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Sample records for groups muscle strength

  1. Clinical Implications for Muscle Strength Differences in Women of Different Age and Racial Groups: The WIN Study.

    PubMed

    Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Ferro, Emerenciana; Morrow, James R

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduction in muscle strength is strongly associated with functional decline in women, and women with lower quadriceps strength adjusted for body weight are more likely to develop knee osteoarthritis. OBJECTIVE: To compare body weight--adjusted strength among women of different age/racial groups. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of muscle strength in 918 women aged 20--83 (M ± SD = 52 ± 13). METHODS: An orthopedic examination was conducted including measurement of handgrip and lower extremity strength (hip abductors/external rotators, knee flexors/extensors). Data were grouped into young (20--39 years, n = 139), middle (40--54 years, n = 300), and older (55+ years, n = 424) ages for white (n = 699) and African American (AA) (n = 164) women. Means and standard deviations for strength adjusted for body weight were calculated for each age and racial group and compared using 2-way multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc tests. RESULTS: No significant age-by-race interaction (P = .092) but significant main effects for age and race (P < .001). Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences in knee extensor and flexor strength between all age groups. For grip and hip external rotator strength, significant differences were found between the middle and older groups. Differences in hip abductor strength were found between the young and middle-aged groups. AA women had lower strength than white women in all muscle groups (P < .05) except hip external rotators. CONCLUSIONS: Strength decreased with age in all muscle groups but magnitude of decrease varied by muscle. Strengthening programs should target different muscles, depending on a woman's age and race.

  2. Strength and muscle mass loss with aging process. Age and strength loss.

    PubMed

    Keller, Karsten; Engelhardt, Martin

    2013-10-01

    aging process is associated with changes in muscle mass and strength with decline of muscle strength after the 30(th) life year. The aim of this study was to investigate these changes in muscle mass and strength. for this analysis 26 participants were subdivided in two groups. Group 1 comprises participants aged <40 years (n=14), group 2 those >40 years (n=12). We assessed anthropometrics, range of motions, leg circumferences and isometric strength values of the knee joints. besides comparable anthropometrics, circumferences and strength were higher in group 1 than in group 2. Circumference of upper leg (20 cm above knee articular space) showed for right leg a trend to a significant (median: 54.45 cm (1(st) quartile: 49.35/3(rd) quartile: 57.78) vs 49.80 cm (49.50/50.75), p=0.0526) and for left leg a significant 54.30 cm (49.28/58.13) vs 49.50 cm (48.00/52.53), p=0.0356) larger circumference in group 1. Isometric strength was in 60° knee flexion significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 for right (729.88N (561.47/862.13) vs 456.92N (304.67/560.12), p=0.00448) and left leg (702.49N (581.36/983.87) vs 528.49N (332.95/648.58), p=0.0234). aging process leads to distinct muscle mass and strength loss. Muscle strength declines from people aged <40 years to those >40 years between 16.6% and 40.9%.

  3. The effect of Nordic hamstring strength training on muscle architecture, stiffness, and strength.

    PubMed

    Seymore, Kayla D; Domire, Zachary J; DeVita, Paul; Rider, Patrick M; Kulas, Anthony S

    2017-05-01

    Hamstring strain injury is a frequent and serious injury in competitive and recreational sports. While Nordic hamstring (NH) eccentric strength training is an effective hamstring injury-prevention method, the protective mechanism of this exercise is not understood. Strength training increases muscle strength, but also alters muscle architecture and stiffness; all three factors may be associated with reducing muscle injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of NH eccentric strength training on hamstring muscle architecture, stiffness, and strength. Twenty healthy participants were randomly assigned to an eccentric training group or control group. Control participants performed static stretching, while experimental participants performed static stretching and NH training for 6 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention measurements included: hamstring muscle architecture and stiffness using ultrasound imaging and elastography, and maximal hamstring strength measured on a dynamometer. The experimental group, but not the control group, increased volume (131.5 vs. 145.2 cm 3 , p < 0.001) and physiological cross-sectional area (16.1 vs. 18.1 cm 2 , p = 0.032). There were no significant changes to muscle fascicle length, stiffness, or eccentric hamstring strength. The NH intervention was an effective training method for muscle hypertrophy, but, contrary to common literature findings for other modes of eccentric training, did not increase fascicle length. The data suggest that the mechanism behind NH eccentric strength training mitigating hamstring injury risk could be increasing volume rather than increasing muscle length. Future research is, therefore, warranted to determine if muscle hypertrophy induced by NH training lowers future hamstring strain injury risk.

  4. Comparison of Walking, Muscle Strength, Balance, and Fear of Falling Between Repeated Fall Group, One-time Fall Group, and Nonfall Group of the Elderly Receiving Home Care Service.

    PubMed

    Jeon, MiYang; Gu, Mee Ock; Yim, JongEun

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide information to develop a program to prevent repeated falls by analyzing the difference in gait, muscle strength, balance, and fear of falling according to their fall experience. The study subjects were 110 elderly individuals aged over 60 years who agreed to their participation in this research. The study participants were categorized into a repeated fall group (n = 40), a one-time fall group (n = 15), and a nonfall group (n = 46) of the elderly. Measurements of gait, muscle strength, balance, and fear of falling were taken in each group. With regard to gait, there were significant differences among three groups in gait cycle (F = 3.50, p = .034), speed (F = 13.06, p < .001), and cadence (F = 5.59, p = .005). Regarding muscle strength in the upper and lower limbs, statistically significant differences were shown among three groups in muscle strength of upper (F = 16.98, p < .001) and lower (F = 10.55, p < .001) limbs. With regard to balance, the nonfall group had significantly greater results than the one-time fall group and repeated fall group in dynamic balance (F = 10.80, p < .001) and static balance (F = 8.20, p = .001). In the case of the fear of falling, the repeated fall group had significantly higher score than other two groups (F = 20.62, p < .001). This study suggests that intervention program should be tailored to fall risk factors to enhance gait and balance and lower body muscle strength and reduce the fear of falling to prevent repeated incidences of falls in this population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, H; Hodges, P W; Bliddal, H; Henriksen, M

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals. Twenty-seven healthy untrained volunteers participated in a randomized controlled trial of quadriceps strengthening (3 times per week for 8 weeks). Participants were randomized to perform resistance training either during pain induced by injections of painful hypertonic saline (pain group, n = 13) or during a nonpainful control condition with injection of isotonic saline (control group, n = 14) into the infrapatellar fat pad. The primary outcome measure was change in maximal isokinetic muscle strength in knee extension/flexion (60, 120, and 180 degrees/second). The group who exercised with pain had a significantly larger improvement in isokinetic muscle strength at all angular velocities of knee extension compared to the control group. In knee flexion there were improvements in isokinetic muscle strength in both groups with no between-group differences. Experimental knee joint pain improved the training-induced gain in muscle strength following 8 weeks of quadriceps training. It remains to be studied whether knee joint pain has a positive effect on strength gain in patients with knee pathology. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  6. Normal isometric strength of rotatorcuff muscles in adults.

    PubMed

    Chezar, A; Berkovitch, Y; Haddad, M; Keren, Y; Soudry, M; Rosenberg, N

    2013-01-01

    The most prevalent disorders of the shoulder are related to the muscles of rotator cuff. In order to develop a mechanical method for the evaluation of the rotator cuff muscles, we created a database of isometric force generation by the rotator cuff muscles in normal adult population. We hypothesised the existence of variations according to age, gender and dominancy of limb. A total of 400 healthy adult volunteers were tested, classified into groups of 50 men and women for each decade of life. Maximal isometric force was measured at standardised positions for supraspinatus, infraspinatus and subscapularis muscles in both shoulders in every person. Torque of the force was calculated and normalised to lean body mass. The profiles of mean torque-time curves for each age and gender group were compared. Our data showed that men gradually gained maximal strength in the fifth decade, and showed decreased strength in the sixth. In women the maximal strength was gained in the fourth decade with gradual decline to the sixth decade of life. The dominant arm was stronger in most of the tested groups. The torque profiles of the rotator cuff muscles in men at all ages were significantly higher than that in women. We found previously unrecognised variations of rotator cuff muscles' isometric strength according to age, gender and dominancy in a normal population. The presented data may serve as a basis for the future studies for identification of the abnormal patterns of muscle isometric strength in patients with pathology of the rotator cuff muscles. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:214-19.

  7. Muscle strength and kinetic gait pattern in children with bilateral spastic CP.

    PubMed

    Eek, Meta Nyström; Tranberg, Roy; Beckung, Eva

    2011-03-01

    Cerebral palsy is often associated with an abnormal gait pattern. This study put focus on relation between muscle strength and kinetic gait pattern in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy and compares them with a reference group. In total 20 children with CP and 20 typically developing children participated. They were all assessed with measurement of muscle strength in eight muscle groups in the legs and a 3-dimensional gait analysis including force data. It was found that children with CP were not only significantly weaker in all muscle groups but also walked with slower velocity and shorter stride length when compared with the reference group. Gait moments differed at the ankle level with significantly lower moments in children with CP. Gait moments were closer to the maximal muscle strength in the group of children with CP. Furthermore a correlation between plantarflexing gait moment and muscle strength was observed in six of the eight muscle groups in children with CP, a relation not found in the reference group. A similar pattern was seen between muscle strength and generating ankle power with a rho=0.582-0.766. The results of this study state the importance of the relationship of the overall muscle strength pattern in the lower extremity, not only the plantarflexors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of mirror use on lower extremity muscle strength of patients with chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung-Kwon; Choe, Yu-Won; Shin, Young-Jun; Peng, Cheng; Choi, Eun-Hong

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] This study examines the effect on muscle strength of lower extremity muscle strength exercise while using a mirror on the non-paretic side in patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to a non-mirror lower extremity exercise group (n=10), a mirror lower extremity exercise group (n=10), or a mirror lower extremity muscle strength exercise group (n=10). Subjects were asked to do the exercise assigned to their group (5 sets 30 times a day, 5 times weekly for 4 weeks) with general physical therapy in the hospital. Muscle strength in the knee extensor and flexor of paretic and non-paretic side were measured using electrical muscle testing device before and after the intervention. [Results] Muscle strength significantly increased within each group after intervention. No significant differences were found among the three groups. [Conclusion] This study showed that the lower extremity muscle strength exercise of the non-paretic side using a mirror has a positive effect on muscle strength in patient with chronic stroke.

  9. Muscle strength at the trunk*.

    PubMed

    Smidt, G L; Amundsen, L R; Dostal, W F

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the strength of trunk flexors and extensors in normal male subjects during isometric, concentric, and eccentric contractions. Subjects were tested in the sidelying position to minimize the effects of gravity. The pelvis and lower extremities were measured on a custom built force table (lowa Force Table). Muscle strength was expressed as a moment of force (external force times the moment arm) in Newton-meter (Nm) units. Greater Nm were registered in the muscle-lengthened position than in the muscle-shortened position for all isometric contractions. The Nm registered for eccentric contractions always exceeded the Nm registered for concentric contractions of the same muscle group. The Nm registered during contractions of trunk extensors always exceeded the values obtained during corresponding modes of contractions (isometric, eccentric, and concentric) of trunk flexors.J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1980;1(3):165-170.

  10. The value of multiple tests of respiratory muscle strength

    PubMed Central

    Steier, Joerg; Kaul, Sunny; Seymour, John; Jolley, Caroline; Rafferty, Gerrard; Man, William; Luo, Yuan M; Roughton, Michael; Polkey, Michael I; Moxham, John

    2007-01-01

    Background Respiratory muscle weakness is an important clinical problem. Tests of varying complexity and invasiveness are available to assess respiratory muscle strength. The relative precision of different tests in the detection of weakness is less clear, as is the value of multiple tests. Methods The respiratory muscle function tests of clinical referrals who had multiple tests assessed in our laboratories over a 6‐year period were analysed. Thresholds for weakness for each test were determined from published and in‐house laboratory data. The patients were divided into three groups: those who had all relevant measurements of global inspiratory muscle strength (group A, n = 182), those with full assessment of diaphragm strength (group B, n = 264) and those for whom expiratory muscle strength was fully evaluated (group C, n = 60). The diagnostic outcome of each inspiratory, diaphragm and expiratory muscle test, both singly and in combination, was studied and the impact of using more than one test to detect weakness was calculated. Results The clinical referrals were primarily for the evaluation of neuromuscular diseases and dyspnoea of unknown cause. A low maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (Pimax) was recorded in 40.1% of referrals in group A, while a low sniff nasal pressure (Sniff Pnasal) was recorded in 41.8% and a low sniff oesophageal pressure (Sniff Poes) in 37.9%. When assessing inspiratory strength with the combination of all three tests, 29.6% of patients had weakness. Using the two non‐invasive tests (Pimax and Sniff Pnasal) in combination, a similar result was obtained (low in 32.4%). Combining Sniff Pdi (low in 68.2%) and Twitch Pdi (low in 67.4%) reduced the diagnoses of patients with diaphragm weakness to 55.3% in group B. 38.3% of the patients in group C had expiratory muscle weakness as measured by maximum expiratory pressure (Pemax) compared with 36.7% when weakness was diagnosed by cough gastric pressure (Pgas), and 28.3% when

  11. Impact of back squat training intensity on strength and flexibility of hamstring muscle group.

    PubMed

    Shariat, Ardalan; Lam, Eddie T C; Shaw, Brandon S; Shaw, Ina; Kargarfard, Mehdi; Sangelaji, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    True experimental design. The back squat is an integral aspect of any resistance training program to improve athletic performance. It is also used for injury prevention of the lower limbs. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of back squat training at different intensities on strength and flexibility of the hamstring muscle group (HMG). Twenty-two male recreational bodybuilders with at least two years of experience in resistance training were recruited to participate in a nine-week training program. They were randomly assigned to a heavy back squat group (90-95% of one repetition maximum) or a moderate-intensity back squat group (60-65% of one repetition maximum). The heavy back squat group resulted in a significantly (p < 0.001) increased in one repetition maximum strength but a significant (p < 0.001) reduction in HMG flexibility when compared to their counterparts. The results of the study indicate that while a heavy back squat training program is effective in improving strength, it has an adverse effect on the flexibility of the HMG. The implication of this study is that there is a tradeoff between strength and flexibility and trainers should select the appropriate training protocols for their athletes to maximize athletic performance.

  12. A Randomized Trial on the Effect of Bone Tissue on Vibration-induced Muscle Strength Gain and Vibration-induced Reflex Muscle Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cidem, Muharrem; Karacan, İlhan; Diraçoğlu, Demirhan; Yıldız, Aysel; Küçük, Suat Hayri; Uludağ, Murat; Gün, Kerem; Özkaya, Murat; Karamehmetoğlu, Şafak Sahir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whole-body vibration (WBV) induces reflex muscle activity and leads to increased muscle strength. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of whole-body vibration on muscular performance. Tonic vibration reflex is the most commonly cited mechanism to explain the effects of whole-body vibration on muscular performance, although there is no conclusive evidence that tonic vibration reflex occurs. The bone myoregulation reflex is another neurological mechanism used to explain the effects of vibration on muscular performance. Bone myoregulation reflex is defined as a reflex mechanism in which osteocytes exposed to cyclic mechanical loading induce muscle activity. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess whether bone tissue affected vibration-induced reflex muscle activity and vibration-induced muscle strength gain. Study Design: A prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial. Methods: Thirty-four participants were randomised into two groups. High-magnitude whole-body vibration was applied in the exercise group, whereas low-magnitude whole-body vibration exercises were applied in the control group throughout 20 sessions. Hip bone mineral density, isokinetic muscle strength, and plasma sclerostin levels were measured. The surface electromyography data were processed to obtain the Root Mean Squares, which were normalised by maximal voluntarily contraction. Results: In the exercise group, muscle strength increased in the right and left knee flexors (23.9%, p=0.004 and 27.5%, p<0.0001, respectively). However, no significant change was observed in the knee extensor muscle strength. There was no significant change in the knee muscle strength in the control group. The vibration-induced corrected Root Mean Squares of the semitendinosus muscle was decreased by 2.8 times (p=0.005) in the exercise group, whereas there was no change in the control group. Sclerostin index was decreased by 15

  13. A Randomized Trial on the Effect of Bone Tissue on Vibration-induced Muscle Strength Gain and Vibration-induced Reflex Muscle Activity.

    PubMed

    Cidem, Muharrem; Karacan, Ilhan; Diraçoğlu, Demirhan; Yıldız, Aysel; Küçük, Suat Hayri; Uludağ, Murat; Gün, Kerem; Ozkaya, Murat; Karamehmetoğlu, Safak Sahir

    2014-03-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) induces reflex muscle activity and leads to increased muscle strength. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of whole-body vibration on muscular performance. Tonic vibration reflex is the most commonly cited mechanism to explain the effects of whole-body vibration on muscular performance, although there is no conclusive evidence that tonic vibration reflex occurs. The bone myoregulation reflex is another neurological mechanism used to explain the effects of vibration on muscular performance. Bone myoregulation reflex is defined as a reflex mechanism in which osteocytes exposed to cyclic mechanical loading induce muscle activity. The aim of this study was to assess whether bone tissue affected vibration-induced reflex muscle activity and vibration-induced muscle strength gain. A prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial. Thirty-four participants were randomised into two groups. High-magnitude whole-body vibration was applied in the exercise group, whereas low-magnitude whole-body vibration exercises were applied in the control group throughout 20 sessions. Hip bone mineral density, isokinetic muscle strength, and plasma sclerostin levels were measured. The surface electromyography data were processed to obtain the Root Mean Squares, which were normalised by maximal voluntarily contraction. In the exercise group, muscle strength increased in the right and left knee flexors (23.9%, p=0.004 and 27.5%, p<0.0001, respectively). However, no significant change was observed in the knee extensor muscle strength. There was no significant change in the knee muscle strength in the control group. The vibration-induced corrected Root Mean Squares of the semitendinosus muscle was decreased by 2.8 times (p=0.005) in the exercise group, whereas there was no change in the control group. Sclerostin index was decreased by 15.2% (p=0.031) in the exercise group and increased by

  14. Strength Training for Skeletal Muscle Endurance after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ivey, Frederick M.; Prior, Steven J.; Hafer-Macko, Charlene E.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Macko, Richard F.; Ryan, Alice S.

    2018-01-01

    Background and Purpose Initial studies support the use of strength training (ST) as a safe and effective intervention after stroke. Our previous work shows that relatively aggressive, higher intensity ST translates into large effect sizes for paretic and non-paretic leg muscle volume, myostatin expression, and maximum strength post-stroke. An unanswered question pertains to how our unique ST model for stroke impacts skeletal muscle endurance (SME). Thus, we now report on ST-induced adaptation in the ability to sustain isotonic muscle contraction. Methods Following screening and baseline testing, hemiparetic stroke participants were randomized to either ST or an attention-matched stretch control group (SC). Those in the ST group trained each leg individually to muscle failure (20 repetition sets, 3× per week for 3 months) on each of three pneumatic resistance machines (leg press, leg extension, and leg curl). Our primary outcome measure was SME, quantified as the number of submaximal weight leg press repetitions possible at a specified cadence. The secondary measures included one-repetition maximum strength, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), 10-meter walk speeds, and peak aerobic capacity (VO2 peak). Results ST participants (N = 14) had significantly greater SME gains compared with SC participants (N = 16) in both the paretic (178% versus 12%, P < .01) and non-paretic legs (161% versus 12%, P < .01). These gains were accompanied by group differences for 6MWD (P < .05) and VO2 peak (P < .05). Conclusion Our ST regimen had a large impact on the capacity to sustain submaximal muscle contraction, a metric that may carry more practical significance for stroke than the often reported measures of maximum strength. PMID:27865696

  15. Objective evaluation of muscle strength in infants with hypotonia and muscle weakness.

    PubMed

    Reus, Linda; van Vlimmeren, Leo A; Staal, J Bart; Janssen, Anjo J W M; Otten, Barto J; Pelzer, Ben J; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2013-04-01

    The clinical evaluation of an infant with motor delay, muscle weakness, and/or hypotonia would improve considerably if muscle strength could be measured objectively and normal reference values were available. The authors developed a method to measure muscle strength in infants and tested 81 typically developing infants, 6-36 months of age, and 17 infants with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) aged 24 months. The inter-rater reliability of the measurement method was good (ICC=.84) and the convergent validity was confirmed by high Pearson's correlations between muscle strength, age, height, and weight (r=.79-.85). A multiple linear regression model was developed to predict muscle strength based on age, height, and weight, explaining 73% of the variance in muscle strength. In infants with PWS, muscle strength was significantly decreased. Pearson's correlations showed that infants with PWS in which muscle strength was more severely affected also had a larger motor developmental delay (r=.75). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Evolution in muscle strength in critical patients with invasive mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Via Clavero, G; Sanjuán Naváis, M; Menéndez Albuixech, M; Corral Ansa, L; Martínez Estalella, G; Díaz-Prieto-Huidobro, A

    2013-01-01

    To assess the evolution of muscle strength in critically ill patients with mechanical ventilation (MV) from withdrawal of sedatives to hospital discharge. A cohort study was conducted in two intensive care units in the Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge from November 2011 to March 2012. Consecutive patients with MV > 72h. Dependent outcome: Muscle strength measured with the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale beginning on the first day the patient was able to answer 3 out of 5 simple orders (day 1), every week, at ICU discharge and at hospital discharge or at day 60 Independent outcomes: factors associated with muscle strength loss, ventilator-free days, ICU length of stay and hospital length of stay. The patients were distributed into two groups (MRC< 48, MRC ≥ 48) after the first measurement. Thirty-four patients were assessed. Independent outcomes associated with muscle strength weakness were: days with cardiovascular SOFA >2 (P<.001) and days with costicosteroids (P<.001). Initial MRC in MRC<48 group was 38 (27-43), and 52 (50-54) in MRC ≥ 48. The largest muscle strength gain was obtained the first week (31% versus 52%). A MRC < 48 value was associated with more MV days (P<.007) and a longer ICU stay. (P<.003). The greatest muscle strength gain after withdrawing of the sedatives was achieved in the first week. Muscle strength loss was associated with a cardiovascular SOFA > 2 and costicosteroids. Patients with a MRC < 48 required more days with MV and a longer ICU stay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  17. A Maximum Muscle Strength Prediction Formula Using Theoretical Grade 3 Muscle Strength Value in Daniels et al.'s Manual Muscle Test, in Consideration of Age: An Investigation of Hip and Knee Joint Flexion and Extension

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Masashi; Ichikawa, Kazuna; Takei, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to develop a formula for predicting maximum muscle strength value for young, middle-aged, and elderly adults using theoretical Grade 3 muscle strength value (moment fair: Mf)—the static muscular moment to support a limb segment against gravity—from the manual muscle test by Daniels et al. A total of 130 healthy Japanese individuals divided by age group performed isometric muscle contractions at maximum effort for various movements of hip joint flexion and extension and knee joint flexion and extension, and the accompanying resisting force was measured and maximum muscle strength value (moment max, Mm) was calculated. Body weight and limb segment length (thigh and lower leg length) were measured, and Mf was calculated using anthropometric measures and theoretical calculation. There was a linear correlation between Mf and Mm in each of the four movement types in all groups, excepting knee flexion in elderly. However, the formula for predicting maximum muscle strength was not sufficiently compatible in middle-aged and elderly adults, suggesting that the formula obtained in this study is applicable in young adults only. PMID:28133549

  18. Muscle strength and knee range of motion after femoral lengthening.

    PubMed

    Bhave, Anil; Shabtai, Lior; Woelber, Erik; Apelyan, Arman; Paley, Dror; Herzenberg, John E

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Femoral lengthening may result in decrease in knee range of motion (ROM) and quadriceps and hamstring muscle weakness. We evaluated preoperative and postoperative knee ROM, hamstring muscle strength, and quadriceps muscle strength in a diverse group of patients undergoing femoral lengthening. We hypothesized that lengthening would not result in a significant change in knee ROM or muscle strength. Patients and methods - This prospective study of 48 patients (mean age 27 (9-60) years) compared ROM and muscle strength before and after femoral lengthening. Patient age, amount of lengthening, percent lengthening, level of osteotomy, fixation time, and method of lengthening were also evaluated regarding knee ROM and strength. The average length of follow-up was 2.9 (2.0-4.7) years. Results - Mean amount of lengthening was 5.2 (2.4-11.0) cm. The difference between preoperative and final knee flexion ROM was 2° for the overall group. Congenital shortening cases lost an average of 5% or 6° of terminal knee flexion, developmental cases lost an average of 3% or 4°, and posttraumatic cases regained all motion. The difference in quadriceps strength at 45° preoperatively and after lengthening was not statistically or clinically significant (2.7 Nm; p = 0.06). Age, amount of lengthening, percent lengthening, osteotomy level, fixation time, and lengthening method had no statistically significant influence on knee ROM or quadriceps strength at final follow-up. Interpretation - Most variables had no effect on ROM or strength, and higher age did not appear to be a limiting factor for femoral lengthening. Patients with congenital causes were most affected in terms of knee flexion.

  19. Inspiratory muscle training increases inspiratory muscle strength in patients weaning from mechanical ventilation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moodie, Lisa; Reeve, Julie; Elkins, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Does inspiratory muscle training improve inspiratory muscle strength and endurance, facilitate weaning, improve survival, and reduce the rate of reintubation and tracheostomy in adults receiving mechanical ventilation? Systematic review of randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials. Adults over 16 years of age receiving mechanical ventilation. Inspiratory muscle training versus sham or no inspiratory muscle training. Data were extracted regarding inspiratory muscle strength and endurance, the duration of unassisted breathing periods, weaning success and duration, reintubation and tracheostomy, survival, adverse effects, and length of stay. Three studies involving 150 participants were included in the review. The studies varied in time to commencement of the training, the device used, the training protocol, and the outcomes measured. Inspiratory muscle training significantly increased inspiratory muscle strength over sham or no training (weighted mean difference 8 cmH(2)O, 95% CI 6 to 9). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in weaning success or duration, survival, reintubation, or tracheostomy. Inspiratory muscle training was found to significantly increase inspiratory muscle strength in adults undergoing mechanical ventilation. Despite data from a substantial pooled cohort, it is not yet clear whether the increase in inspiratory muscle strength leads to a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation, improved weaning success, or improved survival. Further large randomised studies are required to clarify the impact of inspiratory muscle training on patients receiving mechanical ventilation. PROSPERO CRD42011001132. Copyright © 2011 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  20. Isometric muscle strength and mobility capacity in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Dallmeijer, Annet J; Rameckers, Eugene A; Houdijk, Han; de Groot, Sonja; Scholtes, Vanessa A; Becher, Jules G

    2017-01-01

    To determine the relationship between isometric leg muscle strength and mobility capacity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) compared to typically developing (TD) peers. Participants were 62 children with CP (6-13 years), able to walk with (n = 10) or without (n = 52) walking aids, and 47 TD children. Isometric muscle strength of five muscle groups of the leg was measured using hand-held dynamometry. Mobility capacity was assessed with the 1-min walk, the 10-m walk, sit-to-stand, lateral-step-up and timed-stair tests. Isometric strength of children with CP was reduced to 36-82% of TD. When adjusted for age and height, the percentage of variance in mobility capacity that was explained by isometric strength of the leg muscles was 21-24% (walking speed), 25% (sit-to-stand), 28% (lateral-step-up) and 35% (timed-stair) in children with CP. Hip abductors and knee flexors had the largest contribution to the explained variance, while knee extensors showed the weakest correlation. Weak or no associations were found between strength and mobility capacity in TD children. Isometric strength, especially hip abductor and knee flexor strength, is moderately related to mobility capacity in children with CP, but not in TD children. To what extent training of these muscle groups will lead to better mobility capacity needs further study. Implications for Rehabilitation Strength training in children with cerebral palsy (CP) may be targeted more specifically at hip abductors and knee flexors. The moderate associations imply that large improvements in mobility capacity may not be expected when strength increases.

  1. The impact of type 1 diabetes and diabetic polyneuropathy on muscle strength and fatigability.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Giorgio; Balducci, Stefano; Bazzucchi, Ilenia; Pugliese, Giuseppe; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2017-06-01

    Although it is widely accepted that diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is linked to a marked decline in neuromuscular performance, information on the possible impact of type 1 diabetes (T1D) on muscle strength and fatigue remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of T1D and DPN on strength and fatigability in knee extensor muscles. Thirty-one T1D patients (T1D), 22 T1D patients with DPN (DPN) and 23 matched healthy control participants (C) were enrolled. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and endurance time at an intensity level of 50% of the MVC were assessed at the knee extensor muscles with an isometric dynamometer. Clinical characteristics of diabetic patients were assessed by considering a wide range of vascular and neurological parameters. DPN group had lower knee extensor muscles strength than T1D (-19%) and the C group (-37.5%). T1D group was 22% weaker when compared to the C group. Lower body muscle fatigability of DPN group was 22 and 45.5% higher than T1D and C group, respectively. T1D group possessed a higher fatigability (29.4%) compared to C group. A correlation was found between motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity and muscle strength and fatigability. Patients with T1D are characterised by both a higher fatigability and a lower muscle strength, which are aggravated by DPN. Our data suggest that factors other than nervous damage play a role in the pathogenesis of such defect.

  2. Muscle Strength and Muscle Mass in Older Patients during Hospitalization: The EMPOWER Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Ancum, Jeanine M.; Scheerman, Kira; Pierik, Vincent D.; Numans, Siger T.; Verlaan, Sjors; Smeenk, Hanne E.; Slee-Valentijn, Monique; Kruizinga, Roeliene C.; Meskers, Carel G.M.; Maier, Andrea B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Low muscle strength and muscle mass are associated with an increased length of hospital stay and higher mortality rate in inpatients. To what extent hospitalization affects muscle strength and muscle mass is unclear. Objective We aimed to assess muscle strength and muscle mass at admission and during hospitalization in older patients and its relation with being at risk of geriatric conditions. Methods The EMPOWER study included patients aged 70 years and older, admitted to 4 wards of the VU University Medical Center in the Netherlands between April and December 2015. At admission, patients were screened for being at risk of 4 geriatric conditions: delirium, falls, malnutrition, and functional disability. At admission and at discharge, muscle strength and muscle mass were assessed. Results A total of 373 patients (mean age, standard deviation [SD]: 79.6, 6.38 years) were included at admission, and 224 patients (mean age, SD: 80.1, 6.32 years) at discharge. At admission, lower muscle strength in both female and male patients and low muscle mass in male patients were associated with being at risk of a higher cumulative number of geriatric conditions. Muscle strength increased during hospitalization, but no change in muscle mass was observed. Changes in muscle measures were not associated with being at risk of geriatric conditions. Discussion Older patients with lower muscle strength and muscle mass at admission were at risk of a higher cumulative number of geriatric conditions. However, being at risk of geriatric conditions did not forecast further decrease in muscle strength and muscle mass during hospitalization PMID:28817825

  3. Muscle Strength and Muscle Mass in Older Patients during Hospitalization: The EMPOWER Study.

    PubMed

    Van Ancum, Jeanine M; Scheerman, Kira; Pierik, Vincent D; Numans, Siger T; Verlaan, Sjors; Smeenk, Hanne E; Slee-Valentijn, Monique; Kruizinga, Roeliene C; Meskers, Carel G M; Maier, Andrea B

    2017-01-01

    Low muscle strength and muscle mass are associated with an increased length of hospital stay and higher mortality rate in inpatients. To what extent hospitalization affects muscle strength and muscle mass is unclear. We aimed to assess muscle strength and muscle mass at admission and during hospitalization in older patients and its relation with being at risk of geriatric conditions. The EMPOWER study included patients aged 70 years and older, admitted to 4 wards of the VU University Medical Center in the Netherlands between April and December 2015. At admission, patients were screened for being at risk of 4 geriatric conditions: delirium, falls, malnutrition, and functional disability. At admission and at discharge, muscle strength and muscle mass were assessed. A total of 373 patients (mean age, standard deviation [SD]: 79.6, 6.38 years) were included at admission, and 224 patients (mean age, SD: 80.1, 6.32 years) at discharge. At admission, lower muscle strength in both female and male patients and low muscle mass in male patients were associated with being at risk of a higher cumulative number of geriatric conditions. Muscle strength increased during hospitalization, but no change in muscle mass was observed. Changes in muscle measures were not associated with being at risk of geriatric conditions. Older patients with lower muscle strength and muscle mass at admission were at risk of a higher cumulative number of geriatric conditions. However, being at risk of geriatric conditions did not forecast further decrease in muscle strength and muscle mass during hospitalization. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Comparison of isokinetic muscle strength and muscle power by types of warm-up.

    PubMed

    Sim, Young-Je; Byun, Yong-Hyun; Yoo, Jaehyun

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of static stretching at warm-up on the isokinetic muscle torque (at 60°/sec) and muscle power (at 180°/sec) of the flexor muscle and extensor muscle of the knee joint. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 10 healthy students with no medically specific findings. The warm-up group and warm-up with stretching group performed their respective warm-up prior to the isokinetic muscle torque evaluation of the knee joint. One-way ANOVA was performed by randomized block design for each variable. [Results] The results were as follows: First, the flexor peak torque and extensor peak torque of the knee joint tended to decrease at 60°/sec in the warm-up with stretching group compared with the control group and warm-up group, but without statistical significance. Second, extensor power at 180°/sec was also not statistically significant. However, it was found that flexor power increased significantly in the warm-up with stretching group at 180°/sec compared with the control group and warm-up group in which stretching was not performed. [Conclusion] Therefore, it is considered that in healthy adults, warm-up including two sets of stretching for 20 seconds per muscle group does not decrease muscle strength and muscle power.

  5. A Maximum Muscle Strength Prediction Formula Using Theoretical Grade 3 Muscle Strength Value in Daniels et al.'s Manual Muscle Test, in Consideration of Age: An Investigation of Hip and Knee Joint Flexion and Extension.

    PubMed

    Usa, Hideyuki; Matsumura, Masashi; Ichikawa, Kazuna; Takei, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to develop a formula for predicting maximum muscle strength value for young, middle-aged, and elderly adults using theoretical Grade 3 muscle strength value (moment fair: M f )-the static muscular moment to support a limb segment against gravity-from the manual muscle test by Daniels et al. A total of 130 healthy Japanese individuals divided by age group performed isometric muscle contractions at maximum effort for various movements of hip joint flexion and extension and knee joint flexion and extension, and the accompanying resisting force was measured and maximum muscle strength value (moment max, M m ) was calculated. Body weight and limb segment length (thigh and lower leg length) were measured, and M f was calculated using anthropometric measures and theoretical calculation. There was a linear correlation between M f and M m in each of the four movement types in all groups, excepting knee flexion in elderly. However, the formula for predicting maximum muscle strength was not sufficiently compatible in middle-aged and elderly adults, suggesting that the formula obtained in this study is applicable in young adults only.

  6. Impaired hip muscle strength in patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, Signe; Mechlenburg, Inger; Lund, Bent; Søballe, Kjeld; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-12-01

    Patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) experience hip pain as well as decreased function and lowered quality of life. The aim was to compare maximal isometric and isokinetic muscle strength (MVC) during hip flexion and extension and rate of force development (RFD) during extension between patients with FAI and a matched reference group. Secondary, the aim was to compare patient hips and subgroups defined by gender and age as well as to investigate associations between hip muscle strength and self-reported outcomes. Design Cross-sectional, comparative study Methods Sixty patients (36±9 years, 63% females) and 30 age and gender matched reference persons underwent MVC tests in an isokinetic dynamometer. During hip flexion and extension, patients' affected hip showed a strength deficit of 15-21% (p<0.001) and 10-25% (p<0.03) compared with reference MVC, respectively. The affected hip of the patients was significantly weaker than their contralateral hip. RFD was significantly decreased for both patient hips compared to the reference group (p<0.05). While age had less effect on MVC, female patients were more affected than male patients. Self-reported measures were associated with isometric hip muscle strength. Patients with FAI demonstrate decreased hip flexion and extension strength when compared to (1) reference persons and (2) their contralateral hip. There seems to be a gender specific affection which should be investigated further and addressed when planning training protocols. Furthermore, self-reported measures were associated with isometric muscle strength, which underlines the clinical importance of the reduced muscle strength. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reference values for muscle strength: a systematic review with a descriptive meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Benfica, Poliana do Amaral; Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Brito, Sherindan Ayessa Ferreira de; Bernardino, Luane Helena Nunes; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi; Faria, Christina Danielli Coelho de Morais

    2018-05-03

    Muscle strength is an important component of health. To describe and evaluate the studies which have established the reference values for muscle strength on healthy individuals and to synthesize these values with a descriptive meta-analysis approach. A systematic review was performed in MEDLINE, LILACS, and SciELO databases. Studies that investigated the reference values for muscle strength of two or more appendicular/axial muscle groups of health individuals were included. Methodological quality, including risk of bias was assessed by the QUADAS-2. Data extracted included: country of the study, sample size, population characteristics, equipment/method used, and muscle groups evaluated. Of the 414 studies identified, 46 were included. Most of the studies had adequate methodological quality. Included studies evaluated: appendicular (80.4%) and axial (36.9%) muscles; adults (78.3%), elderly (58.7%), adolescents (43.5%), children (23.9%); isometric (91.3%) and isokinetic (17.4%) strength. Six studies (13%) with similar procedures were synthesized with meta-analysis. Generally, the coefficient of variation values that resulted from the meta-analysis ranged from 20.1% to 30% and were similar to those reported by the original studies. The meta-analysis synthesized the reference values of isometric strength of 14 muscle groups of the dominant/non-dominant sides of the upper/lower limbs of adults/elderly from developed countries, using dynamometers/myometer. Most of the included studies had adequate methodological quality. The meta-analysis provided reference values for the isometric strength of 14 appendicular muscle groups of the dominant/non-dominant sides, measured with dynamometers/myometers, of men/women, of adults/elderly. These data may be used to interpret the results of the evaluations and establish appropriate treatment goals. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights

  8. Cycle training induces muscle hypertrophy and strength gain: strategies and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hayao; Loenneke, J P; Thiebaud, R S; Abe, T

    2015-03-01

    Cycle training is widely performed as a major part of any exercise program seeking to improve aerobic capacity and cardiovascular health. However, the effect of cycle training on muscle size and strength gain still requires further insight, even though it is known that professional cyclists display larger muscle size compared to controls. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the effects of cycle training on muscle size and strength of the lower extremity and the possible mechanisms for increasing muscle size with cycle training. It is plausible that cycle training requires a longer period to significantly increase muscle size compared to typical resistance training due to a much slower hypertrophy rate. Cycle training induces muscle hypertrophy similarly between young and older age groups, while strength gain seems to favor older adults, which suggests that the probability for improving in muscle quality appears to be higher in older adults compared to young adults. For young adults, higher-intensity intermittent cycling may be required to achieve strength gains. It also appears that muscle hypertrophy induced by cycle training results from the positive changes in muscle protein net balance.

  9. Importance and challenges of measuring intrinsic foot muscle strength

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intrinsic foot muscle weakness has been implicated in a range of foot deformities and disorders. However, to establish a relationship between intrinsic muscle weakness and foot pathology, an objective measure of intrinsic muscle strength is needed. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the anatomy and role of intrinsic foot muscles, implications of intrinsic weakness and evaluate the different methods used to measure intrinsic foot muscle strength. Method Literature was sourced from database searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library, PEDro and CINAHL up to June 2012. Results There is no widely accepted method of measuring intrinsic foot muscle strength. Methods to estimate toe flexor muscle strength include the paper grip test, plantar pressure, toe dynamometry, and the intrinsic positive test. Hand-held dynamometry has excellent interrater and intrarater reliability and limits toe curling, which is an action hypothesised to activate extrinsic toe flexor muscles. However, it is unclear whether any method can actually isolate intrinsic muscle strength. Also most methods measure only toe flexor strength and other actions such as toe extension and abduction have not been adequately assessed. Indirect methods to investigate intrinsic muscle structure and performance include CT, ultrasonography, MRI, EMG, and muscle biopsy. Indirect methods often discriminate between intrinsic and extrinsic muscles, but lack the ability to measure muscle force. Conclusions There are many challenges to accurately measure intrinsic muscle strength in isolation. Most studies have measured toe flexor strength as a surrogate measure of intrinsic muscle strength. Hand-held dynamometry appears to be a promising method of estimating intrinsic muscle strength. However, the contribution of extrinsic muscles cannot be excluded from toe flexor strength measurement. Future research should clarify the relative contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles

  10. Muscle strength response to strength training is influenced by insulin-like growth factor 1 genotype in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kostek, Matthew C; Delmonico, Matthew J; Reichel, Jonathan B; Roth, Stephen M; Douglass, Larry; Ferrell, Robert E; Hurley, Ben F

    2005-06-01

    Strength training (ST) is considered an intervention of choice for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. Reports in the literature have suggested that the insulin-like growth factor I protein (IGF-I) plays a major role in ST-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy and strength improvements. A microsatellite repeat in the promoter region of the IGF1 gene has been associated with IGF-I blood levels and phenotypes related to IGF-I in adult men and women. To examine the influence of this polymorphism on muscle hypertrophic and strength responses to ST, we studied 67 Caucasian men and women before and after a 10-wk single-leg knee-extension ST program. One repetition maximum strength, muscle volume via computed tomography, and muscle quality were assessed at baseline and after 10 wk of training. The IGF1 repeat promoter polymorphism and three single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped. For the promoter polymorphism, subjects were grouped as homozygous for the 192 allele, heterozygous, or noncarriers of the 192 allele. After 10 wk of training, 1-repetition maximum, muscle volume, and muscle quality increased significantly for all groups combined (P < 0.001). However, carriers of the 192 allele gained significantly more strength with ST than noncarriers of the 192 allele (P = 0.02). There was also a nonsignificant trend for a greater increase in muscle volume in 192 carriers than noncarriers (P = 0.08). No significant associations were observed for the other polymorphisms studied. Thus these data suggest that the IGF1 promoter polymorphism may influence the strength response to ST. Larger sample sizes should be used in future studies to verify these results.

  11. The Immediate Effect of Neuromuscular Joint Facilitation (NJF) Treatment on Hip Muscle Strength.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongdan; Huo, Ming; Huang, Qiuchen; Li, Desheng; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the change in hip muscle strength of younger persons after neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 45 healthy young people, who were divided into two groups: a NJF group and a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) group. The NJF group consisted of 21 subjects (11 males, 10 females), and the PNF group consisted of 24 subjects (11 males, 13 females). [Methods] Participants in the NJF group received NJF treatment. We measured the maximal flexor strength and the maximal extensor strength during isokinetic movement of the hip joint before and after intervention in both groups. The angular velocities used were 60°/sec and 180°/sec. [Results] The NJF group showed significant increases in the maximal flexor strength and the maximal extensor strength after the intervention at each angular velocity. In the PNF group, the maximal flexor strength of 60°/sec and the maximal extensor strength of 180°/sec were significant increases. [Conclusion] These results suggest that there is an immediate effect of NJF intervention on hip muscle strength.

  12. Strength, power output and symmetry of leg muscles: effect of age and history of falling.

    PubMed

    Perry, Mark C; Carville, Serena F; Smith, I Christopher H; Rutherford, Olga M; Newham, Di J

    2007-07-01

    Risk factors for medically unexplained falls may include reduced muscle power, strength and asymmetry in the lower limbs. Conflicting reports exist about strength and there is little information about power and symmetry. Forty-four healthy young people (29.3 +/- 0.6 years), 44 older non-fallers (75.9 +/- 0.6 years), and 34 older fallers (76.4 +/- 0.8 years) were studied. Isometric, concentric and eccentric strength of the knee and ankle muscles and leg extension power were measured bilaterally. The younger group was stronger in all muscles and types of contraction than both older groups (P < 0.02-0.0001). Strength differences between the older groups occasionally reached significance in individual muscles and types of contraction but overall the fallers had 85% of the strength and 79% of the power of the non-fallers (P < 0.001). Young subjects generated more power than both older groups (P < 0.0001) and the fallers generated less than the non-fallers (P = 0.03). Strength symmetry showed an inconsistent age effect in some muscles and some contraction types. This was similar overall in the two older groups. Both older groups had greater asymmetry in power than the young (P < 0.02-0.004). Power asymmetry tended to be greater in the fallers than the non-fallers but this did not reach significance. These data do not support the suggestion that asymmetry of strength and power are associated with either increasing age or fall history. Power output showed clear differences between age groups and fall status and appears to be the most relevant measurement of fall risk and highlights the cumulative effects on function of small changes in strength in individual muscle groups.

  13. Shoulder muscle strength in paraplegics before and after kayak ergometer training.

    PubMed

    Bjerkefors, Anna; Jansson, Anna; Thorstensson, Alf

    2006-07-01

    The purpose was to investigate if shoulder muscle strength in post-rehabilitated persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) was affected by kayak ergometer training and to compare shoulder strength in persons with SCI and able-bodied persons. Ten persons with SCI (7 males and 3 females, injury levels T3-T12) performed 60 min kayak ergometer training three times a week for 10 weeks with progressively increased intensity. Maximal voluntary concentric contractions were performed during six shoulder movements: flexion and extension (range of motion 65 degrees ), abduction and adduction (65 degrees ), and external and internal rotation (60 degrees ), with an angular velocity of 30 degrees s(-1). Position specific strength was assessed at three shoulder angles (at the beginning, middle and end of the range of motion) in the respective movements. Test-retests were performed for all measurements before the training and the mean intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.941 (95% CI 0.928-0.954). There was a main effect of kayak ergometer training with increased shoulder muscle strength after training in persons with SCI. The improvements were independent of shoulder movement, and occurred in the beginning and middle positions. A tendency towards lower shoulder muscle strength was observed in the SCI group compared to a matched reference group of able-bodied persons. Thus, it appears that post-rehabilitated persons with SCI have not managed to fully regain/maintain their shoulder muscle strength on a similar level as that of able-bodied persons, and are able to improve their shoulder muscle strength after a period of kayak ergometer training.

  14. Relationships of muscle strength and bone mineral density in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-L; Lin, K-C; Wu, C-Y; Ke, J-Y; Wang, C-J; Chen, C-Y

    2012-02-01

    This work explores the relationships of muscle strength and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The knee extensor strength, but not motor function, was related to aBMD. Thus, muscle strength, especially antigravity muscle strength, was more associated with aBMD in these children than motor function. Muscle strength is related to bone density in normal children. However, no studies have examined these relationships in ambulatory children with CP. This work explores the relationships of muscle strength and aBMD in ambulatory children with CP. Forty-eight ambulatory children with spastic CP, aged 5-15 years, were classified into two groups based on Gross Motor Function Classification System levels: I (n = 28) and II (n = 20). Another 31 normal development (ND) children were recruited as the comparison group for the aBMD. Children with CP underwent assessments of growth, lumbar and distal femur aBMD, Gross Motor Function Measure-66 (GMFM-66), and muscle strength of knee extensor and flexor by isokinetic dynamometer. The distal femur aBMD, but not lumbar aBMD, was lower in children with CP than in ND children (p < 0.05). Children with level I had greater knee flexor strength and GMFM-66 scores than those with level II (p < 0.001). However, the knee extensor strength and distal femur and lumbar aBMD did not differ between two groups. Regression analysis revealed the weight and knee extensor strength, but not GMFM-66 scores, were related positively to the distal femur and lumbar aBMD (adjusted r (2) = 0.56-0.65, p < 0.001). These results suggest the muscle strength, especially antigravity muscle strength, were more associated with the bone density of ambulatory children with CP than motor function. The data may allow clinicians for early identifying the ambulatory CP children of potential low bone density.

  15. Circuit strength training improves muscle strength, functional performance and anthropometric indicators in sedentary elderly women.

    PubMed

    Mazini Filho, Mauro L; Aidar, Felipe J; Gama de Matos, Dihogo; Costa Moreira, Osvaldo; Patrocínio de Oliveira, Cláudia E; de Oliveira Venturini, Gabriela R; Magalhães Curty, Victor; Menezes Touguinha, Henrique; Caputo Ferreira, Maria E

    2017-04-26

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of circuit strength training on the muscle strength, functional autonomy and anthropometric indicators of the elderly. Were included 65 women divided in two groups: strength training (TG, n= 34) and control group (CG, n = 31). The strength-training group was subjected to a circuit shaped training program, three days per week, for a period of 12 weeks. In each training session, the circuit was repeated three times. In each circuit, all exercises wereperformed once, with 8 to 12 repetitions per exercise, with 30-seconds intervals between each exercise. TG showed significantly changes in body composition post 12 weeks, as decreases in body weight (Δ -1.5±1.8 kg) and BMI (Δ-0.57 ±0.74 kg/m²), and decreases in abdominal (Δ -3±1.61 cm), waist (Δ -1 ± 1.61 cm), hip (Δ -2.75±1.44 cm) and waist hip ratio circumference (Δ -0.02 ± 0.15 cm). For functional autonomy, TG showed increases post 12 weeks by 30-second chair stand (Δ 3.5±0.4 reps), six minute walk (Δ60.95±7.91 m), back scratch (Δ 3.2 ± 1.36 cm), and time up and go tests (Δ -1,62 ±0,15s). TG also showed increases in muscle strength post 12 weeks in both leg press (Δ 11±1,29 kg) and lat pulldown (Δ11 ±0,75 Kg). For CG, Body composition, functional autonomy and muscle strength did not improved in any moment. Hence, circuit strength training provides significant improvements inmuscle strength, functional performance and anthropometric indicators in sedentary elderly women.

  16. Lower Cognitive Function in Older Patients with Lower Muscle Strength and Muscle Mass.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Romee; Van Ancum, Jeanine M; Verlaan, Sjors; Scheerman, Kira; Meskers, Carel G M; Maier, Andrea B

    2018-06-18

    Low muscle strength and muscle mass are associated with adverse outcomes in older hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to assess the association between cognitive functioning and muscle strength and muscle mass in hospitalized older patients. This prospective inception cohort included 378 patients aged 70 years or older. At admission patients were assessed for cognitive functioning by use of the Six-Item Cognitive Impairment Test (6-CIT). Muscle strength and muscle mass were assessed using handheld dynamometry and segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, within 48 h after admission and on day 7, or earlier on the day of discharge. The data of 371 patients (mean age ± standard deviation 80.1 ± 6.4 years, 49.3% female) were available for analyses. The median (interquartile range) 6-CIT score was 4 (0-8) points. At admission, lower cognitive functioning was associated with lower muscle strength, lower skeletal muscle mass (SMM), lower appendicular lean mass, and lower SMM index. Cognitive functioning was not associated with change in muscle strength and muscle mass during hospitalization. This study further strengthens evidence for an association between lower cognitive functioning and lower muscle strength and muscle mass, but without a further decline during hospitalization. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Muscle strength in breast cancer patients receiving different treatment regimes

    PubMed Central

    Klassen, Oliver; Schmidt, Martina E.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Potthoff, Karin; Steindorf, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Muscle dysfunction and sarcopenia have been associated with poor performance status, an increased mortality risk, and greater side effects in oncologic patients. However, little is known about how performance is affected by cancer therapy. We investigated muscle strength in breast cancer patients in different adjuvant treatment settings and also compared it with data from healthy individuals. Methods Breast cancer patients (N = 255) from two randomized controlled exercise trials, staged 0–III and aged 54.4 ± 9.4 years, were categorized into four groups according to their treatment status. In a cross‐sectional design, muscle function was assessed bilaterally by isokinetic dynamometry (0°, 60°, 180°/s) as maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and maximal isokinetic peak torque (MIPT) in shoulder rotators and knee flexors and extensors. Additionally, muscular fatigue index (FI%) and shoulder flexibility were evaluated. Healthy women (N = 26), aged 53.3 ± 9.8 years, were tested using the same method. Analysis of covariance was used to estimate the impact of different cancer treatments on skeletal muscle function with adjustment for various clinical and socio‐demographic factors. Results Consistently, lower muscle strength was measured in shoulder and knee strength in patients after chemotherapy. On average, patients had up to 25% lower strength in lower extremities and 12–16% in upper extremities in MVIC and MIPT during cancer treatment compared with healthy women. No substantial difference between patient groups in shoulder strength, but significantly lower shoulder flexibility in patients with radical mastectomy was measured. Chemotherapy‐treated patients had consistently higher FI%. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions Breast cancer patients showed markedly impaired muscle strength and joint dysfunctions before and after anticancer treatment. The significant differences between patients

  18. Relationship between muscle mass and physical performance: is it the same in older adults with weak muscle strength?

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Eun; Jang, Soong-Nang; Lim, Soo; Park, Young Joo; Paik, Nam-Jong; Kim, Ki Woong; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Jae-Young

    2012-11-01

    the relationship between muscle mass and physical performance has not been consistent among studies. to clarify the relationship between muscle mass and physical performance in older adults with weak muscle strength. cross-sectional analysis using the baseline data of 542 older men and women from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging. dual X-ray absorptiometry, isokinetic dynamometer and the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) were performed. Two muscle mass parameters, appendicular skeletal mass divided by weight (ASM/Wt) and by height squared (ASM/Ht(2)), were measured. We divided the participants into a lower-quartile (L25) group and an upper-three-quartiles (H75) group based on the knee-extensor peak torque. Correlation analysis and logistic regression models were used to assess the association between muscle mass and low physical performance, defined as SPPB scores <9, after controlling for confounders. in the L25 group, no correlation between mass and SPPB was detected, whereas the correlation between peak torque and SPPB was significant and higher than that in the H75 group. Results from the logistic models also showed no association between muscle mass and SPPB in the L25 group, whereas muscle mass was associated with SPPB in the H75 group. muscle mass was not associated with physical performance in weak older adults. Measures of muscle strength may be of greater clinical importance in weak older adults than is muscle mass per se.

  19. Diurnal and day-to-day variation of isometric muscle strength in myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Vinge, Lotte; Jakobsen, Johannes; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Andersen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    In patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), muscle strength is expected to decrease gradually during the day due to physical activities. Isometric muscle strength at the shoulder, knee, and ankle was determined in 10 MG patients (MGFA class II-IV) who were receiving usual medical treatment and in 10 control subjects. To determine diurnal and day-to-day variation, muscle strength was measured 4 times during day 1 and once at day 2. Knee extension strength decreased during the day in both patients and controls. Neither diurnal nor day-to-day variation of muscle strength was higher in patients compared with controls. Patients with mild to moderate MG did not have increased variation of isometric muscle strength during the day or from day-to-day compared with controls. This suggests that isometric muscle performance can be determined with high reproducibility in similar groups of MG patients without regard to time of day. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Longer Interset Rest Periods Enhance Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy in Resistance-Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Pope, Zachary K; Benik, Franklin M; Hester, Garrett M; Sellers, John; Nooner, Josh L; Schnaiter, Jessica A; Bond-Williams, Katherine E; Carter, Adrian S; Ross, Corbin L; Just, Brandon L; Henselmans, Menno; Krieger, James W

    2016-07-01

    Schoenfeld, BJ, Pope, ZK, Benik, FM, Hester, GM, Sellers, J, Nooner, JL, Schnaiter, JA, Bond-Williams, KE, Carter, AS, Ross, CL, Just, BL, Henselmans, M, and Krieger, JW. Longer interset rest periods enhance muscle strength and hypertrophy in resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1805-1812, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short rest intervals normally associated with hypertrophy-type training versus long rest intervals traditionally used in strength-type training on muscular adaptations in a cohort of young, experienced lifters. Twenty-one young resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a group that performed a resistance training (RT) program with 1-minute rest intervals (SHORT) or a group that employed 3-minute rest intervals (LONG). All other RT variables were held constant. The study period lasted 8 weeks with subjects performing 3 total body workouts a week comprised 3 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum (RM) of 7 different exercises per session. Testing was performed prestudy and poststudy for muscle strength (1RM bench press and back squat), muscle endurance (50% 1RM bench press to failure), and muscle thickness of the elbow flexors, triceps brachii, and quadriceps femoris by ultrasound imaging. Maximal strength was significantly greater for both 1RM squat and bench press for LONG compared to SHORT. Muscle thickness was significantly greater for LONG compared to SHORT in the anterior thigh, and a trend for greater increases was noted in the triceps brachii (p = 0.06) as well. Both groups saw significant increases in local upper body muscle endurance with no significant differences noted between groups. This study provides evidence that longer rest periods promote greater increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy in young resistance-trained men.

  1. Acceleration effects on neck muscle strength: pilots vs. non-pilots.

    PubMed

    Seng, Kok-Yong; Lam, Pin-Min; Lee, Vee-Sin

    2003-02-01

    Conditioning of neck muscles, if any, due to repeated exposures to +Gz forces has received little research attention. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the neck muscle strength of test volunteers representative of the general populations of fighter aircraft pilots and non-pilots. The tests were performed using a special attachment device on a computerized dynamometer. Ten pilots and ten non-pilots volunteered as test subjects. Each individual's maximal isometric neck muscle strength was evaluated in the extension, flexion, and left and right lateral bending directions in a single day. Peak values from the measurements were used for data analysis. Overall neck strength was calculated as the mean values for the four directions in each group. The overall muscular strength of the necks of pilots did not differ significantly from that of non-pilots, nor did exposure to +Gz forces lead to specific changes in isometric muscle strength across any of the four principal directions. Neck muscle strength in the four measured directions pooled across the two subgroups were statistically significant. The widespread practice of adopting protective head-positioning strategies to minimize neck strains, coupled with results from this research study, suggest that the neck muscles are subjected to reduced in-flight strengthening workouts during exposures to +Gz forces. To maximize in-flight performance and minimize +Gz-induced neck injuries, fighter pilots should be encouraged to perform on-land neck muscle strengthening exercise and in-flight head-positioning techniques. More research is needed to fine-tune this countermeasure strategy against cervical spine injury.

  2. Do oarsmen have asymmetries in the strength of their back and leg muscles?

    PubMed

    Parkin, S; Nowicky, A V; Rutherford, O M; McGregor, A H

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether asymmetry of the strength of the leg and trunk musculature is more prominent in rowers than in controls. Nineteen oarsmen and 20 male controls matched for age, height and body mass performed a series of isokinetic and isometric strength tests on an isokinetic dynamometer. These strength tests focused on the trunk and leg muscles. Comparisons of strength were made between and within groups for right and left symmetry patterns, hamstring: quadriceps ratios, and trunk flexor and extensor ratios. The results revealed no left and right asymmetries in either the knee extensor or flexor strength parameters (including both isometric and isokinetic measures). Knee extensor strength was significantly greater in the rowing population, but knee flexor strength was similar between the two groups. No difference was seen between the groups for the hamstring: quadriceps strength ratio. In the rowing population, stroke side had no influence on leg strength. No differences were observed in the isometric strength of the trunk flexors and extensors between groups, although EMG activity was significantly higher in the rowing population. Patterns of asymmetry of muscle activity were observed between the left and right erector spinae muscles during extension, which was significantly related to rowing side (P < 0.01). These observations could be related to the high incidence of low back pain in oarsmen.

  3. Effects of combined endurance and strength training on muscle strength, power and hypertrophy in 40-67-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Karavirta, L; Häkkinen, A; Sillanpää, E; García-López, D; Kauhanen, A; Haapasaari, A; Alen, M; Pakarinen, A; Kraemer, W J; Izquierdo, M; Gorostiaga, E; Häkkinen, K

    2011-06-01

    Both strength and endurance training have several positive effects on aging muscle and physical performance of middle-aged and older adults, but their combination may compromise optimal adaptation. This study examined the possible interference of combined strength and endurance training on neuromuscular performance and skeletal muscle hypertrophy in previously untrained 40-67-year-old men. Maximal strength and muscle activation in the upper and lower extremities, maximal concentric power, aerobic capacity and muscle fiber size and distribution in the vastus lateralis muscle were measured before and after a 21-week training period. Ninety-six men [mean age 56 (SD 7) years] completed high-intensity strength training (S) twice a week, endurance training (E) twice a week, combined training (SE) four times per week or served as controls (C). SE and S led to similar gains in one repetition maximum strength of the lower extremities [22 (9)% and 21 (8)%, P<0.001], whereas E and C showed minor changes. Cross-sectional area of type II muscle fibers only increased in S [26 (22)%, P=0.002], while SE showed an inconsistent, non-significant change [8 (35)%, P=0.73]. Combined training may interfere with muscle hypertrophy in aging men, despite similar gains in maximal strength between the strength and the combined training groups. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Weight reduction does not induce an undesirable decrease in muscle mass, muscle strength, or physical performance in men with obesity: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bokun; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; So, Rina; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Oh, Sechang; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2017-12-31

    To date, there have been no reports on whether weight reduction causes decreases in muscle mass, muscle strength, or physical performance that could lead to health problems. Thus, in this pilot study, we investigated the appropriateness of the changes in muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance after weight reduction. Obese men who completed a weight reduction program to decrease and maintain a body mass index (BMI) of less than 25 kg/m2 for one year were recruited for the study. One year after the completion of a weight reduction program, the participants' muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance were compared with those in a reference group composed of individuals whose BMI was less than 25 kg/m2. Whole-body scanning was performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to analyze muscle mass. Handgrip strength and knee extensor strength were measured to evaluate arm and leg muscle strength, respectively. For physical performance, a jump test was employed. The results showed that the biceps, triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac areas of professional fashion models were significantly thinner than those of women in general (p<.001), and that their waist size was also significantly smaller (p<.001). However, hip circumference showed no significant difference. Body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and body fat (%) in professional fashion models were significantly lower than those in women in general (p<.001), while the body density in professional fashion models was significantly greater (p<0.001). Weight reduction participants showed an average reduction in body weight of -16.47%. Normalized arm muscle mass and handgrip strength were significantly greater in the weight reduction group than in the reference group; however, no significant differences were detected between the two groups with respect to the other variables. After one year, there were no significant differences between the two groups. ©2017 The Korean Society for Exercise

  5. Upper Extremity Muscle Volumes and Functional Strength After Resistance Training in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Melissa; Vidt, Meghan E.; Eggebeen, Joel D.; Simpson, W. Greg; Miller, Michael E.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Saul, Katherine R.

    2014-01-01

    Aging leads to a decline in strength and an associated loss of independence. The authors examined changes in muscle volume, maximum isometric joint moment, functional strength, and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) after resistance training (RT) in the upper extremity of older adults. They evaluated isometric joint moment and muscle volume as predictors of functional strength. Sixteen healthy older adults (average age 75 ± 4.3 yr) were randomized to a 6-wk upper extremity RT program or control group. The RT group increased 1RM significantly (p < .01 for all exercises). Compared with controls, randomization to RT led to greater functional pulling strength (p = .003), isometric shoulder-adduction moment (p = .041), elbow-flexor volume (p = .017), and shoulder-adductor volume (p = .009). Shoulder-muscle volumes and isometric moments were good predictors of functional strength. The authors conclude that shoulder strength is an important factor for performing functional reaching and pulling tasks and a key target for upper extremity RT interventions. PMID:22952203

  6. Personality Typology in Relation to Muscle Strength

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; Milaneschi, Yuri; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity plays a central role in the age-related decline in muscle strength, an important component in the process leading to disability. Personality, a significant determinant of health behaviors including physical activity, could therefore impact muscle strength throughout adulthood and affect the rate of muscle strength decline with aging. Personality typologies combining “high neuroticism” (N≥55), “low extraversion” (E<45), and “low conscientiousness” (C<45) have been associated with multiple risky health behaviors but have not been investigated with regards to muscle strength. Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate associations between individual and combined typologies consisting of high N, low E, and low C and muscle strength, and whether physical activity and body mass index act as mediators. Method This cross-sectional study includes 1,220 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Results High N was found among 18%, low E among 31%, and low C among 26% of the sample. High levels of N, particularly when combined with either low E or low C, were associated with lower muscle strength compared with having only one or none of these personality types. Facet analyses suggest an important role for the N components of depression and hostility. Physical activity level appears to partly explain some of these associations. Conclusion Findings provide support for the notion that the typological approach to personality may be useful in identifying specific personality types at risk of low muscle strength and offer the possibility for more targeted prevention and intervention programs. PMID:21614452

  7. Relationships between Isometric Muscle Strength, Gait Parameters, and Gross Motor Function Measure in Patients with Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyung Ik; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Yeol; Lee, In Hyeok; Park, Moon Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the correlation between isometric muscle strength, gross motor function, and gait parameters in patients with spastic cerebral palsy and to find which muscle groups play an important role for gait pattern in a flexed knee gait. Twenty-four ambulatory patients (mean age, 10.0 years) with spastic cerebral palsy who were scheduled for single event multilevel surgery, including distal hamstring lengthening, were included. Preoperatively, peak isometric muscle strength was measured for the hip flexor, hip extensor, knee flexor, and knee extensor muscle groups using a handheld dynamometer, and three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis and gross motor function measure (GMFM) scoring were also performed. Correlations between peak isometric strength and GMFM, gait kinematics, and gait kinetics were analyzed. Peak isometric muscle strength of all muscle groups was not related to the GMFM score and the gross motor function classification system level. Peak isometric strength of the hip extensor and knee extensor was significantly correlated with the mean pelvic tilt (r=-0.588, p=0.003 and r=-0.436, p=0.033) and maximum pelvic obliquity (r=-0.450, p=0.031 and r=-0.419, p=0.041). There were significant correlations between peak isometric strength of the knee extensor and peak knee extensor moment in early stance (r=0.467, p=0.021) and in terminal stance (r=0.416, p=0.043). There is no correlation between muscle strength and gross motor function. However, this study showed that muscle strength, especially of the extensor muscle group of the hip and knee joints, might play a critical role in gait by stabilizing pelvic motion and decreasing energy consumption in a flexed knee gait.

  8. Pulmonary Function, Muscle Strength and Mortality in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Buchman, A. S.; Boyle, P. A.; Wilson, R.S.; Gu, Liping; Bienias, Julia L.; Bennett, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous reports have linked extremity muscle strength with mortality but the mechanism underlying this association is not known. We used data from 960 older persons without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project to test two sequential hypotheses: first, that extremity muscle strength is a surrogate for respiratory muscle strength, and second, that the association of respiratory muscle strength with mortality is mediated by pulmonary function. In a series of proportional hazards models, we first demonstrated that the association of extremity muscle strength with mortality was no longer significant after including a term for respiratory muscle strength, controlling for age, sex, education, and body mass index. Next, the association of respiratory muscle strength with mortality was attenuated by more than 50% and no longer significant after including a term for pulmonary function. The findings were unchanged after controlling for cognitive function, parkinsonian signs, physical frailty, balance, physical activity, possible COPD, use of pulmonary medications, vascular risk factors including smoking, chronic vascular diseases, musculoskeletal joint pain, and history of falls. Overall, these findings suggest that pulmonary function may partially account for the association of muscle strength and mortality. PMID:18755207

  9. Subclinical hypothyroidism has little influences on muscle mass or strength in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Moon, Min Kyong; Lee, You Jin; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Yang, Eun Joo; Lim, Jae-Young; Paik, Nam-Jong; Kim, Ki Woong; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak C; Cho, Bo Youn; Park, Young Joo

    2010-08-01

    Sarcopenia, the age-related decline in muscle mass, affects the muscle strength and muscle quality, and these changes decrease functional capacity. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction increases with age, and changes in thyroid hormone level lead to neuromuscular deficits. We investigated the effects of subclinical hypothyroidism on the muscle mass, strength or quality in elderly people. One thousand one hundred eighteen subjects aged > or = 65 yr were randomly selected from a local population and classified into a euthyroid (280 men and 358 women), subclinically hypothyroid (61 men and 75 women), or overtly hypothyroid (7 men and 16 women) group. Although women with subclinical hypothyroidism had a higher prevalence of sarcopenia, defined according to the ratio of appendicular skeletal muscle mass to the square of height, muscle mass, strength or quality did not differ in relation to thyroid status in men or in women. Multivariate analysis including age, diabetes, hypertension, acute coronary event, alcohol, smoking, presence of pain, physical activity score, and lipid profile, showed that thyroid-stimulating hormone level was not associated with muscle mass, strength or quality. In conclusion, subclinical hypothyroidism has little influences on muscle mass, strength or quality, and may not be associated with sarcopenia.

  10. Walking performance and muscle strength in the later stage poststroke: a nonlinear relationship.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Cristiane; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Willén, Carin

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the relation between muscle strength in the lower extremities and walking performance (speed and distance) in subjects in the later stage poststroke and to compare this with normative data. A cross-sectional observational study. University hospital department. Subjects poststroke (n=41; 31 men, 10 women) with a mean age of 59±5.8 years and a time from stroke onset of 52±36 months were evaluated. An urban sample (n=144) of 40- to 79-year-olds (69 men, 75 women) formed the healthy reference group. Not applicable. Muscle strength in the lower extremities was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer and combined into a strength index. Values for the 30-meter walk test for self-selected and maximum speed and the 6-minute walk test were measured. A nonlinear regression model was used. The average strength index was 730±309 in the subjects after stroke compared with 1112±362 in the healthy group. A nonlinear relation between walking performance and muscle strength was evident. The model explained 37% of the variance in self-selected speed in the stroke group and 20% in the healthy group, and 63% and 38%, respectively, in the maximum walking speed. For the 6-minute walk test, the model explained 44% of the variance in the stroke group. Subjects in the later stage poststroke were weaker than the healthy reference group, and their weakness was associated with walking performance. At the same strength index, subjects walked at lower speeds and shorter distances after stroke, indicating that there are multiple impairments that affect walking ability. Treatments focused on increasing muscle strength thus continue to hold promise. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of strength training with blood flow restriction on muscle power and submaximal strength in eumenorrheic women.

    PubMed

    Gil, Ana L S; Neto, Gabriel R; Sousa, Maria S C; Dias, Ingrid; Vianna, Jeferson; Nunes, Rodolfo A M; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2017-03-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) training stimulates muscle size and strength by increasing muscle activation, accumulation of metabolites and muscle swelling. This method has been used in different populations, but no studies have evaluated the effects of training on muscle power and submaximal strength (SS) in accounted for the menstrual cycle. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of strength training (ST) with BFR on the muscle power and SS of upper and lower limbs in eumenorrheic women. Forty untrained women (18-40 years) were divided randomly and proportionally into four groups: (i) high-intensity ST at 80% of 1RM (HI), (ii) low-intensity ST at 20% of 1RM combined with partial blood flow restriction (LI + BFR), (iii) low-intensity ST at 20% of 1RM (LI) and d) control group (CG). Each training group performed eight training sessions. Tests with a medicine ball (MB), horizontal jump (HJ), vertical jump (VJ), biceps curls (BC) and knee extension (KE) were performed during the 1st day follicular phase (FP), 14th day (ovulatory phase) and 26-28th days (luteal phase) of the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference among groups in terms of the MB, HJ, VJ or BC results at any time point (P>0·05). SS in the KE exercise was significantly greater in the LI + BFR group compared to the CG group (P = 0·014) during the LP. Therefore, ST with BFR does not appear to improve the power of upper and lower limbs and may be an alternative to improve the SS of lower limbs of eumenorrheic women. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Quadriceps muscle strength and voluntary activation after polio.

    PubMed

    Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans; de Visser, Marianne; de Jong, Bareld A; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J; Sargeant, Anthony J

    2003-08-01

    Quadriceps strength, maximal anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA), maximal voluntary activation (MVA), and maximal relaxation rate (MRR) were studied in 48 subjects with a past history of polio, 26 with and 22 without postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS), and in 13 control subjects. It was also investigated whether, apart from CSA, MVA and MRR were determinants of muscle strength. Polio subjects had significantly less strength, CSA, and MRR in the more-affected quadriceps than control subjects. MVA was reduced in 18 polio subjects and normal in all controls. PPS subjects differed from non-PPS subjects only in that the MVA of the more-affected quadriceps was significantly lower. Both CSA and MVA were found to be associated with muscle strength. Quadriceps strength in polio subjects was dependent not only on muscle mass, but also on the ability to activate the muscles. Since impaired activation was more pronounced in PPS subjects, the new muscle weakness and functional decline in PPS may be due not only to a gradual loss of muscle fibers, but also to an increasing inability to activate the muscles.

  13. Muscle strength and body composition are clinical indicators of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Rikkonen, Toni; Sirola, Joonas; Salovaara, Kari; Tuppurainen, Marjo; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Honkanen, Risto; Kröger, Heikki

    2012-08-01

    We examined the role of muscle strength, lean tissue distribution, and overall body composition as indicators of osteoporosis (OP) in a pooled sample of 979 Finnish postmenopausal women (mean age 68.1 years) from the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention study. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck (FN) and total body composition were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. The women (n = 979) were divided into three groups according to WHO criteria, based on FN BMD T score: normal (n = 474), osteopenia (n = 468), and OP (n = 37). Soft tissue proportions, fat mass index (FMI, fat/height²), lean mass index (LMI, lean/height²), and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM, (arms + legs)/height²) were calculated. Handgrip and knee extension strength measurements were made. OP subjects had significantly smaller LMI (p = 0.001), ASM (p = 0.001), grip strength (p < 0.0001), and knee extension strength (p < 0.05) but not FMI (p > 0.05) compared to other subjects. Grip and knee extension strength were 19 and 16 % weaker in OP women compared to others, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 69 % for grip and 71 % for knee extension strength. In tissue proportions only LMI showed predictive power (63 %, p = 0.016). An overall linear association of LMI (R² = 0.007, p = 0.01) and FMI (R² = 0.028, p < 0.001) with FN BMD remained significant. In the multivariate model, after adjusting for age, grip strength, leg extension strength, FMI, LMI, number of medications, alcohol consumption, current smoking, dietary calcium intake, and hormone therapy, grip strength (adjusted OR = 0.899, 95 % CI 0.84-0.97, p < 0.01), leg extension strength (OR = 0.998, 95 % CI 0.99-1, p < 0.05), and years of hormone therapy (OR = 0.905, 95 % CI 0.82-1, p < 0.05) remained as significant determinants of OP. Muscle strength tests, especially grip strength, serve as an independent and useful tool for postmenopausal OP risk assessment

  14. Pilates: Build Strength in Your Core Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... an accessible way to build strength in your core muscles for better posture, balance and flexibility. By ... an accessible way to build strength in your core muscles for better posture, balance and flexibility. If ...

  15. Quantitative MRI and strength measurements in the assessment of muscle quality in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Wokke, B H; van den Bergen, J C; Versluis, M J; Niks, E H; Milles, J; Webb, A G; van Zwet, E W; Aartsma-Rus, A; Verschuuren, J J; Kan, H E

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess leg muscle quality and give a detailed description of leg muscle involvement in a series of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients using quantitative MRI and strength measurements. Fatty infiltration, as well as total and contractile (not fatty infiltrated) cross sectional areas of various leg muscles were determined in 16 Duchenne patients and 11 controls (aged 8-15). To determine specific muscle strength, four leg muscle groups (quadriceps femoris, hamstrings, anterior tibialis and triceps surae) were measured and related to the amount of contractile tissue. In patients, the quadriceps femoris showed decreased total and contractile cross sectional area, attributable to muscle atrophy. The total, but not the contractile, cross sectional area of the triceps surae was increased in patients, corresponding to hypertrophy. Specific strength decreased in all four muscle groups of Duchenne patients, indicating reduced muscle quality. This suggests that muscle hypertrophy and fatty infiltration are two distinct pathological processes, differing between muscle groups. Additionally, the quality of remaining muscle fibers is severely reduced in the legs of Duchenne patients. The combination of quantitative MRI and quantitative muscle testing could be a valuable outcome parameter in longitudinal studies and in the follow-up of therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Relation between systemic inflammatory markers, peripheral muscle mass, and strength in limb muscles in stable COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Renata; Caram, Laura M O; Faganello, Marcia M; Sanchez, Fernanda F; Tanni, Suzana E; Godoy, Irma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between systemic inflammatory mediators and peripheral muscle mass and strength in COPD patients. Fifty-five patients (69% male; age: 64±9 years) with mild/very severe COPD (defined as forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1] =54%±23%) were evaluated. We evaluated serum concentrations of IL-8, CRP, and TNF-α. Peripheral muscle mass was evaluated by computerized tomography (CT); midthigh cross-sectional muscle area (MTCSA) and midarm cross-sectional muscle area (MACSA) were obtained. Quadriceps, triceps, and biceps strength were assessed through the determination of the one-repetition maximum. The multiple regression results, adjusted for age, sex, and FEV1%, showed positive significant association between MTCSA and leg extension (0.35 [0.16, 0.55]; P=0.001), between MACSA and triceps pulley (0.45 [0.31, 0.58]; P=0.001), and between MACSA and biceps curl (0.34 [0.22, 0.47]; P=0.001). Plasma TNF-α was negatively associated with leg extension (-3.09 [-5.99, -0.18]; P=0.04) and triceps pulley (-1.31 [-2.35, -0.28]; P=0.01), while plasma CRP presented negative association with biceps curl (-0.06 [-0.11, -0.01]; P=0.02). Our results showed negative association between peripheral muscle mass (evaluated by CT) and muscle strength and that systemic inflammation has a negative influence in the strength of specific groups of muscles in individuals with stable COPD. This is the first study showing association between systemic inflammatory markers and strength in upper limb muscles.

  17. Ageing influence in the evolution of strength and muscle mass in women with fibromyalgia: the al-Ándalus project.

    PubMed

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Aparicio, Virginia A; Santos E Campos, María Aparecida; García-Pinillos, Felipe; Herrador-Colmenero, Manuel; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2015-07-01

    Fibromyalgia is associated with physical disabilities in daily activities. Moreover, patients with fibromyalgia present similar levels of functional capacity and physical condition than elderly people. The aim of this study was to analyse the evolution of strength and muscle mass in women with fibromyalgia along ageing. A total sample of 492 fibromyalgia patients and 279 healthy control women were included in the study. Participants in each group were further divided into four age subgroups: subgroup 1: 30-39 years old, subgroup 2: 40-49 years old, subgroup 3: 50-59 years old and subgroup 4: 60-69 years old. Standardized field-based fitness tests were used to assess muscle strength (30-s chair stand, handgrip strength and arm curl tests). Fibromyalgia patients did not show impairment on muscle mass along ageing, without values of skeletal muscle mass index below 6.76 kg/m(2) in any group. However, in all variables of muscle strength, the fibromyalgia group showed less strength than the healthy group (p < 0.05) for all age groups. As expected, handgrip strength test showed differences along ageing only in the fibromyalgia group (p < 0.001). Age was inversely associated with skeletal muscle mass (r = -0.155, p < 0.01) and handgrip strength (r = -0.230, p < 0.001) in the FM group. Women with fibromyalgia showed a reduction in muscle strength along ageing process, with significantly lower scores than healthy women for each age group, representing a risk of dynapenia.

  18. Effect of vibration on muscle strength imbalance in lower extremity using multi-control whole body vibration platform.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chang Ho; Seo, Shin Bae; Kang, Seung Rok; Kim, Kyung; Kwon, Tae Kyu

    2015-01-01

    This study shows the improvement of muscle activity and muscle strength imbalance in the lower extremities through independent exercise loads in vibration platform. Twenty females of age 20 participated in this study. The subjects were divided into WBV group, with more than 10% of muscle strength imbalance between left and right the lower extremities, and control group, with less than 10% of muscle strength imbalance between left and right the lower extremities. As the prior experiment showed, different exercise postures provide different muscular activities. As a result, the highest muscular activity was found to be in the low squat posture. Therefore, the LS posture was selected for the exercise in this experiment. Vibration intensities were applied to dominant muscle and non-dominant muscle, and the vibration frequency was fixed at 25Hz for the WBV group. The control group was asked to perform the same exercise as the WBV group, without stimulated vibration. This exercise was conducted for a total of 4 weeks. As a result, the WBV group which showed an average deviation of 16% before the experiment, tended to decrease approximately to 5%. In this study, vibration exercise using load deviation is shown to be effective in improving the muscle strength imbalance.

  19. Relationships between Isometric Muscle Strength, Gait Parameters, and Gross Motor Function Measure in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyung-Ik; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Lee, Seung Yeol; Lee, In Hyeok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the correlation between isometric muscle strength, gross motor function, and gait parameters in patients with spastic cerebral palsy and to find which muscle groups play an important role for gait pattern in a flexed knee gait. Materials and Methods Twenty-four ambulatory patients (mean age, 10.0 years) with spastic cerebral palsy who were scheduled for single event multilevel surgery, including distal hamstring lengthening, were included. Preoperatively, peak isometric muscle strength was measured for the hip flexor, hip extensor, knee flexor, and knee extensor muscle groups using a handheld dynamometer, and three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis and gross motor function measure (GMFM) scoring were also performed. Correlations between peak isometric strength and GMFM, gait kinematics, and gait kinetics were analyzed. Results Peak isometric muscle strength of all muscle groups was not related to the GMFM score and the gross motor function classification system level. Peak isometric strength of the hip extensor and knee extensor was significantly correlated with the mean pelvic tilt (r=-0.588, p=0.003 and r=-0.436, p=0.033) and maximum pelvic obliquity (r=-0.450, p=0.031 and r=-0.419, p=0.041). There were significant correlations between peak isometric strength of the knee extensor and peak knee extensor moment in early stance (r=0.467, p=0.021) and in terminal stance (r=0.416, p=0.043). Conclusion There is no correlation between muscle strength and gross motor function. However, this study showed that muscle strength, especially of the extensor muscle group of the hip and knee joints, might play a critical role in gait by stabilizing pelvic motion and decreasing energy consumption in a flexed knee gait. PMID:26632404

  20. Dynamics of muscle strength improvement during isokinetic rehabilitation of athletes with ACL rupture and chondromalacia patellae.

    PubMed

    Desnica Bakrac, N

    2003-03-01

    To assess quantitatively dynamics and extent of the increase in muscle strength during isokinetic rehabilitation. daily measurements of muscle strength; detailed testing at the beginning and at the end of rehabilitation. Cybex Rehabilitation Center, Zagreb. 44 athletes (31 m, 13 F, age 16-35), 3 injury-defined groups: athletes with ACL rupture (non-reconstructed and reconstructed) and chondromalacia patellae. all subjects underwent isokinetic rehabilitation on Cybex Orthotron KT2 device, using individually designed protocols (extension and flexion exercises, concentric muscle contractions, 15 treatments). monitoring of daily progress on rehabilitation device and detailed testing on diagnostic device. All patients showed considerable improvement. Muscle strength improved on average 141% (SD=110) in ACL-reconstructed group, 144% (SD=130) for chondromalacia patellae group and 150% (SD=74) for ACL-non-reconstructed group, comparing to initial strength. Dynamic status tested on Cybex Otrhotron diagnostic device prior and after rehabilitation strongly correlated with final progress monitored on the rehabilitation device. Isokinetic rehabilitation is a quick and effective method in treating knee injuries in athletes. Both types of objective criteria have shown significant increase in muscle strength. The improvement of muscle strength was on the average 149% (SD=101), which is about 10% daily for 15 treatments. The greatest progress, 19% per day, occurred during first five days. The athletes were able to resume their sport activities as follows: patients from chondromalacia patellae group, and most of them from the non-reconstructed ACL group were back in competition within a month, while 75% from the ACL reconstructed group came back within 3 months, and the rest of them within 5 months.

  1. Effects of Training Using Video Games on the Muscle Strength, Muscle Tone, and Activities of Daily Living of Chronic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, GyuChang

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect on the muscle strength, muscle tone, and activities of daily living of post-stroke patients. [Subjects] Fourteen stroke patients were recruited. They were randomly allocated into two groups; the experimental group (n=7) and the control group (n=7). [Methods] The experimental group performed training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect together with conventional occupational therapy for 6 weeks (1 hour/day, 3 days/week), and the control group received conventional occupational therapy only for 6 weeks (30 min/day, 3 days/week). Before and after the intervention, the participants were measured for muscle strength, muscle tone, and performance of activities of daily living. [Results] There were significant differences pre- and post-test in muscle strength of the upper extremities, except the wrist, and performance of activities of daily living in the experimental group. There were no significant differences between the two groups at post-test. [Conclusion] The training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect had a positive effect on the motor function and performance of activities of daily living. This study showed that training using video games played on the Xbox Kinect may be an effective intervention for the rehabilitation of stroke patients. PMID:24259810

  2. Objective Evaluation of Muscle Strength in Infants with Hypotonia and Muscle Weakness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reus, Linda; van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; Staal, J. Bart; Janssen, Anjo J. W. M.; Otten, Barto J.; Pelzer, Ben J.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2013-01-01

    The clinical evaluation of an infant with motor delay, muscle weakness, and/or hypotonia would improve considerably if muscle strength could be measured objectively and normal reference values were available. The authors developed a method to measure muscle strength in infants and tested 81 typically developing infants, 6-36 months of age, and 17…

  3. The effect of bridge exercise method on the strength of rectus abdominis muscle and the muscle activity of paraspinal muscles while doing treadmill walking with high heels.

    PubMed

    Kang, Taewook; Lee, Jaeseok; Seo, Junghoon; Han, Dongwook

    2017-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of the method of bridge exercise on the change of rectus abdominis muscle and the muscle activity of paraspinal muscles while doing treadmill walking with high heels. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this research are healthy female students consisting of 10 persons performing bridge exercises in a supine group, 10 persons performing bridge exercises in a prone group, and 10 persons in a control group while in S university in Busan. Bridge exercise in supine position is performed in hook lying position. Bridge exercise in prone position is plank exercise in prostrate position. To measure the strength of rectus abdominis muscle, maintaining times of the posture was used. To measure the muscle activity of paraspinal muscles, EMG (4D-MT & EMD-11, Relive, Korea) was used. [Results] The strength of rectus abdominis muscle of both bridge exercises in the supine group and bridge exercises in the prone group increases significantly after exercise. The muscle activity of paraspinal muscle such as thoracic parts and lumbar parts in bridge exercises in the prone group decreases statistically while walking on a treadmill with high heels. Muscle activity of thoracic parts paraspinal muscle and bridge exercises in the supine group decreased significantly. [Conclusion] According to this study, we noticed that bridge exercise in a prone position is desirable for women who prefer wearing high heels as a back pain prevention exercise method.

  4. Bone strength and muscle properties in postmenopausal women with and without a recent distal radius fracture.

    PubMed

    Crockett, K; Arnold, C M; Farthing, J P; Chilibeck, P D; Johnston, J D; Bath, B; Baxter-Jones, A D G; Kontulainen, S A

    2015-10-01

    Distal radius (wrist) fracture (DRF) in women over age 50 years is an early sign of bone fragility. Women with a recent DRF compared to women without DRF demonstrated lower bone strength, muscle density, and strength, but no difference in dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures, suggesting DXA alone may not be a sufficient predictor for DRF risk. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in bone and muscle properties between women with and without a recent DRF. One hundred sixty-six postmenopausal women (50-78 years) were recruited. Participants were excluded if they had taken bone-altering medications in the past 6 months or had medical conditions that severely affected daily living or the upper extremity. Seventy-seven age-matched women with a fracture in the past 6-24 months (Fx, n = 32) and without fracture (NFx, n = 45) were measured for bone and muscle properties using the nondominant (NFx) or non-fractured limb (Fx). Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to estimate bone strength in compression (BSIc) at the distal radius and tibia, bone strength in torsion (SSIp) at the shaft sites, muscle density, and area at the forearm and lower leg. Areal bone mineral density at the ultradistal forearm, spine, and femoral neck was measured by DXA. Grip strength and the 30-s chair stand test were used as estimates of upper and lower extremity muscle strength. Limb-specific between-group differences were compared using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). There was a significant group difference (p < 0.05) for the forearm and lower leg, with the Fx group demonstrating 16 and 19% lower BSIc, 3 and 6% lower muscle density, and 20 and 21% lower muscle strength at the upper and lower extremities, respectively. There were no differences between groups for DXA measures. Women with recent DRF had lower pQCT-derived estimated bone strength at the distal radius and tibia and lower muscle density and strength at both extremities.

  5. Muscle Strength Is Protective Against Osteoporosis in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Adults.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Ryan P; Kraemer, William J; Vincent, Brenda M; Hall, Orman T; Peterson, Mark D

    2017-09-01

    McGrath, RP, Kraemer, WJ, Vincent, BM, Hall, OT, and Peterson, MD. Muscle strength is protective against osteoporosis in an ethnically diverse sample of adults. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2586-2589, 2017-The odds of developing osteoporosis may be affected by modifiable and nonmodifiable factors such as muscle strength and ethnicity. This study sought to (a) determine whether increased muscle strength was associated with decreased odds of osteoporosis and (b) identify whether the odds of osteoporosis differed by ethnicity. Data from the 2013 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Muscle strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to assess femoral neck bone mineral density. A T-score of ≤2.5 was used to define osteoporosis. Separate covariate-adjusted logistic regression models were performed on each sex to determine the association between muscle strength and osteoporosis. Odds ratios (ORs) were also generated to identify if the association between muscle strength and osteoporosis differed by ethnicity using non-Hispanic blacks as the reference group. There were 2,861 participants included. Muscle strength was shown to be protective against osteoporosis for men (OR: 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-0.94) and women (OR: 0.90; CI: 0.90-0.90). Although ORs varied across ethnicities, non-Hispanic Asian men (OR: 6.62; CI: 6.51-6.72) and women (OR: 6.42; CI: 6.37-6.48) were at highest odds of osteoporosis. Increased muscle strength reduced the odds of osteoporosis among both men and women in a nationally representative, ethnically diverse sample of adults. Non-Hispanic Asians had the highest odds of developing osteoporosis. Irrespective of sex or ethnicity, increased muscle strength may help protect against the odds of developing osteoporosis.

  6. Subclinical Hypothyroidism has Little Influences on Muscle Mass or Strength in Elderly People

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Min Kyong; Lee, You Jin; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Yang, Eun Joo; Lim, Jae-Young; Paik, Nam-Jong; Kim, Ki Woong; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak C.

    2010-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the age-related decline in muscle mass, affects the muscle strength and muscle quality, and these changes decrease functional capacity. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction increases with age, and changes in thyroid hormone level lead to neuromuscular deficits. We investigated the effects of subclinical hypothyroidism on the muscle mass, strength or quality in elderly people. One thousand one hundred eighteen subjects aged ≥65 yr were randomly selected from a local population and classified into a euthyroid (280 men and 358 women), subclinically hypothyroid (61 men and 75 women), or overtly hypothyroid (7 men and 16 women) group. Although women with subclinical hypothyroidism had a higher prevalence of sarcopenia, defined according to the ratio of appendicular skeletal muscle mass to the square of height, muscle mass, strength or quality did not differ in relation to thyroid status in men or in women. Multivariate analysis including age, diabetes, hypertension, acute coronary event, alcohol, smoking, presence of pain, physical activity score, and lipid profile, showed that thyroid-stimulating hormone level was not associated with muscle mass, strength or quality. In conclusion, subclinical hypothyroidism has little influences on muscle mass, strength or quality, and may not be associated with sarcopenia. PMID:20676329

  7. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin preserves muscle strength in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Markvardsen, L H; Harbo, T; Sindrup, S H; Christiansen, I; Andersen, H; Jakobsen, J

    2014-12-01

    Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) is superior to placebo treatment for maintenance of muscle strength during 12 weeks in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The present study evaluated whether SCIG preserves muscle strength for 1 year in an open-label follow-up study. Seventeen responders to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) who had participated in the previous study of SCIG versus placebo in CIDP were included. After one IVIG infusion 2 weeks prior to baseline, all continued on SCIG treatment at weekly equal dosage and were evaluated after 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary end-points were changes in muscle strength evaluated by isokinetic dynamometry in four affected muscle groups and a composite score of muscle performance and function tests, including Medical Research Council (MRC) score, grip strength, 40-m walking test (40-MWT) and nine-hole peg test (9-HPT). Secondary end-points were changes of each of the listed parameters at each time point as well as an overall disability sum score (ODSS). The dose of SCIG was significantly unaltered during the follow-up period. Overall the isokinetic dynamometry value increased by 7.2% (P = 0.033) and after 3, 6 and 12 months by 5.7%, 8.2% and 6.8% (ns). The overall composite score at all time intervals and for each interval remained unchanged. Amongst the secondary parameters the MRC score increased significantly by 1.7% (P = 0.007), whereas grip strength, 40-MWT, 9-HPT and ODSS remained unchanged. SCIG preserves muscle strength and functional ability in patients with CIDP who previously responded to IVIG. SCIG should be considered as an alternative in long-term treatment of CIDP patients. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EAN.

  8. Side-alternating vibration training for balance and ankle muscle strength in untrained women.

    PubMed

    Spiliopoulou, Styliani I; Amiridis, Ioannis G; Tsigganos, Georgios; Hatzitaki, Vassilia

    2013-01-01

    Side-alternating vibration (SAV) may help reduce the risk of falling by improving body balance control. Such training has been promoted as a strength-training intervention because it can increase muscle activation through an augmented excitatory input from the muscle spindles. To determine the effect of SAV training on static balance during 3 postural tasks of increasing difficulty and lower limb strength. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Laboratory. A total of 21 healthy women were divided into training (n = 11; age = 43.35 ± 4.12 years, height = 169 ± 6.60 cm, mass = 68.33 ± 11.90 kg) and control (n = 10; age = 42.31 ± 3.73 years, height = 167 ± 4.32 cm, mass = 66.29 ± 10.74 kg) groups. The training group completed a 9-week program during which participants performed 3 sessions per week of ten 15-second isometric contractions with a 30-second active rest of 3 exercises (half-squat, wide-stance squat, 1-legged half-squat) on an SAV plate (acceleration = 0.91-16.3g). The control group did not participate in any form of exercise over the 9-week period. We evaluated isokinetic and isometric strength of the knee extensors and flexors and ankle plantar flexors, dorsiflexors, and evertors. Static balance was assessed using 3 tasks of increasing difficulty (quiet bipedal stance, tandem stance, 1-legged stance). The electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis, semitendinosus, medial gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus was recorded during postural task performance, baseline and pretraining, immediately posttraining, and 15 days posttraining. After training in the training group, ankle muscle strength improved (P = .03), whereas knee muscle strength remained unaltered (P = .13). Improved ankle-evertor strength was observed at all angular velocities (P = .001). Postural sway decreased in both directions but was greater in the mediolateral (P < .001) than anteroposterior (P = .02) direction. The electromyographic activity of the peroneus

  9. The Relationship between Vitamin D and Muscle Size and Strength in Patients on Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Patricia L.; Sakkas, Giorgos K.; Doyle, Julie W.; Shubert, Tiffany; Johansen, Kirsten L.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Vitamin D has various actions in skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to compare lower limb muscle size and strength in hemodialysis (HD) patients being treated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) or a 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D analog (paricalcitol) to HD patients who were receiving none. DESIGN This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING Outpatient hemodialysis centers. PATIENTS HD patients receiving calcitriol or paricalcitol (active vitamin D) for control of secondary hyperparathyroidism (VitD, n = 49) were compared to HD patients who were not (n = 30). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Cross-sectional areas (CSA) of thigh and tibialis anterior muscles by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and three measures of strength; three-repetition maximum (3RM) for knee extension (isotonic), peak torque of knee extensors (isokinetic), and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the ankle dorsiflexor muscles (isometric). RESULTS There were no differences in age, weight, dialysis vintage, or intact parathyroid hormone levels between the groups, although serum albumin was higher in the VitD group (p <0.05). Patients in the VitD group had larger thigh muscle CSA (p < 0.05) and were stronger across all strength measures (p< 0.05) after controlling for age and gender (ANCOVA). When all analyses were subsequently adjusted for serum albumin concentration, only the difference in 3RM knee extension strength lost significance. There were no significant differences in any measurements between patients who received calcitriol or paricalcitol. CONCLUSION Treatment with active vitamin D was associated with greater muscle size and strength in this cohort of HD patients. PMID:17971312

  10. Balance and Muscle Strength in Elderly Women Who Dance Samba.

    PubMed

    Serra, Marcos Maurício; Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Peterson, Mark; Mochizuki, Luis; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa; Garcez-Leme, Luiz Eugênio

    2016-01-01

    Considering the growth of the aging population, and the increasing risk for falls and related morbidity, it is vital to seek efficient, comprehensive, and culturally relevant prevention programs for elderly people to reduce risks for falls. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the postural balance and muscle strength among women participating in the "Wing of Baianas" in the carnival parades. One hundred and ten women, with an average age of 67.4±5.9 years, were divided into two groups: Baianas group-elderly participants of the carnival parades in the "Wing of Baianas", and a Control group of women who do not dance samba. Assessments included a physical activity questionnaire, isokinetic muscle strength testing for the knee extensors and flexors, and a postural balance assessment completed on a force platform. There were no differences between groups, for postural balance outcomes, during the eyes open condition; however, with eyes closed, there was a significant effect between groups (Baianas vs Control) in all variables. The Baianas group showed less medio-lateral displacement (p < 0.04); and anteroposterior displacement (p < 0.007); larger amplitudes of medio-lateral displacement (p < 0.001); and anteroposterior displacement (p < 0.001); increased mean velocity (p < 0.01); and elliptical area (p < 0.01) There were no differences in the isokinetic peak torque corrected by body weight, total work and flexor/extensor ratio. Participation in the Wing of Baianas is associated with better balance with closed eyes, but there were no differences between dancers and non-dancers for muscle strength.

  11. Maturity- and sex-related changes in tibial bone geometry, strength and bone-muscle strength indices during growth: a 20-month pQCT study.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Heather M; Kontulainen, Saija A; Mackelvie-O'Brien, Kerry J; Petit, Moira A; Janssen, Patricia; Khan, Karim M; McKay, Heather A

    2005-06-01

    During growth, bone strength is conferred through subtle adaptations in bone mass and geometry in response to muscle forces. Few studies have examined the changes in bone geometry, strength and the bone-muscle strength relationship across maturity in boys and girls. Our aims were to describe (i) 20-month changes in bone geometry and strength at the tibial midshaft across three maturity groups of boys and girls, (ii) differences in these adaptations between sexes at the same approximate level of maturity and (iii) the bone-muscle strength relationship across maturity groups of boys and girls and between sexes. We used peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT, Stratec XCT-2000) to measure change in total bone cross-sectional area (ToA, mm(2)), cortical area (CoA, mm(2)), average cortical thickness (C.Th., mm), section modulus (mm(3)) and muscle cross-sectional area (mm(2)) at the tibial midshaft (50% site) in 128 EARLY-, PERI- and POST-pubertal girls (n = 69, 11.9 +/- 0.6 years) and boys (n = 59, 12.0 +/- 0.6 years) across 20 months. We also calculated two bone-muscle strength indices (BMSI) for compression (CoA/MCSA) and bending [strength index/MCSA; where strength index = Z / (tibial length / 2)]. EARLY boys and girls had smaller ToA at baseline than same sex PERI or POST participants. There were no sex differences in ToA or CoA at baseline; however, boys increased both parameters significantly more than girls in every maturity group (8.5-11.1%, P < 0.01). These changes in bone geometry conferred greater gains in bone strength for boys compared with girls in each maturity group (13.8-15.6%, P < 0.01). Baseline BMSIs did not differ between sexes for EARLY and PERI groups, whereas BMSIs were significantly higher for POST boys compared with POST girls (P < 0.05). BMSIs decreased for EARLY and PERI girls (-7.4-(-1.1%)) whereas the ratios remained stable for EARLY and PERI boys (-0.6-2.5%). This sex difference in BMSI change was due to a relatively greater

  12. Relationship between muscle strength and fall episodes among the elderly: the Yilan study, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan-Ping; Hsu, Nai-Wei; Lin, Ching-Heng; Chen, Hsi-Chung; Tsao, Hsuan-Ming; Lo, Su-Shun; Chou, Pesus

    2018-04-13

    Fall episodes are not unusual among community residents, especially the elderly, and lower muscle strength is an important issue to address in order to prevent falls. A community health survey was conducted in a suburban area of Taiwan, and 1067 older adults were selected for enrollment in the present study. All the enrolled subjects had been visited at their homes; the subjects' strength of both hands and muscle mass of both legs were measured and well-established questionnaires were finished by certificated paramedic staffs. The incidence of fall episodes in the previous 1 year in the Yilan elderly population was 15.1%, and the female predominance was significant. A significantly higher prevalence of cataracts was found in group who experienced a fall in the past year (64% vs. 54.9% in the non-fall group). Mild or more severe dementia was much more prevalent in the group who experienced a recent fall (33.8% vs. 25.7% in the non-fall group). The strength of both hands tested as the physical function was 17.6 ± 8.0 kg in the recent fall group, significantly weaker than that in the non-fall group (20.7 ± 8.7 kg). Multivariate regression analysis revealed a greater weekly exercise duration and greater strength of both hands reduced the occurrence of falls among the whole and the female population. The standardized effect sizes of hand grip strength between both groups, not trivial, were 0.29 and 0.37 for the total population and the female subpopulation respectively. Less weekly exercise duration and weaker muscle strength were f ound to be independent risk factors of fall episode(s) in an elderly Taiwanese population, especially in the female sub-population. Muscle strength, measured by average of both hands grip strength, was the most significantly factor of one-year fall episode(s) accessed retrospectively.

  13. Asymmetry of Muscle Strength in Elite Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drid, Patrik; Drapsin, Miodrag; Trivic, Tatjana; Lukac, Damir; Obadov, Slavko; Milosevic, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    "Study aim": To determine muscle strength variables in elite judoists and wrestlers since thigh muscle strength and bilaterally balanced flexor-to-extensor ratio minimise injury risk and are desirable for achieving sport successes. "Material and methods": Judoists, wrestlers and untrained subjects, 10 each, were subjected to isokinetic strength…

  14. Effect of high-intensity home-based respiratory muscle training on strength of respiratory muscles following a stroke: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Kênia Kiefer Parreiras De; Nascimento, Lucas Rodrigues; Polese, Janaine Cunha; Ada, Louise; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi

    Respiratory muscle training has shown to increase strength of the respiratory muscles following a stroke. However, low duration and/or intensity of training may be responsible for the small effect size seen and/or absence of carry-over effects to an activity, e.g., walking. Therefore, an investigation of the effects of long-duration, high-intensity respiratory muscle training is warranted. This proposed protocol for a randomized clinical trial will examine the efficacy of high-intensity respiratory muscle training to increase strength and improve activity following a stroke. This study will be a two-arm, prospectively registered, randomized controlled trial, with blinded assessors. Thirty-eight individuals who have suffered a stroke will participate. The experimental group will undertake a 40-min of respiratory muscle training program, seven days/week, for eight weeks in their homes. Training loads will be increased weekly. The control group will undertake a sham respiratory muscle training program with equivalent duration and scheduling of training. The primary outcome will be the strength of the inspiratory muscles, measured as maximal inspiratory pressure. Secondary outcomes will include expiratory muscle strength, inspiratory muscle endurance, dyspnea, respiratory complications, and walking capacity. Outcomes will be collected by a researcher blinded to group allocation at baseline (Week 0), after intervention (Week 8), and one month beyond intervention (Week 12). High-intensity respiratory muscle training may have the potential to optimize the strength of the respiratory muscles following a stroke. If benefits are carried over to activity, the findings may have broader implications, since walking capacity has been shown to predict physical activity and community participation on this population. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Balance and Muscle Strength in Elderly Women Who Dance Samba

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Marcos Maurício; Alonso, Angelica Castilho; Peterson, Mark; Mochizuki, Luis; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa; Garcez-Leme, Luiz Eugênio

    2016-01-01

    Considering the growth of the aging population, and the increasing risk for falls and related morbidity, it is vital to seek efficient, comprehensive, and culturally relevant prevention programs for elderly people to reduce risks for falls. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the postural balance and muscle strength among women participating in the "Wing of Baianas" in the carnival parades. One hundred and ten women, with an average age of 67.4±5.9 years, were divided into two groups: Baianas group—elderly participants of the carnival parades in the “Wing of Baianas”, and a Control group of women who do not dance samba. Assessments included a physical activity questionnaire, isokinetic muscle strength testing for the knee extensors and flexors, and a postural balance assessment completed on a force platform. There were no differences between groups, for postural balance outcomes, during the eyes open condition; however, with eyes closed, there was a significant effect between groups (Baianas vs Control) in all variables. The Baianas group showed less medio-lateral displacement (p < 0.04); and anteroposterior displacement (p < 0.007); larger amplitudes of medio-lateral displacement (p < 0.001); and anteroposterior displacement (p < 0.001); increased mean velocity (p < 0.01); and elliptical area (p < 0.01) There were no differences in the isokinetic peak torque corrected by body weight, total work and flexor/extensor ratio. Participation in the Wing of Baianas is associated with better balance with closed eyes, but there were no differences between dancers and non-dancers for muscle strength. PMID:27906984

  16. Back muscle strength, lifting, and stooped working postures.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, E; Jørgensen, K

    1971-09-01

    When lifting loads and working in a forward stooped position, the muscles of the back rather than the ligaments and bony structures of the spine should overcome the gravitational forces. Formulae, based on measurements of back muscle strength, for prediction of maximal loads to be lifted, and for the ability to sustain work in a stooped position, have been worked out and tested in practical situations. From tests with 50 male and female subjects the simplest prediction formulae for maximum loads were: max. load = 1.10 x isometric back muscle strength for men; and max. load = 0.95 x isometric back muscle strength - 8 kg for women. Some standard values for maximum lifts and permissible single and repeated lifts have been calculated for men and women separately and are given in Table 1. From tests with 65 rehabilitees it was found that the maximum isometric strength of the back muscles measured at shoulder height should exceed 2/3 of the body weight, if fatigue and/or pain in the back muscles is to be avoided during work in a standing stooped position.

  17. Muscle strength and golf performance: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Torres-Ronda, Lorena; Sánchez-Medina, Luis; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2011-01-01

    Golf has become an increasingly popular sport and a growing body of research trying to identify its main physical requirements is being published. The aim of this review was twofold: first, to examine the existing scientific literature regarding strength training and golf in healthy, non-injured, subjects; and second, to reach conclusions that could provide information on how to design more effective strength training programs to improve golf performance as well as directions for future research. Studies which analyzed the relationship between muscle strength, swing performance variables (club head speed, driving distance, ball speed) and skill (handicap, score) were reviewed. Changes in swing performance following different strength training programs were also investigated. Finally, a critical analysis about the methodologies used was carried out. The results of the reviewed studies seem to indicate that: 1) a positive relationship exists between handicap and swing performance (even though few studies have investigated this issue); 2) there is a positive correlation between skill (handicap and/or score) and muscle strength; and 3) there is a relationship between driving distance, swing speed, ball speed and muscle strength. Results suggest that training leg-hip and trunk power as well as grip strength is especially relevant for golf performance improvement. Studies that analyzed variations in swing performance following resistance-only training programs are scarce, thus it is difficult to prove whether the observed improvements are attributable to changes in strength levels. Many of the studies reviewed presented some methodological errors in their design and not all strength assessment protocols seemed appropriate. Further studies should determine muscle strength needs in relation to final swing performance, using well designed experiments and strict isoinertial assessment protocols which adequately relate to specific golf motion, age and skill level. More

  18. Muscle Strength And Golf Performance: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Ronda, Lorena; Sánchez-Medina, Luis; González-Badillo, Juan J.

    2011-01-01

    Golf has become an increasingly popular sport and a growing body of research trying to identify its main physical requirements is being published. The aim of this review was twofold: first, to examine the existing scientific literature regarding strength training and golf in healthy, non-injured, subjects; and second, to reach conclusions that could provide information on how to design more effective strength training programs to improve golf performance as well as directions for future research. Studies which analyzed the relationship between muscle strength, swing performance variables (club head speed, driving distance, ball speed) and skill (handicap, score) were reviewed. Changes in swing performance following different strength training programs were also investigated. Finally, a critical analysis about the methodologies used was carried out. The results of the reviewed studies seem to indicate that: 1) a positive relationship exists between handicap and swing performance (even though few studies have investigated this issue); 2) there is a positive correlation between skill (handicap and/or score) and muscle strength; and 3) there is a relationship between driving distance, swing speed, ball speed and muscle strength. Results suggest that training leg-hip and trunk power as well as grip strength is especially relevant for golf performance improvement. Studies that analyzed variations in swing performance following resistance-only training programs are scarce, thus it is difficult to prove whether the observed improvements are attributable to changes in strength levels. Many of the studies reviewed presented some methodological errors in their design and not all strength assessment protocols seemed appropriate. Further studies should determine muscle strength needs in relation to final swing performance, using well designed experiments and strict isoinertial assessment protocols which adequately relate to specific golf motion, age and skill level. More

  19. Autism Severity and Muscle Strength: A Correlation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Janet K.; Geier, David A.; Adams, James B.; Troutman, Melissa R.; Davis, Georgia; King, Paul G.; Young, John L.; Geier, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between muscle strength, as measured by hand grip strength, and autism severity, as measured by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Thirty-seven (37) children with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were evaluated using the CARS and then tested for hand muscle strength using a hand grip…

  20. Age at spinal cord injury determines muscle strength

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Christine K.; Grumbles, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    As individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) age they report noticeable deficits in muscle strength, endurance and functional capacity when performing everyday tasks. These changes begin at ~45 years. Here we present a cross-sectional analysis of paralyzed thenar muscle and motor unit contractile properties in two datasets obtained from different subjects who sustained a cervical SCI at different ages (≤46 years) in relation to data from uninjured age-matched individuals. First, completely paralyzed thenar muscles were weaker when C6 SCI occurred at an older age. Muscles were also significantly weaker if the injury was closer to the thenar motor pools (C6 vs. C4). More muscles were strong (>50% uninjured) in those injured at a younger (≤25 years) vs. young age (>25 years), irrespective of SCI level. There was a reduction in motor unit numbers in all muscles tested. In each C6 SCI, only ~30 units survived vs. 144 units in uninjured subjects. Since intact axons only sprout 4–6 fold, the limits for muscle reinnervation have largely been met in these young individuals. Thus, any further reduction in motor unit numbers with time after these injuries will likely result in chronic denervation, and may explain the late-onset muscle weakness routinely described by people with SCI. In a second dataset, paralyzed thenar motor units were more fatigable than uninjured units. This gap widened with age and will reduce functional reserve. Force declines were not due to electromyographic decrements in either group so the site of failure was beyond excitation of the muscle membrane. Together, these results suggest that age at SCI is an important determinant of long-term muscle strength, and fatigability, both of which influence functional capacity. PMID:24478643

  1. Effects of whole-body vibration on muscle architecture, muscle strength, and balance in stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Marín, Pedro J; Ferrero, Cristina M; Menéndez, Héctor; Martín, Juan; Herrero, Azael J

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of whole-body vibration on lower limb muscle architecture, muscle strength, and balance in stroke patients during a period of 3 mos. The inclusion criteria were having had ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke at least 6 mos before the study and a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of greater than 1 and less than 20. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: an experimental group (n = 11, six men and five women; age, 62.4 ± 10.7 yrs; height, 1.64 ± 0.07 m; mass, 69.4 ± 12.9 kg) and a sham group (n = 9, five men and four women; age, 64.4 ± 7.6 yrs; height, 1.62 ± 0.07 m; mass, 75.0 ± 15.8 kg). The experimental group received a whole-body vibration treatment, with an increase in frequency, sets, and time per set during 17 sessions. The sham group performed the same exercises as that of the experimental group but was not exposed to vibration. Outcome variables included the muscle architecture (the rectus femoris, the vastus lateralis, and the medial gastrocnemius), the maximal isometric voluntary contraction of the knee extensors, and the Berg Balance Scale. There were no significant differences between the groups on the primary outcomes of lower limb muscle architecture, muscle strength, and balance. It seems that whole-body vibration exercise does not augment the increase in neuromuscular performance and lower limb muscle architecture induced by isometric exercise alone in stroke patients.

  2. Chronic Effects of Different Rest Intervals Between Sets on Dynamic and Isometric Muscle Strength and Muscle Activity in Trained Older Women.

    PubMed

    Jambassi Filho, José Claudio; Gurjão, André Luiz Demantova; Ceccato, Marilia; Prado, Alexandre Konig Garcia; Gallo, Luiza Herminia; Gobbi, Sebastião

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the chronic effects of different rest intervals (RIs) between sets on dynamic and isometric muscle strength and muscle activity. We used a repeated-measures design (pretraining and posttraining) with independent groups (different RI). Twenty-one resistance-trained older women (66.4 ± 4.4 years) were randomly assigned to either a 1-minute RI group (G-1 min; n = 10) or 3-minute RI group (G-3 min; n = 11). Both groups completed 3 supervised sessions per week during 8 weeks. In each session, participants performed 3 sets of 15 repetitions of leg press exercise, with a load that elicited muscle failure in the third set. Fifteen maximum repetitions, maximal voluntary contraction, peak rate of force development, and integrated electromyography activity of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles were assessed pretraining and posttraining. There was a significant increase in load of 15 maximum repetitions posttraining for G-3 min only (3.6%; P < 0.05). However, posttraining results showed no significant differences between G-1 min and G-3 min groups for all dependent variables (P > 0.05). The findings suggest that different RIs between sets did not influence dynamic and isometric muscle strength and muscle activity in resistance-trained older women.

  3. Exploring the Link between Serum Phosphate Levels and Low Muscle Strength, Dynapenia, and Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-Yuei; Kao, Tung-Wei; Chou, Cheng-Wai; Wu, Chen-Jung; Yang, Hui-Fang; Lai, Ching-Huang; Wu, Li-Wei; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2018-02-23

    Emerging evidences addressed an association between phosphate and muscle function. Because little attention was focused on this issue, the objective of our study was to explore the relationship of phosphate with muscle strength, dynapenia, and sarcopenia. From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 7421 participants aged 20 years or older were included in our study with comprehensive examinations included anthropometric parameters, strength of the quadriceps muscle, and appendicular lean masses. Within the normal range of serum phosphate, we used quartile-based analyses to determine the potential relationships of serum phosphate with dynapenia, and sarcopenia through multivariate regression models. After adjusting for the pertinent variables, an inverse association between the serum phosphate quartiles and muscle strength was observed and the linear association was stronger than other anthropometric parameters. Notably, the significant association between phosphate and muscle strength was existed in >65 years old age group, not in 20-65 years old. The higher quartiles of phosphate had higher likelihood for predicting the presence of dynapenia rather than sarcopenia in entire population. Our study highlighted that higher quartiles of phosphate had significant association with lower muscle strength and higher risks for predicting the presence of dynapenia.

  4. Exercise capacity, muscle strength and fatigue in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Marcellis, R G J; Lenssen, A F; Elfferich, M D P; De Vries, J; Kassim, S; Foerster, K; Drent, M

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the prevalence of exercise intolerance, muscle weakness and fatigue in sarcoidosis patients. Additionally, we evaluated whether fatigue can be explained by exercise capacity, muscle strength or other clinical characteristics (lung function tests, radiographic stages, prednisone usage and inflammatory markers). 124 sarcoidosis patients (80 males) referred to the Maastricht University Medical Centre (Maastricht, the Netherlands) were included (mean age 46.6±10.2 yrs). Patients performed a 6-min walk test (6MWT) and handgrip force (HGF), elbow flexor muscle strength (EFMS), quadriceps peak torque (QPT) and hamstring peak torque (HPT) tests. Maximal inspiratory pressure (P(I,max)) was recorded. All patients completed the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) questionnaire. The 6MWT was reduced in 45% of the population, while HGF, EFMS, QPT and HPT muscle strength were reduced in 15, 12, 27 and 18%, respectively. P(I,max) was reduced in 43% of the population. The majority of the patients (81%) reported fatigue (FAS ≥22). Patients with reduced peripheral muscle strength of the upper and/or lower extremities were more fatigued and demonstrated impaired lung functions, fat-free mass, P(I,max), 6MWT and quality of life. Fatigue was neither predicted by exercise capacity, nor by muscle strength. Besides fatigue, exercise intolerance and muscle weakness are frequent problems in sarcoidosis. We therefore recommend physical tests in the multidisciplinary management of sarcoidosis patients, even in nonfatigued patients.

  5. Cut points of muscle strength associated with metabolic syndrome in men.

    PubMed

    Sénéchal, Martin; McGavock, Jonathan M; Church, Timothy S; Lee, Duck-Chul; Earnest, Conrad P; Sui, Xuemei; Blair, Steven N

    2014-08-01

    The loss of muscle strength with age increases the likelihood of chronic conditions, including metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the minimal threshold of muscle strength at which the risk for MetS increases has never been established. This study aimed to identify a threshold of muscle strength associated with MetS in men. We created receiver operating curves for muscle strength and the risk of MetS from a cross-sectional sample of 5685 men age <50 yr and 1541 men age ≥50 yr enrolled in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. The primary outcome measure, the MetS, was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Upper and lower body muscle strength was treated as a composite measure of one-repetition maximum tests on bench and leg press and scaled to body weight. Low muscle strength was defined as the lowest age-specific 20th percentile, whereas high muscle strength was defined as composite muscle strength above the 20th percentile. In men aged <50 yr, the odds of MetS were 2.20-fold (95% confidence interval = 1.89-2.54) higher in those with low muscle strength, independent of age, smoking, and alcohol intake. The strength of this association was similar for men age ≥50 yr (odds ratio = 2.11, 95% confidence interval = 1.62-2.74). In men age < 50 yr, the composite strength threshold associated with MetS was 2.57 kg·kg body weight, whereas in men age ≥ 50 yr the threshold was 2.35 kg·kg body weight. This study is the first to identify a threshold of muscle strength associated with an increased likelihood of MetS in men. Measures of muscle strength may help identify men at risk of chronic disease.

  6. Bone geometry, strength, and muscle size in runners with a history of stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Popp, Kristin L; Hughes, Julie M; Smock, Amanda J; Novotny, Susan A; Stovitz, Steven D; Koehler, Scott M; Petit, Moira A

    2009-12-01

    Our primary aim was to explore differences in estimates of tibial bone strength, in female runners with and without a history of stress fractures. Our secondary aim was to explore differences in bone geometry, volumetric density, and muscle size that may explain bone strength outcomes. A total of 39 competitive distance runners aged 18-35 yr, with (SFX, n = 19) or without (NSFX, n = 20) a history of stress fracture were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (XCT 3000; Orthometrix, White Plains, NY) was used to assess volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD, mg x mm(-3)), bone area (ToA, mm(2)), and estimated compressive bone strength (bone strength index (BSI) = ToA x total volumetric density (ToD(2))) at the distal tibia (4%). Total (ToA, mm(2)) and cortical (CoA, mm(2)) bone area, cortical vBMD, and estimated bending strength (strength-strain index (SSIp), mm(3)) were measured at the 15%, 25%, 33%, 45%, 50%, and 66% sites. Muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) was measured at the 50% and 66% sites. Participants in the SFX group had significantly smaller (7%-8%) CoA at the 45%, 50%, and 66% sites (P groups. After adjusting for MCSA, there were no differences between groups for any measured bone outcomes. These findings suggest that cortical bone strength, cortical area, and MCSA are all lower in runners with a history of stress fracture. However, the lower strength was appropriate for the smaller muscle size, suggesting that interventions to reduce stress fracture risk might be aimed at improving muscle size and strength.

  7. Weaker lower extremity muscle strength predicts traumatic knee injury in youth female but not male athletes.

    PubMed

    Ryman Augustsson, Sofia; Ageberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The role of lower extremity (LE) muscle strength for predicting traumatic knee injury in youth athletes is largely unknown. The aim was to investigate the influence of LE muscle strength on traumatic knee injury in youth female and male athletes. 225 athletes (40% females) from sport senior high schools in Sweden were included in this case-control study. The athletes recorded any traumatic knee injury that had occurred during their high-school period in a web-based injury form. A one repetition maximum (1RM) barbell squat test was used to measure LE muscle strength. The 1RM was dichotomised to analyse 'weak' versus 'strong' athletes according to the median (weak median vs strong median ). 63 traumatic knee injuries, including 18 ACL injuries, were registered. The majority of injured female athletes were in the weak group compared with the strong group (p=0.0001). The odds of sustaining a traumatic knee injury and an ACL injury was 9.5 times higher and 7 times higher, respectively, in the weak median group compared with the strong median group in females (p ≤0.011). A relative 1RM squat ≤1.05 kg (105% of bodyweight) was established as the best cut-off value to distinguish high versus low risk of injury in female athletes. No strength-injury relationships were observed for the male athletes (p ≥0.348). Weaker LE muscle strength predicted traumatic knee injury in youth female athletes, but not in males. This suggests that LE muscle strength should be included in injury screening in youth female athletes.

  8. Strength training prior to muscle injury potentiates low-level laser therapy (LLLT)-induced muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Morais, Samuel Rodrigues Lourenço; Goya, Alexandre Ginei; Urias, Úrsula; Jannig, Paulo Roberto; Bacurau, Aline Villa Nova; Mello, Wagner Garcez; Faleiros, Paula Lazilha; Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha; Garcia, Valdir Gouveia; Ervolino, Edilson; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated whether strength training (ST) performed prior to skeletal muscle cryolesion would act as a preconditioning, improving skeletal muscle regeneration and responsiveness to low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Wistar rats were randomly assigned into non-exercised (NE), NE plus muscle lesion (NE + LE), NE + LE plus LLLT (NE + LE + LLLT), strength training (ST), ST + LE, and ST + LE + LLLT. The animals performed 10 weeks of ST (climbing ladder; 3× week; 80% overload). Forty-eight hours after the last ST session, tibialis anterior (TA) cryolesion was induced and LLLT (InGaAlP, 660 nm, 0.035 W, 4.9 J/cm 2 /point, 3 points, spot light 0.028 cm 2 , 14 J/cm 2 ) initiated and conducted daily for 14 consecutive days. The difference between intergroups was assessed using Student's t test and intragroups by two-way analysis of variance. Cryolesion induced massive muscle degeneration associated with inflammatory infiltrate. Prior ST improved skeletal regeneration 14-days after cryolesion and potentiated the regenerative response to LLLT. Cryolesion induced increased TNF-α levels in both NE + LE and ST + LE groups. Both isolated ST and LLLT reduced TNF-α to control group levels; however, prior ST potentiated LLLT response. Both isolated ST and LLLT increased IL-10 levels with no additional effect. In contrast, increased TA IL-6 levels were restricted to ST and ST + LE + LLLT groups. TA myogenin mRNA levels were not changed by neither prior ST or ST + LLLT. Both prior ST and LLLT therapies increased MyoD mRNA levels and, interestingly, combined therapies potentiated this response. Myf5 mRNA levels were increased only in ST groups. Taken together, our data provides evidences for prior ST potentiating LLLT efficacy in promoting skeletal muscle regeneration.

  9. Pulmonary Function, Muscle Strength, and Incident Mobility Disability in Elders

    PubMed Central

    Buchman, Aron S.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Leurgans, Sue E.; Evans, Denis A.; Bennett, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Muscle strength, including leg strength and respiratory muscle strength, are relatively independently associated with mobility disability in elders. However, the factors linking muscle strength with mobility disability are unknown. To test the hypothesis that pulmonary function mediates the association of muscle strength with the development of mobility disability in elders, we used data from a longitudinal cohort study of 844 ambulatory elders without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project with a mean follow-up of 4.0 years (SD = 1.39). A composite measure of pulmonary function was based on spirometric measures of forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume, and peak expiratory flow. Respiratory muscle strength was based on maximal inspiratory pressure and expiratory pressure and leg strength based on hand-held dynamometry. Mobility disability was defined as a gait speed less than or equal to 0.55 m/s based on annual assessment of timed walk. Secondary analyses considered time to loss of the ability to ambulate. In separate proportional hazards models which controlled for age, sex, and education, composite measures of pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, and leg strength were each associated with incident mobility disability (all P values < 0.001). Further, all three were related to the development of incident mobility disability when considered together in a single model (pulmonary function: hazard ratio [HR], 0.721; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.577, 0.902; respiratory muscle strength: HR, 0.732; 95% CI, 0.593, 0.905; leg strength: HR, 0.791; 95% CI, 0.640, 0.976). Secondary analyses examining incident loss of the ability to ambulate revealed similar findings. Overall, these findings suggest that lower levels of pulmonary function and muscle strength are relatively independently associated with the development of mobility disability in the elderly. PMID:19934353

  10. Relationships between Lower Limb Muscle Strength and Locomotor Capacity in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy Who Walk Independently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferland, Chantale; Lepage, Celine; Moffet, Helene; Maltais, Desiree B.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify relationships between lower limb muscle strength and locomotor capacity for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) to identify key muscle groups for strength training. Fifty 6- to 16-year-olds with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I or II) participated. Isometric muscle strength of hip…

  11. Evaluation of rotator cuff muscle strength in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Paulo José Oliveira; Tomazini, José Elias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the strength generated by the rotator muscles of the shoulder joint between the right upper limb and left upper limb among healthy individuals. METHODS: To evaluate the muscle strength of upper limbs from isometric contractions in the horizontal direction (rotation) an isometric dynamometer was used, equipped with transducers, signal conditioning, a data acquisition board, and finally, a computer. Study participants were 22 male military subjects, aged between 18 and 19 years old, body mass between 57.7 and 93.0 kg (71.8 ± 9.45 kg) and height between 1.67 and 1.90 m (1.75 ± 0.06 m), healthy and without clinical diseases or any type of orthopedic injury in the muscle skeletal system. RESULTS: The internal rotation in the right upper limb (RUL) was higher than the average strength of internal rotation in the left upper limb (LUL) (p = 0.723). The external rotation strength in RUL was lower than the average strength of external rotation in the LUL (p=0.788). No statistical difference was observed by comparing the strength values of all isometric strength tests. CONCLUSION: For the sample and methodology used to assess muscle strength, there was no statistical difference between the strength generated by the muscles of the rotator cuff of the right and left upper limbs. Experimental Study. PMID:26207091

  12. Insulin resistance and muscle strength in older persons.

    PubMed

    Abbatecola, Angela M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ceda, Gianpaolo; Russo, Cosimo R; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barbieri, Michelangela; Valenti, Giorgio; Paolisso, Giuseppe

    2005-10-01

    The functional consequences of an age-related insulin resistance (IR) state on muscle functioning are unknown. Because insulin is needed for adequate muscle function, an age-related insulin-resistant state may also be a determining factor. We evaluated the relationship between IR and handgrip muscle strength in men and women from a large population-based study (n = 968). The degree of IR was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and muscle strength was assessed using handgrip. Simple sex-stratified correlations demonstrated that, in men, body mass index-adjusted handgrip strength correlated positively with physical activity (r = 0.321; p < .001), muscle area (r = 0.420; p < .001), muscle density (r = 0.263; p = .001), plasma albumin (r = 0.156; p = .001), insulin-like growth factor-1 (r = 0.258; p < .001), calcium (r = 0.140; p = .006), and testosterone (r = 0.325; p < .001) concentrations, whereas a negative association was found for age (r = -0.659; p < .001) and myoglobin plasma levels (r = -0.164; p =.001). In women, body mass index-adjusted handgrip strength correlated positively with physical activity (r = 0.280; p < .001), muscle area (r = 0.306; p < .001), muscle density (r = 0.341; p = .001), plasma albumin (r = 0.140; p =.001), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (r = 0.300; p < .001), whereas a negative association was found for age (r = -0.563; p < .001), myoglobin levels (r = -0.164; p = .001), and IR (r = -0.130; p = .04). Sex-stratified analyses adjusted for multiple confounders showed that the relationship between IR and handgrip strength was found significant in women, whereas it was negligible and not significant in men.

  13. Effects of Different Types of Exercise on Body Composition, Muscle Strength, and IGF-1 in the Elderly with Sarcopenic Obesity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Ting; Chung, Yu-Chun; Chen, Yu-Jen; Ho, Sung-Yen; Wu, Huey-June

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the influence of resistance training (RT), aerobic training (AT), or combination training (CT) interventions on the body composition, muscle strength performance, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) of patients with sarcopenic obesity. Randomized controlled trial. Community center and research center. Sixty men and women aged 65-75 with sarcopenic obesity. Participants were randomly assigned to RT, AT, CT, and control (CON) groups. After training twice a week for 8 weeks, the participants in each group ceased training for 4 weeks before being examined for the retention effects of the training interventions. The body composition, grip strength, maximum back extensor strength, maximum knee extensor muscle strength, and blood IGF-1 concentration were measured. The skeletal muscle mass (SMM), body fat mass, appendicular SMM/weight %, and visceral fat area (VFA) of the RT, AT, and CT groups were significantly superior to those of the CON group at both week 8 and week 12. Regarding muscle strength performance, the RT group exhibited greater grip strength at weeks 8 and 12 as well as higher knee extensor performance at week 8 than that of the other groups. At week 8, the serum IGF-1 concentration of the RT group was higher than the CON group, whereas the CT group was superior to the AT and CON groups. Older adults with sarcopenic obesity who engaged in the RT, AT, and CT interventions demonstrated increased muscle mass and reduced total fat mass and VFA compared with those without training. The muscle strength performance and serum IGF-1 level in trained groups, especially in the RT group, were superior to the control group. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Preferential reduction of quadriceps over respiratory muscle strength and bulk after lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pinet, C; Scillia, P; Cassart, M; Lamotte, M; Knoop, C; Mélot, C; Estenne, M

    2004-09-01

    In the absence of complications, recipients of lung transplants for cystic fibrosis have normal pulmonary function but the impact of the procedure on the strength and bulk of respiratory and limb muscles has not been studied. Twelve stable patients who had undergone lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis 48 months earlier (range 8-95) and 12 normal subjects matched for age, height, and sex were studied. The following parameters were measured: standard lung function, peak oxygen uptake by cycle ergometry, diaphragm surface area by computed tomographic (CT) scanning, diaphragm and abdominal muscle thickness by ultrasonography, twitch transdiaphragmatic and gastric pressures, quadriceps isokinetic strength, and quadriceps cross section by CT scanning, and lean body mass. Diaphragm mass was computed from diaphragm surface area and thickness. Twitch transdiaphragmatic and gastric pressures, diaphragm mass, and abdominal muscle thickness were similar in the two groups but quadriceps strength and cross section were decreased by nearly 30% in the patients. Patients had preserved quadriceps strength per unit cross section but reduced quadriceps cross section per unit lean body mass. The cumulative dose of corticosteroids was an independent predictor of quadriceps atrophy. Peak oxygen uptake showed positive correlations with quadriceps strength and cross section in the two groups, but peak oxygen uptake per unit quadriceps strength or cross section was reduced in the patient group. The diaphragm and abdominal muscles have preserved strength and bulk in patients transplanted for cystic fibrosis but the quadriceps is weak due to muscle atrophy. This atrophy is caused in part by corticosteroid therapy and correlates with the reduction in exercise capacity.

  15. Muscle strength and fatigue in newly diagnosed patients with myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Vinge, Lotte; Andersen, Henning

    2016-10-01

    Dynamometry is increasingly used as an objective measurement of muscle strength in neurological diseases. No study has applied dynamometry in untreated newly diagnosed patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). Isometric muscle strength at the shoulder, knee, and ankle was determined in 21 MG patients before and after initial anti-myasthenic treatment. Isometric strength was compared with MG evaluation scales. Muscle strength was reduced for knee extensors and shoulder abductors but normal for ankle extensors. Isometric muscle strength did not correlate significantly with manual muscle testing (MG Composite). Dynamometry revealed improved muscle strength of up to 50% (median 17%; range -1.8-49.8) despite no change in the MG Composite score. Dynamometry appears to be a more sensitive method of identifying changes in limb strength than MG evaluation scales. This supports the use of dynamometry in MG patients, especially for evaluation of the effect of anti-myasthenic treatment. Muscle Nerve 54: 709-714, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Muscle strength of the cervical and lumbar spine in triathletes].

    PubMed

    Miltner, O; Siebert, C H; Müller-Rath, R; Kieffer, O

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this study was to analyse the muscle strength of the cervical and lumbar spine in ironman triathletes. The values were compared to the results obtained from a reference group. The test of the triathletes was carried out in an attempt to define a specific strength profile for these athletes. In this study, 20 long-distance triathletes (∅ 37.3 ± 7.6 years of age, ∅ 1.80 ± 0.1 m, ∅ 73.7 ± 6.0 kg) were evaluated with regard to their individual and sport-specific strengths of the cervical spine in 2 planes and of the trunk strengths in all 3 planes of motion. The trunk strength profile of the triathletes revealed good average results in the trunk extensors and the lateral flexors of the left trunk. The reference group is the data base of the company Proxomed®, Alzenau. It is based on results of 1045 untrained, symptom-free subjects of different ages. Lumbar extension: The extension of the force values shows no significant difference from the reference group. Lumbar flexion: The flexion tests show highly significantly lower force values (5.025 ± 0.81 N/kg vs. 6.67 ± 0.6 N/kg) than the reference group. Flexion/extension: In the sagittal plane values for the triathletes demonstrate an imbalance in muscle strength ratios. The abdominal muscles turn in relation to the back extensor muscles too weakly to be very significant. Lumbar rotation: The force values of the athletes in both directions (right: 6.185 ± 1.46 N/kg, left: 7.1 ± 1.57 N/kg vs. 10.05 ± 0.34 N/kg) are highly significantly (p ≤ 0.001) lower than the reference values. Ratio of rotation left/right: The ratio of left/right rotation in the reference group is set at 1 and thus shows an equally strong force level between the two sides. Lumbar lateral flexion: The triathletes do not show any significant differences between the force values. Compared to the reference group there is no significant difference to the left side flexion. In the lateral bending the athletes have significantly

  17. Functional polymorphisms associated with human muscle size and strength.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Paul D; Moyna, Niall; Seip, Richard; Price, Thomas; Clarkson, Priscilla; Angelopoulos, Theodore; Gordon, Paul; Pescatello, Linda; Visich, Paul; Zoeller, Robert; Devaney, Joseph M; Gordish, Heather; Bilbie, Stephen; Hoffman, Eric P

    2004-07-01

    Skeletal muscle is critically important to human performance and health, but little is known of the genetic factors influencing muscle size, strength, and its response to exercise training. The Functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) Associated with Muscle Size and Strength, or FAMuSS, Study is a multicenter, NIH-funded program to examine the influence of gene polymorphisms on skeletal muscle size and strength before and after resistance exercise training. One thousand men and women, age 18 - 40 yr, will train their nondominant arm for 12 wk. Skeletal muscle size (magnetic resonance imaging) and isometric and dynamic strength will be measured before and after training. Individuals whose baseline values or response to training deviate > or = 1.5 SD will be defined as outliers and examined for genetic variants. Initially candidate genes previously associated with muscle performance will be examined, but the study will ultimately attempt to identify genes associated with muscle performance. FAMuSS should help identify genetic factors associated with muscle performance and the response to exercise training. Such insight should contribute to our ability to predict the individual response to exercise training but may also contribute to understanding better muscle physiology, to identifying individuals who are susceptible to muscle loss with environmental challenge, and to developing pharmacologic agents capable of preserving muscle size and function.

  18. Effect of neck muscle strength and anticipatory cervical muscle activation on the kinematic response of the head to impulsive loads.

    PubMed

    Eckner, James T; Oh, Youkeun K; Joshi, Monica S; Richardson, James K; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2014-03-01

    Greater neck strength and activating the neck muscles to brace for impact are both thought to reduce an athlete's risk of concussion during a collision by attenuating the head's kinematic response after impact. However, the literature reporting the neck's role in controlling postimpact head kinematics is mixed. Furthermore, these relationships have not been examined in the coronal or transverse planes or in pediatric athletes. In each anatomic plane, peak linear velocity (ΔV) and peak angular velocity (Δω) of the head are inversely related to maximal isometric cervical muscle strength in the opposing direction (H1). Under impulsive loading, ΔV and Δω will be decreased during anticipatory cervical muscle activation compared with the baseline state (H2). Descriptive laboratory study. Maximum isometric neck strength was measured in each anatomic plane in 46 male and female contact sport athletes aged 8 to 30 years. A loading apparatus applied impulsive test forces to athletes' heads in flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and axial rotation during baseline and anticipatory cervical muscle activation conditions. Multivariate linear mixed models were used to determine the effects of neck strength and cervical muscle activation on head ΔV and Δω. Greater isometric neck strength and anticipatory activation were independently associated with decreased head ΔV and Δω after impulsive loading across all planes of motion (all P < .001). Inverse relationships between neck strength and head ΔV and Δω presented moderately strong effect sizes (r = 0.417 to r = 0.657), varying by direction of motion and cervical muscle activation. In male and female athletes across the age spectrum, greater neck strength and anticipatory cervical muscle activation ("bracing for impact") can reduce the magnitude of the head's kinematic response. Future studies should determine whether neck strength contributes to the observed sex and age group differences in concussion incidence. Neck

  19. Respiratory Muscle Strength Predicts Decline in Mobility in Older Persons

    PubMed Central

    Buchman, A.S.; Boyle, P.A.; Wilson, R.S.; Leurgans, S.; Shah, R.C.; Bennett, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that respiratory muscle strength is associated with the rate of change in mobility even after controlling for leg strength and physical activity. Methods Prospective study of 890 ambulatory older persons without dementia who underwent annual clinical evaluations to examine change in the rate of mobility over time. Results In a linear mixed-effect model adjusted for age, sex, and education, mobility declined about 0.12 unit/year, and higher levels of respiratory muscle strength were associated with a slower rate of mobility decline (estimate 0.043, SE 0.012, p < 0.001). Respiratory muscle strength remained associated with the rate of change in mobility even after controlling for lower extremity strength (estimate 0.036, SE 0.012, p = 0.004). In a model that included terms for respiratory muscle strength, lower extremity strength and physical activity together, all three were independent predictors of mobility decline in older persons. These associations remained significant even after controlling for body composition, global cognition, the development of dementia, parkinsonian signs, possible pulmonary disease, smoking, joint pain and chronic diseases. Conclusion Respiratory muscle strength is associated with mobility decline in older persons independent of lower extremity strength and physical activity. Clinical interventions to improve respiratory muscle strength may decrease the burden of mobility impairment in the elderly. PMID:18784416

  20. Association of postural balance and isometric muscle strength in early- and middle-school-age boys.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Alaa I; Muaidi, Qassim I; Abdelsalam, Mohammed S; Hawamdeh, Ziad M; Alhusaini, Adel A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the isometric muscle strength (IMS) and dynamic balance in early- and middle-school-age boys and to assess the strength of association between the dynamic balance scores and 6 different IMS indexes. This is a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 94 boys who were 6 to 10 years of age and classified into an early school age (6-8 years) group (n = 50) and a middle school age (8-10 years) group (n = 44). Balance was tested using a Biodex Balance System. Anteroposterior Stability Index, Mediolateral Stability Index, and Overall Stability Index were recorded. IMS of 11 muscle groups was measured with a handheld dynamometer and categorized into 6 different muscle strength indices. The mean (SD) values of anteroposterior, mediolateral, and overall stability indexes observed for all study boys were 1.9 ± 1.0, 1.2 ± 0.7, and 2.5 ± 1.2 respectively. In the middle school age group, strong positive relationships were detected between the overall stability index and trunk, lower limb, anti-gravity, pro-gravity, and total strength indexes (r = -0.86/P < .001, r = -0.91/P < .001, r = -0.88/P < .001, r = -0.83/P < .001, and r = -0.84/P < .001 respectively), while no significant relationship was detected with the upper limb strength index (r = 0.159/P = .303). In the early school age group, moderate positive relationships were detected between the overall stability index and anti-gravity, lower limb, and total strength indexes (r = -0.404/P = .004, r = -0.356/P = .011, and r = -0.350/P = .013 respectively). Dynamic balance did not appear to be mature by the age of 10 years. Better balance skills were recorded in the mediolateral direction than in the anteroposterior direction. In the middle school age group, the overall stability index had positive relationships with almost all examined muscle strength indexes excepting the upper limb strength index. © 2013. Published by National University of Health Sciences All rights

  1. Effects of long term Tai Chi practice and jogging exercise on muscle strength and endurance in older people.

    PubMed

    Xu, D Q; Li, J X; Hong, Y

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the influence of regular Tai Chi (TC) practice and jogging on muscle strength and endurance in the lower extremities of older people. Twenty one long term older TC practitioners were compared with 18 regular older joggers and 22 sedentary counterparts. Maximum concentric strength of knee flexors and extensors was tested at angular velocities of 30 degrees/s and 120 degrees/s. Ankle dorsiflexors and plantar flexors were tested at 30 degrees/s and the dynamic endurance of the knee flexors and extensors was assessed at a speed of 180 degrees/s. The differences in the muscle strength of the knee joint amongst the three experimental groups were significant at the higher velocity. The strengths of knee extensors and flexors in the control group were significantly lower than those in the jogging group and marginally lower than those in the TC group. For the ankle joint, the subjects in both the TC and jogging groups generated more torque in their ankle dorsiflexors. In addition, the muscle endurance of knee extensors was more pronounced in TC practitioners than in controls. Regular older TC practitioners and joggers showed better scores than the sedentary controls on most muscle strength and endurance measures. However, the magnitude of the exercise effects on muscles might depend on the characteristics of different types of exercise.

  2. Quantitative muscle ultrasound and quadriceps strength in patients with post-polio syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bickerstaffe, Alice; Beelen, Anita; Zwarts, Machiel J; Nollet, Frans; van Dijk, Johannes P

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether muscle ultrasound can distinguish muscles affected by post-polio syndrome (PPS) from healthy muscles and whether severity of ultrasound abnormalities is associated with muscle strength. Echo intensity, muscle thickness, and isometric strength of the quadriceps muscles were measured in 48 patients with PPS and 12 healthy controls. Patients with PPS had significantly higher echo intensity and lower muscle thickness than healthy controls. In patients, both echo intensity and muscle thickness were associated independently with muscle strength. A combined measure of echo intensity and muscle thickness was more strongly related to muscle strength than either parameter alone. Quantitative ultrasound distinguishes healthy muscles from those affected by PPS, and measures of muscle quality and quantity are associated with muscle strength. Hence, ultrasound could be a useful tool for assessing disease severity and monitoring changes resulting from disease progression or clinical intervention in patients with PPS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effects of core instability strength training on trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in older adults.

    PubMed

    Granacher, Urs; Lacroix, Andre; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Roettger, Katrin; Gollhofer, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Age-related postural misalignment, balance deficits and strength/power losses are associated with impaired functional mobility and an increased risk of falling in seniors. Core instability strength training (CIT) involves exercises that are challenging for both trunk muscles and postural control and may thus have the potential to induce benefits in trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility and balance performance. The objective was to investigate the effects of CIT on measures of trunk muscle strength, spinal mobility, dynamic balance and functional mobility in seniors. Thirty-two older adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group (INT; n = 16, aged 70.8 ± 4.1 years) that conducted a 9-week progressive CIT or to a control group (n = 16, aged 70.2 ± 4.5 years). Maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors/extensors/lateral flexors (right, left)/rotators (right, left) as well as of spinal mobility in the sagittal and the coronal plane was measured before and after the intervention program. Dynamic balance (i.e. walking 10 m on an optoelectric walkway, the Functional Reach test) and functional mobility (Timed Up and Go test) were additionally tested. Program compliance was excellent with participants of the INT group completing 92% of the training sessions. Significant group × test interactions were found for the maximal isometric strength of the trunk flexors (34%, p < 0.001), extensors (21%, p < 0.001), lateral flexors (right: 48%, p < 0.001; left: 53%, p < 0.001) and left rotators (42%, p < 0.001) in favor of the INT group. Further, training-related improvements were found for spinal mobility in the sagittal (11%, p < 0.001) and coronal plane (11%, p = 0.06) directions, for stride velocity (9%, p < 0.05), the coefficient of variation in stride velocity (31%, p < 0.05), the Functional Reach test (20%, p < 0.05) and the Timed Up and Go test (4%, p < 0.05) in favor of the INT group. CIT proved to be a feasible exercise program for seniors with a high

  4. Post-exercise cold water immersion attenuates acute anabolic signalling and long-term adaptations in muscle to strength training

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Llion A; Raastad, Truls; Markworth, James F; Figueiredo, Vandre C; Egner, Ingrid M; Shield, Anthony; Cameron-Smith, David; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We investigated functional, morphological and molecular adaptations to strength training exercise and cold water immersion (CWI) through two separate studies. In one study, 21 physically active men strength trained for 12 weeks (2 days per week), with either 10 min of CWI or active recovery (ACT) after each training session. Strength and muscle mass increased more in the ACT group than in the CWI group (P < 0.05). Isokinetic work (19%), type II muscle fibre cross-sectional area (17%) and the number of myonuclei per fibre (26%) increased in the ACT group (all P < 0.05), but not the CWI group. In another study, nine active men performed a bout of single-leg strength exercises on separate days, followed by CWI or ACT. Muscle biopsies were collected before and 2, 24 and 48 h after exercise. The number of satellite cells expressing neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (10−30%) and paired box protein (Pax7) (20−50%) increased 24–48 h after exercise with ACT. The number of NCAM+ satellite cells increased 48 h after exercise with CWI. NCAM+- and Pax7+-positive satellite cell numbers were greater after ACT than after CWI (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of p70S6 kinaseThr421/Ser424 increased after exercise in both conditions but was greater after ACT (P < 0.05). These data suggest that CWI attenuates the acute changes in satellite cell numbers and activity of kinases that regulate muscle hypertrophy, which may translate to smaller long-term training gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy. The use of CWI as a regular post-exercise recovery strategy should be reconsidered. Key points Cold water immersion is a popular strategy to recover from exercise. However, whether regular cold water immersion influences muscle adaptations to strength training is not well understood. We compared the effects of cold water immersion and active recovery on changes in muscle mass and strength after 12 weeks of strength training. We also examined the effects of these

  5. Decreased Muscle Strength Relates to Self-Reported Stooping, Crouching, or Kneeling Difficulty in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Allon; Alexander, Neil B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Bending down and kneeling are fundamental tasks of daily living, yet nearly a quarter of older adults report having difficulty performing or being unable to perform these movements. Older adults with stooping, crouching, or kneeling (SCK) difficulty have demonstrated an increased fall risk. Strength (force-generating capacity) measures may be useful for determining both SCK difficulty and fall risk. Objective The purposes of this study were: (1) to examine muscle strength differences in older adults with and without SCK difficulty and (2) to examine the relative contributions of trunk and leg muscle strength to SCK difficulty. Design This was a cross-sectional observational study. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (age [X̅±SD]=75.5±6.0 years) with SCK difficulty (n=27) or without SCK difficulty (n=21) were tested for leg and trunk strength and functional mobility. Isometric strength at the trunk, hip, knee, and ankle also was normalized by body weight and height. Results Compared with older adults with no SCK difficulty, those with SCK difficulty had significant decreases in normalized trunk extensor, knee extensor, and ankle dorsiflexor and plantar-flexor strength. In 2 separate multivariate analyses, raw ankle plantar-flexor strength (odds ratio [OR]=0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.95–0.99) and normalized knee extensor strength (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44–0.82) were significantly associated with SCK difficulty. Stooping, crouching, and kneeling difficulty also correlated with measures of functional balance and falls. Limitations Although muscle groups that were key to rising from SCK were examined, there are other muscle groups that may contribute to safe SCK performance. Conclusions Decreased muscle strength, particularly when normalized for body size, predicts SCK difficulty. These data emphasize the importance of strength measurement at multiple levels in predicting self-reported functional impairment. PMID:19942678

  6. Hyperandrogenism Enhances Muscle Strength After Progressive Resistance Training, Independent of Body Composition, in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kogure, Gislaine S; Silva, Rafael C; Miranda-Furtado, Cristiana L; Ribeiro, Victor B; Pedroso, Daiana C C; Melo, Anderson S; Ferriani, Rui A; Reis, Rosana Maria Dos

    2018-06-20

    Kogure, GS, Silva, RC, Miranda-Furtado, CL, Ribeiro, VB, Pedroso, DCC, Melo, AS, Ferriani, RA, and Reis, RMd. Hyperandrogenism enhances muscle strength after progressive resistance training, independent of body composition, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The effects of resistance exercise on muscle strength, body composition, and increase in cross-sectional area of skeletal muscle (hypertrophy) were evaluated in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This case-control study included 45 PCOS and 52 non-PCOS women, with age between 18-37 years and body mass index of 18-39.9 kg·m. Subjects performed a program of progressive resistance training (PRT), 3 times per week for 4 months. Biochemical characteristics were measured before and after PRT. Muscle strength evaluated by 1 maximum repetition test and body composition and hypertrophy indicator, evaluated by anthropometry, were measured at baseline, at 8 weeks, and at 16 weeks after PRT. Progressive resistance training produced an increase in maximum strength (bench press, p = 0.04; leg extension, p = 0.04) in the PCOS group; however, no changes were observed in body composition between groups. Concentration of testosterone decreased in both PCOS and non-PCOS groups (p < 0.01, both) after PRT, as well as glycemia (PCOS, p = 0.01; non-PCOS, p = 0.02) and body fat percentage (p < 0.01, both). An increase in hypertrophy indicators, lean body mass (LBM), and maximum strength on all exercises was observed in both PCOS and non-PCOS groups (p < 0.01). This training protocol promoted increases in muscle strength in PCOS women, and improved hyperandrogenism and body composition by decreasing body fat and increasing LBM and muscle strength in both PCOS and non-PCOS groups. Therefore, it is suggested that resistance exercise programs could promote health and fitness in women of reproductive age, especially functional capacity of strength those with PCOS.

  7. Effects of isokinetic calf muscle exercise program on muscle strength and venous function in patients with chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Sabriye; Çetin, Cem; Yavuz, Turhan; Demir, Hilmi M; Atalay, Yurdagül B

    2018-05-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to observe the change of the ankle joint range of motion, the muscle strength values measured with an isokinetic dynamometer, pain scores, quality of life scale, and venous return time in chronic venous insufficiency diagnosed patients by prospective follow-up after 12-week exercise program including isokinetic exercises. Methods The patient group of this study comprised 27 patients (23 female, 4 male) who were diagnosed with chronic venous insufficiency. An exercise program including isokinetic exercise for the calf muscle was given to patients three days per week for 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks, five of the patients left the study due to inadequate compliance with the exercise program. As a result, control data of 22 patients were included. Ankle joint range of active motion, isokinetic muscle strength, pain, quality of life, and photoplethysmography measurements were assessed before starting and after the exercise program. Results Evaluating changes of the starting and control data depending on time showed that all isokinetic muscle strength measurement parameters, range of motion, and overall quality of life values of patients improved. Venous return time values have also increased significantly ( p < 0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, increase in muscle strength has been provided with exercise therapy in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. It has been determined that the increase in muscle strength affected the venous pump and this ensured improvement in venous function and range of motion of the ankle. In addition, it has been detected that pain reduced and quality of life improved after the exercise program.

  8. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, Jéssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-04-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12 weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60-75 years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n = 15) or power training group (PT; n = 15). Participants trained twice a week for 12 weeks using six exercises. The training protocol was designed to ascertain that participants exercised at an RPE of 13-18 (on a 6-20 scale). Maximal dynamic strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limb muscles were assessed. Maximal dynamic strength muscle strength leg press (≈58 %) and knee extension (≈20 %) increased significantly (p < 0.001) and similarly in both groups after training. Muscle power also increased with training (≈27 %; p < 0.05), with no difference between groups. Both groups also improved their functional performance after training period (≈13 %; p < 0.001), with no difference between groups. The present study showed that TRT and PT using RPE scale to control intensity were significantly and similarly effective in improving maximal strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limbs in elderly women.

  9. Changes in muscle strength in patients with statin myalgia.

    PubMed

    Panza, Gregory A; Taylor, Beth A; Roman, William; Thompson, Paul D

    2014-10-15

    Statins can produce myalgia or muscle pain, which may affect medication adherence. We measured the effects of statins on muscle strength in patients with previous statin myalgia. Leg isokinetic extension average power at 60° per second (-8.8 ± 10.5N-M, p = 0.02) and average peak torque at 60° per second (-14.0 ± 19.7N-M, p = 0.04) decreased slightly with statin use, but 8 of 10 other variables for leg strength did not change (all p >0.13). Handgrip, muscle pain, respiratory exchange ratio, and daily activity also did not change (all p >0.09). In conclusion, statin myalgia is not associated with reduced muscle strength or muscle performance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Early phase adaptations in muscle strength and hypertrophy as a result of low-intensity blood flow restriction resistance training.

    PubMed

    Hill, Ethan C; Housh, Terry J; Keller, Joshua L; Smith, Cory M; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O

    2018-06-22

    Low-intensity venous blood flow restriction (vBFR) resistance training has been shown to promote increases in muscle strength and size. Eccentric-only muscle actions are typically a more potent stimulus to increase muscle strength and size than concentric-only muscle actions performed at the same relative intensities. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the time-course of changes in muscle strength, hypertrophy, and neuromuscular adaptations following 4 weeks of unilateral forearm flexion low-intensity eccentric vBFR (Ecc-vBFR) vs. low-intensity concentric vBFR (Con-vBFR) resistance training performed at the same relative intensity. Thirty-six women were randomly assigned to either Ecc-vBFR (n = 12), Con-vBFR (n = 12) or control (no intervention, n = 12) group. Ecc-vBFR trained at 30% of eccentric peak torque and Con-vBFR trained at 30% of concentric peak torque. All training and testing procedures were performed at an isokinetic velocity of 120° s - ¹. Muscle strength increased similarly from 0 to 2 and 4 weeks of training as a result of Ecc-vBFR (13.9 and 35.0%) and Con-vBFR (13.4 and 31.2%), but there were no changes in muscle strength for the control group. Muscle thickness increased similarly from 0 to 2 and 4 weeks of training as a result of Ecc-vBFR (11.4 and 12.8%) and Con-vBFR (9.1 and 9.9%), but there were no changes for the control group. In addition, there were no changes in any of the neuromuscular responses. The Ecc-vBFR and Con-vBFR low-intensity training induced comparable increases in muscle strength and size. The increases in muscle strength, however, were not associated with neuromuscular adaptations.

  11. Balance and ankle muscle strength predict spatiotemporal gait parameters in individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Marcela R; Barela, José A; Nozabieli, Andréa J L; Mantovani, Alessandra M; Martinelli, Alessandra R; Fregonesi, Cristina E P T

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate aspects of balance, ankle muscle strength and spatiotemporal gait parameters in individuals with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and verify whether deficits in spatiotemporal gait parameters were associated with ankle muscle strength and balance performance. Thirty individuals with DPN and 30 control individuals have participated. Spatiotemporal gait parameters were evaluated by measuring the time to walk a set distance during self-selected and maximal walking speeds. Functional mobility and balance performance were assessed using the Functional Reach and the Time Up and Go tests. Ankle isometric muscle strength was assessed with a handheld digital dynamometer. Analyses of variance were employed to verify possible differences between groups and conditions. Multiple linear regression analysis was employed to uncover possible predictors of gait deficits. Gait spatiotemporal, functional mobility, balance performance and ankle muscle strength were affected in individuals with DPN. The Time Up and Go test performance and ankle muscle isometric strength were associated to spatiotemporal gait changes, especially during maximal walking speed condition. Functional mobility and balance performance are damaged in DPN and balance performance and ankle muscle strength can be used to predict spatiotemporal gait parameters in individuals with DPN. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of foot and ankle muscle strength using hand held dynamometry in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Matthew; Joyce, William; Brenton-Rule, Angela; Dalbeth, Nicola; Rome, Keith

    2013-03-22

    The foot and ankle are frequently affected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). One of the negative consequences of RA on the physical function of patients is a decrease in muscle strength. However, little is known about foot and muscle strength in this population. The aim of the study was to evaluate significant differences in foot and ankle muscle strength between patients with established RA against age and sex-matched controls using hand-held dynamometry. The maximal muscle strength of ankle plantarflexion, dorsiflexion, eversion and inversion was assessed in 14 patients with RA, mean (SD) disease duration of 22 (14.1) years, and 20 age and sex-matched control participants using hand-held dynamometry. Significant differences were observed in muscle strength between the two groups in plantarflexion (p = 0.00), eversion (p = 0.04) and inversion (p = 0.01). No significant difference was found in dorsiflexion (p > 0.05). The patients with RA displayed a significantly lower plantarflexion-dorsiflexion ratio than the control participants (p = 0.03). The results from this study showed that the RA patients displayed a significant decrease in ankle dorsiflexion, eversion and inversion when compared to the non-RA control group suggesting that foot and ankle muscle strength may be affected by the pathological processes in RA. This study is a preliminary step for the measurement of muscle impairments within the RA population.

  13. Assessment of foot and ankle muscle strength using hand held dynamometry in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The foot and ankle are frequently affected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). One of the negative consequences of RA on the physical function of patients is a decrease in muscle strength. However, little is known about foot and muscle strength in this population. The aim of the study was to evaluate significant differences in foot and ankle muscle strength between patients with established RA against age and sex-matched controls using hand-held dynamometry. Methods The maximal muscle strength of ankle plantarflexion, dorsiflexion, eversion and inversion was assessed in 14 patients with RA, mean (SD) disease duration of 22 (14.1) years, and 20 age and sex-matched control participants using hand-held dynamometry. Results Significant differences were observed in muscle strength between the two groups in plantarflexion (p = 0.00), eversion (p = 0.04) and inversion (p = 0.01). No significant difference was found in dorsiflexion (p > 0.05). The patients with RA displayed a significantly lower plantarflexion-dorsiflexion ratio than the control participants (p = 0.03). Conclusions The results from this study showed that the RA patients displayed a significant decrease in ankle dorsiflexion, eversion and inversion when compared to the non-RA control group suggesting that foot and ankle muscle strength may be affected by the pathological processes in RA. This study is a preliminary step for the measurement of muscle impairments within the RA population. PMID:23522448

  14. High-Intensity Strength Training Improves Function of Chronically Painful Muscles: Case-Control and RCT Studies

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Christoffer H.; Skotte, Jørgen H.; Suetta, Charlotte; Søgaard, Karen; Saltin, Bengt; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    Aim. This study investigates consequences of chronic neck pain on muscle function and the rehabilitating effects of contrasting interventions. Methods. Women with trapezius myalgia (MYA, n = 42) and healthy controls (CON, n = 20) participated in a case-control study. Subsequently MYA were randomized to 10 weeks of specific strength training (SST, n = 18), general fitness training (GFT, n = 16), or a reference group without physical training (REF, n = 8). Participants performed tests of 100 consecutive cycles of 2 s isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of shoulder elevation followed by 2 s relaxation at baseline and 10-week follow-up. Results. In the case-control study, peak force, rate of force development, and rate of force relaxation as well as EMG amplitude were lower in MYA than CON throughout all 100 MVC. Muscle fiber capillarization was not significantly different between MYA and CON. In the intervention study, SST improved all force parameters significantly more than the two other groups, to levels comparable to that of CON. This was seen along with muscle fiber hypertrophy and increased capillarization. Conclusion. Women with trapezius myalgia have lower strength capacity during repetitive MVC of the trapezius muscle than healthy controls. High-intensity strength training effectively improves strength capacity during repetitive MVC of the painful trapezius muscle. PMID:24707475

  15. Nutritional status, muscle mass and strength of elderly in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Klee Oehlschlaeger, Maria Helena; Alberici Pastore, Carla; Schüler Cavalli, Adriana; Gonzalez, Maria Cristina

    2014-09-17

    to assess and compare nutritional status and functional capacity of elderly goers of groups for guided physical activity or for guided recreational activities. Cross-sectional study with 210 elderly (60 years old or more) of coexistence groups (for physical or recreational activities). Nutritional status was assessed by the Mini Nutritional Assessment and Body Mass Index. Muscle mass was estimated by calf circumference (cut point of 31cm for both genders) and strength was evaluated by hydraulic dynamometer, which measures the opponent's finger maximal strength. The study was approved by Research Ethics Committee. Were enrolled 106 elderly in recreational group and 104 in physical activity group. Most of the sample (86.7%) were female. The mean age was 69.3 years old. Body Mass Index showed 82.9% of seniors with excessive weight (87.7% in recreational and 77.9% in physical activity group, p=0.04). When assessed by Mini Nutritional Assessment, 22.9% was classified as malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, with no difference between groups. The mean calf circumference was 37.3 ± 4.1 cm, decreasing significantly with aging (p=0.05) and being higher in elderly with higher BMI (p=0.001). Calf circumference was also greater in physical activity group. Muscle strength's mean was 6.77 (IQR: 5.83, 7.90) kg, with significantly higher values among men. There was no significant variation between age, nutritional status or between groups. This study presented as its main findings that most seniors showed no nutritional risk, with high prevalence of overweight. The practice of physical activities was associated with greater CP and greater functionality of the opposing finger muscles, which indicates the importance of maintaining physical activity in the aging process, in order to prevent frailty and disability. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Respiratory Muscle Strength in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Sik; Seo, Jeong-Hwan; Ko, Myoung-Hwan; Park, Sung-Hee; Kang, Seong-Woong; Won, Yu Hui

    2017-08-01

    To compare the respiratory muscle strength between patients with stable and acutely exacerbated (AE) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at various stages. A retrospective medical record review was conducted on patients with COPD from March 2014 to May 2016. Patients were subdivided into COPD stages 1-4 according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines: mild, moderate, severe, and very severe. A rehabilitation physician reviewed their medical records and initial assessment, including spirometry, maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), COPD Assessment Test, and modified Medical Research Council scale. We then compared the initial parameters in patients with a stable condition and those at AE status. The AE group (n=94) had significantly lower MIP (AE, 55.93±20.57; stable, 67.88±24.96; p=0.006) and MIP% (AE, 82.82±27.92; stable, 96.64±30.46; p=0.015) than the stable patient group (n=36). MIP, but not MEP, was proportional to disease severity in patients with AE and stable COPD. The strength of the inspiratory muscles may better reflect severity of disease when compared to that of expiratory muscles.

  17. Non-elite gymnastics participation is associated with greater bone strength, muscle size, and function in pre- and early pubertal girls.

    PubMed

    Burt, L A; Naughton, G A; Greene, D A; Courteix, D; Ducher, G

    2012-04-01

    Recent reports indicate an increase in forearm fractures in children. Bone geometric properties are an important determinant of bone strength and therefore fracture risk. Participation in non-elite gymnastics appears to contribute to improving young girls' musculoskeletal health, more specifically in the upper body. The primary aim of this study was to determine the association between non-elite gymnastics participation and upper limb bone mass, geometry, and strength in addition to muscle size and function in young girls. Eighty-eight pre- and early pubertal girls (30 high-training gymnasts [HGYM, 6-16 hr/ wk], 29 low-training gymnasts [LGYM, 1-5 h r/wk] and 29 non-gymnasts [NONGYM]), aged 6-11 years were recruited. Upper limb lean mass, BMD and BMC were derived from a whole body DXA scan. Forearm volumetric BMD, bone geometry, estimated strength, and muscle CSA were determined using peripheral QCT. Upper body muscle function was investigated with muscle strength, explosive power, and muscle endurance tasks. HGYM showed greater forearm bone strength compared with NGYM, as well as greater arm lean mass, BMC, and muscle function (+5% to +103%, p < 0.05). LGYM displayed greater arm lean mass, BMC, muscle power, and endurance than NGYM (+4% to +46%, p < 0.05); however, the difference in bone strength did not reach significance. Estimated fracture risk at the distal radius, which accounted for body weight, was lower in both groups of gymnasts. Compared with NONGYM, HGYM tended to show larger skeletal differences than LGYM; yet, the two groups of gymnasts only differed for arm lean mass and muscle CSA. Non-elite gymnastics participation was associated with musculoskeletal benefits in upper limb bone geometry, strength and muscle function. Differences between the two gymnastic groups emerged for arm lean mass and muscle CSA, but not for bone strength.

  18. Different Levels of Eccentric Resistance during Eight Weeks of Training Affect Muscle Strength and Lean Tissue Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, K. L.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laughlin, M. S.; Hagan, R. D.

    2008-01-01

    Coupling concentric and eccentric muscle contractions appears to be important in the development of muscle strength and hypertrophy. The interim Resistive Exercise Device (iRED) currently used aboard the International Space Station does not seem to be as effective as free weight training in ambulatory subjects and has not completely protected against muscular deconditioning due to space flight. The lack of protection during space flight could be caused by iRED's proportionally lower eccentric resistance (60-70%) compared to concentric resistance. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of 8 wks of lower body resistive exercise training using five levels of eccentric resistance on muscle strength and lean tissue mass. METHODS: Forty untrained males (34.9 +/- 7 yrs, 80.9 +/- 9.8 kg, 178.2 +/- 7.1 cm; mean +/- SD) completed three 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) strength tests for both the supine leg press (LP) and supine heel raise (HR) prior to training; subjects were matched for LP strength and randomly assigned to one of five training groups. Concentric load (% 1-RM) was constant across groups during training, but each group trained with different levels of eccentric load (0%, 33%, 66%, 100%, or 138% of concentric). Subjects trained 3 d / wk for 8 wks using a periodized program for LP and HR based on percentages of the highest pre-training 1-RM. LP and HR 1-RM and leg lean mass (LLM; assessed by DEXA) were measured pre- and post-training. A two-way ANOVA was used to analyze all dependent measures. Tukey's post hoc tests were used to test significant main effects. Within group pre- to post-training changes were compared using paired t-tests with a Bonferroni adjustment. Statistical significance was set a priori at p 0.05. All data are expressed as mean +/- SE. RESULTS: LP 1-RM strength increased significantly in all groups pre- to post-training. The 138% group increase (20.1 +/- 3.7%) was significantly greater than the 0% (7.9 +/- 2.8%), 33% (7.7 +/- 4.6%), and 66% (7.5 +/- 4

  19. Aerobic exercise and respiratory muscle strength in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Dassios, Theodore; Katelari, Anna; Doudounakis, Stavros; Dimitriou, Gabriel

    2013-05-01

    The beneficial role of exercise in maintaining health in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is well described. Few data exist on the effect of exercise on respiratory muscle function in patients with CF. Our objective was to compare respiratory muscle function indices in CF patients that regularly exercise with those CF patients that do not. This cross-sectional study assessed nutrition, pulmonary function and respiratory muscle function in 37 CF patients that undertook regular aerobic exercise and in a control group matched for age and gender which consisted of 44 CF patients that did not undertake regular exercise. Respiratory muscle function in CF was assessed by maximal inspiratory pressure (Pimax), maximal expiratory pressure (Pemax) and pressure-time index of the respiratory muscles (PTImus). Median Pimax and Pemax were significantly higher in the exercise group compared to the control group (92 vs. 63 cm H2O and 94 vs. 64 cm H2O respectively). PTImus was significantly lower in the exercise group compared to the control group (0.089 vs. 0.121). Upper arm muscle area (UAMA) and mid-arm muscle circumference were significantly increased in the exercise group compared to the control group (2608 vs. 2178 mm2 and 23 vs. 21 cm respectively). UAMA was significantly related to Pimax in the exercising group. These results suggest that CF patients that undertake regular aerobic exercise maintain higher indices of respiratory muscle strength and lower PTImus values, while increased UAMA values in exercising patients highlight the importance of muscular competence in respiratory muscle function in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship Between Muscle Strength Asymmetry and Body Sway in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Koda, Hitoshi; Kai, Yoshihiro; Murata, Shin; Osugi, Hironori; Anami, Kunihiko; Fukumoto, Takahiko; Imagita, Hidetaka

    2018-05-31

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle strength asymmetry and body sway while walking. We studied 63 older adult women. Strong side and weak side of knee extension strength, toe grip strength, hand grip strength, and body sway while walking were measured. The relationship between muscle strength asymmetry for each muscle and body sway while walking was evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Regarding the muscles recognized to have significant correlation with body sway, the asymmetry cutoff value causing an increased sway was calculated. Toe grip strength asymmetry was significantly correlated with body sway. Toe grip strength asymmetry causing an increased body sway had a cutoff value of 23.5%. Our findings suggest toe grip strength asymmetry may be a target for improving gait stability.

  1. Effects of 8 Weeks’ Specific Physical Training on the Rotator Cuff Muscle Strength and Technique of Javelin Throwers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeyoung; Lee, Youngsun; Shin, Insik; Kim, Kitae; Moon, Jeheon

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] For maximum efficiency and to prevent injury during javelin throwing, it is critical to maintain muscle balance and coordination of the rotator cuff and the glenohumeral joint. In this study, we investigated the change in the rotator cuff muscle strength, throw distance and technique of javelin throwers after they had performed a specific physical training that combined elements of weight training, function movement screen training, and core training. [Subjects] Ten javelin throwers participated in this study: six university athletes in the experimental group and four national-level athletes in the control group. [Methods] The experimental group performed 8 weeks of the specific physical training. To evaluate the effects of the training, measurements were performed before and after the training for the experimental group. Measurements comprised anthropometry, isokinetic muscle strength measurements, the function movement screen test, and movement analysis. [Results] After the specific physical training, the function movement screen score and external and internal rotator muscle strength showed statistically significant increases. Among kinematic factors, only pull distance showed improvement after training. [Conclusion] Eight weeks of specific physical training for dynamic stabilizer muscles enhanced the rotator cuff muscle strength, core stability, throw distance, and flexibility of javelin throwers. These results suggest that specific physical training can be useful for preventing shoulder injuries and improving the performance for javelin throwers. PMID:25364111

  2. Effects of 8 weeks' specific physical training on the rotator cuff muscle strength and technique of javelin throwers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeyoung; Lee, Youngsun; Shin, Insik; Kim, Kitae; Moon, Jeheon

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] For maximum efficiency and to prevent injury during javelin throwing, it is critical to maintain muscle balance and coordination of the rotator cuff and the glenohumeral joint. In this study, we investigated the change in the rotator cuff muscle strength, throw distance and technique of javelin throwers after they had performed a specific physical training that combined elements of weight training, function movement screen training, and core training. [Subjects] Ten javelin throwers participated in this study: six university athletes in the experimental group and four national-level athletes in the control group. [Methods] The experimental group performed 8 weeks of the specific physical training. To evaluate the effects of the training, measurements were performed before and after the training for the experimental group. Measurements comprised anthropometry, isokinetic muscle strength measurements, the function movement screen test, and movement analysis. [Results] After the specific physical training, the function movement screen score and external and internal rotator muscle strength showed statistically significant increases. Among kinematic factors, only pull distance showed improvement after training. [Conclusion] Eight weeks of specific physical training for dynamic stabilizer muscles enhanced the rotator cuff muscle strength, core stability, throw distance, and flexibility of javelin throwers. These results suggest that specific physical training can be useful for preventing shoulder injuries and improving the performance for javelin throwers.

  3. Weaker lower extremity muscle strength predicts traumatic knee injury in youth female but not male athletes

    PubMed Central

    Ryman Augustsson, Sofia; Ageberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Background The role of lower extremity (LE) muscle strength for predicting traumatic knee injury in youth athletes is largely unknown. Aims The aim was to investigate the influence of LE muscle strength on traumatic knee injury in youth female and male athletes. Methods 225 athletes (40% females) from sport senior high schools in Sweden were included in this case–control study. The athletes recorded any traumatic knee injury that had occurred during their high-school period in a web-based injury form. A one repetition maximum (1RM) barbell squat test was used to measure LE muscle strength. The 1RM was dichotomised to analyse ‘weak’ versus ‘strong’ athletes according to the median (weakmedian vs strongmedian). Results 63 traumatic knee injuries, including 18 ACL injuries, were registered. The majority of injured female athletes were in the weak group compared with the strong group (p=0.0001). The odds of sustaining a traumatic knee injury and an ACL injury was 9.5 times higher and 7 times higher, respectively, in the weakmedian group compared with the strongmedian group in females (p ≤0.011). A relative 1RM squat ≤1.05 kg (105% of bodyweight) was established as the best cut-off value to distinguish high versus low risk of injury in female athletes. No strength–injury relationships were observed for the male athletes (p ≥0.348). Conclusions Weaker LE muscle strength predicted traumatic knee injury in youth female athletes, but not in males. This suggests that LE muscle strength should be included in injury screening in youth female athletes. PMID:29259807

  4. High doses of anti-inflammatory drugs compromise muscle strength and hypertrophic adaptations to resistance training in young adults.

    PubMed

    Lilja, M; Mandić, M; Apró, W; Melin, M; Olsson, K; Rosenborg, S; Gustafsson, T; Lundberg, T R

    2018-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that high doses of anti-inflammatory drugs would attenuate the adaptive response to resistance training compared with low doses. Healthy men and women (aged 18-35 years) were randomly assigned to daily consumption of ibuprofen (IBU; 1200 mg; n = 15) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; 75 mg; n = 16) for 8 weeks. During this period, subjects completed supervised knee-extensor resistance training where one leg was subjected to training with maximal volitional effort in each repetition using a flywheel ergometer (FW), while the other leg performed conventional (work-matched across groups) weight-stack training (WS). Before and after training, muscle volume (MRI) and strength were assessed, and muscle biopsies were analysed for gene and protein expression of muscle growth regulators. The increase in m. quadriceps volume was similar between FW and WS, yet was (averaged across legs) greater in ASA (7.5%) compared with IBU (3.7%, group difference 34 cm 3 ; P = 0.029). In the WS leg, muscle strength improved similarly (11-20%) across groups. In the FW leg, increases (10-23%) in muscle strength were evident in both groups yet they were generally greater (interaction effects P < 0.05) for ASA compared with IBU. While our molecular analysis revealed several training effects, the only group interaction (P < 0.0001) arose from a downregulated mRNA expression of IL-6 in IBU. Maximal over-the-counter doses of ibuprofen attenuate strength and muscle hypertrophic adaptations to 8 weeks of resistance training in young adults. Thus, young individuals using resistance training to maximize muscle growth or strength should avoid excessive intake of anti-inflammatory drugs. © 2017 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory complications after stroke: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Kênia Kp; Nascimento, Lucas R; Ada, Louise; Polese, Janaine C; Avelino, Patrick R; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-07-01

    After stroke, does respiratory muscle training increase respiratory muscle strength and/or endurance? Are any benefits carried over to activity and/or participation? Does it reduce respiratory complications? Systematic review of randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Adults with respiratory muscle weakness following stroke. Respiratory muscle training aimed at increasing inspiratory and/or expiratory muscle strength. Five outcomes were of interest: respiratory muscle strength, respiratory muscle endurance, activity, participation and respiratory complications. Five trials involving 263 participants were included. The mean PEDro score was 6.4 (range 3 to 8), showing moderate methodological quality. Random-effects meta-analyses showed that respiratory muscle training increased maximal inspiratory pressure by 7 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 14) and maximal expiratory pressure by 13 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 25); it also decreased the risk of respiratory complications (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.96) compared with no/sham respiratory intervention. Whether these effects carry over to activity and participation remains uncertain. This systematic review provided evidence that respiratory muscle training is effective after stroke. Meta-analyses based on five trials indicated that 30minutes of respiratory muscle training, five times per week, for 5 weeks can be expected to increase respiratory muscle strength in very weak individuals after stroke. In addition, respiratory muscle training is expected to reduce the risk of respiratory complications after stroke. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether the benefits are carried over to activity and participation. PROSPERO (CRD42015020683). [Menezes KKP, Nascimento LR, Ada L, Polese JC, Avelino PR, Teixeira-Salmela LF (2016) Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory complications after stroke: a systematic review.Journal of Physiotherapy62: 138-144]. Copyright © 2016 Australian

  6. Effects of phosphatidic acid supplementation on muscle thickness and strength in resistance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Adam M; Sell, Katie M; Ghigiarelli, Jamie J; Kelly, Christopher F; Shone, Edward W; Accetta, Matthew R; Baum, Jamie B; Mangine, Gerald T

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of phosphatidic acid (PA) supplementation on muscle thickness and strength following an 8 week supervised resistance-training program. Fifteen resistance trained men (22.8 ± 3.5 years; 80.6 ± 8.7 kg; 178.1 ± 5.6 cm; 14.6% ± 8.8% body fat) were randomly assigned to a group that either consumed 750 mg of PA or a placebo (PL). Testing was carried out before (PRE) and after (POST) training/supplementation for muscle thickness and strength. Muscle thickness of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps brachii (BB), and triceps brachii (TB) muscles were measured via ultrasonography, along with 1 repetition maximum (1RM) of squat, deadlift, and bench press. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), using PRE values as the covariate, did not reveal any group differences for measures of muscle thickness in the RF (PA: 3.6% ± 5.2%; PL: 3.2% ± 4.2%, p = 0.97), VL (PA: 23.4% ± 18.1%, PL: 12.5% ± 15.4%, p = 0.37), BB (PA: 3.7% ± 6.4%, PL: 9.6% ± 12.4%, p = 0.86), or TB (PA: 15.1% ± 17.9%, PL: 10.7% ± 19.3%, p = 0.79). Likewise, no group differences were observed in changes in squat (PA: 8.4% ± 4.1%, PL: 8.1% ± 4.2%, p = 0.79), deadlift (PA: 10.1% ± 10.1%, PL: 8.9% ± 9.5%, p = 0.66), or bench press (PA: 5.7% ± 5.5%, PL: 5.1% ± 3.0%, p = 0.76) exercises. Collectively, however, all participants experienced significant (p < 0.05) improvements in each measure of muscle thickness and strength. Results of this study suggest that PA supplementation, in combination with a 3 days·week -1 resistance-training program for 8 weeks, did not have a differential effect compared with PL on changes in muscle thickness or 1RM strength.

  7. Pelvic floor muscle strength and body self-perception among Brazilian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sacomori, Cinara; Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Vanderlinde, Cristiane

    2010-12-01

    To examine the relationship between pelvic floor muscle strength and body self-perception variables in pregnant women; and, more specifically, to determine the influence of the number of pregnancies (primigravidas vs multigravidas) on the strength of contraction of the pelvic floor muscles and on the body self-perception of pregnant women. Comparative cross-sectional research. Public health centres from Florianópolis, Brazil. Thirty-five pregnant women (18 primigravidas, 17 multigravidas) with a mean age of 25.5 (standard deviation 5.7) years. Pelvic floor strength measured through manual palpation, and body self-perception using the Questionnaire of Corporeality and Human Sexuality. Pelvic floor muscle strength was positively correlated with schooling [rho (ρ)=0.496] and body self-perception variables: finding the body beautiful (ρ=0.476), finding the body sexy (ρ=0.520), feeling that others find them sexy (ρ=0.364), finding the body proportional (ρ=0.412), touching the body generally (ρ=0.554) and recognising the smell of the body (ρ=0.454). Primigravidas found their bodies more beautiful and were more satisfied with their bodies. On a scale of 0 to 6, multigravid participants expressed a greater wish than primigravid participants to be thinner (median difference 2, 95% confidence interval 0-3, P=0.03). Pelvic floor strength did not differ between groups. The results suggest a relationship between pelvic floor muscle strength and body self-perception. Professionals involved in women's health may have a role in helping their patients to understand their bodies. Copyright © 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relative strengths of the calf muscles based on MRI volume measurements.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Clifford L; Thawait, Gaurav K; Kwon, John Y; Machado, Antonio; Boyle, James W; Campbell, John; Carrino, John A

    2012-05-01

    In 1985, Silver et al. published a cadaver study which determined the relative order of strength of the muscles in the calf. Muscle strength, which is proportional to volume, was obtained by dissecting out the individual muscles, weighing them, and then multiplying by the specific gravity. No similar studies have been performed using {\\it in vivo} measurements of muscle volume. Ten normal subjects underwent 3-Tesla MRI's of both lower extremities using non-fat-saturated T2 SPACE sequences. The volume for each muscle was determined by tracing the muscle contour on sequential axial images and then interpolating the volume using imaging software. The results from this study differ from Silver's original article. The lateral head of the gastrocnemius was found to be stronger than the tibialis anterior muscle. The FHL and EDL muscles were both stronger than the peroneus longus. There was no significant difference in strength between the peroneus longus and brevis muscles. This revised order of muscle strengths in the calf based on in vivo MRI findings may assist surgeons in determining the optimal tendons to transfer in order to address muscle weakness and deformity.

  9. Pelvic floor muscle strength in primiparous women according to the delivery type: cross-sectional study 1

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Edilaine de Paula Batista; de Oliveira, Sonia Maria Junqueira Vasconcellos; Caroci, Adriana de Souza; Francisco, Adriana Amorim; Oliveira, Sheyla Guimaraes; da Silva, Renata Luana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to compare the pelvic floor muscle strength in primiparous women after normal birth and cesarean section, related to the socio-demographic characteristics, nutritional status, dyspareunia, urinary incontinence, perineal exercise in pregnancy, perineal condition and weight of the newborn. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study conducted after 50 - 70 postpartum days, with 24 primiparous women who underwent cesarean delivery and 72 who had a normal birth. The 9301 PeritronTM was used for analysis of muscle strength. The mean muscle strength was compared between the groups by two-way analysis of variance. Results: the pelvic floor muscle strength was 24.0 cmH2O (±16.2) and 25.4 cmH2O (±14.7) in postpartum primiparous women after normal birth and cesarean section, respectively, with no significant difference. The muscular strength was greater in postpartum women with ≥ 12 years of study (42.0 ±26.3 versus 14.6 ±7.7 cmH2O; p= 0.036) and in those who performed perineal exercises (42.6±25.4 11.8±4.9 vs. cmH2O; p = 0.010), compared to caesarean. There was no difference in muscle strength according to delivery type regarding nutritional status, dyspareunia, urinary incontinence, perineal condition or newborn weight. Conclusion: pelvic floor muscle strength does not differ between primiparous women based on the type of delivery. Postpartum women with normal births, with higher education who performed perineal exercise during pregnancy showed greater muscle strength. PMID:27533267

  10. Muscle Strength and Changes in Physical Function in Women With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Andrews, James S; Trupin, Laura; Schmajuk, Gabriela; Barton, Jennifer; Margaretten, Mary; Yazdany, Jinoos; Yelin, Edward H; Katz, Patricia P

    2015-08-01

    Cross-sectional studies have observed that muscle weakness is associated with worse physical function among women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The present study examines whether reduced upper and lower extremity muscle strength predict declines in function over time among adult women with SLE. One hundred forty-six women from a longitudinal SLE cohort participated in the study. All measures were collected during in-person research visits approximately 2 years apart. Upper extremity muscle strength was assessed by grip strength. Lower extremity muscle strength was assessed by peak knee torque of extension and flexion. Physical function was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Regression analyses modeled associations of baseline upper and lower extremity muscle strength with followup SPPB scores controlling for baseline SPPB, age, SLE duration, SLE disease activity (Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire), physical activity level, prednisone use, body composition, and depression. Secondary analyses tested whether associations of baseline muscle strength with followup in SPPB scores differed between intervals of varying baseline muscle strength. Lower extremity muscle strength strongly predicted changes over 2 years in physical function even when controlling for covariates. The association of reduced lower extremity muscle strength with reduced physical function in the future was greatest among the weakest women. Reduced lower extremity muscle strength predicted clinically significant declines in physical function, especially among the weakest women. Future studies should test whether therapies that promote preservation of lower extremity muscle strength may prevent declines in function among women with SLE. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Do muscle mass, muscle density, strength, and physical function similarly influence risk of hospitalization in older adults?

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Peggy Mannen; Fox, Kathleen M; Gandra, Shravanthi R; Delmonico, Matthew J; Chiou, Chiun-Fang; Anthony, Mary S; Sewall, Ase; Goodpaster, Bret; Satterfield, Suzanne; Cummings, Steven R; Harris, Tamara B

    2009-08-01

    To examine the association between strength, function, lean mass, muscle density, and risk of hospitalization. Prospective cohort study. Two U.S. clinical centers. Adults aged 70 to 80 (N=3,011) from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Measurements were of grip strength, knee extension strength, lean mass, walking speed, and chair stand pace. Thigh computed tomography scans assessed muscle area and density (a proxy for muscle fat infiltration). Hospitalizations were confirmed by local review of medical records. Negative binomial regression models estimated incident rate ratios (IRRs) of hospitalization for race- and sex-specific quartiles of each muscle and function parameter separately. Multivariate models adjusted for age, body mass index, health status, and coexisting medical conditions. During an average 4.7 years of follow-up, 1,678 (55.7%) participants experienced one or more hospitalizations. Participants in the lowest quartile of muscle density were more likely to be subsequently hospitalized (multivariate IRR=1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.24-1.73) than those in the highest quartile. Similarly, participants with the weakest grip strength were at greater risk of hospitalization (multivariate IRR=1.52, 95% CI=1.30-1.78, Q1 vs. Q4). Comparable results were seen for knee strength, walking pace, and chair stands pace. Lean mass and muscle area were not associated with risk of hospitalization. Weak strength, poor function, and low muscle density, but not muscle size or lean mass, were associated with greater risk of hospitalization. Interventions to reduce the disease burden associated with sarcopenia should focus on increasing muscle strength and improving physical function rather than simply increasing lean mass.

  12. The influence of estradiol on muscle damage and leg strength after intense eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Minahan, Clare; Joyce, Sarah; Bulmer, Andrew C; Cronin, Neil; Sabapathy, Surendran

    2015-07-01

    To examine the influence of estradiol on muscle damage and leg strength after intense eccentric exercise. Eight men (MEN), eight normally menstruating women (WomenNM), and eight women using oral contraceptives (WomenOC) participated in this study. Subjects performed 240 maximal-effort bilateral eccentric contractions of the quadriceps muscle groups designed to elicit exercise-induced muscle damage (EiMD). Serum creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (Mb), and fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) concentrations were measured before (pre-) EiMD, as well as 0, 6, 24, and 48 h post-EiMD. Peak isometric quadriceps torque (i.e., leg strength) was measured pre-EiMD, as well as 24 and 48 h post-EiMD. The increases in CK, Mb, and FABP concentrations from pre- to post-EiMD were greater in MEN (10-fold, 15-fold, and fourfold, respectively) and WomenOC (sevenfold, 11-fold, and ninefold) compared with WomenNM (five-, six-, and threefold; p < 0.05). The decline in leg strength was about 10 % pre- to 24 h post-EiMD in all groups and decreased a further 10-15 % by 48 h post-EiMD in the MEN and WomenOC only. Our findings suggest an important role of estradiol in blunting the muscle damage response to intense eccentric exercise and preserving muscle function after EiMD.

  13. Skeletal muscle strength and endurance in recipients of lung transplants.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Sunita; Levy, Robert D; Reid, W Darlene

    2008-09-01

    Exercise limitation in recipients of lung transplant may be a result of abnormalities in the skeletal muscle. However, it is not clear whether these abnormalities are merely a reflection of the changes observed in the pretransplant condition. The purpose of this paper was to compare thigh muscle volume and composition, strength, and endurance in lung transplant recipients to people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Single lung transplant recipients (n=6) and people with COPD (n=6), matched for age, sex, and BMI participated in the study. Subjects underwent MRI to determine muscle size and composition, lower extremity strength testing and an isometric endurance test of the quadriceps. Lung transplant recipients had similar muscle volumes and intramuscular fat infiltration of their thigh muscles and similar strength of the quadriceps and hamstrings to people with COPD who had not undergone transplant. However, quadriceps endurance tended to be lower in transplant recipients compared to people with COPD (15 +/- 7 seconds in transplant versus 31 +/- 12 seconds in COPD, p = 0.08). Recipients of lung transplant showed similar changes in muscle size and strength as people with COPD, however muscle endurance tended to be lower in people with lung transplants. Impairments in muscle endurance may reflect the effects of immunosuppressant medications on skeletal muscle in people with lung transplant.

  14. Effect of Resistance Exercises on the Indicators of Muscle Reserves and Handgrip Strength in Adult Patients on Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Soto, Ma Guadalupe; Valdez-Ortiz, Rafael; López Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Espinosa-Cuevas, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Although resistance exercise has been associated with improvement in the muscle reserves, muscle strength and quality of life in end-stage renal disease patients, the objective of this paper is to evaluate the effect of resistance exercise performed during hemodialysis sessions on the anthropometric indicators of muscle reserve and handgrip strength in sedentary malnourished patients with end-stage renal disease. Patients were randomized to perform resistance exercise during hemodialysis sessions with ankle weights and resistance bands. The exercises were performed twice a week over the course of 12 weeks. The control group underwent a hemodialysis session alone. The outcomes measures were the following anthropometric measurements: arm muscle circumference and arm muscle area. Dynamometry was used to measure the handgrip strength. Sixty-one sedentary patients with a median age of 29 years (interquartile range [IQR] 21-39 years), and 83% presenting with some grade of malnutrition were equally randomized to either the intervention or control group. In the resistance exercise group, there was an increase in the arm muscle circumference from 233.6 (IQR 202-254) mm to 241.4 (IQR 203-264) mm (P= .001), arm muscle area from 35.9 (26-41) cm(2) to 36.6 (IQR 26-46) cm(2) (P= .002), and handgrip strength from 19.6 (IQR 11-28) kg to 21.2 (IQR 13-32) kg between the basal and final measurements (P < .05). The tolerance to exercise was adequate, and no adverse events were reported during the practical exercise. Resistance exercise at least twice a week is safe and represents an opportunity for improving the muscle mass and strength in adult patients who are on hemodialysis, including in those with malnutrition. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of egg white protein supplementation on muscle strength and serum free amino acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hida, Azumi; Hasegawa, Yuko; Mekata, Yuko; Usuda, Mika; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kawano, Hitoshi; Kawano, Yukari

    2012-10-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg white protein compared to carbohydrate intake prior to exercise on fat free mass (FFM), one repetition maximum (1RM) muscle strength and blood biochemistry in female athletes. Thirty healthy female collegiate athletes were recruited for this study and matched by sport type, body fat percentage and 1RM leg curl muscle strength. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: protein group (15.0 g egg white protein; 75 kcal) and carbohydrate group (17.5 g maltodextrin, 78 kcal). Supplements were administered daily at the same time in a double-blind manner prior to training during an 8-week period. Measurements were performed before and after the 8-week regimen. The mean dietary energy intake did not change throughout the study period. FFM and 1RM assessments (i.e., leg curl, leg extension, squat, and bench press) increased in both groups. Furthermore, serum urea and serum citrulline levels after the 8-week regimen increased significantly only in the protein group. Our findings indicated that compared to the carbohydrate supplement, the protein supplement was associated with some changes in protein metabolites but not with changes in body composition or muscle strength.

  16. Effects of Egg White Protein Supplementation on Muscle Strength and Serum Free Amino Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Hida, Azumi; Hasegawa, Yuko; Mekata, Yuko; Usuda, Mika; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kawano, Hitoshi; Kawano, Yukari

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg white protein compared to carbohydrate intake prior to exercise on fat free mass (FFM), one repetition maximum (1RM) muscle strength and blood biochemistry in female athletes. Thirty healthy female collegiate athletes were recruited for this study and matched by sport type, body fat percentage and 1RM leg curl muscle strength. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: protein group (15.0 g egg white protein; 75 kcal) and carbohydrate group (17.5 g maltodextrin, 78 kcal). Supplements were administered daily at the same time in a double-blind manner prior to training during an 8-week period. Measurements were performed before and after the 8-week regimen. The mean dietary energy intake did not change throughout the study period. FFM and 1RM assessments (i.e., leg curl, leg extension, squat, and bench press) increased in both groups. Furthermore, serum urea and serum citrulline levels after the 8-week regimen increased significantly only in the protein group. Our findings indicated that compared to the carbohydrate supplement, the protein supplement was associated with some changes in protein metabolites but not with changes in body composition or muscle strength. PMID:23201768

  17. Effects of strength training, detraining and retraining in muscle strength, hypertrophy and functional tasks in older female adults.

    PubMed

    Correa, Cleiton S; Cunha, Giovani; Marques, Nise; Oliveira-Reischak, Ãlvaro; Pinto, Ronei

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies presented different results regarding the maintenance time of muscular adaptations after strength training and the ability to resume the gains on muscular performance after resumption of the training programme. This study aimed to verify the effect of strength training on knee extensors and elbow flexor muscle strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional performance in older female adults after 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and followed by 12 weeks of retraining. Twelve sedentary older women performed 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and 12 weeks of retraining. The strength training was performed twice a week, and the assessment was made four times: at the baseline, after the strength training, after the detraining and after the retraining. The knee extensor and elbow flexor strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional task were assessed. Strength of knee extensor and elbow flexor muscles, rectus femoris muscle volume and 30-s sit-to-stand increased from baseline to post-training (respectively, 40%, 70%, 38% and 46%), decreased after detraining (respectively, -36%, -64%, -35% and -43%) and increased again these parameters after retraining (35%, 68%, 36% and 42%). Strength training induces gains on strength and hypertrophy, also increased the performance on functional tasks after the strength training. The stoppage of the strength caused strength loss and reduction of functional performance. The resumption of the strength training promoted the same gains of muscular performance in older female adults. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Respiratory muscle strength is not decreased in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Urell, Charlotte; Emtner, Margareta; Hedenstrom, Hans; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2016-03-31

    Postoperative pulmonary impairments are significant complications after cardiac surgery. Decreased respiratory muscle strength could be one reason for impaired lung function in the postoperative period. The primary aim of this study was to describe respiratory muscle strength before and two months after cardiac surgery. A secondary aim was to describe possible associations between respiratory muscle strength and lung function. In this prospective observational study 36 adult cardiac surgery patients (67 ± 10 years) were studied. Respiratory muscle strength and lung function were measured before and two months after surgery. Pre- and postoperative respiratory muscle strength was in accordance with predicted values; MIP was 78 ± 24 cmH2O preoperatively and 73 ± 22 cmH2O at two months follow-up (p = 0.19). MEP was 122 ± 33 cmH2O preoperatively and 115 ± 38 cmH2O at two months follow-up (p = 0.18). Preoperative lung function was in accordance with predicted values, but was significantly decreased postoperatively. At two-months follow-up there was a moderate correlation between MIP and FEV1 (r = 0.43, p = 0.009). Respiratory muscle strength was not impaired, either before or two months after cardiac surgery. The reason for postoperative lung function alteration is not yet known. Interventions aimed at restore an optimal postoperative lung function should focus on other interventions then respiratory muscle strength training.

  19. A randomized clinical trial comparing pelvic floor muscle training to a Pilates exercise program for improving pelvic muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Culligan, Patrick J; Scherer, Janet; Dyer, Keisha; Priestley, Jennifer L; Guingon-White, Geri; Delvecchio, Donna; Vangeli, Margi

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether a Pilates exercise program and a pelvic floor muscle-training (PFMT) program could provide similar improvements in pelvic muscle strength. Sixty-two women with little or no pelvic floor dysfunction were randomized to Pilates or PFMT. Each group had 24 biweekly 1-h sessions with either a physical therapist or Pilates instructor. Strength was measured via perineometry (cmH(2)O). Two questionnaires--pelvic floor distress inventory (PFDI-20) and pelvic floor impact questionnaire (PFIQ-7)--were also collected. At baseline, the Pilates and PFMT groups measured 14.9 +/- 12.5 and 12.5 +/- 10.4 cmH(2)O, respectively (p = 0.41). Both the Pilates and PFMT groups got stronger (6.2 +/- 7.5 cmH(2)O, p = 0.0002 and 6.6 +/- 7.4 cmH(2)O, p = 0.0002, respectively), with no difference between groups p = 0.85. PFIQ and PFDI scores improved from baseline but not between groups. Further study is required to determine if Pilates can actually treat pelvic floor dysfunction.

  20. Short-Term Unilateral Resistance Training Results in Cross Education of Strength Without Changes in Muscle Size, Activation, or Endocrine Response.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kyle S; Fukuda, David H; Boone, Carleigh H; Wells, Adam J; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; Gonzalez, Adam M; Fragala, Maren S; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2016-05-01

    Short-term unilateral resistance training results in cross education of strength without changes in muscle size, activation, or endocrine response. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1213-1223, 2016-The purpose of this study was to assess the cross education of strength and changes in the underlying mechanisms (muscle size, activation, and hormonal response) after a 4-week unilateral resistance training (URT) program. A group of 9 untrained men completed a 4-week URT program on the dominant leg (DOM), whereas cross education was measured in the nondominant leg (NON); and were compared with a control group (n = 8, CON). Unilateral isometric force (PKF), leg press (LP) and leg extension (LE) strength, muscle size (by ultrasonography) and activation (by electromyography) of the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis, and the hormonal response (testosterone, growth hormone, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1) were tested pretraining and posttraining. Group × time interactions were present for PKF, LP, LE, and muscle size in DOM and for LP in NON. In all interactions, the URT group improved significantly better than CON. There was a significant acute hormonal response to URT, but no chronic adaptation after the 4-week training program. Four weeks of URT resulted in an increase in strength and size of the trained musculature, and cross education of strength in the untrained musculature, which may occur without detectable changes in muscle size, activation, or the acute hormonal response.

  1. Using 4+ to grade near-normal muscle strength does not improve agreement.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Søren; Jaszczak, Sofie Louise Thomsen; Steffensen, Anne Katrine Søndergaard; Debrabant, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Manual assessment of muscle strength is often graded using the ordinal Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. The scale has a number of inherent weaknesses, including poorly defined limits between grades '4' and '5' and very large differences in the span of muscle strength encompassed by each of the six grades. It is not necessarily obvious how to convert a manual muscle test finding into an MRC grade. Several modifications which include intermediate grades have been suggested to improve the MRC scale and the current study examines whether agreement improves and variation in ratings decrease, with an intermediate grade between '4' and '5', in circumstances where such a grade would seem appropriate. The present study examined the hypothesis, that a modified MRC-scale which included the commonly used '4+' option, resulted in greater agreement between clinicians compared to the standard MRC-scale. A questionnaire containing five simple clinical cases were distributed to a large convenience sample of chiropractors in Northern Europe, with instructions to grade the described muscle strength findings using the MRC scale. The scale was adapted (with/without an intermediate '4+' grade) depending on the preference of the individual respondent. The cases were designed in such a way as to suggest a muscle weakness in the grey area between '4' and '5', i.e. grade '4+' on the modified MRC scale. A total of 225 questionnaires were returned (7% response rate). The average percentage agreement (across cases) in the standard MRC group was 64% [range 51%: 73%] (grade '4' in all cases). In the modified MRC group, the corresponding findings was 48% [38%: 74%] (grade '4' or '4+' in all cases). The mean average deviation analogue in the standard MRC group was 0.34 (range 0.34: 0.40), compared to 0.51 (range 0.39: 0.73) in the modified MRC group, indicating greater dispersion of scores in the modified MRC group. The Fleiss kappa was 0.02 ( p  < 0.001) and 0.13 ( p  < 0

  2. Combined resistance and endurance exercise training improves arterial stiffness, blood pressure, and muscle strength in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Arturo; Park, Song Y; Seo, Dae Y; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Baek, Yeong H

    2011-09-01

    Menopause is associated with increased arterial stiffness and reduced muscle strength. Combined resistance (RE) and endurance (EE) exercise training can decrease brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an index of arterial stiffness, in young men. We tested the hypothesis that combined circuit RE and EE training would improve baPWV, blood pressure (BP), and muscle strength in postmenopausal women. Twenty-four postmenopausal women (age 47-68 y) were randomly assigned to a "no exercise" control (n = 12) or to combined exercise training (EX; n = 12) group. The EX group performed concurrent circuit RE training followed by EE training at 60% of the predicted maximal heart rate (HR) 3 days per week. Brachial systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, baPWV, HR, and dynamic and isometric muscle strength were measured before and after the 12-week study. Mean ± SE baPWV (-0.8 ± 0.2 meters/s), systolic BP (-6.0 ± 1.9 mm Hg), diastolic BP (-4.8 ± 1.7 mm Hg), HR (-4.0 ± 1.0 beats/min), and mean arterial pressure (-5.1 ± 1.6 mm Hg) decreased (P < 0.05), whereas dynamic leg strength (5.1 ± 1.0 vs 0.6 ± 1.0 kg for the EX and control groups, respectively) and isometric handgrip strength (2.8 ± 0.7 vs -0.6 ± 1.2 kg) increased (P < 0.05) in the EX group but not in the control group. Our findings indicate that a 12-week moderate-intensity combined circuit RE and EE training improves arterial stiffness, hemodynamics, and muscle strength in previously sedentary postmenopausal women. This study provides evidence that combined training may have important health implications for the prevention of hypertension and frailty in postmenopausal women.

  3. Screen time viewing behaviors and isometric trunk muscle strength in youth.

    PubMed

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Froberg, Karsten; Wedderkopp, Niels; Brage, Søren; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Andersen, Lars Bo; Møller, Niels Christian

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of screen time viewing behavior with isometric trunk muscle strength in youth. A cross-sectional study was carried out including 606 adolescents (14-16 yr old) participating in the Danish European Youth Heart Study, a population-based study with assessments conducted in either 1997/1998 or 2003/2004. Maximal voluntary contractions during isometric back extension and abdominal flexion were determined using a strain gauge dynamometer, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was obtained using a maximal cycle ergometer test. TV viewing time, computer use, and other lifestyle behaviors were obtained by self-report. Analyses of association of screen use behaviors with isometric trunk muscle strength were carried out using multivariable adjusted linear regression. The mean (SD) isometric strength was 0.87 (0.16) N·kg-1. TV viewing, computer use, and total screen time use were inversely associated with isometric trunk muscle strength in analyses adjusted for lifestyle and sociodemographic factors. After further adjustment for CRF and waist circumference, associations remained significant for computer use and total screen time, but TV viewing was only marginally associated with muscle strength after these additional adjustments (-0.05 SD (95% confidence interval, -0.11 to 0.005) difference in strength per 1 h·d-1 difference in TV viewing time, P = 0.08). Each 1 h·d-1 difference in total screen time use was associated with -0.09 SD (95% confidence interval, -0.14 to -0.04) lower isometric trunk muscle strength in the fully adjusted model (P = 0.001). There were no indications that the association of screen time use with isometric trunk muscle strength was attenuated among highly fit individuals (P = 0.91 for CRF by screen time interaction). Screen time use was inversely associated with isometric trunk muscle strength independent of CRF and other confounding factors.

  4. Maximal isometric muscle strength values obtained By hand-held dynamometry in children between 6 and 15 years of age.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Raul G; Munoz, Karin T; Dominguez, Angelica; Banados, Pamela; Bravo, Maria J

    2017-01-01

    In this study we aimed to determine the maximal isometric muscle strength of a healthy, normal-weight, pediatric population between 6 and 15 years of age using hand-held dynamometry to establish strength reference values. The secondary objective was determining the relationship between strength and anthropometric parameters. Four hundred normal-weight Chilean children, split into 10 age groups, separated by 1-year intervals, were evaluated. Each age group included between 35 and 55 children. The strength values increased with increasing age and weight, with a correlation of 0.83 for age and 0.82 for weight. The results were similar to those reported in previous studies regarding the relationships among strength, age, and anthropometric parameters, but the reported strength differed. These results provide normal strength parameters for healthy and normal-weight Chilean children between 6 and 15 years of age and highlight the relevance of ethnicity in defining reference values for muscle strength in a pediatric population. Muscle Nerve 55: 16-22, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effects of exercise improves muscle strength and fat mass in patients with high fracture risk: A randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ding-Cheng; Chang, Chirn-Bin; Han, Der-Sheng; Hong, Cian-Hui; Hwang, Jawl-Shan; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2017-10-26

    The deterioration of the musculoskeletal system imposes significant impact on physical activity. Exercise is an important strategy which minimizes these changes. It is not clear which type of exercise provides better improvement on low physical performance, low muscle mass and low strength of sarcopenia. We aim to develop an integrated care (IC) model and compare its relative efficacy in limb fat free mass, muscle strength, and physical performance with low extremities exercise (LEE) in community dwelling older adults with high risk of fractures (Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX ® )) ≧3% for hip fracture, ≧20% for major osteoporotic fracture or 1-min osteoporosis risk test (≧1 point) or fall (≧2 falls in previous year). Patients were assigned randomized to participate in either IC or LEE group (n = 55 each) for 3 months. All participants received education including home-based exercise. The IC group consisted of different modalities of exercise while the LEE group performed machine-based low extremities exercise. Fat free mass, muscle strength, and physical performance were measured at their baseline and 3-months follow-up. Mean age was 73.8 ± 7 years with 69.1% women. Entire cohort demonstrated significant increment in fat free mass, muscle strength (4 indicators) and physical performance (3 indicators). However, between group differences were not significant. With regular supervise exercise; both groups are equally effective in decreasing fat mass and increasing physical performance, muscle mass and strength. However, the IC group required fewer resources and thus more financially feasible in a community setting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Whole-body vibration training improves balance, muscle strength and glycosylated hemoglobin in elderly patients with diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoungjin; Lee, Seungwon; Song, Changho

    2013-12-01

    Elderly patients with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy are more likely to experience falls. However, the information available on how such falls can be prevented is scarce. We investigated the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) combined with a balance exercise program on balance, muscle strength, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in elderly patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Fifty-five elderly patients with diabetic neuropathy were randomly assigned to WBV with balance exercise group, balance exercise (BE) group, and control group. The WBV and BE groups performed the balance exercise program for 60 min per day, 2 times per week, for 6 weeks. Further, the WBV group performed WBV training (up to 3 × 3 min, 3 times per week, for 6 weeks). The control group did not participate in any training. The main outcome measures were assessed at baseline and after 6 weeks of training; namely, we assessed the postural sway and one leg stance (OLS) for static balance; Berg balance scale (BBS), timed up-and-go (TUG) test, and functional reach test (FRT) for dynamic balance; five-times-sit-to-stand (FTSTS) test for muscle strength; and HbA1c for predicting the progression of diabetes. Significant improvements were noted in the static balance, dynamic balance, muscle strength, and HbA1c in the WBV group, compared to the BE and control groups (P < 0.05). Thus, in combination with the balance exercise program, the short-term WBV therapy is beneficial in improving balance, muscle strength and HbA1c, in elderly patients with diabetic neuropathy who are at high risk for suffering falls.

  7. Muscle hypertrophy, strength development, and serum hormones during strength training in elderly women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Valkeinen, H; Häkkinen, K; Pakarinen, A; Hannonen, P; Häkkinen, A; Airaksinen, O; Niemitukia, L; Kraemer, W J; Alén, M

    2005-01-01

    To examine the effects of strength training on maximal force, cross-sectional area (CSA), and electromyographic (EMG) activity of muscles and serum hormone concentrations in elderly females with fibromyalgia (FM). Twenty-six patients with FM were randomly assigned to a training (FMT; n = 13; mean age 60 years) or a control (FMC; n = 13; 59 years) group. FMT performed progressive strength training twice a week for 21 weeks. The measurements included maximal isometric and concentric leg extension forces, EMG activity of the vastus lateralis and medialis, CSA of the quadriceps femoris, and serum concentrations of testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and cortisol. Subjectively perceived symptoms of FM were also assessed. All patients were able to complete the training. In FMT strength training led to increases of 36% (p<0.001) and 33% (p<0.001) in maximal isometric and concentric forces, respectively. The CSA increased by 5% (p<0.001) and the EMG activity in isometric action by 47% (p<0.001) and in concentric action by 57% (p<0.001). Basal serum hormone concentrations remained unaltered during strength training. The subjective perceived symptoms showed a minor decreasing tendency (ns). No statistically significant changes occurred in any of these parameters in FMC. Progressive strength training increases strength, CSA, and voluntary activation of the trained muscles in elderly women with FM, while the measured basal serum hormone concentrations remain unaltered. Strength training benefits the overall physical fitness of the patients without adverse effects or any exacerbation of symptoms and should be included in the rehabilitation programmes of elderly patients with FM.

  8. Effects of Training Attendance on Muscle Strength of Young Men after 11 Weeks of Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Gentil, Paulo; Bottaro, Martim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Training attendance is an important variable for attaining optimal results after a resistance training (RT) program, however, the association of attendance with the gains of muscle strength is not well defined. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to verify if attendance would affect muscle strength gains in healthy young males. Methods Ninety two young males with no previous RT experience volunteered to participate in the study. RT was performed 2 days a week for 11 weeks. One repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press and knee extensors peak torque (PT) were measured before and after the training period. After the training period, a two step cluster analysis was used to classify the participants in accordance to training attendance, resulting in three groups, defined as high (92 to 100%), intermediate (80 to 91%) and low (60 to 79%) training attendance. Results According to the results, there were no significant correlations between strength gains and training attendance, however, when attendance groups were compared, the low training attendance group showed lower increases in 1RM bench press (8.8%) than the other two groups (17.6% and 18.0% for high and intermediate attendance, respectively). Conclusions Although there is not a direct correlation between training attendance and muscle strength gains, it is suggested that a minimum attendance of 80% is necessary to ensure optimal gains in upper body strength. PMID:23802051

  9. Lean muscle volume of the thigh has a stronger relationship with muscle power than muscle strength in women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Davison, Michael J; Maly, Monica R; Keir, Peter J; Hapuhennedige, Sandani M; Kron, Amie T; Adachi, Jonathan D; Beattie, Karen A

    2017-01-01

    Thigh lean muscle and intramuscular fat have been implicated in the impairment of physical function observed in people with knee osteoarthritis. We investigated the relationships of quadriceps and hamstrings intramuscular fat fraction and lean muscle volume with muscle power and strength, controlling for neuromuscular activation, and physical performance in women with knee OA. Women (n=20) 55years or older with symptomatic, radiographic knee osteoarthritis underwent a 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging scan of the thigh of their most symptomatic knee. Axial fat-separated images were analyzed using software to quantify intramuscular fat and lean muscle volumes of the quadriceps and hamstrings. To quantify strength and power of the knee extensors and flexors, participants performed maximum voluntary isometric contraction and isotonic knee extensions and flexions, respectively. Electromyography of the quadriceps and hamstrings was measured. Participants also completed five physical performance tests. Quadriceps and hamstrings lean muscle volumes were related to isotonic knee extensor (B=0.624; p=0.017) and flexor (B=1.518; p=0.032) power, but not knee extensor (B=0.001; p=0.615) or flexor (B=0.001; p=0.564) isometric strength. Intramuscular fat fractions were not related to isotonic knee extensor or flexor power, nor isometric strength. No relationships were found between intramuscular fat or lean muscle volume and physical performance. Muscle power may be more sensitive than strength to lean muscle mass in women with knee osteoarthritis. Thigh lean muscle mass, but neither intramuscular nor intermuscular fat, is related to knee extensor and flexor power in women with knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Effect of inspiratory muscle training on muscle strength and quality of life in patients with chronic airflow limitation: a randomized controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Serón, P; Riedemann, P; Muñoz, S; Doussoulin, A; Villarroel, P; Cea, X

    2005-11-01

    Chronic airflow limitation (CAL) is a significant cause of illness and death. Inspiratory muscle training has been described as a technique for managing CAL. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of inspiratory muscle training on improving physiological and functional variables. Randomized controlled trial in which 35 patients with CAL were assigned to receive either an experimental (n=17) or control (n=18) intervention. The experimental intervention consisted of 2 months of inspiratory muscle training using a device that administered a resistive load of 40% of maximal static inspiratory mouth pressure (PImax). Inspiratory muscle strength, exercise tolerance, respiratory function, and quality of life were assessed. Significant improvement in inspiratory muscle strength was observed in the experimental training group (P=.02). All patients improved over time in both groups (P<.001). PImax increased by 8.9 cm H2O per month of training. Likewise, the health-related quality of life scores improved by 0.56 points. Use of a threshold loading device is effective for strengthening inspiratory muscles as measured by PImax after the first month of training in patients with CAL. The long-term effectiveness of such training and its impact on quality of life should be studied in a larger number of patients.

  11. Intra-rater Reliability of Arm and Hand Muscle Strength Measurements in Persons With Late Effects of Polio.

    PubMed

    Brogårdh, Christina; Flansbjer, Ulla-Britt; Carlsson, Håkan; Lexell, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Muscle weakness in the upper limb is common in persons with late effects of polio. To be able to measure muscle strength and follow changes over time, reliable measurements are needed. To evaluate the intra-rater reliability of isometric and isokinetic arm and hand muscle strength measurements in persons with late effects of polio. A test-retest design. A university hospital outpatient clinic. Twenty-eight persons (mean age 68 years, SD 11 years) with late effects of polio in their upper limbs. Isometric shoulder abduction, isokinetic concentric elbow flexion and extension, isometric elbow flexion, and isometric grip strength were measured twice, 14 days apart. Reliability was evaluated with the intra-class correlation coefficient, the mean difference between the test sessions (d¯), together with the 95% confidence intervals for d¯ , the standard error of measurement (SEM and SEM%), the smallest real difference (SRD and SRD%), and Bland-Altman graphs. A fixed dynamometer (Biodex) was used to measure arm strength and an electronic dynamometer (GRIP-it) was used to measure grip strength. Intra-rater reliability was high, with intra-class correlation coefficients between 0.87 and 0.98. The SEM%, representing the smallest change for a group of persons, ranged from 7%-24% for all strength measurements, and the SRD%, representing the smallest change for an individual person, ranged from 20%-67%. Muscle strength in the upper limbs can be reliably measured in persons with late effects of polio. However, the measurement errors indicate that the method is more suitable to detect changes in muscle strength for a group of persons than for an individual person. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Myotonometry as a Surrogate Measure of Muscle Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ang, B. S.; Feeback, D. L.; Leonard, C. T.; Sykes, J.; Kruger, E.; Clarke, M. S. F.

    2007-01-01

    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy/neuromuscular degradation and the consequent decrements in crew-member performance are of increasing concern as mission duration lengthens, and planetary exploration after extended space flight is planned. Pre- to post-flight strength measures have demonstrated that specific countermeasures, such as resistive exercise, are effective at countering microgravity-induced muscle atrophy and preventing decrements in muscle strength. However, in-flight assessment/monitoring of exercise countermeasure effectiveness will be essential during exploration class missions due to their duration. The ability to modify an exercise countermeasure prescription based on such real-time information will allow each individual crew member to perform the optimal amount and type of exercise countermeasure to maintain performance. In addition, such measures can be used to determine if a crew member is physically capable of performing a particular mission-related task during exploration class missions. The challenges faced in acquiring such data are those common to all space operations, namely the requirement for light-weight, low power, mechanically reliable technologies that make valid measurements in microgravity, in this case of muscle strength/neuromuscular function. Here we describe a simple, light-weight, low power, non-invasive device, known as the Myotonometer, that measures tissue stiffness as an indirect measure of muscle contractile state and muscle force production. Repeat myotonometer measurements made at the same location on the surface of the rectis femoris muscle (as determined using a 3D locator device, SEM plus or minus 0.34 mm) were shown to be reproducible over time at both maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and at rest in a total of 17 sedentary subjects assessed three times over a period of seven days. In addition, graded voluntary isometric force production (i.e. 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% & 100% of MVC) during knee extension was shown to

  13. Intermittent Resistance Training at Moderate Altitude: Effects on the Force-Velocity Relationship, Isometric Strength and Muscle Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Artacho, Antonio J.; Padial, Paulino; García-Ramos, Amador; Pérez-Castilla, Alejandro; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Feriche, Belén

    2018-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxic resistance training (IHRT) may help to maximize the adaptations following resistance training, although conflicting evidence is available. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of moderate altitude on the functional, neural and muscle architecture responses of the quadriceps muscles following a power-oriented IHRT intervention. Twenty-four active males completed two 4-week consecutive training blocks comprising general strengthening exercises (weeks 1–4) and power-oriented resistance training (weeks 5–8). Training sessions were conducted twice a week at moderate altitude (2320 m; IHRT, n = 13) or normoxia (690 m; NT, n = 11). Training intensity during the second training block was set to the individual load corresponding to a barbell mean propulsive velocity of 1 m·s−1. Pre-post assessments, performed under normoxic conditions, comprised quadriceps muscle architecture (thickness, pennation angle and fascicle length), isometric maximal (MVF) and explosive strength, and voluntary muscle activation. Dynamic strength performance was assessed through the force-velocity relationship (F0, V0, P0) and a repeated CMJ test (CMJ15MP). Region-specific muscle thickness changes were observed in both training groups (p < 0.001, ηG2 = 0.02). A small opposite trend in pennation angle changes was observed (ES [90% CI]: −0.33 [−0.65, −0.01] vs. 0.11 [−0.44, 0.6], in the IHRT and NT group, respectively; p = 0.094, ηG2 = 0.02). Both training groups showed similar improvements in MVF (ES: 0.38 [0.20, 0.56] vs. 0.55 [0.29, 0.80], in the IHRT and NT group, respectively; p = 0.645, ηG2 < 0.01), F0 (ES: 0.41 [−0.03, 0.85] vs. 0.52 [0.04, 0.99], in the IHRT and NT group, respectively; p = 0.569, ηG2 < 0.01) and P0 (ES: 0.53 [0.07, 0.98] vs. 0.19 [−0.06, 0.44], in the IHRT and NT group, respectively; p = 0.320, ηG2 < 0.01). No meaningful changes in explosive strength performance were observed. In conclusion, contrary to earlier adverse

  14. Resistance training inhibits the elevation of skeletal muscle derived-BDNF level concomitant with improvement of muscle strength in zucker diabetic rat

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Jae; So, Byunghun; Son, Jun Seok; Song, Han Sol; Oh, Seung Lyul; Seong, Je Kyung; Lee, Hoyoung; Song, Wook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] In the present study, we investigated the effects of 8 weeks of progressive resistance training on the level of skeletal muscle derived BDNF as well as glucose intolerance in Zucker diabetic rats. [Methods] Six week-old male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and Zucker lean control (ZLC) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sedentary ZLC (ZLC-Con), sedentary ZDF (ZDF-Con), and exercised ZDF (ZDF-Ex). Progressive resistance training using a ladder and tail weights was performed for 8 weeks (3 days/week). [Results] After 8 weeks of resistance training, substantial reduction in body weight was observed in ZDF-Ex compared to ZDF-Con. Though the skeletal muscle volume did not change, grip strength grip strength was significantly higher in ZDF-Ex compared to ZDF-Con. In the soleus, the level of BDNF was increased in ZDF-Con, but was significantly decreased (p<0.05) in ZDF-Ex, showing a training effect. Moreover, we found that there was a negative correlation (r=-0.657; p=0.004) between grip strength and BDNF level whereas there was a positive correlation (r=0.612; p=0.008) between plasma glucose level and BDNF level in skeletal muscle. [Conclusion] Based upon our results, we demonstrated that resistance training inhibited the elevation of skeletal muscle derived-BDNF expression concomitant with the improvement of muscle strength in zucker diabetic rats. In addition, muscle-derived BDNF might be a potential mediator for the preventive effect of resistance training on the progress of type 2 diabetes. PMID:27274460

  15. CCL2 and CCR2 variants are associated with skeletal muscle strength and change in strength with resistance training.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Brennan T; Orkunoglu-Suer, E Funda; Adham, Kasra; Larkin, Justin S; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Clarkson, Priscilla M; Thompson, Paul D; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Gordon, Paul M; Moyna, Niall M; Pescatello, Linda S; Visich, Paul S; Zoeller, Robert F; Hubal, Monica J; Tosi, Laura L; Hoffman, Eric P; Devaney, Joseph M

    2010-12-01

    Baseline muscle size and muscle adaptation to exercise are traits with high variability across individuals. Recent research has implicated several chemokines and their receptors in the pathogenesis of many conditions that are influenced by inflammatory processes, including muscle damage and repair. One specific chemokine, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), is expressed by macrophages and muscle satellite cells, increases expression dramatically following muscle damage, and increases expression further with repeated bouts of exercise, suggesting that CCL2 plays a key role in muscle adaptation. The present study hypothesizes that genetic variations in CCL2 and its receptor (CCR2) may help explain muscle trait variability. College-aged subjects [n = 874, Functional Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated With Muscle Size and Strength (FAMUSS) cohort] underwent a 12-wk supervised strength-training program for the upper arm muscles. Muscle size (via MR imaging) and elbow flexion strength (1 repetition maximum and isometric) measurements were taken before and after training. The study participants were then genotyped for 11 genetic variants in CCL2 and five variants in CCR2. Variants in the CCL2 and CCR2 genes show strong associations with several pretraining muscle strength traits, indicating that inflammatory genes in skeletal muscle contribute to the polygenic system that determines muscle phenotypes. These associations extend across both sexes, and several of these genetic variants have been shown to influence gene regulation.

  16. Effect of low-intensity resistance training with heat stress on the HSP72, anabolic hormones, muscle size, and strength in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sung Jin; Lee, Moon Jin; Lee, Hyo Min; Lee, Jin Seok

    2017-10-01

    Several recent studies have reported that heat stress stimulates the activation of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72), leading to an increase in muscle synthesis. Some studies suggested that low-intensity resistance training combined with heat stress could improve muscle size and strength. This study aimed to identify the effect of low-intensity resistance training with heat stress over 12 weeks on the HSP72, anabolic hormones, muscle size, and strength in elderly women. The subjects were physically healthy women of 65-75 years, who were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a low-intensity resistance training with heating sheet group (HRT group, n = 8), a moderate-intensity resistance training (RT group, n = 6), and a heating sheet group (HEAT group, n = 7). Computed tomography scans, 1-repetition maximum (1RM), and blood samples were taken pre- and post-training. The HSP72 did not vary significantly between the different groups and times. The IGF-1 and 1RM had significantly increased in all three groups after the training (respectively, p < 0.05). Moreover, the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps showed a significantly greater increase in the HRT group than in the HEAT group (p < 0.05). We found that low-intensity training with heat stress stimulated the anabolic hormones of elderly women, improving their muscle strength and hypertrophy. We believe that low-intensity training with heat stress is an effective way to prevent muscle atrophy and to improve muscle strength in elderly women.

  17. Effects of drop set resistance training on acute stress indicators and long-term muscle hypertrophy and strength.

    PubMed

    Fink, Julius; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Kikuchi, Naoki; Nakazato, Koichi

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the effects of 2 different resistance training (RT) protocols on muscle hypertrophy and strength. The first group (N.=8) performed a single drop set (DS) and the second group (N.=8) performed 3 sets of conventional RT (normal set, NS). Eight young men in each group completed 6 weeks of RT. Muscle hypertrophy was assessed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and strength via 12 repetition maximum tests before and after the 6 weeks. Acute stress markers such as muscle thickness (MT), blood lactate (BL), maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) have been measured before and after one bout of RT. Both groups showed significant increases in triceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) (10.0±3.7%, effect size (ES) =0.47 for DS and 5.1±2.1%, ES=0.25 for NS). Strength increased in both groups (16.1±12.1%, ES=0.88 for DS and 25.2±17.5%, ES=1.34 for NS). Acute pre/post measurements for one bout of RT showed significant changes in MT (18.3±5.8%, P<0.001) and MVC (-13.3±7.1, P<0.05) in the DS group only and a significant difference (P<0.01) in RPE was observed between groups (7.7±1.5 for DS and 5.3±1.4 for NS). Superior muscle gains might be achieved with a single set of DS compared to 3 sets of conventional RT, probably due to higher stress experienced in the DS protocol.

  18. Relationship between lower limb muscle strength and 6-minute walk test performance in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Pradon, Didier; Roche, Nicolas; Enette, Lievyn; Zory, Raphaël

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if lower limb muscle strength and/or spasticity are related to performance in the 6-min walk test (6MWT) in stroke patients. A total of 24 patients (12 males and 12 females) participated in the study. Muscle strength (Medical Research Council (MRC) scale) and spasticity (modified Ashworth scale) were assessed prior to the 6MWT. Heart rate was recorded at rest and during the 6MWT. Subjects were divided into two groups: (i) those with a high MRC sum score, and (ii) those with a low MRC sum score. The relationship between the 6MWT distance and the other parameters was analysed using a Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. There was a significant and positive relationship between 6MWT distance and lower limb muscle strength (p = 0.001), whereas no significant correlations were found between the 6MWT distance and spasticity, resting heart rate and heart rate during the 6MWT. The 6MWT distance may be a good indicator of lower limb muscle strength, and lower limb strengthening may improve gait capacity in stroke patients.

  19. Chronic effect of light resistance exercise after ingestion of a high-protein snack on increase of skeletal muscle mass and strength in young adults.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yushi; Sawada, Atsushi; Numao, Shigeharu; Suzuki, Masashige

    2011-01-01

    We have previously reported on the possibility that light resistance exercise performed with a high plasma amino acid concentration resulting from the ingestion of a high-protein snack (HPS; 15 g protein, 18 g sugar) 3 h after a basal meal promotes the utilization of amino acids in peripheral tissues such as muscle in both rats and humans. In the present study, we further examined the effectiveness of a daily routine involving ingestion of HPS 3 h after a basal meal and subsequent light resistance exercise (dumbbell exercise) in increasing the mass and strength of human muscle. Ten young adult males were subject to the following 3 conditions for 5 wk each, with sufficient recovery period between each condition: (1) Snack-Exercise (SE), (2) Snack-Sedentary (SS), and (3) No snack-Exercise (NE). The SE group showed a significant increase in lean body mass and total cross-sectional area (CSA) of the right forearm muscles along with a significant decrease in body fat mass. The SS group showed no change in body composition. Furthermore, the SE group showed significant increase in grip strength and isometric knee extensor muscle strength, while the SS group showed no increase in muscle strength. The NE group showed significant increase in grip strength. In conclusion, daily routine ingestion of HPS 3 h after a basal meal and subsequent light resistance exercise is effective in increasing the mass and strength of human muscle.

  20. Post-exercise cold water immersion attenuates acute anabolic signalling and long-term adaptations in muscle to strength training.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Llion A; Raastad, Truls; Markworth, James F; Figueiredo, Vandre C; Egner, Ingrid M; Shield, Anthony; Cameron-Smith, David; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2015-09-15

    We investigated functional, morphological and molecular adaptations to strength training exercise and cold water immersion (CWI) through two separate studies. In one study, 21 physically active men strength trained for 12 weeks (2 days per week), with either 10 min of CWI or active recovery (ACT) after each training session. Strength and muscle mass increased more in the ACT group than in the CWI group (P < 0.05). Isokinetic work (19%), type II muscle fibre cross-sectional area (17%) and the number of myonuclei per fibre (26%) increased in the ACT group (all P < 0.05), but not the CWI group. In another study, nine active men performed a bout of single-leg strength exercises on separate days, followed by CWI or ACT. Muscle biopsies were collected before and 2, 24 and 48 h after exercise. The number of satellite cells expressing neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (10-30%) and paired box protein (Pax7) (20-50%) increased 24-48 h after exercise with ACT. The number of NCAM(+) satellite cells increased 48 h after exercise with CWI. NCAM(+) - and Pax7(+) -positive satellite cell numbers were greater after ACT than after CWI (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase(Thr421/Ser424) increased after exercise in both conditions but was greater after ACT (P < 0.05). These data suggest that CWI attenuates the acute changes in satellite cell numbers and activity of kinases that regulate muscle hypertrophy, which may translate to smaller long-term training gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy. The use of CWI as a regular post-exercise recovery strategy should be reconsidered. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  1. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zeren, Melih; Demir, Rengin; Yigit, Zerrin; Gurses, Hulya N

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation. Prospective randomized controlled single-blind study. Cardiology department of a university hospital. A total of 38 patients with permanent atrial fibrillation were randomly allocated to either a treatment group (n = 19; age 66.2 years (8.8)) or a control group (n = 19; age 67.1 years (6.4)). The training group received inspiratory muscle training at 30% of maximal inspiratory pressure for 15 minutes twice a day, 7 days a week, for 12 weeks alongside the standard medical treatment. The control group received standard medical treatment only. Spirometry, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures and 6-minute walking distance was measured at the beginning and end of the study. There was a significant increase in maximal inspiratory pressure (27.94 cmH 2 O (8.90)), maximal expiratory pressure (24.53 cmH 2 O (10.34)), forced vital capacity (10.29% (8.18) predicted), forced expiratory volume in one second (13.88% (13.42) predicted), forced expiratory flow 25%-75% (14.82% (12.44) predicted), peak expiratory flow (19.82% (15.62) predicted) and 6-minute walking distance (55.53 m (14.13)) in the training group (p < 0.01). No significant changes occurred in the control group (p > 0.05). Inspiratory muscle training can improve pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with atrial fibrillation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. The Effect of Aquatic Exercise Therapy on Muscle Strength and Joint's Range of Motion in Hemophilia Patients.

    PubMed

    Kargarfard, Mehdi; Dehghadani, Mehdi; Ghias, Reza

    2013-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the effect of a period of aquatic exercise therapy on muscle strength and joints range of motion in hemophilia patients. This was a semiexperimental, pretest, post-test study with a control group. This semi-experimental study comprised twenty men suffering moderate hemophilia were selected by convenience sampling method from patients of a referral hospital. They were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups of equal number. The hemophilia patients who were referred to Sayedo-Shohada Hospital enrolled in this study. Twenty men suffering moderate hemophilia were selected using convenience sampling method and then divided randomly into intervention and control groups (10 patients in each group). Subjects of aquatic exercise therapy group underwent activity in water in three sessions (45-60 minutes) per week for 8 weeks, while the control group was only under follow-up and during this period did not experience any effective physical activity. The patients' muscle strength and joint range of motion were evaluated through standard laboratory tools, using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex, Systems III) and a standard goniometer in the beginning and at end of the study. Finally, data was analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The strength of the muscles around the knee joint (to perform extension and flexion movements) increased significantly in the case group while the control group experienced a significant reduction of strength in left leg, but in right leg remarkable change was observed. Range of motion in all joints was improved in the case group, while the control group did not improve significantly. The results showed that aquatic exercise therapy can be a useful method to improve joints' strength and range of motion in hemophilia patients in order to improve their daily functioning and quality of life.

  3. The Effect of Aquatic Exercise Therapy on Muscle Strength and Joint's Range of Motion in Hemophilia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kargarfard, Mehdi; Dehghadani, Mehdi; Ghias, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was to evaluate the effect of a period of aquatic exercise therapy on muscle strength and joints range of motion in hemophilia patients. Methods: This was a semiexperimental, pretest, post-test study with a control group. This semi-experimental study comprised twenty men suffering moderate hemophilia were selected by convenience sampling method from patients of a referral hospital. They were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups of equal number. The hemophilia patients who were referred to Sayedo-Shohada Hospital enrolled in this study. Twenty men suffering moderate hemophilia were selected using convenience sampling method and then divided randomly into intervention and control groups (10 patients in each group). Subjects of aquatic exercise therapy group underwent activity in water in three sessions (45-60 minutes) per week for 8 weeks, while the control group was only under follow-up and during this period did not experience any effective physical activity. The patients’ muscle strength and joint range of motion were evaluated through standard laboratory tools, using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex, Systems III) and a standard goniometer in the beginning and at end of the study. Finally, data was analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: The strength of the muscles around the knee joint (to perform extension and flexion movements) increased significantly in the case group while the control group experienced a significant reduction of strength in left leg, but in right leg remarkable change was observed. Range of motion in all joints was improved in the case group, while the control group did not improve significantly. Conclusion: The results showed that aquatic exercise therapy can be a useful method to improve joints’ strength and range of motion in hemophilia patients in order to improve their daily functioning and quality of life. PMID:23412736

  4. Strength and fatigability of selected muscles in upper limb: assessing muscle imbalance relevant to tennis elbow.

    PubMed

    Alizadehkhaiyat, O; Fisher, A C; Kemp, G J; Frostick, S P

    2007-08-01

    The aetiology of tennis elbow has remained uncertain for more than a century. To examine muscle imbalance as a possible pathophysiological factor requires a reliable method of assessment. This paper describes the development of such a method and its performance in healthy subjects. We propose a combination of surface and fine-wire EMG of shoulder and forearm muscles and wrist strength measurements as a reliable tool for assessing muscle imbalance relevant to the pathophysiology of tennis elbow. Six healthy volunteers participated. EMG data were acquired at 50% maximal voluntary isometric contraction from five forearm muscles during grip and three shoulder muscles during external rotation and abduction, and analysed using normalized median frequency slope as a fatigue index. Wrist extension/flexion strength was measured using a purpose-built dynamometer. Significant negative slope of median frequency was found for all muscles, with good reproducibility, and no significant difference in slope between the different muscles of the shoulder and the wrist. (Amplitude slope showed high variability and was therefore unsuitable for this purpose.) Wrist flexion was 27+/-8% stronger than extension (mean+/-SEM, p=0.006). This is a reliable method for measuring muscle fatigue in forearm and shoulder. EMG and wrist strength studies together can be used for assessing and identifying the muscle balance in the wrist-forearm-shoulder chain.

  5. Bench press and push-up at comparable levels of muscle activity results in similar strength gains.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan C; Martin, Fernando; Tella, Victor; Andersen, Lars L

    2015-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) exercise evaluation is commonly used to measure the intensity of muscle contraction. Although researchers assume that biomechanically comparable resistance exercises with similar high EMG levels will produce similar strength gains over the long term, no studies have actually corroborated this hypothesis. This study evaluated EMG levels during 6 repetition maximum (6RM) bench press and push-up, and subsequently performed a 5-week training period where subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups (i.e., 6RM bench press group, 6RM elastic band push-up group, or control group) to evaluate muscle strength gains. Thirty university students with advanced resistance training experience participated in the 2-part study. During the training period, exercises were performed using the same loads and variables that were used during the EMG data collection. At baseline, EMG amplitude showed no significant difference between 6RM bench press and band push-up. Significant differences among the groups were found for percent change (Δ) between pretest and posttest for 6RM (p = 0.017) and for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) (p < 0.001). Six repetition maximum bench press group and 6RM elastic band push-up group improved their 1RM and 6RM (Δ ranging from 13.65 to 22.21) tests significantly with similar gains, whereas control group remains unchanged. Thus, when the EMG values are comparable and the same conditions are reproduced, the aforementioned exercises can provide similar muscle strength gains.

  6. Multimedia-Based Therapy Model for Non-Pharmacological Stroke with Decrease Impaired Muscle Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajar Puji Sejati, Rr; Muhimmah, Izzati; Mahtarami, Affan

    2016-01-01

    Stroke patients who experience a decrease in muscle strength need to do exercises so that they can increase their muscle strength. In order to enable the patient does exercise independently the multimedia-based stroke therapy model is needed. These exercises can be done independently, with supervision of the family member at home. So, we develop prototype of the multimedia-based therapy for the family member so that they can assist patients performing exercises without attending therapy session in hospital. This model was built according to the advices from physiotherapist and a medical rehabilitation doctor. This model has been evaluated through focused group discussion by physiotherapists. And they gave positive responses to this proposed model.

  7. [Effects of community-based comprehensive fall prevention program on muscle strength, postural balance and fall efficacy in elderly people].

    PubMed

    Bae, Jeongyee; Cho, Seong Il

    2014-12-01

    The purposes of this study was to develop a comprehensive community-based fall prevention program and to test the effects of the program on the muscle strength, postural balance and fall efficacy for elderly people. The design of this study was a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. There were 28 participants in the experimental group and 29 in the control group. The program consisted of balance exercises, elastic resistance exercises and prevention education. The program was provided five times a week for 8 weeks and each session lasted 90 minutes. Data were analyzed using χ²-test, independent t-test and paired t-test using the SPSS program. Muscle strength of the lower extremities, postural balance and fall efficacy scores significantly improved in the experimental group compared to the control group. These results suggest that this program can improve lower extremity muscle strength, postural balance and fall efficacy in elders. Therefore, this program is recommended for use in fall prevention programs for elders living in the community.

  8. Short-term low-intensity blood flow restricted interval training improves both aerobic fitness and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, M F M; Caputo, F; Corvino, R B; Denadai, B S

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to analyze and compare the effects of four different interval-training protocols on aerobic fitness and muscle strength. Thirty-seven subjects (23.8 ± 4 years; 171.7 ± 9.5 cm; 70 ± 11 kg) were assigned to one of four groups: low-intensity interval training with (BFR, n = 10) or without (LOW, n = 7) blood flow restriction, high-intensity interval training (HIT, n = 10), and combined HIT and BFR (BFR + HIT, n = 10, every session performed 50% as BFR and 50% as HIT). Before and after 4 weeks training (3 days a week), the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ), maximal power output (Pmax ), onset blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), and muscle strength were measured for all subjects. All training groups were able to improve OBLA (BFR, 16%; HIT, 25%; HIT + BFR, 22%; LOW, 6%), with no difference between groups. However, VO2max and Pmax improved only for BFR (6%, 12%), HIT (9%, 15%) and HIT + BFR (6%, 11%), with no difference between groups. Muscle strength gains were only observed after BFR training (11%). This study demonstrates the advantage of short-term low-intensity interval BFR training as the single mode of training able to simultaneously improve aerobic fitness and muscular strength. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Relationships between muscular strength and the level of energy sources in the muscle.

    PubMed

    Wit, A; Juskiak, R; Wit, B; Zieliński, J R

    1978-01-01

    Relationships between muscular strength and the level of energy sources in the muscle. Acta Physiol. Pol., 1978, 29 (2): 139--151. An attempt was made to establish a relationship between the post-excercise changes in the level of anaerobic energy sources and changes in the muscular strength. The gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats was examined. The muscle strength was measured by the resistance tensometry. In muscle specimens ATP, CP and glycogen contents were determined. It was demonstrated that changes in the post-excersise muscle response to electric stimulus have a phasic character resembling the overcompensation curve. The percent changes in the content of anaerobic energy sources in the muscle after contractions varying in duration suggests also overcompensation the muscle content of these substances. The parallelity between the time of appearance of peak overcompensation phase in the muscle strength and in the post-exercise level of musclar ATP, CP and glycogen contents suggest a casual relationship between these changes.

  10. Cervical Muscle Strength and Muscle Coactivation During Isometric Contractions in Patients With Migraine: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Florencio, Lidiane Lima; de Oliveira, Anamaria Siriani; Carvalho, Gabriela Ferreira; Tolentino, Gabriella de Almeida; Dach, Fabiola; Bigal, Marcelo Eduardo; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Bevilaqua Grossi, Débora

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated potential differences in cervical musculature in groups of migraine headaches vs. non-headache controls. Differences in cervical muscle strength and antagonist coactivation during maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC) were analyzed between individuals with migraine and non-headache subjects and relationships between force with migraine and neck pain clinical aspects. A customized hand-held dynamometer was used to assess cervical flexion, extension, and bilateral lateral flexion strength in subjects with episodic migraine (n=31), chronic migraine (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 31). Surface electromyography (EMG) from sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene, and splenius capitis muscles were recorded during MIVC to evaluate antagonist coactivation. Comparison of main outcomes among groups was conducted with one-way analysis of covariance with the presence of neck pain as covariable. Correlations between peak force and clinical variables were demonstrated by Spearman's coefficient. Chronic migraine subjects exhibited lower cervical extension force (mean diff. from controls: 4.4 N/kg; mean diff from episodic migraine: 3.7 N/kg; P = .006) and spent significantly more time to generate peak force during cervical flexion (mean diff. from controls: 0.5 seconds; P = .025) and left lateral-flexion (mean diff. from controls: 0.4 seconds; mean diff. from episodic migraine: 0.5 seconds; P = .007). Both migraine groups showed significantly higher antagonist muscle coactivity of the splenius capitis muscle (mean diff. from controls: 20%MIVC, P = .03) during cervical flexion relative to healthy controls. Cervical extension peak force was moderately associated with the migraine frequency (rs: -0.30, P = .034), neck pain frequency (rs: -0.26, P = .020), and neck pain intensity (rs: -0.27, P = .012). Patients with chronic migraine exhibit altered muscle performance, took longer to reach peak of

  11. Abnormal pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength findings in Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy--comparison with normal elderly.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Shao, Wei-bo; Gao, Li; Lu, Jie; Gu, Hao; Sun, Li-hua; Tan, Yan; Zhang, Ying-dong

    2014-01-01

    There have been limited comparative data regarding the investigations on pulmonary and respiratory muscle function in the patients with different parkinsonism disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) versus normal elderly. The present study is aiming to characterize the performance of pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in PD and MSA, and to investigate the association with severity of motor symptoms and disease duration. Pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength tests were performed in 30 patients with PD, 27 with MSA as well as in 20 age-, sex-, height-, weight-matched normal elderly controls. All the patients underwent United Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) or united multiple system atrophy rating scale (UMSARS) separately as diagnosed. Vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity decreased, residual volume and ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity increased in both PD and MSA groups compared to controls (p<0.05). Diffusing capacity was decreased in the MSA group, compared with PD and normal elderly control groups (p<0.05). Respiratory muscle strength was lower in both PD and MSA groups than in controls (p<0.05). The values representing spirometry function and respiratory muscle strength were found to have a negative linear correlation with mean score of UPDRS-III in PD and mean score of UMSARS-I in MSA. Respiratory muscle strength showed a negative linear correlation with the mean score of UMSARS-II and disease duration in MSA patients. These findings suggest that respiratory dysfunction is involved in PD and MSA. Respiratory muscle strength is remarkably reduced, and some of the parameters correlate with disease duration and illness severity. The compromised respiratory function in neurodegenerative disorders should be the focus of further researches.

  12. Ischemic conditioning increases strength and volitional activation of paretic muscle in chronic stroke: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hyngstrom, Allison S; Murphy, Spencer A; Nguyen, Jennifer; Schmit, Brian D; Negro, Francesco; Gutterman, David D; Durand, Matthew J

    2018-05-01

    Ischemic conditioning (IC) on the arm or leg has emerged as an intervention to improve strength and performance in healthy populations, but the effects on neurological populations are unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of a single session of IC on knee extensor strength and muscle activation in chronic stroke survivors. Maximal knee extensor torque measurements and surface EMG were quantified in 10 chronic stroke survivors (>1 yr poststroke) with hemiparesis before and after a single session of IC or sham on the paretic leg. IC consisted of 5 min of compression with a proximal thigh cuff (inflation pressure = 225 mmHg for IC or 25 mmHg for sham) followed by 5 min of rest. This was repeated five times. Maximal knee extensor strength, EMG magnitude, and motor unit firing behavior were measured before and immediately after IC or sham. IC increased paretic leg strength by 10.6 ± 8.5 Nm, whereas no difference was observed in the sham group (change in sham = 1.3 ± 2.9 Nm, P = 0.001 IC vs. sham). IC-induced increases in strength were accompanied by a 31 ± 15% increase in the magnitude of muscle EMG during maximal contractions and a 5% decrease in motor unit recruitment thresholds during submaximal contractions. Individuals who had the most asymmetry in strength between their paretic and nonparetic legs had the largest increases in strength ( r 2  = 0.54). This study provides evidence that a single session of IC can increase strength through improved muscle activation in chronic stroke survivors. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Present rehabilitation strategies for chronic stroke survivors do not optimally activate paretic muscle, and this limits potential strength gains. Ischemic conditioning of a limb has emerged as an effective strategy to improve muscle performance in healthy individuals but has never been tested in neurological populations. In this study, we show that ischemic conditioning on the paretic leg of chronic stroke survivors

  13. Effect of neuromuscular stimulation and individualized rehabilitation on muscle strength in Intensive Care Unit survivors: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Patsaki, Irini; Gerovasili, Vasiliki; Sidiras, Georgios; Karatzanos, Eleftherios; Mitsiou, Georgios; Papadopoulos, Emmanuel; Christakou, Anna; Routsi, Christina; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Nanas, Serafim

    2017-08-01

    Intensive Care Unit (ICU) survivors experience muscle weakness leading to restrictions in functional ability. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been an alternative to exercise in critically ill patients. The aim of our study was to investigate its effects along with individualized rehabilitation on muscle strength of ICU survivors. Following ICU discharge, 128 patients (age: 53±16years) were randomly assigned to daily NMES sessions and individualized rehabilitation (NMES group) or to control group. Muscle strength was assessed by the Medical Research Council (MRC) score and hand grip at hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes were functional ability and hospital length of stay. MRC, handgrip, functional status and hospital length of stay did not differ at hospital discharge between groups (p>0.05). ΔMRC% one and two weeks after ICU discharge tended to be higher in NMES group, while it was significant higher in NMES group of patients with ICU-acquired weakness at two weeks (p=0.05). NMES and personalized physiotherapy in ICU survivors did not result in greater improvement of muscle strength and functional status at hospital discharge. However, in patients with ICU-aw NMES may be effective. The potential benefits of rehabilitation strategies should be explored in larger number of patients in future studies. www.Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01717833. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Effects of dietary soy protein on skeletal muscle volume and strength in humans with various physical activities.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Rie; Sakai, Atsuko; Murayama, Masumi; Ochi, Arisa; Abe, Tomoki; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Ohno, Ayako; Teshima-Kondo, Shigetada; Yanagawa, Hiroaki; Yasui, Natsuo; Inatsugi, Mikiko; Doi, Daisuke; Takeda, Masanori; Mukai, Rie; Terao, Junji; Nikawa, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the number of bedridden people is rapidly increasing due to aging or lack of exercise in Japan. This problem is becoming more serious, since there is no countermeasure against it. In the present study, we designed to investigate whether dietary proteins, especially soy, had beneficial effects on skeletal muscle in 59 volunteers with various physical activities. We subjected 59 volunteers with various physical activities to meal intervention examination. Persons with low and high physical activities were divided into two dietary groups, the casein diet group and the soy diet group. They ate daily meals supplemented with 7.8 g of powdered casein or soy protein isolate every day for 30 days. Bedridden patients in hospitals were further divided into three dietary groups: the no supplementation diet group, the casein diet group and the soy diet group. They were also subjected to a blood test, a urinalysis, magnetic resonance imaging analysis and muscle strength test of the knee before and after the meal intervention study. Thirty-day soy protein supplementation significantly increased skeletal muscle volume in participants with low physical activity, compared with 30-day casein protein supplementation. Both casein and soy protein supplementation increased the volume of quadriceps femoris muscle in bedridden patients. Consistently, soy protein significantly increased their extension power of the knee, compared with casein protein. Although casein protein increased skeletal muscle volume more than soy protein in bedridden patients, their muscle strength changes by soy protein supplementation were bigger than those by casein protein supplementation. The supplementation of soy protein would be one of the effective foods which prevent the skeletal muscle atrophy caused by immobilization or unloading.

  15. Effect of muscle length on strength and dexterity after stroke.

    PubMed

    Ada, L; Canning, C; Dwyer, T

    2000-02-01

    The effect of muscle length on strength and dexterity after stroke was investigated. The aim was to determine if poor function at a particular muscle length could be attributed solely to differential weakness at this joint angle or whether an additional problem of differential dexterity exists. This descriptive research study measured elbow flexor and extensor strength as well as dexterity at three elbow joint angles: 30 degrees , 60 degrees and 90 degrees flexion. Dexterity was measured independently of strength. Fifteen (seven female, eight male) chronic stroke patients (mean age 67 years) who could actively flex and extend their affected elbow participated. Ten neurologically normal control subjects (mean age 67 years) acted as controls. Strength was measured as peak elbow flexor and extensor torque at three angles; and dexterity was measured as coherence for slow and fast tracking also at three angles. Dexterity was not affected by muscle length but strength was and this finding was the same for both stroke and controls. While the magnitude of the torque-angle curves was not significantly different between stroke and controls, the shape of torque-angle curves was altered after stroke so that both the elbow flexors (p < 0.05) and extensors (p < 0.05) tested weaker in the testing position where they were shortest. Since there was no differential loss of dexterity, it appears that differential loss of strength, especially in the shortened range, may explain the clinical observation of poorer function at one muscle length than another after stroke. Specific training to strengthen the muscles in these ranges is therefore of clinical importance for rehabilitation.

  16. Influence of aging on isometric muscle strength, fat-free mass and electromyographic signal power of the upper and lower limbs in women

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Josária F.; Alvim, Felipe C.; Castro, Eliane A.; Doimo, Leonice A.; Silva, Marcus V.; Novo, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Aging is a multifactorial process that leads to changes in the quantity and quality of skeletal muscle and contributes to decreased levels of muscle strength. Objective This study sought to investigate whether the isometric muscle strength, fat-free mass (FFM) and power of the electromyographic (EMG) signal of the upper and lower limbs of women are similarly affected by aging. Method The sample consisted of 63 women, who were subdivided into three groups (young (YO) n=33, 24.7±3.5 years; middle age (MA) n=15, 58.6±4.2 years; and older adults (OA). n=15, 72.0±4.2 years). Isometric strength was recorded simultaneously with the capture of the electrical activity of the flexor muscles of the fingers and the vastus lateralis during handgrip and knee extension tests, respectively. FFM was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results The handgrip strength measurements were similar among groups (p=0.523), whereas the FFM of the upper limbs was lower in group OA compared to group YO (p=0.108). The RMSn values of the hand flexors were similar among groups (p=0.754). However, the strength of the knee extensors, the FFM of the lower limbs and the RMSn values of the vastus lateralis were lower in groups MA (p=0.014, p=0.006 and p=0.013, respectively) and OA (p=0.000, p=0.000 and p<0.000, respectively) compared to group YO. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that changes in isometric muscle strength in MLG and electromyographic activity of the lower limbs are more pronounced with the aging process of the upper limb. PMID:24676705

  17. Influence of Whole-Body Vibration Training Without Visual Feedback on Balance and Lower-Extremity Muscle Strength of the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Shiuan-Yu; Lai, Chung-Liang; Chang, Kai-Ling; Hsu, Pi-Shan; Lee, Meng-Chih; Wang, Chun-Hou

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of whole-body vibration (WBV) training without visual feedback on balance and lower-extremity muscle strength in the elderly.Elderly subjects who did not exercise regularly participated in this study. Subjects were randomly divided into a WBV with eyes open group, a visual feedback-deprived plus WBV (VFDWBV) group, and a control group (0 Hz, eyes open). WBV training was provided over a 3-month period, 3 times per week for 5 min each session. Balance performance was measured with the limits of stability test, and muscle strength was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer.A total of 45 elderly subjects with an average age of 69.22  ±  3.97 years, divided into a WBV group (n = 14), a VFDWBV group (n = 17), and a control group (n = 14), completed the trial. Statistically significant differences were found in the balance performance of the 3 groups at different time points (time × group interaction: F = 13.213, P < 0.001), and the VFDWBV group had more improvement in balance than the WBV and control groups. The strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles had time × group interactions: F = 29.604, P < 0.001 and F = 4.684, P = 0.015, respectively; the VFDWBV group had more improvement on lower-extremity muscle strength than the WBV and control groups. The 6-month follow-up showed that the rates of hospital visits for medical services due to falls were 0% in the WBV group (0/14), 0% in the VFDWBV group (0/17), and 28.57% in the control group (4/14).Results showed that WBV training at 20  Hz without visual feedback can significantly improve the balance performance and lower-extremity muscle strength of the elderly.

  18. Cross-sectional association between muscle strength and self-reported physical function in 195 hip osteoarthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michelle; Wrigley, Tim V; Kasza, Jessica; Dobson, Fiona; Pua, Yong Hao; Metcalf, Ben R; Bennell, Kim L

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate associations between strength of selected hip and knee muscles and self-reported physical function, and their clinical relevance, in men and women with hip osteoarthritis (OA). Cross-sectional data from 195 participants with symptomatic hip OA were used. Peak isometric torque of hip extensors, flexors, and abductors, and knee extensors were measured, along with physical function using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index questionnaire. Separate linear regressions in men and women were used to determine the association between strength and physical function accounting for age, pain, and radiographic disease severity. Subsequently, magnitudes of strength associated with estimates of minimal clinically important improvement (MCII) in physical function were estimated according to severity of difficulty with physical function. For men, greater strength of the hip extensors, hip flexors and knee extensors were each associated with better physical function. For women, greater muscle strength of all tested muscles were each associated with better physical function. For men and women, increases in muscle strength between 17-32%, 133-223%, and 151-284% may be associated with estimates of MCII in physical function for those with mild, moderate, and severe physical dysfunction, respectively. Greater isometric strength of specific hip and thigh muscle groups may be associated with better self-reported physical function in men and women. In people with mild physical dysfunction, an estimate of MCII in physical function may be associated with attainable increases in strength. However, in patients with more severe dysfunction, greater and perhaps unattainable strength increases may be associated with an estimate of MCII in physical function. Longitudinal studies are required to validate these observations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Treadmill Training with Virtual Reality Improves Gait, Balance, and Muscle Strength in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chunhee; Hwang, Wonjeong; Hwang, Sujin; Chung, Yijung

    2016-03-01

    Independent walking is an important goal of clinical and community-based rehabilitation for children with cerebral palsy (CP). Virtual reality-based rehabilitation therapy is effective in motivating children with CP. This study investigated the effects of treadmill training with virtual reality on gait, balance, muscular strength, and gross motor function in children with CP. Eighteen children with spastic CP were randomly divided into the virtual reality treadmill training (VRTT) group (9 subjects, mean age, 10.2 years) and treadmill training (TT) group (9 subjects, mean age, 9.4 years). The groups performed their respective programs as well as conventional physical therapy 3 times/week for 8 weeks. Muscle strength was assessed using a digitalized manual muscle tester. Gross motor function was assessed using the Gross Motor Functional Measure (GMFM). Balance was assessed using the Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS). Gait speed was assessed using the 10-meter walk test (10MWT), and gait endurance was assessed using the 2-minute walk test (2MWT). After training, gait and balance was improved in the VRTT compared to the TT group (P < 0.05). Muscular strength was significantly greater in the VRTT group than the TT group, except for right hamstring strength. The improvements in GMFM (standing) and PBS scores were greater in the VRTT group than the TT group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the VRTT group showed the higher values of 10MWT and 2MWT compared to the TT group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, VRTT programs are effective for improving gait, balance, muscular strength, and gross motor function in children with CP.

  20. The relationship between hamstring length and gluteal muscle strength in individuals with sacroiliac joint dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Massoud Arab, Amir; Reza Nourbakhsh, Mohammad; Mohammadifar, Ali

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that tight hamstring muscle, due to its anatomical connections, could be a compensatory mechanism for providing sacroiliac (SI) joint stability in patients with gluteal muscle weakness and SIJ dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between hamstring muscle length and gluteal muscle strength in subjects with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. A total of 159 subjects with and without low back pain (LBP) between the ages of 20 and 65 years participate in the study. Subjects were categorized into three groups: LBP without SIJ involvement (n = 53); back pain with SIJ dysfunction (n = 53); and no low back pain (n = 53). Hamstring muscle length and gluteal muscle strength were measured in all subjects. The number of individuals with gluteal weakness was significantly (P = 0.02) higher in subjects with SI joint dysfunction (66%) compared to those with LBP without SI joint dysfunctions (34%). In pooled data, there was no significant difference (P = 0.31) in hamstring muscle length between subjects with SI joint dysfunction and those with back pain without SI involvement. In subjects with SI joint dysfunction, however, those with gluteal muscle weakness had significantly (P = 0.02) shorter hamstring muscle length (mean = 158±11°) compared to individuals without gluteal weakness (mean = 165±10°). There was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in hamstring muscle length between individuals with and without gluteal muscle weakness in other groups. In conclusion, hamstring tightness in subjects with SI joint dysfunction could be related to gluteal muscle weakness. The slight difference in hamstring muscle length found in this study, although statistically significant, was not sufficient for making any definite conclusions. Further studies are needed to establish the role of hamstring muscle in SI joint stability. PMID:22294848

  1. The relationship between hamstring length and gluteal muscle strength in individuals with sacroiliac joint dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Massoud Arab, Amir; Reza Nourbakhsh, Mohammad; Mohammadifar, Ali

    2011-02-01

    It has been suggested that tight hamstring muscle, due to its anatomical connections, could be a compensatory mechanism for providing sacroiliac (SI) joint stability in patients with gluteal muscle weakness and SIJ dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between hamstring muscle length and gluteal muscle strength in subjects with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. A total of 159 subjects with and without low back pain (LBP) between the ages of 20 and 65 years participate in the study. Subjects were categorized into three groups: LBP without SIJ involvement (n = 53); back pain with SIJ dysfunction (n = 53); and no low back pain (n = 53). Hamstring muscle length and gluteal muscle strength were measured in all subjects. The number of individuals with gluteal weakness was significantly (P = 0.02) higher in subjects with SI joint dysfunction (66%) compared to those with LBP without SI joint dysfunctions (34%). In pooled data, there was no significant difference (P = 0.31) in hamstring muscle length between subjects with SI joint dysfunction and those with back pain without SI involvement. In subjects with SI joint dysfunction, however, those with gluteal muscle weakness had significantly (P = 0.02) shorter hamstring muscle length (mean = 158±11°) compared to individuals without gluteal weakness (mean = 165±10°). There was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in hamstring muscle length between individuals with and without gluteal muscle weakness in other groups. In conclusion, hamstring tightness in subjects with SI joint dysfunction could be related to gluteal muscle weakness. The slight difference in hamstring muscle length found in this study, although statistically significant, was not sufficient for making any definite conclusions. Further studies are needed to establish the role of hamstring muscle in SI joint stability.

  2. Muscle strength and physical activity are associated with self-rated health in an adult Danish population.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Andreas W; Beyer, Nina; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Grønbæk, Morten; Helge, Jørn W

    2013-12-01

    To describe associations of muscle strength, physical activity and self-rated health. Isometric muscle strength by maximal handgrip strength (HGS) or muscle strength by 30s repeated chair stand test (30s-CS) was combined with leisure time physical activity. Using logistic regression odds ratio was calculated for good self-rated health according to the combined associations among 16,539 participants (59.7% women), mean age 51.9 (SD: 13.8) years, from a cross-sectional study in Denmark 2007-2008. Good self-rated health was positively associated with higher levels of physical activity and greater muscle strength. Regarding HGS the highest OR for good self-rated health was in the moderate/vigorous physically active participants with high HGS (OR=6.84, 95% CI: 4.85-9.65 and OR=7.34, 95% CI: 5.42-9.96 for men and women, respectively). Similarly the highest OR for good self-rated health was in the moderate/vigorous physically active participants with high scores in the 30s-CS test (6.06, 95% CI: 4.32-8.50 and 13.38, 95% CI: 9.59-18.67 for men and women, respectively). The reference groups were sedentary participants with low strength (HGS or 30s-CS). The combined score for physical activity level with either HGS or 30s-CS was strongly positively associated with self-related health. © 2013.

  3. Creatine monohydrate supplementation during eight weeks of progressive resistance training increases strength in as little as two weeks without reducing markers of muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Kaviani, Mojtaba; Abassi, Aboozar; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2018-05-02

    Creatine supplementation (Cr) increases strength during resistance training, but the time course of this strength increase is unclear. The aim was to determine the precise time course by which Cr could increase strength and whether Cr prevents muscle damage during eight weeks of resistance training. Young males were randomized (double blind) to Cr (n=9, 0.07g/kg/d) and placebo (n=9) during 8-weeks of resistance training (3d/week). Strength was assessed across six exercises every two weeks. Venous blood samples obtained at baseline, and 24 and 48 hours after the final resistance training session were assessed for creatine kinase [CK] and lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] as measures of muscle damage. Strength was significantly higher in the Cr versus placebo group (p<0.05) after two weeks of training for three of the six exercises (bench press, leg press, shoulder press). By the end of the eight weeks of training, strength was significantly higher in the Cr versus placebo group (p<0.05) for four of the six exercises (bench press, leg press, shoulder press, and triceps extension, but not biceps curl or lat-pulldown). Creatine supplementation did not prevent muscle damage. Indeed, muscle damage markers increased in the Cr compared to placebo group (p<0.05). Cr increased muscular strength in as little as two weeks during a resistance training program; however, this was not accompanied by decreased muscle damage. Greater muscle damage with Cr may be due to a greater training intensity enabled by Cr supplementation. This might lead to greater protein turnover and enhanced muscle adaptation.

  4. The Effect of High-Intensity Interval Cycling Sprints Subsequent to Arm-Curl Exercise on Upper-Body Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Naoki; Yoshida, Shou; Okuyama, Mizuki; Nakazato, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    Kikuchi, N, Yoshida, S, Okuyama, M, and Nakazato, K. The effect of high-intensity interval cycling sprints subsequent to arm-curl exercise on upper-body muscle strength and hypertrophy. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2318-2323, 2016-The purpose of this study was to examine whether lower limb sprint interval training (SIT) after arm resistance training (RT) influences training response of arm muscle strength and hypertrophy. Twenty men participated in this study. We divided subjects into RT group (n = 6) and concurrent training group (CT, n = 6). The RT program was designed to induce muscular hypertrophy (3 sets × 10 repetitions [reps] at 80% 1 repetition maximum [1RM] of arm-curl exercise) and was performed in an 8-week training schedule performed 3 times per week on nonconsecutive days. Subjects assigned to the CT group performed identical protocols as strength training and modified SIT (4 sets of 30-s maximal effort, separated in 4 m 30-s rest intervals) on the same day. Pretest and posttest maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), and 1RM were measured. Significant increase in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max from pretest to posttest was observed in the CT group (p = 0.010, effect size [ES] = 1.84) but not in the RT group (p = 0.559, ES = 0.35). Significant increase in CSA from pretest to posttest was observed in the RT group (p = 0.030, ES = 1.49) but not in the CT group (p = 0.110, ES = 1.01). Significant increase in 1RM from pretest to posttest was observed in the RT group (p = 0.021, ES = 1.57) but not in the CT group (p = 0.065, ES = 1.19). In conclusion, our data indicate that concurrent lower limb SIT interferes with arm muscle hypertrophy and strength.

  5. The impact of obesity on skeletal muscle strength and structure through adolescence to old age.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, D J; Erskine, R M; Morse, C I; Winwood, K; Onambélé-Pearson, Gladys

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is associated with functional limitations in muscle performance and increased likelihood of developing a functional disability such as mobility, strength, postural and dynamic balance limitations. The consensus is that obese individuals, regardless of age, have a greater absolute maximum muscle strength compared to non-obese persons, suggesting that increased adiposity acts as a chronic overload stimulus on the antigravity muscles (e.g., quadriceps and calf), thus increasing muscle size and strength. However, when maximum muscular strength is normalised to body mass, obese individuals appear weaker. This relative weakness may be caused by reduced mobility, neural adaptations and changes in muscle morphology. Discrepancies in the literature remain for maximal strength normalised to muscle mass (muscle quality) and can potentially be explained through accounting for the measurement protocol contributing to muscle strength capacity that need to be explored in more depth such as antagonist muscle co-activation, muscle architecture, a criterion valid measurement of muscle size and an accurate measurement of physical activity levels. Current evidence demonstrating the effect of obesity on muscle quality is limited. These factors not being recorded in some of the existing literature suggest a potential underestimation of muscle force either in terms of absolute force production or relative to muscle mass; thus the true effect of obesity upon skeletal muscle size, structure and function, including any interactions with ageing effects, remains to be elucidated.

  6. The eccentric, concentric strength relationship of the hamstring muscles in chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Paul W M; Mannion, Jamie; Murphy, Bernadette A

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to measure hamstring muscle eccentric and concentric strength in individuals with and without low back pain (LBP). Two composite scores for the relative balance of eccentric to concentric strength at the different movement velocities were calculated (the DEC and SEC), to determine whether or not self perceived pain, disability, or fear avoidance measures were associated with hamstring strength characteristics. Cross-sectional repeated measures design. University laboratory. Fifteen individuals with chronic LBP and 15 matched controls. Isokinetic eccentric and concentric strength at 30 degrees s(-1) and 120 degrees s(-1)(.) Composite scores (DEC and SEC) based on peak torque were calculated to evaluate the relationship between the different muscle actions across the test velocities. Self report measures included the Oswestry disability index, general health and well being, fear avoidance, and pain. Eccentric/concentric strength ratio at 30 degrees s(-1) was higher for the LBP group (F(1,58)=4.81, p=0.032). The SEC was also higher for the LBP (F(1,58)=5.97, p=0.018). Fear avoidance beliefs and mental well-being were significantly associated with the SEC only in the LBP group (adjusted r(2)=0.26, (F(2,27)=5.8, p=.008). For the control group both the DEC and SEC were associated with self report measures. Matched differences between groups' for the SEC were best explained by fear avoidance beliefs about work (adjusted r(2)=0.12, F(1,28)=5.1, p=0.03). Reduced concentric relative to eccentric strength is best identified by the SEC. The SEC was significantly associated with impaired self report measures of fear avoidance and mental well being in individuals with LBP. Differences between groups for the SEC were best explained by fear avoidance beliefs about work.

  7. Impact on nutrition on muscle strength and performance in older adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Muscle strength plays an important role in determining risk for falls, which result in fractures and other injuries. While bone loss has long been recognized as an inevitable consequence of aging, sarcopenia-the gradual loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength that occurs with advancing age-has rec...

  8. Effect of strength training on regional hypertrophy of the elbow flexor muscles.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Marcos D M; Szmuchrowski, Leszek A; Goulart, Karine N O; Couto, Bruno P

    2016-10-01

    Muscle hypertrophy is the main structural adaptation to strength training. We investigated the chronic effects of strength training on muscle hypertrophy in different regions of the elbow flexor muscles. Eleven untrained men (21.8 ± 1.62 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging to determine the proximal, medial, distal, and mean cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the elbow flexors. The volunteers completed 12 weeks of strength training. The training protocol consisted of 4 sets of 8-10 maximum repetitions of unilateral elbow flexion. The interval between sets was 120 s. The training frequency was 3 sessions per week. The magnetic resonance images verified the presence of significant and similar hypertrophy in the distal, medial, and proximal portions of the elbow flexor muscles. Muscle hypertrophy may be assessed using only the medial CSA. We should not expect different degrees of hypertrophy among the regions of the elbow flexor muscles. Muscle Nerve 54: 750-755, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Association with isokinetic ankle strength measurements and normal clinical muscle testing in sciatica patients.

    PubMed

    Ustun, N; Erol, O; Ozcakar, L; Ceceli, E; Ciner, O Akar; Yorgancioglu, Z R

    2013-01-01

    Sensitive muscle strength tests are needed to measure muscle strength in the diagnosis and management of sciatica patients. The aim of this study was to assess the isokinetic muscle strength in sciatica patients' and control subjects' ankles that exhibited normal ankle muscle strength when measured clinically. Forty-six patients with L5 and/or S1 nerve compression, and whose age, sex, weight, and height matched 36 healthy volunteers, were recruited to the study. Heel-walking, toe-walking, and manual muscle testing were used to perform ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexion strengths in clinical examination. Patients with normal ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexion strengths assessed by manual muscle testing and heel-and toe-walking tests were included in the study. Bilateral isokinetic (concentric/concentric) ankle plantar-flexion-dorsiflexion measurements of the patients and controls were performed within the protocol of 30°/sec (5 repetitions). Peak torque and peak torque/body weight were obtained for each ankle motion of the involved limb at 30°/s speed. L5 and/or S1 nerve compression was evident in 46 patients (76 injured limbs). Mean disease duration was two years. The plantar flexion muscle strength of the patients was found to be lower than that of the controls (p=0.036). The dorsiflexion muscle strength of the patients was found to be the same as that of the controls (p=0.211). Isokinetic testing is superior to clinical muscle testing when evaluating ankle plantar flexion torque in sciatica patients. Therefore, isokinetic muscle testing may be helpful when deciding whether to place a patient into a focused rehabilitation program.

  10. Muscle strength in patients with acromegaly at diagnosis and during long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Füchtbauer, Laila; Olsson, Daniel S; Bengtsson, Bengt-Åke; Norrman, Lise-Lott; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2017-08-01

    Patients with acromegaly have decreased body fat (BF) and increased extracellular water (ECW) and muscle mass. Although there is a lack of systematic studies on muscle function, it is believed that patients with acromegaly may suffer from proximal muscle weakness despite their increased muscle mass. We studied body composition and muscle function in untreated acromegaly and after biochemical remission. Prospective observational study. Patients with acromegaly underwent measurements of muscle strength (dynamometers) and body composition (four-compartment model) at diagnosis ( n  = 48), 1 year after surgery ( n  = 29) and after long-term follow-up (median 11 years) ( n  = 24). Results were compared to healthy subjects. Untreated patients had increased body cell mass (113 ± 9% of predicted) and ECW (110 ± 20%) and decreased BF (67 ± 7.6%). At one-year follow-up, serum concentration of IGF-I was reduced and body composition had normalized. At baseline, isometric muscle strength in knee flexors and extensors was normal and concentric strength was modestly increased whereas grip strength and endurance was reduced. After one year, muscle strength was normal in both patients with still active disease and patients in remission. At long-term follow-up, all patients were in remission. Most muscle function tests remained normal, but isometric flexion and the fatigue index were increased to 153 ± 42% and 139 ± 28% of predicted values, respectively. Patients with untreated acromegaly had increased body cell mass and normal or modestly increased proximal muscle strength, whereas their grip strength was reduced. After biochemical improvement and remission, body composition was normalized, hand grip strength was increased, whereas proximal muscle fatigue increased. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  11. Relationship between lower limb muscle strength, self-reported pain and function, and frontal plane gait kinematics in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Kyoon; Kobsar, Dylan; Ferber, Reed

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between muscle strength, gait biomechanics, and self-reported physical function and pain for patients with knee osteoarthritis is not well known. The objective of this study was to investigate these relationships in this population. Twenty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis and 24 healthy controls were recruited. Self-reported pain and function, lower-limb maximum isometric force, and frontal plane gait kinematics during treadmill walking were collected on all patients. Between-group differences were assessed for 1) muscle strength and 2) gait biomechanics. Linear regressions were computed within the knee osteoarthritis group to examine the effect of muscle strength on 1) self-reported pain and function, and 2) gait kinematics. Patients with knee osteoarthritis exhibited reduced hip external rotator, knee extensor, and ankle inversion muscle force output compared with healthy controls, as well as increased peak knee adduction angles (effect size=0.770; p=0.013). Hip abductor strength was a significant predictor of function, but not after controlling for covariates. Ankle inversion, hip abduction, and knee flexion strength were significant predictors of peak pelvic drop angle after controlling for covariates (34.4% unique variance explained). Patients with knee osteoarthritis exhibit deficits in muscle strength and while they play an important role in the self-reported function of patients with knee osteoarthritis, the effect of covariates such as sex, age, mass, and height was more important in this relationship. Similar relationships were observed from gait variables, except for peak pelvic drop, where hip, knee, and ankle strength remained important predictors of this variable after controlling for covariates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of whole body vibration training on quadriceps muscle strength in individuals with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have reported the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) training on muscle strength. This systematic review investigates the current evidence regarding the effects of WBV training on quadriceps muscle strength in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, PEDro, and Science citation index for research articles published prior to March 2015 using the keywords whole body vibration, vibration training, strength and vibratory exercise in combination with the Medical Subject Heading 'Osteoarthritis knee'. This meta-analysis was limited to randomized controlled trials published in the English language. The quality of the selected studies was assessed by two independent evaluators using the PEDro scale and criteria given by the International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions (ISMNI) for reporting WBV intervention studies. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane collaboration's tool for domain-based evaluation. Isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength was calculated for each intervention. Eighteen studies were identified in the search. Of these, four studies met the inclusion criteria. Three of these four studies reached high methodological quality on the PEDro scale. Out of the four studies, only one study found significantly greater quadriceps muscle strength gains following WBV compared to the control group. In three of the four studies that compared a control group performing the same exercise as the WBV groups, no additional effect of WBV on quadriceps muscle strength in individuals with knee OA was indicated. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recovery of calf muscle strength following acute achilles tendon rupture treatment: a comparison between minimally invasive surgery and conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    Metz, Roderik; van der Heijden, Geert J M G; Verleisdonk, Egbert-Jan M M; Tamminga, Rob; van der Werken, Christiaan

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures on calf muscle strength recovery. Eighty-three patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture were randomly allocated to either minimally invasive surgery with functional after-treatment or conservative treatment by functional bracing. Calf muscle strength using isokinetic testing was evaluated at 3 months and after 6 or more months posttreatment. To exclusively investigate the effect of treatment on outcome, the authors excluded patients with major complications from the analysis. In 31 of 39 patients in the surgical treatment group and 25 of 34 patients in the conservative treatment group, isokinetic strength tests were performed. In the analysis of differences in mean peak torque, no statistically significant differences were found between surgery and conservative treatment, except for plantar flexion strength at 90 degrees per second at the second measurement, favoring conservative treatment. After 8 to 10 months follow- up, loss of plantar flexion strength was still present in the injured leg in both treatment groups. In conclusion, isokinetic muscle strength testing did not detect a statistically significant difference between minimally invasive surgical treatment with functional after-treatment and conservative treatment by functional bracing of acute Achilles tendon ruptures.

  14. Anabolic and catabolic biomarkers as predictors of muscle strength decline: the InCHIANTI study.

    PubMed

    Stenholm, Sari; Maggio, Marcello; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Di Iorio, Angelo; Giallauria, Francesco; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2010-02-01

    Poor muscle strength is a major public health concern in older persons, predisposing to functional limitations, increased fall risk, and higher mortality. Understanding risk factors for muscle strength decline may offer opportunities for prevention and treatment. One of the possible causes of muscle strength decline is imbalance between catabolic and anabolic signaling. This study aims to examine whether high levels of multiple catabolic and low levels of multiple anabolic biomarkers predict accelerated decline of muscle strength. In a representative sample of 716 men and women aged >or=65 years in the InCHIANTI study we measured C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 1 as well as dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), insulin-like growth factor-1, and bioavailable testosterone. Biomarker values were divided into tertiles and the numbers of catabolic/anabolic biomarkers in the highest/lowest tertile were calculated. Hand-grip strength was measured at baseline and 3- and 6-year follow up. In adjusted linear mixed models, higher concentration of IL-6 (p = 0.02) and IL-1RA (p = 0.04) as well as lower levels of DHEA-S (p = 0.01) predicted muscle strength decline. After combining all inflammatory markers, the rate of decline in grip strength was progressively greater with the increasing number of dysregulated catabolic biomarkers (p = 0.01). No effect on accelerated muscle strength decline was seen according to number of dysregulated anabolic hormones. Having multiple elevated catabolic biomarkers is a better predictor of muscle strength decline than a single biomarker alone, suggesting that a catabolic dysregulation is at the core of the mechanism leading to muscle strength decline with aging.

  15. Reduction of cervical and respiratory muscle strength in patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain and having moderate to severe disability.

    PubMed

    López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; Sollano-Vallez, Ernesto; Del Corral, Tamara

    2017-06-11

    To investigate whether patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain and having moderate to severe disability have a greater cervical motor function impairment and respiratory disturbances compared with patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain having mild disability and asymptomatic subjects; and the association between these outcomes in patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain and healthy controls. Cross-sectional study, 44 patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain and 31 healthy subjects participated. The neck disability index was used to divide the patients into 2 groups: 1) mild disability group (scores between 5 and 14 points); and 2) moderate to severe disability group (scores >14 points). Cervical motor function was measured by cervical range of motion, forward head posture, neck flexor, and extensor muscle strength. Respiratory function and maximum respiratory pressures were also measured. Statistically differences were found between the patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain having a moderate to severe disability and the asymptomatic subjects for cervical and respiratory muscle strength. Comparisons between chronic nonspecific neck pain and the asymptomatic groups showed differences for all the variables, except for forward head posture. The regression model determined that strength of cervical flexion explained 36.4 and 45.6% of the variance of maximum inspiratory pressures and maximum expiratory pressures, respectively. Only the chronic nonspecific neck pain group with moderate to severe disability showed differences compared with the healthy subjects. Neck muscle strength could be a good predictor of respiratory muscle function. Implications for rehabilitation Neck pain severity could be closely associated with decreased respiratory pressure in patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain. These findings suggest a new therapeutic approach for patients with moderate to severe disability, such as respiratory muscle training. The regression

  16. FKBP12 deficiency reduces strength deficits after eccentric contraction-induced muscle injury

    PubMed Central

    Corona, Benjamin T.; Rouviere, Clement; Hamilton, Susan L.; Ingalls, Christopher P.

    2008-01-01

    Strength deficits associated with eccentric contraction-induced muscle injury stem, in part, from excitation-contraction uncoupling. FKBP12 is a 12-kDa binding protein known to bind to the skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channel [ryanodine receptor (RyR1)] and plays an important role in excitation-contraction coupling. To assess the effects of FKBP12 deficiency on muscle injury and recovery, we measured anterior crural muscle (tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles) strength in skeletal muscle-specific FKBP12-deficient and wild-type (WT) mice before and after a single bout of 150 eccentric contractions, as well as before and after the performance of six injury bouts. Histological damage of the tibialis anterior muscle was assessed after injury. Body weight and peak isometric and eccentric torques were lower in FKBP12-deficient mice compared with WT mice. There were no differences between FKBP12-deficient and WT mice in preinjury peak isometric and eccentric torques when normalized to body weight, and no differences in the relative decreases in eccentric torque with a single or multiple injury bouts. After a single injury bout, FKBP12-deficient mice had less initial strength deficits and recovered faster (especially females) than WT mice, despite no differences in the degree of histological damage. After multiple injury bouts, FKBP12-deficient mice recovered muscle strength faster than WT mice and exhibited significantly less histological muscle damage than WT mice. In summary, FKBP12 deficiency results in less initial strength deficits and enhanced recovery from single (especially females) and repeated bouts of injury than WT mice. PMID:18511525

  17. Prolonged Reduction in Shoulder Strength after Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Treatment of Exercise-Induced Acute Muscle Pain.

    PubMed

    Butera, Katie A; George, Steven Z; Borsa, Paul A; Dover, Geoffrey C

    2018-03-05

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is commonly used for reducing musculoskeletal pain to improve function. However, peripheral nerve stimulation using TENS can alter muscle motor output. Few studies examine motor outcomes following TENS in a human pain model. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of TENS sensory stimulation primarily on motor output (strength) and secondarily on pain and disability following exercise-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Thirty-six participants were randomized to a TENS treatment, TENS placebo, or control group after completing a standardized DOMS protocol. Measures included shoulder strength, pain, mechanical pain sensitivity, and disability. TENS treatment and TENS placebo groups received 90 minutes of active or sham treatment 24, 48, and 72 hours post-DOMS. All participants were assessed daily. A repeated measures analysis of variance and post-hoc analysis indicated that, compared to the control group, strength remained reduced in the TENS treatment group (48 hours post-DOMS, P < 0.05) and TENS placebo group (48 hours post-DOMS, P < 0.05; 72 hours post-DOMS, P < 0.05). A mixed-linear modeling analysis was conducted to examine the strength (motor) change. Randomization group explained 5.6% of between-subject strength variance (P < 0.05). Independent of randomization group, pain explained 8.9% of within-subject strength variance and disability explained 3.3% of between-subject strength variance (both P < 0.05). While active and placebo TENS resulted in prolonged strength inhibition, the results were nonsignificant for pain. Results indicated that higher pain and higher disability were independently related to decreased strength. Regardless of the impact on pain, TENS, or even the perception of TENS, may act as a nocebo for motor output. © 2018 World Institute of Pain.

  18. [Association of muscle strength with early markers of cardiovascular risk in sedentary adults].

    PubMed

    Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2013-10-01

    To assess the association between muscle strength and early cardiovascular risk (CVR) markers in sedentary adults. A total of 176 sedentary subjects aged 18-30 years were enrolled. Body mass index and fat percentage were calculated, and waist circumference, grip strength by dynamometry, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake by VO2max were measured as CVR markers. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between muscle strength and CVR markers. Inverse correlations were found between muscle strength and adiposity (r=-.317; P=.001), waist circumference (r=-.309; P=.001), systolic blood pressure (r=-.401; P=.001), and mean arterial pressure (r=-.256; P=.001). Subjects with lower levels of muscle strength had a 5.79-fold (95% CI 1.57 to 9.34; P=.008) risk of having higher adiposity levels (≥25%) and a 9.67-fold (95% CI=3.86 to 19.22; P<.001) risk of having lower physical capacity values for VO2max (≤31.5mL/kg/min(-1)). In sedentary adults, muscle strength is associated to early manifestations of CVR. It is suggested that muscle strength testing is added to routine measurement of VO2max and traditional risk factors for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Bilateral effects of 6 weeks' unilateral acupuncture and electroacupuncture on ankle dorsiflexors muscle strength: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shi; Huang, Li-Ping; Liu, Jun; Yu, Jun-Hai; Tian, Qiang; Cao, Long-Jun

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of unilateral manual acupuncture at selected acupoints on ankle dorsiflexion strength of both limbs, and compare the effect with that of electroacupuncture at the same acupoints and sham points. Randomized controlled trial. Rehabilitation laboratory of a university. Young men (N=43) were randomly allocated into 4 groups: control; manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture on 2 acupoints (ST-36 and ST-39); and electroacupuncture on 2 nonacupoints. These points were located on the tibialis anterior muscle. The participants in the experimental groups received 15 to 30 minutes of acupuncture or electroacupuncture on the right leg in each session, 3 sessions per week for 6 weeks. The maximal strength in isometric ankle dorsiflexion of both legs was assessed before and after the experimental period. Repeated-measures analysis of variance identified significant and similar strength gains (range, 35%-64% in the right leg and 32%-49% in the left leg; P<.01) in all acupuncture groups, but not in the control group (-2% to 2%, P>.05). Unilateral manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture at the acupoints can improve muscle strength in both limbs, and electroacupuncture at the nonacupoints as used in this study can also induce similar strength gains. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Contributions of neural excitability and voluntary activation to quadriceps muscle strength following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lepley, Adam S; Ericksen, Hayley M; Sohn, David H; Pietrosimone, Brian G

    2014-06-01

    Persistent quadriceps weakness is common following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLr). Alterations in spinal-reflexive excitability, corticospinal excitability and voluntary activation have been hypothesized as underlying mechanisms contributing to quadriceps weakness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive capabilities of spinal-reflexive excitability, corticospinal excitability and voluntary activation on quadriceps strength in healthy and ACLr participants. Quadriceps strength was measured using maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC). Voluntary activation was quantified via the central activation ratio (CAR). Corticospinal and spinal-reflexive excitability were measured using active motor thresholds (AMT) and Hoffmann reflexes normalized to maximal muscle responses (H:M), respectively. ACLr individuals were also split into high and low strength subsets based on MVIC. CAR was the only significant predictor in the healthy group. In the ACLr group, CAR and H:M significantly predicted 47% of the variance in MVIC. ACLr individuals in the high strength subset demonstrated significantly higher CAR and H:M than those in the low strength subset. Increased quadriceps voluntary activation, spinal-reflexive excitability and corticospinal excitability relates to increased quadriceps strength in participants following ACLr. Rehabilitation strategies used to target neural alterations may be beneficial for the restoration of muscle strength following ACLr. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A New Approach to Improve Cognition, Muscle Strength, and Postural Balance in Community-Dwelling Elderly with a 3-D Virtual Reality Kayak Program.

    PubMed

    Park, Junhyuck; Yim, JongEun

    2016-01-01

    Aging is usually accompanied with deterioration of physical abilities, such as muscular strength, sensory sensitivity, and functional capacity. Recently, intervention methods with virtual reality have been introduced, providing an enjoyable therapy for elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a 3-D virtual reality kayak program could improve the cognitive function, muscle strength, and balance of community-dwelling elderly. Importantly, kayaking involves most of the upper body musculature and needs the balance control. Seventy-two participants were randomly allocated into the kayak program group (n = 36) and the control group (n = 36). The two groups were well matched with respect to general characteristics at baseline. The participants in both groups performed a conventional exercise program for 30 min, and then the 3-D virtual reality kayak program was performed in the kayak program group for 20 min, two times a week for 6 weeks. Cognitive function was measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Muscle strength was measured using the arm curl and handgrip strength tests. Standing and sitting balance was measured using the Good Balance system. The post-test was performed in the same manner as the pre-test; the overall outcomes such as cognitive function (p < 0.05), muscle strength (p < 0.05), and balance (standing and sitting balance, p < 0.05) were significantly improved in kayak program group compared to the control group. We propose that the 3-D virtual reality kayak program is a promising intervention method for improving the cognitive function, muscle strength, and balance of elderly.

  2. The Effects of a 10-Kilometer Run on Muscle Strength and Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Ana L.; Radzwich, Robert J.; Denegar, Craig R.; Volek, Jeff S.; Rubin, Martyn R.; Bush, Jill A.; Doan, Brandon K.; Wickham, Robbin B.; Mazzetti, Scott A.; Newton, Robert U.; French, Duncan N.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Ratamess, Nicholas A.; Kraemer, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated recovery of maximal force and power following a 10-km race. Data collected on 10 healthy male distance runners pre-race, immediately post-race, and 48 hours later indicated that strength and power capabilities of these 10-km runners were for the most part restored 48 hours after the race. Only the hamstring muscle group was not fully…

  3. The comparison of muscle strength and short-term endurance in the different periods of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are subjected to reduction in the quality and oxidative capacity of muscles. The effect of duration of diabetes on the muscle endurance response is not clear and strength as well. Objective The aim of this study was the assessment of strength and endurance of knee extensor and flexor in the patients with T2DM < 10 and T2DM > 10 years in comparison with age, sex, BMI, ABI and PAI-matched health control subjects. Methods Isometric maximal peak torque (MPT) of knee extensor and flexor before and after 40 isokinetic repetitions with velocity of 150 degree/s were recorded in 18 patients with T2DM < 10 Y , 12 patients with T2DM > 10 Y and 20 matched health control (HC) groups. Results Both diabetic patient groups had significant lower isometric and isotonic knee extensor and flexor strength than HC. The endurance indices indicated that whereas the isometric MPT of flexor movement was reduced after isokinetic protocol in the both patient groups in comparison with HC, the less decline was seen in the isotonic torque and work during isokinetic protocol in the T2DM > 10 Y group in comparison with two other groups. The HbA1c and FPG were significantly correlated with strength not with endurance indices. Conclusions It seems the progression of diabetes accompanied with vascular, neural and muscular deficits activate, some adaptive and compensatory processes which can maintain muscle performance. PMID:24476108

  4. Hip Abductor Muscle Volume and Strength Differences Between Women With Chronic Hip Joint Pain and Asymptomatic Controls.

    PubMed

    Mastenbrook, Matthew J; Commean, Paul K; Hillen, Travis J; Salsich, Gretchen B; Meyer, Gretchen A; Mueller, Michael J; Clohisy, John C; Harris-Hayes, Marcie

    2017-12-01

    Study Design Secondary analysis, cross-sectional study. Background Chronic hip joint pain (CHJP) can lead to limitations in activity participation, but the musculoskeletal factors associated with the condition are relatively unknown. Understanding the factors associated with CHJP may help develop rehabilitation strategies to improve quality of life of individuals with long-term hip pain. Objectives To compare measures of hip abductor muscle volume and hip abductor muscle strength between women with CHJP and asymptomatic controls. Methods Thirty women, 15 with CHJP and 15 matched asymptomatic controls (age range, 18-40 years), participated in this study. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine the volume of the primary hip abductor muscles, consisting of the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, a small portion of the gluteus maximus, and the tensor fascia latae, within a defined region of interest. Break tests were performed using a handheld dynamometer to assess hip abductor strength. During the strength test, the participant was positioned in sidelying with the involved hip in 15° of abduction. Independent-samples t tests were used to compare muscle volume and strength values between those with CHJP and asymptomatic controls. Results Compared to asymptomatic controls, women with CHJP demonstrated significantly increased gluteal muscle volume (228 ± 40 cm 3 versus 199 ± 29 cm 3 , P = .032), but decreased hip abductor strength (74.6 ± 16.8 Nm versus 93.6 ± 20.2 Nm, P = .009). There were no significant differences in tensor fascia lata muscle volume between the 2 groups (P = .640). Conclusion Women with CHJP appear to have larger gluteal muscle volume, but decreased hip abductor strength, compared to asymptomatic controls. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(12):923-930. Epub 9 Oct 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7380.

  5. Cancer-Specific Mortality Relative to Engagement in Muscle-Strengthening Activities and Lower Extremity Strength.

    PubMed

    Dankel, Scott J; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2018-02-01

    Skeletal muscle strength and engagement in muscle-strengthening activities are each inversely associated with all-cause mortality; however, less is known on their relationship with cancer-specific mortality. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used assessing 2773 individuals aged 50 years or older. Individuals being dichotomized at the 75th percentile for knee extensor strength, and engagement in muscle-strengthening activities was acquired through self-report with ≥2 sessions per week were classified as meeting guidelines. With respect to cancer-specific mortality, individuals in the upper quartile for muscle strength were at a 50% reduced risk (hazard ratio = 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.85; P = .01) and those meeting muscle-strengthening activities were at a nonsignificant 8% reduced risk (hazard ratio = 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-1.86, P = .81) of cancer-specific mortality after adjusting for covariates. Clinicians should routinely assess lower extremity strength and promote engagement in muscle-strengthening activities aimed at increasing muscle strength.

  6. Anabolic and Catabolic Biomarkers As Predictors of Muscle Strength Decline: The InCHIANTI Study

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, Marcello; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Di Iorio, Angelo; Giallauria, Francesco; Guralnik, Jack M.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Poor muscle strength is a major public health concern in older persons, predisposing to functional limitations, increased fall risk, and higher mortality. Understanding risk factors for muscle strength decline may offer opportunities for prevention and treatment. One of the possible causes of muscle strength decline is imbalance between catabolic and anabolic signaling. This study aims to examine whether high levels of multiple catabolic and low levels of multiple anabolic biomarkers predict accelerated decline of muscle strength. Methods In a representative sample of 716 men and women aged ≥65 years in the InCHIANTI study we measured C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), tumor necrosis factor-α receptor 1 as well as dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), insulin-like growth factor-1, and bioavailable testosterone. Biomarker values were divided into tertiles and the numbers of catabolic/anabolic biomarkers in the highest/lowest tertile were calculated. Hand-grip strength was measured at baseline and 3- and 6-year follow up. Results In adjusted linear mixed models, higher concentration of IL-6 (p = 0.02) and IL-1RA (p = 0.04) as well as lower levels of DHEA-S (p = 0.01) predicted muscle strength decline. After combining all inflammatory markers, the rate of decline in grip strength was progressively greater with the increasing number of dysregulated catabolic biomarkers (p = 0.01). No effect on accelerated muscle strength decline was seen according to number of dysregulated anabolic hormones. Conclusions Having multiple elevated catabolic biomarkers is a better predictor of muscle strength decline than a single biomarker alone, suggesting that a catabolic dysregulation is at the core of the mechanism leading to muscle strength decline with aging. PMID:20230273

  7. Hip muscle strength is decreased in middle-aged recreational male athletes with midportion Achilles tendinopathy: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Habets, B; Smits, H W; Backx, F J G; van Cingel, R E H; Huisstede, B M A

    2017-05-01

    Investigating differences in hip muscle strength between athletes with Achilles tendinopathy (AT) and asymptomatic controls. Cross-sectional case-control study. Sports medical center. Twelve recreational male athletes with mid-portion AT and twelve matched asymptomatic controls. Isometric strength of the hip abductors, external rotators, and extensors was measured using a handheld dynamometer. Functional hip muscle performance was evaluated with the single-leg squat. The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) questionnaire was completed to determine clinical severity of symptoms. Compared to controls, participants with AT demonstrated 28.9% less isometric hip abduction strength (p = 0.012), 34.2% less hip external rotation strength (p = 0.010), and 28.3% less hip extension strength (p = 0.034) in the injured limb. Similar differences were found for the non-injured limb (26.7-41.8%; p < 0.03). No significant differences were found in functional hip muscle performance between the injured and non-injured limb or between the groups, and no significant correlation was found between hip muscle strength and VISA-A scores. Recreational male athletes with chronic mid-portion AT demonstrated bilateral weakness of hip abductors, external rotators, and extensors compared to their asymptomatic counterparts. These findings suggest that hip muscle strength may be important in the assessment and rehabilitation of those with AT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of training by virtual reality or gym ball on pelvic floor muscle strength in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Martinho, Natalia M; Silva, Valéria R; Marques, Joseane; Carvalho, Leonardo C; Iunes, Denise H; Botelho, Simone

    2016-03-22

    To evaluate the effectiveness of abdominopelvic training by virtual reality compared to pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) using a gym ball (a previously tested and efficient protocol) on postmenopausal women's pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 60 postmenopausal women, randomly allocated into two groups: Abdominopelvic training by virtual reality - APT_VR (n=30) and PFMT using a gym ball - PFMT_GB (n=30). Both types of training were supervised by the same physical therapist, during 10 sessions each, for 30 minutes. The participants' PFM strength was evaluated by digital palpation and vaginal dynamometry, considering three different parameters: maximum strength, average strength and endurance. An intention-to-treat approach was used to analyze the participants according to original groups. No significant between-group differences were observed in most analyzed parameters. The outcome endurance was higher in the APT_VR group (p=0.003; effect size=0.89; mean difference=1.37; 95% CI=0.46 to 2.28). Both protocols have improved the overall PFM strength, suggesting that both are equally beneficial and can be used in clinical practice. Muscle endurance was higher in patients who trained using virtual reality.

  9. [Correlations Between Joint Proprioception, Muscle Strength, and Functional Ability in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yoa; Yu, Yong; He, Cheng-qi

    2015-11-01

    To establish correlations between joint proprioception, muscle flexion and extension peak torque, and functional ability in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Fifty-six patients with symptomatic knee OA were recruited in this study. Both proprioceptive acuity and muscle strength were measured using the isomed-2000 isokinetic dynamometer. Proprioceptive acuity was evaluated by establishing the joint motion detection threshold (JMDT). Muscle strength was evaluated by Max torque (Nm) and Max torque/weight (Nm/ kg). Functional ability was assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index physical function (WOMAC-PF) questionnaire. Correlational analyses were performed between proprioception, muscle strength, and functional ability. A multiple stepwise regression model was established, with WOMAC-PF as dependent variable and patient age, body mass index (BMI), visual analogue scale (VAS)-score, mean grade for Kellgren-Lawrance of both knees, mean strength for quadriceps and hamstring muscles of both knees, and mean JMDT of both knees as independent variables. Poor proprioception (high JMDT) was negatively correlated with muscle strength (P<0.05). There was no significant correlation between knee proprioception (high JMDT) and joint pain (WOMAC pain score), and between knee proprioception (high JMDT) and joint stiffness (WOMAC stiffness score). Poor proprioception (high JMDT) was correlated with limitation in functional ability (WOMAC physical function score r=0.659, P<0.05). WOMAC score was correlated with poor muscle strength (quadriceps muscle strength r = -0.511, P<0.05, hamstring muscle strength r = -0.408, P<0.05). The multiple stepwise regression model showed that high JMDT C standard partial regression coefficient (B) = 0.385, P<0.50 and high VAS-scale score (B=0.347, P<0.05) were significant predictors of WOMAC-PF score. Patients with poor proprioception is associated with poor muscle strength and limitation in functional

  10. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.

    PubMed

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (aged 21.87±1.13 years, body mass index 24.15 ± 0.50 kg/m(2)) were recruited. All subjects performed an exercise program on a Wii balance board for 8 weeks (30 min/session, twice a week for 8 weeks). A NeuroCom Balance Master and a hand-held dynamometer were used to measure balance performance and lower limb muscle strength. [Results] According to the comparison of pre- and post-intervention measurements, the Wii balance board exercise program significantly improved the limit of stability parameters. There was also a significant increase in strength of four lower-limb muscle groups: the hip flexor, knee flexor, ankle dorsiflexor and ankle plantarflexor. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that a Wii balance board exercise program can be used to improve the balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.

  11. Pelvic floor muscle training increases pelvic floor muscle strength more in post-menopausal women who are not using hormone therapy than in women who are using hormone therapy: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Ignácio Antônio, Flávia; Herbert, Robert D; Bø, Kari; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur Sá; Lara, Lúcia Alves Silva; Franco, Maira de Menezes; Ferreira, Cristine Homsi Jorge

    2018-06-15

    Are there differences in the effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle training on pelvic floor muscle strength and urinary incontinence symptoms in postmenopausal women who are and are not using hormone therapy? Randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, blinded assessors, and intention-to-treat analysis. Ninety-nine postmenopausal women, 38 of whom were using daily systemic oestrogen/progestogen therapy. The experimental group (n=51) received an intensive supervised pelvic floor muscle training protocol, and the control group (n=48) received no intervention. The randomisation was stratified by hormone therapy use. Change in pelvic floor muscle strength assessed with manometry at 12 weeks. Prevalence and severity of urinary incontinence symptoms were assessed using questionnaires. Eighty-eight women provided data that could be included in the analysis. Pelvic floor muscle training increased pelvic floor muscle strength by 8.0 cmH 2 O (95% CI 3.4 to 12.6) in women not using hormone therapy and by -0.9 cmH 2 0 (95% CI -6.5 to 4.8) in women using hormone therapy (interaction p=0.018). A sensitivity analysis showed that the greater training effect in women who were not using hormone therapy was still apparent if the analysis was conducted on percentage change in strength rather than absolute change in strength. There was also a significantly greater effect of training in women not using hormone therapy on prevalence of urinary incontinence symptoms (ratio of odds ratios=7.4; interaction p=0.028). The difference in effects on severity of urinary incontinence symptoms was not statistically significant (interaction p=0.37). Pelvic floor muscle training increases pelvic floor muscle strength more in women who are not using hormone therapy than in women using hormone therapy. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02549729. [Ignácio Antônio F, Herbert RD, Bø K, Rosa-e-Silva ACJS, Lara LAS, Franco MdM, Ferreira CHJ (2018) Pelvic floor muscle training increases pelvic floor muscle

  12. Effect of spa physiotherapy on the range of motion and muscle strength in women with gonarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Lizis, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    Degeneration arthritis is a chronic disease of undetermined progressiveness and unknown pathogenesis. It can affect one or more joints. It reveals itself most frequently between 40 - 60 years of age, and affects the lives of professionally active individuals. The aim of the presented study was to assess the impact of a 21-day stay at a rehabilitation facility on the range of motion and muscle strength of the knee in women with gonarthrosis. The study group consisted of 30 women aged 50-74 years diagnosed with degeneration of the knee joint. The average age of the study group was 65.9 ± 7.2 years. Patients remained in the 21-day rehabilitation facility of Rehabilitational Hospital No. 21 in Busko Zdrój SP ZOZ, Poland. We measured with the help of protractor in SFTR range the motion bending and straightening of the knee with an accuracy of 1°. The Lovett strength test was assessed of the ischio-tibial muscles, quadriceps, sartorius--acting on the knee joint of the patient. The study was carried out on the first and the last day of the stay in the rehabilitation facility. There was improvement in the range of flexion and strength of muscles acting on the knee joint of the afflicted women. The study showed that 21-day rehabilitation holiday improved the range and strength of the muscles acting on the knee joint of the afflicted women. This proved that comprehensive rehabilitation improves the function of the knee joint with gonarthrosis, prevents disease progression and is an alternative to drug therapy.

  13. Diagnostic methods to assess inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength*

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Pedro; de Albuquerque, André Luis Pereira; Santana, Pauliane Vieira; Cardenas, Leticia Zumpano; Ferreira, Jeferson George; Prina, Elena; Trevizan, Patrícia Fernandes; Pereira, Mayra Caleffi; Iamonti, Vinicius; Pletsch, Renata; Macchione, Marcelo Ceneviva; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of (inspiratory and expiratory) respiratory muscles is a common clinical finding, not only in patients with neuromuscular disease but also in patients with primary disease of the lung parenchyma or airways. Although such impairment is common, its recognition is usually delayed because its signs and symptoms are nonspecific and late. This delayed recognition, or even the lack thereof, occurs because the diagnostic tests used in the assessment of respiratory muscle strength are not widely known and available. There are various methods of assessing respiratory muscle strength during the inspiratory and expiratory phases. These methods are divided into two categories: volitional tests (which require patient understanding and cooperation); and non-volitional tests. Volitional tests, such as those that measure maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures, are the most commonly used because they are readily available. Non-volitional tests depend on magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerve accompanied by the measurement of inspiratory mouth pressure, inspiratory esophageal pressure, or inspiratory transdiaphragmatic pressure. Another method that has come to be widely used is ultrasound imaging of the diaphragm. We believe that pulmonologists involved in the care of patients with respiratory diseases should be familiar with the tests used in order to assess respiratory muscle function.Therefore, the aim of the present article is to describe the advantages, disadvantages, procedures, and clinical applicability of the main tests used in the assessment of respiratory muscle strength. PMID:25972965

  14. Influences of Fascicle Length During Isometric Training on Improvement of Muscle Strength.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Ikezoe, Tome; Umehara, Jun; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Umegaki, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Nishishita, Satoru; Fujita, Kosuke; Araki, Kojiro; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2016-11-01

    Tanaka, H, Ikezoe, T, Umehara, J, Nakamura, M, Umegaki, H, Kobayashi, T, Nishishita, S, Fujita, K, Araki, K, and Ichihashi, N. Influences of fascicle length during isometric training on improvement of muscle strength. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3249-3255, 2016-This study investigated whether low-intensity isometric training would elicit a greater improvement in maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) at the same fascicle length, rather than the joint angle, adopted during training. Sixteen healthy women (21.8 ± 1.5 years) were randomly divided into an intervention group and a control group. Before (Pre) and after (Post) training, isometric plantarflexion MVCs were measured every 10° through the range of ankle joint position from 20° dorsiflexion to 30° plantarflexion (i.e., 6 ankle angles). Medial gastrocnemius fascicle length was also measured at each position, using B-mode ultrasound under 3 conditions of muscle activation: at rest, 30%MVC at respective angles, and MVC. Plantarflexion resistance training at an angle of 20° plantarflexion was performed 3 days a week for 4 weeks at 30%MVC using 3 sets of twenty 3-second isometric contractions. Maximum voluntary contraction in the intervention group increased at 0 and 10° plantarflexion (0°; Pre: 81.2 ± 26.5 N·m, Post: 105.0 ± 21.6 N·m, 10°; Pre: 63.0 ± 23.6 N·m, Post: 81.3 ± 20.3 N·m), which was not the angle used in training (20°). However, the fascicle length adopted in training at 20° plantarflexion and 30%MVC was similar to the value at 0 or 10° plantarflexion at MVC. Low-intensity isometric training at a shortened muscle length may be effective for improving MVC at a lengthened muscle length because of specificity of the fascicle length than the joint angle.

  15. Relationship between lower extremity isometric muscle strength and standing balance in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Citaker, Seyit; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Yazici, Gokhan; Bayraktar, Deniz; Nazliel, Bijen; Irkec, Ceyla

    2013-01-01

    Muscle strength and standing balance decrease in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the lower extremity isometric muscle strength and standing balance in patients with MS. Forty-seven patients with MS and 10 healthy volunteers were included. Neurological disability level was assessed using Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Isometric strength of seven lower extremity muscles (hip flexor-extensor-abductor-adductor, knee flexor-extensor, and ankle dorsal flexor) was assessed using hand-held dynamometer. Duration of static one-leg standing balance was measured using digital chronometer. Hip flexor-extensor-abductor-adductor, knee flexor-extensor, and ankle dorsal flexor isometric muscle strength, and duration of one-leg standing balance were decreased in patients with MS when compared with controls (p < 0.05). All assessed lower extremity isometric muscle strength and EDSS level was related duration of one-leg standing balance in patients with MS. All assessed lower extremity isometric muscle strength (except ankle dorsal flexor) was related with EDSS. Hip flexor-extensor-abductor-adductor, knee flexor-extensor, and ankle dorsal flexor isometric muscle strength decreases in ambulatory MS patients. Lower extremity muscle weakness and neurological disability level are related with imbalance in MS population. Hip and knee region muscles weakness increases the neurological disability level. For the better balance and decrease neurological disability level whole lower extremity muscle strengthening should be included in rehabilitation programs.

  16. Lower extremity muscle size and strength and aerobic capacity decrease with caloric restriction but not with exercise-induced weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Edward P.; Racette, Susan B.; Villareal, Dennis T.; Fontana, Luigi; Steger-May, Karen; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Klein, Samuel; Ehsani, Ali A.; Holloszy, John O.

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) results in fat loss; however, it may also result in loss of muscle and thereby reduce strength and aerobic capacity (V̇O2 max). These effects may not occur with exercise-induced weight loss (EX) because of the anabolic effects of exercise on heart and skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that CR reduces muscle size and strength and V̇O2 max, whereas EX preserves or improves these parameters. Healthy 50- to 60-yr-old men and women (body mass index of 23.5–29.9 kg/m2) were studied before and after 12 mo of weight loss by CR (n = 18) or EX (n = 16). Lean mass was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, thigh muscle volume by MRI, isometric and isokinetic knee flexor strength by dynamometry, and treadmill V̇O2 max by indirect calorimetry. Both interventions caused significant decreases in body weight (CR: −10.7 ± 1.4%, EX: −9.5 ± 1.5%) and lean mass (CR: −3.5 ± 0.7%, EX: −2.2 ± 0.8%), with no significant differences between groups. Significant decreases in thigh muscle volume (−6.9 ± 0.8%) and composite knee flexion strength (−7.2 ± 3%) occurred in the CR group only. Absolute V̇O2 max decreased significantly in the CR group (−6.8 ± 2.3%), whereas the EX group had significant increases in both absolute (+15.5 ± 2.4%) and relative (+28.3 ± 3.0%) V̇O2 max. These data provide evidence that muscle mass and absolute physical work capacity decrease in response to 12 mo of CR but not in response to a similar weight loss induced by exercise. These findings suggest that, during EX, the body adapts to maintain or even enhance physical performance capacity. PMID:17095635

  17. Ursolic Acid-Induced Elevation of Serum Irisin Augments Muscle Strength During Resistance Training in Men

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Hyun Seok; Seo, Dae Yun; Chung, Yong Min; Oh, Kyoung-Mo; Park, Jung Jun; Arturo, Figueroa; Jeong, Seung-Hun; Kim, Nari

    2014-01-01

    Ursolic acid (UA), a type of pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid purified from natural plants, can promote skeletal muscle development. We measured the effect of resistance training (RT) with/without UA on skeletal muscle development and related factors in men. Sixteen healthy male participants (age, 29.37±5.14 years; body mass index=27.13±2.16 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to RT (n=7) or RT with UA (RT+UA, n=9) groups. Both groups completed 8 weeks of intervention consisting of 5 sets of 26 exercises, with 10~15 repetitions at 60~80% of 1 repetition maximum and a 60~90-s rest interval between sets, performed 6 times/week. UA or placebo was orally ingested as 1 capsule 3 times/day for 8 weeks. The following factors were measured pre-and post-intervention: body composition, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), irisin, and skeletal muscle strength. Body fat percentage was significantly decreased (p<0.001) in the RT+UA group, despite body weight, body mass index, lean body mass, glucose, and insulin levels remaining unchanged. IGF-1 and irisin were significantly increased compared with baseline levels in the RT+UA group (p<0.05). Maximal right and left extension (p<0.01), right flexion (p<0.05), and left flexion (p<0.001) were significantly increased compared with baseline levels in the RT+UA group. These findings suggest that UA-induced elevation of serum irisin may be useful as an agent for the enhancement of skeletal muscle strength during RT. PMID:25352765

  18. Assessment of the effect of pelvic floor exercises on pelvic floor muscle strength using ultrasonography in patients with urinary incontinence: a prospective randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tosun, Ozge Celiker; Solmaz, Ulas; Ekin, Atalay; Tosun, Gokhan; Gezer, Cenk; Ergenoglu, Ahmet Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Ozgur; Mat, Emre; Malkoc, Mehtap; Askar, Niyazi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of pelvic floor exercises on pelvic floor muscle strength could be detected via ultrasonography in patients with urinary incontinence. [Subjects and Methods] Of 282 incontinent patients, 116 participated in the study and were randomly divided into a pelvic floor muscle training (n=65) group or control group (n=51). The pelvic floor muscle training group was given pelvic floor exercise training for 12 weeks. Both groups were evaluated at the beginning of the study and after 12 weeks. Abdominal ultrasonography measurements in transverse and longitudinal planes, the PERFECT scheme, perineometric evaluation, the stop test, the stress test, and the pad test were used to assess pelvic floor muscle strength in all cases. [Results] After training, the PERFECT, perineometry and transabdominal ultrasonography measurements were found to be significantly improved, and the stop test and pad test results were significantly decreased in the pelvic floor muscle training group, whereas no difference was observed in the control group. There was a positive correlation between the PERFECT force measurement scale and ultrasonography force measurement scale before and after the intervention in the control and pelvic floor muscle training groups (r=0.632 and r=0.642, respectively). [Conclusion] Ultrasonography can be used as a noninvasive method to identify the change in pelvic floor muscle strength with exercise training. PMID:27065519

  19. Risk factors for worsened muscle strength after the surgical treatment of arteriovenous malformations of the eloquent motor area.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fuxin; Zhao, Bing; Wu, Jun; Wang, Lijun; Jin, Zhen; Cao, Yong; Wang, Shuo

    2016-08-01

    OBJECT Case selection for the surgical treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the eloquent motor area remains challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for worsened muscle strength after surgery in patients with this disorder. METHODS At their hospital the authors retrospectively studied 48 consecutive patients with AVMs involving motor cortex and/or the descending pathway. All patients had undergone preoperative functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), followed by resection. Both functional and angioarchitectural factors were analyzed with respect to the change in muscle strength. Functional factors included lesion-to-corticospinal tract distance (LCD) on DTI and lesion-to-activation area distance (LAD) and cortical reorganization on fMRI. Based on preoperative muscle strength, the changes in muscle strength at 1 week and 6 months after surgery were defined as short-term and long-term surgical outcomes, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical package SPSS (version 20.0.0, IBM Corp.). RESULTS Twenty-one patients (43.8%) had worsened muscle strength 1 week after surgery. However, only 10 patients (20.8%) suffered from muscle strength worsening 6 months after surgery. The LCD was significantly correlated with short-term (p < 0.001) and long-term (p < 0.001) surgical outcomes. For long-term outcomes, patients in the 5 mm ≥ LCD > 0 mm (p = 0.009) and LCD > 5 mm (p < 0.001) categories were significantly associated with a lower risk of permanent motor worsening in comparison with patients in the LCD = 0 mm group. No significant difference was found between patients in the 5 mm ≥ LCD > 0 mm group and LCD > 5 mm group (p = 0.116). Nidus size was the other significant predictor of short-term (p = 0.021) and long-term (p = 0.016) outcomes. For long-term outcomes, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.728, and the cutoff point was 3.6 cm. Spetzler-Martin grade was not associated with

  20. Influence of muscle strength on early mobility in critically ill adult patients: Systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Roberson, Audrey R; Starkweather, Angela; Grossman, Catherine; Acevedo, Edmund; Salyer, Jeanne

    Muscle strength may be one indicator of readiness to mobilize that can be used to guide decisions regarding early mobility efforts and to progressively advance mobilization. To provide a synthesis of current measures of muscle strength in the assessment of early mobilization in critically ill adult patients who are receiving MV therapy. Research studies conducted between 2000-2015 were identified using PubMed, CINHAL, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases using the search terms "muscle strength", "intensive care", "mechanical ventilation" and "muscle weakness". Nine articles used manual muscle testing, the Medical Research Council scale and/or hand-held dynamometer to provide objective measures for assessing muscle strength in the critically ill adult patient population. Further research is needed to examine the application of standardized measures of muscle strength for guiding decisions regarding early and progressive advancement of mobility goals in adult ICU patients on MV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impaired muscle strength may contribute to fatigue in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Harmsen, Wouter J; Ribbers, Gerard M; Zegers, Bart; Sneekes, Emiel M; Praet, Stephan F E; Heijenbrok-Kal, Majanka H; Khajeh, Ladbon; van Kooten, Fop; Neggers, Sebastiaan J C M M; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J

    2017-03-01

    Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (a-SAH) show long-term fatigue and face difficulties in resuming daily physical activities. Impaired muscle strength, especially of the lower extremity, impacts the performance of daily activities and may trigger the onset of fatigue complaints. The present study evaluated knee muscle strength and fatigue in patients with a-SAH. This study included 33 patients, 6 months after a-SAH, and 33 sex-matched and age-matched healthy controls. Isokinetic muscle strength of the knee extensors and flexors was measured at 60 and 180°/s. Maximal voluntary muscle strength was defined as peak torque and measured in Newton-meter. Fatigue was examined using the Fatigue Severity Scale. In patients with a-SAH, the maximal knee extension was 22% (60°/s) and 25% (180°/s) lower and maximal knee flexion was 33% (60°/s) and 36% (180°/s) lower compared with that of matched controls (P≤0.001). The Fatigue Severity Scale score was related to maximal knee extension (60°/s: r=-0.426, P=0.015; 180°/s: r=-0.376, P=0.034) and flexion (60°/s: r=-0.482, P=0.005; 180°/s: r=-0.344, P=0.083). The knee muscle strength was 28-47% lower in fatigued (n=13) and 11-32% lower in nonfatigued (n=20) patients; deficits were larger in fatigued patients (P<0.05), particularly when the muscle strength (peak torque) was measured at 60°/s. The present results indicate that patients with a-SAH have considerably impaired knee muscle strength, which is related to more severe fatigue. The present findings are exploratory, but showed that knee muscle strength may play a role in the severity of fatigue complaints, or vice versa. Interventions targeting fatigue after a-SAH seem necessary and may consider strengthening exercise training in order to treat a debilitating condition.

  2. Shank Muscle Strength Training Changes Foot Behaviour during a Sudden Ankle Supination

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Marco; Lescher, Stephanie; Gerhardt, Andreas; Lahner, Matthias; Felber, Stephan; Hennig, Ewald M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The peroneal muscles are the most effective lateral stabilisers whose tension braces the ankle joint complex against excessive supination. The purpose of this study was to identify the morphological and biomechanical effects of two machine-based shank muscle training methods. Methods Twenty-two healthy male recreationally active sports students performed ten weeks of single-set high resistance strength training with 3 training sessions per week. The subjects conducted subtalar pronator/supinator muscle training (ST) with the right leg by using a custom-made apparatus; the left foot muscles were exercised with machine-based talocrural plantar and dorsiflexor training (TT). Muscle strength (MVIC), muscle volume and foot biomechanics (rearfoot motion, ground reaction forces, muscle reaction times) during a sudden ankle supination were recorded before and after the intervention. Results Compared to TT, ST resulted in significantly higher pronator (14% vs. 8%, P<0.01) and supinator MVIC (25% vs. 12%, P<0.01). During sudden foot inversions, both ST and TT resulted in reduced supination velocity (-12%; P<0.01). The muscle reaction onset time was faster after the training in peroneus longus (PL) (P<0.01). Muscle volume of PL (P<0.01) and TA (P<0.01) increased significantly after both ST and TT. Conclusion After both ST and TT, the ankle joint complex is mechanically more stabilised against sudden supinations due to the muscle volume increase of PL and TA. As the reduced supination velocities indicate, the strength training effects are already present during free-fall. According to a sudden ankle supination in standing position, both machine-based dorsiflexor and pronator strength training is recommended for enhancing the mechanical stability of the ankle. PMID:26110847

  3. Serial Changes of Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Strength Following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyeong-Sik; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis was performed to analyze serial changes in thigh muscles, including quadriceps and hamstring muscles, from before to one year after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). All studies sequentially comparing isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths between the TKA side and the contralateral uninjured limb were included in this meta-analysis. Five studies with 7 cohorts were included in this meta-analysis. The mean differences in the strengths of quadriceps and hamstring muscles between the TKA and uninjured sides were greatest three months after surgery (26.8 N∙m, 12.8 N∙m, P<0.001), but were similar to preoperative level at six months (18.4 N∙m, 7.4 N∙m P<0.001) and were maintained for up to one year (15.9 N∙m, 4.1 N∙m P<0.001). The pooled mean differences in changes in quadriceps and hamstring strengths relative to preoperative levels were 9.2 N∙m and 4.9 N∙m, respectively, three months postoperatively (P = 0.041), but were no longer significant after six months and one year. During the year after TKA, quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths were lowest after 3 months, recovering to preoperative level after six months, but not reaching the muscle strength on the contralateral side. Relative to preoperative levels, the difference in muscle strength between the TKA and contralateral knees was only significant at three months. Because decrease of strength of the quadriceps was significantly greater than decrease in hamstring muscle strength at postoperative three months, early rehabilitation after TKA should focus on recovery of quadriceps muscle strength. PMID:26849808

  4. Pelvic floor muscle strength in primigravidae and non-pregnant nulliparous women: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Palmezoni, Vanessa P; Santos, Marília D; Pereira, Janser M; Bernardes, Bruno T; Pereira-Baldon, Vanessa S; Resende, Ana Paula M

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) in primigravidae and compare them with those in nonpregnant nulliparous women. The sample consisted of 141 women with a mean age of 22.8 years, divided into four groups: 36 nonpregnant nulliparous (C), 31 primigravidae in the first trimester (1T), 42 primigravida in the second trimester (2T), and 32 primigravidae in the third trimester (3T). The participants were examined by digital palpation for pelvic floor muscle contraction using the Modified Oxford Scale, by measuring maximal vaginal squeeze pressure with a vaginal perineometer, and by measuring PFM maximal strength using a vaginal dynamometer. The best value of three maximal strengths was considered for analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used and differences were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05. The mean values for group C were 3.2 (digital palpation), 45.6 cmH 2 O (perineometry), and 11.7 N (dynamometry); for group 1T the corresponding values were 2.5, 21.1 cmH 2 O, and 8.8 N; for group 2T: 2.8, 22.9 cmH 2 O, and 7.8 N; and for group 3T: 2.1, 17.3 cmH 2 O, and 6.8 N. Groups were compared in pairs for digital palpation, perineometry, and dynamometry. There were significant differences between group C and group 1T, and between group C and group 3T. There was a significant difference between group C and group 2T with regard to perineometry and dynamometry, but not digital palpation. Dynamometry demonstrated a difference between groups 1T and 3T, digital palpation between groups 2T and 3T. Pelvic floor muscles in primigravidae are not as strong as those in nonpregnant nulliparous women.

  5. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Applied Early After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting on Pulmonary Function, Respiratory Muscle Strength, and Functional Capacity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Borges, Daniel L; Silva, Mayara Gabrielle; Silva, Luan Nascimento; Fortes, João Vyctor; Costa, Erika Thalita; Assunção, Rebeca Pessoa; Lima, Carlos Magno; da Silva Nina, Vinícius José; Bernardo-Filho, Mário; Caputo, Danúbia Sá

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity is beneficial in several clinical situations and recommended for patients with ischemic heart disease, as well as for those undergoing cardiac surgery. In a randomized controlled trial, 34 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. A randomized control group (n = 15) submitted to conventional physiotherapy. The intervention group (n = 19) received the same protocol plus additional aerobic exercise with cycle ergometer. Pulmonary function by spirometry, respiratory muscle strength by manovacuometry, and functional capacity through 6-minute walking test was assessed before surgery and at hospital discharge. There was significant reduction in pulmonary function in both groups. In both groups, inspiratory muscle strength was maintained while expiratory muscle strength significantly decreased. Functional capacity was maintained in the intervention group (364.5 [324.5 to 428] vs. 348 [300.7 to 413.7] meters, P = .06), but it decreased significantly in control group patients (320 [288.5 to 393.0] vs. 292 [237.0 to 336.0] meters, P = .01). A significant difference in functional capacity was also found in intergroup analyses at hospital discharge (P = .03). Aerobic exercise applied early on coronary artery bypass grafting patients may promote maintenance of functional capacity, with no impact on pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength when compared with conventional physiotherapy.

  6. Recovery of strength is dependent on mTORC1 signaling after eccentric muscle injury.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Cory Walter; Rogers, Russell George; Otis, Jeffrey Scott; Ingalls, Christopher Paul

    2016-11-01

    Eccentric contractions may cause immediate and long-term reductions in muscle strength that can be recovered through increased protein synthesis rates. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the mechanistic target-of-rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a vital controller of protein synthesis rates, is required for return of muscle strength after injury. Isometric muscle strength was assessed before, immediately after, and then 3, 7, and 14 days after a single bout of 150 eccentric contractions in mice that received daily injections of saline or rapamycin. The bout of eccentric contractions increased the phosphorylation of mTORC1 (1.8-fold) and p70s6k1 (13.8-fold), mTORC1's downstream effector, 3 days post-injury. Rapamycin blocked mTORC1 and p70s6k1 phosphorylation and attenuated recovery of muscle strength (∼20%) at 7 and 14 days. mTORC1 signaling is instrumental in the return of muscle strength after a single bout of eccentric contractions in mice. Muscle Nerve 54: 914-924, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effects of daily vitamin D supplementation on respiratory muscle strength and physical performance in vitamin D-deficient COPD patients: a pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Rachida; Prins, Hendrik J; Boersma, Wim G; Daniels, Johannes Ma; den Heijer, Martin; Lips, Paul; de Jongh, Renate T

    2017-01-01

    Although vitamin D is well known for its function in calcium homeostasis and bone mineralization, several studies have shown positive effects on muscle strength and physical function. In addition, vitamin D has been associated with pulmonary function and the incidence of airway infections. As vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, supplementation might have a beneficial effect in these patients. To assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on respiratory muscle strength and physical performance in vitamin D-deficient COPD patients. Secondary outcomes are pulmonary function, handgrip strength, exacerbation rate, and quality of life. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial. Participants were randomly allocated to receive 1,200 IU vitamin D3 per day (n=24) or placebo (n=26) during 6 months. Study visits were conducted at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months after randomization. During the visits, blood was collected, respiratory muscle strength was measured (maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure), physical performance and 6-minute walking tests were performed, and handgrip strength and pulmonary function were assessed. In addition, participants kept a diary card in which they registered respiratory symptoms. At baseline, the mean (standard deviation [SD]) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration (nmol/L) was 42.3 (15.2) in the vitamin D group and 40.6 (17.0) in the placebo group. Participants with vitamin D supplementation had a larger increase in serum 25(OH)D compared to the placebo group after 6 months (mean difference (SD): +52.8 (29.8) vs +12.3 (25.1), P <0.001). Primary outcomes, respiratory muscle strength and physical performance, did not differ between the groups after 6 months. In addition, no differences were found in the 6-minute walking test results, handgrip strength, pulmonary function, exacerbation rate, or quality of life. Vitamin D

  8. The effect of low back pain on trunk muscle size/function and hip strength in elite football (soccer) players.

    PubMed

    Hides, Julie A; Oostenbroek, Tim; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M; Mendis, M Dilani

    2016-12-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common problem in football (soccer) players. The effect of LBP on the trunk and hip muscles in this group is unknown. The relationship between LBP and trunk muscle size and function in football players across the preseason was examined. A secondary aim was to assess hip muscle strength. Twenty-five elite soccer players participated in the study, with assessments conducted on 23 players at both the start and end of the preseason. LBP was assessed with questionnaires and ultrasound imaging was used to assess size and function of trunk muscles at the start and end of preseason. Dynamometry was used to assess hip muscle strength at the start of the preseason. At the start of the preseason, 28% of players reported the presence of LBP and this was associated with reduced size of the multifidus, increased contraction of the transversus abdominis and multifidus muscles. LBP decreased across the preseason, and size of the multifidus muscle improved over the preseason. Ability to contract the abdominal and multifidus muscles did not alter across the preseason. Asymmetry in hip adductor and abductor muscle strength was found between players with and without LBP. Identifying modifiable factors in players with LBP may allow development of more targeted preseason rehabilitation programmes.

  9. Effect of eccentric strengthening on pain, muscle strength, endurance, and functional fitness factors in male patients with achilles tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Yu, JaeHo; Park, DaeSung; Lee, GyuChang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eccentric strengthening on pain, muscle strength, endurance, and functional fitness factors in Achilles tendinopathy patients. Thirty-two male patients with Achilles tendinopathy were assigned to either the experimental group that performed eccentric strengthening or the control group that performed concentric strengthening (n = 16, both groups) for 8 wks (50 mins per day, three times per week). A visual analog scale, an isokinetic muscle testing equipment, the side-step test, and the Sargent jump test were used to assess pain, muscle strength, endurance, and functional fitness factors before and after the intervention. In comparison with the control group, the experimental group showed significant improvement in pain, ankle dorsiflexion endurance, total balance index, and agility after the intervention (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in dexterity between the two groups. Eccentric strengthening was more effective than concentric strengthening in reducing pain and improving function in patients with Achilles tendinopathy; therefore, regular eccentric strengthening is important for patients in a clinical setting.

  10. Resistance training-induced gains in muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity are attenuated in elderly women with sarcopenic obesity

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Silva, Alessandro; Dutra, Maurílio Tiradentes; de Moraes, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro; Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; Lopes de Farias, Darlan; dos Santos, Paulo Henrique Fernandes; Vieira, Denis Cesar Leite; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Orsano, Vânia Silva Macedo; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Prestes, Jonato

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of resistance training (RT) on body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacity in elderly women with and without sarcopenic obesity (SO). Methods A total of 49 women (aged ≥60 years) were divided in two groups: without SO (non-SO, n=41) and with SO (n=8). Both groups performed a periodized RT program consisting of two weekly sessions for 16 weeks. All measures were assessed at baseline and postintervention, including anthropometry and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), muscle strength (one repetition maximum) for chest press and 45° leg press, and functional capacity (stand up, elbow flexion, timed “up and go”). Results After the intervention, only the non-SO group presented significant reductions in percentage body fat (−2.2%; P=0.006), waist circumference (−2.7%; P=0.01), waist-to-hip ratio (−2.3; P=0.02), and neck circumference (−1.8%; P=0.03) as compared with baseline. Muscle strength in the chest press and biceps curl increased in non-SO only (12.9% and 11.3%, respectively), while 45° leg press strength increased in non-SO (50.3%) and SO (40.5%) as compared with baseline. Performance in the chair stand up and timed “up and go” improved in non-SO only (21.4% and −8.4%, respectively), whereas elbow flexion performance increased in non-SO (23.8%) and SO (21.4%). Effect sizes for motor tests were of higher magnitude in the non-SO group, and in general, considered “moderate” compared to “trivial” in the SO group. Conclusion Results suggest that adaptations induced by 16 weeks of RT are attenuated in elderly woman with SO, compromising improvements in adiposity indices and gains in muscle strength and functional capacity. PMID:29588579

  11. The Relationship between Walk Distance and Muscle Strength, Muscle Pain in Visually Disabled People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyol, Betül

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between six-minute walk test and muscle pain, muscle strength in visually disabled people. The study includes 50 visually disabled people, aged between 17, 21 ± 5,3. Participants were classified into three categories according to their degree of vision (B1, B2, B3). All participants were…

  12. Adaptive strength gains in dystrophic muscle exposed to repeated bouts of eccentric contraction

    PubMed Central

    Call, Jarrod A.; Eckhoff, Michael D.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Warren, Gordon L.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the functional recovery and adaptation of dystrophic muscle to multiple bouts of contraction-induced injury. Because lengthening (i.e., eccentric) contractions are extremely injurious for dystrophic muscle, it was considered that repeated bouts of such contractions would exacerbate the disease phenotype in mdx mice. Anterior crural muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus) and posterior crural muscles (gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris) from mdx mice performed one or five repeated bouts of 100 electrically stimulated eccentric contractions in vivo, and each bout was separated by 10–18 days. Functional recovery from one bout was achieved 7 days after injury, which was in contrast to a group of wild-type mice, which still showed a 25% decrement in electrically stimulated isometric torque at that time point. Across bouts there was no difference in the immediate loss of strength after repeated bouts of eccentric contractions for mdx mice (−70%, P = 0.68). However, after recovery from each bout, dystrophic muscle had greater torque-generating capacity such that isometric torque was increased ∼38% for both anterior and posterior crural muscles at bout 5 compared with bout 1 (P < 0.001). Moreover, isolated extensor digitorum longus muscles excised from in vivo-tested hindlimbs 14–18 days after bout 5 had greater specific force than contralateral control muscles (12.2 vs. 10.4 N/cm2, P = 0.005) and a 20% greater maximal relaxation rate (P = 0.049). Additional adaptations due to the multiple bouts of eccentric contractions included rapid recovery and/or sparing of contractile proteins, enhanced parvalbumin expression, and a decrease in fiber size variability. In conclusion, eccentric contractions are injurious to dystrophic skeletal muscle; however, the muscle recovers function rapidly and adapts to repeated bouts of eccentric contractions by improving strength. PMID:21960659

  13. Endogenous hormones, muscle strength, and risk of fall-related fractures in older women.

    PubMed

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Heikkinen, Eino; Cheng, Sulin; Suominen, Harri; Saari, Päivi; Kovanen, Vuokko; Alén, Markku; Rantanen, Taina

    2006-01-01

    Among older people, fracture-causing fall often leads to health deterioration. The role of endogenous hormone status and muscle strength on fall-related fracture risk is unclear. This study investigates if, after adjustment for bone density, endogenous hormones and muscle strength would predict fall-related limb fracture incidence in older community-dwelling women followed-up over 10 years. As a part of a prospective population-based study, 187 75-year-old women were investigated. Serum estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations were analyzed, and isometric muscle strength and bone mineral density were assessed. Fall-related limb fractures were gathered from patient records. Serum estradiol concentration was a significant predictor of fall-related limb fractures. Women with serum estradiol concentrations less than 0.022 nmol/L had a 3-fold risk (relative risk 3.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-7.36), and women with estradiol concentrations between 0.022 and 0.066 nmol/L doubled the risk (relative risk 2.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-5.19) of fall-related limb fracture compared to the women with estradiol concentrations ()above 0.066 nmol/L. Adjustment for muscle strength and bone mineral density did not materially change the risk estimates. High muscle strength was associated with a low incidence of fall-related limb fractures. This study showed that in 75-year-old women higher serum estradiol concentration and greater muscle strength were independently associated with a low incidence of fall-related limb fractures even after adjustment for bone density. Our results suggest that hormonal status and muscle strength have their own separate mechanisms protecting from fall-related fractures. This finding is of importance in developing preventive strategies, but calls for further study.

  14. Cut-off Points for Muscle Mass - Not Grip Strength or Gait Speed - Determine Variations in Sarcopenia Prevalence.

    PubMed

    Masanés, F; Rojano I Luque, X; Salvà, A; Serra-Rexach, J A; Artaza, I; Formiga, F; Cuesta, F; López Soto, A; Ruiz, D; Cruz-Jentoft, A J

    2017-01-01

    The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) has proposed different methods and cut-off points for the three parameters that define sarcopenia: muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance. Although this facilitates clinical practice, it limits comparability between studies and leads to wide differences in published prevalence rates. The aim of this study was to assess how changes in cut-off points for muscle mass, gait speed and grip strength affected sarcopenia prevalence according to EWGSOP criteria. Cross-sectional analysis of elderly individuals recruited from outpatient clinics (n=298) and nursing homes (n=276). We measured muscle mass, grip strength and gait speed and assessed how changes in cut-off points changed sarcopenia prevalence in both populations. An increase from 5.45 kg/m2 to 6.68 kg/m2 in the muscle mass index for female outpatients and nursing-home residents increased sarcopenia prevalence from 4% to 23% and from 9% to 47%, respectively; for men, for an increase from 7.25 kg/m2 to 8.87 kg/m2, the corresponding increases were from 1% to 22% and from 6% to 41%, respectively. Changes in gait speed and grip strength had a limited impact on sarcopenia prevalence. The cut-off points used for muscle mass affect the reported prevalence rates for sarcopenia and, in turn, affect comparability between studies. The main factors influencing the magnitude of the change are muscle mass index distribution in the population and the absolute value of the cut-off points: the same difference between two references (e.g., 7.5 kg/m2 to 7.75 kg/m2 or 7.75 kg/m2 to 8 kg/m2) may produce different changes in prevalence. Changes in cut-off points for gait speed and grip strength had a limited impact on sarcopenia prevalence and on study comparability.

  15. Evaluation of peripheral muscle strength of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Santos, Kelli Maria Souza; Cerqueira Neto, Manoel Luiz de; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Santana Filho, Valter Joviniano de; Silva Junior, Walderi Monteiro da; Araújo Filho, Amaro Afrânio; Cerqueira, Telma Cristina Fontes; Cacau, Lucas de Assis Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral muscle strength has been little explored in the literature in the context of cardiac rehabilitation. To evaluate the peripheral muscle strength of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. This was a longitudinal observational study. The peripheral muscle strength was measured using isometric dynamometry lower limb (knee extensors and flexors) at three different times: preoperatively (M1), the day of discharge (M2) and hospital discharge (M3). Participants received physiotherapy pre and postoperatively during the days of hospitalization during the morning and afternoon. Twenty-two patients were evaluated. The values of peripheral muscle strength of knee extensors preoperative found were about 50% lower than those predicted for the healthy population. When comparing muscle strength prior (M1), with the remaining evaluation, found himself in a fall of 29% for the movement of knee extension and 25% for knee flexion in M2 and a decrease of 10% movement for knee extension and 13% for knee flexion in M3 when comparing with M1. The values of peripheral muscle strength prior of the study patients were lower than predicted for the healthy population of the same age. After the surgical event this reduction is even more remarkable, being reestablished until the time of discharge, to values close to baseline.

  16. The effects of training by virtual reality or gym ball on pelvic floor muscle strength in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Martinho, Natalia M.; Silva, Valéria R.; Marques, Joseane; Carvalho, Leonardo C.; Iunes, Denise H.; Botelho, Simone

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of abdominopelvic training by virtual reality compared to pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) using a gym ball (a previously tested and efficient protocol) on postmenopausal women’s pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength. Method A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 60 postmenopausal women, randomly allocated into two groups: Abdominopelvic training by virtual reality – APT_VR (n=30) and PFMT using a gym ball – PFMT_GB (n=30). Both types of training were supervised by the same physical therapist, during 10 sessions each, for 30 minutes. The participants’ PFM strength was evaluated by digital palpation and vaginal dynamometry, considering three different parameters: maximum strength, average strength and endurance. An intention-to-treat approach was used to analyze the participants according to original groups. Results No significant between-group differences were observed in most analyzed parameters. The outcome endurance was higher in the APT_VR group (p=0.003; effect size=0.89; mean difference=1.37; 95% CI=0.46 to 2.28). Conclusion Both protocols have improved the overall PFM strength, suggesting that both are equally beneficial and can be used in clinical practice. Muscle endurance was higher in patients who trained using virtual reality. PMID:27437716

  17. Effects of equal-volume resistance training with different training frequencies in muscle size and strength in trained men

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, James; Steele, James; Campos, Mario H.; Silva, Marcelo H.; Paoli, Antonio; Giessing, Jurgen; Bottaro, Martim

    2018-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training (RT) performed with different training frequencies on muscle size and strength in trained young men. Methods Sixteen men with at least one year of RT experience were divided into two groups, G1 and G2, that trained each muscle group once and twice a week, respectively, for 10 weeks. Elbow flexor muscle thickness (MT) was measured using a B-Mode ultrasound and concentric peak torque of elbow extensors and flexors were assessed by an isokinetic dynamometer. Results ANOVA did not reveal group by time interactions for any variable, indicating no difference between groups for the changes in MT or PT of elbow flexors and extensors. Notwithstanding, MT of elbow flexors increased significantly (3.1%, P < 0.05) only in G1. PT of elbow flexors and extensors did not increase significantly for any group. Discussion The present study suggest that there were no differences in the results promoted by equal-volume resistance training performed once or twice a week on upper body muscle strength in trained men. Only the group performing one session per week significantly increased the MT of their elbow flexors. However, with either once or twice a week training, adaptations appear largely minimal in previously trained males.

  18. Effects of equal-volume resistance training with different training frequencies in muscle size and strength in trained men.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Paulo; Fisher, James; Steele, James; Campos, Mario H; Silva, Marcelo H; Paoli, Antonio; Giessing, Jurgen; Bottaro, Martim

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training (RT) performed with different training frequencies on muscle size and strength in trained young men. Sixteen men with at least one year of RT experience were divided into two groups, G1 and G2, that trained each muscle group once and twice a week, respectively, for 10 weeks. Elbow flexor muscle thickness (MT) was measured using a B-Mode ultrasound and concentric peak torque of elbow extensors and flexors were assessed by an isokinetic dynamometer. ANOVA did not reveal group by time interactions for any variable, indicating no difference between groups for the changes in MT or PT of elbow flexors and extensors. Notwithstanding, MT of elbow flexors increased significantly (3.1%, P  < 0.05) only in G1. PT of elbow flexors and extensors did not increase significantly for any group. The present study suggest that there were no differences in the results promoted by equal-volume resistance training performed once or twice a week on upper body muscle strength in trained men. Only the group performing one session per week significantly increased the MT of their elbow flexors. However, with either once or twice a week training, adaptations appear largely minimal in previously trained males.

  19. Effects of humeral head compression taping on the isokinetic strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of humeral head compression taping (HHCT) on the strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with rotator cuff tendinitis were recruited. The shoulder external rotator strength was measured using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer system. A paired t-test was performed to evaluate within-group differences in the strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle. [Results] Significantly higher shoulder external rotator peak torque and peak torque per body weight were found in the HHCT condition than in the no-taping condition. [Conclusion] HHCT may effectively increase the shoulder external rotator muscle strength in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis.

  20. Poor physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care is related to muscle strength rather than to measures of sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Woods, Julie L; Iuliano-Burns, Sandra; King, Susannah J; Strauss, Boyd J; Walker, Karen Z

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and investigate relationships among body composition, muscle strength, and physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care. Sixty-three ambulatory women (mean age 86 years) participated in this cross-sectional study where body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); ankle, knee, and hip strength by the Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester; and physical function by 'timed up and go' (TUG) and walking speed (WS) over 6 meters. Body composition data from a female reference group (n = 62, mean age 29 years) provided cut-off values for defining sarcopenia. Elderly women had higher body mass index (P < 0.001), lower lean mass (P < 0.001), and higher fat mass (P < 0.01) than the young reference group. Only a small proportion (3.2%) had absolute sarcopenia (defined by appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height squared) whereas 37% had relative sarcopenia class II (defined by percentage skeletal muscle mass). Scores for TUG and WS indicated relatively poor physical function, yet these measures were not associated with muscle mass or indices of sarcopenia. In multivariate analysis, only hip abductor strength predicted both TUG and WS (both P = 0.01). Hip strength is a more important indicator of physical functioning than lean mass. Measurement of hip strength may therefore be a useful screening tool to detect those at risk of functional decline and requirement for additional care. Further longitudinal studies with a range of other strength measures are warranted.

  1. Identification of human skeletal muscle miRNA related to strength by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Cameron J; D'Souza, Randall F; Schierding, William; Zeng, Nina; Ramzan, Farha; O'Sullivan, Justin M; Poppitt, Sally D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2018-06-01

    The loss of muscle size, strength, and quality with aging is a major determinant of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. The regulatory pathways that impact the muscle phenotype include the translational regulation maintained by microRNAs (miRNA). Yet the miRNAs that are expressed in human skeletal muscle and relationship to muscle size, strength, and quality are unknown. Using next-generation sequencing, we selected the 50 most abundantly expressed miRNAs and then analyzed them in vastus lateralis muscle, obtained by biopsy from middle-aged males ( n = 48; 50.0 ± 4.3 yr). Isokinetic strength testing and midthigh computed tomography was undertaken for muscle phenotype analysis. Muscle attenuation was measured by computerized tomography and is inversely proportional to myofiber lipid content. miR-486-5p accounted for 21% of total miR sequence reads, with miR-10b-5p, miR-133a-3p, and miR-22-3p accounting for a further 15, 12, and 10%, respectively. Isokinetic knee extension strength and muscle cross-sectional area were positively correlated with miR-100-5p, miR-99b-5p, and miR-191-5p expression. Muscle attenuation was negatively correlated to let-7f-5p, miR-30d-5p, and miR-125b-5p expression. In silico analysis implicates miRNAs related to strength and muscle size in the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin, while miRNAs related to muscle attenuation may have potential roles regulating the transforming growth factor-β/SMAD3 pathway.

  2. Effect of isometric quadriceps exercise on muscle strength, pain, and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of isometric quadriceps exercise on muscle strength, pain, and function in knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Outpatients (N=42, 21 per group; age range 40-65 years; 13 men and 29 women) with osteoarthritis of the knee participated in the study. The experimental group performed isometric exercises including isometric quadriceps, straight leg raising, and isometric hip adduction exercise 5 days a week for 5 weeks, whereas the control group did not performed any exercise program. The outcome measures or dependent variables selected for this study were pain intensity, isometric quadriceps strength, and knee function. These variables were measured using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), strength gauge device, and reduced WOMAC index, respectively. All the measurements were taken at baseline (week 0) and at the end of the trial at week 5. [Results] In between-group comparisons, the maximum isometric quadriceps strength, reduction in pain intensity, and improvement in function in the isometric exercise group at the end of the 5th week were significantly greater than those of the control group (p<0.05). [Conclusion] The 5-week isometric quadriceps exercise program showed beneficial effects on quadriceps muscle strength, pain, and functional disability in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

  3. Effects of a Pilates exercise program on muscle strength, postural control and body composition: results from a pilot study in a group of post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bergamin, M; Gobbo, S; Bullo, V; Zanotto, T; Vendramin, B; Duregon, F; Cugusi, L; Camozzi, V; Zaccaria, M; Neunhaeuserer, D; Ermolao, A

    2015-12-01

    Participation in exercise programs is heartily recommended for older adults since the level of physical fitness directly influences functional independence. The aim of this present study was to investigate the effects of supervised Pilates exercise training on the physical function, hypothesizing that a period of Pilates exercise training (PET) can increase overall muscle strength, body composition, and balance, during single and dual-task conditions, in a group of post-menopausal women. Twenty-five subjects, aged 59 to 66 years old, were recruited. Eligible participants were assessed prior and after 3 months of PET performed twice per week. Muscular strength was evaluated with handgrip strength (HGS) test, 30-s chair sit-to-stand test (30CST), and abdominal strength (AST) test. Postural control and dual-task performance were measured through a stabilometric platform while dynamic balance with 8 ft up and go test. Finally, body composition was assessed by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Statistically significant improvements were detected on HGS (+8.22%), 30CST (+23.41%), 8 ft up and go test (-5.95%), AST (+30.81%), medio-lateral oscillations in open eyes and dual-task condition (-22.03% and -10.37%). Pilates was effective in increasing upper body, lower body, and abdominal muscle strength. No changes on body composition were detected. Results on this investigation indicated also that 12-week of mat Pilates is not sufficient to determine a clinical meaningful improvement on static balance in single and dual-task conditions.

  4. [Effect of disease severity on upper extremity muscle strength, exercise capacity, and activities of daily living in individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Özcan Kahraman, Buse; Özsoy, İsmail; Acar, Serap; Özpelit, Ebru; Akdeniz, Bahri; Sevinç, Can; Savcı, Sema

    2017-07-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease. Although muscle strength, exercise capacity, quality of life, and activities of daily living of patients with PAH are affected, it is not known how they are affected by disease severity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of disease severity on upper extremity muscle strength, exercise capacity, and performance of activities of daily living in patients with PAH. Twenty-five patients with disease severity classified according to the New York Heart Association (NYHA) as functional class II (n=14) or class III (n=11) were included in the study. Upper-extremity exercise capacity and limitations in performing activities of daily living were assessed with 6-minute pegboard and ring test (6PBRT) and the Milliken activities of daily living scale (MAS), respectively. Shoulder flexion, elbow extension, elbow flexion muscle strength, and handgrip strength were measured with dynamometer. There were no significant differences in age, gender, body mass index, or mean pulmonary artery pressure between groups (p>0.05). The 6PBRT, MAS, and elbow flexion (right) and grip strength (right and left) results were significantly lower in NYHA III group than in NYHA II group (p=0.004, p=0.002, p=0.043, p=0.002 and p=0.003, respectively). There was no significant difference in shoulder flexion, elbow flexion (left), or elbow extension between groups (p>0.05). Results suggest that upper extremity exercise capacity, elbow flexion muscle strength (right), and handgrip strength decrease and that limitations in activities of daily living grow as disease severity increases in patients with PAH. When planning rehabilitation programs, disease severity should be considered and evaluations and treatments for the upper extremities should be included.

  5. Changes in muscle strength in individuals with statin-induced myopathy: A summary of 3 investigations.

    PubMed

    Panza, Gregory A; Taylor, Beth A; Dada, Marcin R; Thompson, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    There are inconsistent findings regarding muscular weakness in individuals with statin-induced myalgia. We used rigorous muscle testing to compare findings from 3 investigations in 3 different study populations to determine if statin myalgia is associated with measurable weakness. In all 3 studies, we measured maximal isometric handgrip strength, resting respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and knee extensor isometric and isokinetic force. In 2 of the 3 studies, elbow flexor isometric and isokinetic force and knee endurance fatigue index were also assessed. Knee extensor and elbow flexor measurements were obtained using an isokinetic dynamometer. Resting RER was measured using a metabolic breath-by-breath collection method. Measurement outcomes were compared on vs off drug. In study 1, 18 participants fit the criteria for statin myalgia. Participants taking atorvastatin 80 mg daily had significantly lower muscle strength in 5 (P < .05) of 14 measured variables. Participants on placebo (N = 10) with myalgia had significantly lower muscle strength in 4 (P < .05) of 14 measured variables. In study 2, 18 participants tested positive for statin-induced myalgia when receiving simvastatin 20 mg daily and displayed no significant muscle strength changes (all P > .05). In study 3, 11 patients with statin-induced myalgia completed the study and had a significant decrease in 2 (P < .05) of 10 leg muscle strength variables. In all 3 studies, no significant changes were shown for handgrip strength or RER (all P > .05). Our results indicate that after a short-term treatment with statin therapy, a rigorous muscle strength protocol does not show decrements of muscle strength in subjects with statin myalgia. Short-term treatment with statin therapy is not common in clinical practice. Thus, future studies should examine the effects of prolonged statin therapy on muscle strength. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Foot and ankle muscle strength in people with gout: A two-arm cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Sarah; Mawston, Grant; Davidtz, Lisa; Dalbeth, Nicola; Vandal, Alain C; Carroll, Matthew; Morpeth, Trish; Otter, Simon; Rome, Keith

    2016-02-01

    Foot and ankle structures are the most commonly affected in people with gout. However, the effect of gout on foot and ankle muscle strength is not well understood. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether differences exist in foot and ankle muscle strength for plantarflexion, dorsiflexion, inversion and eversion between people with gout and age- and sex-matched controls. The secondary aim was to determine whether foot and ankle muscle strength was correlated with foot pain and disability. Peak isokinetic concentric muscle torque was measured for ankle plantarflexion, dorsiflexion, eversion and inversion in 20 participants with gout and 20 matched controls at two testing velocities (30°/s and 120°/s) using a Biodex dynamometer. Foot pain and disability was measured using the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index (MFPDI). Participants with gout demonstrated reduced muscle strength at both the 30°/s and 120°/s testing velocities for plantarflexion, inversion and eversion (P<0.05). People with gout also displayed a reduced plantarflexion-to-dorsiflexion strength ratio at both 30°/s and 120°/s (P<0.05). Foot pain and disability was higher in people with gout (P<0.0001) and MFPDI scores were inversely correlated with plantarflexion and inversion muscle strength at the 30°/s testing velocity, and plantarflexion, inversion and eversion muscle strength at the 120°/s testing velocity (all P<0.05). People with gout have reduced foot and ankle muscle strength and experience greater foot pain and disability compared to controls. Foot and ankle strength reductions are strongly associated with increased foot pain and disability in people with gout. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Muscle strength and endurance following lowerlimb suspension in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesch, Per A.; Berg, Hans E.; Haggmark, Tom; Ohlsen, Hans; Dudley, Gary A.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of lower-limb suspension on the muscle strength and muscle endurance was investigated in six men subjected to four weeks of unilateral unloading of a lower limb (using of a harness attached to a modified shoe), followed by seven weeks of weight-bearing recovery. Results showed a decrease in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the thigh muscle and in the average peak torque (APT) during three bouts of 30 concentric knee extensions. While the the thigh muscle CSA returned to normal after seven weeks of recovery, the APT recovery was still reduced by 11 percent, suggesting that muscle metabolic function was severely affected by unloading and was not restored by ambulation.

  8. Lower limb muscle strength is associated with poor balance in middle-aged women: linear and nonlinear analyses.

    PubMed

    Wu, F; Callisaya, M; Laslett, L L; Wills, K; Zhou, Y; Jones, G; Winzenberg, T

    2016-07-01

    This was the first study investigating both linear associations between lower limb muscle strength and balance in middle-aged women and the potential for thresholds for the associations. There was strong evidence that even in middle-aged women, poorer LMS was associated with reduced balance. However, no evidence was found for thresholds. Decline in balance begins in middle age, yet, the role of muscle strength in balance is rarely examined in this age group. We aimed to determine the association between lower limb muscle strength (LMS) and balance in middle-aged women and investigate whether cut-points of LMS exist that might identify women at risk of poorer balance. Cross-sectional analysis of 345 women aged 36-57 years was done. Associations between LMS and balance tests (timed up and go (TUG), step test (ST), functional reach test (FRT), and lateral reach test (LRT)) were assessed using linear regression. Nonlinear associations were explored using locally weighted regression smoothing (LOWESS) and potential cut-points identified using nonlinear least-squares estimation. Segmented regression was used to estimate associations above and below the identified cut-points. Weaker LMS was associated with poorer performance on the TUG (β -0.008 (95 % CI: -0.010, -0.005) second/kg), ST (β 0.031 (0.011, 0.051) step/kg), FRT (β 0.071 (0.047, 0.096) cm/kg), and LRT (β 0.028 (0.011, 0.044) cm/kg), independent of confounders. Potential nonlinear associations were evident from LOWESS results; significant cut-points of LMS were identified for all balance tests (29-50 kg). However, excepting ST, cut-points did not persist after excluding potentially influential data points. In middle-aged women, poorer LMS is associated with reduced balance. Therefore, improving muscle strength in middle-age may be a useful strategy to improve balance and reduce falls risk in later life. Middle-aged women with low muscle strength may be an effective target group for future randomized

  9. Effects of a Strength Training Session After an Exercise Inducing Muscle Damage on Recovery Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Abaïdia, Abd-Elbasset; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Leduc, Cédric; Lamblin, Julien; McCall, Alan; Baquet, Georges; Dupont, Grégory

    2017-01-01

    Abaïdia, A-E, Delecroix, B, Leduc, C, Lamblin, J, McCall, A, Baquet, G, and Dupont, G. Effects of a strength training session after an exercise inducing muscle damage on recovery kinetics. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 115-125, 2017-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an upper-limb strength training session the day after an exercise inducing muscle damage on recovery of performance. In a randomized crossover design, subjects performed the day after the exercise, on 2 separate occasions (passive vs. active recovery conditions) a single-leg exercise (dominant in one condition and nondominant in the other condition) consisting of 5 sets of 15 eccentric contractions of the knee flexors. Active recovery consisted of performing an upper-body strength training session the day after the exercise. Creatine kinase, hamstring strength, and muscle soreness were assessed immediately and 20, 24, and 48 hours after exercise-induced muscle damage. The upper-body strength session, after muscle-damaging exercise accelerated the recovery of slow concentric force (effect size = 0.65; 90% confidence interval = -0.06 to 1.32), but did not affect the recovery kinetics for the other outcomes. The addition of an upper-body strength training session the day after muscle-damaging activity does not negatively affect the recovery kinetics. Upper-body strength training may be programmed the day after a competition.

  10. A combined inspiratory and expiratory muscle training program improves respiratory muscle strength and fatigue in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ray, Andrew D; Udhoji, Supriya; Mashtare, Terry L; Fisher, Nadine M

    2013-10-01

    To determine the effects of a short-duration, combined (inspiratory and expiratory), progressive resistance respiratory muscle training (RMT) protocol on respiratory muscle strength, fatigue, health-related quality of life, and functional performance in individuals with mild-to-moderate multiple sclerosis (MS). Quasi-experimental before-after trial. University rehabilitation research laboratory. Volunteers with MS (N=21) were divided into 2 groups: RMT (n=11; 9 women, 2 men; mean age ± SD, 50.9 ± 5.7y, mean Expanded Disability Status Scale score ± SD, 3.2 ± 1.9) and a control group that did not train (n=10; 7 women, 3 men; mean age ± SD, 56.2 ± 8.8y, mean Expanded Disability Status Scale score ± SD, 4.4 ± 2.1). Expanded Disability Status Scale scores ranged from 1 to ≤6.5. No patients withdrew from the study. Training was a 5-week combined progressive resistance RMT program, 3d/wk, 30 minutes per session. The primary outcome measures were maximal inspiratory pressure and expiratory pressure and the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale. All subjects completed secondary measures of pulmonary function, the six-minute walk test, the timed stair climb, the Multiple Sclerosis Self-Efficacy Scale, the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, and the Physical Activity Disability Scale. Maximal inspiratory pressure and expiratory pressure (mean ± SD) increased 35% ± 22% (P<.001) and 26% ± 17% (P<.001), respectively, whereas no changes were noted in the control group (12% ± 23% and -4% ± 17%, respectively). RMT improved fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, P<.029), with no change or worsening in the control group. No changes were noted in the six-minute walk test, stair climb, Multiple Sclerosis Self-Efficacy Scale, or Physical Activity Disability Scale in the RMT group. The control group had decreases in emotional well-being and general health (Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey). A short-duration, combined RMT program

  11. Evaluation of peripheral muscle strength of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Kelli Maria Souza; de Cerqueira Neto, Manoel Luiz; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; de Santana Filho, Valter Joviniano; da Silva Junior, Walderi Monteiro; Araújo Filho, Amaro Afrânio; Cerqueira, Telma Cristina Fontes; Cacau, Lucas de Assis Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral muscle strength has been little explored in the literature in the context of cardiac rehabilitation. Objective To evaluate the peripheral muscle strength of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Methods This was a longitudinal observational study. The peripheral muscle strength was measured using isometric dynamometry lower limb (knee extensors and flexors) at three different times: preoperatively (M1), the day of discharge (M2) and hospital discharge (M3). Participants received physiotherapy pre and postoperatively during the days of hospitalization during the morning and afternoon. Results Twenty-two patients were evaluated. The values of peripheral muscle strength of knee extensors preoperative found were about 50% lower than those predicted for the healthy population. When comparing muscle strength prior (M1), with the remaining evaluation, found himself in a fall of 29% for the movement of knee extension and 25% for knee flexion in M2 and a decrease of 10% movement for knee extension and 13% for knee flexion in M3 when comparing with M1. Conclusion The values of peripheral muscle strength prior of the study patients were lower than predicted for the healthy population of the same age. After the surgical event this reduction is even more remarkable, being reestablished until the time of discharge, to values close to baseline. PMID:25372909

  12. Effects of Inspiratory Muscle Training and Calisthenics-and-Breathing Exercises in COPD With and Without Respiratory Muscle Weakness.

    PubMed

    Basso-Vanelli, Renata P; Di Lorenzo, Valéria A Pires; Labadessa, Ivana G; Regueiro, Eloisa M G; Jamami, Mauricio; Gomes, Evelim L F D; Costa, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    Patients with COPD may experience respiratory muscle weakness. Two therapeutic approaches to the respiratory muscles are inspiratory muscle training and calisthenics-and-breathing exercises. The aims of the study are to compare the effects of inspiratory muscle training and calisthenics-and-breathing exercises associated with physical training in subjects with COPD as an additional benefit of strength and endurance of the inspiratory muscles, thoracoabdominal mobility, physical exercise capacity, and reduction in dyspnea on exertion. In addition, these gains were compared between subjects with and without respiratory muscle weakness. 25 subjects completed the study: 13 composed the inspiratory muscle training group, and 12 composed the calisthenics-and-breathing exercises group. Subjects were assessed before and after training by spirometry, measurements of respiratory muscle strength and test of inspiratory muscle endurance, thoracoabdominal excursion measurements, and the 6-min walk test. Moreover, scores for the Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale were reported. After intervention, there was a significant improvement in both groups of respiratory muscle strength and endurance, thoracoabdominal mobility, and walking distance in the 6-min walk test. Additionally, there was a decrease of dyspnea in the 6-min walk test peak. A difference was found between groups, with higher values of respiratory muscle strength and thoracoabdominal mobility and lower values of dyspnea in the 6-min walk test peak and the Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale in the inspiratory muscle training group. In the inspiratory muscle training group, subjects with respiratory muscle weakness had greater gains in inspiratory muscle strength and endurance. Both interventions increased exercise capacity and decreased dyspnea during physical effort. However, inspiratory muscle training was more effective in increasing inspiratory muscle strength and endurance, which could

  13. Cardiopulmonary fitness and muscle strength in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type I.

    PubMed

    Takken, Tim; Terlingen, Heike C; Helders, Paul J M; Pruijs, Hans; Van der Ent, Cornelis K; Engelbert, Raoul H H

    2004-12-01

    To evaluate cardiopulmonary function, muscle strength, and cardiopulmonary fitness (VO 2 peak) in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). In 17 patients with OI type I (mean age 13.3 +/- 3.9 years) cardiopulmonary function was assessed at rest using spirometry, plethysmography, electrocardiography, and echocardiography. Exercise capacity was measured using a maximal exercise test on a bicycle ergometer and an expired gas analysis system. Muscle strength in shoulder abductors, hip flexors, ankle dorsal flexor, and grip strength were measured. All results were compared with reference values. Cardiopulmonary function at rest was within normal ranges, but when it was compared with normal height for age and sex, vital capacities were reduced. Mean absolute and relative VO 2 peak were respectively -1.17 (+/- 0.67) and -1.41 (+/- 1.52) standard deviations lower compared with reference values ( P < .01). Muscle strength also was significantly reduced in patients with OI, ranging from -1.24 +/- 1.40 to -2.88 +/- 2.67 standard deviations lower compared with reference values. In patients with OI type I, no pulmonary or cardiac abnormalities at rest were found. The exercise tolerance and muscle strength were significantly reduced in patients with OI, which might account for their increased levels of fatigue during activities of daily living.

  14. Low level laser therapy associated with a strength training program on muscle performance in elderly women: a randomized double blind control study.

    PubMed

    Toma, Renata Luri; Vassão, Patrícia Gabrielli; Assis, Livia; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2016-08-01

    The aging process leads to a gradual loss of muscle mass and muscle performance, leading to a higher functional dependence. Within this context, many studies have demonstrated the benefits of a combination of physical exercise and low level laser therapy (LLLT) as an intervention that enhances muscle performance in young people and athletes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combination of LLLT and strength training on muscle performance in elderly women. For this, a hundred elderly women were screened, and 48 met all inclusion criteria to participate in this double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Volunteers were divided in three groups: control (CG = 15), strength training associated with placebo LLLT (TG = 17), and strength training associated with active LLLT (808 nm, 100 mW, 7 J) (TLG = 16). The strength training consisted of knee flexion-extension performed with 80 % of 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) during 8 weeks. Several outcomes related to muscle performance were analyzed through the 6-min walk test (6-MWT), isokinetic dynamometry, surface electromyography (SEMG), lactate concentration, and 1-RM. The results revealed that a higher work (p = 0.0162), peak torque (p = 0.0309), and power (p = 0.0223) were observed in TLG compared to CG. Furthermore, both trained groups increased the 1-RM load (TG vs CG: p = 0.0067 and TLG vs CG: p < 0.0001) and decreased the lactate concentration in the third minute after isokinetic protocol (CG vs TLG: p = 0.0289 and CG vs TG: p = 0.0085). No difference in 6-MWT and in fatigue levels were observed among the groups. The present findings suggested that LLLT in combination with strength training was able to improve muscle performance in elderly people.

  15. Does grip strength reflect isokinetic muscle strength in lower limbs in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy?

    PubMed

    Knak, Kirsten L; Andersen, Linda K; Christiansen, Ingelise; Markvardsen, Lars K

    2018-03-30

    Grip strength (GS) is a common measure of general muscle strength in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). However, it is important to investigate the correlation and responsiveness of GS compared with isokinetic muscle strength (IKS) and function of the lower limbs. Seventy patients with CIDP were evaluated with GS, IKS, and functional measures of the lower limbs. Reevaluation was performed after 2 and 10/12 weeks. Correlation and response analyses were performed. GS correlated with IKS at the ankle (IKS ankle ; maximum Spearman's rank-order correlation [R S ] = 0.58) and with walking performance (maximum R S  = -0.38). IKS ankle was more responsive to detect change (standardized response mean [SRM] = 0.57) than GS (SRM = 0.27). GS does not seem to be an appropriate surrogate measure of IKS and function of the lower limbs in patients with CIDP. Muscle Nerve, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effects of combined application of progressive resistance training and Russian electrical stimulation on quadriceps femoris muscle strength in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Hoon; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of combined application of progressive resistance training and Russian electrical stimulation on quadriceps femoris muscle strength in elderly women with osteoarthritis of the knee. [Subjects] Thirty women over 65 years of age diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis participated in the present study. The subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (n=10), a progressive resistance training group (n=10), or a Russian electrical stimulation group (n=10). [Methods] Each group was treated 3 times weekly for 8 weeks, and each session lasted 45 minutes. Muscle strength was assessed by measuring the peak torque of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Outcome measurements were performed at baseline and at the fourth and eighth weeks of the treatment period. [Results] All groups showed significant intragroup differences in the quadriceps femoris muscle peak torque after the treatment intervention. There were significant intergroup differences between the Russian electrical stimulation group and the other groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that combined application of progressive resistance training and Russian electrical stimulation can be effective in strengthening the quadriceps femoris muscle in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis.

  17. Abdominopelvic kinesiotherapy for pelvic floor muscle training: a tested proposal in different groups.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Simone; Martinho, Natalia Miguel; Silva, Valéria Regina; Marques, Joseane; Alves, Fabiola Kenia; Riccetto, Cássio

    2015-12-01

    This video's proposal was to present one of the pelvic floor muscle (PFM) training programs used in our research, and to study the effects of abdominopelvic kinesiotherapy on female PFM function. A total of 82 women participated in this study, 11 nulliparous, 13 primiparous pregnant, 20 primiparous postpartum and 38 postmenopausal women, who were evaluated first by digital palpation, then by either electromyography or vaginal dynamometry to investigate their PFM strength, followed by ICIQ UI-SF and ICIQ-OAB to evaluate urinary symptoms. This intervention protocol lasted for 60 min, three times a week, with a total of 10 sessions, and was supervised by a physiotherapist, using a gym ball, according to Marques and collaborators. A significant increase in PFM strength was observed by digital palpation in all groups. This finding was confirmed by electromyography in both pregnant (p = 0.0001) and postpartum (p = 0.0001) groups, as well as in 20 of the 38 women from the postmenopausal group (p = 0.003) then by vaginal dynamometry (p = 0.02) in the rest of the women (18) from the same group, with a concomitant decrease in urinary symptoms (p < 0.05). The abdominopelvic kinesiotherapy program promotes an increase in pelvic floor muscle strength and a decrease in urinary symptoms.

  18. Effect of Contralateral Strength Training on Muscle Weakness in People With Multiple Sclerosis: Proof-of-Concept Case Series.

    PubMed

    Manca, Andrea; Cabboi, Maria Paola; Ortu, Enzo; Ginatempo, Francesca; Dragone, Daniele; Zarbo, Ignazio Roberto; de Natale, Edoardo Rosario; Mureddu, Giovanni; Bua, Guido; Deriu, Franca

    2016-06-01

    The contralateral strength training (CST) effect is a transfer of muscle performance to the untrained limb following training of the contralateral side. The aim of this study was to explore, in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) presenting marked lower limb strength asymmetry, the effectiveness of CST on management of muscle weakness of the more-affected limb following training of the less-affected limb. A single-subject research design was used. Eight individuals with MS underwent 16 to 18 high-intensity training sessions of the less-affected ankle dorsiflexor muscles. The primary outcome measure of this single-system case series was maximal strength expressed as peak moment and maximal work. Secondary outcome measures were: Six-Minute-Walk Test, Timed "Up & Go" Test, 10-Meter Timed Walk Test, and Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire. After the 6-week intervention, the contralateral more affected (untrained) limb showed a 22% to 24% increase in maximal strength. From pretest-posttest measurements, participants also performed significantly better on the clinical and functional secondary outcome measures. At the 12-week follow-up, the strength levels of the weaker untrained limb remained significantly superior to baseline levels in the majority (5 out of 8) of the outcome parameters. Considering the design used, the absence of a control group, and the sample size, these findings should be cautiously generalized and will need confirmation in a properly planned randomized controlled trial. The present proof-of-concept study shows, for the first time, the occurrence of the CST effect on muscle performance of ankle dorsiflexor muscles in people with MS. These preliminary findings reveal new potential implications for CST as a promising rehabilitation approach to those conditions where unilateral muscle weakness does not allow or makes difficult performing conventional strength training of the weaker limb. © 2016 American Physical Therapy

  19. Behavior of respiratory muscle strength in morbidly obese women by using different predictive equations.

    PubMed

    Pazzianotto-Forti, Eli M; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana S; Piconi-Mendes, Camila; Rasera-Junior, Irineu; Barbalho-Moulim, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Studies on the behavior of respiratory muscle strength (RMS) in morbidly obese patients have found conflicting results. To evaluate RMS in morbidly obese women and to compare the results by using different predictive equations. This is a cross-sectional study that recruited 30 morbidly obese women and a control group of 30 normal-weight women. The subjects underwent anthropometric and maximal respiratory pressure measurement. Visual inspection of the Bland-Altman plots was performed to evaluate the correlation between the different equations, with a p value lower than 0.05 considered as statistically significant. The obese women showed a significant increase in maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) values (-87.83±21.40 cmH(2)O) compared with normal-weight women (-72±15.23 cmH(2)O) and a significant reduction of MIP (-87.83±21.40 cmH(2)O) according to the values predicted by the EHarik equation (-130.71±11.98 cmH(2)O). Regarding the obtained maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), there were no between-group differences (p>0.05), and no agreeement was observed between obtained and predicted values of MEP and the ENeder and ECosta equations. Inspiratory muscle strength was greater in the morbidly obese subjects. The most appropriate equation for calculating the predicted MIP values for the morbidly obese seems to be Harik-Khan equation. There seem to be similarities between the respiratory muscle strength behavior of morbidly obese and normal-weight women, however, these findings are still inconclusive.

  20. Muscle strength is associated with vitamin D receptor gene variants.

    PubMed

    Bozsodi, Arpad; Boja, Sara; Szilagyi, Agnes; Somhegyi, Annamaria; Varga, Peter Pal; Lazary, Aron

    2016-11-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is an important candidate gene in muscle function. Scientific reports on the effect of its genetic variants on muscle strength are contradictory likely due to the inconsistent study designs. Hand grip strength (HGS) is a highly heritable phenotype of muscle strength but only limited studies are available on its genetic background. Association between VDR polymorphisms and HGS has been poorly investigated and previous reports are conflicting. We studied the effect of VDR gene variants on HGS in a sample of 706 schoolchildren. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva samples and six candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the VDR gene were genotyped with Sequenom MassARRAY technique. HGS was measured with a digital dynamometer in both hands. Single marker and haplotype associations were adjusted for demographic parameters. Three SNPs, rs4516035 (A1012G; p = 0.009), rs1544410 (BsmI; p = 0.010), and rs731236 (TaqI; p = 0.038) and a 3' UTR haploblock constructed by three SNPs (Bsml-Taq1-rs10783215; p < 0.005) showed significantly associations with HGS of the dominant hand. In the non-dominant hand, the effects of the A1012G (p = 0.034) and the 3' UTR haploblock (p < 0.01) on HGS were also significant. Since the promoter SNP (A10112G) and the 3' UTR haplotype were proved to be associated with the expression and the stability of the VDR mRNA in earlier studies, VDR variants can be supposed to have a direct effect on muscle strength. The individual genetic patterns can also explain the inconsistency of the previously published clinical results on the association between vitamin D and muscle function. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:2031-2037, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Relationship of obesity with physical activity, aerobic fitness and muscle strength in Flemish adults.

    PubMed

    Duvigneaud, N; Matton, L; Wijndaele, K; Deriemaeker, P; Lefevre, J; Philippaerts, R; Thomis, M; Delecluse, C; Duquet, W

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse differences in physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscle strength between normal weight, overweight and obese adults and to investigate the role of physical activity variables in the analyses of differences in CRF and muscle strength between these groups. A total of 807 men and 633 women (age: 18-75 years) were included in this cross-sectional study. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and bioelectrical impedance were measured. Different dimensions of physical activity were assessed using a validated questionnaire. CRF (VO(2peak)) was evaluated by a maximal test on a cycle ergometer. Knee strength was measured with a calibrated Biodex System Pro 3 dynamometer. Three methods were used for classification in obesity groups: body mass index (BMI), WC and combined BMI-WC classification. Health-related sports and physical activity level are negatively associated with obesity in men, but not in women. Television viewing is positively associated with obesity, while VO(2peak)/fat free mass (FFM) and knee strength/FFM show a negative association with obesity in both genders. Overall, subjects with normal WC seem to be more physically active and to have somewhat better values for CRF compared to those with high WC within the same BMI category. Lower values for relative CRF and knee strength in obese subjects compared to their lean counterparts remain after adjustment for physical activity. This study confirms the lower level of physical activity and the impaired CRF and knee strength in obese adults compared to their lean counterparts. This study also sustains the importance of measuring WC and CRF during clinical examinations.

  2. Poor physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care is related to muscle strength rather than to measures of sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Julie L; Iuliano-Burns, Sandra; King, Susannah J; Strauss, Boyd J; Walker, Karen Z

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and investigate relationships among body composition, muscle strength, and physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care. Subjects and methods: Sixty-three ambulatory women (mean age 86 years) participated in this cross-sectional study where body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); ankle, knee, and hip strength by the Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester; and physical function by ‘timed up and go’ (TUG) and walking speed (WS) over 6 meters. Body composition data from a female reference group (n = 62, mean age 29 years) provided cut-off values for defining sarcopenia. Results: Elderly women had higher body mass index (P < 0.001), lower lean mass (P < 0.001), and higher fat mass (P < 0.01) than the young reference group. Only a small proportion (3.2%) had absolute sarcopenia (defined by appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height squared) whereas 37% had relative sarcopenia class II (defined by percentage skeletal muscle mass). Scores for TUG and WS indicated relatively poor physical function, yet these measures were not associated with muscle mass or indices of sarcopenia. In multivariate analysis, only hip abductor strength predicted both TUG and WS (both P = 0.01). Conclusion: Hip strength is a more important indicator of physical functioning than lean mass. Measurement of hip strength may therefore be a useful screening tool to detect those at risk of functional decline and requirement for additional care. Further longitudinal studies with a range of other strength measures are warranted. PMID:21472094

  3. An inverted J-shaped association of serum uric acid with muscle strength among Japanese adult men: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Uric acid (UA) may protect muscle function from oxidative damage due to reactive oxygen species through its powerful antioxidant capacity. However, several studies have demonstrated that hyperuricemia is closely related to systemic inflammation and has oxidant properties effects, both of which may increase the risk of muscle strength loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of serum UA concentration with grip strength and leg extension power in adult men. Methods This study is a cross-sectional survey in which 630 Japanese male employees aged 30 years and older participated. Five hundred and eighty-six subjects participated in the measurement of grip strength, and 355 subjects participated in the measurement of leg extension power. Blood samples were obtained for serum UA analysis. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, grip strength differed significantly between participants with and those without hyperuricemia (geometric mean and 95% confidence interval [CI]: 40.3 [39.2–41.3] kg vs. 41.9 [41.3–42.5] kg; P = 0.01). In addition, serum UA levels (quartiles) showed an inverted J-shaped curve with grip strength (mean and 95% CI: Q1, 41.6 [40.6–42.6] kg; Q2, 42.2 [41.2–43.2] kg; Q3, 41.8 [40.8–42.8] kg; Q4, 40.4 [39.3–41.4] kg; P for quadratic trend = 0.05). The results in the leg extension power group were similar to those observed in the grip strength group. Conclusion This population-based cross-sectional study shows for the first time that hyperuricemia is associated with poor muscle strength. Moreover, the results indicate an inverted J-shaped association between serum UA quartiles and muscle strength. PMID:24000893

  4. Comparisons in fluctuation of muscle strength and function in patients with immune-mediated neuropathy treated with intravenous versus subcutaneous immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Ingelise; Markvardsen, Lars H; Jakobsen, Johannes

    2018-04-01

    Variations in muscle strength and function have not been studied in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and multifocal motor neuropathy whose treatment regimen has been changed from intravenous to subcutaneous immunoglobulin (IVIg to SCIg). In a prospective, open-label study, patients were changed from monthly IVIg to weekly SCIg. The primary endpoint was variation in isokinetic muscle strength (cIKS). Secondary endpoints were variations in Medical Research Council (MRC) score, grip strength (GS), 9-hole-peg test (9-HPT), and 40-meter-walk test (40-MWT). The coefficient of variance of cIKS during the IVIg and SCIg treatment periods was unchanged (mean ± SD: 6.97 ± 4.83% vs. 5.50 ± 3.13%, P = 0.21). The variations in the 9-HPT and 40-MWT were significantly lower in the SCIg group (P = 0.01 and P = 0.005, respectively). When therapy was changed from IVIg to SCIg, fluctuation of muscle strength was unchanged, but performance fluctuations were diminished. Muscle Nerve 57: 610-614, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Relationship between agility and lower limb muscle strength, targeting university badminton players.

    PubMed

    Sonoda, Takuya; Tashiro, Yuto; Suzuki, Yusuke; Kajiwara, Yu; Zeidan, Hala; Yokota, Yuki; Kawagoe, Mirei; Nakayama, Yasuaki; Bito, Tsubasa; Shimoura, Kanako; Tatsumi, Masataka; Nakai, Kengo; Nishida, Yuichi; Yoshimi, Soyoka; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] Targeting university badminton players, this study investigated the relationship between agility, which is associated with performance in badminton, and lower limb muscle strength, and examined which muscles influence agility. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 23 male university badminton players were evaluated for side-shuffle test scores and lower limb strength. The relationships between agility, lower limb strength, and duration of experience playing badminton were evaluated using a correlation analysis. Moreover, the relationship between agility and lower limb strength was evaluated by partial correlation analysis, adjusting for the effects of experience of each badminton player. [Results] The agility score correlated with hip extension and ankle plantar flexion strength, with adjustment for badminton experience. [Conclusion] This study suggests that hip extension training and improvement in ankle plantar flexion strength may improve agility.

  6. Decreased neck muscle strength in patients with the loss of cervical lordosis.

    PubMed

    Alpayci, Mahmut; Şenköy, Emre; Delen, Veysel; Şah, Volkan; Yazmalar, Levent; Erden, Metin; Toprak, Murat; Kaplan, Şeyhmus

    2016-03-01

    The loss of cervical lordosis is associated with some negative clinical outcomes. No previous study has examined cervical muscle strength, specifically in patients with the loss of cervical lordosis. This study aims to investigate whether there is weakness of the cervical muscles or an imbalance between cervical flexor and extensor muscle strength in patients with the loss of cervical lordosis compared with healthy controls matched by age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and employment status. Thirty-two patients with the loss of cervical lordosis (23 F, 9 M) and 31 healthy volunteers (23 F, 8 M) were included in the study. Maximal isometric neck extension and flexion strength, and the strength ratio between extension and flexion were used as evaluation parameters. All measurements were conducted by a blinded assessor using a digital force gauge. The participants were positioned on a chair in a neutral cervical position and without the trunk inclined during measurements. Maximal isometric neck extension and flexion strength values were significantly lower in the patients versus healthy controls (P<0.001 and P=0.040, respectively). The mean (SD) values of the extension/flexion ratio were 1.21 (0.34) in the patients and 1.46 ± 0.33 in the controls (P=0.004). According to our results, patients with the loss of cervical lordosis have reduced neck muscle strength, especially in the extensors. These findings may be beneficial for optimizing cervical exercise prescriptions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional Capacity in Adults With Cerebral Palsy: Lower Limb Muscle Strength Matters.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Jarred G; Lichtwark, Glen A; Boyd, Roslyn N; Barber, Lee A

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the relation between lower limb muscle strength, passive muscle properties, and functional capacity outcomes in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Cross-sectional study. Tertiary institution biomechanics laboratory. Adults with spastic-type CP (N=33; mean age, 25y; range, 15-51y; mean body mass, 70.15±21.35kg) who were either Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level I (n=20) or level II (n=13). Not applicable. Six-minute walk test (6MWT) distance (m), lateral step-up (LSU) test performance (total repetitions), timed up-stairs (TUS) performance (s), maximum voluntary isometric strength of plantar flexors (PF) and dorsiflexors (DF) (Nm.kg -1 ), and passive ankle joint and muscle stiffness. Maximum isometric PF strength independently explained 61% of variance in 6MWT performance, 57% of variance in LSU test performance, and 50% of variance in TUS test performance. GMFCS level was significantly and independently related to all 3 functional capacity outcomes, and age was retained as a significant independent predictor of LSU and TUS test performance. Passive medial gastrocnemius muscle fascicle stiffness and ankle joint stiffness were not significantly related to functional capacity measures in any of the multiple regression models. Low isometric PF strength was the most important independent variable related to distance walked on the 6MWT, fewer repetitions on the LSU test, and slower TUS test performance. These findings suggest lower isometric muscle strength contributes to the decline in functional capacity in adults with CP. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. ISOKINETIC KNEE MUSCLE STRENGTH PROFILE IN BRAZILIAN MALE SOCCER, FUTSAL, AND BEACH SOCCER PLAYERS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Mascarin, Naryana C.; Vargas, Valentine Z.; Vancini, Rodrigo L.; Andrade, Marília S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Anterior cruciate ligament injury is higher in soccer athletes as compared to athletes of other sports. Risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury include low knee hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio and bilateral strength deficits. Purpose To investigate isokinetic thigh muscles strength, hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio, and bilateral strength comparisons in athletes who participate in professional soccer, futsal, and beach soccer. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Methods Brazilian professional soccer (n=70), futsal (n=30), and beach soccer (n=12) players were isokinetically assessed to examine strength of knee extensors and flexors at 60 degrees/second in concentric mode, to measure peak torque of dominant and non-dominant limbs. Results In the dominant limb, for extensors muscles, futsal players presented significantly lower peak torque values (223.9 ± 33.4 Nm) than soccer (250.9 ± 43.0 Nm; p=0.02) and beach soccer players (253.1 ± 32.4 Nm; p=0.03). Peak torque for extensor muscles in the non-dominant limb was significantly lower in futsal (224.0 ± 35.8 Nm) than in beach soccer players (256.8 ± 39.8 Nm; p=0.03). Hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio for dominant limbs for futsal (57.6 ± 10.1%), soccer (53.5 ± 8.8%), and beach soccer (56.3 ± 8.4%) players presented no significant differences between groups; however, the mean values were lower than recommended values found in the literature. There were no strength deficits for any of the evaluated groups when compared bilaterally. Conclusions Futsal athletes presented lower values for quadriceps strength than soccer and beach soccer athletes. Futsal, soccer, and beach soccer players presented no strength asymmetries, but they presented with strength imbalance in hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio. Level of Evidence 3 PMID:29234562

  9. Eight Weeks of Phosphatidic Acid Supplementation in Conjunction with Resistance Training Does Not Differentially Affect Body Composition and Muscle Strength in Resistance-Trained Men

    PubMed Central

    Andre, Thomas L.; Gann, Joshua J.; McKinley-Barnard, Sarah K.; Song, Joon J.; Willoughby, Darryn S.

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to determine the effects of eight weeks of resistance training (RT) combined with phosphatidic acid (PA) supplementation at a dose of either 250 mg or 375 mg on body composition and muscle size and strength. Twenty-eight resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to ingest 375 mg [PA375 (n = 9)] or 250 mg [PA250 (n = 9)] of PA or 375 mg of placebo [PLC (n = 10)] daily for eight weeks with RT. Supplements were ingested 60 minutes prior to RT and in the morning on non-RT days. Participants’ body composition, muscle size, and lower-body muscle strength were determined before and after training/supplementation. Separate group x time ANOVAs for each criterion variable were used employing an alpha level of ≤ 0.05. Magnitude- based inferences were utilized to determine the likely or unlikely impact of PA on each criterion variable. A significant main effect for time was observed for improvements in total body mass (p = 0.003), lean mass (p = 0.008), rectus femoris cross-sectional area [RF CSA (p = 0.011)], and lower-body strength (p < 0.001), but no significant interactions were present (p > 0.05). Collectively, magnitude-based inferences determined both doses of PA to have a likely impact of increasing body mass (74.2%), lean mass (71.3%), RF CSA (92.2%), and very likely impact on increasing lower-body strength (98.1% beneficial). When combined with RT, it appears that PA has a more than likely impact on improving lower-body strength, whereas a likely impact exists for increasing muscle size and lean mass. Key points In response to eight weeks resistance training and PLC and PA (375 mg and 250 mg) supplementation, similar increases in lower-body muscle strength occurred in all three groups; however, the increases were not different between supplement groups. In response to eight weeks resistance training and PLC and PA (375 mg and 250 mg) supplementation, similar increases in lean mass occurred in all three groups; however, the increases were

  10. The variation of the strength of neck extensor muscles and semispinalis capitis muscle size with head and neck position.

    PubMed

    Rezasoltani, A; Nasiri, R; Faizei, A M; Zaafari, G; Mirshahvelayati, A S; Bakhshidarabad, L

    2013-04-01

    Semispinalis capitis muscle (SECM) is a massive and long cervico-thoracic muscle which functions as a main head and neck extensor muscle. The aim of this study was to detect the effect of head and neck positions on the strength of neck extensor muscles and size of SECM in healthy subjects. Thirty healthy women students voluntarily participated in this study. An ultrasonography apparatus (Hitachi EUB 525) and a system of tension-meter were used to scan the right SECM at the level of third cervical spine and to measure the strength of neck extensor muscles at three head and neck positions. Neck extensor muscles were stronger in neutral than flexion or than extension positions while the size of SECM was larger in extension than neutral or than flexion position. The force generation capacity of the main neck extensor muscle was lower at two head and neck flexion and extension positions than neutral position. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of shoulder stabilization exercises and pectoralis minor stretching on balance and maximal shoulder muscle strength of healthy young adults with round shoulder posture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Lee, Jung Chul; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2018-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of pectoralis minor stretching and shoulder strengthening with an elastic band on balance and maximal shoulder muscle strength in young adults with rounded shoulder posture. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen subjects with rounded shoulder posture were randomly divided into 2 groups: a shoulder stabilization exercise group and a stretching exercise group. The groups performed each exercise for 40 minutes, 3 times a week, for 4 weeks. Static balance (eyes open and closed), dynamic balance (the limits of stability in 4 directions) and shoulder muscle strength in 5 directions were measure before and after the exercises. [Results] The stretching exercise demonstrated a significant difference between the pre- and post-exercise in the static balance with eyes closed and extension and horizontal abduction strength while the stabilization exercise demonstrated significant difference in the left and right directions between the pre- and post-exercise of the dynamic balance and flexion strength. The stabilization exercise demonstrated significant differences shown in the flexion between the pre- and post-test. [Conclusion] The shoulder stabilization and stretching exercises improved the static balance, dynamic balance, and muscle strength.

  12. Anti-myostatin antibody increases muscle mass and strength and improves insulin sensitivity in old mice.

    PubMed

    Camporez, João-Paulo G; Petersen, Max C; Abudukadier, Abulizi; Moreira, Gabriela V; Jurczak, Michael J; Friedman, Glenn; Haqq, Christopher M; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Shulman, Gerald I

    2016-02-23

    Sarcopenia, or skeletal muscle atrophy, is a debilitating comorbidity of many physiological and pathophysiological processes, including normal aging. There are no approved therapies for sarcopenia, but the antihypertrophic myokine myostatin is a potential therapeutic target. Here, we show that treatment of young and old mice with an anti-myostatin antibody (ATA 842) for 4 wk increased muscle mass and muscle strength in both groups. Furthermore, ATA 842 treatment also increased insulin-stimulated whole body glucose metabolism in old mice, which could be attributed to increased insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake as measured by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Taken together, these studies provide support for pharmacological inhibition of myostatin as a potential therapeutic approach for age-related sarcopenia and metabolic disease.

  13. Associations Between Balance and Muscle Strength, Power Performance in Male Youth Athletes of Different Maturity Status.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Raouf; Chaouachi, Anis; Makhlouf, Issam; Granacher, Urs; Behm, David G

    2016-11-01

    Balance, strength and power relationships may contain important information at various maturational stages to determine training priorities. The objective was to examine maturity-specific relationships of static/dynamic balance with strength and power measures in young male athletes. Soccer players (N = 130) aged 10-16 were assessed with the Stork and Y balance (YBT) tests. Strength/power measures included back extensor muscle strength, standing long jump (SLJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and 3-hop jump tests. Associations between balance with strength/power variables were calculated according to peak-height-velocity (PHV). There were significant medium-large sized correlations between all balance measures with back extensor strength (r = .486-.791) and large associations with power (r = .511-.827). These correlation coefficients were significantly different between pre-PHV and circa PHV as well as pre-PHV and post-PHV with larger associations in the more mature groups. Irrespective of maturity-status, SLJ was the best strength/power predictor with the highest proportion of variance (12-47%) for balance (i.e., Stork eyes opened) and the YBT was the best balance predictor with the highest proportion of variance (43-78%) for all strength/power variables. The associations between balance and muscle strength/power measures in youth athletes that increase with maturity may imply transfer effects from balance to strength/power training and vice versa in youth athletes.

  14. Strength characterization of knee flexor and extensor muscles in Prader-Willi and obese patients.

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, Paolo; Vismara, Luca; Menegoni, Francesco; Baccalaro, Gabriele; Galli, Manuela; Grugni, Graziano

    2009-05-06

    despite evidence of an obesity-related disability, there is a lack of objective muscle functional data in overweight subjects. Only few studies provide instrumental strength measurements in non-syndromal obesity, whereas no data about Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are reported. The aim of our study was to characterize the lower limb muscle function of patients affected by PWS as compared to non-syndromal obesity and normal-weight subjects. We enrolled 20 obese (O) females (age: 29.1 +/- 6.5 years; BMI: 38.1 +/- 3.1), 6 PWS females (age: 27.2 +/- 4.9 years; BMI: 45.8 +/- 4.4) and 14 healthy normal-weight (H) females (age: 30.1 +/- 4.7 years; BMI: 21 +/- 1.6). Isokinetic strength during knee flexion and extension in both lower limbs at the fixed angular velocities of 60 degrees /s, 180 degrees /s, 240 degrees /s was measured with a Cybex Norm dynamometer. the H, O and PWS populations appear to be clearly stratified with regard to muscle strength.: PWS showed the lowest absolute peak torque (PT) for knee flexor and extensor muscles as compared to O (-55%) and H (-47%) (P = 0.00001). O showed significantly higher strength values than H as regard to knee extension only (P = 0.0014). When strength data were normalised by body weight, PWS showed a 50% and a 70% reduction in PT as compared to O and H, respectively. Knee flexors strength values were on average half of those reported for extension in all of the three populations. the novel aspect of our study is the determination of objective measures of muscle strength in PWS and the comparison with O and H patients. The objective characterization of muscle function performed in this study provides baseline and outcome measures that may quantify specific strength deficits amendable with tailored rehabilitation programs and monitor effectiveness of treatments.

  15. The Acute Effect of Cryotherapy on Muscle Strength and Shoulder Proprioception.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rui; Silva, Filipa; Pedrosa, Vera; Ferreira, João; Lopes, Alexandre

    2017-11-01

    Cryotherapy, a common intervention used by clinicians, poses several benefits in managing acute injuries. However, cooling muscle tissue can interfere with muscular properties and the sensory-motor system. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of cryotherapy with a crushed-ice pack on shoulder proprioception concerning joint position sense, force sense, the threshold for detecting passive movement, and maximal force production. A randomized, double-blind controlled trial. 48 healthy women aged 22.6 ± 0.4 y with a mean body mass index of 22.8 ±0.37 kg/m2 and a percentage of body fat of 15.4 ± 1.5%. In the experimental group, a crushed-ice pack was applied to the shoulder for 15 min, whereas participants in the control group applied a sandbag at skin temperature, also for 15 min. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess maximal voluntary contraction, force sense, joint position sense, and the threshold for detecting passive movement. Paired sample t tests revealed that maximal voluntary isometric contraction decreased significantly after cryotherapy (P ≤ .001), or approximately 10% of the reduction found in both muscular groups assessed. Shoulder position sense (P < .001) and the threshold for detecting passive movement (P = .01 and P = .01 for lateral and medial shoulder rotator muscles, respectively) also suffered significant impairment. Nevertheless, no significant differences emerged in force sense at 20% and 50% of maximal force reproduction (P = .41 and P = .10 for lateral rotator muscles at 20% and 50%, respectively; and P = .20 and P = .09 for medial rotator muscles at 20% and 50%, respectively). Applying a crushed-ice pack to the shoulder for 15 min negatively affected muscle strength and impaired shoulder proprioception by decreasing joint position sense and the threshold for detecting passive movement.

  16. Increasing Lean Mass and Strength: A Comparison of High Frequency Strength Training to Lower Frequency Strength Training.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael H; Burns, Steve P

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect strength training frequency has on improvements in lean mass and strength. Participants were 7 women and 12 men, age ( χ̄ = 34.64 years ± 6.91 years), with strength training experience, training age ( χ̄ = 51.16 months ± 39.02 months). Participants were assigned to one of two groups to equal baseline group demographics. High frequency training group (HFT) trained each muscle group as the agonist, 3 times per week, exercising with 3 sets per muscle group per session (3 total body workouts). Low frequency training group (LFT) trained each muscle group as the agonist one time per week, completing all 9 sets during that one workout. LFT consisted of a routine split over three days: 1) pectoralis, deltoids, and triceps; 2) upper back and biceps; 3) quadriceps, hamstrings, calves, and abdominals. Following eight weeks of training, HFT increased lean mass by 1.06 kg ± 1.78 kg, (1.9%), and LFT increased lean mass by .99 kg ± 1.31 kg, (2.0%). HFT strength improvements on the chest press was 9.07 kg ± 6.33 kg, (11%), and hack squat 20.16 kg ± 11.59 kg, (21%). LFT strength improvements on chest press was 5.80kg ± 4.26 kg, (7.0%), and hack squat 21.83 kg ± 11.17 kg, (24 %). No mean differences between groups were significant. These results suggest that HFT and LFT of equal set totals result in similar improvements in lean mass and strength, following 8 weeks of strength training.

  17. Effect of resistance training on muscle strength and rate of force development in healthy older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Guizelini, Pedrode Camargo; de Aguiar, Rafael Alves; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio; Caputo, Fabrizio; Greco, Camila Coelho

    2018-02-01

    Rapid force capacity, identified by rate of rise in contractile force at the onset of contraction, i.e., the rate of force development (RFD), has been considered an important neuromuscular parameter of physical fitness in elderly individuals. Randomized control studies conducted in adults have found that resistance training may elicit different outcomes in terms of RFD and muscle strength. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to review systematically the literature for studies regarding the influence of resistance training on muscle strength and RFD in elderly persons. A literature search was performed in major electronic databases from inception to March 2017. Studies including health individuals with a mean age≥60years, describing the effect of resistance training on RFD and muscle strength were found eligible. The outcomes were calculated as the difference in percentage change between control and experimental groups (% change) and data were presented as mean±95% confidence limits. Meta-analyses were performed using a random-effects model and, in addition, simple and multiple meta-regression analyses were used to identify effects of age, training type, sessions per week and training duration on % change in RFD and muscle strength. Thirteen training effects were collected from 10 studies included in the meta-analysis. The resistance training program had a moderate beneficial effect on both muscle strength (% change=18.40%, 95% CL 13.69-23.30, p<0.001) and RFD (% change=26.68, 95% CL 14.41-35.52, p<0.001). Results of the meta-regression revealed that the variables age, training type (i.e., strength and explosive), training duration (4-16weeks) and sessions per week had no significant effects on muscle strength and RFD improvement. Moreover, there was no significant relationship (p=0.073) between the changes in muscle strength and RFD. It can be concluded that explosive training and heavy strength training are effective resistance training methods aiming to

  18. Low-load bench press and push-up induce similar muscle hypertrophy and strength gain.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Naoki; Nakazato, Koichi

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effect of push-up training with a similar load of to 40% of 1- repetition maximumal (1RM) bench press on muscle hypertrophy and strength gain in men. Eighteen male participants (age, 20.2 ± 0.73 years, range: 19-22 years, height: 169.8 ± 4.4 cm, weight: 64.5 ± 4.7 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups: bench press at 40%1RM (bench-press group, n = 9) or push-ups with position adjusted (e.g. kneeling) to the same load of bench-press 40%1RM (push-up group, n = 9), performed twice per week for 8 weeks. Muscle thickness at three sites (biceps, triceps, and pectoralis major), bench-press 1RM, maximum repetition at 40%1RM, and power output (medicine ball throw) were measured before and after the training period. Significant increases in 1RM and muscle thickness (triceps and pectoralis major) were observed in bench-press group (1RM, from 60.0 ± 12.1 kg to 65.0 ± 12.1 kg, p < 0.01; triceps, from 26.3 ± 3.7 mm to 27.8 ± 3.8 mm, p < 0.01; pectoralis major, from 17.0 ± 2.8 mm to 20.8 ± 4.8 mm, p < 0.01) and in the push-up group (1RM, from 61.1 ± 12.2 kg to 64.2 ± 12.5 kg, p < 0.01; triceps, 27.7 ± 5.7 mm to 30.4 ± 6.6 mm, p < 0.01; pectoralis major, from 17.0 ± 2.8 mm to 20.8 ± 4.8 mm, p < 0.01). Biceps thickness significantly increased only in the bench-press group (28.4 ± 3.3 mm to 31.5 ± 3.7 mm, p < 0.01). Neither power output performance nor muscle endurance capacity changed in either group. Push-up exercise with similar load to 40%1RM bench press is comparably effective for muscle hypertrophy and strength gain over an 8-week training period.

  19. Pre-operative inspiratory muscle training preserves postoperative inspiratory muscle strength following major abdominal surgery - a randomised pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, S R; Fletcher, E; McConnell, A K; Poskitt, K R; Whyman, M R

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess the effect of pre-operative inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on respiratory variables in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Respiratory muscle strength (maximum inspiratory [MIP] and expiratory [MEP] mouth pressure) and pulmonary functions were measured at least 2 weeks before surgery in 80 patients awaiting major abdominal surgery. Patients were then allocated randomly to one of four groups (Group A, control; Group B, deep breathing exercises; Group C, incentive spirometry; Group D, specific IMT). Patients in groups B, C and D were asked to train twice daily, each session lasting 15 min, for at least 2 weeks up to the day before surgery. Outcome measurements were made immediately pre-operatively and postoperatively. In groups A, B and C, MIP did not increase from baseline to pre-operative assessments. In group D, MIP increased from 51.5 cmH(2)O (median) pre-training to 68.5 cmH(2)O (median) post-training pre-operatively (P < 0.01). Postoperatively, groups A, B and C showed a fall in MIP from baseline (P < 0.01, P < 0.01) and P = 0.06, respectively). No such significant reduction in postoperative MIP was seen in group D (P = 0.36). Pre-operative specific IMT improves MIP pre-operatively and preserves it postoperatively. Further studies are required to establish if this is associated with reduced pulmonary complications.

  20. Inpatient rehabilitation improves functional capacity, peripheral muscle strength and quality of life in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    José, Anderson; Dal Corso, Simone

    2016-04-01

    Among people who are hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia, does an inpatient exercise-based rehabilitation program improve functional outcomes, symptoms, quality of life and length of hospital stay more than a respiratory physiotherapy regimen? Randomised trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis and blinding of some outcomes. Forty-nine adults hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia. The experimental group (n=32) underwent a physical training program that included warm-up, stretching, peripheral muscle strength training and walking at a controlled speed for 15 minutes. The control group (n=17) underwent a respiratory physiotherapy regimen that included percussion, vibrocompression, respiratory exercises and free walking. The intervention regimens lasted 8 days. The primary outcome was the Glittre Activities of Daily Living test, which assesses the time taken to complete a series of functional tasks (eg, rising from a chair, walking, stairs, lifting and bending). Secondary outcomes were distance walked in the incremental shuttle walk test, peripheral muscle strength, quality of life, dyspnoea, lung function, C-reactive protein and length of hospital stay. Measures were taken 1 day before and 1 day after the intervention period. There was greater improvement in the experimental group than in the control group on the Glittre Activities of Daily Living test (mean between-group difference 39 seconds, 95% CI 20 to 59) and the incremental shuttle walk test (mean between-group difference 130 m, 95% CI 77 to 182). There were also significantly greater improvements in quality of life, dyspnoea and peripheral muscle strength in the experimental group than in the control group. There were no between-group differences in lung function, C-reactive protein or length of hospital stay. The improvement in functional outcomes after an inpatient rehabilitation program was greater than the improvement after standard respiratory physiotherapy. The

  1. Relationship between Handgrip Strength and Muscle Mass in Female Survivors of Breast Cancer: A Mediation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Benavides-Rodríguez, Lorena; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Rodrigues-Bezerra, Diogo; Izquierdo, Mikel; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2017-07-04

    This study explored the mediating factors of sarcopenia in a group of women survivors of breast cancer in Bogotá, Colombia. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study with 98 women survivors of breast cancer, who were registered with the SIMMON (Integrated Synergies to Improve Oncological Management in Colombia) Foundation. Body weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Body composition (percentage of fat and muscle mass) was evaluated via four-pole bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sarcopenia was defined as low muscle mass plus low grip strength or low gait speed (European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) criteria). A "causal" mediation analysis with the Baron & Kenny procedure (PROCESS ® macro, Columbus, OH, USA) was used to explore variables related to sarcopenia. Analyses were performed with the IBM SPSS 21 statistical package (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The significance level of the results obtained in the hypothesis contrast was p < 0.05. The mean age of the sample was 65.5 ± 5.9 years, with a BMI of 27.8 ± 4.7 kg/m². The prevalence of sarcopenia was 22.4%. Linear regression models suggest a partial mediation of anthropometric parameters (body mass, body mass index and waist circumference) in the association between handgrip strength and muscle mass. In conclusion, one in every five women survivors of breast cancer had sarcopenia. The findings seem to emphasize the importance of obesity prevention in women survivors of breast cancer, suggesting that high handgrip strength may not relate closely to greater muscle mass and therefore would not exclude the risk of sarcopenia.

  2. Relationship between Handgrip Strength and Muscle Mass in Female Survivors of Breast Cancer: A Mediation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Benavides-Rodríguez, Lorena; Rodrigues-Bezerra, Diogo; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the mediating factors of sarcopenia in a group of women survivors of breast cancer in Bogotá, Colombia. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study with 98 women survivors of breast cancer, who were registered with the SIMMON (Integrated Synergies to Improve Oncological Management in Colombia) Foundation. Body weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Body composition (percentage of fat and muscle mass) was evaluated via four-pole bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sarcopenia was defined as low muscle mass plus low grip strength or low gait speed (European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) criteria). A “causal” mediation analysis with the Baron & Kenny procedure (PROCESS® macro, Columbus, OH, USA) was used to explore variables related to sarcopenia. Analyses were performed with the IBM SPSS 21 statistical package (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The significance level of the results obtained in the hypothesis contrast was p < 0.05. The mean age of the sample was 65.5 ± 5.9 years, with a BMI of 27.8 ± 4.7 kg/m2. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 22.4%. Linear regression models suggest a partial mediation of anthropometric parameters (body mass, body mass index and waist circumference) in the association between handgrip strength and muscle mass. In conclusion, one in every five women survivors of breast cancer had sarcopenia. The findings seem to emphasize the importance of obesity prevention in women survivors of breast cancer, suggesting that high handgrip strength may not relate closely to greater muscle mass and therefore would not exclude the risk of sarcopenia. PMID:28677652

  3. Effects of 5 weeks of lower limb suspension on muscle size and strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesch, P. A.; Ploutz, L. L.; Dudley, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    Lack of weight-bearing, as occurs in space, appears to be associated with reductions in strength and mass of skeletal muscle. Very limited data, however, is at hand describing changes in skeletal muscle size and function following manned space missions. Our current knowledge therefore is mainly based on studies of space flown rats. It is obvious though that this information, only in part can be extrapolated to humans. A few bed rest studies have demonstrated that decreases in strength and muscle size are substantial. At this time, however, the magnitude or time course of such changes either in response to space flight or simulations of microgravity have not been defined. In the last few years we have employed a human model to simulate unloading of lower limb skeletal muscles that occurs in microgravity. This model was essentially adopted from the rat hindlimb suspension technique. The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude of decreases in muscle strength and size as a result of five weeks of unilateral lower limb suspension.

  4. Blockade of Metallothioneins 1 and 2 Increases Skeletal Muscle Mass and Strength

    PubMed Central

    Summermatter, Serge; Bouzan, Anais; Pierrel, Eliane; Melly, Stefan; Stauffer, Daniela; Gutzwiller, Sabine; Nolin, Erin; Dornelas, Christina; Fryer, Christy; Leighton-Davies, Juliet; Glass, David J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metallothioneins are proteins that are involved in intracellular zinc storage and transport. Their expression levels have been reported to be elevated in several settings of skeletal muscle atrophy. We therefore investigated the effect of metallothionein blockade on skeletal muscle anabolism in vitro and in vivo. We found that concomitant abrogation of metallothioneins 1 and 2 results in activation of the Akt pathway and increases in myotube size, in type IIb fiber hypertrophy, and ultimately in muscle strength. Importantly, the beneficial effects of metallothionein blockade on muscle mass and function was also observed in the setting of glucocorticoid addition, which is a strong atrophy-inducing stimulus. Given the blockade of atrophy and the preservation of strength in atrophy-inducing settings, these results suggest that blockade of metallothioneins 1 and 2 constitutes a promising approach for the treatment of conditions which result in muscle atrophy. PMID:27956698

  5. Estimation of 1RM for knee extension based on the maximal isometric muscle strength and body composition.

    PubMed

    Kanada, Yoshikiyo; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Sugiura, Yoshito; Arai, Tomoaki; Koyama, Soichiro; Tanabe, Shigeo

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] To create a regression formula in order to estimate 1RM for knee extensors, based on the maximal isometric muscle strength measured using a hand-held dynamometer and data regarding the body composition. [Subjects and Methods] Measurement was performed in 21 healthy males in their twenties to thirties. Single regression analysis was performed, with measurement values representing 1RM and the maximal isometric muscle strength as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed, with data regarding the body composition incorporated as another independent variable, in addition to the maximal isometric muscle strength. [Results] Through single regression analysis with the maximal isometric muscle strength as an independent variable, the following regression formula was created: 1RM (kg)=0.714 + 0.783 × maximal isometric muscle strength (kgf). On multiple regression analysis, only the total muscle mass was extracted. [Conclusion] A highly accurate regression formula to estimate 1RM was created based on both the maximal isometric muscle strength and body composition. Using a hand-held dynamometer and body composition analyzer, it was possible to measure these items in a short time, and obtain clinically useful results.

  6. Mind-muscle connection training principle: influence of muscle strength and training experience during a pushing movement.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Vinstrup, Jonas; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Colado, Juan Carlos; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the effect of different attentional focus conditions on muscle activity during the push-up exercise and to assess the possible influence of muscle strength and training experience. Eighteen resistance-trained men performed 1RM bench press testing and were familiarized with the procedure during the first session. In the second session, three different conditions were randomly performed: regular push-up and push-up focusing on using the pectoralis major and triceps brachii muscles, respectively. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded and analyzed (EMG normalized to max; nEMG) for the triceps brachii and pectoralis major muscles. Participants had on average 8 (SD 6) years of training experience and 1RM of 1.25 (SD 0.28) kg per kg bodyweight. Focusing on using pectoralis major increased activity in this muscle by 9% nEMG (95% CI 5-13; Cohen's d 0.60) compared with the regular condition. Triceps activity was not significantly influenced by triceps focus although borderline significant, with a mean difference of 5% nEMG (95% CI 0-10; Cohen's d 0.30). However, years of training experience was positively associated with the ability to selectively activate the triceps (β = 0.41, P = 0.04), but not the pectoralis. Bench press 1RM was not significantly associated with the ability to selectively activate the muscles. Pectoralis activity can be increased when focusing on using this muscle during push-ups, whereas the ability to do this for the triceps is dependent on years of training experience. Maximal muscle strength does not appear to be a decisive factor for the ability to selectively activate these muscles.

  7. The effects of therapeutic exercises on pain, muscle strength, functional capacity, balance and hemodynamic parameters in knee osteoarthritis patients: a randomized controlled study of supervised versus home exercises.

    PubMed

    Kuru Çolak, Tuğba; Kavlak, Bahar; Aydoğdu, Onur; Şahin, Emir; Acar, Gönül; Demirbüken, İlkşan; Sarı, Zübeyir; Çolak, İlker; Bulut, Güven; Polat, M Gülden

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of low-intensity exercise programs for lower extremities, either supervised or at home, on pain, muscle strength, balance and the hemodynamic parameters of knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. This randomized study included 78 patients with knee OA in 2 groups of supervised and home-based exercise program. Exercises were applied to the first group in the clinic as a group exercise program and were demonstrated to the second group to be performed at home. Before and after the 6-week exercise program, assessment was made of pain, quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths, 6-min walk test (6MWT), and non-invasive hemodynamic parameters. Results of the 78 patients, 56 completed the study. Pain, muscle strength, and 6MWT scores showed significant improvements in both groups. There were also significant differences in the amount of change in pain and muscle strength (pain: p = 0.041, Rqdc: 0.009, Lqdc: 0.013, Rhms: 0.04) which indicated greater improvements in the supervised group. The balance scores of supervised group showed a significant improvement (p = 0.009). No significant change was determined in hemodynamic parameters of either group. Conclusion according to the results of this study showed that low-intensity lower extremity exercises conducted in a clinic under the supervision of a physiotherapist were more effective than home-based exercises in reducing post-activity pain levels and improving quadriceps and right hamstring muscle strength. Both the supervised and home exercise programs were seen to be effective in reducing rest pain and increasing 6 MW distance in knee osteoarthritis patients.

  8. Sarcopenia during neoadjuvant therapy for oesophageal cancer: characterising the impact on muscle strength and physical performance.

    PubMed

    Guinan, Emer M; Doyle, S L; Bennett, A E; O'Neill, L; Gannon, J; Elliott, J A; O'Sullivan, J; Reynolds, J V; Hussey, J

    2018-05-01

    Preoperative chemo(radio)therapy for oesophageal cancer (OC) may have an attritional impact on body composition and functional status, impacting postoperative outcome. Physical decline with skeletal muscle loss has not been previously characterised in OC and may be amenable to physical rehabilitation. This study characterises skeletal muscle mass and physical performance from diagnosis to post-neoadjuvant therapy in patients undergoing preoperative chemo(radio)therapy for OC. Measures of body composition (axial computerised tomography), muscle strength (handgrip), functional capacity (walking distance), anthropometry (weight, height and waist circumference), physical activity, quality-of-life and nutritional status were captured prospectively. Sarcopenia status was defined as pre-sarcopenic (low muscle mass only), sarcopenic (low muscle mass and low muscle strength or function) or severely sarcopenic (low muscle mass and low muscle strength and low muscle function). Twenty-eight participants were studied at both time points (mean age 62.86 ± 8.18 years, n = 23 male). Lean body mass reduced by 4.9 (95% confidence interval 3.2 to 6.7) kg and mean grip strength reduced by 4.3 (2.5 to 6.1) kg from pre- to post-neoadjuvant therapy. Quality-of-life scores capturing gastrointestinal symptoms improved. Measures of anthropometry, walking distance, physical activity and nutritional status did not change. There was an increase in sarcopenic status from diagnosis (pre-sarcopenic n = 2) to post-treatment (pre-sarcopenic n = 5, severely sarcopenic n = 1). Despite maintenance of body weight, functional capacity and activity habits, participants experience declines in muscle mass and strength. Interventions involving exercise and/or nutritional support to build muscle mass and strength during preoperative therapy, even in patients who are functioning normally, are warranted.

  9. Association Between Muscle Wasting and Muscle Strength in Patients WHO Developed Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock.

    PubMed

    Borges, Rodrigo Cerqueira; Soriano, Francisco Garcia

    2018-05-11

    To evaluate the association between the rectus femoris cross-sectional area (RFCSA) and the muscular strength obtained at the bedside in patients forwarded to the intensive care unit (ICU) for severe sepsis and septic shock. A prospective cohort study. RFCSA was assessed by ultrasound on the following day of the ICU admission and monitored during hospitalization. The patients performed clinical tests of muscle strength (Medical Research Council (MRC) scale and handgrip dynamometry), when they could understand the verbal commands of the examiners. In 37 patients hospitalized for sepsis there was a significant decline in RFCSA of 5.18 (4.49-5.96)cm on the 2nd day of ICU for 4.37 (3.71-5.02)cm at hospital discharge. Differently, the handgrip strength showed an increase from the awakening of 12.00 (7.00-20.00)Kgf to 19.00 (14.00-26.00)Kgf until hospital discharge. Patients in mechanical ventilation had a greater tendency to decline in the RFCSA compared to patients who did not receive mechanical ventilation, however without being significant (p = 0.08). There was a negative association between RFCSA delta (2nd day of ICU - ICU discharge) and handgrip strength (r = 0.51, p < 0.05), and a male and SOFA score positive association with the RFCSA delta. There was an association of RFCSA with clinical muscle strength tests. In addition, it has been shown that sepsis can lead to short-term muscle degradation, regardless of whether they are submitted to mechanical ventilation or not.

  10. Effect of elastic band-based high-speed power training on cognitive function, physical performance and muscle strength in older women with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Dong Hyun; Kang, Dongheon; Kim, Hee-Jae; Kim, Jin-Soo; Song, Han Sol; Song, Wook

    2017-05-01

    The effectiveness of resistance training in improving cognitive function in older adults is well demonstrated. In particular, unconventional high-speed resistance training can improve muscle power development. In the present study, the effectiveness of 12 weeks of elastic band-based high-speed power training (HSPT) was examined. Participants were randomly assigned into a HSPT group (n = 14, age 75.0 ± 0.9 years), a low-speed strength training (LSST) group (n = 9, age 76.0 ± 1.3 years) and a control group (CON; n = 7, age 78.0 ± 1.0 years). A 1-h exercise program was provided twice a week for 12 weeks for the HSPT and LSST groups, and balance and tone exercises were carried out by the CON group. Significant increases in levels of cognitive function, physical function, and muscle strength were observed in both the HSPT and LSST groups. In cognitive function, significant improvements in the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment were seen in both the HSPT and LSST groups compared with the CON group. In physical functions, Short Physical Performance Battery scores were increased significantly in the HSPT and LSST groups compared with the CON group. In the 12 weeks of elastic band-based training, the HSPT group showed greater improvements in older women with mild cognitive impairment than the LSST group, although both regimens were effective in improving cognitive function, physical function and muscle strength. We conclude that elastic band-based HSPT, as compared with LSST, is more efficient in helping older women with mild cognitive impairment to improve cognitive function, physical performance and muscle strength. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 765-772. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. Effects of intensive whole-body vibration training on muscle strength and balance in adults with chronic stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tankisheva, Ekaterina; Bogaerts, An; Boonen, Steven; Feys, Hilde; Verschueren, Sabine

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effects of a 6-week whole body vibration (WBV) training program in patients with chronic stroke. Randomized controlled pilot trial with 6 weeks' follow-up. University hospital. Adults with chronic stroke (N=15) were randomly assigned to an intervention (n=7) or a control group (n=8). Supervised, intensive WBV training. The vibration group performed a variety of static and dynamic squat exercises on a vibration platform with vibration amplitudes of 1.7 and 2.5mm and frequencies of 35 and 40Hz. The vibration lasted 30 to 60 seconds, with 5 to 17 repetitions per exercise 3 times weekly for 6 weeks. Participants in the control group continued their usual activities and were not involved in any additional training program. The primary outcome variable was the isometric and isokinetic muscle strength of the quadriceps (isokinetic dynamometer). Additionally, hamstrings muscle strength, static and dynamic postural control (dynamic posturography), and muscle spasticity (Ashworth Scale) were assessed. Compliance with the vibration intervention was excellent, and the participants completed all 18 training sessions. Vibration frequencies of both 35 and 40Hz were well tolerated by the patients, and no adverse effects resulting from the vibration were noted. Overall, the effect of intensive WBV intervention resulted in significant between-group differences in favor of the vibration group only in isometric knee extension strength (knee angle, 60°) (P=.022) after 6 weeks of intervention and in isokinetic knee extension strength (velocity, 240°/s) after a 6-week follow-up period (P=.005), both for the paretic leg. Postural control improved after 6 weeks of vibration in the intervention group when the patients had normal vision and a sway-referenced support surface (P<.05). Muscle spasticity was not affected by vibration (P>.05). These preliminary results suggest that intensive WBV might potentially be a safe and feasible way to increase some aspect of lower

  12. Muscle strength and quality of life in patients with childhood cancer at early phase of primary treatment.

    PubMed

    Deisenroth, Anne; Söntgerath, Regine; Schuster, Anne Judith; von Busch, Christine; Huber, Gerhard; Eckert, Katharina; Kulozik, Andreas E; Wiskemann, Joachim

    2016-09-01

    Cancer- and treatment-related side effects in patients with childhood cancer may cause limitations in motor performance affecting activities of daily living (ADLs). Data focusing on long-term effects are available, but little is known with regard to the short-term perspective. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess muscle strength performance and quality of life (QoL) in children and adolescents with cancer at the beginning of primary treatment. Forty children and adolescents aged 5-18 years (mean: 11.39 ± 4.08 years) with different types of childhood cancer were enrolled. On average 36 ± 20.5 days after diagnosis, strength performance in 7 muscle groups was assessed by handheld dynamometry. KINDL questionnaires were completed to evaluate QoL (children's self-report and parents' report). All parameters were compared with age- and gender-matched reference values. Patients with childhood cancer showed significantly lower strength values in all muscle groups (P < .01) compared with age- and gender-matched controls. Most affected were the lower extremities, with a -57.1% ± 10.4%, median: -59.2%, minimum: -75.4%, maximum: -41.4% percentage deviation in knee flexion from healthy peers. Children themselves and parents assessed total QoL significantly below age- and gender-matched reference values (P < .01). Correlation between elbow flexion and self-reported QoL was detected. Broader correlations were found for the parents' report. Muscle weakness and decreased QoL in children and adolescents seem to persist already at the beginning of anticancer treatment. This underlines the need of counteracting measures, such as exercise intervention programs, starting as early as possible during the treatment process. Efforts on this topic are currently being carried out by our group.

  13. Assessing the accuracy of subject-specific, muscle-model parameters determined by optimizing to match isometric strength.

    PubMed

    DeSmitt, Holly J; Domire, Zachary J

    2016-12-01

    Biomechanical models are sensitive to the choice of model parameters. Therefore, determination of accurate subject specific model parameters is important. One approach to generate these parameters is to optimize the values such that the model output will match experimentally measured strength curves. This approach is attractive as it is inexpensive and should provide an excellent match to experimentally measured strength. However, given the problem of muscle redundancy, it is not clear that this approach generates accurate individual muscle forces. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate this approach using simulated data to enable a direct comparison. It is hypothesized that the optimization approach will be able to recreate accurate muscle model parameters when information from measurable parameters is given. A model of isometric knee extension was developed to simulate a strength curve across a range of knee angles. In order to realistically recreate experimentally measured strength, random noise was added to the modeled strength. Parameters were solved for using a genetic search algorithm. When noise was added to the measurements the strength curve was reasonably recreated. However, the individual muscle model parameters and force curves were far less accurate. Based upon this examination, it is clear that very different sets of model parameters can recreate similar strength curves. Therefore, experimental variation in strength measurements has a significant influence on the results. Given the difficulty in accurately recreating individual muscle parameters, it may be more appropriate to perform simulations with lumped actuators representing similar muscles.

  14. Effects of lemon verbena extract (Recoverben®) supplementation on muscle strength and recovery after exhaustive exercise: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Buchwald-Werner, Sybille; Naka, Ioanna; Wilhelm, Manfred; Schütz, Elivra; Schoen, Christiane; Reule, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Exhaustive exercise causes muscle damage accompanied by oxidative stress and inflammation leading to muscle fatigue and muscle soreness. Lemon verbena leaves, commonly used as tea and refreshing beverage, demonstrated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a proprietary lemon verbena extract (Recoverben®) on muscle strength and recovery after exhaustive exercise in comparison to a placebo product. The study was performed as a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with parallel design. Forty-four healthy males and females, which were 22-50 years old and active in sports, were randomized to 400 mg lemon verbena extract once daily or placebo. The 15 days intervention was divided into 10 days supplementation prior to the exhaustive exercise day (intensive jump-protocol), one day during the test and four days after. Muscle strength (MVC), muscle damage (CK), oxidative stress (GPx), inflammation (IL6) and volunteer-reported muscle soreness intensity were assessed pre and post exercise. Participants in the lemon verbena group benefited from less muscle damage as well as faster and full recovery. Compared to placebo, lemon verbena extract receiving participants had significantly less exercise-related loss of muscle strength ( p  = 0.0311) over all timepoints, improved glutathione peroxidase activity by trend ( p  = 0.0681) and less movement induced pain ( p  = 0.0788) by trend. Creatine kinase and IL-6 didn't show significant discrimmination between groups. Lemon verbena extract (Recoverben®) has been shown to be a safe and well-tolerated natural sports ingredient, by reducing muscle damage after exhaustive exercise. The trial was registered in the clinical trials registry (clinical trial.gov NCT02923102). Registered 28 September 2016.

  15. Muscle strength and areal bone mineral density at the hip in women: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Pasco, Julie A; Holloway, Kara L; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Moloney, David J; Kotowicz, Mark A

    2015-05-24

    Muscle strengthening exercises are promoted for building and maintaining a healthy skeleton. We aimed to investigate the relationship between muscle strength and areal bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip in women aged 26-97 years. This cross-sectional study utilises data from 863 women assessed for the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Measures of hip flexor and abductor strength were made using a hand-held dynamometer (Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester). The maximal measure from three trials on each leg was used for analyses. BMD was measured at the hip using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA; Lunar DPX-L). Total lean mass, body fat mass and appendicular lean mass were determined from whole body DXA scans. Linear regression techniques were used with muscle strength as the independent variable and BMD as the dependent variable. Models were adjusted for age and indices of body composition. Measures of age-adjusted hip flexor strength and hip abductor strength were positively associated with total hip BMD. For each standard deviation (SD) increase in hip flexor strength, the increase in mean total hip BMD (SD) was 10.4 % (p = 0.009). A similar pattern was observed for hip abductor strength, with an increase in mean total hip BMD of 22.8 % (p = 0.025). All associations between hip muscle strength and total hip BMD were independent of height, but were nullified after adjusting for appendicular lean mass or total lean mass. There was a positive association observed between muscle strength and BMD at the hip. However, this association was explained by measures of lean mass.

  16. Effects of pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Claudia; Lopes, Marco Antonio Borges; Carla Longo e Pereira, Luciana; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2007-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pelvic floor muscle training in 46 nulliparous pregnant women. The women were divided into 2 groups: an exercise group and a control group. Functional evaluation of the pelvic floor muscle was performed by digital vaginal palpation using the strength scale described by Ortiz and by a perineometer (with and without biofeedback). The functional evaluation of the pelvic floor muscles showed a significant increase in pelvic floor muscle strength during pregnancy in both groups (P < .001). However, the magnitude of the change was greater in the exercise group than in the control group (47.4% vs. 17.3%, P < .001). The study also showed a significant positive correlation (Spearman's test, r = 0.643; P < .001) between perineometry and digital assessment in the strength of pelvic floor muscles. Pelvic floor muscle training resulted in a significant increase in pelvic floor muscle pressure and strength during pregnancy. A significant positive correlation between functional evaluation of the pelvic floor muscle and perineometry was observed during pregnancy.

  17. Analysis of elbow muscle strength parameters in Brazilian jiu-jitsu practitioners.

    PubMed

    Follmer, Bruno; Dellagrana, Rodolfo André; de Lima, Luis Antonio Pereira; Herzog, Walter; Diefenthaeler, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    Upper-body dynamic and isometric maximum strength are essential components for success in Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ). This study was aimed at analysing strength parameters in the elbow flexor and extensor muscles of BJJ practitioners. Participants (n = 28) performed maximum isometric contractions of elbow flexors and extensors to determine peak torque (PT), rate of force development (RFD), and the torque-angle (T-A) relationship at elbow angles of 45°, 60°, 75°, 90°, 105°, and 120°. Additionally, concentric and eccentric PTs were measured at 1.04 rad·s -1 . Student t-test and ANOVA were performed using α = 0.05. Elbow flexors were stronger isometrically (P < 0.001, ES = 1.23) but weaker concentrically (P < 0.05, ES = 0.54) than extensor muscles, possibly because of the extensive grip disputes and pushing of opponents in BJJ. The T-A relationship had an inverted "U"-shape. Torque differences across elbow angles were moderate (ES = 0.62) for the extensor and large (ES = 0.92) for the flexor muscles. Isometric torque was greatest for elbow angles of 105° and 75° and smallest for 45° and 120° for extensor and flexor muscles, respectively. Elbow flexors had a greater RFD than extensors, regardless of elbow angle. The present study provides comprehensive results for elbow muscle strength in BJJ practitioners.

  18. High-frequency resistance training is not more effective than low-frequency resistance training in increasing muscle mass and strength in well-trained men.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Gederson K; Franco, Cristiane M; Nunes, Paulo Ricardo P; Orsatti, Fábio L

    2018-02-27

    We studied the effects of two different weekly frequency resistance training (RT) protocols over eight weeks on muscle strength and muscle hypertrophy in well-trained men. Twenty-three subjects (age: 26.2±4.2 years; RT experience: 6.9±3.1 years) were randomly allocated into the two groups: low frequency (LFRT, n = 12) or high frequency (HFRT, n = 11). The LFRT performed a split-body routine, training each specific muscle group once a week. The HFRT performed a total-body routine, training all muscle groups every session. Both groups performed the same number of sets (10-15 sets) and exercises (1-2 exercise) per week, 8-12 repetitions maximum (70-80% of 1RM), five times per week. Muscle strength (bench press and squat 1RM) and lean tissue mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were assessed prior to and at the end of the study. Results showed that both groups improved (p<0.001) muscle strength [LFRT and HFRT: bench press = 5.6 kg (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.9 - 9.4) and 9.7 kg (95%CI: 4.6 - 14.9) and squat = 8.0 kg (95%CI: 2.7 - 13.2) and 12.0 kg (95%CI: 5.1 - 18.1), respectively] and lean tissue mass (p = 0.007) [LFRT and HFRT: total body lean mass = 0.5 kg (95%CI: 0.0 - 1.1) and 0.8 kg (95%CI: 0.0 - 1.6), respectively] with no difference between groups (bench press, p = 0.168; squat, p = 0.312 and total body lean mass, p = 0.619). Thus, HFRT and LFRT are similar overload strategies for promoting muscular adaptation in well-trained subjects when the sets and intensity are equated per week.

  19. Joint laxity and the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    van der Esch, M; Steultjens, M; Knol, D L; Dinant, H; Dekker, J

    2006-12-15

    To establish the impact of knee joint laxity on the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. A cross-sectional study of 86 patients with OA of the knee was conducted. Tests were performed to determine varus-valgus laxity, muscle strength, and functional ability. Laxity was assessed using a device that measures the angular deviation of the knee in the frontal plane. Muscle strength was measured using a computer-driven isokinetic dynamometer. Functional ability was assessed by observation (100-meter walking test) and self report (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC]). Regression analyses were performed to assess the impact of joint laxity on the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability. In regression analyses, the interaction between muscle strength and joint laxity contributed to the variance in both walking time (P = 0.002) and WOMAC score (P = 0.080). The slope of the regression lines indicated that the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability (walking time, WOMAC) was stronger in patients with high knee joint laxity. Patients with knee OA and high knee joint laxity show a stronger relationship between muscle strength and functional ability than patients with OA and low knee joint laxity. Patients with OA, high knee joint laxity, and low muscle strength are most at risk of being disabled.

  20. Four-month course of soluble milk proteins interacts with exercise to improve muscle strength and delay fatigue in elderly participants.

    PubMed

    Gryson, Céline; Ratel, Sébastien; Rance, Mélanie; Penando, Stéphane; Bonhomme, Cécile; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Duclos, Martine; Boirie, Yves; Walrand, Stéphane

    2014-12-01

    The benefit of protein supplementation on the adaptive response of muscle to exercise training in older people is controversial. To investigate the independent and combined effects of a multicomponent exercise program with and without a milk-based nutritional supplement on muscle strength and mass, lower-extremity fatigue, and metabolic markers. A sample of 48 healthy sedentary men aged 60.8 ± 0.4 years were randomly assigned to a 16-week multicomponent exercise training program with a milk-based supplement containing, besides proteins [total milk proteins 4 or 10 g/day or soluble milk proteins rich in leucine (PRO) 10 g/day], carbohydrates and fat. Body composition, muscle mass and strength, and time to task failure, an index of muscle fatigue, were measured. Blood lipid, fibrinogen, creatine phosphokinase, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α soluble receptors, and endothelial markers were assessed. Body fat mass was reduced after the 4-month training program in groups receiving 10 g/day of protein supplementation (P < .01). The training program sustained with the daily 10 g/day PRO was associated with a significant increase in dominant fat free mass (+5.4%, P < .01) and in appendicular muscle mass (+4.5%, P < .01). Blood cholesterol was decreased in the trained group receiving 10 g/day PRO. The index of insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance) and blood creatine phosphokinase were reduced in the groups receiving 10 g/day PRO, irrespective of exercise. The inflammatory and endothelial markers were not different between the groups. Training caused a significant improvement (+10.6% to 19.4%, P < .01) in the maximal oxygen uptake. Increased maximum voluntary contraction force was seen in the trained groups receiving 10 g/day of proteins (about 3%, P < .05). Time to task failure was improved in the trained participants receiving a 10 g/day supplementation with PRO (P < .01). Soluble milk proteins

  1. Strength characterization of knee flexor and extensor muscles in Prader-Willi and obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Capodaglio, Paolo; Vismara, Luca; Menegoni, Francesco; Baccalaro, Gabriele; Galli, Manuela; Grugni, Graziano

    2009-01-01

    Background despite evidence of an obesity-related disability, there is a lack of objective muscle functional data in overweight subjects. Only few studies provide instrumental strength measurements in non-syndromal obesity, whereas no data about Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are reported. The aim of our study was to characterize the lower limb muscle function of patients affected by PWS as compared to non-syndromal obesity and normal-weight subjects. Methods We enrolled 20 obese (O) females (age: 29.1 ± 6.5 years; BMI: 38.1 ± 3.1), 6 PWS females (age: 27.2 ± 4.9 years; BMI: 45.8 ± 4.4) and 14 healthy normal-weight (H) females (age: 30.1 ± 4.7 years; BMI: 21 ± 1.6). Isokinetic strength during knee flexion and extension in both lower limbs at the fixed angular velocities of 60°/s, 180°/s, 240°/s was measured with a Cybex Norm dynamometer. Results the H, O and PWS populations appear to be clearly stratified with regard to muscle strength.: PWS showed the lowest absolute peak torque (PT) for knee flexor and extensor muscles as compared to O (-55%) and H (-47%) (P = 0.00001). O showed significantly higher strength values than H as regard to knee extension only (P = 0.0014). When strength data were normalised by body weight, PWS showed a 50% and a 70% reduction in PT as compared to O and H, respectively. Knee flexors strength values were on average half of those reported for extension in all of the three populations. Conclusion the novel aspect of our study is the determination of objective measures of muscle strength in PWS and the comparison with O and H patients. The objective characterization of muscle function performed in this study provides baseline and outcome measures that may quantify specific strength deficits amendable with tailored rehabilitation programs and monitor effectiveness of treatments. PMID:19419559

  2. Quantification of pelvic floor muscle strength in female urinary incontinence: A systematic review and comparison of contemporary methodologies.

    PubMed

    Deegan, Emily G; Stothers, Lynn; Kavanagh, Alex; Macnab, Andrew J

    2018-01-01

    There remains no gold standard for quantification of voluntary pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength, despite international guidelines that recommend PFM assessment in females with urinary incontinence (UI). Methods currently reported for quantification of skeletal muscle strength across disciplines are systematically reviewed and their relevance for clinical and academic use related to the pelvic floor are described. A systematic review via Medline, PubMed, CINHAL, and the Cochrane database using key terms for pelvic floor anatomy and function were cross referenced with skeletal muscle strength quantification from 1946 to 2016. Full text peer-reviewed articles in English having female subjects with incontinence were identified. Each study was analyzed for use of controls, type of methodology as direct or indirect measures, benefits, and limitations of the technique. A total of 1586 articles were identified of which 50 met the inclusion criteria. Nine methodologies of determining PFM strength were described including: digital palpation, perineometer, dynamometry, EMG, vaginal cones, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, urine stream interruption test, and the Colpexin pull test. Thirty-two percent lacked a control group. Technical refinements in both direct and indirect instrumentation for PFM strength measurement are allowing for sensitivity. However, the most common methods of quantification remain digital palpation and perineometry; techniques that pose limitations and yield subjective or indirect measures of muscular strength. Dynamometry has potential as an accurate and sensitive tool, but is limited by inability to assess PFM strength during dynamic movements. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Joint proprioception, muscle strength, and functional ability in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    van der Esch, M; Steultjens, M; Harlaar, J; Knol, D; Lems, W; Dekker, J

    2007-06-15

    To test the hypotheses that poor knee joint proprioception is related to limitations in functional ability, and poor proprioception aggravates the impact of muscle weakness on limitations in functional ability in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Sixty-three patients with symptomatic OA of the knee were tested. Proprioceptive acuity was assessed by establishing the joint motion detection threshold (JMDT) in the anteroposterior direction. Muscle strength was measured using a computer-driven isokinetic dynamometer. Functional ability was assessed by the 100-meter walking test, the Get Up and Go (GUG) test, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index physical function (WOMAC-PF) questionnaire. Correlation analyses were performed to assess the relationship between proprioception, muscle strength, and functional ability. Regression analyses were performed to assess the impact of proprioception on the relationship between muscle strength and functional ability. Poor proprioception (high JMDT) was related to more limitation in functional ability (walking time r = 0.30, P < 0.05; GUG time r = 0.30, P < 0.05; WOMAC-PF r = 0.26, P <0.05). In regression analyses, the interaction between proprioception and muscle strength was significantly related to functional ability (walking time, P < 0.001 and GUG time, P < 0.001) but not to WOMAC-PF score (P = 0.625). In patients with poor proprioception, reduction of muscle strength was associated with more severe deterioration of functional ability than in patients with accurate proprioception. Patients with poor proprioception show more limitation in functional ability, but this relationship is rather weak. In patients with poor proprioception, muscle weakness has a stronger impact on limitations in functional ability than in patients with accurate proprioception.

  4. Effects of trunk stability on isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement while sitting.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Masahiro; Gomi, Masahiro; Katoh, Munenori

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of trunk stability on isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement while sitting by performing simultaneous measurements with a handheld dynamometer (HHD) and an isokinetic dynamometer (IKD) in the same seated condition. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 30 healthy volunteers. Isometric knee extension muscle strength was simultaneously measured with a HHD and an IKD by using an IKD-specific chair. The measurement was performed twice. Measurement instrument variables and the number of measurements were examined by using the analysis of variance and correlation tests. [Results] The measurement instrument variables and the number of measurements were not significantly different. The correlation coefficients between the HHD and IKD measurements were ≥0.96. [Conclusion] Isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement using the HHD in the sitting position resulted in a lower value than that using the IKD, presumably because of the effect of trunk stability on the measurement. In the same seated posture with trunk stability, no significant difference in measurement values was observed between the HHD and IKD. The present findings suggest that trunk stability while seated during isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement influenced the HHD measurement.

  5. Effects of Whey Protein Supplementation Associated With Resistance Training on Muscular Strength, Hypertrophy, and Muscle Quality in Preconditioned Older Women.

    PubMed

    Sugihara Junior, Paulo; Ribeiro, Alex S; Nabuco, Hellen C G; Fernandes, Rodrigo R; Tomeleri, Crisieli M; Cunha, Paolo M; Venturini, Danielle; Barbosa, Décio S; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Cyrino, Edilson S

    2018-06-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whey protein (WP) supplementation on muscular strength, hypertrophy, and muscular quality in older women preconditioned to resistance training (RT). In a randomized, double-blind, and placebo (PLA)-controlled design, 31 older women (67.4 ± 4.0 years, 62.0 ± 6.9 kg, 155.9 ± 5.7 cm, and 25.5 ± 2.4 kg/m 2 ) received either 35 g of WP (n = 15) or 35 g of PLA (n = 16) over a 12-week study period while performing an RT program three times a week. Dietary intake, one-repetition maximum test, and skeletal muscle mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were assessed before and after the intervention period. Both groups showed significant (p < .05) improvements in skeletal muscle mass and total strength, and the WP group realized greater increases (p < .05) in these measures compared with PLA (skeletal muscle mass: WP = +4.8% vs. PLA = +2.3%; strength: WP = +8.7% vs. PLA = +4.9%). Muscular quality increased (p < .05) in both groups (WP = +2.9% vs. PLA = +1.5%) without statistical differences (p > .05) noted between conditions. We conclude that WP supplementation in combination with RT induces higher increases in both strength and hypertrophy in older women preconditioned to RT.

  6. Muscle Strength Enhancement Following Home-Based Virtual Cycling Training in Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chia-Ling; Hong, Wei-Hsien; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Liaw, Mei-Yun; Chung, Chia-Ying; Chen, Chung-Yao

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first well-designed randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of a novel home-based virtual cycling training (hVCT) program for improving muscle strength in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-eight ambulatory children with spastic CP aged 6-12 years were randomly assigned to an hVCT group (n = 13) or a…

  7. Comparisons of low-intensity versus moderate-intensity combined aerobic and resistance training on body composition, muscle strength, and functional performance in older women.

    PubMed

    Shiotsu, Yoko; Yanagita, Masahiko

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of exercise order of combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training into the same session on body composition, functional performance, and muscle strength in healthy older women. Furthermore, this study compared the effects of different (low- vs moderate-) intensity combined training. A total of 60 healthy older women (age 61-81 y) were randomly assigned to five groups that performed aerobic exercise before low-intensity resistance training (AR-L, n = 12) or after resistance training (RA-L, n = 12), performed aerobic exercise before moderate-intensity resistance training (AR-M, n = 12) or after resistance training (RA-M, n = 12), or nonintervention control conditions (CON, n = 12). Body composition, functional performance, and muscle strength were evaluated before and after the 10-week training. No effects of exercise order of combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training (AR-L vs RA-L, AR-M vs RA-M) were observed in body composition, functional performance, or muscle strength, whereas the effects of training intensity of combined training (AR-L vs AR-M, RA-L vs RA-M) were observed on functional performance. All combined trainings significantly increased muscle strength and gait ability (P < 0.01, respectively). Functional reach test significantly increased in the AR-M and RA-M groups (P < 0.01, respectively), and there were significant group differences between AR-L and AR-M (P = 0.002), RA-L and RA-M (P = 0.014). Preliminary findings suggest that combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training increases muscle strength and improves gait ability, regardless of the exercise order. Also, greater improvement in dynamic balance capacity, a risk factor associated with falling, is observed in moderate-intensity combined training.

  8. Normative Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Strength Values for Female, Healthy, Elite Handball and Football Players.

    PubMed

    Risberg, May A; Steffen, Kathrin; Nilstad, Agnethe; Myklebust, Grethe; Kristianslund, Eirik; Moltubakk, Marie M; Krosshaug, Tron

    2018-05-23

    Risberg, MA, Steffen, K, Nilstad, A, Myklebust, G, Kristianslund, E, Moltubakk, MM, and Krosshaug, T. Normative quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength values for female, healthy, elite handball and football players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study presents normative values for isokinetic knee extension and flexion muscle strength tests in 350 elite, female, handball (n = 150) and football (n = 200) players. Isokinetic concentric muscle strength tests at 60°·sec were recorded bilaterally using a dynamometer. Peak torque (in Newton meter [N·m]), body mass normalized peak torque (N·m·kg), and hamstring to quadriceps ratio (H:Q ratio) for dominant and nondominant legs were recorded. The female elite players were 20.9 ± 4.0 years, started playing at the elite level at the age of 18.2 ± 2.7 years, with a mean of 9.7 ± 2.2 hours of weekly in-season training. Handball players demonstrated greater quadriceps muscle strength compared with football players (11.0%) (p < 0.001), also when normalized to body mass (4.1%) (p = 0.012), but not for weight-adjusted hamstring muscle strength. The H:Q ratio was higher on the dominant compared with the nondominant leg for handball players only (p = 0.012).The H:Q ratio was significantly lower for handball players (0.58) compared with football players (0.60) (p < 0.02). These normative values for isokinetic knee extension and flexion torques of healthy, elite, female handball and football players can be used to set rehabilitation goals for muscle strength after injury and enable comparison with uninjured legs. Significantly greater quadriceps muscle strength was found for handball players compared with football players, also when normalized to body mass.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be

  9. Bone mineral density, muscle strength and physical activity. A population-based study of 332 subjects aged 15-42 years.

    PubMed

    Düppe, H; Gärdsell, P; Johnell, O; Nilsson, B E; Ringsberg, K

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this population-based study was to find out whether differences in levels of physical activity have an influence on bone mass quantity and whether quadriceps muscle strength is a reliable determinant of bone mass. Included were 175 men and 157 women, aged 15-42 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at various sites by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and single photon absorptiometry (SPA). Muscle strength was assessed using an isokinetic muscle force meter. A questionnaire was used to estimate the level of physical activity. We found a positive correlation between physical activity and BMD for boys at the distal forearm and for girls at the trochanter (age group 15-16 years). Active men (age group 21-42 years) had up to 9% higher BMD levels at the hip than those who were less active. Quadriceps muscle torque was not an independent predictor of BMD. Our data suggest that a higher level of physical activity-within the limits of a "normal life style"-may have a positive effect on BMD in the proximal femur of young adults, which in turn may lessen the subsequent risk of fracture.

  10. Fish-oil supplementation enhances the effects of strength training in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Rodacki, Cintia L N; Rodacki, André L F; Pereira, Gleber; Naliwaiko, Katya; Coelho, Isabela; Pequito, Daniele; Fernandes, Luiz Cléudio

    2012-02-01

    Muscle force and functional capacity generally decrease with aging in the older population, although this effect can be reversed, attenuated, or both through strength training. Fish oil (FO), which is rich in n-3 (omega-3) PUFAs, has been shown to play a role in the plasma membrane and cell function of muscles, which may enhance the benefits of training. The effect of strength training and FO supplementation on the neuromuscular system of the elderly has not been investigated. The objective was to investigate the chronic effect of FO supplementation and strength training on the neuromuscular system (muscle strength and functional capacity) of older women. Forty-five women (aged 64 ± 1.4 y) were randomly assigned to 3 groups. One group performed strength training only (ST group) for 90 d, whereas the others performed the same strength-training program and received FO supplementation (2 g/d) for 90 d (ST90 group) or for 150 d (ST150 group; supplemented 60 d before training). Muscle strength and functional capacity were assessed before and after the training period. No differences in the pretraining period were found between groups for any of the variables. The peak torque and rate of torque development for all muscles (knee flexor and extensor, plantar and dorsiflexor) increased from pre- to posttraining in all groups. However, the effect was greater in the ST90 and ST150 groups than in the ST group. The activation level and electromechanical delay of the muscles changed from pre- to posttraining only for the ST90 and ST150 groups. Chair-rising performance in the FO groups was higher than in the ST group. Strength training increased muscle strength in elderly women. The inclusion of FO supplementation caused greater improvements in muscle strength and functional capacity.

  11. Can Quantitative Muscle Strength and Functional Motor Ability Differentiate the Influence of Age and Corticosteroids in Ambulatory Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy?

    PubMed

    Buckon, Cathleen; Sienko, Susan; Bagley, Anita; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; Fowler, Eileen; Staudt, Loretta; Heberer, Kent; McDonald, Craig M; Sussman, Michael

    2016-07-08

    In the absence of a curative treatment for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), corticosteroid therapy (prednisone, deflazacort) has been adopted as the standard of care, as it slows the progression of muscle weakness and enables longer retention of functional mobility. The ongoing development of novel pharmacological agents that target the genetic defect underlying DMD offer hope for a significant alteration in disease progression; however, substantiation of therapeutic efficacy has proved challenging. Identifying functional outcomes sensitive to the early, subtle changes in muscle function has confounded clinical trials. Additionally, the alterations in disease progression secondary to corticosteroid therapy are not well described making it difficult to ascertain the benefits of novel agents, often taken concurrently with corticosteroids. The purpose of this study was to examine outcome responsiveness to corticosteroid therapy and age at the onset of a natural history study of ambulatory boys with DMD. Eighty-five ambulatory boys with DMD (mean age 93 mo, range 49 to 180 mo) were recruited into this study. Fifty participants were on corticosteroid therapy, while 33 were corticosteroid naïve at the baseline assessment. Within each treatment group boys were divided in two age groups, 4 to 7 years and 8 and greater years of age. The Biodex System 3 Pro isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess muscle strength. Motor skills were assessed using the upper two dimensions (standing/walking, running & jumping) of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM 88) and Timed Motor Tests (TMTs) (10-meter run, sit to stand, supine to stand, climb 4-stairs). Two way analysis of variance and Pearson correlations were used for analysis. A main effect for age was seen in select lower extremity muscle groups (hip flexors, knee extensors and ankle dorsiflexors), standing dimension skills, and all TMTs with significantly greater weakness and loss of motor skill ability seen in the older age

  12. Effects of caffeine intake on muscle strength and power: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Grgic, Jozo; Trexler, Eric T; Lazinica, Bruno; Pedisic, Zeljko

    2018-01-01

    Caffeine is commonly used as an ergogenic aid. Literature about the effects of caffeine ingestion on muscle strength and power is equivocal. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize results from individual studies on the effects of caffeine intake on muscle strength and power. A search through eight databases was performed to find studies on the effects of caffeine on: (i) maximal muscle strength measured using 1 repetition maximum tests; and (ii) muscle power assessed by tests of vertical jump. Meta-analyses of standardized mean differences (SMD) between placebo and caffeine trials from individual studies were conducted using the random effects model. Ten studies on the strength outcome and ten studies on the power outcome met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analyses. Caffeine ingestion improved both strength (SMD = 0.20; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03, 0.36; p  = 0.023) and power (SMD = 0.17; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.34; p  = 0.047). A subgroup analysis indicated that caffeine significantly improves upper (SMD = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.39; p  = 0.026) but not lower body strength (SMD = 0.15; 95% CI: -0.05, 0.34; p  = 0.147). The meta-analyses showed significant ergogenic effects of caffeine ingestion on maximal muscle strength of upper body and muscle power. Future studies should more rigorously control the effectiveness of blinding. Due to the paucity of evidence, additional findings are needed in the female population and using different forms of caffeine, such as gum and gel.

  13. The Effects of Eccentric Contraction Duration on Muscle Strength, Power Production, Vertical Jump, and Soreness.

    PubMed

    Mike, Jonathan N; Cole, Nathan; Herrera, Chris; VanDusseldorp, Trisha; Kravitz, Len; Kerksick, Chad M

    2017-03-01

    Mike, JN, Cole, N, Herrera, C, VanDusseldorp, T, Kravitz, L, and Kerksick, CM. The effects of eccentric contraction duration on muscle strength, power production, vertical jump, and soreness. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 773-786, 2017-Previous research has investigated the effects of either eccentric-only training or comparing eccentric and concentric exercise on changes related to strength and power expression, but no research to date has investigated the impact of altering the duration of either the concentric or the eccentric component on these parameters. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the duration of eccentric (i.e., 2-second, 4-second vs. 6-second) muscle contractions and their effect on muscle strength, power production, vertical jump, and soreness using a plate-loaded barbell Smith squat exercise. Thirty college-aged men (23 ± 3.5 years, 178 ± 6.8 cm, 82 ± 12 kg, and 11.6 ± 5.1% fat) with 3.0 ± 1.0 years of resistance training experience and training frequency of 4.3 ± 0.9 days per week were randomized and assigned to 1 of 3 eccentric training groups that incorporated different patterns of contraction. For every repetition, all 3 groups used 2-second concentric contractions and paused for 1 second between the concentric and eccentric phases. The control group (2S) used 2-second eccentric contractions, whereas the 4S group performed 4-second eccentric contractions and the 6S group performed 6-second eccentric contractions. All repetitions were completed using the barbell Smith squat exercise. All participants completed a 4-week training protocol that required them to complete 2 workouts per week using their prescribed contraction routine for 4 sets of 6 repetitions at an intensity of 80-85% one repetition maximum (1RM). For all performance data, significant group × time (G × T) interaction effects were found for average power production across all 3 sets of a squat jump protocol (p = 0.04) while vertical jump did not reach

  14. [Comparison of pelvic floor muscle strength in competition-level athletes and untrained women].

    PubMed

    Ludviksdottir, Ingunn; Hardardottir, Hildur; Sigurdardottir, Thorgerdur; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F

    2018-01-01

    Exercise can stress the pelvic floor muscles. Numerous women experience urinary incontinence while exercising or competing in sports. This study investigated pelvic floor muscle strength, urinary incontinence, and knowledge in contracting pelvic floor muscles among female athletes and untrained women. This was a prospective case-control study measuring pelvic floor muscle strength using vaginal pressure meas-urement. Participants answered questions regarding general health, urinary incontinence, and knowledge on pelvic floor muscles. Partici-pants were healthy nulliparous women aged 18-30 years, athletes and untrained women. The athletes had competed in their sport for at least three years; including handball, soccer, gymnastics, badminton, BootCamp and CrossFit. The women were comparable in age and height. The athletes (n=18) had a body mass index (BMI) of 22.8 kg/m² vs. 25 kg/m² for the untrained (n=16); p<0.05. The athletes trained on average 11.4 hours/week while the untrained women participated in some activity on average for 1.3 hours/week; p< 0.05. Mean pelvic floor strength was 45±2 hPa in the athletes vs. 43±4 hPa in the untrained; p=0.36 for whether the athletes were stronger. Of the athletes, 61.1% experienced urinary incontinence (n=11) compared with 12.5% of the untrained women (n=2); p<0.05. Incontinence usually occurred during high intensity exercise. The athletes were more knowledgeable about the pelvic floor muscles; p<0.05. There was not a significant difference in the strength of pelvic floor muscles of athletes and untrained women. This suggests that pelvic floor muscles are not strengthened during general training but require specific exercises. This holds especially for football, handball and sports with high physical intensity. Coaches need to pay special attention to training and strengthening women's pelvic floor muscles to reduce the occurrence of urinary incontinence.

  15. Recovery of Muscle Strength After Intact Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair According to Preoperative Rotator Cuff Tear Size.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Jin; Chung, Jaeyoon; Lee, Juyeob; Ko, Young-Won

    2016-04-01

    The recovery of muscle strength after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair based on the preoperative tear size has not yet been well described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the recovery period of muscle strength by a serial assessment of isometric strength after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair based on the preoperative tear size. The hypothesis was that muscle strength in patients with small and medium tears would recover faster than that in those with large-to-massive tears. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 164 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were included. Isometric strength in forward flexion (FF), internal rotation (IR), and external rotation (ER) was evaluated preoperatively and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after surgery. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging scans were assessed to evaluate the quality of the rotator cuff muscle, including fatty infiltration, occupation ratio, and tangent sign. Patient satisfaction as well as visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), and Constant scores were assessed at every follow-up. Muscle strength demonstrated the slowest recovery in pain relief and the restoration of shoulder function. To reach the strength of the uninjured contralateral shoulder in all 3 planes of motion, recovery took 6 months in patients with small tears and 18 months in patients with medium tears. Patients with large-to-massive tears showed continuous improvement in strength up to 18 months; however, they did not reach the strength of the contralateral shoulder at final follow-up. At final follow-up, mean strength in FF, IR, and ER was 113.0%, 118.0%, and 112.6% of the contralateral shoulder in patients with small tears, respectively; 105.0%, 112.1%, and 102.6% in patients with medium tears, respectively; and 87.6%, 89.5%, and 85.2% in patients with large-to-massive tears, respectively. Muscle strength in any direction did not significantly correlate with

  16. Daily Overfeeding from Protein and/or Carbohydrate Supplementation for Eight Weeks in Conjunction with Resistance Training Does not Improve Body Composition and Muscle Strength or Increase Markers Indicative of Muscle Protein Synthesis and Myogenesis in Resistance-Trained Males

    PubMed Central

    Spillane, Mike; Willoughby, Darryn S.

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the effects of heavy resistance training and daily overfeeding with carbohydrate and/or protein on blood and skeletal muscle markers of protein synthesis (MPS), myogenesis, body composition, and muscle performance. Twenty one resistance-trained males were randomly assigned to either a protein + carbohydrate [HPC (n = 11)] or a carbohydrate [HC (n = 10)] supplement group in a double-blind fashion. Body composition and muscle performance were assessed, and venous blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained before and after eight weeks of resistance training and supplementation. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05). Total body mass, body water, and fat mass were significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training, but not supplementation (p < 0.05); however, lean mass was not significantly increased in either group (p = 0.068). Upper- (p = 0.024) and lower-body (p = 0.001) muscle strength and myosin heavy chain (MHC) 1 (p = 0.039) and MHC 2A (p = 0.027) were also significantly increased with resistance training. Serum IGF-1, GH, and HGF were not significantly affected (p > 0.05). Muscle total DNA, total protein, and c-Met were not significantly affected (p > 0.05). In conjunction with resistance training, the peri-exercise and daily overfeeding of protein and/or carbohydrate did not preferentially improve body composition, muscle performance, and markers indicative of MPS and myogenic activation. Key points In response to 56 days of heavy resistance training and HC or HPC supplementation, similar increases in muscle mass and strength in both groups occurred; however, the increases were not different between supplement groups. The supplementation of HPC had no preferential effect on augmenting serum IGF-1 GH, or HGF. The supplementation of HPC had no preferential effect on augmenting increases in total muscle protein content or the myogenic markers, total DNA and muscle cMet content. In response to 56 days of

  17. The impact of acute and chronic strenuous exercise on pelvic floor muscle strength and support in nulliparous healthy women.

    PubMed

    Middlekauff, Monique L; Egger, Marlene J; Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M

    2016-09-01

    Strenuous physical activity, which is known to increase intraabdominal pressure and theoretically places stress on the pelvic floor, may affect pelvic support in nulliparous women. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the differences in maximal vaginal descent (MVD), vaginal resting pressure (VRP), and pelvic floor muscle strength (PFMS) between women who habitually perform strenuous exercise vs women who refrain from performing strenuous exercise; and (2) compare MVD, VRP, and PFMS before and immediately following physical activity in the strenuous and nonstrenuous groups separately. Participants were healthy nulliparous women ages 18-35 years who were habitual strenuous or nonstrenuous exercisers. Women in the strenuous group participated in CrossFit (CrossFit, Inc., Washington, DC) at least 3 days per week for at least 6 months. We assessed anthropometric and body composition values using standardized procedures. Participants completed the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification examination and pelvic muscle strength assessment before and again within 15 minutes of completing exercise (CrossFit for the strenuous group and self-paced walking for the nonstrenuous). A research nurse masked to study group assignment recorded MVD, defined as the greatest value of anterior, posterior, or apical support, and VRP and PFMS using a perineometer. Maximal PFMS was recorded as the highest pressure measured in 3 vaginal contraction trials. Data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric tests as appropriate. P < .05 was considered significant. Seventy nulliparous women participated in the study, 35 in each group. The mean age was 24.77 ± 4.3 years. Compared to the nonstrenuous group, strenuous participants were heavier (64.70 ± 7.78 kg vs 60.6 ± 8.99 kg, P = .027), had lower percent body fat (23.36 ± 5.88% vs 27.55 ± 7.07%, P = .003), and had higher handgrip strength (20.78 ± 5.97 kg vs 16.04 ± 11.04 kg, P = .001). Before exercise, there were no

  18. Differences in muscle activity during hand-dexterity tasks between women with arthritis and a healthy reference group.

    PubMed

    Brorsson, Sofia; Nilsdotter, Anna; Thorstensson, Carina; Bremander, Ann

    2014-05-15

    Impaired hand function is common in patients with arthritis and it affects performance of daily activities; thus, hand exercises are recommended. There is little information on the extent to which the disease affects activation of the flexor and extensor muscles during these hand-dexterity tasks. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation during such tasks in subjects with arthritis and in a healthy reference group. Muscle activation was measured in m. extensor digitorium communis (EDC) and in m. flexor carpi radialis (FCR) with surface electromyography (EMG) in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n = 20), hand osteoarthritis (HOA, n = 16) and in a healthy reference group (n = 20) during the performance of four daily activity tasks and four hand exercises. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was measured to enable intermuscular comparisons, and muscle activation is presented as %MVIC. The arthritis group used a higher %MVIC than the reference group in both FCR and EDC when cutting with a pair of scissors, pulling up a zipper and-for the EDC-also when writing with a pen and using a key (p < 0.02). The exercise "rolling dough with flat hands" required the lowest %MVIC and may be less effective in improving muscle strength. Women with arthritis tend to use higher levels of muscle activation in daily tasks than healthy women, and wrist extensors and flexors appear to be equally affected. It is important that hand training programs reflect real-life situations and focus also on extensor strength.

  19. Resistance training performed at distinct angular velocities elicits velocity-specific alterations in muscle strength and mobility status in older adults.

    PubMed

    Englund, Davis A; Sharp, Rick L; Selsby, Joshua T; Ganesan, Shanthi S; Franke, Warren D

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high and low velocity knee extension training on changes in muscle strength and mobility status in high-functioning older adults. Twenty-six (16 female, 10 male) older adults (mean age of 65) were randomized to either 6weeks of low velocity resistance training (LVRT) performed at 75°/s or high velocity resistance training (HVRT) performed at 240°/s. Both groups performed 3 sets of knee extension exercises at maximal effort, 3 times a week. Muscle strength was assessed through a range of testing velocities on an isokinetic dynamometer. Mobility status was assessed with the short physical performance battery (SPPB) and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) transcript levels were quantified via qRT-PCR. From baseline to post-training, there were several significant (P<0.05) differences in muscle strength and functional characteristics in LVRT (n=13) and HVRT (n=13) groups. From baseline to post-training, MyHC-α mRNA and MyHC-IIa mRNA showed a significant (P<0.05) increase within HVRT but MyHC-IIx mRNA did not change significantly. Our results demonstrate HVRT provides a greater number of muscular enhancements when compared to LVRT, particularly under conditions of high velocity muscle contraction. HVRT is emerging as the optimal training stimulus for the older adult. The present study demonstrates, in addition to increased strength and functional outcomes, HVRT elicits a potentially therapeutic (i.e., slow to fast) transcriptional response in MyHC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Strength Training Using Elastic Bands: Improvement of Muscle Power and Throwing Performance in Young Female Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Mascarin, Naryana Cristina; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Dos Santos Andrade, Marilia

    2017-05-01

    Imbalance in shoulder-rotator muscles has been considered a risk factor for injuries in handball. Strength training programs (STPs) may play an important preventive role. To verify the effects of an STP using elastic bands on shoulder muscles and ball-throwing speed. Randomized and prospective controlled trial. Exercise physiology laboratory. Thirty-nine female handball players were randomly assigned to an experimental (EG, n = 21, 15.3 ± 1.1 y) or a control (CG, n = 18, 15.0 ± 0.8 y) group. The EG performed the STP with elastic-band progressive exercises for 6 wk before regular handball training, and the CG underwent only their regular training. Before and after the STP, both groups underwent a ball-throwing-speed test and isokinetic test to assess shoulder internal- (IR) and external-rotator muscle performance. Average power values for IR muscles presented a significant group-vs-time interaction effect (F = 3.9, P = .05); EG presented significantly higher values after the STP (P = .03). Ball speed presented higher values in EG after the STP in standing (P = .04) and jumping (P = .03) throws. IR peak-torque values and balance in shoulder-rotator muscles presented no group-vs-time interaction effect. STP using elastic bands performed for 6 wk was effective to improve muscle power and ball speed for young female handball players.

  1. Reliability of the Q Force; a mobile instrument for measuring isometric quadriceps muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Douma, K W; Regterschot, G R H; Krijnen, W P; Slager, G E C; van der Schans, C P; Zijlstra, W

    2016-01-01

    The ability to generate muscle strength is a pre-requisite for all human movement. Decreased quadriceps muscle strength is frequently observed in older adults and is associated with a decreased performance and activity limitations. To quantify the quadriceps muscle strength and to monitor changes over time, instruments and procedures with a sufficient reliability are needed. The Q Force is an innovative mobile muscle strength measurement instrument suitable to measure in various degrees of extension. Measurements between 110 and 130° extension present the highest values and the most significant increase after training. The objective of this study is to determine the test-retest reliability of muscle strength measurements by the Q Force in older adults in 110° extension. Forty-one healthy older adults, 13 males and 28 females were included in the study. Mean (SD) age was 81.9 (4.89) years. Isometric muscle strength of the Quadriceps muscle was assessed with the Q Force at 110° of knee extension. Participants were measured at two sessions with a three to eight day interval between sessions. To determine relative reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. To determine absolute reliability, Bland and Altman Limits of Agreement (LOA) were calculated and t-tests were performed. Relative reliability of the Q Force is good to excellent as all ICC coefficients are higher than 0.75. Generally a large 95 % LOA, reflecting only moderate absolute reliability, is found as exemplified for the peak torque left leg of -18.6 N to 33.8 N and the right leg of -9.2 N to 26.4 N was between 15.7 and 23.6 Newton representing 25.2 % to 39.9 % of the size of the mean. Small systematic differences in mean were found between measurement session 1 and 2. The present study shows that the Q Force has excellent relative test-retest reliability, but limited absolute test-retest reliability. Since the Q Force is relatively cheap and mobile it is suitable for

  2. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p < 0.01 to p = 0.0001). Body weight correlated with tibia and whole-body BMD (p < 0.001); age negatively correlated with Ward's triangle BMD (p < 0.01). In stepwise multiple regressions, back strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  3. Association between isometric muscle strength and gait joint kinetics in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Dallmeijer, A J; Baker, R; Dodd, K J; Taylor, N F

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between isometric muscle strength of the lower limbs and gait joint kinetics in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-five participants (11 males) with bilateral spastic CP, aged 14-22 years (mean: 18.9, sd: 2.0 yr) and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level II (n=19) and III (n=6) were tested. Hand held dynamometry was used to measure isometric strength (expressed in Nm/kg) of the hip, knee, and ankle muscles using standardized testing positions and procedures. 3D gait analysis was performed with a VICON system to calculate joint kinetics in the hip, knee and ankle during gait. Ankle peak moments exceeded by far the levels of isometric strength of the plantar flexors, while the knee and hip peak moments were just at or below maximal isometric strength of knee and hip muscles. Isometric muscle strength showed weak to moderate correlations with peak ankle and hip extension moment and power during walking. Despite considerable muscle weakness, joint moment curves were similar to norm values. Results suggest that passive stretch of the muscle-tendon complex of the triceps surae contributes to the ankle moment during walking and that muscle strength assessment may provide additional information to gait kinetics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Age-related change in handgrip strength in men and women: is muscle quality a contributing factor?

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Thiebaud, Robert S; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2016-02-01

    Age-related changes in muscle quality and muscle mass in the forearm, which relate to decline in handgrip strength (HGS), have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between age-related declines in HGS and loss of muscle thickness and/or muscle quality in the forearm of 613 adults (306 men and 307 women) aged 20-89. Anterior forearm muscle thickness (MT-ulna) and HGS were measured using an ultrasound and a hand dynamometer, respectively, in the dominant hand. Muscle quality (fMQ) was defined as a ratio of HGS to MT-ulna. HGS was similar among younger (ages 20-29, 30-39, and 40-49) groups and was progressively lower with increasing age in both sexes. MT-ulna was similar between ages 20-29 and 60-69 in men and between ages 20-29 and 70-79 in women. In men, MT-ulna was lower in ages 70-79 and 80-89 compared with other age groups. In women, MT-ulna was lower in ages 80-89 compared with ages 20-29 and 40-49. In both men and women, fMQ was identical among younger (ages 20-29, 30-39, and 40-49) groups. After that fMQ was progressively lower with age in both men and women. The results indicated that age-related decline in HGS is associated with fMQ, but it appears to be accelerated after the seventh decade due to muscle loss.

  5. The functional significance of hamstrings composition: is it really a "fast" muscle group?

    PubMed

    Evangelidis, Pavlos E; Massey, Garry J; Ferguson, Richard A; Wheeler, Patrick C; Pain, Matthew T G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2017-11-01

    Hamstrings muscle fiber composition may be predominantly fast-twitch and could explain the high incidence of hamstrings strain injuries. However, hamstrings muscle composition in vivo, and its influence on knee flexor muscle function, remains unknown. We investigated biceps femoris long head (BFlh) myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition from biopsy samples, and the association of hamstrings composition and hamstrings muscle volume (using MRI) with knee flexor maximal and explosive strength. Thirty-one young men performed maximal (concentric, eccentric, isometric) and explosive (isometric) contractions. BFlh exhibited a balanced MHC distribution [mean ± SD (min-max); 47.1 ± 9.1% (32.6-71.0%) MHC-I, 35.5 ± 8.5% (21.5-60.0%) MHC-IIA, 17.4 ± 9.1% (0.0-30.9%) MHC-IIX]. Muscle volume was correlated with knee flexor maximal strength at all velocities and contraction modes (r = 0.62-0.76, P < 0.01), but only associated with late phase explosive strength (time to 90 Nm; r = -0.53, P < 0.05). In contrast, BFlh muscle composition was not related to any maximal or explosive strength measure. BFlh MHC composition was not found to be "fast", and therefore composition does not appear to explain the high incidence of hamstrings strain injury. Hamstrings muscle volume explained 38-58% of the inter-individual differences in knee flexor maximum strength at a range of velocities and contraction modes, while BFlh muscle composition was not associated with maximal or explosive strength. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Immediate effects of kinesiotaping on quadriceps muscle strength: a single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Vercelli, Stefano; Sartorio, Francesco; Foti, Calogero; Colletto, Lorenzo; Virton, Domenico; Ronconi, Gianpaolo; Ferriero, Giorgio

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the immediate effects on maximal muscle strength of kinesiotaping (KT) applied to the dominant quadriceps of healthy subjects. Single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. "Salvatore Maugeri" Foundation. With ethical approval and informed consent, a convenience sample of 36 healthy volunteers were recruited. Two subjects did not complete the sessions and were excluded from the analysis. Subjects were tested across 3 different sessions, randomly receiving 2 experimental KT conditions applied with the aim of enhancing and inhibiting muscle strength and a sham KT application. Quadriceps muscle strength was measured by means of an isokinetic maximal test performed at 60 and 180 degrees per second. Two secondary outcome measures were performed: the single-leg triple hop for distance to measure limb performance and the Global Rating of Change Scale (GRCS) to calculate agreement between KT application and subjective perception of strength. Compared with baseline, none of the 3 taping conditions showed a significant change in muscle strength and performance (all P > 0.05). Effect size was very low under all conditions (≤0.08). Very few subjects showed an individual change greater than the minimal detectable change. Global Rating of Change Scale scores demonstrated low to moderate agreement with the type of KT applied, but some placebo effects were reported independently of condition. Our findings indicated no significant effect in the maximal quadriceps strength immediately after the application of inhibition, facilitation, or sham KT. These results do not support the use of KT applied in this way to change maximal muscle strength in healthy people.

  7. Preventive strength training improves working ergonomics during welding.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Karsten; Petermann, Carmen; Pilat, Christian; Schubert, Emil; Pons-Kühnemann, Jörn; Mooren, Frank C

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a preventive strength training program on cardiovascular, metabolic and muscular strains during welding. Welders are one of the occupation groups which typically have to work in extended forced postures which are known to be an important reason for musculoskeletal disorders. Subjects (exercise group) accomplished a 12-week strength training program, while another group served as controls (control group). Pre and post training examinations included the measurements of the one repetition maximum and an experimental welding test. Local muscle activities were analysed by surface electromyography. Furthermore, heart rate, blood pressure, lactate and rating of perceived exertion were examined. In the exercise group, strength training lead to a significant increase of one repetition maximum in all examined muscles (p<.05). During the experimental welding test muscle activities of trunk and shoulder muscles and arm muscles were significantly reduced in the exercise group after intervention (p<.05). While no changes of neither cardiovascular nor metabolic parameters were found, subjects of the exercise group rated a significantly decreased rate of perceived exertion welding (p<.05). Effects of strength training can be translated in an improved working ergonomics and tolerance against the exposure to high physical demands at work.

  8. Androgen signaling in myocytes contributes to the maintenance of muscle mass and fiber type regulation but not to muscle strength or fatigue.

    PubMed

    Ophoff, Jill; Van Proeyen, Karen; Callewaert, Filip; De Gendt, Karel; De Bock, Katrien; Vanden Bosch, An; Verhoeven, Guido; Hespel, Peter; Vanderschueren, Dirk

    2009-08-01

    Muscle frailty is considered a major cause of disability in the elderly and chronically ill. However, the exact role of androgen receptor (AR) signaling in muscle remains unclear. Therefore, a postmitotic myocyte-specific AR knockout (mARKO) mouse model was created and investigated together with a mouse model with ubiquitous AR deletion. Muscles from mARKO mice displayed a marked reduction in AR protein (60-88%). Interestingly, body weights and lean body mass were lower in mARKO vs. control mice (-8%). The weight of the highly androgen-sensitive musculus levator ani was significantly reduced (-46%), whereas the weights of other peripheral skeletal muscles were not or only slightly reduced. mARKO mice had lower intra-abdominal fat but did not demonstrate a cortical or trabecular bone phenotype, indicating that selective ablation of the AR in myocytes affected male body composition but not skeletal homeostasis. Furthermore, muscle contractile performance in mARKO mice did not differ from their controls. Myocyte-specific AR ablation resulted in a conversion of fast toward slow fibers, without affecting muscle strength or fatigue. Similar results were obtained in ubiquitous AR deletion, showing lower body weight, whereas some but not all muscle weights were reduced. The percent slow fibers was increased, but no changes in muscle strength or fatigue could be detected. Together, our findings show that myocyte AR signaling contributes to the maintenance of muscle mass and fiber type regulation but not to muscle strength or fatigue. The levator ani weight remains the most sensitive and specific marker of AR-mediated anabolic action on muscle.

  9. Mouse Plantar Flexor Muscle Size and Strength After Inactivity and Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    suspension. Keywords: eccentric contraction , microgravity , exercise . SPACEFLIGHT CAUSES atrophy and strength loss in antigravity skeletal muscles...isometric, concentric, and eccentric contractions pre- served muscle mass in the rat medial gastrocnemius ( 2 ), the use of isometric resistance exercise ...Adams GR , Haddad F , Bodell PW , Tran PD , Baldwin KM . Com- bined isometric, concentric, and eccentric resistance exercise prevents

  10. Normal reference values of strength in pelvic floor muscle of women: a descriptive and inferential study.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Francine; Fernandez-Lao, Carolina; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio

    2014-11-25

    To describe the clinical, functional and quality of life characteristics in women with Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI). In addition, to analyse the relationship between the variables reported by the patients and those informed by the clinicians, and the relationship between instrumented variables and the manual pelvic floor strength assessment. Two hundred and eighteen women participated in this observational, analytical study. An interview about Urinary Incontinence and the quality of life questionnaires (EuroQoL-5D and SF-12) were developed as outcomes reported by the patients. Manual muscle testing and perineometry as outcomes informed by the clinician were assessed. Descriptive and correlation analysis were carried out. The average age of the subjects was (39.93 ± 12.27 years), (24.49 ± 3.54 BMI). The strength evaluated by manual testing of the right levator ani muscles was 7.79 ± 2.88, the strength of left levator ani muscles was 7.51 ± 2.91 and the strength assessed with the perineometer was 7.64 ± 2.55. A positive correlation was found between manual muscle testing and perineometry of the pelvic floor muscles (p < .001). No correlation was found between outcomes of quality of life reported by the patients and outcomes of functional capacity informed by the physiotherapist. A stratification of the strength of pelvic floor muscles in a normal distribution of a large sample of women with SUI was done, which provided the clinic with a baseline. There is a relationship between the strength of the pelvic muscles assessed manually and that obtained by a perineometer in women with SUI. There was no relationship between these values of strength and quality of life perceived.

  11. Effects of Low- vs. High-Load Resistance Training on Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy in Well-Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Peterson, Mark D; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Sonmez, Gul T

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of low- versus high-load resistance training (RT) on muscular adaptations in well-trained subjects. Eighteen young men experienced in RT were matched according to baseline strength and then randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a low-load RT routine (LL) where 25-35 repetitions were performed per set per exercise (n = 9) or a high-load RT routine (HL) where 8-12 repetitions were performed per set per exercise (n = 9). During each session, subjects in both groups performed 3 sets of 7 different exercises representing all major muscles. Training was performed 3 times per week on nonconsecutive days, for a total of 8 weeks. Both HL and LL conditions produced significant increases in thickness of the elbow flexors (5.3 vs. 8.6%, respectively), elbow extensors (6.0 vs. 5.2%, respectively), and quadriceps femoris (9.3 vs. 9.5%, respectively), with no significant differences noted between groups. Improvements in back squat strength were significantly greater for HL compared with LL (19.6 vs. 8.8%, respectively), and there was a trend for greater increases in 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (6.5 vs. 2.0%, respectively). Upper body muscle endurance (assessed by the bench press at 50% 1RM to failure) improved to a greater extent in LL compared with HL (16.6 vs. -1.2%, respectively). These findings indicate that both HL and LL training to failure can elicit significant increases in muscle hypertrophy among well-trained young men; however, HL training is superior for maximizing strength adaptations.

  12. Cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength in pancreatic cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Dorothea; Tjaden, Christine; Hackert, Thilo; Schneider, Lutz; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Wiskemann, Joachim; Steindorf, Karen

    2017-09-01

    Cancer patients frequently experience reduced physical fitness due to the disease itself as well as treatment-related side effects. However, studies on physical fitness in pancreatic cancer patients are missing. Therefore, we assessed cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength of pancreatic cancer patients. We included 65 pancreatic cancer patients, mostly after surgical resection. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and 6-min walk test (6MWT). Hand-held dynamometry was used to evaluate isometric muscle strength. Physical fitness values were compared to reference values of a healthy population. Associations between sociodemographic and clinical variables with patients' physical fitness were analyzed using multiple regression models. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2 peak, 20.5 ± 6.9 ml/min/kg) was significantly lower (-24%) compared to healthy reference values. In the 6MWT pancreatic cancer patients nearly reached predicted values (555 vs. 562 m). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the upper (-4.3%) and lower extremities (-13.8%) were significantly lower compared to reference values. Overall differences were larger in men than those in women. Participating in regular exercise in the year before diagnosis was associated with greater VO 2 peak (p < .05) and MVIC of the knee extensors (p < .05). Pancreatic cancer patients had significantly impaired physical fitness with regard to both cardiorespiratory function and isometric muscle strength, already in the early treatment phase (median 95 days after surgical resection). Our findings underline the need to investigate exercise training in pancreatic cancer patients to counteract the loss of physical fitness.

  13. A longitudinal study of muscle strength and function in patients with cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Gale, Nichola; Wasley, David; Roberts, Sioned; Backx, Karianne; Nelson, Annemarie; van Deursen, Robert; Byrne, Anthony

    2018-06-02

    Patients with cancer frequently experience an involuntary loss of weight (in particular loss of muscle mass), defined as cachexia, with profound implications for independence and quality of life. The rate at which such patients' physical performance declines has not been well established. The aim of this study was to determine the change in muscle strength and function over 8 weeks in patients with already established cancer cachexia, to help inform the design and duration of physical activity interventions applicable to this patient group. Patients with thoracic and gastrointestinal cancer and with unintentional weight loss of > 5% in 6 months or BMI < 20 plus 2% weight loss were included. Physical and functional assessments (baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks) included isometric quadriceps and hamstring strength, handgrip, standing balance, 10-m walk time and timed up and go. Fifty patients (32 male), mean ± SD age 65 ± 10 years and BMI 24.9 ± 4.3 kg/m 2 , were recruited. Thoracic cancer patients had lower muscle strength and function (p < 0.05). Despite notable attrition, in patients who completed all assessments (8 thoracic and 12 gastrointestinal), there was little change in performance over 8 weeks (p > 0.05). Baseline variables did not differentiate between completers and non-completers (p > 0.05). More than a third of patients with established cancer cachexia in our study were stable over 8 weeks, suggesting a subgroup who may benefit from targeted interventions of reasonable duration. Better understanding the physical performance parameters which characterise and differentiate these patients has important clinical implications for cancer multidisciplinary team practice.

  14. Balance disorder and increased risk of falls in osteoporosis and kyphosis: significance of kyphotic posture and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Sinaki, Mehrsheed; Brey, Robert H; Hughes, Christine A; Larson, Dirk R; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2005-08-01

    This controlled trial was designed to investigate the influence of osteoporosis-related kyphosis (O-K) on falls. Twelve community-dwelling women with O-K (Cobb angle, 50-65 degrees measured from spine radiographs) and 13 healthy women serving as controls were enrolled. Mean age of the O-K group was 76 years (+/-5.1), height 158 cm (+/-5), and weight 61 kg (+/-7.9), and mean age of the control group was 71 years (+/-4.6), height 161 cm (+/-3.8), and weight 66 kg (+/-11.7). Quantitative isometric strength data were collected. Gait was monitored during unobstructed level walking and during stepping over an obstacle of four different heights randomly assigned (2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 15% of the subject's height). Balance was objectively assessed with computerized dynamic posturography consisting of the sensory organization test. Back extensor strength, grip strength, and all lower extremity muscle groups were significantly weaker in the O-K group than the control group (P <0.05), except right ankle plantar flexors (P =0.09). There was a significant difference in the anteroposterior and mediolateral displacements and velocities. The O-K subjects had less anteroposterior displacement, greater mediolateral displacement, reduced anteroposterior velocity, and increased mediolateral velocity compared with controls for all conditions of unobstructed and obstructed level walking. Obstacle height had a significant effect on all center-of-mass variables. The O-K subjects had significantly greater balance abnormalities on computerized dynamic posturography than the control group (P =0.002). Data show that thoracic hyperkyphosis on a background of reduced muscle strength plays an important role in increasing body sway, gait unsteadiness, and risk of falls in osteoporosis.

  15. Fatigue Responses in Various Muscle Groups in Well-Trained Competitive Male Players after a Simulated Soccer Game

    PubMed Central

    Fransson, Dan; Vigh-Larsen, Jeppe Foged; Fatouros, Ioannis G.; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2018-01-01

    Abstract We examined the degree of post-game fatigue and the recovery pattern in various leg and upper-body muscle groups after a simulated soccer game. Well-trained competitive male soccer players (n = 12) participated in the study. The players completed the Copenhagen Soccer Test, a 2 x 45 min simulated soccer protocol, following baseline measures of maximal voluntary contractions of multiple muscle groups and systemic markers of muscle damage and inflammation at 0, 24 and 48 h into recovery. All muscle groups had a strength decrement (p ≤ 0.05) at 0 h post-match with knee flexors (14 ± 3%) and hip abductors (6 ± 1%) demonstrating the largest and smallest impairment. However, 24 h into recovery all individual muscles had recovered. When pooled in specific muscle groups, the trunk muscles and knee joint muscles presented the largest decline 0 h post-match, 11 ± 2% for both, with the performance decrement still persistent (4 ± 1%, p ≤ 0.05) for trunk muscles 24 h into recovery. Large inter-player variations were observed in game-induced fatigue and recovery patterns in the various muscle groups. Markers of muscle damage and inflammation peaked 0 h post-match (myoglobin) and 24 h into recovery (creatine kinase), respectively, but thereafter returned to baseline. Intermittent test performance correlated with creatine kinase activity 24 h after the Copenhagen Soccer Test (r = -0.70; p = 0.02). In conclusion, post-game fatigue is evident in multiple muscle groups with knee flexors showing the greatest performance decrement. Fatigue and recovery patterns vary markedly between muscle groups and players, yet trunk muscles display the slowest recovery. PMID:29599862

  16. Fatigue Responses in Various Muscle Groups in Well-Trained Competitive Male Players after a Simulated Soccer Game.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Dan; Vigh-Larsen, Jeppe Foged; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2018-03-01

    We examined the degree of post-game fatigue and the recovery pattern in various leg and upper-body muscle groups after a simulated soccer game. Well-trained competitive male soccer players (n = 12) participated in the study. The players completed the Copenhagen Soccer Test, a 2 x 45 min simulated soccer protocol, following baseline measures of maximal voluntary contractions of multiple muscle groups and systemic markers of muscle damage and inflammation at 0, 24 and 48 h into recovery. All muscle groups had a strength decrement ( p ≤ 0.05) at 0 h post-match with knee flexors (14 ± 3%) and hip abductors (6 ± 1%) demonstrating the largest and smallest impairment. However, 24 h into recovery all individual muscles had recovered. When pooled in specific muscle groups, the trunk muscles and knee joint muscles presented the largest decline 0 h post-match, 11 ± 2% for both, with the performance decrement still persistent (4 ± 1%, p ≤ 0.05) for trunk muscles 24 h into recovery. Large inter-player variations were observed in game-induced fatigue and recovery patterns in the various muscle groups. Markers of muscle damage and inflammation peaked 0 h post-match (myoglobin) and 24 h into recovery (creatine kinase), respectively, but thereafter returned to baseline. Intermittent test performance correlated with creatine kinase activity 24 h after the Copenhagen Soccer Test (r = -0.70; p = 0.02). In conclusion, post-game fatigue is evident in multiple muscle groups with knee flexors showing the greatest performance decrement. Fatigue and recovery patterns vary markedly between muscle groups and players, yet trunk muscles display the slowest recovery.

  17. Self-Managed Exercises, Fitness and Strength Training, and Multifidus Muscle Size in Elite Footballers.

    PubMed

    Hides, Julie A; Walsh, Jazmin C; Smith, Melinda M Franettovich; Mendis, M Dilani

    2017-07-01

      Low back pain (LBP) and lower limb injuries are common among Australian Football League (AFL) players. Smaller size of 1 key trunk muscle, the lumbar multifidus (MF), has been associated with LBP and injuries in footballers. The size of the MF muscle has been shown to be modifiable with supervised motor-control training programs. Among AFL players, supervised motor-control training has also been shown to reduce the incidence of lower limb injuries and was associated with increased player availability for games. However, the effectiveness of a self-managed MF exercise program is unknown.   To investigate the effect of self-managed exercises and fitness and strength training on MF muscle size in AFL players with or without current LBP.   Cross-sectional study.   Professional AFL context.   Complete data were available for 242 players from 6 elite AFL clubs.   Information related to the presence of LBP and history of injury was collected at the start of the preseason. At the end of the preseason, data were collected regarding performance of MF exercises as well as fitness and strength training. Ultrasound imaging of the MF muscle was conducted at the start and end of the preseason.   Size of the MF muscles.   An interaction effect was found between performance of MF exercises and time (F = 13.89, P ≤ .001). Retention of MF muscle size was greatest in players who practiced the MF exercises during the preseason (F = 4.77, P = .03). Increased adherence to fitness and strength training was associated with retained MF muscle size over the preseason (F = 5.35, P = .02).   Increased adherence to a self-administered MF exercise program and to fitness and strength training was effective in maintaining the size of the MF muscle in the preseason.

  18. Effects that passive cycling exercise have on muscle strength, duration of mechanical ventilation, and length of hospital stay in critically ill patients: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Aline dos Santos; Pires-Neto, Ruy Camargo; Carvalho, Maurício Tatsch Ximenes; Soares, Janice Cristina; Cardoso, Dannuey Machado; de Albuquerque, Isabella Martins

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effects that passive cycling exercise, in combination with conventional physical therapy, have on peripheral muscle strength, duration of mechanical ventilation, and length of hospital stay in critically ill patients admitted to the ICU of a tertiary care university hospital. Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial involving 38 patients (≥ 18 years of age) on mechanical ventilation who were randomly divided into two groups: control (n = 16), receiving conventional physical therapy; and intervention (n = 22), receiving conventional physical therapy and engaging in passive cycling exercise five days per week. The mean age of the patients was 46.42 ± 16.25 years, and 23 were male. The outcomes studied were peripheral muscle strength, as measured by the Medical Research Council scale, duration of mechanical ventilation, and length of hospital stay. Results: There was a significant increase in peripheral muscle strength (baseline vs. final) in both groups (control: 40.81 ± 7.68 vs. 45.00 ± 6.89; and intervention: 38.73 ± 11.11 vs. 47.18 ± 8.75; p < 0.001 for both). However, the range of increase in strength was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (8.45 ± 5.20 vs. 4.18 ± 2.63; p = 0.005). There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of duration of mechanical ventilation or length of hospital stay. Conclusions: The results suggest that the performance of continuous passive mobilization on a cyclical basis helps to recover peripheral muscle strength in ICU patients. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01769846 [http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/]) PMID:28538781

  19. Increases in muscle strength and balance using a resistance training program administered via a telecommunications system in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, David; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Demolles, Deborah; Fielding, Roger A

    2011-11-01

    Resistance training programs have been found to improve muscle strength, physical function, and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. These programs have typically been provided in clinical facilities, health clubs, and senior centers, which may be inconvenient and/or cost prohibitive for some older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an automated telemedicine intervention that provides real-time guidance and monitoring of resistance training in the home. A randomized clinical trial in 103 middle-aged or older participants. Participants were assigned to use of a theory-driven interactive voice response system designed to promote resistance training (Telephone-Linked Computer-based Long-term Interactive Fitness Trainer; n = 52) or to an attention control (n = 51) for a period of 12 months. Measurements of muscle strength, balance, walk distance, and mood were obtained at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. We observed increased strength, improved balance, and fewer depressive symptoms in the intervention group than in the control group. Using generalized estimating equations modeling, group differences were statistically significant for knee flexion strength (p = .035), single-leg stance time (p = .029), and Beck Depression Inventory (p = .030). This computer-based telecommunications exercise intervention led to improvements in participants' strength, balance, and depressive symptoms. Because of their low cost and easy accessibility, computer-based interventions may be a cost-effective way of promoting exercise in the home.

  20. Test-Retest Reliability of Innovated Strength Tests for Hip Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Christophe; Corten, Kristoff; Wesseling, Mariska; Peers, Koen; Simon, Jean-Pierre; Jonkers, Ilse; Desloovere, Kaat

    2013-01-01

    The burden of hip muscles weakness and its relation to other impairments has been well documented. It is therefore a pre-requisite to have a reliable method for clinical assessment of hip muscles function allowing the design and implementation of a proper strengthening program. Motor-driven dynamometry has been widely accepted as the gold-standard for lower limb muscle strength assessment but is mainly related to the knee joint. Studies focusing on the hip joint are less exhaustive and somewhat discrepant with regard to optimal participants position, consequently influencing outcome measures. Thus, we aimed to develop a standardized test setup for the assessment of hip muscles strength, i.e. flexors/extensors and abductors/adductors, with improved participant stability and to define its psychometric characteristics. Eighteen participants performed unilateral isokinetic and isometric contractions of the hip muscles in the sagittal and coronal plane at two separate occasions. Peak torque and normalized peak torque were measured for each contraction. Relative and absolute measures of reliability were calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient and standard error of measurement, respectively. Results from this study revealed higher levels of between-day reliability of isokinetic/isometric hip abduction/flexion peak torque compared to existing literature. The least reliable measures were found for hip extension and adduction, which could be explained by a less efficient stabilization technique. Our study additionally provided a first set of reference normalized data which can be used in future research. PMID:24260550

  1. Muscular coordination and strength training. Implications for injury rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, O M

    1988-03-01

    Strength training is commonly used in the rehabilitation of muscles atrophied as a result of injury and/or disuse. Studies on the effects of conventional leg extension training in healthy subjects have shown the changes to be very task-specific to the training manoeuvre itself. After conventional leg extension training for the quadriceps muscle the major improvement was in weightlifting ability with only small increases in isometric strength. The maximum dynamic force and power output during sprint cycling showed no improvement. These results suggest that the major benefit of this type of training is learning to coordinate the different muscle groups involved in the training movement rather than intrinsic increases in strength of the muscle group being trained. Other studies have shown changes in strength to be specific to the length and speed at which the muscle has been trained. The implication for rehabilitation is that strength training for isolated muscle groups may not be the most effective way of increasing functional ability. As the major changes are task-specific it may be better to incorporate the training into task-related practice. This would have the advantage of strengthening the muscle groups affected whilst increasing performance in those activities which are required in daily life.

  2. Sarcopenia and decreased muscle strength in the elderly woman: resistance training as a safe and effective intervention.

    PubMed

    Foster-Burns, S B

    1999-01-01

    A principle component of age-related weakness and frailty in women is sarcopenia. This decrease in skeletal muscle mass is a progressive syndrome that will affect the quality of life for elderly women by decreasing the ability to perform many activities of daily living. Strength training is known to be an effective means of increasing muscular strength and size in many populations, and can be utilized successfully to significantly improve muscle strength, muscle mass and functional mobility in elderly women up to the age of 96 years. Such exercise can minimize the syndrome of physical frailty due to decreased muscle mass and strength. Any rehabilitation or exercise program for the elderly woman would benefit from the inclusion of such a training regime.

  3. The efficacy of modified direct lateral versus posterior approach on gait function and hip muscle strength after primary total hip arthroplasty at 12months follow-up. An explorative randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rosenlund, Signe; Broeng, Leif; Overgaard, Søren; Jensen, Carsten; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders

    2016-11-01

    The lateral and the posterior approach are the most commonly used procedures for total hip arthroplasty. Due to the detachment of the hip abductors, lateral approach is claimed to cause reduced hip muscle strength and altered gait pattern. However, this has not been investigated in a randomised controlled trial. The aim was to compare the efficacy of total hip arthroplasty performed by lateral or posterior approach on gait function and hip muscle strength up to 12months post-operatively. We hypothesised that posterior approach would be superior to lateral approach. Forty-seven patients with primary hip osteoarthritis were randomised to total hip arthroplasty with either posterior or lateral approach and evaluated pre-operatively, 3 and 12months post-operatively using 3-dimensional gait analyses as objective measures of gait function, including Gait Deviation Index, temporo-spatial parameters and range of motion. Isometric maximal hip muscle strength in abduction, flexion and extension was also tested. Post-operatively, no between-group difference in gait function was observed. However, both hip abductor and flexor muscle strength improved more in the posterior approach group: -0.20(Nm/kg)[95%CI:-0.4 to 0.0] and -0.20(Nm/kg)[95%CI:-0.4 to 0.0], respectively. Contrary to our first hypothesis, the overall gait function in the posterior approach group did not improve more than in the lateral approach group. However, in agreement with our second hypothesis, patients in the posterior approach group improved more in hip abductor and flexor muscle strength at 12months. Further investigation of the effect of reduced maximal hip muscle strength on functional capacity is needed. ClinicalTrials.gov. No.: NCT01616667. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of Lower Limb Muscle Strength and Power Using Hand-Held and Fixed Dynamometry: A Reliability and Validity Study

    PubMed Central

    Perraton, Luke G.; Bower, Kelly J.; Adair, Brooke; Pua, Yong-Hao; Williams, Gavin P.; McGaw, Rebekah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hand-held dynamometry (HHD) has never previously been used to examine isometric muscle power. Rate of force development (RFD) is often used for muscle power assessment, however no consensus currently exists on the most appropriate method of calculation. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of different algorithms for RFD calculation and to examine the intra-rater, inter-rater, and inter-device reliability of HHD as well as the concurrent validity of HHD for the assessment of isometric lower limb muscle strength and power. Methods 30 healthy young adults (age: 23±5yrs, male: 15) were assessed on two sessions. Isometric muscle strength and power were measured using peak force and RFD respectively using two HHDs (Lafayette Model-01165 and Hoggan microFET2) and a criterion-reference KinCom dynamometer. Statistical analysis of reliability and validity comprised intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Pearson correlations, concordance correlations, standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change. Results Comparison of RFD methods revealed that a peak 200ms moving window algorithm provided optimal reliability results. Intra-rater, inter-rater, and inter-device reliability analysis of peak force and RFD revealed mostly good to excellent reliability (coefficients ≥ 0.70) for all muscle groups. Concurrent validity analysis showed moderate to excellent relationships between HHD and fixed dynamometry for the hip and knee (ICCs ≥ 0.70) for both peak force and RFD, with mostly poor to good results shown for the ankle muscles (ICCs = 0.31–0.79). Conclusions Hand-held dynamometry has good to excellent reliability and validity for most measures of isometric lower limb strength and power in a healthy population, particularly for proximal muscle groups. To aid implementation we have created freely available software to extract these variables from data stored on the Lafayette device. Future research should examine the reliability

  5. Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Muscle Strength and Optimal Individual Post-Activation Potentiation Time of the Upper Body in Canoeists.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Chi; Lin, Shu-Cheng; Hsu, Shu-Ching; Yang, Ming-Ta; Chan, Kuei-Hui

    2017-10-27

    Creatine supplementation reduces the impact of muscle fatigue on post-activation potentiation (PAP) of the lower body, but its effects on the upper body remain unknown. This study examined the effects of creatine supplementation on muscle strength, explosive power, and optimal individual PAP time of the upper body during a set of complex training bouts in canoeists. Seventeen male high school canoeists performed a bench row for one repetition at maximum strength and conducted complex training bouts to determine the optimal individual timing of PAP and distance of overhead medicine ball throw before and after the supplementation. Subjects were assigned to a creatine or placebo group, and later consumed 20 g of creatine or carboxymethyl cellulose per day for six days. After supplementation, the maximal strength in the creatine group significantly increased ( p < 0.05). The optimal individual PAP time in the creatine group was significantly earlier than the pre-supplementation times ( p < 0.05). There was no significant change in explosive power for either group. Our findings support the notion that creatine supplementation increases maximal strength and shortens the optimal individual PAP time of the upper body in high school athletes, but has no effect on explosive power. Moreover, it was found that the recovery time between a bench row and an overhead medicine ball throw in a complex training bout is an individual phenomenon.

  6. Increased strength of the scapular stabilizer and lumbar muscles after twelve weeks of Pilates training using the Reformer machine: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Núbia Tomain Otoni; Raimundo, Karoline Cipriano; da Silva, Sheila Aparecida; Souza, Lara Andrade; Ferreira, Karoline Carregal; Borges Santo Urbano, Zuleika Ferreira; Gasparini, Andréa Licre Pessina; Bertoncello, Dernival

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze muscle strength in Pilates novices who used the Reformer equipment during twelve training sessions. Twenty-four healthy young female volunteers, who were non-smokers and did not exercise regularly, were split into a control group (mean age 28 ± 4 years and BMI 24.55 ± 3.21 kg/m 2 ) and a training group (mean age 29 ± 4 years and BMI 22.69 ± 2.87 kgm 2 ). The data were checked for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and were then analyzed using the t-test (p < 0.05). After the training sessions, there were statistically significant differences between the groups for the scapular stabilizer muscles (p = 0.0263) and the lumbar muscles (p = 0.0001). For the scapular stabilizers, the initial/final values were 14.69 ± 2.80/14.79 ± 2.89 (control group) and 15.99 ± 3.54/17.44 ± 2.88 (Pilates group). The corresponding values for the lumbar muscles were 53.83 ± 11.66/53.28 ± 11.14 (control group) and 54.75 ± 10.27/64.80 ± 10.20 (Pilates group). After twelve sessions of Pilates with the Reformer equipment, there were improvements in lumbar extensor and scapular stabilizer strength. Several benefits are reported by practitioners of Pilates, but until now, there has been limited scientific evidence of the improvement of strength in the trunk and limbs after application of the technique. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The effects of Tai-Chi in conjunction with thera-band resistance exercise on functional fitness and muscle strength among community-based older people.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Fen; Sung, Huei-Chuan; Li, Tzai-Li; Hsieh, Tsung-Cheng; Lan, Hsiao-Chin; Perng, Shoa-Jen; Smith, Graeme D

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Tai-Chi in conjunction with thera-band resistance exercise on functional fitness and muscle strength in community-based older people. Tai-Chi is known to improve functional fitness in older people. Tai-Chi is usually performed with free hands without resistance training and usually focuses on training lower limbs. To date, no study has examined the use of Tai-Chi in conjunction with thera-band resistance exercise in this population. Cluster randomised trial design. Older people at six senior day care centres in Taiwan were assigned to thera-band resistance exercise or control group using a cluster randomisation. The thera-band resistance exercise group (n = 48) received sixty minute thera-band resistance exercise twice weekly for a period of 16 weeks. The control group (n = 47) underwent routine activities in the day care centre, receiving no Tai-Chi or resistance exercise. After receiving the thera-band resistance exercise, intervention participants displayed a significant increase in muscle strength of upper and lower extremities. Significant improvements were recorded on most measures of the Senior Fitness Test, with the exception of the chair-stand and back-scratch test. Thera-band resistance exercise has the potential to improve functional fitness and muscle strength in community-based older people. Thera-band resistance exercise potentially offers a safe and appropriate form of physical activity that nursing staff can easily incorporate into the daily routine of older people in day care centres, potentially improving functional performance and muscle strength. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Validity and test–retest reliability of a novel simple back extensor muscle strength test

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Amy T; Weeks, Benjamin Kurt; Horan, Sean A; Little, Andrew; Watson, Steven L; Beck, Belinda Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To develop and determine convergent validity and reliability of a simple and inexpensive clinical test to quantify back extensor muscle strength. Methods: Two testing sessions were conducted, 7 days apart. Each session involved three trials of standing maximal isometric back extensor muscle strength using both the novel test and isokinetic dynamometry. Lumbar spine bone mineral density was examined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Validation was examined with Pearson correlations (r). Test–retest reliability was examined with intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. Pearson correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients are presented with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Linear regression was used to examine the ability of peak back extensor muscle strength to predict indices of lumbar spine bone mineral density and strength. Results: A total of 52 healthy adults (26 men, 26 women) aged 46.4 ± 20.4 years were recruited from the community. A strong positive relationship was observed between peak back extensor strength from hand-held and isokinetic dynamometry (r = 0.824, p < 0.001). For the novel back extensor strength test, short- and long-term reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.983 (95% confidence interval, 0.971–0.990), p < 0.001 and intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.901 (95% confidence interval, 0.833–0.943), p < 0.001, respectively). Limits of agreement for short-term repeated back extensor strength measures with the novel back extensor strength protocol were −6.63 to 7.70 kg, with a mean bias of +0.71 kg. Back extensor strength predicted 11% of variance in lumbar spine bone mineral density (p < 0.05) and 9% of lumbar spine index of bone structural strength (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our novel hand-held dynamometer method to determine back extensor muscle strength is quick, relatively inexpensive, and reliable; demonstrates

  9. Lower-extremity resistance training on unstable surfaces improves proxies of muscle strength, power and balance in healthy older adults: a randomised control trial.

    PubMed

    Eckardt, Nils

    2016-11-24

    It is well documented that both balance and resistance training have the potential to mitigate intrinsic fall risk factors in older adults. However, knowledge about the effects of simultaneously executed balance and resistance training (i.e., resistance training conducted on unstable surfaces [URT]) on lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults is insufficient. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of machine-based stable resistance training (M-SRT) and two types of URT, i.e., machine-based (M-URT) and free-weight URT (F-URT), on measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults. Seventy-five healthy community-dwelling older adults aged 65-80 years, were assigned to three intervention groups: M-SRT, M-URT and F-URT. Over a period of ten weeks, all participants exercised two times per week with each session lasting ~60 min. Tests included assessment of leg muscle strength (e.g., maximal isometric leg extension strength), power (e.g., chair rise test) and balance (e.g., functional reach test), carried out before and after the training period. Furthermore, maximal training load of the squat-movement was assessed during the last training week. Maximal training load of the squat-movement was significantly lower in F-URT in comparison to M-SRT and M-URT. However, lower-extremity resistance training conducted on even and uneven surfaces meaningfully improved proxies of strength, power and balance in all groups. M-URT produced the greatest improvements in leg extension strength and F-URT in the chair rise test and functional reach test. Aside from two interaction effects, overall improvements in measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance were similar across training groups. Importantly, F-URT produced similar results with considerably lower training load as compared to M-SRT and M-URT. Concluding, F-URT seems an effective and safe alternative training program to mitigate

  10. No difference in long-term trunk muscle strength, cross-sectional area, and density in patients with chronic low back pain 7 to 11 years after lumbar fusion versus cognitive intervention and exercises.

    PubMed

    Froholdt, Anne; Holm, Inger; Keller, Anne; Gunderson, Ragnhild B; Reikeraas, Olav; Brox, Jens I

    2011-08-01

    Reduced muscle strength and density observed at 1 year after lumbar fusion may deteriorate more in the long term. To compare the long-term effect of lumbar fusion and cognitive intervention and exercises on muscle strength, cross-sectional area, density, and self-rated function in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and disc degeneration. Randomized controlled study with a follow-up examination at 8.5 years (range, 7-11 years). Patients with CLBP and disc degeneration randomized to either instrumented posterolateral fusion of one or both of the two lower lumbar levels or a 3-week cognitive intervention and exercise program were included. Isokinetic muscle strength was measured by a Cybex 6000 (Cybex-Lumex, Inc., Ronkonkoma, NY, USA). All patients had previous experience with the test procedure. The back extension (E) flexion (F) muscles were tested, and the E/F ratios were calculated. Cross-sectional area and density of the back muscles were measured at the L3-L4 segment by computed tomography. Patients rated their function by the General Function Score. Trunk muscle strength, cross-sectional area, density, and self-rated function. Fifty-five patients (90%) were included at long-term follow-up. There were no significant differences in cross-sectional area, density, muscle strength, or self-rated function between the two groups. The cognitive intervention and exercise group increased trunk muscle extension significantly (p<.05), and both groups performed significantly better on trunk muscle flexion tests (p<.01) at long-term follow-up. On average, self-rated function improved by 56%, cross-sectional area was reduced by 8.5%, and muscle density was reduced by 27%. Although this study did not assess the morphology of muscles likely damaged by surgery, trunk muscle strength and cross-sectional area above the surgical levels are not different between those who had lumbar fusion or cognitive intervention and exercises at 7- to 11-year follow-up. Copyright © 2011

  11. No Differences Between Alter G-Trainer and Active and Passive Recovery Strategies on Isokinetic Strength, Systemic Oxidative Stress and Perceived Muscle Soreness After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Matthew B; Nix, Carrie M; Greenwood, Lori D; Greenwood, Mike C

    2018-03-01

    Cooke, MB, Nix, C, Greenwood, L, and Greenwood, M. No Differences Between Alter G-Trainer and Active and Passive Recovery Strategies on Isokinetic Strength, Systemic Oxidative Stress and Perceived Muscle Soreness After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 736-747, 2018-The incidence of muscle injuries is prevalent in elite sport athletes and weekend warriors and strategies that safely and effectively hasten recovery are highly desirable. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between 3 recovery methods after eliciting muscle damage in recreationally active men relative to maximal isokinetic contractions, perceived muscle soreness, and psychological mood states. Twenty-five recreationally active men (22.15 ± 3.53 years, 75.75 ± 11.91 kg, 180.52 ± 7.3 cm) were randomly matched by V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak (53.86 ± 6.65 ml·kg·min) and assigned to one of 3 recovery methods: anti-gravity treadmill (G-Trainer) (N = 8), conventional treadmill (N = 8) or static stretching (N = 9). Recovery methods were performed 30 minutes, 24, 48, and 72 hours after a 45-minute downhill run. Following eccentrically biased running, no significant differences were noted in isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torque, systemic markers of muscle damage, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation such as serum creatine kinase (CK), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA), respectively, and subjective ratings of perceived muscle soreness between recovery methods. The G-Trainer group did however display a higher mood state as indicated by the Profile of Mood State global scores at 24 hours postexercise when compared to the conventional treadmill recovery group (p = 0.035). The improved mood state after the use of the anti-gravity treadmill may provide clinical relevance to other populations.

  12. The effects of Pilates method on pelvic floor muscle strength in patients with post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Cíntia S; Pedriali, Fabiana R; Urbano, Mariana R; Moreira, Eliane H; Averbeck, Marcio A; Almeida, Silvio Henrique M

    2018-01-01

    To assess the effects of a Pilates exercise program compared to conventional pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) protocol on pelvic floor muscle strength (PFMS) in patients with post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence. Patients were randomized into three treatment groups (G1: Pilates, G2: electrical stimulation combined with PFMT, and G3: control group). Duration of therapy was 10 weeks. Baseline assessment included the 24 h pad-test and the ICI-Q questionnaire. PFMS was measured using a manometric perineometry device at baseline and 4 months after radical prostatectomy (RP). The level of significance was P < 0.05. One hundred twenty three patients were randomized and 104 patients completed the study protocol (G1: n = 34; G2: n = 35; G3: n = 35). Post-treatment assessment showed statistically significant improvements in maximum strength in G2, increased endurance in G1 and G2, and increment of muscle power in all three groups (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the mean changes of maximum strength, endurance, and muscle power between groups after treatment (P > 0.05). G1 and G2 achieved a higher number of fully continent patients than G3 (P < 0.05). At the end of treatment, 59% of patients in G1, 54% in G2, and 26% in G3 were continent (no pads/day). Improvements in PFMS parameters were distinct among active treatment groups versus controls, but did not predict recovery of urinary continence at final assessment. The Pilates method promoted similar outcomes in the proportion of fully continent patients when compared to conventional PFMT 4 months after RP. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Is a sphygmomanometer a valid and reliable tool to measure the isometric strength of hip muscles? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Toohey, Liam Anthony; De Noronha, Marcos; Taylor, Carolyn; Thomas, James

    2015-02-01

    Muscle strength measurement is a key component of physiotherapists' assessment and is frequently used as an outcome measure. A sphygmomanometer is an instrument commonly used to measure blood pressure that can be potentially used as a tool to assess isometric muscle strength. To systematically review the evidence on the reliability and validity of a sphygmomanometer for measuring isometric strength of hip muscles. A literature search was conducted across four databases. Studies were eligible if they presented data on reliability and/or validity, used a sphygmomanometer to measure isometric muscle strength of the hip region, and were peer reviewed. The individual studies were evaluated for quality using a standardized critical appraisal tool. A total of 644 articles were screened for eligibility, with five articles chosen for inclusion. The use of a sphygmomanometer to objectively assess isometric muscle strength of the hip muscles appears to be reliable with intraclass correlation coefficient values ranging from 0.66 to 0.94 in elderly and young populations. No studies were identified that have assessed the validity of a sphygmomanometer. The sphygmomanometer appears to be reliable for assessment of isometric muscle strength around the hip joint, but further research is warranted to establish its validity.

  14. Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Combination with Leucine and Vitamin D Increase Muscle Strength and Function in Frail Elderly Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Abe, Sakiko; Ezaki, Osamu; Suzuki, Motohisa

    2016-05-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function, is common in elderly individuals but difficult to treat. A combination of nutrients was investigated to treat sarcopenia in very frail elderly adults. We enrolled 38 elderly nursing home residents (11 men and 27 women with a mean ± SD age of 86.6 ± 4.8 y) in a 3-mo randomized, controlled, single-blind, parallel group trial. The participants were randomly allocated to 3 groups. The first group received a daily l-leucine (1.2 g) and cholecalciferol (20 μg)-enriched supplement with 6 g medium-chain triglycerides (TGs) (MCTs) (LD + MCT); the second group received the same leucine and cholecalciferol-enriched supplement with 6 g long-chain TGs (LD + LCT); and the third group did not receive any supplements (control). The supplement and oils were taken at dinner, and changes in muscle mass, strength, and function were monitored. The increase in body weight in the LD + MCT (1.1 ± 1.0 kg) and LD + LCT (0.8 ± 1.1 kg) groups was greater than that in the control group (-0.5 ± 0.9 kg) (P < 0.05). After 3 mo, participants in the LD + MCT group had a 13.1% increase in right-hand grip strength (1.2 ± 1.0 kg, P < 0.01), a 12.5% increase in walking speed (0.078 ± 0.080 m/s, P < 0.05), a 68.2% increase in a 10-s leg open-and-close test performance (2.31 ± 1.68 n/10 s, P < 0.001), and a 28.2% increase in peak expiratory flow (53 ± 59 L/min, P < 0.01). No significant improvements in muscle mass, strength, or function were observed in the LD + LCT or control groups. The combined supplementation of MCTs (6 g), leucine-rich amino acids, and cholecalciferol at dinner may improve muscle strength and function in frail elderly individuals. This trial was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000017567. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Reduced Appendicular Lean Body Mass, Muscle Strength, and Size of Type II Muscle Fibers in Patients with Spondyloarthritis versus Healthy Controls: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Røren Nordén, Kristine; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Løvstad, Amund; Raastad, Truls

    Introduction . The purpose of this study was to investigate body composition, muscle function, and muscle morphology in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA). Methods . Ten male SpA patients (mean ± SD age 39 ± 4.1 years) were compared with ten healthy controls matched for sex, age, body mass index, and self-reported level of physical exercise. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Musculus quadriceps femoris (QF) strength was assessed by maximal isometric contractions prior to test of muscular endurance. Magnetic resonance imaging of QF was used to measure muscle size and calculate specific muscle strength. Percutaneous needle biopsy samples were taken from m. vastus lateralis . Results . SpA patients presented with significantly lower appendicular lean body mass (LBM) ( p = 0.02), but there was no difference in bone mineral density, fat mass, or total LBM. Absolute QF strength was significantly lower in SpA patients ( p = 0.03) with a parallel trend for specific strength ( p = 0.08). Biopsy samples from the SpA patients revealed significantly smaller cross-sectional area (CSA) of type II muscle fibers ( p = 0.04), but no difference in CSA type I fibers. Conclusions . Results indicate that the presence of SpA disease is associated with reduced appendicular LBM, muscle strength, and type II fiber CSA.

  16. Cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength in late adolescence and long-term risk of early heart failure in Swedish men.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Martin; Åberg, Maria; Schaufelberger, Maria; Åberg, David; Schiöler, Linus; Torén, Kjell; Rosengren, Annika

    2017-05-01

    Aims To investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and muscle strength in late adolescence and the long-term risk of heart failure (HF). Methods A cohort was created of Swedish men enrolled in compulsory military service between 1968 and 2005 with measurements for CRF and muscle strength ( n = 1,226,623; mean age 18.3 years). They were followed until 31 December 2014 for HF hospitalization as recorded in the Swedish national inpatient registry. Results During the follow-up period (median (interquartile range) 28.4 (22.0-37.0) years), 7656 cases of first HF hospitalization were observed (mean ± SD age at diagnosis 50.1 ± 7.9 years). CRF and muscle strength were estimated by maximum capacity cycle ergometer testing and strength exercises (knee extension, elbow flexion and hand grip). Inverse dose-response relationships were found between CRF and muscle strength with HF as a primary or contributory diagnosis with an adjusted hazards ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.60 (1.44-1.77) for low CRF and 1.45 (1.32-1.58) for low muscle strength categories. The associations of incident HF with CRF and muscle strength persisted, regardless of adjustments for the other potential confounders. The highest risk was observed for HF associated with coronary heart disease, diabetes or hypertension. Conclusions In this longitudinal study of young men, we found inverse and mutually independent associations between CRF and muscle strength with risk of hospitalization for HF. If causal, these results may emphasize the importance of the promotion of CRF and muscle strength in younger populations.

  17. Resistance exercise improves muscle strength, health status and pain intensity in fibromyalgia--a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Anette; Palstam, Annie; Löfgren, Monika; Ernberg, Malin; Bjersing, Jan; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre; Gerdle, Björn; Kosek, Eva; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa

    2015-06-18

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by persistent widespread pain, increased pain sensitivity and tenderness. Muscle strength in women with FM is reduced compared to healthy women. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a progressive resistance exercise program on muscle strength, health status, and current pain intensity in women with FM. A total of 130 women with FM (age 22-64 years, symptom duration 0-35 years) were included in this assessor-blinded randomized controlled multi-center trial examining the effects of progressive resistance group exercise compared with an active control group. A person-centred model of exercise was used to support the participants' self-confidence for management of exercise because of known risks of activity-induced pain in FM. The intervention was performed twice a week for 15 weeks and was supervised by experienced physiotherapists. Primary outcome measure was isometric knee-extension force (Steve Strong®), secondary outcome measures were health status (FIQ total score), current pain intensity (VAS), 6MWT, isometric elbow-flexion force, hand-grip force, health related quality of life, pain disability, pain acceptance, fear avoidance beliefs, and patient global impression of change (PGIC). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and immediately after the intervention. Long-term follow up comprised the self-reported questionnaires only and was conducted after 13-18 months. Between-group and within-group differences were calculated using non-parametric statistics. Significant improvements were found for isometric knee-extension force (p = 0.010), health status (p = 0.038), current pain intensity (p = 0.033), 6MWT (p = 0.003), isometric elbow flexion force (p = 0.02), pain disability (p = 0.005), and pain acceptance (p = 0.043) in the resistance exercise group (n = 56) when compared to the control group (n = 49). PGIC differed significantly (p = 0.001) in favor of the resistance exercise group at post-treatment examinations

  18. Relationship between isometric thigh muscle strength and minimum clinically important differences in knee function in osteoarthritis: data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    PubMed

    Ruhdorfer, Anja; Wirth, Wolfgang; Eckstein, Felix

    2015-04-01

    To determine the relationship between thigh muscle strength and clinically relevant differences in self-assessed lower leg function. Isometric knee extensor and flexor strength of 4,553 Osteoarthritis Initiative participants (2,651 women and 1,902 men) was related to the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) physical function scores by linear regression. Further, groups of male and female participant strata with minimum clinically important differences (MCIDs) in WOMAC function scores (6 of 68 units) were compared across the full range of observed values and to participants without functional deficits (WOMAC score 0). The effect of WOMAC knee pain and body mass index on the above relationships was explored using stepwise regression. Per regression equations, a 3.7% reduction in extensor strength and a 4.0% reduction in flexor strength were associated with an MCID in WOMAC function in women, and, respectively, a 3.6% and 4.8% reduction in men. For strength divided by body weight, reductions were 5.2% and 6.7%, respectively, in women and 5.8% and 6.7%, respectively, in men. Comparing MCID strata across the full observed range of WOMAC function confirmed the above estimates and did not suggest nonlinear relationships across the spectrum of observed values. WOMAC pain correlated strongly with WOMAC function, but extensor (and flexor) muscle strength contributed significant independent information. Reductions of approximately 4% in isometric muscle strength and of 6% in strength per body weight were related to a clinically relevant difference in WOMAC functional disability. Longitudinal studies will need to confirm these relationships within persons. Muscle extensor (and flexor) strength (per body weight) provided significant independent information in addition to pain in explaining variability in lower leg function. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  19. Effects of wheelchair sports on respiratory muscle strength and thoracic mobility of individuals with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Marlene Aparecida; Zamunér, Antonio Roberto; Paris, Juliana Viana; Teodori, Rosana Macher; Barros, Ricardo M L

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of wheelchair sports on respiratory muscle strength and the thoracic mobility of individuals with spinal cord injury. Thirty male subjects with chronic spinal cord injury (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale grade A) took part in the study and were divided into four groups: sedentary subjects with quadriplegia (S-QUAD, n = 7), wheelchair rugby athletes with quadriplegia (A-QUAD, n = 8), sedentary subjects with paraplegia (S-PARA, n = 6), and wheelchair basketball athletes with paraplegia (A-PARA, n = 9). The main outcome measures were maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure and the respiratory coefficients at the axillary and xiphoid levels. A-QUAD group presented values significantly higher for all respiratory variables studied compared with the S-QUAD group. No significant differences in any of the respiratory variables were observed between S-PARA and A-PARA groups. There was a negative correlation between spinal cord injury level and respiratory variables for the S-QUAD and S-PARA groups. There were positive correlations in the A-QUAD group between time of training and maximal inspiratory pressure (adjusted R = 0.84; P = 0.001) and respiratory coefficients at the axillary level (adjusted R = 0.80; P = 0.002). Physical training seems to have a positive influence on respiratory muscle strength and thoracic mobility, especially in subjects with quadriplegia.

  20. Effects of an integrated health education and elastic band resistance training program on physical function and muscle strength in community-dwelling elderly women: Healthy Aging and Happy Aging II study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung-Lyul; Kim, Hee-Jae; Woo, Shinae; Cho, Be-Long; Song, Misoon; Park, Yeon-Hwan; Lim, Jae-Young; Song, Wook

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, we determined the effect of an integrated health education and elastic band resistance training program on body composition, physical function, muscle strength and quality in community-dwelling elderly women. We recruited participants with eligibility inclusion criteria, and randomly assigned them to either the control group (n = 19) or the intervention group (n = 19). The integrated intervention program comprised of health education and individual counseling, and elastic band training for 18 weeks (8 weeks of supervised training and 10 weeks of self-directed training). We assessed body composition, muscle strength and quality, and physical function at pre-, after 8 weeks (mid-) and 18 weeks (post-training). After the intervention, there were no significant changes in skeletal muscle index, fat free mass, total lean mass and total fat mass for both the control group and intervention group. However, the interaction effect was significantly different in SPPB score (P < 0.05), isokinetic strength (60 deg/s, P < 0.001; 120 deg/s; P < 0.05) and muscle quality (P < 0.05) after 18 weeks of intervention relative to the baseline of the control and intervention groups. The supervised elastic band training of 8 weeks did not improve short physical performance battery score and isokinetic strength, whereas there was a significant increase of those outcomes (10.6% improvement, 9.8~23.5% improvement) after 10 weeks of following self-directed exercise compared with the baseline. These results show the effectiveness of following self-directed resistance training with health education after supervised training cessation in improvement of short physical performance battery and leg muscle strength. This intervention program might be an effective method to promote muscle strength and quality, and to prevent frailty in elderly women. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 825-833. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. Role of maximal inspiratory presure in the evaluetion of respiratory muscle strength in asthmatics - Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante Marcelino, Alessandra M F; da Silva, Hilton Justino

    2010-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic illness of the airways that can reduce respiratory muscle strength due to the resulting hyperinflation or treatment with corticosteroids. One of the ways to evaluate this respiratory muscular weakness is the Maximal Inspiratory Pressure (PImax). A systematic review of the databases PUBMED/MEDLINE, LILACS and SCIELO was carried through, using the key words: Asthma, respiratory muscle and muscle strength. Fifty were found and six articles that evaluated the PImax in asthmatics, from these, thirty were excluded, making a total of twenty six articles. Through the present revision we show the effectiveness of PImax in evaluating respiratory muscle strength in asthmatics. More studies are needed, however, fot better understanding of the asthmatic individual. Rev Port Pneumol 2010; XVI (3): 463-470. © 2010 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia/SPP.

  2. Randomized control trial to evaluate the effects of acute testosterone administration in men on muscle mass, strength, and physical function following ACL reconstructive surgery: rationale, design, methods.

    PubMed

    Wu, Brian W; Berger, Max; Sum, Jonathan C; Hatch, George F; Schroeder, E Todd

    2014-12-06

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of four major ligaments in the knee that provide stability during physical activity. A tear in the ACL is characterized by joint instability that leads to decreased activity, knee dysfunction, reduced quality of life and a loss of muscle mass and strength. While rehabilitation is the standard-of-care for return to daily function, additional surgical reconstruction can provide individuals with an opportunity to return to sports and strenuous physical activity. Over 200,000 ACL reconstructions are performed in the United States each year, and rehabilitation following surgery is slow and expensive. One possible method to improve the recovery process is the use of intramuscular testosterone, which has been shown to increase muscle mass and strength independent of exercise. With short-term use of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone, we hope to reduce loss of muscle mass and strength and minimize loss of physical function following ACL reconstruction compared to standard-of-care alone. This study is a double-blinded randomized control trial. Men 18-50 years of age, scheduled for ACL reconstruction are randomized into two groups. Participants randomized to the testosterone group receive intramuscular testosterone administration once per week for 8 weeks starting 2 weeks prior to surgery. Participants randomized to the control group receive a saline placebo intramuscularly instead of testosterone. Lean mass, muscle strength and physical function are measured at 5 time points: 2 weeks pre-surgery, 1 day pre-surgery, and 6, 12, 24 weeks post-surgery. Both groups follow standard-of-care rehabilitation protocol. We believe that testosterone therapy will help reduce the loss of muscle mass and strength experienced after ACL injury and reconstruction. Hopefully this will provide a way to shorten the rehabilitation necessary following ACL reconstruction. If successful, testosterone therapy may also be used for other injuries

  3. Muscle strength differ between patients with diabetes and controls following heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Boban, Marko; Barisic, Mijana; Persic, Viktor; Zekanovic, Drazen; Medved, Igor; Zulj, Marinko; Vcev, Aleskandar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze muscle strength in patients with recent surgical treatment for ischemic and combined ischemic-valvular heart disease, based on existence of diabetes mellitus. Connections existing between muscle strength and patient characteristics or conventional diagnostic tests were analyzed as well. Study prospectively included consecutive patients scheduled for cardiovascular rehabilitation 0-3months after heart surgery. Diagnostics covered drug utilization, anthropometrics, demographics, echocardiography, conventional laboratory, echocardiography, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and hand grip test (HGT). HGT was analyzed for dominant hand. Patients with diabetes had significantly weaker muscle strength on HGT than controls; 29.4±12.2kg vs. 38.2±14.7kg (p=0.029), respectively. ROC analysis for HGT and existence of diabetes mellitus were significant; ≤40kg had sensitivity of 89.7% (95%CI: 72.6-97.8), specificity 43.7% (31.9-56.0); AUC 0.669 (0.568-0.760); p=0.002. HGT significantly correlated with hematocrit (Rho CC=0.247; p=0.013), whilst other laboratory or echocardiographic parameters were insignificant (all p>0.05). HGT also correlated with body weight (Rho CC=0.510; p<0.001); height (Rho CC=0.632; p<0.001); waist circumference (Rho CC=0.388; p<0.001); waist-to-hip ratio (Rho CC=0.274; p=0.006) and BIA (Rho CC=-0.412; p<0.001). In postoperative recovery of patients with diabetes, muscle strength assessed by HGT is decreased and in relation with nutritional status. Clinically resourceful connections of HGT were also found to hematocrit and utilization of loop diuretics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Muscle strength and physical performance as predictors of mortality, hospitalization, and disability in the oldest old.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Delphine; Vaes, Bert; Matheï, Catharina; Adriaensen, Wim; Van Pottelbergh, Gijs; Degryse, Jean-Marie

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of muscle strength and physical performance in the oldest old for all-cause mortality; hospitalization; and the onset of disability, defined as a decline in activities of daily living (ADLs), independent of muscle mass, inflammatory markers, and comorbidities. A prospective, observational, population-based follow-up study. Three well-circumscribed areas of Belgium. Five hundred sixty participants aged 80 and older were followed for 33.5 months (interquartile range 31.1-35.6 months). Grip strength, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score, and muscle mass were measured at baseline; ADLs at baseline and after 20 months; and all-cause mortality and time to first hospitalization from inclusion onward. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models were calculated for all-cause mortality and hospitalization. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine predictors of decline in ADLs. Kaplan-Meier curves showed significantly higher all-cause mortality and hospitalization in subjects in the lowest tertile of grip strength and SPPB score. The adjusted Cox proportional hazards model showed that participants with high grip strength or a high SPPB score had a lower risk of mortality and hospitalization, independent of muscle mass, inflammatory markers, and comorbidity. A relationship was found between SPPB score and decline in ADLs, independent of muscle mass, inflammation, and comorbidity. In people aged 80 and older, physical performance is a strong predictor of mortality, hospitalization, and disability, and muscle strength is a strong predictor of mortality and hospitalization. All of these relationships were independent of muscle mass, inflammatory markers, and comorbidity. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Strength Training with Repetitions to Failure does not Provide Additional Strength and Muscle Hypertrophy Gains in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Martorelli, Saulo; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Izquierdo, Mikel; Celes, Rodrigo; Martorelli, André; Cleto, Vitor Alonso; Alvarenga, José Gustavo; Bottaro, Martim

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 10-week resistance training to failure on neuromuscular adaptations in young women. Eighty-nine active young women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) repetitions to failure (RF; three sets of repetitions to failure); 2) repetitions not to failure with equalized volume (RNFV; four sets of 7 repetitions); and 3) repetitions not to failure (RNF; three sets of 7 repetitions). All groups performed the elbow flexor exercise (bilateral biceps curl) and trained 2 days per week using 70% of 1RM. There were significant increases (p<0.05) in muscle strength after 5 (15.9% for RF, 18.4% for RNF, and 19.9% for RNFV) and 10 (28.3% for RF, 26.8% for RNF, and 28.3% for RNFV) weeks of training, with no significant differences between groups. Additionally, muscular endurance increased after 5 and 10 weeks, with no differences between groups. However, peak torque (PT) increased significantly at 180°.s-1 in the RNFV (13.7%) and RNF (4.1%) groups (p<0.05), whereas no changes were observed in the RF group (-0.5%). Muscle thickness increased significantly (p<0.05) in the RF and RNFV groups after 5 (RF: 8.4% and RNFV: 2.3%) and 10 weeks of training (RF: 17.5%, and RNFV: 8.5%), whereas no significant changes were observed in the RNF group (3.9 and 2.1% after 5 and 10 weeks, respectively). These data suggest that short-term training of repetitions to failure do not yield additional overall neuromuscular improvements in young women. PMID:28713535

  6. Sarcopenia, dynapenia, and the impact of advancing age on human skeletal muscle size and strength; a quantitative review.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, W Kyle; Williams, John; Atherton, Philip; Larvin, Mike; Lund, John; Narici, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Changing demographics make it ever more important to understand the modifiable risk factors for disability and loss of independence with advancing age. For more than two decades there has been increasing interest in the role of sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle or lean mass, in curtailing active and healthy aging. There is now evidence to suggest that lack of strength, or dynapenia, is a more constant factor in compromised wellbeing in old age and it is apparent that the decline in muscle mass and the decline in strength can take quite different trajectories. This demands recognition of the concept of muscle quality; that is the force generating per capacity per unit cross-sectional area (CSA). An understanding of the impact of aging on skeletal muscle will require attention to both the changes in muscle size and the changes in muscle quality. The aim of this review is to present current knowledge of the decline in human muscle mass and strength with advancing age and the associated risk to health and survival and to review the underlying changes in muscle characteristics and the etiology of sarcopenia. Cross-sectional studies comparing young (18-45 years) and old (>65 years) samples show dramatic variation based on the technique used and population studied. The median of values of rate of loss reported across studies is 0.47% per year in men and 0.37% per year in women. Longitudinal studies show that in people aged 75 years, muscle mass is lost at a rate of 0.64-0.70% per year in women and 0.80-00.98% per year in men. Strength is lost more rapidly. Longitudinal studies show that at age 75 years, strength is lost at a rate of 3-4% per year in men and 2.5-3% per year in women. Studies that assessed changes in mass and strength in the same sample report a loss of strength 2-5 times faster than loss of mass. Loss of strength is a more consistent risk for disability and death than is loss of muscle mass.

  7. Sarcopenia, Dynapenia, and the Impact of Advancing Age on Human Skeletal Muscle Size and Strength; a Quantitative Review

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, W. Kyle; Williams, John; Atherton, Philip; Larvin, Mike; Lund, John; Narici, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Changing demographics make it ever more important to understand the modifiable risk factors for disability and loss of independence with advancing age. For more than two decades there has been increasing interest in the role of sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle or lean mass, in curtailing active and healthy aging. There is now evidence to suggest that lack of strength, or dynapenia, is a more constant factor in compromised wellbeing in old age and it is apparent that the decline in muscle mass and the decline in strength can take quite different trajectories. This demands recognition of the concept of muscle quality; that is the force generating per capacity per unit cross-sectional area (CSA). An understanding of the impact of aging on skeletal muscle will require attention to both the changes in muscle size and the changes in muscle quality. The aim of this review is to present current knowledge of the decline in human muscle mass and strength with advancing age and the associated risk to health and survival and to review the underlying changes in muscle characteristics and the etiology of sarcopenia. Cross-sectional studies comparing young (18–45 years) and old (>65 years) samples show dramatic variation based on the technique used and population studied. The median of values of rate of loss reported across studies is 0.47% per year in men and 0.37% per year in women. Longitudinal studies show that in people aged 75 years, muscle mass is lost at a rate of 0.64–0.70% per year in women and 0.80–00.98% per year in men. Strength is lost more rapidly. Longitudinal studies show that at age 75 years, strength is lost at a rate of 3–4% per year in men and 2.5–3% per year in women. Studies that assessed changes in mass and strength in the same sample report a loss of strength 2–5 times faster than loss of mass. Loss of strength is a more consistent risk for disability and death than is loss of muscle mass. PMID:22934016

  8. Does vitamin D improve muscle strength in adults? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among ethnic minorities in Norway.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, Kirsten V; Madar, Ahmed A; Lagerløv, Per; Brekke, Mette; Raastad, Truls; Stene, Lars C; Meyer, Haakon E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of vitamin D on muscle strength in adults is not established. Our objective was to test whether vitamin D supplementation increases muscle strength and power compared with placebo. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The setting was immigrants' activity centers. Two hundred fifty-one healthy adult males and females aged 18-50 years with non-Western immigrant background performed the baseline test and 86% returned to the follow-up test. Sixteen weeks of daily supplementation with 25 μg (1000 IU) vitamin D3, 10 μg (400 IU) vitamin D3, or placebo. Difference in jump height between pre- and postintervention. Secondary outcomes were differences in handgrip strength and chair-rising test. Percentage change in jump height did not differ between those receiving vitamin D (25 or 10 μg vitamin D3) and those receiving placebo (mean difference -1.4%, 95% confidence interval: -4.9% to 2.2%, P=.44). No significant effect was detected in the subgroup randomized to 25 μg vitamin D or in other preplanned subgroup analyses nor were there any significant differences in handgrip strength or the chair-rising test. Mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration increased from 27 to 52 nmol/L and from 27 to 43 nmol/L in the 25 and 10 μg supplementation groups, respectively, whereas serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 did not change in the placebo group. Daily supplementation with 25 or 10 μg vitamin D3 for 16 weeks did not improve muscle strength or power measured by the jump test, handgrip test, or chair-rising test in this population with low baseline vitamin D status.

  9. The healthy Nordic diet predicts muscle strength 10 years later in old women, but not old men.

    PubMed

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Rantanen, Taina; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Eriksson, Johan G

    2017-07-01

    a number of nutrients have been found to be associated with better muscle strength and mass; however, the role of the whole diet on muscle strength and mass remains still unknown. to examine whether the healthy Nordic diet predicts muscle strength, and mass 10 years later among men and women. about 1,072 participants belong to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934-44. Diet was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire during 2001-04. The Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits, vegetables, cereals, ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids, low-fat milk, fish, red meat, total fat and alcohol. Higher scores indicated better adherence to the healthy Nordic diet. Hand grip strength, leg strength (knee extension) and muscle mass were measured during the follow-up, between 2011 and 2013. in women, each 1-unit increase in the NDS was related to 1.83 N greater leg strength (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14-3.51; P = 0.034), and 1.44 N greater hand grip strength (95% CI: 0.04-2.84; P = 0.044). Women in the highest quartile of the NDS had on average 20.0 N greater knee extension results, and 14.2 N greater hand grip results than those in the lowest quartile. No such associations were observed among men. The NDS was not significantly related to muscle mass either in men or women. adherence to the healthy Nordic diet seems to protect from weaker muscle strength in old women. Therefore, the healthy Nordic diet may help to prevent disability. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Effects of high-intensity interval cycling performed after resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Tsitkanou, S; Spengos, K; Stasinaki, A-N; Zaras, N; Bogdanis, G; Papadimas, G; Terzis, G

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval cycling performed immediately after resistance training would inhibit muscle strength increase and hypertrophy expected from resistance training per se. Twenty-two young men were assigned into either resistance training (RE; N = 11) or resistance training plus high-intensity interval cycling (REC; N = 11). Lower body muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle architecture, muscle fiber type composition and capillarization, and estimated aerobic capacity were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training (2 times per week). Muscle strength and quadriceps CSA were significantly and similarly increased after both interventions. Fiber CSA increased significantly and similarly after both RE (type I: 13.6 ± 3.7%, type IIA: 17.6 ± 4.4%, type IIX: 23.2 ± 5.7%, P < 0.05) and REC (type I: 10.0 ± 2.7%, type IIA: 14.8 ± 4.3% type IIX: 20.8 ± 6.0%, P < 0.05). In contrast, RFD decreased and fascicle angle increased (P < 0.05) only after REC. Capillary density and estimated aerobic capacity increased (P < 0.05) only after REC. These results suggest that high-intensity interval cycling performed after heavy-resistance exercise may not inhibit resistance exercise-induced muscle strength/hypertrophy after 2 months of training, while it prompts aerobic capacity and muscle capillarization. The addition of high-intensity cycling after heavy-resistance exercise may decrease RFD partly due to muscle architectural changes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Relationships Between Lower-Body Muscle Structure and Lower-Body Strength, Power, and Muscle-Tendon Complex Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Secomb, Josh L; Lundgren, Lina E; Farley, Oliver R L; Tran, Tai T; Nimphius, Sophia; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether any relationships were present between lower-body muscle structure and strength and power qualities. Fifteen elite male surfing athletes performed a battery of lower-body strength and power tests, including countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), isometric midthigh pull (IMTP), and had their lower-body muscle structure assessed with ultrasonography. In addition, lower-body muscle-tendon complex (MTC) stiffness and dynamic strength deficit (DSD) ratio were calculated from the CMJ and IMTP. Significant relationships of large to very large strength were observed between the vastus lateralis (VL) thickness of the left (LVL) and right (RVL) leg and peak force (PF) (r = 0.54-0.77, p < 0.01-0.04), peak velocity (PV) (r = 0.66-0.83, p < 0.01), and peak jump height (r = 0.62-0.80, p < 0.01) in the CMJ and SJ, as well as IMTP PF (r = 0.53-0.60, p = 0.02-0.04). Furthermore, large relationships were found between left lateral gastrocnemius (LG) pennation angle and SJ and IMTP PF (r = 0.53, p = 0.04, and r = 0.70, p < 0.01, respectively) and between LG and IMTP relative PF (r = 0.63, p = 0.01). Additionally, large relationships were identified between lower-body MTC stiffness and DSD ratio (r = 0.68, p < 0.01), right (LG) pennation angle (r = 0.51, p = 0.05), CMJ PF (r = 0.60, p = 0.02), and jump height (r = 0.53, p = 0.04). These results indicate that greater VL thickness and increased LG pennation angle are related to improved performance in the CMJ, SJ, and IMTP. Furthermore, these results suggest that lower-body MTC stiffness explains a large amount of variance in determining an athlete's ability to rapidly apply force during a dynamic movement.

  12. Knee Joint Contact Mechanics during Downhill Gait and its Relationship with Varus/Valgus Motion and Muscle Strength in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhi, Shawn; Voycheck, Carrie A.; Gustafson, Jonathan A.; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley; Tashman, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate tibiofemoral joint contact point excursions and velocities during downhill gait and assess the relationship between tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics with frontal-plane knee joint motion and lower extremity muscle weakness in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Dynamic stereo X-ray was used to quantify tibiofemoral joint contact mechanics and frontal-plane motion during the loading response phase of downhill gait in 11 patients with knee OA and 11 control volunteers. Quantitative testing of the quadriceps and the hip abductor muscles was also performed. Group differences in contact mechanics and frontal-plane motion excursions were compared using analysis of covariance with adjustments for body mass index. Differences in strength were compared using independent sample t-tests. Additionally, linear associations between contact mechanics with frontal-plane knee motion and muscle strength were evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Results Patients with knee OA demonstrated larger medial/lateral joint contact point excursions (p<0.02) and greater