strains were found to independently exist as dominant strains at different locations within the dentition of individual children, and the aciduric potential of these strains may influence susceptibility in the

  2. Nature of a Red Cell Sensitizing Substance from Streptococci1

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Robert W.; Moskowitz, Merwin

    1966-01-01

    Jackson, Robert W. (Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind.), and Merwin Moskowitz. Nature of a red cell sensitizing substance from streptococci. J. Bacteriol. 91:2205–2209. 1966.—A method for purifying a streptococcal antigen which sensitizes red cells to agglutination by antiserum is described. The antigen, when purified by this method, is almost exclusively composed of glycerophosphate and d-alanine. The ratio of alanine to glycerophosphate varies from 1:5 to 1:3. The glycerophosphate is polymerized and is thus a teichoic acid. The polyglycerophosphate appears to be the antigenic determinant for agglutination. d-Alanine is readily removed by mild base and appears to be necessary for the attachment of the teichoic acid to red cells. Quantitative removal of alanine does not affect the ability of the polymer to absorb antibody from serum. PMID:5329284

  3. Acid Stress Response Mechanisms of Group B Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Shabayek, Sarah; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity in the United States and Europe. It is part of the vaginal microbiota in up to 30% of pregnant women and can be passed on to the newborn through perinatal transmission. GBS has the ability to survive in multiple different host niches. The pathophysiology of this bacterium reveals an outstanding ability to withstand varying pH fluctuations of the surrounding environments inside the human host. GBS host pathogen interations include colonization of the acidic vaginal mucosa, invasion of the neutral human blood or amniotic fluid, breaching of the blood brain barrier as well as survival within the acidic phagolysosomal compartment of macrophages. However, investigations on GBS responses to acid stress are limited. Technologies, such as whole genome sequencing, genome-wide transcription and proteome mapping facilitate large scale identification of genes and proteins. Mechanisms enabling GBS to cope with acid stress have mainly been studied through these techniques and are summarized in the current review PMID:28936424

  4. Codevelopment of Microbiota and Innate Immunity and the Risk for Group B Streptococcal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kolter, Julia; Henneke, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenesis of neonatal late-onset sepsis (LOD), which manifests between the third day and the third month of life, remains poorly understood. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most important cause of LOD in infants without underlying diseases or prematurity and the third most frequent cause of meningitis in the Western world. On the other hand, GBS is a common intestinal colonizer in infants. Accordingly, despite its adaption to the human lower gastrointestinal tract, GBS has retained its potential virulence and its transition from a commensal to a dangerous pathogen is unpredictable in the individual. Several cellular innate immune mechanisms, in particular Toll-like receptors, the inflammasome and the cGAS pathway, are engaged by GBS effectors like nucleic acids. These are likely to impact on the GBS-specific host resistance. Given the long evolution of streptococci as a normal constituent of the human microbiota, the emergence of GBS as the dominant neonatal sepsis cause just about 50 years ago is remarkable. It appears that intensive usage of tetracycline starting in the 1940s has been a selection advantage for the currently dominant GBS clones with superior adhesive and invasive properties. The historical replacement of Group A by Group B streptococci as a leading neonatal pathogen and the higher frequency of other β-hemolytic streptococci in areas with low GBS prevalence suggests the existence of a confined streptococcal niche, where locally competing streptococcal species are subject to environmental and immunological selection pressure. Thus, it seems pivotal to resolve neonatal innate immunity at mucous surfaces and its impact on microbiome composition and quality, i.e., genetic heterogeneity and metabolism, at the microanatomical level. Then, designer pro- and prebiotics, such as attenuated strains of GBS, and oligonucleotide priming of mucosal immunity may unfold their potential and facilitate adaptation of potentially hazardous streptococci as

  5. Codevelopment of Microbiota and Innate Immunity and the Risk for Group B Streptococcal Disease.

    PubMed

    Kolter, Julia; Henneke, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenesis of neonatal late-onset sepsis (LOD), which manifests between the third day and the third month of life, remains poorly understood. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most important cause of LOD in infants without underlying diseases or prematurity and the third most frequent cause of meningitis in the Western world. On the other hand, GBS is a common intestinal colonizer in infants. Accordingly, despite its adaption to the human lower gastrointestinal tract, GBS has retained its potential virulence and its transition from a commensal to a dangerous pathogen is unpredictable in the individual. Several cellular innate immune mechanisms, in particular Toll-like receptors, the inflammasome and the cGAS pathway, are engaged by GBS effectors like nucleic acids. These are likely to impact on the GBS-specific host resistance. Given the long evolution of streptococci as a normal constituent of the human microbiota, the emergence of GBS as the dominant neonatal sepsis cause just about 50 years ago is remarkable. It appears that intensive usage of tetracycline starting in the 1940s has been a selection advantage for the currently dominant GBS clones with superior adhesive and invasive properties. The historical replacement of Group A by Group B streptococci as a leading neonatal pathogen and the higher frequency of other β-hemolytic streptococci in areas with low GBS prevalence suggests the existence of a confined streptococcal niche, where locally competing streptococcal species are subject to environmental and immunological selection pressure. Thus, it seems pivotal to resolve neonatal innate immunity at mucous surfaces and its impact on microbiome composition and quality, i.e., genetic heterogeneity and metabolism, at the microanatomical level. Then, designer pro- and prebiotics, such as attenuated strains of GBS, and oligonucleotide priming of mucosal immunity may unfold their potential and facilitate adaptation of potentially hazardous streptococci as

  6. The effect of traditional African food mixtures on growth, pH and extracellular polysaccharide production by mutans streptococci in vitro.

    PubMed

    Toi, Cheryl Sam; Cleaton-Jones, Peter

    2006-04-01

    Four, traditional African food mixtures (maize plus milk and sugar, maize plus gravy, samp plus beans, brown bread plus margarine and peanut butter) were evaluated for their ability to sustain the growth of mutans streptococci in batch culture. A synthetic complex medium, brain heart infusion with 3% sucrose was used as an experimental control. Six NCTC laboratory reference strains and five clinical isolates collected from the plaque of children were investigated. The doubling time of bacterial strains was prolonged in maize plus gravy (2.5-6.0 h) and samp plus beans (1.3-9.9h), and the number of cell divisions was low, compared with bread plus margarine plus peanut butter (0.7-5.1h). The least amount of acid was produced in maize plus milk plus sugar (3.92+/-8.15 mmole/mL), and the average pH during the fermentation of maize plus milk plus sugar, maize plus gravy and samp plus beans did not drop below the critical point for enamel demineralisation, pH 5.7. Bacterial growth in samp plus beans produced a small quantity of lactic acid (0.46+/-1.10 mmole/mL) compared to bread plus margarine and peanut butter (2.64+/-3.30 mmole/mL) and BHI plus 3% sucrose (12.23+/-10.72 mmole/mL). Extracellular polysaccharide (ECP) produced was lowest in maize plus milk and sugar (0.22+/-0.33 mg/mL), compared with the remaining food mixtures (0.47-1.75 mg/mL). Statistical analysis showed that the influence of the mixed-foods on doubling time (F=3.01, P=0.03), pH (F=14.41, P<0.0001) and ECP (F=135.32, P<0.0001) was greater than the significant variance found between mutans streptococci strains. Results suggest that the level of mutans streptococci activity in samp plus beans, maize plus milk and sugar and maize plus gravy contributes little towards the formation of dental caries, and that significant differences exist between mutans streptococci laboratory reference and clinical strains in response to traditional African food mixtures.

  7. Evaluation of a rapid method for the detection of streptococcal group A antigen directly from throat swabs.

    PubMed Central

    Venezia, R A; Ryan, A; Alward, S; Kostun, W A

    1985-01-01

    Throat swabs from 196 pediatric patients were processed by a direct extraction-latex agglutination method (Group A Strep Direct Antigen Identification Test [DAI]) that detects group A streptococci in the specimen. The method requires a 45-min enzymatic extraction period at 37 degrees C and a 4-min reaction period with antibody-linked latex particles. The results were compared with those of the culture and fluorescent antibody methods and the clinical presentation of the patient for pharyngitis. Ninety-three percent of the specimens resulted in agreement by all tests, and 28% were culture positive for group A streptococci. Compared with the culture method, the DAI had a sensitivity and a specificity of 83% and 99%, respectively. The positive predictive values were 98% versus the culture method and 93% versus the fluorescent antibody method, whereas the negative predictive values were 94% versus both other methods. Of the 14 discrepant results when both clinical presentation of an acute pharyngitis and the test results were compared, the culture method provided the best correlation. An additional 64 specimens were processed by the DAI and another direct extraction-latex agglutination method (Culturette Ten-Minute Group A Strep ID Test), and the results were compared with those of the culture method. This group had a 40.6% culture isolation rate for group A streptococci. The sensitivity and specificity of the DAI and Strep ID methods versus the culture method were 81 and 100%, and 77 and 97%, respectively. These results indicate that the DAI is accurate for diagnosing group A streptococcal pharyngitis directly from throat swabs. However, negative results in the presence of a symptomatic patient must be confirmed by standard culture techniques. PMID:3884656

  8. Video Game Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Jeanne B.; Buchman, Debra D.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the literature on: (1) health-related effects of video games (VGs), including seizures, physiologic responses, and musculoskeletal injuries; (2) eye-hand coordination in VGs; (3) psychological adjustment related to VGs, including possible psychopathologies and violence-related effects; and (4) the educational impact of VGs. Also examines…

  9. [Ecologic and epidemiologic features of the circulation of streptococcus group B at a maternity clinic].

    PubMed

    Bochkov, I A; Shevchuk, M S; Semina, N A; Fiks, L I; Elinkova, Ia

    1989-04-01

    In a maternity clinic the circulation of group B streptococci among the newborns, their mothers and the personnel was established during the period of 1982-1985. Group B streptococci were detected at different biotypes of newborns (the pharynx, the imbilical stump, external suditory meatus, nasal and oral mucosa, eyes and feces), their mothers (the vagina, the perianal area, breast milk, the pharynx, urine, the umbilical cord, amniotic fluid) and in the pharynx of the personnel. In this maternity clinic 15 combinations of type antigens were detected, two combinations (1a/c and 1 b/c) prevailing among them. These results confirmed earlier data concerning two possible ways of transferring infection to newborn infants: vertical, i.e. from the mother to the child during parturition, and nosocomial, i.e. from contaminated newborns or members of the personnel.

  10. Adhesive Properties and Acid-Forming Activity of Lactobacilli and Streptococci Under Inhibitory Substances, Such as Nitrates.

    PubMed

    Hakobyan, L; Harutyunyan, K; Harutyunyan, N; Melik-Andreasyan, G; Trchounian, A

    2016-06-01

    One of the main requirements for probiotics is their ability to survive during passage through gastrointestinal tract and to maintain their activity at different adverse conditions. The aim of the study was to look for the strains of lactobacilli and streptococci with high adhesive properties even affected by inhibitory substances, such as nitrates (NO3 (-)). To study the adhesion properties hemagglutination reaction of bacterial cells with red blood cells of different animals and humans was used. The acid formation ability of bacteria was determined by the method of titration after 7 days of incubation in the sterile milk. These properties were investigated at different concentrations of NO3 (-). The high concentration (mostly ≥2.0 %) NO3 (-) inhibited the growth of both lactobacilli and streptococci, but compared with streptococcal cultures lactobacilli, especially Lactobacillus acidophilus Ep 317/402, have shown more stability and higher adhesive properties. In addition, the concentrations of NO3 (-) of 0.5-2.0 % decreased the acid-forming activity of the strains, but even under these conditions they coagulated milk and, in comparison to control, formed low acidity in milk. Thus, the L. acidophilus Ep 317/402 with high adhesive properties has demonstrated a higher activity of NO3 (-) transformation.

  11. In vitro adherence of oral streptococci to zirconia core and veneering glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Rosentritt, Martin; Behr, Michael; Bürgers, Ralf; Feilzer, Albert J; Hahnel, Sebastian

    2009-10-01

    Plaque formation on dental ceramics may cause gingival inflammation and secondary caries. This in vitro study compared the susceptibility of various dental ceramics to adhere oral streptococci, and verified the influence of substratum surface roughness and surface hydrophobicity. Three zirconia ceramic materials and three veneering glass-ceramics were investigated. Fifteen test specimens were prepared for each material, polished, and surface roughness and hydrophobicity were determined. After incubation with artificial saliva (2 h, 37 degrees C) for pellicle formation, specimens were incubated with suspensions of Streptococcus gordonii DSMZ 6777, Streptococcus mutans DSMZ 20523, Streptococcus oralis DSMZ 20627, or Streptococcus sanguinis DSMZ 20068, respectively, for 2.5 h at 37 degrees C. Adherent bacteria were quantified using a fluorescence dye for viable cell quantification (Alamar Blue/Resazurin). Statistical analysis was performed using one- and two-way ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test for post hoc analysis (alpha < 0.05). Surface roughness and surface hydrophobicity differed significantly among the various ceramics; protein coating hydrophilized the surfaces, and led to a homogenization of the surface hydrophobicity of the various ceramics. Before protein coating, almost similar relative fluorescence intensities indicating similar adhesion of streptococci were found for the various ceramics; more distinct differences were observed after protein coating. Correlations between surface parameters and streptococcal adhesion were poor. Within the limitations of these experiments, the findings of this in vitro study indicate only little differences between zirconia and glass ceramic with regard to streptococcal adhesion. Judging from these results, it is unlikely that exposed zirconia surfaces yield more plaque than glass ceramic surfaces in vivo. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Association of oral flora with orbital complications of acute sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Flam, Juliette O; Platt, Michael P; Sobel, Rachel; Devaiah, Anand K; Brook, Christopher D

    2016-07-01

    Acute and chronic sinusitis in children and adults can spread to the orbit. Oral flora has been seen in orbital infections, but the extent of synergy between pathogens in such infections remains unknown. A retrospective case series of patients with complicated sinusitis that involved the orbit from acute sinusitis who were admitted to a tertiary care hospital from January 2000 to December 2014 and who had surgical cultures obtained. Patients were identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code for periorbital cellulitis, subperiosteal abscess, or orbital abscess. Sixteen patients underwent surgical drainage via external drainage or endoscopic sinus surgery of an orbital infection associated with sinusitis and had cultures obtained. Nine patients (56%) grew organisms that exist in oral flora, whereas seven patients (44%) grew common respiratory pathogens. The most common organisms recovered were viridans group streptococcus (VGS) (50%), Staphylococcus aureus (31%), Eikenella corrodens (25%), and Prevotella species (19%). Oral flora anaerobes were cultured alongside a VGS species in seven of eight patients (88%) as opposed to the respiratory pathogens, which were less frequently associated with concomitant VGS infection (29%) (p = 0.04). There are two main sources for infectious orbital complications from acute sinusitis: respiratory pathogens and oral flora. The high prevalence of concurrent anaerobic oral flora and VGS infection supports a suspected synergy between VGS and other oral organisms.

  13. The potential of hybrid micro-vortex generators to control flow separation of NACA 4415 airfoil in subsonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumahadi, Muhammad Taufiq; Saad, Mohd Rashdan; Idris, Azam Che; Sujipto, Suriyadi; Rahman, Mohd Rosdzimin Abdul

    2018-02-01

    Boundary layer separation is detrimental to the lift and drag of most aeronautical applications. Many vortex generators (VG), both passive and active have been designed to reduce these drawbacks. This study targets to investigate the effectiveness of hybrid micro-VGs, which combine both active and passive micro-VGs in controlling separation under subsonic conditions. NACA 4415 airfoils installed with passive, active and hybrid micro-VGs each are designed, 3D printed, and tested in a wind tunnel at 26.19 m/s under Re = 2.5x105. The lift and drag measurements from a 3-component force balance prove that hybrid micro-VGs increase lift by up to 21.2%, increase drag by more than 11.3% and improve lift-to-drag ratio by at least 8.6% until up to 33.7%. From this research, it is believed that hybrid micro-VGs are competitive to the performance of active VGs and a better configuration is to be considered to reduce parasitic drag and outstand active VGs.

  14. Lancefield group G Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis: an unusual aetiology of perianal streptococcal dermatitis acquired from heterosexual oral-anal intercourse.

    PubMed

    Abdolrasouli, A; Hemmati, Y; Amin, A; Roushan, A; Butler, I

    2012-12-01

    Perianal streptococcal dermatitis (PSD) is an uncommon superficial cutaneous infection of the perianal area, almost exclusively described in children and mainly caused by group A streptococci. We report here a case of PSD caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Lancefield group G, in an adult man due to heterosexual oral-anal sexual contact.

  15. Collagen-binding proteins of Streptococcus mutans and related streptococci.

    PubMed

    Avilés-Reyes, A; Miller, J H; Lemos, J A; Abranches, J

    2017-04-01

    The ability of Streptococcus mutans to interact with collagen through the expression of collagen-binding proteins (CBPs) bestows this oral pathogen with an alternative to the sucrose-dependent mechanism of colonization classically attributed to caries development. Based on the abundance and distribution of collagen throughout the human body, stringent adherence to this molecule grants S. mutans with the opportunity to establish infection at different host sites. Surface proteins, such as SpaP, WapA, Cnm and Cbm, have been shown to bind collagen in vitro, and it has been suggested that these molecules play a role in colonization of oral and extra-oral tissues. However, robust collagen binding is not achieved by all strains of S. mutans, particularly those that lack Cnm or Cbm. These observations merit careful dissection of the contribution from these different CBPs towards tissue colonization and virulence. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of mechanisms used by S. mutans and related streptococci to colonize collagenous tissues, and the possible contribution of CBPs to infections in different sites of the host. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Collagen Binding Proteins of Streptococcus mutans and Related Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Avilés-Reyes, Alejandro; Miller, James H.; Lemos, José A.; Abranches, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability of Streptococcus mutans to interact with collagen through the expression of collagen-binding proteins (CBPs) bestows this oral pathogen with an alternative to the sucrose-dependent mechanism of colonization classically attributed to caries development. Based on the abundance and distribution of collagen throughout the human body, stringent adherence to this molecule grants S. mutans with the opportunity to establish infection at different host sites. Surface proteins, such as SpaP, WapA, Cnm and Cbm, have been shown to bind collagen in vitro, and it has been suggested that these molecules play a role in colonization of oral and extra-oral tissues. However, robust collagen binding is not achieved by all strains of S. mutans, particularly those that lack Cnm or Cbm. These observations merit careful dissection of the contribution from these different CBPs towards tissue colonization and virulence. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of mechanisms utilized by S. mutans and related streptococci to colonize collagenous tissues, and the possible contribution of CBPs to infections in different sites of the host. PMID:26991416

  17. Rapid identification of pathogenic streptococci isolated from moribund red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.).

    PubMed

    Abdelsalam, Mohamed; Elgendy, Mamdouh Y; Shaalan, Mohamed; Moustafa, Mohamed; Fujino, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Accurate and rapid identification of bacterial pathogens of fish is essential for the effective treatment and speedy control of infections. Massive mortalities in market-sized red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) were noticed in mariculture concrete ponds in northern Egypt. Histopathological examination revealed marked congestion in the central vein of the liver with the presence of bacterial aggregates inside the lumen and in the vicinity of the central vein. A total of 12 isolates of streptococci were obtained from the moribund fish. This study documented the ability of the MicroSeq 500 16S bacterial sequencing method to accurately identify Streptococcus agalactiae and S. dysgalactiae mixed infections from moribund red tilapia that were difficult to be recognised by the commercial biochemical systems. The continuously decreasing cost of the sequencing technique should encourage its application in routine diagnostic procedures.

  18. Comprehensive update of dalbavancin activity when tested against uncommonly isolated streptococci, Corynebacterium spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Micrococcus spp. (1357 strains).

    PubMed

    Jones, Ronald N; Stilwell, Matthew G

    2013-06-01

    Dalbavancin is an investigational lipoglycopeptide having an extended serum elimination half-life allowing once-weekly dosing. Data from testing 1357 strains of uncommonly isolated species expand the dalbavancin spectrum details as follows (MIC50/90): β-haemolytic streptococcal serogroups C, F, and G (≤0.03/≤0.03 μg/mL), 7 viridans group of streptococci (≤0.03/≤0.03-0.06 μg/mL), 5 Corynebacterium spp. (0.06/0.12 μg/mL), Listeria monocytogenes (0.06/0.12 μg/mL), and Micrococcus spp. (≤0.03/≤0.03 μg/mL). Among all reported isolates, 99.8% of tested strains were inhibited at dalbavancin MIC values at ≤0.12 μg/mL. Dalbavancin remains very potent against rarer Gram-positive pathogens, using in vitro test experience with organisms cultured through 2011. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adherence of oral streptococci to nanostructured titanium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Narendrakumar, Krunal; Kulkarni, Mukta; Addison, Owen; Mazare, Anca; Junkar, Ita; Schmuki, Patrik; Sammons, Rachel; Iglič, Aleš

    2015-12-01

    Peri-implantitis and peri-mucositis pose a severe threat to the success of dental implants. Current research focuses on the development of surfaces that inhibit biofilm formation while not inferring with tissue integration. This study compared the adherence of two oral bacterial species, Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans to nanostructured titanium surfaces. The samples included TiO2 nanotubes formed by anodization of titanium foil of 100, 50 and 15nm diameter (NT15, NT50, NT100), a nanoporous (15nm pore diameter) surface and compact TiO2 control. Adherent surviving bacteria were enumerated after 1h in an artificial saliva medium containing bovine mucin. Lowest numbers of adherent bacteria of both species were recovered from the original titanium foil and nanoporous surface and highest numbers from the Ti100 nanotubes. Numbers of attached S. sanguinis increased in the order (NT15streptococci can be modified by titanium anodization and nanotube diameter. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Natural Killer Cell Functions during the Innate Immune Response to Pathogenic Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Lemire, Paul; Galbas, Tristan; Thibodeau, Jacques; Segura, Mariela

    2017-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) and NK cells play a crucial role in the first phase of host defense against infections. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) and Streptococcus suis are encapsulated streptococci causing severe systemic inflammation, leading to septicemia and meningitis. Yet, the involvement of NK cells in the innate immune response to encapsulated bacterial infection is poorly characterized. Here, it was observed that these two streptococcal species rapidly induce the release of IFN-γ and that NK cells are the major cell type responsible for this production during the acute phase of the infection. Albeit S. suis capacity to activate NK cells was lower than that of GBS, these cells partially contribute to S. suis systemic infection; mainly through amplification of the inflammatory loop. In contrast, such a role was not observed during GBS systemic infection. IFN-γ release by NK cells required the presence of DCs, which in turn had a synergistic effect on DC cytokine production. These responses were mainly mediated by direct DC-NK cell contact and partially dependent on soluble factors. Though IL-12 and LFA-1 were shown to be critical in S. suis-mediated activation of the DC-NK cell crosstalk, different or redundant molecular pathways modulate DC-NK interactions during GBS infection. The bacterial capsular polysaccharides also differently modulated NK cell activation. Together, these results demonstrated a role of NK cells in the innate immune response against encapsulated streptococcal infections; yet the molecular pathways governing NK activation seem to differ upon the pathogen and should not be generalized when studying bacterial infections. PMID:28706510

  1. Development and testing of vortex generators for small horizontal axis wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyatt, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    Vortex generators (VGs) for a small (32 ft diameter) horizontal axis wind turbine, the Carter Model 25, have been developed and tested. Arrays of VGs in a counterrotating arrangement were tested on the inbound half-span, outboard half-span, and on the entire blade. VG pairs had their centerlines spaced at a distance of 15% of blade chord, with a spanwise width of 10% of blade chord. Each VG had a length/height ratio of 4, with a height of between 0.5% and 1.0% of the blade chord. Tests were made with roughness strips to determine whether VGs alleviated the sensitivity of some turbines to an accumulation of bugs and dirt on the leading edge. Field test data showed that VGs increased power output up to 20% at wind speeds above 10 m/s with only a small (less than 4%) performance penalty at lower speeds. The VGs on the outboard span of the blade were more effective than those on inner sections. For the case of full span coverage, the energy yearly output increased almost 6% at a site with a mean wind speed of 16 mph. The VGs did reduce the performance loss caused by leading edge roughness. An increase in blade pitch angle has an effect on the power curve similar to the addition of VGs. VGs alleviate the sensitivity of wind turbine rotors to leading edge roughness caused by bugs and drift.

  2. Effects of Actinobolin on Growth and Some Metabolic Activities of Cariogenic Streptococci In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Keele, Bernard B.; Powell, Hubert L.; Navia, Juan M.; McGhee, Jerry

    1971-01-01

    Actinobolin, a known inhibitor of protein synthesis, has been shown not to interfere selectively with acid production or dextransucrase activity in a cariogenic streptococcus when the antibiotic is added to a concentration of 500 μg/ml. It has also been shown that actinobolin does not alter the total in vivo flora of the oral cavity of the rat when tested in a rat caries model system. A culture of cariogenic streptococci, adapted to in vitro growth in the presence of 1 mg of actinobolin per ml, has also been isolated. PMID:4944810

  3. Evaluation of the oxolinic acid--esculin--azide medium for the isolation and enumeration of faecal streptococci in a routine monitoring programme for bathing waters.

    PubMed

    Figueras, M J; Inza, I; Polo, F; Guarro, J

    1998-10-01

    m-Enterococcus agar (m-Ent) has been generally considered the reference medium for faecal streptococci in bathing waters. However, it shows several shortcomings, and therefore it is important to test newly developed media that can guarantee more precise results. In this sense, the recently described oxolinic acid--esculin--azide agar medium (OAA) and m-enterococcus agar (m-Ent) were comparatively evaluated for the detection of faecal streptococci from seawater and fresh water. The OAA medium showed a significantly higher relative recovery percentage and specificity for both types of water than m-Ent. A similar spectrum of species was recorded from both media, Enterococcus faecium being predominant in fresh water and Enterococcus faecalis, in seawater. The superior performance of the OAA medium in both types of bathing waters, added to the fact that it does not require the use of complementary confirmative tests, makes this medium an excellent candidate to be employed for monitoring programmes.

  4. The cosmic web in CosmoGrid void regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, Steven; van de Weygaert, Rien; Cautun, Marius; Beygu, Burcu; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2016-10-01

    We study the formation and evolution of the cosmic web, using the high-resolution CosmoGrid ΛCDM simulation. In particular, we investigate the evolution of the large-scale structure around void halo groups, and compare this to observations of the VGS-31 galaxy group, which consists of three interacting galaxies inside a large void. The structure around such haloes shows a great deal of tenuous structure, with most of such systems being embedded in intra-void filaments and walls. We use the Nexus+} algorithm to detect walls and filaments in CosmoGrid, and find them to be present and detectable at every scale. The void regions embed tenuous walls, which in turn embed tenuous filaments. We hypothesize that the void galaxy group of VGS-31 formed in such an environment.

  5. Cross-reactions of reagents from streptococcal grouping kits with Streptococcus porcinus.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, T; Facklam, R

    1997-01-01

    Streptococcus porcinus is usually associated with swine. Because we have received several isolates from human sources that had cross-reacted with commercial group B streptococcal reagents, we examined several commercial kits to determine the extent of this cross-reaction. Fifteen reference and 15 clinical strains of S. porcinus were tested for cross-reactions with group B streptococcal reagents from 12 different commercial kits. Cross-reactions were detected with all group B reagents, but the number of cross-reactions varied with each kit. We recommend that manufacturers of reagents designed to identify group B streptococci by serologic methods test their reagents for cross-reactions with selected S. porcinus cultures or antigens. PMID:9196216

  6. High Pressure Liquid Chromatography in the Analysis of Fatty Acid Composition of Oral Streptococci and its Comparison to Gas Chromatography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-10-04

    pentadeca— noic (Cl5 :0) #29 , and heptadeconic (Cl9:0) #30. Eicosenoic acid had been reported to be present in Strepto- coccus salivarius and Streptococcus ...Inutans but not in other oral streptococci. We noted in the chromnatograms of both S. mutans and S. salivarius cultures there was a shoulder off peak...representative chromatogram of S. mutans is shown in Fig. 14. Several points about these representative chromatograms should be emphasized. The first is the

  7. Genotypic analysis of strains of mutans streptococci by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mineyama, R; Yoshino, S; Fukushima, K

    2004-01-01

    The species and serotypes of various strains of S. mutans and S. sobrinus were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis after the genomic DNA from the various strains had been digested with five restriction enzymes (EcoR I, Xba I, Hind III, Sfi I and BssH II) separately. Among these restriction enzymes, BssH II was very useful for the characterization of species and serotypes and, in particular, digestion discriminated between serotypes d and g. The restriction patterns obtained from the genomic DNA of isolates isolated from children's saliva were essentially identical to those from the genomic DNA of the standard laboratory strains. Patterns of BssH II digests of the genomic DNA of 10 isolates identified as S. sobrinus were characteristic of serotype g of the standard laboratory strains. Our results indicate that digestion with BssH II and subsequence analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis should be useful for the characterization of species and serotypes and for epidemiological studies of mutans streptococci.

  8. Determination of asymptomatic carrier rate of beta-haemolytic group B Streptococcus in vaginas of pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olanisebe, S B; Adetosoye, A I

    1986-04-01

    Bacteriological studies of 500 vaginal swabs from pregnant women in second and third trimester from 4 government hospitals in Ibadan showed that 8 (1.6 per cent) were found to be culture-positive for Group B Streptococcus. Five (1.0 per cent) were found to harbour group D streptococci. All the 8 group B Streptococcus isolates were sensitive to erythromycin, methicillin, penicillin G, ampicillin and chloramphenicol in decreasing order. They were resistant to tetracycline, sulphafurazole and streptomycin.

  9. Group and type distribution of beta-haemolytic streptococcus strains in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, 1973-1980.

    PubMed

    Vlajinac, H; Adanja, B

    1982-09-01

    Group and type differentiation by Griffith' method of agglutination was performed on 7514 haemolytic streptococcal strains isolated from patients with acute streptococcal infections. Thirteen different groups were found--the most frequent were groups A (63.0%), B (12.5%), C (8.1%) and G(2.5%). The group A was predominant among strains isolated from upper respiratory tract, but in later years the frequency of group A strains among streptococci causing respiratory infections was significantly lower. In every year of the study period the most prevalent group A types were T1, T2, T4, T12 and T28--only their relative distribution was changing in the course of time.

  10. The Actinomyces oris Type 2 Fimbrial Shaft FimA Mediates Coaggregation with Oral Streptococci, Adherence to RBC and Biofilm Development

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Arunima; Wu, Chenggang; Yang, Jinghua; Cisar, John O.; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2010-01-01

    Interbacterial interactions between oral streptococci and actinomyces and their adherence to tooth surface and the associated host cells are key early events that promote development of the complex oral biofilm referred to as dental plaque. These interactions depend largely on a lectin-like activity associated with the Actinomyces oris type 2 fimbria, a surface structure assembled by sortase (SrtC2)-dependent polymerization of the shaft and tip fimbrillins, FimA and FimB, respectively. To dissect the function of specific fimbrillins in various adherence processes, we have developed a convenient new technology for generating unmarked deletion mutants of A. oris. Here, we show that the fimB mutant, which produced type 2 fimbriae composed only of FimA, like the wild type coaggregated strongly with receptor-bearing streptococci, agglutinated with sialidase-treated RBC, and formed monospecies biofilm. In contrast, the fimA and srtC2 mutants lacked type 2 fimbriae and were non-adherent in each of these assays. Plasmidbased expression of the deleted gene in respective mutants restored adherence to wild-type levels. These findings uncover the importance of the lectin-like activity of the polymeric FimA shaft rather than the tip. The multivalent adhesive function of FimA makes it an ideal molecule for exploring novel intervention strategies to control plaque biofilm formation. PMID:20545853

  11. Multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase causing excessive acetaldehyde production from ethanol by oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Sylvia I; Jin, Ling; Gasparovich, Stephen R; Tao, Lin

    2013-07-01

    Ethanol consumption and poor oral hygiene are risk factors for oral and oesophageal cancers. Although oral streptococci have been found to produce excessive acetaldehyde from ethanol, little is known about the mechanism by which this carcinogen is produced. By screening 52 strains of diverse oral streptococcal species, we identified Streptococcus gordonii V2016 that produced the most acetaldehyde from ethanol. We then constructed gene deletion mutants in this strain and analysed them for alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases by zymograms. The results showed that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol and ethanol, respectively. Two additional dehydrogenases, S-AdhA and TdhA, were identified with specificities to the secondary alcohol 2-propanol and threonine, respectively, but not to ethanol. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase even though its adhE gene encodes a putative bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Mutants with adhE deletion showed greater tolerance to ethanol in comparison with the wild-type and mutant with adhA or adhB deletion, indicating that AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Analysis of 19 additional strains of S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. salivarius and S. sanguinis showed expressions of up to three alcohol dehydrogenases, but none showed detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, except one strain that showed a novel ALDH. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase may contribute to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by certain oral streptococci.

  12. Multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase causing excessive acetaldehyde production from ethanol by oral streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Sylvia I.; Jin, Ling; Gasparovich, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol consumption and poor oral hygiene are risk factors for oral and oesophageal cancers. Although oral streptococci have been found to produce excessive acetaldehyde from ethanol, little is known about the mechanism by which this carcinogen is produced. By screening 52 strains of diverse oral streptococcal species, we identified Streptococcus gordonii V2016 that produced the most acetaldehyde from ethanol. We then constructed gene deletion mutants in this strain and analysed them for alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases by zymograms. The results showed that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol and ethanol, respectively. Two additional dehydrogenases, S-AdhA and TdhA, were identified with specificities to the secondary alcohol 2-propanol and threonine, respectively, but not to ethanol. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase even though its adhE gene encodes a putative bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Mutants with adhE deletion showed greater tolerance to ethanol in comparison with the wild-type and mutant with adhA or adhB deletion, indicating that AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Analysis of 19 additional strains of S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. salivarius and S. sanguinis showed expressions of up to three alcohol dehydrogenases, but none showed detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, except one strain that showed a novel ALDH. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase may contribute to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by certain oral streptococci. PMID:23637459

  13. Two autonomous structural modules in the fimbrial shaft adhesin FimA mediate Actinomyces interactions with streptococci and host cells during oral biofilm development

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mishra, Arunima; Devarajan, Bharanidharan; Reardon, Melissa E.

    2011-09-06

    By combining X-ray crystallography and modelling, we describe here the atomic structure of distinct adhesive moieties of FimA, the shaft fimbrillin of Actinomyces type 2 fimbriae, which uniquely mediates the receptor-dependent intercellular interactions between Actinomyces and oral streptococci as well as host cells during the development of oral biofilms. The FimA adhesin is built with three IgG-like domains, each of which harbours an intramolecular isopeptide bond, previously described in several Gram-positive pilins. Genetic and biochemical studies demonstrate that although these isopeptide bonds are dispensable for fimbrial assembly, cell-cell interactions and biofilm formation, they contribute significantly to the proteolytic stability ofmore » FimA. Remarkably, FimA harbours two autonomous adhesive modules, which structurally resemble the Staphylococcus aureus Cna B domain. Each isolated module can bind the plasma glycoprotein asialofetuin as well as the polysaccharide receptors present on the surface of oral streptococci and epithelial cells. Thus, FimA should serve as an excellent paradigm for the development of therapeutic strategies and elucidating the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between cellular receptors and Gram-positive fimbriae.« less

  14. Two Autonomous Structural Modules in the Fimbrial Shaft Adhesin FimA Mediate Actinomyces Interactions with Streptococci and Host Cells during Oral Biofilm Development

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Arunima; Devarajan, Bharanidharan; Reardon, Melissa E.; Dwivedi, Prabhat; Krishnan, Vengadesan; Cisar, John O.; Das, Asis; Narayana, Sthanam V. L; Ton-That, Hung

    2011-01-01

    By combining X-ray crystallography and modeling, we describe here the atomic structure of distinct adhesive moieties of FimA, the shaft fimbrillin of Actinomyces type 2 fimbriae, which uniquely mediates the receptor-dependent intercellular interactions between Actinomyces and oral streptococci as well as host cells during the development of oral biofilms. The FimA adhesin is built with three IgG-like domains, each of which harbors an intramolecular isopeptide bond, previously described in several Gram-positive pilins. Genetic and biochemical studies demonstrate that although these isopeptide bonds are dispensable for fimbrial assembly, cell-cell interactions and biofilm formation, they contribute significantly to the proteolytic stability of FimA. Remarkably, FimA harbors two autonomous adhesive modules, which structurally resemble the Staphylococcus aureus Cna B domain. Each isolated module can bind the plasma glycoprotein asialofetuin as well as the polysaccharide receptors present on the surface of oral streptococci and epithelial cells. Thus, FimA should serve as an excellent paradigm for the development of therapeutic strategies and elucidating the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between cellular receptors and Gram-positive fimbriae. PMID:21696465

  15. Typing of mutans streptococci by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Saarela, M; Hannula, J; Mättö, J; Asikainen, S; Alaluusua, S

    1996-01-01

    The discriminative power of the arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) in differentiating between Streptococcus mutans and Strep. sobrinus species, serotypes and clones was investigated. Mutans streptococcal isolates (12(7)) obtained from 65 individuals (1-10 isolates per individual) were AP-PCR typed separately with two random primers, OPA-05 and OPA-13. Bacterial cell lysates were used as a template in PCR reactions, which made AP-PCR easy and fast to perform. Eighty-one isolates from 19 individuals were also ribotyped to compare the discriminative ability of ribotyping and AP-PCR techniques. AP-PCR performed with the two primers differentiated between Strep. mutans and Strep. sobrinus isolates, but neither primer detected serotype-specific amplification products. OPA-05 distinguished two main AP-PCR patterns among Strep. mutans isolates and one main pattern among Strep. sobrinus isolates, whereas OPA-13 found one main AP-PCR pattern among Strep. mutans isolates and two main patterns among Strep. sobrinus isolates. Ribotyping and AP-PCR revealed 40 and 33 different types among 81 selected isolates, respectively. Both techniques detected intra-individual heterogeneity in 16 out of 19 participants. The results indicate that AP-PCR has good discriminative ability in differentiating between mutans streptococcal clones and that the technique is suitable for epidemiological studies on mutans streptococci.

  16. Characterization of PepB, a group B streptococcal oligopeptidase.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, B; Averett, W F; Novak, J; Chatham, W W; Hollingshead, S K; Coligan, J E; Egan, M L; Pritchard, D G

    1996-01-01

    Group B streptococci were recently reported to possess a cell-associated collagenase. Although the enzyme hydrolyzed the synthetic collagen-like substrate N-(3-[2-furyl]acryloyl)-Leu-Gly-Pro-Ala, we found that neither the highly purified enzyme nor crude group B streptococcal cell lysate solubilized a film of reconstituted rat tail collagen, an activity regarded as obligatory for a true collagenase. We cloned and sequenced the gene for the enzyme (pepB). The deduced amino acid sequence showed 66.4% identity to the PepF oligopeptidase from Lactococcus lactis, a member of the M3 or thimet family of zinc metallopeptidases. The group B streptococcal enzyme also showed oligopeptidase activity and degraded a variety of small bioactive peptides, including bradykinin, neurotensin, and peptide fragments of substance P and adrenocorticotropin. PMID:8757883

  17. Severity of Group B Streptococcal Arthritis in Selected Strains of Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Puliti, Manuela; Bistoni, Francesco; von Hunolstein, Christina; Orefici, Graziella; Tissi, Luciana

    2001-01-01

    The susceptibilities of C3H/HeN, BALB/c, and C57BL/6N mouse strains to group B streptococci (GBS) infection were evaluated. C3H/HeN mice developed severe polyarthitis; mild lesions and no lesions were observed in BALB/c and C57BL/6N mice, respectively. A correlation between the severity of arthritis, the number of GBS in the joints, and local interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β production was evident. PMID:11119551

  18. A case of group A streptococcal meningitis in an adult

    PubMed Central

    Pattullo, Andrew LS; Bow, Eric J

    1993-01-01

    Group A streptococci are an important cause of soft tissue infections but have rarely been reported as the cause of pyogenic meningitis since the advent of antibiotics. A case of group A streptococcal meningitis in an adult is presented along with a review of similar cases reported in the literature. This case serves to illustrate the virulent nature of this pathogen in infections of the meninges, the potential for associated complications, and the need for rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment. The source of infection in this and many other cases in the literature is the upper respiratory tract. The case presented responded well to antibiotics but resulted in permanent auditory-vestibular dysfunction. PMID:22346453

  19. Cloning-independent plasmid construction for genetic studies in streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhoujie; Qi, Fengxia; Merritt, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Shuttle plasmids are among the few routinely utilized tools in the Streptococcus mutans genetic system that still require the use of classical cloning methodologies and intermediate hosts for genetic manipulation. Accordingly, it typically requires considerably less time and effort to introduce mutations onto the S. mutans chromosome than it does to construct shuttle vectors for expressing genes in trans. Occasionally, shuttle vector constructs also exhibit toxicity in E. coli, which prevents their proper assembly. To circumvent these limitations, we modified a prolonged overlap extension PCR (POE-PCR) protocol to facilitate direct plasmid assembly in S. mutans. Using solely PCR, we created the reporter vector pZX7, which contains a single minimal streptococcal replication origin and harbors a spectinomycin resistance cassette and the gusA gene encoding β-glucuronidase. We compared the efficiency of pZX7 assembly using multiple strains of S. mutans and were able to obtain from 5×103 – 2×105 CFU/μg PCR product. Likewise, we used pZX7 to further demonstrate that Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii are also excellent hosts for cloning-independent plasmid assembly, which suggests that this system is likely to function in numerous other streptococci. Consequently, it should be possible to completely forgo the use of E. coli – Streptococcus shuttle vectors in many streptococcal species, thereby decreasing the time and effort required to assemble constructs and eliminating any toxicity issues associated with intermediate hosts. PMID:23673081

  20. STUDIES ON THE BIOLOGY OF STREPTOCOCCUS

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Franklin A.; Dochez, A. R.

    1924-01-01

    1. Strains of hemolytic streptococci from cases of scarlet fever occurring in New York, San Francisco, Chicago, Baltimore, and Copenhagen, Denmark, all interagglutinate with immune sera prepared with these strains. 2. Sera prepared with these strains do not agglutinate pyogenic streptococci or strains isolated from cases of septic sore throat. 3. The strains obtained from the throats of patients from an epidemic of scarlet fever and the strain from the milk responsible for this epidemic fall into the scarlatinal group according to these agglutination tests. 4. Absorption tests can be carried out with these strains and sera under proper conditions. 5. A group of hemolytic streptococci biologically distinct from streptococci from other sources than scarlet fever is constantly associated with scarlatina. They constitute a group of closely related streptococci which may be identified by agglutination tests. PMID:19868913

  1. Interleukin-10 protects neonatal mice from lethal group B streptococcal infection.

    PubMed Central

    Cusumano, V; Genovese, F; Mancuso, G; Carbone, M; Fera, M T; Teti, G

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the role of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in a neonatal mouse model of lethal group B streptococci (GBS) sepsis. Plasma IL-10 levels significantly increased at 24 and 48 h after GBS inoculation. Neutralization of IL-10 with specific antibodies had no effect on lethality. Administration of recombinant IL-10 at 20 or 4 h before challenge, but not at later times, resulted in decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha levels and improved survival. IL-10 could be potentially useful for the treatment of GBS sepsis. PMID:8698523

  2. Identification of clinically relevant viridans streptococci by an oligonucleotide array.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao Chien; Teng, Lee Jene; Kaiung, Seng; Chang, Tsung Chain

    2005-04-01

    Viridans streptococci (VS) are common etiologic agents of subacute infective endocarditis and are capable of causing a variety of pyogenic infections. Many species of VS are difficult to differentiate by phenotypic traits. An oligonucleotide array based on 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer (ITS) sequences was developed to identify 11 clinically relevant VS. These 11 species were Streptococcus anginosus, S. constellatus, S. gordonii, S. intermedius, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. oralis, S. parasanguinis, S. salivarius, S. sanguinis, and S. uberis. The method consisted of PCR amplification of the ITS regions by using a pair of universal primers, followed by hybridization of the digoxigenin-labeled PCR products to a panel of species-specific oligonucleotides immobilized on a nylon membrane. After 120 strains of the 11 species of VG and 91 strains of other bacteria were tested, the sensitivity and specificity of the oligonucleotide array were found to be 100% (120 of 120 strains) and 95.6% (87 of 91 strains), respectively. S. pneumoniae cross-hybridized to the probes used for the identification of S. mitis, and simple biochemical tests such as optochin susceptibility or bile solubility should be used to differentiate S. pneumoniae from S. mitis. In conclusion, identification of species of VS by use of the present oligonucleotide array is accurate and could be used as an alternative reliable method for species identification of strains of VS.

  3. Combined electrical transport and capacitance spectroscopy of a MoS2-LiNbO3 field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michailow, Wladislaw; Schülein, Florian J. R.; Möller, Benjamin; Preciado, Edwin; Nguyen, Ariana E.; von Son, Gretel; Mann, John; Hörner, Andreas L.; Wixforth, Achim; Bartels, Ludwig; Krenner, Hubert J.

    2017-01-01

    We have measured both the current-voltage ( ISD - VGS ) and capacitance-voltage (C- VGS ) characteristics of a MoS2-LiNbO3 field effect transistor. From the measured capacitance, we calculate the electron surface density and show that its gate voltage dependence follows the theoretical prediction resulting from the two-dimensional free electron model. This model allows us to fit the measured ISD - VGS characteristics over the entire range of VGS . Combining this experimental result with the measured current-voltage characteristics, we determine the field effect mobility as a function of gate voltage. We show that for our device, this improved combined approach yields significantly smaller values (more than a factor of 4) of the electron mobility than the conventional analysis of the current-voltage characteristics only.

  4. Cloning-independent plasmid construction for genetic studies in streptococci.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhoujie; Qi, Fengxia; Merritt, Justin

    2013-08-01

    Shuttle plasmids are among the few routinely utilized tools in the Streptococcus mutans genetic system that still require the use of classical cloning methodologies and intermediate hosts for genetic manipulation. Accordingly, it typically requires considerably less time and effort to introduce mutations onto the S. mutans chromosome than it does to construct shuttle vectors for expressing genes in trans. Occasionally, shuttle vector constructs also exhibit toxicity in Escherichia coli, which prevents their proper assembly. To circumvent these limitations, we modified a prolonged overlap extension PCR (POE-PCR) protocol to facilitate direct plasmid assembly in S. mutans. Using solely PCR, we created the reporter vector pZX7, which contains a single minimal streptococcal replication origin and harbors a spectinomycin resistance cassette and the gusA gene encoding β-glucuronidase. We compared the efficiency of pZX7 assembly using multiple strains of S. mutans and were able to obtain from 5 × 10³ to 2 × 10⁵ CFU/μg PCR product. Likewise, we used pZX7 to further demonstrate that Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii are also excellent hosts for cloning-independent plasmid assembly, which suggests that this system is likely to function in numerous other streptococci. Consequently, it should be possible to completely forgo the use of E. coli-Streptococcus shuttle vectors in many streptococcal species, thereby decreasing the time and effort required to assemble constructs and eliminating any toxicity issues associated with intermediate hosts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of maternal use of chewing gums containing xylitol on transmission of mutans streptococci in children: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsi-Kuei; Fang, Chia-En; Huang, Mao-Suan; Cheng, Hsin-Chung; Huang, Tsai-Wei; Chang, Hui-Ting; Tam, Ka-Wai

    2016-01-01

    Mutans streptococci (MS) are the major causative bacteria involved in human dental decay. Habitual consumption of xylitol has been proved to reduce MS levels in saliva and plaque. To evaluate the effect of the maternal use of xylitol gum on MS reduction in infants. A structured literature review and meta-analysis. A random effects model was used to assess the relative risks of the incidence of MS in the saliva or plaque of children who were 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months old. We reviewed 11 RCTs derived from 5 research teams that included 601 mothers. Our results indicated that the incidence of MS in the saliva or plaque of the infants was significantly reduced in the xylitol group (risk ratio: 0.54; 95% confidence interval: 0.39-0.73, at 12-18 months) and (risk ratio: 0.56; 95% confidence interval: 0.40-0.79, at 36 months) compared with the control groups. The long-term effect of maternal xylitol gum exposure on their children's dental caries was controversial. Habitual xylitol consumption by mothers with high MS levels was associated with a significant reduction in the mother-child transmission of salivary MS. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Epidemiology of maternal-fetal group B streptococcal infections].

    PubMed

    Ben Hamida Nouaili, E; Abidi, K; Chaouachi, S; Marrakchi, Z

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of maternal-fetal infection due to group B streptococcus. We identified all cases of maternal-fetal group B streptococcus infection between January 2003 and December 2007, from neonatal unit reports at the Charles Nicolle Hospital. Ninety cases were identified out of 17,922 live births, incidence 5 ‰ of which 2.3 ‰ of bacteremia. Twenty percent of all newborns were premature and 22.2% had a low birth weight. Peripartum maternal fever was recorded in 52.2% of cases and membrane rupture more than 12 hours before delivery occurred in 74.4%. Among the newborns, 45.6% were symptomatic at birth. Forty percent of group B streptococci were resistant to erythromycin and 3.3% with intermediate resistance to ampicillin. The global neonatal mortality after group B streptococcus infection was 3.3%. Maternal-fetal infection due to group B streptococcus is still frequent and continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Simulations of wind turbine rotor with vortex generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troldborg, Niels; Zahle, Frederik; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents simulations of the DTU 10MW wind turbine rotor equipped with vortex generators (VGs) on the inner part of the blades. The objective is to study the influence of different VG configurations on rotor performance and in particular to investigate the radial dependence of VGs, i.e. how VGs at one section of the blade may affect the aerodynamic characteristics at other radial positions. Furthermore, the performance of different sections on the blade is compared to their corresponding performance in 2D flow.

  8. Incidence and clinical variables associated with streptococcal throat infections: a prospective diagnostic cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Little, Paul; Hobbs, FD Richard; Mant, David; McNulty, Cliodna AM; Mullee, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Background Management of pharyngitis is commonly based on features which are thought to be associated with Lancefield group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (GABHS) but it is debatable which features best predict GABHS. Non-group A strains share major virulence factors with group A, but it is unclear how commonly they present and whether their presentation differs. Aim To assess the incidence and clinical variables associated with streptococcal infections. Design and setting Prospective diagnostic cohort study in UK primary care. Method The presence of pathogenic streptococci from throat swabs was assessed among patients aged ≥5 years presenting with acute sore throat. Results Pathogenic streptococci were found in 204/597 patients (34%, 95% CI = 31 to 38%): 33% (68/204) were non-group A streptococci, mostly C (n = 29), G (n = 18) and B (n = 17); rarely D (n = 3) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 1). Patients presented with similar features whether the streptococci were group A or non-group A. The features best predicting A, C or G beta-haemolytic streptococci were patient’s assessment of severity (odds ratio [OR] for a bad sore throat 3.31, 95% CI = 1.24 to 8.83); doctors’ assessment of severity (severely inflamed tonsils OR 2.28, 95% CI = 1.39 to 3.74); absence of a bad cough (OR 2.73, 95% CI = 1.56 to 4.76), absence of a coryza (OR 1.54, 95% CI = 0.99 to 2.41); and moderately bad or worse muscle aches (OR 2.20, 95% CI = 1.41 to 3.42). Conclusion Non-group A strains commonly cause streptococcal sore throats, and present with similar symptomatic clinical features to group A streptococci. The best features to predict streptococcal sore throat presenting in primary care deserve revisiting. PMID:23211183

  9. Incidence and clinical variables associated with streptococcal throat infections: a prospective diagnostic cohort study.

    PubMed

    Little, Paul; Hobbs, F D Richard; Mant, David; McNulty, Cliodna A M; Mullee, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Management of pharyngitis is commonly based on features which are thought to be associated with Lancefield group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (GABHS) but it is debatable which features best predict GABHS. Non-group A strains share major virulence factors with group A, but it is unclear how commonly they present and whether their presentation differs. To assess the incidence and clinical variables associated with streptococcal infections. Prospective diagnostic cohort study in UK primary care. The presence of pathogenic streptococci from throat swabs was assessed among patients aged ≥5 years presenting with acute sore throat. Pathogenic streptococci were found in 204/597 patients (34%, 95% CI = 31 to 38%): 33% (68/204) were non-group A streptococci, mostly C (n = 29), G (n = 18) and B (n = 17); rarely D (n = 3) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 1). Patients presented with similar features whether the streptococci were group A or non-group A. The features best predicting A, C or G beta-haemolytic streptococci were patient's assessment of severity (odds ratio [OR] for a bad sore throat 3.31, 95% CI = 1.24 to 8.83); doctors' assessment of severity (severely inflamed tonsils OR 2.28, 95% CI = 1.39 to 3.74); absence of a bad cough (OR 2.73, 95% CI = 1.56 to 4.76), absence of a coryza (OR 1.54, 95% CI = 0.99 to 2.41); and moderately bad or worse muscle aches (OR 2.20, 95% CI = 1.41 to 3.42). Non-group A strains commonly cause streptococcal sore throats, and present with similar symptomatic clinical features to group A streptococci. The best features to predict streptococcal sore throat presenting in primary care deserve revisiting.

  10. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wang Shumin; Tian Hongwei; Pei Yanhui

    A novel hedgehog-like core/shell structure, consisting of a high density of vertically aligned graphene sheets and a thin graphene shell/a copper core (VGs-GS/CC), has been synthesized via a simple one-step synthesis route using radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy investigations show that the morphology of this core/shell material could be controlled by deposition time. For a short deposition time, only multilayer graphene shell tightly surrounds the copper particle, while as the deposition time is relative long, graphene sheets extend from the surface of GS/CC. The GS can protect CC particles from oxidation. The growth mechanismmore » for the obtained GS/CC and VGs-GS/CC has been revealed. Compared to VGs, VGs-GS/CC material exhibits a better electron field emission property. This investigation opens a possibility for designing a core/shell structure of different carbon-metal hybrid materials for a wide variety of practical applications. - Graphical abstract: With increasing deposition time, graphene sheets extend from the surface of GS/CC, causing the multilayer graphene encapsulated copper to be converted into vertically aligned graphene sheets-graphene shell/copper core structure. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel hedgehog-like core/shell structure has been synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure consists of vertical graphene sheets-graphene shell and copper core. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology of VGs-GS/CC can be controlled by choosing a proper deposition time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With increasing deposition time, graphene sheets extend from the surface of GS/CC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VGs-GS/CC exhibits a better electron field emission property as compared with VGs.« less

  11. Relationship between the ability of oral streptococci to interact with platelet glycoprotein Ibalpha and with the salivary low-molecular-weight mucin, MG2.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Christopher; Douglas, Charles William Ian

    2006-12-01

    The oral streptococci Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus oralis are common aetiological agents of infective endocarditis, and their ability to adhere to and induce the aggregation of platelets is thought to be a virulence trait. The platelet glycoprotein GPIbalpha has been implicated as the adhesion receptor for S. sanguinis and S. gordonii, but it is not known if this is the case for S. oralis and other species. The aim of this study was to determine the GPIbalpha-interactive capability of a range of oral streptococci and to determine the relationship between this capability and their ability to interact with the salivary constituents that they would encounter in their normal habitat. All platelet-adhesive S. sanguinis strains and most S. gordonii strains adhered in a GPIbalpha-dependent manner, but strains of S. oralis, Streptococcus cristatus, Streptococcus parasanguinis and Streptococcus mitis had no direct affinity for platelets. Those strains that were able to bind GPIbalpha also bound to the low-molecular-weight submandibular salivary mucin, MG2, and this interaction was sialic acid-dependent. The data suggest that S. sanguinis and S. gordonii may be efficient colonizers of platelet vegetations because of their adaptation to recognize sialylated salivary mucins. In contrast, S. oralis does not interact with platelets and so is likely to colonize vegetations through an as yet unidentified mechanism.

  12. Group B streptococci in the female genital tract and nosocomial colonization of newborns.

    PubMed

    Duben, J; Jelínková, J; Neubauer, M

    1978-11-01

    In a long-term study, rates for group B streptococcus prevalence in the vagina and/or anus of nonpregnant women and pregnant women in the first trimester and in the second trimester were found as follows: 7.1%, 7.3% and 5.4% respectively. At delivery, positivity rates of 4.8% and 3.8% were found for mothers and newborns, respectively. Each pair of strains isolated from mother and newborn was of the same serotype. In 13.6% of newborns nosocomial colonization of the upper respiratory tract occurred during their stay in the maternity home. The sources were other positive newborns sharing the same boxes, the nosocomial spread proceeded in clusters. Detailed type-antigen analysis of isolates allowed identification of index cases and their direct contacts. Types Ib, Ic, II/R, III + Ic predominated. Sexual transmission was demonstrated by findings of identical serotypes in both partners: 23% of male partners of nonpregnant positive women and 9.1% of partners of pregnant positive women had positive urine samples. A control male group consisting of psychiatric sanatorium patients without sexual contact repeatedly exhibited a positivity rate of 2%.

  13. Beta-haemolytic group A, C and G streptococcal infections in Western Norway: a 15-year retrospective survey.

    PubMed

    Oppegaard, O; Mylvaganam, H; Kittang, B R

    2015-02-01

    Pyogenic streptococci cause significant morbidity and mortality, and the incidence of invasive group C and G streptococcal disease appears to be increasing. In this retrospective study we describe the epidemiological characteristics of invasive group A, C and G, along with non-invasive group C and G streptococcal infections in Western Norway from 1999 to 2013. A total of 512 invasive streptococcal infections were identified, of these 297 (58%) were group A (GAS), 24 (5%) group C (GCS) and 188 (37%) group G streptococci (GGS). In the non-invasive group, 4935 GCS and GGS-infections were identified. GCS and GGS were treated as one group (GCGS) for statistical purposes. All microbial categories displayed increasing incidence with age, seasonal variation and a male predominance. The incidence of invasive GCGS infections increased significantly from 1.4/100,000 inhabitants in 1999 to 6.3/100,000 in 2013 (p <0.001). Conversely, the annual rates of invasive GAS infection exhibited marked fluctuations, ranging from 2.7/100,000 (2000) to 8.3/100,000 (1999), but no significant temporal trends were observed. The incidence of non-invasive GCGS infections decreased significantly during the study period (p <0.001). The most frequently encountered emm-types among the 209 iGAS-isolates analysed were emm1 (24%), emm3 (14%) and emm28 (14%); whereas stG643 (19%), stG485 (15%) and stG6 (13%) were most prevalent among the 122 iGCGS-isolates available for typing. The increasing burden of invasive β-haemolytic streptococcal disease in our community calls for sustained attentiveness to the clinical and molecular aspects of GAS, GCS and GGS infections. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synergistic streptococcal phage λSA2 and B30 endolysins kill streptococci in cow milk and in a mouse model of mastitis.

    PubMed

    Schmelcher, Mathias; Powell, Anne M; Camp, Mary J; Pohl, Calvin S; Donovan, David M

    2015-10-01

    Bovine mastitis results in billion dollar losses annually in the USA alone. Streptococci are among the most relevant causative agents of this disease. Conventional antibiotic therapy is often unsuccessful and contributes to development of antibiotic resistance. Bacteriophage endolysins represent a new class of antimicrobials against these bacteria. In this work, we characterized the endolysins (lysins) of the streptococcal phages λSA2 and B30 and evaluated their potential as anti-mastitis agents. When tested in vitro against live streptococci, both enzymes exhibited near-optimum lytic activities at ionic strengths, pH, and Ca(2+) concentrations consistent with cow milk. When tested in combination in a checkerboard assay, the lysins were found to exhibit strong synergy. The λSA2 lysin displayed high activity in milk against Streptococcus dysgalactiae (reduction of CFU/ml by 3.5 log units at 100 μg/ml), Streptococcus agalactiae (2 log), and Streptococcus uberis (4 log), whereas the B30 lysin was less effective. In a mouse model of bovine mastitis, both enzymes significantly reduced intramammary concentrations of all three streptococcal species (except for B30 vs. S. dysgalactiae), and the effects on mammary gland wet weights and TNFα concentrations were consistent with these findings. Unexpectedly, the synergistic effect determined for the two enzymes in vitro was not observed in the mouse model. Overall, our results illustrate the potential of endolysins for treatment of Streptococcus-induced bovine mastitis.

  15. Synergistic streptococcal phage λSA2 and B30 endolysins kill streptococci in cow milk and in a mouse model of mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Schmelcher, Mathias; Powell, Anne M.; Camp, Mary J.; Pohl, Calvin S.; Donovan, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis results in billion dollar losses annually in the United States alone. Streptococci are among the most relevant causative agents of this disease. Conventional antibiotic therapy is often unsuccessful and contributes to development of antibiotic resistance. Bacteriophage endolysins represent a new class of antimicrobials against these bacteria. In this work, we characterized the endolysins (lysins) of the streptococcal phages λSA2 and B30 and evaluated their potential as anti-mastitis agents. When tested in vitro against live streptococci, both enzymes exhibited near-optimum lytic activities at ionic strengths, pH, and Ca2+ concentrations consistent with cow milk. When tested in combination in a checkerboard assay, the lysins were found to exhibit strong synergy. The λSA2 lysin displayed high activity in milk against Streptococcus dysgalactiae (reduction of CFU/ml by 3.5 log units at 100 μg/ml), Streptococcus agalactiae (2 log), and Streptococcus uberis (4 log), whereas the B30 lysin was less effective. In a mouse model of bovine mastitis, both enzymes significantly reduced intramammary concentrations of all three streptococcal species (except for B30 vs. S. dysgalactiae), and the effects on mammary gland wet weights and TNFα concentrations were consistent with these findings. Unexpectedly, the synergistic effect determined for the two enzymes in vitro was not observed in the mouse model. Overall, our results illustrate the potential of endolysins for treatment of Streptococcus-induced bovine mastitis. PMID:25895090

  16. Salivary microbiota and caries occurrence in Mutans Streptococci-positive school children.

    PubMed

    ElSalhy, M; Söderling, E; Honkala, E; Fontana, M; Flannagan, S; Kokaras, A; Paster, B J; Varghese, A; Honkala, S

    2016-09-01

    To compare the composition of the salivary microbiota in caries-affected vs. caries-free mutans streptococci (MS)- positive children with mixed dentition. Twenty eight healthy, 11-12-year-old schoolchildren with high MS counts (>10⊃5 CFU/mL) were included in this study. The children were screened with the Dentocult SM Strip Mutans test (Orion Diagnostica, Espoo, Finland) and examined using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). The microbial composition of the saliva was assessed using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Microbial differences between caries-affected (n=18) and caries-free children (n=10) were compared by Mann-Whitney analysis. The microbiota of the caries-affected vs. caries-free children was rather similar. Abiotrophia defectiva and Actinomyces meyeri/A. odontolyticus were significantly higher in caries-affected than in caries-free children (p=0.006, 0.046, respectively). Shuttleworthia satelles was significantly higher in caries-free compared to caries-affected children (p=0.031). A. defectiva and A. meyeri/A. odontolyticus correlated positively with caries severity measured by ICDAS Caries Index (p = 0.494, 0.454, 0.400 respectively) while S. satelles was negatively correlated with caries severity (p= -0.489). Salivary A. defectiva and A. meyeri/A. odontolyticus and are associated with caries occurrence in MS-positive children with mixed dentition.

  17. Issues of Recruitment and Rationale for Conducting Clinical Trials on Mutans Streptococci Suppression in Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Bretz, Walter A.; Rosa, Odila P. S.; Silva, Salete M. B.; Corby, Patricia; Weissfeld, Lisa; Loesche, Walter J.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study are (1) to describe issues related to recruitment of mothers participating in a clinical trial of transmission of mutans streptococci (MS) from mother to child in Bauru, Brazil and (2) to perform cross-cultural and temporal comparisons of levels of infection of the MS in mothers of Bauru. A total of 1422 mothers were visited at their domiciles. Cutoff levels for the MS were established at ≥105 CFU/mL saliva. The main reason for a mother not enrolling was not being highly infected by the MS, yet 76% of mothers presented with levels ≥105 CFU/mL saliva. Recent studies in industrialized countries showed a negative coefficient for linear tests indicating significant decline overtime in the levels of MS in mothers. Intercountry comparisons for mothers' salivary levels of the MS with the Bauru study as the reference revealed significant differences with studies conducted in the last two decades. PMID:20827385

  18. Protective Mechanisms of Respiratory Tract Streptococci against Streptococcus pyogenes Biofilm Formation and Epithelial Cell Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Tomas; Riani, Catur; Koczan, Dirk; Standar, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci [GAS]) encounter many streptococcal species of the physiological microbial biome when entering the upper respiratory tract of humans, leading to the question how GAS interact with these bacteria in order to establish themselves at this anatomic site and initiate infection. Here we show that S. oralis and S. salivarius in direct contact assays inhibit growth of GAS in a strain-specific manner and that S. salivarius, most likely via bacteriocin secretion, also exerts this effect in transwell experiments. Utilizing scanning electron microscopy documentation, we identified the tested strains as potent biofilm producers except for GAS M49. In mixed-species biofilms, S. salivarius dominated the GAS strains, while S. oralis acted as initial colonizer, building the bottom layer in mixed biofilms and thereby allowing even GAS M49 to form substantial biofilms on top. With the exception of S. oralis, artificial saliva reduced single-species biofilms and allowed GAS to dominate in mixed biofilms, although the overall two-layer structure was unchanged. When covered by S. oralis and S. salivarius biofilms, epithelial cells were protected from GAS adherence, internalization, and cytotoxic effects. Apparently, these species can have probiotic effects. The use of Affymetrix array technology to assess HEp-2 cell transcription levels revealed modest changes after exposure to S. oralis and S. salivarius biofilms which could explain some of the protective effects against GAS attack. In summary, our study revealed a protection effect of respiratory tract bacteria against an important airway pathogen and allowed a first in vitro insight into local environmental processes after GAS enter the respiratory tract. PMID:23241973

  19. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis and carriage rate among Egyptian children: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Ghany, Shereen Mohamed; Abdelmaksoud, Abeer Ahmed; Saber, Sally Mohamed; Abd El Hamid, Dalia Hosni

    2015-01-01

    Improper prescription of antibiotics for treatment of acute pharyngitis predisposes to emergence of a carrier state and antibiotic-resistant strains of group A streptococci (GAS). We sought to identify the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of group A streptococci among Egyptian children with acute pharyngitis compared with asymptomatic children. Case-control study conducted from September 2013 to August 2014 at a pediatric outpatient clinic in Egypt. Throat swabs were collected from children with acute pharyngitis and from asymptomatic children. We evaluated the accuracy of McIsaac scores and the rapid antigen detection test (RADT) for diagnosis of GAS pharyngitis with throat culture as a reference test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of GAS isolates was done by the disc diffusion method. Of 142 children with acute pharyngitis (cases) and 300 asymptomatic children (controls) (age range, 4-16 years), GAS pharyngitis was diagnosed in 60/142 children (42.2%); 48/300 (16%) were found to be carriers. All GAS isolates in the case group were sensitive to penicillin; however, an MIC90 (0.12 micro g/mL) for penicillin is high and an alarming sign. The resistance rate to macrolides was 70% with the cMLSB phenotype in 65.1%. The sensitivities and specificities were 78.3% and 73.2% for McIsaac score of >=4 and 81.1% and 93.9% for RADT, respectively. GAS isolates in the control group were 100% sensitive to penicillin, while 12.5% and 37.5% were resistant to macrolides and tetracycline, respectively. An increased MIC90 for GAS isolates to penicillin is an alarming sign. A high frequency of resistance to macrolides was also observed.

  20. Stop of loss of cognitive performance during rehabilitation after total hip arthroplasty-prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Brem, Matthias H; Lehrl, Siegfried; Rein, Anna K; Massute, Sylvia; Schulz-Drost, Stefan; Gelse, Kolja; Schlechtweg, Phillip M; Hennig, Friedrich F; Olk, Alexander; Jacob, Harald J; Gusinde, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged hospitalization is known to be associated with a loss of cognitive performance. Does playing video games (VGs) developed to improve cognitive properties delay this loss or even lead to an increase in cognitive performance? We performed a 10-day longitudinal study of patients who received total hip arthroplasty. We compared 16 patients (6 male) aged 66 ± 9 years (mean ± standard deviation) who played Dr. Kawashima's Brain Training: How Old Is Your Brain? (Nintendo; Redmond, Washington) on a Nintendo DS handheld console with 16 control patients (6 male) aged 69 ± 14 years. We measured cognitive performance 1 day preoperation, as well as on days 2 and 9 postoperation. With the daily exercise of a specific VG by the play group, the patients' fluid intelligence (median intelligence quotient 99-106), working memory capacity, and rate of information processing significantly improved over the course of 7 postoperative days. The cognitive performance of the control group did not increase. However, the memory spans of both groups did not systematically change. Exercise with VGs can prevent the loss of cognitive performance during prolonged hospitalization.

  1. Vertically-oriented graphenes supported Mn3O4 as advanced catalysts in post plasma-catalysis for toluene decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Zheng; Hao, Han; Yang, Shiling; Zhu, Jinhui; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2018-04-01

    This work reports the catalytic performance of vertically-oriented graphenes (VGs) supported manganese oxide catalysts toward toluene decomposition in post plasma-catalysis (PPC) system. Dense networks of VGs were synthesized on carbon paper (CP) via a microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. A constant current approach was applied in a conventional three-electrode electrochemical system for the electrodeposition of Mn3O4 catalysts on VGs. The as-obtained catalysts were characterized and investigated for ozone conversion and toluene decomposition in a PPC system. Experimental results show that the Mn3O4 catalyst loading mass on VG-coated CP was significantly higher than that on pristine CP (almost 1.8 times for an electrodeposition current of 10 mA). Moreover, the decoration of VGs led to both enhanced catalytic activity for ozone conversion and increased toluene decomposition, exhibiting a great promise in PPC system for the effective decomposition of volatile organic compounds.

  2. In vitro bactericidal and bacteriolytic activity of ceragenin CSA-13 against planktonic cultures and biofilms of Streptococcus pneumoniae and other pathogenic streptococci.

    PubMed

    Moscoso, Miriam; Esteban-Torres, María; Menéndez, Margarita; García, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Ceragenin CSA-13, a cationic steroid, is here reported to show a concentration-dependent bactericidal/bacteriolytic activity against pathogenic streptococci, including multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. The autolysis promoted by CSA-13 in pneumococcal cultures appears to be due to the triggering of the major S. pneumoniae autolysin LytA, an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase. CSA-13 also disintegrated pneumococcal biofilms in a very efficient manner, although at concentrations slightly higher than those required for bactericidal activity on planktonic bacteria. CSA-13 has little hemolytic activity which should allow testing its antibacterial efficacy in animal models.

  3. A COMPARATIVE METHOD FOR TESTING THE ENZYMES OF LIVING HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCI

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, William P.; Meleney, Frank L.

    1924-01-01

    1. A method is presented for the quantitative comparison under various conditions of the activity of the lipolytic enzyme of the hemolytic steptococcus. The speed of acid production as shown in the color change from pH 8.0 to 7.2, when the living streptococcus is suspended in association with ethyl butyrate, is considered to be indicative of the amount of ferment elaborated by the organism. 2. The lipolytic action is a function of living, actively growing organisms such as are present in 4 to 8 hour cultures. 3. The speed of the lipolytic action is approximately in linear proportion to the concentration of the organisms. 4. The lipolytic action is most rapid at 37.5°C., slower at 50°, and absent at 62°. 5. The organisms are partially destroyed and the lipolytic action is markedly delayed by previous heating to 55°C. for 10 minutes. Both the organisms and the lipolytic activity are completely destroyed by continued contact with this temperature for 30 minutes. 6. Increasing the virulence of the organism for rabbits by repeated animal passage does not increase the lipolytic action. 7. The predilection of the hemolytic streptococcus for the subcutaneous fat in local streptococcus infection associated with extensive superficial gangrene cannot be explained on the basis of an increase of lipolytic ferment in the organisms recovered from these cases over that of heterologous strains of streptococci. PMID:19868912

  4. A feasibility service evaluation of screening and treatment of group A streptococcal pharyngitis in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Thornley, T; Marshall, G; Howard, P; Wilson, A P R

    2016-11-01

    The UK 5 year antimicrobial resistance strategy recognizes the role of point-of-care diagnostics to identify where antimicrobials are required, as well as to assess the appropriateness of the diagnosis and treatment. A sore throat test-and-treat service was introduced in 35 community pharmacies across two localities in England during 2014-15. Trained pharmacy staff assessed patients presenting with a sore throat using the Centor scoring system and patients meeting three or all four of the criteria were offered a throat swab test for Streptococcus pyogenes, Lancefield group A streptococci. Patients with a positive throat swab test were offered antibiotic treatment. Following screening by pharmacy staff, 149/367 (40.6%) patients were eligible for throat swab testing. Of these, only 36/149 (24.2%) were positive for group A streptococci. Antibiotics were supplied to 9.8% (n = 36/367) of all patients accessing the service. Just under half of patients that were not showing signs of a bacterial infection (60/123, 48.8%) would have gone to their general practitioner if the service had not been available. This study has shown that it is feasible to deliver a community-pharmacy-based screening and treatment service using point-of-care testing. This type of service has the potential to support the antimicrobial resistance agenda by reducing unnecessary antibiotic use and inappropriate antibiotic consumption. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  5. [Group B streptococcus meningitis and infection surrounding the spinal canal caused by bacterial transmission from rectal ulcer via Batson's plexus].

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Ryosuke; Saito, Masaaki; Yoshizawa, Toshihiro

    2011-07-01

    A 62-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of fever and disturbed consciousness. He suffered from persistent constipation due to diabetic autonomic neuropathy. On admission, neck stiffness and weakness of the lower extremities were observed. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis and decreased CSF glucose concentration showed the presence of meningitis. Bacterial culture of CSF was negative. One week after admission, he suddenly suffered from massive bleeding from the rectum, where a hemorrhagic ulcer caused by severe persistent constipation was observed. Contrast-enhanced CT scans and gadolinium-enhanced MR scans demonstrated a lumbar spinal epidural abscess, paraspinal muscle abscess, and cervical osteomyelitis. Streptococcus agalactiae, a bacterial species belonging to the group B streptococci, was isolated from pus obtained by needle puncture of the paraspinal muscle abscess. His entire condition was treated successfully with ampicillin and cefotaxime. Group B streptococci normally colonize the mucous membrane of the genital or lower gastrointestinal regions and rarely cause a spinal epidural abscess. However, in this case, the existence of a rectal ulcer probably made it possible for S. agalactiae to cause an infection of the epidural space or paraspinal muscles via the spinal valveless venous system named Batson's plexus communicating with the sacral, pelvic, and prostatic venous plexus. Our case indicated the importance of Batson's plexus in group B streptococcus infections surrounding the spinal canal and the necessity to explore for intrapelvic lesions including a rectal ulcer.

  6. THE OCCURRENCE OF POLYGLYCEROPHOSPHATE AS AN ANTIGENIC COMPONENT OF VARIOUS GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIAL SPECIES

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Maclyn

    1959-01-01

    A bacterial substance has been described which gives a precipitin reaction with certain antisera to Group A streptococci. The precipitating antigen is present in various Gram-positive bacteria, including most hemolytic streptococci, staphylococci, and aerobic sporulating bacilli. It is not present in any of the Gram-negative species examined or in pneumococci, clostridia, or corynebacteria. Analysis of purified preparations obtained from Group A streptococci indicates that the antigen is a simple polymer of glycerophosphate. The identification has been confirmed by immunochemical studies, including precipitin tests and specific inhibition with synthetic polyglycerophosphates. In addition, the infrared spectra of bacterial and synthetic polyglycerophosphate are shown to be closely similar. Immunochemical analysis suggests that the amount of polyglycerophosphate present in Group A streptococci and staphylococci is approximately 1 per cent of the dry weight of the cells. The cellular localization and function of the polyglycerophosphate have not been established. PMID:13641562

  7. Active vortex generator deployed on demand by size independent actuation of shape memory alloy wires integrated in fiber reinforced polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübler, M.; Nissle, S.; Gurka, M.; Wassenaar, J.

    2016-04-01

    Static vortex generators (VGs) are installed on different aircraft types. They generate vortices and interfuse the slow boundary layer with the fast moving air above. Due to this energizing, a flow separation of the boundary layer can be suppressed at high angles of attack. However the VGs cause a permanently increased drag over the whole flight cycle reducing the cruise efficiency. This drawback is currently limiting the use of VGs. New active VGs, deployed only on demand at low speed, can help to overcome this contradiction. Active hybrid structures, combining the actuation of shape memory alloys (SMA) with fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) on the materials level, provide an actuation principle with high lightweight potential and minimum space requirements. Being one of the first applications of active hybrid structures from SMA and FRP, these active vortex generators help to demonstrate the advantages of this new technology. A new design approach and experimental results of active VGs are presented based on the application of unique design tools and advanced manufacturing approaches for these active hybrid structures. The experimental investigation of the actuation focuses on the deflection potential and the dynamic response. Benchmark performance data such as a weight of 1.5g and a maximum thickness of only 1.8mm per vortex generator finally ensure a simple integration in the wing structure.

  8. Insights into the Evolutionary Relationships of LytA Autolysin and Ply Pneumolysin-Like Genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Related Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Morales, María; Martín-Galiano, Antonio J.; Domenech, Mirian; García, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a major human pathogen. The main pneumococcal autolysin LytA and the pneumolysin Ply are two of the bacterium’s most important virulence factors. The lytA- and ply-related genes are also found in other streptococci of the Mitis group (SMG). The precise characteristics of the lytA-related—but not the ply-related—genes of SMG and their prophages have been previously described. A search of the more than 400 SMG genomic sequences available in public databases (ca. 300 for S. pneumoniae), showed Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae IS7493 to harbor four ply-related genes, two of which (plyA and plyB) have 98% identical nucleotides. The plyA homolog of S. pseudopneumoniae is conserved in all S. pneumoniae strains, and seems to be included in a pathogenicity island together with the lytA gene. However, only nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae strains possess a plyB gene, which is part of an integrative and conjugative element. Notably, the existence of a bacterial lytA-related gene in a genome is linked to the presence of plyA and vice versa. The present analysis also shows there are eight main types of plyA−lytA genomic islands. A possible stepwise scenario for the evolution of the plyA−lytA island in S. pneumoniae is proposed. PMID:26349755

  9. Evolution and Diversity of the Antimicrobial Resistance Associated Mobilome in Streptococcus suis: A Probable Mobile Genetic Elements Reservoir for Other Streptococci.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinhu; Ma, Jiale; Shang, Kexin; Hu, Xiao; Liang, Yuan; Li, Daiwei; Wu, Zuowei; Dai, Lei; Chen, Li; Wang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a previously neglected, newly emerging multidrug-resistant zoonotic pathogen. Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) play a key role in intra- and interspecies horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants. Although, previous studies showed the presence of several MGEs, a comprehensive analysis of AMR-associated mobilome as well as their interaction and evolution has not been performed. In this study, we presented the AMR-associated mobilome and their insertion hotspots in S. suis . Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs), prophages and tandem MGEs were located at different insertion sites, while 86% of the AMR-associated MGEs were inserted at rplL and rum loci. Comprehensive analysis of insertions at rplL and rum loci among four pathogenic Streptococcus species ( Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes , and S. suis ) revealed the existence of different groups of MGEs, including Tn5252, ICE Sp 1108, and TnGBS2 groups ICEs, Φm46.1 group prophage, ICE_ICE and ICE_prophage tandem MGEs. Comparative ICE genomics of ICE Sa 2603 family revealed that module exchange and acquisition/deletion were the main mechanisms in MGEs' expansion and evolution. Furthermore, the observation of tandem MGEs reflected a novel mechanism for MGE diversity. Moreover, an in vitro competition assay showed no visible fitness cost was observed between different MGE-carrying isolates and a conjugation assay revealed the transferability of ICE Sa 2603 family of ICEs. Our statistics further indicated that the prevalence and diversity of MGEs in S. suis is much greater than in other three species which prompted our hypothesis that S. suis is probably a MGEs reservoir for other streptococci. In conclusion, our results showed that acquisition of MGEs confers S. suis not only its capability as a multidrug resistance pathogen, but also represents a paradigm to study the modular evolution and matryoshkas of MGEs.

  10. Evolution and Diversity of the Antimicrobial Resistance Associated Mobilome in Streptococcus suis: A Probable Mobile Genetic Elements Reservoir for Other Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinhu; Ma, Jiale; Shang, Kexin; Hu, Xiao; Liang, Yuan; Li, Daiwei; Wu, Zuowei; Dai, Lei; Chen, Li; Wang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a previously neglected, newly emerging multidrug-resistant zoonotic pathogen. Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) play a key role in intra- and interspecies horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants. Although, previous studies showed the presence of several MGEs, a comprehensive analysis of AMR-associated mobilome as well as their interaction and evolution has not been performed. In this study, we presented the AMR-associated mobilome and their insertion hotspots in S. suis. Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs), prophages and tandem MGEs were located at different insertion sites, while 86% of the AMR-associated MGEs were inserted at rplL and rum loci. Comprehensive analysis of insertions at rplL and rum loci among four pathogenic Streptococcus species (Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and S. suis) revealed the existence of different groups of MGEs, including Tn5252, ICESp1108, and TnGBS2 groups ICEs, Φm46.1 group prophage, ICE_ICE and ICE_prophage tandem MGEs. Comparative ICE genomics of ICESa2603 family revealed that module exchange and acquisition/deletion were the main mechanisms in MGEs' expansion and evolution. Furthermore, the observation of tandem MGEs reflected a novel mechanism for MGE diversity. Moreover, an in vitro competition assay showed no visible fitness cost was observed between different MGE-carrying isolates and a conjugation assay revealed the transferability of ICESa2603 family of ICEs. Our statistics further indicated that the prevalence and diversity of MGEs in S. suis is much greater than in other three species which prompted our hypothesis that S. suis is probably a MGEs reservoir for other streptococci. In conclusion, our results showed that acquisition of MGEs confers S. suis not only its capability as a multidrug resistance pathogen, but also represents a paradigm to study the modular evolution and matryoshkas of MGEs. PMID:27774436

  11. Video Guidance Sensors Using Remotely Activated Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Thomas C.; Howard, Richard T.; Book, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    Four updated video guidance sensor (VGS) systems have been proposed. As described in a previous NASA Tech Briefs article, a VGS system is an optoelectronic system that provides guidance for automated docking of two vehicles. The VGS provides relative position and attitude (6-DOF) information between the VGS and its target. In the original intended application, the two vehicles would be spacecraft, but the basic principles of design and operation of the system are applicable to aircraft, robots, objects maneuvered by cranes, or other objects that may be required to be aligned and brought together automatically or under remote control. In the first two of the four VGS systems as now proposed, the tracked vehicle would include active targets that would light up on command from the tracking vehicle, and a video camera on the tracking vehicle would be synchronized with, and would acquire images of, the active targets. The video camera would also acquire background images during the periods between target illuminations. The images would be digitized and the background images would be subtracted from the illuminated-target images. Then the position and orientation of the tracked vehicle relative to the tracking vehicle would be computed from the known geometric relationships among the positions of the targets in the image, the positions of the targets relative to each other and to the rest of the tracked vehicle, and the position and orientation of the video camera relative to the rest of the tracking vehicle. The major difference between the first two proposed systems and prior active-target VGS systems lies in the techniques for synchronizing the flashing of the active targets with the digitization and processing of image data. In the prior active-target VGS systems, synchronization was effected, variously, by use of either a wire connection or the Global Positioning System (GPS). In three of the proposed VGS systems, the synchronizing signal would be generated on, and

  12. Streptococci and Actinomyces induce antibodies which cross react with epithelial antigens in periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, P; Harty, D W S; Chapple, C C; Nadkarni, M A; Carlo, A A D E; Hunter, N

    2003-01-01

    Perturbation of epithelial structure is a prominent but poorly understood feature of the immunopathological response to bacterial antigens which characterizes the destructive lesion of periodontitis. Western analysis of sera from 22 patients with periodontitis detected multiple antigens in extracts of epithelial cells whereas sera from 12 periodontally healthy subjects displayed only trace reaction with epithelial antigens. To investigate a possible relationship between the bacterial flora adjacent to diseased sites and the presence of antibodies reactive with epithelium, subgingival plaque samples were taken from deep periodontal pockets and cultured anaerobically. Gram positive bacteria containing antigens cross-reactive with epithelial cells were reproducibly isolated by probing membrane colony-lifts with affinity-isolated (epithelium-specific) antibodies and identified by 16S rDNA sequence homology as streptococci (S. mitis, S. constellatus and two S. intermedius strains) and Actinomyces (A. georgiae, and A. sp. oral clone). Conversely, when serum from patients with periodontitis was absorbed with the captured bacterial species the number of epithelial antigens recognized was specifically reduced. It was concluded that development of cross-reactive antibodies related to these organisms may contribute to perturbation of the epithelial attachment to the tooth and the progression of periodontitis. These autoreactive antibodies could also be a contributing factor in other diseases affecting epithelia. PMID:12605700

  13. Nutritionally Variant Streptococci Bacteremia in Cancer Patients: A Retrospective Study, 1999–2014

    PubMed Central

    Yacoub, Abraham T.; Krishnan, Jayasree; Acevedo, Ileana M.; Halliday, Joseph; Greene, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nutritionally variant Streptococci (NVS), Abiotrophia and Granulicatella are implicated in causing endocarditis and blood stream infections more frequently than other sites of infection. Neutropenia and mucositis are the most common predisposing factors for infection with other pathogens in cancer patients. In this study, we investigated the clinical characteristics of NVS bacteremia in cancer patients and identified risk factors and outcomes associated with these infections. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed all cases of NVS bacteremia occurring from June 1999 to April 2014 at H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute. The computerized epidemiology report provided by the microbiology laboratory identified thirteen cancer patients with NVS bacteremia. We collected data regarding baseline demographics and clinical characteristics such as age, sex, underlying malignancy, neutropenic status, duration of neutropenia, treatment, and outcome. Results Thirteen patients were identified with positive NVS blood stream infection. Ten patients (77%) had hematologic malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)(1), multiple myeloma (MM)(1), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)(4), and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL)(4). The non-hematologic malignancies included esophageal cancer(2) and bladder cancer (1). Conclusion NVS should be considered as a possible agent of bacteremia in cancer patients with neutropenia and a breach in oral, gastrointestinal and genitourinary mucosa (gingivitis/mucositis). PMID:25960858

  14. Is maternal colonization with group B streptococci a risk factor for preeclampsia?

    PubMed

    Mulla, Zuber D; Carrillo, Thelma; Kalamegham, Ramaswami; Hernandez, Loretta L; Portugal, Elizabeth; Nuwayhid, Bahij S

    2015-01-01

    To explore the association between maternal rectovaginal colonization with group B Streptococcus (GBS) and the outcome of preeclampsia, and to identify other factors such as maternal chocolate consumption that may be associated with preeclampsia on the Texas-Mexico border. A case-control study was conducted among 330 women who delivered at a teaching hospital in El Paso, Texas, during the time period April 2010 to April 2012. Preeclamptic cases (n = 165) and controls free of preeclampsia (n = 165) were matched by gestational age and date of delivery. Conditional logistic regression (with multiple imputation for missing data) was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) that were adjusted for maternal age and other factors. Cases (94.6%) and controls (97.0%) were predominantly Hispanic. GBS colonization was not associated with preeclampsia: adjusted OR = 1.73 (95% CI 0.63-4.74, p = 0.29). Maternal consumption of chocolate desserts once daily or more frequently as compared to < 7 times weekly was associated with a 76% reduction in the odds of preeclampsia: adjusted OR = 0.24 (95% CI 0.09-0.63, p = 0.004). Our study did not confirm the protective association between GBS and preeclampsia that was found in 2 existing state hospital datasets. Chocolate consumption during pregnancy was inversely associated with preeclampsia.

  15. Pathogenic Escherichia coli Found in Sewage Treatment Plants and Environmental Waters

    PubMed Central

    Anastasi, E. M.; Matthews, B.; Stratton, H. M.

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that some Escherichia coli strains with uropathogenic properties survived treatment stages of sewage treatment plants (STPs), suggesting that they may be released into the environment. We investigated the presence of such strains in the surrounding environmental waters of four STPs from which these persistent strains were isolated. In all, 264 E. coli isolates were collected from 129 receiving water sites in a 20-km radius surrounding STPs. We also included 93 E. coli strains collected from 18 animal species for comparison. Isolates were typed using a high-resolution biochemical fingerprinting method (the PhPlate system), and grouped into common (C) types. One hundred forty-seven (56%) environmental isolates were identical to strains found in STPs' final effluents. Of these, 140 (95%) carried virulence genes (VGs) associated with intestinal pathogenic E. coli (IPEC) or uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) and were found in a variety of sites within areas sampled. Of the remaining 117 environmental strains not identical to STP strains, 105 belonged to 18 C types and 102 of them carried VGs found among IPEC or UPEC strains. These strains belonged mainly to phylogenetic groups A (A0 and A1) and B1 and to a lesser extent B22, B23, D1, and D2. Eight of 18 environmental C types, comprising 50 isolates, were also identical to bird strains. The presence of a high percentage of environmental E. coli in waters near STPs carrying VGs associated with IPEC and UPEC suggests that they may have derived from STP effluents and other nonpoint sources. PMID:22660714

  16. THE INCIDENCE AND PATHOGENESIS OF MYOCARDITIS IN RABBITS AFTER GROUP A STREPTOCOCCAL PHARYNGEAL INFECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Robert J.; Thomas, Wilbur A.; Morse, Stephen I.; Darnell, James E.

    1956-01-01

    Rabbits subjected to single pharyngeal infections with group A streptococci developed cardiac lesions characterized by myofiber necrosis and a non-granulocytic cellular reaction with histiocytes, lymphocytes, and Anitschkow myocytes. The histopathologic changes were demonstrable in some animals within 24 hours of inoculation, apparently were maximal 72 hours after induction of infection (at which time they were seen in the hearts of all nine rabbits studied), and thereafter healed in the course of the following 2 weeks. The extent of involvement was variable, and with healing the necrotic areas were replaced by fibrous tissue. When intradermal infections with the same organisms were produced in rabbits, cardiac lesions, indistinguishable from those observed in the pharyngeally infected group, appeared in a much smaller number of animals. The hearts of five of six rabbits sacrificed a month or more following the last of a series of streptococcal pharyngeal infections exhibited lesions characterized chiefly by fibrosis, although mononuclear cellular infiltrations were also noted. In these repetitively infected animals the presence of occasional multinucleated giant cells and a few small foci of calcification were features not encountered in the single infection group. In a second series of rabbits sacrificed 3 days after the last of three pharyngeal infections with different strains of streptococci, acute as well as more chronic changes were observed. In none of the lesions in rabbits subjected to single or multiple streptococcal infections were bacteria demonstrable, either in histologic sections or in cultures of myocardial tissue. A large number of control animals was studied concomitantly, and in only one instance was a lesion, considered comparable to those described in the streptococcal series, encountered. The implications of these findings, particularly in terms of the non-suppurative sequelae of streptococcal infections in man, are discussed. PMID:13278463

  17. Emerging group C and group G streptococcal endocarditis: A Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Lother, Sylvain A; Jassal, Davinder S; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe; Keynan, Yoav

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with bacteremia caused by group C and group G streptococci (GCGS) and to characterize the burden of disease, clinical characteristics, and outcomes through a case series of patients with GCGS IE. Individuals with blood cultures growing GCGS in Manitoba, Canada, between January 2012 and December 2015 were included. Clinical and echocardiographic parameters were collected retrospectively. IE was suspected or confirmed according to the modified Duke criteria. Two hundred and nine bacteremic events occurred in 198 patients. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was performed in 33%. Suspected or confirmed IE occurred in 6% of all patients and in 18% of those with TTE. Native valve infection was more common than prosthetic valve and device-related infections (75%, 17%, and 8%, respectively). Metastatic infection was observed in 64%, primarily to the lungs (57%), skin (43%), osteoarticular system (29%), and central nervous system (29%). Sepsis occurred in 58% and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome in 50% of those with IE, with overall mortality of 17%. IE from GCGS bacteremia is common and is frequently associated with severe disease, embolic events, and mortality. In the appropriate clinical context, GCGS bacteremic events should prompt investigation for IE. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Anaerobic Killing of Oral Streptococci by Reduced, Transition Metal Cations

    PubMed Central

    Dunning, J. C.; Ma, Y.; Marquis, R. E.

    1998-01-01

    Reduced, transition metal cations commonly enhance oxidative damage to cells caused by hydroperoxides formed as a result of oxygen metabolism or added externally. As expected, the cations Fe2+ and Cu+ enhanced killing of Streptococcus mutans GS-5 by hydroperoxides. However, unexpectedly, they also induced lethal damage under fully anaerobic conditions in a glove box with no exposure to O2 or hydroperoxides from initial treatment with the cations. Sensitivities to anaerobic killing by Fe2+ varied among the organisms tested. The oral streptococci Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558, Streptococcus rattus FA-1, and Streptococcus sanguis NCTC 10904 were approximately as sensitive as S. mutans GS-5. Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790, Actinomyces viscosus OMZ105E, and Actinomyces naeslundii WVU45 had intermediate sensitivity, while Lactobacillus casei ATCC 4646 and Escherichia coli B were insensitive. Killing of S. mutans GS-5 in response to millimolar levels of added Fe2+ occurred over a wide range of temperatures and pH. The organism was able to take up ferrous iron, but ferric reductase activity could not be detected. Chelators, uric acid, and thiocyanate were not effective inhibitors of the lethal damage. Sulfhydryl compounds, ferricyanide, and ferrocyanide were protective if added prior to Fe2+ exposure. Fe2+, but not Fe3+, acted to reduce the acid tolerance of glycolysis by intact cells of S. mutans. The reduction in acid tolerance appeared to be related directly to Fe2+ inhibition of F-ATPase, which could be assayed with permeabilized cells, isolated membranes, or F1 enzyme separated from membranes. Cu+ and Cu2+ also inhibited F-ATPase and sensitized glycolysis by intact cells to acid. All of these damaging actions occurred anaerobically and thus did not appear to involve reactive oxygen species. PMID:9435058

  19. Decontamination of Streptococci biofilms and Bacillus cereus spores on plastic surfaces with DC and pulsed corona discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval'ová, Zuzana; Tarabová, Kataŕna; Hensel, Karol; Machala, Zdenko

    2013-02-01

    Cold air plasmas of DC and pulsed corona discharges: positive streamers and negative Trichel pulses were used for bio-decontamination of Streptococci biofilm and Bacillus cereus spores on polypropylene plastic surfaces. The reduction of bacterial population (evaluated as log10) in the biofilm on plastic surfaces treated by DC corona reached 2.4 logs with 10 min treatment time and 3.3 logs with 2 min treatment time with water spraying. The enhancement of plasma biocidal effects on the biofilm by electro-spraying of water through a hollow needle high-voltage electrode was investigated. No significant polarity effect was found with DC corona. Pulsed corona was demonstrated slightly more bactericidal for spores, especially in the negative polarity where the bacterial population reduction reached up to 2.2 logs at 10 min exposure time. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  20. The use of commercial video games in rehabilitation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bonnechère, Bruno; Jansen, Bart; Omelina, Lubos; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of commercial video games (VGs) in physical rehabilitation of motor functions. Several databases were screened (Medline, SAGE Journals Online, and ScienceDirect) using combinations of the following free-text terms: commercial games, video games, exergames, serious gaming, rehabilitation games, PlayStation, Nintendo, Wii, Wii Fit, Xbox, and Kinect. The search was limited to peer-reviewed English journals. The beginning of the search time frame was not restricted and the end of the search time frame was 31 December 2015. Only randomized controlled trial, cohort, and observational studies evaluating the effect of VGs on physical rehabilitation were included in the review. A total of 4728 abstracts were screened, 275 were fully reviewed, and 126 papers were eventually included. The following information was extracted from the selected studies: device type, number and type of patients, intervention, and main outcomes. The integration of VGs into physical rehabilitation has been tested for various pathological conditions, including stroke, cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disease, balance training, weight loss, and aging. There was large variability in the protocols used (e.g. number of sessions, intervention duration, outcome measures, and sample size). The results of this review show that in most cases, the introduction of VG training in physical rehabilitation offered similar results as conventional therapy. Therefore, VGs could be added as an adjunct treatment in rehabilitation for various pathologies to stimulate patient motivation. VGs could also be used at home to maintain rehabilitation benefits.

  1. Surveillance of group B streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome in nonpregnant adults and characterization of the strains in Japan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bin; Ikebe, Tadayoshi; Wada, Akihito; Ogata, Kikuyo; Tomita, Masaaki; Katsukawa, Chihiro; Kawahara, Ryuji; Suzuki, Rieko; Endo, Miyoko; Isobe, Junko; Tanaka, Daisuke; Hirasawa, Kyoko; Watanabe, Haruo

    2006-06-01

    Nine group B streptococci (GBS) strains were isolated from five toxic shock-like syndrome cases of nonpregnant adults in Japan from 2001 to 2005. All of them were identified as Streptococcus agalactiae. The serotypes of these strains were Ib, III, V, and VII. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the patterns of the strains isolated from the different patients were variable. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that all of the strains were susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin, cefotaxime, clindamycin, and telithromycin. One strain showed intermediate resistance to erythromycin.

  2. Group B Streptococci Colonization in Pregnant Guatemalan Women: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Vaginal Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Rick, Anne-Marie; Aguilar, Angie; Cortes, Rosita; Gordillo, Remei; Melgar, Mario; Samayoa-Reyes, Gabriela; Frank, Daniel N; Asturias, Edwin J

    2017-01-01

    Infection causes 1 of every 5 neonatal deaths globally. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most significant pathogen, although little is known about its epidemiology and risk in low-income countries. A cross-sectional study in 2015 at a public hospital in Guatemala City enrolled women ≥35 weeks' gestation. Vaginal and rectal swabs were processed using Lim broth and GBS CHROMagar then agglutination testing. Risk factors were assessed using multivariate analysis. Vaginal microbiota were profiled by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequencing in a subset of 94 women. Of 896 pregnant women, 155 (17.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 14.9-19.9) were GBS colonized. Colonization was associated with history of previous infant with poor outcome (odds ratio [OR], 1.94; 95% CI, 1.15-3.27) and increasing maternal age (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.09). Multiparity was protective (OR, .39; 95% CI, .21-.72). Four (6%) GBS-exposed infants had early-onset neonatal sepsis. Vaginal microbiome composition was associated with previous antibiotic exposure ( P = .003) and previous low birth weight infant ( P = .03), but not GBS colonization ( P = .72). Several individual taxa differed in abundance between colonized and noncolonized women. Group B Streptococcus is prevalent in pregnant women from Guatemala with different risk factors than previously described. Although the vaginal microbiome was not altered significantly in GBS-colonized women, use of antibiotics had an effect on its composition. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  3. Novel Twin Streptolysin S-Like Peptides Encoded in the sag Operon Homologue of Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcus anginosus

    PubMed Central

    Tabata, Atsushi; Nakano, Kota; Ohkura, Kazuto; Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Kikuchi, Ken; Whiley, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus anginosus is a member of the anginosus group streptococci, which form part of the normal human oral flora. In contrast to the pyogenic group streptococci, our knowledge of the virulence factors of the anginosus group streptococci, including S. anginosus, is not sufficient to allow a clear understanding of the basis of their pathogenicity. Generally, hemolysins are thought to be important virulence factors in streptococcal infections. In the present study, a sag operon homologue was shown to be responsible for beta-hemolysis in S. anginosus strains by random gene knockout. Interestingly, contrary to pyogenic group streptococci, beta-hemolytic S. anginosus was shown to have two tandem sagA homologues, encoding streptolysin S (SLS)-like peptides, in the sag operon homologue. Gene deletion and complementation experiments revealed that both genes were functional, and these SLS-like peptides were essential for beta-hemolysis in beta-hemolytic S. anginosus. Furthermore, the amino acid sequence of these SLS-like peptides differed from that of the typical SLS of S. pyogenes, especially in their propeptide domain, and an amino acid residue indicated to be important for the cytolytic activity of SLS in S. pyogenes was deleted in both S. anginosus homologues. These data suggest that SLS-like peptides encoded by two sagA homologues in beta-hemolytic S. anginosus may be potential virulence factors with a different structure essential for hemolytic activity and/or the maturation process compared to the typical SLS present in pyogenic group streptococci. PMID:23292771

  4. Amoxicillin-resistant oral streptococci identified in dental plaque specimens from healthy Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Katsuhiko; Nemoto, Hirotoshi; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Naka, Shuhei; Nomura, Ryota; Ooshima, Takashi

    2012-05-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is known to be a life-threatening disease and invasive dental procedures are considered to be important factors. Oral amoxicillin (AMPC) is widely used for prophylaxis in patients with heart disorders who are at risk for IE. However, there is only limited information regarding the inhibition of oral bacteria by AMPC. Dental plaque specimens were obtained from 120 healthy Japanese adult subjects, then diluted and streaked onto selective medium for oral streptococci. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AMPC was evaluated using a macro-dilution method by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (2006). Seven strains with an MIC of AMPC of 16μg/mL or more were isolated from 5 subjects. The bacterial species were confirmed by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA from each strain, which demonstrated that most were Streptococcus sanguinis, followed by Streptococcus oralis. Dental plaque specimens collected from these 5 subjects again after an interval of 2-3 months possessed no strains with an MIC of AMPC of 16μg/mL or more. These findings suggest that strains with a high MIC of AMPC are present in the oral cavities of Japanese adults, though they may be transient rather than inhabitants. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Aciduric Microbiota and Mutans Streptococci in Severe and Recurrent Severe Early Childhood Caries

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Christopher V.; Dahlan, Mohammed; Papadopolou, Eleftheria; Kent, Ralph L.; Loo, Cheen Y.; Pradhan, Nooruddin S.; Lu, Shulin C.; Bravoco, Alexandra; Mathney, Jennifer M.J.; Tanner, Anne C.R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Severe early childhood caries (ECC) results from bacterial acid production in an acidic environment. The current study determined Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and acid-tolerant counts in severe-ECC. Methods Children (2–6 years) with severe-ECC (n=77) or who were caries-free (n=40) were examined. Plaque samples from teeth and the tongue were cultured anaerobically on blood, acid and S. mutans selective agars. Severe-ECC children were monitored post-treatment for recurrent caries. Results Severe-ECC and caries-free children were balanced by household income and education level. Carious lesions were observed in 75% maxillary incisors and >80% molars in severe-ECC. At baseline, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus sobrinus counts and proportions of S. mutans were higher in severe-ECC than caries-free children. Acid and blood counts were elevated only in anterior samples of severe-ECC children. Baseline counts of S. sobrinus, but not S. mutans, were higher in children with recurrent compared with no recurrent caries. S. mutans counts were lower post treatment than pre-treatment, particularly for children without caries recurrence. Other counts did not differ between before and after therapy. Conclusions We conclude that severe and recurrent ECC were better explained by mutans streptococci than the aciduric microbiota. S. mutans did not predict children with recurrent caries. PMID:22583872

  6. Insights into the Evolutionary Relationships of LytA Autolysin and Ply Pneumolysin-Like Genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Related Streptococci.

    PubMed

    Morales, María; Martín-Galiano, Antonio J; Domenech, Mirian; García, Ernesto

    2015-09-08

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a major human pathogen. The main pneumococcal autolysin LytA and the pneumolysin Ply are two of the bacterium's most important virulence factors. The lytA- and ply-related genes are also found in other streptococci of the Mitis group (SMG). The precise characteristics of the lytA-related-but not the ply-related-genes of SMG and their prophages have been previously described. A search of the more than 400 SMG genomic sequences available in public databases (ca. 300 for S. pneumoniae), showed Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae IS7493 to harbor four ply-related genes, two of which (plyA and plyB) have 98% identical nucleotides. The plyA homolog of S. pseudopneumoniae is conserved in all S. pneumoniae strains, and seems to be included in a pathogenicity island together with the lytA gene. However, only nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae strains possess a plyB gene, which is part of an integrative and conjugative element. Notably, the existence of a bacterial lytA-related gene in a genome is linked to the presence of plyA and vice versa. The present analysis also shows there are eight main types of plyA-lytA genomic islands. A possible stepwise scenario for the evolution of the plyA-lytA island in S. pneumoniae is proposed. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Delineation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Its Subspecies, and Its Clinical and Phylogenetic Relationship to Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    The taxonomic status and structure of Streptococcus dysgalactiae have been the object of much confusion. Bacteria belonging to this species are usually referred to as Lancefield group C or group G streptococci in clinical settings in spite of the fact that these terms lack precision and prevent recognition of the exact clinical relevance of these bacteria. The purpose of this study was to develop an improved basis for delineation and identification of the individual species of the pyogenic group of streptococci in the clinical microbiology laboratory, with a special focus on S. dysgalactiae. We critically reexamined the genetic relationships of the species S. dysgalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus canis, and Streptococcus equi, which may share Lancefield group antigens, by phylogenetic reconstruction based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and 16S rRNA gene sequences and by emm typing combined with phenotypic characterization. Analysis of concatenated sequences of seven genes previously used for examination of viridans streptococci distinguished robust and coherent clusters. S. dysgalactiae consists of two separate clusters consistent with the two recognized subspecies dysgalactiae and equisimilis. Both taxa share alleles with S. pyogenes in several housekeeping genes, which invalidates identification based on single-locus sequencing. S. dysgalactiae, S. canis, and S. pyogenes constitute a closely related branch within the genus Streptococcus indicative of recent descent from a common ancestor, while S. equi is highly divergent from other species of the pyogenic group streptococci. The results provide an improved basis for identification of clinically important pyogenic group streptococci and explain the overlapping spectrum of infections caused by the species associated with humans. PMID:22075580

  8. The high vaginal swab in general practice: clinical correlates of possible pathogens.

    PubMed

    Dykhuizen, R S; Harvey, G; Gould, I M

    1995-06-01

    Clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of 286 women whose high vaginal swabs (HVS) submitted by their general practitioners showed pure, heavy growth of Staphylococcus aureus, beta haemolytic streptococci groups A, C or G, Streptococcus milleri, Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae were analysed. Women with group A, C and G streptococci frequently had clinical vulvovaginitis and although the numbers were too small for statistical confirmation, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae appeared to cause clinical disease as well. The association of S. aureus or S. milleri with clinical vulvovaginitis was much less convincing. It seems relevant for laboratories to report sensitivities for group A, C and G streptococci. Further research is needed to determine the pathogenicity of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae.

  9. Multiple vitellogenins from the Haemaphysalis longicornis tick are crucial for ovarian development.

    PubMed

    Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Umemiya-Shirafuji, Rika; Liao, Min; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Xuan, Xuenan; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2010-11-01

    Ovarian development and egg maturation are crucial processes for the success of reproduction in ticks. Three full-length cDNAs encoding the precursor of major yolk protein, vitellogenin, were obtained from cDNA libraries of the Haemaphysalis longicornis tick and designated as HlVg-1, HlVg-2 and HlVg-3. The HlVg mRNAs were found in fed females with major expression sites in the midgut, fat body and ovary. Native PAGE and Western blot demonstrated that HlVgs in the hemolymph, fat body and ovary of fed females consisted of four major polypeptides. RNAi results showed that HlVg dsRNA-injected ticks obtained lower body weight, egg weight and showed higher mortality of engorged females after blood sucking than control groups. Our results indicate that all HlVgs are essential for egg development and oviposition. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Computational simulations assessment of mutations impact on streptokinase (SK) from a group G streptococci with enhanced activity - insights into the functional roles of structural dynamics flexibility of SK and stabilization of SK-μplasmin catalytic complex.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Faegheh; Arab, Seyed Shahriar; Mohajel, Nasir; Keramati, Malihe; Niknam, Niloofar; Aslani, Mohammad Mehdi; Roohvand, Farzin

    2018-05-28

    Streptokinase (SK), a plasminogen activator (PA) that converts inactive plasminogen (Pg) to plasmin (Pm), is a protein secreted by groups A, C, and G streptococci (GAS, GCS, and GGS, respectively), with high sequence divergence and functional heterogeneity. While roles of some residual changes in altered SK functionality are shown, the underlying structural mechanisms are less known. Herein, using computational approaches, we analyzed the conformational basis for the increased activity of SK from a GGS (SKG132) isolate with four natural residual substitutions (Ile33Phe, Arg45Gln, Asn228Lys, Phe287Ile) compared to the standard GCS (SKC). Using the crystal structure of SK.Pm catalytic complex as main template SKC.μPm catalytic complex was modeled through homology modeling process and validated by several online validation servers. Subsequently, SKG132.μPm structure was constructed by altering the corresponding residual substitutions. Results of three independent MD simulations showed increased RMSF values for SKG132.μPm, indicating the enhanced structural flexibility compared to SKC.μPm, specially in 170 and 250 loops and three regions: R1 (149-161), R2 (182-215) and R3 (224-229). In parallel, the average number of Hydrogen bonds in 170 loop, R2 and R3 (especially for Asn228Lys) of SKG132 compared to that of the SKC was decreased. Accordingly, residue interaction networks (RINs) analyses indicated that Asn228Lys might induce more level of structural flexibility by generation of free Lys256, while Phe287Ile and Ile33Phe enhanced the stabilization of the SKG132.μPm catalytic complex. These results denoted the potential role of the optimal dynamic state and stabilized catalytic complex for increased PA potencies of SK as a thrombolytic drug.

  11. Mast cell activation by group A streptococcal polysaccharide in the rat and its role in experimental arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Dalldorf, F. G.; Anderle, S. K.; Brown, R. R.; Schwab, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    Acute edematous responses were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by the intravenous injection of group-specific polysaccharide (PS) isolated from group A streptococci. Thirty minutes after the intravenous injection of PS there was marked degranulation of subcutaneous and periarticular mast cells in all 4 feet, carbon particle labeling of adjacent venules, and an 8-fold increase in Evans blue dye content of the extremities. This acute reaction to PS was completely blocked by pretreatment with compound 48/80, but the polyarticular relapsing arthritis following the systemic injection of an arthropathic dose of streptococcal cell wall fragments containing large, covalently bound peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PG-PS) was not blocked. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3041843

  12. Group A streptococcal infections of the skin: molecular advances but limited therapeutic progress.

    PubMed

    Currie, Bart J

    2006-04-01

    With the sequencing of several Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus) genomes have come major advances in understanding the pathogenesis of group A Streptococcus-associated diseases. This review focuses on group A Streptococcus skin infections and summarizes data published in the English language medical literature in 2004 and 2005. Group A Streptococcus shows enormous and evolving molecular diversity driven by horizontal transmission between group A Streptococcus strains and between group A Streptococcus and other streptococci. Acquisition of prophages accounts for much of the diversity, conferring both virulence through phage-associated virulence factors and increased bacterial survival against host defences. Studies of group A Streptococcus isolates outside the US also question the generalizability of classic group A Streptococcus M serotype associations with specific disease entities such as acute rheumatic fever and necrotizing fasciitis. The distinction between throat and skin group A Streptococcus has become blurred. Although there have been few advances in treatment of group A Streptococcus skin infections, developments towards group A Streptococcus vaccines are promising. The diversity of group A Streptococcus remains a challenge for vaccine development. As acute rheumatic fever and streptococcal pyoderma occur predominantly in disadvantaged populations, international funding support will be necessary for any group A Streptococcus vaccine to have a sustained impact on the global burden of disease.

  13. Effect of Chocobar Ice Cream Containing Bifidobacterium on Salivary Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Daryani, Hemasha; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Batra, Mehak; Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Ramesh, Gayathri

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effect of chocobar ice cream containing bifidobacteria on salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. A double-blind, randomised controlled trial was conducted with 30 subjects (18 to 22 years of age) divided into 2 groups, test (chocobar ice cream with probiotics) and control (chocobar ice cream without probiotics). The subjects were instructed to eat the allotted chocobar ice cream once daily for 18 days. Saliva samples collected at intervals were cultured on Mitis Salivarius agar and Rogosa agar and examined for salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli, respectively. The Mann-Whitney U-test, Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for statistical analysis. Postingestion in the test group, a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) of salivary mutans streptococci was recorded, but a non-significant trend was seen for lactobacilli. Significant differences were was also observed between follow-ups. Short-term daily ingestion of ice cream containing probiotic bifidobacteria may reduce salivary levels of mutans streptococci in young adults.

  14. Edge effects in vertically-oriented graphene based electric double-layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huachao; Yang, Jinyuan; Bo, Zheng; Zhang, Shuo; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2016-08-01

    Vertically-oriented graphenes (VGs) have been demonstrated as a promising active material for electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), partially due to their edge-enriched structure. In this work, the 'edge effects', i.e., edges as the promoters of high capacitance, in VG based EDLCs are investigated with experimental research and numerical simulations. VGs with diverse heights (i.e., edge-to-basal ratios) and edge densities are prepared with varying the plasma-enabled growth time and employing different plasma sources. Electrochemical measurements show that the edges play a predominant role on the charge storage behavior of VGs. A simulation is further conducted to unveil the roles of the edges on the separation and adsorption of ions within VG channels. The initial charge distribution of a VG plane is obtained with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, which is subsequently applied to a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation system to gain the insights into the microscope EDLC structures. Compared with the basal planes, the edges present higher initial charge density (by 4.2 times), higher ion packing density (by 2.6 times), closer ion packing location (by 0.8 Å), and larger ion separation degree (by 14%). The as-obtained findings will be instructive in designing the morphology and structure of VGs for enhanced capacitive performances.

  15. Evaluating vortex generator jet experiments for turbulent flow separation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Stillfried, F.; Kékesi, T.; Wallin, S.; Johansson, A. V.

    2011-12-01

    Separating turbulent boundary-layers can be energized by streamwise vortices from vortex generators (VG) that increase the near wall momentum as well as the overall mixing of the flow so that flow separation can be delayed or even prevented. In general, two different types of VGs exist: passive vane VGs (VVG) and active VG jets (VGJ). Even though VGs are already successfully used in engineering applications, it is still time-consuming and computationally expensive to include them in a numerical analysis. Fully resolved VGs in a computational mesh lead to a very high number of grid points and thus, computational costs. In addition, computational parameter studies for such flow control devices take much time to set-up. Therefore, much of the research work is still carried out experimentally. KTH Stockholm develops a novel VGJ model that makes it possible to only include the physical influence in terms of the additional stresses that originate from the VGJs without the need to locally refine the computational mesh. Such a modelling strategy enables fast VGJ parameter variations and optimization studies are easliy made possible. For that, VGJ experiments are evaluated in this contribution and results are used for developing a statistical VGJ model.

  16. Numerical simulation of turbulent flow affected by vortex generators in straight channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souckova, Natalie; Simurda, David; Uruba, Vaclav

    2012-04-01

    The presented work is the next step after several experimental examinations of the vortex generator (VG) influence on flow separation occurring on a model of the NACA 63A421 airfoil with a deflected simple flap. The other purpose of this simulation is to obtain beneficial information that can be utilized for the preparation of the experimental investigation of the same configuration using Particle image Velocimetry method (PIV) in the future. The numerical simulation was performed for one single pair and two pairs of low-profile VGs of the same size, whose heights were smaller than the boundary layer thickness. The rectangular vane type VGs in such configuration, which generates counter-rotating vortices, was examined. The behaviour of vortices produced by VG pair or pairs in several positions downstream the VGs is investigated and will be used as a background of the measurement.

  17. The impact of salivary mutans streptococci and sugar consumption on caries experience in 6-year olds and 12-year olds in Riga.

    PubMed

    Gudkina, Jekaterina; Brinkmane, Anda

    2010-01-01

    To assess possible relationship between caries experience, salivary cariogenic microflora and free sugar consumption in 6 year and 12 year old children in Riga, to evaluate these variables in risk assessment. 79 children aged 6 and 96 children aged 12 were examined clinically and by bitewing X-ray for caries diagnosis. Also all children or their parents were questioned about number of tea spoons containing sugar used per cup and frequency of cups used daily. Salivary mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LB) (CRT-bacteria; Ivoclar; Vivadent; Liechtenstein) were determined only for children with dmft/DMFT>4: 27.8% at the age of 6, 40.6% at the age of 12. All data were statistically analyzed using frequency tables and analysis of variance. Statistical significance of differences in proportions was tested using chi-square test, Analysis included evaluation of how changes in variables such as free sugar consumption affects caries in particular age group. Mean number of tea spoons containing sugar used per cup was 1.47 in 6 year olds and 1.86 in 12 year olds, but daily amount of tea spoons containing sugar was 2.71 and 4.36 in each age group accordingly. Tea spoons of sugar per cup were associated with caries experience only in 6 year olds (p=0.098). A significant association was observed between caries experience, salivary MS and an amount of tea spoons containing sugar used per cup in both age groups (for 6 y.o. p= 0.037, for 12 y.o. p=0.037). Also caries experience was strongly associated with salivary MS and daily amount of tea spoons containing sugar, but only in 12 year olds (p=0.041). The information of free sugar consumption per cup or daily gives the possibility to control free sugar use in order to reduce caries development in 6 year old and 12 year old children in Riga.

  18. Evaluation of two rapid antigen assays, BioStar Strep A OIA and Pacific Biotech CARDS O.S., and culture for detection of group A streptococci in throat swabs.

    PubMed Central

    Dale, J C; Vetter, E A; Contezac, J M; Iverson, L K; Wollan, P C; Cockerill, F R

    1994-01-01

    Two rapid methods, BioStar Strep A OIA (OIA; BioStar, Inc., Boulder, Colo.), an optical immunoassay, and CARDS O.S. (O.S.; Pacific Biotech, Inc., San Diego, Calif.), a color immunochromographic assay, and two culture methods, one with 5% sheep blood agar (SBA) and one with Todd-Hewitt broth (TH; Remel, Lenexa, Kans.), were evaluated for use in the detection of Streptococcus pyogenes from pharnygeal swabs. Seven hundred forty-six double swabs (Culturette II) were processed, with OIA and SBA culture performed on one swab and O.S. and SBA culture performed on the other swab. The pledget from the Culturette II was incubated overnight in TH and was subcultured onto SBA for an additional 48 h in ambient air. All beta-hemolytic streptococci from culture were tested by a direct fluorescent-antibody test (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.). Specimens with discordant fluorescent-antibody test and rapid test results were also tested by using the Streptex latex agglutination reagent (Murex Diagnostics Limited, Dartford, England). The results obtained by all testing methods were compared with a combined test result ("gold standard"), which was defined as any positive culture detected by the SBA or TH culture methods and confirmed by Streptex latex agglutination or, in the case of negative results by both culture methods, a concomitant positive result by OIA and O.S. antigen testing. Sensitivity and specificity results for each of the methods were as follows, respectively: OIA, 81.0 and 97.5%; O.S., 74.4 and 99.0%; SBA culture, 92.3 and 98.3%; and TH culture, 86.4 and 100%. Both OIA and O.S. are suitable screening methods for detecting S. pyogenes directly from throat swabs but are of insufficient sensitivity to eliminate the need for backup cultures for specimens with negative OIA and O.S. results. PMID:7852559

  19. Textural features of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scanning in diagnosing aortic prosthetic graft infection.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Ben R; Beukinga, Roelof J; Boellaard, Ronald; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Reijnen, Michel M P J; Zeebregts, Clark J; Slart, Riemer H J A

    2017-05-01

    The clinical problem in suspected aortoiliac graft infection (AGI) is to obtain proof of infection. Although 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography scanning (PET) has been suggested to play a pivotal role, an evidence-based interpretation is lacking. The objective of this retrospective study was to examine the feasibility and utility of 18 F-FDG uptake heterogeneity characterized by textural features to diagnose AGI. Thirty patients with a history of aortic graft reconstruction who underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT scanning were included. Sixteen patients were suspected to have an AGI (group I). AGI was considered proven only in the case of a positive bacterial culture. Positive cultures were found in 10 of the 16 patients (group Ia), and in the other six patients, cultures remained negative (group Ib). A control group was formed of 14 patients undergoing 18 F-FDG PET for other reasons (group II). PET images were assessed using conventional maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), tissue-to-background ratio (TBR), and visual grading scale (VGS). Additionally, 64 different 18 F-FDG PET based textural features were applied to characterize 18 F-FDG uptake heterogeneity. To select candidate predictors, univariable logistic regression analysis was performed (α = 0.16). The accuracy was satisfactory in case of an AUC > 0.8. The feature selection process yielded the textural features named variance (AUC = 0.88), high grey level zone emphasis (AUC = 0.87), small zone low grey level emphasis (AUC = 0.80), and small zone high grey level emphasis (AUC = 0.81) most optimal for distinguishing between groups I and II. SUVmax, TBR, and VGS were also able to distinguish between these groups with AUCs of 0.87, 0.78, and 0.90, respectively. The textural feature named short run high grey level emphasis was able to distinguish group Ia from Ib (AUC = 0.83), while for the same task the TBR and VGS were not found to be predictive. SUVmax

  20. The influence of a salivary coating on the molecular surface composition of oral streptococci as determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Mei, H. C.; Noordmans, J.; Busscher, H. J.

    In order to determine the influence of saliva treatment on the molecular surface composition of oral streptococci, infrared transmission spectroscopy on freeze-dried cells mixed in KBr was used. All IR spectra show similar absorption bands for the saliva-coated and uncoated strains involved, with the most important absorption bands located at 2930cm -1 (CH), 1653 cm -1 (AmI), 1541 cm -1 (AmII) and two bands at 1236 cm -1 and 1082cm -1, which were assigned to phosphate and sugar groups. However, calculation of absorption band ratios normalized with respect to the CH band around 2930cm -1, showed major differences between the saliva-coated and uncoated strains. All strains demonstrated an increase in the AmI/CH and AmII/CH absorption band ratios after saliva treatment indicative for protein adsorption, except for Streptococcus mitis BA showing a small decrease in the AmI/CH absorption band ratio. Two positive relationships could furthermore be established both between the AmII/CH absorption band ratio with the N/C elemental surface concentration ratio of the strains, previously determined from X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) as well as between AmI/CH with the fraction of carbon atoms at the surface involved in amide bonds, also determined by XPS. This study clearly demonstrates the possibility of IR spectroscopy to determine the molecular surface properties of freeze-dried micro-organisms, as illustrated here from a comparison between the molecular composition of untreated and saliva-treated oral streptococcal strains.

  1. Group A Streptococcal Carriage and Seroepidemiology in Children up to 10 Years of Age in Australia.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Helen S; Richmond, Peter; Nissen, Michael; Lambert, Stephen; Booy, Robert; Reynolds, Graham; Sebastian, Shite; Pride, Michael; Jansen, Kathrin U; Anderson, Annaliesa S; Scully, Ingrid L

    2015-08-01

    Group A streptococci (GAS) and other β-hemolytic streptococci (BHS) cause pharyngitis, severe invasive disease and serious nonsuppurative sequelae including rheumatic heart disease and post streptococcal glomerulonephritis. The aim of this study was to assess carriage rates and anti-streptococcal C5a peptidase (anti-SCP) IgG levels and identify epidemiologic factors related to carriage or seropositivity in Australian children. A throat swab and blood sample were collected for microbiological and serological analysis (anti-SCP IgG) in 542 healthy children aged 0-10 years. Sequence analysis of the SCP gene was performed. Serological analysis used a competitive Luminex Immunoassay designed to preferentially detect functional antibody. GAS-positive culture prevalence in throat swabs was 5.0% (range 0-10%), with the highest rate in 5 and 9 years old children. The rate of non-GAS BHS carriage was low (<1%). The scp gene was present in all 22 isolates evaluated. As age of child increased, the rate of carriage increased; odds ratio, 1.14 (1.00, 1.29); P = 0.50. Geometric mean anti-SCP titers increased with each age-band from 2 to 7 years, then plateaued. Age, geographic location and number of children within the household were significantly associated with the presence of anti-SCP antibodies. Children are exposed to GAS and other BHS at a young age, which is important for determining the target age for vaccination to protect before the period of risk.

  2. Video Guidance Sensor and Time-of-Flight Rangefinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Thomas; Howard, Richard; Bell, Joseph L.; Roe, Fred D.; Book, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    A proposed video guidance sensor (VGS) would be based mostly on the hardware and software of a prior Advanced VGS (AVGS), with some additions to enable it to function as a time-of-flight rangefinder (in contradistinction to a triangulation or image-processing rangefinder). It would typically be used at distances of the order of 2 or 3 kilometers, where a typical target would appear in a video image as a single blob, making it possible to extract the direction to the target (but not the orientation of the target or the distance to the target) from a video image of light reflected from the target. As described in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles, an AVGS system is an optoelectronic system that provides guidance for automated docking of two vehicles. In the original application, the two vehicles are spacecraft, but the basic principles of design and operation of the system are applicable to aircraft, robots, objects maneuvered by cranes, or other objects that may be required to be aligned and brought together automatically or under remote control. In a prior AVGS system of the type upon which the now-proposed VGS is largely based, the tracked vehicle is equipped with one or more passive targets that reflect light from one or more continuous-wave laser diode(s) on the tracking vehicle, a video camera on the tracking vehicle acquires images of the targets in the reflected laser light, the video images are digitized, and the image data are processed to obtain the direction to the target. The design concept of the proposed VGS does not call for any memory or processor hardware beyond that already present in the prior AVGS, but does call for some additional hardware and some additional software. It also calls for assignment of some additional tasks to two subsystems that are parts of the prior VGS: a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) that generates timing and control signals, and a digital signal processor (DSP) that processes the digitized video images. The

  3. Optoelectronic Sensor System for Guidance in Docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Book, Michael L.; Jackson, John L.

    2004-01-01

    The Video Guidance Sensor (VGS) system is an optoelectronic sensor that provides automated guidance between two vehicles. In the original intended application, the two vehicles would be spacecraft docking together, but the basic principles of design and operation of the sensor are applicable to aircraft, robots, vehicles, or other objects that may be required to be aligned for docking, assembly, resupply, or precise separation. The system includes a sensor head containing a monochrome charge-coupled- device video camera and pulsed laser diodes mounted on the tracking vehicle, and passive reflective targets on the tracked vehicle. The lasers illuminate the targets, and the resulting video images of the targets are digitized. Then, from the positions of the digitized target images and known geometric relationships among the targets, the relative position and orientation of the vehicles are computed. As described thus far, the VGS system is based on the same principles as those of the system described in "Improved Video Sensor System for Guidance in Docking" (MFS-31150), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 21, No. 4 (April 1997), page 9a. However, the two systems differ in the details of design and operation. The VGS system is designed to operate with the target completely visible within a relative-azimuth range of +/-10.5deg and a relative-elevation range of +/-8deg. The VGS acquires and tracks the target within that field of view at any distance from 1.0 to 110 m and at any relative roll, pitch, and/or yaw angle within +/-10deg. The VGS produces sets of distance and relative-orientation data at a repetition rate of 5 Hz. The software of this system also accommodates the simultaneous operation of two sensors for redundancy

  4. Significance of Hemolytic Colonies in Throat Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Robert W.; Lowry, P. Nye

    1969-01-01

    These studies indicate that a single strain of hemolytic streptococci almost exclusively predominates the bacterial flora in patients with streptococcal infections and in the carrier state. One can proceed with confidence that, in isolating streptococci from throat swabs cultured on blood-agar plates, only a single hemolytic colony need be picked for serological grouping and typing. PMID:4888863

  5. Pathogenesis of Group A Streptococcal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Madeleine W.

    2000-01-01

    Group A streptococci are model extracellular gram-positive pathogens responsible for pharyngitis, impetigo, rheumatic fever, and acute glomerulonephritis. A resurgence of invasive streptococcal diseases and rheumatic fever has appeared in outbreaks over the past 10 years, with a predominant M1 serotype as well as others identified with the outbreaks. emm (M protein) gene sequencing has changed serotyping, and new virulence genes and new virulence regulatory networks have been defined. The emm gene superfamily has expanded to include antiphagocytic molecules and immunoglobulin-binding proteins with common structural features. At least nine superantigens have been characterized, all of which may contribute to toxic streptococcal syndrome. An emerging theme is the dichotomy between skin and throat strains in their epidemiology and genetic makeup. Eleven adhesins have been reported, and surface plasmin-binding proteins have been defined. The strong resistance of the group A streptococcus to phagocytosis is related to factor H and fibrinogen binding by M protein and to disarming complement component C5a by the C5a peptidase. Molecular mimicry appears to play a role in autoimmune mechanisms involved in rheumatic fever, while nephritis strain-associated proteins may lead to immune-mediated acute glomerulonephritis. Vaccine strategies have focused on recombinant M protein and C5a peptidase vaccines, and mucosal vaccine delivery systems are under investigation. PMID:10885988

  6. In vitro activity of daptomycin against clinical isolates of Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Piper, Kerryl E; Steckelberg, James M; Patel, Robin

    2005-08-01

    We determined the activity of daptomycin, a recently FDA-approved antimicrobial agent, against clinical isolates of Gram-positive bacteria, including viridans group streptococci (16 Streptococcus mitis species group, 12 S. mutans species group, 9 S. anginosus species group, 8 S. sanguinis species group, 5 S. salivarius species group) from patients with infective endocarditis, 32 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 32 high-level penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, 38 vancomycin-resistant enterococci (including 1 linezolid-resistant isolate), and the following unusual Gram-positive bacteria: 3 Listeria monocytogenes, 4 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, 9 Corynebacterium species, 10 Abiotrophia/Granulicatella species, 2 Rothia (Stomatococcus) mucilaginosus, and 4 Gemella morbillorum. Daptomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)(90) values for the viridans group streptococci, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, and Enterococcus species were 0.5, 0.5, < or =0.125, and 4 microg/ml, respectively. The daptomycin MIC range for the unusual Gram-positive bacteria was < or =0.125-2 microg/ml. We conclude that daptomycin has in vitro activity against viridans group streptococci associated with endocarditis as well as against several types of unusual Gram-positive bacteria that can cause endocarditis.

  7. Neonatal streptococcal infections.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, M. T.

    1977-01-01

    Most serious neonatal streptococcal infections are caused by group-B streptococci. The pattern of serious group-B neonatal disease in Britain resembles that described in other countries; both "early-onset" and "late-onset" forms are seen, but reliable incidence rates have not yet been determined. Serological-type III strains predominate in neonatal meningitis in Britain, but not so markedly as in some parts of the U.S.A. A deficiency of group-II strains in meningitis is, however, apparent in both countries. Present information about the carriage of group-B streptococci suggests that antibiotic prophylaxis administered to mothers or infants is unlikely to reduce greatly the frequency of "early-onset" disease. The continuous presence of a suitable chemical disinfectant in the vagina during labour might be more effective. Insufficient is known about the epidemiology of "late-onset" neonatal disease for rational preventive measures to be designed. More information is required about the postnatal acquisition of group-B streptococci by neonates and its sources, and about passive transfer of type-specific antibody from the mother to her child. PMID:339212

  8. Effectiveness of a motionless ultrasonic toothbrush in reducing plaque and gingival inflammation in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    PubMed

    Saruttichart, Thayika; Chantarawaratit, Pintu-On; Leevailoj, Chalermpol; Thanyasrisung, Panida; Pitiphat, Waranuch; Matangkasombut, Oranart

    2017-03-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a motionless ultrasonic toothbrush to a manual toothbrush in reducing dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and mutans streptococci in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Twenty-five orthodontic patients were recruited to this crossover study. The patients were randomized into two groups starting with manual or motionless ultrasonic toothbrushes for 30 days. After a 30-day washout period, the patients switched to the other toothbrush type for 30 days. Plaque and gingival indices were evaluated by two calibrated-blinded examiners before and after each 30-day period of brushing. Salivary samples were also collected for quantification of mutans streptococci. On the bracket side, the motionless ultrasonic toothbrush showed a significantly higher mean plaque index bracket score after 30-day usage than baseline (P = .049), while the manual toothbrush group showed no difference between the before and after brushing periods (P = .10). The changes in plaque index bracket score were significantly more favorable in the manual toothbrush group than in the ultrasonic toothbrush group (P = .04). In contrast, no difference was observed on the nonbracket side. There was no significant difference in the changes of gingival index or the numbers of mutans streptococci between the two groups. Manual toothbrushing performed better than brushing with the motionless ultrasonic toothbrush in plaque removal on the bracket side in orthodontic patients. However, no difference was observed in terms of gingival status and the numbers of mutans streptococci.

  9. Rapid identification of enterococci.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, L H; Peterson, E M; de la Maza, L M

    1983-01-01

    Enterococci were identified in 4 h with bile esculin agar and the Autobac system (General Diagnostics, Warner-Lambert Co., Morris Plains, N.J.), which was used to incubate and monitor salt broth for growth. Of 86 group D streptococci tested, 41 enterococci grew in salt broth and were bile esculin positive within 4 h; none of 45 group D nonenterococcal streptococci exhibited growth in the salt broth, and only 38 of them were bile esculin positive within 4 h. PMID:6403579

  10. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli pathogenicity islands and other ExPEC virulence genes may contribute to the genome variability of enteroinvasive E. coli.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Laís Cristina; de Mello Santos, Ana Carolina; Silva, Rosa Maria

    2017-03-16

    Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) may be the causative agent of part of those million cases of diarrhea illness reported worldwide every year and attributable to Shigella. That is because both enteropathogens have many common characteristics that difficult their identification either by traditional microbiological methods or by molecular tools used in the clinical laboratory settings. While Shigella has been extensively studied, EIEC remains barely characterized at the molecular level. Recent EIEC important outbreaks, apparently generating more life-threatening cases, have prompted us to screen EIEC for virulence traits usually related to extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). That could explain the appearance of EIEC strains presenting higher virulence potential. EIEC strains were distributed mainly in three phylogroups in a serogroup-dependent manner. Serogroups O124, O136, O144, and O152 were exclusively classified in phylogroup A; O143 in group E; and O28ac and O29 in group B1. Only two serogroups showed diverse phylogenetic origin as follows: O164 was assigned to groups A, B1, C, and B2 (one strain each), and O167 in groups E (five strains), and A (one strain) (Table 1). Eleven of 20 virulence genes (VGs) searched were detected, and the majority of the 19 different VGs combinations found were serogroup-specific. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) PAI genetic markers were detected in all EIEC strains. PAIs I J96 and II CFT073 were the most frequent (92.1 and 80.4%, respectively). PAI IV 536 was restricted to some serogroups from phylogroups A, B1 and E. PAI I CFT073 was uniquely detected in phylogroups B2 and E. A total of 45 (88%) strains presented multiple PAI markers (two to four). PAIs I J96 and II CFT073 were found together in 80% of strains. EIEC is a DEC pathovar that presents VGs and pathogenicity island genetic markers typically associated with ExPEC, especially UPEC. These features are distributed in a phylogenetic and serogroup-dependent manner

  11. Salivary levels of mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli among Palestinian school children in East Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Doron; Eskander, Lana; Zini, Avraham; Sgan-Cohen, Harold; Bajali, Musa

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of oral cariogenic bacteria among 12-year-old Palestinian children attending schools in East Jerusalem. Salivary levels of mutans streptococci (MS) and Lactobacilli (LB) were examined by semi-quantitative commercial kits and then correlated to social-demographic parameters. Overall, 52.1 % of the examined children presented the highest possible ranking score categories for MS bacteria, with only 5.4 % in the lowest category. Only 12.6 % of the school children presented the highest LB score, while 25 % had the lowest ranking score. Salivary MS levels in children attending private schools were lower than those of children in government schools and United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) schools. Conversely, levels of LB were lowest in children attending UNRWA schools compared to government and private schools. Girls had significantly higher amounts of MS and LB than boys (p = 0.001). Lower MS levels were significantly related to the following socioeconomic variables: higher father's education level (p = 0.037), higher mother's education level (p = 0.063), mother's employment status (p = 0.012), and lower home density (p = 0.001). For LB, the only significant socioeconomic variable was higher father's employment level, which was related to lower LB level (p = 0.025). Levels of MS and LB were found to be strongly related with socioeconomic status among Palestinian children in East Jerusalem. The relatively high prevalence of cariogenic bacteria suggests that oral care prevention and treatment demands special attention from the health care institutions and authorities.

  12. Numerical Investigation of Vortex Generator Flow Control for External-Compression Supersonic Inlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baydar, Ezgihan

    Vortex generators (VGs) within external-compression supersonic inlets for Mach 1.6 were investigated to determine their ability to increase total pressure recovery and reduce total pressure distortion. Ramp and vane-type VGs were studied. The geometric factors of interest included height, length, spacing, angle-of-incidence, and positions upstream and downstream of the inlet terminal shock. The flow through the inlet was simulated numerically through the solution of the steady-state, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations on multi-block, structured grids using the Wind-US flow solver. The inlet performance was characterized by the inlet total pressure recovery and the radial and circumferential total pressure distortion indices at the engine face. Previous research of downstream VGs in the low-boom supersonic inlet demonstrated improvement in radial distortion up to 24% while my work on external-compression supersonic inlets improved radial distortion up to 86%, which is significant. The design of experiments and statistical analysis methods were applied to quantify the effect of the geometric factors of VGs and search for optimal VG arrays. From the analysis, VG angle-of-incidence and VG height were the most influential factors in increasing total pressure recovery and reducing distortion. The study on the two-dimensional external-compression inlet determined which passive flow control devices, such as counter-rotating vanes or ramps, reduce high distortion levels and improve the health of the boundary layer, relative to the baseline. Downstream vanes demonstrate up to 21% improvement in boundary layer health and 86% improvement in radial distortion. Upstream vanes demonstrated up to 3% improvement in boundary layer health and 9% improvement in radial distortion. Ramps showed no improvement in boundary layer health and radial distortion. Micro-VGs were preferred for their reduced viscous drag and improvement in total pressure recovery at the AIP. Although

  13. Comparative genomics of the bacterial genus Streptococcus illuminates evolutionary implications of species groups.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao-Yang; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Hong-Wei; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Streptococcus within the phylum Firmicutes are among the most diverse and significant zoonotic pathogens. This genus has gone through considerable taxonomic revision due to increasing improvements of chemotaxonomic approaches, DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. It is proposed to place the majority of streptococci into "species groups". However, the evolutionary implications of species groups are not clear presently. We use comparative genomic approaches to yield a better understanding of the evolution of Streptococcus through genome dynamics, population structure, phylogenies and virulence factor distribution of species groups. Genome dynamics analyses indicate that the pan-genome size increases with the addition of newly sequenced strains, while the core genome size decreases with sequential addition at the genus level and species group level. Population structure analysis reveals two distinct lineages, one including Pyogenic, Bovis, Mutans and Salivarius groups, and the other including Mitis, Anginosus and Unknown groups. Phylogenetic dendrograms show that species within the same species group cluster together, and infer two main clades in accordance with population structure analysis. Distribution of streptococcal virulence factors has no obvious patterns among the species groups; however, the evolution of some common virulence factors is congruous with the evolution of species groups, according to phylogenetic inference. We suggest that the proposed streptococcal species groups are reasonable from the viewpoints of comparative genomics; evolution of the genus is congruent with the individual evolutionary trajectories of different species groups.

  14. Etiology of Cellulitis and Clinical Prediction of Streptococcal Disease: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bruun, Trond; Oppegaard, Oddvar; Kittang, Bård R.; Mylvaganam, Haima; Langeland, Nina; Skrede, Steinar

    2016-01-01

    Background. The importance of bacteria other than group A streptococci (GAS) in different clinical presentations of cellulitis is unclear, commonly leading to treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics. The aim of this study was to describe the etiological and clinical spectrum of cellulitis and identify clinical features predicting streptococcal etiology. Methods. We prospectively enrolled 216 patients hospitalized with cellulitis. Clinical details were registered. Bacterial culture was performed from blood, cutaneous or subcutaneous tissue, and/or swabs from skin lesions. Paired serum samples were analyzed for anti-streptolysin O and anti-deoxyribonuclease B antibodies. Results. Serology or blood or tissue culture confirmed β-hemolytic streptococcal (BHS) etiology in 72% (146 of 203) of cases. An additional 13% (27 of 203) of cases had probable BHS infection, indicated by penicillin response or BHS cultured from skin swabs. β-hemolytic streptococcal etiology was predominant in all clinical subgroups, including patients without sharply demarcated erythema. β-hemolytic group C or G streptococci (GCS/GGS) were more commonly isolated than GAS (36 vs 22 cases). This predominance was found in the lower extremity infections. Group C or G streptococci in swabs were associated with seropositivity just as often as GAS. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from swabs as a single pathogen in 24 cases, 14 (64%) of which had confirmed BHS etiology. Individual BHS-associated clinical characteristics increased the likelihood of confirmed BHS disease only slightly; positive likelihood ratios did not exceed 2.1. Conclusions. β-hemolytic streptococci were the dominating cause of cellulitis in all clinical subgroups and among cases with S aureus in cutaneous swabs. Group C or G streptococci were more frequently detected than GAS. No single clinical feature substantially increased the probability of confirmed BHS etiology. PMID:26734653

  15. Experimental Models of C. albicans-Streptococcal Co-infection.

    PubMed

    Sobue, Takanori; Diaz, Patricia; Xu, Hongbin; Bertolini, Martinna; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Interactions of C. albicans with co-colonizing bacteria at mucosal sites can be synergistic or antagonistic in disease development, depending on the bacterial species and mucosal site. Mitis group streptococci and C. albicans colonize the oral mucosa of the majority of healthy individuals. These streptococci have been termed "accessory pathogens," defined by their ability to initiate multispecies biofilm assembly and promote the virulence of the mixed bacterial biofilm community in which they participate. To demonstrate whether interactions with Mitis group streptococci limit or promote the potential of C. albicans to become an opportunistic pathogen, in vitro and in vivo co-infection models are needed. Here, we describe two C. albicans-streptococcal co-infection models: an organotypic oral mucosal tissue model that incorporates salivary flow and a mouse model of oral co-infection that requires reduced levels of immunosuppression compared to single fungal infection.

  16. Innocent until proven guilty: mechanisms and roles of Streptococcus–Candida interactions in oral health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Xu, H; Jenkinson, HF; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A

    2014-01-01

    Summary Candida albicans and streptococci of the mitis group colonize the oral cavities of the majority of healthy humans. While C. albicans is considered an opportunistic pathogen, streptococci of this group are broadly considered avirulent or even beneficial organisms. However, recent evidence suggests that multi-species biofilms with these organisms may play detrimental roles in host homeostasis and may promote infection. In this review we summarize the literature on molecular interactions between members of this streptococcal group and C. albicans, with emphasis on their potential role in the pathogenesis of opportunistic oral mucosal infections. PMID:24877244

  17. Computational study of the vortex path variation with the VG height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Gámiz, U.; Zamorano, G.; Zulueta, E.

    2014-06-01

    An extensive range of conventional, vane-type, passive vortex generators (VGs) are in use for successful applications of flow separation control. In most cases, the VG height is designed with the same thickness as the local boundary layer at the VG position. However, in some applications, these conventional VGs may produce excess residual drag. The so-called low-profile VGs can reduce the parasitic drag associated to this kind of passive control devices. As suggested by many authors, low-profile VGs can provide enough momentum transfer over a region several times their own height for effective flow-separation control with much lower drag. The main objective of this work is to study the variation of the path and the development of the primary vortex generated by a rectangular VG mounted on a flat plate with five different device heights h = δ, h1 = 0.8δ, h2 = 0.6δ, h3 = 0.4δ and h4 = 0.25m, where 5 is the local boundary layer thickness. For this purpose, computational simulations have been carried out at Reynolds number Re = 1350 based on the height of the conventional VG h = 0.25m with the angle of attack of the vane to the oncoming flow β = 18.5°. The results show that the VG scaling significantly affects the vortex trajectory and the peak vorticity generated by the primary vortex.

  18. Comparative Genomics of the Bacterial Genus Streptococcus Illuminates Evolutionary Implications of Species Groups

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiao-Yang; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Hong-Wei; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Streptococcus within the phylum Firmicutes are among the most diverse and significant zoonotic pathogens. This genus has gone through considerable taxonomic revision due to increasing improvements of chemotaxonomic approaches, DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. It is proposed to place the majority of streptococci into “species groups”. However, the evolutionary implications of species groups are not clear presently. We use comparative genomic approaches to yield a better understanding of the evolution of Streptococcus through genome dynamics, population structure, phylogenies and virulence factor distribution of species groups. Genome dynamics analyses indicate that the pan-genome size increases with the addition of newly sequenced strains, while the core genome size decreases with sequential addition at the genus level and species group level. Population structure analysis reveals two distinct lineages, one including Pyogenic, Bovis, Mutans and Salivarius groups, and the other including Mitis, Anginosus and Unknown groups. Phylogenetic dendrograms show that species within the same species group cluster together, and infer two main clades in accordance with population structure analysis. Distribution of streptococcal virulence factors has no obvious patterns among the species groups; however, the evolution of some common virulence factors is congruous with the evolution of species groups, according to phylogenetic inference. We suggest that the proposed streptococcal species groups are reasonable from the viewpoints of comparative genomics; evolution of the genus is congruent with the individual evolutionary trajectories of different species groups. PMID:24977706

  19. Effects of Lactobacillus salivarius-containing tablets on caries risk factors: a randomized open-label clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effects of the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius on caries risk factors. Methods The study was performed in 64 healthy volunteers to evaluate the effects of L. salivarius-containing tablets on caries risk factors. The participants were divided randomly into four groups, and took tablets containing L. salivarius WB21, L. salivarius TI 2711, Ovalgen® DC (antibody against glucosyltransferase from Streptococcus mutans), or xylitol. Levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli, amount of salivary flow, salivary pH, and salivary buffering capacity were assessed before and after taking the tablets. Subsequently, a short-term administration trial using L. salivarius WB21-containing tablets was performed in eight healthy volunteers. The participants took L. salivarius WB21-containing tablets (2.0 × 109 colony forming units/day) for 2 weeks, and the numbers of mutans streptococci in saliva were counted. Results The levels of mutans streptococci seemed to decrease in the L. salivarius WB21, TI 2711, and Ovalgen® DC groups compared to the xylitol group, with no significant differences between the groups. Lactobacilli levels significantly increased in the L. salivarius WB21 and TI 2711 groups compared to the other groups. Concerning salivary flow and salivary pH, no significant differences were observed between the groups. The salivary buffering capacity significantly increased in the L. salivarius TI 2711 group (P = 0.003) and Ovalgen® DC group (P = 0.002) compared to the xylitol group. The short-term administration trial showed that the L. salivarius WB21-containing tablets significantly decreased the number of mutans streptococci (P = 0.039). Conclusion L. salivarius-containing tablets were suggested to increase resistance to caries risk factors. Trial registration UMIN000013160 (registration date: February 14, 2014). PMID:25178882

  20. Effects of Lactobacillus salivarius-containing tablets on caries risk factors: a randomized open-label clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Tetsuyo; Suzuki, Nao; Yoneda, Masahiro; Hirofuji, Takao

    2014-09-02

    To evaluate the effects of the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius on caries risk factors. The study was performed in 64 healthy volunteers to evaluate the effects of L. salivarius-containing tablets on caries risk factors. The participants were divided randomly into four groups, and took tablets containing L. salivarius WB21, L. salivarius TI 2711, Ovalgen® DC (antibody against glucosyltransferase from Streptococcus mutans), or xylitol. Levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli, amount of salivary flow, salivary pH, and salivary buffering capacity were assessed before and after taking the tablets. Subsequently, a short-term administration trial using L. salivarius WB21-containing tablets was performed in eight healthy volunteers. The participants took L. salivarius WB21-containing tablets (2.0 × 10(9) colony forming units/day) for 2 weeks, and the numbers of mutans streptococci in saliva were counted. The levels of mutans streptococci seemed to decrease in the L. salivarius WB21, TI 2711, and Ovalgen® DC groups compared to the xylitol group, with no significant differences between the groups. Lactobacilli levels significantly increased in the L. salivarius WB21 and TI 2711 groups compared to the other groups. Concerning salivary flow and salivary pH, no significant differences were observed between the groups. The salivary buffering capacity significantly increased in the L. salivarius TI 2711 group (P = 0.003) and Ovalgen® DC group (P = 0.002) compared to the xylitol group. The short-term administration trial showed that the L. salivarius WB21-containing tablets significantly decreased the number of mutans streptococci (P = 0.039). L. salivarius-containing tablets were suggested to increase resistance to caries risk factors. UMIN000013160 (registration date: February 14, 2014).

  1. Ten years of treating necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Nordqvist, Gunnar; Walldén, Axel; Brorson, Håkan; Tham, Johan

    2015-05-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a soft tissue infection characterized by rapid progression and a high mortality rate. The objective of this study was to investigate diagnosis, causative microbial agents, comorbidities, antibiotic regimen and outcome regarding this disease at Skåne University Hospital in Malmö, Sweden. From medical records, we identified 33 patients treated from January 2003 to January 2013, 31 of whom could be included in our investigation. The infections were monomicrobial in 87% of the cases, and most were caused by group A streptococci. The rate of polymicrobial infections was lower than in other studies. In addition to blood and wound cultures, a rapid antigen detection test for group A streptococci was used in a majority of the cases as a supplement to other diagnostic tools. The time from onset of symptoms to surgery proved to be significantly shorter for patients infected with group A streptococci than for other patients. The mortality rate among all patients was 19%, which is lower than much of the historical material but in line with some more recent studies of this disease. Our results indicate that low mortality rates can be achieved by surgery, appropriate antibiotics and good supportive care. Furthermore, we show that the use of the rapid antigen detection test for group A streptococci, in this setting, helps to shorten the time to surgical intervention in patients suffering from necrotizing fasciitis. This also helps to guide the antibiotic treatment into a narrower spectrum.

  2. Streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome due to Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis in breast cancer-related lymphedema: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sumazaki, Makoto; Saito, Fumi; Ogata, Hideaki; Yoshida, Miho; Kubota, Yorichika; Magoshi, Syunsuke; Kaneko, Hironori

    2017-07-14

    Breast cancer-related lymphedema often causes cellulitis and is one of the most common complications after breast cancer surgery. Streptococci are the major pathogens underlying such cellulitis. Among the streptococci, the importance of the Lancefield groups C and G is underappreciated; most cases involve Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis. Despite having a relatively weak toxicity compared with group A streptococci, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis is associated with a mortality rate that is as high as that of group A streptococci in cases of invasive infection because Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis mainly affects elderly individuals who already have various comorbidities. An 83-year-old Japanese woman with breast cancer-related lymphedema in her left upper limb was referred to our hospital with high fever and acute pain with erythema in her left arm. She showed septic shock with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Blood culture showed positive results for Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis, confirming a diagnosis of streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome. She survived after successful intensive care. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first report of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis-induced streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome in a patient with breast cancer-related lymphedema. Breast cancer-related lymphedema is a common problem, and we must pay attention to invasive streptococcal soft tissue infections, particularly in elderly patients with chronic disease.

  3. Natural History of Streptococcus sanguinis in the Oral Cavity of Infants: Evidence for a Discrete Window of Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Caufield, Page W.; Dasanayake, Ananda P.; Li, Yihong; Pan, Yaping; Hsu, Jay; Hardin, J. Michael

    2000-01-01

    The heterogeneous group of oral bacteria within the sanguinis (sanguis) streptococci comprise members of the indigenous biota of the human oral cavity. While the association of Streptococcus sanguinis with bacterial endocarditis is well described in the literature, S. sanguinis is thought to play a benign, if not a beneficial, role in the oral cavity. Little is known, however, about the natural history of S. sanguinis and its specific relationship with other oral bacteria. As part of a longitudinal study concerning the transmission and acquisition of oral bacteria within mother-infant pairs, we examined the initial acquisition of S. sanguinis and described its colonization relative to tooth emergence and its proportions in plaque and saliva as a function of other biological events, including subsequent colonization with mutans streptococci. A second cohort of infants was recruited to define the taxonomic affiliation of S. sanguinis. We found that the colonization of the S. sanguinis occurs during a discrete “window of infectivity” at a median age of 9 months in the infants. Its colonization is tooth dependent and correlated to the time of tooth emergence; its proportions in saliva increase as new teeth emerge. In addition, early colonization of S. sanguinis and its elevated levels in the oral cavity were correlated to a significant delay in the colonization of mutans streptococci. Underpinning this apparent antagonism between S. sanguinis and mutans streptococci is the observation that after mutans streptococci colonize the infant, the levels of S. sanguinis decrease. Children who do not harbor detectable levels of mutans streptococci have significantly higher levels of S. sanguinis in their saliva than do children colonized with mutans streptococci. Collectively, these findings suggest that the colonization of S. sanguinis may influence the subsequent colonization of mutans streptococci, and this in turn may suggest several ecological approaches toward

  4. Natural history of Streptococcus sanguinis in the oral cavity of infants: evidence for a discrete window of infectivity.

    PubMed

    Caufield, P W; Dasanayake, A P; Li, Y; Pan, Y; Hsu, J; Hardin, J M

    2000-07-01

    The heterogeneous group of oral bacteria within the sanguinis (sanguis) streptococci comprise members of the indigenous biota of the human oral cavity. While the association of Streptococcus sanguinis with bacterial endocarditis is well described in the literature, S. sanguinis is thought to play a benign, if not a beneficial, role in the oral cavity. Little is known, however, about the natural history of S. sanguinis and its specific relationship with other oral bacteria. As part of a longitudinal study concerning the transmission and acquisition of oral bacteria within mother-infant pairs, we examined the initial acquisition of S. sanguinis and described its colonization relative to tooth emergence and its proportions in plaque and saliva as a function of other biological events, including subsequent colonization with mutans streptococci. A second cohort of infants was recruited to define the taxonomic affiliation of S. sanguinis. We found that the colonization of the S. sanguinis occurs during a discrete "window of infectivity" at a median age of 9 months in the infants. Its colonization is tooth dependent and correlated to the time of tooth emergence; its proportions in saliva increase as new teeth emerge. In addition, early colonization of S. sanguinis and its elevated levels in the oral cavity were correlated to a significant delay in the colonization of mutans streptococci. Underpinning this apparent antagonism between S. sanguinis and mutans streptococci is the observation that after mutans streptococci colonize the infant, the levels of S. sanguinis decrease. Children who do not harbor detectable levels of mutans streptococci have significantly higher levels of S. sanguinis in their saliva than do children colonized with mutans streptococci. Collectively, these findings suggest that the colonization of S. sanguinis may influence the subsequent colonization of mutans streptococci, and this in turn may suggest several ecological approaches toward controlling

  5. Designer vaccines to prevent infections due to group B Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Kasper, D L

    1995-10-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) are the major cause of serious infections in neonates and an important cause of infection in adults, particularly peripartum women and patients with diabetes mellitus and malignancy. Immunity to GBS in neonates is associated with naturally acquired maternal antibodies to the type-specific capsular polysaccharides of these organisms. IgG class antibodies directed to these polysaccharides are passed transplacentally and protect the child from invasive GBS disease. Phase I and II clinical trials showed that the purified polysaccharides had limited immunogenicity. However, vaccine responders passed functional IgG class antibodies to their children. A glycoconjugate vaccine has been designed so that the type-specific polysaccharides are covalently linked to a carrier protein. This secondary amine linkage is between aldehyde groups created on the eighth carbon of a selected number of periodate-oxidized sialic acid residues of the polysaccharide and epsilon-amino groups on lysine residues of tetanus toxoid. Careful epitope mapping studies had demonstrated that modification by controlled periodate oxidation could be accomplished and that an important conformational epitope on the polysaccharide would be preserved. Preclinical testing of the glycoconjugate vaccines in animal models of GBS disease demonstrated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the vaccine-induced antibodies. Phase I clinical testing of the glycoconjugate vaccine is in progress, and the early results appear promising.

  6. Counteracting Muscle Atrophy using Galvanic Stimulation of the Vestibular System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.; Polyakov, Igor

    1999-01-01

    The unloading of weight bearing from antigravity muscles during space flight produces significant muscle atrophy and is one of the most serious health problems facing the space program. Various exercise regimens have been developed and used either alone or in combination with pharmacological techniques to ameliorate this atrophy, but no effective countermeasure exists for this problem. The research in this project was conducted to evaluate the potential use of vestibular galvanic stimulation (VGS) to prevent muscle atrophy resulting from unloading of weight bearing from antigravity muscles. This approach was developed based on two concepts related to the process of maintaining the status of the anti-gravity neuromuscular system. These two premises are: (1) The "tone," or bias on spinal motorneurons is affected by vestibular projections that contribute importantly to maintaining muscle health and status. (2) VGS can be used to modify the excitability, or 'tone' of motorneuron of antigravity muscles. Thus, the strategy is to use VGS to modify the gain of vestibular projections to antigravity muscles and thereby change the general status of these muscles.

  7. Genital streptococcal infection in non-pregnant women: a case-note review.

    PubMed

    Sonnex, C

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this case-note review was to examine the clinical features and management of women with either vulval or vaginal swabs culturing positive for streptococci. Group B haemolytic streptococcus was isolated in all cases. The majority of women with vulval streptococci presented with irritation or soreness. Candidal infection was found in 43% and a dermatosis in 27%. All women with positive vaginal culture had vaginal soreness and/or discharge. Candida was isolated in 27% and there were features of desquamative vaginitis in 20%. Women treated with erythromycin failed to improve symptomatically. The findings of this study suggest that streptococci mostly play a secondary role and colonize an already damaged genital epithelium.

  8. Protective immunity induced by an intranasal multivalent vaccine comprising 10 Lactococcus lactis strains expressing highly prevalent M-protein antigens derived from Group A Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Aniela; Scioscia, Natalia; García, Patricia C; Dale, James B; Paillavil, Braulio A; Legarraga, Paulette; Salazar-Echegarai, Francisco J; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2018-04-28

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus) causes diseases ranging from mild pharyngitis to severe invasive infections. The N-terminal fragment of Streptococcal M protein elicits protective antibodies and is an attractive vaccine target. However, this N- terminal fragment is hypervariable and there are more than 200 different M types. We are developing an intranasal live bacterial vaccine comprised of 10 strains of Lactococcus lactis, each expressing one N-terminal fagment of M protein. Live bacterial-vectored vaccines have lower associated costs because of its less complex manufacturing processes compared to protein subunit vaccines. Moreover, intranasal administration does not require syringe or specilized personnel. The evaluation of individual vaccine types (M1, M2, M3, M4, M6, M9, M12, M22, M28 and M77) showed that most of them protected mice against challenge with virulent S. pyogenes. All of the 10 strains combined in a 10-valent vaccine (Mx10) induced serum and bronchoalveolar lavages IgG titers that ranged from 3 to 10-fold those of unimmunized mice. Survival of Mx10-immunized mice after intranasal challenge with M28 streptococci is significantly higher than unimmunized mice. In contrast, when mice were challenged with M75 streptococci, survival of Mx10-immunized mice was not significantly different from unimmunized mice. Mx-10 immunized mice were significantly less colonized with S. pyogenes in oropharyngeal washes and developed less severe disease symptoms after challenge compared to unimmunized mice. Our L. lactis-based vaccine may provide an alternative solution to the development of broadly protective group A streptococcal vaccines. © 2018 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Ceftobiprole Activity When Tested Against Contemporary Bacteria Causing Bloodstream Infections in the US (2016)

    PubMed Central

    Flamm, Robert K; Duncan, Leonard R; Shortridge, Dee; Smart, Jennifer I; Hamed, Kamal; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Sader, Helio S

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Ceftobiprole medocaril (prodrug of ceftobiprole) is an advanced cephalosporin, approved for adults in multiple European countries for the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (excluding ventilator-associated pneumonia) or community-acquired pneumonia. It is not approved in the US; however, it has achieved qualified infectious disease product status and two phase 3 studies supported by BARDA are planned to begin in the US in 2017. Methods A total of 2,787 Gram-positive (GP) and -negative (GN) isolates from bloodstream infections (BSI) from 30 medical centers in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program were evaluated. Isolates were collected in the US during 2016. Susceptibility (S) testing was performed by reference broth microdilution method against ceftobiprole and comparators. Isolates included 693 Staphylococcus aureus (SA), 216 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), 244 enterococci, 63 Streptococcus pneumoniae (SPN), 74 viridans group streptococci (VGS), 138 β-haemolytic streptococci (BHS), 1,105 Enterobacteriaceae (ENT), 129 Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PSA), 41 Acinetobacter spp. (ASP), 30 Stenotrophomonas maltophila, 19 Haemophilus spp. and 35 miscellaneous bacteria. Results Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) S rates were lower than for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) for most agents. For levofloxacin (LEV) and erythromycin (ERY), the S rates were LEV: MRSA, 23.2%; MSSA, 86.1%; ERY: MRSA, 9.0%; MSSA, 69.3%. All MSSA and 99.0% of MRSA were S to ceftobiprole, while all MSSA and 96.5% of MRSA were S to ceftaroline (CPT). For CoNS, 98.1% of ceftobiprole MIC values were ≤2mg/L. Ceftobiprole was active against Enterococcus faecalis (96.1% ≤2mg/L) and not against E. faecium (18.9% ≤2mg/L). Against ENT, ceftobiprole (85.0%S) was similar in activity to ceftazidime (CAZ, 87.2%S) and cefepime (FEP, 88.9%S). The MIC50/90 values for ceftobiprole, FEP, and CAZ against PSA were identical at 2/16 mg/L. Conclusion

  10. rpoB Gene Sequence-Based Identification of Aerobic Gram-Positive Cocci of the Genera Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Gemella, Abiotrophia, and Granulicatella

    PubMed Central

    Drancourt, Michel; Roux, Véronique; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

    2004-01-01

    We developed a new molecular tool based on rpoB gene (encoding the beta subunit of RNA polymerase) sequencing to identify streptococci. We first sequenced the complete rpoB gene for Streptococcus anginosus, S. equinus, and Abiotrophia defectiva. Sequences were aligned with these of S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, and S. pneumoniae available in GenBank. Using an in-house analysis program (SVARAP), we identified a 740-bp variable region surrounded by conserved, 20-bp zones and, by using these conserved zones as PCR primer targets, we amplified and sequenced this variable region in an additional 30 Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Gemella, Granulicatella, and Abiotrophia species. This region exhibited 71.2 to 99.3% interspecies homology. We therefore applied our identification system by PCR amplification and sequencing to a collection of 102 streptococci and 60 bacterial isolates belonging to other genera. Amplicons were obtained in streptococci and Bacillus cereus, and sequencing allowed us to make a correct identification of streptococci. Molecular signatures were determined for the discrimination of closely related species within the S. pneumoniae-S. oralis-S. mitis group and the S. agalactiae-S. difficile group. These signatures allowed us to design a S. pneumoniae-specific PCR and sequencing primer pair. PMID:14766807

  11. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Streptococcus Isolates from the Human Small Intestine Reveals their Adaptation to a Highly Dynamic Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Boekhorst, Jos; Herrmann, Ruth; Smid, Eddy J.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    The human small-intestinal microbiota is characterised by relatively large and dynamic Streptococcus populations. In this study, genome sequences of small-intestinal streptococci from S. mitis, S. bovis, and S. salivarius species-groups were determined and compared with those from 58 Streptococcus strains in public databases. The Streptococcus pangenome consists of 12,403 orthologous groups of which 574 are shared among all sequenced streptococci and are defined as the Streptococcus core genome. Genome mining of the small-intestinal streptococci focused on functions playing an important role in the interaction of these streptococci in the small-intestinal ecosystem, including natural competence and nutrient-transport and metabolism. Analysis of the small-intestinal Streptococcus genomes predicts a high capacity to synthesize amino acids and various vitamins as well as substantial divergence in their carbohydrate transport and metabolic capacities, which is in agreement with observed physiological differences between these Streptococcus strains. Gene-specific PCR-strategies enabled evaluation of conservation of Streptococcus populations in intestinal samples from different human individuals, revealing that the S. salivarius strains were frequently detected in the small-intestine microbiota, supporting the representative value of the genomes provided in this study. Finally, the Streptococcus genomes allow prediction of the effect of dietary substances on Streptococcus population dynamics in the human small-intestine. PMID:24386196

  12. Serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of group B streptococci in pregnant women: results from a Swiss tertiary centre.

    PubMed

    Fröhlicher, Simone; Reichen-Fahrni, Gabriela; Müller, Martin; Surbek, Daniel; Droz, Sara; Spellerberg, Barbara; Sendi, Parham

    2014-03-20

    To evaluate the rates of penicillin, clindamycin and erythromycin resistance and the serotype distribution among isolates of group B streptococcus (GBS) obtained from pregnant women at the University Hospital of Bern in Switzerland. We prospectively collected screening samples for GBS colonisation at the University Women's Hospital Bern, Switzerland, between March 2009 and August 2010. We included 364 GBS isolates collected from vaginal, cervical or vaginal-perianal swabs at any gestation time. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for penicillin, clindamycin and erythromycin were established using Etest with 24 hours of incubation, and inducible clindamycin resistance was tested with double disk diffusion tests. Serotyping was done with a rapid latex agglutination test or, if not conclusive, with polymerase chain-reaction (PCR) testing. We looked for significant associations between resistance patterns, age groups, serotype and ethnicity. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin. Resistance rates were 14.5% for erythromycin and 8.2% for clindamycin. Of 364 isolates, 5.8% were susceptible to clindamycin but not to erythromycin, although demonstrating inducible clindamycin resistance. Hence, the final reported clindamycin resistance rate was 14%. Serotype III was the most frequent serotype (29%), followed by V (25%) and Ia (19%). Serotype V was associated with erythromycin resistance (p = 0.0007). In comparison with all other ethnicities, patients from Asia showed a higher proportion of erythromycin and clindamycin resistance (p = 0.018). No significant association between resistance patterns and age groups was found. In pregnant women with GBS colonisation, penicillin is the antibiotic of choice for intrapartum prophylaxis to prevent neonatal early-onset GBS sepsis. In women with penicillin allergy and at high risk for anaphylactic reaction, clindamycin may be an alternative. The resistance rate for clindamycin at our institution was 14%; therefore

  13. DNA methylase activity as a marker for the presence of a family of phage-like elements conferring efflux-mediated macrolide resistance in streptococci.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, T A; Aguiar, S I; Melo-Cristino, J; Ramirez, M

    2006-11-01

    Recently, two related chimeric genetic elements (Tn1207.3 and Phi10394.4) were shown to carry the macrolide efflux gene mef in Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci [GAS]). The dissemination of elements belonging to the Tn1207.3/Phi10394.4 family in recent isolates of GAS, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus agalactiae recovered in Portugal was surveyed. In total, 149 GAS, 18 S. pneumoniae, 4 S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, and 5 S. agalactiae isolates from infections, presenting the M phenotype of macrolide resistance and containing the mef gene, were screened for the presence of Tn1207.3/Phi10394.4 by PCR targeting open reading frames (ORFs) specific for these related elements. All the GAS isolates tested and one of the S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis isolates carried Tn1207.3. However, neither of these elements was found in the isolates of the other streptococcal species. It was also noted that the DNAs of the isolates carrying Tn1207.3 were resistant to cleavage by the endonuclease SmaI. Cloning and expression of ORF12 of Tn1207.3 in Escherichia coli showed that it encoded a methyltransferase that rendered DNA refractory to cleavage by SmaI (M.Spy10394I). Using this characteristic as a marker for the presence of the Tn1207.3/Phi10394.4 family, we reviewed the literature and concluded that these genetic elements are widely distributed among tetracycline-susceptible GAS isolates presenting the M phenotype from diverse geographic origins and may have played an important role in the dissemination of macrolide resistance in this species.

  14. In vitro antimicrobial activities against cariogenic streptococci and their antioxidant capacities: A comparative study of green tea versus different herbs.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tzung-Hsun; Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chien, You-Chia; Lee, Chi-Wei; Tsai, Po-Jung

    2008-10-15

    The antimicrobial activity against cariogenic bacteria, total antioxidant capacity and phenolic constituents of methanolic extracts from 11 herbs were investigated and compared with those of green tea (Camellia sinensis). Among the 12 tested herbs, eight herbal extracts could inhibit the growth of Streptococcus sanguinis. Jasmine, jiaogulan, and lemongrass were the most potent, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 1mg/ml, while green tea was less effective, with a MIC of 4mg/ml. Among them, only rosemary could inhibit the growth of S. mutans at a MIC of 4mg/ml. Total antioxidant capacities of herbal extracts were analyzed by three different assays, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radical scavenging activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Regardless of the assays used, green tea exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by osmanthus. Wide variations in total phenolics and total flavonoids of herbal tea extracts were observed. Chlorogenic acid was detected in high amount in honeysuckle and duzhong. These data suggest that rosemary is a potent inhibitor of oral streptococci, and green tea and osmanthus may be effective potential sources of natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Distinguishing spinocerebellar ataxia with pure cerebellar manifestation from multiple system atrophy (MSA-C) through saccade profiles.

    PubMed

    Terao, Yasuo; Fukuda, Hideki; Tokushige, Shin-Ichi; Inomata-Terada, Satomi; Yugeta, Akihiro; Hamada, Masashi; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2017-01-01

    Patients with spinocerebellar ataxia with pure cerebellar presentation (SCD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA-C) show similar symptoms at early stages, although cerebellofugal pathology predominates in SCD, and cerebellopetal pathology in MSA-C. We studied whether saccade velocity profiles, which reflect the accelerating and braking functions of the cerebellum, can differentiate these two disorders. We recorded visually guided (VGS) and memory guided saccades (MGS) in 29 MSA-C patients, 12 SCD patients, and 92 age-matched normal subjects, and compared their amplitude, peak velocity and duration (accelerating and decelerating phases). Hypometria predominated in VGS and MGS of MSA-C, whereas hypometria was less marked in SCD, with hypermetria frequently noted in MGS. Peak velocity was reduced, and deteriorated with advancing disease both in SCD and MSA-C groups at smaller target eccentricities. The deceleration phase was prolonged in SCD compared to MSA-C and normal groups at larger target eccentricities, which deteriorated with advancing disease. Saccades in MSA-C were characterized by a more prominent acceleration deficit and those in SCD by a more prominent braking defect, possibly caused by the cerebellopetal and cerebellofugal pathologies, respectively. Saccade profiles provide important information regarding the accelerating and braking signals of the cerebellum in spinocerebellar ataxia. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mutans streptococci prevalence in Puerto Rican babies with cariogenic feeding behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lopez, L; Berkowitz, R J; Moss, M E; Weinstein, P

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that babies are at higher risk for mutans streptococci (ms) colonization if their mothers have dense salivary ms reservoirs relative to babies who have mothers with negligible salivary reservoirs. This communication provides data that identifies another potential risk factor (use of a nursing bottle at bedtime and/or naptime that contains a substrate other than water) for baby infection by ms. The study population consisted of 60 babies (28 males/32 females; mean age 15 mos; age range 12-18 mos) who were all healthy, caries free, and slept with a nursing bottle that contained a substrate other than water (NB+). Pooled maxillary incisor plaque and saliva samples were obtained and immediately placed in Reduced Transparent Fluid (RTF); they were serially diluted and plated onto Mitis Salivarius Agar plus Bacitracin (MSB) and blood agar plates within 4 hours of collection; the plates were incubated in an anaerobic environment for 48 h at 37 C and then placed for 24 h under aerobiosis prior to examination; representative ms colonies were isolated and subjected to mannitol and sorbitol fermentation tests for taxonomic verification. Plates with colony counts between 20 and 300 were utilized to determine the % of ms in each sample. Fifty one of the 60(85%) babies harbored ms in at least 1 of the 2 samples. The 95% confidence interval for the proportion of subjects with detectable levels of ms was 73%-93%. Fisher's exact test showed that babies 16-18 mos age were more likely to have detectable levels of ms than babies 12-15 mos age (p = 0.01). Levels of ms in plaque and saliva were as follows: < 0.1% (plaque 27/51, mean age 15 mos, sd 1.77; saliva 28/51, mean age 15 mos, sd 1.76); 0.1%-1.0% (plaque 4/51, mean age 14 mos, sd 1.5; saliva 6/51, mean age 15 mos, sd 1.46); > 1.0% (plaque 14/51, mean age 16 mos, sd 2.1; saliva 11/51, mean age 16 mos, sd 1.91). The density of infection did not vary by age for plaque (P = 0.32) or saliva (P = 0

  17. Comparison of extracellular protein profiles of seven serotypes of mutans streptococci grown under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Hardy, L N; Knox, K W; Brown, R A; Wicken, A J; Fitzgerald, R J

    1986-05-01

    Extracellular proteins produced by the four human commensal species of mutans streptococci were analysed. The organisms used were Streptococcus mutans, serotypes c, e and f, Streptococcus cricetus, serotype a, Streptococcus rattus, serotype b, and Streptococcus sobrinus, serotypes d and g. They were grown in continuous culture at different generation times and pH values in media containing either glucose or fructose to determine the extent of variation in extracellular protein production that could occur for an individual strain. The results for different organisms grown under the same conditions were then compared. The total amount of protein of molecular mass greater than or equal to 60 kDa varied considerably with the growth conditions and with the strain. Generally more protein was present at a higher pH, conditions under which the organisms also form more lipoteichoic acid. With respect to individual protein components SDS-PAGE proved better than isoelectric focusing for detecting phenotypic responses by a particular strain to environmental changes and differences between the different strains. Differences in the molecular masses of protein components were particularly pronounced in the regions designated P1 (185-200 kDa), P2 (130-155 kDa) and P3 (60-95 kDa). Every strain produced at least one component in the P1 region that cross-reacted with antiserum to the purified protein from S. mutans serotype c, a protein which is indistinguishable from antigens B and I/II. Two components in the P2 region were dominant in the case of S. cricetus and S. sobrinus strains and showed glucosyltransferase (GTF) activity. GTF activity was also detected in the P3 region, particularly with S. mutans strains.

  18. Group B Streptococci serotype distribution in pregnant women in Ghana: assessment of potential coverage through future vaccines.

    PubMed

    Vinnemeier, C D; Brust, P; Owusu-Dabo, E; Sarpong, N; Sarfo, E Y; Bio, Y; Rolling, T; Dekker, D; Adu-Sarkodie, Y; Eberhardt, K A; May, J; Cramer, J P

    2015-11-01

    Group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization of pregnant women can lead to subsequent infection of the new-born and potentially fatal invasive disease. Data on GBS colonization prevalence and serotype distribution from Africa are scarce, although GBS-related infections are estimated to contribute substantially to infant mortality. In recent years, GBS vaccine candidates provided promising results in phase I and II clinical trials. We aimed to assess the prevalence and serotype distribution of GBS in Ghana since this knowledge is a prerequisite for future evaluation of vaccine trials. This double-centre study was conducted in one rural and one urban hospital in central Ghana, West Africa. Women in late pregnancy (≥35 weeks of gestation) attending the antenatal care clinic (ANC) provided recto-vaginal swabs for GBS testing. GBS isolates were analysed for serotype and antibiotic susceptibility. GBS-positive women were treated with intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) according to current guidelines of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In total, 519 women were recruited at both study sites, recto-vaginal swabs were taken from 509. The overall prevalence of GBS was 19.1% (18.1% in rural Pramso and 23.1% in urban Kumasi, restrospectively). Capsular polysaccharide serotype (CPS) Ia accounted for the most frequent serotype beyond all isolates (28.1%), followed by serotype V (27.1%) and III (21.9%). No resistance to Penicillin was found, resistances to second line antibiotics clindamycin and erythromycin were 3.1% and 1%, respectively. Group B Streptococcus serotype distribution in Ghana is similar to that worldwide, but variations in prevalence of certain serotypes between the urban and rural study site were high. Antibiotic resistance of GBS strains was surprisingly low in this study. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal infections: a review with an Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Narava, S; Rajaram, G; Ramadevi, A; Prakash, G V; Mackenzie, S

    2014-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. Asymptomatic colonisation of the vagina and rectum with Group B streptococci is common in pregnancy. Maternal colonisation of GBS can vary depending on ethnicity and geographical distribution. Vertical transmission of this organism from mother to foetus may lead to neonatal GBS disease. Intra-partum use of antibiotics in these women has led to a decrease in the rate of early onset but not late onset GBS disease. Identification of women with GBS is the key factor in the prevention of perinatal GBS disease. There are different screening strategies available to identify women at risk of perinatal GBS disease. Clinicians continue to face the challenge of choosing between preventive strategies to reduce the impact of perinatal GBS disease. Controversy exists regarding the ideal preventive strategy. In India, the mortality and morbidity associated with the GBS disease remains largely a under-recognised problem. This comprehensive review summarises the salient features of GBS disease and discusses the epidemiology, risk factors, screening strategies, intra-partum antibiotic prophylaxis with an Indian perspective and how it compares with the Western nations.

  20. A SKIN TEST FOR DETECTING GROUP C HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTION CAUSING EPIZOOTIC LYMPHADENITIS IN GUINEA PIGS

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Johannes K.

    1936-01-01

    1. A skin test with a crude bacterial extract prepared from group C (Lancefield) hemolytic streptococci was used as a means of detecting possible carriers of the streptococcus causing epizootic lymphadenitis in guinea pigs. A positive test similar to a positive tuberculin reaction was considered presumptive evidence of present or recent infection with this streptococcus. 2. 20 positive reactors were found in 330 supposedly normal guinea pigs. 3. 195 negatively reacting animals were used as a breeding stock which yielded 1,296 progeny over a period of 15 months. None of the breeding stock or their progeny showed evidence of spontaneous lymphadenitis. Skin tests of 100 of the progeny were all negative. 4. The use of this skin test as a means of obtaining guinea pig breeding stock free of the streptococcus causing spontaneous lymphadenitis is suggested. PMID:19870552

  1. Early hospital discharge of infants born to group B streptococci-positive mothers: a decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Berger, M B; Xu, X; Williams, J A; Van de Ven, C J M; Mozurkewich, E L

    2012-03-01

    To compare the cost-effectiveness of an additional 24-hour inpatient observation for asymptomatic term neonates born to group B streptococcus (GBS)-colonised mothers with adequate intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) after an initial 24-hour in-hospital observation. Cost-effectiveness analysis from a societal perspective. United States. Asymptomatic term neonates born to GBS-colonised mothers with IAP after an initial 24-hour in-hospital observation. Monte Carlo simulation for a decision tree model incorporating the following chance events: development of GBS sepsis during the second 24 hours of life, development of GBS sepsis between 48 hours and 7 days of life, prompt versus delayed treatment for sepsis, neonatal mortality and long-term health sequelae. Expected cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Delayed, versus early, hospital discharge results in similar mean expected QALYs, but substantially higher expected cost. The mean difference in QALY is 0.00016 (95% CI 0.00005-0.00040), whereas the mean difference in cost is $1170.96 (95% CI $750.13-1584.32). The ICER is estimated to be $9,771,520.87 per QALY (95% CI $2,573,139.89-24,407,017.82). The proportion of early-onset GBS that develops during the second 24 hours of life, the cost of 24 hours of inpatient observation, and the probability of long-term sequelae following prompt versus delayed treatment play important roles in determining the cost-effectiveness of delayed hospital discharge. Cost-effectiveness analysis suggests that with adequate IAP, discharging asymptomatic term neonates to home after 24 hours is the preferred approach compared with 48 hours inpatient observation. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  2. EEG analysis of seizure patterns using visibility graphs for detection of generalized seizures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Long, Xi; Arends, Johan B A M; Aarts, Ronald M

    2017-10-01

    The traditional EEG features in the time and frequency domain show limited seizure detection performance in the epileptic population with intellectual disability (ID). In addition, the influence of EEG seizure patterns on detection performance was less studied. A single-channel EEG signal can be mapped into visibility graphs (VGS), including basic visibility graph (VG), horizontal VG (HVG), and difference VG (DVG). These graphs were used to characterize different EEG seizure patterns. To demonstrate its effectiveness in identifying EEG seizure patterns and detecting generalized seizures, EEG recordings of 615h on one EEG channel from 29 epileptic patients with ID were analyzed. A novel feature set with discriminative power for seizure detection was obtained by using the VGS method. The degree distributions (DDs) of DVG can clearly distinguish EEG of each seizure pattern. The degree entropy and power-law degree power in DVG were proposed here for the first time, and they show significant difference between seizure and non-seizure EEG. The connecting structure measured by HVG can better distinguish seizure EEG from background than those by VG and DVG. A traditional EEG feature set based on frequency analysis was used here as a benchmark feature set. With a support vector machine (SVM) classifier, the seizure detection performance of the benchmark feature set (sensitivity of 24%, FD t /h of 1.8s) can be improved by combining our proposed VGS features extracted from one EEG channel (sensitivity of 38%, FD t /h of 1.4s). The proposed VGS-based features can help improve seizure detection for ID patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats Are emm Type-Specific in Highly Prevalent Group A Streptococci.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Po-Xing; Chan, Yuen-Chi; Chiou, Chien-Shun; Chiang-Ni, Chuan; Wang, Shu-Ying; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Chuang, Woei-Jer; Lin, Yee-Shin; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are the bacterial adaptive immune system against foreign nucleic acids. Given the variable nature of CRISPR, it could be a good marker for molecular epidemiology. Group A streptococcus is one of the major human pathogens. It has two CRISPR loci, including CRISPR01 and CRISPR02. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of CRISPR-associated gene cassettes (cas) and CRISPR arrays in highly prevalent emm types. The cas cassette and CRISPR array in two CRISPR loci were analyzed in a total of 332 strains, including emm1, emm3, emm4, emm12, and emm28 strains. The CRISPR type was defined by the spacer content of each CRISPR array. All strains had at least one cas cassette or CRISPR array. More than 90% of the spacers were found in one emm type, specifically. Comparing the consistency between emm and CRISPR types by Simpson's index of diversity and the adjusted Wallace coefficient, CRISPR01 type was concordant to emm type, and CRISPR02 showed unidirectional congruence to emm type, suggesting that at least for the majority of isolates causing infection in high income countries, the emm type can be inferred from CRISPR analysis, which can further discriminate isolates sharing the same emm type.

  4. Evaluation of the effect of photodynamic antimicrobial therapy in dentin caries: a pilot in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, F. M. C.; de-Melo, M. A. S.; Lima, J. M. P.; Zanin, I. C. J.; Rodrigues, L. K. A.; Nobre-dos-Santos, M.

    2010-02-01

    In vitro and in situ studies have demonstrated that the photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (PACT) is effective in reducing Streptococcus mutans population in artificially carious dentin. This pilot in vivo study evaluated the antimicrobial effect of PACT using toluidine blue O (TBO) and a light-emitting diode (LED) in carious dentin lesions. Five healthy adult volunteers (19-36 yr), with at least 4 active carious cavities each, participated in this study. Teeth of each volunteer were randomly divided into four groups: (1) without TBO and without light (Control); (2) with TBO alone (TBO); (3) with LED at 94/J cm2 alone (LED); and (4) with TBO plus LED at 94 J/cm2 (PACT). Each cavity was divided into two halves. The baseline carious dentin sample was collected from half of each cavity. Following, the treatments were performed using a random distribution of tooth into treatments. Then, the second collection of carious dentin samples was performed. Before and after treatments, dentin samples were analyzed with regard to the counts of total viable microorganisms, total streptococci, mutans streptococci, and lactobacilli. The data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Student-Newman-Keuls tests (α=5%). Log reductions ranged from -0.12 to 2.68 and significant reductions were observed for PACT (group 4) when compared to the other groups (1, 2, and 3) for total streptococci and mutans streptococci. Concluding, PACT was effective in killing oral microorganisms present in in vivo carious dentin lesions and may be a promising technique for eliminating bacteria from dentin before restoration.

  5. Temporal trends of β-haemolytic streptococcal osteoarticular infections in western Norway.

    PubMed

    Oppegaard, Oddvar; Skrede, Steinar; Mylvaganam, Haima; Kittang, Bård Reiakvam

    2016-10-04

    Beta-haemolytic streptococci are important contributors to the global burden of osteoarticular infections (OAI). Knowledge on the disease traits specific for streptococcal OAI, however, remains scarce. We wished to explore temporal trends of OAI caused by Group A Streptococci (GAS), Group B Streptococci (GBS) and Group C and G Streptococci (GCGS), and furthermore, to describe the associated host and pathogen characteristics. All cases of microbiologically verified β-haemolytic streptococcal OAI in Health Region Bergen, Norway, in the period 1999-2013 were retrospectively identified. Clinical data were extracted from medical records. Microbial isolates were submitted to antibiotic susceptibility testing and molecular typing. A total of 24 GAS, 45 GBS and 42 GCGS acute OAI were identified. The cumulative incidence of GCGS OAI, but not GAS or GBS OAI, increased significantly from the first to the last 5-year period (IRR 5.7, p = 0.0003), with the annual incidence peaking at 1.9/100 000 in 2013. GAS OAI generally produced the most acute and severe clinical presentation, whereas GBS and GCGS predominantly affected the elderly, and were significantly associated with the presence of host risk factors of systemic and focal origin, respectively. We found a significantly increasing incidence of GCGS OAI, likely related to the presence of host susceptibility factors, including prosthetic material and pre-existing joint disease. With an increasing application of therapeutic and diagnostic bone and joint procedures, the rising trend of OAI caused by GCGS is likely to continue. Sustained epidemiological attentiveness to GCGS seems warranted.

  6. Energy intake and expenditure during sedentary screen time and motion-controlled video gaming123

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Wang, Xiaoshan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Television watching and playing of video games (VGs) are associated with higher energy intakes. Motion-controlled video games (MC) may be a healthier alternative to sedentary screen-based activities because of higher energy expenditures, but little is known about the effects of these games on energy intakes. Objective: Energy intake, expenditure, and surplus (intake − expenditure) were compared during sedentary (television and VG) and active (MC) screen-time use. Design: Young adults (n = 120; 60 women) were randomly assigned to the following 3 groups: television watching, playing traditional VGs, or playing MCs for 1 h while snacks and beverages were provided. Energy intakes, energy expenditures, and appetites were measured. Results: Intakes across these 3 groups showed a trend toward a significant difference (P = 0.065). The energy expenditure (P < 0.001) was higher, and the energy surplus (P = 0.038) was lower, in MC than in television or VG groups. All conditions produced a mean (±SD) energy surplus as follows: 638 ± 408 kcal in television, 655 ± 533 kcal in VG, and 376 ± 487 kcal in MC groups. The OR for consuming ≥500 kcal in the television compared with the MC group was 3.2 (95% CI: 1.2, 8.4). Secondary analyses, in which the 2 sedentary conditions were collapsed, showed an intake that was 178 kcal (95% CI: 8, 349 kcal) lower in the MC condition than in the sedentary groups (television and VG). Conclusion: MCs may be a healthier alternative to sedentary screen time because of a lower energy surplus, but the playing of these games still resulted in a positive energy balance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01523795. PMID:22760571

  7. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats Are emm Type-Specific in Highly Prevalent Group A Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Po-Xing; Chan, Yuen-Chi; Chiou, Chien-Shun; Chiang-Ni, Chuan; Wang, Shu-Ying; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Chuang, Woei-Jer; Lin, Yee-Shin; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are the bacterial adaptive immune system against foreign nucleic acids. Given the variable nature of CRISPR, it could be a good marker for molecular epidemiology. Group A streptococcus is one of the major human pathogens. It has two CRISPR loci, including CRISPR01 and CRISPR02. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of CRISPR-associated gene cassettes (cas) and CRISPR arrays in highly prevalent emm types. The cas cassette and CRISPR array in two CRISPR loci were analyzed in a total of 332 strains, including emm1, emm3, emm4, emm12, and emm28 strains. The CRISPR type was defined by the spacer content of each CRISPR array. All strains had at least one cas cassette or CRISPR array. More than 90% of the spacers were found in one emm type, specifically. Comparing the consistency between emm and CRISPR types by Simpson’s index of diversity and the adjusted Wallace coefficient, CRISPR01 type was concordant to emm type, and CRISPR02 showed unidirectional congruence to emm type, suggesting that at least for the majority of isolates causing infection in high income countries, the emm type can be inferred from CRISPR analysis, which can further discriminate isolates sharing the same emm type. PMID:26710228

  8. Immunochemical cross-reactions between type III group B Streptococcus and type 14 Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Crumrine, M H; Fischer, G W; Balk, M W

    1979-01-01

    Serological cross-reactions between certain streptococci and some serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae have been reported. These studies detail the serological cross-reactivity observed between hot HCl-extracted group b streptococcus type III (GBS III) antigens and S. pneumoniae type 14 (Pn 14) polysaccharide. Similar electrophoretic migration patterns of GBS III and Pn 14 were observed when either type-specific BGS III antisera or pneumococcal omniserum was utilized to precipitate these antigens. Both the GBS III antigen and the Pn 14 polysaccharide migrated toward the cathode, whereas all other pneumococcal polysaccharides migrated toward the anode. No cross-reactions were observed between GBS III antisera and the 11 other types of pneumococcal polysaccharides. Lines of identity were observed between type-specific GBS III antisera and monospecific Pn 14 antiserum with either GBS III antigens or purified Pn 14 polysaccharide. The cross-reacting antigens of GBS III and Pn 14 appear to be identical by immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. Images PMID:40876

  9. Comparative short-term in vitro analysis of mutans streptococci adhesion on esthetic, nickel-titanium, and stainless-steel arch wires.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Hye; Park, Hyo-Sang; Kim, Young Kyung; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2014-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that there are no differences in mutans streptococci (MS) adhesion between esthetic and metallic orthodontic arch wires based on their surface characteristics. Surface roughness (Ra) and apparent surface free energy (SFE) were measured for six wires-four esthetic, one nickel-titanium (NiTi), and one stainless-steel (SS)-using profilometry and dynamic contact angle analysis, respectively. The amount of MS (Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus) adhering to the wires was quantified using the colony-counting method. The surfaces, coating layers, and MS adhesion were also observed by scanning electron microscopy. Statistical significance was set at P < .05. The Ra values of the esthetic wires were significantly different from one another depending on the coating method (P < .05). The NiTi wire showed the highest SFE, followed by the SS wire and then the four esthetic wires. The NiTi wires produced a significantly higher MS adhesion than did the SS wires (P < .05). The esthetic wires showed significantly lower MS adhesions than did the NiTi wire (P < .05). Pearson correlation analyses found moderate significant positive correlations between the SFE and the S mutans and S sobrinus adhesions (r  =  .636/.427, P < .001/P  =  .001, respectively). The hypothesis is rejected. This study indicates that some esthetic coatings on NiTi alloy might reduce MS adhesion in vitro in the short term.

  10. Mutans streptococci--in families and on tooth sites. Studies on the distribution, acquisition and persistence using DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Emanuelsson, I M

    2001-01-01

    Mutans streptococci (MS) are bacteria showing several cariogenic traits. This thesis is based on the concept that humans acquire MS directly or indirectly from each other. Previous research on the transmission of the bacteria in families has indicated that children acquire MS from their mothers. Just a few studies have included fathers. Diverging results have been presented about spouses acquiring MS from each other. The information on the distribution of MS types at a tooth surface level has been limited. The methods used for identification of MS types have been refined during the years making further studies in the field interesting. The present thesis deals primarily with the distribution of MS in families. Twenty-five Swedish families including a 3-year-old first-born child (I) and 11 corresponding Chinese families (II) were studied. The Swedish families were followed up 2-5 years later (III and IV). Study V deals with the colonization of MS on tooth sites in 13 young adults. MS were isolated from bacterial plaque samples obtained from the teeth of the subjects. Identification of MS types was carried out through DNA analysis methods, REA and RAPD respectively. MS were detected in 11 of the 25 Swedish children. The distribution of MS genotypes in these families indicated that the mothers and individuals outside the family were the sources of MS to the children (I). The distribution of MS genotypes in the Chinese families (II) pointed to the fact that the father played a more pronounced role as MS source compared to in the Swedish families. The intra-familial distribution of MS seemed to be different in the two groups of families with different cultural backgrounds. At the follow-up, genotypes of MS were found again among the MS positive children and their parents. This indicated that genotypes of MS persisted. Even though some alterations in the prevalence of MS genotypes were shown (III). Among the MS negative children some had acquired the bacteria, but most

  11. A Novel Sensor Platform Matching the Improved Version of IPMVP Option C for Measuring Energy Savings

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yen-Chieh; Lee, Da-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Chang, Ching-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    It is easy to measure energy consumption with a power meter. However, energy savings cannot be directly computed by the powers measured using existing power meter technologies, since the power consumption only reflects parts of the real energy flows. The International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) was proposed by the Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO) to quantify energy savings using four different methodologies of A, B, C and D. Although energy savings can be estimated following the IPMVP, there are limitations on its practical implementation. Moreover, the data processing methods of the four IPMVP alternatives use multiple sensors (thermometer, hygrometer, Occupant information) and power meter readings to simulate all facilities, in order to determine an energy usage benchmark and the energy savings. This study proposes a simple sensor platform to measure energy savings. Using usually the Electronic Product Code (EPC) global standard, an architecture framework for an information system is constructed that integrates sensors data, power meter readings and occupancy conditions. The proposed sensor platform is used to monitor a building with a newly built vertical garden system (VGS). A VGS shields solar radiation and saves on energy that would be expended on air-conditioning. With this platform, the amount of energy saved in the whole facility is measured and reported in real-time. The data are compared with those obtained from detailed measurement and verification (M&V) processes. The discrepancy is less than 1.565%. Using measurements from the proposed sensor platform, the energy savings for the entire facility are quantified, with a resolution of ±1.2%. The VGS gives an 8.483% daily electricity saving for the building. Thus, the results show that the simple sensor platform proposed by this study is more widely applicable than the four complicated IPMVP alternatives and the VGS is an effective tool in reducing the carbon

  12. AVGS, AR and D for Satellites, ISS, the Moon, Mars and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintze, Geoffrey C.; Cornett, Keith G.; Rahmatipour, Michael H.; Heaton, Andrew F.; Newman, Larry E.; Fleischmann, Kevin D.; Hamby, Byron J.

    2007-01-01

    With the continuous need to rotate crew and re-supply the International Space Station (ISS) and the desire to return humans to the Moon and for the first time, place humans on Mars, NASA must develop a more robust and highly reliable capability to perform Autonomous Rendezvous and Capture (AR&C) because, unlike the Apollo missions, NASA plans to send the entire crew to the Lunar or Martian surface and must be able to dock with the Orion spacecraft upon return. In 1997, NASA developed the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS) which was flown and tested on STS-87 and STS-95. In 2001, NASA designed and built a more enhanced version of the VGS, called the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS). The AVGS offered significant technology improvements to the precursor VGS design. This paper will describe the AVGS as it was in the DART mission of 2005 and the Orbital Express mission of 2007. The paper will describe the capabilities and design concepts of the AVGS as it was flown on the DART 2005 Mission and the DARPA Orbital Express Mission slated to fly in 2007. The paper will cover the Flight Software, problems encountered, testing for Orbital Express and where NASA is going in the future.

  13. [Group B Streptococcus carriers among pregnant women].

    PubMed

    García, S D; Eliseth, M Cora; Lazzo, M J; Copolillo, E; Barata, A D; de Torres, R; Vay, C A; Famiglietti, A M

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae--group B streptococci (GBS)--is a main cause of severe neonatal infections with a high mortality rate. The detection of pregnant GBS carriers (5-35%) allows intrapartum administration of antibiotic prophylaxis to these women and prevents perinatal infection. We studied the prevalence of GBS in 259 patients between 28 and 37 weeks gestation from April 2000 to March 2002. The anorectum (AR) and vaginal introitus swabs (VI) were cultured in selective Todd-Hewitt broth containing colistin (10 micrograms/ml) and nalidixic acid (15 micrograms/ml) while vaginal swabs (VFS) were cultured following conventional methods. A total of 47 strains of EGB were isolated from 259 patients (18.15%). The prevalence in different samples were: 5.40% in VFS, 13.51% in VI, 11.58% in AR and 17.76% in VI + AR (reference method). The isolates were tested against penicillin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin and streptomycin to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. The resistance phenotypes of erythromycin-resistant GBS were determined by the double-disk test. All strains were susceptible to penicillin, ceftriaxone and vancomycin, only one strain was erythromycin and clindamycin resistant by IMLSB mechanism. None of the isolated strains had a high resistant level to aminoglycosides. The sensitivity of cultures increased when selective broths were used as the primary detection method.

  14. D-tagatose 1,6-diphosphate aldolase from lactic streptococci: purification, properties, and use in measuring intracellular tagatose 1,6-diphosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Crow, V L; Thomas, T D

    1982-01-01

    Two D-ketohexose 1,6-diphosphate aldolases are present in Streptococcus cremoris E8 and S. lactis C10. One aldolase, which was induced by growth on either lactose or galactose, was active with both tagatose 1,6-diphosphate (TDP) and fructose 1,6-diphosphate (FDP), having a lower Km and a higher Vmax with TDP as the substrate. This enzyme, named TDP aldolase, had properties typical of a class I aldolase, being insensitive to EDTA and showing substrate-dependent inactivation by sodium borohydride. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis indicated a subunit molecular weight of 34,500. The amino acid composition of TDP aldolase is reported. When the enzyme was incubated with either triose phosphates or FDP, the equilibrium mixture contained an FDP/TDP ratio of 6.9:1. The other aldolase, which had properties typical of a class II aldolase, showed activity with FDP but not with TDP. The intracellular TDP concentration, measured with the purified TDP aldolase, was 0.4 to 4.0 mM in cells growing on lactose or galactose and was lower (0 to 1.0 mM) in cells growing on glucose. The intracellular concentration of FDP was always higher than that of TDP. The role of ketohexose diphosphates in the regulation of end product fermentation by lactic streptococci is discussed. PMID:6807956

  15. Isolation of Streptococcus tigurinus - a novel member of Streptococcus mitis group from a case of periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Dhotre, Shree V; Mehetre, Gajanan T; Dharne, Mahesh S; Suryawanshi, Namdev M; Nagoba, Basavraj S

    2014-08-01

    Streptococcus tigurinus is a new member of the Streptococcus viridians group and is closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis. The type strain AZ_3a(T) of S. tigurinus was originally isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis. Accurate identification of S. tigurinus is facilitated only by newer molecular methods like 16S rRNA gene analysis. During the course of study on bacteraemia and infective endocarditis with reference to periodontitis and viridians group of streptococci, a strain of S. tigurinus isolated from subgingival plaque of a patient with periodontitis identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis, which was originally identified as Streptococcus pluranimalium by Vitek 2. Confirmation by 16S rRNA gene analysis showed 99.39% similarity (1476/1485 bp) with S. tigurinus AZ_3a(T) (AORU01000002). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of S. tigurinus from the oral cavity of a periodontitis patient. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gram Positive Bacterial Superantigen Outside-In Signaling Causes Toxic Shock Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Brosnahan, Amanda J.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci) are gram-positive pathogens capable of producing a variety of bacterial exotoxins known as superantigens. Superantigens interact with antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cells to induce T cell proliferation and massive cytokine production, which leads to fever, rash, capillary leak, and subsequent hypotension, the major symptoms of toxic shock syndrome. Both S. aureus and group A streptococci colonize mucosal surfaces, including the anterior nares and vagina for S. aureus, and the oropharynx and less commonly the vagina for group A streptococci. However, due to their abilities to secrete a variety of virulence factors, the organisms can also cause illnesses from the mucosa. This review provides an updated discussion of the biochemical and structural features of one group of secreted virulence factors, the staphylococcal and group A streptococcal superantigens, and their abilities to cause toxic shock syndrome from a mucosal surface. The main focus of this review, however, is the abilities of superantigens to induce cytokines and chemokines from epithelial cells, which has been linked to a dodecapeptide region that is relatively conserved among all superantigens and is distinct from the binding sites required for interactions with APCs and T cells. This phenomenon, termed outside-in signaling, acts to recruit adaptive immune cells to the submucosa, where the superantigens can then interact with those cells to initiate the final cytokine cascades that lead to toxic shock syndrome. PMID:21535475

  17. Gram-positive bacterial superantigen outside-in signaling causes toxic shock syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brosnahan, Amanda J; Schlievert, Patrick M

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci) are Gram-positive pathogens capable of producing a variety of bacterial exotoxins known as superantigens. Superantigens interact with antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cells to induce T cell proliferation and massive cytokine production, which leads to fever, rash, capillary leak and subsequent hypotension, the major symptoms of toxic shock syndrome. Both S. aureus and group A streptococci colonize mucosal surfaces, including the anterior nares and vagina for S. aureus, and the oropharynx and less commonly the vagina for group A streptococci. However, due to their abilities to secrete a variety of virulence factors, the organisms can also cause illnesses from the mucosa. This review provides an updated discussion of the biochemical and structural features of one group of secreted virulence factors, the staphylococcal and group A streptococcal superantigens, and their abilities to cause toxic shock syndrome from a mucosal surface. The main focus of this review, however, is the abilities of superantigens to induce cytokines and chemokines from epithelial cells, which has been linked to a dodecapeptide region that is relatively conserved among all superantigens and is distinct from the binding sites required for interactions with APCs and T cells. This phenomenon, termed outside-in signaling, acts to recruit adaptive immune cells to the submucosa, where the superantigens can then interact with those cells to initiate the final cytokine cascades that lead to toxic shock syndrome. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  18. Optical Fabrication and Measurement: AR&C and NGST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Greg; Engelhaupt, Darell

    1997-01-01

    The need exists at MSFC for research and development within three major areas: (1) Automated Rendezvous and Capture (AR&C) including Video Guidance System (VGS); (2) Next Generation Space Telescope, (NGST); and (3) replicated optics. AR&C/VGS is a laser retroreflection guidance and tracking device which is used from the shuttle to provide video information regarding deployment and guidance of released satellites. NGST is the next large telescope for space to complement Hubble Space Telescope. This will be larger than HST and may be produced in segments to be assembled and aligned in space utilizing advanced mechanisms and materials. The replicated optics will involve a variety of advanced procedures and materials to produce x-ray collimating as well as imaging telescopes and optical components.

  19. Caries risk indicators in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus in relation to metabolic control.

    PubMed

    El-Tekeya, Magda; El Tantawi, Maha; Fetouh, Hend; Mowafy, Ehsan; Abo Khedr, Nashwa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of caries risk indicators and metabolic control in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The study included 50 children with type 1 DM and 50 healthy controls, all 6 to 9 years old. Diabetic children were classified into 3 groups: well, fairly, and poorly controlled based on glycosilated hemoglobin level. Personal, family data, medical and dental history were collected. Children were examined for caries experience, plaque, and gingival condition. Saliva samples were obtained for culturing mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, and Candida, and colony forming units were counted. No significant differences existed between all groups regarding caries experience or mean log count of micro-organisms. Diabetic children differed significantly from healthy children in parental occupation and education, dental visits, oral hygiene, and plaque and gingival indices, whereas no differences were observed among children with different levels of metabolic control regarding these factors. Regression analysis identified mutans streptococci as a significant variable affecting caries experience in diabetic children. Regarding the interaction of caries risk indicators and metabolic control on caries experience in diabetic children, the only variable that showed a significant effect was mutans streptococci.

  20. Clinical value of polymerase chain reaction in detecting group B streptococcus during labor.

    PubMed

    Koppes, Dorothea Maria; Vriends, Antonius Arnoldus Cornelis Maria; van Rijn, Michiel; van Heesewijk, Antonine Dimphne

    2017-06-01

    To reduce the intrapartum use of antibiotics in women with prolonged rupture of the membranes (PROM) by restriction of antibiotics to women who are colonized with group B streptococci (GBS), as identified with the Cepheid Gene Xpert polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting GBS. We conducted a randomized controlled trial among full-term delivering women with PROM. Fifty-four women were enrolled, based on a power calculation with a significance level of 5% and a power of 95%. Twenty-seven women received the standard treatment (rectovaginal swab [RVS] for bacterial culture and antibiotics). For another 27 women PCR was performed on the RVS and antibiotics were used only when the PCR was positive. The primary outcome was reduction in antibiotic use, defined as the percentage of women who received antibiotics during labor. 54 Women were enrolled in the study between 1 May and 18 November 2014. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics. In total, 10 of the 54 women were GBS positive (18.5%). Of those 10 women, three were identified on bacterial culture and seven on PCR. In the bacterial culture group all the women received antibiotics. In the PCR group 10 women (37%) received antibiotics (P = 0.002). Two false-positive PCR tests were identified. There were no false-negative PCR tests. Real-time identification of GBS on PCR reduces the intrapartum use of antibiotics in women with PROM. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Molecular characterization of Group A streptococcal isolates causing scarlet fever and pharyngitis among young children: a retrospective study from a northern Taiwan medical center.

    PubMed

    Wu, Po-Chuang; Lo, Wen-Tsung; Chen, Shyi-Jou; Wang, Chih-Chien

    2014-08-01

    Little information is available on the differences in frequency of pyrogenic exotoxin genes between strains of group A streptococci that cause scarlet fever and those that cause pharyngotonsillitis in children in Taiwan. This study retrospectively monitored the presence of pyrogenic exotoxin genes, the emm typing, and the susceptibility of macrolide drugs in Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from children diagnosed with scarlet fever and pharyngotonsillitis in northern Taiwan. Isolates of S. pyogenes were recovered from children with scarlet fever (n = 21) and acute pharyngotonsillitis (n = 29) during 2000-2011. The isolates were characterized according to the presence of spe genes and emm typing. Antibiograms were determined by the disk diffusion method and agar dilution test. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the presence of erm genes in isolates that showed nonsusceptibility to erythromycin. All isolates underwent additional genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. In isolates from patients with scarlet fever, the frequencies of pyrogenic exotoxin genes were 9.5% for speA, 81.0% for speB, 4.8% for speC, and 71.4% for speF. In isolates from patients with pharyngotonsillitis, the frequencies were 17.2% for speA, 72.4% for speB, 13.8% for speC, and 69.0% for speF. There were no significant differences in frequencies of the exotoxin genes between the two groups of isolates. Eight emm sequence types were identified from all group A streptococci isolates. The most common types were emm12 followed by emm1 and emm4. The erythromycin resistant rate was 4/50 (8%). The ermB gene was detected in only one isolate from a patient with pharyngotonsillitis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis had a total of three sets of clustered strains, which showed >80% homology and belonged to the same emm type. There were no significant differences in frequencies of the spe genes between S. pyogenes isolates from patients with scarlet fever and patients with

  2. Classification of group B streptococci with reduced β-lactam susceptibility (GBS-RBS) based on the amino acid substitutions in PBPs.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kouji; Nagano, Noriyuki; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2015-01-01

    All clinical isolates of group B Streptococcus (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) are considered uniformly susceptible to β-lactams, including penicillins. However, GBS with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS) were first identified by our group in Japan and have also been reported from North America. PRGBS are non-susceptible to penicillin because of acquisition of amino acid substitutions near the conserved active-site motifs in PBP2X. In particular, V405A and Q557E are considered the key amino acid substitutions responsible for penicillin non-susceptibility. We revealed that in addition to the substitutions in PBP2X, an amino acid substitution in PBP1A confers high-level cephalosporin resistance in GBS. As the number of publications on GBS with reduced β-lactam susceptibility (GBS-RBS), especially PRGBS, and concomitantly the need for a systematic classification of GBS-RBS is increasing, we propose here a classification of GBS-RBS based on the amino acid substitutions in their PBPs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. An improved procedure for shipboard enumeration of faecal indicator bacteria in marine sediments from sewage sludge disposal areas.

    PubMed

    West, P A

    1988-04-01

    An improved membrane filtration procedure for use on board ship to enumerate Escherichia coli and Group D faecal streptococci in marine sediments is described. Ultrasonication extraction combined with resuscitation of sublethally-injured cells yielded significantly higher counts of E. coli than sediments shaken by hand. Counts of E. coli were also higher on mFC agar (without rosalic acid) after a period of resuscitation on tryptone-soy agar supplemented with 0.1% yeast extract than on a 4% Teepol-lactose medium. Ultrasonication of sediments made no significant difference to counts of Group D faecal streptococci on KF-streptococcus agar. These improved isolation procedures allowed better discrimination of the area affected by sewage sludge at a disposal site off the northeast coast of England.

  4. Phylogenomic and MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Streptococcus sinensis HKU4T Reveals a Distinct Phylogenetic Clade in the Genus Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Herman; Chen, Jonathan H.K.; Tang, Ying; Lau, Susanna K.P.; Woo, Patrick C.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus sinensis is a recently discovered human pathogen isolated from blood cultures of patients with infective endocarditis. Its phylogenetic position, as well as those of its closely related species, remains inconclusive when single genes were used for phylogenetic analysis. For example, S. sinensis branched out from members of the anginosus, mitis, and sanguinis groups in the 16S ribosomal RNA gene phylogenetic tree, but it was clustered with members of the anginosus and sanguinis groups when groEL gene sequences used for analysis. In this study, we sequenced the draft genome of S. sinensis and used a polyphasic approach, including concatenated genes, whole genomes, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry to analyze the phylogeny of S. sinensis. The size of the S. sinensis draft genome is 2.06 Mb, with GC content of 42.2%. Phylogenetic analysis using 50 concatenated genes or whole genomes revealed that S. sinensis formed a distinct cluster with Streptococcus oligofermentans and Streptococcus cristatus, and these three streptococci were clustered with the “sanguinis group.” As for phylogenetic analysis using hierarchical cluster analysis of the mass spectra of streptococci, S. sinensis also formed a distinct cluster with S. oligofermentans and S. cristatus, but these three streptococci were clustered with the “mitis group.” On the basis of the findings, we propose a novel group, named “sinensis group,” to include S. sinensis, S. oligofermentans, and S. cristatus, in the Streptococcus genus. Our study also illustrates the power of phylogenomic analyses for resolving ambiguities in bacterial taxonomy. PMID:25331233

  5. A SKIN TEST FOR DETECTING GROUP C HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTION CAUSING EPIZOOTIC LYMPHADENITIS IN GUINEA PIGS : APPLICATIONS IN SELECTING BREEDING STOCK.

    PubMed

    Moen, J K

    1936-09-30

    1. A skin test with a crude bacterial extract prepared from group C (Lancefield) hemolytic streptococci was used as a means of detecting possible carriers of the streptococcus causing epizootic lymphadenitis in guinea pigs. A positive test similar to a positive tuberculin reaction was considered presumptive evidence of present or recent infection with this streptococcus. 2. 20 positive reactors were found in 330 supposedly normal guinea pigs. 3. 195 negatively reacting animals were used as a breeding stock which yielded 1,296 progeny over a period of 15 months. None of the breeding stock or their progeny showed evidence of spontaneous lymphadenitis. Skin tests of 100 of the progeny were all negative. 4. The use of this skin test as a means of obtaining guinea pig breeding stock free of the streptococcus causing spontaneous lymphadenitis is suggested.

  6. HOST-PARASITE FACTORS IN GROUP A STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Dennis W.

    1960-01-01

    The factors present in streptococcal lesion extracts (SLE) which enhanced the lethal and tissue-damaging properties of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins and streptolysin O were identified with the scarlet fever group of toxins. Toxic manifestations attributed to this group of toxins included lethality, cardiotoxic and other tissue damage, enhancement of toxicity, and pyrogenicity. Of these, the measurement of febrile response in American Dutch rabbits was the most useful parameter of toxicity. In rabbits, repeated daily intravenous injections of 0.125 Lf of a purified erythrogenic toxin immunizes specifically against the pyrogenic activity; this technique was used to type the toxins and to distinguish them from exogenous and endogenous pyrogens; non-specific pyrogens, such as streptococcal endotoxin, were not found in SLE. All types of the Lancefield Group A streptococci tested produced one or or more immunologically distinct toxins in vivo in contrast to Groups B and C which did not produce them; toxins A and B, previously distinguished by neutralization of rash-inducing activity in the skin, were produced in vivo. The A toxin was the most common, as indicated by its presence in extracts prepared with Types 28, 12, 17, and 10 (NY-5); B toxin was found in 10 (NY-5) and 19. A new toxin, designated C, was obtained from a Type 18. In American Dutch rabbits, purified toxin at a concentration of 15 Lf (900,000 STD) neither gave a Dick test nor prepared the skin for the local Shwartzman reaction; by this route, however, in contrast to classical endotoxins, they enhance the lethal and tissue-damaging properties of sublethal doses of these and other toxins. These properties of the immunologic distinct exotoxins as demonstrated in American Dutch rabbits suggest by analogy their importance in the pathogenesis of streptococcal disease in man. Evidence that might implicate them in sequelae, in addition to scarlet fever, is discussed. PMID:13783427

  7. The impact of incubating the throat culture for 72 h on the diagnosis of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci.

    PubMed

    Kocoglu, Esra; Karabay, Oguz; Yilmaz, Fahrettin; Ekerbicer, Hasan

    2006-09-01

    The accurate detection and treatment of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis is important to prevent the potential sequels. Throat culture remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis. Many authors recommended 48 h incubation time for the isolation of group A Streptococcus (GAS). In this study the diagnostic efficacy of prolonging the incubation time of throat cultures to 72 h for isolation of GAS was researched. Throat swab specimens were inoculated to 5% sheep blood agar plate and incubated at 37 degrees C, and evaluated at the 24th hour. GAS negative plates were incubated again for another 24h and read at the 48th hour. Negative plates at 48 h were incubated again, read at the 72nd hour, and positive results of all measurements were evaluated. A total of 367 cultures were examined. At the 24th hour evaluation 34 (9.3%) cultures were positive for GAS. Evaluation of 333 cultures that were found to be negative in the first 24th hour evaluation revealed 44 (13.6%) positive cultures at 48th hour evaluation. Out of 289 cultures that were negative during the 48th hour evaluation, an additional 13 (4.7%) cultures were found to be positive during the 72nd hour evaluation. The agreement between 24th-48th and 24th and 72nd were both moderate (kappa 0.54 and 0. 46, respectively), and between 48th and 72nd hour was very good (kappa: 0.90). Throat cultures that are negative for GAS at 24h should be incubated for second day. We conclude that, to confirm the throat cultures GAS negative, results of throat cultures need to be incubated for 72 h, since 72nd hour evaluations revealed additional 5% positive results.

  8. BMI, eating habits and sleep in relation to salivary counts of mutans streptococci in children - the IDEFICS Sweden study.

    PubMed

    Arvidsson, Louise; Birkhed, Dowen; Hunsberger, Monica; Lanfer, Anne; Lissner, Lauren; Mehlig, Kirsten; Mårild, Staffan; Eiben, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between salivary counts of mutans streptococci (MS) and children's weight status, while considering associated covariates. MS ferments carbohydrates from the diet and contributes to caries by lowering the pH in dental plaque. In adults, high counts of MS in saliva have been associated with overweight, but this has not been shown in children. Cross-sectional study investigating salivary counts of MS, BMI Z-score, waist circumference, meal frequency, sugar propensity and sleep duration, in children. West Sweden. Children (n 271) aged 4-11 years. Medium-high counts of MS were positively associated with higher BMI Z-score (OR=1·6; 95% CI 1·1, 2·3). Positive associations were also found between medium-high counts of MS and more frequent meals per day (OR=1·5; 95% CI 1·1, 2·2), greater percentage of sugar-rich foods consumed (OR=1·1; 95% CI 1·0, 1·3) and female sex (OR=2·4; 95% CI 1·1, 5·4). A negative association was found between medium-high counts of MS and longer sleep duration (OR=0·5; 95% CI 0·3, 1·0). BMI Z-score was associated with counts of MS. Promoting adequate sleep duration and limiting the intake frequency of sugar-rich foods and beverages could provide multiple benefits in public health interventions aimed at reducing dental caries and childhood overweight.

  9. Mutans streptococcal serotypes in children with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Hölttä, P; Aine, L; Mäki, M; Ruuska, T; Vuento, R; Ashorn, M; Alaluusua, S

    1997-01-01

    It has been suggested that vomiting acid gastric contents in bulimia might favor oral growth of Streptococcus sobrinus. We studied the colonization of Streptococcus sobrinus (serotypes g and d) and Streptococcus mutans (serotypes c, e and f) in sixteen children, ages five to fifteen years, who had suffered for four to eleven years from gastroesophageal reflux, another condition with recurrent acid regurgitation. Our aim was to find out if the prevalence of Streptococcus sobrinus would be higher also in this patient group. Mutants streptococci were detected in twelve out of sixteen (75 percent) study patients of the saliva samples cultured on MSB agar. For the Mutans streptococci positive children healthy controls were matched by salivary levels of mutans streptococci and age as closely as possible. From each child three to six isolates representing both Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus (n = 103) were serotyped by immunodiffusion method. The distribution of serotypes in the study/control group was: c: 7/10; e: 4/2; f: 0/1; g:3/2; d:0/0. One strain in the study group remained untypable. All patients infected with Streptococcus sobrinus were also infected with Streptococcus mutans. Our results indicate the great similarity in the distribution of ms serotypes in the gastroesophageal reflux children and their healthy controls. The data do not suggest that the acid regurgitation would have an influence on the prevalence of Streptococcus sobrinus.

  10. Caries risk profiles in orthodontic patients at follow-up using Cariogram.

    PubMed

    Al Mulla, Anas H; Kharsa, Saad Al; Kjellberg, Heidrun; Birkhed, Dowen

    2009-03-01

    To analyze caries-related factors shortly after orthodontic treatment and to use the Cariogram computer program to describe caries risk profiles at follow-up in these patients. One hundred orthodontic patients age 12-29 years, with a mean age of 17.5 years, were included in the study. They were divided into two groups (50 in each) based on their prebonding decayed, filled surfaces index (DFS). High (5 > or = DFS) and low (2 < or = DFS) groups were created. All patients were examined after debonding in the following order: interview, plaque score, caries examination, saliva samples, bitewing radiographs, panoramic radiographs, and intra-oral digital photos. All types of carious lesions in both the enamel and dentine were diagnosed clinically and radiographically and included in the DFS index. A paraffin-stimulated whole saliva sample was collected for estimations of secretion rate, buffer capacity, and number of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. The low caries group (2 < or = DFS) displayed a statistically significant difference and low values for the following factors, DFS (P < .001), lactobacilli (P < .001), mutans streptococci (P < .001), and high Cariogram percent (P < .001). The plaque index displayed very close significance (P = .051). Patients with high (5 > or = DFS) numbers before orthodontic treatment ran a higher risk of developing caries. They had significantly higher numbers of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli and had less chance of avoiding new cavities according to the Cariogram.

  11. Three cDNAs encoding vitellogenin homologs from Antarctic copepod, Tigriopus kingsejongensis: Cloning and transcriptional analysis in different maturation stages, temperatures, and putative reproductive hormones.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Rin; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Ah Ran; Kim, Sanghee; Park, Hyun; Baek, Hea Ja; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Three full-length cDNAs encoding lipoprotein homologs were identified in Tigriopus kingsejongensis, a newly identified copepod from Antarctica. Structural and transcriptional analyses revealed homology with two vitellogenin-like proteins, Tik-Vg1 and Tik-Vg2, which were 1855 and 1795 amino acids in length, respectively, along with a third protein, Tik-MEP, which produced a 1517-residue protein with similarity to a melanin engaging protein (MEP) in insects Phylogenetic analysis showed that Vgs in Maxillopods including two Tik-Vgs belong to the arthropod vitellogenin-like clade, which includes clottable proteins (CPs) in decapod crustaceans and vitellogenins in insects. Tik-MEP clustered together with insect MEPs, which appear to have evolved before the apoB-like and arthropod Vg-like clades. Interestingly, no genes orthologous to those found in the apoB clade were identified in Maxillopoda, suggesting that functions of large lipid transfer proteins (LLTPs) in reproduction and lipid metabolism may be different from those in insect and decapod crustaceans. As suggested by phylogenetic analyses, the two Tik-Vgs belonging to the arthropod Vg-like clade appear to play major roles in oocyte maturation, while Vgs belonging to the apoB clade function primarily in the reproduction of decapod crustaceans. Transcriptional analysis of Tik-Vg expression revealed a 24-fold increase in mature and ovigerous females compared with immature female, whereas expression of Tik-MEP remained low through all reproductive stages. Acute temperature changes did not affect the transcription of Tik-Vg genes, whereas Tik-MEP appeared to be affected by temperature change. Among the three hormones thought to be involved in molting and reproduction in arthropods, only farnesoic acid (FA) induced transcription of the two Tik-Vg genes. Regardless of developmental stage and hormone treatment, Tik-Vg1 and Tik-Vg2 exhibited a strong positive correlation in expression, suggesting that expression of these

  12. The dynamic nature of group A streptococcal epidemiology in tropical communities with high rates of rheumatic heart disease

    PubMed Central

    McDONALD, M. I.; TOWERS, R. J.; ANDREWS, R.; BENGER, N.; FAGAN, P.; CURRIE, B. J.; CARAPETIS, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Prospective surveillance was conducted in three remote Aboriginal communities with high rates of rheumatic heart disease in order to investigate the epidemiology of group A β-haemolytic streptococci (GAS). At each household visit, participants were asked about sore throat. Swabs were taken from all throats and any skin sores. GAS isolates were emm sequence and pattern-typed using standard laboratory methods. There were 531 household visits; 43 different emm types and subtypes (emmST) were recovered. Four epidemiological patterns were observed. Multiple emmST were present in the population at any one time and household acquisition rates were high. Household acquisition was most commonly via 5- to 9-year-olds. Following acquisition, there was a 1 in 5 chance of secondary detection in the household. Throat detection of emmST was brief, usually <2 months. The epidemiology of GAS in these remote Aboriginal communities is a highly dynamic process characterized by emmST diversity and turnover. PMID:17540052

  13. Epidemiology and outcomes associated with moderate to heavy Candida colonization during pregnancy. Vaginal Infections and Prematurity Study Group.

    PubMed

    Cotch, M F; Hillier, S L; Gibbs, R S; Eschenbach, D A

    1998-02-01

    Our purpose was to determine the risk factors, physical findings, microflora, and pregnancy outcome among pregnant women with moderate to heavy vaginal growth of Candida albicans and other Candida species. A multicenter cohort of 13,914 women were enrolled between 23 and 26 weeks' gestation. Women completed a questionnaire, underwent a physical examination, and had genital specimens taken for culture. A subset of 1459 women were reexamined during the third trimester. Pregnancy outcomes were recorded at delivery. The prevalence of moderate to heavy Candida colonization at midgestation was 10%. Colonized women, 83% of whom carried C. albicans, were more likely to be black or Hispanic, unmarried, a previous oral contraceptive user, and to manifest clinical signs indicative of Candida carriage. Candida colonization was positively associated with Trichomonas vaginalis, group B streptococci, and aerobic Lactobacillus and was not associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. These results suggest that Candida colonization is not associated with low birth weight or preterm delivery.

  14. Comparison of two antigen assays for rapid intrapartum detection of vaginal group B streptococcal colonization.

    PubMed

    Green, M; Dashefsky, B; Wald, E R; Laifer, S; Harger, J; Guthrie, R

    1993-01-01

    As part of a clinical investigation evaluating the efficacy of intrapartum antigen detection for screening for heavy vaginal colonization with group B streptococci (GBS), we compared the performance of modified Bactigen and Directigen GBS latex particle agglutination (LPA) kits. Paired vaginal swabs obtained from women in labor were rapidly transported to the laboratory and used for culturing (both swabs) and LPA testing (one swab by each method). GBS growth was estimated semiquantitatively and further designated as light or heavy growth. Performance specifications for each method were determined by comparing LPA and culture results from the same swab. A total of 4,251 paired swabs were evaluated during the study period. The performance specifications for detecting GBS growth of any degree for Bactigen and Directigen, respectively, were as follows: sensitivity, 20 and 24%; specificity, 99 and 99%. The performance specifications for heavy colonization for Bactigen and Directigen, respectively, were as follows: sensitivity, 57 and 62%; specificity, 99 and 99%. Neither LPA kit was a sensitive indicator of vaginal colonization with GBS or neonatal infection.

  15. Plasma Streamwise Vortex Generators in an Adverse Pressure Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Christopher; Corke, Thomas; Thomas, Flint

    2013-11-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted to compare plasma streamwise vortex generators (PSVGs) and passive vortex generators (VGs). These devices were installed on a wing section by which the angle of attack could be used to vary the streamwise pressure gradient. The experiment was performed for freestream Mach numbers 0.1-0.2. Three-dimensional velocity components were measured using a 5-hole Pitot probe in the boundary layer. These measurements were used to quantify the production of streamwise vorticity and the magnitude of the reorientation term from the vorticity transport equation. The effect of Mach number, pressure gradient, operating voltage, and electrode length was then investigated for the PSVGs. The results indicate that the PSVGs could easily outperform the passive VGs and provide a suitable alternative for flow control.

  16. Epilepsy and videogames.

    PubMed

    Bureau, Michelle; Hirsch, Edouard; Vigevano, Federico

    2004-01-01

    Since the first case of videogame (VG) epilepsy was reported in 1981, many cases of seizures triggered by VGs were reported, not only in photosensitive, but also in non-photosensitive children and adolescents with epilepsy. We provide an overview of the literature with overall conclusions and recommendations regarding VG playing. Specific preventive measures concerning the physical characteristics of images included in commercially available VGs (flash rate, choice of colors, patterns, and contrast) can lead in the future to a clear decrease of this problem. In addition to the positive effect of such measures, the collaborative studies performed in France and in the rest of Europe have stressed the importance of a safe distance to the screen of > or = 2 m, and the less provocative role of 100-Hz screens.

  17. Voided Midstream Urine Culture and Acute Cystitis in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Hooton, Thomas M; Roberts, Pacita L.; Cox, Marsha E.; Stapleton, Ann E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The cause of acute uncomplicated cystitis is determined on the basis of cultures of voided midstream urine, but few data guide the interpretation of such results, especially when gram-positive bacteria grow. METHODS Women from 18 to 49 years of age with symptoms of cystitis provided specimens of midstream urine, after which we collected urine by means of a urethral catheter for culture (catheter urine). We compared microbial species and colony counts in the paired specimens. The primary outcome was a comparison of positive predictive values and negative predictive values of organisms grown in midstream urine, with the presence or absence of the organism in catheter urine used as the reference. RESULTS The analysis of 236 episodes of cystitis in 226 women yielded 202 paired specimens of midstream urine and catheter urine that could be evaluated. Cultures were positive for uropathogens in 142 catheter specimens (70%), 4 of which had more than one uropathogen, and in 157 midstream specimens (78%). The presence of Escherichia coli in midstream urine was highly predictive of bladder bacteriuria even at very low counts, with a positive predictive value of 102 colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter of 93% (Spearman’s r = 0.944). In contrast, in midstream urine, enterococci (in 10% of cultures) and group B streptococci (in 12% of cultures) were not predictive of bladder bacteriuria at any colony count (Spearman’s r = 0.322 for enterococci and 0.272 for group B streptococci). Among 41 episodes in which enterococcus, group B streptococci, or both were found in midstream urine, E. coli grew from catheter urine cultures in 61%. CONCLUSIONS Cultures of voided midstream urine in healthy premenopausal women with acute uncomplicated cystitis accurately showed evidence of bladder E. coli but not of enterococci or group B streptococci, which are often isolated with E. coli but appear to rarely cause cystitis by themselves. (Funded by the National Institute of

  18. Molecular characteristics of insect vitellogenins and vitellogenin receptors.

    PubMed

    Sappington, T W; Raikhel, A S

    1998-01-01

    The recent cloning and sequencing of several insect vitellogenins (Vg), the major yolk protein precursor of most oviparous animals, and the mosquito Vg receptor (VgR) has brought the study of insect vitellogenesis to a new plane. Insect Vgs are homologous to nematode and vertebrate Vgs. All but one of the insect Vgs for which we know the primary structure are cleaved into two subunits at a site [(R/K)X(R/K)R or RXXR with an adjacent beta-turn] recognized by subtilisin-like proprotein convertases. In four of the Vgs, the cleavage site is near the N-terminus, but in one insect species, it is near the C-terminus of the Vg precursor. Multiple alignments of these Vg sequences indicate that the variation in cleavage location has not arisen through exon shuffling, but through local modifications of the amino acid sequences. A wasp Vg precursor is not cleaved, apparently because the sequence at the presumed ancestral cleavage site has been mutated from RXRR to LYRR and is no longer recognized by convertases. Some insect Vgs contain polyserine domains which are reminiscent of, but not homologous to, the phosvitin domain in vertebrate Vgs. The sequence of the mosquito VgR revealed that it is a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family. Though resembling chicken and frog VgRs, which are also members of the LDLR family, it is twice as big, carrying two clusters of cysteine-rich complement-type (Class A) repeats (implicated in ligand-binding) instead of one like vertebrate VgRs and LDLRs. It is very similar in sequence and domain arrangement to the Drosophila yolk protein receptor (YPR), despite a non-vitellogenin ligand for the latter. Though vertebrate VgRs, insect VgR/YPRs, and LDLR-related proteins/megalins all accommodate one cluster of eight Class A repeats, fingerprint analysis of the repeats in these clusters indicate they are not directly homologous with one another, but have undergone differing histories of duplications, deletions, and exon

  19. Does the choice of antibiotic affect outcome in strep throat?

    PubMed

    Santos, Cynthia; Alerhand, Stephen; Koyfman, Alex

    2015-05-01

    There is insufficient evidence to show clinically meaningful differences between antibiotics for group A beta hemolytic streptococci tonsillopharyngitis. Penicillin or amoxicillin is recommended as first choice, given the absence of resistance and low cost.

  20. Numerical and experimental investigation of VG flow control for a low-boom inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybalko, Michael

    The application of vortex generators (VGs) for shock/boundary layer interaction flow control in a novel external compression, axisymmetric, low-boom concept inlet was studied using numerical and experimental methods. The low-boom inlet design features a zero-angle cowl and relaxed isentropic compression centerbody spike, resulting in defocused oblique shocks and a weak terminating normal shock. This allows reduced external gas dynamic waves at high mass flow rates but suffers from flow separation near the throat and a large hub-side boundary layer at the Aerodynamic Interface Plane (AIP), which marks the inflow to the jet engine turbo-machinery. Supersonic VGs were investigated to reduce the shock-induced flow separation near the throat while subsonic VGs were investigated to reduce boundary layer radial distortion at the AIP. To guide large-scale inlet experiments, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations using three-dimensional, structured, chimera (overset) grids and the WIND-US code were conducted. Flow control cases included conventional and novel types of vortex generators at positions both upstream of the terminating normal shock (supersonic VGs) and downstream (subsonic VGs). The performance parameters included incompressible axisymmetric shape factor, post-shock separation area, inlet pressure recovery, and mass flow ratio. The design of experiments (DOE) methodology was used to select device size and location, analyze the resulting data, and determine the optimal choice of device geometry. Based on the above studies, a test matrix of supersonic and subsonic VGs was adapted for a large-scale inlet test to be conducted at the 8'x6' supersonic wind tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Comparisons of RANS simulations with data from the Fall 2010 8'x6' inlet test showed that predicted VG performance trends and case rankings for both supersonic and subsonic devices were consistent with experimental results. For example, experimental surface oil

  1. M Protein Gene (emm Type) Analysis of Group A Beta-Hemolytic Streptococci from Ethiopia Reveals Unique Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Tewodros, Wezenet; Kronvall, Göran

    2005-01-01

    The genetic diversity of group A streptococcal (GAS) isolates obtained in 1990 from Ethiopian children with various streptococcal diseases was studied by using emm gene sequence analysis. A total of 217 GAS isolates were included: 155 and 62 isolates from throat and skin, respectively. A total of 78 different emm/st types were detected among the 217 isolates. Of these, 166 (76.5%) belonged to 52 validated reference emm types, 26 (11.9%) belonged to 16 already recognized sequence types (st types) and 25 (11.5%) belonged to 10 undocumented new sequence types. Resistance to tetracycline (148 of 217) was not correlated to emm type. Isolation rate of the classical rheumatogenic and nephritogenic strains was low from cases of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and acute glomerulonephritis (AGN), respectively. Instead, the recently discovered st types were overrepresented among isolates from patients with ARF (3 of 7) and AGN (9 of 16) (P < 0.01) compared to isolates from subjects with tonsillitis and from healthy carriers (10 of 57 and 16 of 90, respectively). In contrast to rheumatogenic strains from the temperate regions, more than half of the isolates from ARF (four of seven) carried the genetic marker for skin preference, emm pattern D, although most of them (six of seven) were isolated from throat. Of 57 tonsillitis-associated isolates, 16 (28%) belonged to emm pattern D compared to <1% in temperate regions. As in other reports emm patterns A to C were strongly associated with throat, whereas emm pattern D did not correlate to skin. This first large-scale emm typing report from Africa has demonstrated a heterogeneous GAS population and contrasting nature of GAS epidemiology in the region. PMID:16145079

  2. Mannose-binding lectin binds to a range of clinically relevant microorganisms and promotes complement deposition.

    PubMed

    Neth, O; Jack, D L; Dodds, A W; Holzel, H; Klein, N J; Turner, M W

    2000-02-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a collagenous serum lectin believed to be of importance in innate immunity. Genetically determined low levels of the protein are known to predispose to infections. In this study the binding of purified MBL to pathogens isolated from immunocompromised children was investigated by flow cytometry. Diverse Candida species, Aspergillus fumigatus, Staphylococcus aureus, and beta-hemolytic group A streptococci exhibited strong binding of MBL, whereas Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, and Haemophilus influenzae type b were characterized by heterogeneous binding patterns. In contrast, beta-hemolytic group B streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus epidermidis showed low levels of binding. Bound MBL was able to promote C4 deposition in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that MBL may be of importance in first-line immune defense against several important pathogens.

  3. Detection of Group B Streptococcus in Brazilian pregnant women and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns

    PubMed Central

    Castellano-Filho, Didier Silveira; da Silva, Vânia Lúcia; Nascimento, Thiago César; de Toledo Vieira, Marcel; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2010-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is still not routinely screened during pregnancy in Brazil, being prophylaxis and empirical treatment based on identification of risk groups. This study aimed to investigate GBS prevalence in Brazilian pregnant women by culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) associated to the enrichment culture, and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated bacteria, so as to support public health policies and empirical prophylaxis. After an epidemiological survey, vaginal and anorectal specimens were collected from 221 consenting laboring women. Each sample was submitted to enrichment culture and sheep blood agar was used to isolate suggestive GBS. Alternatively, specific PCR was performed from enrichment cultures. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for isolated bacteria by agar diffusion method. No risk groups were identified. Considering the culture-based methodology, GBS was detected in 9.5% of the donors. Twenty five bacterial strains were isolated and identified. Through the culture-PCR methodology, GBS was detected in 32.6% specimens. Bacterial resistance was not detected against ampicillin, cephazolin, vancomycin and ciprofloxacin, whereas 22.7% were resistant to erythromycin and 50% were resistant to clindamycin. GBS detection may be improved by the association of PCR and enrichment culture. Considering that colony selection in agar plates may be laboring and technician-dependent, it may not reflect the real prevalence of streptococci. As in Brazil prevention strategies to reduce the GBS associated diseases have not been adopted, prospective studies are needed to anchor public health policies especially considering the regional GBS antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. PMID:24031585

  4. Phylogenomic and MALDI-TOF MS analysis of Streptococcus sinensis HKU4T reveals a distinct phylogenetic clade in the genus Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Teng, Jade L L; Huang, Yi; Tse, Herman; Chen, Jonathan H K; Tang, Ying; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2014-10-20

    Streptococcus sinensis is a recently discovered human pathogen isolated from blood cultures of patients with infective endocarditis. Its phylogenetic position, as well as those of its closely related species, remains inconclusive when single genes were used for phylogenetic analysis. For example, S. sinensis branched out from members of the anginosus, mitis, and sanguinis groups in the 16S ribosomal RNA gene phylogenetic tree, but it was clustered with members of the anginosus and sanguinis groups when groEL gene sequences used for analysis. In this study, we sequenced the draft genome of S. sinensis and used a polyphasic approach, including concatenated genes, whole genomes, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry to analyze the phylogeny of S. sinensis. The size of the S. sinensis draft genome is 2.06 Mb, with GC content of 42.2%. Phylogenetic analysis using 50 concatenated genes or whole genomes revealed that S. sinensis formed a distinct cluster with Streptococcus oligofermentans and Streptococcus cristatus, and these three streptococci were clustered with the "sanguinis group." As for phylogenetic analysis using hierarchical cluster analysis of the mass spectra of streptococci, S. sinensis also formed a distinct cluster with S. oligofermentans and S. cristatus, but these three streptococci were clustered with the "mitis group." On the basis of the findings, we propose a novel group, named "sinensis group," to include S. sinensis, S. oligofermentans, and S. cristatus, in the Streptococcus genus. Our study also illustrates the power of phylogenomic analyses for resolving ambiguities in bacterial taxonomy. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. Use of Granada Medium To Detect Group B Streptococcal Colonization in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Fraile, Manuel; Rodriguez-Granger, Javier; Cueto-Lopez, Marina; Sampedro, Antonio; Gaye, Enrique Biel; Haro, José Manuel; Andreu, Antonia

    1999-01-01

    Direct inoculation onto Granada medium (GM) in plates and tubes was compared to inoculation into a selective Todd-Hewitt broth (with 8 μg of gentamicin per ml and 15 μg of nalidixic acid per ml) for detection of group B streptococci (GBS) in pregnant women with 800 vaginal and 450 vaginoanorectal samples. Comparatively, GM was found to be as sensitive as the selective broth for the detection of GBS in vaginal specimens and more sensitive than selective broth for the detection of GBS in vaginoanorectal samples (96 versus 82%). The use of GM improved the time to reporting of a GBS-positive result by at least 24 h and reduced the direct cost of screening. We have also found that the inconvenience of anaerobic incubation of GM plates can be avoided when a cover slide is placed upon the inoculum, because aerobic incubation in GM plates with cover slides causes GBS to develop the same pigmentation that it develops with incubation under anaerobic conditions. These data support the routine use of GM plates or tubes as a more accurate, easier, and cheaper method of identification of GBS-colonized women compared to the enrichment broth technique. PMID:10405420

  6. Er:YAG laser: antimicrobial effects in the root canals of dogs' teeth with pulp necrosis and chronic periapical lesions.

    PubMed

    Leonardo, Mário R; Guillén-Carías, M G; Pécora, J D; Ito, I Y; Silva, L A B

    2005-06-01

    Our goal in this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Er:YAG laser applied after biomechanical preparation of the root canals of dog's teeth with apical periodontitis. Various in vitro studies have reported effective bacterial reduction in infected root canals using Er:YAG laser. However, there is no in vivo research to support these results. Forty root canals of dogs' premolar teeth with pulp necrosis and chronic periapical lesions were used. An initial microbiological sample was taken, and after biomechanical preparation was carried out, a second microbiological sample was taken. The teeth were divided into two groups: Group I-biomechanical preparation was taken of root canals without Er:YAG laser application; Group II-biomechanical preparation was taken of root canals with Er:YAG laser application using 140-mJ input, 63-mJ output/15 Hz. After coronal sealing, the root canals were left empty for 7 days at which time a third microbiological sample was taken. The collected material was removed from the root canal with a #40 K file and placed in transport media. It was serially diluted and seeded on culture dishes selective for anaerobes, aerobes, and total streptococci. Colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) were counted. Groups I and II showed an increase of CFU/mL for all microorganisms 7 days after treatment, being statistically significant for anaerobes in Group I and for anaerobes and total streptococci in Group II. When comparing CFU/mL of Groups I and II, there was a statistically significant increase after 7 d for total streptococci in Group II. Er:YAG laser applied after biomechanical preparation did not reduce microorganisms in the root canal system.

  7. Streptococcal throat infections and exacerbation of chronic plaque psoriasis: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, J E; Thorarinsson, A M; Sigurgeirsson, B; Kristinsson, K G; Valdimarsson, H

    2003-09-01

    Guttate psoriasis has a well-known association with streptococcal throat infections but the effects of these infections in patients with chronic psoriasis remains to be evaluated in a prospective study. To determine whether streptococcal throat infections are more common in and can cause exacerbation in patients with chronic psoriasis. Two hundred and eight patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and 116 unrelated age-matched household controls were followed for 1 year. At recruitment all patients were examined, their disease severity scored and throat swabs taken. Patients and corresponding controls were then re-examined and tested for streptococcal colonization whenever they reported sore throat or exacerbation of their psoriasis during the study period. The psoriasis patients reported sore throat significantly more often than controls (61 of 208 vs. three of 116, P < 0.0001), and beta-haemolytic streptococci of Lancefield groups A, C and G (M protein-positive streptococci) were more often cultured from the patients than the controls (19 of 208 vs. one of 116, P = 0.003). A significant exacerbation of psoriasis (P = 0.004) was observed only if streptococci were isolated and the patients were assessed 4 days or later after the onset of sore throat. No difference was observed between groups A, C or G streptococci in this respect. This study confirms anecdotal and retrospective reports that streptococcal throat infections can cause exacerbation of chronic plaque psoriasis. It is concluded that psoriasis patients should be encouraged to report sore throat to their physician and that early treatment of streptococcal throat infections might be beneficial in psoriasis. A controlled trial for assessing potential benefits of tonsillectomy in patients with severe psoriasis should also be considered.

  8. Linezolid Surveillance Results for the United States: LEADER Surveillance Program 2011

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Rodrigo E.; Ross, James E.; Sader, Helio S.; Jones, Ronald N.

    2013-01-01

    The LEADER surveillance program monitors the in vitro activity of linezolid and comparator agents against Gram-positive bacteria in the United States. In its eighth consecutive year (2011), a total of 60 medical centers from the United States, including seven medical centers specializing in children's health care contributed a total of 7,303 Gram-positive pathogens. The MIC90 value for Staphylococcus aureus was 2 μg/ml, and for coagulase-negative staphylococci, enterococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, β-hemolytic streptococci, and viridans group streptococci, the MIC90 was 1 μg/ml. The “all organism” linezolid-resistant and nonsusceptible rate was only 0.19%. PMID:23254424

  9. Protein A-like activity and streptococcal cross-reactions.

    PubMed Central

    Kingston, D

    1981-01-01

    Recognition of the protein A-like activity of some strains of group A streptococci has thrown doubt on much previous work suggesting antigenic cross-reactions between these streptococci and mammalian tissues. The strains used in our previous studies have now been examined by the mixed reverse passive antiglobulin reaction (MRPAH) for the 'non-specific' absorption of purified Fc portion of human IgG. They were found to have only traces of activity. The strain of Staphylococcus aureus used to control 'non-specific' absorption by bacterial cell walls was strongly positive. Protein A-like material as detected in this way was not therefore responsible for our earlier results. PMID:7039880

  10. Prevalence of enterococcus species and their virulence genes in fresh water prior to and after storm events.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, J P S; Skelly, E; Hodgers, L; Ahmed, W; Li, Y; Toze, S

    2014-01-01

    Enterococcus spp. isolates (n = 286) collected from six surface water bodies in subtropical Brisbane, Australia, prior to and after storm events, were identified to species level and tested for the presence of seven clinically important virulence genes (VGs). Enterococcus faecalis (48%), Enterococcus faecium (14%), Enterococcus mundtii (13%), and Enterococcus casseliflavus (13%) were frequently detected at all sites. The frequency of E. faecium occurrence increased from 6% in the dry period to 18% after the wet period. The endocarditis antigen (efaA), gelatinase (gelE), collagen-binding protein (ace), and aggregation substance (asa1) were detected in 61%, 43%, 43%, and 23% of Enterococcus isolates, respectively. The chances of occurrence of ace, gelE, efaA, and asa1 genes in E. faecalis were found to be much higher compared to the other Enterococcus spp. The observed odds ratio of occurrence of ace and gelE genes in E. faecalis was much higher at 7.96 and 6.40 times, respectively. The hyl gene was 3.84 times more likely to be detected in E. casseliflavus. The presence of multiple VGs in most of the E. faecalis isolates underscores the importance of E. faecalis as a reservoir of VGs in the fresh water aquatic environment. Consequently, if contaminated surface water is to be used for production of potable and nonpotable water some degree of treatment depending upon intended use such as detention in basins prior to use or chlorination is required.

  11. Salivary density of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus and dental caries in children and adolescents with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    SCALIONI, Flávia; CARRADA, Camila; MACHADO, Fernanda; Karina, DEVITO; RIBEIRO, Luiz Cláudio; CESAR, Dionéia; RIBEIRO, Rosangela

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are strongly associated with dental caries. However, the relationship between oral streptococci and dental caries in children with Down syndrome is not well characterized. Objective To assess and compare dental caries experience and salivary S. mutans, S. sobrinus, and streptococci counts between groups of Down syndrome and non-Down syndrome children and adolescents. Material and Methods This study included a sample of 30 Down syndrome children and adolescents (G-DS) and 30 age- and sex-matched non-Down syndrome subjects (G-ND). Dental caries experience was estimated by the number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth in the primary dentition and the permanent dentition. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from all participants. The fluorescence in situ hybridization technique was used to identify the presence and counts of the bacteria. The statistical analysis included chi-square, Student’s t-test and Spearman’s correlation. Results The G-DS exhibited a significantly higher caries-free rate (p<0.001) and a lower S. mutans salivary density (p<0.001). No significant differences were found in the salivary densities of S. sobrinus or streptococci between the groups (p=0.09 and p=0.21, respectively). The salivary S. mutans or S. sobrinus densities were not associated with dental caries experience in neither group. Conclusion The reduced dental caries experience observed in this group of Down syndrome children and adolescents cannot be attributed to lower salivary S. mutans densities, as determined with the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique. PMID:28678943

  12. Streptococcus dysgalactiae endocarditis presenting as acute endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Angelina Su-Min; Lau, Su Yin; Woo, Tsung Han; Li, Jordan Yuanzhi; Yong, Tuck Yean

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare ocular infection affecting the vitreous and/or aqueous humours. It is associated with poor visual prognosis and its commonest endogenous aetiology is infective endocarditis. The causative organisms of endogenous endophthalmitis complicating endocarditis are mainly Group A or B streptococci. The identification of Group C and G streptococci such as Streptococcus dysgalactiae is comparatively uncommon and has only been reported in a few case reports or series. We therefore report a case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae first presenting with endogenous endophthalmitis, the most likely source being osteomyelitis of both feet in a patient with type I diabetes. The patient was treated with a course of intravenous benzylpenicillin, intravitreal antibiotics, bilateral below knee amputations and mitral valve replacement. She survived all surgical procedures and regained partial visual acuity in the affected eye. PMID:24470923

  13. 62 FR 6261 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; MERREMRegister I.V.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-02-11

    ...): Bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae ( -lactamase and non.... (meropenem). MERREM I.V. is indicated as single agent therapy for the treatment of the following infections...-abdominal Infections: Complicated appendicitis and peritonitis caused by viridans group streptococci...

  14. Linezolid Surveillance Results for the United States (LEADER Surveillance Program 2014)

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Rodrigo E.; Hogan, Patricia A.; Streit, Jennifer M.; Ross, James E.; Jones, Ronald N.

    2016-01-01

    The linezolid experience and accurate determination of resistance (LEADER) surveillance program has monitored linezolid activity, spectrum, and resistance since 2004. In 2014, a total of 6,865 Gram-positive pathogens from 60 medical centers from 36 states were submitted. The organism groups evaluated were Staphylococcus aureus (3,106), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS; 797), enterococci (855), Streptococcus pneumoniae (874), viridans group streptococci (359), and beta-hemolytic streptococci (874). Susceptibility testing was performed by reference broth microdilution at the monitoring laboratory. Linezolid-resistant isolates were confirmed by repeat testing. PCR and sequencing were performed to detect mutations in 23S rRNA, L3, L4, and L22 proteins and acquired genes (cfr and optrA). The MIC50/90 for Staphylococcus aureus was 1/1 μg/ml, with 47.2% of isolates being methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Linezolid was active against all Streptococcus pneumoniae strains and beta-hemolytic streptococci with a MIC50/90 of 1/1 μg/ml and against viridans group streptococci with a MIC50/90 of 0.5/1 μg/ml. Among the linezolid-nonsusceptible MRSA strains, one strain harbored cfr only (MIC, 4 μg/ml), one harbored G2576T (MIC, 8 μg/ml), and one contained cfr and G2576T with L3 changes (MIC, ≥8 μg/ml). Among CoNS, 0.75% (six isolates) of all strains demonstrated linezolid MIC results of ≥4 μg/ml. Five of these were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis, four of which contained cfr in addition to the presence of mutations in the ribosomal proteins L3 and L4, alone or in combination with 23S rRNA (G2576T) mutations. Six enterococci (0.7%) were linezolid nonsusceptible (≥4 μg/ml; five with G2576T mutations, including one with an additional cfr gene, and one strain with optrA only). Linezolid demonstrated excellent activity and a sustained susceptibility rate of 99.78% overall. PMID:26833165

  15. Distribution of amoxicillin-resistant oral streptococci in dental plaque specimens obtained from Japanese children and adolescents at risk for infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Hirotoshi; Nomura, Ryota; Ooshima, Takashi; Nakano, Kazuhiko

    2013-11-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is known to be a life-threatening disease and prevention of its onset is important. Oral amoxicillin (AMPC) is generally prescribed to patients at risk for IE prior to undergoing risky procedures, such as invasive dental treatments. We previously found that approximately 5% of systemically healthy Japanese subjects harbor strains highly resistant to AMPC. In the present study, the prevalence of strains in patients at risk for IE was investigated. Thirty-four Japanese children and adolescents designated at risk for IE by their cardiovascular surgeons participated. Dental plaque specimens were obtained at recall examinations for dental checkups and placed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline, then diluted and streaked onto selective media for oral streptococci and also media containing AMPC. Nine strains with a minimum inhibitory concentration of AMPC of 16μg/mL or more were isolated from 7 of the subjects (20.6%), each of which was also resistant to other antibiotics analyzed except for new quinolone drugs. The 16S rRNA sequence of each strain demonstrated that all were oral streptococcal species. In addition, dental plaque specimens collected from 5 subjects after an additional interval of 3-4 months showed that 2 harbored the same clones at different time points. These findings suggest a higher prevalence of AMPC-resistant strains in children and adolescents at risk for IE as compared to systemically healthy subjects. Thus, alternative antibiotics should be considered for such subjects when performing prophylaxis procedures. Copyright © 2013 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microbiology and antibiotic sensitivity of head and neck space infections of odontogenic origin. Differences in inpatient and outpatient management.

    PubMed

    Heim, Nils; Faron, Anton; Wiedemeyer, Valentin; Reich, Rudolf; Martini, Markus

    2017-10-01

    The microbial flora of infections of the orofacial region of odontogenic origin is typically polymicrobial. Shortly after mass production of the first antibiotics, antibiotic resistant microorganisms were observed. A 28-months retrospective study evaluated hospital records of 107 patients that were treated for head and neck infections of odontogenic origin. All patients underwent surgical incision and drainage. There were 65 male (61%) and 42 female (39%) patients ranging in age from 5 to 91 years, with a mean age of 48 years (SD = 21). 52 patients underwent outpatient management and 55 patients inpatient management. A total of 92 bacterial strains were isolated from 107 patients, accounting for 0.86 isolates per patient. Overall 46 bacterial strains were isolated from patients that underwent outpatient and 34 bacterial strains that underwent inpatient treatment. 32.6% of the strains, isolated from outpatient treated individuals showed resistances against one or more of the tested antibiotics. Isolated strains of inpatient treated individuals showed resistances in 52.9%. According to this study's data, penicillin continues to be a highly effective antibiotic to be used against viridans streptococci, group C Streptococci and prevotella, whereas clindamycin was not shown to be effective as an empirical drug of choice for most odontogenic infections. Microorganisms that show low susceptibility to one or more of the standard antibiotic therapy regimes have a significantly higher chance of causing serious health problems, a tendency of spreading and are more likely to require an inpatient management with admission of IV antibiotics. Penicillin continues to be a highly effective antibiotic to be used against viridans streptococci, group C Streptococci and prevotella, whereas clindamycin could not be shown to be effective as an empirical drug of choice for a high number of odontogenic infections. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery

  17. Identification of the psaA Gene, Coding for Pneumococcal Surface Adhesin A, in Viridans Group Streptococci other than Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Jado, Isabel; Fenoll, Asunción; Casal, Julio; Pérez, Amalia

    2001-01-01

    The gene encoding the pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) protein has been identified in three different viridans group streptococcal species. Comparative studies of the psaA gene identified in different pneumococcal isolates by sequencing PCR products showed a high degree of conservation among these strains. PsaA is encoded by an open reading frame of 930 bp. The analysis of this fragment in Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus anginosus strains revealed a sequence identity of 95, 94, and 90%, respectively, to the corresponding open reading frame of the previously reported Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B strain. Our results confirm that psaA is present and detectable in heterologous bacterial species. The possible implications of these results for the suitability and potential use of PsaA in the identification and diagnosis of pneumococcal diseases are discussed. PMID:11527799

  18. Modeling of 3D Structure of Chimeric Constructs Based on Hemagglutinin of Influenza Virus and Immunogenic Epitopes of Streptococcus Agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, E A; Smolonogina, T A; Isakova-Sivak, I N; Koren'kov, D A; Kotomina, T S; Leont'eva, G F; Suvorov, A N; Rudenko, L G

    2018-04-01

    A project of an experimental recombinant vector vaccine for prevention of diseases caused by pathogenic streptococci based on ScaAB lipoprotein of Streptococcus agalactiae and a coldadapted strain of live influenza vaccine as a vector was developed. The sequence of ScaAB lipoprotein was analyzed and fragments forming immunodominant epitopes were determined. Chimeric molecules of influenza virus hemagglutinin H7 carrying insertions of bacterial origin were constructed. Based on the results of simulation, the most promising variants were selected; they represented fragments of lipoprotein ScaAB lacking N-terminal domain bound to hemagglutinin via a flexible linker. These insertions should minimally modulate the properties of the influenza strain, while retaining potential immunogenicity to a wide group of pathogenic streptococci.

  19. Clinical and molecular epidemiology of beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections in India.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Purva; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Mathur, Kushal; Behera, Bijayini; Gupta, Gunjan; Kapil, Arti; Singh, Sarman; Misra, Mahesh Chandra

    2014-03-13

    Beta-hemolytic streptococci (βHS) cause a diverse array of human infections. Despite the high number of cases of streptococcal carriers and diseases, studies discerning the molecular epidemiology of βHS in India are limited. This study reports the molecular and clinical epidemiology of beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections from two geographically distinct regions of India. A total of 186 isolates of βHS from north and south India were included. The isolates were identified to species level and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done to detect exotoxin genes, and emm types of group A streptococci (GAS) strains were ascertained by sequencing. GAS was the most common isolate (71.5%), followed by group G streptococci (GGS) (21%). A large proportion of GAS produced speB (97%), smeZ (89%), speF (91%), and speG (84%). SmeZ was produced by 21% and 50% of GGS and GGS, respectively. A total of 45 different emm types/subtypes were seen in GAS, with emm 11 being the most common. Resistance to tetracycline (73%) and erythromycin (34.5%) was commonly seen in GAS. A high diversity of emm types was seen in Indian GAS isolates with high macrolide and tetracycline resistance. SpeA was less commonly seen in Indian GAS isolates. There was no association between disease severity and exotoxin gene production.

  20. [Clinical relevance of the Streptococcus milleri group in head and neck infections].

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Masafumi; Udaka, Tsuyoshi; Tanabe, Tadao; Makishima, Kazumi

    2002-01-01

    differentiation of the 3 requires biochemical reactivity tests. Since not all facilities use identical techniques in routine bacteriological examination, a considerable number of the S. milleri group could be missed in unknown species of alpha-,beta-, and gamma-streptococci and culture-negative cases. With antibiotics now being used widely, normal flora such as the S. milleri group may have become an important pathogen in head and neck infections due to an imbalance between organisms and host defense.

  1. Repeat exposure to group A streptococcal M protein exacerbates cardiac damage in a rat model of rheumatic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Gorton, Davina; Sikder, Suchandan; Williams, Natasha L; Chilton, Lisa; Rush, Catherine M; Govan, Brenda L; Cunningham, Madeleine W; Ketheesan, Natkunam

    2016-12-01

    Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease (RF/RHD) develop following repeated infection with group A streptococci (GAS). We used the Rat Autoimmune Valvulitis (RAV) model of RF/RHD to demonstrate that repetitive booster immunization with GAS-derived recombinant M protein (rM5) resulted in an enhanced anti-cardiac myosin antibody response that may contribute to the breaking of immune tolerance leading to RF/RHD and increased infiltration of heart valves by mononuclear cells. With each boost, more inflammatory cells were observed infiltrating heart tissue which could lead to severe cardiac damage. We also found evidence that both complement and anti-M protein antibodies in serum from rM5-immunized rats have the potential to contribute to inflammation in heart valves by activating cardiac endothelium. More importantly, we have demonstrated by electrocardiography for the first time in the RAV model that elongation of P-R interval follows repetitive boost with rM5. Our observations provide experimental evidence for cardiac alterations following repeated exposure to GAS M protein with immunological and electrophysiological features resembling that seen in humans following recurrent GAS infection.

  2. 75 FR 57017 - Venice Gathering System, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP10-497-000] Venice Gathering System, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization September 10, 2010. Take notice that on September 3, 2010, Venice Gathering System, LLC (VGS), 1000 Louisiana, Suite 4300, Houston, Texas 77002...

  3. Evaluation of Several Biochemical and Molecular Techniques for Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae and Their Detection in Respiratory Samples

    PubMed Central

    Schelfaut, Jacqueline J. G.; Bernards, Alexandra T.; Claas, Eric C. J.

    2012-01-01

    The identification and detection of mitis group streptococci, which contain Streptococcus pneumoniae, have been hampered by the lack of sensitive and specific assays. In this study, we evaluated several biochemical and molecular assays for the identification of S. pneumoniae and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae and their distinction from other mitis group streptococci using a collection of 54 isolates obtained by the routine culturing of 53 respiratory specimens from patients with community-acquired pneumonia. The combined results of the biochemical and molecular assays indicated the presence of 23 S. pneumoniae, 2 S. pseudopneumoniae, and 29 other mitis group streptococcal isolates. The tube bile solubility test that is considered gold standard for the identification of S. pneumoniae showed concordant results with optochin susceptibility testing (CO2 atmosphere) and a real-time multiplex PCR assay targeting the Spn9802 fragment and the autolysin gene. Optochin susceptibility testing upon incubation in an O2 atmosphere, bile solubility testing by oxgall disk, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry, and sequence analysis of the tuf and rpoB genes resulted in several false-positive, false-negative, or inconclusive results. The S. pseudopneumoniae isolates could be identified only by molecular assays, and the multiplex real-time PCR assay was concluded to be most convenient for the identification of S. pneumoniae and S. pseudopneumoniae isolates. Using this method, S. pneumoniae and S. pseudopneumoniae DNA could be detected in the respiratory samples from which they were isolated and in an additional 11 samples from which only other streptococci were isolated. PMID:22278834

  4. Dental caries in relation to diet, saliva and cariogenic microorganisms in Tanzanians of selected age groups.

    PubMed

    Mazengo, M C; Tenovuo, J; Hausen, H

    1996-06-01

    The relationship between diet and dental caries in a Tanzanian population was studied. Mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, yeasts, salivary flow rate as well as buffer effect were also analyzed. A random sample of 12-, 35-44- and 65- to 74- year olds was drawn from Msongola (rural) and Ukombozi (urban), Dar-es-Salaam. The mean of two 24-h recalls was used for the assessment of food intake. The percentage of those with at least one carious tooth ranged from 30% in the 12-year-olds to 80% in the oldest age group. The mean number of decayed teeth (DT) increased significantly with age (P = 0.000) but was not significantly associated with the area of residence. DT increased significantly (P = 0.048) with the number of snacks per day and was also associated with dietary sucrose (P = 0.025), total carbohydrates (P = 0.002) and fiber (P = 0.002). Among salivary variables lactobacilli (P = 0.000) correlated positively with DT. Our study did not reveal any strong association between total energy intake and dental caries in rural or urban populations in Tanzania but snacking and sucrose intake were significantly associated with caries, in particular in the urban area.

  5. In Vitro Evaluation of CBR-2092, a Novel Rifamycin-Quinolone Hybrid Antibiotic: Microbiology Profiling Studies with Staphylococci and Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Gregory T.; Bonventre, Eric J.; Doyle, Timothy B.; Du, Qun; Duncan, Leonard; Morris, Timothy W.; Roche, Eric D.; Yan, Dalai; Lynch, A. Simon

    2008-01-01

    We present data from antimicrobial assays performed in vitro that pertain to the potential clinical utility of a novel rifamycin-quinolone hybrid antibiotic, CBR-2092, for the treatment of infections mediated by gram-positive cocci. The MIC90s for CBR-2092 against 300 clinical isolates of staphylococci and streptococci ranged from 0.008 to 0.5 μg/ml. Against Staphylococcus aureus, CBR-2092 exhibited prolonged postantibiotic effects (PAEs) and sub-MIC effects (SMEs), with values of 3.2, 6.5, and >8.5 h determined for the PAE (3× MIC), SME (0.12× MIC), and PAE-SME (3× MIC/0.12× MIC) periods, respectively. Studies of genetically defined mutants of S. aureus indicate that CBR-2092 is not a substrate for the NorA or MepA efflux pumps. In minimal bactericidal concentration and time-kill studies, CBR-2092 exhibited bactericidal activity against staphylococci that was retained against rifampin- or intermediate quinolone-resistant strains, with apparent paradoxical cidal characteristics against rifampin-resistant strains. In spontaneous resistance studies, CBR-2092 exhibited activity consistent with balanced contributions from its composite pharmacophores, with a mutant prevention concentration of 0.12 μg/ml and a resistance frequency of <10−12 determined at 1 μg/ml in agar for S. aureus. Similarly, CBR-2092 suppressed the emergence of preexisting rifamycin resistance in time-kill studies undertaken at a high cell density. In studies of the intracellular killing of S. aureus, CBR-2092 exhibited prolonged bactericidal activity that was superior to the activities of moxifloxacin, rifampin, and a cocktail of moxifloxacin and rifampin. Overall, CBR-2092 exhibited promising activity in a range of antimicrobial assays performed in vitro that pertain to properties relevant to the effective treatment of serious infections mediated by gram-positive cocci. PMID:18443106

  6. Comparison of the effect of benzathine penicillin G, clarithromycin, cefprozil and amoxicillin/clavulanate on the bacteriological response and throat flora in group A beta hemolytic streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Inci; Ceyhan, Mehmet; Gür, Deniz; Kaymakoğlu, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Bacteriological failure with penicillin that has been used widely for years in group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) tonsillopharyngitis is being reported as high as 30%. Because of this unresponsiveness, many different agents are being used as alternative options. We evaluated the effect of clarithromycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate (CAM), cefprozil and benzathine penicillin G (Pen G) on the bacteriological cure, beta-lactamase production, pharyngeal microflora and alpha hemolytic streptococci (AHS) when used in the treatment of pediatric GABHS tonsillopharyngitis. Intramuscular Pen G and oral clarithromycin, CAM and cefprozil were administered to 70 patients who were between 2-16 years of age. Three throat swabs were obtained from each patient (before treatment, and 3 days and one month after treatment). The cultures were evaluated for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, beta lactamase production, AHS and fungi isolation. Bacteriological cure rates were similar in the four treatment groups (p>0.05). Isolation rates of AHS were 97.1% and 77.9% in clarithromycin group, 100% and 83.8% in CAM group, 97.2% and 98.6% in cefprozil group and 100% and 83.8% in the Pen G group before and after treatment, respectively. The most prominent inhibitory effect on AHS was observed with CAM, while cefprozil had the least effect (p<0.001). No significant difference was noted among groups regarding beta-lactamase production, anaerobic bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and fungi isolations. Overall, cefprozil seems to be advantageous in GABHS eradication by having less inhibitory effect on AHS.

  7. Impact of video game genre on surgical skills development: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Thiago Bozzi; Silveira, Filipe Rodrigues; Souza, Dante Lucas Santos; Strey, Yuri Thomé Machado; Flores, Cecilia Dias; Webster, Ronaldo Scholze

    2016-03-01

    The playing of video games (VGs) was previously shown to improve surgical skills. This is the first randomized, controlled study to assess the impact of VG genre on the development of basic surgical skills. Twenty first-year, surgically inexperienced medical students attended a practical course on surgical knots, suturing, and skin-flap technique. Later, they were randomized into four groups: control and/or nongaming (ContG), first-person-shooter game (ShotG), racing game (RaceG), and surgery game (SurgG). All participants had 3 wk of Nintendo Wii training. Surgical and VG performances were assessed by two independent, blinded surgeons who evaluated basal performance (time 0) and performance after 1 wk (time 1) and 3 wk (time 2) of training. The training time of RaceG was longer than that of ShotG and SurgG (P = 0.045). Compared to SurgG and RaceG, VG scores for ShotG improved less between times 0 and 1 (P = 0.010) but more between times 1 and 2 (P = 0.004). Improvement in mean surgical performance scores versus time differed in each VG group (P = 0.011). At time 2, surgical performance scores were significantly higher in ShotG (P = 0.002) and SurgG (P = 0.022) than in ContG. The surgical performance scores of RaceG were not significantly different from the score achieved by ContG (P = 0.279). Different VG genres may differentially impact the development of surgical skills by medical students. More complex games seem to improve performance even if played less. Although further studies are needed, surgery-related VGs with sufficient complexity and playability could be a feasible adjuvant to improving surgical skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. University Research Initiative Program for Combat Readiness, Annual Report for the Period June 1, 1997 - June 30, 1998

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    polysaccharides ) can be interpreted by matching to these chemical markers. Differentiation of the aldohexose monosaccharides or determination of simple...experiments involving qualitative and quantitative analysis of monomeric carbohydrate content in bacterial polysaccharides by Py-GC/MS has been...residues in the group-specific polysaccharide of group B streptococci8 and differentiation of B. anthracis strains by a pyrolysis product from its

  9. Stable Extraction of Threshold Voltage Using Transconductance Change Method for CMOS Modeling, Simulation and Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo Young; Woo, Dong-Soo; Choi, Byung Yong; Lee, Jong Duk; Park, Byung-Gook

    2004-04-01

    We proposed a stable extraction algorithm for threshold voltage using transconductance change method by optimizing node interval. With the algorithm, noise-free gm2 (=dgm/dVGS) profiles can be extracted within one-percent error, which leads to more physically-meaningful threshold voltage calculation by the transconductance change method. The extracted threshold voltage predicts the gate-to-source voltage at which the surface potential is within kT/q of φs=2φf+VSB. Our algorithm makes the transconductance change method more practical by overcoming noise problem. This threshold voltage extraction algorithm yields the threshold roll-off behavior of nanoscale metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFETs) accurately and makes it possible to calculate the surface potential φs at any other point on the drain-to-source current (IDS) versus gate-to-source voltage (VGS) curve. It will provide us with a useful analysis tool in the field of device modeling, simulation and characterization.

  10. Fortran Program for X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Data Reformatting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, Phillip B.

    1989-01-01

    A FORTRAN program has been written for use on an IBM PC/XT or AT or compatible microcomputer (personal computer, PC) that converts a column of ASCII-format numbers into a binary-format file suitable for interactive analysis on a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) computer running the VGS-5000 Enhanced Data Processing (EDP) software package. The incompatible floating-point number representations of the two computers were compared, and a subroutine was created to correctly store floating-point numbers on the IBM PC, which can be directly read by the DEC computer. Any file transfer protocol having provision for binary data can be used to transmit the resulting file from the PC to the DEC machine. The data file header required by the EDP programs for an x ray photoelectron spectrum is also written to the file. The user is prompted for the relevant experimental parameters, which are then properly coded into the format used internally by all of the VGS-5000 series EDP packages.

  11. Identification of Group B Streptococcal Sip Protein, Which Elicits Cross-Protective Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Brodeur, Bernard R.; Boyer, Martine; Charlebois, Isabelle; Hamel, Josée; Couture, France; Rioux, Clément R.; Martin, Denis

    2000-01-01

    A protein of group B streptococci (GBS), named Sip for surface immunogenic protein, which is distinct from previously described surface proteins, was identified after immunological screening of a genomic library. Immunoblots using a Sip-specific monoclonal antibody indicated that a protein band with an approximate molecular mass of 53 kDa which did not vary in size was present in every GBS strain tested. Representatives of all nine GBS serotypes were included in the panel of strains. Cloning and sequencing of the sip gene revealed an open reading frame of 1,305 nucleotides coding for a polypeptide of 434 amino acid residues, with a calculated pI of 6.84 and molecular mass of 45.5 kDa. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences from six different strains confirmed with 98% identity that the sip gene is highly conserved among GBS isolates. N-terminal amino acid sequencing also indicated the presence of a 25-amino-acid signal peptide which is cleaved in the mature protein. More importantly, immunization with the recombinant Sip protein efficiently protected CD-1 mice against deadly challenges with six GBS strains of serotypes Ia/c, Ib, II/R, III, V, and VI. The data presented in this study suggest that this highly conserved protein induces cross-protective immunity against GBS infections and emphasize its potential as a universal vaccine candidate. PMID:10992461

  12. [Study of bacterial flora in the oral cavity and stomach of elderly patients receiving nasogastric tube feeding].

    PubMed

    Matsuura, T; Suzuki, K; Yamakoshi, M; Yamamoto, T; Yamamoto, T; Yoshitomo, K; Tonegawa, K; Ariga, K; Odawara, F

    1997-05-01

    To investigate the significance of oropharyngeal flora and gastric flora in elderly patients receiving nasogastric tube feeding, throat secretions and gastric aspirates were cultured and the pH of the latter was measured. Of 116 bacterial isolates from throat secretions of 27 elderly patients, 30 were beta-streptococci and 28 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacteria isolated from gastric aspirates numbered 86 and 24 (27.9%) of them were the same species as those found in the throat secretions. Patients with gastric pH were below 3.5 had significantly lower concentrations of gram-negative bacili in gastric aspirates. We also studied oropharyngeal flora in 33 elderly patients who were admitted to Nagoyashi Koseiin Geriatric Hospital. The major bacterial isolates from throat swabs of bedridden patients were gram-negative bacilli and beta-streptococci, especially group B streptococci (GBS). We measured the level of antibody to GBS in these patients. Those from whom GBS were isolated had high titers. These results suggest that in elderly patients receiving enteral nasogastric) tube feeding, large numbers of bacteria colonize the oral cavity and stomach. The measurement of type-specific antibody to GBS may be useful in managing such patients.

  13. Contribution to the taxonomy of haemolytic corynebacteria.

    PubMed

    Julák, J; Mára, M; Patocka, F; Potuzníková, B; Zadrazil, S

    1978-01-01

    In an attempt to assess the taxonomic relationships among human (Corynebacterium haemolyticum), animal (Corynebacterium pyogenes bovis) haemolytic corynebacteria, typical corynebacteria (Corynebacterium diphteriae mitis, C. ovis, C. ulcerans) and group A and G streptococci, a number of biochemical parameters were established: the DNA content of G + C, the presence of the cytochrome system, composition of fatty acids in free lipids and production of carboxylic acids as end products of fermentation. It was found that according to the above criteria, streptococci differed significantly from the corynebacteria studied. In addition, it was possible to differentiate a subgroup of typically aerobic haemolytic corynebacteria (different from both human and animal corynebacteria), possessing a complete cytochrome system, producing propionic acid and having a different composition of fatty acids.

  14. Contribution to the taxonomy of haemolytic corynebacteria.

    PubMed

    Julák, J; Mára, M; Patočka, F; Potužníková, B; Zadražil, S

    1978-05-01

    In an attempt to assess the taxonomic relationships among human (Corynebacterium haemolyticum), animal (Corynebacterium pyogenes bovis) haemolytio corynebacteria, typical corynebacteria (Corynebacterium diphteriae mitis, C. ovis, C. ulcerans) and group A and G streptococci, a number of biochemical parameters were established: the DNA content of G + C, the presence of the cytochrome system, composition of fatty acids in free lipids and production of carboxylic acids as end products of fermentation. It was found that according to the above criteria, streptococci differed significantly from the corynebacteria studied. In addition, it was possible to differentiate a subgroup of typically aerobic haemolytic corynebacteria (different from both human and animal corynebacteria), possessing a complete cytochrome system, producing propionic acid and having a different composition of fatty acids.

  15. Toxic Shock Syndrome within 24 H of an Office Hysteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Nanak; Karthikeyan, Akilandeshwari; Kalkur, Sanjaya

    2017-01-01

    Office hysteroscopy is now a common procedure performed to look at the endometrial cavity and is relatively free of serious complications. A 68-year-old lady, previously fit and well, presented with abdominal pain, rigors, sweats, and vomiting within 24 h of an outpatient hysteroscopy for postmenopausal bleeding. She was diagnosed with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) due to Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. She was managed in the Intensive Care Unit, with inotropic and antibiotic support. She recovered eventually and was discharged home with oral antibiotics. Toxic shock syndrome due to Streptococci is an unusual occurrence, whose incidence has been slowly increasing over the years. However, this appears to be the first case of STSS manifesting within 24 h following an outpatient hysteroscopy.

  16. Bacterial skin infections: management of common streptococcal and stapylococcal lesions.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, J A; Parish, L C

    1982-10-01

    Skin infection occurs in any age-group, sex, and race but is particularly common in children. It is usually minor, but may indicate underlying systemic disease or may lead to systemic infection. Streptococci and staphylococci are common causes. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci account for the majority of streptococcal infections in man. Infection most often involves the lower extremities and produces spreading erythema and necrosis but little purulence. Staphylococcal infections most commonly involve the face, the hair follicles and eccrine sweat ducts being the initial sites. Lesions appear as bullae and pustules with a narrow rim of erythema. Intense cellulitis surrounding the lesions usually points to a virulent, penicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus. Treatment of both types of infection consists of cleansing with antibacterial agents, removal of crusts, application of warm compresses, and use of topical or systemic antibiotics, depending on the severity of the infection and the type of pyoderma involved.

  17. Oral sugar clearance and root caries prevalence in rheumatic patients with dry mouth symptoms.

    PubMed

    Risheim, H; Arneberg, P; Birkhed, D

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between root caries, oral sugar clearance, salivary flow rate, and salivary counts of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and candida has been studied in a group of 22 rheumatic patients (age range 40-72 years). The study group comprised all subjects volunteering for a clinical trial on relief of dry mouth symptoms. The median salivary flow was 0.09 ml/min at rest and 0.9 ml/min during chewing stimulation. The median sugar clearance time was about 5 min in the sublingual area and 16 min in the lower buccal vestibule. For subjects with 0-2 root caries lesions the clearance time at both sites was shorter than for subjects with 3 or more lesions (p < 0.05). A long oral clearance time was significantly correlated with age, root caries (DS and DFS), low resting salivary flow, and high salivary counts of mutans streptococci. It is concluded that root caries in rheumatic patients with low salivary flow is significantly related to oral sugar clearance time.

  18. Sequencing of the variable region of rpsB to discriminate between Streptococcus pneumoniae and other streptococcal species.

    PubMed

    Wyllie, Anne L; Pannekoek, Yvonne; Bovenkerk, Sandra; van Engelsdorp Gastelaars, Jody; Ferwerda, Bart; van de Beek, Diederik; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Trzciński, Krzysztof; van der Ende, Arie

    2017-09-01

    The vast majority of streptococci colonizing the human upper respiratory tract are commensals, only sporadically implicated in disease. Of these, the most pathogenic is Mitis group member, Streptococcus pneumoniae Phenotypic and genetic similarities between streptococci can cause difficulties in species identification. Using ribosomal S2-gene sequences extracted from whole-genome sequences published from 501 streptococci, we developed a method to identify streptococcal species. We validated this method on non-pneumococcal isolates cultured from cases of severe streptococcal disease ( n = 101) and from carriage ( n = 103), and on non-typeable pneumococci from asymptomatic individuals ( n = 17) and on whole-genome sequences of 1157 pneumococcal isolates from meningitis in the Netherlands. Following this, we tested 221 streptococcal isolates in molecular assays originally assumed specific for S. pneumoniae , targeting cpsA , lytA , piaB , ply , Spn9802, zmpC and capsule-type-specific genes. Cluster analysis of S2-sequences showed grouping according to species in line with published phylogenies of streptococcal core genomes. S2-typing convincingly distinguished pneumococci from non-pneumococcal species (99.2% sensitivity, 100% specificity). Molecular assays targeting regions of lytA and piaB were 100% specific for S. pneumoniae , whereas assays targeting cpsA , ply , Spn9802, zmpC and selected serotype-specific assays (but not capsular sequence typing) showed a lack of specificity. False positive results were over-represented in species associated with carriage, although no particular confounding signal was unique for carriage isolates. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. Sequencing of the variable region of rpsB to discriminate between Streptococcus pneumoniae and other streptococcal species

    PubMed Central

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Bovenkerk, Sandra; van Engelsdorp Gastelaars, Jody; Ferwerda, Bart; van de Beek, Diederik; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Trzciński, Krzysztof; van der Ende, Arie

    2017-01-01

    The vast majority of streptococci colonizing the human upper respiratory tract are commensals, only sporadically implicated in disease. Of these, the most pathogenic is Mitis group member, Streptococcus pneumoniae. Phenotypic and genetic similarities between streptococci can cause difficulties in species identification. Using ribosomal S2-gene sequences extracted from whole-genome sequences published from 501 streptococci, we developed a method to identify streptococcal species. We validated this method on non-pneumococcal isolates cultured from cases of severe streptococcal disease (n = 101) and from carriage (n = 103), and on non-typeable pneumococci from asymptomatic individuals (n = 17) and on whole-genome sequences of 1157 pneumococcal isolates from meningitis in the Netherlands. Following this, we tested 221 streptococcal isolates in molecular assays originally assumed specific for S. pneumoniae, targeting cpsA, lytA, piaB, ply, Spn9802, zmpC and capsule-type-specific genes. Cluster analysis of S2-sequences showed grouping according to species in line with published phylogenies of streptococcal core genomes. S2-typing convincingly distinguished pneumococci from non-pneumococcal species (99.2% sensitivity, 100% specificity). Molecular assays targeting regions of lytA and piaB were 100% specific for S. pneumoniae, whereas assays targeting cpsA, ply, Spn9802, zmpC and selected serotype-specific assays (but not capsular sequence typing) showed a lack of specificity. False positive results were over-represented in species associated with carriage, although no particular confounding signal was unique for carriage isolates. PMID:28931649

  20. An algorithm for a selective use of throat swabs in the diagnosis of group A streptococcal pharyngo-tonsillitis in general practice.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, S

    1992-12-01

    A prospective evaluation was made of an algorithm for a selective use of throat swabs in patients with sore throat in general practice. The algorithm states that a throat swab should be obtained (a) in all children younger than 15 years; (b) in patients aged 15 years or more who have pain on swallowing and at least three of four signs (enlarged or hyperaemic tonsils; exudate; enlarged or tender angular lymph nodes; and a temperature > or = 38 degrees C); and (c) in adults aged 15-44 years with pain on swallowing and one or two of the four signs, but not both cough and coryza. Group A streptococci were found by laboratory culture in 30% of throat swabs from 1783 patients. Using these results as the reference, the algorithm was 95% sensitive and 26% specific, and assigned 80% of the patients to be swabbed. Its positive and negative predictive values in this setting were 36% and 92%, respectively. It is concluded that this algorithm may be useful in general practice.

  1. STUDIES ON THE BIOLOGY OF STREPTOCOCCUS

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Walter Parks

    1922-01-01

    1. Hemolytic streptococcus has been found in 100 per cent of the throats of patients with scarlet fever during the 1st week of the disease. 2. The average length of time that these organisms are present in the throat varies from 10 to 20 days. 3. No morphological or cultural characteristics peculiar to the hemolytic streptococcus from scarlet fever can be demonstrated. 4. Ten immune sera have been prepared from different strains of scarlet fever streptococci and each of the sera agglutinated more than 80 per cent of the strains isolated from scarlatinal throats. On the other hand, scarlatinal streptococci are not agglutinated by immune sera prepared from hemolytic streptococci isolated from other pathological sources. 5. Serum from patients convalescent from scarlet fever agglutinates weakly or not at all the homologous strain of hemolytic streptococcus. 6. The specificity of the agglutination reaction of scarlatinal streptococci is confirmed by absorption experiments. 7. Scarlatinal antistreptococcic serum affords some degree of protection against virulent scarlet fever streptococci but has no protective power against hemolytic streptococci from other diseases. 8. In a small epidemic of scarlet fever a healthy carrier of hemolytic streptococcus was detected; the organism carried was identical in its serological reactions with strains of hemolytic streptococci isolated from active cases of scarlet fever. 9. In a study of a number of contacts with a case of scarlet fever, in only one instance was a scarlatinal type of hemolytic streptococcus recovered from the throat. PMID:19868695

  2. Salivary cariogenic bacteria counts are associated with obesity in student women at a Malaysian university.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Wey-Zheng; Lim, Sheng-Pei; Say, Yee-How

    2018-01-01

    The counts of cariogenic bacteria lactobacilli and mutans streptococci have been studied and correlated with sugar intake. This study was to investigate the association between salivary lactobacilli and mutans streptococci counts with sweet food eating behavior and sweet sensitivity among 120 Malaysian women (101 ethnic Chinese, 19 ethnic Indians), while taking into account anthropometric and menstruation variables. Demographics, anthropometric measurements and menstrual history were taken. Hedonic preference, intake frequency of a list of sweet foods, intensity perception and pleasantness ratings of sweet stimuli were assessed. Saliva was collected for lactobacilli and mutans streptococci culture. We found that centrally obese subjects (high waist circumference and waist-hip ratio) had significantly higher salivary lactobacilli and mutans streptococci counts (all p<0.05), while overweight and high total body fat subjects had significantly higher salivary mutans streptococci counts (p<0.001). The sweetness intensity perception of chocolate malt drinks was significantly lower in women who were in their pre-menstrual (post-ovulation) phase. However, menstruation variables (menstrual phases, regularity and pre-menstrual syndromes) did not play a role in determining compulsive eating, sweets/chocolate craving and salivary lactobacilli and mutans streptococci counts. Taken together, salivary lactobacilli and mutans streptococci counts of the Malaysian women are associated with central obesity, but not sweet food eating behaviour, sweet sensitivity and menstruation variables. Salivary microbiome analysis could be useful as a potential diagnostic indicator of diseases such as obesity.

  3. Adhesion of mutans streptococci to self-ligating ceramic brackets: in vivo quantitative analysis with real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Jung, Woo-Sun; Yang, Il-Hyung; Lim, Won Hee; Baek, Seung-Hak; Kim, Tae-Woo; Ahn, Sug-Joon

    2015-12-01

    To analyze in vivo mutans streptococci (MS) adhesion to self-ligating ceramic brackets [Clarity-SL (CSL) and Clippy-C (CC)] and the relationships between bacterial adhesion and oral hygiene indices. Four central incisor brackets from the maxilla and mandible were collected from 40 patients (20 patients per each bracket type) at debonding immediately after plaque and gingival indices were measured. Adhesions of Streptococcus mutans, S. sobrinus, and total bacteria were quantitatively determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction after genomic DNA was extracted. Factorial analysis of variance was used to analyze bacterial adhesion to the brackets with respect to the bracket type and jaw position. Correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the relationships of bacterial adhesion to oral hygiene indices. Adhesion of total bacteria and S. mutans to CSL was higher than that to CC (P < 0.001). Adhesion of total bacteria to the mandibular brackets was higher than that to the maxillary ones (P < 0.001), while adhesion of S. mutans to the maxillary brackets were higher than that in the mandibular ones (P < 0.001). In particular, the proportion of S. mutans to total bacteria in CSL was higher than CC (P < 0.05) in the maxillary anterior teeth (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in adhesion of S. sobrinus between the brackets and jaw positions. Interestingly, no significant relationships were found between bacterial adhesions and oral hygiene indices. Complex bracket configurations may significantly influence bacterial adhesion to orthodontic brackets. Further in vivo study using bracket raw materials will help to define the relationships between bacteria adhesion and enamel demineralization. Because oral hygiene indices were not significantly correlated with adhesions of MS to self-ligating ceramic brackets, careful examinations around the brackets should be needed to prevent enamel demineralization, regardless of oral hygiene status. © The

  4. A Pilot Study on Effects of Hydraulic Dredging and Disposal on Water Quality of the Upper Mississippi River (July 1976). GREAT I Water Quality Work Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcus densities. Salmonellae and shigellae were not recovered from either upstream water samples or from...fecal streptococci, Clostridlum perfringens) and enteric pathogens (salmonellae, shigellae , enteroviruses, infectious hepatitus agent) have beeii shown...the Mississippi River that was polluted with Shigella sonnet (5,32). 49W 1.----Wq W P4 p TABLE 1. Incidence of selected enteric diseases during 1975 in

  5. Factors Associated with Loss of Penicillin G Concentrations in Serum After Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin G Injection: A Meta-analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    penicillin V in eradication of group a streptococci from children with acute pharyngitis. Pediatrics. 2001;108:1180–1186. 13. Kassem AS, Zaher SR, Abou...Clin Ther. 1959;6:232–241. 38. Zaher SR, Kassem AS, Abou Shleib H, et al. Differences in serum penicillin concentrations following intramuscular

  6. Recolonization of mutans steptococci on teeth with orthodontic appliances after antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Attin, R; Thon, C; Schlagenhauf, U; Werner, C; Wiegand, A; Hannig, C; Attin, T

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the recolonization pattern of mutans streptococci on densely colonized teeth with and without fixed orthodontic appliances after treatment with a 40 per cent chlorhexidine (CHX) varnish (EC 40, Explore). Healthy subjects free of carious lesions requiring fixed orthodontic appliance treatment but with high bacterial mutans streptococci saliva counts were recruited (n = 10). For baseline registration, plaque from buccal sites was sampled and cultivated on Dentocult strips. Following professional tooth cleaning, CHX varnish was applied to all teeth for 8 minutes. Subsequently, orthodontic brackets and bands were inserted in either the upper or lower arch. Eight weeks after varnish application the degree of recolonization with mutans streptococci was reassessed on the buccal sites. Statistical analysis showed that recolonization with mutans streptococci was significantly higher (P < 0.05) on teeth with orthodontic appliances. The results indicate that the use of fixed orthodontic appliances creates artificial environments suitable for the proliferation of mutans streptococci after CHX varnish suppression.

  7. Phylogenetic group- and species-specific oligonucleotide probes for single-cell detection of lactic acid bacteria in oral biofilms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes for the single-cell detection and enumeration of lactic acid bacteria, in particular organisms belonging to the major phylogenetic groups and species of oral lactobacilli and to Abiotrophia/Granulicatella. Results As lactobacilli are known for notorious resistance to probe penetration, probe-specific assay protocols were experimentally developed to provide maximum cell wall permeability, probe accessibility, hybridization stringency, and fluorescence intensity. The new assays were then applied in a pilot study to three biofilm samples harvested from variably demineralized bovine enamel discs that had been carried in situ for 10 days by different volunteers. Best probe penetration and fluorescent labeling of reference strains were obtained after combined lysozyme and achromopeptidase treatment followed by exposure to lipase. Hybridization stringency had to be established strictly for each probe. Thereafter all probes showed the expected specificity with reference strains and labeled the anticipated morphotypes in dental plaques. Applied to in situ grown biofilms the set of probes detected only Lactobacillus fermentum and bacteria of the Lactobacillus casei group. The most cariogenic biofilm contained two orders of magnitude higher L. fermentum cell numbers than the other biofilms. Abiotrophia/Granulicatella and streptococci from the mitis group were found in all samples at high levels, whereas Streptococcus mutans was detected in only one sample in very low numbers. Conclusions Application of these new group- and species-specific FISH probes to oral biofilm-forming lactic acid bacteria will allow a clearer understanding of the supragingival biome, its spatial architecture and of structure-function relationships implicated during plaque homeostasis and caries development. The probes should prove of value far beyond the field of oral microbiology, as many of

  8. Capsular Polysaccharide Expression in Commensal Streptococcus Species: Genetic and Antigenic Similarities to Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Skov Sørensen, Uffe B; Yao, Kaihu; Yang, Yonghong; Tettelin, Hervé; Kilian, Mogens

    2016-11-15

    Expression of a capsular polysaccharide is considered a hallmark of most invasive species of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, in which the capsule is among the principal virulence factors and is the basis for successful vaccines. Consequently, it was previously assumed that capsule production distinguishes S. pneumoniae from closely related commensals of the mitis group streptococci. Based on antigenic and genetic analyses of 187 mitis group streptococci, including 90 recognized serotypes of S. pneumoniae, we demonstrated capsule production by the Wzy/Wzx pathway in 74% of 66 S. mitis strains and in virtually all tested strains of S. oralis (subspecies oralis, dentisani, and tigurinus) and S. infantis Additional analyses of genomes of S. cristatus, S. parasanguinis, S. australis, S. sanguinis, S. gordonii, S. anginosus, S. intermedius, and S. constellatus revealed complete capsular biosynthesis (cps) loci in all strains tested. Truncated cps loci were detected in three strains of S. pseudopneumoniae, in 26% of S. mitis strains, and in a single S. oralis strain. The level of sequence identities of cps locus genes confirmed that the structural polymorphism of capsular polysaccharides in S. pneumoniae evolved by import of cps fragments from commensal Streptococcus species, resulting in a mosaic of genes of different origins. The demonstrated antigenic identity of at least eight of the numerous capsular polysaccharide structures expressed by commensal streptococci with recognized serotypes of S. pneumoniae raises concerns about potential misidentifications in addition to important questions concerning the consequences for vaccination and host-parasite relationships both for the commensals and for the pathogen. Expression of a capsular polysaccharide is among the principal virulence factors of Streptococcus pneumoniae and is the basis for successful vaccines against infections caused by this important pathogen. Contrasting with previous

  9. Asymptomatic group B streptococcal bacteriuria among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy due to GBS and its antimicrobial sensitivity pattern for planning strategy for the management of these cases and also to determine the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria. A total of 3863 consecutive urine specimens were collected from 3863 pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria attending the obstetrics and gynaecology department of our hospital over a period of two years. Specimens were processed using standard microbiological procedures. All the subjects were evaluated for bacteriuria. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria due to group B streptococci (GBS) was 82/3863 (2.1%) among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. Among these, 69/82 patients (84.2%) had clinical and microbiological features consistent with cystitis, versus 13/82 (15.8%) for pyelonephritis. About 51.2% (42/82) of the patients who had urine analysis performed had positive results based on positive urinary leucocyte esterase and pyuria. Disc-diffusion analysis of all 82 GBS isolates showed that they were highly susceptible to Augmentin and linezolid. Screening for bacteriuria in pregnancy and proper treatment must be considered as an essential part of antenatal care in this community. To prevent asymptomatic bacteriuria complications, all pregnant women should be screened at the first antenatal visit. A negative test for pyuria is not a reliable indicator of the absence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. Further, ongoing surveillance and evaluation of outcomes in pregnancies complicated by GBS bacteriuria is required to optimise maternal and newborn care.

  10. Effect of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus SD11 on oral microbiota of healthy volunteers: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Rungsri, P; Akkarachaneeyakorn, N; Wongsuwanlert, M; Piwat, S; Nantarakchaikul, P; Teanpaisan, R

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate whether short-term consumption of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus SD11 affected levels of oral microbiota in vivo and whether L. rhamnosus SD11 could colonize in the human mouth. We also monitored for potential side effects of the probiotic. The applicability of using L. rhamnosus SD11 compared with Lactobacillus bulgaricus as a starter culture for fermented milk was evaluated. After informed consent, 43 healthy young adults were recruited and randomly assigned to either the probiotic or control group and received fermented milk containing L. rhamnosus SD11 or L. bulgaricus, respectively, once daily for 4 wk. The numbers of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, and total bacteria in saliva were counted at baseline and then after 4 and 8 wk. An oral examination was performed at baseline and after 8 wk. The persistence of L. rhamnosus SD11 was investigated by DNA fingerprinting using arbitrary primer-PCR. Results demonstrated that statistically significant reductions in mutans streptococci and total bacteria were observed in the probiotic group compared with the control group, and the number of lactobacilli was significantly increased in both groups after receiving fermented milks. Lactobacillus rhamnosus SD11 could be detected (in >80% of subjects) up to 4 wk following cessation of dosing among subjects in the probiotic group. No side effects were reported. Thus, L. rhamnosus SD11 could be used as a starter culture for fermented milk. Daily consumption of L. rhamnosus SD11-containing fermented milk for 4 wk may have beneficial effects on oral health by reducing salivary levels of mutans streptococci. The probiotic was apparently able to colonize the oral cavity for a longer time than previously reported. However, the potential benefits of probiotic L. rhamnosus SD11 on oral health require further evaluation with a larger group of volunteers in a longer-term study. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science

  11. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for group A Streptococcal anti-DNase B in human sera, using recombinant proteins - Comparison to the DNA methyl green micromethod.

    PubMed

    Das, Sarita; Dileepan, T; Johnson, D R; Kaplan, E L; Patrick Cleary, P

    2017-12-01

    Among the four known Streptococcal nucleases comprising of DNase A, B, C and D; DNase B is the most common, and determination of the levels of antibody to DNase B (ADB) is often used to confirm a clinical diagnosis of Streptococcus pyogenes/group A Streptococcal (GAS) infection. The commonly used assays for antibodies that neutralize DNase B or streptolysin O activity use partially purified antigens that often fail to detect antibody changes subsequent to culture documented infections. Therefore, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed employing his-tagged recombinant DNase B as plate antigen for comparison to the commonly used DNA methyl green micromethod (DMGM). DNAs from various Streptococcal species were screened for presence of dnaseB gene by PCR. Measurements of ADB in sera collected from subjects belonging to different ages, and ethnic groups were used to compare the two methods. dnaseB was not detected by PCR in DNA samples isolated from different strains of group B (GBS), C (GCS) and G (GGS) Streptococci. The ADB based ELISA proved to be highly sensitive and more responsive to changes in antibody concentration than DMGM. Use of recombinant DNase B eliminates the variability associated with the enzyme, partially purified from Streptococcal culture supernatants from various commercial sources and may provide a more reliable source of antigen to a wider group of laboratories concerned with GAS diagnosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.