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Sample records for group-specific prevalence estimates

  1. Do group-specific equations provide the best estimates of stature?

    PubMed

    Albanese, John; Osley, Stephanie E; Tuck, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    An estimate of stature can be used by a forensic anthropologist with the preliminary identification of an unknown individual when human skeletal remains are recovered. Fordisc is a computer application that can be used to estimate stature; like many other methods it requires the user to assign an unknown individual to a specific group defined by sex, race/ancestry, and century of birth before an equation is applied. The assumption is that a group-specific equation controls for group differences and should provide the best results most often. In this paper we assess the utility and benefits of using group-specific equations to estimate stature using Fordisc. Using the maximum length of the humerus and the maximum length of the femur from individuals with documented stature, we address the question: Do sex-, race/ancestry- and century-specific stature equations provide the best results when estimating stature? The data for our sample of 19th Century White males (n=28) were entered into Fordisc and stature was estimated using 22 different equation options for a total of 616 trials: 19th and 20th Century Black males, 19th and 20th Century Black females, 19th and 20th Century White females, 19th and 20th Century White males, 19th and 20th Century any, and 20th Century Hispanic males. The equations were assessed for utility in any one case (how many times the estimated range bracketed the documented stature) and in aggregate using 1-way ANOVA and other approaches. This group-specific equation that should have provided the best results was outperformed by several other equations for both the femur and humerus. These results suggest that group-specific equations do not provide better results for estimating stature while at the same time are more difficult to apply because an unknown must be allocated to a given group before stature can be estimated. PMID:26945108

  2. Do group-specific equations provide the best estimates of stature?

    PubMed

    Albanese, John; Osley, Stephanie E; Tuck, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    An estimate of stature can be used by a forensic anthropologist with the preliminary identification of an unknown individual when human skeletal remains are recovered. Fordisc is a computer application that can be used to estimate stature; like many other methods it requires the user to assign an unknown individual to a specific group defined by sex, race/ancestry, and century of birth before an equation is applied. The assumption is that a group-specific equation controls for group differences and should provide the best results most often. In this paper we assess the utility and benefits of using group-specific equations to estimate stature using Fordisc. Using the maximum length of the humerus and the maximum length of the femur from individuals with documented stature, we address the question: Do sex-, race/ancestry- and century-specific stature equations provide the best results when estimating stature? The data for our sample of 19th Century White males (n=28) were entered into Fordisc and stature was estimated using 22 different equation options for a total of 616 trials: 19th and 20th Century Black males, 19th and 20th Century Black females, 19th and 20th Century White females, 19th and 20th Century White males, 19th and 20th Century any, and 20th Century Hispanic males. The equations were assessed for utility in any one case (how many times the estimated range bracketed the documented stature) and in aggregate using 1-way ANOVA and other approaches. This group-specific equation that should have provided the best results was outperformed by several other equations for both the femur and humerus. These results suggest that group-specific equations do not provide better results for estimating stature while at the same time are more difficult to apply because an unknown must be allocated to a given group before stature can be estimated.

  3. An alternative approach for estimating stature from long bones that is not population- or group-specific.

    PubMed

    Albanese, John; Tuck, Andrew; Gomes, José; Cardoso, Hugo F V

    2016-02-01

    An accurate and precise estimate of stature can be very useful in the analysis of human remains in forensic cases. A problem with many stature estimation methods is that an unknown individual must first be assigned to a specific group before a method can be applied. Group membership has been defined by sex, age, year of birth, race, ancestry, continental origin, nationality or a combination of these criteria. Univariate and multivariate sex-specific and generic equations are presented here that do not require an unknown individual to be assigned to a group before stature is estimated. The equations were developed using linear regression with a sample (n=244) from the Terry Collection and tested using independent samples from the Forensic Anthropology Databank (n=136) and the Lisbon Collection (n=85). Tests with these independent samples show that (1) the femur provides the best univariate results; (2) the best multivariate equation includes the humerus, femur and tibia lengths; (3) a generic equation that does not require an unknown to first be assigned to a given category provides the best results most often; (4) a population-specific equation does not provide better results for estimating stature; (5) sex-specific equations can provide slightly better results in some cases; however, estimating the wrong sex can have a negative impact on precision and accuracy. With these equations, stature can be estimated independently of age at death, sex or group membership. PMID:26750990

  4. Development of gender- and age group-specific equations for estimating body weight from anthropometric measurement in Thai adults

    PubMed Central

    Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Pruenglampoo, Sakda; Trakulhoon, Vibul; Ungpinitpong, Winai; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2012-01-01

    Background Many medical procedures routinely use body weight as a parameter for calculation. However, these measurements are not always available. In addition, the commonly used visual estimation has had high error rates. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a predictive equation for body weight using body circumferences. Methods A prospective study was performed in healthy volunteers. Body weight, height, and eight circumferential level parameters including neck, arm, chest, waist, umbilical level, hip, thigh, and calf were recorded. Linear regression equations were developed in a modeling sample group divided by sex and age (younger <60 years and older ≥60 years). Original regression equations were modified to simple equations by coefficients and intercepts adjustment. These equations were tested in an independent validation sample. Results A total of 2000 volunteers were included in this study. These were randomly separated into two groups (1000 in each modeling and validation group). Equations using height and one covariate circumference were developed. After the covariate selection processes, covariate circumference of chest, waist, umbilical level, and hip were selected for single covariate equations (Sco). To reduce the body somatotype difference, the combination covariate circumferences were created by summation between the chest and one torso circumference of waist, umbilical level, or hip and used in the equation development as a combination covariate equation (Cco). Of these equations, Cco had significantly higher 10% threshold error tolerance compared with Sco (mean percentage error tolerance of Cco versus Sco [95% confidence interval; 95% CI]: 76.9 [74.2–79.6] versus 70.3 [68.4–72.3]; P < 0.01, respectively). Although simple covariate equations had more evidence errors than the original covariate equations, there was comparable error tolerance between the types of equations (original versus simple: 74.5 [71.9–77.1] versus 71.7 [69.2

  5. Sample size estimation in prevalence studies.

    PubMed

    Arya, Ravindra; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Kumar, Sushil

    2012-11-01

    Estimation of appropriate sample size for prevalence surveys presents many challenges, particularly when the condition is very rare or has a tendency for geographical clustering. Sample size estimate for prevalence studies is a function of expected prevalence and precision for a given level of confidence expressed by the z statistic. Choice of the appropriate values for these variables is sometimes not straight-forward. Certain other situations do not fulfil the assumptions made in the conventional equation and present a special challenge. These situations include, but are not limited to, smaller population size in relation to sample size, sampling technique or missing data. This paper discusses practical issues in sample size estimation for prevalence studies with an objective to help clinicians and healthcare researchers make more informed decisions whether reviewing or conducting such a study. PMID:22562262

  6. The oculoauriculovertebral spectrum: Refining the estimate of birth prevalence.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Michael T

    2012-06-01

    The oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) is a well-described pattern of congenital malformations primarily characterized by hemifacial microsomia and/or auricular dysplasia. However, the birth prevalence of OAVS is poorly characterized. Figures ranging from 1 in 150,000 through to 1 in 5,600 can be found in the literature - the latter figure being the most frequently quoted. This study aims to evaluate the reasons behind such discrepant figures and to refine the estimated birth prevalence of OAVS. Published reports on the incidence and prevalence of OAVS were systematically sought after. This evidence was critically reviewed. Data from appropriate studies was amalgamated to refine the estimate of the birth prevalence for OAVS. Two main reasons were identified why birth prevalence figures for OAVS are so highly discrepant: differing methods of case ascertainment and the lack of a formal definition for OAVS. This study refines the estimate of birth prevalence for OAVS to between 1 in 40,000 and 1 in 30,000. This number needs to be confirmed in a large well-designed prospective study using a formally agreed-upon definition for OAVS. PMID:27625806

  7. The oculoauriculovertebral spectrum: Refining the estimate of birth prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Gabbett, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    The oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) is a well-described pattern of congenital malformations primarily characterized by hemifacial microsomia and/or auricular dysplasia. However, the birth prevalence of OAVS is poorly characterized. Figures ranging from 1 in 150,000 through to 1 in 5,600 can be found in the literature – the latter figure being the most frequently quoted. This study aims to evaluate the reasons behind such discrepant figures and to refine the estimated birth prevalence of OAVS. Published reports on the incidence and prevalence of OAVS were systematically sought after. This evidence was critically reviewed. Data from appropriate studies was amalgamated to refine the estimate of the birth prevalence for OAVS. Two main reasons were identified why birth prevalence figures for OAVS are so highly discrepant: differing methods of case ascertainment and the lack of a formal definition for OAVS. This study refines the estimate of birth prevalence for OAVS to between 1 in 40,000 and 1 in 30,000. This number needs to be confirmed in a large well-designed prospective study using a formally agreed-upon definition for OAVS.

  8. An estimate of asthma prevalence in Africa: a systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Adeloye, Davies; Chan, Kit Yee; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Aim To estimate and compare asthma prevalence in Africa in 1990, 2000, and 2010 in order to provide information that will help inform the planning of the public health response to the disease. Methods We conducted a systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, and Global Health for studies on asthma published between 1990 and 2012. We included cross-sectional population based studies providing numerical estimates on the prevalence of asthma. We calculated weighted mean prevalence and applied an epidemiological model linking age with the prevalence of asthma. The UN population figures for Africa for 1990, 2000, and 2010 were used to estimate the cases of asthma, each for the respective year. Results Our search returned 790 studies. We retained 45 studies that met our selection criteria. In Africa in 1990, we estimated 34.1 million asthma cases (12.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.2-16.9) among children <15 years, 64.9 million (11.8%; 95% CI 7.9-15.8) among people aged <45 years, and 74.4 million (11.7%; 95% CI 8.2-15.3) in the total population. In 2000, we estimated 41.3 million cases (12.9%; 95% CI 8.7-17.0) among children <15 years, 82.4 million (12.5%; 95% CI 5.9-19.1) among people aged <45 years, and 94.8 million (12.0%; 95% CI 5.0-18.8) in the total population. This increased to 49.7 million (13.9%; 95% CI 9.6-18.3) among children <15 years, 102.9 million (13.8%; 95% CI 6.2-21.4) among people aged <45 years, and 119.3 million (12.8%; 95% CI 8.2-17.1) in the total population in 2010. There were no significant differences between asthma prevalence in studies which ascertained cases by written and video questionnaires. Crude prevalences of asthma were, however, consistently higher among urban than rural dwellers. Conclusion Our findings suggest an increasing prevalence of asthma in Africa over the past two decades. Due to the paucity of data, we believe that the true prevalence of asthma may still be under-estimated. There is a need for national governments in Africa

  9. Causal Estimation using Semiparametric Transformation Models under Prevalent Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu-Jen; Wang, Mei-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Summary This paper develops methods and inference for causal estimation in semiparametric transformation models for prevalent survival data. Through estimation of the transformation models and covariate distribution, we propose analytical procedures to estimate the causal survival function. As the data are observational, the unobserved potential outcome (survival time) may be associated with the treatment assignment, and therefore there may exist a systematic imbalance between the data observed from each treatment arm. Further, due to prevalent sampling, subjects are observed only if they have not experienced the failure event when data collection began, causing the prevalent sampling bias. We propose a unified approach which simultaneously corrects the bias from the prevalent sampling and balances the systematic differences from the observational data. We illustrate in the simulation study that standard analysis without proper adjustment would result in biased causal inference. Large sample properties of the proposed estimation procedures are established by techniques of empirical processes and examined by simulation studies. The proposed methods are applied to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) and Medicare linked data for women diagnosed with breast cancer. PMID:25715045

  10. Estimating Neospora caninum prevalence in wildlife populations using Bayesian inference.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Torres, Karla; Wolfe, Barbara; Saville, William; Garabed, Rebecca

    2016-04-01

    Prevalence of disease in wildlife populations, which is necessary for developing disease models and conducting epidemiologic analyses, is often understudied. Laboratory tests used to screen for diseases in wildlife populations often are validated only for domestic animals. Consequently, the use of these tests for wildlife populations may lead to inaccurate estimates of disease prevalence. We demonstrate the use of Bayesian latent class analysis (LCA) in determining the specificity and sensitivity of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA; VMRD (®), Inc.) serologic test used to identify exposure to Neospora caninum (hereafter N. caninum) in three wildlife populations in southeastern Ohio, USA. True prevalence of N. caninum exposure in these populations was estimated to range from 0.1% to 3.1% in American bison (Bison bison), 51.0% to 53.8% in Père David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus), and 40.0% to 45.9% in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The accuracy of the cELISA in American bison and Père David's deer was estimated to be close to the 96% sensitivity and 99% specificity reported by the manufacturer. Sensitivity in white-tailed deer, however, ranged from 78.9% to 99.9%. Apparent prevalence of N. caninum from the test results is not equal to the true prevalence in white-tailed deer and Père David's deer populations. Even when these species inhabit the same community, the true prevalence in the two deer populations differed from the true prevalence in the American bison population. Variances in prevalence for some species suggest differences in the epidemiology of N. caninum for these colocated populations. Bayesian LCA methods could be used as in this example to overcome some of the constraints on validating tests in wildlife species. The ability to accurately evaluate disease status and prevalence in a population improves our understanding of the epidemiology of multihost pathogen systems at the community level. PMID:27099713

  11. An estimate of the prevalence of developmental phonagnosia.

    PubMed

    Shilowich, Bryan E; Biederman, Irving

    2016-08-01

    A web-based survey estimated the distribution of voice recognition abilities with a focus on determining the prevalence of developmental phonagnosia, the inability to identify a familiar person based on their voice. Participants matched clips of 50 celebrity voices to 1-4 named headshots of celebrities whose voices they had previously rated for familiarity. Given a strong correlation between rated familiarity and recognition performance, a residual was calculated based on the average familiarity rating on each trial, which thus constituted each respondent's voice recognition ability that could not be accounted for by familiarity. 3.2% of the respondents (23 of 730 participants) had residual recognition scores 2.28 SDs below the mean (whereas 8 or 1.1% would have been expected from a normal distribution). They also judged whether they could imagine the voice of five familiar celebrities. Individuals who had difficulty in imagining voices were also generally below average in their accuracy of recognition. PMID:27376464

  12. Quantifying group specificity of animal vocalizations without specific sender information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vester, Heike; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Timme, Marc; Hallerberg, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Recordings of animal vocalization can lack information about sender and context. This is often the case in studies on marine mammals or in the increasing number of automated bioacoustics monitorings. Here, we develop a framework to estimate group specificity without specific sender information. We introduce and apply a bag-of-calls-and-coefficients approach (BOCCA) to study ensembles of cepstral coefficients calculated from vocalization signals recorded from a given animal group. Comparing distributions of such ensembles of coefficients by computing relative entropies reveals group specific differences. Applying the BOCCA to ensembles of calls recorded from group of long-finned pilot whales in northern Norway, we find that differences of vocalizations within social groups of pilot whales (Globicephala melas) are significantly lower than intergroup differences.

  13. Quantifying group specificity of animal vocalizations without specific sender information.

    PubMed

    Vester, Heike; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Timme, Marc; Hallerberg, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Recordings of animal vocalization can lack information about sender and context. This is often the case in studies on marine mammals or in the increasing number of automated bioacoustics monitorings. Here, we develop a framework to estimate group specificity without specific sender information. We introduce and apply a bag-of-calls-and-coefficients approach (BOCCA) to study ensembles of cepstral coefficients calculated from vocalization signals recorded from a given animal group. Comparing distributions of such ensembles of coefficients by computing relative entropies reveals group specific differences. Applying the BOCCA to ensembles of calls recorded from group of long-finned pilot whales in northern Norway, we find that differences of vocalizations within social groups of pilot whales (Globicephala melas) are significantly lower than intergroup differences. PMID:26986319

  14. Justifying group-specific common morality.

    PubMed

    Strong, Carson

    2008-01-01

    Some defenders of the view that there is a common morality have conceived such morality as being universal, in the sense of extending across all cultures and times. Those who deny the existence of such a common morality often argue that the universality claim is implausible. Defense of common morality must take account of the distinction between descriptive and normative claims that there is a common morality. This essay considers these claims separately and identifies the nature of the arguments for each claim. It argues that the claim that there is a universal common morality in the descriptive sense has not been successfully defended to date. It maintains that the claim that there is a common morality in the normative sense need not be understood as universalist. This paper advocates the concept of group specific common morality, including country-specific versions. It suggests that both the descriptive and the normative claims that there are country-specific common moralities are plausible, and that a country-specific normative common morality could provide the basis for a country's bioethics.

  15. Estimated prevalence of antenatal depression in the US population.

    PubMed

    Ashley, June M; Harper, Bridgette D; Arms-Chavez, Clarissa J; LoBello, Steven G

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of minor and major depression among pregnant women in the USA. Also, we compare prevalence of depression among pregnant and non-pregnant women while controlling for relevant covariates. A population-representative sample of pregnant women (n = 3010) surveyed for the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was compared to a sample of women who were not pregnant (n = 68,620). Binary logistic regression was used to determine prevalence ratios of depression for pregnant and non-pregnant women while controlling for the effects of age, race, annual income, employment status, educational level, marital status, general health, and availability of emotional support. Depression was measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8). The prevalence of major depression was no greater among pregnant women (6.1%) compared to non-pregnant women (7%; adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) .8 and 1.5). The prevalence of minor depression was greater among pregnant women (16.6%) compared to non-pregnant women (11.4%; adjusted PR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 and 1.9). Prevalence ratios are adjusted for the effects of covariates noted above. Prevalence of major depression is not associated with pregnancy, but minor depression is more likely among women who are pregnant. PMID:26687691

  16. Impact of Postcensal Versus Intercensal Population Estimates on Prevalence of Selected Developmental Disabilities--Metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, 1991-1996

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Carrie; Autry, Andy; Baio, Jon; Avchen, Rachel Nonkin; Braun, Kim Van Nardeen

    2007-01-01

    Prevalence estimates often use U.S. Census Bureau estimates of the population as denominator data. Postcensal estimates are population estimates produced following a decennial census. Intercensal estimates are surrounded by 2 census years and supersede postcensal estimates. In this report we describe prevalence estimates in Atlanta for mental…

  17. Estimating the Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in Alaska Using Partial, Nonrandom Measurement Data

    PubMed Central

    Boles, Myde; Fink, Karol; Topol, Rebecca; Fenaughty, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Although monitoring childhood obesity prevalence is critical for state public health programs to assess trends and the effectiveness of interventions, few states have comprehensive body mass index measurement systems in place. In some states, however, assorted school districts collect measurements on student height and weight as part of annual health screenings. To estimate childhood obesity prevalence in Alaska, we created a logistic regression model using such annual measurements along with public data on demographics and socioeconomic status. Our mixed-effects model-generated prevalence estimates validated well against weighted estimates, with 95% confidence intervals overlapping between methodologies among 7 of 8 participating school districts. Our methodology accounts for variation in school-level and student-level demographic factors across the state, and the approach we describe can be applied by other states that have existing nonrandom student measurement data to estimate childhood obesity prevalence. PMID:27010843

  18. Estimating HIV Prevalence in Zimbabwe Using Population-Based Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Chinomona, Amos; Mwambi, Henry Godwell

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of HIV prevalence computed using data obtained from sampling a subgroup of the national population may lack the representativeness of all the relevant domains of the population. These estimates are often computed on the assumption that HIV prevalence is uniform across all domains of the population. Use of appropriate statistical methods together with population-based survey data can enhance better estimation of national and subgroup level HIV prevalence and can provide improved explanations of the variation in HIV prevalence across different domains of the population. In this study we computed design-consistent estimates of HIV prevalence, and their respective 95% confidence intervals at both the national and subgroup levels. In addition, we provided a multivariable survey logistic regression model from a generalized linear modelling perspective for explaining the variation in HIV prevalence using demographic, socio-economic, socio-cultural and behavioural factors. Essentially, this study borrows from the proximate determinants conceptual framework which provides guiding principles upon which socio-economic and socio-cultural variables affect HIV prevalence through biological behavioural factors. We utilize the 2010–11 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (2010–11 ZDHS) data (which are population based) to estimate HIV prevalence in different categories of the population and for constructing the logistic regression model. It was established that HIV prevalence varies greatly with age, gender, marital status, place of residence, literacy level, belief on whether condom use can reduce the risk of contracting HIV and level of recent sexual activity whereas there was no marked variation in HIV prevalence with social status (measured using a wealth index), method of contraceptive and an individual’s level of education. PMID:26624280

  19. Estimating HIV Prevalence in Zimbabwe Using Population-Based Survey Data.

    PubMed

    Chinomona, Amos; Mwambi, Henry Godwell

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of HIV prevalence computed using data obtained from sampling a subgroup of the national population may lack the representativeness of all the relevant domains of the population. These estimates are often computed on the assumption that HIV prevalence is uniform across all domains of the population. Use of appropriate statistical methods together with population-based survey data can enhance better estimation of national and subgroup level HIV prevalence and can provide improved explanations of the variation in HIV prevalence across different domains of the population. In this study we computed design-consistent estimates of HIV prevalence, and their respective 95% confidence intervals at both the national and subgroup levels. In addition, we provided a multivariable survey logistic regression model from a generalized linear modelling perspective for explaining the variation in HIV prevalence using demographic, socio-economic, socio-cultural and behavioural factors. Essentially, this study borrows from the proximate determinants conceptual framework which provides guiding principles upon which socio-economic and socio-cultural variables affect HIV prevalence through biological behavioural factors. We utilize the 2010-11 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (2010-11 ZDHS) data (which are population based) to estimate HIV prevalence in different categories of the population and for constructing the logistic regression model. It was established that HIV prevalence varies greatly with age, gender, marital status, place of residence, literacy level, belief on whether condom use can reduce the risk of contracting HIV and level of recent sexual activity whereas there was no marked variation in HIV prevalence with social status (measured using a wealth index), method of contraceptive and an individual's level of education. PMID:26624280

  20. Spatially interpolated disease prevalence estimation using collateral indicators of morbidity and ecological risk.

    PubMed

    Congdon, Peter

    2013-10-01

    This paper considers estimation of disease prevalence for small areas (neighbourhoods) when the available observations on prevalence are for an alternative partition of a region, such as service areas. Interpolation to neighbourhoods uses a kernel method extended to take account of two types of collateral information. The first is morbidity and service use data, such as hospital admissions, observed for neighbourhoods. Variations in morbidity and service use are expected to reflect prevalence. The second type of collateral information is ecological risk factors (e.g., pollution indices) that are expected to explain variability in prevalence in service areas, but are typically observed only for neighbourhoods. An application involves estimating neighbourhood asthma prevalence in a London health region involving 562 neighbourhoods and 189 service (primary care) areas. PMID:24129116

  1. Beyond air quality--factors that affect prevalence estimates of sick building syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mikatavage, M A; Rose, V E; Funkhouser, E; Oestenstad, R K; Dillon, K; Reynolds, K D

    1995-11-01

    If the prevalence of sick building syndrome (SBS) is estimated before intervention begins, then a reduction in the estimate may later be used to measure success of the intervention, and in particular, those efforts toward improving air quality. However, the measure of success will be distorted if factors other than air quality affect the SBS prevalence estimate. In this study the background prevalence of SBS was estimated and study factors identified that alone affected the estimate. Two symptom questionnaires were randomly administered to workers from 39 offices before routine physical examinations; one questionnaire described the SBS study, the other did not. SBS was defined as a symptom in the prior 24-hour or 7-day recall period that was more severe at work and not related to suspected confounders--allergy, cold, flu. Prevalence and prevalence ratios were estimated along with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Symptoms were reported by 45% of 1088 workers surveyed, but most reported them as more severe outside work or related them to confounders. SBS prevalence was 5%. It was 3.2 times higher (95% CI: 1.8, 5.7) among workers cognizant of the study relative to those blinded, 2.2 times higher (95% CI: 1.2, 4.1) for the 7-day relative to the 24-hour recall period, and 2.5 times higher (95% CI: 1.4, 5.0) for females. SBS prevalence did not differ by workday or age. Since study factors alone affected prevalence estimates, a standardized assessment method seems necessary for SBS.

  2. A small area analysis estimating the prevalence of addiction to opioids in Barcelona, 1993

    PubMed Central

    Brugal, M. T.; Domingo-Salvany, A.; Maguire, A.; Cayla, J. A.; Villalbi, J. R.; Hartnoll, R.

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the distribution of opioid use prevalence in small areas and its relation with socioeconomic indicators. DESIGN: Capture-recapture was applied using data from the Barcelona Drug Information System for 1993 (treatment demands, hospital emergency room visits, deaths from heroin acute adverse reaction and pre-trial prison admissions). To avoid dependence between sources, a log-linear regression model with interactions was fitted. For small neighbourhoods, where capture-recapture estimates were not obtainable, the Heroin Problem Index (HPI) was used to predict prevalence rates from a regression model. The correlation between estimated opioid use prevalence by neighbourhoods and their socioeconomic level was computed. MAIN RESULTS: The city's estimated prevalence was 12.9 opioid addicts per 1000 inhabitants aged 15 to 44 years (95% CI: 10.1, 17.2), which represents 9176 persons. The highest rate was found in the inner city neighbourhood. Comparing rates obtained for each neighbourhood with their unemployment rates, a high correlation coefficient was obtained (r = 0.80, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The main contribution of this study is that of combining capture-recapture with the HPI to produce small area prevalence estimates, which would not have been possible using only one method. Areas with higher socioeconomic status showed proportionally low addiction prevalences, but in depressed areas, prevalences varied widely.   PMID:10562867

  3. Estimating Contraceptive Prevalence Using Logistics Data for Short-Acting Methods: Analysis Across 30 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Marc; Brown, Niquelle; Sacher, Suzy; Hatch, Benjamin; Inglis, Andrew; Aronovich, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) is a vital indicator used by country governments, international donors, and other stakeholders for measuring progress in family planning programs against country targets and global initiatives as well as for estimating health outcomes. Because of the need for more frequent CPR estimates than population-based surveys currently provide, alternative approaches for estimating CPRs are being explored, including using contraceptive logistics data. Methods: Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in 30 countries, population data from the United States Census Bureau International Database, and logistics data from the Procurement Planning and Monitoring Report (PPMR) and the Pipeline Monitoring and Procurement Planning System (PipeLine), we developed and evaluated 3 models to generate country-level, public-sector contraceptive prevalence estimates for injectable contraceptives, oral contraceptives, and male condoms. Models included: direct estimation through existing couple-years of protection (CYP) conversion factors, bivariate linear regression, and multivariate linear regression. Model evaluation consisted of comparing the referent DHS prevalence rates for each short-acting method with the model-generated prevalence rate using multiple metrics, including mean absolute error and proportion of countries where the modeled prevalence rate for each method was within 1, 2, or 5 percentage points of the DHS referent value. Results: For the methods studied, family planning use estimates from public-sector logistics data were correlated with those from the DHS, validating the quality and accuracy of current public-sector logistics data. Logistics data for oral and injectable contraceptives were significantly associated (P<.05) with the referent DHS values for both bivariate and multivariate models. For condoms, however, that association was only significant for the bivariate model. With the exception of the CYP

  4. An estimate of the prevalence of biocompatible and habitable planets.

    PubMed

    Fogg, M J

    1992-01-01

    A Monte Carlo computer model of extra-solar planetary formation and evolution, which includes the planetary geochemical carbon cycle, is presented. The results of a run of one million galactic disc stars are shown where the aim was to assess the possible abundance of both biocompatible and habitable planets. (Biocompatible planets are defined as worlds where the long-term presence of surface liquid water provides environmental conditions suitable for the origin and evolution of life. Habitable planets are those worlds with more specifically Earthlike conditions). The model gives an estimate of 1 biocompatible planet per 39 stars, with the subset of habitable planets being much rarer at 1 such planet per 413 stars. The nearest biocompatible planet may thus lie approximately 14 LY distant and the nearest habitable planet approximately 31 LY away. If planets form in multiple star systems then the above planet/star ratios may be more than doubled. By applying the results to stars in the solar neighbourhood, it is possible to identify 28 stars at distances of < 22 LY with a non-zero probability of possessing a biocompatible planet.

  5. An estimate of the prevalence of biocompatible and habitable planets.

    PubMed

    Fogg, M J

    1992-01-01

    A Monte Carlo computer model of extra-solar planetary formation and evolution, which includes the planetary geochemical carbon cycle, is presented. The results of a run of one million galactic disc stars are shown where the aim was to assess the possible abundance of both biocompatible and habitable planets. (Biocompatible planets are defined as worlds where the long-term presence of surface liquid water provides environmental conditions suitable for the origin and evolution of life. Habitable planets are those worlds with more specifically Earthlike conditions). The model gives an estimate of 1 biocompatible planet per 39 stars, with the subset of habitable planets being much rarer at 1 such planet per 413 stars. The nearest biocompatible planet may thus lie approximately 14 LY distant and the nearest habitable planet approximately 31 LY away. If planets form in multiple star systems then the above planet/star ratios may be more than doubled. By applying the results to stars in the solar neighbourhood, it is possible to identify 28 stars at distances of < 22 LY with a non-zero probability of possessing a biocompatible planet. PMID:11539465

  6. A door-to-door survey to estimate the prevalence of Parkinsonism in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Suliman; Nabi, Ghulam; Naeem, Muhammad; Ali, Liaqat; Silburn, Peter A; Mellick, George D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Parkinson’s disease (PD) occurs in all races and cultures, and population-related differences in frequency may provide etiological clues. The present study was designed to explore the prevalence of PD and Parkinsonism in Pakistan, the world’s sixth most populous country, for which no published prevalence data are available. Methods We conducted a three-phase door-to-door survey in two districts of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, to assess the prevalence of PD and Parkinsonism in a sample of 4,000 individuals aged 50 years and above. Results We identified 14 cases of Parkinsonism, eleven with a diagnosis of idiopathic PD. The overall prevalence estimates were 1.7/100 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9–2.46) for Parkinsonism and 1.28/100 (95% CI: 0.6–1.94) for PD in persons aged 65 years and above. The age-standardized prevalence of PD (aged 65 years and above), normalized to the USA population in 2000, was 1.33/100, which is similar to that observed in other human populations. Of the total 14 cases, five were newly diagnosed and four had a family history of PD. Conclusion The estimated prevalence rates in Pakistan are similar to those observed in other human populations. The frequency of familial Parkinsonism is also equivalent to previous estimates. PMID:27382292

  7. Revisiting multi-subject random effects in fMRI: advocating prevalence estimation.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J D; Vink, M; Benjamini, Y

    2014-01-01

    Random effect analysis has been introduced into fMRI research in order to generalize findings from the study group to the whole population. Generalizing findings is obviously harder than detecting activation within the study group since in order to be significant, an activation has to be larger than the inter-subject variability. Indeed, detected regions are smaller when using random effect analysis versus fixed effects. The statistical assumptions behind the classic random effect model are that the effect in each location is normally distributed over subjects, and "activation" refers to a non-null mean effect. We argue that this model is unrealistic compared to the true population variability, where due to function-anatomy inconsistencies and registration anomalies, some of the subjects are active and some are not at each brain location. We propose a Gaussian-mixture-random-effect that amortizes between-subject spatial disagreement and quantifies it using the prevalence of activation at each location. We present a formal definition and an estimation procedure of this prevalence. The end result of the proposed analysis is a map of the prevalence at locations with significant activation, highlighting activation regions that are common over many brains. Prevalence estimation has several desirable properties: (a) It is more informative than the typical active/inactive paradigm. (b) In contrast to the usual display of p-values in activated regions - which trivially converge to 0 for large sample sizes - prevalence estimates converge to the true prevalence. PMID:23988271

  8. Estimation of the prevalence of chronic kidney disease: The results of a model based estimation in Kerman, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizi, Reza; Zolala, Farzaneh; Nasirian, Maryam; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Etminan, Abbas; Sekhavati, Eghbal; Khodadost, Mahmoud; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic kidney disease is asymptomatic until its last stages and though it is increasing globally, we are faced with paucity of a population-based model to assess this disease, particularly in developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and trends of CKD according to a new estimation method. Methods: Using multiplier method, we estimated the numbers of different stages of CKD based on the number of patients with end stage renal failure from 2006 to 2016. The required multipliers were extracted from a simulation of the disease in Kerman following a dynamic model. The 95% uncertainty interval was computed using Monte-Carlo technique with 10,000 iterations. Results: The prevalence of CKDA (GFR<=90mL/min/1.73m2) and CKDB (GFR less than 60mL/min/1.73m2) patients were estimated to be 7.6% (95% uncertainty interval (UI), 5.7-9.1%) and 1.1% (95% UI, 0.8-1.3%), respectively in 2011. The method revealed that the prevalence may rise up to 25.7% (95% UI, 18.2-32.5%) and 3.7% (95% UI, 2.7-4.5%) for CKDA and CKDB, respectively in 2016, indicating approximately 3.3 times increase for both figures. Conclusion: This study predicted an increase in the prevalence of CKD in the future. This may be due to the increasing life expectancy of the population, the increase in the prevalence of non- communicable diseases such as hypertension and diabetes, or patients’ survival due to receiving better support. Therefore, the policymakers should be concerned and well informed about this increase. PMID:27390708

  9. An estimate of the prevalence of dementia in Africa: A systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    George-Carey, Rhiannon; Adeloye, Davies; Chan, Kit Yee; Paul, Abigail; Kolčić, Ivana; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Background The burden of non–communicable diseases is growing, particularly in developing countries. The greatest economic burden is due to dementia, the prevalence of which is rising with increasing longevity. In Africa, where the rate of increase of elderly persons is the fastest in the world, dementia is normally dismissed as a part of normal ageing. The lack of awareness means that many patients are suffering undiagnosed. This review aims to assess the information on the prevalence of dementia in Africa in order to estimate the current burden. Methods A parallel search of Medline, EMBASE and Global Health limited to post–1980 found only 10 relevant studies. Data on prevalence and risk factors were extracted and analysed. We modelled the available information and used the UN population figures for Africa to determine the age–specific and overall burden of dementia. Results The overall prevalence of dementia in adults older than 50 years in Africa was estimated to be about 2.4%, which translates to 2.76 million people living with a disease in 2010. About 2.10 millions of them live in Sub–Saharan Africa. Prevalence was the highest among females aged 80 and over (19.7%) and there was little variation between regions. Alzheimer disease was the most prevalent cause of dementia (57.1%) followed by vascular dementia (26.9%). The main risk factors were increasing age, female sex and cardiovascular disease. Conclusions Information on dementia prevalence in Africa is very limited. Further research will not only provide a more reliable estimate of prevalence, and consequently the burden of disease, but will also raise awareness of the problem. This is critical in promoting help–seeking behaviour and generating the political commitment to make dementia a public health priority in Africa. PMID:23289076

  10. Mental health disorders among individuals with mental retardation: challenges to accurate prevalence estimates.

    PubMed Central

    Kerker, Bonnie D.; Owens, Pamela L.; Zigler, Edward; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this literature review were to assess current challenges to estimating the prevalence of mental health disorders among individuals with mental retardation (MR) and to develop recommendations to improve such estimates for this population. METHODS: The authors identified 200 peer-reviewed articles, book chapters, government documents, or reports from national and international organizations on the mental health status of people with MR. Based on the study's inclusion criteria, 52 articles were included in the review. RESULTS: Available data reveal inconsistent estimates of the prevalence of mental health disorders among those with MR, but suggest that some mental health conditions are more common among these individuals than in the general population. Two main challenges to identifying accurate prevalence estimates were found: (1) health care providers have difficulty diagnosing mental health conditions among individuals with MR; and (2) methodological limitations of previous research inhibit confidence in study results. CONCLUSIONS: Accurate prevalence estimates are necessary to ensure the availability of appropriate treatment services. To this end, health care providers should receive more training regarding the mental health treatment of individuals with MR. Further, government officials should discuss mechanisms of collecting nationally representative data, and the research community should utilize consistent methods with representative samples when studying mental health conditions in this population. PMID:15219798

  11. The Lifetime Prevalence of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use and Dependence in Americans: Current Best Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Harrison G.; Kanayama, Gen; Athey, Alison; Ryan, Erin; Hudson, James I.; Baggish, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Although various surveys have tracked the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use in American teenagers and young adults, no recent surveys have assessed the lifetime prevalence of AAS use in Americans overall. We therefore analyzed serial youth-survey data to derive estimates of the lifetime prevalence of AAS use in the current American general population. Methods We first determined the distribution of age of onset of AAS use, based on pooled data from nine studies. Using this distribution, we then developed equations to project the eventual lifetime prevalence of AAS use among young survey respondents, once they aged and completed the period of risk for initiating AAS. We similarly calculated the denominator of lifetimes of risk for AAS use in the total American population. We next applied these equations to four independent national youth datasets to derive current American general-population estimates for lifetime AAS use. Finally, using data from 10 pooled studies, we estimated the lifetime prevalence of AAS dependence among AAS users. Results Age-of-onset studies consistently showed that AAS use begins later than most drugs, with only 22% of users (95% confidence interval: 19%–25%) starting before age 20. Applying the age-of-onset findings to national youth datasets, we estimated that among Americans currently age 13 to 50 years, 2.9–4.0 million have used AAS. Within this group, roughly 1 million may have experienced AAS dependence. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Although subject to various limitations, our estimation techniques suggest a surprisinigly high prevalence of AAS use and dependence among Americans. PMID:24112239

  12. Obesity prevalence estimates in a Canadian regional population of preschool children using variant growth references

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a public health problem in Canada. Accurate measurement of a health problem is crucial in defining its burden. The objective of this study is to compare the prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity in preschool children using three growth references. Methods Weights and heights were measured on 1026 preschool children born in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), Canada, and body mass index calculated. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined and statistical comparisons conducted among the three growth references; the Centres for Disease Control (CDC), the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Results CDC and IOTF produced similar estimates of the prevalence of overweight, 19.1% versus 18.2% while the WHO reported a higher prevalence 26.7% (p < .001). The CDC classified twice as many children as obese compared to the IOTF 16.6% versus 8.3% (p < .001) and a third more than the WHO 16.6% versus 11.3% (p < .01). There was variable level of agreement between methods. Conclusions The CDC reported a much higher prevalence of obesity compared to the other references. The prevalence of childhood obesity is dependent on the growth reference used. PMID:21356057

  13. Global and regional estimates of COPD prevalence: Systematic review and meta–analysis

    PubMed Central

    Adeloye, Davies; Chua, Stephen; Lee, Chinwei; Basquill, Catriona; Papana, Angeliki; Theodoratou, Evropi; Nair, Harish; Gasevic, Danijela; Sridhar, Devi; Campbell, Harry; Chan, Kit Yee; Sheikh, Aziz; Rudan, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) across many world regions is high. We aim to estimate COPD prevalence and number of disease cases for the years 1990 and 2010 across world regions based on the best available evidence in publicly accessible scientific databases. Methods We conducted a systematic search of Medline, EMBASE and Global Health for original, population–based studies providing spirometry–based prevalence rates of COPD across the world from January 1990 to December 2014. Random effects meta–analysis was conducted on extracted crude prevalence rates of COPD, with overall summaries of the meta–estimates (and confidence intervals) reported separately for World Health Organization (WHO) regions, the World Bank's income categories and settings (urban and rural). We developed a meta–regression epidemiological model that we used to estimate the prevalence of COPD in people aged 30 years or more. Findings Our search returned 37 472 publications. A total of 123 studies based on a spirometry–defined prevalence were retained for the review. From the meta–regression epidemiological model, we estimated about 227.3 million COPD cases in the year 1990 among people aged 30 years or more, corresponding to a global prevalence of 10.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.3%–14.0%) in this age group. The number of COPD cases increased to 384 million in 2010, with a global prevalence of 11.7% (8.4%–15.0%). This increase of 68.9% was mainly driven by global demographic changes. Across WHO regions, the highest prevalence was estimated in the Americas (13.3% in 1990 and 15.2% in 2010), and the lowest in South East Asia (7.9% in 1990 and 9.7% in 2010). The percentage increase in COPD cases between 1990 and 2010 was the highest in the Eastern Mediterranean region (118.7%), followed by the African region (102.1%), while the European region recorded the lowest increase (22.5%). In 1990, we estimated about 120.9 million COPD cases

  14. Prevalence estimates of combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder: critical review.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Lisa K; Frueh, B Christopher; Acierno, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide a critical review of prevalence estimates of combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among military personnel and veterans, and of the relevant factors that may account for the variability of estimates within and across cohorts, including methodological and conceptual factors accounting for differences in prevalence rates across nations, conflicts/wars, and studies. MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were examined for literature on combat-related PTSD. The following terms were used independently and in combinations in this search: PTSD, combat, veterans, military, epidemiology, prevalence. The point prevalence of combat-related PTSD in US military veterans since the Vietnam War ranged from approximately 2% to 17%. Studies of recent conflicts suggest that combat-related PTSD afflicts between 4% and 17% of US Iraq War veterans, but only 3-6% of returning UK Iraq War veterans. Thus, the prevalence range is narrower and tends to have a lower ceiling among combat veterans of non-US Western nations. Variability in prevalence is likely due to differences in sampling strategies; measurement strategies; inclusion and measurement of the DSM-IV clinically significant impairment criterion; timing and latency of assessment and potential for recall bias; and combat experiences. Prevalence rates are also likely affected by issues related to PTSD course, chronicity, and comorbidity; symptom overlap with other psychiatric disorders; and sociopolitical and cultural factors that may vary over time and by nation. The disorder represents a significant and costly illness to veterans, their families, and society as a whole. Further carefully conceptualized research, however, is needed to advance our understanding of disorder prevalence, as well as associated information on course, phenomenology, protective factors, treatment, and economic costs.

  15. Methodological aspects of estimating rare cancer prevalence in Europe: the experience of the RARECARE project.

    PubMed

    Mallone, Sandra; De Angelis, Roberta; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Trama, Annalisa; Siesling, Sabine; Gatta, Gemma; Capocaccia, Riccardo

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the usage and the performance evaluation of the completeness index method in the 'Surveillance of Rare Cancers in Europe project' (RARECARE) for estimating rare cancer prevalence in Europe. The 15-year prevalence at 1st January 2003 for 255 cancers is obtained from a pool of 22 RARECARE cancer registries (CRs). Incidence and survival models are applied to the RARECARE database to estimate the parameters from which the completeness indices are calculated. Complete prevalence is obtained adjusting the observed 15-year prevalence by the completeness index, to account for those cancer survivors diagnosed before the CR activity started. Main factors influencing the performance of the completeness index method for rare cancers are the same as for common cancers: age distribution of incidence and lethality of the cancer. For cancers occurring in the elderly, with low survival rates and consequently a restricted number of long-term survivors we obtained completeness indices higher than 0.9. Values lower than 0.7 correspond to those cancers with good prognosis and/or incidence more concentrated at the younger ages, indicating that 15 years of follow up are insufficient to detect all prevalent cases. Validation analysis shows that for a restricted subgroup of rare cancers with very low incidence and low survival, the completeness indices were not able to adequately correct the observed prevalence even considering a registration period of 20 years. On average, sensitivity analyses show a slight overestimation of complete prevalence for rare and common cancers whose increasing incidence is known in literature. RARECARE is the largest project on rare cancers conducted to date. Improving health care programs for cancer survivors is a public health priority and prevalence data which provides important information in this field should be regularly asked to Member States and included in the EU health statistics.

  16. Body dysmorphic disorder in different settings: A systematic review and estimated weighted prevalence.

    PubMed

    Veale, David; Gledhill, Lucinda J; Christodoulou, Polyxeni; Hodsoll, John

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to systematically review the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in a variety of settings. Weighted prevalence estimate and 95% confidence intervals in each study were calculated. The weighted prevalence of BDD in adults in the community was estimated to be 1.9%; in adolescents 2.2%; in student populations 3.3%; in adult psychiatric inpatients 7.4%; in adolescent psychiatric inpatients 7.4%; in adult psychiatric outpatients 5.8%; in general cosmetic surgery 13.2%; in rhinoplasty surgery 20.1%; in orthognathic surgery 11.2%; in orthodontics/cosmetic dentistry settings 5.2%; in dermatology outpatients 11.3%; in cosmetic dermatology outpatients 9.2%; and in acne dermatology clinics 11.1%. Women outnumbered men in the majority of settings but not in cosmetic or dermatological settings. BDD is common in some psychiatric and cosmetic settings but is poorly identified. PMID:27498379

  17. Satellite-based Estimates of Ambient Air Pollution and Global Variations in Childhood Asthma Prevalence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, H. Ross; Butland, Barbara K.; Donkelaar, Aaron Matthew Van; Brauer, Michael; Strachan, David P.; Clayton, Tadd; van Dingenen, Rita; Amann, Marcus; Brunekreef, Bert; Cohen, Aaron; Dentener, Frank; Lai, Christopher; Lamsal, Lok N.; Martin, Randall V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effect of ambient air pollution on global variations and trends in asthma prevalence is unclear. Objectives: Our goal was to investigate community-level associations between asthma prevalence data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and satellite-based estimates of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and modelled estimates of ozone. Methods: We assigned satellite-based estimates of PM2.5 and NO2 at a spatial resolution of 0.1deg × 0.1deg and modeled estimates of ozone at a resolution of 1deg × 1deg to 183 ISAAC centers. We used center-level prevalence of severe asthma as the outcome and multilevel models to adjust for gross national income (GNI) and center- and country-level sex, climate, and population density. We examined associations (adjusting for GNI) between air pollution and asthma prevalence over time in centers with data from ISAAC Phase One (mid-1900s) and Phase Three (2001-2003). Results: For the 13- to 14-year age group (128 centers in 28 countries), the estimated average within-country change in center-level asthma prevalence per 100 children per 10% increase in center-level PM2.5 and NO2 was -0.043 [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.139, 0.053] and 0.017 (95% CI: -0.030, 0.064) respectively. For ozone the estimated change in prevalence per parts per billion by volume was -0.116 (95% CI: -0.234, 0.001). Equivalent results for the 6- to 7-year age group (83 centers in 20 countries), though slightly different, were not significantly positive. For the 13- to 14-year age group, change in center-level asthma prevalence over time per 100 children per 10% increase in PM2.5 from Phase One to Phase Three was -0.139 (95% CI: -0.347, 0.068). The corresponding association with ozone (per ppbV) was -0.171 (95% CI: -0.275, -0.067). Conclusion: In contrast to reports from within-community studies of individuals exposed to traffic pollution, we did not find

  18. Satellite-based Estimates of Ambient Air Pollution and Global Variations in Childhood Asthma Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Butland, Barbara K.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Brauer, Michael; Strachan, David P.; Clayton, Tadd; van Dingenen, Rita; Amann, Marcus; Brunekreef, Bert; Cohen, Aaron; Dentener, Frank; Lai, Christopher; Lamsal, Lok N.; Martin, Randall V.; One, ISAAC Phase

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effect of ambient air pollution on global variations and trends in asthma prevalence is unclear. Objectives: Our goal was to investigate community-level associations between asthma prevalence data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and satellite-based estimates of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and modelled estimates of ozone. Methods: We assigned satellite-based estimates of PM2.5 and NO2 at a spatial resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° and modeled estimates of ozone at a resolution of 1° × 1° to 183 ISAAC centers. We used center-level prevalence of severe asthma as the outcome and multilevel models to adjust for gross national income (GNI) and center- and country-level sex, climate, and population density. We examined associations (adjusting for GNI) between air pollution and asthma prevalence over time in centers with data from ISAAC Phase One (mid-1900s) and Phase Three (2001–2003). Results: For the 13- to 14-year age group (128 centers in 28 countries), the estimated average within-country change in center-level asthma prevalence per 100 children per 10% increase in center-level PM2.5 and NO2 was –0.043 [95% confidence interval (CI): –0.139, 0.053] and 0.017 (95% CI: –0.030, 0.064) respectively. For ozone the estimated change in prevalence per parts per billion by volume was –0.116 (95% CI: –0.234, 0.001). Equivalent results for the 6- to 7-year age group (83 centers in 20 countries), though slightly different, were not significantly positive. For the 13- to 14-year age group, change in center-level asthma prevalence over time per 100 children per 10% increase in PM2.5 from Phase One to Phase Three was –0.139 (95% CI: –0.347, 0.068). The corresponding association with ozone (per ppbV) was –0.171 (95% CI: –0.275, –0.067). Conclusion: In contrast to reports from within-community studies of individuals exposed to traffic pollution

  19. The estimated prevalence and incidence of HIV in 96 large US metropolitan areas.

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, S D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to estimate the size and direction of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with populations greater than 500,000. METHODS: A "components model" from review of more than 350 documents, several large datasets, and information from 220 public health personnel was used. Data review focused on injection drug users, men who have sex with men, and high-risk heterosexual men and women. RESULTS: In the 96 MSAs, there are, broadly, an estimated 1.5 million injection drug users, 1.7 million gay and bisexual men, and 2.1 million at-risk heterosexuals, and, among them, an estimated 565,000 prevalent and 38,000 incident HIV infections. This implies about 700,000 prevalent and 41,000 new HIV infections yearly in the United States. Roughly half of all estimated new infections are occurring among injection drug users, most of them in northeastern cities, Miami, and San Juan. Gay and bisexual men still represent most prevalent HIV infections, although incidence--except in young and minority gay men--is much lower now than it was a decade ago. Relatively high prevalences of HIV in at-risk heterosexual persons in several cities indicate the potential for an increase in transmission among them. CONCLUSIONS: This review and synthesis outline the comparative epidemiology of HIV in major US cities and identify populations for interventions. PMID:8629714

  20. Prevalence Estimates of Health Risk Behaviors of Immigrant Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Wolfson, Mark; Alonzo, Jorge; Bloom, Fred R.; Alegria-Ortega, Jose; Eng, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about the health status of rural immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). These MSM comprise a subpopulation that tends to remain "hidden" from both researchers and practitioners. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol, and drug use, and sexual risk behaviors of Latino MSM living in…

  1. Estimated Prevalence of People with Cognitive Impairment: Results from Nationally Representative Community and Institutional Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Amy B.; Remsburg, Robin E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We address how the national prevalence of cognitive impairment can be estimated from two nationally representative surveys. Design and Methods: Data are from the 1999-2001 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the 1999 National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS). The NHIS represents all community-dwelling people living in the United States,…

  2. Redrawing the US Obesity Landscape: Bias-Corrected Estimates of State-Specific Adult Obesity Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Zachary J.; Long, Michael W.; Resch, Stephen C.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Cradock, Angie L.; Giles, Catherine; Hsiao, Amber; Wang, Y. Claire

    2016-01-01

    Background State-level estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) underestimate the obesity epidemic because they use self-reported height and weight. We describe a novel bias-correction method and produce corrected state-level estimates of obesity and severe obesity. Methods Using non-parametric statistical matching, we adjusted self-reported data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) 2013 (n = 386,795) using measured data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n = 16,924). We validated our national estimates against NHANES and estimated bias-corrected state-specific prevalence of obesity (BMI≥30) and severe obesity (BMI≥35). We compared these results with previous adjustment methods. Results Compared to NHANES, self-reported BRFSS data underestimated national prevalence of obesity by 16% (28.67% vs 34.01%), and severe obesity by 23% (11.03% vs 14.26%). Our method was not significantly different from NHANES for obesity or severe obesity, while previous methods underestimated both. Only four states had a corrected obesity prevalence below 30%, with four exceeding 40%–in contrast, most states were below 30% in CDC maps. Conclusions Twelve million adults with obesity (including 6.7 million with severe obesity) were misclassified by CDC state-level estimates. Previous bias-correction methods also resulted in underestimates. Accurate state-level estimates are necessary to plan for resources to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:26954566

  3. Prevalence Estimates of Health Risk Behaviors of Immigrant Latino Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Wolfson, Mark; Alonzo, Jorge; Bloom, Fred R.; Alegría-Ortega, Jose; Eng, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about the health status of rural immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). These MSM comprise a subpopulation that tends to remain “hidden” from both researchers and practitioners. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol, and drug use, and sexual risk behaviors of Latino MSM living in rural North Carolina. Methods A community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to identify, recruit, and enroll Latino MSM to participate in an interviewer-administered behavioral assessment. RDS weighted prevalence of risk behaviors was estimated using the RDS Analysis Tool. Data collection occurred in 2008. Results A total of 190 Latino MSM was reached; the average age was 25.5 years old and nearly 80% reported being from Mexico. Prevalence estimates of smoking everyday and past 30-day heavy episodic drinking were 6.5% and 35.0%, respectively. Prevalence estimates of past 12-month marijuana and cocaine use were 56.0% and 27.1%, respectively. Past 3-month prevalence estimates of sex with at least one woman, multiple male partners, and inconsistent condom use were 21.2%, 88.9%, and 54.1%, respectively. Conclusions Respondents had low rates of tobacco use and club drug use, and high rates of sexual risk behaviors. Although this study represents an initial step in documenting the health risk behaviors of immigrant Latino MSM who are part of a new trend in Latino immigration to the southeastern US, a need exists for further research, including longitudinal studies to understand the trajectory of risk behavior among immigrant Latino MSM. PMID:22236317

  4. Estimating the Contribution of Acute Gastroenteritis to the Overall Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Eric D; Riddle, Mark S; Chang, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Recent studies reveal that acute gastroenteritis can precipitate irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms leading to the concept of post-infectious IBS. However, the overall contribution of gastroenteritis to the total IBS prevalence is unknown. In this exercise we try to estimate the contribution of gastroenteritis in IBS using the published literature and a longitudinal approach. Methods Existing literature was reviewed to determine the incidence of IBS after gastroenteritis, the rate of remission over time, data on rates of gastroenteritis in a given population and any patterns of resistance to these effects in human populations. This produced 3 models. The first assumed all humans were susceptible to gastroenteritis and its ability to produce IBS. The second assumed (using meta-analysis data) that 90% of humans in a given outbreak would be resistant to this effect. The third model used a high gastroenteritis exposure rate as might be seen in military deployment. Results In model 1, the prevalence was unrealistically high with an eventual steady state of 43.6% of the population affected by IBS. In a very conservative approach (model 2), steady state was achieved after 10 years to an overall prevalence of 8.9%. Interestingly, based on a high 1 year exposure rate such as military deployment, the maximum prevalence (steady state) was reached before 1 year suggesting high risk. Conclusions Although hypothetical in approach, based on conservative estimates in existing literature the contribution of gastroenteritis to the overall prevalence of IBS is substantial. PMID:22523730

  5. Accuracy of Herdsmen Reporting versus Serologic Testing for Estimating Foot-and-Mouth Disease Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Handel, Ian G.; Tanya, Vincent N.; Hamman, Saidou M.; Nfon, Charles; Bergman, Ingrid E.; Malirat, Viviana; Sorensen, Karl J.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. de C.

    2014-01-01

    Herdsman-reported disease prevalence is widely used in veterinary epidemiologic studies, especially for diseases with visible external lesions; however, the accuracy of such reports is rarely validated. Thus, we used latent class analysis in a Bayesian framework to compare sensitivity and specificity of herdsman reporting with virus neutralization testing and use of 3 nonstructural protein ELISAs for estimates of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) prevalence on the Adamawa plateau of Cameroon in 2000. Herdsman-reported estimates in this FMD-endemic area were comparable to those obtained from serologic testing. To harness to this cost-effective resource of monitoring emerging infectious diseases, we suggest that estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of herdsmen reporting should be done in parallel with serologic surveys of other animal diseases. PMID:25417556

  6. Declining estimated prevalence of alcohol drinking and smoking among young adults nationally: artifacts of sample undercoverage?

    PubMed

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Gundersen, Daniel A; Hagman, Brett T

    2008-01-01

    A growing concern in public health surveillance surveys that rely on random digit dialing for sampling is the exclusion of adults in cell-phone-only households. The purpose of this study was to examine whether recent increases in wireless substitution have affected estimates of tobacco and alcohol use in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in a subpopulation with notable cell-phone usage (i.e., young adults). BRFSS data from 2001-2005 were examined. Analyses were limited to participants aged 18-24 years, and the sample contained approximately 18,500 persons in each year. Prevalence estimates were generated with SUDAAN software for three health behaviors: cigarette smoking, binge drinking, and heavy alcohol consumption. In addition, the authors examined sample completeness for young adults relative to US Census estimates. Overall, prevalences of all three health behaviors among young adults were fairly stable between 2001 and 2003 but significantly decreased between 2003 and 2005. These trends are not replicated in national surveys that use area probability samples. The authors found a declining trend in the sample completeness ratio for young adults; it declined from 0.32 in 2001 to 0.15 in 2005. Given the high prevalence of wireless substitution among young adults and the declining sample completeness ratio, the authors suspect that the observed decreases in prevalence are artifacts of undercoverage.

  7. Declining estimated prevalence of alcohol drinking and smoking among young adults nationally: artifacts of sample undercoverage?

    PubMed

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Gundersen, Daniel A; Hagman, Brett T

    2008-01-01

    A growing concern in public health surveillance surveys that rely on random digit dialing for sampling is the exclusion of adults in cell-phone-only households. The purpose of this study was to examine whether recent increases in wireless substitution have affected estimates of tobacco and alcohol use in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in a subpopulation with notable cell-phone usage (i.e., young adults). BRFSS data from 2001-2005 were examined. Analyses were limited to participants aged 18-24 years, and the sample contained approximately 18,500 persons in each year. Prevalence estimates were generated with SUDAAN software for three health behaviors: cigarette smoking, binge drinking, and heavy alcohol consumption. In addition, the authors examined sample completeness for young adults relative to US Census estimates. Overall, prevalences of all three health behaviors among young adults were fairly stable between 2001 and 2003 but significantly decreased between 2003 and 2005. These trends are not replicated in national surveys that use area probability samples. The authors found a declining trend in the sample completeness ratio for young adults; it declined from 0.32 in 2001 to 0.15 in 2005. Given the high prevalence of wireless substitution among young adults and the declining sample completeness ratio, the authors suspect that the observed decreases in prevalence are artifacts of undercoverage. PMID:17977896

  8. HIV prevalence estimates and AIDS case projections for the United States: report based upon a workshop.

    PubMed

    1990-11-30

    This document presents conclusions and recommendations from a workshop convened to discuss national estimates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence, acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS) case projections, and the proportion of HIV-infected persons with laboratory evidence of immune dysfunction. Appendices describe analyses performed before and after the workshop to estimate HIV prevalence and to predict future AIDS cases, the prevalence of persons with AIDS, and deaths among persons with AIDS. On the basis of these analyses, CDC estimates that approximately 750,000 persons in the United States were infected with AIDS at the beginning of 1986 and that approximately 1,000,000 Americans are currently infected with HIV. At least 40,000 new HIV infections occur each year among adults and adolescents, and an estimated 1,500-2,000 new infections occur each year among newborns as a result of perinatal HIV transmission. Approximately 60% of the estimated 1,000,000 HIV-infected persons in the United States may have T-helper lymphocyte (CD4+ cell) counts of less than 500/mm3 of blood and may benefit from early treatment with zidovudine. The number of AIDS cases will continue to increase over the next 4 years, with a projection of 52,000-57,000 cases to be diagnosed in 1990. Both AIDS case projections and HIV-prevalence estimates are influenced by the slowing of the rapid upward trend in AIDS incidence that occurred in 1987, particularly among homosexual and bisexual men who are not intravenous drug users. Data available during and after the workshop suggest that medical therapy or a decline in the incidence of new HIV infections among homosexual men in the early 1980s could have contributed to this change in trend, but the relative contributions of these and other factors (including changes in the completeness or timeliness of AIDS case reporting) require further study.

  9. Estimating the Prevalence and Awareness Rates of Hypertension in Africa: A Systematic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Adeloye, Davies; Basquill, Catriona

    2014-01-01

    Background The burden of hypertension is high in Africa, and due to rapid population growth and ageing, the exact burden on the continent is still far from being known. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and awareness rates of hypertension in Africa based on the cut off “≥140/90 mm Hg”. Methods We conducted a systematic search of Medline, EMBASE and Global Health. Search date was set from January 1980 to December 2013. We included population-based studies on hypertension, conducted among people aged ≥15 years and providing numerical estimates on the prevalence of hypertension in Africa. Overall pooled prevalence of hypertension in mixed, rural and urban settings in Africa were estimated from reported crude prevalence rates. A meta-regression epidemiological modelling, using United Nations population demographics for the years 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2030, was applied to determine the prevalence rates and number of cases of hypertension in Africa separately for these four years. Results Our search returned 7680 publications, 92 of which met the selection criteria. The overall pooled prevalence of hypertension in Africa was 19.7% in 1990, 27.4% in 2000 and 30.8% in 2010, each with a pooled awareness rate (expressed as percentage of hypertensive cases) of 16.9%, 29.2% and 33.7%, respectively. From the modelling, over 54.6 million cases of hypertension were estimated in 1990, 92.3 million cases in 2000, 130.2 million cases in 2010, and a projected increase to 216.8 million cases of hypertension by 2030; each with an age-adjusted prevalence of 19.1% (13.9, 25.5), 24.3% (23.3, 31.6), 25.9% (23.5, 34.0), and 25.3% (24.3, 39.7), respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest the prevalence of hypertension is increasing in Africa, and many hypertensive individuals are not aware of their condition. We hope this research will prompt appropriate policy response towards improving the awareness, control and overall management of hypertension in Africa. PMID:25090232

  10. Estimation of global and regional incidence and prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms 1990 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Uchechukwu K A; Norman, Paul E; Fowkes, F Gerald R; Aboyans, Victor; Song, Yanna; Harrell, Frank E; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Naghavi, Mohsen; Denenberg, Julie O; McDermott, Mary M; Criqui, Michael H; Mensah, George A; Ezzati, Majid; Murray, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    The global burden of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has not been studied previously. Such information is important given the emergence of cardiovascular diseases in developing countries. We conducted a systematic literature review and estimated the global and regional incidence and prevalence of AAA in 21 world regions by age and sex. The search for prevalence and incidence of AAA using standard clinical and epidemiological terms was conducted using MEDLINE (1950 to 2010), EMBASE (1980 to 2010), AMED (1985 to 2010), CINAHL (1982 to 2010), and LILACS (2008 to 2010). Data abstracted from the systematic review served as priors for Bayesian meta-regression analyses. The analysis drew from 26 high-quality studies to estimate AAA prevalence and incidence. In 1990, the global age-specific prevalence rate per 100,000 ranged from 8.43 (95% CI: 7.03 to 10.14) in the 40 to 44 years age group to 2,422.53 (95% CI: 2,298.63 to 2,562.25) in the 75 to 79 years age group; the corresponding range in 2010 was 7.88 (95% CI: 6.54 to 9.59) to 2,274.82 (95% CI: 2,149.77 to 2,410.17). Prevalence was higher in developed versus developing nations, and the rates within each development stratum decreased between 1990 and 2010. Globally, the age-specific annual incidence rate per 100,000 in 1990 ranged from 0.89 (95% CI: 0.66 to 1.17) in 40 to 44 years age group to 176.08 (95% CI: 162.72 to 190.28) in the 75 to 79 years age group. In 2010, this range was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.61 to 1.11) to 164.57 (95% CI: 152.20 to 178.78). The highest prevalence in 1990 was in Australasia and North America high income regions: 382.65 (95% CI: 356.27 to 410.88) and 300.59 (95% CI: 280.93 to 321.54), respectively. Australasia had the highest prevalence in 2010, although the prevalence decreased to 310.27 (95% CI: 289.01 to 332.94). Regional prevalence increased in Oceania, tropical Latin America, Asia Pacific high income, Southern Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Central SSA, South Asia, Western SSA, and Central Asia. AAA

  11. Students' estimates of the prevalence of drug use: evidence for a false consensus effect.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, S

    2000-09-01

    False consensus, or the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share one's own attitudes and behaviors, was investigated in a study of 348 university students classified as non-drug users, cannabis-only users, or amphetamine + cannabis users. Participants estimated the prevalence of cannabis and amphetamine use among students. Cannabis and amphetamine users made significantly higher estimates of cannabis use among students than did nonusers, whereas amphetamine users gave significantly higher estimates of amphetamine use than nonusers and cannabis-only users. Correlations between estimates of use among friends and other students were significantly positive for both drugs. The results suggest that students are motivated to overestimate the commonality of their own position on drug use and that their estimates may also be influenced by selective exposure. PMID:10998955

  12. Reliability of Nationwide Prevalence Estimates of Dementia: A Critical Appraisal Based on Brazilian Surveys

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The nationwide dementia prevalence is usually calculated by applying the results of local surveys to countries’ populations. To evaluate the reliability of such estimations in developing countries, we chose Brazil as an example. We carried out a systematic review of dementia surveys, ascertained their risk of bias, and present the best estimate of occurrence of dementia in Brazil. Methods and Findings We carried out an electronic search of PubMed, Latin-American databases, and a Brazilian thesis database for surveys focusing on dementia prevalence in Brazil. The systematic review was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42014008815). Among the 35 studies found, 15 analyzed population-based random samples. However, most of them utilized inadequate criteria for diagnostics. Six studies without these limitations were further analyzed to assess the risk of selection, attrition, outcome and population bias as well as several statistical issues. All the studies presented moderate or high risk of bias in at least two domains due to the following features: high non-response, inaccurate cut-offs, and doubtful accuracy of the examiners. Two studies had limited external validity due to high rates of illiteracy or low income. The three studies with adequate generalizability and the lowest risk of bias presented a prevalence of dementia between 7.1% and 8.3% among subjects aged 65 years and older. However, after adjustment for accuracy of screening, the best available evidence points towards a figure between 15.2% and 16.3%. Conclusions The risk of bias may strongly limit the generalizability of dementia prevalence estimates in developing countries. Extrapolations that have already been made for Brazil and Latin America were based on a prevalence that should have been adjusted for screening accuracy or not used at all due to severe bias. Similar evaluations regarding other developing countries are needed in order to verify the scope of these limitations. PMID:26131563

  13. Estimating the Prevalence of Treated Epilepsy Using Administrative Health Data and Its Validity: ESSENCE Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seo-Young; Chung, Soo-Eun; Kim, Dong Wook; Eun, So-Hee; Kang, Hoon Chul; Cho, Yong Won; Yi, Sang Do; Kim, Heung Dong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Few of the epidemiologic studies of epilepsy have utilized well-validated nationwide databases. We estimated the nationwide prevalence of treated epilepsy based on a comprehensive medical payment database along with diagnostic validation. Methods We collected data on patients prescribed of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment service, which covers the entire population of Korea. To assess the diagnostic validity, a medical records survey was conducted involving 6,774 patients prescribed AEDs from 43 institutions based on regional clusters and referral levels across the country. The prevalence of treated epilepsy was estimated by projecting the diagnostic validity on the number of patients prescribed AEDs. Results The mean positive predictive value (PPV) for epilepsy was 0.810 for those prescribed AEDs with diagnostic codes that indicate epilepsy or seizure (Diagnosis-E), while it was 0.066 for those without Diagnosis-E. The PPV tended to decrease with age in both groups, with lower values seen in females. The prevalence was 3.84 per 1,000, and it was higher among males, children, and the elderly. Conclusions The prevalence of epilepsy in Korea was comparable to that in other East Asian countries. The diagnostic validity of administrative health data varies depending on the method of case ascertainment, age, and sex. The prescriptions of AEDs even without relevant diagnostic codes should be considered as a tracer for epilepsy.

  14. The impact of proposed changes to ICD-11 on estimates of PTSD prevalence and comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Wisco, Blair E; Miller, Mark W; Wolf, Erika J; Kilpatrick, Dean; Resnick, Heidi S; Badour, Christal L; Marx, Brian P; Keane, Terence M; Rosen, Raymond C; Friedman, Matthew J

    2016-06-30

    The World Health Organization's posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) work group has published a proposal for the forthcoming edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) that would yield a very different diagnosis relative to DSM-5. This study examined the impact of the proposed ICD-11 changes on PTSD prevalence relative to the ICD-10 and DSM-5 definitions and also evaluated the extent to which these changes would accomplish the stated aim of reducing the comorbidity associated with PTSD. Diagnostic prevalence estimates were compared using a U.S. national community sample and two U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs clinical samples. The ICD-11 definition yielded prevalence estimates 10-30% lower than DSM-5 and 25% and 50% lower than ICD-10 with no reduction in the prevalence of common comorbidities. Findings suggest that by constraining the diagnosis to a narrower set of symptoms, the proposed ICD-11 criteria set would substantially reduce the number of individuals with the disorder. These findings raise doubt about the extent to which the ICD-11 proposal would achieve the aim of reducing comorbidity associated with PTSD and highlight the public health and policy implications of such a redefinition.

  15. The impact of proposed changes to ICD-11 on estimates of PTSD prevalence and comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Wisco, Blair E; Miller, Mark W; Wolf, Erika J; Kilpatrick, Dean; Resnick, Heidi S; Badour, Christal L; Marx, Brian P; Keane, Terence M; Rosen, Raymond C; Friedman, Matthew J

    2016-06-30

    The World Health Organization's posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) work group has published a proposal for the forthcoming edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) that would yield a very different diagnosis relative to DSM-5. This study examined the impact of the proposed ICD-11 changes on PTSD prevalence relative to the ICD-10 and DSM-5 definitions and also evaluated the extent to which these changes would accomplish the stated aim of reducing the comorbidity associated with PTSD. Diagnostic prevalence estimates were compared using a U.S. national community sample and two U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs clinical samples. The ICD-11 definition yielded prevalence estimates 10-30% lower than DSM-5 and 25% and 50% lower than ICD-10 with no reduction in the prevalence of common comorbidities. Findings suggest that by constraining the diagnosis to a narrower set of symptoms, the proposed ICD-11 criteria set would substantially reduce the number of individuals with the disorder. These findings raise doubt about the extent to which the ICD-11 proposal would achieve the aim of reducing comorbidity associated with PTSD and highlight the public health and policy implications of such a redefinition. PMID:27124207

  16. Evaluation of geospatial methods to generate subnational HIV prevalence estimates for local level planning

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There is evidence of substantial subnational variation in the HIV epidemic. However, robust spatial HIV data are often only available at high levels of geographic aggregation and not at the finer resolution needed for decision making. Therefore, spatial analysis methods that leverage available data to provide local estimates of HIV prevalence may be useful. Such methods exist but have not been formally compared when applied to HIV. Design/methods: Six candidate methods – including those used by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS to generate maps and a Bayesian geostatistical approach applied to other diseases – were used to generate maps and subnational estimates of HIV prevalence across three countries using cluster level data from household surveys. Two approaches were used to assess the accuracy of predictions: internal validation, whereby a proportion of input data is held back (test dataset) to challenge predictions; and comparison with location-specific data from household surveys in earlier years. Results: Each of the methods can generate usefully accurate predictions of prevalence at unsampled locations, with the magnitude of the error in predictions similar across approaches. However, the Bayesian geostatistical approach consistently gave marginally the strongest statistical performance across countries and validation procedures. Conclusions: Available methods may be able to furnish estimates of HIV prevalence at finer spatial scales than the data currently allow. The subnational variation revealed can be integrated into planning to ensure responsiveness to the spatial features of the epidemic. The Bayesian geostatistical approach is a promising strategy for integrating HIV data to generate robust local estimates. PMID:26919737

  17. Validation of model-based estimates (synthetic estimates) of the prevalence of risk factors for coronary heart disease for wards in England.

    PubMed

    Scarborough, Peter; Allender, Steven; Rayner, Mike; Goldacre, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Several sets of model-based estimates (synthetic estimates) of the prevalence of risk factors for coronary heart disease for small areas in England have been developed. These have been used in policy documents to indicate which areas are in need of intervention. In general, these models have not been subjected to validity assessment. This paper describes a validity assessment of 16 sets of synthetic estimates, by comparison of the models with national, regional and local survey-based estimates, and local mortality rate estimates. Model-based estimates of the prevalence of smoking, low fruit and vegetable consumption, obesity, hypertension and raised cholesterol are found to be valid.

  18. Estimating the prevalence of obstetric fistula: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obstetric fistula is a severe condition which has devastating consequences for a woman’s life. The estimation of the burden of fistula at the population level has been impaired by the rarity of diagnosis and the lack of rigorous studies. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and incidence of fistula in low and middle income countries. Methods Six databases were searched, involving two separate searches: one on fistula specifically and one on broader maternal and reproductive morbidities. Studies including estimates of incidence and prevalence of fistula at the population level were included. We conducted meta-analyses of prevalence of fistula among women of reproductive age and the incidence of fistula among recently pregnant women. Results Nineteen studies were included in this review. The pooled prevalence in population-based studies was 0.29 (95% CI 0.00, 1.07) fistula per 1000 women of reproductive age in all regions. Separated by region we found 1.57 (95% CI 1.16, 2.06) in sub Saharan Africa and South Asia, 1.60 (95% CI 1.16, 2.10) per 1000 women of reproductive age in sub Saharan Africa and 1.20 (95% CI 0.10, 3.54) per 1000 in South Asia. The pooled incidence was 0.09 (95% CI 0.01, 0.25) per 1000 recently pregnant women. Conclusions Our study is the most comprehensive study of the burden of fistula to date. Our findings suggest that the prevalence of fistula is lower than previously reported. The low burden of fistula should not detract from their public health importance, however, given the preventability of the condition, and the devastating consequences of fistula. PMID:24373152

  19. 10-year prevalence of contact allergy in the general population in Denmark estimated through the CE-DUR method.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Uter, Wolfgang; Schnuch, Axel; Linneberg, Allan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2007-10-01

    The prevalence of contact allergy in the general population has traditionally been investigated through population-based epidemiological studies. A different approach is the combination of clinical epidemiological (CE) data and the World Health Organization-defined drug utilization research (DUR) method. The CE-DUR method was applied in Denmark to estimate the prevalence of contact allergy in the general population and compare it with the prevalence estimates from the Glostrup allergy studies. Contact allergy prevalence estimates ranging from very liberal ('worst case') to conservative ('best case') assumptions were based on patch test reading data in combination with an estimate of the number of persons eligible for patch testing each year based on sales data of the 'standard series'. The estimated 10-year prevalence of contact allergy ranged between 7.3% and 12.9% for adult Danes older than 18 years. The 10-year prevalence of contact allergy measured by CE-DUR was slightly lower than previous prevalence estimates from the Glostrup allergy studies. This could probably be explained by a decrease in nickel allergy. The CE-DUR approach holds the potential of being an efficient and easy monitoring method of contact allergy prevalence.

  20. Statistical innovations improve prevalence estimates of nutrient risk populations: applications in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Juliana Masami; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake and excess sodium intake among adults age 19 years and older in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall and sociodemographic data were collected from each participant (n=1,663) in a cross-sectional study, Inquiry of Health of São Paulo, of a representative sample of the adult population of the city of São Paulo in 2003 (ISA-2003). The variability in intake was measured through two replications of the 24-hour recall in a subsample of this population in 2007 (ISA-2007). Usual intake was estimated by the PC-SIDE program (version 1.0, 2003, Department of Statistics, Iowa State University), which uses an approach developed by Iowa State University. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy was calculated using the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method for vitamins A and C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, copper, phosphorus, and selenium. For vitamin D, pantothenic acid, manganese, and sodium, the proportion of individuals with usual intake equal to or more than the Adequate Intake value was calculated. The percentage of individuals with intake equal to more than the Tolerable Upper Intake Level was calculated for sodium. The highest prevalence of inadequacy for males and females, respectively, occurred for vitamin A (67% and 58%), vitamin C (52% and 62%), thiamin (41% and 50%), and riboflavin (29% and 19%). The adjustment for the within-person variation presented lower prevalence of inadequacy due to removal of within-person variability. All adult residents of São Paulo had excess sodium intake, and the rates of nutrient inadequacy were high for certain key micronutrients.

  1. An estimate of the prevalence of epilepsy in Sub–Saharan Africa: A systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Abigail; Adeloye, Davies; George-Carey, Rhiannon; Kolčić, Ivana; Grant, Liz; Chan, Kit Yee

    2012-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is a leading serious neurological condition worldwide and has particularly significant physical, economic and social consequences in Sub–Saharan Africa. This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of epilepsy prevalence in this region and how this varies by age and sex so as to inform understanding of the disease characteristics as well as the development of infrastructure, services and policies. Methods A parallel systematic analysis of Medline, Embase and Global Health returned 32 studies that satisfied pre–defined quality criteria. Relevant data was extracted, tabulated and analyzed. We modelled the available information and used the UN population figures for Africa to determine the age–specific and overall burden of epilepsy. Results Active epilepsy was estimated to affect 4.4 million people in Sub–Saharan Africa, whilst lifetime epilepsy was estimated to affect 5.4 million. The prevalence of active epilepsy peaks in the 20–29 age group at 11.5/1000 and again in the 40–49 age group at 8.2/1000. The lowest prevalence value of 3.1/1000 is seen in the 60+ age group. This binomial pattern is also seen in both men and women, with the second peak more pronounced in women at 14.6/1000. Conclusion The high prevalence of epilepsy, especially in young adults, has important consequences for both the workforce and community structures. An estimation of disease burden would be a beneficial outcome of further research, as would research into appropriate methods of improving health care for and tackling discrimination against people with epilepsy. PMID:23289080

  2. Back pain prevalence in US industry and estimates of lost workdays.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, H R; Tanaka, S; Halperin, W E; Cameron, L L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Back pain is the most common reason for filing workers' compensation claims and often causes lost workdays. Data from the 1988 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed to identify high-risk industries and to estimate the prevalence of work-related back pain and number of workdays lost. METHODS: Analyses included 30074 respondents who worked during the 12 months before the interview. A case patient was defined as a respondent who had back pain every day for a week or more during that period. RESULTS: The prevalence of lost-workday back pain was 4.6%, and individuals with work-related cases lost 101.8 million workdays owing to back pain. Male and female case patients lost about the same number of workdays. Industries in high-risk categories were also identified for future research and intervention, including those seldom studied. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides statistically reliable national estimates of the prevalence of back pain among workers and the enormous effect of this condition on American industry in terms of lost workdays. PMID:10394311

  3. Estimated prevalence of compulsive buying in Germany and its association with sociodemographic characteristics and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Astrid; Mitchell, James E; Crosby, Ross D; Gefeller, Olaf; Faber, Ronald J; Martin, Alexandra; Bleich, Stefan; Glaesmer, Heide; Exner, Cornelia; de Zwaan, Martina

    2010-12-30

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of compulsive buying and its association with sociodemographic characteristics and depressive symptoms in a nationally representative sample of the German population using the validated German version of the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS; Faber and O'Guinn, 1992) in order to have a direct comparison with U.S. findings. The point prevalence of compulsive buying in the weighted representative sample (N=2,350) was estimated to be 6.9%. This was somewhat higher than the percentage in the American sample assessed in 2004 (5.8%). No significant difference was found between women and men (6.9% and 6.8%, respectively). Age was inversely related to the prevalence of compulsive buying. Individuals with compulsive buying reported more depressive symptoms assessed via the German version of the Brief Patient Health Questionnaire Mood Scale (PHQ-9). Further research on this topic is needed to establish a clearer delineation of when excessive buying is clinically significant and should be treated and how it could be prevented.

  4. National Malaria Prevalence in Cambodia: Microscopy Versus Polymerase Chain Reaction Estimates.

    PubMed

    Lek, Dysoley; Popovici, Jean; Ariey, Frederic; Vinjamuri, Seshu Babu; Meek, Sylvia; Bruce, Jan; Taylor, Walter R J; Socheat, Duong; Menard, Didier; Rogers, William O

    2016-09-01

    Accurate information regarding malaria prevalence at national level is required to design and assess malaria control/elimination efforts. Although many comparisons of microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods have been conducted, there is little published literature covering such comparisons in southeast Asia especially at the national level. Both microscopic examination and PCR detection were performed on blood films and dried blood spots samples collected from 8,067 individuals enrolled in a nationwide, stratified, multistage, cluster sampling malaria prevalence survey conducted in Cambodia in 2007. The overall malaria prevalence and prevalence rates of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium malariae infections estimated by microscopy (N = 8,067) were 2.74% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.39-3.12%), 1.81% (95% CI: 1.53-2.13%), 1.14% (95% CI: 0.92-1.40%), and 0.01% (95% CI: 0.003-0.07%), respectively. The overall malaria prevalence based on PCR detection (N = 7,718) was almost 2.5-fold higher (6.31%, 95% CI: 5.76-6.89%, P < 0.00001). This difference was significantly more pronounced for P. falciparum (4.40%, 95% CI: 3.95-4.90%, P < 0.00001) compared with P. vivax (1.89%, 95% CI: 1.60-2.22%, P < 0.001) and P. malariae infections (0.22%, 95% CI: 0.13-0.35%, P < 0.0001). The significant proportion of microscopy-negative but PCR-positive individuals (289/7,491, 3.85%) suggest microscopic examination frequently underestimated malaria infections and that active case detection based on microscopy may miss a significant reservoir of infection, especially in low-transmission settings. PMID:27402511

  5. Usher syndrome: definition and estimate of prevalence from two high-risk populations.

    PubMed

    Boughman, J A; Vernon, M; Shaver, K A

    1983-01-01

    The Usher Syndrome (US) refers to the combined neurosensory deficits of profound hearing impairment and retinitis pigmentosa. We have obtained information on 600 cases of deaf-blindness from the registry of the Helen Keller National Center for Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults (HKNC). Of these, 54% met the diagnostic criteria of US, although only 23.8% were so diagnosed. More extensive analysis of 189 Usher clients from HKNC showed an excess of males, some variability in audiograms, and wide ophthalmologic variation. Genetic analysis of 113 sibships showed a segregation ratio consistent with recessive inheritance. The Acadian population of Louisiana has a high frequency of US which contributes significantly to the deaf population of the state. Among 48 cases from the Louisiana School for the Deaf, there was an excess of males, more variability in audiograms than expected, and an increased segregation ratio in the 26 informative sibships. Estimates of prevalence obtained using registry data and statistics from Louisiana clearly suggest that the previous estimate of 2.4 per 100,000 is too low for the United States. Recognizing problems with ascertainment, our prevalence estimate of 4.4 per 100,000 is still considered quite conservative.

  6. Estimating the number of helminthic infections in the Republic of Cameroon from data on infection prevalence in schoolchildren.

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, S.; Donnelly, C. A.; Guyatt, H. L.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of infection with helminths is markedly dependent on age, yet estimates of the total number of infections are typically based on data only from school-aged children. Such estimates, although useful for advocacy, provide inadequate information for planning control programmes and for quantifying the burden of disease. Using readily available data on the prevalence of infection in schoolchildren, the relation between the prevalence of infection in school-aged children and prevalence in the wider community can be adequately described using species-specific models. This paper explores the reliability of this approach to predict the prevalence infection in the community and provides a model for estimating the total number of people infected in the Republic of Cameroon. METHODS: Using data on the prevalence of helminthic infection in school-aged children in Cameroon, the prevalence of infection in pre-school children and adults was estimated from species-specific linear and logistic regression models developed previously. The model predictions were then used to estimate the number of people infected in each district in each age group in Cameroon. RESULTS: For Cameroon, if only the prevalence of infection in schoolchildren is used, the number of people infected with each helminthic species will be overestimated by up to 32% when compared with the estimates provided by the species-specific models. The calculation of confidence intervals supports the statistical reliability of the model since a narrow range of parameter estimates is evident. Furthermore, this work suggests that estimation of national prevalence of infection and the number infected will be enhanced if data are stratified by age; this model represents a useful planning tool for obtaining more accurate estimates. Estimates based on data aggregated from three geographical levels (district, regional, and national) show that summarizing prevalence data at the national level will result

  7. Prevalence Estimation and Validation of New Instruments in Psychiatric Research: An Application of Latent Class Analysis and Sensitivity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Brian Wells; Miller, William C.; Gaynes, Bradley N.

    2009-01-01

    Prevalence and validation studies rely on imperfect reference standard (RS) diagnostic instruments that can bias prevalence and test characteristic estimates. The authors illustrate 2 methods to account for RS misclassification. Latent class analysis (LCA) combines information from multiple imperfect measures of an unmeasurable latent condition to…

  8. Adjusting HIV prevalence estimates for non-participation: an application to demographic surveillance

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Mark E.; Marra, Giampiero; Radice, Rosalba; Canning, David; Newell, Marie-Louise; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV testing is a cornerstone of efforts to combat the HIV epidemic, and testing conducted as part of surveillance provides invaluable data on the spread of infection and the effectiveness of campaigns to reduce the transmission of HIV. However, participation in HIV testing can be low, and if respondents systematically select not to be tested because they know or suspect they are HIV positive (and fear disclosure), standard approaches to deal with missing data will fail to remove selection bias. We implemented Heckman-type selection models, which can be used to adjust for missing data that are not missing at random, and established the extent of selection bias in a population-based HIV survey in an HIV hyperendemic community in rural South Africa. Methods We used data from a population-based HIV survey carried out in 2009 in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. In this survey, 5565 women (35%) and 2567 men (27%) provided blood for an HIV test. We accounted for missing data using interviewer identity as a selection variable which predicted consent to HIV testing but was unlikely to be independently associated with HIV status. Our approach involved using this selection variable to examine the HIV status of residents who would ordinarily refuse to test, except that they were allocated a persuasive interviewer. Our copula model allows for flexibility when modelling the dependence structure between HIV survey participation and HIV status. Results For women, our selection model generated an HIV prevalence estimate of 33% (95% CI 27–40) for all people eligible to consent to HIV testing in the survey. This estimate is higher than the estimate of 24% generated when only information from respondents who participated in testing is used in the analysis, and the estimate of 27% when imputation analysis is used to predict missing data on HIV status. For men, we found an HIV prevalence of 25% (95% CI 15–35) using the selection model, compared to 16% among those who

  9. Estimating Prevalence of Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents in Small Geographic Areas Using Publicly Available Data

    PubMed Central

    Davila-Payan, Carlo; DeGuzman, Michael; Johnson, Kevin; Serban, Nicoleta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Interventions for pediatric obesity can be geographically targeted if high-risk populations can be identified. We developed an approach to estimate the percentage of overweight or obese children aged 2 to 17 years in small geographic areas using publicly available data. We piloted our approach for Georgia. Methods We created a logistic regression model to estimate the individual probability of high body mass index (BMI), given data on the characteristics of the survey participants. We combined the regression model with a simulation to sample subpopulations and obtain prevalence estimates. The models used information from the 2001–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the 2010 Census, and the 2010 American Community Survey. We validated our results by comparing 1) estimates for adults in Georgia produced by using our approach with estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and 2) estimates for children in Arkansas produced by using our approach with school examination data. We generated prevalence estimates for census tracts in Georgia and prioritized areas for interventions. Results In DeKalb County, the mean prevalence among census tracts varied from 27% to 40%. For adults, the median difference between our estimates and CDC estimates was 1.3 percentage points; for Arkansas children, the median difference between our estimates and examination-based estimates data was 1.7 percentage points. Conclusion Prevalence estimates for census tracts can be different from estimates for the county, so small-area estimates are crucial for designing effective interventions. Our approach validates well against external data, and it can be a relevant aid for planning local interventions for children. PMID:25764138

  10. Estimating the prevalence of multiple diseases from two-stage hierarchical pooling.

    PubMed

    Warasi, Md S; Tebbs, Joshua M; McMahan, Christopher S; Bilder, Christopher R

    2016-09-20

    Testing protocols in large-scale sexually transmitted disease screening applications often involve pooling biospecimens (e.g., blood, urine, and swabs) to lower costs and to increase the number of individuals who can be tested. With the recent development of assays that detect multiple diseases, it is now common to test biospecimen pools for multiple infections simultaneously. Recent work has developed an expectation-maximization algorithm to estimate the prevalence of two infections using a two-stage, Dorfman-type testing algorithm motivated by current screening practices for chlamydia and gonorrhea in the USA. In this article, we have the same goal but instead take a more flexible Bayesian approach. Doing so allows us to incorporate information about assay uncertainty during the testing process, which involves testing both pools and individuals, and also to update information as individuals are tested. Overall, our approach provides reliable inference for disease probabilities and accurately estimates assay sensitivity and specificity even when little or no information is provided in the prior distributions. We illustrate the performance of our estimation methods using simulation and by applying them to chlamydia and gonorrhea data collected in Nebraska. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27090057

  11. Mobile teledermatology is a valid method to estimate prevalence of melanocytic naevi in children.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Maria A; Lindelöf, Bernt; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Wiklund, Kerstin; Rodvall, Ylva

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of melanocytic naevi in children correlates with sun exposure and may serve as an objective population risk indicator of future melanoma incidence. The aim was to investigate if mobile teledermatology could offer a valid methodology compared with standard manual, face-to-face counting of naevi on the back of children. Ninety-seven children aged 7-16 years were enrolled. One dermatologist performed manual naevi counting and imaging of the child's back using an iPhone 4S comprising a safe-coded mobile application. Two other dermatologists independently counted naevi from the images. Cohen's weighted kappa (κw) coefficient demonstrated substantial agreement for both dermatologists: κw = 0.69 (0.57-0.81 [95% confidence intervals]) and κw = 0.78 (0.70-0.86), compared with the manual assessment. Inter-rater reliability was also substantial (κw = 0.80 [0.73-0.87]). Use of mobile teledermatology proved valid for estimating naevi prevalence on the back and could provide a more feasible methodology following trends in sun exposure in children. PMID:25138480

  12. Systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the birth prevalence of five inherited metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Moorthie, Sowmiya; Cameron, Louise; Sagoo, Gurdeep S; Bonham, Jim R; Burton, Hilary

    2014-11-01

    Many newborn screening programmes now use tandem mass spectrometry in order to screen for a variety of diseases. However, countries have embraced this technology with a differing pace of change and for different conditions. This has been facilitated by the ability of this diagnostic method to limit analysis to specific metabolites of interest, enabling targeted screening for particular conditions. MS/MS was introduced in 2009 in England to implement newborn bloodspot screening for medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) raising the possibility of screening for other inherited metabolic disorders. Recently, a pilot screening programme was conducted in order to evaluate the health and economic consequences of screening for five additional inherited metabolic disorders in England. As part of this study we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the birth prevalence of these conditions: maple syrup urine disease, homocystinuria (pyridoxine unresponsive), glutaric aciduria type I, isovaleric acidaemia and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency including trifunctional protein deficiency. We identified a total of 99 studies that were able to provide information on the prevalence of one or more of the disorders. The vast majority of studies were of screening programmes with some reporting on clinically detected cases. PMID:25022222

  13. Problematic video game use: estimated prevalence and associations with mental and physical health.

    PubMed

    Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Molde, Helge; Myrseth, Helga; Skouverøe, Knut Joachim Mår; Hetland, Jørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2011-10-01

    A nationwide survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of video game addiction and problematic video game use and their association with physical and mental health. An initial sample comprising 2,500 individuals was randomly selected from the Norwegian National Registry. A total of 816 (34.0 percent) individuals completed and returned the questionnaire. The majority (56.3 percent) of respondents used video games on a regular basis. The prevalence of video game addiction was estimated to be 0.6 percent, with problematic use of video games reported by 4.1 percent of the sample. Gender (male) and age group (young) were strong predictors for problematic use of video games. A higher proportion of high frequency compared with low frequency players preferred massively multiplayer online role-playing games, although the majority of high frequency players preferred other game types. Problematic use of video games was associated with lower scores on life satisfaction and with elevated levels of anxiety and depression. Video game use was not associated with reported amount of physical exercise.

  14. Comparison of modeled sampling strategies for estimation of dairy herd lameness prevalence and cow-level variables associated with lameness.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, A C; Moore, D A; Wenz, J R; Vanegas, J

    2013-09-01

    Monitoring herd lameness prevalence has utility for dairy producers and veterinarians in their efforts to reduce lameness, for animal welfare assessment programs, and for researchers. Locomotion scoring is a method used to quantify lameness and calculate prevalence. Because of the time necessary to locomotion score each cow in large dairy herds, a sampling strategy to determine herd lameness prevalence that allows scoring of fewer cows would be useful. Such a sampling strategy must be validated for accuracy compared with the lameness prevalence when all cows in a herd are locomotion scored. The purpose of this study was to assess 3 previously suggested methods of estimating lameness prevalence by strategic sampling of dairy herds. Sampling strategies tested included (1) sampling a calculated number of cows in the middle third of the milking parlor exit order for each pen, (2) sampling a calculated number of cows weighted across pens and distributed evenly within each pen, and (3) sampling all cows in the high production, low production, and hospital pens. Lactating cows on 5 dairy farms in Washington and Oregon (n=4,422) were locomotion scored using a 5-point scale to determine herd-level lameness prevalence (percentage with locomotion score ≥3). Milking parlor exit order, order in headlocks at the feed bunk within each pen, and breed were recorded for each cow. The number of days in lactation, milk production, and parity were collected from farm computer records. Pen grouping strategy for each farm was obtained by interview with farm management. Sampling strategies were modeled using the locomotion score data set for each herd. Estimates of lameness prevalence obtained from the milking parlor exit order sample and the sample distributed across pens were within 5 percentage points of the whole herd prevalence. The third strategy estimated the lameness prevalence within 5 percentage points on 4 farms, but overestimated prevalence on 1 farm. Pen-level prevalence

  15. [Prevalence of neural tube defects and estimation of cases averted in the post-fortification period in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Bidondo, María P; Liascovich, Rosa; Barbero, Pablo; Groisman, Boris

    2015-12-01

    Periconceptional intake of folic acid has demonstrated to be effective to reduce the frequency of neural tube defects, and food fortification has been one of the strategies implemented to increase it. An update is herein presented on the reduced prevalence of neural tube defect cases in the post-fortification period in Argentina and an estimation of cases averted in the 2005-2013 period as a result of this intervention. When comparing the prevalence observed in the post-fortification period to that reported in the pre-fortification period, anencephaly and encephalocele decreased by 66%, and spina bifida, by 47%, which were significant reductions. The estimated number of cases averted was higher for anencephaly, followed by spina bifida; encephalocele showed the lowest number of cases averted given that the prevalence of this defect was smaller. The decrease observed in the prevalence supports findings from previous studies on the impact of fortification. PMID:26593794

  16. A Bayesian approach to estimate the prevalence of low height-for-age from the prevalence of low weight-for-age.

    PubMed

    Reichenheim, M E; Best, N G

    2000-01-01

    Victora et al. (1998) proposed the use of low weight-for-age prevalence to estimate the prevalence of height-for-age deficit in Brazilian children. This procedure was justified by the need to simplify methods used in the context of community health programs. From the same perspective, the present article broadens this proposal by using a Bayesian approach (based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods) to deal with the imprecision resulting from Victora et al.'s model. In order to avoid invalid estimated prevalence values which can occur with the original linear model, truncation or a logit transformation of the prevalences are suggested. The Bayesian approach is illustrated using a community study as an example. Imprecision arising from methodological complexities in the community study design, such as multi-stage sampling and clustering, is easily handled within the Bayesian framework by introducing a hierarchical or multilevel model structure. Since growth deficit was also evaluated in the community study, the article may also serve to validate the procedure proposed by Victora et al.

  17. Estimates of current and future incidence and prevalence of atrial fibrillation in the U.S. adult population.

    PubMed

    Colilla, Susan; Crow, Ann; Petkun, William; Singer, Daniel E; Simon, Teresa; Liu, Xianchen

    2013-10-15

    Estimates and projections of diagnosed incidence and prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the United States have been highly inconsistent across published studies. Although it is generally acknowledged that AF incidence and prevalence are increasing due to growing numbers of older people in the U.S. population, estimates of the rate of expected growth have varied widely. Reasons for these variations include differences in study design, covered time period, birth cohort, and temporal effects, as well as improvements in AF diagnosis due to increased use of diagnostic tools and health care awareness. The objective of this study was to estimate and project the incidence and prevalence of diagnosed AF in the United States out to 2030. A large health insurance claims database for the years 2001 to 2008, representing a geographically diverse 5% of the U.S. population, was used in this study. The trend and growth rate in AF incidence and prevalence was projected by a dynamic age-period cohort simulation progression model that included all diagnosed AF cases in future prevalence projections regardless of follow-up treatment, as well as those cases expected to be chronic in nature. Results from the model showed that AF incidence will double, from 1.2 million cases in 2010 to 2.6 million cases in 2030. Given this increase in incidence, AF prevalence is projected to increase from 5.2 million in 2010 to 12.1 million cases in 2030. The effect of uncertainty in model parameters was explored in deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Variability in future trends in AF incidence and recurrence rates has the greatest impact on the projected estimates of chronic AF prevalence. It can be concluded that both incidence and prevalence of AF are likely to rise from 2010 to 2030, but there exists a wide range of uncertainty around the magnitude of future trends. PMID:23831166

  18. Estimates of prevalence and risk associated with inattention and distraction based upon in situ naturalistic data.

    PubMed

    Dingus, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    By using in situ naturalistic driving data, estimates of prevalence and risk can be made regarding driver populations' secondary task distractions and crash rates. Through metadata analysis, three populations of drivers (i.e., adult light vehicle, teenaged light vehicle, and adult heavy vehicle) were compared regarding frequency of secondary task behavior and the associated risk for safety-critical incidents. Relative risk estimates provide insight into the risk associated with engaging in a single task. When such risk is considered in combination with frequency of use, it sheds additional light on those secondary tasks that create the greatest overall risk to driving safety. The results show that secondary tasks involving manual typing, texting, dialing, reaching for an object, or reading are dangerous for all three populations. Additionally, novice teen drivers have difficulty in several tasks that the other two populations do not, including eating and external distractions. Truck drivers also perform a number of risky "mobile office" types of tasks, including writing, not seen in the other populations. Implications are described for policy makers and designers of in-vehicle and nomadic, portable systems. PMID:24776227

  19. Estimating the Smoking Ban Effects on Smoking Prevalence, Quitting and Cigarette Consumption in a Population Study of Apprentices in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Pieroni, Luca; Muzi, Giacomo; Quercia, Augusto; Lanari, Donatella; Rundo, Carmen; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca; dell’Omo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We evaluated the effects of the Italian 2005 smoking ban in public places on the prevalence of smoking, quitting and cigarette consumption of young workers. Data and Methods: The dataset was obtained from non-computerized registers of medical examinations for a population of workers with apprenticeship contracts residing in the province of Viterbo, Italy, in the period 1996–2007. To estimate the effects of the ban, a segmented regression approach was used, exploiting the discontinuity introduced by the application of the law on apprentices’ smoking behavior. Results: It is estimated that the Italian smoking ban generally had no effect on smoking prevalence, quitting ratio, or cigarette consumption of apprentices. However, when the estimates were applied to subpopulations, significant effects were found: −1% in smoking prevalence, +2% in quitting, and −3% in smoking intensity of apprentices with at least a diploma. PMID:26287220

  20. Estimating the Prevalence of Opioid Diversion by “Doctor Shoppers” in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Douglas C.; Carlson, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Abuse of prescription opioid analgesics is a serious threat to public health, resulting in rising numbers of overdose deaths and admissions to emergency departments and treatment facilities. Absent adequate patient information systems, “doctor shopping” patients can obtain multiple opioid prescriptions for nonmedical use from different unknowing physicians. Our study estimates the prevalence of doctor shopping in the US and the amounts and types of opioids involved. Methods and Findings The sample included records for 146.1 million opioid prescriptions dispensed during 2008 by 76% of US retail pharmacies. Prescriptions were linked to unique patients and weighted to estimate all prescriptions and patients in the nation. Finite mixture models were used to estimate different latent patient populations having different patterns of using prescribers. On average, patients in the extreme outlying population (0.7% of purchasers), presumed to be doctor shoppers, obtained 32 opioid prescriptions from 10 different prescribers. They bought 1.9% of all opioid prescriptions, constituting 4% of weighed amounts dispensed. Conclusions Our data did not provide information to make a clinical diagnosis of individuals. Very few of these patients can be classified with certainty as diverting drugs for nonmedical purposes. However, even patients with legitimate medical need for opioids who use large numbers of prescribers may signal dangerously uncoordinated care. To close the information gap that makes doctor shopping and uncoordinated care possible, states have created prescription drug monitoring programs to collect records of scheduled drugs dispensed, but the majority of physicians do not access this information. To facilitate use by busy practitioners, most monitoring programs should improve access and response time, scan prescription data to flag suspicious purchasing patterns and alert physicians and pharmacists. Physicians could also prevent doctor shopping by

  1. Estimates of the population prevalence of injection drug users among hispanic residents of large US metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Pouget, Enrique R; Friedman, Samuel R; Cleland, Charles M; Tempalski, Barbara; Cooper, Hannah L F

    2012-06-01

    Little information exists on the population prevalence or geographic distribution of injection drug users (IDUs) who are Hispanic in the USA. Here, we present yearly estimates of IDU population prevalence among Hispanic residents of the 96 most populated US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for 1992-2002. First, yearly estimates of the proportion of IDUs who were Hispanic in each MSA were created by combining data on (1) IDUs receiving drug treatment services in Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)'s Treatment Entry Data System, (2) IDUs being tested in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) HIV-Counseling and Testing System, and (3) incident AIDS diagnoses among IDUs, supplemented by (4) data on IDUs who were living with AIDS. Then, the resulting proportions were multiplied by published yearly estimates of the number of IDUs of all racial/ethnic groups in each MSA to produce Hispanic IDU population estimates. These were divided by Hispanic population data to produce population prevalence rates. Time trends were tested using mixed-effects regression models. Hispanic IDU prevalence declined significantly on average (1992 mean = 192, median = 133; 2002 mean = 144, median = 93; units are per 10,000 Hispanics aged 15-64). The highest prevalence rates across time tended to be in smaller northeastern MSAs. Comparing the last three study years to the first three, prevalence decreased in 82% of MSAs and increased in 18%. Comparisons with data on drug-related mortality and hepatitis C mortality supported the validity of the estimates. Generally, estimates of Hispanic IDU population prevalence were higher than published estimates for non-Hispanic White residents and lower than published estimates for non-Hispanic Black residents. Further analysis indicated that the proportion of IDUs that was Hispanic decreased in 52% and increased in 48% of MSAs between 2002 and 2007. The estimates resulting from this study can

  2. A group-specific arbitrary tradition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Cronin, Katherine A; Haun, Daniel B M

    2014-11-01

    Social learning in chimpanzees has been studied extensively and it is now widely accepted that chimpanzees have the capacity to learn from conspecifics through a multitude of mechanisms. Very few studies, however, have documented the existence of spontaneously emerged traditions in chimpanzee communities. While the rigour of experimental studies is helpful to investigate social learning mechanisms, documentation of naturally occurring traditions is necessary to understand the relevance of social learning in the real lives of animals. In this study, we report on chimpanzees spontaneously copying a seemingly non-adaptive behaviour ("grass-in-ear behaviour"). The behaviour entailed chimpanzees selecting a stiff, straw-like blade of grass, inserting the grass into one of their own ears, adjusting the position, and then leaving it in their ear during subsequent activities. Using a daily focal follow procedure, over the course of 1 year, we observed 8 (out of 12) group members engaging in this peculiar behaviour. Importantly, in the three neighbouring groups of chimpanzees (n = 82), this behaviour was only observed once, indicating that ecological factors were not determiners of the prevalence of this behaviour. These observations show that chimpanzees have a tendency to copy each other's behaviour, even when the adaptive value of the behaviour is presumably absent.

  3. Estimated amount of 24-hour urine sodium excretion is positively correlated with stomach and breast cancer prevalence in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Yong Chul; Koo, Ho Seok; Oh, Se Won; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    Stomach cancer is one of the most common cancers in Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the association between the prevalence of cancer, particularly stomach cancer, and the amount of 24-hr urine sodium excretion estimated from spot urine specimens. The study included 19,083 subjects who took part in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey between 2009 and 2011. The total amount of urine sodium excreted in a 24-hr period was estimated by using two equations based on the values for spot urine sodium and creatinine. In subjects who had an estimated 24-hr urine sodium excretion of more than two standard deviations above the mean (group 2), the prevalence of stomach cancer was higher than in subjects with lower 24-hr sodium excretion (group 1). By using the Tanaka equation to estimate it, the prevalence of stomach cancer was 0.6% (114/18,331) in group 1, whereas it was 1.6% (9/568) in group 2 (P=0.006). By using the Korean equation, the prevalence was 0.6% (115/18,392) in group 1, and 1.6% in group 2 (8/507) (P=0.010). By using the Tanaka equation, breast cancer in women is more prevalent in group 2 (1.9%, 6/324) than group 1 (0.8%, 78/9,985, P=0.039). Higher salt intake, as defined by the estimated amount of 24-hr urine sodium excretion, is positively correlated with a higher prevalence of stomach or breast cancer in the Korean population.

  4. The prevalence of Barrett's esophagus in the US: estimates from a simulation model confirmed by SEER data.

    PubMed

    Hayeck, T J; Kong, C Y; Spechler, S J; Gazelle, G S; Hur, C

    2010-08-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the precursor and the biggest risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), the solid cancer with the fastest rising incidence in the US and western world. Current strategies to decrease morbidity and mortality from EAC have focused on identifying and surveying patients with BE using upper endoscopy. An accurate estimate of the number of patients with BE in the population is important to inform public health policy and to prioritize resources for potential screening and management programs. However, the true prevalence of BE is difficult to ascertain because the condition frequently is symptomatically silent, and the numerous clinical studies that have analyzed BE prevalence have produced a wide range of estimates. The aim of this study was to use a computer simulation disease model of EAC to determine the estimates for BE prevalence that best align with US Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registry data. A previously developed mathematical model of EAC was modified to perform this analysis. The model consists of six health states: normal, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), BE, undetected cancer, detected cancer, and death. Published literature regarding the transition rates between these states were used to provide boundaries. During the one million computer simulations that were performed, these transition rates were systematically varied, producing differing prevalences for the numerous health states. Two filters were sequentially applied to select out superior simulations that were most consistent with clinical data. First, among these million simulations, the 1000 that best reproduced SEER cancer incidence data were selected. Next, of those 1000 best simulations, the 100 with an overall calculated BE to Detected Cancer rates closest to published estimates were selected. Finally, the prevalence of BE in the final set of best 100 simulations was analyzed. We present histogram data depicting BE prevalences

  5. The Prevalence of Barrett’s Esophagus in the US: Estimates from a Simulation Model Confirmed by SEER Data

    PubMed Central

    Hayeck, Tristan J.; Kong, Chung Yin; Spechler, Stuart J.; Gazelle, G. Scott; Hur, Chin

    2010-01-01

    Background Barrett’s Esophagus (BE) is the precursor and the biggest risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), the solid cancer with the fastest rising incidence in the US and western world. Current strategies to decrease morbidity and mortality from EAC have focused on identifying and surveying patients with BE using upper endoscopy. An accurate estimate of the number of patients with BE in the population is important to inform public health policy and to prioritize resources for potential screening and management programs. However, the true prevalence of BE is difficult to ascertain because the condition frequently is symptomatically silent, and the numerous clinical studies that have analyzed BE prevalence have produced a wide range of estimates. The aim of this study was to use a computer simulation disease model of EAC to determine the estimates for BE prevalence that best align with US SEER cancer registry data. Methods A previously developed mathematical model of EAC was modified to perform this analysis. The model consists of six health states: Normal, GERD, BE, Undetected Cancer, Detected Cancer and Death. Published literature regarding the transition rates between these states were used to provide boundaries. During the one million computer simulations that were performed, these transition rates were systematically varied, producing differing prevalences for the numerous health states. Two filters were sequentially applied to select out superior simulations that were most consistent with clinical data. First, among these million simulations, the 1,000 that best reproduced SEER cancer incidence data were selected. Next, of those 1000 best simulations, the 100 with an overall calculated BE to Detected Cancer rates closest to published estimates were selected. Finally, the prevalence of BE in the final set of best 100 simulations was analyzed. Results We present histogram data depicting BE prevalences for all one million simulations, the 1000

  6. Latent class regression models for simultaneously estimating test accuracy, true prevalence and risk factors for Brucella abortus.

    PubMed

    Campe, A; Abernethy, D; Menzies, F; Greiner, M

    2016-07-01

    In 2003/2004 a field trial was conducted in Northern Ireland to assess the diagnostic accuracy of six serological tests for bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus. Whereas between-test comparisons have been used to calculate test performances so far, the present study used a latent class approach to estimate diagnostic test accuracy parameters in the absence of a gold standard for these six tests simultaneously and to estimate the true prevalence, while accounting for clustering in the study population and risk factors for true prevalence. Results obtained in this study with regard to prevalence, sensitivity and specificity were largely in accordance with previous findings. Screening tests (SAT and EDTA) appeared to be the most sensitive; however, at low prevalences the EDTA and CFT showed the highest positive predictive values of all investigated tests. The specificities and negative predictive values of all diagnostic tests were found to be very high. Differences of prevalence between three groups of the study population with different risk of exposure could be attributed to the mode of sampling indicating that a more risk-based sampling will result in a higher prevalence than a cross-sectional sampling mode. Age, dairy status and history of abortion were shown to influence the prediction of the latent true infection status.

  7. Latent class regression models for simultaneously estimating test accuracy, true prevalence and risk factors for Brucella abortus.

    PubMed

    Campe, A; Abernethy, D; Menzies, F; Greiner, M

    2016-07-01

    In 2003/2004 a field trial was conducted in Northern Ireland to assess the diagnostic accuracy of six serological tests for bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus. Whereas between-test comparisons have been used to calculate test performances so far, the present study used a latent class approach to estimate diagnostic test accuracy parameters in the absence of a gold standard for these six tests simultaneously and to estimate the true prevalence, while accounting for clustering in the study population and risk factors for true prevalence. Results obtained in this study with regard to prevalence, sensitivity and specificity were largely in accordance with previous findings. Screening tests (SAT and EDTA) appeared to be the most sensitive; however, at low prevalences the EDTA and CFT showed the highest positive predictive values of all investigated tests. The specificities and negative predictive values of all diagnostic tests were found to be very high. Differences of prevalence between three groups of the study population with different risk of exposure could be attributed to the mode of sampling indicating that a more risk-based sampling will result in a higher prevalence than a cross-sectional sampling mode. Age, dairy status and history of abortion were shown to influence the prediction of the latent true infection status. PMID:27245291

  8. Equipment Errors: A Prevalent Cause for Fallacy in Blood Pressure Recording - A Point Prevalence Estimate from an Indian Health University

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Badrinarayan; Sinha, Nidhi Dinesh; Gidwani, Hitesh; Shukla, Sushil Kumar; Kawatra, Abhishek; Mehta, SC

    2013-01-01

    Background: Blood pressure (BP) recording is the most commonly measured clinical parameter. Standing mercury sphygmomanometer is the most widely used equipment to record this. However, recording by sphygmomanometer is subject to observer and instrumental error. The different sources of equipment error are faulty manometer tube calibration, baseline deviations and improper arm bladder cuff dimensions. This is further compounded by a high prevalence of arm bladder miss-cuffing in the target population. Objectives: The study was designed to assess the presence of equipment malcalibrations, cuff miss-matching and their effect on BP recording. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional check of all operational sphygmomanometers in a health university was carried out for the length of the manometer tube, deviation of resting mercury column from “0” level, the width and length of arm bladder cuff and extent of bladder cuff-mismatch with respect to outpatient attending population. Results: From the total of 50 apparatus selected, 39 (78%) were from hospital setups and 11 (22%) from pre-clinical departments. A manometer height deficit of 13 mm was recorded in 36 (92.23%) of the equipment in hospital and 11 (100%) from pre-clinical departments. Instruments from both settings showed significant deviation from recommended dimensions in cuff bladder length, width and length to width ratio (P < 0.001). Significant number of apparatus from hospital setups showed presence of mercury manometer baseline deviation either below or above 0 mmHg at the resting state (χ2 = 5.61, D. F. = 1, P = 0.02). Positive corelationship was observed between manometer height deficit, baseline deviation and width of arm cuff bladder (Pearson correlation, P < 0.05). Bladder cuff mismatching in response to the target population was found at 48.52% for males and 36.76% for females. The cumulative effect of these factors can lead to an error in the range of 10-12 mmHg. Conclusion: Faulty equipments and

  9. Comparison of Paper-and-Pencil versus Web Administration of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS): Risk Behavior Prevalence Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Danice K.; Brener, Nancy D.; Kann, Laura; Denniston, Maxine M.; McManus, Tim; Kyle, Tonja M.; Roberts, Alice M.; Flint, Katherine H.; Ross, James G.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined whether paper-and-pencil and Web surveys administered in the school setting yield equivalent risk behavior prevalence estimates. Data were from a methods study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in spring 2008. Intact classes of 9th- or 10th-grade students were assigned randomly to complete a…

  10. Estimating the Prevalence of Anxiety and Mood Disorders in an Adolescent General Population: An Evaluation of the GHQ12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Robert E.; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Adlaf, Edward M.; Beitchman, Joseph; Wolfe, David; Wekerle, Christine; Hamilton, Hayley A.; Rehm, Jurgen

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety and mood disorders (AMD) may be more common among adolescents than previously thought, and epidemiological research would benefit from an easily-administered measure of AMD. We assessed the ability of the GHQ12 to estimate the prevalence of AMD in a representative sample of Ontario adolescents. Data were based on self-administered…

  11. Bayesian estimation of prevalence of paratuberculosis in dairy herds enrolled in a voluntary Johne's Disease Control Programme in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McAloon, Conor G; Doherty, Michael L; Whyte, Paul; O'Grady, Luke; More, Simon J; Messam, Locksley L McV; Good, Margaret; Mullowney, Peter; Strain, Sam; Green, Martin J

    2016-06-01

    Bovine paratuberculosis is a disease characterised by chronic granulomatous enteritis which manifests clinically as a protein-losing enteropathy causing diarrhoea, hypoproteinaemia, emaciation and, eventually death. Some evidence exists to suggest a possible zoonotic link and a national voluntary Johne's Disease Control Programme was initiated by Animal Health Ireland in 2013. The objective of this study was to estimate herd-level true prevalence (HTP) and animal-level true prevalence (ATP) of paratuberculosis in Irish herds enrolled in the national voluntary JD control programme during 2013-14. Two datasets were used in this study. The first dataset had been collected in Ireland during 2005 (5822 animals from 119 herds), and was used to construct model priors. Model priors were updated with a primary (2013-14) dataset which included test records from 99,101 animals in 1039 dairy herds and was generated as part of the national voluntary JD control programme. The posterior estimate of HTP from the final Bayesian model was 0.23-0.34 with a 95% probability. Across all herds, the median ATP was found to be 0.032 (0.009, 0.145). This study represents the first use of Bayesian methodology to estimate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in Irish dairy herds. The HTP estimate was higher than previous Irish estimates but still lower than estimates from other major dairy producing countries. PMID:27237395

  12. National estimates of Australian gambling prevalence: f indings from a dual‐frame omnibus survey

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, G. J.; Jackson, A. C.; Pennay, D. W.; Francis, K. L.; Pennay, A.; Lubman, D. I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background, aims and design The increase in mobile telephone‐only households may be a source of bias for traditional landline gambling prevalence surveys. Aims were to: (1) identify Australian gambling participation and problem gambling prevalence using a dual‐frame (50% landline and 50% mobile telephone) computer‐assisted telephone interviewing methodology; (2) explore the predictors of sample frame and telephone status; and (3) explore the degree to which sample frame and telephone status moderate the relationships between respondent characteristics and problem gambling. Setting and participants A total of 2000 adult respondents residing in Australia were interviewed from March to April 2013. Measurements Participation in multiple gambling activities and Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). Findings Estimates were: gambling participation [63.9%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 61.4–66.3], problem gambling (0.4%, 95% CI = 0.2–0.8), moderate‐risk gambling (1.9%, 95% CI = 1.3–2.6) and low‐risk gambling (3.0%, 95% CI = 2.2–4.0). Relative to the landline frame, the mobile frame was more likely to gamble on horse/greyhound races [odds ratio (OR) = 1.4], casino table games (OR = 5.0), sporting events (OR = 2.2), private games (OR = 1.9) and the internet (OR = 6.5); less likely to gamble on lotteries (OR = 0.6); and more likely to gamble on five or more activities (OR = 2.4), display problem gambling (OR = 6.4) and endorse PGSI items (OR = 2.4‐6.1). Only casino table gambling (OR = 2.9) and internet gambling (OR = 3.5) independently predicted mobile frame membership. Telephone status (landline frame versus mobile dual users and mobile‐only users) displayed similar findings. Finally, sample frame and/or telephone status moderated the relationship between gender, relationship status, health and problem gambling (OR = 2.9–7.6). Conclusion Given expected future increases in the

  13. Effect of nutrition survey 'cleaning criteria' on estimates of malnutrition prevalence and disease burden: secondary data analysis.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Sonya; Seal, Andrew; Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos; Kerac, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Tackling childhood malnutrition is a global health priority. A key indicator is the estimated prevalence of malnutrition, measured by nutrition surveys. Most aspects of survey design are standardised, but data 'cleaning criteria' are not. These aim to exclude extreme values which may represent measurement or data-entry errors. The effect of different cleaning criteria on malnutrition prevalence estimates was unknown. We applied five commonly used data cleaning criteria (WHO 2006; EPI-Info; WHO 1995 fixed; WHO 1995 flexible; SMART) to 21 national Demographic and Health Survey datasets. These included a total of 163,228 children, aged 6-59 months. We focused on wasting (low weight-for-height), a key indicator for treatment programmes. Choice of cleaning criteria had a marked effect: SMART were least inclusive, resulting in the lowest reported malnutrition prevalence, while WHO 2006 were most inclusive, resulting in the highest. Across the 21 countries, the proportion of records excluded was 3 to 5 times greater when using SMART compared to WHO 2006 criteria, resulting in differences in the estimated prevalence of total wasting of between 0.5 and 3.8%, and differences in severe wasting of 0.4-3.9%. The magnitude of difference was associated with the standard deviation of the survey sample, a statistic that can reflect both population heterogeneity and data quality. Using these results to estimate case-loads for treatment programmes resulted in large differences for all countries. Wasting prevalence and caseload estimations are strongly influenced by choice of cleaning criterion. Because key policy and programming decisions depend on these statistics, variations in analytical practice could lead to inconsistent and potentially inappropriate implementation of malnutrition treatment programmes. We therefore call for mandatory reporting of cleaning criteria use so that results can be compared and interpreted appropriately. International consensus is urgently needed

  14. Hepatitis C in HIV-infected individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis of estimated prevalence in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Tiago Castro Lopes; Zwahlen, Marcel; Rauch, Andri; Egger, Matthias; Wandeler, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening is recommended for all HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy, data on epidemiologic characteristics of HCV infection in resource-limited settings are scarce. Methods We searched PubMed and EMBASE for studies assessing the prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected individuals in Africa and extracted data on laboratory methods used. Prevalence estimates from individual studies were combined for each country using random-effects meta-analysis. The importance of study design, population and setting as well as type of test (anti-HCV antibody tests and polymerase chain reactions) was examined with meta-regression. Results Three randomized controlled trials, 28 cohort studies and 121 cross-sectional analyses with 108,180 HIV-infected individuals from 35 countries were included. The majority of data came from outpatient populations (55%), followed by blood donors (15%) and pregnant women (14%). Based on estimates from 159 study populations, anti-HCV positivity prevalence ranged between 3.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8–4.7) in Southern Africa and 42.3% (95% CI 4.1–80.5) in North Africa. Study design, type of setting and age distribution did not influence this prevalence significantly. The prevalence of replicating HCV infection, estimated from data of 29 cohorts, was 2.0% (95% CI 1.5–2.6). Ten studies from nine countries reported the HCV genotype of 74 samples, 53% were genotype 1, 24% genotype 2, 14% genotype 4 and 9% genotypes 3, 5 or 6. Conclusions The prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies is high in HIV-infected patients in Africa, but replicating HCV infection is rare and varies widely across countries. PMID:27293220

  15. Childhood sexual abuse by representatives of the Roman Catholic Church: a prevalence estimate among the Dutch population.

    PubMed

    Langeland, Willemien; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W; Mager, Daniel; Smit, Jan H; Draijer, Nel

    2015-08-01

    Estimates of the extent of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) within in the Roman Catholic Church (RCC) in the general population are difficult to find. The independent Commission of Inquiry into sexual abuse of minors in the RCC in the Netherlands collected population-based data to estimate its prevalence. A large random online population sample was surveyed using a two-phase stratified sampling procedure. In Phase 1, 34,267 subjects aged 40 years and older were screened for childhood exposure to sexual abuse by non-family members, a history of institutionalization and a Roman Catholic upbringing. In Phase 2, a stratified subset of 2,462 subjects was assessed to obtain more detailed target information about sexual abuse reports within the RCC. We employed multiple imputation for the estimation of RCC CSA in the original Phase 1 sample. The prevalence of non-familial CSA in general (14.0%) was higher among women (17.2%) than among men (10.6%). The prevalence of CSA within the Dutch RCC (1.7%) was higher among men (2.7%) than among women (0.7%). As expected, older subjects reported more often CSA in the RCC than their younger counterparts. Respondents who stayed for some time in RCC run institutions for education or child protection had a higher risk to report sexual abuse. Although sexual abuse of minors by representatives of the RCC was a structural problem during a period that the Church was highly influential in the Netherlands, the estimated prevalence of the phenomenon is only a fraction of the prevalence rate of non-familial CSA. PMID:26003819

  16. Estimated prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a sample of Panamanian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Emelyn Y; Velarde, Silvia; Britton, Gabrielle B

    2011-04-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence of ADHD in a school sample of children ages 6-11 years in the city of Panama. The assessment battery included the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales, the Structured Developmental History of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC-2), and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III). The prevalence of ADHD (N = 229) was 7.4%, with an estimate of 1.8% for the predominantly inattentive subtype, 3.1% for the predominantly hyperactive/impulsive subtype, and 2.6% for the combined subtype. The prevalence rate of ADHD is relatively low in Panama compared to those reported for samples in neighboring countries. Moreover, ADHD children were unlikely to have been identified or referred to psychological or special education assessments. Our findings confirm that ADHD is overlooked in some cultures and that a significant number of children with ADHD-related impairments are not receiving optimal intervention. PMID:21127963

  17. Discrepancies between UN models and DHS survey estimates of maternal orphan prevalence: insights from analyses of survey data from Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, L; Gregson, S; Madanhire, C; Walker, N; Mushati, P; Garnett, G; Nyamukapa, C

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Model-based estimates of maternal (but not paternal) orphanhood are higher than those based on data from demographic and health surveys (DHS). We investigate the consistency of reporting of parental survival status in data from Manicaland, Zimbabwe. Methods: We compared estimates of paternal and maternal orphan prevalence in three rounds of a prospective household census in Manicaland (1998–2005) with estimates from DHS surveys and UNAIDS model projections. We investigated the consistency of reporting of parental survival status across the three rounds and compared estimates of adult mortality from the orphan data with direct estimates from concurrent follow-up of a general population cohort. Qualitative data were collected on possible reasons for misreporting. Results: Paternal and maternal orphan prevalence is increasing in Zimbabwe. Mothers reported as deceased in round 1 of the Manicaland survey were more likely than fathers to be reported as alive in rounds 2 or 3 (33.3% vs 13.4%). This pattern was most apparent among younger children. The qualitative findings suggest that foster parents sometimes claim adopted children as their natural children. Conclusions: These results are consistent with misreporting of foster parents as natural parents. This appears to be particularly common among foster mothers and could partly explain the discrepancy between mathematical model and DHS estimates of maternal orphanhood. PMID:18647868

  18. Estimating the Impact of Raising Prices and Eliminating Discounts on Cigarette Smoking Prevalence in the United States.

    PubMed

    Marynak, Kristy L; Xu, Xin; Wang, Xu; Holmes, Carissa Baker; Tynan, Michael A; Pechacek, Terry

    2016-01-01

    The average retail price per pack of cigarettes is less than $6, which is substantially lower than the $10 per-pack target established in 2014 by the Surgeon General to reduce the smoking rate. We estimated the impact of three cigarette pricing scenarios on smoking prevalence among teens aged 12-17 years, young adults aged 18-25 years, and adults aged ≥26 years, by state: (1) $0.94 federal tax increase on cigarettes, as proposed in the fiscal year 2017 President's budget; (2) $10 per-pack retail price, allowing discounts; and (3) $10 per-pack retail price, eliminating discounts. We conducted Monte Carlo simulations to generate point estimates of reductions in cigarette smoking prevalence by state. We found that each price scenario would substantially reduce cigarette smoking prevalence. A $10 per-pack retail price eliminating discounts could result in 637,270 fewer smokers aged 12-17 years; 4,186,954 fewer smokers aged 18-25 years; and 7,722,460 fewer smokers aged ≥26 years. Raising cigarette prices and eliminating discounts could substantially reduce cigarette smoking prevalence as well as smoking-related death and disease. PMID:27453597

  19. National Estimates of Exposure to Traumatic Events and PTSD Prevalence Using DSM-IV and DSM-5 Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Milanak, Melissa E.; Miller, Mark W.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Friedman, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) defined according to the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual fifth edition (DSM-5; 2013) and fourth edition (DSM-IV; 1994) was compared in a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 2,953) recruited from an online panel. Exposure to traumatic events, PTSD symptoms, and functional impairment were assessed online using a highly structured, self-administered survey. Traumatic event exposure using DSM-5 criteria was high (89.7%), and exposure to multiple traumatic event types was the norm. PTSD caseness was determined using Same Event (i.e., all symptom criteria met to the same event type) and Composite Event (i.e., symptom criteria met to a combination of event types) definitions. Lifetime, past-12-month, and past 6-month PTSD prevalence using the Same Event definition for DSM-5 was 8.3%, 4.7%, and 3.8% respectively. All 6 DSM-5 prevalence estimates were slightly lower than their DSM-IV counterparts, although only 2 of these differences were statistically significant. DSM-5 PTSD prevalence was higher among women than among men, and prevalence increased with greater traumatic event exposure. Major reasons individuals met DSM-IV criteria, but not DSM-5 criteria were the exclusion of nonaccidental, nonviolent deaths from Criterion A, and the new requirement of at least 1 active avoidance symptom. PMID:24151000

  20. National estimates of exposure to traumatic events and PTSD prevalence using DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Dean G; Resnick, Heidi S; Milanak, Melissa E; Miller, Mark W; Keyes, Katherine M; Friedman, Matthew J

    2013-10-01

    Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) defined according to the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual fifth edition (DSM-5; 2013) and fourth edition (DSM-IV; 1994) was compared in a national sample of U.S. adults (N = 2,953) recruited from an online panel. Exposure to traumatic events, PTSD symptoms, and functional impairment were assessed online using a highly structured, self-administered survey. Traumatic event exposure using DSM-5 criteria was high (89.7%), and exposure to multiple traumatic event types was the norm. PTSD caseness was determined using Same Event (i.e., all symptom criteria met to the same event type) and Composite Event (i.e., symptom criteria met to a combination of event types) definitions. Lifetime, past-12-month, and past 6-month PTSD prevalence using the Same Event definition for DSM-5 was 8.3%, 4.7%, and 3.8% respectively. All 6 DSM-5 prevalence estimates were slightly lower than their DSM-IV counterparts, although only 2 of these differences were statistically significant. DSM-5 PTSD prevalence was higher among women than among men, and prevalence increased with greater traumatic event exposure. Major reasons individuals met DSM-IV criteria, but not DSM-5 criteria were the exclusion of nonaccidental, nonviolent deaths from Criterion A, and the new requirement of at least 1 active avoidance symptom.

  1. Estimating the prevalence of sensitive behaviour and cheating with a dual design for direct questioning and randomized response.

    PubMed

    van den Hout, Ardo; Böckenholt, Ulf; van der Heijden, Peter G M

    2010-08-01

    Randomized response is a misclassification design to estimate the prevalence of sensitive behaviour. Respondents who do not follow the instructions of the design are considered to be cheating. A mixture model is proposed to estimate the prevalence of sensitive behaviour and cheating in the case of a dual sampling scheme with direct questioning and randomized response. The mixing weight is the probability of cheating, where cheating is modelled separately for direct questioning and randomized response. For Bayesian inference, Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling is applied to sample parameter values from the posterior. The model makes it possible to analyse dual sample scheme data in a unified way and to assess cheating for direct questions as well as for randomized response questions. The research is illustrated with randomized response data concerning violations of regulations for social benefit.

  2. Validation of a chart to estimate true Schistosoma mansoni prevalences from simple egg counts.

    PubMed

    De Vlas, S J; Engels, D; Rabello, A L; Oostburg, B F; Van Lieshout, L; Polderman, A M; Van Oortmarssen, G J; Habbema, J D; Gryseels, B

    1997-02-01

    Schistosoma mansoni egg counts by faecal examination vary considerably and are not very sensitive, so prevalences are underestimated. The distribution of egg counts can adequately be described by a stochastic model which distinguishes variation in counts between persons and variation in repeated counts within a person. Based on this model a pocket chart has been developed which predicts the proportion of individuals harbouring at least 1 S. mansoni worm pair-the 'true prevalence'-from a simple single survey prevalence and geometric mean egg count (using common duplicate 25 mg Kato-Katz smears). The current paper describes the validation of this chart by comparing predicted true prevalences with prevalences observed after 5-7 repeated Kato-Katz faecal examinations (Burundi), by examination of a large quantity of stool using the Visser filter (Brazil) or a selective sedimentation-filtration method (Surinam). Because 5-7 repeated examinations do not suffice to measure all infections, predictions have been made of the cumulative proportion positives over 5-7 surveys-the 'approximate true prevalence'-as well. After dividing the data into age groups, 12 different subsets were considered for validation. In all 12 cases, predicted true prevalences (or approximate true prevalences for the Burundi data) agree well with those observed. The overall agreement depends only slightly on the assumed relationship between worm numbers and mean egg counts, with a good fit for a productivity between 0.8 and 4.4 eggs per gramme faeces (EPG) per worm pair (WP). This interval includes the most plausible value from the literature, i.e. 1.0 EPG/WP, which has been applied in the initial pocket chart. These findings support the validity of the chart to predict true prevalences for a wide range of productivity assumptions, and reinforces the applicability of its underlying stochastic model to describe egg count variation. However, as predictions appear to vary importantly when using only part

  3. The Impact of Case Definition on ADHD Prevalence Estimates in Community-Based Samples of School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    McKeown, Robert E.; Holbrook, Joseph R.; Danielson, Melissa L.; Cuffe, Steven P.; Wolraich, Mark L.; Visser, Susanna N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of varying ADHD diagnostic criteria, including new DSM-5 criteria, on prevalence estimates. Method Parent and teacher reports identified ADHD high and low screen children from elementary schools in two states that produced a diverse overall sample. The parent interview stage included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children – IV (DISC-IV), and up to four additional follow-up interviews. Weighted prevalence estimates, accounting for complex sampling, quantified the impact of varying ADHD criteria using baseline and the final follow-up interview data. Results At baseline 1060 caregivers were interviewed; 656 had at least one follow-up interview. Teachers and parents reported six or more ADHD symptoms for 20.5% (95% CI: 18.1%–23.2%) and 29.8% (CI: 24.5%–35.6%) of children respectively, with criteria for impairment and onset by age seven (DSM-IV) reducing these proportions to 16.3% (CI: 14.7%–18.0%) and 17.5% (CI: 13.3%–22.8%); requiring at least four teacher-reported symptoms reduced the parent-reported prevalence to 8.9% (CI: 7.4%–10.6%). Revising age of onset to 12 years per DSM-5 increased this estimate to 11.3% (CI: 9.5%–13.3%), with a similar increase seen at follow-up: 8.2% with age seven onset (CI: 5.9%–11.2%) versus 13.0% (CI: 7.6%–21.4%) with onset by age 12. Reducing the number of symptoms required for those aged 17 and older increased the estimate to 13.1% (CI: 7.7%–21.5%). Conclusion These findings quantify the impact on prevalence estimates of varying case definition criteria for ADHD. Further research of impairment ratings and data from multiple informants is required to better inform clinicians conducting diagnostic assessments. DSM-5 changes in age of onset and number of symptoms required for older adolescents appear to increase prevalence estimates, although the full impact is uncertain due to the age of our sample. PMID:25524790

  4. Expanding vaccine efficacy estimation with dynamic models fitted to cross-sectional prevalence data post-licensure.

    PubMed

    Gjini, Erida; Gomes, M Gabriela M

    2016-03-01

    The efficacy of vaccines is typically estimated prior to implementation, on the basis of randomized controlled trials. This does not preclude, however, subsequent assessment post-licensure, while mass-immunization and nonlinear transmission feedbacks are in place. In this paper we show how cross-sectional prevalence data post-vaccination can be interpreted in terms of pathogen transmission processes and vaccine parameters, using a dynamic epidemiological model. We advocate the use of such frameworks for model-based vaccine evaluation in the field, fitting trajectories of cross-sectional prevalence of pathogen strains before and after intervention. Using SI and SIS models, we illustrate how prevalence ratios in vaccinated and non-vaccinated hosts depend on true vaccine efficacy, the absolute and relative strength of competition between target and non-target strains, the time post follow-up, and transmission intensity. We argue that a mechanistic approach should be added to vaccine efficacy estimation against multi-type pathogens, because it naturally accounts for inter-strain competition and indirect effects, leading to a robust measure of individual protection per contact. Our study calls for systematic attention to epidemiological feedbacks when interpreting population level impact. At a broader level, our parameter estimation procedure provides a promising proof of principle for a generalizable framework to infer vaccine efficacy post-licensure. PMID:26972516

  5. Tuberculosis Infection in the United States: Prevalence Estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012

    PubMed Central

    Miramontes, Roque; Hill, Andrew N.; Yelk Woodruff, Rachel S.; Lambert, Lauren A.; Navin, Thomas R.; Castro, Kenneth G.; LoBue, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Reexamining the prevalence of persons infected with tuberculosis (TB) is important to determine trends over time. In 2011–2012 a TB component was included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to estimate the reservoir of persons infected with TB. Methods Civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population survey participants aged 6 years and older were interviewed regarding their TB history and eligibility for the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) blood test. Once eligibility was confirmed, both tests were conducted. Prevalence and numbers of TST positive (10 mm or greater), IGRA positive, and both TST and IGRA positive were calculated by adjusting for the complex survey design after applying corrections for item nonresponse and digit preference in TST induration measurements. To examine TST positivity over time, data from NHANES 1999–2000 were reanalyzed using the same statistical methods. The TST was performed using Tubersol, a commercially available purified protein derivative (PPD), rather than PPD-S, which was the antigen used in NHANES 1999–2000. Prior patient history of TB vaccination was not collected in this study nor were patients examined for the presence of a Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin (BCG) vaccine scar. Results For NHANES 2011–2012, TST and IGRA results were available for 6,128 (78.4%) and 7,107 (90.9%) eligible participants, respectively. There was no significant difference between the percentage of the U.S. population that was TST positive in 2011–2012 (4.7% [95% CI 3.4–6.3]; 13,276,000 persons) compared with 1999–2000 (4.3%; 3.5–5.3). In 2011–2012 the percentage that was IGRA positive was 5.0% (4.2–5.8) and double TST and IGRA positivity was 2.1% (1.5–2.8). The point estimate of IGRA positivity prevalence in foreign-born persons (15.9%; 13.5–18.7) was lower than for TST (20.5%; 16.1–25.8) in 2011–2012. The point estimate of IGRA positivity

  6. Impact of Data Editing Methods on Estimates of Smoking Prevalence, Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 2007–2009

    PubMed Central

    Rolle, Italia; Shin, Mikyong; Lee, Kyung Ah

    2013-01-01

    Accuracy of self-reported data may be improved by data editing, a mechanism to produce accurate information by excluding inconsistent data based on a set number of predetermined decision rules. We compared data editing methods in the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) with other editing approaches and evaluated the effects of these on smoking prevalence estimates. We evaluated 5 approaches for handling inconsistent responses to questions regarding cigarette use: GYTS, do-nothing, gatekeeper, global, and preponderance. Compared with GYTS data edits, the do-nothing and gatekeeper approaches produced similar estimates, whereas the global approach resulted in lower estimates and the preponderance approach, higher estimates. Implications for researchers using GYTS include recognition of the survey’s data editing methods and documentation in their study methods to ensure cross-study comparability. PMID:23517581

  7. Analytical considerations in the use of capture-recapture to estimate prevalence: case studies of the estimation of opiate use in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Domingo-Salvany, A; Hartnoll, R L; Maguire, A; Brugal, M T; Albertín, P; Caylà, J A; Casabona, J; Suelves, J M

    1998-10-15

    Capture-recapture, an indirect method widely used to estimate undetected populations, has been criticized because it causes problems due to a lack of compliance with several important assumptions and model selection strategies. This paper expands on the problems encountered when applying this methodology to drug abuse estimations, specifically the prevalence of opiate use in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain, in 1993. Three samples of opiate users (from hospital emergency rooms, treatment centers, and prisons) were available in the area studied; an additional sample (mortality data) was analyzed for the city of Barcelona. Log-linear models that provided a good fit were considered, to which further model selection strategies were applied. A total of 3,207 unique individuals aged 15-44 years were identified in the three samples from the greater Barcelona area; the mortality sample from the city of Barcelona contained an additional 83 individuals. Heterogeneity was observed in different age, sex, and residence area subgroups. Population estimates differed widely according to the log-linear model chosen. Minimum Akaike's information criterion model and saturated model estimates were used to produce population prevalence rates. The main problems the authors encountered in this study were related to population definition, source heterogeneity, and assessment of an adequate model, a problem associated with sample size. PMID:9786228

  8. Household survey in two provinces in Viet Nam estimates HIV prevalence in an urban and a rural population.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Ha, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Diep, Vu Thi Bich; Thang, Pham Hong; Long, Nguyen Thanh; Huong, Phan Thi Thu; Duc, Bui Hoang; Wilson, David; Oelrichs, Robert; Hien, Nguyen Tran

    2008-08-01

    A household-based population study interviewed 2,553 women and 1,984 men aged 15-49 years in urban (Ho Chi Minh City) and rural (Thai Binh) provinces in Viet Nam between July and August 2005. The survey response rate was high--approximately 97% of households and 93% of adults overall, with a >92% acceptance of HIV testing among eligible adults. The unadjusted estimated population HIV prevalence was 0.3% (confidence interval [CI]: 0.1-0.6%) in Thai Binh and 0.7% (CI: 0.3-1.3) in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), compared with the national estimates and projections of 0.352% and 1.250%, respectively, for 2005. The ratio of male-to-female prevalence was 10.5:1 in Thai Binh and 1.3:1 in HCMC. A low level of men reported purchasing sex in the last 12 months (2.4%) and there were low self-reports of sexually transmitted infections in all adults (5%). A correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention methods was high in both provinces (83%), although only 24.8% of women knew of the use of antiretroviral therapy to prevent vertical transmission of HIV. The observed population prevalence was consistent with recent projections in Thai Binh, although lower than expected in HCMC, indicating the substantial downward revisions of projected population HIV prevalence may need to be extended. The unequal sex prevalence ratio is consistent with the projected trends of increasing male-to-female sexual transmission in urban areas. The results and experience of this study will inform future population based surveys in Viet Nam and the broader Asian region. PMID:18724801

  9. A first-principles model for estimating the prevalence of annoyance with aircraft noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Fidell, Sanford; Mestre, Vincent; Schomer, Paul; Berry, Bernard; Gjestland, Truls; Vallet, Michel; Reid, Timothy

    2011-08-01

    Numerous relationships between noise exposure and transportation noise-induced annoyance have been inferred by curve-fitting methods. The present paper develops a different approach. It derives a systematic relationship by applying an a priori, first-principles model to the findings of forty three studies of the annoyance of aviation noise. The rate of change of annoyance with day-night average sound level (DNL) due to aircraft noise exposure was found to closely resemble the rate of change of loudness with sound level. The agreement of model predictions with the findings of recent curve-fitting exercises (cf. Miedma and Vos, 1998) is noteworthy, considering that other analyses have relied on different analytic methods and disparate data sets. Even though annoyance prevalence rates within individual communities consistently grow in proportion to duration-adjusted loudness, variability in annoyance prevalence rates across communities remains great. The present analyses demonstrate that 1) community-specific differences in annoyance prevalence rates can be plausibly attributed to the joint effect of acoustic and non-DNL related factors and (2) a simple model can account for the aggregate influences of non-DNL related factors on annoyance prevalence rates in different communities in terms of a single parameter expressed in DNL units-a "community tolerance level."

  10. [Prevalence of tobacco use in Switzerland in the 1990's--estimation of consumption trends based on 2 methods].

    PubMed

    Gmel, G

    2000-01-01

    Smoking prevalence rates in Switzerland in the 1990s++ have been estimated from Perma data, which have been available quarterly since 1991, as well as from the data of the first and second Swiss Health Surveys, conducted in 1992/93 and 1997. Both sources--each providing data on more than 10,000 respondents--have been large-scale surveys that have used different but complementary survey designs. The probabilistic sampling design of the Health Surveys assures representative findings; the Perma data, although obtained through a non-probabilistic sampling design, permits trend analysis as Perma uses multiple measurement points and therefore time-series methodology can be applied. Both Perma and the Health Surveys yielded approximately the same prevalence of 37% male smokers in 1992/93 and 39% in 1997. For females Perma gave 4% higher prevalence rates than the Health Surveys (Surveys 1992/93: 24%; 1997: 31%). For both sexes the increase in total smoking prevalence was accounted for mainly by adolescents and young adults. Whereas the Surveys showed an increase from 29% to 41% (18% to 39%) in males (females) aged 15 to 19 years, the corresponding increase derived from Perma was 50% less. Except for this youngest age-group, differences between the methods remained within standard statistical norms. There is no doubt, however, that smoking in adolescents increased between 1992/93 and 1997.

  11. Problem drug use prevalence estimation revisited: heterogeneity in capture–recapture and the role of external evidence

    PubMed Central

    Welton, Nicky J.; Ades, A. E.; Pierce, Matthias; Davies, Wyn; Coleman, Barbara; Millar, Tim; Hickman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims Capture–recapture (CRC) analysis is recommended for estimating the prevalence of problem drug use or people who inject drugs (PWID). We aim to demonstrate how naive application of CRC can lead to highly misleading results, and to suggest how the problems might be overcome. Methods We present a case study of estimating the prevalence of PWID in Bristol, UK, applying CRC to lists in contact with three services. We assess: (i) sensitivity of results to different versions of the dominant (treatment) list: specifically, to inclusion of non‐incident cases and of those who were referred directly from one of the other services; (ii) the impact of accounting for a novel covariate, housing instability; and (iii) consistency of CRC estimates with drug‐related mortality data. We then incorporate formally the drug‐related mortality data and lower bounds for prevalence alongside the CRC into a single coherent model. Results Five of 11 models fitted the full data equally well but generated widely varying prevalence estimates, from 2740 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2670, 2840] to 6890 (95% CI = 3740, 17680). Results were highly sensitive to inclusion of non‐incident cases, demonstrating the presence of considerable heterogeneity, and were sensitive to a lesser extent to inclusion of direct referrals. A reduced data set including only incident cases and excluding referrals could be fitted by simpler models, and led to much greater consistency in estimates. Accounting for housing stability improved model fit considerably more than did the standard covariates of age and gender. External data provided validation of results and aided model selection, generating a final estimate of the number of PWID in Bristol in 2011 of 2770 [95% credible interval (Cr‐I) = 2570, 3110] or 0.9% (95% Cr‐I = 0.9, 1.0%) of the population aged 15–64 years. Conclusions Steps can be taken to reduce bias in capture–recapture analysis, including: careful

  12. Comfort in big numbers: Does over-estimation of doping prevalence in others indicate self-involvement?

    PubMed Central

    Petróczi, Andrea; Mazanov, Jason; Nepusz, Tamás; Backhouse, Susan H; Naughton, Declan P

    2008-01-01

    Background The 'False Consensus Effect' (FCE), by which people perceive their own actions as relatively common behaviour, might be exploited to gauge whether a person engages in controversial behaviour, such as performance enhancing drug (PED) use. Hypothesis It is assumed that people's own behaviour, owing to the FCE, affects their estimation of the prevalence of that behaviour. It is further hypothesised that a person's estimate of PED population use is a reliable indicator of the doping behaviour of that person, in lieu of self-reports. Testing the hypothesis Over- or underestimation is calculated from investigating known groups (i.e. users vs. non-users), using a short questionnaire, and a known prevalence rate from official reports or sample evidence. It is proposed that sample evidence from self-reported behaviour should be verified using objective biochemical analyses. In order to find proofs of concept for the existence of false consensus, a pilot study was conducted. Data were collected among competitive UK student-athletes (n = 124) using a web-based anonymous questionnaire. User (n = 9) vs. non-user (n = 76) groups were established using self-reported information on doping use and intention to use PEDs in hypothetical situations. Observed differences in the mean estimation of doping made by the user group exceeded the estimation made by the non-user group (35.11% vs. 15.34% for general doping and 34.25% vs. 26.30% in hypothetical situations, respectively), thus providing preliminary evidence in support of the FCE concept in relation to doping. Implications of the hypothesis The presence of the FCE in estimating doping prevalence or behaviour in others suggests that the FCE based approach may be an avenue for developing an indirect self-report mechanism for PED use behaviour. The method may be successfully adapted to the estimation of prevalence of behaviours where direct self-reports are assumed to be distorted by socially desirable responding. Thus this

  13. Estimation of canine Leishmania infection prevalence in six cities of the Algerian littoral zone using a Bayesian approach.

    PubMed

    Adel, Amel; Abatih, Emmanuel; Speybroeck, Niko; Soukehal, Abdelkrim; Bouguedour, Rachid; Boughalem, Karim; Bouhbal, Abdelmalek; Djerbal, Mouloud; Saegerman, Claude; Berkvens, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    A large-scale study on canine Leishmania infection (CanL) was conducted in six localities along a west-east transect in the Algerian littoral zone (Tlemcen, Mostaganem, Tipaza, Boumerdes, Bejaia, Jijel) and covering two sampling periods. In total 2,184 dogs were tested with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and a direct agglutination test (DAT). Combined multiple-testing and several statistical methods were compared to estimate the CanL true prevalence and tests characteristics (sensitivity and specificity). The Bayesian full model showed the best fit and yielded prevalence estimates between 11% (Mostaganem, first period) and 38% (Bejaia, second period). Sensitivity of IFAT varied (in function of locality) between 86% and 88% while its specificity varied between 65% and 87%. DAT was less sensitive than IFAT but showed a higher specificity (between 80% and 95% in function of locality or/and season). A general increasing trend of the CanL prevalence was noted from west to east. A concordance between the present results and the incidence of human cases of visceral leishmaniasis was observed, where also a maximum was recorded for Bejaia. The results of the present study highlight the dangers when using IFAT as a gold standard. PMID:25793942

  14. Recent Insights in the Epidemiology of Autoimmune Diseases: Improved Prevalence Estimates and Understanding of Clustering of Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Glinda S.; Bynum, Milele L.K.; Somers, Emily C.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have estimated a prevalence of a broad grouping of autoimmune diseases of 3.2%, based on literature review of studies published between 1965 and 1995, and 5.3%, based on national hospitalization registry data in Denmark. We examine more recent studies pertaining to the prevalence of 29 autoimmune diseases, and use these data to correct for the underascertainment of some diseases in the hospitalization registry data. This analysis results in an estimated prevalence of 7.6–9.4%, depending on the size of the correction factor used. The rates for most diseases for which data are available from many geographic regions span overlapping ranges. We also review studies of the co-occurrence of diseases within individuals and within families, focusing on specific pairs of diseases to better distinguish patterns that may result in insights pertaining to shared etiological pathways. Overall, data support a tendency for autoimmune diseases to co-occur at greater than expected rates within proband patients and their families, but this does not appear to be a uniform phenomenon across all diseases. Multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis is one disease pair that appears to have a decreased chance of coexistence. PMID:19819109

  15. Estimation of Microbial Contamination of Food from Prevalence and Concentration Data: Application to Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Vegetables▿

    PubMed Central

    Crépet, Amélie; Albert, Isabelle; Dervin, Catherine; Carlin, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    A normal distribution and a mixture model of two normal distributions in a Bayesian approach using prevalence and concentration data were used to establish the distribution of contamination of the food-borne pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes in unprocessed and minimally processed fresh vegetables. A total of 165 prevalence studies, including 15 studies with concentration data, were taken from the scientific literature and from technical reports and used for statistical analysis. The predicted mean of the normal distribution of the logarithms of viable L. monocytogenes per gram of fresh vegetables was −2.63 log viable L. monocytogenes organisms/g, and its standard deviation was 1.48 log viable L. monocytogenes organisms/g. These values were determined by considering one contaminated sample in prevalence studies in which samples are in fact negative. This deliberate overestimation is necessary to complete calculations. With the mixture model, the predicted mean of the distribution of the logarithm of viable L. monocytogenes per gram of fresh vegetables was −3.38 log viable L. monocytogenes organisms/g and its standard deviation was 1.46 log viable L. monocytogenes organisms/g. The probabilities of fresh unprocessed and minimally processed vegetables being contaminated with concentrations higher than 1, 2, and 3 log viable L. monocytogenes organisms/g were 1.44, 0.63, and 0.17%, respectively. Introducing a sensitivity rate of 80 or 95% in the mixture model had a small effect on the estimation of the contamination. In contrast, introducing a low sensitivity rate (40%) resulted in marked differences, especially for high percentiles. There was a significantly lower estimation of contamination in the papers and reports of 2000 to 2005 than in those of 1988 to 1999 and a lower estimation of contamination of leafy salads than that of sprouts and other vegetables. The interest of the mixture model for the estimation of microbial contamination is discussed. PMID

  16. Impact of a New Gender-Specific Definition for Binge Drinking on Prevalence Estimates for Women

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Pollyanna R.; Nelson, David E.; Naimi, Timothy S.; Brewer, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Binge drinking accounts for more than half of the 79,000 deaths due to excessive drinking in the U.S. each year. In 2006, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) lowered the threshold for defining binge drinking among women from ≥5 drinks to ≥4 drinks per occasion, in accordance with national recommendations. Purpose To assess changes in binge-drinking prevalence among women. Methods The relative and absolute change in binge drinking among U.S. adult women was assessed using pooled BRFSS data from the 2 years before (2004–2005) and after (2006–2007) the implementation of the new gender-specific definition. Analyses were conducted in 2008–2009. Results Binge-drinking prevalence among women increased 2.6 percentage points (from 7.3% in 2004–2005 to 9.9% in 2006–2007), a 35.6% relative increase. The percentage of women who reported consuming exactly 4 drinks in 2006 (3.6%) was similar to the increase in the prevalence of binge drinking among women that was observed from 2005 to 2006 (absolute change, 2.9 percentage points). Conclusions The new gender-specific definition of binge drinking significantly increased the identification of women drinking at dangerous levels. The change in prevalence among women was primarily due to the change in the definition and not to actual changes in drinking behavior. The new gender-specific definition of binge drinking can increase the usefulness of this measure for public health surveillance, and support the planning and implementation of effective prevention strategies (e.g., increasing alcohol excise taxes). PMID:21406282

  17. HIV-Prevalence in Tuberculosis Patients in Germany, 2002–2009: An Estimation Based on HIV and Tuberculosis Surveillance Data

    PubMed Central

    Fiebig, Lena; Kollan, Christian; Hauer, Barbara; Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Barbara; an der Heiden, Matthias; Hamouda, Osamah; Haas, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV comorbidity is a major challenge in TB prevention and control but difficult to assess in Germany as in other countries, where data confidentiality precludes notifying the HIV status of TB patients. We aimed to estimate the HIV-prevalence in TB patients in Germany, 2002–2009, and to characterize the HIV/TB patients demographically. Data from the long-term observational open multicentre cohort ClinSurv HIV were used to identify incident TB in HIV-positive individuals. We assessed the cohort’s coverage for the nationwide HIV-positive population by contrasting ClinSurv HIV patients under antiretroviral therapy (ART) with national HIV patient numbers derived from ART prescriptions (data by Insight Health; available for 2006–2009). The HIV-prevalence in TB patients was calculated as the number of HIV/TB cases projected for Germany over all culture-positive TB notifications. From 2002 to 2009, 298 of 15,531 HIV-positive patients enrolled in the ClinSurv HIV cohort were diagnosed with TB. A 21% cohort coverage was determined. The annual estimates of the HIV-prevalence in TB patients were on average 4.5% and ranged from 3.5% (95%CI 2.3–5.1%) in 2007 to 6.6% (95%CI 5.0–8.5%) in 2005. The most recent estimate for 2009 was 4.0% (95%CI 2.6–5.9%). The 298 HIV/TB patients were characterized by a male-to-female ratio of 2.1, by a median age of 38 years at TB diagnosis, and by 59% of the patients having a foreign origin, mainly from Subsahara Africa. We provide, to our knowledge, the first estimate of the HIV-prevalence in TB patients for Germany by joint evaluation of anonymous HIV and TB surveillance data sources. The identified level of HIV in TB patients approximates available surveillance data from neighbouring countries and indicates a non-negligible HIV/TB burden in Germany. Our estimation approach is valuable for epidemiological monitoring of HIV/TB within the current legal frameworks. PMID:23145087

  18. Clozapine-induced hypersalivation: an estimate of prevalence, severity and impact on quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Senan; Cunningham, Aoife; O’Callaghan, Niamh; Byrne, Fintan; Mc Donald, Colm; McInerney, Shane; Hallahan, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of clozapine-induced hypersalivation, and assess the impact hypersalivation has on global functioning. Methods: Participants attending a dedicated clozapine clinic were invited to undertake a structured interview regarding their experiences of clozapine-induced hypersalivation. Two psychometric instruments to measure hypersalivation, the Nocturnal Hypersalivation Rating Scale and the Drooling Severity and Frequency Scale were used. Results: Clozapine-induced hypersalivation was experienced by 92% of participants, with nocturnal hypersalivation more prevalent compared to daytime hypersalivation (85% versus 48%). Daytime drooling was severe in 18% of cases and was present on a frequent or constant basis for 20% of individuals. Hypersalivation had at least a moderate impact on the quality of life of 15% of study participants. Conclusions: Clozapine-induced hypersalivation is the most prevalent adverse effect experienced by patients treated with clozapine and negatively impacts on quality of life, particularly if daytime drooling is present. The development of further strategies to ameliorate this adverse effect is required given the demonstrated lack of success to date in managing this condition. PMID:27354906

  19. Estimating the Burden of Acute Gastrointestinal Illness: A Pilot Study of the Prevalence and Underreporting in Saint Lucia, Eastern Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Jaime, Alina; Mckensie, Martin; Auguste, Ava; Pérez, Enrique; Indar, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Saint Lucia was the first country to conduct a burden of illness study in the Caribbean to determine the community prevalence and underreporting of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). A retrospective cross-sectional population survey on AGE-related illness was administered to a random sample of residents of Saint Lucia in 20 April–16 May 2008 and 6-13 December 2009 to capture the high- and low-AGE season respectively. Of the selected 1,150 individuals, 1,006 were administered the survey through face-to-face interviews (response rate 87.4%). The overall monthly prevalence of AGE was 3.9%. The yearly incidence rate was 0.52 episodes/person-year. The age-adjusted monthly prevalence was 4.6%. The highest monthly prevalence of AGE was among children aged <5 years (7.5%) and the lowest in persons aged 45-64 years (2.6%). The average number of days an individual suffered from diarrhoea was 3.8 days [range 1-21 day(s)]. Of the reported AGE cases, only seven (18%) sought medical care; however, 83% stayed at home due to the illness [(range 1-16 day(s), mean 2.5]; and 26% required other individuals to take care of them. The estimated underreporting of syndromic AGE and laboratory-confirmed foodborne disease pathogens was 81% and 99% respectively during the study period. The economic cost for treating syndromic AGE was estimated at US$ 3,892.837 per annum. This was a pilot study on the burden of illness (BOI) in the Caribbean. The results of the study should be interpreted within the limitations and challenges of this study. Lessons learnt were used for improving the implementation procedures of other BOI studies in the Caribbean.

  20. Estimating the burden of acute gastrointestinal illness: a pilot study of the prevalence and underreporting in Saint Lucia, Eastern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Owen O; Jaime, Alina; Mckensie, Martin; Auguste, Ava; Pérez, Enrique; Indar, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    Saint Lucia was the first country to conduct a burden of illness study in the Caribbean to determine the community prevalence and underreporting of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). A retrospective cross-sectional population survey on AGE-related illness was administered to a random sample of residents of Saint Lucia in 20 April-16 May 2008 and 6-13 December 2009 to capture the high- and low-AGE season respectively. Of the selected 1,150 individuals, 1,006 were administered the survey through face-to-face interviews (response rate 87.4%). The overall monthly prevalence of AGE was 3.9%. The yearly incidence rate was 0.52 episodes/person-year. The age-adjusted monthly prevalence was 4.6%. The highest monthly prevalence of AGE was among children aged < 5 years (7.5%) and the lowest in persons aged 45-64 years (2.6%). The average number of days an individual suffered from diarrhoea was 3.8 days [range 1-21 day(s)]. Of the reported AGE cases, only seven (18%) sought medical care; however, 83% stayed at home due to the illness [(range 1-16 day(s), mean 2.5]; and 26% required other individuals to take care of them. The estimated underreporting of syndromic AGE and laboratory-confirmed foodborne disease pathogens was 81% and 99% respectively during the study period. The economic cost for treating syndromic AGE was estimated at US$ 3,892.837 per annum. This was a pilot study on the burden of illness (BOI) in the Caribbean. The results of the study should be interpreted within the limitations and challenges of this study. Lessons learnt were used for improving the implementation procedures of other BOI studies in the Caribbean.

  1. Association between the Delta Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and the Prevalence of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance in Korean Males

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Sail; Min, Won-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Background. We investigated the association between the reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) in Korean males. Methods. We enrolled 723 healthy Korean males. Serum creatinine concentration, serum electrophoresis, serum immunofixation, and the serum free light chain assay were performed. We calculated delta eGFR per year (ΔeGFR/yr). The prevalence of MGUS was compared based on the ΔeGFR/yr and age group. Results. Thirteen (1.8%) of 723 participants exhibited the monoclonal band on serum immunofixation. Prevalence of MGUS by age group was 0.00% (0/172 for 40 years), 1.63% (6/367 for 60 years), and 3.80% (7/184 for >60 years). The median decrease in ΔeGFR/yr was 5.3%. The prevalence of MGUS in participants in their 50s with >5.3% decline in ΔeGFR/yr was significantly higher than those with <5.3% decrease in ΔeGFR/yr (3.16% versus 0.00%; P = 0.049). The prevalence of MGUS in participants in their 50s with >5.3% decrease in ΔeGFR/yr was similar to that of healthy males in their 60s. Conclusion. Using the rate of reduction in ΔeGFR/yr in healthy Korean males who had their serum creatinine level checked regularly may increase the MGUS detection rate in clinical practice. PMID:24895568

  2. Estimating Dengue Transmission Intensity from Sero-Prevalence Surveys in Multiple Countries

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Natsuko; Dorigatti, Ilaria; Cauchemez, Simon; Ferguson, Neil M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Estimates of dengue transmission intensity remain ambiguous. Since the majority of infections are asymptomatic, surveillance systems substantially underestimate true rates of infection. With advances in the development of novel control measures, obtaining robust estimates of average dengue transmission intensity is key for assessing both the burden of disease from dengue and the likely impact of interventions. Methodology/Principal Findings The force of infection (λ) and corresponding basic reproduction numbers (R0) for dengue were estimated from non-serotype (IgG) and serotype-specific (PRNT) age-stratified seroprevalence surveys identified from the literature. The majority of R0 estimates ranged from 1–4. Assuming that two heterologous infections result in complete immunity produced up to two-fold higher estimates of R0 than when tertiary and quaternary infections were included. λ estimated from IgG data were comparable to the sum of serotype-specific forces of infection derived from PRNT data, particularly when inter-serotype interactions were allowed for. Conclusions/Significance Our analysis highlights the highly heterogeneous nature of dengue transmission. How underlying assumptions about serotype interactions and immunity affect the relationship between the force of infection and R0 will have implications for control planning. While PRNT data provides the maximum information, our study shows that even the much cheaper ELISA-based assays would provide comparable baseline estimates of overall transmission intensity which will be an important consideration in resource-constrained settings. PMID:25881272

  3. Cultivation and counter cultivation: does religiosity shape the relationship between television viewing and estimates of crime prevalence and assessment of victimization likelihood?

    PubMed

    Hetsroni, Amir; Lowenstein, Hila

    2013-02-01

    Religiosity may change the direction of the effect of TV viewing on assessment of the likelihood of personal victimization and estimates concerning crime prevalence. A content analysis of a representative sample of TV programming (56 hours of prime-time shows) was done to identify the most common crimes on television, followed by a survey of a representative sample of the adult public in a large urban district (778 respondents) who were asked to estimate the prevalence of these crimes and to assess the likelihood of themselves being victimized. People who defined themselves as non-religious increased their estimates of prevalence for crimes often depicted on TV, as they reported more time watching TV (ordinary cultivation effect), whereas estimates regarding the prevalence of crime and assessment of victimization likelihood among religious respondents were lower with reports of more time devoted to television viewing (counter-cultivation effect).

  4. An approximate likelihood estimator for the prevalence of infections in vectors using pools of varying sizes.

    PubMed

    Santos, James D; Dorgam, Diana

    2016-09-01

    There are several arthropods that can transmit disease to humans. To make inferences about the rate of infection of these arthropods, it is common to collect a large sample of vectors, divide them into groups (called pools), and apply a test to detect infection. This paper presents an approximate likelihood point estimator to rate of infection for pools of different sizes, when the variability of these sizes is small and the infection rate is low. The performance of this estimator was evaluated in four simulated scenarios, created from real experiments selected in the literature. The new estimator performed well in three of these scenarios. As expected, the new estimator performed poorly in the scenario with great variability in the size of the pools for some values of the parameter space. PMID:27159117

  5. Hearing-Impaired/Developmentally Disabled Persons in the United States: Definitions, Causes, Effects, and Prevalence Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Larry G.

    1978-01-01

    Information is presented on the definition, causes, effects and population estimates for developmental disabilities; and a tentative hypothesis regarding the hearing impaired/developmentally disabled is set forth. (CL)

  6. Estimating the Prevalence of Sexual Function Problems: The Impact of Morbidity Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kirstin R.; Jones, Kyle G.; Wellings, Kaye; Johnson, Anne M.; Graham, Cynthia A.; Datta, Jessica; Copas, Andrew J.; Bancroft, John; Sonnenberg, Pam; Macdowall, Wendy; Field, Nigel; Mercer, Catherine H.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the clinical significance of symptoms of sexual dysfunction is challenging. To address this, the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) introduced two new morbidity criteria (duration and symptom severity) to the existing criteria of distress. This study sought to establish the impact of these three criteria on the population prevalence of sexual function problems. The data come from a national probability survey (Natsal-3) and are based on 11,509 male and female participants aged 16–74, reporting at least one sexual partner in the past year. The key outcomes were: proportion of individuals reporting proxy measures of DSM-5 problems, and the proportion of those meeting morbidity criteria. We found that among sexually active men, the prevalence of reporting one or more of four specific sexual problems was 38.2%, but 4.2% after applying the three morbidity criteria; corresponding figures for women reporting one or more of three specific sexual problems, were 22.8% and 3.6%. Just over a third of men and women reporting a problem meeting all three morbidity criteria had sought help in the last year. We conclude that the DSM-5 morbidity criteria impose a focus on clinically significant symptoms. PMID:26605494

  7. Comparison of methods for estimating the prevalence of Neozygites floridana in Tetranychus urticae populations infesting strawberries.

    PubMed

    Nordengen, I; Klingen, I

    2006-05-01

    Methods for measuring prevalence of Neozygites floridana in a Tetranychus urticae population collected from strawberries were developed and compared. T. urticae were extracted from leaves using a soapy water solution (0.5 ml washing detergent : 8 L water) and then placed into 80% alcohol for use in Methods 1 and 2. Method 1: N. floridana-sporulating T. urticae cadavers were observed and quantified under a compound microscope (40-80x). Method 2: Adult females were mounted in lactophenol cotton blue and observed for the presence or absence of N. floridana hyphal bodies under a microscope (200-400x). Method 3: Live T. urticae females were incubated at 25 degrees C and 75% RH and observed for mortality and N. floridana infection under a compound microscope (6.4-40x). Method 1 was the most time-efficient method and it also allows processing of samples as time permits. Method 2 quantified significantly higher fungal prevalence than Methods 1 and 3, but Method 2 is not considered to be reliable because hyphal bodies are difficult to detect. No significant differences were found between Methods 1 and 3.

  8. Copro prevalence and estimated risk of Entamoeba histolytica in Diarrheic patients at Beni-Suef, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Shimaa S; El-Matarawy, Olfat M; Ghieth, Marwa A; Abu Sarea, Enas Y; El-Badry, Ayman A

    2015-02-01

    Amoebiasis diagnosis is usually based on microscopy that cannot differentiate pathogenic E. histolytica from morphologically identical non-pathogenic species. 194 fecal samples were collected from diarrheic &/or dysenteric patients and examined for Entamoeba complex microscopically, E. histolytica/E. dispar coproantigen using ICT and E. histolytica coproantigen using Tech lab E. histolytica II ELISA test. Entamoeba complex trophozoites/cysts, E. histolytica/E. dispar coproantigen and E. histolytica coproantigen were detected in 22.2, 14.4 and 3.6 % of samples, respectively. Microscopy and ICT method had limited sensitivity with poor PPV (9.3 and 7.1 %, respectively) and both slightly agree with ELISA test. The prevalence of E. histolytica was low (3.6 %) in studied individuals and was 14 times lower than non-pathogenic amoebae. E. histolytica detection studied individuals was positively associated with mucoid and bloody stool, which makes them disease predictors. E. histolytica fecal ELISA assay for E. histolytica detection surpassed microscopy and E. histolytica/E. dispar ICT assay. This has highlighted the need for practical non-microscopic detection methods that can differentiate between amoeba infections to avoid unnecessary and possibly harmful therapies and to determine the true prevalence and epidemiology of E. histolytica.

  9. Validation, Replication, and Sensitivity Testing of Heckman-Type Selection Models to Adjust Estimates of HIV Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Samuel J.; Houle, Brian

    2014-01-01

    A recent study using Heckman-type selection models to adjust for non-response in the Zambia 2007 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) found a large correction in HIV prevalence for males. We aim to validate this finding, replicate the adjustment approach in other DHSs, apply the adjustment approach in an external empirical context, and assess the robustness of the technique to different adjustment approaches. We used 6 DHSs, and an HIV prevalence study from rural South Africa to validate and replicate the adjustment approach. We also developed an alternative, systematic model of selection processes and applied it to all surveys. We decomposed corrections from both approaches into rate change and age-structure change components. We are able to reproduce the adjustment approach for the 2007 Zambia DHS and derive results comparable with the original findings. We are able to replicate applying the approach in several other DHSs. The approach also yields reasonable adjustments for a survey in rural South Africa. The technique is relatively robust to how the adjustment approach is specified. The Heckman selection model is a useful tool for assessing the possibility and extent of selection bias in HIV prevalence estimates from sample surveys. PMID:25402333

  10. Prevalence and allele frequency estimation of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) in Holstein-Friesian cattle in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, H; Miura, T; Tagaki, K; Ohtake, M; Noda, H; Yasuda, T; Nioka, K

    1997-04-01

    Blood samples from 796 Holstein dairy cows in 20 herds from 6 districts in Japan from June 1994 to August 1995 were examined to determine whether they were BLAD-free, BLAD carriers, or BLAD-affected by use of DNA-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. The usage of semen of confirmed BLAD-carriers for artificial insemination in the Hokkaido district and two selected dairy farms was examined to estimate the gene frequency of BLAD carriers of sires. BLAD-carrier prevalence in 20 herds (796 cows, over 2.5 years old) ranged from 0 to 23.5%, and the mean BLAD-carrier prevalence was 8.1%. The BLAD-carrier prevalence in 10 herds (363 cows) in which the occurrence of BLAD was not detected by the DNA-PCR test ranged from 0 to 12.5% with a mean of 5.4%. The BLAD-carrier prevalence in 10 herds (433 cows) in which the occurrence of BLAD was confirmed by DNA-PCR analysis ranged from 2.6 to 23.5% with a mean of 10.8%, and these values were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of dairy herds in which the occurrence of BLAD was not detected. The age distribution in BLAD carriers in these cows ranged from 2.5 to 11 years. The mean gene frequencies of BLAD among 796 cows from 20 herds and 433 cows from 10 herds in which the occurrence of BLAD was detected were 0.041 and 0.054, respectively. The proportional usage of semen of BLAD carriers for artificial insemination in the Hokkaido district in 1992 was 12.6%, and its gene frequency was 0.058. On two selected farms in which higher BLAD-carrier rates were detected, the prevalences were 35.5% and 25.8%, and their gene frequencies were 0.177 and 0.129, respectively. The occurrence of BLAD-affected in Holstein dairy cattle was estimated to be 0.16-0.31% at birth in Japan without genetic control. PMID:9152929

  11. Use of cohort data to estimate national prevalence of transmitted drug resistance to antiretroviral drugs in Spain (2007-2012).

    PubMed

    Monge, S; Díez, M; Alvarez, M; Guillot, V; Iribarren, J A; Palacios, R; Delgado, R; Jaén, A; Blanco, J R; Domingo, P; Portilla, J; Pérez Elías, M J; Garcia, F

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (pTDR) to antiretroviral drugs in Spain (2007-2012) was estimated using the CoRIS cohort, adjusting its territorial distribution and transmission route to the reference population from the Spanish Information System on New human immunodeficiency virus diagnoses. A total of 2702 patients from ten autonomous communities and with naive FASTA sequence within 6 months of human immunodeficiency virus diagnosis were selected. Weighted pTDR, estimated using the inverse probability of selection in the sample by autonomous communities and transmission group, was 8.12% (95% CI 6.44-9.80), not significantly different from unweighted pTDR. We illustrate how proportional weighting can maximize representativeness of cohort-based data, and its value to monitor pTDR at country level. PMID:25636937

  12. How Many People have Alcohol Use Disorders? Using the Harmful Dysfunction Analysis to Reconcile Prevalence Estimates in Two Community Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Jerome C.; Schmitz, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    Community prevalence rates of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) provided by epidemiological studies using DSM-based diagnostic criteria pose several challenges: the rates appear implausibly high to many epidemiologists; they do not converge across similar studies; and, due to low service utilization by those diagnosed as disordered, they yield estimates of unmet need for services so high that credibility for planning purposes is jeopardized. For example, two early community studies using DSM diagnostic criteria, the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (ECA) and the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS), yielded lifetime AUD prevalence rates of 14 and 24%, respectively, with NCS unmet need for services 19% of the entire population. Attempts to address these challenges by adding clinical significance requirements to diagnostic criteria have proven unsuccessful. Hypothesizing that these challenges are due to high rates of false-positive diagnoses of problem drinking as AUDs, we test an alternative approach. We use the harmful dysfunction (HD) analysis of the concept of mental disorder as a guide to construct more valid criteria within the framework of the standard out-of-control model of AUD. The proposed HD criteria require harm and dysfunction, where harm can be any negative social, personal, or physical outcome, and dysfunction requires either withdrawal symptoms or inability to stop drinking. Using HD criteria, ECA and NCS lifetime prevalences converge to much-reduced rates of 6 and 6.8%, respectively. Due to higher service utilization rates, NCS lifetime unmet need is reduced to 3.4%. Service use and duration comparisons suggest that HD criteria possess increased diagnostic validity. Moreover, HD criteria eliminate 90% of transient teenage drinking from disorder status. The HD version of the out-of-control model thus potentially resolves the three classic prevalence challenges while offering a more rigorous approach to distinguishing AUDs from problematic drinking. PMID

  13. Estimates of the prevalence of anomalous signal losses in the Yellow Sea derived from acoustic and oceanographic computer model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin-Bing, Stanley A.; King, David B.; Warn-Varnas, Alex C.; Lamb, Kevin G.; Hawkins, James A.; Teixeira, Marvi

    2002-05-01

    The results from collocated oceanographic and acoustic simulations in a region of the Yellow Sea near the Shandong peninsula have been presented [Chin-Bing et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2577 (2000)]. In that work, the tidal flow near the peninsula was used to initialize a 2.5-dimensional ocean model [K. G. Lamb, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 843-864 (1994)] that subsequently generated internal solitary waves (solitons). The validity of these soliton simulations was established by matching satellite imagery taken over the region. Acoustic propagation simulations through this soliton field produced results similar to the anomalous signal loss measured by Zhou, Zhang, and Rogers [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 2042-2054 (1991)]. Analysis of the acoustic interactions with the solitons also confirmed the hypothesis that the loss mechanism involved acoustic mode coupling. Recently we have attempted to estimate the prevalence of these anomalous signal losses in this region. These estimates were made from simulating acoustic effects over an 80 hour space-time evolution of soliton packets. Examples will be presented that suggest the conditions necessary for anomalous signal loss may be more prevalent than previously thought. [Work supported by ONR/NRL and by a High Performance Computing DoD grant.

  14. Estimating the prevalence of organic brain dysfunction in maximum-security forensic psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Martell, D A

    1992-05-01

    This is a descriptive study of 50 randomly selected male patients retained in a maximum-security state hospital for mentally disordered offenders. Data regarding the prevalence of several indicators of potential organic brain dysfunction are presented, including: (1) a diagnosis of any organic brain disorder, (2) a history of severe head injury with loss of consciousness, (3) a history of seizure activity, (4) evidence of cognitive impairment, (5) abnormal neurological findings, and (6) other relevant neurodiagnostic or historical findings. Results show that multiple indicators of potential brain dysfunction were present in 64% of the cases. At least one indicator of potential brain dysfunction was present for 84% of the subjects. Subjects with a diagnosis or history suggesting brain dysfunction were significantly more likely to have been indicted for violent criminal charges (p = 0.01). Implications of these findings for clinical treatment and forensic science decision-making are discussed.

  15. An Estimate of the Incidence and Prevalence of Stroke in Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Adeloye, Davies

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke is increasingly becoming a challenging public health issue in Africa, and the non-availability of data has limited research output and consequently the response to this burden. This study aimed to estimate the incidence and prevalence of stroke in Africa in 2009 towards improved policy response and management of the disease in the region. Methods A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE and Global Health for original population-based or hospital-based studies on stroke was conducted. A random effect meta-analysis was conducted on crude stroke incidence and prevalence rates, and a meta-regression-like epidemiological model was applied on all data points. The fitted curve generated from the model was used to estimate incident cases of stroke and number of stroke survivors in Africa at midpoints of the United Nation population 5-year age groups for the year 2009. Results The literature search yielded a total of 1227 studies. 19 studies from 10 African countries were selected. 483 thousand new stroke cases among people aged 15 years or more were estimated in Africa in 2009, equivalent to 81.2 (13.2–94.9)/100,000 person years. A total of 1.89 million stroke survivors among people aged 15 years or more were estimated in Africa in 2009, with a prevalence of 317.3 (314.0–748.2)/100000 population. Comparable figures for the year 2013 based on the same rates would amount to 535 thousand (87.0–625.3) new stroke cases and 2.09 million (2.06–4.93) stroke survivors, suggesting an increase of 10.8% and 9.6% of incident stroke cases and stroke survivors respectively, attributable to population growth and ageing between 2009 and 2013. Conclusion The findings of this review suggest the burden of stroke in Africa is high and still increasing. There is need for more research on stroke and other vascular risk factors towards instituting appropriate policy, and effective preventive and management measures. PMID:24967899

  16. Bayesian Estimation of the True Prevalence and of the Diagnostic Test Sensitivity and Specificity of Enteropathogenic Yersinia in Finnish Pig Serum Samples

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, M. J.; Ranta, J.; Virtanen, S.; Korkeala, H.

    2015-01-01

    Bayesian analysis was used to estimate the pig's and herd's true prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia in serum samples collected from Finnish pig farms. The sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic test were also estimated for the commercially available ELISA which is used for antibody detection against enteropathogenic Yersinia. The Bayesian analysis was performed in two steps; the first step estimated the prior true prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia with data obtained from a systematic review of the literature. In the second step, data of the apparent prevalence (cross-sectional study data), prior true prevalence (first step), and estimated sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic methods were used for building the Bayesian model. The true prevalence of Yersinia in slaughter-age pigs was 67.5% (95% PI 63.2–70.9). The true prevalence of Yersinia in sows was 74.0% (95% PI 57.3–82.4). The estimates of sensitivity and specificity values of the ELISA were 79.5% and 96.9%. PMID:26539540

  17. Bayesian Estimation of the True Prevalence and of the Diagnostic Test Sensitivity and Specificity of Enteropathogenic Yersinia in Finnish Pig Serum Samples.

    PubMed

    Vilar, M J; Ranta, J; Virtanen, S; Korkeala, H

    2015-01-01

    Bayesian analysis was used to estimate the pig's and herd's true prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia in serum samples collected from Finnish pig farms. The sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic test were also estimated for the commercially available ELISA which is used for antibody detection against enteropathogenic Yersinia. The Bayesian analysis was performed in two steps; the first step estimated the prior true prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia with data obtained from a systematic review of the literature. In the second step, data of the apparent prevalence (cross-sectional study data), prior true prevalence (first step), and estimated sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic methods were used for building the Bayesian model. The true prevalence of Yersinia in slaughter-age pigs was 67.5% (95% PI 63.2-70.9). The true prevalence of Yersinia in sows was 74.0% (95% PI 57.3-82.4). The estimates of sensitivity and specificity values of the ELISA were 79.5% and 96.9%.

  18. Estimating the Prevalence of Injection Drug Users in the U.S. and in Large U.S. Metropolitan Areas from 1992 to 2002

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Samuel R.; Cooper, Hannah L.F.; Flom, Peter L.; Tempalski, Barbara; Gostnell, Karla

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates the prevalence of current injection drug users (IDUs) in 96 large U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) annually from 1992 to 2002. Multiplier/allocation methods were used to estimate the prevalence of injectors because confidentiality restrictions precluded the use of other commonly used estimation methods, such as capture–recapture. We first estimated the number of IDUs in the U.S. each year from 1992 to 2002 and then apportioned these estimates to MSAs using multiplier methods. Four different types of data indicating drug injection were used to allocate national annual totals to MSAs, creating four distinct series of estimates of the number of injectors in each MSA. Each series was smoothed over time; and the mean value of the four component estimates was taken as the best estimate of IDUs for that MSA and year (with the range of component estimates indicating the degree of uncertainty in the estimates). Annual cross-sectional correlations of the MSA-level IDU estimates with measures of unemployment, hepatitis C mortality prevalence, and poisoning mortality prevalence were used to validate our estimates. MSA-level IDU estimates correlated moderately well with validators, demonstrating adequate convergence validity. Overall, the number of IDUs per 10,000 persons aged 15–64 years varied from 30 to 348 across MSAs (mean 126.9, standard deviation 65.3, median 106.6, interquartile range 78–162) in 1992 and from 37 to 336 across MSAs (mean 110.6, standard deviation 57.7, median 96.1, interquartile range 67–134) in 2002. A multilevel model showed that overall, across the 96 MSAs, the number of injectors declined each year until 2000, after which the IDU prevalence began to increase. Despite the variation in component estimates and methodological and component data set limitations, these local IDU prevalence estimates may be used to assess: (1) predictors of change in IDU prevalence; (2) differing IDU trends between localities; (3) the

  19. Alignment-free genome tree inference by learning group-specific distance metrics.

    PubMed

    Patil, Kaustubh R; McHardy, Alice C

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary relationships between organisms is vital for their in-depth study. Gene-based methods are often used to infer such relationships, which are not without drawbacks. One can now attempt to use genome-scale information, because of the ever increasing number of genomes available. This opportunity also presents a challenge in terms of computational efficiency. Two fundamentally different methods are often employed for sequence comparisons, namely alignment-based and alignment-free methods. Alignment-free methods rely on the genome signature concept and provide a computationally efficient way that is also applicable to nonhomologous sequences. The genome signature contains evolutionary signal as it is more similar for closely related organisms than for distantly related ones. We used genome-scale sequence information to infer taxonomic distances between organisms without additional information such as gene annotations. We propose a method to improve genome tree inference by learning specific distance metrics over the genome signature for groups of organisms with similar phylogenetic, genomic, or ecological properties. Specifically, our method learns a Mahalanobis metric for a set of genomes and a reference taxonomy to guide the learning process. By applying this method to more than a thousand prokaryotic genomes, we showed that, indeed, better distance metrics could be learned for most of the 18 groups of organisms tested here. Once a group-specific metric is available, it can be used to estimate the taxonomic distances for other sequenced organisms from the group. This study also presents a large scale comparison between 10 methods--9 alignment-free and 1 alignment-based.

  20. Factor structure and reliability of the childhood trauma questionnaire and prevalence estimates of trauma for male and female street youth.

    PubMed

    Forde, David R; Baron, Stephen W; Scher, Christine D; Stein, Murray B

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire short form (CTQ-SF) with street youth who have run away or been expelled from their homes (N = 397). Internal reliability coefficients for the five clinical scales ranged from .65 to .95. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to test the five-factor structure of the scales yielding acceptable fit for the total sample. Additional multigroup analyses were performed to consider items by gender. Results provided only evidence of weak factorial invariance. Constrained models showed invariance in configuration, factor loadings, and factor covariances but failed for equality of intercepts. Mean trauma scores for street youth tended to fall in the moderate to severe range on all abuse/neglect clinical scales. Females reported higher levels of abuse and neglect. Prevalence of child maltreatment of individual forms was very high with 98% of street youth reporting one or more forms; 27.4% of males and 48.9% of females reported all five forms. Results of this study support the viability of the CTQ-SF for screening maltreatment in a highly vulnerable street population. Caution is recommended when comparing prevalence estimates for male and female street youth given the failure of the strong factorial multigroup model.

  1. Fitting HIV Prevalence 1981 Onwards for Three Indian States Using the Goals Model and the Estimation and Projection Package

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Tarun; Dutta, Tapati; Stover, John; Godbole, Sheela; Sahu, Damodar; Boopathi, Kangusamy; Bembalkar, Shilpa; Singh, Kh. Jitenkumar; Goyal, Rajat; Pandey, Arvind; Mehendale, Sanjay M.

    2016-01-01

    Models are designed to provide evidence for strategic program planning by examining the impact of different interventions on projected HIV incidence. We employed the Goals Model to fit the HIV epidemic curves in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu states of India where HIV epidemic is considered to have matured and in a declining phase. Input data in the Goals Model consisted of demographic, epidemiological, transmission-related and risk group wise behavioral parameters. The HIV prevalence curves generated in the Goals Model for each risk group in the three states were compared with the epidemic curves generated by the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) that the national program is routinely using. In all the three states, the HIV prevalence trends for high-risk populations simulated by the Goals Model matched well with those derived using state-level HIV surveillance data in the EPP. However, trends for the low- and medium-risk populations differed between the two models. This highlights the need to generate more representative and robust data in these sub-populations and consider some structural changes in the modeling equation and parameters in the Goals Model to effectively use it to assess the impact of future strategies of HIV control in various sub-populations in India at the sub-national level. PMID:27711212

  2. Early Childhood Developmental Status in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: National, Regional, and Global Prevalence Estimates Using Predictive Modeling

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Danaei, Goodarz; Black, Maureen M.; Sudfeld, Christopher R.; Fawzi, Wafaie; Fink, Günther

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of cognitive and socioemotional skills early in life influences later health and well-being. Existing estimates of unmet developmental potential in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are based on either measures of physical growth or proxy measures such as poverty. In this paper we aim to directly estimate the number of children in LMICs who would be reported by their caregivers to show low cognitive and/or socioemotional development. Methods and Findings The present paper uses Early Childhood Development Index (ECDI) data collected between 2005 and 2015 from 99,222 3- and 4-y-old children living in 35 LMICs as part of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) and Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) programs. First, we estimate the prevalence of low cognitive and/or socioemotional ECDI scores within our MICS/DHS sample. Next, we test a series of ordinary least squares regression models predicting low ECDI scores across our MICS/DHS sample countries based on country-level data from the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Nutrition Impact Model Study. We use cross-validation to select the model with the best predictive validity. We then apply this model to all LMICs to generate country-level estimates of the prevalence of low ECDI scores globally, as well as confidence intervals around these estimates. In the pooled MICS and DHS sample, 14.6% of children had low ECDI scores in the cognitive domain, 26.2% had low socioemotional scores, and 36.8% performed poorly in either or both domains. Country-level prevalence of low cognitive and/or socioemotional scores on the ECDI was best represented by a model using the HDI as a predictor. Applying this model to all LMICs, we estimate that 80.8 million children ages 3 and 4 y (95% CI 48.1 million, 113.6 million) in LMICs experienced low cognitive and/or socioemotional development in 2010, with the largest number of affected children in sub-Saharan Africa (29.4.1 million; 43.8% of children

  3. Using hepatitis C prevalence to estimate HIV epidemic potential among people who inject drugs in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Ghina R.; Weiss, Helen A.; Vickerman, Peter; Larke, Natasha; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to understand the association between HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and to estimate HIV epidemic potential among PWIDs using HCV prevalence. Design/methods: Using data from a systematic review of HIV and HCV among PWID in MENA, we conducted two analyses, stratified by HIV epidemic state: a meta-analysis of the risk ratio of HCV to HIV prevalence (RRHCV/HIV) using DerSimonian-Laird random-effects models, and multivariable linear regression predicting log HIV prevalence. The HCV-HIV association from both analyses was used to estimate HIV prevalence at endemic equilibrium. We compared predicted with current HIV prevalence to classify HIV epidemic potential at country-level as low, medium or high, using predefined criteria. Results: The review identified 88 HCV prevalence measures among PWID in MENA, of which 54 had a paired HIV prevalence measure. The pooled RRHCV/HIV were 16, 4 and 3 in low-level, emerging and established HIV epidemics, respectively. There was a significant linear relationship between HCV and HIV at endemic equilibrium (P = 0.002). The predicted endemic HIV prevalence ranged between 8% (Tunisia) and 22% (Pakistan). Of the nine countries with data, five have high and three medium HIV epidemic potential. Only one country, Pakistan, appears to have reached saturation. Conclusion: HCV prevalence could be a predictor of future endemic HIV prevalence. In MENA, we predict that there will be further HIV epidemic growth among PWID. The proposed methodology can identify PWID populations that should be prioritized for HIV prevention interventions. PMID:26372281

  4. Alternative Methods for Defining Osteoarthritis and the Impact on Estimating Prevalence in a US Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cisternas, Miriam G.; Murphy, Louise; Sacks, Jeffrey J.; Solomon, Daniel H.; Pasta, David J.; Helmick, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Provide a contemporary estimate of osteoarthritis (OA) by comparing accuracy and prevalence of alternative definitions of OA. Methods The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) household component (HC) records respondent-reported medical conditions as open-ended responses; professional coders translate these responses into ICD-9-CM codes for the medical conditions files. Using these codes and other data from the MEPS-HC medical conditions files, we constructed three case definitions of OA and assessed them against medical provider diagnoses of ICD-9-CM 715 [osteoarthrosis and allied disorders] in a MEPS subsample. The three definitions were: 1) strict = ICD-9-CM 715; 2) expanded = ICD-9-CM 715, 716 [other and unspecified arthropathies], OR 719 [other and unspecified disorders of joint]); and 3) probable = strict OR expanded + respondent-reported prior diagnosis of OA or other arthritis excluding rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Results Sensitivity and specificity of the three definitions were: strict – 34.6% and 97.5%; expanded – 73.8% and 90.5%; and probable – 62.9% and 93.5%. Conclusion The strict definition for OA (ICD-9-CM 715) excludes many individuals with OA. The probable definition of OA has the optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity relative to the two other MEPS-based definitions and yields a national annual estimate of 30.8 million adults with OA (13.4% of US adult population) for 2008 – 2011. PMID:26315529

  5. Estimating dietary micronutrient supply and the prevalence of inadequate intakes from national Food Balance Sheets in the South Asia regiona.

    PubMed

    Mark, Henry E; Houghton, Lisa A; Gibson, Rosalind S; Monterrosa, Eva; Kraemer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies continue to be a major public health concern worldwide with many South Asian countries suffering a significant proportion of the global burden. A lack of nationally representative data on micronutrient deficiencies hampers sustained action to address the problem. Using data on the national food supply produced by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, and international food composition tables, the present study estimated the prevalence of inadequacy of seven micronutrients (vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, folate, vitamin B-12, zinc and calcium) in seven South Asian countries--Bangladesh, India, Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The estimated average requirement cut-point method was employed to determine the likelihood of inadequate micronutrient intakes. We report multiple micronutrient inadequacies in the food supply in the region, especially in the low and lower-middle income countries. Of the seven micronutrients investigated, calcium had the highest risk levels of inadequacy. Folate, riboflavin, vitamin B-12 and zinc were also deemed to be at high risk of inadequacy, although results differed markedly between countries. Various strategies to combat micronutrient deficiencies are currently underway in these countries. In order to facilitate the implementation of these efforts, the collection of nationally representative nutritional assessment survey data are urgently required to ascertain the true burden of micronutrient malnutrition. PMID:27222421

  6. Sediment quality thresholds: Estimates from hockey stick regression of liver lesion prevalence in English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus)

    SciTech Connect

    Horness, B.H.; Lomax, D.P.; Johnson, L.L.; Myers, M.S.; Pierce, S.M.; Collier, T.K.

    1998-01-01

    Comprehensive, integrative assessments of coastal sediment quality are best effected by using large, diverse data sets that include measures of biological dysfunction observed in association with chronic exposure to sediment contaminants. Under the auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration`s National Status and Trends Program, the National Benthic Surveillance Project accumulated a database of synoptic sediment contaminant concentrations and indices of biological effects that were measured in indigenous animals collected during field surveys conducted from 1984 to 1994. This compilation of data provided the opportunity to develop a new approach for determining sediment quality criteria to add to the current repertoire of environmental assessment tools. Using a two-segment hockey stick regression, statistically significant chemical thresholds of biological effects were estimated for hepatic lesion prevalences in English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus, formerly Parophrys vetulus) in relation to sediment concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These threshold estimates are notably lower than many of those reported for other techniques. Application of this relatively simple dose-response model to subacute, chronic effects that are involved in pepatocarcinogenesis and associated with sediment toxicant content (1) reflects the link between toxicopathic disease progression and conditions observed in benthic fish exposed to contaminants and (2) provides endpoints for assessing sediment quality contaminant concentrations that are not necessarily acutely fatal but may have long-term health implications for populations that are chronically exposed.

  7. Estimating dietary micronutrient supply and the prevalence of inadequate intakes from national Food Balance Sheets in the South Asia regiona.

    PubMed

    Mark, Henry E; Houghton, Lisa A; Gibson, Rosalind S; Monterrosa, Eva; Kraemer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies continue to be a major public health concern worldwide with many South Asian countries suffering a significant proportion of the global burden. A lack of nationally representative data on micronutrient deficiencies hampers sustained action to address the problem. Using data on the national food supply produced by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, and international food composition tables, the present study estimated the prevalence of inadequacy of seven micronutrients (vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, folate, vitamin B-12, zinc and calcium) in seven South Asian countries--Bangladesh, India, Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The estimated average requirement cut-point method was employed to determine the likelihood of inadequate micronutrient intakes. We report multiple micronutrient inadequacies in the food supply in the region, especially in the low and lower-middle income countries. Of the seven micronutrients investigated, calcium had the highest risk levels of inadequacy. Folate, riboflavin, vitamin B-12 and zinc were also deemed to be at high risk of inadequacy, although results differed markedly between countries. Various strategies to combat micronutrient deficiencies are currently underway in these countries. In order to facilitate the implementation of these efforts, the collection of nationally representative nutritional assessment survey data are urgently required to ascertain the true burden of micronutrient malnutrition.

  8. Interpreting epidemiological research: blinded comparison of methods used to estimate the prevalence of inherited mutations in BRCA1

    PubMed Central

    Eng, C.; Brody, L.; Wagner, T.; Devilee, P.; Vijg, J.; Szabo, C.; Tavtigian, S.; Nathanson, K.; Ostrander, E.; Frank, T.

    2001-01-01

    While sequence analysis is considered by many to be the most sensitive method of detecting unknown mutations in large genes such as BRCA1, most published estimates of the prevalence of mutations in this gene have been derived from studies that have used other methods of gene analysis. In order to determine the relative sensitivity of techniques that are widely used in research on BRCA1, a set of blinded samples containing 58 distinct mutations were analysed by four separate laboratories. Each used one of the following methods: single strand conformational polymorphism analysis (SSCP), conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE), two dimensional gene scanning (TDGS), and denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). Only the laboratory using DHPLC correctly identified each of the mutations. The laboratory using TDGS correctly identified 91% of the mutations but produced three apparent false positive results. The laboratories using SSCP and CSGE detected abnormal migration for 72% and 76% of the mutations, respectively, but subsequently confirmed and reported only 65% and 60% of mutations, respectively. False negatives therefore resulted not only from failure of the techniques to distinguish wild type from mutant, but also from failure to confirm the mutation by sequence analysis as well as from human errors leading to misreporting of results. These findings characterise sources of error in commonly used methods of mutation detection that should be addressed by laboratories using these methods. Based upon sources of error identified in this comparison, it is likely that mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are more prevalent than some studies have previously reported. The findings of this comparison provide a basis for interpreting studies of mutations in susceptibility genes across many inherited cancer syndromes.


Keywords: BRCA1; mutation detection; cancer genetics PMID:11748305

  9. Hepatic and extra-hepatic sequelae, and prevalence of viral hepatitis C infection estimated from routine data in at-risk groups

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Concerns about the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are due to the high risk of chronic liver disease and poor treatment efficacy. Synthesizing evidence from multiple data sources is becoming widely used to estimate HCV-infection prevalence. This paper aims to estimate the prevalence of HCV infection, and the hepatic and extrahepatic sequelae in at-risk groups, using routinely collected data in the Lazio region, Italy. Methods HCV laboratory surveillance and dialysis, hospital discharge, and drug-user registers were used as information sources to identify at-risk groups and to estimate HCV prevalence and sequelae. Full name and birth date were used as linkage keys for the various health registries. Prevalence was estimated as the percentage of cases within the general population and the at-risk groups, with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) from 1997 to 2001. The risk of sequelae was estimated through a follow-up of hospital discharges up to December 31, 2004 and calculated as the prevalence ratio in HCV-positive and HCV-negative people, within each at-risk group, with 95% CI. Results There were 65,127 HCV-infected people in the study period; the prevalence was 1.24% (95%CI = 1.23%-1.25%) in the whole population, higher in males and older adults. Drug users (35.1%; 95%CI = 34.6-35.7) and dialysis patients (21.1%; 95%CI = 20.2%-22.0%) showed the highest values. Medical procedures with little exposure to blood resulted in higher estimates, ranging between 1.3% and 3.4%, which was not conclusively attributable to the surgical procedures. Cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and encephalopathy were the most frequent hepatic sequelae; cryoglobulinaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were the most frequent extrahepatic sequelae. Conclusions Synthesising data from multiple routine sources improved estimates of HCV prevalence and sequelae in dialysis patients and drug users, although prevalence validity should be assessed in survey and sequelae need a well

  10. Bayesian evidence synthesis to estimate HIV prevalence in men who have sex with men in Poland at the end of 2009.

    PubMed

    Rosinska, M; Gwiazda, P; De Angelis, D; Presanis, A M

    2016-04-01

    HIV spread in men who have sex with men (MSM) is an increasing problem in Poland. Despite the existence of a surveillance system, there is no direct evidence to allow estimation of HIV prevalence and the proportion undiagnosed in MSM. We extracted data on HIV and the MSM population in Poland, including case-based surveillance data, diagnostic testing prevalence data and behavioural data relating to self-reported prior diagnosis, stratified by age (⩽35, >35 years) and region (Mazowieckie including the capital city of Warsaw; other regions). They were integrated into one model based on a Bayesian evidence synthesis approach. The posterior distributions for HIV prevalence and the undiagnosed fraction were estimated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. To improve the model fit we repeated the analysis, introducing bias parameters to account for potential lack of representativeness in data. By placing additional constraints on bias parameters we obtained precisely identified estimates. This family of models indicates a high undiagnosed fraction [68·3%, 95% credibility interval (CrI) 53·9-76·1] and overall low prevalence (2·3%, 95% CrI 1·4-4·1) of HIV in MSM. Additional data are necessary in order to produce more robust epidemiological estimates. More effort is urgently needed to ensure timely diagnosis of HIV in Poland. PMID:26542091

  11. Hate Crimes and Stigma-Related Experiences among Sexual Minority Adults in the United States: Prevalence Estimates from a National Probability Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herek, Gregory M.

    2009-01-01

    Using survey responses collected via the Internet from a U.S. national probability sample of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults (N = 662), this article reports prevalence estimates of criminal victimization and related experiences based on the target's sexual orientation. Approximately 20% of respondents reported having experienced a person or…

  12. Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis in Madagascar: Comparison of immuno-diagnostic techniques and estimation of the prevalence in pork carcasses traded in Antananarivo city.

    PubMed

    Porphyre, V; Betson, M; Rabezanahary, H; Mboussou, Y; Zafindraibe, N J; Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Costard, S; Pfeiffer, D U; Michault, A

    2016-03-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis was reported in official veterinary and medical statistics to be highly prevalent in pigs and humans in Madagascar, but few estimates are available for pigs. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis among pigs slaughtered in Antananarivo abattoirs. Firstly, the diagnostic performance of two antigen-ELISA techniques (B158B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an immunoblotting method were compared with meat inspection procedures on a sample of pigs suspected to be infected with (group 1; n=250) or free of (group 2; n=250) T. solium based on direct veterinary inspection in Madagascar. Sensitivity and specificity of the antigen ELISAs were then estimated using a Bayesian approach for detection of porcine cysticercosis in the absence of a gold standard. Then, a third set of pig sera (group 3, n=250) was randomly collected in Antananarivo slaughterhouses and tested to estimate the overall prevalence of T. solium contamination in pork meat traded in Antananarivo. The antigen ELISAs showed a high sensitivity (>84%), but the B158B60 Ag-ELISA appeared to be more specific than the HP10 Ag-ELISA (model 1: 95% vs 74%; model 2: 87% vs 71%). The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Antananarivo slaughterhouses was estimated at 2.3% (95% credibility interval [95%CrI]: 0.09-9.1%) to 2.6% (95%CrI: 0.1-10.3%) depending on the model and priors used. Since the sample used in this study is not representative of the national pig population, village-based surveys and longitudinal monitoring at slaughter are needed to better estimate the overall prevalence, geographical patterns and main risk factors for T. solium contamination, in order to improve control policies.

  13. Regression approaches to derive generic and fish group-specific probability density functions of bioconcentration factors for metals.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Taku; Ciffroy, Philippe; Stenberg, Kristofer; Capri, Ettore

    2010-11-01

    In the framework of environmental multimedia modeling studies dedicated to environmental and health risk assessments of chemicals, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) is a parameter commonly used, especially for fish. As for neutral lipophilic substances, it is assumed that BCF is independent of exposure levels of the substances. However, for metals some studies found the inverse relationship between BCF values and aquatic exposure concentrations for various aquatic species and metals, and also high variability in BCF data. To deal with the factors determining BCF for metals, we conducted regression analyses to evaluate the inverse relationships and introduce the concept of probability density function (PDF) for Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, and As. In the present study, for building the regression model and derive the PDF of fish BCF, two statistical approaches are applied: ordinary regression analysis to estimate a regression model that does not consider the variation in data across different fish family groups; and hierarchical Bayesian regression analysis to estimate fish group-specific regression models. The results show that the BCF ranges and PDFs estimated for metals by both statistical approaches have less uncertainty than the variation of collected BCF data (the uncertainty is reduced by 9%-61%), and thus such PDFs proved to be useful to obtain accurate model predictions for environmental and health risk assessment concerning metals.

  14. Group-Specific Multiplex PCR Detection Systems for the Identification of Flying Insect Prey

    PubMed Central

    Sint, Daniela; Niederklapfer, Bettina; Kaufmann, Ruediger; Traugott, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of species-specific primers to study feeding interactions is restricted to those ecosystems where the targeted prey species occur. Therefore, group-specific primer pairs, targeting higher taxonomic levels, are often desired to investigate interactions in a range of habitats that do not share the same species but the same groups of prey. Such primers are also valuable to study the diet of generalist predators when next generation sequencing approaches cannot be applied beneficially. Moreover, due to the large range of prey consumed by generalists, it is impossible to investigate the breadth of their diet with species-specific primers, even if multiplexing them. However, only few group-specific primers are available to date and important groups of prey such as flying insects have rarely been targeted. Our aim was to fill this gap and develop group-specific primers suitable to detect and identify the DNA of common taxa of flying insects. The primers were combined in two multiplex PCR systems, which allow a time- and cost-effective screening of samples for DNA of the dipteran subsection Calyptratae (including Anthomyiidae, Calliphoridae, Muscidae), other common dipteran families (Phoridae, Syrphidae, Bibionidae, Chironomidae, Sciaridae, Tipulidae), three orders of flying insects (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Plecoptera) and coniferous aphids within the genus Cinara. The two PCR assays were highly specific and sensitive and their suitability to detect prey was confirmed by testing field-collected dietary samples from arthropods and vertebrates. The PCR assays presented here allow targeting prey at higher taxonomic levels such as family or order and therefore improve our ability to assess (trophic) interactions with flying insects in terrestrial and aquatic habitats. PMID:25525799

  15. Respondent-driven sampling of injection drug users in two U.S.-Mexico border cities: recruitment dynamics and impact on estimates of HIV and syphilis prevalence.

    PubMed

    Frost, Simon D W; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Firestone Cruz, Michelle A; Ramos, Rebeca; Ramos, Maria Elena; Lozada, Remedios M; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2006-11-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS), a chain referral sampling approach, is increasingly used to recruit participants from hard-to-reach populations, such as injection drug users (IDUs). Using RDS, we recruited IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad (Cd.) Juárez, two Mexican cities bordering San Diego, CA and El Paso, TX, respectively, and compared recruitment dynamics, reported network size, and estimates of HIV and syphilis prevalence. Between February and April 2005, we used RDS to recruit IDUs in Tijuana (15 seeds, 207 recruits) and Cd. Juárez (9 seeds, 197 recruits), Mexico for a cross-sectional study of behavioral and contextual factors associated with HIV, HCV and syphilis infections. All subjects provided informed consent, an anonymous interview, and a venous blood sample for serologic testing of HIV, HCV, HBV (Cd. Juárez only) and syphilis antibody. Log-linear models were used to analyze the association between the state of the recruiter and that of the recruitee in the referral chains, and population estimates of the presence of syphilis antibody were obtained, correcting for biased sampling using RDS-based estimators. Sampling of the targeted 200 recruits per city was achieved rapidly (2 months in Tijuana, 2 weeks in Cd. Juárez). After excluding seeds and missing data, the sample prevalence of HCV, HIV and syphilis were 96.6, 1.9 and 13.5% respectively in Tijuana, and 95.3, 4.1, and 2.7% respectively in Cd. Juárez (where HBV prevalence was 84.7%). Syphilis cases were clustered in recruitment trees. RDS-corrected estimates of syphilis antibody prevalence ranged from 12.8 to 26.8% in Tijuana and from 2.9 to 15.6% in Ciudad Juárez, depending on how recruitment patterns were modeled, and assumptions about how network size affected an individual's probability of being included in the sample. RDS was an effective method to rapidly recruit IDUs in these cities. Although the frequency of HIV was low, syphilis prevalence was high, particularly in Tijuana. RDS

  16. Respondent-Driven Sampling of Injection Drug Users in Two U.S.–Mexico Border Cities: Recruitment Dynamics and Impact on Estimates of HIV and Syphilis Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Firestone Cruz, Michelle A.; Ramos, Rebeca; Ramos, Maria Elena; Lozada, Remedios M.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2006-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS), a chain referral sampling approach, is increasingly used to recruit participants from hard-to-reach populations, such as injection drug users (IDUs). Using RDS, we recruited IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad (Cd.) Juárez, two Mexican cities bordering San Diego, CA and El Paso, TX, respectively, and compared recruitment dynamics, reported network size, and estimates of HIV and syphilis prevalence. Between February and April 2005, we used RDS to recruit IDUs in Tijuana (15 seeds, 207 recruits) and Cd. Juárez (9 seeds, 197 recruits), Mexico for a cross-sectional study of behavioral and contextual factors associated with HIV, HCV and syphilis infections. All subjects provided informed consent, an anonymous interview, and a venous blood sample for serologic testing of HIV, HCV, HBV (Cd. Juárez only) and syphilis antibody. Log-linear models were used to analyze the association between the state of the recruiter and that of the recruitee in the referral chains, and population estimates of the presence of syphilis antibody were obtained, correcting for biased sampling using RDS-based estimators. Sampling of the targeted 200 recruits per city was achieved rapidly (2 months in Tijuana, 2 weeks in Cd. Juárez). After excluding seeds and missing data, the sample prevalence of HCV, HIV and syphilis were 96.6, 1.9 and 13.5% respectively in Tijuana, and 95.3, 4.1, and 2.7% respectively in Cd. Juárez (where HBV prevalence was 84.7%). Syphilis cases were clustered in recruitment trees. RDS-corrected estimates of syphilis antibody prevalence ranged from 12.8 to 26.8% in Tijuana and from 2.9 to 15.6% in Ciudad Juárez, depending on how recruitment patterns were modeled, and assumptions about how network size affected an individual’s probability of being included in the sample. RDS was an effective method to rapidly recruit IDUs in these cities. Although the frequency of HIV was low, syphilis prevalence was high, particularly in Tijuana. RDS

  17. Intensity of amnesia during hypnosis is positively correlated with estimated prevalence of sexual abuse and alien abductions: implications for the false memory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dittburner, T L; Persinger, M A

    1993-12-01

    20 normal young women listened to an ambiguous story concerning a young boy who experienced fear, odd smells, and a smothering sensation during the night and skin lesions the next morning. After the Hypnotic Induction Profile (HIP) had been established, they were asked to estimate either the percentage prevalence of childhood sexual abuse or alien abduction in the general population. There were moderate (0.50) positive correlations between the subjects' estimates of prevalence and the amount of amnesia ("lost time") and indices of right-hemispheric anomalies (history of sensed presence and left-ear suppressions during a dichotic-listening task). Relevance of observations to formation of the False Memory Syndrome and to the development of nonpsychotic delusions is discussed.

  18. Variations in Substance Use Prevalence Estimates and Need for Interventions among Adult Emergency Department Patients Based on Different Screening Strategies Using the ASSIST

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Roland C.; Liu, Tao; Baird, Janette R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Among adult emergency department (ED) patients, we sought to examine how estimates of substance use prevalence and the need for interventions can differ, based on the type of screening and assessment strategies employed. Methods We estimated the prevalence of substance use and the need for interventions using the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in a secondary analysis of data from two cross-sectional studies using random samples of English- or Spanish-speaking 18–64-year-old ED patients. In addition, the test performance characteristics of three simplified screening strategies consisting of selected questions from the ASSIST (lifetime use, past three-month use, and past three-month frequency of use) to identify patients in need of a possible intervention were compared against using the full ASSIST. Results Of 6,432 adult ED patients, the median age was 37 years-old, 56.6% were female, and 61.6% were white. Estimated substance use prevalence among this population differed by how it was measured (lifetime use, past three-month use, past three-month frequency of use, or need for interventions). As compared to using the full ASSIST, the predictive value and accuracy to identify patients in need of any intervention was best for a simplified strategy asking about past three-month substance use. A strategy asking about daily/near-daily use was better in identifying patients needing intensive interventions. However, some patients needing interventions were missed when using these simplified strategies. Conclusion Substance use prevalence estimates and identification of ED patients needing interventions differ by screening strategies used. EDs should carefully select strategies to identify patients in need of substance use interventions. PMID:27330663

  19. Estimated Prevalence of Cryptococcus Antigenemia (CrAg) among HIV-Infected Adults with Advanced Immunosuppression in Namibia Justifies Routine Screening and Preemptive Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Makumbi, Boniface; Purfield, Anne; Ndjavera, Christophine; Mutandi, Gram; Maher, Andrew; Kaindjee-Tjituka, Francina; Kaplan, Jonathan E.; Park, Benjamin J.; Lowrance, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cryptococcal meningitis is common and associated with high mortality among HIV infected persons. The World Health Organization recommends that routine Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening in ART-naïve adults with a CD4+ count <100 cells/μL followed by pre-emptive antifungal therapy for CrAg-positive patients be considered where CrAg prevalence is ≥3%. The prevalence of CrAg among HIV adults in Namibia is unknown. We estimated CrAg prevalence among HIV-infected adults receiving care in Namibia for the purpose of informing routine screening strategies. Methods The study design was cross-sectional. De-identified plasma specimens collected for routine CD4+ testing from HIV-infected adults enrolled in HIV care at 181 public health facilities from November 2013 to January 2014 were identified at the national reference laboratory. Remnant plasma from specimens with CD4+ counts <200 cells/μL were sampled and tested for CrAg using the IMMY® Lateral Flow Assay. CrAg prevalence was estimated and assessed for associations with age, sex, and CD4+ count. Results A total of 825 specimens were tested for CrAg. The median (IQR) age of patients from whom specimens were collected was 38 (32–46) years, 45.9% were female and 62.9% of the specimens had CD4 <100 cells/μL. CrAg prevalence was 3.3% overall and 3.9% and 2.3% among samples with CD4+ counts of CD4+<100 cells/μL and 100–200 cells/μL, respectively. CrAg positivity was significantly higher among patients with CD4+ cells/μL < 50 (7.2%, P = 0.001) relative to those with CD4 cells/μL 50–200 (2.2%). Conclusion This is the first study to estimate CrAg prevalence among HIV-infected patients in Namibia. CrAg prevalence of ≥3.0% among patients with CD4+<100 cells/μL justifies routine CrAg screening and preemptive treatment among HIV-infected in Namibia in line with WHO recommendations. Patients with CD4+<100 cells/μL have a significantly greater risk for CrAg positivity. Revised guidelines for ART in

  20. Estimating hidden populations: a new method of calculating the prevalence of drug-injecting and non-injecting female street prostitution.

    PubMed

    Bloor, M; Leyland, A; Barnard, M; McKeganey, N

    1991-11-01

    This paper outlines a new method we have developed for estimating the prevalence of streetworking prostitution and the proportions of female street-working prostitutes who are injecting drug users. This method is based on the capture/recapture approach and involves distinguishing new fieldwork contacts from repeat field work contacts. The size of the overall population can be modelled from records of the increasing ratio of repeat to new fieldwork contacts. The method may have a relevance beyond a concern with prostitution and drug injecting, and may be of value in estimating other hidden populations.

  1. Evidence for a bacterial mechanism for group-specific social odors among hyenas.

    PubMed

    Theis, Kevin R; Schmidt, Thomas M; Holekamp, Kay E

    2012-01-01

    Symbiotic microbes can benefit their animal hosts by enhancing the diversity of communication signals available to them. The fermentation hypothesis for chemical recognition posits that 1) fermentative bacteria in specialized mammalian scent glands generate odorants that mammals co-opt to communicate with one another, and 2) that variation in scent gland odors is due to underlying variation in the structure of bacterial communities within scent glands. For example, group-specific social odors are suggested to be due to members of the same social group harboring more similar bacterial communities in their scent glands than do members of different social groups. We used 16S rRNA gene surveys to show that 1) the scent secretions of spotted hyenas are densely populated by fermentative bacteria whose closest relatives are well-documented odor producers, and that 2) these bacterial communities are more similar among hyenas from the same social group than among those from different groups. PMID:22937224

  2. Evidence for a bacterial mechanism for group-specific social odors among hyenas.

    PubMed

    Theis, Kevin R; Schmidt, Thomas M; Holekamp, Kay E

    2012-01-01

    Symbiotic microbes can benefit their animal hosts by enhancing the diversity of communication signals available to them. The fermentation hypothesis for chemical recognition posits that 1) fermentative bacteria in specialized mammalian scent glands generate odorants that mammals co-opt to communicate with one another, and 2) that variation in scent gland odors is due to underlying variation in the structure of bacterial communities within scent glands. For example, group-specific social odors are suggested to be due to members of the same social group harboring more similar bacterial communities in their scent glands than do members of different social groups. We used 16S rRNA gene surveys to show that 1) the scent secretions of spotted hyenas are densely populated by fermentative bacteria whose closest relatives are well-documented odor producers, and that 2) these bacterial communities are more similar among hyenas from the same social group than among those from different groups.

  3. Resolution of Ambiguous HLA Genotyping in Korean by Multi-Group-Specific Sequence-Based Typing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yongjung; Yoon, Cha Eun; Kwon, Oh-Joong; Kim, Yu-Seun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate a multi-group-specific sequence-based typing (SBT) method for resolving ambiguous results from human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping. Materials and Methods A total of 50 samples that showed ambiguous genotypes for at least two HLA loci from HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 by the conventional SBT assay were evaluated using a new SBT test, the AVITA plus assay. The most likely HLA genotypes for the respective samples considering allele frequencies in Korean were concordant between the AVITA and conventional SBT assays. Results An average of 3.3 loci among the HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 loci per sample gave results with two or more possible allele combinations with the conventional SBT, and 48 (96.0%) out of 50 showed reduced numbers of possible genotypes for at least one HLA locus with the AVITA. A total of 41, 43, 42, and 38 cases among the 50 samples showed ambiguous results for HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 typing by the conventional SBT, respectively. The average numbers of possible allele combinations for the respective four HLA loci were 8.2, 6.7, 5.9, and 3.2, and they were reduced to 1.5, 2.2, 4.4, and 1.8, respectively, by the AVITA. Ambiguity was resolved by the AVITA in 33 (80.5%), 31 (72.1%), 17 (40.5%) and 28 (73.7%) samples among the ambiguous cases from the conventional SBT for HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 typing, respectively. Conclusion The multi-group-specific SBT method considerably reduced the number of ambiguous results, and thus may be useful for accurate HLA typing in clinical laboratories. PMID:24954331

  4. Source of Parental Reports of Child Height and Weight During Phone Interviews and Influence on Obesity Prevalence Estimates Among Children Aged 3–17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Donna; Perrin, Eliana M.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Ford, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Objective We compared parental reports of children’s height and weight when the values were estimated vs. parent-measured to determine how these reports influence the estimated prevalence of childhood obesity. Methods In the 2007 and 2008 North Carolina Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program surveys, parents reported height and weight for children aged 3–17 years. When parents reported the values were not measured (by doctor, school, or home), they were asked to measure their child and were later called back. We categorized body mass index status using standard CDC definitions, and we used Chi-square tests and the Stuart-Maxwell test of marginal homogeneity to examine reporting differences. Results About 80% (n=509) of the 638 parents who reported an unmeasured height and/or weight participated in a callback and provided updated measures. Children originally classified as obese were subsequently classified as obese (67%), overweight (13%), and healthy weight (19%). An estimated 28% of younger children (<10 years of age) vs. 6% of older children (aged ≥10 years) were reclassified on callback. Having parents who guessed the height and weight of their children and then reported updated values did not significantly change the overall population estimates of obesity. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that using parent-reported height and weight values may be sufficient to provide reasonable estimates of obesity prevalence. Systematically asking the source of height and weight information may help improve how it is applied to research of the prevalence of childhood obesity when gold-standard measurements are not available. PMID:23277659

  5. Estimation of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 prevalence and levels in naturally contaminated rocket and cucumber samples by deterministic and stochastic approaches.

    PubMed

    Hadjilouka, Agni; Mantzourani, Kyriaki-Sofia; Katsarou, Anastasia; Cavaiuolo, Marina; Ferrante, Antonio; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Mataragas, Marios; Drosinos, Eleftherios H

    2015-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence and levels of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in rocket and cucumber samples by deterministic (estimation of a single value) and stochastic (estimation of a range of values) approaches. In parallel, the chromogenic media commonly used for the recovery of these microorganisms were evaluated and compared, and the efficiency of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based protocol was validated. L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 were detected and enumerated using agar Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti plus RAPID' L. mono medium and Fluorocult plus sorbitol MacConkey medium with cefixime and tellurite in parallel, respectively. Identity was confirmed with biochemical and molecular tests and the ELISA. Performance indices of the media and the prevalence of both pathogens were estimated using Bayesian inference. In rocket, prevalence of both L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 was estimated at 7% (7 of 100 samples). In cucumber, prevalence was 6% (6 of 100 samples) and 3% (3 of 100 samples) for L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. The levels derived from the presence-absence data using Bayesian modeling were estimated at 0.12 CFU/25 g (0.06 to 0.20) and 0.09 CFU/25 g (0.04 to 0.170) for L. monocytogenes in rocket and cucumber samples, respectively. The corresponding values for E. coli O157:H7 were 0.59 CFU/25 g (0.43 to 0.78) and 1.78 CFU/25 g (1.38 to 2.24), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the culture media differed for rocket and cucumber samples. The ELISA technique had a high level of cross-reactivity. Parallel testing with at least two culture media was required to achieve a reliable result for L. monocytogenes or E. coli O157:H7 prevalence in rocket and cucumber samples.

  6. Estimated Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a Sample of Panamanian School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Emelyn Y.; Velarde, Silvia; Britton, Gabrielle B.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence of ADHD in a school sample of children ages 6-11 years in the city of Panama. The assessment battery included the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales, the Structured Developmental History of the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC-2), and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children…

  7. Estimation of prevalence of Salmonella on pig carcasses and pork joints, using a quantitative risk assessment model aided by meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Barron, Ursula Gonzales; Soumpasis, Ilias; Butler, Francis; Prendergast, Deirdre; Duggan, Sharon; Duffy, Geraldine

    2009-02-01

    This risk assessment study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on pig carcasses and pork joints produced in slaughterhouses, on the basis that within groups of slaughter there is a strong association between the proportion of Salmonella-positive animals entering the slaughter lines (x) and the resulting proportion of contaminated eviscerated pig carcasses (y). To this effect, the results of a number of published studies reporting estimates of x and y were assembled in order to model a stochastic weighted regression considering the sensitivities of the diverse Salmonella culture methods. Meta-analysis was used to assign weights to the regression and to estimate the overall effect of chilling on Salmonella incidence on pig carcasses. The model's ability to produce accurate estimates and the intrinsic effectiveness of the modeling capabilities of meta-analysis were appraised using Irish data for the input parameter of prevalence of Salmonella carrier slaughter pigs. The model approximated a Salmonella prevalence in pork joints from Irish boning halls of 4.0% (95% confidence interval, 0.3 to 12.0%) and was validated by the results of a large survey (n = 720) of Salmonella in pork joints (mean, 3.3%; 95% confidence interval, 2.0 to 4.6%) carried out in four commercial pork abattoirs as part of this research project. Sensitivity analysis reinforced the importance of final rinsing (r = -0.382) and chilling (r = -0.221) as stages that contribute to reducing considerably the occurrence of Salmonella on the final product, while hygiene practices during jointing seemed to moderate only marginally the amount of contaminated pork joints. Finally, the adequacy of meta-analysis for integrating different findings and producing distributions for use in stochastic modeling was demonstrated.

  8. An evaluation of the accuracy of small-area demographic estimates of population at risk and its effect on prevalence statistics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Demographic estimates of population at risk often underpin epidemiologic research and public health surveillance efforts. In spite of their central importance to epidemiology and public-health practice, little previous attention has been paid to evaluating the magnitude of errors associated with such estimates or the sensitivity of epidemiologic statistics to these effects. In spite of the well-known observation that accuracy in demographic estimates declines as the size of the population to be estimated decreases, demographers continue to face pressure to produce estimates for increasingly fine-grained population characteristics at ever-smaller geographic scales. Unfortunately, little guidance on the magnitude of errors that can be expected in such estimates is currently available in the literature and available for consideration in small-area epidemiology. This paper attempts to fill this current gap by producing a Vintage 2010 set of single-year-of-age estimates for census tracts, then evaluating their accuracy and precision in light of the results of the 2010 Census. These estimates are produced and evaluated for 499 census tracts in New Mexico for single-years of age from 0 to 21 and for each sex individually. The error distributions associated with these estimates are characterized statistically using non-parametric statistics including the median and 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. The impact of these errors are considered through simulations in which observed and estimated 2010 population counts are used as alternative denominators and simulated event counts are used to compute a realistic range fo prevalence values. The implications of the results of this study for small-area epidemiologic research in cancer and environmental health are considered. PMID:24359344

  9. Functional group-specific traits drive phytoplankton dynamics in the oligotrophic ocean

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Harriet; Rouco, Mónica; Haley, Sheean T.; Wilson, Samuel T.; Karl, David M.; Dyhrman, Sonya T.

    2015-01-01

    A diverse microbial assemblage in the ocean is responsible for nearly half of global primary production. It has been hypothesized and experimentally demonstrated that nutrient loading can stimulate blooms of large eukaryotic phytoplankton in oligotrophic systems. Although central to balancing biogeochemical models, knowledge of the metabolic traits that govern the dynamics of these bloom-forming phytoplankton is limited. We used eukaryotic metatranscriptomic techniques to identify the metabolic basis of functional group-specific traits that may drive the shift between net heterotrophy and autotrophy in the oligotrophic ocean. Replicated blooms were simulated by deep seawater (DSW) addition to mimic nutrient loading in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, and the transcriptional responses of phytoplankton functional groups were assayed. Responses of the diatom, haptophyte, and dinoflagellate functional groups in simulated blooms were unique, with diatoms and haptophytes significantly (95% confidence) shifting their quantitative metabolic fingerprint from the in situ condition, whereas dinoflagellates showed little response. Significantly differentially abundant genes identified the importance of colimitation by nutrients, metals, and vitamins in eukaryotic phytoplankton metabolism and bloom formation in this system. The variable transcript allocation ratio, used to quantify transcript reallocation following DSW amendment, differed for diatoms and haptophytes, reflecting the long-standing paradigm of phytoplankton r- and K-type growth strategies. Although the underlying metabolic potential of the large eukaryotic phytoplankton was consistently present, the lack of a bloom during the study period suggests a crucial dependence on physical and biogeochemical forcing, which are susceptible to alteration with changing climate. PMID:26460011

  10. Distinct sites on the G-actin molecule bind group-specific component and deoxyribonuclease I.

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt-Clermont, P J; Galbraith, R M; Emerson, D L; Marsot, F; Nel, A E; Arnaud, P

    1985-01-01

    Addition of group-specific component (Gc) to G-actin with or without deoxyribonuclease I (DNAase) led to formation of binary complexes (Gc-G-actin) and ternary complexes (Gc-G-actin-DNAase) respectively. The electrophoretic mobility of ternary complexes, as shown by crossed and rocket immunoelectrophoresis, was slower than that of binary complexes, although both were faster than native Gc. In gradient polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, such complexes could again be resolved, apparently on the basis of relative molecular size: Gc-G-actin-DNAase (Mr approx. 131000), Gc-G-actin (Mr approx. 98000) and Gc (Mr approx. 56000). In contrast, the pI of ternary complex was indistinguishable by isoelectric focusing from that of binary complex, even though both were clearly more acidic than native Gc. The affinity of Gc for G-actin (affinity constant, Ka, 1.9 X 10(8) M-1) was not significantly altered by additional interaction with DNAase (Ka, 1.5 X 10(8)M-1), and both binary and ternary complexes still bound 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. In addition, the inhibitory effect of G-actin on DNAase activity was not discernibly affected by interaction with Gc. These results demonstrate that the various molecular forms of Gc can be distinguished by physicochemical parameters, and that Gc and DNAase bind to distinct sites on G-actin and can interact both independently and contemporaneously with this molecule. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:4040363

  11. Functional group-specific traits drive phytoplankton dynamics in the oligotrophic ocean.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Harriet; Rouco, Mónica; Haley, Sheean T; Wilson, Samuel T; Karl, David M; Dyhrman, Sonya T

    2015-11-01

    A diverse microbial assemblage in the ocean is responsible for nearly half of global primary production. It has been hypothesized and experimentally demonstrated that nutrient loading can stimulate blooms of large eukaryotic phytoplankton in oligotrophic systems. Although central to balancing biogeochemical models, knowledge of the metabolic traits that govern the dynamics of these bloom-forming phytoplankton is limited. We used eukaryotic metatranscriptomic techniques to identify the metabolic basis of functional group-specific traits that may drive the shift between net heterotrophy and autotrophy in the oligotrophic ocean. Replicated blooms were simulated by deep seawater (DSW) addition to mimic nutrient loading in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, and the transcriptional responses of phytoplankton functional groups were assayed. Responses of the diatom, haptophyte, and dinoflagellate functional groups in simulated blooms were unique, with diatoms and haptophytes significantly (95% confidence) shifting their quantitative metabolic fingerprint from the in situ condition, whereas dinoflagellates showed little response. Significantly differentially abundant genes identified the importance of colimitation by nutrients, metals, and vitamins in eukaryotic phytoplankton metabolism and bloom formation in this system. The variable transcript allocation ratio, used to quantify transcript reallocation following DSW amendment, differed for diatoms and haptophytes, reflecting the long-standing paradigm of phytoplankton r- and K-type growth strategies. Although the underlying metabolic potential of the large eukaryotic phytoplankton was consistently present, the lack of a bloom during the study period suggests a crucial dependence on physical and biogeochemical forcing, which are susceptible to alteration with changing climate. PMID:26460011

  12. Functional group-specific traits drive phytoplankton dynamics in the oligotrophic ocean.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Harriet; Rouco, Mónica; Haley, Sheean T; Wilson, Samuel T; Karl, David M; Dyhrman, Sonya T

    2015-11-01

    A diverse microbial assemblage in the ocean is responsible for nearly half of global primary production. It has been hypothesized and experimentally demonstrated that nutrient loading can stimulate blooms of large eukaryotic phytoplankton in oligotrophic systems. Although central to balancing biogeochemical models, knowledge of the metabolic traits that govern the dynamics of these bloom-forming phytoplankton is limited. We used eukaryotic metatranscriptomic techniques to identify the metabolic basis of functional group-specific traits that may drive the shift between net heterotrophy and autotrophy in the oligotrophic ocean. Replicated blooms were simulated by deep seawater (DSW) addition to mimic nutrient loading in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, and the transcriptional responses of phytoplankton functional groups were assayed. Responses of the diatom, haptophyte, and dinoflagellate functional groups in simulated blooms were unique, with diatoms and haptophytes significantly (95% confidence) shifting their quantitative metabolic fingerprint from the in situ condition, whereas dinoflagellates showed little response. Significantly differentially abundant genes identified the importance of colimitation by nutrients, metals, and vitamins in eukaryotic phytoplankton metabolism and bloom formation in this system. The variable transcript allocation ratio, used to quantify transcript reallocation following DSW amendment, differed for diatoms and haptophytes, reflecting the long-standing paradigm of phytoplankton r- and K-type growth strategies. Although the underlying metabolic potential of the large eukaryotic phytoplankton was consistently present, the lack of a bloom during the study period suggests a crucial dependence on physical and biogeochemical forcing, which are susceptible to alteration with changing climate.

  13. Estimating minimum adult HIV prevalence: a cross-sectional study to assess the characteristics of people living with HIV in Italy.

    PubMed

    Camoni, Laura; Raimondo, Mariangela; Dorrucci, Maria; Regine, Vincenza; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Suligoi, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    In 2012, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study to assess the number of people living with HIV linked to care and, among these, the number of people on antiretroviral therapy. The health authority in each of the 20 Italian Regions provided the list of Public Infectious Diseases Clinics providing antiretroviral therapy and monitoring people with HIV infection. We asked every Public Infectious Diseases Clinic to report the number of HIV-positive people diagnosed and linked to care and the number of those on antiretroviral therapy during 2012. In 2012, 94,146 people diagnosed with HIV and linked to care were reported. The majority were males (70.1%), Italians (84.4%), and aged between 25 and 49 years (63.4%); the probable route of transmission was heterosexual contact in 37.5% of cases, injecting drug use in 28.1%, and male-to-male contact in 27.9%. Among people in care, 20.1% had less than 350 CD4 cells/μl, 87.6% received antiretroviral therapy, and among these, 62.4% had a CD4 cell count higher than 350 cells/μl. The overall estimated prevalence of individuals diagnosed and linked to care in 2012 in Italy was 0.16 per 100 residents (all ages). Adding the estimated proportion of undiagnosed people, the estimated HIV prevalence would range between 0.19 and 0.26 per 100 residents. In Italy, the majority of people diagnosed and linked to care receive antiretroviral therapy. A higher prevalence of individuals diagnosed and linked to care was observed in Northern Italy and among males. More information for developing the HIV care continuum is necessary to improve the entire engagement in care, focusing on test-and-treat strategies to substantially reduce the proportion of people still undiagnosed or with a detectable viral load.

  14. Estimating Minimum Adult HIV Prevalence: A Cross-Sectional Study to Assess the Characteristics of People Living with HIV in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Raimondo, Mariangela; Dorrucci, Maria; Regine, Vincenza; Salfa, Maria Cristina; Suligoi, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 2012, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study to assess the number of people living with HIV linked to care and, among these, the number of people on antiretroviral therapy. The health authority in each of the 20 Italian Regions provided the list of Public Infectious Diseases Clinics providing antiretroviral therapy and monitoring people with HIV infection. We asked every Public Infectious Diseases Clinic to report the number of HIV-positive people diagnosed and linked to care and the number of those on antiretroviral therapy during 2012. In 2012, 94,146 people diagnosed with HIV and linked to care were reported. The majority were males (70.1%), Italians (84.4%), and aged between 25 and 49 years (63.4%); the probable route of transmission was heterosexual contact in 37.5% of cases, injecting drug use in 28.1%, and male-to-male contact in 27.9%. Among people in care, 20.1% had less than 350 CD4 cells/μl, 87.6% received antiretroviral therapy, and among these, 62.4% had a CD4 cell count higher than 350 cells/μl. The overall estimated prevalence of individuals diagnosed and linked to care in 2012 in Italy was 0.16 per 100 residents (all ages). Adding the estimated proportion of undiagnosed people, the estimated HIV prevalence would range between 0.19 and 0.26 per 100 residents. In Italy, the majority of people diagnosed and linked to care receive antiretroviral therapy. A higher prevalence of individuals diagnosed and linked to care was observed in Northern Italy and among males. More information for developing the HIV care continuum is necessary to improve the entire engagement in care, focusing on test-and-treat strategies to substantially reduce the proportion of people still undiagnosed or with a detectable viral load. PMID:25432098

  15. Informed consent, vulnerability and the risks of group-specific attribution.

    PubMed

    Schrems, Berta M

    2014-11-01

    People in extraordinary situations are vulnerable. As research participants, they are additionally threatened by abuse or exploitation and the possibility of harm through research. To protect people against these threats, informed consent as an instrument of self-determination has been introduced. Self-determination requires autonomous persons, who voluntarily make decisions based on their values and morals. However, in nursing research, this requirement cannot always be met. Advanced age, chronic illness, co-morbidity and frailty are reasons for dependencies. These in turn lead to limited abilities or opportunities for decision-making and self-determination. Exclusion of vulnerable people from research projects would disadvantage them by not covering their needs, which would violate the ethical principles of justice and beneficence. Commonly, vulnerability is attributed to social groups. The consequence for individuals, attributed as belonging to such a vulnerable group, is that the principles of respect for autonomy, justice and beneficence are subordinated to the principle of non-maleficence, understood as avoiding the risk to cause more harm than good. In addition, group-specific attribution could lead to stigmatizing because labelling a person as deviation from a norm violates integrity. For clinical nursing research, the question arises how the protection of vulnerable people could be granted without compromising ethical principles. The concept of relational ethics provides a possible approach. It defines vulnerability as the relation between a person's health status and the extent to which this person is dependent on the researcher and the research context. Vulnerability is not attributed solely to a person but to a situation, meaning the person is viewed in context. By combining vulnerability as a context-related and situational concept with existing approaches of informed consent, the different ethical principles can be balanced and preserved at every step

  16. Metabolomic profiling reveals severe skeletal muscle group-specific perturbations of metabolism in aged FBN rats.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Sean M; Dugle, Janis E; Kennedy, Adam D; McDunn, Jonathan E; Kline, William; Guo, Lining; Guttridge, Denis C; Pereira, Suzette L; Edens, Neile K

    2014-06-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscles exhibit age-related adaptive and pathological remodeling. Several muscles in particular undergo progressive atrophy and degeneration beyond median lifespan. To better understand myocellular responses to aging, we used semi-quantitative global metabolomic profiling to characterize trends in metabolic changes between 15-month-old adult and 32-month-old aged Fischer 344 × Brown Norway (FBN) male rats. The FBN rat gastrocnemius muscle exhibits age-dependent atrophy, whereas the soleus muscle, up until 32 months, exhibits markedly fewer signs of atrophy. Both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were analyzed, as well as plasma and urine. Compared to adult gastrocnemius, aged gastrocnemius showed evidence of reduced glycolytic metabolism, including accumulation of glycolytic, glycogenolytic, and pentose phosphate pathway intermediates. Pyruvate was elevated with age, yet levels of citrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide were reduced, consistent with mitochondrial abnormalities. Indicative of muscle atrophy, 3-methylhistidine and free amino acids were elevated in aged gastrocnemius. The monounsaturated fatty acids oleate, cis-vaccenate, and palmitoleate also increased in aged gastrocnemius, suggesting altered lipid metabolism. Compared to gastrocnemius, aged soleus exhibited far fewer changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but did show reductions in several glycolytic intermediates, fumarate, malate, and flavin adenine dinucleotide. Plasma biochemicals showing the largest age-related increases included glycocholate, heme, 1,5-anhydroglucitol, 1-palmitoleoyl-glycerophosphocholine, palmitoleate, and creatine. These changes suggest reduced insulin sensitivity in aged FBN rats. Altogether, these data highlight skeletal muscle group-specific perturbations of glucose and lipid metabolism consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction in aged FBN rats. PMID:24652515

  17. Predicting mortality from burns: the need for age-group specific models.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sandra L; Lawless, MaryBeth; Curri, Terese; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2014-09-01

    Traditional burn mortality models are derived using all age groups. We hypothesized that age variably impacts mortality after burn and that age-specific models for children, adults, and seniors will more accurately predict mortality than an all-ages model. We audited data from the American Burn Association (ABA) National Burn Repository (NBR) from 2000 to 2009 and used mixed effect logistic regression models to assess the influence of age, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, and inhalation injury on mortality. Mortality models were constructed for all ages and age-specific models: children (<18 years), adults (18-60 years), and seniors (>60 years). Model performance was assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Main effect and two-way interactions were used to construct age-group specific mortality models. Each age-specific model was compared to the All Ages model. Of 286,293 records 100,051 had complete data. Overall mortality was 4% but varied by age (17% seniors, <1% children). Age, TBSA, and inhalation injury were significant mortality predictors for all models (p<0.05). Differences in predicted mortality between the All Ages model and the age-specific models occurred in children and seniors. In the age-specific pediatric model, predicted mortality decreased with age; inhalation injury had greater effect on mortality than in the All Ages model. In the senior model mortality increased with age. Seniors had greater increase in mortality per 1% increment in burn size and 1 year increase in age than other ages. The predicted mortality in seniors using the senior-specific model was higher than in the All Ages model. "One size fits all" models for predicting burn outcomes do not accurately reflect the outcomes for seniors and children. Age-specific models for children and seniors may be advisable. PMID:24846014

  18. Predicting Mortality from Burn Injuries: The need for age-group specific models

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Sandra L.; Lawless, MaryBeth; Curri, Terese; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G.; Palmieri, Tina L.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional burn mortality models are derived using all age groups. We hypothesized that age variably impacts mortality after burn and that age-specific models for children, adults, and seniors will more accurately predict mortality than an all-ages model. We audited data from the American Burn Association (ABA) National Burn Repository (NBR) from 2000-2009 and used mixed effect logistic regression models to assess the influence of age, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, and inhalation injury on mortality. Mortality models were constructed for all ages and age-specific models: children (<18 years), adults (18-60 years), and seniors (>60 years). Model performance was assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Main effect and two-way interactions were used to construct age-group specific mortality models. Each age-specific model was compared to the All Ages model. Of 286,293 records 100,051 had complete data. Overall mortality was 4% but varied by age (17% seniors, <1% children). Age, TBSA, and inhalation injury were significant mortality predictors for all models (p<0.05). Differences in predicted mortality between the All Ages model and the age-specific models occurred in children and seniors. In the age-specific pediatric model, predicted mortality decreased with age; inhalation injury had greater effect on mortality than in the All Ages model. In the senior model mortality increased with age. Seniors had greater increase in mortality per 1% increment in burn size and 1 year increase in age than other ages. The predicted mortality in seniors using the senior-specific model was higher than in the All Ages model. “One size fits all” models for predicting burn outcomes do not accurately reflect the outcomes for seniors and children. Age-specific models for children and seniors may be advisable. PMID:24846014

  19. Cost and sensitivity of on-farm versus slaughterhouse surveys for prevalence estimation and substantiating freedom from disease.

    PubMed

    Schärrer, Sara; Schwermer, Heinzpeter; Presi, Patrick; Lindberg, Ann; Zinsstag, Jakob; Reist, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Within the framework of Swiss surveillance for epizootic diseases, dairy cattle are sampled using bulk tank milk while non-dairy cattle are sampled on the farm. The latter method is costly, time-demanding and dangerous for the personnel. However, slaughterhouses could be an alternative sampling point for this population. To assess the cost-effectiveness and sensitivity of such an approach, surveillance using slaughterhouse sampling was modelled with data from the 2012 Swiss animal movement database (AMD). We simulated a cross-sectional study for bluetongue (BT), and surveillance programmes to substantiate freedom from infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) (combined) to compare the outcome of random on-farm sampling versus slaughterhouse sampling. We found that, under Swiss conditions, slaughterhouse sampling results in low herd-level sensitivities because animals are sent by owners to slaughter individually and not in large groups, restricting the number of samples per herd. This makes slaughterhouse sampling inappropriate for prevalence surveys at the herd-level. However, for prevalence surveys at the animal-level and for substantiation of freedom from disease, slaughterhouse surveillance is equally or more cost-efficient than on-farm sampling. PMID:25724077

  20. Use of multiplexed tandem PCR to estimate the prevalence and intensity of Theileria orientalis infections in cattle.

    PubMed

    Perera, Piyumali K; Gasser, Robin B; Read, Elizabeth; Malmo, Jakob; Nguyen, Hanh; Nyein, Simon; Cheng, Allan; Jex, Aaron R; Rawlin, Grant; Spithill, Terence W; Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-06-01

    This study employed a semi-quantitative, multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) to assess the prevalence and infection intensity of four genotypes (buffeli, chitose, ikeda and type 5) of Theileria orientalis in cattle in Australia. Genomic DNA samples from blood samples (n=448) collected from 27 to 32 dairy cows from each of 15 dairy herds with a history of recent theileriosis outbreaks (Group 1), and from blood samples available from 24 cows with or without oriental theileriosis (Group 2) were tested using MT-PCR. Results revealed that all four genotypes were present in Group 1 cattle; genotype buffeli had the highest prevalence (80.5%), followed by genotypes ikeda (71.4%), chitose (38.6%) and type 5 (20.3%). Genotype ikeda had the highest average infection intensity in the cattle (relating to 55,277 DNA copies), followed by buffeli, chitose and type 5 (6354-51,648 copies). For Group 2, results indicated that genotype ikeda had a significantly higher average intensity of infection than buffeli in symptomatic cattle (P<0.001), and symptomatic cattle had a higher intensity of ikeda than asymptomatic cattle (P=0.004). Future studies should assess the utility of the present MT-PCR assay as a diagnostic and epidemiological tool in other parts of Australasia and the world.

  1. Estimating the Prevalence of Heat-Related Symptoms and Sun Safety-Related Behavior among Latino Farmworkers in Eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Gregory D; Hu, Hui; Xu, Xiaohui; Hall, Marla B; Balanay, Jo Anne G

    2016-01-01

    In hot weather, thermal heat generated by the body, combined with environmental heat from the sun, can lead outdoor workers to experience heat-related stress, severe illness, or even death. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of heat-related symptoms and potential risk factors associated with sun safety-related behavior among Latino farmworkers. Data from interviewer-administered questionnaires were collected from a cross-sectional survey among farmworkers (N = 158) from August to September 2013. Data analysis assessed associations between work activities, sun safety behavior, and the prevalence of heat-related illness (HRI) symptoms among workers. Nearly two thirds (72%) of farmworkers experienced at least one HRI symptom and lacked proper cooling methods when working outdoors. Most workers reported wearing long-sleeved shirts (85%), long pants (98%), and baseball caps (93%). The prevalence of having one HRI symptom was 72% and 27% among workers having three or more HRI symptoms. The majority of farmworkers experience symptoms of HRI and are not provided with proper shade protection when working outdoors. Increased emphasis on administrative controls, particularly educating field supervisors and workers on how to avoid and recognize HRI, should be a priority.

  2. Population-based Estimate of the Prevalence of HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer Tumors for Early Stage Patients in the US

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Kathleen A.; Harlan, Linda C.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Abrams, Jeffrey S.; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to estimate prevalence of HER-2 positive tumors in a population-based sample of 1026 women diagnosed in 2005 with early stage breast cancer. We modeled the relationship between patient and tumor characteristics and HER-2. HER-2 positive estimates were 19% for women aged ≤49 years and 15% aged ≥50 years. HER-2 varied by tumor grade and size in women aged ≤49 years but was not significant in multivariate analysis. Tumor grade and race were associated with HER-2 for women aged ≥50 years after controlling for other variables. HER-2 varies by age and by race and tumor in older women. PMID:20690807

  3. Smoking and smokeless tobacco use in nine South and Southeast Asian countries: prevalence estimates and social determinants from Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In South and Southeast Asian countries, tobacco is consumed in diverse forms, and smoking among women is very low. We aimed to provide national estimates of prevalence and social determinants of smoking and smokeless tobacco use among men and women separately. Methods Data from Demographic and Health Surveys completed in nine countries (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, Philippines, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Timor Leste) were analyzed. Current smoking or smokeless tobacco use was assessed as response “yes” to one or more of three questions, such as “Do you currently smoke cigarettes?” Weighted country-level prevalence rates for socio-economic subgroups were calculated for smoking and smokeless tobacco use. Binary logistic regression analyses were done on STATA/IC (version 10) by ‘svy’ command. Results Prevalence and type of tobacco use among men and women varied across the countries and among socio-economic sub groups. Smoking prevalence was much lower in women than men in all countries. Smoking among men was very high in Indonesia, Maldives, and Bangladesh. Smokeless tobacco (mainly chewable) was used in diverse forms, particularly in India, among both men and women. Chewing tobacco was common in Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, and Cambodia. Both smoking and smokeless tobacco use were associated with higher age, lower education, and poverty, but their association with place of residence and marital status was not uniform between men and women across the countries. Conclusion Policymakers should consider type of tobacco consumption and their differentials among various population subgroups to implement country-specific tobacco control policies and target the vulnerable groups. Smokeless tobacco use should also be prioritized in tobacco control efforts. PMID:25183954

  4. Burden of Six Healthcare-Associated Infections on European Population Health: Estimating Incidence-Based Disability-Adjusted Life Years through a Population Prevalence-Based Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Eckmanns, Tim; Abu Sin, Muna; Ducomble, Tanja; Harder, Thomas; Sixtensson, Madlen; Velasco, Edward; Weiß, Bettina; Kramarz, Piotr; Monnet, Dominique L.; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.; Suetens, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimating the burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) compared to other communicable diseases is an ongoing challenge given the need for good quality data on the incidence of these infections and the involved comorbidities. Based on the methodology of the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) project and 2011–2012 data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) point prevalence survey (PPS) of HAIs and antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals, we estimated the burden of six common HAIs. Methods and Findings The included HAIs were healthcare-associated pneumonia (HAP), healthcare-associated urinary tract infection (HA UTI), surgical site infection (SSI), healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA CDI), healthcare-associated neonatal sepsis, and healthcare-associated primary bloodstream infection (HA primary BSI). The burden of these HAIs was measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Evidence relating to the disease progression pathway of each type of HAI was collected through systematic literature reviews, in order to estimate the risks attributable to HAIs. For each of the six HAIs, gender and age group prevalence from the ECDC PPS was converted into incidence rates by applying the Rhame and Sudderth formula. We adjusted for reduced life expectancy within the hospital population using three severity groups based on McCabe score data from the ECDC PPS. We estimated that 2,609,911 new cases of HAI occur every year in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA). The cumulative burden of the six HAIs was estimated at 501 DALYs per 100,000 general population each year in EU/EEA. HAP and HA primary BSI were associated with the highest burden and represented more than 60% of the total burden, with 169 and 145 DALYs per 100,000 total population, respectively. HA UTI, SSI, HA CDI, and HA primary BSI ranked as the third to sixth syndromes in terms of burden of disease

  5. Substance use in a school-based clinic population: use of the randomized response technique to estimate prevalence.

    PubMed

    Fisher, M; Kupferman, L B; Lesser, M

    1992-06-01

    Students attending school-based clinics acknowledge only minimal involvement with drug or alcohol use. In order to explain this unanticipated finding, we used a statistical method called randomized response to study adolescents in one school-based clinic. The sample consisted of 133 students (57% female; 75% black, 20% Hispanic, 5% other; and 58% grades 9-10, 42% grades 11-12). Using both lifetime and 30-day prevalence rates, these students revealed more cigarette smoking and alcohol use on randomized response than they had on questionnaires completed earlier the same academic year, minimal involvement with either marijuana or cocaine use by either method, and a similar amount of sexual activity by both methods. This study demonstrates that randomized response can be a useful method to generate more truthful group responses from adolescents. PMID:1610843

  6. Estimate of prevalence of glucose intolerance in chronic liver disease. Degree of agreement among some diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Buzzelli, G; Chiarantini, E; Cotrozzi, G; Relli, P; Matassi, L; Romanelli, R G; Gentilini, P

    1988-12-01

    In patients with chronic liver disease, the reliability of various criteria generally used to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes was evaluated. Twenty-one patients with chronic persistent hepatitis, 68 patients with chronic active hepatitis and 57 patients with liver cirrhosis were studied. All subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g). Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes were diagnosed according to the criteria established by: the National Diabetes Study Group; Fajans and Conn; the European Diabetes Study Group; Deutsche Diabetes Gesellschaft; Kobberling & Creutzfeld criteria 1 and 2; Wilkerson; and the University Group Diabetes Program. The results obtained are in partial agreement with other reported data, showing a high prevalence of both impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes in chronic liver disease, with a positive correlation to the severity of hepatic involvement. However, our results show that the agreement among the criteria most frequently used for diagnosing impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes is still far from satisfactory.

  7. Childhood obesity in Canada: a review of prevalence estimates and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ball, Geoff D C; McCargar, Linda J

    2003-02-01

    Childhood obesity in Canada has become increasingly prevalent over the past 2 decades. Despite inconsistencies regarding different anthropometric indicators, cut-offs, and reference populations, both regional and national investigations have revealed high numbers of overweight and obese children and adolescents. A number of risk factors and health consequences have been associated with increased levels of body fatness in youth. Specifically, risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type 2 diabetes are known to develop early in life and tend to emerge in clusters among overweight youngsters. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours (i.e., physical inactivity), a genetic disposition, and a centralized body fat distribution, all contribute to increased risk. In order to prevent future generations of children from experiencing increased morbidity and mortality as overweight and obese adults, coordinated efforts at all levels (family, school, community, and government) must be established with a long-term commitment to promote healthy nutrition and physical activity behaviours in our youth.

  8. Exonic Splicing Mutations Are More Prevalent than Currently Estimated and Can Be Predicted by Using In Silico Tools

    PubMed Central

    Soukarieh, Omar; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Hamieh, Mohamad; Drouet, Aurélie; Baert-Desurmont, Stéphanie; Frébourg, Thierry; Tosi, Mario; Martins, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The identification of a causal mutation is essential for molecular diagnosis and clinical management of many genetic disorders. However, even if next-generation exome sequencing has greatly improved the detection of nucleotide changes, the biological interpretation of most exonic variants remains challenging. Moreover, particular attention is typically given to protein-coding changes often neglecting the potential impact of exonic variants on RNA splicing. Here, we used the exon 10 of MLH1, a gene implicated in hereditary cancer, as a model system to assess the prevalence of RNA splicing mutations among all single-nucleotide variants identified in a given exon. We performed comprehensive minigene assays and analyzed patient’s RNA when available. Our study revealed a staggering number of splicing mutations in MLH1 exon 10 (77% of the 22 analyzed variants), including mutations directly affecting splice sites and, particularly, mutations altering potential splicing regulatory elements (ESRs). We then used this thoroughly characterized dataset, together with experimental data derived from previous studies on BRCA1, BRCA2, CFTR and NF1, to evaluate the predictive power of 3 in silico approaches recently described as promising tools for pinpointing ESR-mutations. Our results indicate that ΔtESRseq and ΔHZEI-based approaches not only discriminate which variants affect splicing, but also predict the direction and severity of the induced splicing defects. In contrast, the ΔΨ-based approach did not show a compelling predictive power. Our data indicates that exonic splicing mutations are more prevalent than currently appreciated and that they can now be predicted by using bioinformatics methods. These findings have implications for all genetically-caused diseases. PMID:26761715

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Ireland: phylogenetic evidence for risk group-specific subepidemics.

    PubMed

    De Gascun, Cillian F; Waters, Allison; Regan, Ciara M; O'Halloran, Jane; Farrell, Gillian; Coughlan, Suzie; Bergin, Colm; Powderly, William G; Hall, William W

    2012-09-01

    HIV genetic diversity may have an impact on viral pathogenesis, transmission, response to treatment, and vaccine development. Public health surveillance that monitors the frequency and variety of HIV subtypes in a particular region or patient group is vital to successfully control the pandemic. We present the first comprehensive report on HIV diversity in Ireland. This study comprised all new HIV-1 diagnoses that were confirmed in the National Virus Reference Laboratory, University College Dublin, from January 2004 to December 2008. HIV 1 protease and reverse transcriptase sequences were generated using the Siemens Trugene HIV 1 Genotyping System. Subtypes were determined using web-based genotyping tools. There were 1579 new diagnoses [615 (39%) female and 964 (61%) male], of which 1060 had HIV-1 RNA specimens available for sequencing. Of sequenced samples, HIV-1 subtype B accounted for 50% overall, decreasing from 55.1% in 2004 to 49.5% in 2008. In addition, subtype B accounted for more than 80% of Irish-born individuals and more than 90% of Irish-born injection drug users and men who have sex with men. Subtype C was the second most prevalent in the overall cohort, accounting for 25%, although it accounted for only 6.1% of Irish-born individuals, with no evidence of in country transmission. The prevalence of non-subtype B HIV-1 infection in Ireland is increasing. However, these appear primarily to be imported infections not yet circulating within traditional Irish risk groups. Enhanced HIV-1 molecular epidemiology surveillance is required to monitor the spread of HIV-1, to inform future public health policy, and to ultimately control the HIV-1 epidemic in Ireland.

  10. Violence and Drug Use in Rural Teens: National Prevalence Estimates from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Andrew O.; Mink, Michael D.; Harun, Nusrat; Moore, Charity G.; Martin, Amy B.; Bennett, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare national estimates of drug use and exposure to violence between rural and urban teens. Methods: Twenty-eight dependent variables from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to compare violent activities, victimization, suicidal behavior, tobacco use, alcohol use, and illegal drug use…

  11. Higher estimated net endogenous Acid production may be associated with increased prevalence of nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease in chinese adults in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ruth; Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun; Chu, Winnie Chiu-Wing; Wong, Grace Lai-Hung; Li, Liz Sin; Leung, Jason; Chim, Angel Mei-Ling; Yeung, David Ka-Wai; Sea, Mandy Man-Mei; Woo, Jean; Chan, Francis Ka-Leung; Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been associated with reduced growth hormone levels and signaling. Such hormonal changes also occur in metabolic acidosis. Since mild metabolic acidosis can be diet induced, diet-induced acid load may constitute a nutritional factor with possible influence on NAFLD development. This study explored whether a higher diet-induced acid load is associated with an increased likelihood of NAFLD. Apparently healthy Chinese adults (330 male, 463 female) aged 19-72 years were recruited through population screening between 2008 and 2010 in a cross-sectional population-based study in Hong Kong. Estimated net endogenous acid production (NEAP) was calculated using Frassetto's method and potential renal acid load (PRAL) was calculated using Remer's method based on dietary data from a food frequency questionnaire. NAFLD was defined as intrahepatic triglyceride content at >5% by proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Possible advanced fibrosis was defined as liver stiffness at >7.9 kPa by transient elastography. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the association between each measure of dietary acid load and prevalent NAFLD or possible advanced fibrosis with adjustment for potential anthropometric and lifestyle factors. 220 subjects (27.7%) were diagnosed with NAFLD. Estimated NEAP was positively associated with the likelihood of having NAFLD after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, current drinker status and the presence of metabolic syndrome [OR (95% CI) = 1.25 (1.02-1.52), p = 0.022]. The association was slightly attenuated but remained significant when the model was further adjusted for other dietary variables. No association between PRAL and NAFLD prevalence was observed. Both estimated NEAP and PRAL were not associated with the presence of possible advance fibrosis. Our findings suggest that there may be a modest association between diet-induced acid load and NAFLD. More studies are needed to

  12. Wikipedia Usage Estimates Prevalence of Influenza-Like Illness in the United States in Near Real-Time

    PubMed Central

    McIver, David J.; Brownstein, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Circulating levels of both seasonal and pandemic influenza require constant surveillance to ensure the health and safety of the population. While up-to-date information is critical, traditional surveillance systems can have data availability lags of up to two weeks. We introduce a novel method of estimating, in near-real time, the level of influenza-like illness (ILI) in the United States (US) by monitoring the rate of particular Wikipedia article views on a daily basis. We calculated the number of times certain influenza- or health-related Wikipedia articles were accessed each day between December 2007 and August 2013 and compared these data to official ILI activity levels provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We developed a Poisson model that accurately estimates the level of ILI activity in the American population, up to two weeks ahead of the CDC, with an absolute average difference between the two estimates of just 0.27% over 294 weeks of data. Wikipedia-derived ILI models performed well through both abnormally high media coverage events (such as during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic) as well as unusually severe influenza seasons (such as the 2012–2013 influenza season). Wikipedia usage accurately estimated the week of peak ILI activity 17% more often than Google Flu Trends data and was often more accurate in its measure of ILI intensity. With further study, this method could potentially be implemented for continuous monitoring of ILI activity in the US and to provide support for traditional influenza surveillance tools. PMID:24743682

  13. Estimating prevalence and burden of major disorders of the brain in Nepal: cultural, geographic, logistic and philosophical issues of methodology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Headache, anxiety and depression are major disorders of the brain in terms of their prevalence and the burdens and costs they impose on society. Nationwide population-based studies of these disorders are necessary to inform health policy but, in research-naïve and resource-poor countries such as Nepal, a host of methodological problems are encountered: cultural, geographic, logistic and philosophical. Methods Expert consensus was sought among researchers from different professional and cultural backgrounds in planning and conceptualizing an epidemiological study and adapting established methods to the special situation and circumstances of Nepal. Results The methodological problems were sorted into different themes: study design; climate; geography, access and transport; sociocultural issues; safety of interviewers. Each of these was dealt with separately, and their inter-relationships explored, in finding solutions that were sometimes pragmatic. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study, with teams of interviewers visiting households across the three physiographic divisions (with extremes in altitude) in each of the five development regions of the country, would enable national sampling with sociocultural representativeness. However, the study instruments and interviews would be in Nepali only. Transport and access challenges were considerable, and their solutions combined travel by air, bus, river and foot, with allowances for rain-damaged roads, collapsed bridges and cancelled scheduled flights. The monsoon would render many routes impassable, and therefore set an absolute time limitation. Engaging participants willingly in the enquiry would be the key to success, and several tactics would be employed to enhance the success of this, most importantly enlisting the support of local community volunteers in each study site. Conclusion Anticipating problems in advance of investing substantial resources in a large nationwide epidemiological study in

  14. Does Telephone Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing Improve the Accuracy of Prevalence Estimates of Youth Smoking? Evidence from the UMass Tobacco Study.

    PubMed

    Currivan, Douglas; Nyman, Amy L; Turner, Charles F; Biener, Lois

    2004-12-01

    Despite their advantage for obtaining representative samples of adolescents, telephone surveys have been regarded as inferior for collecting data on youth tobacco use because they yield lower estimates than school-based self-administered surveys. Although no gold standard for smoking estimates exists, the lower estimates in telephone surveys have been attributed to underreporting due to youths' concern about parents or others overhearing their responses. Telephone audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (T-ACASI) is a cost-effective method for obtaining a representative sample of youths and provides increased privacy for the respondent. We hypothesized that using T-ACASI would encourage youths to more fully report smoking behavior compared to traditional interviewer-administered telephone methods. Our analysis further assessed whether respondent age, gender, race/ethnicity, and parental attitude toward smoking moderated the relationship between survey mode and smoking reports. Using data from a statewide tobacco use survey that randomly assigned youth respondents to either T-ACASI or interviewer-administered mode, we found youths were more likely to report smoking behaviors in T-ACASI mode and that this was especially true for girls, particularly those who believed their parents would disapprove strongly of their smoking. Findings suggest that traditional telephone surveys may underestimate smoking prevalence in most girls by a factor of two, and that a technique for insuring privacy for these respondents is an important component of effective telephone survey methodology.

  15. Does Telephone Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing Improve the Accuracy of Prevalence Estimates of Youth Smoking? Evidence from the UMass Tobacco Study

    PubMed Central

    Currivan, Douglas; Nyman, Amy L.; Turner, Charles F.; Biener, Lois

    2011-01-01

    Despite their advantage for obtaining representative samples of adolescents, telephone surveys have been regarded as inferior for collecting data on youth tobacco use because they yield lower estimates than school-based self-administered surveys. Although no gold standard for smoking estimates exists, the lower estimates in telephone surveys have been attributed to underreporting due to youths’ concern about parents or others overhearing their responses. Telephone audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (T-ACASI) is a cost-effective method for obtaining a representative sample of youths and provides increased privacy for the respondent. We hypothesized that using T-ACASI would encourage youths to more fully report smoking behavior compared to traditional interviewer-administered telephone methods. Our analysis further assessed whether respondent age, gender, race/ethnicity, and parental attitude toward smoking moderated the relationship between survey mode and smoking reports. Using data from a statewide tobacco use survey that randomly assigned youth respondents to either T-ACASI or interviewer-administered mode, we found youths were more likely to report smoking behaviors in T-ACASI mode and that this was especially true for girls, particularly those who believed their parents would disapprove strongly of their smoking. Findings suggest that traditional telephone surveys may underestimate smoking prevalence in most girls by a factor of two, and that a technique for insuring privacy for these respondents is an important component of effective telephone survey methodology. PMID:22081727

  16. [Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Brazil: estimation of prevalence based on preliminary data of national serological surveys in children under 5 years old and other sources].

    PubMed

    Luquetti, Alejandro O; Ferreira, António Walter; Oliveira, Rosângela A; Tavares, Suelene B N; Rassi, Anis; Dias, João Carlos P; Prata, Aluizio

    2005-01-01

    A prevalence estimation of congenital transmission in Brazil is performed, based on several sources of recent data. From a serological survey conducted now in Brazil, with children below 5 years old, preliminary data from the state of Minas Gerais only 19/9,556 children did have antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi. All 19 mothers were infected, but only one child persisted with antibodies on a second blood collection, hence diagnosed as congenital. The other were just passive transference of maternal antibodies. From a recent publication, 278 children born from 145 infected mothers were studied. Two cases (0.7%) were congenital. In other source, from 1,348 blood donors, 35 were born in non endemic areas. When 10 of them were called, 8 were born from infected mothers and five may be congenital. Finally, no infection was detected in 93 children born from 78 infected mothers. The reasons for this low prevalence are discussed, are lower than in other countries of the South Cone, that harbor also T. cruzi 2, but are unrecognized up to now.

  17. High risk for obstructive sleep apnea in truck drivers estimated by the Berlin questionnaire: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Moreno, C R C; Carvalho, F A; Lorenzi, C; Matuzaki, L S; Prezotti, S; Bighetti, P; Louzada, F M; Lorenzi-Filho, G

    2004-01-01

    The health issues that attract our attention when analyzing the truck driver population are the high prevalence of sedentary habits, inadequate diet, obesity, and proportion of hypertensive. All these are either considered risk factors for or a consequence of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The objective of this study was to investigate the risk for OSA among 10,101 truck drivers and to correlate it with potentially related factors, such as serum glucose and cholesterol levels, smoking habits, alcohol and drug consumption, and self-reported physical activity. The drivers were invited to participate in the campaign "Saúde na Boléia" (Health Behind the Wheel) promoted by a Brazilian company responsible for the maintenance of approximately 360km of roads in the country. Drivers who spontaneously stopped at the campaign booths placed along the roads were invited to answer a questionnaire covering sociodemographic data such as age, alcohol, and drug consumption. All participants completed a Berlin Questionnaire and were classified as low- or high-risk subjects for OSA based on questions about snoring, tiredness during the day, and the presence of hypertension or obesity. Blood collection was accomplished at the same site by nurses and/or nursing students collaborating with the campaign for subsequent laboratory studies. Approximately 26% of the truck drivers were found to be at high-risk group for OSA. An adjusted multiple logistic model found the independent risk factors of smoking (OR=1.16; p=0.014) and drug use (OR= 1.32; p < 0.0001) were associated with high risk for OSA. The presence of self-reported occasional (OR=0.62; p<0.0001) and regular (OR=0.53; p < 0.0001) physical activity was found to be an independent factor protective of OSA. Educational programs, including ones aimed at improving one's health habits, such as engagement in physical exercise, should be considered in the development of initiatives to reduce the risk for OSA among the truck driver

  18. Hate crimes and stigma-related experiences among sexual minority adults in the United States: prevalence estimates from a national probability sample.

    PubMed

    Herek, Gregory M

    2009-01-01

    Using survey responses collected via the Internet from a U.S. national probability sample of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults (N = 662), this article reports prevalence estimates of criminal victimization and related experiences based on the target's sexual orientation. Approximately 20% of respondents reported having experienced a person or property crime based on their sexual orientation; about half had experienced verbal harassment, and more than 1 in 10 reported having experienced employment or housing discrimination. Gay men were significantly more likely than lesbians or bisexuals to experience violence and property crimes. Employment and housing discrimination were significantly more likely among gay men and lesbians than among bisexual men and women. Implications for future research and policy are discussed.

  19. Group-specific human granulocyte antigens on a chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line with a Philadelphia chromosome marker.

    PubMed

    Drew, S I; Terasaki, P I; Billing, R J; Bergh, O J; Minowada, J; Klein, E

    1977-05-01

    Group-specific human granulocyte antigens are serologically detectable with granulocytotoxic-positive human alloantisera on a cell line, K562, of chronic myelogenous leukemia origin which bears a Philadelphia chromosomal marker. The same cell line lacks serologically detectable HLA, B2 microglobulin, and B-lymphocyte antigens. Granulocyte antigens are important cell markers for cell lines of suspected myeloid lineage.

  20. Estimating the burden of musculoskeletal disorders in the community: the comparative prevalence of symptoms at different anatomical sites, and the relation to social deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Urwin, M.; Symmons, D.; Allison, T.; Brammah, T.; Busby, H.; Roxby, M.; Simmons, A.; Williams, G.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Epidemiologically-based rheumatology healthcare needs assessment requires an understanding of the incidence and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in the community, of the reasons why people consult in primary care, and of the proportion of people who would benefit from referral to secondary care and paramedical services. This paper reports the first phase of such a needs assessment exercise.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE—To estimate the relative frequency of musculoskeletal pain in different, and multiple, anatomical sites in the adult population.
SETTING—Three general practices in the former Tameside and Glossop Health Authority, Greater Manchester, UK, a predominantly urban area.
DESIGN—Population survey.
METHODS—An age and sex stratified sample of 6000 adults from the three practices was mailed a questionnaire that sought data on demographic factors, musculoskeletal symptoms (pain in the past month lasting for more than a week), and physical disability (using the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire- mHAQ). The areas of pain covered were neck, back, shoulder, elbow, hand, hip, knee, and multiple joints. The Carstairs index was used as a measure of social deprivation of the postcode sector in which the person lived.
RESULTS—The response rate after two reminders was 78.5%. Non-responders were more likely to live in areas of high social deprivation. People who lived in more deprived areas were also more likely to report musculoskeletal pain, especially backpain. After adjusting for social deprivation the rates of musculoskeletal pain did not differ between the practices and so their results were combined. After adjustment for social deprivation, the most common site of pain was back (23%; 95% CI 21, 25) followed by knee (19%; 95% CI 18, 21), and shoulder (16%; 95% CI 14, 17). The majority of subjects who reported pain had pain in more than one site. The prevalence of physical disability in the community rose with age. It was

  1. Estimating the contribution of a service delivery organisation to the national modern contraceptive prevalence rate: Marie Stopes International's Impact 2 model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Individual family planning service delivery organisations currently rely on service provision data and couple-years of protection as health impact measures. Due to the substitution effect and the continuation of users of long-term methods, these metrics cannot estimate an organisation's contribution to the national modern contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR), the standard metric for measuring family planning programme impacts. Increasing CPR is essential for addressing the unmet need for family planning, a recognized global health priority. Current health impact estimation models cannot isolate the impact of an organisation in these efforts. Marie Stopes International designed the Impact 2 model to measure an organisation's contribution to increases in national CPR, as well as resulting health and demographic impacts. This paper aims to describe the methodology for modelling increasing national-level CPR as well as to discuss its benefits and limitations. Methods Impact 2 converts service provision data into estimates of the number of family planning users, accounting for continuation among users of long-term methods and addressing the challenges of converting commodity distribution data of short-term methods into user numbers. These estimates, combined with the client profile and data on the organisation's previous year's CPR contribution, enable Impact 2 to estimate which clients maintain an organisation's baseline contribution, which ones fulfil population growth offsets, and ultimately, which ones increase CPR. Results Illustrative results from Marie Stopes Madagascar show how Impact 2 can be used to estimate an organisation's contribution to national changes in the CPR. Conclusions Impact 2 is a useful tool for service delivery organisations to move beyond cruder output measures to a better understanding of their role in meeting the global unmet need for family planning. By considering health impact from the perspective of an individual organisation

  2. Estimation of flock/herd-level true Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis prevalence on sheep, beef cattle and deer farms in New Zealand using a novel Bayesian model.

    PubMed

    Verdugo, Cristobal; Jones, Geoff; Johnson, Wes; Wilson, Peter; Stringer, Lesley; Heuer, Cord

    2014-12-01

    The study aimed to estimate the national- and island-level flock/herd true prevalence (HTP) of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in pastoral farmed sheep, beef cattle and deer in New Zealand. A random sample of 238 single- or multi-species farms was selected from a postal surveyed population of 1940 farms. The sample included 162 sheep flocks, 116 beef cattle and 99 deer herds from seven of 16 geographical regions. Twenty animals from each species present on farm were randomly selected for blood and faecal sampling. Pooled faecal culture testing was conducted using a single pool (sheep flocks) or two pools (beef cattle/deer herds) of 20 and 10 samples per pool, respectively. To increase flock/herd-level sensitivity, sera from all 20 animals from culture negative flocks/herds were individually tested by Pourquier(®) ELISA (sheep and cattle) or Paralisa™ (deer). Results were adjusted for sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests using a novel Bayesian latent class model. Outcomes were adjusted by their sampling fractions to obtain HTP estimates at national level. For each species, the posterior probability (POPR) of HTP differences between New Zealand North (NI) and South (SI) Islands was obtained. Across all species, 69% of farms had at least one species test positive. Sheep flocks had the highest HTP estimate (76%, posterior probability interval (PPI) 70-81%), followed by deer (46%, PPI 38-55%) and beef herds (42%, PPI 35-50%). Differences were observed between the two main islands of New Zealand, with higher HTP in sheep and beef cattle flocks/herds in the NI. Sheep flock HTP was 80% in the NI compared with 70% (POPR=0.96) in the SI, while the HTP for beef cattle was 44% in the NI and 38% in the SI (POPR=0.80). Conversely, deer HTP was higher in the SI (54%) than the NI (33%, POPR=0.99). Infection with MAP is endemic at high prevalence in sheep, beef cattle and deer flocks/herds across New Zealand.

  3. Multi-scale occupancy approach to estimate Toxoplasma gondii prevalence and detection probability in tissues: an application and guide for field sampling.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Stacey A; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Bailey, Larissa L; Iqbal, Asma; Su, Chunlei; Dixon, Brent R; Alisauskas, Ray T; Gajadhar, Alvin A; Jenkins, Emily J

    2016-08-01

    Increasingly, birds are recognised as important hosts for the ubiquitous parasite Toxoplasma gondii, although little experimental evidence exists to determine which tissues should be tested to maximise the detection probability of T. gondii. Also, Arctic-nesting geese are suspected to be important sources of T. gondii in terrestrial Arctic ecosystems, but the parasite has not previously been reported in the tissues of these geese. Using a domestic goose model, we applied a multi-scale occupancy framework to demonstrate that the probability of detection of T. gondii was highest in the brain (0.689, 95% confidence interval=0.486, 0.839) and the heart (0.809, 95% confidence interval=0.693, 0.888). Inoculated geese had an estimated T. gondii infection probability of 0.849, (95% confidence interval=0.643, 0.946), highlighting uncertainty in the system, even under experimental conditions. Guided by these results, we tested the brains and hearts of wild Ross's Geese (Chen rossii, n=50) and Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens, n=50) from Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. We detected 51 suspected positive tissue samples from 33 wild geese using real-time PCR with melt-curve analysis. The wild goose prevalence estimates generated by our multi-scale occupancy analysis were higher than the naïve estimates of prevalence, indicating that multiple PCR repetitions on the same organs and testing more than one organ could improve T. gondii detection. Genetic characterisation revealed Type III T. gondii alleles in six wild geese and Sarcocystis spp. in 25 samples. Our study demonstrates that Arctic nesting geese are capable of harbouring T. gondii in their tissues and could transport the parasite from their southern overwintering grounds into the Arctic region. We demonstrate how a multi-scale occupancy framework can be used in a domestic animal model to guide resource-limited sample collection and tissue analysis in wildlife. Secondly, we confirm the value of traditional occupancy in

  4. Data quality and practical challenges of thyroid volume assessment by ultrasound under field conditions - observer errors may affect prevalence estimates of goitre

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The ultrasonographic estimation of thyroid size has been advocated as being more precise than palpation to diagnose goitre. However, ultrasound also requires technical proficiency. This study was conducted among Saharawi refugees, where goitre is highly prevalent. The objectives were to assess the overall data quality of ultrasound measurements of thyroid volume (Tvol), including the intra- and inter-observer agreement, under field conditions, and to describe some of the practical challenges encountered. Methods In 2007 a cross-sectional study of 419 children (6-14 years old) and 405 women (15-45 years old) was performed on a population of Saharawi refugees with prevalent goitre, who reside in the Algerian desert. Tvol was measured by two trained fieldworkers using portable ultrasound equipment (examiner 1 measured 406 individuals, and examiner 2, 418 individuals). Intra- and inter-observer agreement was estimated in 12 children selected from the study population but not part of the main study. In the main study, an observer error was found in one examiner whose ultrasound images were corrected by linear regression after printing and remeasuring a sample of 272 images. Results The intra-observer agreement in Tvol was higher in examiner 1, with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.99) compared to 0.86 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.96) in examiner 2. The ICC for inter-observer agreement in Tvol was 0.38 (95% CI: -0.20, 0.77). Linear regression coefficients indicated a significant scaling bias in the original measurements of the AP and ML diameter and a systematic underestimation of Tvol (a product of AP, ML, CC and a constant). The agreement between re-measured and original Tvol measured by ICC (95% CI) was 0.76 (0.71, 0.81). The agreement between re-measured and corrected Tvol measured by ICC (95% CI) was 0.97 (0.96, 0.97). Conclusions An important challenge when using ultrasound to assess thyroid volume under field conditions is to

  5. Multi-scale occupancy approach to estimate Toxoplasma gondii prevalence and detection probability in tissues: an application and guide for field sampling.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Stacey A; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Bailey, Larissa L; Iqbal, Asma; Su, Chunlei; Dixon, Brent R; Alisauskas, Ray T; Gajadhar, Alvin A; Jenkins, Emily J

    2016-08-01

    Increasingly, birds are recognised as important hosts for the ubiquitous parasite Toxoplasma gondii, although little experimental evidence exists to determine which tissues should be tested to maximise the detection probability of T. gondii. Also, Arctic-nesting geese are suspected to be important sources of T. gondii in terrestrial Arctic ecosystems, but the parasite has not previously been reported in the tissues of these geese. Using a domestic goose model, we applied a multi-scale occupancy framework to demonstrate that the probability of detection of T. gondii was highest in the brain (0.689, 95% confidence interval=0.486, 0.839) and the heart (0.809, 95% confidence interval=0.693, 0.888). Inoculated geese had an estimated T. gondii infection probability of 0.849, (95% confidence interval=0.643, 0.946), highlighting uncertainty in the system, even under experimental conditions. Guided by these results, we tested the brains and hearts of wild Ross's Geese (Chen rossii, n=50) and Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens, n=50) from Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. We detected 51 suspected positive tissue samples from 33 wild geese using real-time PCR with melt-curve analysis. The wild goose prevalence estimates generated by our multi-scale occupancy analysis were higher than the naïve estimates of prevalence, indicating that multiple PCR repetitions on the same organs and testing more than one organ could improve T. gondii detection. Genetic characterisation revealed Type III T. gondii alleles in six wild geese and Sarcocystis spp. in 25 samples. Our study demonstrates that Arctic nesting geese are capable of harbouring T. gondii in their tissues and could transport the parasite from their southern overwintering grounds into the Arctic region. We demonstrate how a multi-scale occupancy framework can be used in a domestic animal model to guide resource-limited sample collection and tissue analysis in wildlife. Secondly, we confirm the value of traditional occupancy in

  6. Higher Estimated Net Endogenous Acid Production May Be Associated with Increased Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese Adults in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ruth; Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun; Chu, Winnie Chiu-Wing; Wong, Grace Lai-Hung; Li, Liz Sin; Leung, Jason; Chim, Angel Mei-Ling; Yeung, David Ka-Wai; Sea, Mandy Man-Mei; Woo, Jean; Chan, Francis Ka-Leung; Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been associated with reduced growth hormone levels and signaling. Such hormonal changes also occur in metabolic acidosis. Since mild metabolic acidosis can be diet induced, diet-induced acid load may constitute a nutritional factor with possible influence on NAFLD development. This study explored whether a higher diet-induced acid load is associated with an increased likelihood of NAFLD. Apparently healthy Chinese adults (330 male, 463 female) aged 19-72 years were recruited through population screening between 2008 and 2010 in a cross-sectional population-based study in Hong Kong. Estimated net endogenous acid production (NEAP) was calculated using Frassetto’s method and potential renal acid load (PRAL) was calculated using Remer’s method based on dietary data from a food frequency questionnaire. NAFLD was defined as intrahepatic triglyceride content at >5% by proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Possible advanced fibrosis was defined as liver stiffness at >7.9 kPa by transient elastography. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the association between each measure of dietary acid load and prevalent NAFLD or possible advanced fibrosis with adjustment for potential anthropometric and lifestyle factors. 220 subjects (27.7%) were diagnosed with NAFLD. Estimated NEAP was positively associated with the likelihood of having NAFLD after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, current drinker status and the presence of metabolic syndrome [OR (95% CI) = 1.25 (1.02-1.52), p = 0.022]. The association was slightly attenuated but remained significant when the model was further adjusted for other dietary variables. No association between PRAL and NAFLD prevalence was observed. Both estimated NEAP and PRAL were not associated with the presence of possible advance fibrosis. Our findings suggest that there may be a modest association between diet-induced acid load and NAFLD. More studies are needed to

  7. Estimation of the prevalence of Salmonella species on the slatted area compared to the scratch area of broiler breeder chicken houses.

    PubMed

    Behnke, Elena L; Hofacre, Charles L; Berghaus, Roy D

    2013-09-01

    With the objective of detecting Salmonella species in the poultry house environment, sampling broiler breeder houses in the two-thirds slatted area and the one-third scratch area with pine shavings bedding can be difficult. The slatted area is where the females, consisting of approximately 90% of the population, eat, drink, and spend the majority of their time. The scratch area is where the males eat and drink, as well as where mating and mortality occur. Besides the nest boxes, the female feeders and water lines make the slatted areas more difficult to sample. However, it is important to take samples from the area with the greatest likelihood of isolating Salmonella. Therefore, boot swab samples were collected from 21 commercial broiler breeder chicken houses representing three different companies in north Georgia to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on the slat vs. the scratch area in each chicken house. Every house sampled had a central scratch area covered with litter and two elevated slat areas constructed of wood. Four boot swab samples were collected on each side slat area by walking the entire length of the house for each swab. Eight samples were collected in the same manner from the scratch area. Results of 335 total samples were acquired, 167 of which were obtained from the slat area and 168 of which came from the scratch area, yielding 242 total Salmonella isolations. Salmonella was found in 117 of the slat samples, representing 70.1%, compared to 125 of the scratch area samples, representing 74.4%. Both the univariate (P = 0.311) and the multivariable (P = 0.303) analysis showed that sampling location was not associated with Salmonella prevalence.

  8. [ASRS v.1.1., a tool for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder screening in adults treated for addictive behaviors: psychometric properties and estimated prevalence].

    PubMed

    Pedrero Pérez, Eduardo J; Puerta García, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    ASRS v.1.1. is a self-applied brief instrument for the screening of individuals presenting symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and proposed by the WHO. The purpose of the present work was to test the instrument and examine the results of its application to a sample of 280 individuals in treatment for substance-related disorders (cross-sectional descriptive study). We administered simultaneously in the initial phases of treatment the ASRS v.1.1. (short form) and the MCMI-II to the full sample and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), ADHD-Rating Scale-IV and ASRS v.1.1. (complete form) to various sub-samples. Diagnostic interviews were also carried out and the psychometric properties and factorial structure of ASRS v.1.1. were explored. Good convergent validity, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic capability were obtained for the six-item version of ASRS v.1.1., even though 4 out of 6 items did not discriminate between Axis I and II disorders assessed through the MCMI-II and diagnostic interviews. According to DSM-IV-TR criteria the estimated prevalence of ADHD in the sample of addicts was 8.2%. ASRS v.1.1. is criticized as a specific instrument for ADHD detection, since most of its items appear to measure a non-specific dimension of compulsiveness/impulsiveness, common to Axis-I and Axis-II disorders. Other criticisms made in the discussion concern the lack of specificity of DSM criteria and the confusion they generate among the concepts of symptom, sign and trait (including the impact on study results), the general use of the A criterion but the omission of the B, C, D and E criteria of the DSM category, differences in samples (with regard to both severity and selection criteria), and the artifactual increases in prevalence found in many studies. PMID:18173102

  9. The Use of Innovative Two-Component Cluster Analysis and Serodiagnostic Cut-Off Methods to Estimate Prevalence of Pertussis Reinfections.

    PubMed

    van Twillert, Inonge; Bonačić Marinović, Axel A; van Gaans-van den Brink, Jacqueline A M; Kuipers, Betsy; Berbers, Guy A M; van der Maas, Nicoline A T; Verheij, Theo J M; Versteegh, Florens G A; Teunis, Peter F M; van Els, Cécile A C M

    2016-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis circulates even in highly vaccinated countries affecting all age groups. Insight into the scale of concealed reinfections is important as they may contribute to transmission. We therefore investigated whether current single-point serodiagnostic methods are suitable to estimate the prevalence of pertussis reinfection. Two methods based on IgG-Ptx plasma levels alone were used to evaluate the proportion of renewed seroconversions in the past year in a cohort of retrospective pertussis cases ≥ 24 months after a proven earlier symptomatic infection. A Dutch population database was used as a baseline. Applying a classical 62.5 IU/ml IgG-Ptx cut-off, we calculated a seroprevalence of 15% in retrospective cases, higher than the 10% observed in the population baseline. However, this method could not discriminate between renewed seroconversion and waning of previously infection-enhanced IgG-Ptx levels. Two-component cluster analysis of the IgG-Ptx datasets of both pertussis cases and the general population revealed a continuum of intermediate IgG-Ptx levels, preventing the establishment of a positive population and the comparison of prevalence by this alternative method. Next, we investigated the complementary serodiagnostic value of IgA-Ptx levels. When modelling datasets including both convalescent and retrospective cases we obtained new cut-offs for both IgG-Ptx and IgA-Ptx that were optimized to evaluate renewed seroconversions in the ex-cases target population. Combining these cut-offs two-dimensionally, we calculated 8.0% reinfections in retrospective cases, being below the baseline seroprevalence. Our study for the first time revealed the shortcomings of using only IgG-Ptx data in conventional serodiagnostic methods to determine pertussis reinfections. Improved results can be obtained with two-dimensional serodiagnostic profiling. The proportion of reinfections thus established suggests a relatively increased period of protection to renewed

  10. The Use of Innovative Two-Component Cluster Analysis and Serodiagnostic Cut-Off Methods to Estimate Prevalence of Pertussis Reinfections

    PubMed Central

    van Twillert, Inonge; Bonačić Marinović, Axel A.; van Gaans-van den Brink, Jacqueline A. M.; Kuipers, Betsy; Berbers, Guy A. M.; van der Maas, Nicoline A. T.; Verheij, Theo J. M.; Versteegh, Florens G. A.; Teunis, Peter F. M.; van Els, Cécile A. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis circulates even in highly vaccinated countries affecting all age groups. Insight into the scale of concealed reinfections is important as they may contribute to transmission. We therefore investigated whether current single-point serodiagnostic methods are suitable to estimate the prevalence of pertussis reinfection. Two methods based on IgG-Ptx plasma levels alone were used to evaluate the proportion of renewed seroconversions in the past year in a cohort of retrospective pertussis cases ≥ 24 months after a proven earlier symptomatic infection. A Dutch population database was used as a baseline. Applying a classical 62.5 IU/ml IgG-Ptx cut-off, we calculated a seroprevalence of 15% in retrospective cases, higher than the 10% observed in the population baseline. However, this method could not discriminate between renewed seroconversion and waning of previously infection-enhanced IgG-Ptx levels. Two-component cluster analysis of the IgG-Ptx datasets of both pertussis cases and the general population revealed a continuum of intermediate IgG-Ptx levels, preventing the establishment of a positive population and the comparison of prevalence by this alternative method. Next, we investigated the complementary serodiagnostic value of IgA-Ptx levels. When modelling datasets including both convalescent and retrospective cases we obtained new cut-offs for both IgG-Ptx and IgA-Ptx that were optimized to evaluate renewed seroconversions in the ex-cases target population. Combining these cut-offs two-dimensionally, we calculated 8.0% reinfections in retrospective cases, being below the baseline seroprevalence. Our study for the first time revealed the shortcomings of using only IgG-Ptx data in conventional serodiagnostic methods to determine pertussis reinfections. Improved results can be obtained with two-dimensional serodiagnostic profiling. The proportion of reinfections thus established suggests a relatively increased period of protection to renewed

  11. [ASRS v.1.1., a tool for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder screening in adults treated for addictive behaviors: psychometric properties and estimated prevalence].

    PubMed

    Pedrero Pérez, Eduardo J; Puerta García, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    ASRS v.1.1. is a self-applied brief instrument for the screening of individuals presenting symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and proposed by the WHO. The purpose of the present work was to test the instrument and examine the results of its application to a sample of 280 individuals in treatment for substance-related disorders (cross-sectional descriptive study). We administered simultaneously in the initial phases of treatment the ASRS v.1.1. (short form) and the MCMI-II to the full sample and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), ADHD-Rating Scale-IV and ASRS v.1.1. (complete form) to various sub-samples. Diagnostic interviews were also carried out and the psychometric properties and factorial structure of ASRS v.1.1. were explored. Good convergent validity, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic capability were obtained for the six-item version of ASRS v.1.1., even though 4 out of 6 items did not discriminate between Axis I and II disorders assessed through the MCMI-II and diagnostic interviews. According to DSM-IV-TR criteria the estimated prevalence of ADHD in the sample of addicts was 8.2%. ASRS v.1.1. is criticized as a specific instrument for ADHD detection, since most of its items appear to measure a non-specific dimension of compulsiveness/impulsiveness, common to Axis-I and Axis-II disorders. Other criticisms made in the discussion concern the lack of specificity of DSM criteria and the confusion they generate among the concepts of symptom, sign and trait (including the impact on study results), the general use of the A criterion but the omission of the B, C, D and E criteria of the DSM category, differences in samples (with regard to both severity and selection criteria), and the artifactual increases in prevalence found in many studies.

  12. Optimal cut-off points of fasting plasma glucose for two-step strategy in estimating prevalence and screening undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes in Harbin, China.

    PubMed

    Bao, Chundan; Zhang, Dianfeng; Sun, Bo; Lan, Li; Cui, Wenxiu; Xu, Guohua; Sui, Conglan; Wang, Yibaina; Zhao, Yashuang; Wang, Jian; Li, Hongyuan

    2015-01-01

    To identify optimal cut-off points of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for two-step strategy in screening abnormal glucose metabolism and estimating prevalence in general Chinese population. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 7913 people aged 20 to 74 years in Harbin. Diabetes and pre-diabetes were determined by fasting and 2 hour post-load glucose from the oral glucose tolerance test in all participants. Screening potential of FPG, cost per case identified by two-step strategy, and optimal FPG cut-off points were described. The prevalence of diabetes was 12.7%, of which 65.2% was undiagnosed. Twelve percent or 9.0% of participants were diagnosed with pre-diabetes using 2003 ADA criteria or 1999 WHO criteria, respectively. The optimal FPG cut-off points for two-step strategy were 5.6 mmol/l for previously undiagnosed diabetes (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of FPG 0.93; sensitivity 82.0%; cost per case identified by two-step strategy ¥261), 5.3 mmol/l for both diabetes and pre-diabetes or pre-diabetes alone using 2003 ADA criteria (0.89 or 0.85; 72.4% or 62.9%; ¥110 or ¥258), 5.0 mmol/l for pre-diabetes using 1999 WHO criteria (0.78; 66.8%; ¥399), and 4.9 mmol/l for IGT alone (0.74; 62.2%; ¥502). Using the two-step strategy, the underestimates of prevalence reduced to nearly 38% for pre-diabetes or 18.7% for undiagnosed diabetes, respectively. Approximately a quarter of the general population in Harbin was in hyperglycemic condition. Using optimal FPG cut-off points for two-step strategy in Chinese population may be more effective and less costly for reducing the missed diagnosis of hyperglycemic condition.

  13. Optimal cut-off points of fasting plasma glucose for two-step strategy in estimating prevalence and screening undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes in Harbin, China.

    PubMed

    Bao, Chundan; Zhang, Dianfeng; Sun, Bo; Lan, Li; Cui, Wenxiu; Xu, Guohua; Sui, Conglan; Wang, Yibaina; Zhao, Yashuang; Wang, Jian; Li, Hongyuan

    2015-01-01

    To identify optimal cut-off points of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for two-step strategy in screening abnormal glucose metabolism and estimating prevalence in general Chinese population. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 7913 people aged 20 to 74 years in Harbin. Diabetes and pre-diabetes were determined by fasting and 2 hour post-load glucose from the oral glucose tolerance test in all participants. Screening potential of FPG, cost per case identified by two-step strategy, and optimal FPG cut-off points were described. The prevalence of diabetes was 12.7%, of which 65.2% was undiagnosed. Twelve percent or 9.0% of participants were diagnosed with pre-diabetes using 2003 ADA criteria or 1999 WHO criteria, respectively. The optimal FPG cut-off points for two-step strategy were 5.6 mmol/l for previously undiagnosed diabetes (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of FPG 0.93; sensitivity 82.0%; cost per case identified by two-step strategy ¥261), 5.3 mmol/l for both diabetes and pre-diabetes or pre-diabetes alone using 2003 ADA criteria (0.89 or 0.85; 72.4% or 62.9%; ¥110 or ¥258), 5.0 mmol/l for pre-diabetes using 1999 WHO criteria (0.78; 66.8%; ¥399), and 4.9 mmol/l for IGT alone (0.74; 62.2%; ¥502). Using the two-step strategy, the underestimates of prevalence reduced to nearly 38% for pre-diabetes or 18.7% for undiagnosed diabetes, respectively. Approximately a quarter of the general population in Harbin was in hyperglycemic condition. Using optimal FPG cut-off points for two-step strategy in Chinese population may be more effective and less costly for reducing the missed diagnosis of hyperglycemic condition. PMID:25785585

  14. Optimal Cut-Off Points of Fasting Plasma Glucose for Two-Step Strategy in Estimating Prevalence and Screening Undiagnosed Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes in Harbin, China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bo; Lan, Li; Cui, Wenxiu; Xu, Guohua; Sui, Conglan; Wang, Yibaina; Zhao, Yashuang; Wang, Jian; Li, Hongyuan

    2015-01-01

    To identify optimal cut-off points of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for two-step strategy in screening abnormal glucose metabolism and estimating prevalence in general Chinese population. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 7913 people aged 20 to 74 years in Harbin. Diabetes and pre-diabetes were determined by fasting and 2 hour post-load glucose from the oral glucose tolerance test in all participants. Screening potential of FPG, cost per case identified by two-step strategy, and optimal FPG cut-off points were described. The prevalence of diabetes was 12.7%, of which 65.2% was undiagnosed. Twelve percent or 9.0% of participants were diagnosed with pre-diabetes using 2003 ADA criteria or 1999 WHO criteria, respectively. The optimal FPG cut-off points for two-step strategy were 5.6 mmol/l for previously undiagnosed diabetes (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of FPG 0.93; sensitivity 82.0%; cost per case identified by two-step strategy ¥261), 5.3 mmol/l for both diabetes and pre-diabetes or pre-diabetes alone using 2003 ADA criteria (0.89 or 0.85; 72.4% or 62.9%; ¥110 or ¥258), 5.0 mmol/l for pre-diabetes using 1999 WHO criteria (0.78; 66.8%; ¥399), and 4.9 mmol/l for IGT alone (0.74; 62.2%; ¥502). Using the two-step strategy, the underestimates of prevalence reduced to nearly 38% for pre-diabetes or 18.7% for undiagnosed diabetes, respectively. Approximately a quarter of the general population in Harbin was in hyperglycemic condition. Using optimal FPG cut-off points for two-step strategy in Chinese population may be more effective and less costly for reducing the missed diagnosis of hyperglycemic condition. PMID:25785585

  15. Role of isozyme group-specific sequence 4 in the isozyme-specific properties of human aldolase C.

    PubMed

    Kusakabe, T; Motoki, K; Sugimoto, Y; Hori, K

    1998-08-01

    To assess which regions of the aldolase C molecule are required for exhibiting isozyme-specific kinetic properties, we have constructed nine chimeric enzymes of human aldolases A and C. Kinetic studies of these chimeric enzymes revealed that aldolase C absolutely required its own isozyme group-specific sequences (IGS), particularly IGS-4, for exhibiting the characteristics of aldolase C which differ significantly from those of isozymes A and B (Kusakabe T, Motoki K, Hori K. Human aldolase C: characterization of the recombinant enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli. J Biochem (Tokyo) 1994;115:1172-7). Whereas human aldolases A and B required their own isozyme group-specific sequences-1 and -4 (IGS-1 and -4) as the main determinants of isozyme-specific kinetic properties (Motoki K, Kitajima Y, Hori K. Isozyme-specific modules on human aldolase A molecule. J Biol Chem 1993;268:1677-83; Kusakabe T, Motoki K, Sugimoto Y, Takasaki Y, Hori K. Human aldolase B: liver-specific properties of the isoenzyme depend on type B isozyme group-specific sequence. Prot. Eng. 1994;7:1387-93), the present studies indicate that the IGS-1 is principally substitutable between aldolases A and C. The kinetic data also suggests that the connector-2 (amino acid residues 243-306) may modulate the interaction of IGS units with the alpha/beta barrel of the aldolase molecule.

  16. Estimating the incidence, prevalence and true cost of asthma in the UK: secondary analysis of national stand-alone and linked databases in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales—a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Mome; Gupta, Ramyani; Farr, Angela; Heaven, Martin; Stoddart, Andrew; Nwaru, Bright I; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Chamberlain, George; Bandyopadhyay, Amrita; Fischbacher, Colin; Dibben, Christopher; Shields, Michael; Phillips, Ceri; Strachan, David; Davies, Gwyneth; McKinstry, Brian; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Asthma is now one of the most common long-term conditions in the UK. It is therefore important to develop a comprehensive appreciation of the healthcare and societal costs in order to inform decisions on care provision and planning. We plan to build on our earlier estimates of national prevalence and costs from asthma by filling the data gaps previously identified in relation to healthcare and broadening the field of enquiry to include societal costs. This work will provide the first UK-wide estimates of the costs of asthma. In the context of asthma for the UK and its member countries (ie, England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales), we seek to: (1) produce a detailed overview of estimates of incidence, prevalence and healthcare utilisation; (2) estimate health and societal costs; (3) identify any remaining information gaps and explore the feasibility of filling these and (4) provide insights into future research that has the potential to inform changes in policy leading to the provision of more cost-effective care. Methods and analysis Secondary analyses of data from national health surveys, primary care, prescribing, emergency care, hospital, mortality and administrative data sources will be undertaken to estimate prevalence, healthcare utilisation and outcomes from asthma. Data linkages and economic modelling will be undertaken in an attempt to populate data gaps and estimate costs. Separate prevalence and cost estimates will be calculated for each of the UK-member countries and these will then be aggregated to generate UK-wide estimates. Ethics and dissemination Approvals have been obtained from the NHS Scotland Information Services Division's Privacy Advisory Committee, the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Collaboration Review System, the NHS South-East Scotland Research Ethics Service and The University of Edinburgh's Centre for Population Health Sciences Research Ethics Committee. We will produce a report for Asthma-UK, submit papers to

  17. Development and Evaluation of Serotype- and Group-Specific Fluorogenic Reverse Transcriptase PCR (TaqMan) Assays for Dengue Virus

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Johnny D.; Wu, Shuenn-Jue L.; Dion-Schultz, Amanda; Mangold, Beverly E.; Peruski, Leonard F.; Watts, Douglas M.; Porter, Kevin R.; Murphy, Gerald R.; Suharyono, Wuryadi; King, Chwan-Chuen; Hayes, Curtis G.; Temenak, Joseph J.

    2001-01-01

    Five fluorogenic probe hydrolysis (TaqMan) reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays were developed for serotypes 1 to 4 and group-specific detection of dengue virus. Serotype- and group-specific oligonucleotide primers and fluorogenic probes were designed against conserved regions of the dengue virus genome. The RT-PCR assay is a rapid single-tube method consisting of a 30-min RT step linked to a 45-cycle PCR at 95 and 60°C that generates a fluorogenic signal in positive samples. Assays were initially evaluated against cell culture-derived dengue stock viruses and then with 67 dengue viremic human sera received from Peru, Indonesia, and Taiwan. The TaqMan assays were compared to virus isolation using C6/36 cells followed by an immunofluorescence assay using serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies. Viral titers in sera were determined by plaque assay in Vero cells. The serotype-specific TaqMan RT-PCR assay detected 62 of 67 confirmed dengue virus-positive samples, for a sensitivity of 92.5%, while the group-specific assay detected 66 of 67 confirmed dengue virus-positive samples, for a sensitivity of 98.5%. The TaqMan RT-PCR assays have a specificity of 100% based on the serotype concordance of all assays compared to cell culture isolation and negative results obtained when 21 normal human sera and plasma samples were tested. Our results demonstrate that the dengue virus TaqMan RT-PCR assays may be utilized as rapid, sensitive, and specific screening and serotyping tools for epidemiological studies of dengue virus infections. PMID:11682539

  18. Micronutrient deficiencies are common in 6- to 8-year-old children of rural Nepal, with prevalence estimates modestly affected by inflammation.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Kerry J; Christian, Parul; Wu, Lee S F; Arguello, Margia; Cui, Hongjie; Nanayakkara-Bind, Ashika; Stewart, Christine P; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven; West, Keith P

    2014-06-01

    Subclinical micronutrient deficiencies remain a hidden aspect of malnutrition for which comprehensive data are lacking in school-aged children. We assessed the micronutrient status of Nepalese children, aged 6 to 8 y, born to mothers who participated in a community-based antenatal micronutrient supplementation trial from 1999 to 2001. Of 3305 participants, plasma indicators were assessed in a random sample of 1000 children. Results revealed deficiencies of vitamins A (retinol <0.70 μmol/L, 8.5%), D (25-hydroxyvitamin D <50 nmol/L, 17.2%), E (α-tocopherol <9.3 μmol/L, 17.9%), K (decarboxy prothombin >2 μg/L, 20%), B-12 (cobalamin <150 pmol/L, 18.1%), B-6 [pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) <20 nmol/L, 43.1%], and β-carotene (41.5% <0.09 μmol/L), with little folate deficiency (6.2% <13.6 nmol/L). Deficiencies of iron [ferritin <15 μg/L, 10.7%; transferrin receptor (TfR) >8.3 mg/L, 40.1%; TfR:ferritin >500 μg/μg, 14.3%], iodine (thyroglobulin >40 μg/L, 11.4%), and selenium (plasma selenium <0.89 μmol/L, 59.0%) were observed, whereas copper deficiency was nearly absent (plasma copper <11.8 μmol/L, 0.7%). Hemoglobin was not assessed. Among all children, 91.7% experienced at least 1 micronutrient deficiency, and 64.7% experienced multiple deficiencies. Inflammation (α-1 acid glycoprotein >1 g/L, C-reactive protein >5 mg/L, or both) was present in 31.6% of children, affecting the prevalence of deficiency as assessed by retinol, β-carotene, PLP, ferritin, TfR, selenium, copper, or having any or multiple deficiencies. For any nutrient, population deficiency prevalence estimates were altered by ≤5.4% by the presence of inflammation, suggesting that the majority of deficiencies exist regardless of inflammation. Multiple micronutrient deficiencies coexist in school-aged children in rural Nepal, meriting more comprehensive strategies for their assessment and prevention. PMID:24744314

  19. Live, attenuated coronavirus vaccines through the directed deletion of group-specific genes provide protection against feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Haijema, Bert Jan; Volders, Haukeline; Rottier, Peter J M

    2004-04-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal immunity-mediated disease caused by mutants of a ubiquitous coronavirus. Since previous attempts to protect cats under laboratory and field conditions have been largely unsuccessful, we used our recently developed system of reverse genetics (B. J. Haijema, H. Volders, and P. J. M. Rottier, J. Virol. 77:4528-4538, 2003) for the development of a modified live FIP vaccine. With this objective, we deleted the group-specific gene cluster open reading frame 3abc or 7ab and obtained deletion mutant viruses that not only multiplied well in cell culture but also showed an attenuated phenotype in the cat. At doses at which the wild-type virus would be fatal, the mutants with gene deletions did not cause any clinical symptoms. They still induced an immune response, however, as judged from the high levels of virus-neutralizing antibodies. The FIP virus (FIPV) mutant lacking the 3abc cluster and, to a lesser extent, the mutant missing the 7ab cluster, protected cats against a lethal homologous challenge; no protection was obtained with the mutant devoid of both gene clusters. Our studies show that the deletion of group-specific genes from the coronavirus genome results in live attenuated candidate vaccines against FIPV. More generally, our approach may allow the development of vaccines against infections with other pathogenic coronaviruses, including that causing severe acute respiratory syndrome in humans.

  20. Prevalence and characteristics of women at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) in the United States: estimates from the National Survey of Family Growth.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Michael J; Guo, Jing; Denny, Clark H; Green, Patricia P; Miracle, Heidi; Sniezek, Joseph E; Floyd, R Louise

    2015-04-01

    Non-pregnant women can avoid alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEPs) by modifying drinking and/or contraceptive practices. The purpose of this study was to estimate the number and characteristics of women in the United States who are at risk of AEPs. We analyzed data from in-person interviews obtained from a national probability sample (i.e., the National Survey of Family Growth) of reproductive-aged women conducted from January 2002 to March 2003. To be at risk of AEP, a woman had to have met the following criteria in the last month: (1) was drinking; (2) had vaginal intercourse with a man; and (3) did not use contraception. During a 1-month period, nearly 2 million U.S. women were at risk of an AEP (95 % confidence interval 1,760,079-2,288,104), including more than 600,000 who were binge drinking. Thus, 3.4 %, or 1 in 30, of all non-pregnant women were at risk of an AEP. Most demographic and behavioral characteristics were not clearly associated with AEP risk. However, pregnancy intention was strongly associated with AEP risk (prevalence ratio = 12.0, P < 0.001) because women often continued to drink even after they stopped using contraception. Nearly 2 million U.S. women are at AEP risk and therefore at risk of having children born with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. For pregnant women and women intending a pregnancy, there is an urgent need for wider implementation of prevention programs and policy approaches that can reduce the risk for this serious public health problem.

  1. Discordance between Prevalent Vertebral Fracture and Vertebral Strength Estimated by the Finite Element Method Based on Quantitative Computed Tomography in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Bone fragility is increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but a useful method to estimate bone fragility in T2DM patients is lacking because bone mineral density alone is not sufficient to assess the risk of fracture. This study investigated the association between prevalent vertebral fractures (VFs) and the vertebral strength index estimated by the quantitative computed tomography-based nonlinear finite element method (QCT-based nonlinear FEM) using multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) for clinical practice use. Research Design and Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on 54 postmenopausal women and 92 men over 50 years of age, all of whom had T2DM. The vertebral strength index was compared in patients with and without VFs confirmed by spinal radiographs. A standard FEM procedure was performed with the application of known parameters for the bone material properties obtained from nondiabetic subjects. Results A total of 20 women (37.0%) and 39 men (42.4%) with VFs were identified. The vertebral strength index was significantly higher in the men than in the women (P<0.01). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the vertebral strength index was significantly and positively correlated with the spinal bone mineral density (BMD) and inversely associated with age in both genders. There were no significant differences in the parameters, including the vertebral strength index, between patients with and without VFs. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, spine BMD, BMI, HbA1c, and duration of T2DM did not indicate a significant relationship between the vertebral strength index and the presence of VFs. Conclusion The vertebral strength index calculated by QCT-based nonlinear FEM using material property parameters obtained from nondiabetic subjects, whose risk of fracture is lower than that of T2DM patients, was not significantly associated with bone fragility in patients with T2DM. This discordance

  2. Comparison of the information provided by electronic health records data and a population health survey to estimate prevalence of selected health conditions and multimorbidity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health surveys (HS) are a well-established methodology for measuring the health status of a population. The relative merit of using information based on HS versus electronic health records (EHR) to measure multimorbidity has not been established. Our study had two objectives: 1) to measure and compare the prevalence and distribution of multimorbidity in HS and EHR data, and 2) to test specific hypotheses about potential differences between HS and EHR reporting of diseases with a symptoms-based diagnosis and those requiring diagnostic testing. Methods Cross-sectional study using data from a periodic HS conducted by the Catalan government and from EHR covering 80% of the Catalan population aged 15 years and older. We determined the prevalence of 27 selected health conditions in both data sources, calculated the prevalence and distribution of multimorbidity (defined as the presence of ≥2 of the selected conditions), and determined multimorbidity patterns. We tested two hypotheses: a) health conditions requiring diagnostic tests for their diagnosis and management would be more prevalent in the EHR; and b) symptoms-based health problems would be more prevalent in the HS data. Results We analysed 15,926 HS interviews and 1,597,258 EHRs. The profile of the EHR sample was 52% women, average age 47 years (standard deviation: 18.8), and 68% having at least one of the selected health conditions, the 3 most prevalent being hypertension (20%), depression or anxiety (16%) and mental disorders (15%). Multimorbidity was higher in HS than in EHR data (60% vs. 43%, respectively, for ages 15-75+, P <0.001, and 91% vs. 83% in participants aged ≥65 years, P <0.001). The most prevalent multimorbidity cluster was cardiovascular. Circulation disorders (other than varicose veins), chronic allergies, neck pain, haemorrhoids, migraine or frequent headaches and chronic constipation were more prevalent in the HS. Most symptomatic conditions (71%) had a higher prevalence in

  3. Detection of circulating trypanosomal antigens in Trypanosoma evansi-infected animals using a T. brucei group-specific monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Nantulya, V M; Bajyana Songa, E; Hamers, R

    1989-09-01

    An antigen-detection enzyme immunoassay based on a T. brucei group-specific monoclonal antibody was used for the detection of circulating antigens in several animal species experimentally infected with T. evansi stocks from Sudan, Indonesia, Thailand and South America. Circulating antigens were detected as early as 6 days after infection, and they persisted throughout the observation period of up to 60 days postinfection. In an analysis of sera from naturally infected water buffaloes from Thailand, the test identified all the animals with positive parasitological findings, and 3 additional cases that had not been diagnosed by parasitological techniques. In an analysis of sera from pigs on a farm in Thailand suspected of a T. evansi outbreak, the assay detected "antigenaemia" in 66.7% of the animals, with antigen titres ranging from 1:2 to 1.512.

  4. The Prevalence of Syphilis in England and Wales on the Eve of the Great War: Re-visiting the Estimates of the Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases 1913–1916

    PubMed Central

    Szreter, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Public fears of widespread venereal disease led in 1913 to the appointment of The Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases (RCVD). In 1916 its Final Report offered only a single cautious and somewhat imprecise summary statement about the likely prevalence of venereal diseases in England and Wales. Although the significance of contemporary attitudes to venereal disease has attracted a good deal of historiographic attention, no historian or demographer has since investigated this aspect of the Royal Commission's work. This article critically re-examines the most important quantitative evidence presented to the Royal Commission relating to the years immediately prior to the First World War. It utilises this evidence to produce new estimates of the probable prevalence of syphilis among adult males, both nationally and among certain geographical divisions and social groups in the national population; and also to offer a comment on the likely prevalence of gonorrhoea. PMID:25067890

  5. The Prevalence of Syphilis in England and Wales on the Eve of the Great War: Re-visiting the Estimates of the Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases 1913-1916.

    PubMed

    Szreter, Simon

    2014-08-01

    Public fears of widespread venereal disease led in 1913 to the appointment of The Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases (RCVD). In 1916 its Final Report offered only a single cautious and somewhat imprecise summary statement about the likely prevalence of venereal diseases in England and Wales. Although the significance of contemporary attitudes to venereal disease has attracted a good deal of historiographic attention, no historian or demographer has since investigated this aspect of the Royal Commission's work. This article critically re-examines the most important quantitative evidence presented to the Royal Commission relating to the years immediately prior to the First World War. It utilises this evidence to produce new estimates of the probable prevalence of syphilis among adult males, both nationally and among certain geographical divisions and social groups in the national population; and also to offer a comment on the likely prevalence of gonorrhoea.

  6. The Prevalence of Syphilis in England and Wales on the Eve of the Great War: Re-visiting the Estimates of the Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases 1913-1916.

    PubMed

    Szreter, Simon

    2014-08-01

    Public fears of widespread venereal disease led in 1913 to the appointment of The Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases (RCVD). In 1916 its Final Report offered only a single cautious and somewhat imprecise summary statement about the likely prevalence of venereal diseases in England and Wales. Although the significance of contemporary attitudes to venereal disease has attracted a good deal of historiographic attention, no historian or demographer has since investigated this aspect of the Royal Commission's work. This article critically re-examines the most important quantitative evidence presented to the Royal Commission relating to the years immediately prior to the First World War. It utilises this evidence to produce new estimates of the probable prevalence of syphilis among adult males, both nationally and among certain geographical divisions and social groups in the national population; and also to offer a comment on the likely prevalence of gonorrhoea. PMID:25067890

  7. Diversity of methane-cycling archaea in hydrothermal sediment investigated by general and group-specific PCR primers.

    PubMed

    Lever, Mark A; Teske, Andreas P

    2015-02-01

    The zonation of anaerobic methane-cycling Archaea in hydrothermal sediment of Guaymas Basin was studied by general primerpairs (mcrI, ME1/ME2, mcrIRD) targeting the alpha subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase gene (mcrA) and by new group specific mcrA and 16S rRNA gene primer pairs. The mcrIRD primer pair outperformed the other general mcrA primer pairs indetection sensitivity and phylogenetic coverage. Methanotrophic ANME-1 Archaea were the only group detected with group specific primers only. The detection of 14 mcrA lineages surpasses the diversity previously found in this location. Most phylotypes have high sequence similarities to hydrogenotrophs, methylotrophs, and anaerobic methanotrophs previously detected at Guaymas Basin or at hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, and oil reservoirs worldwide. Additionally, five mcrA phylotypes belonging to newly defined lineages are detected. Two of these belong to deeply branching new orders, while the others are new species or genera of Methanopyraceae and Methermicoccaceae. Downcore diversity decreases from all groups detected in the upper 6 cm(2 to 40 °C, sulfate measurable to 4 cm) to only two groups below 6 cm (>40 °C). Despite the presence of hyperthermophilic genera (Methanopyrus, Methanocaldococcus) in cooler surface strata, no genes were detected below 10 cm (>60 °C). While mcrAbased and 16S rRNA gene-based community compositions are generally congruent, the deeply branching mcrA cannot be assigned to specific 16S rRNA gene lineages. Our study indicates that even among well-studied metabolic groups and in previously characterized model environments, major evolutionary branches are overlooked. Detecting these groups by improved molecular biological methods is a crucial first step toward understanding their roles in nature.

  8. Diversity of Methane-Cycling Archaea in Hydrothermal Sediment Investigated by General and Group-Specific PCR Primers

    PubMed Central

    Teske, Andreas P.

    2014-01-01

    The zonation of anaerobic methane-cycling Archaea in hydrothermal sediment of Guaymas Basin was studied by general primer pairs (mcrI, ME1/ME2, mcrIRD) targeting the alpha subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase gene (mcrA) and by new group-specific mcrA and 16S rRNA gene primer pairs. The mcrIRD primer pair outperformed the other general mcrA primer pairs in detection sensitivity and phylogenetic coverage. Methanotrophic ANME-1 Archaea were the only group detected with group-specific primers only. The detection of 14 mcrA lineages surpasses the diversity previously found in this location. Most phylotypes have high sequence similarities to hydrogenotrophs, methylotrophs, and anaerobic methanotrophs previously detected at Guaymas Basin or at hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, and oil reservoirs worldwide. Additionally, five mcrA phylotypes belonging to newly defined lineages are detected. Two of these belong to deeply branching new orders, while the others are new species or genera of Methanopyraceae and Methermicoccaceae. Downcore diversity decreases from all groups detected in the upper 6 cm (∼2 to 40°C, sulfate measurable to 4 cm) to only two groups below 6 cm (>40°C). Despite the presence of hyperthermophilic genera (Methanopyrus, Methanocaldococcus) in cooler surface strata, no genes were detected below 10 cm (≥60°C). While mcrA-based and 16S rRNA gene-based community compositions are generally congruent, the deeply branching mcrA cannot be assigned to specific 16S rRNA gene lineages. Our study indicates that even among well-studied metabolic groups and in previously characterized model environments, major evolutionary branches are overlooked. Detecting these groups by improved molecular biological methods is a crucial first step toward understanding their roles in nature. PMID:25527539

  9. Design and testing of a functional group-specific DNA probe for the study of natural populations of acetogenic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Lovell, C R; Hui, Y

    1991-01-01

    The acetogens, although phylogenetically diverse, can be characterized by their possession of the acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) pathway for autotrophic CO2 fixation. The gene encoding formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, a key enzyme of the acetyl-CoA pathway, was previously cloned from the thermophilic acetogen Clostridium thermoaceticum and has now been tested as a group-specific probe for acetogens. Stable hybrids were formed between the probe and single DNA fragments from eight known acetogens representing six genera. A hybrid was also formed between the probe and a DNA fragment from one sulfate reducer known to be capable of both autotrophic CO2 fixation and acetate catabolism. No such hybrid was formed between the probe and DNA from a homoacetate fermenter not known to use the acetyl-CoA pathway, with two known formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase-producing purine fermenters, or with DNA from 27 other species representing 16 genera of organisms that do not use the acetyl-CoA pathway. DNA purified from cells extracted from horse manure was also screened with the acetogen probe. Six hybrids, indicating at least six detectable acetogen "strains," were observed. Images PMID:1768134

  10. Comparison of Respondent Driven Sampling Estimators to Determine HIV Prevalence and Population Characteristics among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Moscow, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Andrea L.; Mehta, Shruti H.; Latkin, Carl; Zelaya, Carla E.; Galai, Noya; Peryshkina, Alena; Mogilnyi, Vladimir; Dzhigun, Petr; Kostetskaya, Irina; Beyrer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Analytically distinct estimators have been proposed for the calculation of population-based estimates derived from respondent-driven sampling (RDS), yet there have been few comparisons of the inferences from these estimators using empirical data. We compared estimates produced by unweighted analysis used to calculate sample proportions and by three available estimators that are used to calculate population proportions, RDS-I, RDS-II (Volz-Heckathorn), and Gile’s RDS-SS. Data were derived from a cross-sectional, RDS study of men who have sex with men (MSM) conducted from October 2010 to April 2013 in Moscow, Russia (N = 1,376, recruitment depth: 31 waves). Analyses investigated the influence of key parameters: recruitment depth, homophily, and network size on sample and population estimates. Variability in results produced by the estimators and recruitment depth were statistically compared using the coefficient of variation (CV). Sample proportions had the least variability across different recruitment depths, compared to the RDS estimators. Population estimates tended to differ at lower recruitment depth but were approximately equal after reaching sampling equilibrium, highlighting the importance of sampling to greater recruitment depth. All estimators incorporate inverse probability weighting using self-reported network size, explaining the similarities in across population estimates and the difference of these estimates relative to sample proportions. Current biases and limitations associated with RDS estimators are discussed. PMID:27248818

  11. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Luxembourg according to the Joint Interim Statement definition estimated from the ORISCAV-LUX study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) has been determined in many countries worldwide but never in Luxembourg. This research aimed to 1) establish the gender- and age-specific prevalence of MS and its components in the general adult population of Luxembourg, according to the most recent Joint Interim Statement (JIS) definition, by using both the high and low cut-off points to define abdominal obesity, and 2) compare and assess the degree of agreement with the Revised National Cholesterol Education Programme-Adult Treatment Panel III (R-ATPIII) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions. Methods A representative stratified random sample of 1349 European subjects, aged 18-69 years, participated to ORISCAV-LUX survey. Logistic regression and odds ratios (OR) were used to study MS prevalence with respect to gender and age. The Framingham risk score (FRS) to predict the 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk was calculated to compare the proportion of MS cases below or above 20%, according to both high and low waist circumference (WC) thresholds. Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) was utilized to measure the degree of agreement between MS definitions. Results The prevalence of the MS defined by the JIS was 28.0% and 24.7% when using the low (94/80) and the high (102/88) WC cut-off points, respectively. The prevalence was significantly higher in men than in women (OR = 2.6 and 2.3 for the low and high WC thresholds), as were all components of the MS except abdominal obesity measured by both thresholds. It also increased with age (OR values in age categories ranging from 2.7 to 28 when compared to the younger subjects for low WC and from 3.3 to 31 for the high WC cut-offs). The 10-year predicted risk of CHD by FRS did not depend on the threshold used. Globally, excellent agreement was observed between the three definitions of MS (κ= 0.89), in particular between JIS and IDF (κ = 0.93). Agreement was significantly higher in women than in

  12. Measuring IPDE-SQ personality disorder prevalence in pre-sentence and early-stage prison populations, with sub-type estimates.

    PubMed

    Slade, Karen; Forrester, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the prevalence and type of personality disorder within prison systems allows for the effective targeting of resources to implement strategies to alleviate symptoms, manage behaviour and attempt to reduce re-offending. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of personality disorder (PD) traits within a local urban high-turnover adult male prison with a remand/recently sentenced population in London, UK. The International Personality Disorder Examination - Screening Questionnaire (IPDE-SQ) self-administered questionnaire (ICD-10 version) was completed by 283 prisoners (42% completion rate). 77% of respondents reached the threshold for one or more PDs. The most common PD types were Paranoid PD (44.5%), Anankastic PD (40.3%), Schizoid PD (35%) and Dissocial PD (25.8%). These results confirm and extend existing knowledge regarding the prevalence of PD in prison populations into a high-turnover, urban, remand population. The stark comparison with community samples indicates that a more equitable standard of service delivery within the criminal justice system, focussing on preventive and early intervention services, is now required.

  13. Production of Group Specific Monoclonal Antibody to Aflatoxins and its Application to Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Cha, Sang-Ho; Karyn, Bischoff; Park, Sung-Won; Son, Seong-Wan

    2011-01-01

    Through the present study, we produced a monoclonal antibody against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) using AFB1- carboxymethoxylamine BSA conjugates. One clone showing high binding ability was selected and it was applied to develop a direct competitive ELISA system. The epitope densities of AFB1-CMO against BSA and KLH were about 1 : 6 and 1 : 545, respectively. The monoclonal antibody (mAb) from cloned hybridoma cell was the IgG1 subclass with λ-type light chains. The IC50s of the monoclonal antibody developed for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were 4.36, 7.22, 6.61 and 29.41 ng/ml, respectively, based on the AFB1-KLH coated ELISA system and 15.28, 26.62, 32.75 and 56.67 ng/ml, respectively, based on the mAb coated ELISA. Cross-relativities of mAb to AFB1 for AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were 60.47, 65.97 and 14.83% in the AFB1-KLH coated ELISA, and 59.41, 46.66 and 26.97% in the mAb coated ELISA, respectively. Quantitative calculations for AFB1 from the AFB1-Ab ELISA and AFB1-Ag ELISA ranged from 0.25 to 25 ng/ml (R2 > 0.99) and from 1 to 100 ng/ml (R2 > 0.99), respectively. The intra- and inter-assay precision CVs were < 10% in both ELISA assay, representing good reproducibility of developed assay. Recoveries ranged from 79.18 to 91.27%, CVs ranged from 3.21 to 7.97% after spiking AFB1 at concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 ng/ml and following by extraction with 70% methanol solution in the Ab-coated ELISA. In conclusion, we produced a group specific mAb against aflatoxins and developed two direct competitive ELISAs for the detection of AFB1 in feeds based on a monoclonal antibody developed. PMID:24278561

  14. Prevalence of obesity in Bombay.

    PubMed

    Dhurandhar, N V; Kulkarni, P R

    1992-05-01

    Obesity has been reported in developed as well as developing countries. However, data on a large sample of the Indian population are lacking. This study analysed the prevalence of obesity among 1,784 adults in Bombay from various sections of society. Since the prevalence of obesity depends upon the criteria used, prevalence was judged by three criteria viz. percentage excess of body weight, body mass index, and body fat content. The data were classified and analysed according to occupation, age group, income, diet type, and also with respect to family history of obesity. The three methods gave a different prevalence of obesity. In general, the criterion of body mass index under-estimated, and body fat content over-estimated the prevalence as compared to that obtained by percentage excess body weight. An extremely high prevalence of obesity was found in all sub-groups of the sample. As judged by a body mass index of 25 and above, male students had the lowest (10.7%) and male medical doctors had the highest (53.1%) prevalence of obesity. Prevalence was highest for the age group 31-50 years for males and females, and declined on either side of this age range. Prevalence was directly proportional to financial income, and subjects with a family history of obesity had a greater prevalence of obesity compared to those without. This study indicates the gravity of the problem of obesity in Bombay, and provides directions for nutritional planning in the future.

  15. Multi-test analysis and model-based estimation of the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercus infection in naturally infected dairy cows in the absence of a 'gold standard' reference test.

    PubMed

    Eichenberger, R M; Lewis, F; Gabriël, S; Dorny, P; Torgerson, P R; Deplazes, P

    2013-09-01

    The diagnostic values of seven serological tests (ELISAs) and of the obligatory European Union-approved routine visual meat inspection for the detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis were investigated. A total of 793 slaughtered dairy cows were selected in three European Union approved abattoirs in Switzerland, an endemic area (apparent prevalence by enhanced meat inspection up to 4.5%) with typically low parasite burdens. ELISAs based on a somatic larval antigen, isoelectric focused somatic larval antigen, larval excretory/secretory antigens, peptide HP6-2, peptide Ts45S-10, pooled peptide solution and a monoclonal antibody antigen capture assay were initially screened. As there is no perfect diagnostic 'gold standard' reference test, the obligatory meat inspection and four selected serological tests were further analysed using Bayesian inference to estimate the "true" prevalence and the diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities. The ELISA for specific antibody detection based on excretory/secretory antigens showed highest sensitivity and specificity with 81.6% (95% credible interval: 70-92) and 96.3% (95% credible interval: 94-99), respectively. The Bayesian model estimated the specificity of the ELISA, based on the synthetic peptide Ts45S-10 as 55.2% (95% credible interval: 46-65) and sensitivity as 84.7% (95% credible interval: 82-88). The sensitivity of the ELISA based on mAbs, detecting circulating antigen, was 14.3% (95% credible interval: 9-23) with a specificity of 93.7% (95% credible interval: 92-96). The diagnostic sensitivity of the obligatory standard European Union meat inspection procedure for the detection of T. saginata cysticercus infection at the abattoir was estimated to be 15.6% (95% credible interval: 10-23). Based on these data, the modelled prevalence of cysticercosis in dairy cows presented at abattoirs in Switzerland was estimated to be 16.5% (95% credible interval: 13-21). These cattle also had a high prevalence of infection with

  16. Prevalence and demographic correlates of intimate partner violence in Asian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Doris F.; Shen, Biing-Jiun; Takeuchi, David T.

    2015-01-01

    This study provides the first national estimates of the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Asian Americans. Population estimates are based on data from 1470 Asian Americans interviewed for the National Latino and Asian American Study. Interviews were conducted in English, Chinese, Tagalog, or Vietnamese. Results suggest that rates of IPV among Asian Americans are low compared to the general U.S. population. Minor violence victimization by a current intimate partner was reported by 10.2% of women and 12.0% of Asian American men. Notably, a greater proportion of participants admitted having perpetrated IPV than having been a victim. Predictors of IPV included younger age, higher SES, alcohol- and substance-use disorders, depression, ethnicity, and being U.S.-born. Results suggest the need for additional research to examine the interactions between gender, ethnicity, and acculturation to develop group-specific models of IPV risk and resilience within diverse Asian American groups. PMID:19303638

  17. A Questionnaire-Based Survey of Indian ENT Surgeons to Estimate Clinic Prevalence of Acute Otitis Media, Diagnostic Practices, and Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    D'silva, Liesel; Parikh, Raunak; Nanivadekar, Arun; Joglekar, Sadhna

    2013-12-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is common in Indian children, but there is limited published information on its clinic prevalence, clinicians' diagnostic practices, and their management strategies. We approached 649 ear-nose-throat (ENT) surgeons to assess these aspects of AOM. We conducted the survey between May 2010 and February 2011 with the same set of ENT surgeons practising across India, once each during summer, monsoon and winter, using a validated 36-item questionnaire to record their reflective recall. 78 % (506/649) of approached ENT surgeons responded. The clinic prevalence of AOM was 43 % with peaks reported in July and December. 96 % (486/506) of the surgeons used otoscopy to diagnose AOM. 86 % (435/506) prescribed analgesics, and 89 % (449/506) prescribed decongestants. 98 % (495/506) treated AOM with an antibiotic at initial consultation: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 78 % (395/506), amoxicillin 29 % (144/506), cefpodoxime 29 % (149/506), cefixime 28 % (141/506) and azithromycin 27 % (134/506). Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 32 % (162/506) and cefpodoxime 27% (137/506) were mostly prescribed for relapse. The average reported duration of initial antibiotic therapy was 7 days and for relapse was 9 days. The reported clinic prevalence of AOM was higher (43 %) than anticipated (about 10 %) in ENT practice. Almost all the ENT surgeons used an otoscope to diagnose AOM. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was the preferred antibiotic for treating AOM either initially or for relapse. Most surgeons also used analgesics and decongestants for symptomatic relief. PMID:24427717

  18. First evidence of Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1) in spiny lobster from Cuba and clinical estimation of its prevalence.

    PubMed

    Cruz Quintana, Yanis; Rodríguez Canul, Rossanna; Vidal Martínez, Victor M

    2011-01-21

    The present study documents the first finding of Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1) in spiny lobster Panulirus argus from Cuba. Samples originated from 2 nursery sites, Matias Keys and Bocas de Alonso Keys, and 2 fishing sites, La Grifa and El Ramajo. Lobsters from the nursery sites (artificial reefs) were collected by SCUBA diving, while those from the fishing sites were collected from artificial shelters known as 'casitas cubanas'. In these shelters it was observed that healthy lobsters tended to avoid infected lobsters. Prevalence of PaV1 in the sampling sites was assessed by using clinical signs such as lethargy, an opaque reddish shell coloration, and milky white hemolymph with loss of clotting activity. The presence of PaV1 was subsequently confirmed by histology and PCR of tissues and hemolymph samples from suspected individuals. Histological sections of the hepatopancreas, gills, gonads, and gut showed infected hemocytes with hypertrophied nuclei and eosinophilic intranuclear Cowdry type A inclusions. A 499 bp band was observed by PCR. The sequence of the amplified fragments was 96% similar to the PaV1 sequence in GenBank. The overall mean prevalence of PaV1 was 4.48% (range: 0 to 9.3%) after pooling the results of the 4 sampling sites.

  19. Tests on the centrifugal flotation technique and its use in estimating the prevalence of Toxocara in soil samples from urban and suburban areas of Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Loh, A G; Israf, D A

    1998-03-01

    The influence of soil texture (silt, sand and laterite) and flotation solutions (saturated NaCl, sucrose, NaNO3, and ZnSO4) upon the recovery of Toxocara ova from seeded soil samples with the centrifugal flotation technique was investigated. Soil samples of different texture were artificially seeded with Toxocara spp. ova and subjected to a centrifugal flotation technique which used various flotation solutions. The results showed significant (P < 0.001) interactions between the soil types and the flotation solutions. The highest percentage of ova recovery was obtained with silty soil (34.9-100.8%) with saturated NaCl as the flotation solution (45.3-100.8%). A combination of washing of soil samples with 0.1% Tween 80, and flotation using saturated NaCl and a 30 min coverslip recovery period was used to study the prevalence of contamination of soil samples. Forty-six soil samples were collected from up to 24 public parks/playgrounds in urban areas of Petaling Jaya and suburban areas of Serdang. The prevalence of Toxocara species in the urban and suburban areas was 54.5% and 45.8% respectively. PMID:9639899

  20. Tests on the centrifugal flotation technique and its use in estimating the prevalence of Toxocara in soil samples from urban and suburban areas of Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Loh, A G; Israf, D A

    1998-03-01

    The influence of soil texture (silt, sand and laterite) and flotation solutions (saturated NaCl, sucrose, NaNO3, and ZnSO4) upon the recovery of Toxocara ova from seeded soil samples with the centrifugal flotation technique was investigated. Soil samples of different texture were artificially seeded with Toxocara spp. ova and subjected to a centrifugal flotation technique which used various flotation solutions. The results showed significant (P < 0.001) interactions between the soil types and the flotation solutions. The highest percentage of ova recovery was obtained with silty soil (34.9-100.8%) with saturated NaCl as the flotation solution (45.3-100.8%). A combination of washing of soil samples with 0.1% Tween 80, and flotation using saturated NaCl and a 30 min coverslip recovery period was used to study the prevalence of contamination of soil samples. Forty-six soil samples were collected from up to 24 public parks/playgrounds in urban areas of Petaling Jaya and suburban areas of Serdang. The prevalence of Toxocara species in the urban and suburban areas was 54.5% and 45.8% respectively.

  1. Characterization of the inhabitancy of mouse intestinal bacteria (MIB) in rodents and humans by real-time PCR with group-specific primers.

    PubMed

    Kibe, Ryoko; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Yokota, Hiroshi; Benno, Yoshimi

    2007-01-01

    Mouse intestinal bacteria (MIB) is a new operational taxonomic unit (OTU) belonging to the Bacteroides subgroup in the Cytophaga-Flavobacter-Bacteroides (CFB) phylum recently found in the intestine of mice, rats and humans. However, their characters are still unknown since they have not yet been isolated by culture. To understand their habitat characteristics in intestinal tracts, the quantification assays of MIB were established using MIB group-specific primers. The MIB population in the intestine was evaluated as a percentage of the number of 16S rRNA gene copy of MIB. A real-time PCR assay using group specific primers showed the fluctuation of MIB inhabitancy and revealed that the MIB population in the small intestine of mice was significantly lower than the large intestinal contents. Moreover, MIB was found in human feces though the number was lower than in murine. This assay using group-specific primers revealed new information about host-preference of MIB. PMID:17446674

  2. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus group-specific open reading frames encode nonessential functions for replication in cell cultures and mice.

    PubMed

    Yount, Boyd; Roberts, Rhonda S; Sims, Amy C; Deming, Damon; Frieman, Matthew B; Sparks, Jennifer; Denison, Mark R; Davis, Nancy; Baric, Ralph S

    2005-12-01

    SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) encodes several unique group-specific open reading frames (ORFs) relative to other known coronaviruses. To determine the significance of the SARS-CoV group-specific ORFs in virus replication in vitro and in mice, we systematically deleted five of the eight group-specific ORFs, ORF3a, OF3b, ORF6, ORF7a, and ORF7b, and characterized recombinant virus replication and gene expression in vitro. Deletion of the group-specific ORFs of SARS-CoV, either alone or in various combinations, did not dramatically influence replication efficiency in cell culture or in the levels of viral RNA synthesis. The greatest reduction in virus growth was noted following ORF3a deletion. SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein does not encode a rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER)/Golgi retention signal, and it has been suggested that ORF3a interacts with and targets S glycoprotein retention in the rER/Golgi apparatus. Deletion of ORF3a did not alter subcellular localization of the S glycoprotein from distinct punctuate localization in the rER/Golgi apparatus. These data suggest that ORF3a plays little role in the targeting of S localization in the rER/Golgi apparatus. In addition, insertion of the 29-bp deletion fusing ORF8a/b into the single ORF8, noted in early-stage SARS-CoV human and civet cat isolates, had little if any impact on in vitro growth or RNA synthesis. All recombinant viruses replicated to wild-type levels in the murine model, suggesting that either the group-specific ORFs play little role in in vivo replication efficiency or that the mouse model is not of sufficient quality for discerning the role of the group-specific ORFs in disease origin and development. PMID:16282490

  3. Patient-reported side effects, concerns and adherence to corticosteroid treatment for asthma, and comparison with physician estimates of side-effect prevalence: a UK-wide, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Vanessa; Metcalf, Leanne; Versnel, Jenny; Upton, Jane; Walker, Samantha; Horne, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-adherence to corticosteroid treatment has been shown to reduce treatment efficacy, thus compromising asthma control. Aims: To examine the experiences of treatment side effects, treatment concerns and adherence to inhaled (ICS) and oral corticosteroids (OCS) among people with asthma and to identify the degree of concordance between clinician estimates of side effects and the prevalence reported by patients. Methods: Asthma UK members were sent validated questionnaires assessing treatment concerns, experiences of side effects and adherence. Questionnaires measuring clinicians’ estimates of the prevalence of corticosteroid side effects were completed online. Results: Completed questionnaires were returned by 1,524 people taking ICS, 233 taking OCS and 244 clinicians (67% of clinicians were primary care nurses). Among people with asthma, 64% of those taking ICS and 88% of those taking OCS reported ⩾1 side effect. People reporting high adherence to ICS (t=−3.09, P<0.005) and those reporting low adherence to OCS (t=1.86, P<0.05; one-tailed test) reported more side effects. There was a disparity between clinicians’ estimates of the frequency of side effects and the frequency reported by people with asthma: e.g., although 46% of people taking ICS reported sore throat, clinicians estimated that this figure would be 10%. Patients who reported side effects had stronger concerns about both ICS (r=0.46, P<0.0001) and OCS (r=0.50, P<0.0001). Concerns about corticosteroids were associated with low adherence to ICS (t=6.90, P<0.0001) and OCS (t=1.71; P<0.05; one-tailed test). Conclusions: An unexpectedly large proportion of people with asthma experienced side effects and had strong concerns about their treatment, which compromised adherence. These findings have implications for the design of interventions to optimise asthma control through improved adherence. PMID:26158805

  4. Estimating trematode prevalence in snail hosts using a single-step duplex PCR: how badly does cercarial shedding underestimate infection rates?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trematode communities often consist of different species exploiting the same host population, with two or more trematodes sometimes co-occuring in the same host. A commonly used diagnostic method to detect larval trematode infections in snails has been based on cercarial shedding, though it is often criticized as inaccurate. In the present study we compare infection prevalences determined by cercarial emission with those determined, for the first time, by molecular methods, allowing us to quantify the underestimation of single and double infections based on cercarial emission. We thus developed a duplex PCR for two host-parasite systems, to specifically differentiate between single and double infections. The Ebro samples include two morphologically similar opecoelids, whereas the Otago samples include two morphologically different larval trematodes. Methods Snails were screened for infections by incubating them individually to induce cercarial emission, thus determining infection following the “classical” detection method. Snail tissue was then removed and fixed for the duplex PCR. After obtaining ITS rDNA sequences, four species-specific primers were designed for each snail-trematode system, and duplex PCR prevalence was determined for each sample. Results from both methods were statistically compared using the McNemar’s Chi-squared test and Cohen’s Kappa Statistic for agreement between outcomes. Results Overall infection prevalences determined by duplex PCR were consistently and substantially higher than those based on cercarial shedding: among Ebro samples, between 17.9% and 60.1% more snails were found infected using the molecular method, whereas in the Otago samples, the difference was between 9.9% and 20.6%. Kappa values generally indicated a fair to substantial agreement between both detection methods, showing a lower agreement for the Ebro samples. Conclusions We demonstrate that molecular detection of single and double infections by

  5. The Use of Spatial Analysis to Estimate the Prevalence of Canine Leishmaniasis in Greece and Cyprus to Predict Its Future Variation and Relate It to Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sifaki-Pistola, Dimitra; Ntais, Pantelis; Christodoulou, Vasiliki; Mazeris, Apostolos; Antoniou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Climatic, environmental, and demographic changes favor the emergence of neglected vector-borne diseases like leishmaniasis, which is spreading through dogs, the principle host of the protozoan Leishmania infantum. Surveillance of the disease in dogs is important, because the number of infected animals in an area determines the local risk of human infection. However, dog epidemiological studies are costly. Our aim was to evaluate the Emerging Diseases in a Changing European Environment (EDEN) veterinary questionnaire as a cost-effective tool in providing reliable, spatially explicit indicators of canine leishmaniasis prevalence. For this purpose, the data from the questionnaire were compared with data from two epidemiological studies on leishmaniasis carried out in Greece and Cyprus at the same time using statistical methods and spatial statistics. Although the questionnaire data cannot provide a quantitative measure of leishmaniasis in an area, it indicates the dynamic of the disease; information is obtained in a short period of time at low cost. PMID:24957543

  6. Trends in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Prevalence and Estimated 10-Year Cardiovascular Risk Scores in a Large Untreated French Urban Population: The CARVAR 92 Study

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Carma; Beauchet, Alain; Czernichow, Sebastien; de Roquefeuil, Florence; Bourez, Alain; Mansencal, Nicolas; Dubourg, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Background Surveys measuring effectiveness of public awareness campaigns in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence have yielded equivocal findings. The aim of this study was to describe cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) changes over the years in an untreated population-based study. Methods Between 2007 and 2012, we conducted a screening campaign for CVRFs in men aged 40 to 65 yrs and women aged 50 to 70 yrs in the western suburbs of Paris. Data were complete for 20,324 participants of which 14,709 were untreated. Results The prevalence trend over six years was statistically significant for hypertension in men from 25.9% in 2007 to 21.1% in 2012 (p=0.002) and from 23% in 2007 to 12.7% in 2012 in women (p<0.0001). The prevalence trend of tobacco smoking decreased from 38.6% to 27.7% in men (p=0.0001) and from 22.6% to 16.8% in women (p=0.113). The Framingham 10-year risk for CVD decreased from 13.3 ± 8.2 % in 2007 to 11.7 ± 9.0 % in 2012 in men and from 8.0 ± 4.1 % to 5.9 ± 3.4 % in women. The 10-year risk of fatal CVD based on the European Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) decreased in men and in women (p <0.0001). Conclusions Over a 6-year period, several CVRFs have decreased in our screening campaign, leading to decrease in the 10-year risk for CVD and the 10-year risk of fatal CVD. Cardiologists should recognize the importance of community prevention programs and communication policies, particularly tobacco control and healthier diets to decrease the CVRFs in the general population. PMID:25906186

  7. Estimating the prevalence and burden of major disorders of the brain in Nepal: methodology of a nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The major disorders of the brain (MDBs), in terms of their prevalence and the burdens of ill health, disability and financial cost that they impose on individuals and society, are headache, depression and anxiety. No population-based studies have been conducted in Nepal. Aim Our purpose was to assess the prevalence and burden attributable to MDBs in Nepal in order to inform health policy. Here we report the methodology. Methods The unusual sociocultural diversity and extreme geographical variation of the country required adaptation of standard methodology. We ran pre-pilot and pilot studies before embarking on the main study. The study design was cross-sectional. The population of interest were adults aged 18–65 years who were Nepali speaking and living in Nepal. We selected, employed and trained groups of interviewers to visit randomly selected households by cold-calling. Households were selected from 15 representative districts out of 75 in the country through multistage cluster sampling. One participant was selected randomly from each household. We used structured questionnaires (the HARDSHIP questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire -Neuroticism), culturally adapted and translated into Nepali. We recorded blood pressure, weight, height and waist circumference, and altitude of each household. We implemented various quality-assurances measures. Results We completed the survey in one month, prior to onset of the monsoon. Among 2,210 selected households, all were contacted, 2,109 were eligible for the study and, from these, 2,100 adults participated. The participation rate was 99.6%. Conclusion Standard methodology was successfully applied in Nepal, with some adaptations. The sociocultural and extraordinary geographic diversity were challenging, but did not require us to compromise the scientific quality of the study. PMID:25146939

  8. Prevalence of ataxia in children

    PubMed Central

    Stoyanov, Cristina T.; Marasigan, Rhul; Jenkins, Mary E.; Konczak, Jürgen; Morton, Susanne M.; Bastian, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of childhood ataxia resulting from both genetic and acquired causes. Methods: A systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) statement. Five databases were searched for articles reporting a frequency measure (e.g., prevalence, incidence) of ataxia in children. Included articles were first grouped according to the World Health Organization (WHO) regions and subsequently classified according to etiology (genetic, acquired, or mixed). Each article was assessed for its risk of bias on the domains of sampling, measurement, and analysis. Incidence values were converted to prevalence estimates whenever possible. European prevalence estimates for different etiologies of ataxia were summed to gauge the overall prevalence of childhood ataxia. Results: One hundred fifteen articles were included in the review. More than 50% of the data originated from the Europe WHO region. Data from this region also showed the least susceptibility to bias. Little data were available for Africa and Southeast Asia. The prevalence of acquired ataxias was found to vary more greatly across regions than the genetic ataxias. Ataxic cerebral palsy was found to be a significant contributor to the overall prevalence of childhood ataxia across WHO regions. The prevalence of childhood ataxias in Europe was estimated to be ∼26/100,000 children and likely reflects a minimum prevalence worldwide. Conclusions: The findings show that ataxia is a common childhood motor disorder with a higher prevalence than previously assumed. More research concerning the epidemiology, assessment, and treatment of childhood ataxia is warranted. PMID:24285620

  9. Using Small-Area Estimation to Calculate the Prevalence of Smoking by Subcounty Geographic Areas in King County, Washington, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Laina; Wakefield, Jon; Laurent, Amy; Solet, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction King County, Washington, fares well overall in many health indicators. However, county-level data mask disparities among subcounty areas. For disparity-focused assessment, a demand exists for examining health data at subcounty levels such as census tracts and King County health reporting areas (HRAs). Methods We added a “nearest intersection” question to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and geocoded the data for subcounty geographic areas, including census tracts. To overcome small sample size at the census tract level, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to obtain smoothed estimates in cigarette smoking rates at the census tract and HRA levels. We also used multiple imputation to adjust for missing values in census tracts. Results Direct estimation of adult smoking rates at the census tract level ranged from 0% to 56% with a median of 10%. The 90% confidence interval (CI) half-width for census tract with nonzero rates ranged from 1 percentage point to 37 percentage points with a median of 13 percentage points. The smoothed-multiple–imputation rates ranged from 5% to 28% with a median of 12%. The 90% CI half-width ranged from 4 percentage points to 13 percentage points with a median of 8 percentage points. Conclusion The nearest intersection question in the BRFSS provided geocoded data at subcounty levels. The Bayesian model provided estimation with improved precision at the census tract and HRA levels. Multiple imputation can be used to account for missing geographic data. Small-area estimation, which has been used for King County public health programs, has increasingly become a useful tool to meet the demand of presenting data at more granular levels. PMID:27149070

  10. Increasing Autism Prevalence in Metropolitan New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahorodny, Walter; Shenouda, Josephine; Howell, Sandra; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Peng, Bo; Mehta, Uday

    2014-01-01

    High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder,…

  11. Development and application of a fecal antigen diagnostic sandwich ELISA for estimating prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in cattle in central Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Estuningsih, Endah; Spithill, Terry; Raadsma, Herman; Law, Ruby; Adiwinata, G; Meeusen, Els; Piedrafita, David

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of an ELISA test to detect Fasciola gigantica antigens (coproantigens) in bovine feces, with fecal egg counting and an ELISA for detecting anti-F. gigantica antibodies in serum. Monoclonal antibodies to cathepsin L were generated and used to capture this antigen in feces of infected cattle. Blood, feces, and livers were collected from 150 cattle at an abattoir in Jakarta, Indonesia, for anti-Fasciola antibodies, coproantigen detection, and F. gigantica egg and worm counts. Fluke recovery varied from 1 to 426 per host, with a mean of 32 flukes. The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of coproantigen detecting ELISA (95 and 91%, respectively) was better than the anti-F. gigantica antibody ELISA (91 and 88%, respectively) and to fecal egg counting (87 and 100%, respectively). The coproantigen ELISA was able to detect 100% of the cattle with >15 flukes. A survey of 305 cattle in central Java over a 10-mo period validated this test in the field, demonstrating a high prevalence of fascioliasis and establishing the test as a useful diagnostic method to determine patent F. gigantica infections in cattle.

  12. Prevalence of disease-specific antinuclear antibodies in general population: estimates from annual physical examinations of residents of a small town over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Nobuhide; Koshiba, Masahiro; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Tomoko; Morinobu, Sahoko; Kawano, Seiji; Kumagai, Shunichi

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the types and prevalence of disease-specific antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) and their relationship to rheumatic diseases in the general Japanese population. An immunofluorescence (IF) method was used for the first screening of ANA levels in serum samples obtained from 2181 residents of a small Japanese town. Individuals positive for IF-ANA were then further tested for disease-specific ANAs using eight enzyme immunoassays. Physical status and the presence of illness were determined by means of questionnaires and medical examinations. Based on the result of the IF-ANA assay, the rates of positive samples at 1:40 and 1:160 dilutions were 26.0 and 9.5%, respectively, with females have significantly higher positivity rates than males (P < 0.0001). Among 566 IF-ANA-positive individuals, 100 individuals were found to have 114 disease-specific ANAs. Anti-SSA/Ro, anti-centromere, and anti-U1RNP antibodies were detected in 58, 30, and 11 individuals, respectively, but anti-Sm, anti-Scl-70, and anti-Jo-1 antibodies were undetectable. Questionnaires and medical examinations revealed that among 60 disease-specific ANA-positive individuals that were available for testing, six had Sjögren's syndrome (SS), five were suspected of having SS, and five had rheumatoid arthritis. Surprisingly, 34 (57%) of the disease-specific ANA-positive individuals were clinically healthy. Anti-SSA/Ro, anti-centromere, and anti-U1RNP antibodies were quite frequent among clinically healthy Japanese subjects, although anti-Sm, anti-Scl-70, and anti-Jo-1 antibodies were not. Of the 60 individuals who tested positive for disease-specific ANAs, 30% (18/60) actually manifested systemic rheumatic diseases, while 50% showed no detectable signs or symptoms of rheumatic diseases.

  13. Prevalence and safety of off-label use of chemotherapeutic agents in older breast cancer patients: estimates from SEER-Medicare data

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Anne A.; Sima, Camelia S.; Panageas, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The practice of prescribing oncology drugs outside of the label indication is legal and may reflect standard practice. However, some off-label use is against practice guidelines and may be inappropriate. We aimed to measure the prevalence and safety of off-label use in accordance with NCCN guidelines and off-label use inconsistent with guidelines in older breast cancer patients. Patients and Methods The SEER-Medicare dataset was used to identify women diagnosed with a first primary breast cancer between 2000-2007. Intravenous chemotherapy agents were identified using Medicare claims and classified as on-label, off-label/NCCN supported or off-label/unsupported using contemporary FDA approvals and NCCN guidelines. Off-label/unsupported regimens were matched to off-label/supported and on-label regimens using 1:1:1 matching on patient factors, and hospitalization/ER admission rates were compared across indication categories using conditional logistic regression. Results 13,347 women were treated with 16,127 regimens (12% of women switched to a new regimen during followup). Sixty-four percent (10,391) of regimens were off-label/supported, 25% (3,987) were on-label and 11% (1,749) were off-label/unsupported. Drugs never supported for breast cancer accounted for 19% of off-label/unsupported use and 1% of total use. Hospitalization/ER admission occurred in 32% of off-label/unsupported regimens, compared to 27% of off-label/supported and 25% of on-label regimens (p<.0001). Conclusions Off-label use of chemotherapy without scientific support was not common in this cohort. Off-label/supported use accounted for 64% of use, reflecting the fact that widely-accepted indications are often not tested in registration trials. Off-label/supported use will likely increase as more drugs are expected to have activity across cancer sites, and understanding the safety implications of such use is critical. PMID:26733555

  14. Cardiovascular risk estimated after 13 years of follow-up in a low-incidence Mediterranean region with high-prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Murcia (south-east Spain) shows increased cardiovascular (CV) morbimortality as compared to other Spanish regions. Our objective was to assess the CV risk associated with major risk factors (RF) among adult population of Murcia. Methods A cohort of 2314 subjects (18-70 years) with full biochemical and questionnaire data was followed-up for 13 years. Incident cases of ischemic heart disease and stroke were identified by record linkage, individual questionnaires and revision of medical records. Relative risks were obtained by multivariate Cox regression stratified by age and sex, and ischemic risk attributable to CVRF was calculated. Results After more than 26276 person-years of follow-up, 57 incident ischemic events (77% men) and 37 stroke cases (62% men) were identified. Independent risk factors of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and all CV events combined, with RR ranging from 1.6 to 2.6, were total serum cholesterol ≥ 240 mg/dl (HR = 2.6, 95%CI:1.3-5.1), blood pressure levels ≥ 140/90 mmHg (HR = 2.6, 95%CI:1.4-4.8), ever tobacco smoking (HR = 2.2; 95%CI:1.1-4.5), and diabetes (HR = 2.0; 95%CI: 1.0-3.8). No increased CV risk was detected for known participants under treatment who showed cholesterol and blood pressure values below the clinical risk threshold. Smoking was significantly associated with stroke. For all events combined, the major risk factors were hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and ever use of tobacco. Despite its high prevalence, obesity was not associated to CV risk. Most of the IHD cases were attributable to smoking (44%), hypertension (38%) and hypercholesterolemia (26%). Conclusions In the Region of Murcia, smoking accounted for the largest proportion of cardiovascular risk, whereas hypertension displaced hypercholesterolemia as the second leading cause of CV disease. Our study deepens in our understanding of the cardiovascular epidemiology in Spanish areas of Mediterranean Europe with relatively high cardiovascular morbimortality

  15. [Estimation of arsenic accumulative intake and residents' health effects in an air pollution area--relationship between arsenic accumulative intake level and arsenicism prevalence].

    PubMed

    Shang, Qi; Ren, Xiuqin; Li, Jinrong

    2002-10-01

    This paper reports the results of epidemiological survey on health effects of residents exposed to arsenic in a pollution area and estimation of arsenic accumulative intake level (EAAIL) based on calculating accumulative rice consumption and via inhalation way. 795 persons were sampled randomly from the polluted area, among whom 674 persons and 83 persons were diagnosed with Chronic Arsenic Absorption (CAA) and Chronic Arsenicism (CA) according to the National Diagnose Standard respectively. There were 60.98% CAA in 30 years old and younger age-groups and 97.59% CA in 30 years old and older age-groups. The one youngest case of CA occurred in 15 years old age group, while its EAAIL was at 1846.47 mg. The highest EAAIL was at 8706.47 mg. The rate of CA had gone obviously up at 30 years old age group. Its EAAIL was at 3833.42 mg. One equation of relationship between the rate of CA (%) and EAAIL (mg) was fitted by means of curve fitting, its is followed: Y = X1.843/e12.694 -2.866, r2 = 0.945.

  16. Estimating the Prevalence and Predictors of Incorrect Condom Use Among Sexually Active Adults in Kenya: Results From a Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Michael A.; Schwarcz, Sandra; Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Musyoki, Helgar; Kambona, Caroline; Kellogg, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Condom use continues to be an important primary prevention tool to reduce the acquisition and transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. However, incorrect use of condoms can reduce their effectiveness. Methods Using data from a 2012 nationally representative cross-sectional household survey conducted in Kenya, we analyzed a subpopulation of sexually active adults and estimated the percent that used condoms incorrectly during sex, and the type of condom errors. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine variables to be independently associated with incorrect condom use. Results Among 13,720 adolescents and adults, 8014 were sexually active in the previous 3 months (60.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 59.0–61.7). Among those who used a condom with a sex partner, 20% (95% CI, 17.4–22.6) experienced at least one instance of incorrect condom use in the previous 3 months. Of incorrect condom users, condom breakage or leakage was the most common error (52%; 95% CI, 44.5–59.6). Factors found to be associated with incorrect condom use were multiple sexual partnerships in the past 12 months (2 partners: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0–2.0; P = 0.03; ≥3: aOR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.5–3.5; P < 0.01) and reporting symptoms of a sexually transmitted infection (aOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.8–4.3; P < 0.01). Conclusions Incorrect condom use is frequent among sexually active Kenyans and this may translate into substantial HIV transmission. Further understanding of the dynamics of condom use and misuse, in the broader context of other prevention strategies, will aid program planners in the delivery of appropriate interventions aimed at limiting such errors. PMID:26766524

  17. Trends in cancer prevalence in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Louchini, Rabia; Beaupré, Michel; Demers, Alain A; Goggin, Patricia; Bouchard, Clermont

    2006-01-01

    Cancer prevalence is of prime interest in public health because of its use in estimating the disease's burden on the heath care system. This study's objective was to estimate five-year prevalence of tumours from 1989 to 1999 and ten-year prevalence of tumours from 1994 to 1999 in the Province of Quebec (Canada). Five-year prevalence was used to represent tumours for which people are more likely to obtain primary treatment; ten-year prevalence included those tumours in addition to tumours that can be considered cured but still need follow-up. Information was extracted from the Quebec Cancer Registry. Prostate cancer was the most prevalent malignancy among males (25 percent, five-year prevalent tumours), while breast cancer was most prevalent among females (38 percent, five-year prevalent tumours). For both sexes, the greatest observed prevalence increase was for endocrine glands. On average, five-year prevalence proportions were 16 percent higher in men than in women; those of ten year were 14 percent higher in men. Furthermore, the largest differences were observed for bladder and lung cancer. The change in cancer prevalence in Quebec was dependent on the tumour site. PMID:17306062

  18. Socioeconomic determinants of prostate-specific antigen testing and estimation of the prevalence of undiagnosed prostate cancer in an elderly Polish population based on the PolSenior study

    PubMed Central

    Prajsner, Andrzej; Szybalska, Aleksandra; Piotrowicz, Karolina; Zejda, Jan; Więcek, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Socioeconomic determinants of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and prevalence of undiagnosed prostate cancer (PCa) in the Polish population are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with PSA testing in elderly Polish men, and estimate the size of the population at risk of PCa related to PSA non-testing. Material and methods We analyzed questionnaire-derived data concerning PSA testing, obtained in 2567 elderly and 332 younger (age: 55–59) participants of the population-based PolSenior study. Additionally, PSA was measured in 2414 subjects. Results The PSA had previously been tested in 41.2% of elderly and in 24.8% of younger participants. Non-smoking status (OR = 2.06, p < 0.001), higher personal income (OR = 1.56, p < 0.001), better education (OR = 1.49, p = 0.001), previous white-collar work (OR = 1.37, p = 0.005), alcohol abstinence (OR = 1.28, p = 0.02), married status (OR = 1.24, p = 0.04), dependence in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) but not in Activities of Daily Living (ADL) (OR = 0.65, p < 0.001), and dependence in ADL (OR = 0.55, p < 0.001) were independent predictors of previous PSA testing in elderly participants. There were 31 elderly previously treated for PCa (calculated standardized prevalence: 935 per 100,000 elderly population). The PSA levels > 4 ng/ml were found in 12.8% of 65–74-year-old and 4.5% of 55–59-year-old previously non-tested participants. We calculated the standardized prevalence rate of undiagnosed PCa as approximately 1370 and 2352 cases per 100,000 population aged 55–59 and 65–74 years, respectively. Conclusions In Poland, 58.8% of elderly men have never had PSA tested. These were less likely to be functionally independent, married, better educated, non-smokers or to have previous office employment or higher than average personal income. Our data suggest substantial underdiagnosis of prostate cancer among Polish men. PMID:27695494

  19. [The prevalence of dementia in Denmark].

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Kasper; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2014-11-24

    The exact prevalence of dementia in Denmark is unknown. Based on epidemiological data we have calculated possible estimates for the present Danish prevalence of dementia and prevalence projections through to 2030. The discrepancy between estimates based on epidemiological studies and the number of dementia diagnoses in registers indicates that dementia may be underdiagnosed. Even though results from recent epidemiological studies point to a possible decline in incidence we expect the future prevalence of dementia to increase due to an expected increase of the elderly population.

  20. Genetic studies of water buffalo blood markers. I. Red cell acid phosphatase, albumin, catalase, red cell alpha-esterase-3, group-specific component, and protease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Tan, S G; Barker, J S; Selvaraj, O S; Mukherjee, T K; Wong, Y F

    1993-06-01

    We have developed the methodologies for typing and family studies to establish the modes of inheritance of water buffalo red cell acid phosphatase (Acp), protease inhibitor (Pi), and group-specific component (Gc) on isoelectric focusing and albumin (Alb), red cell alpha-esterase-3 (Est-3), and catalase (Cat) on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Family studies showed that Pi, Gc, Alb, and Cat are coded by autosomal genes with two codominant alleles, while Est-3 is autosomal with two codominant alleles and a recessive null allele and Acp exhibits three codominant alleles.

  1. Quantifying Listeria monocytogenes prevalence and concentration in minced pork meat and estimating performance of three culture media from presence/absence microbiological testing using a deterministic and stochastic approach.

    PubMed

    Andritsos, Nikolaos D; Mataragas, Marios; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Drosinos, Eleftherios H

    2013-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes poses a serious threat to public health, and the majority of cases of human listeriosis are associated with contaminated food. Reliable microbiological testing is needed for effective pathogen control by food industry and competent authorities. The aims of this work were to estimate the prevalence and concentration of L. monocytogenes in minced pork meat by the application of a Bayesian modeling approach, and also to determine the performance of three culture media commonly used for detecting L. monocytogenes in foods from a deterministic and stochastic perspective. Samples (n = 100) collected from local markets were tested for L. monocytogenes using in parallel the PALCAM, ALOA and RAPID'L.mono selective media according to ISO 11290-1:1996 and 11290-2:1998 methods. Presence of the pathogen was confirmed by conducting biochemical and molecular tests. Independent experiments (n = 10) for model validation purposes were performed. Performance attributes were calculated from the presence-absence microbiological test results by combining the results obtained from the culture media and confirmative tests. Dirichlet distribution, the multivariate expression of a Beta distribution, was used to analyze the performance data from a stochastic perspective. No L. monocytogenes was enumerated by direct-plating (<10 CFU/g), though the pathogen was detected in 22% of the samples. L. monocytogenes concentration was estimated at 14-17 CFU/kg. Validation showed good agreement between observed and predicted prevalence (error = -2.17%). The results showed that all media were best at ruling in L. monocytogenes presence than ruling it out. Sensitivity and specificity varied depending on the culture-dependent method. None of the culture media was perfect in detecting L. monocytogenes in minced pork meat alone. The use of at least two culture media in parallel enhanced the efficiency of L. monocytogenes detection. Bayesian modeling may reduce the time needed to draw

  2. ADHD Prevalence in Adult Outpatients with Nonpsychotic Psychiatric Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida Montes, Luis Guillermo; Hernandez Garcia, Ana Olivia; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of ADHD in the general adult population has been estimated to be about 4.4%. However, few studies exist in which the prevalence of ADHD in psychiatric adult outpatient samples has been estimated. These studies suggest that the prevalence is higher than in the general population. The objective of this study is to estimate…

  3. Infectious disease prevalence in Los Angeles county--a comparison to national estimates, 1999-2004 birth rates for U.S. teenagers reach historic lows for all age and ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Kruszon-Moran, Deanna; Porter, Kathryn S; McQuillan, Geraldine; Billioux, Veena Goud; Kim-Farley, Robert; Hirsch, Rosemarie

    2012-04-01

    This is the first time seroprevalence of antibody to these nine infectious diseases have been available for LAC. Differences in the race and ethnicity distribution of the United States and LAC were observed. Because disease prevalence varies by race and ethnicity, in some instances these demographic differences affected the population differences seen between the United States and LAC in the seroprevalence of the infectious diseases reported in this study. Seroprevalence for HAV was higher in LAC as compared with the United States among the total population and among the Mexican-American population. California is 1 of 11 states in which routine vaccination of children was recommended in 1999 by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) because mean incidence rates in these states were at least twice the national mean from 1987–1997 (9). Seroprevalence to CMV and T. gondii have been shown to be higher among Mexican-American persons then other race and ethnicity groups (1,3). The higher seropositivity for CMV and T. gondii among persons from LAC is due to the higher proportion of Mexican-American persons in the LAC population. No differences in seropositivity were observed when comparing Mexican-American persons in the United States and LAC for these two outcomes. No significant differences in seroprevalence between the United States and LAC were seen for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, HSV-1, and HSV-2. Estimates of seropositivity from immunization or disease for LAC may assist in policy development, program planning, and measuring health disparities. PMID:22617137

  4. Use of 16S rRNA Gene-Targeted Group-Specific Primers for Real-Time PCR Analysis of Predominant Bacteria in Mouse Feces.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun-Wen; Chen, Mang-Kun; Yang, Bing-Ya; Huang, Xian-Jie; Zhang, Xue-Rui; He, Liang-Qiang; Zhang, Jing; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2015-10-01

    Mouse models are widely used for studying gastrointestinal (GI) tract-related diseases. It is necessary and important to develop a new set of primers to monitor the mouse gut microbiota. In this study, 16S rRNA gene-targeted group-specific primers for Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Deferribacteres, "Candidatus Saccharibacteria," Verrucomicrobia, Tenericutes, and Proteobacteria were designed and validated for quantification of the predominant bacterial species in mouse feces by real-time PCR. After confirmation of their accuracy and specificity by high-throughput sequencing technologies, these primers were applied to quantify the changes in the fecal samples from a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis mouse model. Our results showed that this approach efficiently predicted the occurrence of colitis, such as spontaneous chronic inflammatory bowel disease in transgenic mice. The set of primers developed in this study provides a simple and affordable method to monitor changes in the intestinal microbiota at the phylum level. PMID:26187967

  5. Evaluation of a Genus- and Group-Specific Rapid PCR Assay Panel on Synovial Fluid for Diagnosis of Prosthetic Knee Infection

    PubMed Central

    Melendez, Dante P.; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Berbari, Elie F.; Osmon, Douglas R.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Hanssen, Arlen D.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated a genus- and group-specific PCR assay panel using 284 prosthetic knee synovial fluid samples collected from patients presenting to our institution with implant failure. Using the Musculoskeletal Infection Society diagnostic criteria, 88 and 196 samples were classified as showing prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and aseptic failure (AF), respectively. Sensitivities of the synovial fluid PCR panel and culture were 55.6% and 76.1% (P ≤ 0.001), respectively, and specificities were 91.8% and 97.4% (P = 0.016), respectively. Among the 70 subjects who had received antibiotics within the month preceding synovial fluid aspiration (48 of whom had PJI), PCR panel and synovial fluid culture sensitivities were 64.5% and 85.4%, respectively (P < 0.0001). In this group, the PCR panel detected Staphylococcus aureus in two culture-negative PJI cases. Overall, the evaluated molecular diagnostic tool had low sensitivity when applied to synovial fluid. PMID:26537446

  6. Real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for group specific detection of important trichothecene producing Fusarium species in wheat.

    PubMed

    Denschlag, Carla; Rieder, Johann; Vogel, Rudi F; Niessen, Ludwig

    2014-05-01

    Trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivaneol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and T2-Toxin are produced by a variety of Fusarium spp. on cereals in the field and may be ingested by consumption of commodities and products made thereof. The toxins inhibit eukaryotic protein biosynthesis and may thus impair human and animal health. Aimed at rapid and sensitive detection of the most important trichothecene producing Fusarium spp. in a single analysis, a real-time duplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was set up. Two sets of LAMP primers were designed independently to amplify a partial sequence of the tri6 gene in Fusarium (F.) graminearum and of the tri5 gene in Fusarium sporotrichioides, respectively. Each of the two sets detected a limited number of the established trichothecene producing Fusarium-species. However, combination of the two sets in one duplex assay enabled detection of F. graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium cerealis, F. sporotrichioides, Fusarium langsethiae and Fusarium poae in a group specific manner. No cross reactions were detected with purified DNA from 127 other fungal species or with cereal DNA. To demonstrate the usefulness of the assay, 100 wheat samples collected from all over the German state of Bavaria were analyzed for the trichothecene mycotoxin DON by HPLC and for the presence of trichothecene producers by the new real-time duplex LAMP assay in parallel analyses. The LAMP assay showed positive results for all samples with a DON concentration exceeding 163ppb. The major advantage of the duplex LAMP assay is that the presence of six of the major trichothecene producing Fusarium spp. can be detected in a rapid and user-friendly manner with only one single assay. To our knowledge this is the first report of the use of a multiplex LAMP assay for fungal organisms.

  7. A Systematic Review of the Prevalence of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background Understanding the prevalence of schizophrenia has important implications for both health service planning and risk factor epidemiology. The aims of this review are to systematically identify and collate studies describing the prevalence of schizophrenia, to summarize the findings of these studies, and to explore selected factors that may influence prevalence estimates. Methods and Findings Studies with original data related to the prevalence of schizophrenia (published 1965–2002) were identified via searching electronic databases, reviewing citations, and writing to authors. These studies were divided into “core” studies, “migrant” studies, and studies based on “other special groups.” Between- and within-study filters were applied in order to identify discrete prevalence estimates. Cumulative plots of prevalence estimates were made and the distributions described when the underlying estimates were sorted according to prevalence type (point, period, lifetime, and lifetime morbid risk). Based on combined prevalence estimates, the influence of selected key variables was examined (sex, urbanicity, migrant status, country economic index, and study quality). A total of 1,721 prevalence estimates from 188 studies were identified. These estimates were drawn from 46 countries, and were based on an estimated 154,140 potentially overlapping prevalent cases. We identified 132 core studies, 15 migrant studies, and 41 studies based on other special groups. The median values per 1,000 persons (10%–90% quantiles) for the distributions for point, period, lifetime, and lifetime morbid risk were 4.6 (1.9–10.0), 3.3 (1.3–8.2), 4.0 (1.6–12.1), and 7.2 (3.1–27.1), respectively. Based on combined prevalence estimates, we found no significant difference (a) between males and females, or (b) between urban, rural, and mixed sites. The prevalence of schizophrenia in migrants was higher compared to native-born individuals: the migrant-to-native-born ratio

  8. Prevalence of Chiari I Malformation and Syringomyelia.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Elyne N; Muraszko, Karin M; Maher, Cormac O

    2015-10-01

    Chiari I malformation (CM) is a common neurosurgical diagnosis and spinal cord syrinx is frequently found in patients with CM. Asymptomatic CM is a common imaging finding. Symptomatic CM is less common. Variation in prevalence estimates may be attributed to differences in sensitivity of CM detection between studies as well as differences in the populations being analyzed. The prevalence of low tonsil position and CM on MRI is higher in children and young adults compared with older adults. Studies that include a large number of older adults find a lower prevalence compared with analyses of children.

  9. Single-Cell Genome and Group-Specific dsrAB Sequencing Implicate Marine Members of the Class Dehalococcoidia (Phylum Chloroflexi) in Sulfur Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Myriel; Schreiber, Lars; Lloyd, Karen G.; Baker, Brett J.; Petersen, Dorthe G.; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Reinhardt, Richard; Schramm, Andreas; Loy, Alexander; Adrian, Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The marine subsurface sediment biosphere is widely inhabited by bacteria affiliated with the class Dehalococcoidia (DEH), phylum Chloroflexi, and yet little is known regarding their metabolisms. In this report, genomic content from a single DEH cell (DEH-C11) with a 16S rRNA gene that was affiliated with a diverse cluster of 16S rRNA gene sequences prevalent in marine sediments was obtained from sediments of Aarhus Bay, Denmark. The distinctive gene content of this cell suggests metabolic characteristics that differ from those of known DEH and Chloroflexi. The presence of genes encoding dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr) suggests that DEH could respire oxidized sulfur compounds, although Chloroflexi have never been implicated in this mode of sulfur cycling. Using long-range PCR assays targeting DEH dsr loci, dsrAB genes were amplified and sequenced from various marine sediments. Many of the amplified dsrAB sequences were affiliated with the DEH Dsr clade, which we propose equates to a family-level clade. This provides supporting evidence for the potential for sulfite reduction by diverse DEH species. DEH-C11 also harbored genes encoding reductases for arsenate, dimethyl sulfoxide, and halogenated organics. The reductive dehalogenase homolog (RdhA) forms a monophyletic clade along with RdhA sequences from various DEH-derived contigs retrieved from available metagenomes. Multiple facts indicate that this RdhA may not be a terminal reductase. The presence of other genes indicated that nutrients and energy may be derived from the oxidation of substituted homocyclic and heterocyclic aromatic compounds. Together, these results suggest that marine DEH play a previously unrecognized role in sulfur cycling and reveal the potential for expanded catabolic and respiratory functions among subsurface DEH. PMID:27143384

  10. High Prevalence of Obesity in Ambulatory Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, L.; Van de Ven, L.; Katsarou, V.; Rentziou, E.; Doran, M.; Jackson, P.; Reilly, J. J.; Wilson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity prevalence is unusually high among adults with intellectual disability (ID). There is limited and conflicting evidence on obesity prevalence among ambulatory children and adolescents with ID. The present study aimed to estimate obesity prevalence in this group and to compare with population prevalence. Methods: Survey of nine…

  11. [Pedophilia. Prevalence, etiology, and diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Mokros, A; Osterheider, M; Nitschke, J

    2012-03-01

    Pedophilia is a disorder of sexual preference that increases the risk for committing sexual offenses against children. Consequently, pedophilia is not only relevant in psychiatric therapy and prognostics, but also greatly influences the public attitude towards criminality. Public opinion seems to equate pedophilia with child sexual abuse and vice versa which leads to stigmatization of patients and may impede treatment. The present paper provides information on recent studies on the potential origins of the disorder and introduces new diagnostic methods. Moreover, the article presents estimates on the prevalence of pedophilic sexual interest.

  12. Munchausen syndrome by proxy: diagnosis and prevalence.

    PubMed

    Schreier, H A; Libow, J A

    1993-04-01

    A review of the literature and a survey of pediatric neurologists and gastroenterologists yield data indicating that the prevalence of Munchausen syndrome by proxy is greater than is generally estimated. This possibility is further supported by follow-up data on siblings of victims, together with wide variability among practitioners in case identification.

  13. A new human Duffy blood group specificity defined by a murine monoclonal antibody. Immunogenetics and association with susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    A new Duffy specificity, Fy6, defined by a murine monoclonal antibody of the IgG1 kappa class, is related to susceptibility to malarial invasion. In humans, Fy6 is present on the red cells of all persons except those of the Fy(a-b-) type, a distribution resembling that of Fy3. However proteolytic enzyme treatment of red cells enhances the reactivity of Fy3, whereas Fy6, like Fya and Fyb, is susceptible to degradation by this process. The number of Fy6 sites on human red cells was found to be 12,200 per cell, in close agreement with earlier estimates of the number of Fya sites. Anti-Fy6 reacted in western blots with a membrane glycoprotein of approximately 46,000 Mr, not significantly different from that of a molecule known to bear the Fya determinant. The Fy6 epitope is shown to be present on the red cells of some but not all nonhuman primate species, where it has a distribution not only distinctly different from Fya, Fyb, and Fy3, but in close accordance with susceptibility to penetration by Plasmodium vivax. Thus, the red cells of two species of macaques (Macaca mulatta and M. fascicularis), which are invaded by Plasmodium knowlesi but not by P. vivax are shown to have other Duffy antigens but to be devoid of Fy6. It appears, therefore, that the red cell epitopes used by these closely related species are distinct, and that susceptibility to P. vivax merozoite penetration is dependent on the presence of Fy6. PMID:2442291

  14. Prevalence of diabetes in a Navajo Indian community.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, J; Percy, C

    1989-04-01

    The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) of 494 (76 per cent) Navajo adults living in a reservation community was 10.2 per cent, approximately 60 per cent greater than the estimated prevalence (6.4 per cent) in the general US population. The screening protocol utilized likely underestimates the prevalence of NIDDM in this population. A high proportion of Navajo people were overweight when compared to the general US population. PMID:2929818

  15. Obesity Prevalence Maps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Adult Obesity Prevalence Maps ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  16. The Prevalence of Sexual Abuse among Adolescents in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Pettingell, Sandra; Magee, Lara L.

    2003-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a profound stressor that complicates the development and health of adolescents, yet its prevalence has been difficult to estimate among adolescents in school populations. This study explored the prevalence of both incest and nonfamily abuse in 2 cohorts of adolescents in Minnesota in the 1990s (1992: N = 77,374; 1998: N = 81,247).…

  17. [Prevalence and aetiopathogenesis of neuropathic pain in elderly cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Cabezón-Gutiérrez, Luis; Custodio-Cabello, Sara; Khosravi-Shahi, Parham

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of neuropathic pain is difficult to estimate as most studies evaluating chronic pain do not differentiate neuropathic from nociceptive pain. There are only a few studies of neuropathic pain in the elderly, specifically in the oncology population. This article is a non-systematic review of the relevant evidence on the prevalence and aetiopathogenesis of neuropathic cancer pain in the elderly.

  18. Prevalence estimation of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) antibodies in dogs from Finland using novel dog anti-TBEV IgG MAb-capture and IgG immunofluorescence assays based on recombinant TBEV subviral particles.

    PubMed

    Levanov, Lev; Vera, Cristina Pérez; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-07-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of the most dangerous human neurological infections occurring in Europe and Northern parts of Asia with thousands of cases and millions vaccinated against it. The risk of TBE might be assessed through analyses of the samples taken from wildlife or from animals which are in close contact with humans. Dogs have been shown to be a good sentinel species for these studies. Serological assays for diagnosis of TBE in dogs are mainly based on purified and inactivated TBEV antigens. Here we describe novel dog anti-TBEV IgG monoclonal antibody (MAb)-capture assay which is based on TBEV prME subviral particles expressed in mammalian cells from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicon as well as IgG immunofluorescence assay (IFA) which is based on Vero E6 cells transfected with the same SFV replicon. We further demonstrate their use in a small-scale TBEV seroprevalence study of dogs representing different regions of Finland. Altogether, 148 dog serum samples were tested by novel assays and results were compared to those obtained with a commercial IgG enzyme immunoassay (EIA), hemagglutination inhibition test and IgG IFA with TBEV infected cells. Compared to reference tests, the sensitivities of the developed assays were 90-100% and the specificities of the two assays were 100%. Analysis of the dog serum samples showed a seroprevalence of 40% on Åland Islands and 6% on Southwestern archipelago of Finland. In conclusion, a specific and sensitive EIA and IFA for the detection of IgG antibodies in canine sera were developed. Based on these assays the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies in dogs from different regions of Finland was assessed and was shown to parallel the known human disease burden as the Southwestern archipelago and Åland Islands in particular had considerable dog TBEV antibody prevalence and represent areas with high risk of TBE for humans.

  19. Prevalence estimation of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) antibodies in dogs from Finland using novel dog anti-TBEV IgG MAb-capture and IgG immunofluorescence assays based on recombinant TBEV subviral particles.

    PubMed

    Levanov, Lev; Vera, Cristina Pérez; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-07-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of the most dangerous human neurological infections occurring in Europe and Northern parts of Asia with thousands of cases and millions vaccinated against it. The risk of TBE might be assessed through analyses of the samples taken from wildlife or from animals which are in close contact with humans. Dogs have been shown to be a good sentinel species for these studies. Serological assays for diagnosis of TBE in dogs are mainly based on purified and inactivated TBEV antigens. Here we describe novel dog anti-TBEV IgG monoclonal antibody (MAb)-capture assay which is based on TBEV prME subviral particles expressed in mammalian cells from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicon as well as IgG immunofluorescence assay (IFA) which is based on Vero E6 cells transfected with the same SFV replicon. We further demonstrate their use in a small-scale TBEV seroprevalence study of dogs representing different regions of Finland. Altogether, 148 dog serum samples were tested by novel assays and results were compared to those obtained with a commercial IgG enzyme immunoassay (EIA), hemagglutination inhibition test and IgG IFA with TBEV infected cells. Compared to reference tests, the sensitivities of the developed assays were 90-100% and the specificities of the two assays were 100%. Analysis of the dog serum samples showed a seroprevalence of 40% on Åland Islands and 6% on Southwestern archipelago of Finland. In conclusion, a specific and sensitive EIA and IFA for the detection of IgG antibodies in canine sera were developed. Based on these assays the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies in dogs from different regions of Finland was assessed and was shown to parallel the known human disease burden as the Southwestern archipelago and Åland Islands in particular had considerable dog TBEV antibody prevalence and represent areas with high risk of TBE for humans. PMID:27189583

  20. High fructose corn syrup and diabetes prevalence: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Goran, Michael I; Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Ventura, Emily E

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to evaluate, from a global and ecological perspective, the relationships between availability of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Using published resources, country-level estimates (n =43 countries) were obtained for: total sugar, HFCS and total calorie availability, obesity, two separate prevalence estimates for diabetes, prevalence estimate for impaired glucose tolerance and fasting plasma glucose. Pearson's correlations and partial correlations were conducted in order to explore associations between dietary availability and obesity and diabetes prevalence. Diabetes prevalence was 20% higher in countries with higher availability of HFCS compared to countries with low availability, and these differences were retained or strengthened after adjusting for country-level estimates of body mass index (BMI), population and gross domestic product (adjusted diabetes prevalence=8.0 vs. 6.7%, p=0.03; fasting plasma glucose=5.34 vs. 5.22 mmol/L, p=0.03) despite similarities in obesity and total sugar and calorie availability. These results suggest that countries with higher availability of HFCS have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes independent of obesity.

  1. High fructose corn syrup and diabetes prevalence: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Goran, Michael I; Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Ventura, Emily E

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to evaluate, from a global and ecological perspective, the relationships between availability of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Using published resources, country-level estimates (n =43 countries) were obtained for: total sugar, HFCS and total calorie availability, obesity, two separate prevalence estimates for diabetes, prevalence estimate for impaired glucose tolerance and fasting plasma glucose. Pearson's correlations and partial correlations were conducted in order to explore associations between dietary availability and obesity and diabetes prevalence. Diabetes prevalence was 20% higher in countries with higher availability of HFCS compared to countries with low availability, and these differences were retained or strengthened after adjusting for country-level estimates of body mass index (BMI), population and gross domestic product (adjusted diabetes prevalence=8.0 vs. 6.7%, p=0.03; fasting plasma glucose=5.34 vs. 5.22 mmol/L, p=0.03) despite similarities in obesity and total sugar and calorie availability. These results suggest that countries with higher availability of HFCS have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes independent of obesity. PMID:23181629

  2. The Prevalence of Limited Health Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Parker, Ruth M; Gazmararian, Julie A; Nielsen-Bohlman, Lynn T; Rudd, Rima R

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To systematically review U.S. studies examining the prevalence of limited health literacy and to synthesize these findings by evaluating demographic associations in pooled analyses. DESIGN We searched the literature for the period 1963 through January 2004 and identified 2,132 references related to a set of specified search terms. Of the 134 articles and published abstracts retrieved, 85 met inclusion criteria, which were 1) conducted in the United States with ≥25 adults, 2) addressed a hypothesis related to health care, 3) identified a measurement instrument, and 4) presented primary data. The authors extracted data to compare studies by population, methods, and results. MAIN RESULTS The 85 studies reviewed include data on 31,129 subjects, and report a prevalence of low health literacy between 0% and 68%. Pooled analyses of these data reveal that the weighted prevalence of low health literacy was 26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22% to 29%) and of marginal health literacy was 20% (95% CI, 16% to 23%). Most studies used either the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) or versions of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA). The prevalence of low health literacy was not associated with gender (P =.38) or measurement instrument (P =.23) but was associated with level of education (P =.02), ethnicity (P =.0003), and age (P =.004). CONCLUSIONS A pooled analysis of published reports on health literacy cannot provide a nationally representative prevalence estimate. This systematic review exhibits that limited health literacy, as depicted in the medical literature, is prevalent and is consistently associated with education, ethnicity, and age. It is essential to simplify health services and improve health education. Such changes have the potential to improve the health of Americans and address the health disparities that exist today. PMID:15836552

  3. [Smoking prevalence in Kocaeli].

    PubMed

    Bariş, Serap Argun; Yildiz, Füsun; Başyiğit, Ilknur; Boyaci, Haşim

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire was performed in order to determine smoking prevalence in the target population just before the initiation of a social responsibility project which is aimed to increase the smoking cessation rates in Kocaeli. The sample selection was made based on population numbers in 12 town of Kocaeli city and smoking habits of population over the age of 18 were evaluated by a questionnaire survey by phone. There was 2721 person included in the study. The overall prevalence of active smokers was 32.3% (n= 902) and ex-smokers was 21.5% (n= 587). There was no statistical significance of smoking prevalence among towns except the lower smoking rates in Gebze (25.7%). The percentage of the current smokers was 42.5% in male population which was significantly higher than females (21.8%). The highest smoking prevalence was found between the ages of 35-44 (41.2%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in the subjects older than 55 years (19.8%). The mean age for smoking initiation was 19 years (17-20) and daily cigarette consumption was 17 sticks. Previous attempts for quitting smoking were found in 67.7% of current smokers. The mean number of smoking cessation attempts was 3 times and the mean duration of cessation was 5 months. The most common reason for smoking cessation was health issues. Eighty percent of cases harnessed their willpower to stop smoking while only 5% of them received medical treatment. It is suggested that determination of demographic features of the smokers might constitute a corner stone for smoking cessation projects.

  4. Rethinking HIV prevalence determination in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Makinde, Olusesan A; Oyediran, Kolawole A

    2015-01-01

    The process for HIV prevalence determination using antenatal clinic (ANC) sentinel surveillance data has been plagued by criticisms of its biasness. Exploring other means of HIV prevalence determination is necessary to validate that estimates are near actual values or to replace the current system. We propose a data collection model that leverages the increasing adoption and penetration of the Internet and mobile technology to collect and archive routine data from HIV counseling and testing (HCT) client intake forms from all HCT centers and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) sites in a country. These data will then be mined to determine prevalence rates and risk factors at the community level. The need to improve the method for the generation of HIV prevalence rates has been repeatedly echoed by researchers though no one has been able to fashion out a better and more reliable way to the current ANC sentinel surveillance method at a reasonable cost. The chance of using routinely generated data during HCT and PMTCT is appealing and needs to be envisioned as the technology to achieve this is increasingly becoming available and affordable in countries worst hit by the pandemic. Triangulating data generated from routine HCT and PMTCT sites with data from sentinel surveillance and where the confidence of its quality is assured, as the sole source of HIV prevalence rate determination and behavioral risk assessment will improve the acceptance by communities and drive evidence-based interventions at the community level. PMID:25174731

  5. Prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Kraijer, Dirk; Minderaa, Ruud

    2005-01-01

    Background: Insight into the prevalence of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) in children and adolescents with mental retardation (MR) is known to be of clinical importance. However, estimating this prevalence is complicated. The literature reports prevalence rates ranging from 3% through 50%. This variation seems to be related to the concepts…

  6. Characterization of polybacterial clinical samples using a set of group-specific broad-range primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene followed by DNA sequencing and RipSeq analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lekang, Katrine; Langeland, Nina; Wiker, Harald G.

    2011-01-01

    The standard use of a single universal broad-range PCR in direct 16S rDNA sequencing from polybacterial samples leaves the minor constituents at risk of remaining undetected because all bacterial DNA will be competing for the same reagents. In this article we introduce a set of three broad-range group-specific 16S rDNA PCRs that together cover the clinically relevant bacteria and apply them in the investigation of 25 polybacterial clinical samples. Mixed DNA chromatograms from samples containing more than one species per primer group were analysed using RipSeq Mixed (iSentio, Norway), a web-based application for the interpretation of chromatograms containing up to three different species. The group-specific PCRs reduced complexity in the resulting DNA chromatograms and made the assay more sensitive in situations with unequal species concentrations. Together this allowed for identification of a significantly higher number of bacterial species than did standard direct sequencing with a single universal primer pair and RipSeq analysis (95 vs 51). The method could improve microbiological diagnostics for important groups of patients and can be established in any laboratory with experience in direct 16S rDNA sequencing. PMID:21436365

  7. Migraine prevalence, socioeconomic status, and social causation

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Jason; Lipton, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the known higher prevalence of migraine in lower household (HH) income groups is explained by a higher incidence rate or a lower remission rate. Methods: We used data from the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study, a US national sample of 132,674 females (with a 64.3% response rate) and 124,665 males (with a 62.0% response rate) 12 years of age and older. Data were previously collected on migraine symptoms, onset age, and demographics. Previously validated methods applied to the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study data were used to simulate a cohort study. Incidence and remission rates were estimated within 3 sex-specific HH income groups (<$22,500, $22,500–$59,999, and ≥$60,000). The χ2 test was used to determine whether the incidence or remission rates differed by HH income group as an explanation for differences in migraine prevalence by HH income. Results: Migraine prevalence increased as HH income decreased for females (χ2, p < 0.01) and males (χ2, p < 0.01). Differences were not explained by race and other known confounders. Variation in prevalence was explained, in large part, by a higher incidence rate in the lower HH income groups for both females (χ2, p < 0.01) and males (χ2, p < 0.01). Migraine remission rates did not differ by HH income. Conclusions: The higher incidence of migraine in lower HH income groups is compatible with the social causation hypothesis. Once initiated, migraine remission is independent of HH income. Onset and remission may have etiologically distinct causes. PMID:23990405

  8. Prevalence of Intellectual Disability: A Comprehensive Study Based on National Registers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerinen, Hannu; Kaski, M.; Virta, L.; Almqvist, F.; Iivanainen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Based on standard social benefit registers, the prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) in Finland is estimated to be 0.6%, while epidemiological surveys yield 1.1%. Combining several registers, our aim was to find a more reliable estimate of the prevalence of ID, especially among children and adolescents. This is important when…

  9. Prevalence of dampness and mold in European housing stock.

    PubMed

    Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla

    2012-09-01

    An assessment of the prevalence of dampness and mold in European housing stock was carried out. It is based on general indicators of dampness and mold in dwellings reported in the literature. The assessment relies on recent studies, taking into account regional and climatic differences, as well as differences in study design, methodology, and definitions. Data were available from 31 European countries. Weighted prevalence estimates are 12.1% for damp, 10.3% for mold, 10.0% for water damage, and 16.5% for a combination of any one or more indicators. Significant (up to 18%) differences were observed for dampness and mold prevalence estimates depending on survey factors, region, and climate. In conclusion, dampness and/or mold problems could be expected to occur in one of every six of the dwellings in Europe. Prevalence and occurrence of different types of problems may vary across geographical areas, which can be partly explained by differences in climate.

  10. Advancing allele group-specific amplification of the complete HLA-C gene--isolation of novel alleles from three allele groups (C*04, C*07 and C*08).

    PubMed

    Cisneros, E; Martínez-Pomar, N; Vilches, M; Martín, P; de Pablo, R; Nuñez Del Prado, N; Nieto, A; Matamoros, N; Moraru, M; Vilches, C

    2013-10-01

    A variety of strategies have been designed for sequence-based HLA typing (SBT) and for the isolation of new human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, but unambiguous characterization of complete genomic sequences remains a challenge. We recently reported a simple method for the group-specific amplification (GSA) and sequencing of a full-length C*04 genomic sequence in isolation from the accompanying allele. Here we build on this strategy and present homologous methods that enable the isolation of HLA-C alleles belonging to another two allele groups. Using this approach, which can be applied to sequence-based typing in some clinical settings, we have successfully characterized three novel HLA-C alleles (C*04:128, C*07:01:01:02, and C*08:62).

  11. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young

  12. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young people

  13. Prevalence of spontaneous dyskinesia in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fenton, W S

    2000-01-01

    Spontaneous abnormal involuntary movements phenomenologically identical to neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia have been described in schizophrenia for over a century. Because at present nearly all patients with schizophrenia are exposed to neuroleptic medications, information about the prevalence of spontaneous dyskinesia is obtained from accounts from the preneuroleptic era, evaluations of first-episode patients before neuroleptic treatment, and the identification and assessment of drug-naive patients in developing countries. In this report, data from 14 studies of neuroleptic-naive patients with schizophrenia are used to generate age-adjusted estimates of the prevalence of spontaneous dyskinesia. While the precision of this estimate is limited by the difficulty of obtaining large, untreated samples, available data suggest a spontaneous dyskinesia rate of approximately 4% in first-episode schizophrenic patients, 12% for patients ill several years but below age 30 years, 25% for those aged between 30 and 50 years, and 40% for those aged 60 years or older. Relative to the incidence and accrued prevalence of spontaneous dyskinesia expected during the natural history of untreated schizophrenia, the cumulative impact of treatment with new neuroleptic agents has yet to be determined.

  14. Short-term predictions of HIV prevalence and AIDS incidence.

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, J. C.; Medley, G. F.; Heisterkamp, S. H.; Van Griensven, G. J.; Bindels, P. J.; Coutinho, R. A.; Van Druten, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Reports of AIDS cases in Amsterdam up to February 1990 were used to make predictions of future cases up to 1993. Two published methods were applied, which make extrapolations from current cases and simultaneously estimate the extent of delay in reporting. The choice of the exact model greatly influenced the predictions, as did predictions for distinct transmission groups. We present results for the homo/bisexual male group, and the total population of Amsterdam. The AIDS case predictions are used to predict the HIV prevalence using the ratio of HIV prevalence to AIDS incidence and through 'back calculation'. We suggest that the ratio is a simple technique that may be used to estimate HIV prevalence. The estimated number of cumulative HIV infected homo/bisexual males in Amsterdam in January 1990 was between 2100 and 4100 in a total of 2200-4600 infected people. PMID:1499669

  15. Depression in athletes: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wolanin, Andrew; Gross, Michael; Hong, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Depression affects an estimated 6.7% of today's adult population in a 12-month period. The prevalence rates for certain age groups, such as young adults and older adults, are higher. There are approximately 400,000 National Collegiate Athletic Association student athletes competing each year and 5 to 7 million high school student athletes involved in competitive interscholastic sports. Given such a high prevalence rate in certain age groups and a large denominator pool of athletes, past notions that athletes are devoid of mental health issues have come under scrutiny by sports medicine providers. Initial data suggest that athletes are far from immune to depression. The purpose of this article was to review the current research on athletes and depression; particularly this article will provide an overview of studies, which have investigated the rate of depression among athletes, and discuss relevant risk factors, which may contribute to depression among athletes.

  16. Prevalence of lethal osteochondrodysplasias in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Andersen, P E

    1989-04-01

    The point prevalence at birth of lethal osteochondrodysplasias in a subregion of Denmark was estimated by a study of all children born January 1970 through December 1983. Two cases of thanatophoric dysplasia, one case of thanatophoric dysplasia with cloverleaf skull, two cases of micromelic bone dysplasia with cloverleaf skull, two cases of achondrogenesis type III, and three cases of achondrogenesis type IV were found. Two cases were unclassifiable due to lack of radiographs. In total, the point prevalence at birth was 15.4 per 100,000. Thus lethal osteochondrodysplasias seem to be more common than is generally assumed. The clinical and radiographic findings in micromelic bone dysplasia with cloverleaf skull are discussed in relation to thanatophoric dysplasia and achondrogenesis type IV. PMID:2789000

  17. Population-based incidence and prevalence of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Arnts, Hisse; van der Maarel, Silvère M.; Padberg, George W.; Verschuuren, Jan J.G.M.; Bakker, Egbert; Weinreich, Stephanie S.; Verbeek, André L.M.; van Engelen, Baziel G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence and prevalence of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) in the Netherlands. Methods: Using 3-source capture-recapture methodology, we estimated the total yearly number of newly found symptomatic individuals with FSHD, including those not registered in any of the 3 sources. To this end, symptomatic individuals with FSHD were available from 3 large population-based registries in the Netherlands if diagnosed within a 10-year period (January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2010). Multiplication of the incidence and disease duration delivered the prevalence estimate. Results: On average, 52 people are newly diagnosed with FSHD every year. This results in an incidence rate of 0.3/100,000 person-years in the Netherlands. The prevalence rate was 12/100,000, equivalent to 2,000 affected individuals. Conclusions: We present population-based incidence and prevalence estimates regarding symptomatic individuals with FSHD, including an estimation of the number of symptomatic individuals not present in any of the 3 used registries. This study shows that the total number of symptomatic persons with FSHD in the population may well be underestimated and a considerable number of affected individuals remain undiagnosed. This suggests that FSHD is one of the most prevalent neuromuscular disorders. PMID:25122204

  18. Prevalence and incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2013-06-01

    Several studies of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) incidence and prevalence indicate that occurrence of the disease varies significantly among different populations. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of RA in South Korea. We used Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data to estimate the prevalence of RA in 2007-2009 and the incidence of RA in 2008. On the basis of our previous validation study, the presence of RA was defined by the diagnostic code for RA with biologic or non-biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs in the same claim in each year. To estimate the incidence of RA, we identified cases of RA in 2008 and set the 12-month period prior to 2008 as a disease-free period. Among the incident case of 2008, only patients who continued treatment in 2009 were defined as true incident case of RA in 2008. The corresponding prevalence estimates were 0.26 % (95 % CI 0.25-0.27) in 2006, 0.27 % (95 % CI 0.26-0.28) in 2007, and 0.27 % (95 % CI 0.26-0.28) in 2008. The incidence of RA in 2008 was estimated at 42/100,000 (95 % CI 29.3-54.7) in the general population of South Korea. Data gathered nationwide through the NHI yielded estimates of RA prevalence and incidence in South Korea. This study is the first report of nationwide prevalence and incidence of South Korea and those are comparable to values for other countries in Asia.

  19. The prevalence of stillbirths: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Say, Lale; Donner, Allan; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Taljaard, Monica; Piaggio, Gilda

    2006-01-01

    Background Stillbirth rate is an important indicator of access to and quality of antenatal and delivery care. Obtaining overall estimates across various regions of the world is not straightforward due to variation in definitions, data collection methods and reporting. Methods We conducted a systematic review of a range of pregnancy-related conditions including stillbirths and performed meta-analysis of the subset of studies reporting stillbirth rates. We examined variation across rates and used meta-regression techniques to explain observed variation. Results We identified 389 articles on stillbirth prevalence among the 2580 included in the systematic review. We included 70 providing 80 data sets from 50 countries in the meta-analysis. Pooled prevalence rates show variation across various subgroup categories. Rates per 100 births are higher in studies conducted in less developed country settings as compared to more developed (1.17 versus 0.50), of inadequate quality as compared to adequate (1.12 versus 0.66), using sub-national sample as compared to national (1.38 versus 0.68), reporting all stillbirths as compared to late stillbirths (0.95 versus 0.63), published in non-English as compared to English (0.91 versus 0.59) and as journal articles as compared to non-journal (1.37 versus 0.67). The results of the meta-regression show the significance of two predictor variables – development status of the setting and study quality – on stillbirth prevalence. Conclusion Stillbirth prevalence at the community level is typically less than 1% in more developed parts of the world and could exceed 3% in less developed regions. Regular reviews of stillbirth rates in appropriately designed and reported studies are useful in monitoring the adequacy of care. Systematic reviews of prevalence studies are helpful in explaining sources of variation across rates. Exploring these methodological issues will lead to improved standards for assessing the burden of reproductive ill

  20. Contraceptive prevalence in Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Morris, L; Anderson, J E; Monteith, R S; Kriskovich, R; Schoemaker, J; Frutos, O

    1978-01-01

    Contraceptive use, source of contraception, history of abortion, current pregnancy intention, and fertility rates are evaluated for a national sample of women using data from the Paraguay Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, conducted in 1977. The survey found that 15.5 percent of all women aged 15--44 and 23.6 percent of ever-married women were using effective contraceptive methods. The urban/rural difference in contraceptive use paralleled fertility differentials: over 40 percent of ever-married women were using contraception in Greater Asuncion and other urban areas compared with 15 percent in rural areas. Overall, the data indicate that high-parity rural women have the greatest need for family planning services in Paraguay.

  1. The Role of Partial Recording Protocols in reporting prevalence and severity of Dental Fluorosis

    PubMed Central

    Akinkugbe, Aderonke; Iafolla, Timothy; Chattopadhyay, Amit; Garcia, Isabel; Adams, Amy; Kingman, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the role of partial recording protocols (PRPs) in reporting prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and assess whether prevalence/severity estimates derived from PRPs differ by race/ethnicity. Methods Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1999-2004 were analyzed with Stata® v.11. Prevalence of dental fluorosis obtained from a full mouth examination (28 teeth gold standard) was compared to estimates derived from four subsets of teeth (maxillary canine-to-canine; maxillary 1st premolar to 1st premolar; allpremolars; all-molars). Sensitivity, Negative Predictive Value (NPV), absolute bias, and correction factors were calculated against gold standard estimate. Analysis was stratified according to race/ethnicity to assess differences in estimates derived from PRPs. Results All subsets underestimated prevalence albeit to varying degrees. Two subsets (allpremolars and all-molars) had prevalence and severity estimates closest to gold standard estimates. The all-molar subset (8 teeth) recorded the highest sensitivity (84.5%) and the lowest absolute bias (3.5%) of all subsets relative to gold standard. Subsets derived from aesthetically relevant teeth produced the lowest fluorosis prevalence. For instance, the maxillary canine-to-canine subset underestimated prevalence by 9.5%; incorporating the maxillary first premolars in the span improved prevalence estimate by 31%. Among non-Hispanic Whites, the all-premolars subset produced estimates closest to gold standard while the all-molars subset produced estimates closest to the gold standard among non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics. Conclusion While the majority of dental fluorosis in the United States is very mild, concerns regarding its growing prevalence underscore the need for careful monitoring. The use of PRPs offers an alternative method of assessment, with validity of reported prevalence and severity dependent on choice of subset. PMID:24995860

  2. Is asthma prevalence still increasing?

    PubMed

    Lundbäck, Bo; Backman, Helena; Lötvall, Jan; Rönmark, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Increased awareness of asthma in society and altered diagnostic practices makes evaluation of data on prevalence change difficult. In most parts of the world the asthma prevalence seems to still be increasing. The increase is associated with urbanization and has been documented particularly among children and teenagers in urban areas of middle- and low-level income countries. Use of validated questionnaires has enabled comparisons of studies. Among adults there are few studies based on representative samples of the general population which allow evaluation of time trends of prevalence. This review focuses mainly on studies of asthma prevalence and symptoms among adults. Parallel with increased urbanization, we can assume that the increase in asthma prevalence in most areas of the world will continue. However, in Australia and North-West Europe studies performed, particularly among children and adolescents, indicate that the increase in asthma prevalence may now be leveling off. PMID:26610152

  3. Prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in French cattle in 2010.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Céline; Morlot, Claire; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Mas, Michel; Grandmontagne, Claude; Gilli-Dunoyer, Pascale; Gay, Emilie; Callait-Cardinal, Marie-Pierre

    2014-06-16

    Bovine cysticercosis is a foodborne disease caused by the cestode Taenia saginata with cattle as the intermediate host and humans as the final host. This disease is responsible for direct financial losses for farmers. It is also economically important because human infestation through raw or undercooked meat consumption can have a negative impact on the confidence the consumer has in the food industry. This study aimed to determine the apparent and true prevalence of bovine cysticercosis in France and describe the locations of identified cysticercosis lesions. The study sample included 4,564,065 cattle slaughtered in 2010 in France, among which 6491 were detected as harbouring cysticercosis lesions using the current EU meat inspection process. The overall apparent prevalence (including both viable and degenerated cysticerci) was estimated at 0.142% [0.142-0.143]. The true overall prevalence defined as the estimation of the prevalence after taking into account the sensitivity of meat inspection (detection fraction) was 1.23% [0.83-1.93]. The true prevalence of cattle with at least one viable cysticercus was 0.113% [0.076-0.189]. Taking into account both our results and those of a previous study on the prevalence of human cysticercosis in France, we estimated that one carcass could infest an average of 8-20 individuals. The spatial distribution of viable cysticerci showed that the highest apparent prevalence was found in eastern France. This study, the largest survey ever conducted on bovine cysticercosis in France, indicated a low but spatially heterogeneous prevalence of the parasite among the cattle population. Considering French eating habits, according to which it is not uncommon to consume undercooked meat, the possibility of humans being infested even though viable cysticerci are not detected during meat inspection is high. Increasing the detection sensitivity of meat inspection through the use of a risk-based meat inspection procedure should improve

  4. HIV Prevalence among Aboriginal British Columbians

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Robert S; Strathdee, Steffanie; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan; Remis, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Context There is considerable concern about the spread of HIV disease among Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. Objective To estimate the number of Aboriginal British Columbians infected with HIV. Design and setting A population-based analysis of Aboriginal men and women in British Columbia, Canada from 1980 to 2001. Participants Epidemic curves were fit for gay and bisexual men, injection drug users, men and women aged 15 to 49 years and persons over 50 years of age. Main outcome measures HIV prevalence for the total Aboriginal population was modeled using the UNAIDS/WHO Estimation and Projection Package (EPP). Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate potential number infected for select transmission group in 2001. Results A total of 170,025 Aboriginals resided in British Columbia in 2001, of whom 69% were 15 years and older. Of these 1,691 (range 1,479 – 1,955) men and women aged 15 years and over were living with HIV with overall prevalence ranging from 1.26% to 1.66%. The majority of the persons infected were men. Injection drug users (range 1,202 – 1,744) and gay and bisexual men (range 145, 232) contributed the greatest number of infections. Few persons infected were from low risk populations. Conclusion More than 1 in every 100 Aboriginals aged 15 years and over was living with HIV in 2001. Culturally appropriate approaches are needed to tailor effective HIV interventions to this community. PMID:16375771

  5. Snacking Is Prevalent in Mexico123

    PubMed Central

    Duffey, Kiyah J.; Rivera, Juan A.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Snacking has increased globally, but little is known about how Mexicans consume foods outside meals. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and patterns of snacking behavior among Mexicans. Methods: We used data from children and adults (aged ≥2 y; n = 9937) from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999 and the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) 2012 to examine the prevalence of snacking as well as amount (kcal) and contribution of snacks to total energy intake per day. Snacking was defined as eating outside of the 3 main meals. We calculated per capita (among the total population) and per consumer (“snackers”) estimates of the number of snacks per day, kilocalories per snack, kilocalories per day from snacks, and the percentage of energy from snacks. Top foods consumed during snack occasions were also examined for the NHNS 2012. All results were weighted to account for survey design and to be nationally representative. Results: In 2012, an estimated 73% of the population consumed snacks on a given day, with estimates ranging from 70% among ≥59 y olds to 77% among 2–11 y olds. An average of 1.6 snacks/d were consumed by the population. This value was slightly higher (2.1 snacks/d) among snackers. Snacks provided an average of 343 kcal/d per snacker (17% of total energy/d). Fruit was the most commonly consumed snack food by all ages except for 12–18 y olds. Salty snacks, sweet snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, and milk were frequently in the top 5 categories across age groups. Differences were observed between age groups. Conclusions: Snacking is prevalent in the Mexican population. Many, but not all, of the foods consumed during snack occasions are foods considered “foods to limit” in the United States. PMID:25332484

  6. A global systematic review of Chagas disease prevalence among migrants.

    PubMed

    Conners, Erin E; Vinetz, Joseph M; Weeks, John R; Brouwer, Kimberly C

    2016-04-01

    Human migration has been identified as a potential factor for increased Chagas disease risk and has transformed the disease from a Latin American problem to a global one. We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature between 2004-2014 in order to: summarize recent seroprevalence estimates of Chagas disease among Latin American migrants, in both endemic and non-endemic settings; compare seroprevalence estimates in migrants to countrywide prevalence estimates; and identify risk factors for Chagas disease among migrants. A total of 320 studies were screened and 23 studies were included. We found evidence that the prevalence of Chagas disease is higher than expected in some migrant groups and that reliance on blood donor screening prevalence estimates underestimates the burden of disease. Overall there is a dearth of high quality epidemiologic studies on the prevalence of Chagas disease in migrants, especially among intra-regional migrants within Latin America. Given that this zoonotic disease cannot likely be eradicated, improved surveillance and reporting is vital to continuing control efforts. More accurate health surveillance of both Latin American migrants and the Chagas disease burden will help countries appropriately scale up their response to this chronic disease. Overall, improved estimates of Chagas disease among migrants would likely serve to highlight the real need for better screening, diagnostics, and treatment of individuals living with the disease.

  7. An unknown quantity--the worldwide prevalence of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Bell, Gail S; Neligan, Aidan; Sander, Josemir W

    2014-07-01

    The reported incidence (rate of new cases in a population) of epilepsy is consistently lower in high-income than in lower-income economies, whereas opinions vary regarding comparative prevalence rates (proportion of the population with epilepsy). For any condition that does not influence mortality, lifetime prevalence should approximate to the cumulative incidence. We suspected that epilepsy prevalence might be uniform throughout the world, whereas incidence is higher in resource-poor countries. To test whether our suspicion was reasonable, we conducted a Medline search to estimate the prevalence of active and lifetime epilepsy in different economic areas throughout the world. We found that the range of estimated prevalence of epilepsy may be broadly similar throughout the world, but comparison is limited by lack of door-to-door studies in high-income economies and by variations in the definitions of active epilepsy. We contend that any inconsistencies between incidence and prevalence are due largely to the excess premature death rate in people with epilepsy in lower-income economies. Much of the variability in epidemiologic indices arises from differences in study methodology, definitions, and risk factors. The epidemiology of epilepsy, and particularly its mortality, needs thorough investigation using uniform definitions that do not include antiepileptic drug use; causes of death should be identified and actions, including treatment and education, should be taken to avoid preventable deaths.

  8. Measuring cancer prevalence in Europe: the EUROPREVAL project.

    PubMed

    Capocaccia, R; Colonna, M; Corazziari, I; De Angelis, R; Francisci, S; Micheli, A; Mugno, E

    2002-06-01

    Cancer prevalence is the proportion of individuals in a population who at some stage during their lifetime have been diagnosed with cancer, irrespective of the date of diagnosis. Cancer prevalence statistics have generally been provided by a limited number of well established cancer registries that have been in existence for several decades. The advent of systematic follow-up of life status of incident cases and the availability of new statistical methodologies, now makes it possible for registries established during the 1970s or 1980s to provide prevalence data. The main problems encountered in the estimation of prevalence are the inclusion of: (i) cases lost to follow-up; (ii) cases known only from their death certificate; (iii) cases diagnosed before the start of registration; and (iv) the treatment of multiple tumours and migrations. The main aim of this paper was to review these problems and discuss, through the experience gained with EUROPREVAL, how they can be overcome. A method is presented for the calculation of prevalence of all cancers combined in the populations covered by the 45 cancer registries participating in EUROPREVAL. Prevalence of cancer is estimated to be 2% on average, with the highest values (3%) in Sweden and the lowest in Eastern Europe, with a minimum of approximately 1% in Poland.

  9. Teachers' Screening Estimations of Speech-Language Impairments in Primary School Children in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thapa, Krishna Bahadur; Okalidou, Areti; Anastasiadou, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of speech-language impairments in children have been estimated for several languages, primarily in developed countries. However, prevalence data is lacking for developing countries, such as Nepal. Aims: (1) To obtain teacher estimates of incidence and overall prevalence of speech-language impairments and its subtypes as…

  10. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Kenya, 2007.

    PubMed

    Ly, Kathleen N; Kim, Andrea A; Umuro, Mamo; Drobenuic, Jan; Williamson, John M; Montgomery, Joel M; Fields, Barry S; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2016-08-01

    Current estimates put the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Kenya at 5-8%. We determined the HBV infection prevalence in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative Kenyan adult and adolescent population based on samples collected from a national survey. We analyzed data from HIV-negative participants in the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey to estimate the HBV infection prevalence. We defined past or present HBV infection as presence of total hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb), and chronic HBV infection (CHBI) as presence of both total HBcAb and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). We calculated crude and adjusted odds of HBV infection by demographic characteristics and risk factors using logistic regression analyses. Of 1,091 participants aged 15-64 years, approximately 31.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 28.0-35.3%) had exposure to HBV, corresponding to approximately 6.1 million (CI = 5.4-6.8 million) with past or present HBV infection. The estimated prevalence of CHBI was 2.1% (95% CI = 1.4-3.1%), corresponding to approximately 398,000 (CI = 261,000-602,000) with CHBI. CHBI is a major public health problem in Kenya, affecting approximately 400,000 persons. Knowing the HBV infection prevalence at baseline is important for planning and public health policy decision making and for monitoring the impact of viral hepatitis prevention programs.

  11. Prevalence of child maltreatment in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Euser, Eveline M; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Prinzie, Peter; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2010-02-01

    The first nationwide prevalence study of child maltreatment in The Netherlands (NPM-2005) was designed as a replication of the National Incidence Studies (NISs) conducted in the United States. Child maltreatment cases were reported by 1,121 professionals from various occupational branches, trained in a detailed registration system of six types of abuse and neglect. In addition, cases registered by the Dutch Child Protection Services (CPS) were analyzed. For 2005, the overall prevalence rate was estimated to be 107,200 (95% CI 102,054-112,882) maltreated children aged 0-18 years, or 30 cases per 1,000 children. Neglect was the most prevalent type (56% of all cases) and sexual abuse had the lowest rate (4%). Of the maltreated children, 47% experienced more than one type of maltreatment. Major risk factors were very low parental education and unemployment. It is worrisome that CPS agencies only see the tip of the iceberg as only 12.6% of all maltreatment cases were reported to the CPS. Training of professionals in observing and reporting child maltreatment is badly needed. The absence of a legal obligation to report in The Netherlands needs reconsideration. PMID:19729577

  12. Towards establishing MS prevalence in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Melcon, M O; Melcon, C M; Bartoloni, L; Cristiano, E; Duran, J C; Grzesiuk, A K; Fragoso, Y D; Brooks, J B Bidin; Díaz, V; Romero García, K M; Cabrera Gomez, J A; Abad, P; Islas, M A Macías; Gracia, F; Diaz de Bedoya, V F Hamuy; Ruiz, M E Córdova; Hackembruch, J H; Oehninger, C; Ketzoian, C N; Soto, A

    2013-02-01

    A very high prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been reported in some Western European and North American countries. The few surveys of MS epidemiology in South America reveal lower prevalence rates, implying that susceptibility varies between distinct ethnic groups, thus forming an important determinant of the geographic distribution of the disease. The objective of this study is to review MS prevalence estimates in different Latin American and Caribbean countries. We reviewed surveys of regional MS prevalence from 1991 to 2011. Sources included an online database, authors' reports and proceedings or specific lectures from regional conferences. We obtained a total of 30 prevalence surveys from 15 countries, showing low/medium MS prevalence rates. Both the number and the quality of prevalence surveys have greatly improved in this region over recent decades. This is the first collaborative study to map the regional frequency of MS. Establishment of standardized methods and joint epidemiological studies will advance future MS research in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  13. Prevalence and Clustering of Major Cardiovascular Risk Factors in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Cheng, Xinqi; Qiu, Ling; Xu, Tao; Zhu, Guangjin; Han, Jianhua; Xia, Liangyu; Qin, Xuzhen; Cheng, Qian; Liu, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the Chinese population. Although general prevalence estimates of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) are available for Chinese adults, prevalence estimates covering all adult age groups by race/ethnicity have not been reported. The aim of this study is to estimate the current prevalence and clustering of major CVRFs in Chinese adults, including a plurality of ethnic minorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a nationally representative sample of 23,010 adults aged 18 years and older from 2007 to 2011. Questionnaires and physical examinations were performed, and fasting blood was collected for laboratory measurements. The prevalence of traditional CVRFs, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, overweight, and current smoking, were determined. The prevalence of the major CVRFs, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, overweight, and current smoking were 24.3%, 4.3%, 49.3%, 32.0%, and 21.7%, respectively. These risk factors were significantly associated with sex, age, region, ethnicity, and education levels. Overall, 70.3%, 40.3%, and 16.7% of Chinese adults had ≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 CVRFs, respectively. Men, northern and rural residents were more likely to have clustered CVRFs compared with women, southern and urban residents, respectively. Compared with Han residents, Hui and Mongolian residents were more likely, and Tujia and Miao residents were less likely, to have ≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 risk factors. The prevalence of Chinese women having ≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 CVRFs decreased with increasing levels of education. The prevalence and clustering of CVRFs is still high in Chinese adults ≥18 years old, especially in men and in individuals living in the northern and rural areas. Of note, there are differences in cardiovascular risk among different ethnic groups. Therefore, targeted and enhanced intervention measures are required to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and the

  14. Global Distribution and Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Jane P; Humphreys, Isla; Flaxman, Abraham; Brown, Anthony; Cooke, Graham S; Pybus, Oliver G; Barnes, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) exhibits high genetic diversity, characterized by regional variations in genotype prevalence. This poses a challenge to the improved development of vaccines and pan-genotypic treatments, which require the consideration of global trends in HCV genotype prevalence. Here we provide the first comprehensive survey of these trends. To approximate national HCV genotype prevalence, studies published between 1989 and 2013 reporting HCV genotypes are reviewed and combined with overall HCV prevalence estimates from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) project. We also generate regional and global genotype prevalence estimates, inferring data for countries lacking genotype information. We include 1,217 studies in our analysis, representing 117 countries and 90% of the global population. We calculate that HCV genotype 1 is the most prevalent worldwide, comprising 83.4 million cases (46.2% of all HCV cases), approximately one-third of which are in East Asia. Genotype 3 is the next most prevalent globally (54.3 million, 30.1%); genotypes 2, 4, and 6 are responsible for a total 22.8% of all cases; genotype 5 comprises the remaining <1%. While genotypes 1 and 3 dominate in most countries irrespective of economic status, the largest proportions of genotypes 4 and 5 are in lower-income countries. Conclusion: Although genotype 1 is most common worldwide, nongenotype 1 HCV cases—which are less well served by advances in vaccine and drug development—still comprise over half of all HCV cases. Relative genotype proportions are needed to inform healthcare models, which must be geographically tailored to specific countries or regions in order to improve access to new treatments. Genotype surveillance data are needed from many countries to improve estimates of unmet need. (Hepatology 2015;61:77–87) PMID:25069599

  15. Malaria transmission rates estimated from serological data.

    PubMed Central

    Burattini, M. N.; Massad, E.; Coutinho, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model was used to estimate malaria transmission rates based on serological data. The model is minimally stochastic and assumes an age-dependent force of infection for malaria. The transmission rates estimated were applied to a simple compartmental model in order to mimic the malaria transmission. The model has shown a good retrieving capacity for serological and parasite prevalence data. PMID:8270011

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Autism in a State Psychiatric Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, David S.; Lawer, Lindsay J.; Branch, Kira; Brodkin, Edward S.; Healey, Kristin; Witalec, Robert; Johnson, Donielle N.; Gur, Raquel E.

    2012-01-01

    This study estimated the ASD prevalence in a psychiatric hospital and evaluated the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) combined with other information for differential diagnosis. Chart review, SRS and clinical interviews were collected for 141 patients at one hospital. Diagnosis was determined at case conference. Receiver operating characteristic…

  17. Youth Homelessness: Prevalence and Associations with Weight in Three Regions.

    PubMed

    Cutuli, J J; Steinway, Caren; Perlman, Staci; Herbers, Janette E; Eyrich-Garg, Karin M; Willard, Joe

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the utility of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) to document associations between homeless status and weight while estimating the prevalence of youth homelessness in three regions. A school-based survey, the YRBS includes youths who have been difficult to involve in past research. Analysis of 2011 YRBS data produced population-weighted estimates of youth homelessness prevalence separately for Connecticut, Delaware, and Philadelphia. Public high school students anonymously reported their housing status, height, and weight on the YRBS. Height and weight were converted to body mass index (BMI) percentile-for-age scores. Homelessness was associated with higher BMI percentile scores for youths compared with nonhomeless peers. Associations between BMI percentile and different forms of homelessness (homeless with family, unaccompanied homeless without family) were explored at each site. Estimates of one-month homelessness prevalence ranged from 3.9 percent to 5.9 percent at each site. Homelessness, especially family homelessness, is associated with risk for higher BMI. The YRBS is an informative tool for estimating the prevalence of youth homelessness, expanding on what is known through other, more commonly used methods.

  18. The Prevalence and Special Educational Requirements of Dyscompetent Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Betsy W.

    2006-01-01

    Underperformance among physicians is not well studied or defined; yet, the identification and remediation of physicians who are not performing up to acceptable standards is central to quality care and patient safety. Methods for estimating the prevalence of dyscompetence include evaluating available data on medical errors, malpractice claims,…

  19. Global prevalence of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Elsabbagh, Mayada; Divan, Gauri; Koh, Yun-Joo; Kim, Young Shin; Kauchali, Shuaib; Marcín, Carlos; Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Patel, Vikram; Paula, Cristiane S; Wang, Chongying; Yasamy, Mohammad Taghi; Fombonne, Eric

    2012-06-01

    We provide a systematic review of epidemiological surveys of autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) worldwide. A secondary aim was to consider the possible impact of geographic, cultural/ethnic, and socioeconomic factors on prevalence estimates and on clinical presentation of PDD. Based on the evidence reviewed, the median of prevalence estimates of autism spectrum disorders was 62/10 000. While existing estimates are variable, the evidence reviewed does not support differences in PDD prevalence by geographic region nor of a strong impact of ethnic/cultural or socioeconomic factors. However, power to detect such effects is seriously limited in existing data sets, particularly in low-income countries. While it is clear that prevalence estimates have increased over time and these vary in different neighboring and distant regions, these findings most likely represent broadening of the diagnostic concets, diagnostic switching from other developmental disabilities to PDD, service availability, and awareness of autistic spectrum disorders in both the lay and professional public. The lack of evidence from the majority of the world's population suggests a critical need for further research and capacity building in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:22495912

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Injury among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollust, Sarah Elizabeth; Eisenberg, Daniel; Golberstein, Ezra

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this research was to establish estimates of the prevalence and correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury among university students. Participants: The authors recruited participants (N = 2, 843) from a random sample of 5, 021 undergraduate and graduate students attending a large midwestern public university. Methods:…

  1. Prevalence and Trends in Smoking: A National Rural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doescher, Mark P.; Jackson, J. Elizabeth; Jerant, Anthony; Hart, L. Gary

    2006-01-01

    Context: Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of and recent trends in smoking among adults by type of rural location and by state. Methods: Random-digit telephone survey of adults aged 18 years or older who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance…

  2. Youth Homelessness: Prevalence and Associations with Weight in Three Regions.

    PubMed

    Cutuli, J J; Steinway, Caren; Perlman, Staci; Herbers, Janette E; Eyrich-Garg, Karin M; Willard, Joe

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the utility of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) to document associations between homeless status and weight while estimating the prevalence of youth homelessness in three regions. A school-based survey, the YRBS includes youths who have been difficult to involve in past research. Analysis of 2011 YRBS data produced population-weighted estimates of youth homelessness prevalence separately for Connecticut, Delaware, and Philadelphia. Public high school students anonymously reported their housing status, height, and weight on the YRBS. Height and weight were converted to body mass index (BMI) percentile-for-age scores. Homelessness was associated with higher BMI percentile scores for youths compared with nonhomeless peers. Associations between BMI percentile and different forms of homelessness (homeless with family, unaccompanied homeless without family) were explored at each site. Estimates of one-month homelessness prevalence ranged from 3.9 percent to 5.9 percent at each site. Homelessness, especially family homelessness, is associated with risk for higher BMI. The YRBS is an informative tool for estimating the prevalence of youth homelessness, expanding on what is known through other, more commonly used methods. PMID:26638508

  3. Global Prevalence of Autism and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Elsabbagh, Mayada; Divan, Gauri; Koh, Yun-Joo; Kim, Young Shin; Kauchali, Shuaib; Marcín, Carlos; Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Patel, Vikram; Paula, Cristiane S; Wang, Chongying; Yasamy, Mohammad Taghi; Fombonne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We provide a systematic review of epidemiological surveys of autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) worldwide. A secondary aim was to consider the possible impact of geographic, cultural/ethnic, and socioeconomic factors on prevalence estimates and on clinical presentation of PDD. Based on the evidence reviewed, the median of prevalence estimates of autism spectrum disorders was 62/10 000. While existing estimates are variable, the evidence reviewed does not support differences in PDD prevalence by geographic region nor of a strong impact of ethnic/cultural or socioeconomic factors. However, power to detect such effects is seriously limited in existing data sets, particularly in low-income countries. While it is clear that prevalence estimates have increased over time and these vary in different neighboring and distant regions, these findings most likely represent broadening of the diagnostic concets, diagnostic switching from other developmental disabilities to PDD, service availability, and awareness of autistic spectrum disorders in both the lay and professional public. The lack of evidence from the majority of the world's population suggests a critical need for further research and capacity building in low- and middle-income countries. Autism Res 2012, 5: 160–179. © 2012 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22495912

  4. The Prevalence of Tree Nut Allergy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    McWilliam, Vicki; Koplin, Jennifer; Lodge, Caroline; Tang, Mimi; Dharmage, Shyamali; Allen, Katrina

    2015-09-01

    Tree nuts are one of the most common foods causing acute allergic reactions and nearly all tree nuts have been associated with fatal allergic reactions. Despite their clinical importance, tree nut allergy epidemiology remains understudied and the prevalence of tree nut allergy in different regions of the world has not yet been well characterised. We aimed to systematically review the population prevalence of tree nut allergy in children and adults. We searched three electronic databases (OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed) from January 1996 to December 2014. Eligible studies were categorised by age, region and method of assessment of tree nut allergy. Of the 36 studies identified most were in children (n = 24) and from Europe (n = 18), UK (n = 8) or USA (n = 5). Challenge-confirmed IgE-mediated tree nut allergy prevalence was less than 2 % (although only seven studies used this gold standard) while probable tree nut allergy prevalence ranged from 0.05 to 4.9 %. Prevalence estimates that included oral allergy syndrome (OAS) reactions to tree nut were significantly higher (8-11.4 %) and were predominantly from Europe. Prevalence of individual tree nut allergies varied significantly by region with hazelnut the most common tree nut allergy in Europe, walnut and cashew in the USA and Brazil nut, almond and walnut most commonly reported in the UK. Monitoring time trends of tree nut allergy prevalence (both overall and by individual nuts) as well as the prevalence of OAS should be considered given the context of the overall recent rise in IgE-mediated food allergy prevalence in the developed world. PMID:26233427

  5. The Prevalence of Tree Nut Allergy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    McWilliam, Vicki; Koplin, Jennifer; Lodge, Caroline; Tang, Mimi; Dharmage, Shyamali; Allen, Katrina

    2015-09-01

    Tree nuts are one of the most common foods causing acute allergic reactions and nearly all tree nuts have been associated with fatal allergic reactions. Despite their clinical importance, tree nut allergy epidemiology remains understudied and the prevalence of tree nut allergy in different regions of the world has not yet been well characterised. We aimed to systematically review the population prevalence of tree nut allergy in children and adults. We searched three electronic databases (OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed) from January 1996 to December 2014. Eligible studies were categorised by age, region and method of assessment of tree nut allergy. Of the 36 studies identified most were in children (n = 24) and from Europe (n = 18), UK (n = 8) or USA (n = 5). Challenge-confirmed IgE-mediated tree nut allergy prevalence was less than 2 % (although only seven studies used this gold standard) while probable tree nut allergy prevalence ranged from 0.05 to 4.9 %. Prevalence estimates that included oral allergy syndrome (OAS) reactions to tree nut were significantly higher (8-11.4 %) and were predominantly from Europe. Prevalence of individual tree nut allergies varied significantly by region with hazelnut the most common tree nut allergy in Europe, walnut and cashew in the USA and Brazil nut, almond and walnut most commonly reported in the UK. Monitoring time trends of tree nut allergy prevalence (both overall and by individual nuts) as well as the prevalence of OAS should be considered given the context of the overall recent rise in IgE-mediated food allergy prevalence in the developed world.

  6. Cigarette smoking prevalence in US counties: 1996-2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is a leading risk factor for morbidity and premature mortality in the United States, yet information about smoking prevalence and trends is not routinely available below the state level, impeding local-level action. Methods We used data on 4.7 million adults age 18 and older from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) from 1996 to 2012. We derived cigarette smoking status from self-reported data in the BRFSS and applied validated small area estimation methods to generate estimates of current total cigarette smoking prevalence and current daily cigarette smoking prevalence for 3,127 counties and county equivalents annually from 1996 to 2012. We applied a novel method to correct for bias resulting from the exclusion of the wireless-only population in the BRFSS prior to 2011. Results Total cigarette smoking prevalence varies dramatically between counties, even within states, ranging from 9.9% to 41.5% for males and from 5.8% to 40.8% for females in 2012. Counties in the South, particularly in Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia, as well as those with large Native American populations, have the highest rates of total cigarette smoking, while counties in Utah and other Western states have the lowest. Overall, total cigarette smoking prevalence declined between 1996 and 2012 with a median decline across counties of 0.9% per year for males and 0.6% per year for females, and rates of decline for males and females in some counties exceeded 3% per year. Statistically significant declines were concentrated in a relatively small number of counties, however, and more counties saw statistically significant declines in male cigarette smoking prevalence (39.8% of counties) than in female cigarette smoking prevalence (16.2%). Rates of decline varied by income level: counties in the top quintile in terms of income experienced noticeably faster declines than those in the bottom quintile. Conclusions County-level estimates of cigarette

  7. Estimating Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Margaret; Scott, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The authors discuss mass as one of the three fundamental measurements (the others being length and time), noting that estimation of mass is little taught and assessed in primary schools. This article briefly explores the reasons for this in terms of culture, practice, and the difficulty of assessing estimation of mass. An activity using the…

  8. Prevalence of hypercalcemia among cancer patients in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gastanaga, Victor M; Schwartzberg, Lee S; Jain, Rajul K; Pirolli, Melissa; Quach, David; Quigley, Jane M; Mu, George; Scott Stryker, W; Liede, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM) is a serious metabolic complication whose population-based prevalence has not been quantified. Rates of HCM differ by tumor type, with highest rates reported in multiple myeloma and lowest among colorectal and prostate cancer patients. This analysis estimates HCM prevalence in the US. This retrospective study used the Oncology Services Comprehensive Electronic Records (OSCER) warehouse of electronic health records (EHR) including laboratory values from 569000 patients treated at 565 oncology outpatient sites. OSCER data were projected to the national level by linking EHR to claims data. Cancer patients included were ≥18 years, and had serum calcium (Ca) and albumin (for corrected serum Ca [CSC]) records. Period prevalence was estimated by HCM CTCAE grade, tumor type, and year (2009-2013). Estimates were adjusted to capture patients diagnosed with HCM outside oncology practices based on a subset of patients linkable to office and hospital data. The analysis included 68023 (2009) to 121482 (2013) cancer patients. In 2013, patients with HCM had a median of six Ca tests, 69.7% had chemotherapy, and 34% received bone modifying agents. HCM rates were highest for multiple myeloma patients (7.5% [2012]-10.2% [2010]), lowest for prostate cancer (1.4% [2012]-2.1% [2011]).The estimated adjusted annual prevalence of HCM from 2009 to 2013 was 95441, 96281, 89797, 70158, and 71744, respectively. HCM affected 2.0-2.8% of all cancer patients. EHR data from oncology clinics were critical for this study because these data contain results from laboratory studies (i.e., serum calcium values) that are routinely ordered in that setting. We estimated that the prevalence of HCM in the US in 2013 is 71744, affecting approximately 2% of cancer patients overall. This percentage differs by tumor type and appears to have decreased over the five-year study period.

  9. Prevalence of hypercalcemia among cancer patients in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gastanaga, Victor M; Schwartzberg, Lee S; Jain, Rajul K; Pirolli, Melissa; Quach, David; Quigley, Jane M; Mu, George; Scott Stryker, W; Liede, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM) is a serious metabolic complication whose population-based prevalence has not been quantified. Rates of HCM differ by tumor type, with highest rates reported in multiple myeloma and lowest among colorectal and prostate cancer patients. This analysis estimates HCM prevalence in the US. This retrospective study used the Oncology Services Comprehensive Electronic Records (OSCER) warehouse of electronic health records (EHR) including laboratory values from 569000 patients treated at 565 oncology outpatient sites. OSCER data were projected to the national level by linking EHR to claims data. Cancer patients included were ≥18 years, and had serum calcium (Ca) and albumin (for corrected serum Ca [CSC]) records. Period prevalence was estimated by HCM CTCAE grade, tumor type, and year (2009-2013). Estimates were adjusted to capture patients diagnosed with HCM outside oncology practices based on a subset of patients linkable to office and hospital data. The analysis included 68023 (2009) to 121482 (2013) cancer patients. In 2013, patients with HCM had a median of six Ca tests, 69.7% had chemotherapy, and 34% received bone modifying agents. HCM rates were highest for multiple myeloma patients (7.5% [2012]-10.2% [2010]), lowest for prostate cancer (1.4% [2012]-2.1% [2011]).The estimated adjusted annual prevalence of HCM from 2009 to 2013 was 95441, 96281, 89797, 70158, and 71744, respectively. HCM affected 2.0-2.8% of all cancer patients. EHR data from oncology clinics were critical for this study because these data contain results from laboratory studies (i.e., serum calcium values) that are routinely ordered in that setting. We estimated that the prevalence of HCM in the US in 2013 is 71744, affecting approximately 2% of cancer patients overall. This percentage differs by tumor type and appears to have decreased over the five-year study period. PMID:27263488

  10. Cumulative Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders by Young Adulthood: A Prospective Cohort Analysis From the Great Smoky Mountains Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: No longitudinal studies beginning in childhood have estimated the cumulative prevalence of psychiatric illness from childhood into young adulthood. The objective of this study was to estimate the cumulative prevalence of psychiatric disorders by young adulthood and to assess how inclusion of not otherwise specified diagnoses affects…

  11. Prevalence effect in haptic search

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Kazuya; Watanabe, Ken; Takaoka, Yutaka; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Kita, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    In visual search tasks, the ratio of target-present to target-absent trials has important effects on miss rates. In this study, we examined whether the target prevalence effect occurs in a haptic search task by using artificial tactile maps. The results indicated that target prevalence has effects on miss rates, sensitivity, and criterion. Moreover, an increase in miss rates in the low-prevalence condition (10%) was strongly correlated with a decrease in search termination times (target-absent reaction times). These results suggest that the prevalence effect on haptic search is caused by a decrease in the search termination time and a shift in decision criterion and a decrease in sensitivity. PMID:23145300

  12. Unexpectedly high prevalence of sarcoidosis in a representative U.S. Metropolitan population.

    PubMed

    Erdal, Barbaros S; Clymer, Bradley D; Yildiz, Vedat O; Julian, Mark W; Crouser, Elliott D

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of sarcoidosis in the United States is unknown, with estimates ranging widely from 1 to 40 per 100,000. We sought to determine the prevalence of sarcoidosis in our health system compared to other rare lung diseases and to further establish if the prevalence was changing over time. We interrogated the electronic medical records of all patients treated in our health system from 1995 to 2010 (1.48 million patients) using the common ICD9 codes for sarcoidosis (135), lung cancer (162), and several other lung diseases characterized, like sarcoidosis, as "rare lung diseases". The patient demographic information (race, gender, age) was further analyzed to identify signature data patterns. The prevalence of sarcoidosis in our health system increased steadily from 164/100,000 in 1995 to 330/100,000 in 2010, and this trend could not be ascribed simply to changes in patient demographics or patient referral patterns. We further estimate that the prevalence of sarcoidosis exceeds 48 per 100,000 in Franklin County, Ohio, the demographic profile of which is nearly identical to that of the U.S. Sarcoidosis prevalence increased over time relative to lung cancer, a benchmark disease with stable disease prevalence, and exceeded that of other rare lung diseases. We postulate that the observed 2-fold increase in sarcoidosis disease prevalence in our health system is primarily related to improved detection and diagnostic approaches, and we conclude that the actual prevalence of sarcoidosis in central Ohio greatly exceeds current U.S. estimates.

  13. Small area mapping of domestic radon, smoking prevalence and lung cancer incidence--A case study in Northamptonshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Denman, Antony R; Rogers, Stephen; Ali, Akeem; Sinclair, John; Phillips, Paul S; Crockett, Robin G M; Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J

    2015-12-01

    Smoking and radon both cause lung cancer, and together the risk is significantly higher. UK public health campaigns continue to reduce smoking prevalence, and other initiatives identify houses with raised radon (radon-222) levels and encourage remedial action. Smoking prevalence and radon levels in the UK have been mapped at Primary Care Trust level. This paper extends that work, using a commercial socio-demographic database to estimate smoking prevalence at the postcode sector level, and to predict the population characteristics at postcode sector level for 87 postcode sectors in Northamptonshire. Likely smoking prevalence in each postcode sector is then modelled from estimates of the smoking prevalence in the different socio-economic groups used by the database. Mapping estimated smoking prevalence, radon potential and average lung cancer incidence for each postcode sector suggested that there was little correlation between smoking prevalence and radon levels, as radon potential was generally lower in urban areas in Northamptonshire, where the estimates of smoking prevalence were highest. However, the analysis demonstrated some sectors where both radon potential and smoking prevalence were moderately raised. This study showed the potential of this methodology to map estimated smoking prevalence and radon levels to inform locally targeted public health campaigns to reduce lung cancer incidence.

  14. Small area mapping of domestic radon, smoking prevalence and lung cancer incidence--A case study in Northamptonshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Denman, Antony R; Rogers, Stephen; Ali, Akeem; Sinclair, John; Phillips, Paul S; Crockett, Robin G M; Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J

    2015-12-01

    Smoking and radon both cause lung cancer, and together the risk is significantly higher. UK public health campaigns continue to reduce smoking prevalence, and other initiatives identify houses with raised radon (radon-222) levels and encourage remedial action. Smoking prevalence and radon levels in the UK have been mapped at Primary Care Trust level. This paper extends that work, using a commercial socio-demographic database to estimate smoking prevalence at the postcode sector level, and to predict the population characteristics at postcode sector level for 87 postcode sectors in Northamptonshire. Likely smoking prevalence in each postcode sector is then modelled from estimates of the smoking prevalence in the different socio-economic groups used by the database. Mapping estimated smoking prevalence, radon potential and average lung cancer incidence for each postcode sector suggested that there was little correlation between smoking prevalence and radon levels, as radon potential was generally lower in urban areas in Northamptonshire, where the estimates of smoking prevalence were highest. However, the analysis demonstrated some sectors where both radon potential and smoking prevalence were moderately raised. This study showed the potential of this methodology to map estimated smoking prevalence and radon levels to inform locally targeted public health campaigns to reduce lung cancer incidence. PMID:26334595

  15. Educational Attainment and HIV/AIDS Prevalence: A Cross-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakhanpal, Manisha; Ram, Rati

    2008-01-01

    Using data for a large cross-country sample, a reasonable model is estimated to judge the effect of adult educational attainment on prevalence of HIV. Three main points are noted. First, there is an indication of a significantly negative effect of educational attainment on HIV prevalence. Second, magnitude of the impact appears sizable. Third, a…

  16. The Croydon Assessment of Learning Study: Prevalence and Educational Identification of Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Chadwick, Oliver; Gringras, Paul; Wood, Nicky; Higgins, Siobhan; Maney, Julie-Ann; Karia, Nisha; Iqbal, Huma; Moore, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Background: Mild mental retardation is an enduring and impairing condition. Its prevalence has varied widely across different studies from 0.5 to over 8%, with higher rates in completely ascertained samples. The current study estimates the prevalence of low IQ in the mental retardation range (intellectual disability) in a population sample and…

  17. Brief Report: Prevalence of Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Sultanate of Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed S.; Brooks, Daniel R.; Waly, Mostafa I.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in Oman is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of ASD among 0-14 year old children. Diagnoses were made as per DSM-IV-TR criteria and supplemented with information collected with the standard Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) questionnaire. A total 113 cases of…

  18. The Prevalence of Stuttering, Voice, and Speech-Sound Disorders in Primary School Students in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, David H.; McLeod, Sharynne; Reilly, Sheena

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were threefold: to report teachers' estimates of the prevalence of speech disorders (specifically, stuttering, voice, and speech-sound disorders); to consider correspondence between the prevalence of speech disorders and gender, grade level, and socioeconomic status; and to describe the level of support provided to…

  19. Disability in the United States: Prevalence and Causes, 1992. Disability Statistics Report 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPlante, Mitchell P.; Carlson, Dawn

    This report presents, in text and 13 tables, data obtained from 128,412 paricipants in the 1992 National Health Interview Survey concerning the prevalence of disability, as measured by limitation in activity caused by chronic health disorders, injuries, and impairments. Prevalence estimates are presented in tables for various population subgroups,…

  20. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nurseries in Lebanon: A Cross Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaaya, Monique; Saab, Dahlia; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Boustany, Rose-Mary

    2016-01-01

    In Lebanon, no estimate for autism prevalence exists. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers in nurseries in Beirut and Mount-Lebanon. The final sample included 998 toddlers (16-48 months) from 177 nurseries. We sent parents the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for…

  1. Prevalence and Characteristics of Children with Mild Intellectual Disability in a French County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, M.; Dieterich, K.; Billette de Villemeur, A.; Jouk, P.-S.; Counillon, J.; Larroque, B.; Bloch, J.; Cans, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies conducted on mild intellectual disability (MID) in children are infrequent and the prevalence rates vary widely. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of MID in children in a French county (Isère), to describe the clinical signs and associated comorbidities, and to specify the aetiologies of this disability. Methods: The…

  2. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Associated Features among Children in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecendreux, Michel; Konofal, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Earlier studies point to the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to be similar around the world. There is, however, a wide variety in estimates. The prevalence of ADHD in youth has never been examined in France. Method: Starting with 18 million telephone numbers, 7,912 numbers are randomly selected. Among the…

  3. Prevalence of Hypertension in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Sarki, Ahmed M.; Nduka, Chidozie U.; Stranges, Saverio; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Uthman, Olalekan A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to obtain overall and regional estimates of hypertension prevalence, and to examine the pattern of this disease condition across different socio-demographic characteristics in low-and middle-income countries. We searched electronic databases from inception to August 2015. We included population-based studies that reported hypertension prevalence using the current definition of blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or self-reported use of antihypertensive medication. We used random-effects meta-analyses to pool prevalence estimates of hypertension, overall, by World Bank region and country income group. Meta-regression analyses were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity across the included studies. A total of 242 studies, comprising data on 1,494,609 adults from 45 countries, met our inclusion criteria. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 32.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 29.4–35.3), with the Latin America and Caribbean region reporting the highest estimates (39.1%, 95% CI 33.1–45.2). Pooled prevalence estimate was also highest across upper middle income countries (37.8%, 95% CI 35.0–40.6) and lowest across low-income countries (23.1%, 95% CI 20.1–26.2). Prevalence estimates were significantly higher in the elderly (≥65 years) compared with younger adults (<65 years) overall and across the geographical regions; however, there was no significant sex-difference in hypertension prevalence (31.9% vs 30.8%, P = 0.6). Persons without formal education (49.0% vs 24.9%, P < 0.00001), overweight/obese (46.4% vs 26.3%, P < 0.00001), and urban settlers (32.7% vs 25.2%, P = 0.0005) were also more likely to be hypertensive, compared with those who were educated, normal weight, and rural settlers respectively. This study provides contemporary and up-to-date estimates that reflect the significant burden of hypertension in low- and middle-income countries, as well as evidence that hypertension remains a major public health issue

  4. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Comorbidities of Hidradenitis Suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Miller, Iben Marie; McAndrew, Rachel J; Hamzavi, Iltefat

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to estimate a true prevalence of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) because it is underdiagnosed and misdiagnosed. Prevalences have been reported from 0.00033% to 4.1%. The incidence seems to be rising. In addition to dermatologic symptoms, HS is associated with metabolic syndrome, and increased cardiovascular risk. The majority of HS patients are smokers. Additional somatic comorbidities complicating HS include autoimmune conditions, follicular syndromes, rheumatologic conditions, and malignancies. HS patients are troubled by psychological comorbidities. When treating HS patients it is imperative not only to treat the skin symptoms, but also address the screening and treatment of possible comorbidities.

  5. Prevalence of Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophies in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Romitti, Paul A.; Zhu, Yong; Puzhankara, Soman; James, Katherine A.; Nabukera, Sarah K.; Zamba, Gideon K.D.; Ciafaloni, Emma; Cunniff, Christopher; Druschel, Charlotte M.; Mathews, Katherine D.; Matthews, Dennis J.; Meaney, F. John; Andrews, Jennifer G.; Caspers Conway, Kristin M.; Fox, Deborah J.; Street, Natalie; Adams, Melissa M.; Bolen, Julie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate prevalence of childhood-onset Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DBMD) in 6 sites in the United States by race/ethnicity and phenotype (Duchenne muscular dystrophy [DMD] or Becker muscular dystrophy [BMD]). METHODS In 2002, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention established the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance, Tracking, and Research Network (MD STARnet) to conduct longitudinal, population-based surveillance and research of DBMD in the United States. Six sites conducted active, multiple-source case finding and record abstraction to identify MD STARnet cases born January 1982 to December 2011. We used cross-sectional analyses to estimate prevalence of DBMD per 10 000 boys, ages 5 to 9 years, for 4 quinquennia (1991–1995, 1996–2000, 2001–2005, and 2006–2010) and prevalence per 10 000 male individuals, ages 5 to 24 years, in 2010. Prevalence was also estimated by race/ethnicity and phenotype. RESULTS Overall, 649 cases resided in an MD STARnet site during $1 quinquennia. Prevalence estimates per 10 000 boys, ages 5 to 9 years, were 1.93, 2.05, 2.04, and 1.51, respectively, for 1991–1995, 1996–2000, 2001–2005, and 2006–2010. Prevalence tended to be higher for Hispanic individuals than non-Hispanic white or black individuals, and higher for DMD than BMD. In 2010, prevalence of DBMD was 1.38 per 10 000 male individuals, ages 5 to 24 years. CONCLUSIONS We present population-based prevalence estimates for DBMD in 6 US sites. Prevalence differed by race/ethnicity, suggesting potential cultural and socioeconomic influences in the diagnosis of DBMD. Prevalence also was higher for DMD than BMD. Continued longitudinal surveillance will permit us to examine racial/ethnic and socioeconomic differences in treatment and outcomes for MD STARnet cases. PMID:25687144

  6. Prevalence of chronic low back pain: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Meucci, Rodrigo Dalke; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Faria, Neice Muller Xavier

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate worldwide prevalence of chronic low back pain according to age and sex. METHODS We consulted Medline (PubMed), LILACS and EMBASE electronic databases. The search strategy used the following descriptors and combinations: back pain, prevalence, musculoskeletal diseases, chronic musculoskeletal pain, rheumatic, low back pain, musculoskeletal disorders and chronic low back pain. We selected cross-sectional population-based or cohort studies that assessed chronic low back pain as an outcome. We also assessed the quality of the selected studies as well as the chronic low back pain prevalence according to age and sex. RESULTS The review included 28 studies. Based on our qualitative evaluation, around one third of the studies had low scores, mainly due to high non-response rates. Chronic low back pain prevalence was 4.2% in individuals aged between 24 and 39 years old and 19.6% in those aged between 20 and 59. Of nine studies with individuals aged 18 and above, six reported chronic low back pain between 3.9% and 10.2% and three, prevalence between 13.1% and 20.3%. In the Brazilian older population, chronic low back pain prevalence was 25.4%. CONCLUSIONS Chronic low back pain prevalence increases linearly from the third decade of life on, until the 60 years of age, being more prevalent in women. Methodological approaches aiming to reduce high heterogeneity in case definitions of chronic low back pain are essential to consistency and comparative analysis between studies. A standard chronic low back pain definition should include the precise description of the anatomical area, pain duration and limitation level. PMID:26487293

  7. Attitude Estimation or Quaternion Estimation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    2003-01-01

    The attitude of spacecraft is represented by a 3x3 orthogonal matrix with unity determinant, which belongs to the three-dimensional special orthogonal group SO(3). The fact that all three-parameter representations of SO(3) are singular or discontinuous for certain attitudes has led to the use of higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterizations, especially the four-component quaternion. In attitude estimation, we are faced with the alternatives of using an attitude representation that is either singular or redundant. Estimation procedures fall into three broad classes. The first estimates a three-dimensional representation of attitude deviations from a reference attitude parameterized by a higher-dimensional nonsingular parameterization. The deviations from the reference are assumed to be small enough to avoid any singularity or discontinuity of the three-dimensional parameterization. The second class, which estimates a higher-dimensional representation subject to enough constraints to leave only three degrees of freedom, is difficult to formulate and apply consistently. The third class estimates a representation of SO(3) with more than three dimensions, treating the parameters as independent. We refer to the most common member of this class as quaternion estimation, to contrast it with attitude estimation. We analyze the first and third of these approaches in the context of an extended Kalman filter with simplified kinematics and measurement models.

  8. Economic grand rounds: Income inequality and depression prevalence across the United States: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Messias, Erick; Eaton, William W; Grooms, Amy N

    2011-07-01

    Research has shown a relationship between income inequality and poor health. This column reports findings from a state-level study of the relationship between income inequality and the prevalence of depression. Estimates of depression prevalence by state, obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, were linked with Gini coefficients for U.S. household income, obtained from the Census Bureau. The current prevalence of depression was significantly associated with income inequality--the more unequal, the higher the depression prevalence. The association persisted after adjustment for income per capita, percentage of the population with a college degree, and percentage over age 65 years.

  9. Prevalence of tuberculosis, brucellosis and trypanosomiasis in cattle in Tanzania: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Silvia; Dohoo, Ian; Lindahl, Johanna; Verdugo, Cristobal; Akuku, Isaiah; Grace, Delia

    2016-06-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to derive prevalence estimates for Brucella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Trypanosoma spp. in cattle in Tanzania using data derived from a systematic review of zoonotic hazards in cattle production systems. Articles published before 2012 reporting prevalence and considered at least moderate in quality were included in the analysis. Results showed high heterogeneity between studies, with wide ranges in the reported prevalence: Brucella (0.3-60.8%), Mycobacterium (0.1-13.2%) and Trypanosoma (0.82-33.3%). Overall meta-analytic mean prevalence estimates were 8.2% (95% CI 6.5-10.2), 1.28% (95% CI 0.35-4.58) and 10.3% (95% CI 6.20-16.70) respectively, for Brucella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Trypanosoma spp. Time and region were predictors of variability of Brucella spp. prevalence, while diagnostic test was a strong predictor of Mycobacterium spp. prevalence, with higher prevalence estimates given by skin tests compared with post-mortem inspection. None of the studied factors were associated with prevalence of Trypanosoma spp. The small sample sizes, range of study locations, study designs and diagnostics used, contributed to high variability among prevalence estimates. Larger and more robust prevalence studies are needed to adequately support risk assessment and management of animal and public health threats. PMID:27427190

  10. Prevalence and Intensity of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis, Prevalence of Malaria and Nutritional Status of School Going Children in Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Mejia Torres, Rosa Elena; Franco Garcia, Dora Nelly; Fontecha Sandoval, Gustavo Adolfo; Hernandez Santana, Adriana; Singh, Prabhjot; Mancero Bucheli, Sandra Tamara; Saboya, Martha; Paz, Mirian Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    Background Many small studies have been done in Honduras estimating soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) prevalence but a country-wide study was last done in 2005. The country has the highest burden of malaria among all Central American countries. The present study was done to estimate country-wide STH prevalence and intensity, malaria prevalence and nutritional status in school going children. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted following PAHO/WHO guidelines to select a sample of school going children of 3rd to 5th grades, representative of ecological regions in the country. A survey questionnaire was filled; anthropometric measurements, stool sample for STH and blood sample for malaria were taken. Kato-Katz method was used for STH prevalence and intensity and rapid diagnostic tests, microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for malaria parasite detection. A total of 2554 students were studied of which 43.5% had one or more STH. Trichuriasis was the most prevalent (34%) followed by ascariasis (22.3%) and hookworm (0.9%). Ecological regions II (59.7%) and VI (55.6%) in the north had the highest STH prevalence rates while IV had the lowest (10.6%). Prevalence of one or more high intensity STH was low (1.6%). Plasmodium vivax was detected by PCR in only 5 students (0.2%), all of which belonged to the same municipality; no P. falciparum infection was detected. The majority of children (83%) had normal body mass index for their respective age but a significant proportion were overweight (10.42%) and obese (4.35%). Conclusions Biannual deworming campaigns would be necessary in ecological regions II and VI, where STH prevalence is >50%. High prevalence of obesity in school going children is a worrying trend and portends of future increase in obesity related diseases. Malaria prevalence, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, was low and provides evidence for Honduras to embark on elimination of the disease. PMID:25330010

  11. Estimating risk.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    A free mobile phone app has been launched providing nurses and other hospital clinicians with a simple way to identify high-risk surgical patients. The app is a phone version of the Surgical Outcome Risk Tool (SORT), originally developed for online use with computers by researchers from the National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death and the University College London Hospital Surgical Outcomes Research Centre. SORT uses information about patients' health and planned surgical procedures to estimate the risk of death within 30 days of an operation. The percentages are only estimates, taking into account the general risks of the procedures and some information about patients, and should not be confused with patient-specific estimates in individual cases. PMID:27369709

  12. High prevalence and no latitude gradient of multiple sclerosis in Norway.

    PubMed

    Berg-Hansen, P; Moen, S M; Harbo, H F; Celius, E G

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is increasing, and the presence of a latitude gradient for MS risk is still discussed. We present the first nationwide prevalence estimates for Norway, spanning the latitudes from 58-71 degrees North, in order to identify a possible latitude gradient. Information from the Oslo MS Registry and the Norwegian MS Registry and Biobank was combined with data from the Norwegian Patient Registry, the Norwegian Prescription Database and Statistics Norway. We estimated a crude prevalence of 203/100,000 on 1 January 2012. The prevalence in the Northern and Southern regions were not significantly different. MS prevalence in Norway is among the highest reported worldwide. We found no evidence of a latitude gradient.

  13. Urbanization and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Southern Asia: A systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheema, Arsalan; Adeloye, Davies; Sidhu, Simrita; Sridhar, Devi; Chan, Kit Yee

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is one of the diseases considered to be the main constituents of the global non–communicable disease (NCD) pandemic. Despite the large impact that NCDs are predicted to have, particularly in developing countries, estimates of disease burden are sparse and inconsistent. This systematic review transparently estimates prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Southern Asia, its association with urbanization and provides insight into the policy challenges facing the region. Methods The databases Medline and PubMed were searched for population–based studies providing estimates of diabetes prevalence in the Southern Asia region. Studies using WHO diagnostic criteria of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥7.0mmol/L and/or 2h–plasma glucose (2hPG) ≥11.1mmol/L were included. Data from eligible studies was extracted into bubble graphs, and trend lines were applied to UNPD figures to estimate age–specific prevalence in the regional population. Estimates specific to sex, area of residency, and diagnostic method were compared and trends analysed. Results A total of 151 age–specific prevalence estimates were extracted from 39 studies. Diabetes prevalence was estimated to be 7.47% for 2005 and 7.60% for 2010. Prevalence was strongly associated with increased age, male gender and urban residency (P < 0.001). Conclusion Diabetes prevalence in Southern Asia is high and predicted to increase in the future as life expectancy rises and the region continues to urbanise. Countries in this region need to improve NCD surveillance and monitoring so policies can be informed with the best evidence. Programs for prevention need to be put in place, and health system capacity and access needs to be assessed and increased to deal with the predicted rise in NCD prevalence. PMID:24976963

  14. Prevalences of overweight, obesity, hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia in the Gulf: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Alhyas, Layla; McKay, Ailsa; Balasanthiran, Anjali; Majeed, Azeem

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence of risk factors for diabetes and its complications in the Co-operation Council of the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) region. Design Systematic review. Setting Co-operation Council of the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) states (United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait). Participants Residents of the GCC states participating in studies on the prevalence of overweight and obesity, hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Main outcome measures Prevalences of overweight, obesity and hyperglycaemia, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. Results Forty-five studies were included in the review. Reported prevalences of overweight and obesity in adults were 25–50% and 13–50%, respectively. Prevalence appeared higher in women and to hold a non-linear association with age. Current prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance was estimated to be 10–20%. Prevalence appears to have been increasing in recent years. Estimated prevalences of hypertension and dyslipidaemia were few and used varied definitions of abnormality, making review difficult, but these also appeared to be high and increasing, Conclusions There are high prevalences of risk factors for diabetes and diabetic complications in the GCC region, indicative that their current management is suboptimal. Enhanced management will be critical if escalation of diabetes-related problems is to be averted as industrialization, urbanization and changing population demographics continue. PMID:21847437

  15. The birth prevalence rates for the skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Orioli, I M; Castilla, E E; Barbosa-Neto, J G

    1986-01-01

    This study was undertaken to establish the prevalence rates at birth of the skeletal dysplasias that can be recognised in the perinatal period. Using the data base of the Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), for the years 1978 to 1983, on 349 470 births (live and stillbirths), a crude prevalence rate of 2.3/10 000 was observed. However, several indications of under-registration suggest that the real value is about twice that observed. The most frequent types of skeletal dysplasia were achondroplasia, with a prevalence rate between 0.5 and 1.5/10 000 births, the thanatophoric dysplasia/achondrogenesis group (0.2 and 0.5/10 000 births), and osteogenesis imperfecta (0.4/10 000 births). The mutation rate for autosomal dominant achondroplasia was estimated at between 1.72 and 5.57 X 10(-5) per gamete per generation. PMID:3746832

  16. The birth prevalence rates for the skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Orioli, I M; Castilla, E E; Barbosa-Neto, J G

    1986-08-01

    This study was undertaken to establish the prevalence rates at birth of the skeletal dysplasias that can be recognised in the perinatal period. Using the data base of the Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), for the years 1978 to 1983, on 349 470 births (live and stillbirths), a crude prevalence rate of 2.3/10 000 was observed. However, several indications of under-registration suggest that the real value is about twice that observed. The most frequent types of skeletal dysplasia were achondroplasia, with a prevalence rate between 0.5 and 1.5/10 000 births, the thanatophoric dysplasia/achondrogenesis group (0.2 and 0.5/10 000 births), and osteogenesis imperfecta (0.4/10 000 births). The mutation rate for autosomal dominant achondroplasia was estimated at between 1.72 and 5.57 X 10(-5) per gamete per generation. PMID:3746832

  17. ERICA: prevalences of hypertension and obesity in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Szklo, Moyses; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; Schaan, Beatriz; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of arterial hypertension and obesity and the population attributable fraction of hypertension that is due to obesity in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from participants in the Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which was the first national school-based, cross-section study performed in Brazil were evaluated. The sample was divided into 32 geographical strata and clusters from 32 schools and classes, with regional and national representation. Obesity was classified using the body mass index according to age and sex. Arterial hypertension was defined when the average systolic or diastolic blood pressure was greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of the reference curve. Prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of arterial hypertension and obesity, both on a national basis and in the macro-regions of Brazil, were estimated by sex and age group, as were the fractions of hypertension attributable to obesity in the population. RESULTS We evaluated 73,399 students, 55.4% female, with an average age of 14.7 years (SD = 1.6). The prevalence of hypertension was 9.6% (95%CI 9.0-10.3); with the lowest being in the North, 8.4% (95%CI 7.7-9.2) and Northeast regions, 8.4% (95%CI 7.6-9.2), and the highest being in the South, 12.5% (95%CI 11.0-14.2). The prevalence of obesity was 8.4% (95%CI 7.9-8.9), which was lower in the North region and higher in the South region. The prevalences of arterial hypertension and obesity were higher in males. Obese adolescents presented a higher prevalence of hypertension, 28.4% (95%CI 25.5-31.2), than overweight adolescents, 15.4% (95%CI 17.0-13.8), or eutrophic adolescents, 6.3% (95%CI 5.6-7.0). The fraction of hypertension attributable to obesity was 17.8%. CONCLUSIONS ERICA was the first nationally representative Brazilian study providing prevalence estimates of hypertension in adolescents. Regional and sex differences were observed. The study indicates

  18. ERICA: prevalences of hypertension and obesity in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Szklo, Moyses; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; Schaan, Beatriz; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Moraes, Ana Julia Pantoja; Borges, Ana Luíza; de Oliveira, Ana Mayra Andrade; Tavares, Bruno Mendes; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; Giannini, Denise Tavares; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; Santos, Eduardo Lima; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo; Magliano, Erika da Silva; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Azevedo, George Dantas; Brunken, Gisela Soares; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Faria Neto, José Rocha; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; de Carvalho, Kenia Mara B; Gonçalves, Luis Gonzaga de Oliveira; Monteiro, Maria Inês; Santos, Marize M; Jardim, Paulo César B Veiga; Ferreira, Pedro Antônio Muniz; Montenegro, Renan Magalhães; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Vianna, Rodrigo Pinheiro; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of arterial hypertension and obesity and the population attributable fraction of hypertension that is due to obesity in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from participants in the Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which was the first national school-based, cross-section study performed in Brazil were evaluated. The sample was divided into 32 geographical strata and clusters from 32 schools and classes, with regional and national representation. Obesity was classified using the body mass index according to age and sex. Arterial hypertension was defined when the average systolic or diastolic blood pressure was greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of the reference curve. Prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of arterial hypertension and obesity, both on a national basis and in the macro-regions of Brazil, were estimated by sex and age group, as were the fractions of hypertension attributable to obesity in the population. RESULTS We evaluated 73,399 students, 55.4% female, with an average age of 14.7 years (SD = 1.6). The prevalence of hypertension was 9.6% (95%CI 9.0-10.3); with the lowest being in the North, 8.4% (95%CI 7.7-9.2) and Northeast regions, 8.4% (95%CI 7.6-9.2), and the highest being in the South, 12.5% (95%CI 11.0-14.2). The prevalence of obesity was 8.4% (95%CI 7.9-8.9), which was lower in the North region and higher in the South region. The prevalences of arterial hypertension and obesity were higher in males. Obese adolescents presented a higher prevalence of hypertension, 28.4% (95%CI 25.5-31.2), than overweight adolescents, 15.4% (95%CI 17.0-13.8), or eutrophic adolescents, 6.3% (95%CI 5.6-7.0). The fraction of hypertension attributable to obesity was 17.8%. CONCLUSIONS ERICA was the first nationally representative Brazilian study providing prevalence estimates of hypertension in adolescents. Regional and sex differences were observed. The study indicates that the

  19. Current Prevalence Pattern of Hypertension in Nigeria: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Akinlua, James Tosin; Meakin, Richard; Umar, Aminu Mahmoud; Freemantle, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Background The global burden of hypertension and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rapidly increasing, and the African continent seems to be the most affected region in the world. The prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria forms a substantial portion of the total burden in Africa because of the large population of the country currently estimated to be over 170 million. Objective The purpose of this systematic review is to summarise up to date data on the prevalence and distribution of hypertension in Nigeria from prevalence studies. Methods A search of the following databases: PubMed, EMBase and WHO cardiovascular InfoBase from 1968 till date was conducted to identify studies which provide estimates of prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria. Results The search yielded a total of 1748 hits from which 45 relevant studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. The overall crude prevalence of hypertension ranged from 0.1% (95%CI:-0.1 to 0.3) to 17.5% (95% CI: 13.6 to 21.4) in children and 2.1% (95%CI: 1.4 to 2.8) to 47.2% (95%CI: 43.6 to 50.8) in adults depending on the benchmark used for diagnosis of hypertension, the setting in which the study was conducted, sex and ethnic group. The crude prevalence of hypertension ranged from 6.2% (95%CI: 4.0 to 8.4) to 48.9% (95%CI: 42.3 to 55.5) for men and 10% (95%CI: 8.1 to 12) to 47.3% (95%CI: 43 to 51.6%) for women. In most studies, prevalence of hypertension was higher in males than females. In addition, prevalence across urban and rural ranged from 9.5% (95%CI: 13.6 to 21.4) to 51.6% (95%CI: 49.8 to 53.4) and 4.8% (95%CI: 2.9 to 6.7) to 43% (95%CI: 42.1 to 43.9) respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of hypertension is high among the Nigerian population. Appropriate interventions need to be developed and implemented to reduce the preventable burden of hypertension especially at Primary Health Care Centres which is the first point of call for over 55% of the Nigerian population. PMID:26461923

  20. Is diabetes color-blind? Growth of prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in children through 2030.

    PubMed

    Adepoju, Omolola E; Bolin, Jane N; Booth, Eric A; Zhao, Hongwei; Lin, Szu-Hsuan; Phillips, Charles D; Ohsfeldt, Robert L

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes knows no age and affects millions of individuals. Preventing diabetes in children is increasingly becoming a major health policy concern and focus. The objective of this study is to project the number of children, aged 0-17 years, with diagnosed diabetes in the United States through 2030, accounting for changing demography, and diabetes and obesity prevalence rates. The study team combined historic diabetes and obesity prevalence data with US child population estimates and projections. A times-series regression model was used to forecast future diabetes prevalence and to account for the relationship between the forecasted diabetes prevalence and the lagged prevalence of childhood obesity. Overall, the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes is projected to increase 67% from 0.22% in 2010 to 0.36% in 2030. Lagged obesity prevalence in Hispanic boys and non-Hispanic black girls was significantly associated with increasing future diabetes prevalence. The study results showed that a 1% increase in obesity prevalence among Hispanic boys from the previous year was significantly associated with a 0.005% increase in future prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in children (P ≤ 0.01). Likewise, a unit increase in obesity prevalence among non-Hispanic black girls was associated with a 0.003% increase in future diabetes prevalence (P < 0.05). Obesity rates for other race/ethnicity combinations were not associated with increasing future diabetes prevalence. To mitigate the continued threat posed by diabetes, serious discussions need to focus on the pediatric population, particularly non-Hispanic black girls and Hispanic boys whose obesity trends show the strongest associations with future diabetes prevalence in children. PMID:25290852

  1. Is diabetes color-blind? Growth of prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in children through 2030.

    PubMed

    Adepoju, Omolola E; Bolin, Jane N; Booth, Eric A; Zhao, Hongwei; Lin, Szu-Hsuan; Phillips, Charles D; Ohsfeldt, Robert L

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes knows no age and affects millions of individuals. Preventing diabetes in children is increasingly becoming a major health policy concern and focus. The objective of this study is to project the number of children, aged 0-17 years, with diagnosed diabetes in the United States through 2030, accounting for changing demography, and diabetes and obesity prevalence rates. The study team combined historic diabetes and obesity prevalence data with US child population estimates and projections. A times-series regression model was used to forecast future diabetes prevalence and to account for the relationship between the forecasted diabetes prevalence and the lagged prevalence of childhood obesity. Overall, the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes is projected to increase 67% from 0.22% in 2010 to 0.36% in 2030. Lagged obesity prevalence in Hispanic boys and non-Hispanic black girls was significantly associated with increasing future diabetes prevalence. The study results showed that a 1% increase in obesity prevalence among Hispanic boys from the previous year was significantly associated with a 0.005% increase in future prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in children (P ≤ 0.01). Likewise, a unit increase in obesity prevalence among non-Hispanic black girls was associated with a 0.003% increase in future diabetes prevalence (P < 0.05). Obesity rates for other race/ethnicity combinations were not associated with increasing future diabetes prevalence. To mitigate the continued threat posed by diabetes, serious discussions need to focus on the pediatric population, particularly non-Hispanic black girls and Hispanic boys whose obesity trends show the strongest associations with future diabetes prevalence in children.

  2. Computational Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Maria G.; Latulippe, Christine L.

    2010-01-01

    Elementary school teachers are responsible for constructing the foundation of number sense in youngsters, and so it is recommended that teacher-training programs include an emphasis on number sense to ensure the development of dynamic, productive computation and estimation skills in students. To better prepare preservice elementary school teachers…

  3. Challenging Behaviours: Prevalence and Topographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, K.; Allen, D.; Jones, E.; Brophy, S.; Moore, K.; James, W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Variations in reported prevalence of challenging behaviour indicate the need for further epidemiological research to support accurate planning of future service provision. Methods: All services providing for people with learning disabilities across seven unitary authorities, with a total population of 1.2 million, were screened to…

  4. The prevalence of back pain, hand discomfort, and dermatitis in the US working population.

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, V; Seligman, P; Cameron, L; Mathias, C G; Fine, L

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of the study was to provide the health care and public health communities with national prevalence estimates of selected conditions in the US working population. METHODS. National prevalence estimates of self-reported conditions among working people were calculated from data collected for the 1988 Occupational Health Supplement to the National Health Interview Survey. RESULTS. The highest prevalence estimates were found among occupational groups. For example, the prevalence of back pain due to an injury at work among truck drivers was 6.7%; back pain due to repeated activities at work among mechanics and repairers of heavy equipment and machinery was 10.5%; hand discomfort among operators of machines that process metal, plastic, stone, and glass was 23.5%; and dermatitis due to contact with substances at work among physicians, dentists, nurses, pharmacists, and dietitians was 5.6%. CONCLUSIONS. A substantial proportion of these conditions among occupational groups with the highest prevalence estimates are occupational in origin. These prevalence estimates identify occupations in which efforts are needed to prevent these conditions. PMID:7977917

  5. Factors influencing the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in swine farms: a meta-analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J; Dohoo, I R; Christensen, J; Rajic, A

    2007-09-14

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to identify study-level variables that could explain the variation in apparent Salmonella spp. prevalence estimates. Electronic and non-electronic literature searches from 1990 until 2005 were carried out to identify all studies related to the prevalence of subclinical Salmonella infection in swine. The searches were restricted to studies published in English, Spanish, and French. Clinical trials or any other study where an intervention was evaluated were excluded from this analysis. A template was designed to retrieve the most relevant variables and data abstraction was performed in duplicate. A total of 98 papers containing 82 animal-level and 156 farm-level studies were used in the analyses. The median farm-level and animal-level prevalences were 59% and 17%, respectively. Meta-regression analyses were carried out on both farm and animal-level data. Diagnostic procedure, sample size, and country where study was conducted were the three most important predictors in explaining the differences in Salmonella prevalences between studies. When compared to a farm with a apparent prevalence of 50% determined by the blood ELISA, prevalences based on culture of fecal samples were 39% lower and prevalences based on cecum and tissue cultures were 16% and 19% lower, respectively. Similar to farm-level models, animal-level models did not show any difference among serological tests and prevalence values based culture procedures were, on average, 9% lower than those from serological tests. Sample size was negatively associated with prevalence estimates. In conclusion, the methodology was useful for identifying and quantifying sources of variation in Salmonella apparent prevalence among studies and for establishing prevalence distributions that could be used as input parameters in risk assessment and decision models. The analysis provides some guidelines when interpreting and comparing apparent Salmonella prevalence results

  6. Global prevalence of childhood cataract: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sheeladevi, S; Lawrenson, J G; Fielder, A R; Suttle, C M

    2016-09-01

    Childhood cataract is an avoidable cause of visual disability worldwide and is a priority for VISION 2020: The Right to Sight. There is a paucity of information about the burden of cataract in children and the aim of this review is to assess the global prevalence of childhood cataract. The methodology for the review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We performed a literature search for studies reporting estimates of prevalence or incidence of cataract among children (aged<18 years) at any global location using the Cochrane Library, Medline and Embase up to January 2015. No restrictions were imposed based on language or year of publication. Study quality was assessed using a critical appraisal tool designed for systematic reviews of prevalence. Twenty prevalence and four incidence studies of childhood cataract from five different geographical regions were included. The overall prevalence of childhood cataract and congenital cataract was in the range from 0.32 to 22.9/10000 children (median=1.03) and 0.63 to 9.74/10000 (median=1.71), respectively. The incidence ranged from 1.8 to 3.6/10000 per year. The prevalence of childhood cataract in low-income economies was found to be 0.42 to 2.05 compared with 0.63 to 13.6/10000 in high-income economies. There was no difference in the prevalence based on laterality or gender. This review highlights substantial gaps in the epidemiological knowledge of childhood cataract worldwide, particularly from low and lower middle-income economies. More studies are needed using standard definitions and case ascertainment methods with large enough sample sizes. PMID:27518543

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Dyslipidemia in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Li; Ding, Xianbin; Tang, Wenge; Li, Qin; Mao, Deqiang; Wang, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of dyslipidemia has become a worldwide public health problem, and the prevalence varies widely according to socioeconomic, cultural and ethnic characteristics. Chongqing has experienced rapid economic development and is now the economic center of Southwestern China. There are scant data on serum lipid profile of residents in Chongqing, the largest municipality directly under the Central Government in China. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a representative sample of 5375 residents of Chongqing, aged ≥18 years, and estimated the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its associated risk factors. According to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, the age-standardized prevalence of dyslipidemia was 35.5% (34.4% among men and 37.6% among women). Among the 2009 patients with dyslipidemia, 44.2% had isolated hypertriglyceridemia, 14.7% had isolated hypercholesterolemia, 13.2% had mixed hyperlipidemia, and 28.0% had isolated low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The peak prevalence of dyslipidemia in men was between 30 and 39 years (48.2%), and then declined gradually; in women, the prevalence of dyslipidemia increased with age, with the peak prevalence occurring after age 60 (46.3%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that dyslipidemia was associated with age, education level, physical activity, obesity and central obesity for both men and women. In conclusion, the results indicated dyslipidemia, particularly hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, are very common in Chongqing. To prevent dyslipidemia, it is essential to conduct appropriate intervention programs aimed at risk factor reduction and implement routine screening programs for blood lipid levels in Chongqing, China. PMID:26516874

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Dyslipidemia in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Li; Ding, Xianbin; Tang, Wenge; Li, Qin; Mao, Deqiang; Wang, Yulin

    2015-10-01

    The increasing prevalence of dyslipidemia has become a worldwide public health problem, and the prevalence varies widely according to socioeconomic, cultural and ethnic characteristics. Chongqing has experienced rapid economic development and is now the economic center of Southwestern China. There are scant data on serum lipid profile of residents in Chongqing, the largest municipality directly under the Central Government in China. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a representative sample of 5375 residents of Chongqing, aged ≥18 years, and estimated the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its associated risk factors. According to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, the age-standardized prevalence of dyslipidemia was 35.5% (34.4% among men and 37.6% among women). Among the 2009 patients with dyslipidemia, 44.2% had isolated hypertriglyceridemia, 14.7% had isolated hypercholesterolemia, 13.2% had mixed hyperlipidemia, and 28.0% had isolated low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The peak prevalence of dyslipidemia in men was between 30 and 39 years (48.2%), and then declined gradually; in women, the prevalence of dyslipidemia increased with age, with the peak prevalence occurring after age 60 (46.3%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that dyslipidemia was associated with age, education level, physical activity, obesity and central obesity for both men and women. In conclusion, the results indicated dyslipidemia, particularly hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, are very common in Chongqing. To prevent dyslipidemia, it is essential to conduct appropriate intervention programs aimed at risk factor reduction and implement routine screening programs for blood lipid levels in Chongqing, China. PMID:26516874

  9. Prevalence of Depression Among College-Goers in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Cai Xiao; Li, Zhan Zhan; Chen, Peng; Chen, Li Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There are no proper statistics available to assess how much of a burden it is to them. This study was conducted to gauge the pooled prevalence and offer evidence in support of few prevention and regulation strategies. A methodical literature search was conducted with the help of the Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, and Chongqing VIP databases. Furthermore, articles published from 2000 to 2014, reporting about the estimated prevalence of depression among college students in mainland China, were covered as well. In this study, a meta-analysis was deployed to approximate the overall prevalence of depression among college-goers in mainland China. A total of 45 studies were conducted on 50,826 participants. The average pooled prevalence of depression was 30.39% (26.38–34.55%). Subgroup analyses showed that 29.45% (22.88–36.48%) were men and 28.65% (23.44–34.16%) were women. Furthermore, 28.10% (22.83–33.70%) were from the northern part and 32.44% (26.67–38.48%) were from the southern. The prevalence of depression was 30.45% (23.96–37.36%) for sample sizes of <500 subjects, 30.99% (25.08–37.23%) for samples with 500 to 1000 people, and 29.54% (33.32–37.33%) in case of samples with >1000 people. Publications between 2000 and 2006 showed a depression prevalence of 8.45% (22.34–35.00%), whereas 30.52% (21.30–40.61%) and 31.79% (27.31–36.45%) were the corresponding values according to publications during 2007 to 2011 and 2012 to 2014. The prevalence of depression among college students in mainland China had reached the world's epidemic level. PMID:26683916

  10. Prevalence of Myopia in France

    PubMed Central

    Matamoros, Emilie; Ingrand, Pierre; Pelen, François; Bentaleb, Yacine; Weber, Michel; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Souied, Eric; Leveziel, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Refractive error (RE), particularly myopia, is the first cause of visual impairment throughout the world. This study aimed to depict the prevalence of myopia in a multicentric series of French individuals. This cross-sectional analysis was carried out between January 2012 and November 2013 in eye clinics dedicated to REs. Data collection included age, gender, best-corrected visual acuity, RE, and any relevant medical history involving laser refractive surgery and cataract surgery. Exclusion criteria consisted of monophthalm patients or those with incomplete demographic data. Prevalences in the overall population, by gender and by age groups were reported for mild myopia (−0.50 to −2.75 diopter [D]), moderate myopia (−3 to −5.75 D), high myopia (less than −6 D), and very high myopia (less than −10 D). The analysis included 100,429 individuals, mean age 38.5 years (± 16.9). Overall prevalence of myopia was 39.1% (95% CI 38.8-39.4). Prevalences of mild, moderate, high and very high myopia were respectively 25.1% (95% CI 25.4-24.9), 10.6% (95% CI 10.4-10.8), 3.4% (95% CI 3.3-3.5) and 0.5% (95% CI 0.48-0.57). Even if possible bias occurred in recruitment, our results are similar to RE data collected in nationally representative samples of Caucasians in other studies. This is to our knowledge, one of the largest European series of individuals dedicated to myopia prevalences in different age groups. These results confirm the importance of myopia as a major health issue in Western countries. PMID:26559276

  11. Prevalence and Costs of Five Chronic Conditions in Children.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gabrielle F; Coffield, Edward; Leroy, Zanie; Wallin, Robin

    2016-10-01

    The objective is to examine the prevalence and health-care costs associated with asthma, epilepsy, hypertension, food allergies, and diabetes in children aged 0-18 years. Prevalence was calculated using 2005-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data, a population-based, nationally representative sample. Using MEPS, two-part models estimated the cost of each condition for all children while controlling for sociodemographic categories. Prevalence rates varied by race and ethnicity across conditions. Females had higher prevalence of all chronic conditions, except epilepsy. An additional US$1,377.60-US$9,059.49 annually were spent on medical expenses for children aged 0-18 years, with asthma, diabetes, or epilepsy compared to children without these conditions. This is the first study to examine the costs and prevalence of chronic health conditions in children and adolescents using a single data set. Understanding the odds of having a condition by sociodemographic categories highlights disparities that can potentially inform school nurses on the best allocation of resources to serve students. PMID:27044668

  12. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Isfahan Province.

    PubMed

    Nokhodian, Zary; Adibi, Peyman; Ataei, Behrooz

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a serious global health problem. It is estimated that 1.5-2.5 million people are suffering from this infection in Iran. A review on HBV infection prevalence in Isfahan, Iran is conducted in this article. It will help researchers for further studies and also will be helpful for control the infection. Medline, Embase, Ovid, Google Scholar, Scientific Information Database, Iranmedex, Magiran and Scientific Journal of Iran Blood Transfusion Organization and also students' thesis and projects of Isfahan and Kashan universities of medical sciences were searched for key words "HBV," "HBsAg," "prevalence," "Isfahan," "Esfahan," and "Kashan in titles and/or abstracts. Overall, 24 articles, including 4, 14, 5 and 1 were assessed in Isfahan province, and Isfahan, Kashan, and Foulad-shahr cities, respectively. The highest and lowest participants were 542705 and 73, respectively. The highest prevalence of HBsAg was reported in HIV-infected patients and the lowest one was seen in the thalassemic patients. We collected the articles about the prevalence of HBV in Isfahan to help researchers and determine prevalence HBV in Isfahan province. The similar studies in other province of Iran are necessary for marking decision. PMID:26622989

  13. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Argentina 1979-2012.

    PubMed

    Barengo, Noël C; Trejo, Ruby; Sposetti, Georgina

    2013-07-16

    The objective of this review was to revise the existing information regarding type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence in the Argentine population during the past 30 years and to see whether the available data and methodology of the studies conducted allow analysis of time trends. The PubMED and LILACS databases were searched using the search terms "diabetes prevalence" and "Argentina". A total of 301 studies were identified and 19 of them remained in the review after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The studies reviewed covered a time period of 30 years (1979-2012). The studies conducted in Argentina during the last 30 years assessing the prevalence of T2D are very heterogeneous. The majority of the studies were conducted in the province of Buenos Aires. As the assessment of T2D varied between the studies in respect of diagnostic criteria and diagnostic tests for T2D, meaningful comparisons are difficult to make, not to mention an analysis of time trends. All in all, the T2D prevalence seems to be at least 10% in the Argentina population. However, the latest large population surveys conducted in Argentina is promising and may offer the most reliable estimates of the T2D prevalence even though the diagnosis of T2D was based on participant self-report. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Variation in the Prevalence of Domestic Violence between Neighboring Areas

    PubMed Central

    Nouhjah, Sedigheh; Latifi, Seyed Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Domestic violence against women is an important health issue, but few studies have focused on city of residence and ethnic differences. To estimate the prevalence of various forms of domestic violence and certain related factors, with a specific focus on city of residence and ethnicity, we studied 1820 married women attending public health centers in 4 large cities in Khuzestan Province, southwestern Islamic Republic of Iran. We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire for data collection. The prevalence of some forms of lifetime domestic violence against women was 47.3%. The prevalence of physical, psychological, and any form of lifetime violence was the highest in Dezful (25.7%, 54.8%, and 57.7%, resp.). For sexual violence, the highest prevalence was reported in Ahvaz (17.7%). The highest prevalence of physical and sexual violence during any point of life was reported by Arab women (25.1% and 16.7%). The experience of all forms of violence was significantly associated with city of residence. Results of regression logistic analysis revealed that all of the forms of violence except psychological violence were statistically significantly associated with ethnicity (P < 0.05). PMID:27433514

  15. Prevalence of Cerebral Amyloid Pathology in Persons Without Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Willemijn J.; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Knol, Dirk L.; Tijms, Betty M.; Scheltens, Philip; Verhey, Frans R. J.; Visser, Pieter Jelle

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Cerebral amyloid-β aggregation is an early pathological event in Alzheimer disease (AD), starting decades before dementia onset. Estimates of the prevalence of amyloid pathology in persons without dementia are needed to understand the development of AD and to design prevention studies. OBJECTIVE To use individual participant data meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of amyloid pathology as measured with biomarkers in participants with normal cognition, subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). DATA SOURCES Relevant biomarker studies identified by searching studies published before April 2015 using the MEDLINE and Web of Science databases and through personal communication with investigators. STUDY SELECTION Studies were included if they provided individual participant data for participants without dementia and used an a priori defined cutoff for amyloid positivity. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Individual records were provided for 2914 participants with normal cognition, 697 with SCI, and 3972 with MCI aged 18 to 100 years from 55 studies. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Prevalence of amyloid pathology on positron emission tomography or in cerebrospinal fluid according to AD risk factors (age, apolipoprotein E [APOE] genotype, sex, and education) estimated by generalized estimating equations. RESULTS The prevalence of amyloid pathology increased from age 50 to 90 years from 10% (95% CI, 8%-13%) to 44% (95% CI, 37%-51%) among participants with normal cognition; from 12% (95% CI, 8%-18%) to 43% (95% CI, 32%-55%) among patients with SCI; and from 27% (95% CI, 23%-32%) to 71% (95% CI, 66%-76%) among patients with MCI. APOE-ε4 carriers had 2 to 3 times higher prevalence estimates than noncarriers. The age at which 15% of the participants with normal cognition were amyloid positive was approximately 40 years for APOEε4ε4 carriers, 50 years for ε2ε4 carriers, 55 years for ε3ε4 carriers, 65 years for ε3ε3 carriers, and

  16. PREVALENCE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI TEN YEARS AGO COMPARED TO THE CURRENT PREVALENCE IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING UPPER ENDOSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    FRUGIS, Sandra; CZECZKO, Nicolau Gregori; MALAFAIA, Osvaldo; PARADA, Artur Adolfo; POLETTI, Paula Bechara; SECCHI, Thiago Festa; DEGIOVANI, Matheus; RAMPANAZZO-NETO, Alécio; D´AGOSTINO, Mariza D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Helicobacter pylori has been extensively studied since 1982 it is estimated that 50% of the world population is affected. The literature lacks studies that show the change of its prevalence in the same population over time. Aim: To compare the prevalence of H. pylori in 10 years interval in a population that was submitted to upper endoscopy in the same endoscopy service. Method: Observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study comparing the prevalence of H. pylori in two samples with 10 years apart (2004 and 2014) who underwent endoscopy with biopsy and urease. Patients were studied in three consecutive months of 2004, compared to three consecutive months of 2014. The total number of patients was 2536, and 1406 in 2004 and 1130 in 2014. Results: There were positive for H. pylori in 17 % of the sample as a whole. There was a significant decrease in the prevalence from 19.3% in 2004 to 14.1% in 2014 (p<0.005). Conclusion: There was a 5.2% reduction in the prevalence of H. pylori comparing two periods of three consecutive months with 10 years apart in two equivalent population samples. PMID:27759776

  17. Prevalence of Low Birth Weight and Obesity in Central Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafiei, M.; Ayatollahi, S. M. T.

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) and to document distribution of body mass index (BMI) at birth in Arak (central Iran) neonates of the 10,241 live neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in 2004 in Arak. A birth weight of less than 2500 g was classified as LBW. BMI based on the original supine length and weight…

  18. A tuberculosis nationwide prevalence survey in Gambia, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Lindsay; Bashorun, Adedapo; Linda, Christopher; Omoleke, Semeeh; Jeffries, David; Maane, Rahmatulai; Alorse, Beatrice Dei; Alorse, William Dei; Okoi, Catherine Bi; Mlaga, Kodjovi D; Kinteh, Ma Ansu; Donkor, Simon; de Jong, Bouke C; Antonio, Martin; d’Alessandro, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the population prevalence of active pulmonary tuberculosis in Gambia. Methods Between December 2011 and January 2013, people aged ≥ 15 years participating in a nationwide, multistage cluster survey were screened for active pulmonary tuberculosis with chest radiography and for tuberculosis symptoms. For diagnostic confirmation, sputum samples were collected from those whose screening were positive and subjected to fluorescence microscopy and liquid tuberculosis cultures. Multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting were used to estimate tuberculosis prevalence. Findings Of 100 678 people enumerated, 55 832 were eligible to participate and 43 100 (77.2%) of those participated. A majority of participants (42 942; 99.6%) were successfully screened for symptoms and by chest X-ray. Only 5948 (13.8%) were eligible for sputum examination, yielding 43 bacteriologically confirmed, 28 definite smear-positive and six probable smear-positive tuberculosis cases. Chest X-ray identified more tuberculosis cases (58/69) than did symptoms alone (43/71). The estimated prevalence of smear-positive and bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis were 90 (95% confidence interval, CI: 53–127) and 212 (95% CI: 152–272) per 100 000 population, respectively. Tuberculosis prevalence was higher in males (333; 95% CI: 233–433) and in the 35–54 year age group (355; 95% CI: 219–490). Conclusion The burden of tuberculosis remains high in Gambia but lower than earlier estimates of 490 per 100 000 population in 2010. Less than half of all cases would have been identified based on smear microscopy results alone. Successful control efforts will require interventions targeting men, increased access to radiography and more accurate, rapid diagnostic tests. PMID:27274595

  19. Epilepsy in Canada: Prevalence and impact.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Heather; Ramage-Morin, Pamela; Wong, Suzy L

    2016-09-21

    This article provides information about the prevalence and impact of epilepsy, based on the 2010 and 2011 Canadian Community Health Surveys, the 2011/2012 Survey of Neurological Conditions in Institutions in Canada, and the 2011 Survey on Living with Neurological Conditions in Canada. An estimated 139,200 Canadians had epilepsy. Among the household population, epilepsy was generally diagnosed before age 30 (75%). For the majority of these people (64%), epilepsy was their only neurological condition. People with epilepsy were more than twice as likely to have been diagnosed with a mood disorder, compared with the general population (17% versus 7%), and eight times as likely to experience incontinence (34% versus 4%). Overall, an estimated 18% reported that their life was affected quite a bit or extremely by epilepsy; 44% felt that their life was impacted a little bit or moderately; and 39% felt that their life was not impacted at all. This study examined the impact of epilepsy on interactions with others, sleep, driving, education, and employment. PMID:27655169

  20. Prevalence and Morbidity of Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases, United States 2001–2007

    PubMed Central

    Kobrynski, Lisa; Powell, Rachel Waltenburg; Bowen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have estimated population prevalence and morbidity of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD). We used administrative healthcare databases to estimate the prevalence of PIDD diagnoses in the United States from 2001 to 2007. Methods MarketScan databases compile claims from commercial health insurance plans and Medicaid, recording individual diagnoses for outpatient encounters and hospital stays. We used a cross sectional survey to estimate prevalence of PIDD using related ICD-9 codes (279.0, 279.1, 279.2, 279.8, 279.9, 288.1 and 288.2). Persons with secondary immunodeficiency diagnoses were excluded from analysis. Results Between 2001 and 2007, prevalence of any PIDD diagnosis increased from 38.9 to 50.5 per 100,000 among privately insured and from 29.1 to 41.1 per 100,000 among publicly insured persons. B cell defects predominated. Prevalence was more than twice as high among Whites as among Blacks or Hispanics. Conclusion In this large database, we found a higher prevalence of diagnosed PIDD than has been reported previously from registries. Increased awareness may have contributed to the increasing prevalence. PMID:25257253

  1. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US immigrants: results of the 2003 New Immigrant Survey.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Young

    2012-12-01

    This study estimates the prevalence patterns of overweight and obesity of new immigrants in the US. The 2003 New Immigrant Survey (NIS) was used to generate representative estimates of the prevalence of overweight and obesity among new immigrants overall and by place of origin subgroup. More than 45% of new immigrants are either overweight or obese. Overall, the higher prevalences of both overweight and obesity were found in Latin/Caribbean immigrants, older age group, those with longer years of US residence, and current residents of the West region. Men have a higher overweight prevalence and women have a slightly higher obesity prevalence. The overweight prevalence was higher for immigrants living above the poverty level, but there was not much difference in the obesity prevalence by poverty level. There was notable heterogeneity in overweight and obesity prevalences within and across place of origin groups by age, poverty level, years of US residence, and current resident regions. The study suggests further investigation on the determinants of weight status by place of origin and the importance of tailored interventions for each group.

  2. Adult Prevalence of Epilepsy in Spain: EPIBERIA, a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Castro, Pedro J.; Mauri-Llerda, Jose Angel; Hernández-Ramos, Francisco José; Sánchez-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Parejo-Carbonell, Beatriz; Quiroga-Subirana, Pablo; Vázquez-Gutierrez, Fernando; Santos-Lasaosa, Sonia; Mendez-Lucena, Carolina; Redondo-Verge, Luis; Tejero-Juste, Carlos; Morandeira-Rivas, Clara; Sancho-Rieger, Jerónimo; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville) between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire) over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99%) raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75%) agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy's diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9). Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6). No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies. PMID:26783554

  3. The Prevalence of Mental Disorders Among Children and Adolescents in the Child Welfare System

    PubMed Central

    Bronsard, Guillaume; Alessandrini, Marine; Fond, Guillaume; Loundou, Anderson; Auquier, Pascal; Tordjman, Sylvie; Boyer, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It remains unclear whether children and adolescents in the child welfare system (CWS) exhibit a higher prevalence of mental disorders compared with the general population. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of mental disorders in the CWS. All of the epidemiological surveys assessing the prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents in the CWS were included. The pooled prevalence was estimated with random effect models. Potential sources of heterogeneity were explored using meta-regression analyses. Eight studies provided prevalence estimates that were obtained from 3104 children and adolescents. Nearly 1 child or adolescent of every 2 (49%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 43–54) was identified as meeting criteria for a current mental disorder. The most common mental disorder was disruptive disorder (27%; 95% CI 20–34), including conduct disorder (20%; 95% CI 13–27) and oppositional defiant disorder (12%; 95% CI 10–14). The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was estimated to be 11% (95% CI 6–15). The prevalence estimates of anxiety and depressive disorders were 18% (95% CI 12–24) and 11% (95% CI 7–15). Posttraumatic stress disorder had the lowest prevalence (4%; 95% CI 2–6). High prevalences of mental disorders in the CWS were reported, which highlights the need for the provision of qualified service. The substantial heterogeneity of our findings is indicative of the need for accurate epidemiological data to effectively guide public policy. PMID:26886603

  4. Rates of Prevalent HIV Infection, Prevalent Diagnoses, and New Diagnoses Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in US States, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Counties, 2012-2013

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Travis Howard; Sullivan, Patrick Sean

    2016-01-01

    Background In the United States, men who have sex with men (MSM) increasingly represent the majority of people living with and acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Local and federal surveillance programs estimate the number of persons living with an HIV diagnosis, persons living with HIV infection, and new diagnoses. Given the absence of population-based estimates of the number of MSM for US states, metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), or counties, it is not possible to accurately estimate rates using these indicators at these levels, inhibiting the ability to understand HIV burden and to direct prevention efforts. Objective To synthesize recently published estimates of MSM population size with publicly available HIV surveillance data, in order to estimate the prevalence of HIV diagnosis and infection and the rate of new diagnoses, at the national, state, MSA, and county levels. Methods The number of MSM living with HIV infection in 2012 (prevalence), living with an HIV diagnosis in 2012 (diagnosed prevalence), and newly diagnosed with HIV infection in 2013 (new diagnosis), at state, MSA, and county levels, were obtained from publicly available data from AIDSVu.org and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The estimated number of MSM living in every US county was calculated using recently published methodology that utilized data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and American Community Survey. Estimated county-level MSM counts were aggregated to form MSA- and state-level totals. From this, we estimated HIV prevalence, diagnosed prevalence, and new diagnosis rates. Results The estimated HIV prevalence among MSM in the United States in 2012 was 15.0% (666,900/4,452,772), the diagnosed HIV prevalence in 2012 was 11.1% (493,453/4,452,772), and the new diagnosis rate for 2013 was 0.7 per 100 MSM. For diagnosed prevalence at the state level, 6 states had both <15,000 cases and diagnosed prevalence rates of ≥15

  5. Prevalence of malnutrition in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ngare, D K; Muttunga, J N

    1999-07-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence, severity, regional differences and age-sex distribution of malnutrition in Kenya. About 6419 children (3294 males and 3125 females) from 14 districts in Kenya were examined using two anthropometric measurements: weight and height. The three nutritional status indicators used were stunting, wasting, and underweight, with an overall prevalence of 36%, 6%, and 27%, respectively. Findings indicated that stunting was lowest among the 6-12 month age group and highest among the 12-23 month age group, with a prevalence 15 times higher among boys. On the other hand, both growth stunting and wasting were most serious between 12 and 23 months of age, similar to previous reports. The most pressing form of malnutrition in Kenya is protein-energy malnutrition, which largely affects infants, preschool, and school children. Regional disparities in malnutrition were also observed, with a low malnutrition rate in Kiambu (22.6%) and a high malnutrition rate in Kwale (56.5%) districts. This study, as well as the results of previous findings, confirms the seriousness of malnutrition in Kenya. This paper suggests the implementation and development of monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to assess the impact of implemented program activities, particularly in districts with high malnutrition rates.

  6. Developmental dyscalculia: prevalence and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Shalev, R S; Auerbach, J; Manor, O; Gross-Tsur, V

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of developmental dyscalculia (DC) in the school population ranges from 3-6 %, a frequency similar to that of developmental dyslexia and ADHD. These studies fulfilled the criteria for an adequate prevalence study, i.e., were population based, using standardized measures to evaluate arithmetic function. Although the variation in prevalence is within a narrow range, the differences are probably due to which definition of dyscalculia was used, the age the diagnosis was made and the instrument chosen to test for DC. The relative predominance of girls with DC may reflect a greater vulnerability to environmental influences alone or in addition to a biological predisposition. DC is not only encountered as a specific learning disability but also in diverse neurological disorders, examples of which include ADHD, developmental language disorder, epilepsy, treated phenylketonuria and Fragile X syndrome. Although the long-term prognosis of DC is as yet unknown, current data indicate that DC is a stable learning disability persisting, at least for the short term, in about half of affected children. The long-term consequences of DC and its impact on education, employment and psychological well-being have yet to be determined. PMID:11138905

  7. Prevalence and types of birth defects in Ontario swine determined by mail survey.

    PubMed Central

    Partlow, G D; Fisher, K R; Page, P D; MacMillan, K; Walker, A F

    1993-01-01

    Preweaning mortality in piglets constitutes a major loss to the swine industry. Congenital defects account for a small but significant proportion of these losses. To implement appropriate strategies to reduce such losses, it is necessary to identify the specific causes and their relative importance. Consequently, a mail survey of swine production in Ontario was carried out to determine the prevalence and types of birth defects. Statistical comparisons of the prevalence of overall defects were made between accurate and estimate records, breeds (cross vs. purebred), size of operation (number of sows) and geographic location. The mean litter size of 11 pigs born per sow was not significantly different for those with accurate versus estimate records, but the difference in the prevalence of defective pigs (live and dead) was significant (accurate 3.1% vs. estimate 4.1%). Splayleg (spraddleleg) was the most common defect. The next four defects for both groups were belly rupture, other rupture, ridglings and other, but not in the same ranking. Purebred and small farm operations (< 25 sows) had a significantly higher prevalence of birth defects for estimated data only. Geographic location had no effect. Further work is required to determine whether recording prevalence of birth defects in Ontario swine will provide a useful monitor of environmental stress. The study provides a baseline for the prevalence and type of defects in Ontario swine. PMID:8490809

  8. The Prevalence of Mental Illnesses in U.S. State Prisons: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Seth J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective People with mental illnesses are understood to be overrepresented in the U.S. criminal justice system, and estimates of the prevalence of mental illnesses in corrections settings are crucial for planning and implementing preventive and diversionary policies and programs. Despite consistent scholarly attention, two federal self-report surveys are typically cited, and these may not represent the extent of relevant data. This systematic review identifies studies that assess the prevalence of mental illnesses in U.S. state prisons, in order to develop a broader picture of prison prevalence and identify methodological challenges to obtaining accurate and consistent estimates. Methods Medline, PsycInfo, the National Criminal Justice Reference Service, Social Services Abstracts, Social Work Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts were searched. Studies were included if they were published between 1989 and 2013; focused on U.S. state prisons; reported prevalence of diagnoses/symptoms of DSM Axis I disorders; and identified screening/assessment strategies. Results Twenty-eight articles met inclusion criteria. Estimates of current and lifetime prevalence of mental illnesses varied widely; however, the range of prevalence estimates for particular disorders was much greater—and tended to be higher—in prisons than community samples. Conclusions Operationalizations of mental illnesses, sampling strategies, and case ascertainment strategies likely contributed to inconsistency in findings. Other reasons for study heterogeneity are discussed, and implications for public health are explored. PMID:24686574

  9. Regional Epidemiologic Assessment of Prevalent Periodontitis Using an Electronic Health Record System

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Amit; VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Waring, Stephen C.; Miller, Aaron W.; Fuehrer, Jay T.; Nycz, Gregory R.

    2013-01-01

    An oral health surveillance platform that queries a clinical/administrative data warehouse was applied to estimate regional prevalence of periodontitis. Cross-sectional analysis of electronic health record data collected between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010, was undertaken in a population sample residing in Ladysmith, Wisconsin. Eligibility criteria included: 1) residence in defined zip codes, 2) age 25–64 years, and 3) ≥1 Marshfield dental clinic comprehensive examination. Prevalence was established using 2 independent methods: 1) via an algorithm that considered clinical attachment loss and probe depth and 2) via standardized Current Dental Terminology (CDT) codes related to periodontal treatment. Prevalence estimates were age-standardized to 2000 US Census estimates. Inclusion criteria were met by 2,056 persons. On the basis of the American Academy of Periodontology/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention method, the age-standardized prevalence of moderate or severe periodontitis (combined) was 407 per 1,000 males and 308 per 1,000 females (348/1,000 males and 269/1,000 females using the CDT code method). Increased prevalence and severity of periodontitis was noted with increasing age. Local prevalence of periodontitis was consistent with national estimates. The need to address potential sample selection bias in future electronic health record–based periodontitis research was identified by this approach. Methods outlined herein may be applied to refine oral health surveillance systems, inform dental epidemiologic methods, and evaluate interventional outcomes. PMID:23462966

  10. ERICA: prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Schaan, Beatriz; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; de Vasconcellos, Maurício T L

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated 37,504 adolescents who were participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, school-based, national study. The adolescents, aged from 12 to 17 years, lived in cities with populations greater than 100,000 inhabitants. The sample was stratified and clustered into schools and classes. The criteria set out by the International Diabetes Federation were used to define metabolic syndrome. Prevalences of metabolic syndrome were estimated according to sex, age group, school type and nutritional status. RESULTS Of the 37,504 adolescents who were evaluated: 50.2% were female; 54.3% were aged from 15 to 17 years, and 73.3% were from public schools. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6% (95%CI 2.3-2.9), slightly higher in males and in those aged from 15 to 17 years in most macro-regions. The prevalence was the highest in residents from the South macro-region, in the younger female adolescents and in the older male adolescents. The prevalence was higher in public schools (2.8% [95%CI 2.4-3.2]), when compared with private schools (1.9% [95%CI 1.4-2.4]) and higher in obese adolescents when compared with nonobese ones. The most common combinations of components, referring to 3/4 of combinations, were: enlarged waist circumference (WC), low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) and high blood pressure; followed by enlarged WC, low HDL-c and high triglycerides; and enlarged WC, low HDL-c, high triglycerides and blood pressure. Low HDL was the second most frequent component, but the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (26.8%) was observed in the presence of high triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS ERICA is the first Brazilian nation-wide study to present the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and describe the role of its components. Despite the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome being low, the high prevalences of some

  11. Apparent and true resistant hypertension: definition, prevalence and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Judd, E; Calhoun, D A

    2014-08-01

    Resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure (BP) remaining above goal despite the use of > or =3 antihypertensive medications at maximally tolerated doses (one ideally being a diuretic) or BP that requires > or =4 agents to achieve control, has received more attention with increased efforts to improve BP control rates and the emergence of device-based therapies for hypertension. This classically defined resistant group consists of patients with true resistant hypertension, controlled resistant hypertension and pseudo-resistant hypertension. In studies where pseudo-resistant hypertension cannot be excluded (for example, 24-h ambulatory BP not obtained), the term apparent resistant hypertension has been used to identify 'apparent' lack of control on > or =3 medications. Large, well-designed studies have recently reported the prevalence of resistant hypertension. Pooling prevalence data from these studies and others within North America and Europe with a combined sample size of >600,000 hypertensive participants, the prevalence of resistant hypertension is 14.8% of treated hypertensive patients and 12.5% of all hypertensives. However, the prevalence of true resistant hypertension, defined as uncontrolled both by office and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring with confirmed medication adherence, may be more meaningful in terms of identifying risk and estimating benefit from newer therapies like renal denervation. Rates of cardiovascular events and mortality follow mean 24-h ambulatory BPs in patients with resistant hypertension, and true resistant hypertension represents the highest risk. The prevalence of true resistant hypertension has not been directly measured in large trials; however, combined data from smaller studies suggest that true resistant hypertension is present in half of the patients with resistant hypertension who are uncontrolled in the office. Our pooled analysis shows prevalence rates of 10.1% and 7.9% for uncontrolled resistant hypertension among

  12. Prevalence of arthritis in India and Pakistan: a review.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Ehtisham; Bilal, Saira; Kiani, Adnan; Haque, Uzma

    2011-07-01

    Recent studies of rheumatoid arthritis worldwide suggest that prevalence of arthritis is higher in Europe and North America than in developing countries. Prevalence data for major arthritis disorders have been compiled in West for several decades, but figures from the third world are just emerging. A coordinated effort by WHO and ILAR (International League Against Rheumatism) has resulted in collecting data for countries like Philippines, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, and rural South Africa but the information about prevalence of arthritis in India and Pakistan is scarce. Since both countries, i.e., India and Pakistan, share some ethnic identity, we reviewed published literature to examine the prevalence of arthritis in these countries. Medline and Pubmed were searched for suitable articles about arthritis from 1980 and onwards. Findings from these articles were reviewed and summarized. The prevalence, clinical features, and laboratory findings of rheumatoid arthritis are compiled for both India and Pakistan. Data collected from these two countries were compared with each other, and some of the characteristics of the disease were compared with Europe and North America. It is found to be quite similar to developed countries. Additionally, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is of different variety than reported in West. It is more of polyarticular onset type while in West pauciarticular predominates. Additionally, in systemic onset, JRA uveitis and ANA are common finding in developed countries; on the other hand, they are hardly seen in this region. Although the prevalence of arthritis in Pakistan and India is similar to Western countries, there are inherent differences (clinical features, laboratory findings) in the presentation of disease. The major strength of the study is that it is the first to pool reports to provide an estimate of the disease in the Indian subcontinent. Scarcity of data is one of the major limitations. This study helps to understand the pattern of

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for trachoma in Sarlahi district, Nepal.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, J; West, K P; Khatry, S K; LeClerq, S C; Pradhan, E K; Thapa, M D; Ram Shrestha, S; Taylor, H R

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate the prevalence of trachoma in preschool children in Sarlahi district, Nepal, and to identify risk factors for the disease. METHODS: A stratified random sample of 40 wards was selected for participation in a trachoma survey. Within each ward, a systematic 20% sample of children 24-76 months of age was chosen to determine the presence and severity of trachoma using the World Health Organisation grading system. RESULTS: A total of 891 children were selected and 836 (93.8%) were examined for trachoma from December 1990 to March 1991. The prevalence of active trachoma was 23.6% (21.9% follicular and 1.7% intense inflammatory). Cicatricial trachoma was not seen in this age group. The prevalence of trachoma ranged from 0 to 50% across wards with certain communities at much higher risk for trachoma than others. Three year old children had the highest prevalence of follicular (25.5%) and intense inflammatory trachoma (4.3%). Males and females had similar prevalence rates. Wards without any tube wells were at higher risk than those with one or more tube wells. Lower rates of trachoma were seen in families who lived in cement houses, had fewer people per room, more servants, more household goods, animals, and land. Hence, less access to water, crowding and lower socioeconomic status were risk factors for trachoma. CONCLUSIONS: Although follicular trachoma is prevalent, intense inflammatory trachoma is relatively rare and scarring was not observed in this preschool population. Hence, this population may not be at high risk for repeat infections leading to blindness in adulthood. PMID:9059265

  14. Prevalence of chronic medical conditions among inmates in the Texas prison system.

    PubMed

    Harzke, Amy J; Baillargeon, Jacques G; Pruitt, Sandi L; Pulvino, John S; Paar, David P; Kelley, Michael F

    2010-05-01

    Given the rapid growth and aging of the US prison population in recent years, the disease profile and health care needs of inmates portend to have far-reaching public health implications. Although numerous studies have examined infectious disease prevalence and treatment in incarcerated populations, little is known about the prevalence of non-infectious chronic medical conditions in US prison populations. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of selected non-infectious chronic medical conditions among inmates in the Texas prison system. The study population consisted of the total census of inmates who were incarcerated in the Texas Department of Criminal Justice for any duration from September 1, 2006 through August 31, 2007 (N=234,031). Information on medical diagnoses was obtained from a system-wide electronic medical record system. Overall crude prevalence estimates for the selected conditions were as follows: hypertension, 18.8%; asthma, 5.4%; diabetes, 4.2%; ischemic heart disease, 1.7%; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 0.96%; and cerebrovascular disease, 0.23%. Nearly one quarter (24.5%) of the study population had at least one of the selected conditions. Except for asthma, crude prevalence estimates of the selected conditions increased monotonically with age. Nearly two thirds (64.6%) of inmates who were >or=55 years of age had at least one of the selected conditions. Except for diabetes, crude prevalence estimates for the selected conditions were lower among Hispanic inmates than among non-Hispanic White inmates and African American inmates. Although age-standardized prevalence estimates for the selected conditions did not appear to exceed age-standardized estimates from the US general population, a large number of inmates were affected by one or more of these conditions. As the prison population continues to grow and to age, the burden of these conditions on correctional and community health care systems can be expected to increase

  15. The recent prevalence of Osteoporosis and low bone mass in the United States based on bone mineral density at the Femoral Neck or Lumbar Spine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass based on bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine in adults 50 years and older in the United States (US). We applied prevalence estimates of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femoral ...

  16. Converging seasonal prevalence dynamics in experimental epidemics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Regular seasonal changes in prevalence of infectious diseases are often observed in nature, but the mechanisms are rarely understood. Empirical tests aiming at a better understanding of seasonal prevalence patterns are not feasible for most diseases and thus are widely lacking. Here, we set out to study experimentally the seasonal prevalence in an aquatic host-parasite system. The microsporidian parasite Hamiltosporidium tvärminnensis exhibits pronounced seasonality in natural rock pool populations of its host, Daphnia magna with a regular increase of prevalence during summer and a decrease during winter. An earlier study was, however, unable to test if different starting conditions (initial prevalence) influence the dynamics of the disease in the long term. Here, we aim at testing how the starting prevalence affects the regular prevalence changes over a 4-year period in experimental populations. Results In an outdoor experiment, populations were set up to include the extremes of the prevalence spectrum observed in natural populations: 5% initial prevalence mimicking a newly invading parasite, 100% mimicking a rock pool population founded by infected hosts only, and 50% prevalence which is commonly observed in natural populations in spring. The parasite exhibited similar prevalence changes in all treatments, but seasonal patterns in the 100% treatment differed significantly from those in the 5% and 50% treatments. Populations started with 5% and 50% prevalence exhibited strong and regular seasonality already in the first year. In contrast, the amplitude of changes in the 100% treatment was low throughout the experiment demonstrating the long-lasting effect of initial conditions on prevalence dynamics. Conclusions Our study shows that the time needed to approach the seasonal changes in prevalence depends strongly on the initial prevalence. Because individual D. magna populations in this rock pool metapopulation are mostly short lived, only few

  17. Prevalence of DSM-IV Disorder in a Representative, Healthy Birth Cohort at School Entry: Sociodemographic Risks and Social Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Alice S.; Wagmiller, Robert J.; Gray, Sarah A. O.; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this paper are as follows: to present past-year prevalence data for DSM-IV disorders in the early elementary school years; to examine the impact of impairment criteria on prevalence estimates; to examine the relation of sociodemographic and psychosocial risk factors to disorders; and to explore associations between…

  18. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  19. Health Behaviors in a Representative Sample of Older Canadians: Prevalences, Reported Change, Motivation to Change, and Perceived Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsom, Jason T.; Kaplan, Mark S.; Huguet, Nathalie; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Prevalence estimates of healthy behaviors and preventive care among older adults have not received sufficient attention, despite important health benefits such as longevity and better quality of life. Moreover, little is known about general population prevalences of older adults' efforts to change behavior, motivations to improve health…

  20. Prevalence of Suicide Risk Factors and Suicide-Related Outcomes in the National Mental Health Study, Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posada-Villa, Jose; Camacho, Juan Camilo; Valenzuela, Jose Ignacio; Arguello, Arturo; Cendales, Juan Gabriel; Fajardo, Roosevelt

    2009-01-01

    A community survey in 4,426 adults was undertaken as part of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative reporting the prevalence and risk factors for suicide-related outcomes in Colombia. Lifetime prevalence estimates of suicide ideation, plans, attempts, and risk factors for suicide-related outcomes were assessed. Retrospective reports of…

  1. The Co-Occurrence of Autism and Birth Defects: Prevalence and Risk in a Population-Based Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, Diana E.; Autry, Andrew; Wines, Roberta; Moore, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence of major birth defects among children with autism, the prevalence of autism in children with birth defects, and the risk for autism associated with having birth defects. Method: Retrospective cohort including all children born in Atlanta, GA, USA, 1986 to 1993, who survived to age 3 years and were identified through…

  2. Epidemiology of autistic disorder in Bahrain: prevalence and obstetric and familial characteristics.

    PubMed

    Al-Ansari, A M; Ahmed, M M

    2013-09-01

    European and North American studies show that the prevalence of autistic disorder is inccreasing. This study was performed to identify the prevalence of autistic disorder in Bahrain, and determine some of the demographic and family characteristics. Using a case-control design, 100 children who received a diagnosis of autistic disorder according to DSM-IV-TR during the period 2000-2010 were selected. An equal numberofcontrols who had received a diagnosis of nocturnal enuresis and no psychopathology were selected, matched for sex and age group. The prevalence of autistic disorder was estimated as 4.3 per 10,000 population, with a male:female sex ratio of 4:1. Significantly more cases than controls were delivered by caesarean section and had mothers who suffered prenatal complications. The prevalence estimate in Bahrain is comparable to previous reports using similar methods. Obstetric complications and caesarean section delivery may be associated with autistic disorder.

  3. Efficiency of EPI cluster sampling for assessing diarrhoea and dysentery prevalence.

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, S. S.; Katz, J.; Brendel, K.; West, K. P.

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the efficiency of EPI cluster sampling in assessing the prevalence of diarrhoea and dysentery. A computer was used to simulate fieldwork carried out by a survey taker. The bias and variance of prevalence estimates obtained using EPI cluster sampling were compared with those obtained using simple random sampling and cluster (stratified random) sampling. Efficiency ratios, calculated as the mean square error divided by total distance travelled, were used to compare EPI cluster sampling to simple random sampling and standard cluster sampling. EPI cluster sampling may be an appropriate low-cost tool for monitoring trends in the prevalence of diarrhoea and dysentery over time. However, it should be used with caution when estimating the prevalence of diarrhoea at a single point in time because of the bias associated with this cluster sampling method. PMID:9447775

  4. Decreasing prevalence of the full metabolic syndrome but a persistently high prevalence of dyslipidemia among adult Arabs.

    PubMed

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Sabico, Shaun Louie B; Chrousos, George P

    2010-01-01

    A decade has passed since metabolic syndrome (MetS) was documented to be highly prevalent in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. No follow-up epidemiologic study was done. This study aims to fill this gap. In this cross-sectional, observational study, a total of 2850 randomly selected Saudi adults aged 18-55 years were recruited. Subjects' information was generated from a database of more than 10,000 Saudi citizens from the existing Biomarkers Screening in Riyadh Program (RIYADH Cohort), Saudi Arabia. Anthropometrics included body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, as well as waist and hip circumferences. Fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were determined using routine laboratory procedures. The definition of ATP-III (NHANES III) was used for the diagnosis of the full MetS. The overall prevalence of complete MetS was 35.3% [Confidence-Interval (CI) 33.5-37.01]. Age-adjusted prevalence according to the European standard population is 37.0%. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most prevalent of all MetS risk factors, affecting 88.6% (CI 87.5-89.7) and hypertriglyceridemia the second most prevalent, affecting 34% (CI 32.3-35.7) of the subjects. The prevalence of the full MetS decreased from previous estimates but remains high, while dyslipidemia remains extremely high, affecting almost 90% of middle-aged Arabs. Screening for dyslipidemia among Saudi adults is warranted, especially among those most at risk. Scientific inquiry into the molecular causes of these manifestations should be pursued as a first step in the discovery of etiologic therapies.

  5. Human land use influences chronic wasting disease prevalence in mule deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Wolfe, L.L.; Hobbs, N.T.; Burnham, K.P.; Williams, E.S.; Theobald, D.M.; Conner, M.M.; Miller, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    Human alteration of landscapes can affect the distribution, abundance, and behavior of wildlife. We explored the effects of human land use on the prevalence of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations residing in north-central Colorado. We chose best approximating models estimating CWD prevalence in relation to differences in human land use, sex, and geographic location. Prevalence was higher in developed areas and among male deer, suggesting anthropogenic influences on the occurrence of disease. We also found a relatively high degree of variation in prevalence across the three study sites, suggesting that spatial patterns in disease may be influenced by other factors operating at a broader, landscape scale. Our results suggest that multiple factors, including changes in land use, differences in exposure risk between sexes, and landscape-scaled heterogeneity, are associated with CWD prevalence in north-central Colorado.

  6. Risk factors for the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngowi, H A; Kassuku, A A; Maeda, G E M; Boa, M E; Carabin, H; Willingham, A L

    2004-04-15

    To estimate prevalence of and risk factors for the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu District, Tanzania, 770 live pigs were examined by lingual examination in 21 villages. Structured observations and questionnaire interviews were used to assess pig rearing practices and household use of latrines. Associations between factors were analyzed using a Bayesian hierarchical model to obtain prevalence odds ratio (OR) and 95% Bayesian Credible Intervals (95% BCI). Prevalence was 17.4% (village-specific range 3.2-46.7%). Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was considerably higher in pigs reared in households lacking latrines than in those reared in households that were using latrines (OR = 2.04; 95% BCI = 1.25, 3.45). About 96% of the pigs were kept under free-range conditions. This study suggests the need for further studies in order to design and implement effective prevention and control measures for porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu District, Tanzania.

  7. Prevalence of placenta previa among deliveries in Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Dazhi; Wu, Song; Wang, Wen; Xin, Lihong; Tian, Guo; Liu, Li; Feng, Jinping; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Placenta previa is characterized by the abnormal placenta overlying the endocervical os, and it is known as one of the most feared adverse maternal and fetal-neonatal complications in obstetrics. Objectives: We aimed to obtain overall and regional estimates of placenta previa prevalence among deliveries in Mainland China. Methods: The research was performed a systematic review, following the Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines for systematic reviews of observational studies, and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Electronic databases were searched and included hospital-based studies that reported placenta previa prevalence in Mainland China. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool prevalence estimates of placenta previa. Meta-regression analyses were performed to explore sources of heterogeneity across the included studies. For exploring the geographical distributions of placenta previa, the ArcGIS software (Esri) was used to construct the map of prevalence. Results: A total of 80 articles and 86 datasets (including 1,298,548 subjects and 14,199 placenta previa cases) from 1965 through 2015 were included. The pooled overall prevalence of placenta previa among deliveries was 1.24% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–1.36) in Mainland China during 1965 to 2015. And, the trend in the prevalence of placenta previa was steady. The occurrence rate of placenta previa in the region groups Northeast, North, Northwest, Central China, East, South, and Southwest was 1.20%, 1.01%, 1.10%, 1.15%, 0.93%, 1.42%, and 2.01%, respectively. The prevalence map based on a geographic information system showed an unequal geographic distribution. Conclusions: The results showed that placenta previa is currently a high-burden disease in Mainland China. This review would be useful for the design of placenta previa

  8. Prevalence of night eating in obese and nonobese twins.

    PubMed

    Tholin, Sanna; Lindroos, Annakarin; Tynelius, Per; Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Stunkard, Albert J; Bulik, Cynthia M; Rasmussen, Finn

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of night eating (NE) and associated symptoms in a population-based sample of Swedish twins. A total of 21,741 individuals aged 20-47 years completed a questionnaire in 2005/2006. NE was defined as >/=25% of daily food intake after the evening meal and/or awakening at least once per week with eating episodes. The prevalence of NE was 4.6% in men and 3.4% in women. Among obese men and women, the prevalence was 8.4 and 7.5%, respectively. Men and women with NE had 3.4 and 3.6 times higher risk of binge eating compared to individuals without NE. The risk of sleep-related problems was 1.6-3.4 times higher in men and 2.5-3.3 times higher in women with NE compared to those without NE. This epidemiological study has estimated the prevalence of NE in a twin population. It revealed that NE is 2.5 and 2.8 times more common in obese men and women compared to normal weight men and women. Furthermore that NE is associated with binge eating and sleep-related problems.

  9. Prevalence of night eating in obese and nonobese twins.

    PubMed

    Tholin, Sanna; Lindroos, Annakarin; Tynelius, Per; Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Stunkard, Albert J; Bulik, Cynthia M; Rasmussen, Finn

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of night eating (NE) and associated symptoms in a population-based sample of Swedish twins. A total of 21,741 individuals aged 20-47 years completed a questionnaire in 2005/2006. NE was defined as >/=25% of daily food intake after the evening meal and/or awakening at least once per week with eating episodes. The prevalence of NE was 4.6% in men and 3.4% in women. Among obese men and women, the prevalence was 8.4 and 7.5%, respectively. Men and women with NE had 3.4 and 3.6 times higher risk of binge eating compared to individuals without NE. The risk of sleep-related problems was 1.6-3.4 times higher in men and 2.5-3.3 times higher in women with NE compared to those without NE. This epidemiological study has estimated the prevalence of NE in a twin population. It revealed that NE is 2.5 and 2.8 times more common in obese men and women compared to normal weight men and women. Furthermore that NE is associated with binge eating and sleep-related problems. PMID:19396084

  10. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail chicken meat in Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Alali, Walid Q; Gaydashov, Roman; Petrova, Elena; Panin, Alexander; Tugarinov, Oleg; Kulikovskii, Alexander; Mamleeva, Dzhemile; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on raw retail chicken meat in Russia. Broiler chicken carcasses (n = 698) were collected from three regions of Russia: central (i.e., Moscow area), northwest (i.e., St. Petersburg area), and southern (i.e., Krasnodar area). In each region, samples were collected to represent various cities and districts, as well as different types of retail stores and carcass storage temperatures (i.e., chilled and frozen). All chicken samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using a whole-carcass rinse method. The overall Salmonella prevalence was 31.5%. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence by (i) region-29.3% (n = 464) in Moscow, 38.5% (n = 192) in St. Petersburg, and 23.8% (n = 42) in Krasnodar; (ii) retail store type-28.8% (n = 236) in hypermarkets, 31.9% (n = 260) in supermarkets (part of chain stores), 44.3% (n = 61) in independent supermarkets, 42.9% (n = 28) in independent minimarkets, and 26.6% (n = 113) in wet markets; and (iii) poultry company-34.3% (n = 545) on chickens produced by integrated companies compared with 22.9% (n = 118) on chickens produced by nonintegrated companies. Strategies such as good agriculture and management practices should be enhanced to reduce Salmonella prevalence on raw poultry in Russia and therefore increase the safety of chicken products. PMID:22856571

  11. Sexting prevalence and correlates: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Klettke, Bianca; Hallford, David J; Mellor, David J

    2014-02-01

    Despite considerable controversy and speculation regarding sexting behaviour and its associated risks, to date there has been no integration and analysis of empirical literature on this topic. To collect and synthesise findings of the prevalence of sexting, its correlates, and the context in which it occurs, a systematic search of databases was conducted. Thirty-one studies, reporting on sexting prevalence and a diverse range of related variables, met inclusion criteria. The estimated mean prevalence weighted by sample size was calculated, with trends indicating sexting is more prevalent amongst adults than adolescents, older age is predictive of sexting for adolescents but not adults, and more individuals report receiving sexts than sending them. The correlates of sexting behaviour were grouped in terms of demographic variables, sexual and sexual risk behaviours, attitudes towards sexting, perceived outcomes of sexting, motivations for sexting, mental health and well-being variables, and attachment dimensions. Findings are discussed in terms of the trends indicated by the data, which provided substantiation that sexting behaviour is associated with numerous behavioural, psychological, and social factors. Limitations of the current research literature and future directions are also presented.

  12. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail chicken meat in Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Alali, Walid Q; Gaydashov, Roman; Petrova, Elena; Panin, Alexander; Tugarinov, Oleg; Kulikovskii, Alexander; Mamleeva, Dzhemile; Walls, Isabel; Doyle, Michael P

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on raw retail chicken meat in Russia. Broiler chicken carcasses (n = 698) were collected from three regions of Russia: central (i.e., Moscow area), northwest (i.e., St. Petersburg area), and southern (i.e., Krasnodar area). In each region, samples were collected to represent various cities and districts, as well as different types of retail stores and carcass storage temperatures (i.e., chilled and frozen). All chicken samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using a whole-carcass rinse method. The overall Salmonella prevalence was 31.5%. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in Salmonella prevalence by (i) region-29.3% (n = 464) in Moscow, 38.5% (n = 192) in St. Petersburg, and 23.8% (n = 42) in Krasnodar; (ii) retail store type-28.8% (n = 236) in hypermarkets, 31.9% (n = 260) in supermarkets (part of chain stores), 44.3% (n = 61) in independent supermarkets, 42.9% (n = 28) in independent minimarkets, and 26.6% (n = 113) in wet markets; and (iii) poultry company-34.3% (n = 545) on chickens produced by integrated companies compared with 22.9% (n = 118) on chickens produced by nonintegrated companies. Strategies such as good agriculture and management practices should be enhanced to reduce Salmonella prevalence on raw poultry in Russia and therefore increase the safety of chicken products.

  13. Dyspepsia and celiac disease: Prevalence, diagnostic tools and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Petrarca, Laura; Nenna, Raffaella; Mastrogiorgio, Gerarda; Florio, Matteo; Brighi, Manuela; Pontone, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of dyspepsia is up to 40% in population-based study. Functional dyspepsia is an exclusion diagnosis and it is classified as a chronic abdominal pain-related functional disorder, characterized by the presence of persistent or recurrent pain or discomfort centered in the upper abdomen, neither relief by defecation, nor association with the onset of a change in stool frequency or form. Celiac disease (CD) is a common autoimmune enteropathy, with a prevalence around 1% in the general population. Its diagnosis includes a serological screening and an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with multiple biopsies. Gluten-free diet is the only effective treatment. CD diagnosis is often delayed in asymptomatic patients or in individuals with less clinical gastrointestinal symptoms. Several studies performed coeliac disease screening in patients with symptoms suggestive of dyspepsia, showing a biopsy-proved prevalence that ranged from 0.5% to 2%. The typical endoscopic markers of villous atrophy are not sufficiently sensitive, so some endoscopic techniques, such as “water immersion” and confocal endomicroscopy were proposed to improve the diagnostic sensitivity and target biopsies. A recent meta-analysis estimated that the prevalence of CD was higher in patients with dyspepsia, but not in a statistically significant way. However this assumption should be confirmed further larger studies. PMID:25332916

  14. Dyspepsia and celiac disease: Prevalence, diagnostic tools and therapy.

    PubMed

    Petrarca, Laura; Nenna, Raffaella; Mastrogiorgio, Gerarda; Florio, Matteo; Brighi, Manuela; Pontone, Stefano

    2014-09-26

    The prevalence of dyspepsia is up to 40% in population-based study. Functional dyspepsia is an exclusion diagnosis and it is classified as a chronic abdominal pain-related functional disorder, characterized by the presence of persistent or recurrent pain or discomfort centered in the upper abdomen, neither relief by defecation, nor association with the onset of a change in stool frequency or form. Celiac disease (CD) is a common autoimmune enteropathy, with a prevalence around 1% in the general population. Its diagnosis includes a serological screening and an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with multiple biopsies. Gluten-free diet is the only effective treatment. CD diagnosis is often delayed in asymptomatic patients or in individuals with less clinical gastrointestinal symptoms. Several studies performed coeliac disease screening in patients with symptoms suggestive of dyspepsia, showing a biopsy-proved prevalence that ranged from 0.5% to 2%. The typical endoscopic markers of villous atrophy are not sufficiently sensitive, so some endoscopic techniques, such as "water immersion" and confocal endomicroscopy were proposed to improve the diagnostic sensitivity and target biopsies. A recent meta-analysis estimated that the prevalence of CD was higher in patients with dyspepsia, but not in a statistically significant way. However this assumption should be confirmed further larger studies. PMID:25332916

  15. Repeatability of feather mite prevalence and intensity in passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Real, Javier; Serrano, David; Pérez-Tris, Javier; Fernández-González, Sofía; Bermejo, Ana; Calleja, Juan A; De la Puente, Javier; De Palacio, Diana; Martínez, José L; Moreno-Opo, Rubén; Ponce, Carlos; Frías, Óscar; Tella, José L; Møller, Anders P; Figuerola, Jordi; Pap, Péter L; Kovács, István; Vágási, Csongor I; Meléndez, Leandro; Blanco, Guillermo; Aguilera, Eduardo; Senar, Juan Carlos; Galván, Ismael; Atiénzar, Francisco; Barba, Emilio; Cantó, José L; Cortés, Verónica; Monrós, Juan S; Piculo, Rubén; Vögeli, Matthias; Borràs, Antoni; Navarro, Carlos; Mestre, Alexandre; Jovani, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Understanding why host species differ so much in symbiont loads and how this depends on ecological host and symbiont traits is a major issue in the ecology of symbiosis. A first step in this inquiry is to know whether observed differences among host species are species-specific traits or more related with host-symbiont environmental conditions. Here we analysed the repeatability (R) of the intensity and the prevalence of feather mites to partition within- and among-host species variance components. We compiled the largest dataset so far available: 119 Paleartic passerine bird species, 75,944 individual birds, ca. 1.8 million mites, seven countries, 23 study years. Several analyses and approaches were made to estimate R and adjusted repeatability (R(adj)) after controlling for potential confounding factors (breeding period, weather, habitat, spatial autocorrelation and researcher identity). The prevalence of feather mites was moderately repeatable (R = 0.26-0.53; R(adj) = 0.32-0.57); smaller values were found for intensity (R = 0.19-0.30; R(adj )= 0.18-0.30). These moderate repeatabilities show that prevalence and intensity of feather mites differ among species, but also that the high variation within species leads to considerable overlap among bird species. Differences in the prevalence and intensity of feather mites within bird species were small among habitats, suggesting that local factors are playing a secondary role. However, effects of local climatic conditions were partially observed for intensity.

  16. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration among the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Rasoulinejad, Seyed Ahmad; Zarghami, Amin; Hosseini, Seyed Reza; Rajaee, Neda; Rasoulinejad, Seyed Elahe; Mikaniki, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness in elderly population in the developing countries. Previous epidemiological studies revealed various potential modifiable risk factors for this disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of AMD among elderly living in Babol, North of Iran. Methods: The study population of this cross-sectional study came from the Amirkola Health and Ageing Project (AHAP), the first comprehensive cohort study of the health of people aged 60 years and over in Amirkola, North of Iran. The prevalence of AMD was estimated and its risk was determined using logistic regression analysis (LRA) with regard to variables such as smoking, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and diabetes. Results: Five hundred and five participants with mean age of 71.55±5.9 (ranged 60-89) years entered the study. The prevalence of AMD was 17.6%. There was a significant association between AMD and smoking (P<0.001) but no association was seen with AMD and age, level of education, history of hyperlipidemia, hypertension and diabetes. Multiple LRAs revealed that smoking increased AMD by odds ratio of 5.03 (95% confidence interval 2.47-10.23 p<0.001) as compared to nonsmokers Conclusion: According to our findings, the prevalence of AMD was relatively high and smoking increased the risk of AMD in the elderly population. PMID:26644880

  17. Classification and prevalence of foot lesions in captive flamingos (Phoenicopteridae).

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Adriana M W; Nielsen, Søren S; King, Catherine E; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2010-03-01

    Foot lesions can compromise the health and welfare of captive birds. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of foot lesions in captive flamingos (Phoenicopteridae). The study was based on photos of 1,495 pairs of foot soles from 854 flamingos in 18 European and two Texan (USA) zoological collections. Methodology for evaluating flamingo feet lesions was developed for this project because no suitable method had been reported in the literature. Four types of foot lesions were identified: hyperkeratoses, fissures, nodular lesions, and papillomatous growths. Seven areas on each foot received a severity score from 0 to 2 for each type of lesion (0 = no lesion, 1 = mild to moderate lesion, 2 = severe lesion). The prevalence of birds with lesions (scores 1 or 2) were 100%, 87%, 17%, and 46% for hyperkeratosis, fissures, nodular lesions, and papillomatous growths, respectively. Birds with severe lesions (score 2) constituted 67%, 46%, 4%, and 12% for hyperkeratosis, fissures, nodular lesions, and papillomatous growths, respectively. Hyperkeratosis and nodular lesions were most prevalent on the base of the foot and the proximal portion of the digits, likely reflecting those areas bearing the most weight. The second and fourth digits were most affected with fissures and papillomatous lesions; these areas of the foot appear to be where the most flexion occurs during ambulation. The study demonstrates that foot lesions are highly prevalent and widely distributed in the study population, indicating that they are an extensive problem in captive flamingos.

  18. Prevalence of physical inactivity in Iran: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fakhrzadeh, Hossein; Djalalinia, Shirin; Mirarefin, Mojdeh; Arefirad, Tahereh; Asayesh, Hamid; Safiri, Saeid; Samami, Elham; Mansourian, Morteza; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Physical inactivity is one of the most important risk factors for chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and stroke. We aim to conduct a systematic review of the prevalence of physical inactivity in Iran. Methods: We searched international databases; ISI, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and national databases Irandoc, Barakat knowledge network system, and Scientific Information Database (SID). We collected data for outcome measures of prevalence of physical inactivity by sex, age, province, and year. Quality assessment and data extraction has been conducted independently by two independent research experts. There were no limitations for time and language. Results: We analyzed data for prevalence of physical inactivity in Iranian population. According to our search strategy we found 254 records; of them 185 were from international databases and the remaining 69 were obtained from national databases after refining the data, 34 articles that met eligible criteria remained for data extraction. From them respectively; 9, 20, 2 and 3 studies were at national, provincial, regional and local levels. The estimates for inactivity ranged from approximately 30% to almost 70% and had considerable variation between sexes and studied sub-groups. Conclusion: In Iran, most of studies reported high prevalence of physical inactivity. Our findings reveal a heterogeneity of reported values, often from differences in study design, measurement tools and methods, different target groups and sub-population sampling. These data do not provide the possibility of aggregation of data for a comprehensive inference. PMID:27777692

  19. Prevalence of anemia in First Nations children of northwestern Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, E. A.; Caulfield, L. E.; Harris, S. B.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of anemia among First Nations children of northwestern Ontario. DESIGN: Retrospective review of all hemoglobin determinations between 1990 and 1992 in the Sioux Lookout Zone. SETTING: The Sioux Lookout Zone Hospital, a secondary care referral hospital for 28 remote First Nations communities in northwestern Ontario, affiliated with the University of Toronto's Sioux Lookout Program. PARTICIPANTS: All First Nations children age 3 to 60 months who had produced venipuncture or fingerprick blood samples between 1990 and 1992 (614 children had a total of 1223 hemoglobin determinations). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of anemia by age, sex, geographical location, and diagnosis. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin value less than 110g/L. RESULTS: Prevalence of anemia peaked in the age range of 6 to 24 months with prevalence rates of 51.7% to 79.3%. Conditions most commonly associated with anemia were respiratory tract infections. Children living in communities in the western part of the Sioux Lookout Zone were 1.64 times more likely to have anemia (95% confidence interval 1.15, 2.35) than children in the other communities. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia appears to be a serious public health problem among preschool children in the Sioux Lookout Zone. PMID:9111982

  20. Prevalence of anemia among school going adolescents of Chandigarh.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sabita; Basu, Srikanta; Hazarika, Ranjita; Parmar, Veena

    2005-06-01

    This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of anemia and determine serum ferritin status among 1120 apparently healthy adolescents (12 to 18 years) sampled from 11 city and 2 rural schools in Chandigarh. All the boys and the girls were subjected to anthropometric examination and hemoglobin estimation. The estimation of hemoglobin was done by cyanmethemoglobin method. Serum ferritin was estimated by ELISA (UB1 Magiwel enzyme immuno assay) method in 183 students. The overall prevalence of anemia calculated as per WHO Guidelines was significantly higher among girls (23.9%) as compared to boys (odds ratio--3.75, 95% CI--2.59 to 5.43, P < 0.01). Anemia was observed more in rural (25.4%) as compared to urban (14.2%) adolescents (OR--0.49, 95% CI--0.34 to 0.70, P < 0.01). Iron stores estimated by serum ferritin in 183 subjects were deficient in 81.7% and 41.6% of the adolescent girls and boys, respectively.

  1. [The prevalence of respiratory diseases in the bioclimatic zones of the Primorye Territory].

    PubMed

    Kiku, P F; Gorborukova, T V; Iarygina, M V

    2006-01-01

    The paper estimates the prevalence of respiratory diseases in different bioclimatic zones of the Primorye Territory. The prevalence of environment-induced respiratory diseases in the dwellers of different areas of the Primorye Teritory was found to depend on the specific features of bioclimatic zones and the combinations of environment parameters forming these zones, which should be taken into account when medical and preventive measures are implemented.

  2. Prevalence of Speech Delay in 6-Year-Old Children and Comorbidity with Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; McSweeney, Jane L.

    1999-01-01

    This study estimated the incidence of speech delay based on a demographically representative sub-sample of 1,328 monolingual English-speaking 6-year-old children. Among six major findings were: (1) the prevalence of speech delay was 3.8 percent; (2) speech delay was 1.5 times more prevalent in boys than girls; and (3) comorbidity of speech delay…

  3. Prevalence Rates of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a School Sample of Venezuelan Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montiel, Cecilia; Pena, Joaquin A.; Montiel-Barbero, Isabel; Polanczyk, Guilherme

    2008-01-01

    A total of 1,535 4-12 year-old children were screened with the Conners' rating scales, followed by diagnostic confirmation by the diagnostic interview schedule for children-IV-parent version. The prevalence of ADHD was estimated to be 10.03%, and only 3.9% of children had received medication for the treatment of ADHD symptoms. Prevalence rates and…

  4. A systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in India.

    PubMed

    Bangar, Yogesh Chandrakant; Singh, Bishwambhar; Dohare, Amit Kumar; Verma, Med Ram

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide the pooled estimate of the prevalence of subclinical mastitis among dairy cows in India and to examine the consistency of those estimates between published studies. We have conducted a systematic review of prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows for the period 1995-2014 using electronic and non-electronic databases. Meta-analysis of 28 studies was done under random effects model using Metaprop package in R software. The pooled estimate of prevalence of subclinical mastitis on cow-basis was obtained using 6344 cows from 25 studies and was found to be 46.35 % (95 % CI 39.38; 53.46). Meta-analysis for quarter-wise prevalence of subclinical mastitis was carried out using 18,721 udder quarters of dairy cows from 23 studies, and the pooled estimate of prevalence of subclinical mastitis on quarter-basis was found to be 23.25 % (95 % CI 18.15; 29.27). Meta-analysis showed that there is statistically high heterogeneity for the prevalence estimates between published studies. The present study reported that there is high prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in India, which might be responsible for low productivity in lactating cows in India over the years and needs to be controlled by adopting scientific, managemental, and therapeutic measures. Dairy farmers can reduce incidence and economic losses due to subclinical mastitis under the guidance of field veterinarians.

  5. Prevalence and treatment patterns of psoriatic arthritis in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Ogdie, Alexis; Langan, Sinéad; Love, Thorvardur; Haynes, Kevin; Shin, Daniel; Seminara, Nicole; Mehta, Nehal N.; Troxel, Andrea; Choi, Hyon; Gelfand, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of PsA in The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a large population-based medical records database in the UK, to examine factors associated with prevalent PsA among patients with psoriasis and to describe the use of DMARDs in patients with PsA. Methods. Two cohorts were derived from THIN to examine the prevalence of PsA in a cross-sectional study among all patients aged 18–90 years and among a subcohort of 4900 psoriasis patients aged 45–65 years. Prescription codes were used to describe therapies after the diagnosis of PsA. Associations for prevalent PsA among psoriasis patients were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results. Among 4.8 million patients in THIN between the ages of 18 and 90 years, 9045 patients had at least one medical code for PsA, giving an overall prevalence of 0.19% (95% CI 0.19%, 0.19%). Of those patients, 45.9% with PsA have been prescribed DMARDs. Among the 4064 confirmed psoriasis patients, the prevalence of PsA was 8.6% (95% CI 7.7%, 9.5%). PsA was more prevalent among patients with severe psoriasis [odds ratio (OR) 3.34; 95% CI 2.40, 4.65], obesity (OR 1.77; 95% CI 1.30, 2.41) and duration of psoriasis for ≥10 years (OR 7.42; 95% CI 3.86, 14.25) in the fully adjusted model. Conclusion. The prevalence of PsA in THIN is consistent with previous population-based estimates. Limitations include a definition of PsA based on a diagnostic code rather than Classification Criteria for Psoriatic Arthritis (CASPAR) criteria. Given the large population of PsA patients, THIN is an important resource for the study of PsA. PMID:23221331

  6. Global Prevalence of Small for Gestational Age Births.

    PubMed

    Black, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction is found both in babies who are preterm or full-term, and in either case has important adverse effects on subsequent survival, health, growth and development. Fetal growth restriction is usually assessed by comparing the weight of the newborn with the expected weight for the child's gestational age using less than the 10th centile of a reference population for fetal growth as the threshold for being called small for gestational age (SGA). We estimate that in 2010 32.4 million babies were born SGA in low- and middle-income countries, constituting 27% of all live births. The estimated prevalence of SGA is highest in South Asia and in Sahelian countries of Africa. India has the world's largest number of SGA births, 12.8 million in 2010, due to the large number of births and the high proportion, 46.9%, of births that are SGA. The prevalence of SGA births is approximately double the prevalence of low-birthweight births (using the common indicator of <2,500 g birthweight) globally and in the world's regions. Thus, given the adverse effects of being born SGA, even weighing 2,500 g or more, it is important that maternal, neonatal and child health programs seek and use information on gestational age as well as birthweight to appropriately assess the newborn's risks and direct care. PMID:26111558

  7. [Prevalence of dementia in Japan: past, present and future].

    PubMed

    Asada, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    As the aging society with low birth rate progresses, the burden of care for the dementia elderly increases. Thus, an increasing attention has been paid to the epidemiology of dementia in Japan. This phenomenon is also observed in many developing countries all over the world. In this paper, the author reports the prevalence of dementia among the elderly people aged 65 years and older in Japan using the data from a recent nation-wide survey. According to the results of this survey which was conducted at seven sites in Japan, the prevalence rate was estimated to be 15.75% (95% CI: 12.4-22.2%) which was much higher than that had been estimated before. Alzheimer disease is the most common illness that causes dementia, and followed by vascular dementia and Lewy body dementia. As the limitation of this nation-wide survey, no study was conducted in urban area with low percentage of elderly in a population. Thus, additional studies are ongoing into the prevalence of dementia in urban areas.

  8. The prevalence of ADHD in a population-based sample

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Andrew S.; Skipper, Betty J.; Umbach, David M.; Rabiner, David L.; Campbell, Richard A.; Naftel, A. Jack; Sandler, Dale P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Few studies of ADHD prevalence have used population-based samples, multiple informants, and DSM-IV criteria. In addition, children who are asymptomatic while receiving ADHD mediction often have been misclassified. Therefore, we conducted a population-based study to estimate the prevalence of ADHD in elementary school children using DSM-IV critera. Methods We screened 7587 children for ADHD. Teachers of 81% of the children completed a DSM-IV checklist. We then interviewed parents using a structured interview (DISC). Of these, 72% participated. Parent and teacher ratings were combined to determine ADHD status. We also estimated the proportion of cases attributable to other conditions. Results Overall, 15.5% of our sample (95% confidence interval (C.I.) 14.6%-16.4%) met DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD. Over 40% of cases reported no previous diagnosis. With additional information, other conditions explained about 9% of cases. Conclusions The prevalence of ADHD in this population-based sample was higher than the 3-7% commonly reported. To compare study results, the methods used to implement the DSM criteria need to be standardized. PMID:24336124

  9. Smoking habits among university students in Jordan: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Khader, Y S; Alsadi, A A

    2008-01-01

    Questionnaires were completed by 712 university students in north Jordan to estimate their prevalence of smoking. The reported prevalence of current smoking was 35.0% (56.9% for males and 11.4% for females). About 80% were cigarettes smokers. The majority (86.3%) of smokers smoked daily. Male sex, higher income, lower academic attainment and higher number of friends or family members who smoke were associated with increased prevalence of smoking. Those in the faculty of religion and law were less likely to smoke compared to those in other faculties. The results suggest that policy-makers need to initiate antismoking programmes in Jordanian universities.

  10. Prevalence of Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS): A Population-Based Study in Olmsted County, Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Varun; Alikhan, Ali; Vazquez, Benjamin G.; Weaver, Amy L.; Davis, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a follicular occlusion disorder occurring in apocrine-rich regions of the skin. Estimates of the prevalence of this disorder have not been population-based. We sought to provide population-based information on the prevalence of HS in Olmsted County, Minnesota as of 1/1/2009. METHODS Rochester Epidemiology Project, a unique infrastructure that combines and makes accessible all medical records in Olmsted County since the 1960s, was used to collect population-based data on the prevalence of HS. RESULTS We identified 178 confirmed cases of HS that included 135 females and 43 males, and estimated the total sex- and age-adjusted prevalence in Olmsted County to be 127.8 per 100,000 or 0.13%. The total prevalence was significantly higher among women than men. CONCLUSION This study represents the first population-based investigation on the prevalence of HS. In this population-based cohort, HS was less prevalent than previous reports have suggested. PMID:25228133

  11. Incident and prevalent cohorts with pulmonary arterial hypertension: insight from SERAPHIN

    PubMed Central

    Channick, Richard N.; Delcroix, Marion; Galiè, Nazzareno; Ghofrani, Hossein-Ardeschir; Jansa, Pavel; Le Brun, Franck-Olivier; Mehta, Sanjay; Perchenet, Loic; Pulido, Tomás; Sastry, B.K.S.; Sitbon, Olivier; Souza, Rogério; Torbicki, Adam; Rubin, Lewis J.

    2015-01-01

    In SERAPHIN, a long-term, randomised, controlled trial (NCT00660179) in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), macitentan significantly reduced the risk of morbidity/mortality and PAH-related death/hospitalisation. We evaluated disease progression and the effect of macitentan in treatment-naïve incident and prevalent cohorts. Patients allocated to placebo, or macitentan 3 mg or 10 mg were classified by time from diagnosis to enrolment as incident (≤6 months; n=110) or prevalent (>6 months; n=157). The risk of morbidity/mortality and PAH-related death/hospitalisation was determined using Cox regression. The risk of morbidity/mortality (Kaplan–Meier estimates at month 12: 54.4% versus 26.7%; p=0.006) and PAH-related death/hospitalisation (Kaplan–Meier estimates at month 12: 47.3% versus 19.9%; p=0.006) were significantly higher for incident versus prevalent patients receiving placebo, respectively. There was no significant difference in the risk of all-cause death between incident and prevalent cohorts (p=0.587). Macitentan 10 mg significantly reduced the risk of morbidity/mortality and PAH-related death/hospitalisation versus placebo in incident and prevalent cohorts. Incident patients had a higher risk for PAH progression compared with prevalent patients but not a higher risk of death. Macitentan delayed disease progression in both incident and prevalent PAH patients. PMID:26493786

  12. Incident and prevalent cohorts with pulmonary arterial hypertension: insight from SERAPHIN.

    PubMed

    Simonneau, Gérald; Channick, Richard N; Delcroix, Marion; Galiè, Nazzareno; Ghofrani, Hossein-Ardeschir; Jansa, Pavel; Le Brun, Franck-Olivier; Mehta, Sanjay; Perchenet, Loic; Pulido, Tomás; Sastry, B K S; Sitbon, Olivier; Souza, Rogério; Torbicki, Adam; Rubin, Lewis J

    2015-12-01

    In SERAPHIN, a long-term, randomised, controlled trial (NCT00660179) in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), macitentan significantly reduced the risk of morbidity/mortality and PAH-related death/hospitalisation. We evaluated disease progression and the effect of macitentan in treatment-naïve incident and prevalent cohorts.Patients allocated to placebo, or macitentan 3 mg or 10 mg were classified by time from diagnosis to enrolment as incident (≤6 months; n=110) or prevalent (>6 months; n=157). The risk of morbidity/mortality and PAH-related death/hospitalisation was determined using Cox regression.The risk of morbidity/mortality (Kaplan-Meier estimates at month 12: 54.4% versus 26.7%; p=0.006) and PAH-related death/hospitalisation (Kaplan-Meier estimates at month 12: 47.3% versus 19.9%; p=0.006) were significantly higher for incident versus prevalent patients receiving placebo, respectively. There was no significant difference in the risk of all-cause death between incident and prevalent cohorts (p=0.587). Macitentan 10 mg significantly reduced the risk of morbidity/mortality and PAH-related death/hospitalisation versus placebo in incident and prevalent cohorts.Incident patients had a higher risk for PAH progression compared with prevalent patients but not a higher risk of death. Macitentan delayed disease progression in both incident and prevalent PAH patients.

  13. Lifetime prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder in two American Indian reservation populations.

    PubMed

    Beals, Janette; Manson, Spero M; Croy, Calvin; Klein, Suzell A; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Mitchell, Christina M

    2013-08-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been found to be more common among American Indian populations than among other Americans. A complex diagnosis, the assessment methods for PTSD have varied across epidemiological studies, especially in terms of the trauma criteria. Here, we examined data from the American Indian Service Utilization, Psychiatric Epidemiology, Risk and Protective Factors Project (AI-SUPERPFP) to estimate the lifetime prevalence of PTSD in two culturally distinct American Indian reservation communities, using two formulas for calculating PTSD prevalence. The AI-SUPERPFP was a cross-sectional probability sample survey conducted between 1997 and 2000. Southwest (n = 1,446) and Northern Plains (n = 1,638) tribal members living on or near their reservations, aged 15-57 years at time of interview, were randomly sampled from tribal rolls. PTSD estimates were derived based on both the single worst and 3 worst traumas. Prevalence estimates varied by ascertainment method: single worst trauma (lifetime: 5.9% to 14.8%) versus 3 worst traumas (lifetime, 8.9% to 19.5%). Use of the 3-worst-event approach increased prevalence by 28.3% over the single-event method. PTSD was prevalent in these tribal communities. These results also serve to underscore the need to better understand the implications for PTSD prevalence with the current focus on a single worst event.

  14. Lifetime Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Two American Indian Reservation Populations

    PubMed Central

    Beals, Janette; Manson, Spero M.; Croy, Calvin; Klein, Suzell A.; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Mitchell, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been found to be more common among American Indian populations than among other Americans. A complex diagnosis, the assessment methods for PTSD have varied across epidemiological studies, especially in terms of the trauma criteria. Here, we examined data from the American Indian Service Utilization, Psychiatric Epidemiology, Risk and Protective Factors Project (AI-SUPERPFP) to estimate the lifetime prevalence of PTSD in two culturally distinct American Indian reservation communities, using two formulas for calculating PTSD prevalence. The AI-SUPERPFP was a cross-sectional probability sample survey conducted between 1997 and 2000. Southwest (n = 1,446) and Northern Plains (n = 1,638) tribal members living on or near their reservations, aged 15–57 years at time of interview, were randomly sampled from tribal rolls. PTSD estimates were derived based on both the single worst and 3 worst traumas. Prevalence estimates varied by ascertainment method: single worst trauma (lifetime: 5.9% to 14.8%) versus 3 worst traumas (lifetime, 8.9% to 19.5%). Use of the 3-worst-event approach increased prevalence by 28.3% over the single-event method. PTSD was prevalent in these tribal communities. These results also serve to underscore the need to better understand the implications for PTSD prevalence with the current focus on a single worst event. PMID:23900893

  15. Prevalence of Hidden Gastroparesis in the Community: The Gastroparesis "Iceberg"

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Enrique; Choung, Rok Seon; Schleck, Cathy D; Zinsmeister, Alan R; Talley, Nicholas J

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims The prevalence of diagnosed gastroparesis is 24.2/100,000 inhabitants, but a large group of people with gastroparesis-like symptoms have never had a gastric emptying (GE) test. Some of them may have undiagnosed gastroparesis. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of hidden gastroparesis in the community. Methods The study was conducted in 2 parts: (1) Patients referred for a scintigraphic GE test completed a validated questionnaire (Bowel Disease Questionnaire). Multiple linear regression models to predict 2 hours and 4 hours GE rates were developed. (2) A revised Bowel Disease Questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 4,194 Olmsted County residents. GE rates were estimated with the models for each subject and delayed GE was considered when they were lower than normal values. Hidden gastroparesis was defined in community subjects with predicted delayed GE that had not been diagnosed with gastroparesis prior to the survey. Results The regression models for GE rates were constructed using data from 450 patients. In addition to age and gender, the symptoms found significant were nausea/vomiting, early satiety, upper abdominal pain, bloating, loss of appetite and weight loss more than 7 pounds. 2,298 (55%) community subjects returned a questionnaire. Five subjects were excluded due to a prior diagnosis of gastroparesis. When models were applied to the community survey data, 42 (1.8%) subjects were estimated to have delayed GE. Conclusions Delayed GE was estimated to occur in 1.8% of community subjects. Since the prevalence of diagnosed gastroparesis is low (0.02%), many subjects with gastroparesis may remain undiagnosed. PMID:22323986

  16. Prevalence of hypertension in Lithuanian mariners.

    PubMed

    Kirkutis, Algimantas; Norkiene, Sigita; Griciene, Pasaka; Gricius, Jonas; Yang, Stephen; Gintautas, Jonas

    2004-01-01

    Several international studies from Spain, the Netherlands, Poland, Croatia, and Finland indicate contradicting findings regarding cardiovascular dysfunction among seamen, deep sea fishermen, and harbor workers. The purpose of the present survey was to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension in a selected group of Lithuanian seamen. The survey was conducted during a one year period and involved sailors from commercial, passenger, and fishing boats. The survey took into account the sailors' marital status, education, professional rank and duty, and length of stay at sea. It also included demographical data, complete family health history, the sailor's awareness about their health in general, and awareness about their blood pressure in particular. Their dietary habits, changes in body weight, the history of alcohol intake and tobacco usage were also recorded. Analysis of our data indicates that 44.9% of Lithuanian mariners suffer from a clinically significant elevation of blood pressure, as compared to 53% of the general population of Lithuania. Some of the leading risk factors are: a high cholesterol diet and increased body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol abuse, family situation and level of education. The high prevalence of the cardiovascular risk factors was to be found related to ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular illness. This may be influenced by poor eating habits, poor health awareness and other social and environmental factors which are common to seamen. Increased blood pressure is a widespread condition that affects a large portion of the population in developed countries. It is an important risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, as well as a significant preventable cause of mortality. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which accounts for an estimated 17 million deaths each year. With hypertension, the risk of stroke increases 2.6-3.8 times, the risk of

  17. Prevalence of Skin and Skin-Related Diseases in the Rochester Epidemiology Project and a Comparison with Other Published Prevalence Studies.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Louise K; Davis, Mark D P

    2016-01-01

    In Olmsted County, Minn., USA, reliable, population-based epidemiologic research studies can be performed because of a unique medical records linkage system, the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP). Our objective was to summarize the epidemiologic data describing the prevalence of skin and skin-related diseases derived from the REP and to compare the findings with those from other studies worldwide. Retrospectively, we reviewed the results of population-based REP studies reporting the prevalence of skin and skin-related diseases over more than 4 decades and compared them to other published prevalences globally. Prevalences from the REP reported per 100,000 persons were as follows: hidradenitis suppurativa, 130.0; psoriasis, 700.0; psoriatic arthritis in 1992, 100.0, and in 2000, 160.0; Behçet disease, 5.2; scleroderma, 13.8; dermatomyositis, 21.42; systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), from 30.5 to 122.0 suspected SLE, 32.8; combined SLE, 41.8; discoid lupus erythematosus, 27.6, and cutaneous lupus erythematosus, 70.4 and 73.2 (from 2 studies). Many of the population-based prevalences of specific skin and skin-related diseases derived from the REP are different from those estimated globally. Suggested reasons for disparity in the prevalences globally may include differences in the type of reported prevalence, study methodology, geographic areas, ethnic groups, age distribution, and socioeconomic status. PMID:27011206

  18. Celiac disease: prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Gujral, Naiyana; Freeman, Hugh J; Thomson, Alan B R

    2012-11-14

    Celiac disease (CD) is one of the most common diseases, resulting from both environmental (gluten) and genetic factors [human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA genes]. The prevalence of CD has been estimated to approximate 0.5%-1% in different parts of the world. However, the population with diabetes, autoimmune disorder or relatives of CD individuals have even higher risk for the development of CD, at least in part, because of shared HLA typing. Gliadin gains access to the basal surface of the epithelium, and interact directly with the immune system, via both trans- and para-cellular routes. From a diagnostic perspective, symptoms may be viewed as either "typical" or "atypical". In both positive serological screening results suggestive of CD, should lead to small bowel biopsy followed by a favourable clinical and serological response to the gluten-free diet (GFD) to confirm the diagnosis. Positive anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody or anti-endomysial antibody during the clinical course helps to confirm the diagnosis of CD because of their over 99% specificities when small bowel villous atrophy is present on biopsy. Currently, the only treatment available for CD individuals is a strict life-long GFD. A greater understanding of the pathogenesis of CD allows alternative future CD treatments to hydrolyse toxic gliadin peptide, prevent toxic gliadin peptide absorption, blockage of selective deamidation of specific glutamine residues by tissue, restore immune tolerance towards gluten, modulation of immune response to dietary gliadin, and restoration of intestinal architecture. PMID:23155333

  19. Celiac disease: Prevalence, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gujral, Naiyana; Freeman, Hugh J; Thomson, Alan BR

    2012-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is one of the most common diseases, resulting from both environmental (gluten) and genetic factors [human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA genes]. The prevalence of CD has been estimated to approximate 0.5%-1% in different parts of the world. However, the population with diabetes, autoimmune disorder or relatives of CD individuals have even higher risk for the development of CD, at least in part, because of shared HLA typing. Gliadin gains access to the basal surface of the epithelium, and interact directly with the immune system, via both trans- and para-cellular routes. From a diagnostic perspective, symptoms may be viewed as either “typical” or “atypical”. In both positive serological screening results suggestive of CD, should lead to small bowel biopsy followed by a favourable clinical and serological response to the gluten-free diet (GFD) to confirm the diagnosis. Positive anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody or anti-endomysial antibody during the clinical course helps to confirm the diagnosis of CD because of their over 99% specificities when small bowel villous atrophy is present on biopsy. Currently, the only treatment available for CD individuals is a strict life-long GFD. A greater understanding of the pathogenesis of CD allows alternative future CD treatments to hydrolyse toxic gliadin peptide, prevent toxic gliadin peptide absorption, blockage of selective deamidation of specific glutamine residues by tissue, restore immune tolerance towards gluten, modulation of immune response to dietary gliadin, and restoration of intestinal architecture. PMID:23155333

  20. The Increasing Prevalence of Diabetes in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Kelly J.; Schuller, Kelly L.

    2007-01-01

    SYNOPSIS We review studies published in the past 10 years that examine the prevalence and trends in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The prevalence of GDM in a population is reflective of the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in that population. In low-risk populations, such as those found in Sweden, the prevalence in population-based studies is lower than 2% even when universal testing is offered, while studies in high-risk populations, such as the Native American Cree, Northern Californian Hispanics and Northern Californian Asians, reported prevalence rates ranging from 4.9% to 12.8%. Prevalence rates for GDM obtained from hospital-based studies similarly reflect the risk of type 2 diabetes in a population with a single hospital-based study in Australia reporting prevalences ranging from 3.0% in Anglo-Celtic women to 17.0% in Indian women. Finally, of the eight studies published that report on trends in the prevalence of GDM, 6 studies report an increase in the prevalence of GDM across most racial/ethnic groups studied. In summary, diabetes during pregnancy is a common and increasing complication of pregnancy. PMID:17572266

  1. Insights into the prevalence of software project defects.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Cendón, Javier; Castejón Limas, Manuel; Ordieres Meré, Joaquín B; Pavón, Juan

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of the effort distribution along the software development lifecycle on the prevalence of software defects. This analysis is based on data that was collected by the International Software Benchmarking Standards Group (ISBSG) on the development of 4,106 software projects. Data mining techniques have been applied to gain a better understanding of the behaviour of the project activities and to identify a link between the effort distribution and the prevalence of software defects. This analysis has been complemented with the use of a hierarchical clustering algorithm with a dissimilarity based on the likelihood ratio statistic, for exploratory purposes. As a result, different behaviours have been identified for this collection of software development projects, allowing for the definition of risk control strategies to diminish the number and impact of the software defects. It is expected that the use of similar estimations might greatly improve the awareness of project managers on the risks at hand.

  2. The prevalence and incidence of Toxoplasma antibodies in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Franklin, D M; Dror, Z; Nishri, Z

    1993-05-01

    A group of 213 pregnant Jewish women of Israeli and North-African/Asian origin in the Upper Gallilee in Israel were tested for Toxoplasma antibody, first at 4-12 weeks gestation and again 5-6 months later. Immunofluorescent antibody, Sabin-Feldman tests, and specific IgM estimation were used. The prevalence rates for seropositive women were lower in both groups (total 21%) than the rate found in a 1973 study in Israel. The incidence rate for infection acquired in pregnancy was 1.4%. There were no cases of congenital toxoplasmosis, as far as is known up to 3 years of age. More information on the prevalence and incidence of seropositivity, and on congenital toxoplasmosis, is required before a policy decision can be taken as to whether an antenatal screening program for toxoplasmosis should be instituted in Israel.

  3. The Prevalence of Standard Large Modules in Thermoelectric Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, J.; Bierschenk, J.

    2015-06-01

    The thermoelectric industry serves a broad range of applications using, mainly, a few standard module designs. This paper first briefly describes types of modules and two types of thermoelectric material used by the industry, after which the focus is on selected features of the standard designs and reasons for their prevalence. Whereas cost reduction and the need to maximize reliability drive the adoption of standard modules, other factors contribute to shaping the particular features of the standard thermoelectric cooling modules. These factors include the magnitude of heat loads, heat-sink performance, durability and performance expectations, and relative ease of manufacture. This discussion of the features and prevalence of standard modules relates to broader aspects of both the production and implementation of thermoelectric modules, and an estimate of current thermoelectric industry output is included.

  4. The prevalence of pain at pressure areas and pressure ulcers in hospitalised patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with pressure ulcers (PUs) report that pain is their most distressing symptom, but there are few PU pain prevalence studies. We sought to estimate the prevalence of unattributed pressure area related pain (UPAR pain) which was defined as pain, soreness or discomfort reported by patients, on an “at risk” or PU skin site, reported at a patient level. Methods We undertook pain prevalence surveys in 2 large UK teaching hospital NHS Trusts (6 hospitals) and a district general hospital NHS Trust (3 hospitals) during their routine annual PU prevalence audits. The hospitals provide secondary and tertiary care beds in acute and elective surgery, trauma and orthopaedics, burns, medicine, elderly medicine, oncology and rehabilitation. Anonymised individual patient data were recorded by the ward nurse and PU prevalence team. The analysis of this prevalence survey included data summaries; no inferential statistical testing was planned or undertaken. Percentages were calculated using the total number of patients from the relevant population as the denominator (i.e. including all patients with missing data for that variable). Results A total of 3,397 patients in 9 acute hospitals were included in routine PU prevalence audits and, of these, 2010 (59.2%) patients participated in the pain prevalence study. UPAR pain prevalence was 16.3% (327/2010). 1769 patients had no PUs and of these 223 patients reported UPAR pain, a prevalence of 12.6%. Of the 241 people with pressure ulcers, 104 patients reported pain, a UPAR pain prevalence of 43.2% (104/241). Conclusion One in six people in acute hospitals experience UPAR pain on ‘at risk’ or PU skin sites; one in every 8 people without PUs and, more than 2 out of every five people with PUs. The results provide a clear indication that all patients should be asked if they have pain at pressure areas even when they do not have a PU. PMID:23902583

  5. The High Prevalence of Diabetes in a Large Cohort of Patients Drawn From Safety Net Clinics

    PubMed Central

    McBurnie, MaryAnn; Paul, Ludmilla; Potter, Jennifer E.; McCann, Sheila; Mayer, Kenneth; Melgar, Gerardo; D’Amato, Sele; DeVoe, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Underserved populations have been overlooked or underrepresented in research based on data from diabetes registries. We estimated diabetes prevalence using a cohort developed from the electronic health records of 3 networks of safety net clinics that provide care to underserved populations. Methods ADVANCE (Accelerating Data Value Across a National Community Health Center Network) is a partnership of the OCHIN Community Health Information Network (OCHIN), the Health Choice Network (HCN), and the Fenway Health Institute (FHI), representing 97 federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) and 744 clinic sites in 22 US states. Among 952,316 adults with a body mass index (BMI) measurement and at least 2 outpatient visits in 2012 to 2014, we calculated diabetes prevalence using outpatient diagnoses, diagnostic laboratory results, or dispenses of anti-hyperglycemic agents no more than 730 days apart. We calculated prevalence by age, sex, race, Hispanic ethnicity, and BMI class. Results The crude prevalence of diabetes was 14.4%. Men had a higher prevalence than women (16.5% vs 13.2%); diabetes prevalence increased across age categories. White patients had the lowest prevalence (11.4%) and Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders, the highest prevalence (21.9%), with prevalence ranging from 15.2% to 16.5% for other race/ethnicities. The association between BMI class and diabetes prevalence was similar across all racial/ethnic groups. Conclusion The ADVANCE diabetes cohort offers an opportunity to conduct epidemiologic and comparative effectiveness research on underserved and underrepresented individuals, who have a higher prevalence of diabetes than the general US population. PMID:27309415

  6. Meta-analysis of the prevalence of anxiety disorders in mainland China from 2000 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaojing; Meng, Zhen; Huang, Guifeng; Fan, Jingyuan; Zhou, Wenwen; Ling, Weijun; Jiang, Juan; Long, Jianxiong; Su, Li

    2016-01-01

    Although anxiety disorders (ADs) have been recognized as one of the most prevalent mental disorders in mainland China, the prevalence of ADs has not been reported until now. The lack of a consolidated and comparable review on the prevalence of ADs in mainland China necessitated this meta-analysis to measure the prevalence. To identify the relevant studies on ADs for the analysis, we searched published studies in electronic databases up to July 2015. The pooled prevalence in the overall population and the prevalences by gender and location were estimated. A total of 21 studies were included in the analysis. The pooled current/lifetime prevalences of ADs, generalized AD, non-specific AD, panic disorder, social phobia, agoraphobia, specific phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder were 24.47‰/41.12‰, 5.17‰/4.66‰, 8.30‰/6.89‰, 1.08‰/3.44‰, 0.70‰/4.11‰, 0.19‰/2.15‰, 0.63‰/19.61‰, 0.49‰/1.83‰, and 0.90‰/3.17‰, respectively. Subgroup analyses indicated that compared with males, females had a consistently significantly higher prevalence of ADs. However, no difference was observed between those in urban and rural areas. The pooled prevalence of ADs was relatively lower than those of some other countries. A higher prevalence of ADs in women than in men was commonly observed, whereas the prevalences in urban and rural areas were nearly the same. PMID:27306280

  7. Meta-analysis of the prevalence of anxiety disorders in mainland China from 2000 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaojing; Meng, Zhen; Huang, Guifeng; Fan, Jingyuan; Zhou, Wenwen; Ling, Weijun; Jiang, Juan; Long, Jianxiong; Su, Li

    2016-01-01

    Although anxiety disorders (ADs) have been recognized as one of the most prevalent mental disorders in mainland China, the prevalence of ADs has not been reported until now. The lack of a consolidated and comparable review on the prevalence of ADs in mainland China necessitated this meta-analysis to measure the prevalence. To identify the relevant studies on ADs for the analysis, we searched published studies in electronic databases up to July 2015. The pooled prevalence in the overall population and the prevalences by gender and location were estimated. A total of 21 studies were included in the analysis. The pooled current/lifetime prevalences of ADs, generalized AD, non-specific AD, panic disorder, social phobia, agoraphobia, specific phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder were 24.47‰/41.12‰, 5.17‰/4.66‰, 8.30‰/6.89‰, 1.08‰/3.44‰, 0.70‰/4.11‰, 0.19‰/2.15‰, 0.63‰/19.61‰, 0.49‰/1.83‰, and 0.90‰/3.17‰, respectively. Subgroup analyses indicated that compared with males, females had a consistently significantly higher prevalence of ADs. However, no difference was observed between those in urban and rural areas. The pooled prevalence of ADs was relatively lower than those of some other countries. A higher prevalence of ADs in women than in men was commonly observed, whereas the prevalences in urban and rural areas were nearly the same. PMID:27306280

  8. Prevalence of toxoplasma infection in Mexican newborns and children: a systematic review from 1954 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Galvan-Ramírez, Ma de la Luz; Troyo-Sanroman, Rogelio; Roman, Sonia; Bernal-Redondo, Rosamaría; Vázquez Castellanos, José Luís

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Recent studies in Mexico have shown that from 20/10,000 to 58/10,000 newborns with Toxoplasma infection could be undetected. The aim of this study was to determine the weighed prevalence of T. gondii infection and describe the epidemiological transition of infection in newborns. Methods. Research literature reporting Toxoplasma infection prevalence in Mexican newborns and children were searched in five international databases. Weighted prevalence was calculated by inverse variance-weighted method in asymptomatic and symptomatic study groups, and the epidemiological transition was estimated by a lineal regression analysis. Results. The weighed prevalence in 4833 asymptomatic newborns was 0.616%, CI95% (0.396%-0.835%) (P < 0.001), whereas, among 895 symptomatic newborns, the weighed prevalence was 3.02%, CI 95% (1.91%-4.1%) (P < 0.001). A downward trend of 0.25%/year represented an accumulated decrease of -13,75% in the prevalence in the symptomatic newborns throughout 55 years, whereas, in the asymptomatic children, the prevalence was similar over the course of the years. Conclusion. The high-weighted prevalence of congenital Toxoplasma infection in newborns justifies that Toxoplasma gondii testing be included in the screening programs for women during pregnancy and newborns in Mexico. A rapid diagnosis and treatment strategy could aid in limiting a potential damage to the newborns.

  9. Prevalence of Toxoplasma Infection in Mexican Newborns and Children: A Systematic Review from 1954 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Galvan-Ramírez, Ma. de la Luz; Troyo-Sanroman, Rogelio; Roman, Sonia; Bernal-Redondo, Rosamaría; Vázquez Castellanos, José Luís

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Recent studies in Mexico have shown that from 20/10,000 to 58/10,000 newborns with Toxoplasma infection could be undetected. The aim of this study was to determine the weighed prevalence of T. gondii infection and describe the epidemiological transition of infection in newborns. Methods. Research literature reporting Toxoplasma infection prevalence in Mexican newborns and children were searched in five international databases. Weighted prevalence was calculated by inverse variance-weighted method in asymptomatic and symptomatic study groups, and the epidemiological transition was estimated by a lineal regression analysis. Results. The weighed prevalence in 4833 asymptomatic newborns was 0.616%, CI95% (0.396%–0.835%) (P < 0.001), whereas, among 895 symptomatic newborns, the weighed prevalence was 3.02%, CI 95% (1.91%–4.1%) (P < 0.001). A downward trend of 0.25%/year represented an accumulated decrease of −13,75% in the prevalence in the symptomatic newborns throughout 55 years, whereas, in the asymptomatic children, the prevalence was similar over the course of the years. Conclusion. The high-weighted prevalence of congenital Toxoplasma infection in newborns justifies that Toxoplasma gondii testing be included in the screening programs for women during pregnancy and newborns in Mexico. A rapid diagnosis and treatment strategy could aid in limiting a potential damage to the newborns. PMID:23050161

  10. Prevalence of treated epilepsy in Korea based on national health insurance data.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seo-Young; Jung, Ki-Young; Lee, Il Keun; Yi, Sang Do; Cho, Yong Won; Kim, Dong Wook; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Kim, Sejin

    2012-03-01

    The Korean national health security system covers the entire population and all medical facilities. We aimed to estimate epilepsy prevalence, anticonvulsant utilization pattern and the cost. We identified prevalent epilepsy patients by the prescription of anticonvulsants under the diagnostic codes suggesting seizure or epilepsy from 2007 Korean National Health Insurance databases. The information of demography, residential area, the kind of medical security service reflecting economic status, anticonvulsants, and the costs was extracted. The overall prevalence of treated epilepsy patients was 2.41/1,000, and higher for men than women. The age-specific prevalence was the lowest in those in their thirties and forties. Epilepsy was more prevalent among lower-income individuals receiving medical aid. The regional prevalence was the highest in Jeju Island and lowest in Ulsan city. New anticonvulsants were more frequently used than old anticonvulsants in the younger age group. The total annual cost of epilepsy or seizure reached 0.46% of total medical expenditure and 0.27% of total expenditure on health. This is the first nationwide epidemiological report issued on epilepsy in Korea. Epilepsy prevalence in Korea is comparable to those in developed countries. Economic status and geography affect the prevalence of epilepsy.

  11. Methods for Estimating Medical Expenditures Attributable to Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Derek S.; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Mercy, James A.

    2008-01-01

    This article compares three methods for estimating the medical cost burden of intimate partner violence against U.S. adult women (18 years and older), 1 year postvictimization. To compute the estimates, prevalence data from the National Violence Against Women Survey are combined with cost data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the…

  12. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Population Estimates 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC.

    This report presents population estimates of drug use prevalence for the civilian non-institutionalized population of the United States. Information is provided on the methodology of the 1991 National Household Survey. Population estimates are presented separately for the total population and for Whites, Hispanics, and Blacks. These data are also…

  13. Prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of congenital cataract: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaohang; Long, Erping; Lin, Haotian; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract (CC) is the primary cause of treatable childhood blindness worldwide. The establishment of reliable, epidemiological estimates is an essential first step towards management strategies. We undertook an initial systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence and other epidemiological characteristics of CC. PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched before January 2015. A meta-analysis with random-effects model based on a proportions approach was performed to determine the population-based prevalence of CC and to describe the data regarding the laterality, morphology, associated comorbidities and etiology. Heterogeneity was analyzed using the meta-regression method, and subgroup analyses were performed. 27 studies were selected from 2,610 references. The pooled prevalence estimate was 4.24 per 10,000 people, making it a rare disease based on WHO standards. Subgroup analyses revealed the highest CC prevalence in Asia, and an increasing prevalence trend through 2000. Other epidemiological characteristics showed CC tended to be bilateral, isolated, hereditary and in total/nuclear morphology. Huge heterogeneity was identified across most estimates (I(2) > 75%). Most of the variations could be explained by sample size, research period and age at diagnosis. The findings provide suggestions for etiology of CC, improvements in screening techniques and development of public health strategies. PMID:27334676

  14. Prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of congenital cataract: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaohang; Long, Erping; Lin, Haotian; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract (CC) is the primary cause of treatable childhood blindness worldwide. The establishment of reliable, epidemiological estimates is an essential first step towards management strategies. We undertook an initial systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence and other epidemiological characteristics of CC. PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched before January 2015. A meta-analysis with random-effects model based on a proportions approach was performed to determine the population-based prevalence of CC and to describe the data regarding the laterality, morphology, associated comorbidities and etiology. Heterogeneity was analyzed using the meta-regression method, and subgroup analyses were performed. 27 studies were selected from 2,610 references. The pooled prevalence estimate was 4.24 per 10,000 people, making it a rare disease based on WHO standards. Subgroup analyses revealed the highest CC prevalence in Asia, and an increasing prevalence trend through 2000. Other epidemiological characteristics showed CC tended to be bilateral, isolated, hereditary and in total/nuclear morphology. Huge heterogeneity was identified across most estimates (I2 > 75%). Most of the variations could be explained by sample size, research period and age at diagnosis. The findings provide suggestions for etiology of CC, improvements in screening techniques and development of public health strategies. PMID:27334676

  15. Survivors of Childhood Cancer in the United States: Prevalence and Burden of Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Siobhan M.; Padgett, Lynne S.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Stratton, Kayla K.; Bishop, Ken; Krull, Kevin R.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Gibson, Todd M.; de Moor, Janet S.; Hartigan, Danielle Blanch; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Rowland, Julia H.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Mariotto, Angela B.

    2015-01-01

    Background No studies have estimated the population-level burden of morbidity in individuals diagnosed with cancer as children (ages 0-19 years). We updated prevalence estimates of childhood cancer survivors as of 2011 and burden of morbidi