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Sample records for grow incentives boost

  1. Incentives can boost productivity, revenues.

    PubMed

    2008-10-01

    Monitoring documentation procedures closely, and providing a financial incentive for your physicians to improve their documentation practices, literally can save your hospital hundreds of thousands of dollars. Here are some keys to establishing such a program: Have coders review charts, determine what the doctor should have documented, and how much money was "left on the table." Provide this data to your physicians on a monthly basis, and show them how they compare to the rest of the department. Set up a compensation structure in which the doctors receive not only a base hourly rate, but a percentage of what is collected.

  2. Performance Incentives: Their Growing Impact on American K-12 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of "pay for performance" for public school teachers is once again growing in popularity and use. U.S. education is now at a critical juncture that requires thoughtful and informed consideration of this policy innovation. "Performance Incentives" offers the most up-to-date and complete analysis yet of the…

  3. Performance Incentives: Their Growing Impact on American K-12 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of "pay for performance" for public school teachers is once again growing in popularity and use. U.S. education is now at a critical juncture that requires thoughtful and informed consideration of this policy innovation. "Performance Incentives" offers the most up-to-date and complete analysis yet of the…

  4. Can Lottery Incentives Boost Web Survey Response Rates? Findings from Four Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laguilles, Jerold S.; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Saunders, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    Institutions of higher education rely on student surveys for a number of purposes, including planning, assessment, and research. Web surveys are especially prevalent given their ease of use and low-cost; yet, obtaining a high response rate is a challenge. Although researchers have investigated the use of incentives in traditional mail surveys,…

  5. Reducing Ventral Tegmental Dopamine D2 Receptor Expression Selectively Boosts Incentive Motivation.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Johannes W; Roelofs, Theresia J M; Mol, Frédérique M U; Hillen, Anne E J; Meijboom, Katharina E; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; van der Eerden, Harrie A M; Garner, Keith M; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Adan, Roger A H

    2015-08-01

    Altered mesolimbic dopamine signaling has been widely implicated in addictive behavior. For the most part, this work has focused on dopamine within the striatum, but there is emerging evidence for a role of the auto-inhibitory, somatodendritic dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in addiction. Thus, decreased midbrain D2R expression has been implicated in addiction in humans. Moreover, knockout of the gene encoding the D2R receptor (Drd2) in dopamine neurons has been shown to enhance the locomotor response to cocaine in mice. Therefore, we here tested the hypothesis that decreasing D2R expression in the VTA of adult rats, using shRNA knockdown, promotes addiction-like behavior in rats responding for cocaine or palatable food. Rats with decreased VTA D2R expression showed markedly increased motivation for both sucrose and cocaine under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement, but the acquisition or maintenance of cocaine self-administration were not affected. They also displayed enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor activity, but no change in basal locomotion. This robust increase in incentive motivation was behaviorally specific, as we did not observe any differences in fixed ratio responding, extinction responding, reinstatement or conditioned suppression of cocaine, and sucrose seeking. We conclude that VTA D2R knockdown results in increased incentive motivation, but does not directly promote other aspects of addiction-like behavior.

  6. Reducing Ventral Tegmental Dopamine D2 Receptor Expression Selectively Boosts Incentive Motivation

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Johannes W; Roelofs, Theresia J M; Mol, Frédérique M U; Hillen, Anne E J; Meijboom, Katharina E; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; van der Eerden, Harrie A M; Garner, Keith M; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Adan, Roger A H

    2015-01-01

    Altered mesolimbic dopamine signaling has been widely implicated in addictive behavior. For the most part, this work has focused on dopamine within the striatum, but there is emerging evidence for a role of the auto-inhibitory, somatodendritic dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in addiction. Thus, decreased midbrain D2R expression has been implicated in addiction in humans. Moreover, knockout of the gene encoding the D2R receptor (Drd2) in dopamine neurons has been shown to enhance the locomotor response to cocaine in mice. Therefore, we here tested the hypothesis that decreasing D2R expression in the VTA of adult rats, using shRNA knockdown, promotes addiction-like behavior in rats responding for cocaine or palatable food. Rats with decreased VTA D2R expression showed markedly increased motivation for both sucrose and cocaine under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement, but the acquisition or maintenance of cocaine self-administration were not affected. They also displayed enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor activity, but no change in basal locomotion. This robust increase in incentive motivation was behaviorally specific, as we did not observe any differences in fixed ratio responding, extinction responding, reinstatement or conditioned suppression of cocaine, and sucrose seeking. We conclude that VTA D2R knockdown results in increased incentive motivation, but does not directly promote other aspects of addiction-like behavior. PMID:25735756

  7. Lipopolysaccharide reduces incentive motivation while boosting preference for high reward in mice.

    PubMed

    Vichaya, Elisabeth G; Hunt, Sarah C; Dantzer, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Inflammation has been implicated in the development of various psychiatric disorders, including depression. However, the neurobehavioral mechanism involved in this relationship remains elusive. This gap in knowledge may best be filled by evaluating elementary neurobehavioral units affected by inflammation rather than behavioral changes in conventional animal tests of depression. To this end, the current study used a concurrent choice paradigm to evaluate inflammation-induced motivational changes. Male C57BL/6J mice (n=27) were food restricted to between 85 and 90% of their free-feeding weight and were trained to perform a concurrent choice task where they nose-poked for grain rewards on a fixed ratio (FR) 1 schedule (low effort/low reward) and chocolate-flavored rewards on a FR-10 schedule (high effort/high reward). A counterbalanced-within subjects design was used. A single intraperitoneal injection of 0.33 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce peripheral inflammation. Twenty-four hours after LPS administration, mice showed a reduction in the total number of nose pokes. A proportionally greater reduction in nose pokes was observed for grain, resulting in an increase in percent chocolate pellets earned. These behavioral changes cannot be explained by reduced appetite as feeding before the test led to a similar increase in percent chocolate pellets earned but without any decrease in responding. These results indicate that inflammation modulates incentive motivation by affecting willingness to exert effort for reward and not by reducing sensitivity to reward.

  8. Longer growing seasons and warm summers boost Rhododendron ferrugineum L. growth in the Taillefer massif (French Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francon, Loïc; Corona, Christophe; Roussel, Erwan; Lopez Saez, Jerome; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Rhododendron ferrugineum L. is an important and widespread dwarf shrub species growing in high-elevation, alpine environments of the Western European Alps. As such, it is likely to offer unique opportunities which would allow pushing current dendrochronological networks into extreme environments and way beyond the upper survival limit of trees. Given that different species of the same genus have been successfully used in tree-ring investigations, notably in the Himalayas where Rhododendron sp. has proven to be a reliable climate proxy, this study aims at (i) evaluating the dendroclimatological potential of the widely distributed R. ferrugineum and at (ii) determining the major limiting climate factor driving species growth and the formation of rings. To this end, 154 cross-sections from 36 R. ferrugineum individuals have been sampled above local treelines and at elevations comprised between 1800 and 2100 m asl on NW-facing slopes of the Taillefer massif (French Alps). We illustrate a 195-year-long standard chronology based on growth-ring records selected from 24 individuals, and document that the series is well-replicated for almost one century (1920-2015) with an Expressed Population Signal (EPS) >0.85. Analysis using partial and seasonal correlation functions further highlight that growth of Rhododendron is governed by temperatures during the growing season (May-July), with increasingly higher air temperatures favoring larger ring widths, a phenomenon which is well known from dwarf shrubs growing in circum-arctic tundra ecosystems. Similarly, the negative effect of January-February precipitation on radial growth of R. ferrugineum, rarely observed in the Arctic, is interpreted as a result of reduced growing seasons following snowy winters. We conclude that the strong and unequivocal signals recorded in the fairly long R. ferrugineum chronologies presented here can indeed be used for climate-growth studies as well as for the reconstruction of climatic fluctuations

  9. GET POKED: Comparing an Incentive-Based Flu Campaign with Vaccinate-or-Mask Policies to Boost Influenza Vaccination Rates Among Healthcare Workers.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Seema; Lorv, Bailey; Henseleit, Susanne; Iroanyah, Ngozi

    2016-01-01

    The median influenza vaccination rate for Toronto acute care facilities in 2013/14 was only 44%, well below the target rate of 90%. While many Toronto hospitals adopted a vaccinate-or-mask policy, Trillium Health Partners (THP) opted to create a multimodal incentives-based flu campaign entitled GET POKED. This campaign, which required significant additional resourcing, only increased our vaccination rate by 10%. While having some modest success, we believe it is unlikely that non-policy based interventions will efficiently and sustainably raise flu vaccine rates. Vaccinate-or-mask policies, while having some inherent challenges, may be worth exploring as part of THP's larger flu-prevention strategy.

  10. Photovoltaic Incentive Design Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, T. E.

    2006-12-01

    Investments in customer-owned grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are growing at a steady pace. This is due, in part, to the availability of attractive economic incentives offered by public state agencies and utilities. In the United States, these incentives have largely been upfront lump payments tied to the system capacity rating. While capacity-based ''buydowns'' have stimulated the domestic PV market, they have been criticized for subsidizing systems with potentially poor energy performance. As a result, the industry has been forced to consider alternative incentive structures, particularly ones that pay based on long-term measured performance. The industry, however, lacks consensus in the debate over the tradeoffs between upfront incentive payments versus longer-term payments for energy delivery. This handbook is designed for agencies and utilities that offer or intend to offer incentive programs for customer-owned PV systems. Its purpose is to help select, design, and implement incentive programs that best meet programmatic goals. The handbook begins with a discussion of the various available incentive structures and then provides qualitative and quantitative tools necessary to design the most appropriate incentive structure. It concludes with program administration considerations.

  11. Effect of Incentives and Mailing Features on Online Health Program Enrollment

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Gwen L.; Divine, George W.; Couper, Mick P.; McClure, Jennifer B.; Stopponi, Melanie A.; Fortman, Kristine K.; Tolsma, Dennis D.; Strecher, Victor J.; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2008-01-01

    Background With the growing use of Internet-based interventions, strategies are needed to encourage broader participation. This study examined the effects of combinations of monetary incentives and mailing characteristics on enrollment, retention, and cost effectiveness for an online health program. Methods In 2004, a recruitment letter was mailed to randomly selected Midwestern integrated health system members aged 21–65 and stratified by gender and race/ethnicity; recipients were randomly pre-assigned to one of 24 combinations of incentives and various mailing characteristics. Enrollment and 3-month retention rates were measured by completion of online surveys. Analysis, completed in 2005, compared enrollment and retention factors using t tests and chi-square tests. Multivariate logistic regression modeling assessed the probability of enrollment and retention. Results Of 12,289 subjects, 531 (4.3%) enrolled online, ranging from 1% to 11% by incentive combination. Highest enrollment occurred with unconditional incentives, and responses varied by gender. Retention rates ranged from 0% to 100%, with highest retention linked to higher-value incentives. The combination of a $2 bill prepaid incentive and the promise of $20 for retention (10% enrollment and 71% retention) was optimal, considering per-subject recruitment costs ($32 enrollment, $70 retention) and equivalent enrollment by gender and race/ethnicity. Conclusions Cash incentives improved enrollment in an online health program. Men and women responded differently to mailing characteristics and incentives. Including a small prepaid monetary incentive ($2 or $5) and revealing the higher promised-retention incentive was cost effective and boosted enrollment. PMID:18407004

  12. Bioethical Issues in Providing Financial Incentives to Research Participants.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2015-06-24

    Offering research subjects financial incentives for their participation is a common practice that boosts recruitment but also raises ethical concerns, such as undue inducement, exploitation, and biased enrollment. This article reviews the arguments for providing participants with financial incentives, ethical concerns about payment, and approaches to establishing appropriate compensation levels. It also makes recommendations for investigators, institutions, and oversight committees.

  13. Bioethical Issues in Providing Financial Incentives to Research Participants

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Offering research subjects financial incentives for their participation is a common practice that boosts recruitment but also raises ethical concerns, such as undue inducement, exploitation, and biased enrollment. This article reviews the arguments for providing participants with financial incentives, ethical concerns about payment, and approaches to establishing appropriate compensation levels. It also makes recommendations for investigators, institutions, and oversight committees. PMID:26807399

  14. Using Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the ethical implications of using incentives to encourage and recognise youth participation in research. While the complexity of research projects and the diversity of research subjects necessarily preclude simple solutions, the author argues that social research can successfully and ethically use a mix of extrinsic and…

  15. Using Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the ethical implications of using incentives to encourage and recognise youth participation in research. While the complexity of research projects and the diversity of research subjects necessarily preclude simple solutions, the author argues that social research can successfully and ethically use a mix of extrinsic and…

  16. Estimating Acceptability of Financial Health Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Seitz, Holli H.; Halpern, Scott D.; Volpp, Kevin; Cappella, Joseph N.

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that financial incentives can influence health behavior change, but research on the public acceptability of these programs and factors that predict public support have been limited. A representative sample of U.S. adults (N = 526) were randomly assigned to receive an incentive program description in which the…

  17. Improving medicaid health incentives programs: lessons from substance abuse treatment research.

    PubMed

    Hand, Dennis J; Heil, Sarah H; Sigmon, Stacey C; Higgins, Stephen T

    2014-06-01

    This commentary addresses the efforts of Medicaid programs in several US states to employ financial incentives to increase healthy behavior among their beneficiaries. While these Medicaid incentive programs have been successful at boosting rates of less effortful behaviors, like semiannual dental visits, they have fallen short in promoting more complex behaviors, like smoking cessation, drug abstinence, and weight management. Incentives have been extensively studied as a treatment for substance use disorders for over 20years, with good success. We identify two variables shown by meta-analysis to moderate the efficacy of incentive interventions in substance abuse treatment, the immediacy of incentive delivery and size (or magnitude) of the incentive, that are lacking in current Medicaid incentive program. We also offer some guidance on how these moderating variables could be addressed within Medicaid programs. This is a critical time for such analysis, as more than 10 states are employing incentives in their Medicaid programs, and some are currently reevaluating their incentive strategies.

  18. Incentives to promote family planning

    PubMed Central

    Heil, Sarah H.; Gaalema, Diann E.; Herrmann, Evan S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Method Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Results Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Conclusion Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. PMID:22743293

  19. Incentives to promote family planning.

    PubMed

    Heil, Sarah H; Gaalema, Diann E; Herrmann, Evan S

    2012-11-01

    Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Incentives for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Kate; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Perera, Rafael

    2015-05-18

    -up (up to 24 weeks post-partum) of 3.60 (95% CI 2.39 to 5.43; 1295 participants, moderate-quality studies) in favour of incentives. Three of the trials demonstrated a clear benefit for contingent rewards; one delivered monthly vouchers to confirmed quitters and to their designated 'significant other supporter', achieving a quit rate in the intervention group of 21.4% at two months post-partum, compared with 5.9% among the controls. Another trial offered a scaled programme of rewards for the percentage of smoking reduction achieved over the course of the 12-week intervention, and achieved an intervention quit rate of 31% at six weeks post-partum, compared with no quitters in the control group. The largest (UK-based) trial provided intervention quitters with up to GBP 400-worth of vouchers, and achieved a quit rate of 15.4% at longest follow-up, compared to the control quit rate of 4%. Four trials confirmed that payments made to reward a successful quit attempt (i.e. contingent), compared to fixed payments for attending the antenatal appointment (non-contingent), resulted in higher quit rates. Front-loading of rewards to counteract early withdrawal symptoms made little difference to quit rates. Incentives appear to boost cessation rates while they are in place. The two trials recruiting from work sites that achieved sustained success rates beyond the reward schedule concentrated their resources into substantial cash payments for abstinence. Such an approach may only be feasible where independently-funded smoking cessation programmes are already available, and within a relatively affluent and educated population. Deposit-refund trials can suffer from relatively low rates of uptake, but those who do sign up and contribute their own money may achieve higher quit rates than reward-only participants. Incentive schemes conducted among pregnant smokers improved the cessation rates, both at the end-of-pregnancy and post-partum assessments. Current and future research might

  1. The Relationship of Financial Incentives and Consumers' Willingness to Disclose Information to eCommerce Marketers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pourhosseini, Parissa

    2009-01-01

    In this study the problem examined was a lack of research based information on the degree to which incentives can be used to encourage consumers to volunteer private information. The purpose of this study was to determine if monetary incentives would be a beneficial means to increase consumers' involvement in eCommerce and thereby boost the growth…

  2. The Relationship of Financial Incentives and Consumers' Willingness to Disclose Information to eCommerce Marketers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pourhosseini, Parissa

    2009-01-01

    In this study the problem examined was a lack of research based information on the degree to which incentives can be used to encourage consumers to volunteer private information. The purpose of this study was to determine if monetary incentives would be a beneficial means to increase consumers' involvement in eCommerce and thereby boost the growth…

  3. Effects of incentives programs

    Treesearch

    Duane L. Green

    1977-01-01

    Incentives have played an important role in forestry accomplishments on private forest lands. Direct cost-share assistance programs, such as the Forestry Incentives Program, stimulate additional accomplishments in greater proportion than their actual inputs. Two States currently operate their own "incentives" programs. In addition, the Pacific Northwest...

  4. Videogames: Multisensory Incentives Boosting Multiple Intelligences in Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Moral-Pérez, Mª Esther; Fernández-García, Laura Carlota; Guzmán-Duque, Alba Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Our research focused on studying the extent to which the planned, systematic use of educational videogames can result in the generation of learning contexts conducive to developing Multiple Intelligences (MIs) amongst schoolchildren. Methodology: A twofold methodological approach was adopted: a) qualitative: previous assessment and…

  5. Videogames: Multisensory Incentives Boosting Multiple Intelligences in Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Moral-Pérez, Mª Esther; Fernández-García, Laura Carlota; Guzmán-Duque, Alba Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Our research focused on studying the extent to which the planned, systematic use of educational videogames can result in the generation of learning contexts conducive to developing Multiple Intelligences (MIs) amongst schoolchildren. Methodology: A twofold methodological approach was adopted: a) qualitative: previous assessment and…

  6. Deriving fair incentives for management of hardwood timber stands

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; W. Herrick Owen; David N. Larsen; David N. Larsen

    1973-01-01

    The authors present a practical method for deriving timber-management incentive payments and demonstrate its application in forest stands of upland hardwoods. The suggested incentive payment is based on the differences between discounted costs and returns of deliberate forest management and the "harvest and let grow" option.

  7. LDA boost classification: boosting by topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, La; Qiao, Guo; Qimin, Cao; Qitao, Li

    2012-12-01

    AdaBoost is an efficacious classification algorithm especially in text categorization (TC) tasks. The methodology of setting up a classifier committee and voting on the documents for classification can achieve high categorization precision. However, traditional Vector Space Model can easily lead to the curse of dimensionality and feature sparsity problems; so it affects classification performance seriously. This article proposed a novel classification algorithm called LDABoost based on boosting ideology which uses Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to modeling the feature space. Instead of using words or phrase, LDABoost use latent topics as the features. In this way, the feature dimension is significantly reduced. Improved Naïve Bayes (NB) is designed as the weaker classifier which keeps the efficiency advantage of classic NB algorithm and has higher precision. Moreover, a two-stage iterative weighted method called Cute Integration in this article is proposed for improving the accuracy by integrating weak classifiers into strong classifier in a more rational way. Mutual Information is used as metrics of weights allocation. The voting information and the categorization decision made by basis classifiers are fully utilized for generating the strong classifier. Experimental results reveals LDABoost making categorization in a low-dimensional space, it has higher accuracy than traditional AdaBoost algorithms and many other classic classification algorithms. Moreover, its runtime consumption is lower than different versions of AdaBoost, TC algorithms based on support vector machine and Neural Networks.

  8. Crime and Economic Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Stephen; Meghir, Costas

    2004-01-01

    The role that economic incentives play in determining crime rates is explored. A number of experiments were carried out with different wage measures and the result that incentives were the most important factor was reinforced by the strong impact of crime of deterrence measures and of a measure of the returns to crime.

  9. Incentives from Curriculum Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koerselman, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I…

  10. Incentives from Curriculum Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koerselman, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I…

  11. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  12. Rewards and Performance Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigon, Jack

    1994-01-01

    Discusses rewards and performance incentives for employees, including types of rewards; how rewards help in managing; dysfunctional awards; selecting the right reward; how to find rewards that fit; and delivering rewards effectively. Examples are included. (three references) (LRW)

  13. Fertility incentives and disincentives.

    PubMed

    Financioglu, N

    1984-06-01

    Some 40 countries use some form of incentives and disincentives in support of population policies, about half with the aim of reducing fertility and half with the aim of increasing it. These schemes range from limitations on tax and family allowances or maternity benefits after a given family size has been reached to payments to acceptors of fertility control methods. Some schemes aim to eliminate or reduce the cost and inconvenience people may face in achieving their fertility preferences, whereas others contain an element of deterrence. It is difficult to isolate and measure the impact of incentives on fertility from the effects of other factors such as family planning service availability or modernization. Studies in pronatalist countries suggest that incentive schemes produce short-term fertility increases without a change in average family size. Monetary incentives must be constantly increased to keep pace with inflation, placing a heavy burden on government budgets. Administrative capacity to operate the scheme is critical in terms of both manpower and efficient systems for record keeping, monitoring, and close supervision to prevent abuse. There is also considerable debate on the moral and ethical implications of incentives and disincentives as policy tools. Incentives offered for the acceptance of a particular fertility control method potentially contravene the principle of voluntary and informed consent. In addition, the relative value of the reward is greater for those in the lower income groups. The discriminatory nature of certain types of incentives and disincentives is illustrated by measures introduced in Singapore that give highest priority in school enrollment to the children of highly educated mothers with 2-3 children. This ruling is expected to further intensify the controversy surrounding incentive and disincentive schemes.

  14. Online Bagging and Boosting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunji C.

    2005-01-01

    Bagging and boosting are two of the most well-known ensemble learning methods due to their theoretical performance guarantees and strong experimental results. However, these algorithms have been used mainly in batch mode, i.e., they require the entire training set to be available at once and, in some cases, require random access to the data. In this paper, we present online versions of bagging and boosting that require only one pass through the training data. We build on previously presented work by presenting some theoretical results. We also compare the online and batch algorithms experimentally in terms of accuracy and running time.

  15. Hypersonic Boost Glider

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1957-04-15

    Hypersonic Boost Glider in 11 Inch Hypersonic Tunnel L57-1681 In 1957 Langley tested its HYWARDS design in the 11 Inch Hypersonic Tunnel. Photograph published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen. Page 369.

  16. Oxygen boost pump study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An oxygen boost pump is described which can be used to charge the high pressure oxygen tank in the extravehicular activity equipment from spacecraft supply. The only interface with the spacecraft is the +06 6.205 Pa supply line. The breadboard study results and oxygen tank survey are summarized and the results of the flight-type prototype design and analysis are presented.

  17. Can you boost your metabolism?

    MedlinePlus

    ... can ward off weight gain as you age. Alternative Names Weight-loss boost metabolism; Obesity - boost metabolism; ... Does glycogen availability influence the motivation to eat, energy intake or food choice? Sports Med . 2011;41( ...

  18. Boosted apparent horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcay, Sarp

    Boosted black holes play an important role in General Relativity (GR), especially in relation to the binary black hole problem. Solving Einstein vac- uum equations in the strong field regime had long been the holy grail of numerical relativity until the significant breakthroughs made in 2005 and 2006. Numerical relativity plays a crucial role in gravitational wave detection by providing numerically generated gravitational waveforms that help search for actual signatures of gravitational radiation exciting laser interferometric de- tectors such as LIGO, VIRGO and GEO600 here on Earth. Binary black holes orbit each other in an ever tightening adiabatic inspiral caused by energy loss due to gravitational radiation emission. As the orbits shrinks, the holes speed up and eventually move at relativistic speeds in the vicinity of each other (separated by ~ 10M or so where 2M is the Schwarzschild radius). As such, one must abandon the Newtonian notion of a point mass on a circular orbit with tangential velocity and replace it with the concept of black holes, cloaked behind spheroidal event horizons that become distorted due to strong gravity, and further appear distorted because of Lorentz effects from the high orbital velocity. Apparent horizons (AHs) are 2-dimensional boundaries that are trapped surfaces. Conceptually, one can think of them as 'quasi-local' definitions for a black hole horizon. This will be explained in more detail in chapter 2. Apparent horizons are especially important in numerical relativity as they provide a computationally efficient way of describing and locating a black hole horizon. For a stationary spacetime, apparent horizons are 2-dimensional cross-sections of the event horizon, which is itself a 3-dimensional null surface in spacetime. Because an AH is a 2-dimensional cross-section of an event horizon, its area remains invariant under distortions due to Lorentz boosts although its shape changes. This fascinating property of the AH can be

  19. Incentive Funding Meets Incentive-Based Budgeting: Can They Coexist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Daniel W.

    2016-01-01

    Two major developments in the financial management of higher education have occurred more or less contemporaneously: incentive or performance funding on the part of government and incentive-based budgeting on the part of institutions. Both are based on fiscal incentives. Despite their several inherent and interconnected similarities, incentive…

  20. Incentives for health.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Harrison, Oliver; Cooper, Cary; Jané-Llopis, Eva

    2011-08-01

    This article discusses incentives to help make healthy choices the easy choices for individuals, operating at the levels of the individual, producers and service providers, and governments. Whereas paying individuals directly to be healthier seems to have a limited effect, offering financial incentives through health insurance improves health. Changing the environment to make healthier choices more accessible acts as an incentive to improve health. Employers can provide incentives to improve the health of their employees. Producers and service providers can take voluntary action to make their products less harmful, and they can be nudged into marketing healthier products within a regulatory environment. International agreements and monitoring systems can incentivize governments to do more for health. Lessons from climate change adaptation suggest that multilevel governance and policy integration are greater obstacles to policy change and implementation than knowing what has to be done. Policy change and implementation are triggered by many drivers, many of which are side effects of other policy pressures rather than of the direct policy goal itself. Effective action to reduce noncommunicable diseases will require leveraging social networks into a new ways of thinking about health; making better health prestigious and aspirational, and giving health and wellness a brand that encourages positive behavior change.

  1. Incentives for partitioning, revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Cloninger, M.O.

    1980-03-24

    The incentives for separating and eliminating various elements from radioactive waste prior to final geologic disposal were investigated. Exposure pathways to humans were defined, and potential radiation doses to an individual living within the region of influence of the underground storage site were calculated. The assumed radionuclide source was 1/5 of the accumulated high-level waste from the US nuclear power economy through the year 2000. The repository containing the waste was assumed to be located in a reference salt site geology. The study required numerous assumptions concerning the transport of radioactivity from the geologic storage site to man. The assumptions used maximized the estimated potential radiation doses, particularly in the case of the intrusion water well scenario, where hydrologic flow field dispersion effects were ignored. Thus, incentives for removing elements from the waste tended to be maximized. Incentives were also maximized by assuming that elements removed from the waste could be eliminated from the earth without risk. The results of the study indicate that for reasonable disposal conditions, incentives for partitioning any elements from the waste in order to minimize the risk to humans are marginal at best.

  2. Cooperative Performance Incentive Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raham, Helen

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what is known about cooperative performance incentive (CPI) plans, which are award programs that offer teachers and other school staff pay bonuses for achievement of specific schoolwide educational objectives. The paper describes and compares existing CPI models worldwide, analyzes their impact on student learning and school practices,…

  3. Innovative Instructional Incentive Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banashak, Joan M.

    The Innovative Instructional Incentive Plan represents a set of goals and action strategies for implementing the school improvement plan of the Fairway Elementary School in Miramar, Florida, where instructional time was being lost due to disruptive student behavior, and where behavioral infractions were not always dealt with quickly or…

  4. Incentives for Recruiters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    promotions, with prizes for the kids: anything from football ti’kets to trips to Disneyland ." [Ref. 10:p. 68] Any publisher who wants a successful...such as a trip to Disneyland . The latter focuses more on providing an 29 incentive to the carrier to get a certain number of new customers in a short

  5. StructBoost: Boosting Methods for Predicting Structured Output Variables.

    PubMed

    Chunhua Shen; Guosheng Lin; van den Hengel, Anton

    2014-10-01

    Boosting is a method for learning a single accurate predictor by linearly combining a set of less accurate weak learners. Recently, structured learning has found many applications in computer vision. Inspired by structured support vector machines (SSVM), here we propose a new boosting algorithm for structured output prediction, which we refer to as StructBoost. StructBoost supports nonlinear structured learning by combining a set of weak structured learners. As SSVM generalizes SVM, our StructBoost generalizes standard boosting approaches such as AdaBoost, or LPBoost to structured learning. The resulting optimization problem of StructBoost is more challenging than SSVM in the sense that it may involve exponentially many variables and constraints. In contrast, for SSVM one usually has an exponential number of constraints and a cutting-plane method is used. In order to efficiently solve StructBoost, we formulate an equivalent 1-slack formulation and solve it using a combination of cutting planes and column generation. We show the versatility and usefulness of StructBoost on a range of problems such as optimizing the tree loss for hierarchical multi-class classification, optimizing the Pascal overlap criterion for robust visual tracking and learning conditional random field parameters for image segmentation.

  6. Exercise boosts immune response.

    PubMed

    Sander, Ruth

    2012-06-29

    Ageing is associated with a decline in normal functioning of the immune system described as 'immunosenescence'. This contributes to poorer vaccine response and increased incidence of infection and malignancy seen in older people. Regular exercise can enhance vaccination response, increase T-cells and boost the function of the natural killer cells in the immune system. Exercise also lowers levels of the inflammatory cytokines that cause the 'inflamm-ageing' that is thought to play a role in conditions including cardiovascular disease; type 2 diabetes; Alzheimer's disease; osteoporosis and some cancers.

  7. Incentives, health promotion and equality.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Kristin

    2012-07-01

    The use of incentives to encourage individuals to adopt 'healthier' behaviours is an increasingly popular instrument in health policy. Much of the literature has been critical of 'negative' incentives, often due to concerns about equality; 'positive' incentives, however, have largely been welcomed as an instrument for the improvement of population health and possibly the reduction of health inequalities. The aim of this paper is to provide a more systematic assessment of the use of incentives from the perspective of equality. The paper begins with an overview of existing and proposed incentive schemes. I then suggest that the distinction between 'positive' and 'negative' incentives - or 'carrots' and 'sticks' - is of limited use in distinguishing those incentive schemes that raise concerns of equality from those that do not. The paper assesses incentive schemes with respect to two important considerations of equality: equality of access and equality of outcomes. While our assessment of incentive schemes will, ultimately, depend on various empirical facts, the paper aims to advance the debate by identifying some of the empirical questions we need to ask. The paper concludes by considering a number of trade-offs and caveats relevant to the assessment of incentive schemes.

  8. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2016-05-20

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D2, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits. By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. In conclusion, our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.

  9. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    DOE PAGES

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff

    2016-05-20

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D2, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits.more » By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. In conclusion, our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.« less

  10. Boosted Beta Regression

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Matthias; Wickler, Florian; Maloney, Kelly O.; Mitchell, Richard; Fenske, Nora; Mayr, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Regression analysis with a bounded outcome is a common problem in applied statistics. Typical examples include regression models for percentage outcomes and the analysis of ratings that are measured on a bounded scale. In this paper, we consider beta regression, which is a generalization of logit models to situations where the response is continuous on the interval (0,1). Consequently, beta regression is a convenient tool for analyzing percentage responses. The classical approach to fit a beta regression model is to use maximum likelihood estimation with subsequent AIC-based variable selection. As an alternative to this established - yet unstable - approach, we propose a new estimation technique called boosted beta regression. With boosted beta regression estimation and variable selection can be carried out simultaneously in a highly efficient way. Additionally, both the mean and the variance of a percentage response can be modeled using flexible nonlinear covariate effects. As a consequence, the new method accounts for common problems such as overdispersion and non-binomial variance structures. PMID:23626706

  11. Robust boosting via convex optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rätsch, Gunnar

    2001-12-01

    In this work we consider statistical learning problems. A learning machine aims to extract information from a set of training examples such that it is able to predict the associated label on unseen examples. We consider the case where the resulting classification or regression rule is a combination of simple rules - also called base hypotheses. The so-called boosting algorithms iteratively find a weighted linear combination of base hypotheses that predict well on unseen data. We address the following issues: o The statistical learning theory framework for analyzing boosting methods. We study learning theoretic guarantees on the prediction performance on unseen examples. Recently, large margin classification techniques emerged as a practical result of the theory of generalization, in particular Boosting and Support Vector Machines. A large margin implies a good generalization performance. Hence, we analyze how large the margins in boosting are and find an improved algorithm that is able to generate the maximum margin solution. o How can boosting methods be related to mathematical optimization techniques? To analyze the properties of the resulting classification or regression rule, it is of high importance to understand whether and under which conditions boosting converges. We show that boosting can be used to solve large scale constrained optimization problems, whose solutions are well characterizable. To show this, we relate boosting methods to methods known from mathematical optimization, and derive convergence guarantees for a quite general family of boosting algorithms. o How to make Boosting noise robust? One of the problems of current boosting techniques is that they are sensitive to noise in the training sample. In order to make boosting robust, we transfer the soft margin idea from support vector learning to boosting. We develop theoretically motivated regularized algorithms that exhibit a high noise robustness. o How to adapt boosting to regression problems

  12. Incentives for demand-side management

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, M.W.; Brown, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report is the first product of an ongoing project to monitor the efforts of states to remove regulatory barriers to, and provide financial incentives for, utility investment in demand-side management (DSM) resources. The project was commissioned by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) in response to growing interest among regulators for a comprehensive survey of developments in this area. Each state report beings with an overview of the state`s progress toward removing regulatory barriers and providing incentives for DSM. Information is organized under five headings: status; IRP regulations and practice; current treatment of DSM, directions and trends; commission contact person. Where applicable, each overview is followed by one or more sections that report on specific incentive proposals or mechanisms within the state. Information on each proposal or mechanism is organized under eight headings. A notation on each page identifies the utility or other group associated with the proposal or mechanism. The eight headings are as follows: status; background; treatment of cost recovery; treatment of lost revenues/decoupling; treatment of profitability; other features; issues, and additional observations.

  13. Incentives for demand-side management

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, M.W.; Brown, J.B. )

    1992-01-01

    This report is the first product of an ongoing project to monitor the efforts of states to remove regulatory barriers to, and provide financial incentives for, utility investment in demand-side management (DSM) resources. The project was commissioned by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) in response to growing interest among regulators for a comprehensive survey of developments in this area. Each state report beings with an overview of the state's progress toward removing regulatory barriers and providing incentives for DSM. Information is organized under five headings: status; IRP regulations and practice; current treatment of DSM, directions and trends; commission contact person. Where applicable, each overview is followed by one or more sections that report on specific incentive proposals or mechanisms within the state. Information on each proposal or mechanism is organized under eight headings. A notation on each page identifies the utility or other group associated with the proposal or mechanism. The eight headings are as follows: status; background; treatment of cost recovery; treatment of lost revenues/decoupling; treatment of profitability; other features; issues, and additional observations.

  14. Incentives, Selection, and Teacher Performance: Evidence from IMPACT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Thomas S.; Wyckoff, James

    2015-01-01

    Teachers in the United States are compensated largely on the basis of fixed schedules that reward experience and credentials. However, there is a growing interest in whether performance-based incentives based on rigorous teacher evaluations can improve teacher retention and performance. The evidence available to date has been mixed at best. This…

  15. The Social Security Earnings Test and Work Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benitez-Silva, Hugo; Heiland, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The labor supply and benefit claiming incentives provided by the early retirement rules of the Social Security Old Age benefits program are of growing importance as the Normal Retirement Age (NRA) increases to 67, the labor force participation of Older Americans rises, and a variety of reforms to the Social Security system are considered. Any…

  16. Incentives and Their Dynamics in Public Sector Performance Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Marschke, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    We use the principal-agent model as a focal theoretical frame for synthesizing what we know, both theoretically and empirically, about the design and dynamics of the implementation of performance management systems in the public sector. In this context, we review the growing body of evidence about how performance measurement and incentive systems…

  17. Increasing Educator Effectiveness: Lessons Learned from Teacher Incentive Fund Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Created by the U.S. Congress in 2006, the Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) represents the first federal initiative targeted directly at state and district efforts to introduce performance measures into educator compensation. TIF responds to a growing body of evidence that existing pay structures do not respond to labor force realities or adequately…

  18. Incentives and Their Dynamics in Public Sector Performance Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Marschke, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    We use the principal-agent model as a focal theoretical frame for synthesizing what we know, both theoretically and empirically, about the design and dynamics of the implementation of performance management systems in the public sector. In this context, we review the growing body of evidence about how performance measurement and incentive systems…

  19. The Social Security Earnings Test and Work Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benitez-Silva, Hugo; Heiland, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The labor supply and benefit claiming incentives provided by the early retirement rules of the Social Security Old Age benefits program are of growing importance as the Normal Retirement Age (NRA) increases to 67, the labor force participation of Older Americans rises, and a variety of reforms to the Social Security system are considered. Any…

  20. Incentives for Accountability. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    Policymakers and educators are taking a new look at incentives as they work to improve accountability systems. This ERIC Digest examines the role of rewards and sanctions in school reform and identifies key issues in implementing incentive systems. The new accountability is based on five components: carefully designed standards, assessments…

  1. Financial Incentives and Weight Control

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews research studies evaluating the use of financial incentives to promote weight control conducted between 1972 and 2010. It provides an overview of behavioral theories pertaining to incentives and describes empirical studies evaluating specific aspects of incentives. Research on financial incentives and weight control has a history spanning more than 30 years. Early studies were guided by operant learning concepts from Psychology, while more recent studies have relied on economic theory. Both theoretical orientations argue that providing financial rewards for losing weight should motivate people to engage in behaviors that produce weight loss. Empirical research has strongly supported this idea. However, results vary widely due to differences in incentive size and schedule, as well as contextual factors. Thus, many important questions about the use of incentives have not yet been clearly answered. Weight-maintenance studies using financial incentives are particularly sparse, so that their long-term efficacy and thus, value in addressing the public health problem of obesity is unclear. Major obstacles to sustained applications of incentive in weight control are funding sources and acceptance by those who might benefit. PMID:22244800

  2. An Argument for Early Retirement Incentive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baenen, Leonard B.; Ernest, Robert C.

    1982-01-01

    Early retirement incentive programs are discussed as a humanitarian way of reducing payroll costs and rewarding long-tenured employees. The incentives to be considered, program communication, and problems found in incentive programs are addressed. (Author/MLF)

  3. Project BOOST implementation: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mark V; Li, Jing; Hansen, Luke O; Forth, Victoria; Budnitz, Tina; Greenwald, Jeffrey L; Howell, Eric; Halasyamani, Lakshmi; Vidyarthi, Arpana; Coleman, Eric A

    2014-07-01

    Enhancing care coordination and reducing hospital readmissions have been a focus of multiple quality improvement (QI) initiatives. Project BOOST (Better Outcomes by Optimizing Safe Transitions) aims to enhance the discharge transition from hospital to home. Previous research indicates that QI initiatives originating externally often face difficulties gaining momentum or effecting lasting change in a hospital. We performed a qualitative evaluation of Project BOOST implementation by examining the successes and failures experienced by six pilot sites. We also evaluated the unique physician mentoring component of this program. Finally, we examined the impact of intensification of the physician mentoring model on adoption of BOOST interventions in two later Illinois cohorts (27 hospitals). Qualitative analysis of six pilot hospitals used a process of methodological triangulation and analysis of the BOOST enrollment applications, the listserv, and content from telephone interviews. Evaluation of BOOST implementation at Illinois hospitals occurred via mid-year and year-end surveys. The identified common barriers included inadequate understanding of the current discharge process, insufficient administrative support, lack of protected time or dedicated resources, and lack of frontline staff buy-in. Facilitators of implementation included the mentor, a small beginning, teamwork, and proactive engagement of the patient. Notably, hospitals viewed their mentors as essential facilitators of change. Sites consistently commented that the individualized mentoring was extremely helpful and provided significant accountability and stimulated creativity. In the Illinois cohorts, the improved mentoring model showed more complete implementation of BOOST interventions. The implementation of Project BOOST was well received by hospitals, although sites faced substantial barriers consistent with other QI research reports. The unique mentorship element of Project BOOST proved extremely

  4. A Systematic Review of Financial Incentives for Dietary Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Purnell, Jason Q.; Gernes, Rebecca; Stein, Rick; Sherraden, Margaret S.; Knoblock-Hahn, Amy

    2014-01-01

    In light of the obesity epidemic, there is growing interest in the use of financial incentives for dietary behavior change. Previous reviews of the literature have focused on randomized, controlled trials and found mixed results. The purpose of this systematic review is to update and expand upon previous reviews by considering a broader range of study designs, including RCTs, quasi-experimental, observational, and simulation studies testing the use of financial incentives to change dietary behavior and to inform both dietetic practice and research. The review was guided by theoretical consideration of the type of incentive used based upon the principles of operant conditioning. There was further examination of whether studies were carried out with an institutional focus and whether incentives took the form of assets or savings. Studies published between 2006 and 2012 were selected for review, and data were extracted regarding study population, intervention design, outcome measures, study duration and follow-up, and key findings. Twelve studies meeting selection criteria were reviewed, with eleven finding a positive association between incentives and dietary behavior change in the short-term. All studies pointed to more specific information on the type, timing, and magnitude of incentives needed to motivate individuals to change behavior, the types of incentives and disincentives most likely to affect the behavior of various socioeconomic groups, and promising approaches for potential policy and practice innovations. Limitations of studies are noted, including the lack of theoretical guidance in the selection of incentive structures and the absence of basic experimental data. Future research should consider these factors even as policymakers and practitioners continue to experiment with this potentially useful approach to addressing obesity. PMID:24836967

  5. AveBoost2: Boosting for Noisy Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oza, Nikunj C.

    2004-01-01

    AdaBoost is a well-known ensemble learning algorithm that constructs its constituent or base models in sequence. A key step in AdaBoost is constructing a distribution over the training examples to create each base model. This distribution, represented as a vector, is constructed to be orthogonal to the vector of mistakes made by the pre- vious base model in the sequence. The idea is to make the next base model's errors uncorrelated with those of the previous model. In previous work, we developed an algorithm, AveBoost, that constructed distributions orthogonal to the mistake vectors of all the previous models, and then averaged them to create the next base model s distribution. Our experiments demonstrated the superior accuracy of our approach. In this paper, we slightly revise our algorithm to allow us to obtain non-trivial theoretical results: bounds on the training error and generalization error (difference between training and test error). Our averaging process has a regularizing effect which, as expected, leads us to a worse training error bound for our algorithm than for AdaBoost but a superior generalization error bound. For this paper, we experimented with the data that we used in both as originally supplied and with added label noise-a small fraction of the data has its original label changed. Noisy data are notoriously difficult for AdaBoost to learn. Our algorithm's performance improvement over AdaBoost is even greater on the noisy data than the original data.

  6. Boosted ellipsoid ARTMAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulos, Georgios C.; Georgiopoulos, Michael; Verzi, Steven J.; Heileman, Gregory L.

    2002-03-01

    Ellipsoid ARTMAP (EAM) is an adaptive-resonance-theory neural network architecture that is capable of successfully performing classification tasks using incremental learning. EAM achieves its task by summarizing labeled input data via hyper-ellipsoidal structures (categories). A major property of EAM, when using off-line fast learning, is that it perfectly learns its training set after training has completed. Depending on the classification problems at hand, this fact implies that off-line EAM training may potentially suffer from over-fitting. For such problems we present an enhancement to the basic Ellipsoid ARTMAP architecture, namely Boosted Ellipsoid ARTMAP (bEAM), that is designed to simultaneously improve the generalization properties and reduce the number of created categories for EAM's off-line fast learning. This is being accomplished by forcing EAM to be tolerant about occasional misclassification errors during fast learning. An additional advantage provided by bEAM's desing is the capability of learning inconsistent cases, that is, learning identical patterns with contradicting class labels. After we present the theory behind bEAM's enhancements, we provide some preliminary experimental results, which compare the new variant to the original EAM network, Probabilistic EAM and three different variants of the Restricted Coulomb Energy neural network on the square-in-a-square classification problem.

  7. Bidirectional buck boost converter

    DOEpatents

    Esser, Albert Andreas Maria

    1998-03-31

    A bidirectional buck boost converter and method of operating the same allows regulation of power flow between first and second voltage sources in which the voltage level at each source is subject to change and power flow is independent of relative voltage levels. In one embodiment, the converter is designed for hard switching while another embodiment implements soft switching of the switching devices. In both embodiments, first and second switching devices are serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a first voltage source with third and fourth switching devices serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a second voltage source. A free-wheeling diode is coupled, respectively, in parallel opposition with respective ones of the switching devices. An inductor is coupled between a junction of the first and second switching devices and a junction of the third and fourth switching devices. Gating pulses supplied by a gating circuit selectively enable operation of the switching devices for transferring power between the voltage sources. In the second embodiment, each switching device is shunted by a capacitor and the switching devices are operated when voltage across the device is substantially zero.

  8. Bidirectional buck boost converter

    DOEpatents

    Esser, A.A.M.

    1998-03-31

    A bidirectional buck boost converter and method of operating the same allows regulation of power flow between first and second voltage sources in which the voltage level at each source is subject to change and power flow is independent of relative voltage levels. In one embodiment, the converter is designed for hard switching while another embodiment implements soft switching of the switching devices. In both embodiments, first and second switching devices are serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a first voltage source with third and fourth switching devices serially coupled between a relatively positive terminal and a relatively negative terminal of a second voltage source. A free-wheeling diode is coupled, respectively, in parallel opposition with respective ones of the switching devices. An inductor is coupled between a junction of the first and second switching devices and a junction of the third and fourth switching devices. Gating pulses supplied by a gating circuit selectively enable operation of the switching devices for transferring power between the voltage sources. In the second embodiment, each switching device is shunted by a capacitor and the switching devices are operated when voltage across the device is substantially zero. 20 figs.

  9. Yoga May Boost Aging Brains

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_167693.html Yoga May Boost Aging Brains Changes seen in areas involved with attention and ... may have greater "thickness" in areas of the brain involved in memory and attention, a small study ...

  10. Crystal growing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neville, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    One objective is to demonstrate the way crystals grow and how they affect the behavior of material. Another objective is to compare the growth of crystals in metals and nonmetals. The procedures, which involve a supersaturated solution of a salt that will separate into crystals on cooling and the pouring off of an eutectic solution to expose the crystals formed by a solid solution when an alloy of two metals forms a solid and eutectic solution on cooling, are described.

  11. Economic incentives: Options for environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    The authors recognize that careful examination of the costs and benefits of further policy action, and of incentives as a way to achieve policy goals, is needed in each case to identify cost-effective program designs and efficient program targets. Because further evaluation is needed, this report does not endorse any of the incentives it describes. The authors hope that this report will encourage more focused study and discussion of these and other incentives. This report reflects what has been learned from EPA's past analyses of incentive approaches, and is intended to encourage new efforts toward creative use of incentives. They encourage debate on these ideas, as well as suggestions for other applications of incentives. Incentives addressed include municipal solid waste incentives, global climate change incentives, water resource incentives, and multimedia incentives.

  12. Bandwidth Trading as Incentive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eger, Kolja; Killat, Ulrich

    In P2P networks with multi-source download the file of interest is fragmented into pieces and peers exchange pieces with each other although they did not finish the download of the complete file. Peers can adopt different strategies to trade upload for download bandwidth. These trading schemes should give peers an incentive to contribute bandwidth to the P2P network. This chapter studies different trading schemes analytically and by simulations. A mathematical framework for bandwidth trading is introduced and two distributed algorithms, which are denoted as Resource Pricing and Reciprocal Rate Control, are derived. The algorithms are compared to the tit-for-tat principle in BitTorrent. Nash Equilibria and results from simulations of static and dynamic networks are presented. Additionally, we discuss how trading schemes can be combined with a piece selection algorithm to increase the availability of a full copy of the file. The chapter closes with an extension of the mathematical model which takes also the underlying IP network into account. This results in a TCP variant optimised for P2P content distribution.

  13. Incentive spirometry after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Davis, Suja P

    Patients face various possible complications after abdominal surgery. This article examines best practice in guiding and teaching them how to use an incentive spirometer to facilitate recovery and prevent respiratory complications.

  14. A systematic review of financial incentives for dietary behavior change.

    PubMed

    Purnell, Jason Q; Gernes, Rebecca; Stein, Rick; Sherraden, Margaret S; Knoblock-Hahn, Amy

    2014-07-01

    In light of the obesity epidemic, there is growing interest in the use of financial incentives for dietary behavior change. Previous reviews of the literature have focused on randomized controlled trials and found mixed results. The purpose of this systematic review is to update and expand on previous reviews by considering a broader range of study designs, including randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental, observational, and simulation studies testing the use of financial incentives to change dietary behavior and to inform both dietetic practice and research. The review was guided by theoretical consideration of the type of incentive used based on the principles of operant conditioning. There was further examination of whether studies were carried out with an institutional focus. Studies published between 2006 and 2012 were selected for review, and data were extracted regarding study population, intervention design, outcome measures, study duration and follow-up, and key findings. Twelve studies meeting selection criteria were reviewed, with 11 finding a positive association between incentives and dietary behavior change in the short term. All studies pointed to more specific information on the type, timing, and magnitude of incentives needed to motivate individuals to change behavior, the types of incentives and disincentives most likely to affect the behavior of various socioeconomic groups, and promising approaches for potential policy and practice innovations. Limitations of the studies are noted, including the lack of theoretical guidance in the selection of incentive structures and the absence of basic experimental data. Future research should consider these factors, even as policy makers and practitioners continue to experiment with this potentially useful approach to addressing obesity.

  15. Financial Incentives for Living Kidney Donors: Are They Necessary?

    PubMed

    Martin, Dominique E; White, Sarah L

    2015-09-01

    In the face of the perceived failure of altruistic organ donation programs to generate sufficient kidneys to meet demand, introducing financial incentives for living donors is sometimes argued as the only effective strategy by which lives currently lost while awaiting kidney transplantation might be saved. This argument from life-saving necessity is implicit in many incentive proposals, but rarely challenged by opponents. The core empirical claims on which it rests are thus rarely interrogated: that the gap between supply of and demand for donor kidneys is large and growing, the current system cannot meet demand, and financial incentives would increase the overall supply of kidneys and thus save lives. We consider these claims in the context of the United States. While we acknowledge the plausibility of claims that incentives, if sufficiently large, may successfully recruit greater numbers of living donors, we argue that strategies compatible with the existing altruistic system may also increase the supply of kidneys and save lives otherwise lost to kidney failure. We conclude that current appeals to the life-saving necessity argument have yet to establish sufficient grounds to justify trials of incentives. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Motivating employees through incentives: productive or a counterproductive strategy.

    PubMed

    Qayum, Mehran; Sawal, Shefa Haider; Khan, Hassan Mehmood

    2014-05-01

    The disparity between human resource in health and provision of health services is a growing concern worldwide. Many developing countries are facing this crisis and therefore human resource in health is considered a high priority on their agenda.This imbalance between supplies of human resource is exacerbated by migration of health workers in many countries. Understanding the motivational factor is an important aspect to retain the migrating health workforce. This paper analyses the role of financial and non financial incentives in motivating the health work force. A review of available literature was conducted to understand the role of motivational factor in retaining health workforce. A review of current literature found that an incentive plays a key role in motivating a health worker. Financial incentives are useful in improving the compliance to standard policies and procedures. Comprehensive integrated incentive system approach should be established to develop a sustainable health workforce with required skill. Likewise monetary incentives should be linked to adherence to provincial and national guidelines and procedures. Sustainability could be ensured by commitment of government, political will and involvement of key stakeholders and decision makers.

  17. Postoperative incentive spirometry use.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Hamid; Jain, Amit; Tan, Eric W; Stein, Benjamin E; Van Hoy, Megan L; Stewart, Nadine N; Lemma, Mesfin A

    2012-06-01

    The authors hypothesized that the use of incentive spirometry by orthopedic patients is less than the recommended level and is affected by patient-related factors and type of surgery. To determine its postoperative use, the authors prospectively surveyed all patients in their institution's general orthopedic ward who had undergone elective spine surgery or total knee or hip arthroplasty during a consecutive 3-month period in 2010, excluding patients with postoperative delirium or requiring a monitored bed. All 182 patients (74 men, 108 women; average age, 64.5 years; range, 32-88 years; spine group, n=55; arthroplasty group, n=127), per protocol, received preoperative spirometry education by a licensed respiratory therapist (recommended use, 10 times hourly) and reinforcement education by nurses. Patients were asked twice daily (morning and evening) regarding their spirometry use during the previous 1-hour period by a registered nurse on postoperative days 1 through 3. All data were collected by the same 2 nurses using the same standardized questionnaire. Spirometry use was correlated with surgery type, postoperative day/time, and patient's age and sex. Student's t test, Spearman test, and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare differences (P<.05). Spirometry use averaged 4.1 times per hour (range, 0-10 times). No statistical correlations were found between spirometry use and age. Sex did not influence spirometry use. The arthroplasty group reported significantly higher use than did the spine group: 4.3 and 3.5 times per hour, respectively. Mean use increased significantly between postoperative days 1, 2, and 3.

  18. Resolving boosted jets with XCone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaler, Jesse; Wilkason, Thomas F.

    2015-12-01

    We show how the recently proposed XCone jet algorithm [1] smoothly interpolates between resolved and boosted kinematics. When using standard jet algorithms to reconstruct the decays of hadronic resonances like top quarks and Higgs bosons, one typically needs separate analysis strategies to handle the resolved regime of well-separated jets and the boosted regime of fat jets with substructure. XCone, by contrast, is an exclusive cone jet algorithm that always returns a fixed number of jets, so jet regions remain resolved even when (sub)jets are overlapping in the boosted regime. In this paper, we perform three LHC case studies — dijet resonances, Higgs decays to bottom quarks, and all-hadronic top pairs — that demonstrate the physics applications of XCone over a wide kinematic range.

  19. IMM tracking of a theater ballistic missile during boost phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchins, Robert G.; San Jose, Anthony

    1998-09-01

    Since the SCUD launches in the Gulf War, theater ballistic missile (TBM) systems have become a growing concern for the US military. Detection, tracking and engagement during boost phase or shortly after booster cutoff are goals that grow in importance with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This paper addresses the performance of tracking algorithms for TBMs during boost phase and across the transition to ballistic flight. Three families of tracking algorithms are examined: alpha-beta-gamma trackers, Kalman-based trackers, and the interactive multiple model (IMM) tracker. In addition, a variation on the IMM to include prior knowledge of a booster cutoff parameter is examined. Simulated data is used to compare algorithms. Also, the IMM tracker is run on an actual ballistic missile trajectory. Results indicate that IMM trackers show significant advantage in tracking through the model transition represented by booster cutoff.

  20. SemiBoost: boosting for semi-supervised learning.

    PubMed

    Mallapragada, Pavan Kumar; Jin, Rong; Jain, Anil K; Liu, Yi

    2009-11-01

    Semi-supervised learning has attracted a significant amount of attention in pattern recognition and machine learning. Most previous studies have focused on designing special algorithms to effectively exploit the unlabeled data in conjunction with labeled data. Our goal is to improve the classification accuracy of any given supervised learning algorithm by using the available unlabeled examples. We call this as the Semi-supervised improvement problem, to distinguish the proposed approach from the existing approaches. We design a metasemi-supervised learning algorithm that wraps around the underlying supervised algorithm and improves its performance using unlabeled data. This problem is particularly important when we need to train a supervised learning algorithm with a limited number of labeled examples and a multitude of unlabeled examples. We present a boosting framework for semi-supervised learning, termed as SemiBoost. The key advantages of the proposed semi-supervised learning approach are: 1) performance improvement of any supervised learning algorithm with a multitude of unlabeled data, 2) efficient computation by the iterative boosting algorithm, and 3) exploiting both manifold and cluster assumption in training classification models. An empirical study on 16 different data sets and text categorization demonstrates that the proposed framework improves the performance of several commonly used supervised learning algorithms, given a large number of unlabeled examples. We also show that the performance of the proposed algorithm, SemiBoost, is comparable to the state-of-the-art semi-supervised learning algorithms.

  1. Foreign Investment Boosts Rural Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasmeier, Amy; Glickman, Norman

    1990-01-01

    Through 1987, 10 percent of foreign investment was in nonmetro counties; 44 percent of this was in the South; and 38 percent of nonmetro foreign investment created new jobs (versus 17 percent in metro areas). Foreign investors chose nonmetro areas with low wages, lack of unionization history, good transportation access, and government incentives.…

  2. Representing Arbitrary Boosts for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frahm, Charles P.

    1979-01-01

    Presented is a derivation for the matrix representation of an arbitrary boost, a Lorentz transformation without rotation, suitable for undergraduate students with modest backgrounds in mathematics and relativity. The derivation uses standard vector and matrix techniques along with the well-known form for a special Lorentz transformation. (BT)

  3. Incentives and provider payment methods.

    PubMed

    Barnum, H; Kutzin, J; Saxenian, H

    1995-01-01

    The mode of payment creates powerful incentives affecting provider behavior and the efficiency, equity and quality outcomes of health finance reforms. This article examines provider incentives as well as administrative costs, and institutional conditions for successful implementation associated with provider payment alternatives. The alternatives considered are budget reforms, capitation, fee-for-service, and case-based reimbursement. We conclude that competition, whether through a regulated private sector or within a public system, has the potential to improve the performance of any payment method. All methods generate both adverse and beneficial incentives. Systems with mixed forms of provider payment can provide tradeoffs to offset the disadvantages of individual modes. Low-income countries should avoid complex payment systems requiring higher levels of institutional development.

  4. Optimal incentives for collective intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Helbing, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Collective intelligence is the ability of a group to perform more effectively than any individual alone. Diversity among group members is a key condition for the emergence of collective intelligence, but maintaining diversity is challenging in the face of social pressure to imitate one’s peers. Through an evolutionary game-theoretic model of collective prediction, we investigate the role that incentives may play in maintaining useful diversity. We show that market-based incentive systems produce herding effects, reduce information available to the group, and restrain collective intelligence. Therefore, we propose an incentive scheme that rewards accurate minority predictions and show that this produces optimal diversity and collective predictive accuracy. We conclude that real world systems should reward those who have shown accuracy when the majority opinion has been in error. PMID:28461491

  5. Aligning incentives in supply chains.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, V G; Raman, Ananth

    2004-11-01

    Most companies don't worry about the behavior of their supply chain partners. Instead, they expect the supply chain to work efficiently without interference, as if guided by Adam Smith's famed invisible hand. In their study of more than 50 supply networks, V.G. Narayanan and Ananth Raman found that companies often looked out for their own interests and ignored those of their network partners. Consequently, supply chains performed poorly. Those results aren't shocking when you consider that supply chains extend across several functions and many companies, each with its own priorities and goals. Yet all those functions and firms must pull in the same direction for a chain to deliver goods and services to consumers quickly and cost-effectively. According to the authors, a supply chain works well only if the risks, costs, and rewards of doing business are distributed fairly across the network. In fact, misaligned incentives are often the cause of excess inventory, stock-outs, incorrect forecasts, inadequate sales efforts, and even poor customer service. The fates of all supply chain partners are interlinked: If the firms work together to serve consumers, they will all win. However, they can do that only if incentives are aligned. Companies must acknowledge that the problem of incentive misalignment exists and then determine its root cause and align or redesign incentives. They can improve alignment by, for instance, adopting revenue-sharing contracts, using technology to track previously hidden information, or working with intermediaries to build trust among network partners. It's also important to periodically reassess incentives, because even top-performing networks find that changes in technology or business conditions alter the alignment of incentives.

  6. Economic Growth Challenge/Innovation Incentive: Implementing the Incentive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Economic Growth Challenge / Innovation Incentive, as proposed by the Governor's Commission on Higher Education and the Economy, is a new line item involving reallocation of current higher education funding plus matching levels of performance funding to achieve a major restructuring and refocusing of Ohio's portfolio of doctoral research programs.…

  7. Utility Incentives for Combined Heat and Power

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes the results of EPA's research and analysis into utility incentives for CHP. It provides information about utility-initiated policies, programs, and incentives for CHP systems, and includes case studies and tools and resources.

  8. Federal Incentives for Wind Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    This fact sheet describes the federal incentives available as of April 2013 that encourage increased development and deployment of wind energy technologies, including research grants, tax incentives, and loan programs.

  9. 43 CFR 3103.4 - Production incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Production incentives. 3103.4 Section 3103.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Production incentives....

  10. 43 CFR 3103.4 - Production incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Production incentives. 3103.4 Section 3103.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Production incentives. ...

  11. 43 CFR 3103.4 - Production incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Production incentives. 3103.4 Section 3103.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Production incentives. ...

  12. 43 CFR 3103.4 - Production incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Production incentives. 3103.4 Section 3103.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Production incentives. ...

  13. Challenges and opportunities for developing and implementing incentives to improve health-related behaviors in older adults.

    PubMed

    Klein, Eran; Karlawish, Jason

    2010-09-01

    There is growing interest in using patient-directed incentives to change health-related behaviors. Advocates of incentive programs have proposed an ambitious research agenda for moving patient incentive programs forward. The unique cognitive and psychological features of older adults, however, present a challenge to this agenda. In particular, age-related changes in emotional regulation, executive function, and cognitive capacities, and a preference for collaborative decision-making raise questions about the suitability of these programs, particularly the structure of current financial incentives, for older adults. Differences in decision-making in older adults need to be accounted for in the design and implementation of financial incentive programs. Financial incentive programs adjusted to characteristics of older adult populations may be more likely to improve the lives of older persons and the economic success of programs that serve them.

  14. State Incentive Funding: Leveraging Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter summarizes the debate on the use of state-level initiatives as levers to effect fundamental changes in higher education. It provides several perspectives on the use of incentive/enhancement programs to achieve state higher education goals. The concept of budgetary leverage is outlined, and the growth in enhancement programs…

  15. Motivating employees: an incentive program.

    PubMed

    Barczewski, R W; Michelson, L D

    1991-01-01

    Motivating employees is a challenging and critical task for all managers--no matter what the field. Robert Barczewski, M.B.A., and Linda Michelson describe how a successful incentive program at the Washington University School of Medicine was developed.

  16. Open Enrollment and Fiscal Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, George R.

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential role of selected fiscal incentives in attempting to achieve greater racial and socioeconomic integration through open enrollment programs. Three premises underlie this paper: first, that past experience with district wide unrestricted (color-blind) open enrollment plans indicate that this…

  17. To Duncan, Incentives a Priority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan says he is eager to use a proposed $15 billion federal incentive-grant fund in part to reward states, districts, and even nonprofit organizations that have set high standards for the students they serve. "With this fund, we really have a chance to drive dramatic changes, to take to scale what works, invest…

  18. Motivating communities through economic incentives.

    PubMed

    Viravaidya, M; Weeden, D

    1986-12-01

    Thailand's pilot Community-based Incentives Program in the northeast illustrates the high level of contraceptive prevalence that can be achieved when entire communities profit from economic incentives. This particular community incentives program began in 1983 with funding from the Special Projects Fund of the Population Crisis Committee under the auspices of Thailand's largest nongovernmental organization, the Population and Community Development Association (PDA). PDA, with its long and impressive record as a grassroots family planning service network, had almost a decade of experience in creating demand for family planning by offering income generating incentives to individuals. Through the community incentives program, PDA used the grant from abroad to establish loan funds of about $2000 in each of 6 villages. The loan funds grew in size as the overall contraceptive prevalence rate in the villages increased. Loans between $80 and $200 were made available to villagers for income-generating activities, mostly to buy fertilizer, rent tractors, or hire workers for planting and harvesting the local crops. Elected villagers administered the funds and reviewed loan applications with assistance from PDA. By the end of 2 years, loans totaling $72,000 had been granted in the 6 villages, and 75% of all village households had received at least 1 loan. Repayment was nearly 100% on schedule with no defaults. The 6 loan funds are still operating in 1986 but without outside assistance. Contraceptive practice increased from 46% to 75% of all married women aged 15-44 in the 6 villages between 1983-85. In a comparative study of 3 villages in which no loan fund operated, contraceptive prevalence increased from 51% to only 57%. In the Thai experience, the private PDA appears to have several advantages over the central government in implementing a community incentives approach: because PDA works closely with community members, it is able to determine community needs, involve the

  19. The Effect of Incentives and Meta-incentives on the Evolution of Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Isamu; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Toriumi, Fujio; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Although positive incentives for cooperators and/or negative incentives for free-riders in social dilemmas play an important role in maintaining cooperation, there is still the outstanding issue of who should pay the cost of incentives. The second-order free-rider problem, in which players who do not provide the incentives dominate in a game, is a well-known academic challenge. In order to meet this challenge, we devise and analyze a meta-incentive game that integrates positive incentives (rewards) and negative incentives (punishments) with second-order incentives, which are incentives for other players’ incentives. The critical assumption of our model is that players who tend to provide incentives to other players for their cooperative or non-cooperative behavior also tend to provide incentives to their incentive behaviors. In this paper, we solve the replicator dynamics for a simple version of the game and analytically categorize the game types into four groups. We find that the second-order free-rider problem is completely resolved without any third-order or higher (meta) incentive under the assumption. To do so, a second-order costly incentive, which is given individually (peer-to-peer) after playing donation games, is needed. The paper concludes that (1) second-order incentives for first-order reward are necessary for cooperative regimes, (2) a system without first-order rewards cannot maintain a cooperative regime, (3) a system with first-order rewards and no incentives for rewards is the worst because it never reaches cooperation, and (4) a system with rewards for incentives is more likely to be a cooperative regime than a system with punishments for incentives when the cost-effect ratio of incentives is sufficiently large. This solution is general and strong in the sense that the game does not need any centralized institution or proactive system for incentives. PMID:25974684

  20. The Effect of Incentives and Meta-incentives on the Evolution of Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Okada, Isamu; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Toriumi, Fujio; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2015-05-01

    Although positive incentives for cooperators and/or negative incentives for free-riders in social dilemmas play an important role in maintaining cooperation, there is still the outstanding issue of who should pay the cost of incentives. The second-order free-rider problem, in which players who do not provide the incentives dominate in a game, is a well-known academic challenge. In order to meet this challenge, we devise and analyze a meta-incentive game that integrates positive incentives (rewards) and negative incentives (punishments) with second-order incentives, which are incentives for other players' incentives. The critical assumption of our model is that players who tend to provide incentives to other players for their cooperative or non-cooperative behavior also tend to provide incentives to their incentive behaviors. In this paper, we solve the replicator dynamics for a simple version of the game and analytically categorize the game types into four groups. We find that the second-order free-rider problem is completely resolved without any third-order or higher (meta) incentive under the assumption. To do so, a second-order costly incentive, which is given individually (peer-to-peer) after playing donation games, is needed. The paper concludes that (1) second-order incentives for first-order reward are necessary for cooperative regimes, (2) a system without first-order rewards cannot maintain a cooperative regime, (3) a system with first-order rewards and no incentives for rewards is the worst because it never reaches cooperation, and (4) a system with rewards for incentives is more likely to be a cooperative regime than a system with punishments for incentives when the cost-effect ratio of incentives is sufficiently large. This solution is general and strong in the sense that the game does not need any centralized institution or proactive system for incentives.

  1. 20 CFR 638.519 - Incentives system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Incentives system. 638.519 Section 638.519... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.519 Incentives system. The center operator shall establish and maintain its own incentives system for students in accordance with procedures...

  2. 20 CFR 638.519 - Incentives system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentives system. 638.519 Section 638.519... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.519 Incentives system. The center operator shall establish and maintain its own incentives system for students in accordance with procedures...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5690 - Incentive spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Incentive spirometer. 868.5690 Section 868.5690...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5690 Incentive spirometer. (a) Identification. An incentive spirometer is a device that indicates a patient's breathing volume or flow and...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5690 - Incentive spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Incentive spirometer. 868.5690 Section 868.5690...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5690 Incentive spirometer. (a) Identification. An incentive spirometer is a device that indicates a patient's breathing volume or flow and...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5690 - Incentive spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Incentive spirometer. 868.5690 Section 868.5690...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5690 Incentive spirometer. (a) Identification. An incentive spirometer is a device that indicates a patient's breathing volume or flow and...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5690 - Incentive spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Incentive spirometer. 868.5690 Section 868.5690...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5690 Incentive spirometer. (a) Identification. An incentive spirometer is a device that indicates a patient's breathing volume or flow and...

  7. 20 CFR 638.519 - Incentives system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Incentives system. 638.519 Section 638.519... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.519 Incentives system. The center operator shall establish and maintain its own incentives system for students in accordance with procedures...

  8. Field Experiments of Family Planning Incentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.

    A review of four quasi-experiments on family planning incentives in three Asian nations is presented, and a multi-national comparative field experiment on family planning incentives is proposed. Experiments include: (1) The Ernakulam vasectomy campaigns, (2) Indian Tea Estates retirement bond incentive program, (3) Taiwan educational bond…

  9. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentives offers. 3560.656 Section 3560.656... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Housing Preservation § 3560.656 Incentives offers. (a....653(d), incentives to agree to the restrictive-use period in § 3560.662 if the following conditions...

  10. 24 CFR 901.130 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentives. 901.130 Section 901.130... HOUSING MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT PROGRAM § 901.130 Incentives. (a) A PHA that is designated high performer or... the applicable incentives unless it has been designated an overall high performer. (c) High-performing...

  11. Scaling Relative Incentive Value in Consummatory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Mauricio R.; Pellegrini, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    Surprising downshifts from more preferred (training incentive) to less preferred incentives (test incentive) are usually accompanied by emotional activation and suppression of conditioned behavior in rats. Two experiments were designed to determine whether consummatory behavior is similarly affected by downshifts of equal proportions. Within…

  12. [What do we know about economic incentives?].

    PubMed

    Bech, Mickael

    2008-11-17

    New incentive and regulatory mechanisms have been implemented in the health care sector. This article presents five basic statements about the effects of economic incentives. The five statements can be used to assess how incentive and regulatory mechanisms will influence behaviour.

  13. 28 CFR 544.72 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives. 544.72 Section 544.72 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Literacy Program § 544.72 Incentives. The Warden shall establish a system of incentives to encourage an...

  14. 28 CFR 544.72 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incentives. 544.72 Section 544.72 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Literacy Program § 544.72 Incentives. The Warden shall establish a system of incentives to encourage an...

  15. Designing Incentive Systems for Schools. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Designing Incentive Systems for Schools"--a paper presented at the National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference in February--Derek Neal, professor of economics at the University of Chicago, discusses three challenges endemic to public schools that impact the design of incentive pay systems: (1) Defining the…

  16. Interferometric resolution boosting for spectrographs

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D J; Edelstein, J

    2004-05-25

    Externally dispersed interferometry (EDI) is a technique for enhancing the performance of spectrographs for wide bandwidth high resolution spectroscopy and Doppler radial velocimetry. By placing a small angle-independent interferometer near the slit of a spectrograph, periodic fiducials are embedded on the recorded spectrum. The multiplication of the stellar spectrum times the sinusoidal fiducial net creates a moir{acute e} pattern, which manifests high detailed spectral information heterodyned down to detectably low spatial frequencies. The latter can more accurately survive the blurring, distortions and CCD Nyquist limitations of the spectrograph. Hence lower resolution spectrographs can be used to perform high resolution spectroscopy and radial velocimetry. Previous demonstrations of {approx}2.5x resolution boost used an interferometer having a single fixed delay. We report new data indicating {approx}6x Gaussian resolution boost (140,000 from a spectrograph with 25,000 native resolving power), taken by using multiple exposures at widely different interferometer delays.

  17. Reweighting with Boosted Decision Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogozhnikov, Alex

    2016-10-01

    Machine learning tools are commonly used in modern high energy physics (HEP) experiments. Different models, such as boosted decision trees (BDT) and artificial neural networks (ANN), are widely used in analyses and even in the software triggers [1]. In most cases, these are classification models used to select the “signal” events from data. Monte Carlo simulated events typically take part in training of these models. While the results of the simulation are expected to be close to real data, in practical cases there is notable disagreement between simulated and observed data. In order to use available simulation in training, corrections must be introduced to generated data. One common approach is reweighting — assigning weights to the simulated events. We present a novel method of event reweighting based on boosted decision trees. The problem of checking the quality of reweighting step in analyses is also discussed.

  18. Employee incentives in the healthcare industry.

    PubMed

    McKinnies, Richard C; Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2008-01-01

    *Employee incentives are an important part of a radiology department's ability to attract and maintain employees. For incentive programs to be successful, radiology managers must diligently look for the incentives that motivate each particular employee. *The types of incentives being used frequently in the field of healthcare vary between technical, managerial, and executive positions. The process of identifying the right employee incentive for each group of individuals may be challenging, but if the result is a more productive and satisfied group of employees, the process is worth the effort.

  19. How attention changes in response to incentives

    PubMed Central

    Sawaki, Risa; Luck, Steven J.; Raymond, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Although the performance of simple cognitive tasks can be enhanced if an incentive is provided, the mechanisms enabling such motivational control are not known. The present study sought to uncover how mechanisms of attention and readiness are altered by reward-associated incentive stimuli. We measured EEG/ERP activity as human adults viewed a high- or low-incentive cue, experienced a short preparation interval, and then performed a simple visual search task to gain the predicted reward. Search performance was faster with high versus low incentives, and this was accompanied by distinct incentive-related EEG/ERP patterns at each phase of the task (incentive, preparation, and search). First, and most surprisingly, attention to high but not low incentive cues was actively suppressed, as indexed by a PD component in response to the incentive display. During the subsequent preparation interval, neural oscillations in the alpha frequency range were reduced following high-incentive cues, indicating heightened visual readiness. Finally, attentional orienting to the target in the search array was deployed with relatively little effort on high-incentive trials, as indexed by a reduced N2pc component. These results reveal the chain of events by which the brain’s executive control mechanisms respond to incentives by altering the operation of multiple processing systems to produce optimal performance. PMID:26151604

  20. Getting the incentives right for children.

    PubMed

    Glied, S

    1998-10-01

    One way to improve the functioning of the American child healthcare system is through the design of incentives. Objective: to examine what we know and need to know about designing incentives to encourage the production of high-quality care both for healthy children and for children with serious illnesses. For healthy children, incentives should encourage the provision of preventive services, including services that encourage healthy behavior. For children with serious illnesses, incentives should reduce risk selection, promote collaborative systems of care, and ensure access to appropriate specialty services. Research findings needed for incentive design includes information on the actual working of existing incentive mechanisms as well as information about risk adjustment, mixed payment system, carve-outs, and other mechanisms to reduce risk selection; options for defining service scope that encourage collaboration; and information about the ways in which quality measurement interacts with payment incentives.

  1. Where boosted significances come from

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plehn, Tilman; Schichtel, Peter; Wiegand, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    In an era of increasingly advanced experimental analysis techniques it is crucial to understand which phase space regions contribute a signal extraction from backgrounds. Based on the Neyman-Pearson lemma we compute the maximum significance for a signal extraction as an integral over phase space regions. We then study to what degree boosted Higgs strategies benefit ZH and tt¯H searches and which transverse momenta of the Higgs are most promising. We find that Higgs and top taggers are the appropriate tools, but would profit from a targeted optimization towards smaller transverse momenta. MadMax is available as an add-on to MadGraph 5.

  2. Electric rockets get a boost

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, S.

    1995-12-01

    This article reports that xenon-ion thrusters are expected to replace conventional chemical rockets in many nonlaunch propulsion tasks, such as controlling satellite orbits and sending space probes on long exploratory missions. The space age dawned some four decades ago with the arrival of powerful chemical rockets that could propel vehicles fast enough to escape the grasp of earth`s gravity. Today, chemical rocket engines still provide the only means to boost payloads into orbit and beyond. The less glamorous but equally important job of moving vessels around in space, however, may soon be assumed by a fundamentally different rocket engine technology that has been long in development--electric propulsion.

  3. Stochastic approximation boosting for incomplete data problems.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Joseph; Laake, Petter

    2009-12-01

    Boosting is a powerful approach to fitting regression models. This article describes a boosting algorithm for likelihood-based estimation with incomplete data. The algorithm combines boosting with a variant of stochastic approximation that uses Markov chain Monte Carlo to deal with the missing data. Applications to fitting generalized linear and additive models with missing covariates are given. The method is applied to the Pima Indians Diabetes Data where over half of the cases contain missing values.

  4. Personal financial incentives for changing habitual health-related behaviors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mantzari, Eleni; Vogt, Florian; Shemilt, Ian; Wei, Yinghui; Higgins, Julian P T; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-06-01

    Uncertainty remains about whether personal financial incentives could achieve sustained changes in health-related behaviors that would reduce the fast-growing global non-communicable disease burden. This review aims to estimate whether: i. financial incentives achieve sustained changes in smoking, eating, alcohol consumption and physical activity; ii. effectiveness is modified by (a) the target behavior, (b) incentive value and attainment certainty, (c) recipients' deprivation level. Multiple sources were searched for trials offering adults financial incentives and assessing outcomes relating to pre-specified behaviors at a minimum of six months from baseline. Analyses included random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions grouped by timed endpoints. Of 24,265 unique identified articles, 34 were included in the analysis. Financial incentives increased behavior-change, with effects sustained until 18months from baseline (OR: 1.53, 95% CI 1.05-2.23) and three months post-incentive removal (OR: 2.11, 95% CI 1.21-3.67). High deprivation increased incentive effects (OR: 2.17; 95% CI 1.22-3.85), but only at >6-12months from baseline. Other assessed variables did not independently modify effects at any time-point. Personal financial incentives can change habitual health-related behaviors and help reduce health inequalities. However, their role in reducing disease burden is potentially limited given current evidence that effects dissipate beyond three months post-incentive removal. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. A systematic review and critical assessment of incentive strategies for discovery and development of novel antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Matthew J; Brogan, David M; Mossialos, Elias

    2016-02-01

    Despite the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance, pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms are reluctant to develop novel antibiotics because of a host of market failures. This problem is complicated by public health goals that demand antibiotic conservation and equitable patient access. Thus, an innovative incentive strategy is needed to encourage sustainable investment in antibiotics. This systematic review consolidates, classifies and critically assesses a total of 47 proposed incentives. Given the large number of possible strategies, a decision framework is presented to assist with the selection of incentives. This framework focuses on addressing market failures that result in limited investment, public health priorities regarding antibiotic stewardship and patient access, and implementation constraints and operational realities. The flexible nature of this framework allows policy makers to tailor an antibiotic incentive package that suits a country's health system structure and needs.

  6. A systematic review and critical assessment of incentive strategies for discovery and development of novel antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Renwick, Matthew J; Brogan, David M; Mossialos, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing threat of antimicrobial resistance, pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms are reluctant to develop novel antibiotics because of a host of market failures. This problem is complicated by public health goals that demand antibiotic conservation and equitable patient access. Thus, an innovative incentive strategy is needed to encourage sustainable investment in antibiotics. This systematic review consolidates, classifies and critically assesses a total of 47 proposed incentives. Given the large number of possible strategies, a decision framework is presented to assist with the selection of incentives. This framework focuses on addressing market failures that result in limited investment, public health priorities regarding antibiotic stewardship and patient access, and implementation constraints and operational realities. The flexible nature of this framework allows policy makers to tailor an antibiotic incentive package that suits a country's health system structure and needs. PMID:26464014

  7. Recursive bias estimation and L2 boosting

    SciTech Connect

    Hengartner, Nicolas W; Cornillon, Pierre - Andre; Matzner - Lober, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a general iterative bias correction procedure for regression smoothers. This bias reduction schema is shown to correspond operationally to the L{sub 2} Boosting algorithm and provides a new statistical interpretation for L{sub 2} Boosting. We analyze the behavior of the Boosting algorithm applied to common smoothers S which we show depend on the spectrum of I - S. We present examples of common smoother for which Boosting generates a divergent sequence. The statistical interpretation suggest combining algorithm with an appropriate stopping rule for the iterative procedure. Finally we illustrate the practical finite sample performances of the iterative smoother via a simulation study.

  8. Strengthening the Early Childhood Workforce: How Wage Incentives May Boost Training and Job Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Margaret; Fuller, Bruce; Huang, Danny S.; Hamre, Bridget K.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Aiming to raise the quality of early childhood teachers and caregivers and to reduce turnover, government and professional associations are pursuing 2 intervention strategies. The 1st mandates higher credential levels, as seen with Head Start and state preschool reforms. Here we examine the efficacy of the 2nd strategy: offering…

  9. Water Conservation and Economic Incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Water has played a vital role in the progress of human civilization throughout history. Both agriculture based economics as well as industry based economics totally rely upon water for survival and prosperity. Water could be a limiting factor in dictating day-to-day human activities and as such one should learn to live within the limits of available natural resources. Most of the water on this earth is either salty or undrinkable. Only one percent of world's water is available for all the needs of human civilization. This includes human personal household needs, community activities, agriculture, industry, plant and animal life sustenance. The supply of usable fresh water is finite and the per capita consumption of fresh water needs to be reduced in particularly in some selected regions of this world. The United States consumes about 450 billion gallons of water every day. The U.S. daily average of water pumped by public water supply systems is 185 gallons per person. The biggest water gobbler in a household is the lawn. Typically, at least 50% of water consumed by households is used outdoors. Even inside a house, bathroom facilities claim nearly 75% of the water used. Here is a short list of economic Incentives that may help water conservation. (1) Providing rebates, refunds or other economic incentives to those consumers that are willing to change to modern technological methods. Examples include, but not limited to energy efficient washing machines, low-flush toilets and improved shower head designs. (2) Communities should provide economic incentives to limit the type and size of landscaping. (3) Need, necessity and nature of outdoor water use could be restricted whenever possible. (4) Sprinkler ban may be deemed appropriate in extreme cases. (5) Set up hotlines that can help penalize those that ignore water conservation guidelines. (6) Incorporating water conservation monitors. References: http://www.nrdc.org/water/http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wr/ws/wtrcnsv.htmlhttp://www.sscwd.org/tips.html

  10. Growing and Growing: Promoting Functional Thinking with Geometric Growing Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Design research methodology is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated instruction theory about students' development of functional thinking in the context of geometric growing patterns. The two research questions are: (1) How does students' functional thinking develop in the context of geometric growing patterns? (2) What are…

  11. Can Face-to-Face Mobilization Boost Student Voter Turnout? Results of a Campus Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David; Lachelier, Paul

    2014-01-01

    American colleges and universities have an expanding role to play in nurturing political engagement as more youth attend college. Given low voter turnout among college students yet growing experimental evidence that face-to-face mobilization can boost turnout, the experiment reported in this article examined the impact of a face-to-face college…

  12. Series Connected Buck-Boost Regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur G. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A Series Connected Buck-Boost Regulator (SCBBR) that switches only a fraction of the input power, resulting in relatively high efficiencies. The SCBBR has multiple operating modes including a buck, a boost, and a current limiting mode, so that an output voltage of the SCBBR ranges from below the source voltage to above the source voltage.

  13. 5 CFR 575.309 - Payment of retention incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of retention incentives. 575.309... RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Retention Incentives § 575.309 Payment of retention incentives. (a) An authorized agency official...

  14. 5 CFR 575.109 - Payment of recruitment incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of recruitment incentives. 575... RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Recruitment Incentives § 575.109 Payment of recruitment incentives. (a) An authorized agency...

  15. 5 CFR 575.209 - Payment of relocation incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of relocation incentives. 575.209... RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Relocation Incentives § 575.209 Payment of relocation incentives. (a) An authorized agency...

  16. Boost-phase discrimination research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langhoff, Stephen R.; Feiereisen, William J.

    1993-01-01

    The final report describes the combined work of the Computational Chemistry and Aerothermodynamics branches within the Thermosciences Division at NASA Ames Research Center directed at understanding the signatures of shock-heated air. Considerable progress was made in determining accurate transition probabilities for the important band systems of NO that account for much of the emission in the ultraviolet region. Research carried out under this project showed that in order to reproduce the observed radiation from the bow shock region of missiles in their boost phase it is necessary to include the Burnett terms in the constituent equation, account for the non-Boltzmann energy distribution, correctly model the NO formation and rotational excitation process, and use accurate transition probabilities for the NO band systems. This work resulted in significant improvements in the computer code NEQAIR that models both the radiation and fluid dynamics in the shock region.

  17. Boosted KZ and LLL Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Shanxiang; Ling, Cong

    2017-09-01

    There exists two issues among popular lattice reduction (LR) algorithms that should cause our concern. The first one is Korkine Zolotarev (KZ) and Lenstra Lenstra Lovasz (LLL) algorithms may increase the lengths of basis vectors. The other is KZ reduction suffers much worse performance than Minkowski reduction in terms of providing short basis vectors, despite its superior theoretical upper bounds. To address these limitations, we improve the size reduction steps in KZ and LLL to set up two new efficient algorithms, referred to as boosted KZ and LLL, for solving the shortest basis problem (SBP) with exponential and polynomial complexity, respectively. Both of them offer better actual performance than their classic counterparts, and the performance bounds for KZ are also improved. We apply them to designing integer-forcing (IF) linear receivers for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) communications. Our simulations confirm their rate and complexity advantages.

  18. Boosting human learning by hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Dezso; Janacsek, Karolina; Polner, Bertalan; Kovacs, Zoltan Ambrus

    2013-04-01

    Human learning and memory depend on multiple cognitive systems related to dissociable brain structures. These systems interact not only in cooperative but also sometimes competitive ways in optimizing performance. Previous studies showed that manipulations reducing the engagement of frontal lobe-mediated explicit attentional processes could lead to improved performance in striatum-related procedural learning. In our study, hypnosis was used as a tool to reduce the competition between these 2 systems. We compared learning in hypnosis and in the alert state and found that hypnosis boosted striatum-dependent sequence learning. Since frontal lobe-dependent processes are primarily affected by hypnosis, this finding could be attributed to the disruption of the explicit attentional processes. Our result sheds light not only on the competitive nature of brain systems in cognitive processes but also could have important implications for training and rehabilitation programs, especially for developing new methods to improve human learning and memory performance.

  19. Overconfidence, Incentives and Digit Ratio.

    PubMed

    Neyse, Levent; Bosworth, Steven; Ring, Patrick; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-04-04

    This paper contributes to a better understanding of the biological underpinnings of overconfidence by analyzing performance predictions in the Cognitive Reflection Test with and without monetary incentives. In line with the existing literature we find that the participants are too optimistic about their performance on average; incentives lead to higher performance; and males score higher than females on this particular task. The novelty of this paper is an analysis of the relation between participants' performance prediction accuracy and their second to fourth digit ratio. It has been reported that the digit ratio is a negatively correlated bio-marker of prenatal testosterone exposure. In the un-incentivized treatment, we find that males with low digit ratios, on average, are significantly more overconfident about their performance. In the incentivized treatment, however, we observe that males with low digit ratios, on average, are less overconfident about their performance. These effects are not observed in females. We discuss how these findings fit into the literature on testosterone and decision making and how they might help to explain seemingly opposing evidence.

  20. Overconfidence, Incentives and Digit Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Neyse, Levent; Bosworth, Steven; Ring, Patrick; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to a better understanding of the biological underpinnings of overconfidence by analyzing performance predictions in the Cognitive Reflection Test with and without monetary incentives. In line with the existing literature we find that the participants are too optimistic about their performance on average; incentives lead to higher performance; and males score higher than females on this particular task. The novelty of this paper is an analysis of the relation between participants’ performance prediction accuracy and their second to fourth digit ratio. It has been reported that the digit ratio is a negatively correlated bio-marker of prenatal testosterone exposure. In the un-incentivized treatment, we find that males with low digit ratios, on average, are significantly more overconfident about their performance. In the incentivized treatment, however, we observe that males with low digit ratios, on average, are less overconfident about their performance. These effects are not observed in females. We discuss how these findings fit into the literature on testosterone and decision making and how they might help to explain seemingly opposing evidence. PMID:27039893

  1. Speeding up Boosting decision trees training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chao; Wei, Zhenzhong

    2015-10-01

    To overcome the drawback that Boosting decision trees perform fast speed in the test time while the training process is relatively too slow to meet the requirements of applications with real-time learning, we propose a fast decision trees training method by pruning those noneffective features in advance. And basing on this method, we also design a fast Boosting decision trees training algorithm. Firstly, we analyze the structure of each decision trees node, and prove that the classification error of each node has a bound through derivation. Then, by using the error boundary to prune non-effective features in the early stage, we greatly accelerate the decision tree training process, and would not affect the training results at all. Finally, the decision tree accelerated training method is integrated into the general Boosting process forming a fast boosting decision trees training algorithm. This algorithm is not a new variant of Boosting, on the contrary, it should be used in conjunction with existing Boosting algorithms to achieve more training acceleration. To test the algorithm's speedup performance and performance combined with other accelerated algorithms, the original AdaBoost and two typical acceleration algorithms LazyBoost and StochasticBoost were respectively used in conjunction with this algorithm into three fast versions, and their classification performance was tested by using the Lsis face database which contained 12788 images. Experimental results reveal that this fast algorithm can achieve more than double training speedup without affecting the results of the trained classifier, and can be combined with other acceleration algorithms. Key words: Boosting algorithm, decision trees, classifier training, preliminary classification error, face detection

  2. Liking, wanting, and the incentive-sensitization theory of addiction.

    PubMed

    Berridge, Kent C; Robinson, Terry E

    2016-11-01

    Rewards are both "liked" and "wanted," and those 2 words seem almost interchangeable. However, the brain circuitry that mediates the psychological process of "wanting" a particular reward is dissociable from circuitry that mediates the degree to which it is "liked." Incentive salience or "wanting," a form of motivation, is generated by large and robust neural systems that include mesolimbic dopamine. By comparison, "liking," or the actual pleasurable impact of reward consumption, is mediated by smaller and fragile neural systems, and is not dependent on dopamine. The incentive-sensitization theory posits the essence of drug addiction to be excessive amplification specifically of psychological "wanting," especially triggered by cues, without necessarily an amplification of "liking." This is because of long-lasting changes in dopamine-related motivation systems of susceptible individuals, called "neural sensitization." A quarter-century after its proposal, evidence has continued to grow in support the incentive-sensitization theory. Further, its scope is now expanding to include diverse behavioral addictions and other psychopathologies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Incentives, Selection, and Teacher Performance: Evidence from IMPACT. NBER Working Paper No. 19529

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Thomas; Wyckoff, James

    2013-01-01

    Teachers in the United States are compensated largely on the basis of fixed schedules that reward experience and credentials. However, there is a growing interest in whether performance-based incentives based on rigorous teacher evaluations can improve teacher retention and performance. The evidence available to date has been mixed at best. This…

  4. Incentives, Selection, and Teacher Performance: Evidence from IMPACT. NBER Working Paper No. 19529

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Thomas; Wyckoff, James

    2013-01-01

    Teachers in the United States are compensated largely on the basis of fixed schedules that reward experience and credentials. However, there is a growing interest in whether performance-based incentives based on rigorous teacher evaluations can improve teacher retention and performance. The evidence available to date has been mixed at best. This…

  5. Effects of Decreasing External Incentives on Higher Education--Reflections from the Case of Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yung-feng

    2016-01-01

    Widened participation in post-compulsory and higher education is generally regarded as a result of the growing recognition of the internal and external benefits of higher education, which are categorised either as a private or public good. However, a question can be raised: once these incentives become less promising or less evident, will a strong…

  6. Effects of Decreasing External Incentives on Higher Education--Reflections from the Case of Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yung-feng

    2016-01-01

    Widened participation in post-compulsory and higher education is generally regarded as a result of the growing recognition of the internal and external benefits of higher education, which are categorised either as a private or public good. However, a question can be raised: once these incentives become less promising or less evident, will a strong…

  7. Implementing Financial Work Incentives in Public Housing: Lessons from the Jobs-Plus Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardenhire-Crooks, Alissa

    2004-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in using financial incentives in public housing to promote work among residents, little systematic information is available on how these innovations operate in practice. By examining the experiences of the Jobs-Plus demonstration sites, this report intends to help answer such basic questions as: What are practical and…

  8. Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self-Esteem

    MedlinePlus

    ... desktop! more... Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self- esteem Article Chapters Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self- esteem print full article print this chapter email this ...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF INCENTIVE VALUES IN CHILDHOOD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WITRYOL, SAM L.; AND OTHERS

    THE USE OF REWARDS AS INCENTIVES TO INFLUENCE BEHAVIOR WAS STUDIED AND AN EVALUATION WAS MADE OF THE INCENTIVE VALUE OF EACH OF THE REWARDS. PORTABLE VERSIONS OF THE WISCONSIN GENERAL TEST APPARATUS WERE USED TO TEST 120 CHILDREN FROM GRADES 1, 3, AND 5. FOR A DISCRIMINATION LEARNING TEST EACH CHILD WAS PRESENTED 5 STIMULI THAT WERE SELECTED FROM…

  10. Scaling Relative Incentive Value in Anticipatory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Santiago; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2007-01-01

    Papini and Pellegrini (Papini, M. R., & Pellegrini, S. "Scaling relative incentive value in consummatory behavior." "Learning and Motivation", in press) observed that, within limits, the level of consummatory responding of rats exposed to incentive downshifts in the concentration of sucrose solutions was similar when the ratio of test/training…

  11. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Incentives offers. 3560.656 Section 3560.656 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Housing Preservation § 3560.656 Incentives offers....

  12. 75 FR 76079 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0129. Form Number: N/A... principles and the guidance are consistent with the Principles for Sound Compensation Practices adopted...

  13. 75 FR 22679 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0NEW. Form Number: N/A... principles and the guidance are consistent with the Principles for Sound Compensation Practices adopted...

  14. 75 FR 53023 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0129. Form Number: N/A... principles and the guidance are consistent with the Principles for Sound Compensation Practices adopted...

  15. Confidence Test Scoring and Incentive Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rippey, Robert M.

    The effects of incentive conditions on the results of a confidence test were investigated. Two hundred thirty high school subjects were administered a very difficult confidence scored test under two conditions: 1) that the test would count heavily on their grades (incentive condition) and 2) that the test was for research purposes and would not be…

  16. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  17. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  18. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  19. 12 CFR 708a.311 - Voting incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voting incentives. 708a.311 Section 708a.311 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS BANK... raffle, every reference to such incentive made by the credit union in a written communication to...

  20. 12 CFR 708a.12 - Voting incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting incentives. 708a.12 Section 708a.12 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CONVERSION OF... reference to such incentive made by the credit union in a written communication to its members must...

  1. Benefits & Incentives for Students Entering Supported Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas H.; Moore, Stephen C.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes available benefits and work incentives affecting supported employment placement for students with severe disabilities, including payment for necessary supports (state programs and the Department of Labor), protection of benefits (Social Security programs), and incentives to employers (the Targeted Job Tax Credits program and…

  2. 21 CFR 868.5690 - Incentive spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentive spirometer. 868.5690 Section 868.5690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... provides an incentive to the patient to improve his or her ventilation. (b) Classification. Class...

  3. Incentive theory: IV. Magnitude of reward

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Peter R.

    1985-01-01

    Incentive theory is successfully applied to data from experiments in which the amount of food reward is varied. This is accomplished by assuming that incentive value is a negatively accelerated function of reward duration. The interaction of the magnitude of a reward with its delay is confirmed, and the causes and implications of this interaction are discussed. PMID:16812421

  4. Building on Student Achievement through Incentive Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Saneik

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if incentive programs like Renaissance impact high school students and faculty. Incentives can go a long way for students in schools. At Lehigh Senior High School (LSHS), for example, students were introduced to the Renaissance Program this school year, by receiving goodies. Coupons at Dairy Queen,…

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF INCENTIVE VALUES IN CHILDHOOD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WITRYOL, SAM L.; AND OTHERS

    THE USE OF REWARDS AS INCENTIVES TO INFLUENCE BEHAVIOR WAS STUDIED AND AN EVALUATION WAS MADE OF THE INCENTIVE VALUE OF EACH OF THE REWARDS. PORTABLE VERSIONS OF THE WISCONSIN GENERAL TEST APPARATUS WERE USED TO TEST 120 CHILDREN FROM GRADES 1, 3, AND 5. FOR A DISCRIMINATION LEARNING TEST EACH CHILD WAS PRESENTED 5 STIMULI THAT WERE SELECTED FROM…

  6. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  7. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  8. 4 CFR 4.4 - Incentive awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentive awards. 4.4 Section 4.4 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.4 Incentive awards. The provisions of chapter 45 of title 5, United States Code and Office of Personnel Management implementing...

  9. Incentives and disincentives for the treatment of depression and anxiety: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Ashcroft, Rachelle; Silveira, Jose; Rush, Brian; Mckenzie, Kwame

    2014-07-01

    There is widespread support for primary care to help address growing mental health care demands. Incentives and disincentives are widely used in the design of health care systems to help steer toward desired goals. The absence of a conceptual model to help understand the range of factors that influence the provision of primary mental health care inspired a scoping review of the literature. Understanding the incentives that promote and the disincentives that deter treatment for depression and anxiety in the primary care context will help to achieve goals of greater access to mental health care. A review of the literature was conducted to answer the question, how are incentives and disincentives conceptualized in studies investigating the treatment of common mental disorders in primary care? A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Google Scholar was undertaken using Arksey and O'Malley's 5-stage methodological framework for scoping reviews. We identified 27 studies. A range of incentives and disincentives influence the success of primary mental health care initiatives to treat depression and anxiety. Six types of incentives and disincentives can encourage or discourage treatment of depression and anxiety in primary care: attitudes and beliefs, training and core competencies, leadership, organizational, financial, and systemic. Understanding that there are 6 different types of incentives that influence treatment for anxiety and depression in primary care may help service planners who are trying to promote improved mental health care.

  10. Commitment Contracts and Team Incentives

    PubMed Central

    White, Justin S.; Dow, William H.; Rungruanghiranya, Suthat

    2013-01-01

    Background Treatment for tobacco dependence is not available in many low-resource settings, especially in developing countries. Purpose To test the impact of a novel mix of monetary and social incentives on smoking abstinence in rural communities of Thailand. Design An RCT of commitment contracts and team incentives for rural smokers to quit smoking. Smokers were not blinded to treatment status, although the assessor of the biochemical urine test was. Setting/participants All adult smokers living in the study area were eligible to participate; 215 adult smokers from 42 villages in Nakhon Nayok province, Thailand participated. Fourteen smokers who lacked teammates were dropped. Intervention 201 smokers were assigned to a two-person team, and then randomly assigned by team (in a 2:1 ratio) with computer-generated random numbers to receive smoking-cessation counseling (control group) or counseling plus offer of a commitment contract, team incentives, and text message reminders for smoking cessation at 3 months (intervention group). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was biochemically-verified 7-day abstinence at 6 months, assessed on an intention-to-treat basis. Secondary outcomes include biochemically-verified abstinence at 3 months, self-reported abstinence at 14 months, and the incremental cost per quitter of the intervention, nicotine gum, and varenicline in Thailand. Data were collected in 2010–2011 and analyzed in 2012. Results The trial enrolled 215 (10.5%) of 2055 smokers. The abstinence rate was 46.2% (61/132) in the intervention group and 14.5% (10/69) in the control group (adjusted OR 7.5 [3.0–18.6]) at 3 months; 44.3% (58/131) and 18.8% (13/69) at the primary end point of 6 months (adjusted OR 4.2 [1.8–9.7]); and 42.0% (55/131) and 24.6% (17/69) at 14 months (adjusted OR 2.2 [1.0–4.8]). The purchasing-power–parity-adjusted incremental cost per quitter from the intervention is $281 (95% CI=$187, $562), less than for nicotine gum ($1780 [95

  11. The Impact of Lottery Incentives on Student Survey Response Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A controlled experiment tested the effects of lottery incentives using a prospective college applicant Web survey, with emails sent to more than 9,000 high school students. Found minimal effect of postpaid incentives for increasing levels of incentive. (EV)

  12. 48 CFR 216.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incentive contracts. 216.405 Section 216.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 216.405 Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. ...

  13. 48 CFR 1316.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incentive contracts. 1316.405 Section 1316.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1316.405 Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. ...

  14. 48 CFR 416.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incentive contracts. 416.405 Section 416.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 416.405 Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. ...

  15. 48 CFR 1816.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incentive contracts. 1816.405 Section 1816.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1816.405 Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. ...

  16. The Impact of Lottery Incentives on Student Survey Response Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A controlled experiment tested the effects of lottery incentives using a prospective college applicant Web survey, with emails sent to more than 9,000 high school students. Found minimal effect of postpaid incentives for increasing levels of incentive. (EV)

  17. Riemann curvature of a boosted spacetime geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battista, Emmanuele; Esposito, Giampiero; Scudellaro, Paolo; Tramontano, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    The ultrarelativistic boosting procedure had been applied in the literature to map the metric of Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime into a metric describing de Sitter spacetime plus a shock-wave singularity located on a null hypersurface. This paper evaluates the Riemann curvature tensor of the boosted Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric by means of numerical calculations, which make it possible to reach the ultrarelativistic regime gradually by letting the boost velocity approach the speed of light. Thus, for the first time in the literature, the singular limit of curvature, through Dirac’s δ distribution and its derivatives, is numerically evaluated for this class of spacetimes. Moreover, the analysis of the Kretschmann invariant and the geodesic equation shows that the spacetime possesses a “scalar curvature singularity” within a 3-sphere and it is possible to define what we here call “boosted horizon”, a sort of elastic wall where all particles are surprisingly pushed away, as numerical analysis demonstrates. This seems to suggest that such “boosted geometries” are ruled by a sort of “antigravity effect” since all geodesics seem to refuse to enter the “boosted horizon” and are “reflected” by it, even though their initial conditions are aimed at driving the particles toward the “boosted horizon” itself. Eventually, the equivalence with the coordinate shift method is invoked in order to demonstrate that all δ2 terms appearing in the Riemann curvature tensor give vanishing contribution in distributional sense.

  18. Incentive spirometer for bedside studies.

    PubMed

    Scheinhorn, D J; Warner, W; Ellis, E

    1982-06-01

    We evaluated an incentive spirometer (IS) for monitoring changes in lung function in hospitalized patients. Accuracy and reproducibility of IS measurements of known volumes were adequate (r = 0.87). Flow dependency was demonstrated but was not significant in the clinically useful range. Reproducibility of IS measurements in five normal subjects was good, with a small training effect uncovered. In 15 patients with asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease, change in IS values closely correlated with spirometrically measured changes in volume and flows (best correlation: IS versus FEV1/FVC%, r = 0.98) and in peak flow. The performance of the IS as tested and its availability in most hospitals outweigh its limitations. We advocate its use as an adjunct in monitoring progress of hospitalized patients with obstructive lung disease.

  19. Incentive contracts for development projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, David T.; Smith, Byron; DeGroff, B.

    2012-09-01

    Finding a contract vehicle that balances the concerns of the customer and the contractor in a development project can be difficult. The customer wants a low price and an early delivery, with as few surprises as possible as the project progresses. The contractor wants sufficient cost and schedule to cover risk. Both want to clearly define what each party will provide. Many program offices do not want to award cost plus contracts because their funding sources will not allow it, their boards do not want an open ended commitment, and they feel like they lose financial control of the project. A fixed price incentive contract, with a mutually agreed upon target cost, provides the owner with visibility into the project and input into the execution of the project, encourages both parties to save costs, and stimulates a collaborative atmosphere by aligning the respective interests of customers and contractors.

  20. Growing media [Chapter 5

    Treesearch

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    Selecting the proper growing medium is one of the most important considerations in nursery plant production. A growing medium can be defined as a substance through which roots grow and extract water and nutrients. In native plant nurseries, a growing medium can consist of native soil but is more commonly an "artificial soil" composed of materials such as peat...

  1. Boosting Wigner's nj-symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speziale, Simone

    2017-03-01

    We study the SL (2 ,ℂ ) Clebsch-Gordan coefficients appearing in the Lorentzian EPRL spin foam amplitudes for loop quantum gravity. We show how the amplitudes decompose into SU(2) nj- symbols at the vertices and integrals over boosts at the edges. The integrals define edge amplitudes that can be evaluated analytically using and adapting results in the literature, leading to a pure state sum model formulation. This procedure introduces virtual representations which, in a manner reminiscent of virtual momenta in Feynman amplitudes, are off-shell of the simplicity constraints present in the theory, but with the integrands that peak at the on-shell values. We point out some properties of the edge amplitudes which are helpful for numerical and analytical evaluations of spin foam amplitudes, and suggest among other things a simpler model useful for calculations of certain lowest order amplitudes. As an application, we estimate the large spin scaling behaviour of the simpler model, on a closed foam with all 4-valent edges and Euler characteristic χ , to be Nχ -5 E +V /2. The paper contains a review and an extension of the results on SL (2 ,ℂ ) Clebsch-Gordan coefficients among unitary representations of the principal series that can be useful beyond their application to quantum gravity considered here.

  2. Payday, ponchos, and promotions: a qualitative analysis of perspectives from non-governmental organization programme managers on community health worker motivation and incentives.

    PubMed

    B-Lajoie, Marie-Renée; Hulme, Jennifer; Johnson, Kirsten

    2014-12-05

    Community health workers (CHWs) have been central to broadening the access and coverage of preventative and curative health services worldwide. Much has been debated about how to best remunerate and incentivize this workforce, varying from volunteers to full time workers. Policy bodies, including the WHO and USAID, now advocate for regular stipends. This qualitative study examines the perspective of health programme managers from 16 international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) who directly oversee programmes in resource-limited settings. It aimed to explore institutional guidelines and approaches to designing CHW incentives, and inquire about how NGO managers are adapting their approaches to working with CHWs in this shifting political and funding climate. Second, it meant to understand the position of stakeholders who design and manage non-governmental organization-run CHW programmes on what they consider priorities to boost CHW motivation. Individuals were recruited using typical case sampling through chain referral at the semi-annual CORE Group meeting in the spring of 2012. Semi-structured interviews were guided by a peer reviewed tool. Two reviewers analyzed the transcripts for thematic saturation. Six key factors influenced programme manager decision-making: National-level government policy, donor practice, implicit organizational approaches, programmatic, cultural, and community contexts, experiences and values of managers, and the nature of the work asked of CHWs. Programme managers strongly relied on national government to provide clear guidance on CHW incentives schemes. Perspectives on remuneration varied greatly, from fears that it is unsustainable, to the view that it is a basic human right, and a mechanism to achieve greater gender equity. Programme managers were interested in exploring career paths and innovative financing schemes for CHWs, such as endowment funds or material sales, to heighten local ownership and sustainability of programmes

  3. Nonlinear program based optimization of boost and buck-boost converter designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, S.; Lee, F. C.

    1981-01-01

    The facility of an Augmented Lagrangian (ALAG) multiplier based nonlinear programming technique is demonstrated for minimum-weight design optimizations of boost and buck-boost power converters. Certain important features of ALAG are presented in the framework of a comprehensive design example for buck-boost power converter design optimization. The study provides refreshing design insight of power converters and presents such information as weight and loss profiles of various semiconductor components and magnetics as a function of the switching frequency.

  4. Nonlinear program based optimization of boost and buck-boost converter designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, S.; Lee, F. C.

    1981-01-01

    The facility of an Augmented Lagrangian (ALAG) multiplier based nonlinear programming technique is demonstrated for minimum-weight design optimizations of boost and buck-boost power converters. Certain important features of ALAG are presented in the framework of a comprehensive design example for buck-boost power converter design optimization. The study provides refreshing design insight of power converters and presents such information as weight and loss profiles of various semiconductor components and magnetics as a function of the switching frequency.

  5. Boosting Manufacturing through Modular Chemical Process Intensification

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2017-01-06

    Manufacturing USA's Rapid Advancement in Process Intensification Deployment Institute will focus on developing breakthrough technologies to boost domestic energy productivity and energy efficiency by 20 percent in five years through manufacturing processes.

  6. Boosting Manufacturing through Modular Chemical Process Intensification

    SciTech Connect

    2016-12-09

    Manufacturing USA's Rapid Advancement in Process Intensification Deployment Institute will focus on developing breakthrough technologies to boost domestic energy productivity and energy efficiency by 20 percent in five years through manufacturing processes.

  7. Relativistic projection and boost of solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Wilets, L.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the relativistic projection and boost of solitons: The center of mass problem; momentum eigenstates; variation after projection; and the nucleon as a composite. (LSP).

  8. Relativistic projection and boost of solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Wilets, L.

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses the following topics on the relativistic projection and boost of solitons: The center of mass problem; momentum eigenstates; variation after projection; and the nucleon as a composite. (LSP).

  9. A Neural Computational Model of Incentive Salience

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Berridge, Kent C.; Tindell, Amy J.; Smith, Kyle S.; Aldridge, J. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    Incentive salience is a motivational property with ‘magnet-like’ qualities. When attributed to reward-predicting stimuli (cues), incentive salience triggers a pulse of ‘wanting’ and an individual is pulled toward the cues and reward. A key computational question is how incentive salience is generated during a cue re-encounter, which combines both learning and the state of limbic brain mechanisms. Learning processes, such as temporal-difference models, provide one way for stimuli to acquire cached predictive values of rewards. However, empirical data show that subsequent incentive values are also modulated on the fly by dynamic fluctuation in physiological states, altering cached values in ways requiring additional motivation mechanisms. Dynamic modulation of incentive salience for a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS or cue) occurs during certain states, without necessarily requiring (re)learning about the cue. In some cases, dynamic modulation of cue value occurs during states that are quite novel, never having been experienced before, and even prior to experience of the associated unconditioned reward in the new state. Such cases can include novel drug-induced mesolimbic activation and addictive incentive-sensitization, as well as natural appetite states such as salt appetite. Dynamic enhancement specifically raises the incentive salience of an appropriate CS, without necessarily changing that of other CSs. Here we suggest a new computational model that modulates incentive salience by integrating changing physiological states with prior learning. We support the model with behavioral and neurobiological data from empirical tests that demonstrate dynamic elevations in cue-triggered motivation (involving natural salt appetite, and drug-induced intoxication and sensitization). Our data call for a dynamic model of incentive salience, such as presented here. Computational models can adequately capture fluctuations in cue-triggered ‘wanting’ only by

  10. A neural computational model of incentive salience.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Berridge, Kent C; Tindell, Amy J; Smith, Kyle S; Aldridge, J Wayne

    2009-07-01

    Incentive salience is a motivational property with 'magnet-like' qualities. When attributed to reward-predicting stimuli (cues), incentive salience triggers a pulse of 'wanting' and an individual is pulled toward the cues and reward. A key computational question is how incentive salience is generated during a cue re-encounter, which combines both learning and the state of limbic brain mechanisms. Learning processes, such as temporal-difference models, provide one way for stimuli to acquire cached predictive values of rewards. However, empirical data show that subsequent incentive values are also modulated on the fly by dynamic fluctuation in physiological states, altering cached values in ways requiring additional motivation mechanisms. Dynamic modulation of incentive salience for a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS or cue) occurs during certain states, without necessarily requiring (re)learning about the cue. In some cases, dynamic modulation of cue value occurs during states that are quite novel, never having been experienced before, and even prior to experience of the associated unconditioned reward in the new state. Such cases can include novel drug-induced mesolimbic activation and addictive incentive-sensitization, as well as natural appetite states such as salt appetite. Dynamic enhancement specifically raises the incentive salience of an appropriate CS, without necessarily changing that of other CSs. Here we suggest a new computational model that modulates incentive salience by integrating changing physiological states with prior learning. We support the model with behavioral and neurobiological data from empirical tests that demonstrate dynamic elevations in cue-triggered motivation (involving natural salt appetite, and drug-induced intoxication and sensitization). Our data call for a dynamic model of incentive salience, such as presented here. Computational models can adequately capture fluctuations in cue-triggered 'wanting' only by incorporating

  11. Centaur liquid oxygen boost pump vibration test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, H. M.

    1975-01-01

    The Centaur LOX boost pump was subjected to both the simulated Titan Centaur proof flight and confidence demonstration vibration test levels. For each test level, both sinusoidal and random vibration tests were conducted along each of the three orthogonal axes of the pump and turbine assembly. In addition to these tests, low frequency longitudinal vibration tests for both levels were conducted. All tests were successfully completed without damage to the boost pump.

  12. Boosted Jets at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkoski, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Jets are collimated streams of high-energy particles ubiquitous at any particle collider experiment and serve as proxy for the production of elementary particles at short distances. As the Large Hadron Collider at CERN continues to extend its reach to ever higher energies and luminosities, an increasingly important aspect of any particle physics analysis is the study and identification of jets, electroweak bosons, and top quarks with large Lorentz boosts. In addition to providing a unique insight into potential new physics at the tera-electron volt energy scale, high energy jets are a sensitive probe of emergent phenomena within the Standard Model of particle physics and can teach us an enormous amount about quantum chromodynamics itself. Jet physics is also invaluable for lower-level experimental issues including triggering and background reduction. It is especially important for the removal of pile-up, which is radiation produced by secondary proton collisions that contaminates every hard proton collision event in the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider. In this talk, I will review the myriad ways that jets and jet physics are being exploited at the Large Hadron Collider. This will include a historical discussion of jet algorithms and the requirements that these algorithms must satisfy to be well-defined theoretical objects. I will review how jets are used in searches for new physics and ways in which the substructure of jets is being utilized for discriminating backgrounds from both Standard Model and potential new physics signals. Finally, I will discuss how jets are broadening our knowledge of quantum chromodynamics and how particular measurements performed on jets manifest the universal dynamics of weakly-coupled conformal field theories.

  13. Sri Lanka: population: government incentives.

    PubMed

    Sri Lankans who undergo voluntary sterilization are now given financial assistance in the form of cash bonuses and additional leave privileges. The scheme, prepared by the Ministry of Plan Implementation, covers all employees in both the private and public sectors and a new aspect which promises to make the plan more effective entitles unemployed married persons to the same financial benefits. Employees will now be entitled to 7 days leave with full pay for a tubectomy and 3 days with full pay for a vasectomy. This is in addition to the normal leave privileges that employees already enjoy. Each person who undergoes a vasectomy or tubectomy receives an outright cash aid of Rs 100. The operation is entirely voluntary and no individual is coerced. The incentives system has been practiced in Sri Lanka for some time and both the private and public sectors have introduced their own individual schemes to discourage large families. There is no uniformity in benefits; however, 35 public corporations have their own programs to attract family planning acceptors. They offer payments ranging from Rs 25 to Rs 500 on a case-to-case basis. In 1974, 1 of the program's most successful years, 42,000 operations were performed. In 1978, the figure had dropped to only 20,000. This was due to the lack of surgeons, anesthetists, and clinical facilities as well as the exodus of doctors to the West.

  14. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... that people who are trying to end their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program ...

  15. What nurses want: the nurse incentives project.

    PubMed

    Wieck, K Lynn; Dols, Jean; Northam, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Today's nurse executives are struggling with leadership challenges of managing the multigenerational workforce, financial imperatives to deliver better care for lower costs, and competition to provide the optimal work environment to retain nurses. The purpose of the Nurse Incentives Project was to determine satisfaction with current employment incentives and potential managerial actions which might decrease or delay turnover by registered nurses. This study spawned recommendations regarding the role of incentives in designing an environment where benefits and perks will be seen as incentives to stay and thrive in the current nursing workplace. The results show that nurses know what they want. Attention to generational priorities and flexible benefits programs may help to create the cohesive work environment that nurses seek. Investment into creating delivery arenas where satisfied nurses are caring for satisfied patients is a worthwhile goal.

  16. Countervailing incentives in value-based payment.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Daniel R

    2017-09-01

    Payment reform has been at the forefront of the movement toward higher-value care in the U.S. health care system. A common belief is that volume-based incentives embedded in fee-for-service need to be replaced with value-based payments. While this belief is well-intended, value-based payment also contains perverse incentives. In particular, behavioral economists have identified several features of individual decision making that reverse some of the typical recommendations for inducing desirable behavior through financial incentives. This paper discusses the countervailing incentives associated with four behavioral economic concepts: loss aversion, relative social ranking, inertia or status quo bias, and extrinsic vs. intrinsic motivation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An Incentive-Based Employee Fitness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jim

    1981-01-01

    As part of an incentives plan, Davidson Louisiana, Inc., a building products distributor, conducts a unique employee physical fitness program in which the participants are rewarded with credit toward expense paid vacations around the world. (JN)

  18. Marketing to Nurses through an Incentive Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jeanne Phillips; Williams, Trudy

    1983-01-01

    Describes the Incentive Career Mobility Plan, a program for improving employee morale and retention by rewarding self-improvement. Discusses its use by nurse administrators for marketing their institutions to current and potential employees. (JOW)

  19. When and how to use monetary incentives.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2005-01-01

    Will money motivate your staff to perform better? While some practice managers prefer not to use bonus incentive programs, others use them fequently and report excellent results. This article explores the benefits and pitfalls of using monetary incentives with your staff. It explores the effectiveness of bonuses compared with raises. It also considers the four qualities of effective incentive bonus programs and gives examples of both percentage bonus programs and flat-dollar bonus programs. In particular, this article includes how-to advice for structuring a new patient incentive bonus program along with the potential problems of such programs as reported by two doctors who tried them. Finally, the article explores the benefits of using merchandise rewards rather than cash and includes innovative ideas for maximizing bonuses by implementing a "cookie jar" system and dividing annual bonuses into two installments.

  20. High dose rate brachytherapy boost for prostate cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zaorsky, Nicholas G; Doyle, Laura A; Yamoah, Kosj; Andrel, Jocelyn A; Trabulsi, Edouard J; Hurwitz, Mark D; Dicker, Adam P; Den, Robert B

    2014-04-01

    Studies of dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and low dose rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) have shown excellent rates of tumor control and cancer specific survival. Moreover, LDR-BT combined with EBRT (i.e. "LDR-BT boost") is hypothesized to improve local control. While phase II trials with LDR-BT boost have produced mature data of outcomes and toxicities, high dose rate (HDR)-BT has been growing in popularity as an alternative boost therapy. Boost from HDR-BT has theoretical advantages over LDR-BT, including improved cancer cell death and better dose distribution from customization of catheter dwell times, locations, and inverse dose optimization. Freedom from biochemical failure rates at five years for low-, intermediate-, high-risk, and locally advanced patients have generally been 85-100%, 80-98%, 59-96%, and 34-85%, respectively. Late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 3-4 toxicities have also been encouraging with <6% of patients experiencing any toxicity. Limitations of current HDR-BT boost studies include reports of only single-institution experiences, and unrefined reports of toxicity or patient quality of life. Comparative effectiveness research will help guide clinicians in selecting the most appropriate treatment option for individual patients based on risk-stratification, expected outcomes, toxicities, quality of life, and cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 48 CFR 16.402-3 - Delivery incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delivery incentives. 16... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-3 Delivery incentives. (a) Delivery incentives should be considered when improvement from a required delivery schedule is...

  2. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentive stock options defined. 1.422-2 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Certain Stock Options § 1.422-2 Incentive stock options defined. (a) Incentive stock option defined—(1) In general. The term incentive stock option means an option that meets...

  3. 20 CFR 637.225 - Determination of incentive bonus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of incentive bonus. 637.225... of incentive bonus. The amount of the incentive bonus to be paid to each State shall be the total of the incentive bonuses claimed for each eligible individual within the State. The amount of the...

  4. 45 CFR 305.34 - Payment of incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of incentives. 305.34 Section 305.34... PROGRAM PERFORMANCE MEASURES, STANDARDS, FINANCIAL INCENTIVES, AND PENALTIES § 305.34 Payment of incentives. (a) Each State must report one-fourth of its estimated annual incentive payment on each of its...

  5. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Incentive stock options defined. 1.422-2 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.422-2 Incentive stock options defined. (a) Incentive stock option defined—(1) In general. The term incentive stock option means an option that...

  6. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Incentive stock options defined. 1.422-2 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.422-2 Incentive stock options defined. (a) Incentive stock option defined—(1) In general. The term incentive stock option means an option that...

  7. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Incentive stock options defined. 1.422-2 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.422-2 Incentive stock options defined. (a) Incentive stock option defined—(1) In general. The term incentive stock option means an option that...

  8. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Incentive stock options defined. 1.422-2 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.422-2 Incentive stock options defined. (a) Incentive stock option defined—(1) In general. The term incentive stock option means an option that...

  9. 48 CFR 16.403 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.403 Fixed-price incentive contracts. (a) Description. A fixed-price incentive contract is a fixed-price contract that provides for...

  10. 48 CFR 16.403 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.403 Fixed-price incentive contracts. (a) Description. A fixed-price incentive contract is a fixed-price contract that provides for...

  11. 48 CFR 16.403 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.403 Fixed-price incentive contracts. (a) Description. A fixed-price incentive contract is a fixed-price contract that provides for...

  12. 48 CFR 16.403 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.403 Fixed-price incentive contracts. (a) Description. A fixed-price incentive contract is a fixed-price contract that provides for...

  13. 45 CFR 305.31 - Amount of incentive payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... payment. (a) The incentive payment for a State for a fiscal year is equal to the incentive payment pool for the fiscal year, multiplied by the State incentive payment share for the fiscal year. (b) The incentive payment pool is: (1) $422,000,000 for fiscal year 2000; (2) $429,000,000 for fiscal year 2001;...

  14. 48 CFR 16.402-3 - Delivery incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delivery incentives. 16... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-3 Delivery incentives. (a) Delivery incentives should be considered when improvement from a required delivery schedule is a...

  15. Tracking down hyper-boosted top quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Maltoni, Fabio; Selvaggi, Michele

    2015-06-05

    The identification of hadronically decaying heavy states, such as vector bosons, the Higgs, or the top quark, produced with large transverse boosts has been and will continue to be a central focus of the jet physics program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At a future hadron collider working at an order-of-magnitude larger energy than the LHC, these heavy states would be easily produced with transverse boosts of several TeV. At these energies, their decay products will be separated by angular scales comparable to individual calorimeter cells, making the current jet substructure identification techniques for hadronic decay modes not directly employable. In addition, at the high energy and luminosity projected at a future hadron collider, there will be numerous sources for contamination including initial- and final-state radiation, underlying event, or pile-up which must be mitigated. We propose a simple strategy to tag such "hyper-boosted" objects that defines jets with radii that scale inversely proportional to their transverse boost and combines the standard calorimetric information with charged track-based observables. By means of a fast detector simulation, we apply it to top quark identification and demonstrate that our method efficiently discriminates hadronically decaying top quarks from light QCD jets up to transverse boosts of 20 TeV. Lastly, our results open the way to tagging heavy objects with energies in the multi-TeV range at present and future hadron colliders.

  16. Tracking down hyper-boosted top quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Maltoni, Fabio; Selvaggi, Michele

    2015-06-01

    The identification of hadronically decaying heavy states, such as vector bosons, the Higgs, or the top quark, produced with large transverse boosts has been and will continue to be a central focus of the jet physics program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At a future hadron collider working at an order-of-magnitude larger energy than the LHC, these heavy states would be easily produced with transverse boosts of several TeV. At these energies, their decay products will be separated by angular scales comparable to individual calorimeter cells, making the current jet substructure identification techniques for hadronic decay modes not directly employable. In addition, at the high energy and luminosity projected at a future hadron collider, there will be numerous sources for contamination including initial- and final-state radiation, underlying event, or pile-up which must be mitigated. We propose a simple strategy to tag such "hyper-boosted" objects that defines jets with radii that scale inversely proportional to their transverse boost and combines the standard calorimetric information with charged track-based observables. By means of a fast detector simulation, we apply it to top quark identification and demonstrate that our method efficiently discriminates hadronically decaying top quarks from light QCD jets up to transverse boosts of 20 TeV. Our results open the way to tagging heavy objects with energies in the multi-TeV range at present and future hadron colliders.

  17. Tracking down hyper-boosted top quarks

    DOE PAGES

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Maltoni, Fabio; Selvaggi, Michele

    2015-06-05

    The identification of hadronically decaying heavy states, such as vector bosons, the Higgs, or the top quark, produced with large transverse boosts has been and will continue to be a central focus of the jet physics program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At a future hadron collider working at an order-of-magnitude larger energy than the LHC, these heavy states would be easily produced with transverse boosts of several TeV. At these energies, their decay products will be separated by angular scales comparable to individual calorimeter cells, making the current jet substructure identification techniques for hadronic decay modes not directlymore » employable. In addition, at the high energy and luminosity projected at a future hadron collider, there will be numerous sources for contamination including initial- and final-state radiation, underlying event, or pile-up which must be mitigated. We propose a simple strategy to tag such "hyper-boosted" objects that defines jets with radii that scale inversely proportional to their transverse boost and combines the standard calorimetric information with charged track-based observables. By means of a fast detector simulation, we apply it to top quark identification and demonstrate that our method efficiently discriminates hadronically decaying top quarks from light QCD jets up to transverse boosts of 20 TeV. Lastly, our results open the way to tagging heavy objects with energies in the multi-TeV range at present and future hadron colliders.« less

  18. Incentives to promote breastfeeding: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moran, Victoria Hall; Morgan, Heather; Rothnie, Kieran; MacLennan, Graeme; Stewart, Fiona; Thomson, Gillian; Crossland, Nicola; Tappin, David; Campbell, Marion; Hoddinott, Pat

    2015-03-01

    Few women in industrialized countries achieve the World Health Organization's recommendation to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months. Governments are increasingly seeking new interventions to address this problem, including the use of incentives. The goal of this study was to assess the evidence regarding the effectiveness of incentive interventions, delivered within or outside of health care settings, to individuals and/or their families seeking to increase and sustain breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth. Searches of electronic databases, reference lists, and grey literature were conducted to identify relevant reports of published, unpublished, and ongoing studies. All study designs published in English, which met our definition of incentives and that were from a developed country, were eligible for inclusion. Abstract and full-text article review with sequential data extraction were conducted by 2 independent authors. Sixteen full reports were included in the review. The majority evaluated multicomponent interventions of varying frequency, intensity, and duration. Incentives involved providing access to breast pumps, gifts, vouchers, money, food packages, and help with household tasks, but little consensus in findings was revealed. The lack of high-quality, randomized controlled trials identified by this review and the multicomponent nature of the interventions prohibited meta-analysis. This review found that the overall effect of providing incentives for breastfeeding compared with no incentives is unclear due to study heterogeneity and the variation in study quality. Further evidence on breastfeeding incentives offered to women is required to understand the possible effects of these interventions. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Centrifugal compressor design for electrically assisted boost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y Yang, M.; Martinez-Botas, R. F.; Zhuge, W. L.; Qureshi, U.; Richards, B.

    2013-12-01

    Electrically assisted boost is a prominent method to solve the issues of transient lag in turbocharger and remains an optimized operation condition for a compressor due to decoupling from turbine. Usually a centrifugal compressor for gasoline engine boosting is operated at high rotational speed which is beyond the ability of an electric motor in market. In this paper a centrifugal compressor with rotational speed as 120k RPM and pressure ratio as 2.0 is specially developed for electrically assisted boost. A centrifugal compressor including the impeller, vaneless diffuser and the volute is designed by meanline method followed by 3D detailed design. Then CFD method is employed to predict as well as analyse the performance of the design compressor. The results show that the pressure ratio and efficiency at design point is 2.07 and 78% specifically.

  20. Boost breaking in the EFT of inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacrétaz, Luca V.; Noumi, Toshifumi; Senatore, Leonardo

    2017-02-01

    If time-translations are spontaneously broken, so are boosts. This symmetry breaking pattern can be non-linearly realized by either just the Goldstone boson of time translations, or by four Goldstone bosons associated with time translations and boosts. In this paper we extend the Effective Field Theory of Multifield Inflation to consider the case in which the additional Goldstone bosons associated with boosts are light and coupled to the Goldstone boson of time translations. The symmetry breaking pattern forces a coupling to curvature so that the mass of the additional Goldstone bosons is predicted to be equal to √2H in the vast majority of the parameter space where they are light. This pattern therefore offers a natural way of generating self-interacting particles with Hubble mass during inflation. After constructing the general effective Lagrangian, we study how these particles mix and interact with the curvature fluctuations, generating potentially detectable non-Gaussian signals.

  1. Behavior of Werner states under relativistic boosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palge, Veiko; Dunningham, Jacob

    2015-12-01

    We study the structure of maps that Lorentz boosts induce on the spin degree of freedom of a system consisting of two massive spin- 1 / 2 particles. We consider the case where the spin state is described by the Werner state and the momenta are discrete. Transformations on the spins are systematically investigated in various boost scenarios by calculating the orbit and concurrence of the bipartite spin state with different kinds of product and entangled momenta. We confirm the general conclusion that Lorentz boosts cause non-trivial behavior of bipartite spin entanglement. Visualization of the evolution of the spin state is shown to be valuable in explaining the pattern of concurrence. The idealized model provides a basis of explanation in terms of which phenomena in systems involving continuous momenta can be understood.

  2. Personal financial incentives for changing habitual health-related behaviors: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mantzari, Eleni; Vogt, Florian; Shemilt, Ian; Wei, Yinghui; Higgins, Julian P.T.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Uncertainty remains about whether personal financial incentives could achieve sustained changes in health-related behaviors that would reduce the fast-growing global non-communicable disease burden. This review aims to estimate whether: i. financial incentives achieve sustained changes in smoking, eating, alcohol consumption and physical activity; ii. effectiveness is modified by (a) the target behavior, (b) incentive value and attainment certainty, (c) recipients' deprivation level. Methods Multiple sources were searched for trials offering adults financial incentives and assessing outcomes relating to pre-specified behaviors at a minimum of six months from baseline. Analyses included random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions grouped by timed endpoints. Results Of 24,265 unique identified articles, 34 were included in the analysis. Financial incentives increased behavior-change, with effects sustained until 18 months from baseline (OR: 1.53, 95% CI 1.05–2.23) and three months post-incentive removal (OR: 2.11, 95% CI 1.21–3.67). High deprivation increased incentive effects (OR: 2.17; 95% CI 1.22–3.85), but only at > 6–12 months from baseline. Other assessed variables did not independently modify effects at any time-point. Conclusions Personal financial incentives can change habitual health-related behaviors and help reduce health inequalities. However, their role in reducing disease burden is potentially limited given current evidence that effects dissipate beyond three months post-incentive removal. PMID:25843244

  3. Boosting Access to Government Rocket Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    September–October 2014 8 with MSFC, through an SAA signed in 2012, using Marshall’s expertise and resources to perform wind tunnel testing on various...Defense AT&L: September–October 2014 6 Boosting Access to Government Rocket Science John F. Rice Defense AT&L: September–October 2014 6 Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Boosting Access to Government Rocket Science 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  4. Understanding the Mechanisms Through Which an Influential Early Childhood Program Boosted Adult Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, James; Pinto, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    A growing literature establishes that high quality early childhood interventions targeted toward disadvantaged children have substantial impacts on later life outcomes. Little is known about the mechanisms producing these impacts. This paper uses longitudinal data on cognitive and personality traits from an experimental evaluation of the influential Perry Preschool program to analyze the channels through which the program boosted both male and female participant outcomes. Experimentally induced changes in personality traits explain a sizable portion of adult treatment effects. PMID:24634518

  5. R&D incentives for neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    Dimitri, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Neglected diseases are typically characterized as those for which adequate drug treatment is lacking, and the potential return on effort in research and development (R&D), to produce new therapies, is too small for companies to invest significant resources in the field. In recent years various incentives schemes to stimulate R&D by pharmaceutical firms have been considered. Broadly speaking, these can be classified either as 'push' or 'pull' programs. Hybrid options, that include push and pull incentives, have also become increasingly popular. Supporters and critics of these various incentive schemes have argued in favor of their relative merits and limitations, although the view that no mechanism is a perfect fit for all situations appears to be widely held. For this reason, the debate on the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches has been important for policy decisions, but is dispersed in a variety of sources. With this in mind, the aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the economic determinants behind R&D investments for neglected diseases by comparing the relative strength of different incentive schemes within a simple economic model, based on the assumption of profit maximizing firms. The analysis suggests that co-funded push programs are generally more efficient than pure pull programs. However, by setting appropriate intermediate goals hybrid incentive schemes could further improve efficiency.

  6. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Berdud, Mikel; Cabasés, Juan M; Nieto, Jorge

    It has been established in the literature that workers within public organisations are intrinsically motivated. This paper is an empirical study of the healthcare sector using methods of qualitative analysis research, which aims to answer the following hypotheses: 1) doctors are intrinsically motivated; 2) economic incentives and control policies may undermine doctors' intrinsic motivation; and 3) well-designed incentives may encourage doctors' intrinsic motivation. We conducted semi-structured interviews à-la-Bewley with 16 doctors from Navarre's Healthcare Service (Servicio Navarro de Salud-Osasunbidea), Spain. The questions were based on current theories of intrinsic motivation and incentives to test the hypotheses. Interviewees were allowed to respond openly without time constraints. Relevant information was selected, quantified and analysed by using the qualitative concepts of saturation and codification. The results seem to confirm the hypotheses. Evidence supporting hypotheses 1 and 2 was gathered from all interviewees, as well as indications of the validity of hypothesis 3 based on interviewees' proposals of incentives. The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of Federal incentives used to stimulate energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, B.W.; Brenchley, D.L.; Brix, V.L.

    1980-02-01

    Solar energy's share in the national energy budget has caused policy makers to speculate on the reasons for the large difference between present and potential use. Complex technical, economic, legal, institutional, and political interrelationships appear and an attempt is made to present an understanding of that relationship and to enhance the design of solar energy policy. Federal incentives that have been previously used on other energy sources are examined and the report identifies, quantifies, and analyzes such incentives and relates them to current thought about solar energy. The chapters presented are: A Theoretical Approach to Analyzing Incentives for Energy Production; Generic Analysis of Energy Incentives; Nuclear Energy Incentives; Hydroenergy Incentives; Coal Energy Incentives; Oil Energy Incentives; Natural Gas Energy Incentives; and Electricity. Conclusions with respect to solar energy policy for each of these are summed. (MCW)

  8. Growing Pains (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Feeding Your 4- to 7-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Growing ... > For Parents > Growing Pains Print A A A What's in ...

  9. Incentive spirometry: its value after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Gale, G D; Sanders, D E

    1980-09-01

    Treatment with intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) and incentive spirometry (I.S.) was compared in 109 patients after heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Assessment was done by measurement of vital capacity, arterial oxygen tension and identification of the radiological signs of atelectasis. All patients were instructed pre-operatively in the treatment which was to be used. Vital capacity, arterial oxygen tension while breathing air for the first three postoperative days and the incidence of atelectasis showed no significant difference between groups. Ten minutes after treatment the arterial oxygen tension fell, but this was only statistically significant after I.P.P.B. At 60 minutes the arterial oxygen tension had returned to pretreatment level in both groups. The use of the incentive spirometer four times daily is no better than I.P.P.B., in preventing atelectasis after open-heart surgery. Possibly incentive spirometer treatment given more frequently may be more effective.

  10. Improving Acquisition Through Innovation in Workforce Incentives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-30

    ååì~ä=^Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= tÉÇåÉëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=f= = Improving Acquisition Through Innovation in Workforce Incentives Venkat Rao...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Improving Acquisition Through Innovation in Workforce Incentives 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...discussed, and debated to improve defense acquisition. Incentives for the workforce are chief among them. This paper proposes a model for altering the

  11. Incentive relativity in middle aged rats.

    PubMed

    Justel, N; Mustaca, A; Boccia, M; Ruetti, E

    2014-01-24

    Response to a reinforcer is affected by prior experience with different reward values of that reward, a phenomenon known as incentive relativity. Two different procedures to study this phenomenon are the incentive downshift (ID) and the consummatory anticipatory negative contrast (cANC), the former is an emotional-cognitive protocol and the latter cognitive one. Aged rodents, as also well described in aged humans, exhibit alterations in cognitive functions. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of age in the incentive' assessment using these two procedures. The results indicated that aged rats had an adequate assessment of the rewards but their performance is not completely comparable to that of young subjects. They recover faster from the ID and they had a cognitive impairment in the cANC. The results are discussed in relation to age-related changes in memory and emotion.

  12. Do Market Incentives Crowd Out Charitable Giving?

    PubMed Central

    Deck, Cary; Kimbrough, Erik O.

    2013-01-01

    Donations and volunteerism can be conceived as market transactions with a zero explicit price. However, evidence suggests people may not view zero as just another price when it comes to pro-social behavior. Thus, while markets might be expected to increase the supply of assets available to those in need, some worry such financial incentives will crowd out altruistic giving. This paper reports laboratory experiments directly investigating the degree to which market incentives crowd out large, discrete charitable donations in a setting related to deceased organ donation. The results suggest markets increase the supply of assets available to those in need. However, as some critics fear, market incentives disproportionately influence the relatively poor. PMID:24348002

  13. Paperless Transaction for Publication Incentive System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rosziati; Madon, Hamiza Diana; Nazri, Nurul Hashida Amira Mohd; Saarani, Norhafizah; Mustapha, Aida

    2017-08-01

    Within the Malaysian context, incentive system in scientific publishing rewards authors for publishing journal articles or conference papers that are indexed by Scopus. At Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, the incentive system is going into its third year in operational. The main challenge lies in preparing the evidences as required by the application guideline. This paper presents an online module for publication incentive within the University Publication Information System (SMPU). The module was developed using the Scrum methodology based on the existing workflow of paper-based application. The module is hoped to increase the quality of the system deliverables of SMPU as well as having the ability to cope with change of university requirements in the future.

  14. Splitting motivation: unilateral effects of subliminal incentives.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Liane; Palminteri, Stefano; Lafargue, Gilles; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2010-07-01

    Motivation is generally understood to denote the strength of a person's desire to attain a goal. Here we challenge this view of motivation as a person-level concept, in a study that targeted subliminal incentives to only one half of the human brain. Participants in the study squeezed a handgrip to win the greatest fraction possible of each subliminal incentive, which materialized as a coin image flashed in one visual hemifield. Motivation effects (i.e., more force exerted when the incentive was higher) were observed only for the hand controlled by the stimulated brain hemisphere. These results show that in the absence of conscious control, one brain hemisphere, and hence one side of the body, can be motivated independently of the other.

  15. The Attentional Boost Effect with Verbal Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Spataro, Pietro; Picklesimer, Milton

    2014-01-01

    Study stimuli presented at the same time as unrelated targets in a detection task are better remembered than stimuli presented with distractors. This attentional boost effect (ABE) has been found with pictorial (Swallow & Jiang, 2010) and more recently verbal materials (Spataro, Mulligan, & Rossi-Arnaud, 2013). The present experiments…

  16. Cleanouts boost Devonian shale gas flow

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-04

    Cleaning shale debris from the well bores is an effective way to boost flow rates from old open hole Devonian shale gas wells, research on six West Virginia wells begun in 1985 has shown. Officials involved with the study say the Appalachian basin could see 20 year recoverable gas reserves hiked by 315 bcf if the process is used on a wide scale.

  17. Schools Enlisting Defense Industry to Boost STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Defense contractors Northrop Grumman Corp. and Lockheed Martin Corp. are joining forces in an innovative partnership to develop high-tech simulations to boost STEM--or science, technology, engineering, and mathematics--education in the Baltimore County schools. The Baltimore County partnership includes the local operations of two major military…

  18. Energy Boost. Q & A with Steve Kiesner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Jay W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview with the director of national accounts for the Edison Electric Institute in Washington, DC about the association, its booklet on energy conservation within education facilities, and ways in which educational facilities can reduce costs by boosting energy conservation. (EV)

  19. The Attentional Boost Effect and Context Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Smith, S. Adam; Spataro, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli co-occurring with targets in a detection task are better remembered than stimuli co-occurring with distractors--the attentional boost effect (ABE). The ABE is of interest because it is an exception to the usual finding that divided attention during encoding impairs memory. The effect has been demonstrated in tests of item memory but it is…

  20. Niacin to Boost Your HDL "Good" Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    Niacin can boost 'good' cholesterol Niacin is a B vitamin that may raise your HDL ("good") cholesterol. But side effects might outweigh benefits for most ... been used to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol — the "good" cholesterol that helps remove low-density ...

  1. The Attentional Boost Effect with Verbal Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Spataro, Pietro; Picklesimer, Milton

    2014-01-01

    Study stimuli presented at the same time as unrelated targets in a detection task are better remembered than stimuli presented with distractors. This attentional boost effect (ABE) has been found with pictorial (Swallow & Jiang, 2010) and more recently verbal materials (Spataro, Mulligan, & Rossi-Arnaud, 2013). The present experiments…

  2. Boosting fire drill participation in hospital settings.

    PubMed

    Prosper, Darryl

    2015-01-01

    In a health system with over 100 sites in a geographically dispersed region, boosting fire drill participation to meet government requirements, according to the author, is a constant effort, both to achieve and to maintain. In this article, he describes a comprehensive approach that entails engagement of executive, site committees and local fire authorities, as well as comprehensive training and awareness campaigns.

  3. The Attentional Boost Effect and Context Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Smith, S. Adam; Spataro, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli co-occurring with targets in a detection task are better remembered than stimuli co-occurring with distractors--the attentional boost effect (ABE). The ABE is of interest because it is an exception to the usual finding that divided attention during encoding impairs memory. The effect has been demonstrated in tests of item memory but it is…

  4. Concomitant GRID boost for Gamma Knife radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Lijun; Kwok, Young; Chin, Lawrence S.; Simard, J. Marc; Regine, William F.

    2005-11-15

    We developed an integrated GRID boost technique for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. The technique generates an array of high dose spots within the target volume via a grid of 4-mm shots. These high dose areas were placed over a conventional Gamma Knife plan where a peripheral dose covers the full target volume. The beam weights of the 4-mm shots were optimized iteratively to maximize the integral dose inside the target volume. To investigate the target volume coverage and the dose to the adjacent normal brain tissue for the technique, we compared the GRID boosted treatment plans with conventional Gamma Knife treatment plans using physical and biological indices such as dose-volume histogram (DVH), DVH-derived indices, equivalent uniform dose (EUD), tumor control probabilities (TCP), and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP). We found significant increase in the target volume indices such as mean dose (5%-34%; average 14%), TCP (4%-45%; average 21%), and EUD (2%-22%; average 11%) for the GRID boost technique. No significant change in the peripheral dose coverage for the target volume was found per RTOG protocol. In addition, the EUD and the NTCP for the normal brain adjacent to the target (i.e., the near region) were decreased for the GRID boost technique. In conclusion, we demonstrated a new technique for Gamma Knife radiosurgery that can escalate the dose to the target while sparing the adjacent normal brain tissue.

  5. Schools Enlisting Defense Industry to Boost STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Defense contractors Northrop Grumman Corp. and Lockheed Martin Corp. are joining forces in an innovative partnership to develop high-tech simulations to boost STEM--or science, technology, engineering, and mathematics--education in the Baltimore County schools. The Baltimore County partnership includes the local operations of two major military…

  6. Powerplant productivity improvements and regulatory incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, D; Brown, D

    1980-10-27

    The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits to be gained from increased powerplant productivity and to validate and demonstrate the use of incentives within the regulatory process to promote the improvement of powerplant productivity. The system-wide costs savings to be gained from given productivity improvement scenarios are estimated in both the short and long term. Numerous reports and studies exist which indicate that productivity improvements at the powerplant level are feasible and cost effective. The efforts of this study widen this focus and relate system-wide productivity improvements with system-wide cost savings. The initial thrust of the regulatory section of this study is to validate the existence of reasonable incentive procedures which would enable regulatory agencies to better motivate electric utilities to improve productivity on both the powerplant and system levels. The voluntary incentive format developed in this study was designed to facilitate the link between profit and efficiency which is typically not clear in most regulated market environments. It is concluded that at the present time, many electric utilities in this country could significantly increase the productivity of their base load units, and the adoption of an incentive program of the general type recommended in this study would add to rate of return regulation the needed financial incentives to enable utilities to make such improvements without losing long-run profit. In light of the upcoming oil import target levels and mandatory cutbacks of oil and gas as boiler fuels for electric utilities, the use of incentive programs to encourage more efficient utilization of coal and nuclear base load capacity will become far more inviting over the next two decades.

  7. Extending statistical boosting. An overview of recent methodological developments.

    PubMed

    Mayr, A; Binder, H; Gefeller, O; Schmid, M

    2014-01-01

    Boosting algorithms to simultaneously estimate and select predictor effects in statistical models have gained substantial interest during the last decade. This review highlights recent methodological developments regarding boosting algorithms for statistical modelling especially focusing on topics relevant for biomedical research. We suggest a unified framework for gradient boosting and likelihood-based boosting (statistical boosting) which have been addressed separately in the literature up to now. The methodological developments on statistical boosting during the last ten years can be grouped into three different lines of research: i) efforts to ensure variable selection leading to sparser models, ii) developments regarding different types of predictor effects and how to choose them, iii) approaches to extend the statistical boosting framework to new regression settings. Statistical boosting algorithms have been adapted to carry out unbiased variable selection and automated model choice during the fitting process and can nowadays be applied in almost any regression setting in combination with a large amount of different types of predictor effects.

  8. Mediterranean Diet Plus Olive Oil a Boost to Heart Health?

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163557.html Mediterranean Diet Plus Olive Oil a Boost to Heart Health? It enhances ... HealthDay News) -- A Mediterranean diet high in virgin olive oil may boost the protective effects of "good" ...

  9. Differential dependence of Pavlovian incentive motivation and instrumental incentive learning processes on dopamine signaling.

    PubMed

    Wassum, Kate M; Ostlund, Sean B; Balleine, Bernard W; Maidment, Nigel T

    2011-01-01

    Here we attempted to clarify the role of dopamine signaling in reward seeking. In Experiment 1, we assessed the effects of the dopamine D(1)/D(2) receptor antagonist flupenthixol (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) on Pavlovian incentive motivation and found that flupenthixol blocked the ability of a conditioned stimulus to enhance both goal approach and instrumental performance (Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer). In Experiment 2 we assessed the effects of flupenthixol on reward palatability during post-training noncontingent re-exposure to the sucrose reward in either a control 3-h or novel 23-h food-deprived state. Flupenthixol, although effective in blocking the Pavlovian goal approach, was without effect on palatability or the increase in reward palatability induced by the upshift in motivational state. This noncontingent re-exposure provided an opportunity for instrumental incentive learning, the process by which rats encode the value of a reward for use in updating reward-seeking actions. Flupenthixol administered prior to the instrumental incentive learning opportunity did not affect the increase in subsequent off-drug reward-seeking actions induced by that experience. These data suggest that although dopamine signaling is necessary for Pavlovian incentive motivation, it is not necessary for changes in reward experience, or for the instrumental incentive learning process that translates this experience into the incentive value used to drive reward-seeking actions, and provide further evidence that Pavlovian and instrumental incentive learning processes are dissociable.

  10. Differential dependence of Pavlovian incentive motivation and instrumental incentive learning processes on dopamine signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wassum, Kate M.; Ostlund, Sean B.; Balleine, Bernard W.; Maidment, Nigel T.

    2011-01-01

    Here we attempted to clarify the role of dopamine signaling in reward seeking. In Experiment 1, we assessed the effects of the dopamine D1/D2 receptor antagonist flupenthixol (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) on Pavlovian incentive motivation and found that flupenthixol blocked the ability of a conditioned stimulus to enhance both goal approach and instrumental performance (Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer). In Experiment 2 we assessed the effects of flupenthixol on reward palatability during post-training noncontingent re-exposure to the sucrose reward in either a control 3-h or novel 23-h food-deprived state. Flupenthixol, although effective in blocking the Pavlovian goal approach, was without effect on palatability or the increase in reward palatability induced by the upshift in motivational state. This noncontingent re-exposure provided an opportunity for instrumental incentive learning, the process by which rats encode the value of a reward for use in updating reward-seeking actions. Flupenthixol administered prior to the instrumental incentive learning opportunity did not affect the increase in subsequent off-drug reward-seeking actions induced by that experience. These data suggest that although dopamine signaling is necessary for Pavlovian incentive motivation, it is not necessary for changes in reward experience, or for the instrumental incentive learning process that translates this experience into the incentive value used to drive reward-seeking actions, and provide further evidence that Pavlovian and instrumental incentive learning processes are dissociable. PMID:21693635

  11. State Incentives for Innovation, Star Scientists, and Jobs: Evidence from Biotech. Upjohn Institute Working Paper No. 14-203

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moretti, Enrico; Wilson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of state-provided financial incentives for biotech companies, which are part of a growing trend of placed-based policies designed to spur innovation clusters. We estimate that the adoption of subsidies for biotech employers by a state raises the number of star biotech scientists in that state by about 15 percent over a…

  12. State Incentives for Innovation, Star Scientists, and Jobs: Evidence from Biotech. Upjohn Institute Working Paper No. 14-203

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moretti, Enrico; Wilson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of state-provided financial incentives for biotech companies, which are part of a growing trend of placed-based policies designed to spur innovation clusters. We estimate that the adoption of subsidies for biotech employers by a state raises the number of star biotech scientists in that state by about 15 percent over a…

  13. Incentives for organ donation: some ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Sells, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Objections to commerce in organs has not stopped the spread of such practice around the world. In most countries the gap between supply and demand for organs continues to increase. Kidneys from living donors are considered a valuable addition to the donor pool, and in a more acquisitive world, donor incentives are becoming thinkable, even acceptable. Current incentives for cadaver and living organ donation are reviewed from ethical and legal perspectives. A new principle of reimbursement for the living donor's risk and pain is defined and presented for debate.

  14. Massachusetts law gives hospitals energy incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, L.

    1982-08-30

    A new law allowing hospitals to retain the difference between pre-paid insurer's rates over actual costs reverses a cost-cutting disincentive into a financial incentive for the Massachusetts General Hospital and the American Hospital Association. If hospital costs exceed the insurer's preset reimbursements, however, hospitals must make up the difference. The new law creates incentives for energy management and could serve as a model for other states if it proves effective. The federal government may apply the concept to the Medicare-Medicaid reimbursement formula. (DCK)

  15. Reaching Asian Americans: sampling strategies and incentives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Kyung; Cheng, Yu-Yao

    2006-07-01

    Reaching and recruiting representative samples of minority populations is often challenging. This study examined in Chinese and Korean Americans: 1) whether using two different sampling strategies (random sampling vs. convenience sampling) significantly affected characteristics of recruited participants and 2) whether providing different incentives in the mail survey produced different response rates. We found statistically significant, however mostly not remarkable, differences between random and convenience samples. Offering monetary incentives in the mail survey improved response rates among Chinese Americans, while offering a small gift did not improve response rates among either Chinese or Korean Americans. This information will be useful for researchers and practitioners working with Asian Americans.

  16. Offshore oil - growing optimism with gas

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    The gas-rich Gulf of Mexico is on the rebound and there's growing optimism business conditions will continue to improve in 1994. Environmental regulations, such as the Clean Air Act and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, are having a significant impact on oil an gas drilling and production. The Clean Air Act has increased the use of natural gas, which is helping bolster gas consumption from the Gulf of Mexico's reserves. In late December 1993, the Clinton administration unveiled its long-awaited gas and oil initiative aimed at boosting markets for domestic natural gas and oil while developing a long-term strategy to reduce the nation's dependence on imported energy. This article examines the political and economic issues of concern to the oil and gas industry, and how international competition affects development in the Gulf.

  17. The Growing Human Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyfitz, Nathan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the issue of human population. Illustrates the projections of the growing human population in terms of developed and less developed countries. Describes the family planning programs in several countries. Lists three references for further reading. (YP)

  18. Apparatus for growing crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Thomas J. (Inventor); Witt, August F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for growing crystals from a melt employing a heat pipe, consisting of one or more sections, each section serving to control temperature and thermal gradients in the crystal as it forms inside the pipe.

  19. How Your Baby Grows

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Pregnancy week by week Pregnancy week by week Week by week Videos Swipe to advance Learn ... grows each week during pregnancy. Pick your week. Weeks 1-2 Conception (also called fertilization) usually happens ...

  20. Crop growing practices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter reviews the literature on two specific aspects of cotton growing practices; tillage management and nutrient management. Conservation tillage systems were developed to reduce soil erosion from agricultural fields. Besides this function, conservation tillage systems can improve the water ...

  1. The Growing Human Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyfitz, Nathan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the issue of human population. Illustrates the projections of the growing human population in terms of developed and less developed countries. Describes the family planning programs in several countries. Lists three references for further reading. (YP)

  2. What strategies to boost production of affordable fixed-dose anti-retroviral drug combinations for children in the developing world?

    PubMed

    Dionisio, Daniele; Gass, Robert; McDermott, Peter; Racalbuto, Vincenzo; Madeo, Marina; Braghieri, Giuseppe; Crowley, Siobhan; Pinheiro, Eloan Dos Santos; Graaff, Peter; Vasan, Ashwin; Eksaengsri, Achara; Moller, Helene; Khanna, Arun Kumar; Kraisintu, Krisana; Juneja, Sandeep; Nicolaou, Stavros; Sengupta, Aloka; Esperti, Francesco; Messeri, Daniela

    2007-03-01

    No more than 8% of HIV positive children needing treatment in low- and middle-income countries have access to antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). Children presently account for about 4% of all treated patients, while for equitable access they should make up at least 13%. This study explores key issues, implications and interaction dynamics to boost production of easy-to-use and affordable fixed-dose combination (FDC) ARVs for children in the developing world. Potentials for equitable solutions are examined including priority steps and actions, appropriate treatment options and reliable forecasting methods for paediatric ARVs, as well as combination incentives to generic companies against market unattractiveness and enforced intellectual property (IP) rights. Moreover, implementation strategies to enhance the development and production of affordable ARV paediatric formulations and appropriate supply systems to ensure availability are investigated. The current market for FDC paediatric ARVs is already substantial and will only grow with improved and scaled up diagnosis and monitoring of children. This provides an argument for immediate increase of production and development of FDC ARVs for children. These formulations must be low cost and included in the list of Essential Medicines to avoid children continuing to lag behind in access to treatment. Access-oriented, long-term drug policy strategies with the ability to pass muster of governments, the UN system, as well as generic and research-based enterprises are needed to let children gain expanded and sustained access to FDC ARVs. Under the requirements listed above, IP-bound Voluntary License (VL) flexibilities do appear, if coupled with substantial combination incentives to generic firms, as a fitting tool into the needs. Policies must consider enhancing human resource capacity in the area of caregivers and social and health workers aiming to spread correct information and awareness on effectiveness and rationale of FDC

  3. Growing America's Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    The emerging U.S. bioenergy industry provides a secure and growing supply of transportation fuels, biopower, and bioproducts produced from a range of abundant, renewable biomass resources. Bioenergy can help ensure a secure, sustainable, and economically sound future by reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil, developing domestic clean energy sources, and generating domestic green jobs. Bioenergy can also help address growing concerns about climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to create a healthier environment for current and future generations.

  4. Glossary – dCHPP (CHP Policies and incentives database)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This glossary provides descriptions of the policy and incentive types included in the CHP Partnership's CHP Policies and incentives database (dCHPP), as well as the frequency with which the EPA updates each type.

  5. Recovery Act Incentives for Wind Energy Equipment Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-01

    This document lists some of the federal incentives available to manufacturers of wind energy equipment. These incentives were authorized by or expanded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.

  6. Incentives May Spur Poor Families to Buy More Fruits, Veggies

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163124.html Incentives May Spur Poor Families to Buy More Fruits, Veggies Many may not ... HealthDay News) -- A quick chat with low-income families about financial incentives to eat more fruits and ...

  7. 48 CFR 16.402-2 - Performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-2 Performance incentives...., a missile range, an aircraft speed, an engine thrust, or a vehicle maneuverability) or other...

  8. 48 CFR 16.402-2 - Performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-2 Performance incentives...., a missile range, an aircraft speed, an engine thrust, or a vehicle maneuverability) or other...

  9. 48 CFR 1816.402-2 - Performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Performance incentives. 1816.402-2 Section 1816.402-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... Performance incentives....

  10. 48 CFR 1816.402-2 - Performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Performance incentives. 1816.402-2 Section 1816.402-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... Performance incentives....

  11. 48 CFR 16.204 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... establishing the final contract price by a formula based on the relationship of final negotiated total cost to total target cost. Fixed-price incentive contracts are covered in subpart 16.4, Incentive Contracts....

  12. Stable boosted-frame simulations of laser-wakefield acceleration using Galilean coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehe, Remi; Kirchen, Manuel; Godfrey, Brendan; Maier, Andreas; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2016-10-01

    While Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations of laser-wakefield acceleration are typically very computationally expensive, it is well-known that representing the system in a well-chosen Lorentz frame can reduce the computational cost by orders of magnitude. One of the limitation of this ``boosted-frame'' technique is the Numerical Cherenkov Instability (NCI) - a numerical instability that rapidly grows in the boosted frame and must be eliminated in order to obtain valid physical results. Several methods have been proposed in order to eliminate the NCI, but they introduce additional numerical corrections (e.g. heavy smoothing, unphysical modification of the dispersion relation, etc.) which could potentially alter the physics. By contrast, here we show that, for boosted-frame simulations of laser-wakefield acceleration, the NCI can be eliminated simply by integrating the PIC equations in Galilean coordinates (a.k.a comoving coordinates), without additional numerical correction. Using this technique, we show excellent agreement between simulations in the laboratory frame and Lorentz-boosted frame, with more than 2 orders of magnitude speedup in the latter case. Work supported by US-DOE Contracts DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  13. Cost Reduction Incentive Awards. 1981 Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Brief descriptions of 47 college programs recognized for awards in the National Association of College and University Officers/U. S. Steel Foundation Cost Reduction Incentive Awards Program are given. They include awards for: shower stall repair; chemical waste exchange; vibrating alarms for hearing-imparied; self-funding insurance consortium;…

  14. The Effects of Incentives on Recruiter Productivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    recruiter. (after Samuelson , Kraus, Reese, Moskowitz, 2006, p. 13). ...................................................................................3...sailors to volunteer for recruiting duty. However, these incentives lack the endurance to successively motivate recruiters. Samuelson et al.’s (2006...productivity between 12 and 18 months ( Samuelson , Kraus, Reese, & Moskowitz, 2006). The drop-off in productivity after their peak (with usually more than half

  15. Employment Testing and Incentives To Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, John

    Employment tests predict job performance because they measure or are correlated with a large set of malleable developed abilities, which are causally related to productivity. Our economy currently under-rewards the achievements that are measured by these tests. Consequently, economic incentives to study hard in high school are minimal, and this…

  16. The Cornell Staff Retirement Incentive Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Kenneth T.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Hallock, Kevin F.; Seeber, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate potential determinants of enrollment in an early retirement incentive program for non-tenure-track employees at a large university. Using administrative records on the eligible, population of employees not covered by collective bargaining agreements, historical employee count and layoff data by budget units, and public information on…

  17. Teacher Incentives: A Tool for Effective Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresap, McCormick, and Paget, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Teacher incentive systems enable school districts to address the current concerns of their constituencies: teachers' concern with salaries, administrators' concern for attracting good people into the teaching profession, and community concern that increased expenditures for teacher salaries have not improved education. Accordingly, this handbook…

  18. 75 FR 71325 - Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... requirements apply to all programs under Subtitle D, including the Wetlands Reserve Program, the Conservation... Conservation Service 7 CFR Part 636 RIN 0578-AA49 Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation, Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Final...

  19. Incentives for Cheating Given Imperfect Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-10-01

    The incentives for cheating given imperfect detection can be discussed within the context of first strike stability. The cost reduction due to is balanced against the sanctions that would be imposed if cheating was detected. For small political sanctions, the optimum level is at high levels of cheating. For large sanctions, the optimum is at quite low levels, which discourages cheating.

  20. Financial Incentives to Promote Active Travel

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Ogilvie, David

    2012-01-01

    Context Financial incentives, including taxes and subsidies, can be used to encourage behavior change. They are common in transport policy for tackling externalities associated with use of motor vehicles, and in public health for influencing alcohol consumption and smoking behaviors. Financial incentives also offer policymakers a compromise between “nudging,” which may be insufficient for changing habitual behavior, and regulations that restrict individual choice. Evidence acquisition The literature review identified studies published between January 1997 and January 2012 of financial incentives relating to any mode of travel in which the impact on active travel, physical activity, or obesity levels was reported. It encompassed macroenvironmental schemes, such as gasoline taxes, and microenvironmental schemes, such as employer-subsidized bicycles. Five relevant reviews and 20 primary studies (of which nine were not included in the reviews) were identified. Evidence synthesis The results show that more-robust evidence is required if policymakers are to maximize the health impact of fiscal policy relating to transport schemes of this kind. Conclusions Drawing on a literature review and insights from the SLOTH (sleep, leisure, occupation, transportation, and home-based activities) time-budget model, this paper argues that financial incentives may have a larger role in promoting walking and cycling than is acknowledged generally. PMID:23159264

  1. Rewarding Excellence: Teacher Compensation and Incentive Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Kristen J.

    This monograph provides information on the many aspects of teacher compensation and incentive plans, focusing on those programs that seek to attract and retain high-quality teachers in the profession. Information was synthesized from reports provided by various school districts around the nation. The monograph presents state-by-state data on…

  2. Non-organ donors' attitudes toward incentives.

    PubMed

    Tumin, Makmor; Noh, Abdillah; Chong, Chin-Sieng; Lim, Soo-Kun; Abdullah, Nawi; Ng, Kok-Peng

    2013-01-01

    Malaysians indicating that they did not intend to become organ donors upon their death were surveyed regarding interest in non-fungible financial incentives to be granted to surviving family members. Among the 730 (56% of the total sample of 1311) indicating unwillingness to be donors, 29.6% (216/730) subsequently indicated that they would be willing donors if the government introduced policies that, upon their death, "rewarded your (their) family with incentives for your (their) deeds." Among the 69% (504/730) who insisted that they would not become organ donor even with incentive, nearly 80% (404/501) of them were able to identify relevant incentives they thought should be provided by the state to those who make organ donations upon death. The majority of both groups preferred the state provide medical benefits to a surviving family member, suggesting this may be an attractive policy option for the state to raise the deceased organ donation pool. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Rewarding Excellence: Teacher Compensation and Incentive Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Kristen J.

    This monograph provides information on the many aspects of teacher compensation and incentive plans, focusing on those programs that seek to attract and retain high-quality teachers in the profession. Information was synthesized from reports provided by various school districts around the nation. The monograph presents state-by-state data on…

  4. Incentives, School Organization and Teacher Compensation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    In order for teacher compensation to serve as an incentive that reinforces broader organizational goals, the norms of the compensation structure must be aligned with the norms of the school organization. The first section of this paper presents a brief overview of changes in teacher compensation from 1820 to 1950. It describes how such changes…

  5. Examining the Incentives in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Dominic J.; Goldhaber, Dan D.

    2008-01-01

    In their best seller, "Freakonomics", University of Chicago economist Steven Levitt and "New York Times" writer Stephen Dubner show in an amusing and often provocative manner how an economic way of thinking can be useful in explaining all sorts of real-world phenomena. Their central insight is very simple: incentives are the cornerstone of modern…

  6. Federal Tax Incentives for Battery Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2017-01-01

    Investments in renewable energy can be more attractive with the contribution of two key federal tax incentives. NREL provides basic information about the investment tax credit (ITC) and the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) depreciation deduction, which may apply to battery storage systems owned by a private party (i.e., a tax-paying business).

  7. Motivation and Incentives in Manpower Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, Eugene A.

    Except for several Human Resources Research Organization studies of the military, no systematic study has been made of the effects of attitudes and incentives on manpower availability. One such study explored the effects of early Army experience in the career orientation of Army recruits and found that early positive motivation for service was…

  8. Early Retirement Incentive Programs for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Scott E.; McCarthy, Martha M.

    1989-01-01

    Despite their popularity, early retirement incentive programs (ERIPs) remain controversial. Although early retirement may be appealing to some teachers, others bristle at being shoved into retirement. Following a historical overview, this article summarizes recent state legislation and addresses ERIP legal status under the Age Discrimination in…

  9. 12 CFR 708a.12 - Voting incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voting incentives. 708a.12 Section 708a.12... CONVERSIONS AND MERGERS Conversion of Insured Credit Unions to Mutual Savings Banks § 708a.12 Voting..., § 708a.12 was redesignated as § 708a.112, effective Jan. 27, 2011....

  10. Targeted Business Incentives and Local Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to examine the effects of geographically targeted business incentives on local labor markets. Unlike elsewhere in the United States, enterprise zone (EZ) designations in Texas are determined in part by a cutoff rule based on census block group poverty rates. Exploiting this discontinuity as a…

  11. Targeted Business Incentives and Local Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to examine the effects of geographically targeted business incentives on local labor markets. Unlike elsewhere in the United States, enterprise zone (EZ) designations in Texas are determined in part by a cutoff rule based on census block group poverty rates. Exploiting this discontinuity as a…

  12. Early Retirement Incentive Programs for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Scott E.; McCarthy, Martha M.

    1989-01-01

    Despite their popularity, early retirement incentive programs (ERIPs) remain controversial. Although early retirement may be appealing to some teachers, others bristle at being shoved into retirement. Following a historical overview, this article summarizes recent state legislation and addresses ERIP legal status under the Age Discrimination in…

  13. Incentive Issues in Information Security Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chul Ho

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies three incentive issues in information security management. The first essay studies contract issues between a firm that outsources security functions and a managed security service provider (MSSP) that provides security functions to the firm. Since MSSP and firms cannot observe each other's actions, both can suffer…

  14. 75 FR 30007 - Teacher Incentive Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... FY 2010 (NIA) for the Teacher Incentive Fund. This notice makes a correction to the May 21 NIA. FOR...: Correction On page 28745 of the May 21 NIA, we requested that applicants submit a short e-mail as a notice of... applicant intends to address.'' We are correcting the May 21 NIA to provide applicants with the correct...

  15. Incentive Issues in Information Security Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chul Ho

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies three incentive issues in information security management. The first essay studies contract issues between a firm that outsources security functions and a managed security service provider (MSSP) that provides security functions to the firm. Since MSSP and firms cannot observe each other's actions, both can suffer…

  16. Cost Reduction Incentive Awards. 1981 Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Brief descriptions of 47 college programs recognized for awards in the National Association of College and University Officers/U. S. Steel Foundation Cost Reduction Incentive Awards Program are given. They include awards for: shower stall repair; chemical waste exchange; vibrating alarms for hearing-imparied; self-funding insurance consortium;…

  17. Incentives in IT Yield Success at MIT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mary

    2001-01-01

    Describes the role of information technology (IT) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, explaining that attention to the unique characteristics of an MIT education and incentives for sustainable change are central to its IT efforts. Discusses various IT initiatives, such as Project Athena, provision on campus, international efforts, and…

  18. Economic Incentives for Stormwater Control (ISBN9781439845608)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Addressing a huge knowledge gap from a policy perspective, this book focuses on the economic tools available for stormwater runoff control. It provides case studies demonstrating the application of various incentives, such as tradable credits, fees with rebates, and auction mecha...

  19. Perspectives on Performance-Based Incentive Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duttweiler, Patricia Cloud; Ramos-Cancel, Maria L.

    This document is a synthesis of the current literature on performance-based incentive systems for teachers and administrators. Section one provides an introduction to the reform movement and to performance-based pay initiatives; a definition of terms; a brief discussion of funding sources; a discussion of compensation strategies; a description of…

  20. Incentives, Teachers, and Gender at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Incentive pay programs have become panacea for a multitude of educational challenges. When aimed at teachers the assumption is that rewards entice them to work in particular ways or particular schools. However, the assumption is based on an economic formula that does not take into consideration the gendered nature of policy processes. This study…

  1. Incentives, equity and the Able Chooser Problem.

    PubMed

    Grill, Kalle

    2017-03-01

    Health incentive schemes aim to produce healthier behaviours in target populations. They may do so both by making incentivised options more salient and by making them less costly. Changes in costs only result in healthier behaviour if the individual rationally assesses the cost change and acts accordingly. Not all people do this well. Those who fail to respond rationally to incentives will typically include those who are least able to make prudent choices more generally. This group will typically include the least advantaged more generally, since disadvantage inhibits one's effective ability to choose well and since poor choices tend to cause or aggravate disadvantage. Therefore, within the target population, health benefits to the better off may come at the cost of aggravated inequity. This is one instance of a problem I name the Able Chooser Problem, previously emphasised by Richard Arneson in relation to coercive paternalism. I describe and discuss this problem by distinguishing between policy options and their effects on the choice situation of individuals. Both positive and negative incentives, as well as mandates that are less than perfectly effective, require some sort of rational deliberation and action and so face the Able Chooser Problem. In contrast, effective restriction of what options are physically available, as well as choice context design that makes some options more salient or appealing, does not demand rational agency. These considerations provide an equity-based argument for preferring smart design of our choice and living environment to incentives and mandates.

  2. Targeting incentives to reduce habitat fragmentation

    Treesearch

    David Lewis; Andrew Plantinga; Junjie Wu

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical model to analyze the spatial targeting of incentives for the restoration of forested landscapes when wildlife habitat can be enhanced by reducing fragmentation. The key theoretical result is that the marginal net benefits of increasing forest can be convex, in which case corner solutions--converting either none or all of the...

  3. The Cornell Staff Retirement Incentive Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Kenneth T.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Hallock, Kevin F.; Seeber, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate potential determinants of enrollment in an early retirement incentive program for non-tenure-track employees at a large university. Using administrative records on the eligible, population of employees not covered by collective bargaining agreements, historical employee count and layoff data by budget units, and public information on…

  4. Developmental Effects of Incentives on Response Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geier, Charles F.; Luna, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory control and incentive processes underlie decision making, yet few studies have explicitly examined their interaction across development. Here, the effects of potential rewards and losses on inhibitory control in 64 adolescents (13- to 17-year-olds) and 42 young adults (18- to 29-year-olds) were examined using an incentivized antisaccade…

  5. Economic Incentives for Stormwater Control (ISBN9781439845608)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Addressing a huge knowledge gap from a policy perspective, this book focuses on the economic tools available for stormwater runoff control. It provides case studies demonstrating the application of various incentives, such as tradable credits, fees with rebates, and auction mecha...

  6. A Review of the Literature on Remote Monitoring Technology in Incentive-Based Interventions for Health-Related Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Kurti, Allison N.; Davis, Danielle R.; Redner, Ryan; Jarvis, Brantley P.; Zvorsky, Ivori; Keith, Diana R.; Bolivar, Hypatia A.; White, Thomas J.; Rippberger, Peter; Markesich, Catherine; Atwood, Gary; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    Use of technology (e.g., Internet, cell phones) to allow remote implementation of incentives interventions for health-related behavior change is growing. To our knowledge, there has yet to be a systematic review of this literature reported. The present report provides a systematic review of the controlled studies where technology was used to remotely implement financial incentive interventions targeting substance use and other health behaviors published between 2004 and 2015. For inclusion in the review, studies had to use technology to remotely accomplish one of the following two aims alone or in combination: (a) monitor the target behavior, or (b) deliver incentives for achieving the target goal. Studies also had to examine financial incentives (e.g., cash, vouchers) for health-related behavior change, be published in peer-reviewed journals, and include a research design that allowed evaluation of the efficacy of the incentive intervention relative to another condition (e.g., non-contingent incentives, treatment as usual). Of the 39 reports that met inclusion criteria, 18 targeted substance use, 10 targeted medication adherence or home-based health monitoring, and 11 targeted diet, exercise, or weight loss. All 39 (100%) studies used technology to facilitate remote monitoring of the target behavior, and 26 (66.7%) studies also incorporated technology in the remote delivery of incentives. Statistically significant intervention effects were reported in 71% of studies reviewed. Overall, the results offer substantial support for the efficacy of remotely implemented incentive interventions for health-related behavior change, which have the potential to increase the cost-effectiveness and reach of this treatment approach. PMID:27777964

  7. 5 CFR 575.311 - Continuation, reduction, and termination of retention incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of retention incentives. 575.311 Section 575.311 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Retention Incentives § 575.311 Continuation, reduction, and...

  8. `Membership Has Its Privileges': Status Incentives and Categorical Inequality in Education

    PubMed Central

    Domina, Thurston; Penner, Andrew M.; Penner, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    Prizes – formal systems that publicly allocate rewards for exemplary behavior – play an increasingly important role in a wide array of social settings, including education. In this paper, we evaluate a prize system designed to boost achievement at two high schools by assigning students color-coded ID cards based on a previously low stakes test. Average student achievement on this test increased in the ID card schools beyond what one would expect from contemporaneous changes in neighboring schools. However, regression discontinuity analyses indicate that the program created new inequalities between students who received low-status and high-status ID cards. These findings indicate that status-based incentives create categorical inequalities between prize winners and others even as they reorient behavior toward the goals they reward. PMID:27213170

  9. 48 CFR 1852.216-88 - Performance incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: Performance Incentive (JAN 1997) (a) A performance incentive applies to the following hardware item(s... against the salient hardware performance requirement, called “unit(s) of measurement,” e.g., months in... the hardware is put into service. It includes a standard performance level, a positive incentive, and...

  10. 48 CFR 1852.216-88 - Performance incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: Performance Incentive (JAN 1997) (a) A performance incentive applies to the following hardware item(s... against the salient hardware performance requirement, called “unit(s) of measurement,” e.g., months in... the hardware is put into service. It includes a standard performance level, a positive incentive, and...

  11. 48 CFR 1852.216-88 - Performance incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: Performance Incentive (JAN 1997) (a) A performance incentive applies to the following hardware item(s... against the salient hardware performance requirement, called “unit(s) of measurement,” e.g., months in... the hardware is put into service. It includes a standard performance level, a positive incentive, and...

  12. 48 CFR 1852.216-88 - Performance incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: Performance Incentive (JAN 1997) (a) A performance incentive applies to the following hardware item(s... against the salient hardware performance requirement, called “unit(s) of measurement,” e.g., months in... the hardware is put into service. It includes a standard performance level, a positive incentive, and...

  13. 48 CFR 1516.401-70 - Award term incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Award term incentives are designed to motivate contractors to superior performance. Accordingly, the... acceptance of contract deliverables. (c) The Award Term Incentive Plan sets forth the evaluation process.... (f) Award term incentives may be appropriate for any type of service contract. ...

  14. 33 CFR 402.5 - New Business Incentive Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New Business Incentive Program..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TARIFF OF TOLLS § 402.5 New Business Incentive Program (a) To be eligible for the rebate applicable under the New Business Incentive Program, a carrier must submit an...

  15. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel vehicles... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section...

  16. The Effect of Incentives on Achievement & Behavior of Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Douglas P.

    The Mesa School District (Arizona) "Incentives Only" Project--carried out via a performance contract with the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity in 1970-71 through the Mesa Education Association (MEA)--is described in terms of rationale for the use of incentives, background, program procedures, the incentives model, the delivery system,…

  17. 42 CFR 495.310 - Medicaid provider incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medicaid provider incentive payments. 495.310 Section 495.310 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.310 Medicaid provider incentive...

  18. 42 CFR 495.310 - Medicaid provider incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medicaid provider incentive payments. 495.310 Section 495.310 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.310 Medicaid provider incentive...

  19. 20 CFR 637.210 - Incentive bonus program applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentive bonus program applications. 637.210... UNDER TITLE V OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Program Planning and Operation § 637.210 Incentive bonus program applications. (a) Any State seeking to receive an incentive bonus under this title shall...

  20. 48 CFR 731.373 - Overseas recruitment incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incentive. 731.373 Section 731.373 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Educational Institutions 731.373 Overseas recruitment incentive. USAID's policies regarding overseas recruitment incentives are set forth in AIDAR 731.205-70. These policies are also applicable to contracts with...

  1. Faculty Incentives for Online Course Design, Delivery, and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Jennifer H.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the types and frequency of incentives for online instruction at non-profit institutions of higher education with an established teaching and learning development unit. While up to 70% of institutions offer incentives, this support is not universal and varies by incentive type and purpose.

  2. 48 CFR 731.205-70 - Overseas recruitment incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incentive. 731.205-70 Section 731.205-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Organizations 731.205-70 Overseas recruitment incentive. Note: the term employee as used in this section means... recruitment incentive (ORI), to the extent the ORI: Is authorized by the contractor's normal policy and...

  3. 7 CFR 3560.657 - Processing and closing incentive offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing and closing incentive offers. 3560.657... § 3560.657 Processing and closing incentive offers. (a) Borrower responsibilities. If a borrower accepts the Agency's offer of incentives, the borrower must complete the following actions: (1) Subject to the...

  4. 48 CFR 16.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incentive contracts. 16.405 Section 16.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.405 Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. See 16.301 for requirements applicable to all cost-reimbursement contracts...

  5. 48 CFR 731.774 - Overseas recruitment incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overseas recruitment incentive. 731.774 Section 731.774 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Organizations 731.774 Overseas recruitment incentive. USAID's policies regarding overseas recruitment incentives...

  6. 45 CFR 305.36 - Incentive phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentive phase-in. 305.36 Section 305.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT... PROGRAM PERFORMANCE MEASURES, STANDARDS, FINANCIAL INCENTIVES, AND PENALTIES § 305.36 Incentive phase-in...

  7. 48 CFR 16.204 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.204 Fixed-price incentive contracts. A fixed-price incentive contract is a fixed-price contract that provides for adjusting profit and...

  8. 48 CFR 16.204 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.204 Fixed-price incentive contracts. A fixed-price incentive contract is a fixed-price contract that provides for adjusting profit and...

  9. 48 CFR 16.204 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.204 Fixed-price incentive contracts. A fixed-price incentive contract is a fixed-price contract that provides for adjusting profit and...

  10. 48 CFR 16.204 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.204 Fixed-price incentive contracts. A fixed-price incentive contract is a fixed-price contract that provides for adjusting profit and...

  11. 45 CFR 96.87 - Leveraging incentive program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 97-35 (42 U.S.C. 8626a). (2)(i) The only entities eligible to receive leveraging incentive funds from... period for which leveraging incentive funds are sought; and tribes and tribal organizations described in... under section 2602(b) in the award period, will receive leveraging incentive funds allocable to them...

  12. Coupons for Success: A Marketing Incentive in Academic Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potacco, Donna R.; Chen, Peter; Desroches, Danielle; Chisholm, Daniel R.; De Young, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    How does a Coupon Incentive Program motivate students to seek academic support in high-risk courses? Results from this study demonstrated that the Coupon Incentive Program was effective in motivating voluntary student attendance and improving student outcomes. Recommendations related to implementation of the Coupon Incentive Program are discussed.…

  13. 48 CFR 519.7004 - Incentives for prime contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incentives for prime... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7004 Incentives for prime... appropriate incentives to prime contractors in order to encourage subcontracting opportunities for small...

  14. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  15. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  16. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  17. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  18. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  19. 28 CFR 0.11 - Incentive Awards Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incentive Awards Board. 0.11 Section 0.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Attorney General § 0.11 Incentive Awards Board. The Incentive Awards Board shall consist of the Deputy...

  20. 28 CFR 0.11 - Incentive Awards Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incentive Awards Board. 0.11 Section 0.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Attorney General § 0.11 Incentive Awards Board. The Incentive Awards Board shall consist of the Deputy...

  1. 28 CFR 0.11 - Incentive Awards Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Incentive Awards Board. 0.11 Section 0.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Attorney General § 0.11 Incentive Awards Board. The Incentive Awards Board shall consist of the Deputy...

  2. 28 CFR 0.11 - Incentive Awards Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentive Awards Board. 0.11 Section 0.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Attorney General § 0.11 Incentive Awards Board. The Incentive Awards Board shall consist of the Deputy...

  3. 28 CFR 0.11 - Incentive Awards Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Incentive Awards Board. 0.11 Section 0.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of the Attorney General § 0.11 Incentive Awards Board. The Incentive Awards Board shall consist of the Deputy...

  4. Factorization for substructures of boosted Higgs jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Joshua; Li, Hsiang-nan; Li, Zhao; Yuan, C.-P.

    2017-08-01

    We present a perturbative QCD factorization formula for substructures of an energetic Higgs jet, taking the energy profile resulting from the H → b b bar decay as an example. The formula is written as a convolution of a hard Higgs decay kernel with two b-quark jet functions and a soft function that links the colors of the two b quarks. We derive an analytical expression to approximate the energy profile within a boosted Higgs jet, which significantly differs from those of ordinary QCD jets. This formalism also extends to boosted W and Z bosons in their hadronic decay modes, allowing an easy and efficient discrimination of fat jets produced from different processes.

  5. Gradient Boosting for Conditional Random Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-23

    Information Processing Systems 26 ( NIPS ’13), pages 647–655. 2013. [4] J. Friedman. Greedy function approximation: a gradient boosting machine. Annals of...and phrases and their compositionality. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 26 ( NIPS ’13), pages 3111–3119. 2013. [15] A. Quattoni, M...Collins, and T. Darrell. Conditional random fields for object recognition. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 17 ( NIPS ’04), pages

  6. Voltage-Boosting Driver For Switching Regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trump, Ronald C.

    1990-01-01

    Driver circuit assures availability of 10- to 15-V gate-to-source voltage needed to turn on n-channel metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) acting as switch in switching voltage regulator. Includes voltage-boosting circuit efficiently providing gate voltage 10 to 15 V above supply voltage. Contains no exotic parts and does not require additional power supply. Consists of NAND gate and dual voltage booster operating in conjunction with pulse-width modulator part of regulator.

  7. Voltage-Boosting Driver For Switching Regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trump, Ronald C.

    1990-01-01

    Driver circuit assures availability of 10- to 15-V gate-to-source voltage needed to turn on n-channel metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) acting as switch in switching voltage regulator. Includes voltage-boosting circuit efficiently providing gate voltage 10 to 15 V above supply voltage. Contains no exotic parts and does not require additional power supply. Consists of NAND gate and dual voltage booster operating in conjunction with pulse-width modulator part of regulator.

  8. Kill: boosting HIV-specific immune responses.

    PubMed

    Trautmann, Lydie

    2016-07-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that purging the latent HIV reservoir in virally suppressed individuals will require both the induction of viral replication from its latent state and the elimination of these reactivated HIV-infected cells ('Shock and Kill' strategy). Boosting potent HIV-specific CD8 T cells is a promising way to achieve an HIV cure. Recent studies provided the rationale for developing immune interventions to increase the numbers, function and location of HIV-specific CD8 T cells to purge HIV reservoirs. Multiple approaches are being evaluated including very early suppression of HIV replication in acute infection, adoptive cell transfer, therapeutic vaccination or use of immunomodulatory molecules. New assays to measure the killing and antiviral function of induced HIV-specific CD8 T cells have been developed to assess the efficacy of these new approaches. The strategies combining HIV reactivation and immunobased therapies to boost HIV-specific CD8 T cells can be tested in in-vivo and in-silico models to accelerate the design of new clinical trials. New immunobased strategies are explored to boost HIV-specific CD8 T cells able to purge the HIV-infected cells with the ultimate goal of achieving spontaneous control of viral replication without antiretroviral treatment.

  9. Boosted Random Ferns for Object Detection.

    PubMed

    Villamizar, Michael; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Sanfeliu, Alberto; Moreno-Noguer, Francesc

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we introduce the Boosted Random Ferns (BRFs) to rapidly build discriminative classifiers for learning and detecting object categories. At the core of our approach we use standard random ferns, but we introduce four main innovations that let us bring ferns from an instance to a category level, and still retain efficiency. First, we define binary features on the histogram of oriented gradients-domain (as opposed to intensity-), allowing for a better representation of intra-class variability. Second, both the positions where ferns are evaluated within the sliding window, and the location of the binary features for each fern are not chosen completely at random, but instead we use a boosting strategy to pick the most discriminative combination of them. This is further enhanced by our third contribution, that is to adapt the boosting strategy to enable sharing of binary features among different ferns, yielding high recognition rates at a low computational cost. And finally, we show that training can be performed online, for sequentially arriving images. Overall, the resulting classifier can be very efficiently trained, densely evaluated for all image locations in about 0.1 seconds, and provides detection rates similar to competing approaches that require expensive and significantly slower processing times. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by thorough experimentation in publicly available datasets in which we compare against state-of-the-art, and for tasks of both 2D detection and 3D multi-view estimation.

  10. Boost breaking in the EFT of inflation

    DOE PAGES

    Delacrétaz, Luca V.; Noumi, Toshifumi; Senatore, Leonardo

    2017-02-17

    If time-translations are spontaneously broken, so are boosts. This symmetry breaking pattern can be non-linearly realized by either just the Goldstone boson of time translations, or by four Goldstone bosons associated with time translations and boosts. Here in this paper we extend the Effective Field Theory of Multifield Inflation to consider the case in which the additional Goldstone bosons associated with boosts are light and coupled to the Goldstone boson of time translations. The symmetry breaking pattern forces a coupling to curvature so that the mass of the additional Goldstone bosons is predicted to be equal to √2H in themore » vast majority of the parameter space where they are light. This pattern therefore offers a natural way of generating self-interacting particles with Hubble mass during inflation. After constructing the general effective Lagrangian, we study how these particles mix and interact with the curvature fluctuations, generating potentially detectable non-Gaussian signals.« less

  11. Empirical studies of regulatory restructuring and incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knittel, Christopher Roland

    This dissertation examines the actions of firms when faced with regulatory restructuring. Chapter I examines the equilibrium pricing behavior of local exchange telephone companies under a variety of market structures. In particular, the pricing behavior of three services are analyzed: residential local service, business local service, and intraLATA toll service. Beginning in 1984, a variety of market structure changes have taken place in the local telecommunications industry. I analyze differences in the method of price-setting regulation and the restrictions on entry. Specifically, the relative pricing behavior under rate of return and price cap regulation is analyzed, as well as the impact of entry in the local exchange and intraLATA toll service markets. In doing so, I estimate an empirical model that accounts for the stickiness of rates in regulated industries that is based on firm and regulator decision processes in the presence of adjustment costs. I find that, faced with competitive pressures that reduce rates in one service, incumbent firm rates increase in other services, thereby reducing the benefits from competition. In addition, the findings suggest that price cap regulation leads to higher rates relative to rate-of-return regulation. Chapter 2 analyzes the pricing and investment behavior of electricity firms. Electricity and natural gas markets have traditionally been serviced by one of two market structures. In some markets, electricity and natural gas are sold by a dual-product regulated monopolist, while in other markets, electricity and natural gas are sold by separate single-product regulated monopolies. This paper analyzes the relative pricing and investment decisions of electricity firms operating in the two market structures. The unique relationship between these two products imply that the relative incentives of single and dual-product firms are likely to differ. Namely electricity and natural gas are substitutes in consumption while natural

  12. Grow your own fuelwood

    SciTech Connect

    Moll, G.

    1984-11-01

    The 14th article in a ''how-to'' series describes how to grow and harvest fuelwood. Several species of fast-growing trees, notably hybrid poplars, are available, although there is a wide range in heat values among species. The author explains how to assess available resources, how to start a fuelwood plantation, how to harvest cuttings and sprouts, how to maintain yard trees, and how to cut and stack a wood pile. He also cautions against thoughtless practices that can damage a woodlot. 5 figures, 1 table.

  13. Growing Up with "1984."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franza, August

    1983-01-01

    Relates changing student reaction to George Orwell's "1984" over 20 years of teaching. Finds present high school students' acceptance of Orwell's bleak world vision both a sign of student honesty and a frightening indication of the growing reality of the book. (MM)

  14. Growing Plants in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt, Bernard

    1990-01-01

    Background information on the methods and varieties used to demonstrate the cultivation of plants without the use of chemical pesticides is provided. Discussed are species and variety selection, growing plants from seed and from seedlings, soil preparation, using cuttings, useful crops, and pest control. (CW)

  15. GROWING SEEDS, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT, "GROWING SEEDS," IN WHICH SUCH BASIC SCIENCE SKILLS AND PROCESSES AS MEASUREMENT, OBSERVATION, AND HYPOTHESIS FORMATION ARE INTRODUCED THROUGH STUDENT ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SEEDS, GERMINATION, AND SEEDLING GROWTH. THE MATERIALS WERE DEVELOPED FOR USE IN…

  16. Growing Backyard Textiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eleanor Hall

    1975-01-01

    For those involved in creative work with textiles, the degree of control possible in texture, finish, and color of fiber by growing and processing one's own (perhaps with students' help) can make the experience rewarding. The author describes the processes for flax and nettles and gives tips on necessary equipment. (Author/AJ)

  17. Growing into Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvy, Harvey; Robbins, Pam

    2005-01-01

    New school principals have the necessity to lead at the very time they are learning the ropes of their new jobs. Some essential themes are identified that can guide new principals into growing in their new leadership roles, which are presented and discussed.

  18. Growing Up with "1984."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franza, August

    1983-01-01

    Relates changing student reaction to George Orwell's "1984" over 20 years of teaching. Finds present high school students' acceptance of Orwell's bleak world vision both a sign of student honesty and a frightening indication of the growing reality of the book. (MM)

  19. Growing Old in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglind, Hans

    This document contains the bases of lectures delivered in Florida by a visiting Stockholm University sociology professor. The first chapter, "Growing Old in Sweden," includes information on the income, standard of living, and quality of services available to the elderly in that country. That information is presented within the changing…

  20. A Growing Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwynn, Mary Loleta

    1988-01-01

    Describes the "Grow Lab" program which is sponsored by the National Gardening Association. Discusses how eight square feet of classroom space are converted into a mini-ecosystem. Mentions the development of a curriculum guide to accompany the indoor garden. (TW)

  1. Growing through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Barbara J.

    "Growing through Literature" is a curriculum using Joan M. and Erik H. Erikson's theory of the Life Cycle as a structure for selecting and teaching literature to inner-city high school students at Brighton High School in Massachusetts. The program consists of four component parts: Journals, Selected Stories, Discussion, and…

  2. Growing Up a Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Provides: (1) background information on how trees reproduce, what they need to survive, and where they grow; (2) six activities dealing with these topics; and (3) a ready-to-copy page showing trees around the world. Each activity includes an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. (JN)

  3. Growing a Nurturing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorn, Clare; Dunn, Paula Hopkins; Page, Claire

    2010-01-01

    "Growing a nurturing classroom" is an awareness training programme presented by educational psychologists in Leicestershire for professionals working in primary schools with the aim of promoting an optimal environment for learning and emotional well-being. The training helps primary school staff to take a holistic approach to education;…

  4. GROWING SEEDS, TEACHER'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE IS DESIGNED FOR USE WITH AN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT, "GROWING SEEDS," IN WHICH SUCH BASIC SCIENCE SKILLS AND PROCESSES AS MEASUREMENT, OBSERVATION, AND HYPOTHESIS FORMATION ARE INTRODUCED THROUGH STUDENT ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SEEDS, GERMINATION, AND SEEDLING GROWTH. THE MATERIALS WERE DEVELOPED FOR USE IN…

  5. Families on the Grow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Irene K.; Phillips, Marjorie M.

    This correspondence course was designed to help parents better understand their growing children and themselves as parents. The introduction briefly sketches the importance of the family in child development. Each of the five illustrated lessons contains 7 to 12 pages on one aspect of family life. Each lesson contains a set of objectives, a…

  6. Growing Up In Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Judith

    1981-01-01

    Offers a glimpse of a Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition of 80 photographs and selected writings by first through eighth grade children growing up in Letcher County, Kentucky. Children were guided by an artist-in-residence sponsored by the Kentucky Arts Commission and Appalshop, a multimedia cooperative. (Author/RH)

  7. Why do people postpone parenthood? Reasons and social policy incentives

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Melinda; Rindfuss, Ronald R.; McDonald, Peter; te Velde, Egbert

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Never before have parents in most Western societies had their first children as late as in recent decades. What are the central reasons for postponement? What is known about the link between the delay of childbearing and social policy incentives to counter these trends? This review engages in a systematic analysis of existing evidence to extract the maximum amount of knowledge about the reasons for birth postponement and the effectiveness of social policy incentives. METHODS The review followed the PRISMA procedure, with literature searches conducted in relevant demographic, social science and medical science databases (SocINDEX, Econlit, PopLine, Medline) and located via other sources. The search focused on subjects related to childbearing behaviour, postponement and family policies. National, international and individual-level data sources were also used to present summary statistics. RESULTS There is clear empirical evidence of the postponement of the first child. Central reasons are the rise of effective contraception, increases in women's education and labour market participation, value changes, gender equity, partnership changes, housing conditions, economic uncertainty and the absence of supportive family policies. Evidence shows that some social policies can be effective in countering postponement. CONCLUSIONS The postponement of first births has implications on the ability of women to conceive and parents to produce additional offspring. Massive postponement is attributed to the clash between the optimal biological period for women to have children with obtaining additional education and building a career. A growing body of literature shows that female employment and childrearing can be combined when the reduction in work–family conflict is facilitated by policy intervention. PMID:21652599

  8. Why do people postpone parenthood? Reasons and social policy incentives.

    PubMed

    Mills, Melinda; Rindfuss, Ronald R; McDonald, Peter; te Velde, Egbert

    2011-01-01

    Never before have parents in most Western societies had their first children as late as in recent decades. What are the central reasons for postponement? What is known about the link between the delay of childbearing and social policy incentives to counter these trends? This review engages in a systematic analysis of existing evidence to extract the maximum amount of knowledge about the reasons for birth postponement and the effectiveness of social policy incentives. The review followed the PRISMA procedure, with literature searches conducted in relevant demographic, social science and medical science databases (SocINDEX, Econlit, PopLine, Medline) and located via other sources. The search focused on subjects related to childbearing behaviour, postponement and family policies. National, international and individual-level data sources were also used to present summary statistics. There is clear empirical evidence of the postponement of the first child. Central reasons are the rise of effective contraception, increases in women's education and labour market participation, value changes, gender equity, partnership changes, housing conditions, economic uncertainty and the absence of supportive family policies. Evidence shows that some social policies can be effective in countering postponement. The postponement of first births has implications on the ability of women to conceive and parents to produce additional offspring. Massive postponement is attributed to the clash between the optimal biological period for women to have children with obtaining additional education and building a career. A growing body of literature shows that female employment and childrearing can be combined when the reduction in work-family conflict is facilitated by policy intervention.

  9. Outcome-based and Participation-based Wellness Incentives

    PubMed Central

    Barleen, Nathan A.; Marzec, Mary L.; Boerger, Nicholas L.; Moloney, Daniel P.; Zimmerman, Eric M.; Dobro, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether worksite wellness program participation or achievement of health improvement targets differed according to four incentive types (participation-based, hybrid, outcome-based, and no incentive). Methods: The study included individuals who completed biometric health screenings in both 2013 and 2014 and had elevated metrics in 2013 (baseline year). Multivariate logistic regression modeling tested for differences in odds of participation and achievement of health improvement targets between incentive groups; controlling for demographics, employer characteristics, incentive amounts, and other factors. Results: No statistically significant differences between incentive groups occurred for odds of participation or achievement of health improvement target related to body mass index, blood pressure, or nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions: Given the null findings of this study, employers cannot assume that outcome-based incentives will result in either increased program participation or greater achievement of health improvement targets than participation-based incentives. PMID:28146041

  10. Applied economics: The use of monetary incentives to modulate behavior.

    PubMed

    Strang, S; Park, S Q; Strombach, T; Kenning, P

    2016-01-01

    According to standard economic theory higher monetary incentives will lead to higher performance and higher effort independent of task, context, or individual. In many contexts this standard economic advice is implemented. Monetary incentives are, for example, used to enhance performance at workplace or to increase health-related behavior. However, the fundamental positive impact of monetary incentives has been questioned by psychologists as well as behavioral economists during the last decade, arguing that monetary incentives can sometimes even backfire. In this chapter, studies from proponents as well as opponents of monetary incentives will be presented. Specifically, the impact of monetary incentives on performance, prosocial, and health behavior will be discussed. Furthermore, variables determining whether incentives have a positive or negative impact will be identified. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Incentives for solar energy in industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, K. D.

    1981-05-01

    Several issues are analyzed on the effects that government subsidies and other incentives have on the use of solar energy in industry, as well as on other capital-intensive alternative energy supplies. Discounted cash flow analysis is used to compare tax deductions for fuel expenses with tax credits for capital investments for energy. The result is a simple expression for tax equity. The effects that market penetration of solar energy has on conventional energy prices are analyzed with a free market model. It is shown that net costs of a subsidy program to the society can be significantly reduced by price. Several government loan guarantee concepts are evaluated as incentives that may not require direct outlays of government funds; their relative effectiveness in achieving loan leverage through project financing, and their cost and practicality, are discussed.

  12. Incentives for Better Performance in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Abduljawad, Asaad; Al-Assaf, Assaf F.

    2011-01-01

    Incentives for better performance in health care have several modes and methods. They are designed to motivate and encourage people to perform well and improve their outcomes. They may include monetary or non-monetary incentives and may be applied to consumers, individual providers or institutions. One such model is the Pay-for-Performance system. In this system, beneficiaries are compared with one another based on a set of performance indicators and those that achieve a high level of performance are rewarded financially. This system is meant to recognise and primarily to reward high performers. Its goal is to encourage beneficiaries to strive for better performance. This system has been applied in several countries and for several recipients and settings. Early indications show that this system has had mixed effects on performance. PMID:21969891

  13. Developmental Effects of Incentives on Response Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Geier, Charles F.; Luna, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory control and incentive processes underlie decision-making, yet few studies have explicitly examined their interaction across development. Here, the effects of potential rewards and losses on inhibitory control in sixty-four adolescents (13-17-year-olds) and forty-two young adults (18-29-year-olds) were examined using an incentivized antisaccade task. Notably, measures were implemented to minimize age-related differences in reward valuation and potentially confounding motivation effects. Incentives affected antisaccade metrics differently across the age groups. Younger adolescents generated more errors than adults on reward trials, but all groups performed well on loss trials. Adolescent saccade latencies also differed from adults across the range of reward trials. Overall, results suggest persistent immaturities in the integration of reward and inhibitory control processes across adolescence. PMID:22540668

  14. Tropical forest preservation using economic incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Katzman, M.T. ); Cale, W.G. Jr. )

    1990-12-01

    The authors address the problem of deforestation of the tropical forests in terms of economic factors. They outline the global effects, such as hydrological and climatological changes, that apparently small scale deforestation has, when the forest is destroyed in many different places. The authors suggest that industrialized nations should offer economic incentives for tropical nations to save their forests, since all the world will suffer the effects of tropical deforestation.

  15. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction.

    PubMed

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone O; Møller, Arne; Lou, Hans C

    2014-09-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment.

  16. WORK INCENTIVES IN AN AGE OF AUTOMATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEVENSTEIN, AARON

    HISTORICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL PREMISES ABOUT THE MEANING OF WORK AND THE ROLE OF WORK IN MAN'S LIFE ARE EXPLORED. ATTITUDES TOWARD WORK CHANGE AS INCENTIVES CHANGED. WORK HAD MEANING WHEN IT MEANT SURVIVAL OR WAS CONNECTED TO A FEAR OF GOD. FREUD SAW WORK AS A FORCE WHICH BINDS MAN TO REALITY. OTHERS SEE IT AS A MEANS TO SELF-FULLFILLMENT, OR AS A…

  17. Unhealthy incentives: healthcare's basic dilemma(s).

    PubMed

    May, Jonathan R

    2009-01-01

    The topic of an existing healthcare crisis has resounded in articles, papers, and the media for years. Amidst the ongoing healthcare crisis, several other global and economic crises have arisen to further complicate the focus for resolve. This article takes a basic look at the foundation of U.S. healthcare and evaluates the inappropriate incentives that currently drive the industry and prevent meaningful change. The commentary identifies causes of administrative and fiscal waste while proposing alternative concepts for consideration and further discussion.

  18. A new device of incentive spirometry.

    PubMed

    Su, M Y; Chiang, C D; Huang, W L; Li, S J; King, S L; P'eng, F K

    1991-10-01

    Incentive spirometry is a feedback system to encourage patients to take a deep breath and produce a sustained maximal inspiration (SMI) for the primary purpose of opening and stabilizing atelectatic areas of the lung. However, currently available incentive devices are not reusable, expensive, and emphasize inspiratory effort only. We have designed a new device of incentive spirometer based on pursed-lip breathing technique. The device consists of a piece of paper hanging on a frame. The patient is instructed to take a deep and slow inspiration followed by holding the breath for 5 seconds. Then, using pursed-lip technique, the patient generates a flow to keep the paper attached to a bar as long as possible. The duration of paper blowing is recorded and is compared with vital capacity. In the present study 96 cases were recorded. Vital capacity was correlated well with paper blowing time (multiple regression test r = 0.87, p less than 0.0001). The advantages of our device include (1) reusibility and less cost, (2) equal emphasis of both inspiration and expiration, and (3) being especially helpful for patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). This is a preliminary result and further clinical study is needed.

  19. Innovative business approaches for incenting health promotion in sub-Saharan Africa: progress and persisting challenges.

    PubMed

    Patel, Deepak N; Nossel, Craig; Alexander, Eleanore; Yach, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Non-communicable chronic diseases related to behaviors such as tobacco use, overeating, excess alcohol intake and physical inactivity account for increasing morbidity and mortality in South Africa. Over the last 15 years, Discovery Health, the largest private health plan in South Africa, has developed a voluntary health promotion program called Vitality with over 1.5 million members. Vitality was designed with many applications drawn from the growing field of behavioral economics, including the use of incentives and rewards. Incentives offered on the program are aimed at lowering the financial barriers to activities such as visiting the gym, buying healthy food or receiving preventive screening. Members accrue points for engagement which translate into discounts on a range of goods and services. Although the full impact of the program cannot yet be quantified, engagement with the program is continually increasing and there is compelling evidence that this translates into better health and cost outcomes.

  20. Macromolecular crystal growing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S. (Inventor); Herren, Blair J. (Inventor); Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Yost, Vaughn H. (Inventor); Bugg, Charles E. (Inventor); Delucas, Lawrence J. (Inventor); Suddath, Fred L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A macromolecular crystal growing system especially designed for growing crystals in the low gravity of space as well as the gravity of earth includes at least one tray assembly, a carrier assembly which receives the tray, and a refrigeration-incubation module in which the carrier assembly is received. The tray assembly includes a plurality of sealed chambers with a plastic syringe and a plug means for the double tip of the syringe provided therein. Ganging mechanisms operate the syringes and plugs simultaneously in a precise and smooth operation. Preferably, the tray assemblies are mounted on ball bearing slides for smooth operation in inserting and removing the tray assemblies into the carrier assembly. The plugging mechanism also includes a loading control mechanism. A mechanism for leaving a syringe unplugged is also provided.

  1. Weighted growing simplicial complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, Owen T.; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2017-06-01

    Simplicial complexes describe collaboration networks, protein interaction networks, and brain networks and in general network structures in which the interactions can include more than two nodes. In real applications, often simplicial complexes are weighted. Here we propose a nonequilibrium model for weighted growing simplicial complexes. The proposed dynamics is able to generate weighted simplicial complexes with a rich interplay between weights and topology emerging not just at the level of nodes and links, but also at the level of faces of higher dimension.

  2. Growing up with Retinoblastoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Tom

    2005-01-01

    An account is given of growing up as a child blinded as a result of a cancer of the eye known as retinoblastoma. The role of his mother is brought out, variously as a source of objective knowledge, of one's personal worth, and of the worth of other people in one's community. The strengths and weaknesses of his first school in his home area and…

  3. Boost matrix converters in clean energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaman, Ekrem

    This dissertation describes an investigation of novel power electronic converters, based on the ultra-sparse matrix topology and characterized by the minimum number of semiconductor switches. The Z-source, Quasi Z-source, Series Z-source and Switched-inductor Z-source networks were originally proposed for boosting the output voltage of power electronic inverters. These ideas were extended here on three-phase to three-phase and three-phase to single-phase indirect matrix converters. For the three-phase to three-phase matrix converters, the Z-source networks are placed between the three-switch input rectifier stage and the output six-switch inverter stage. A brief shoot-through state produces the voltage boost. An optimal pulse width modulation technique was developed to achieve high boosting capability and minimum switching losses in the converter. For the three-phase to single-phase matrix converters, those networks are placed similarly. For control purposes, a new modulation technique has been developed. As an example application, the proposed converters constitute a viable alternative to the existing solutions in residential wind-energy systems, where a low-voltage variable-speed generator feeds power to the higher-voltage fixed-frequency grid. Comprehensive analytical derivations and simulation results were carried out to investigate the operation of the proposed converters. Performance of the proposed converters was then compared between each other as well as with conventional converters. The operation of the converters was experimentally validated using a laboratory prototype.

  4. Boosting family income to promote child development.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Greg J; Magnuson, Katherine; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Families who live in poverty face disadvantages that can hinder their children's development in many ways, write Greg Duncan, Katherine Magnuson, and Elizabeth Votruba-Drzal. As they struggle to get by economically, and as they cope with substandard housing, unsafe neighborhoods, and inadequate schools, poor families experience more stress in their daily lives than more affluent families do, with a host of psychological and developmental consequences. Poor families also lack the resources to invest in things like high-quality child care and enriched learning experiences that give more affluent children a leg up. Often, poor parents also lack the time that wealthier parents have to invest in their children, because poor parents are more likely to be raising children alone or to work nonstandard hours and have inflexible work schedules. Can increasing poor parents' incomes, independent of any other sort of assistance, help their children succeed in school and in life? The theoretical case is strong, and Duncan, Magnuson, and Votruba-Drzal find solid evidence that the answer is yes--children from poor families that see a boost in income do better in school and complete more years of schooling, for example. But if boosting poor parents' incomes can help their children, a crucial question remains: Does it matter when in a child's life the additional income appears? Developmental neurobiology strongly suggests that increased income should have the greatest effect during children's early years, when their brains and other systems are developing rapidly, though we need more evidence to prove this conclusively. The authors offer examples of how policy makers could incorporate the findings they present to create more effective programs for families living in poverty. And they conclude with a warning: if a boost in income can help poor children, then a drop in income--for example, through cuts to social safety net programs like food stamps--can surely harm them.

  5. Competitions and incentives for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Kate; Perera, Rafael

    2011-04-13

    Background Material or financial incentives may be used in an attempt to reinforce behaviour change, including smoking cessation. They have been widely used in workplace smoking cessation programmes, and to a lesser extent within community programmes. Public health initiatives in the UK are currently planning to deploy incentive schemes to change unhealthy behaviours. Quit and Win contests are the subject of a companion review. To determine whether competitions and incentives lead to higher long-term quit rates. We also set out to examine the relationship between incentives and participation rates. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. Search terms included incentive*, competition*, contest*, reward*, prize*, contingent payment*, deposit contract*. The most recent searches were in November 2010. We considered randomized controlled trials, allocating individuals, workplaces, groups within workplaces, or communities to experimental or control conditions. We also considered controlled studies with baseline and post-intervention measures. Data were extracted by one author (KC) and checked by the second (RP). We contacted study authors for additional data where necessary. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking at least six months from the start of the intervention. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. Where possible we performed meta-analysis using a generic inverse variance model, grouped by timed endpoints, but not pooled across the subgroups. Nineteen studies met our inclusion criteria, covering >4500 participants. Only one study, the largest in our review and covering 878 smokers, demonstrated significantly higher quit rates for the incentives group than for the control group beyond the six-month assessment. This trial referred its participants to local smoking cessation

  6. Can role models boost entrepreneurial attitudes?

    PubMed Central

    Fellnhofer, Katharina; Puumalainen, Kaisu

    2017-01-01

    This multi-country study used role models to boost perceptions of entrepreneurial feasibility and desirability. The results of a structural equation model based on a sample comprising 426 individuals who were primarily from Austria, Finland and Greece revealed a significant positive influence on perceived entrepreneurial desirability and feasibility. These findings support the argument for embedding entrepreneurial role models in entrepreneurship education courses to promote entrepreneurial activities. This direction is not only relevant for the academic community but also essential for nascent entrepreneurs, policymakers and society at large. PMID:28458611

  7. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Tax Incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Doris, E.

    2009-10-01

    As a policy tool, state tax incentives can be structured to help states meet clean energy goals. Policymakers often use state tax incentives in concert with state and federal policies to support renewable energy deployment or reduce market barriers. This analysis used case studies of four states to assess the contributions of state tax incentives to the development of renewable energy markets. State tax incentives that are appropriately paired with complementary state and federal policies generally provide viable mechanisms to support renewable energy deployment. However, challenges to successful implementation of state tax incentives include serving project owners with limited state tax liability, assessing appropriate incentive levels, and differentiating levels of incentives for technologies with different costs. Additionally, state tax incentives may result in moderately higher federal tax burdens. These challenges notwithstanding, state tax incentives that consider certain policy design characteristics can support renewable energy markets and state clean energy goals.The scale of their impact though is directly related to the degree to which they support the renewable energy markets for targeted sectors and technologies. This report highlights important policy design considerations for policymakers using state tax incentives to meet clean energy goals.

  8. Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration. [Applicability to USA

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    During the 1970s a number of different exploration and production incentive programs were put in place in Canada, in particular in the Province of Alberta, Canada's principal oil- and gas-producing province. The DOE/RA is evaluating Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration, and this study is intended to provide information that will help guide DOE/RA in determining the applicability of Canadian incentive programs in US energy policy. The study describes and documents the fiscal structure in which the Canadian oil industry operates. The incentive features of pricing policy, taxation policy, and provincial royalty systems are discussed. A principal focus of the study is on one of the most important of Canada's specific incentive programs, the Alberta Exploratory Drilling Incentive Credit Program (EDICP). The study describes and evaluates the effect of the EDICP on increased oil and gas exploration activity. Similarly, the study also reviews and evaluates other specific incentive programs such as the Alberta Geophysical Incentive Program, Frontier Exploration Allowances, and various tar sand and heavy oil development incentives. Finally the study evaluates the applicability of Canadian incentives to US energy policy.

  9. Can incentives undermine intrinsic motivation to participate in epidemiologic surveys?

    PubMed

    Wenemark, Marika; Vernby, Asa; Norberg, Annika Lindahl

    2010-04-01

    Response rates to surveys are decreasing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of lottery tickets as incentives in an epidemiologic control group. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to parents in the municipality of Stockholm, Sweden, who were to be used as a control group in a study addressing stress in parents of children with cancer. A stratified random sample of 450 parents were randomized into three incentive groups: (a) no incentive; (b) a promised incentive of one lottery ticket to be received upon reply; (c) a promised incentive of one lottery ticket to be received upon reply and an additional lottery ticket upon reply within 1 week. The overall response rate across the three groups was 65.3%. The response rate was highest in the no incentive group (69.3%) and lowest in the one plus one lottery ticket group (62.0%). In a survival analysis, the difference between the two response curves was significant by the log-rank test (P = 0.04), with the no incentive group having a shorter time to response than the incentive group. Our findings suggest that the use of lottery tickets as incentives to increase participation in a mail questionnaire among parents may be less valuable or even harmful. Incentives may undermine motivation in studies in which the intrinsic motivation of the respondents is already high.

  10. The dark matter annihilation boost from low-temperature reheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickcek, Adrienne L.

    2015-11-01

    The evolution of the Universe between inflation and the onset of big bang nucleosynthesis is difficult to probe and largely unconstrained. This ignorance profoundly limits our understanding of dark matter: we cannot calculate its thermal relic abundance without knowing when the Universe became radiation dominated. Fortunately, small-scale density perturbations provide a probe of the early Universe that could break this degeneracy. If dark matter is a thermal relic, density perturbations that enter the horizon during an early matter-dominated era grow linearly with the scale factor prior to reheating. The resulting abundance of substructure boosts the annihilation rate by several orders of magnitude, which can compensate for the smaller annihilation cross sections that are required to generate the observed dark matter density in these scenarios. In particular, thermal relics with masses less than a TeV that thermally and kinetically decouple prior to reheating may already be ruled out by Fermi-LAT observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Although these constraints are subject to uncertainties regarding the internal structure of the microhalos that form from the enhanced perturbations, they open up the possibility of using gamma-ray observations to learn about the reheating of the Universe.

  11. Precision Jet Substructure from Boosted Event Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feige, Ilya; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Stewart, Iain W.; Thaler, Jesse

    2012-08-01

    Jet substructure has emerged as a critical tool for LHC searches, but studies so far have relied heavily on shower Monte Carlo simulations, which formally approximate QCD at the leading-log level. We demonstrate that systematic higher-order QCD computations of jet substructure can be carried out by boosting global event shapes by a large momentum Q and accounting for effects due to finite jet size, initial-state radiation (ISR), and the underlying event (UE) as 1/Q corrections. In particular, we compute the 2-subjettiness substructure distribution for boosted Z→qq¯ events at the LHC at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-log order. The calculation is greatly simplified by recycling known results for the thrust distribution in e+e- collisions. The 2-subjettiness distribution quickly saturates, becoming Q independent for Q≳400GeV. Crucially, the effects of jet contamination from ISR/UE can be subtracted out analytically at large Q without knowing their detailed form. Amusingly, the Q=∞ and Q=0 distributions are related by a scaling by e up to next-to-leading-log order.

  12. A multiview boosting approach to tissue segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Jin Tae; Xu, Sheng; Pinto, Peter A.; Turkbey, Baris; Bernardo, Marcelino; Choyke, Peter L.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2014-04-01

    Digitized histopathology images have a great potential for improving or facilitating current assessment tools in cancer pathology. In order to develop accurate and robust automated methods, the precise segmentation of histologic objects such epithelium, stroma, and nucleus is necessary, in the hopes of information extraction not otherwise obvious to the subjective eye. Here, we propose a multivew boosting approach to segment histology objects of prostate tissue. Tissue specimen images are first represented at different scales using a Gaussian kernel and converted into several forms such HSV and La*b*. Intensity- and texture-based features are extracted from the converted images. Adopting multiview boosting approach, we effectively learn a classifier to predict the histologic class of a pixel in a prostate tissue specimen. The method attempts to integrate the information from multiple scales (or views). 18 prostate tissue specimens from 4 patients were employed to evaluate the new method. The method was trained on 11 tissue specimens including 75,832 epithelial and 103,453 stroma pixels and tested on 55,319 epithelial and 74,945 stroma pixels from 7 tissue specimens. The technique showed 96.7% accuracy, and as summarized into a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plot, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.983 (95% CI: 0.983-0.984) was achieved.

  13. Domain adaptive boosting method and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jie; Miao, Zhenjiang

    2015-03-01

    Differences of data distributions widely exist among datasets, i.e., domains. For many pattern recognition, nature language processing, and content-based analysis systems, a decrease in performance caused by the domain differences between the training and testing datasets is still a notable problem. We propose a domain adaptation method called domain adaptive boosting (DAB). It is based on the AdaBoost approach with extensions to cover the domain differences between the source and target domains. Two main stages are contained in this approach: source-domain clustering and source-domain sample selection. By iteratively adding the selected training samples from the source domain, the discrimination model is able to achieve better domain adaptation performance based on a small validation set. The DAB algorithm is suitable for the domains with large scale samples and easy to extend for multisource adaptation. We implement this method on three computer vision systems: the skin detection model in single images, the video concept detection model, and the object classification model. In the experiments, we compare the performances of several commonly used methods and the proposed DAB. Under most situations, the DAB is superior.

  14. Non-boost-invariant dissipative hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Strickland, Michael; Tinti, Leonardo

    2016-12-01

    The one-dimensional non-boost-invariant evolution of the quark-gluon plasma, presumably produced during the early stages of heavy-ion collisions, is analyzed within the frameworks of viscous and anisotropic hydrodynamics. We neglect transverse dynamics and assume homogeneous conditions in the transverse plane but, differently from Bjorken expansion, we relax longitudinal boost invariance in order to study the rapidity dependence of various hydrodynamical observables. We compare the results obtained using several formulations of second-order viscous hydrodynamics with a recent approach to anisotropic hydrodynamics, which treats the large initial pressure anisotropy in a nonperturbative fashion. The results obtained with second-order viscous hydrodynamics depend on the particular choice of the second-order terms included, which suggests that the latter should be included in the most complete way. The results of anisotropic hydrodynamics and viscous hydrodynamics agree for the central hot part of the system, however, they differ at the edges where the approach of anisotropic hydrodynamics helps to control the undesirable growth of viscous corrections observed in standard frameworks.

  15. Centaur boost pump turbine icing investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollbuhler, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine if ice formation in the Centaur vehicle liquid oxygen boost pump turbine could prevent rotation of the pump and whether or not this phenomenon could have been the failure mechanism for the Titan/Centaur vehicle TC-1. The investigation consisted of a series of tests done in the LeRC Space Power Chamber Facility to evaluate evaporative cooling behavior patterns in a turbine as a function of the quantity of water trapped in the turbine and as a function of the vehicle ascent pressure profile. It was found that evaporative freezing of water in the turbine housing, due to rapid depressurization within the turbine during vehicle ascent, could result in the formation of ice that would block the turbine and prevent rotation of the boost pump. But for such icing conditions to exist it would be necessary to have significant quantities of water in the turbine and/or its components, and the turbine housing temperature would have to be colder than 40 F at vehicle liftoff.

  16. Wellness Incentives, Equity, and the 5 Groups Problem

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Wellness incentives are an increasingly popular means of encouraging participation in prevention programs, but they may not benefit all groups equally. To assist those planning, conducting, and evaluating incentive programs, I describe the impact of incentives on 5 groups: the “lucky ones,” the “yes-I-can” group, the “I'll-do-it-tomorrow” group, the “unlucky ones,” and the “leave-me-alone” group. The 5 groups problem concerns the question of when disparities in the capacity to use incentive programs constitute unfairness and how policymakers ought to respond. I outline 4 policy options: to continue to offer incentives universally, to offer them universally but with modifications, to offer targeted rather than universal programs, and to abandon incentive programs altogether. PMID:22095346

  17. Growing Unculturable Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The bacteria that can be grown in the laboratory are only a small fraction of the total diversity that exists in nature. At all levels of bacterial phylogeny, uncultured clades that do not grow on standard media are playing critical roles in cycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, synthesizing novel natural products, and impacting the surrounding organisms and environment. While molecular techniques, such as metagenomic sequencing, can provide some information independent of our ability to culture these organisms, it is essentially impossible to learn new gene and pathway functions from pure sequence data. A true understanding of the physiology of these bacteria and their roles in ecology, host health, and natural product production requires their cultivation in the laboratory. Recent advances in growing these species include coculture with other bacteria, recreating the environment in the laboratory, and combining these approaches with microcultivation technology to increase throughput and access rare species. These studies are unraveling the molecular mechanisms of unculturability and are identifying growth factors that promote the growth of previously unculturable organisms. This minireview summarizes the recent discoveries in this area and discusses the potential future of the field. PMID:22661685

  18. Growing unculturable bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Eric J

    2012-08-01

    The bacteria that can be grown in the laboratory are only a small fraction of the total diversity that exists in nature. At all levels of bacterial phylogeny, uncultured clades that do not grow on standard media are playing critical roles in cycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, synthesizing novel natural products, and impacting the surrounding organisms and environment. While molecular techniques, such as metagenomic sequencing, can provide some information independent of our ability to culture these organisms, it is essentially impossible to learn new gene and pathway functions from pure sequence data. A true understanding of the physiology of these bacteria and their roles in ecology, host health, and natural product production requires their cultivation in the laboratory. Recent advances in growing these species include coculture with other bacteria, recreating the environment in the laboratory, and combining these approaches with microcultivation technology to increase throughput and access rare species. These studies are unraveling the molecular mechanisms of unculturability and are identifying growth factors that promote the growth of previously unculturable organisms. This minireview summarizes the recent discoveries in this area and discusses the potential future of the field.

  19. [Postoperative respiratory therapy using incentive spirometry].

    PubMed

    Mang, H; Weindler, J; Zapf, C L

    1989-04-01

    The optimal methods of prophylaxis and therapy of postoperative respiratory complications in surgical patients are still open to discussion. In spite of numerous recent clinical investigations, there is still no specific and universally acceptable therapeutic concept. In our department, we identify patients at risk of pulmonary complications by adequate screening, i.e. medical history, physical examination, chest X-ray, and spirometry. In the postoperative period there are a sequence of stages starting with early mobilization, respiratory therapy (including incentive spirometry and IPPB), and when necessary, controlled mechanical ventilation. We have measured and documented the flows and volumes required of patients using various types of incentive spirometer. In addition, we review on the literature and describe our experience with the technique, handling, and organization of sustained maximal inspiration (SMI). After thoracic or major upper abdominal surgery, all lung volumes decrease due to impairment of rib cage movement, changes in chest wall muscle tone, an increase in lung recoil, and airway closure. At the end of each expiration some of the smallest airways collapse either partly or totally. This process continues to some extent until, normally, a deep breath recruits the alveoli. Sighs to the limit of total lung capacity or oscillations of the expiratory baseline ought to be responsible for this effect in healthy humans; the same purpose is intended in incentive spirometry. For this therapy, it is mandatory that the central airways are not occluded by mucus and that the patient is able to breath volumes exceeding his normal tidal volume.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Modeling regulated water utility investment incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padula, S.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    This work attempts to model the infrastructure investment choices of privatized water utilities subject to rate of return and price cap regulation. The goal is to understand how regulation influences water companies' investment decisions such as their desire to engage in transfers with neighbouring companies. We formulate a profit maximization capacity expansion model that finds the schedule of new supply, demand management and transfer schemes that maintain the annual supply-demand balance and maximize a companies' profit under the 2010-15 price control process in England. Regulatory incentives for costs savings are also represented in the model. These include: the CIS scheme for the capital expenditure (capex) and incentive allowance schemes for the operating expenditure (opex) . The profit-maximizing investment program (what to build, when and what size) is compared with the least cost program (social optimum). We apply this formulation to several water companies in South East England to model performance and sensitivity to water network particulars. Results show that if companies' are able to outperform the regulatory assumption on the cost of capital, a capital bias can be generated, due to the fact that the capital expenditure, contrarily to opex, can be remunerated through the companies' regulatory capital value (RCV). The occurrence of the 'capital bias' or its entity depends on the extent to which a company can finance its investments at a rate below the allowed cost of capital. The bias can be reduced by the regulatory penalties for underperformances on the capital expenditure (CIS scheme); Sensitivity analysis can be applied by varying the CIS penalty to see how and to which extent this impacts the capital bias effect. We show how regulatory changes could potentially be devised to partially remove the 'capital bias' effect. Solutions potentially include allowing for incentives on total expenditure rather than separately for capex and opex and allowing

  1. Do Incentives Exert Undue Influence on Survey Participation? Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Eleanor; Couper, Mick P.

    2008-01-01

    Monetary incentives are increasingly used to help motivate survey participation. Research Ethics Committees have begun to ask whether, and under what conditions, the use of monetary incentives to induce participation might be coercive. The article reports research from an online vignette-based study bearing on this question, concluding that at present the evidence suggests that larger incentives do not induce research participants to accept higher risks than they would be unwilling to accept with smaller ones. PMID:19385770

  2. Do incentives exert undue influence on survey participation? Experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Singer, Eleanor; Couper, Mick P

    2008-09-01

    MONETARY INCENTIVES ARE INCREASINGLY used to help motivate survey participation. Research Ethics Committees have begun to ask whether, and under what conditions, the use of monetary incentives to induce participation might be coercive. The article reports research from an online vignette-based study bearing on this question, concluding that at present the evidence suggests that larger incentives do not induce research participants to accept higher risks than they would be unwilling to accept with smaller ones.

  3. Incentives to participate in clinical trials: practical and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Steven L; Feldman, James

    2015-09-01

    Clinical trials often offer incentives to encourage individuals to enroll and to enhance follow-up. The scope and nature of incentives used in emergency department (ED)-based trials are unknown. The objective of this study is to characterize the quantity and quality of incentives and other forms of compensation used in clinical trials of human subjects recruited in US EDs. A secondary goal is to provide an historical and ethical analysis of the use of incentives in clinical trials. We reviewed English-language randomized clinical trials conducted in US EDs from 2009 to 2013. Full text of the studies was reviewed to identify whether incentives were used, their value, and timing. Funding source was noted as well. Data are presented with descriptive statistics. Of 1151 articles identified, 76 (6.6%) fit criteria for review. Of these, 7 (9.2%) provided incentive payments. A recently published eighth trial was included as well. The total cash value of incentives offered ranged from $10 to $195. Four studies offered payment at enrollment only. Incentives included cash, debit cards, and gift cards. The use of financial incentives in ED-based trials is uncommon. Studies that use incentives are generally extramurally funded, usually by a federal agency, and include waves of follow-up that continue after discharge from the ED. Payment size is modest. Incentives may improve recruitment and retention in ED-based trials, but authoritative data are lacking. Investigators need to take care to avoid incentives that may be coercive or unduly influence research participants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Commentary: Perverse incentives or rotten apples?

    PubMed

    Bouter, Lex M

    2015-01-01

    Around 2% of the investigators admit to have falsified or fabricated data at least once. Also, 34% report to have been guilty to one or more questionable research practices, such as doing many statistical analyses and to publish only what fits their theoretical framework. Prevention of questionable research practices is very important. Universities should ensure that the training is in order and the research culture is adequate, and they should critically look at perverse incentives, such as a too high publication pressure, but also by ensuring proper guidelines, and by having a fair and transparent procedure for suspected violations of scientific integrity.

  5. Early Retirement Incentives and Student Achievement.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D; Lovenheim, Michael F

    2014-08-01

    Early retirement incentives (ERIs) are increasingly prevalent in education as districts seek to close budget gaps by replacing expensive experienced teachers with lower-cost newer teachers. Combined with the aging of the teacher workforce, these ERIs are likely to change the composition of teachers dramatically in the coming years. We use exogenous variation from an ERI program in Illinois in the mid-1990s to provide the first evidence in the literature of the effects of large-scale teacher retirements on student achievement. We find the program did not reduce test scores; likely, it increased them, with positive effects most pronounced in lower-SES schools.

  6. Institutions, incentives and the future of fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Hilborn, Ray; Orensanz, J. M. (Lobo); Parma, Ana M.

    2005-01-01

    Fisheries around the world are managed with a broad range of institutional structures. Some of these have been quite disastrous, whereas others have proven both biologically and economically successful. Unsuccessful systems have generally involved either open access, attempts at top-down control with poor ability to monitor and implement regulations, or reliance on consensus. Successful systems range from local cooperatives to strong governmental control, to various forms of property rights, but usually involve institutional systems that provide incentives to individual operators that lead to behaviour consistent with conservation. PMID:15744918

  7. Gene patents: a broken incentives system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yun-Han

    2013-12-01

    The proliferation of patents on human genes has raised important ethical questions centered on the conflict of patient rights and intellectual property rights. With the Supreme Court's June 2013 decision that altered the patent eligibility of genetic material, it is important to reexamine the ethical implications of gene patents as a concept. Such patents suggest an ownership of genetic material that may hinder access to healthcare and inhibit medical progress. The application of the current patent system to genetic material thus violates patients' rights without fulfilling the system's goal of promoting innovation, suggesting a need for a revised incentives infrastructure.

  8. Financial incentives for reducing proliferation risks

    SciTech Connect

    Weise, Rachel A.; Hund, Gretchen

    2016-08-15

    This article submitted for publication to the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists explains the possible financial incentives for financial institutions and large integrators to reduce nuclear proliferation risks by including anti-proliferation measures in their due diligence and requiring their suppliers to meet heightened compliance standards. Because manufacturers of dual-use nuclear goods are diverse and numerous outreach is difficult. However, financial institutions and large integrators work with nearly all dual-use manufacturers, making financial institutions and integrators well-positioned to increase awareness of proliferation and trafficking risks throughout the nuclear supply chain

  9. Starting Up in a Down Market, with a Boost From Entrepreneurship Graduate Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Cyrus

    2003-03-01

    In the late 1990's, it seemed that any two graduate students and their dog could start and grow a high-tech company. With the collapse of, first, the internet sector, and, more recently, the telecommunications sector, there has been a traumatic shake-out among high tech firms, and the challenges facing new firms appear to have greatly increased. This talk will highlight the keys for physics entrepreneurs to survive and even thrive in this environment, with a special initial boost from new graduate programs combining business school and physics training. The infrastructure needed by educational programs designed to empower physicists as entrepreneurs is discussed.

  10. 5 CFR 575.306 - Authorizing a retention incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to a retention incentive, such as special training and work scheduling flexibilities or improving working conditions; (5) The desirability of the duties, work or organizational environment, or geographic...

  11. 5 CFR 575.206 - Authorizing a relocation incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., such as special training and work scheduling flexibilities, to resolve difficulties alone or in combination with a relocation incentive; (7) The desirability of the duties, work or organizational...

  12. The Use of Financial Incentives in Promoting Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Sigmon, Stacey C.; Patrick, Mollie E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the U.S. and world. Despite the availability of numerous therapies for smoking cessation, additional efficacious interventions are greatly needed. We provide a narrative review of published studies evaluating financial incentives for smoking cessation and discuss the parameters important for ensuring the efficacy of incentive interventions for smoking cessation. Methods Published studies that evaluated the impact of incentives to promote smoking cessation and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were identified and reviewed. Results Incentives are efficacious for promoting smoking abstinence across the general population of smokers as well as substance abusers, adolescents, patients with pulmonary disease, patients with serious mental illness and other challenging subgroups. To develop and implement an effective incentive treatment for smoking, special attention should be paid to biochemical verification of smoking status, incentive magnitude and the schedule of incentive delivery. Conclusion Consistent with the extensive literature showing that incentives are effective in reducing illicit drug use, a large body of evidence supports their effectiveness in reducing smoking. Continued efforts are warranted to further develop and disseminate incentive-based treatments for smoking cessation across clinical settings and populations. PMID:22525802

  13. Impact of Small Monetary Incentives on Exercise in University Students.

    PubMed

    Strohacker, Kelley; Galárraga, Omar; Emerson, Jessica; Fricchione, Samuel R; Lohse, Mariah; Williams, David M

    2015-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that health outcomes are significantly improved with the application of financial incentives. However, relatively larger incentives are not typically sustainable and removal of incentives tends to result in attrition of behavior. The feasibility of using relatively smaller incentives to improve physical activity is unclear. The aim of the present study is to determine whether small financial incentives (maximum $5.00 per week) can improve exercise-related energy expenditure of inactive individuals. Twenty-two university students (20 ±1.6 years old) were randomized into incentive or non-incentive conditions. Exercise-related caloric expenditure was tracked over 10 weeks. The sample size yielded 62% power. The repeated measures ANCOVA, controlling for body mass index, indicated a main effect of condition (F = 5.50, p =.03) with no significant interaction (F = 2.25, p = .06). This pilot study demonstrates initial feasibility in implementing small financial incentives to promote exercise behavior in previously inactive young adults. Due to the small sample size, results should be interpreted with caution and further research is warranted to improve and maintain exercise behavior in response to relatively smaller incentives.

  14. Incentives and the siting of radioactive waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, S.A.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Reed, J.H.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Peelle, E.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1982-08-01

    The importance of social and institutional issues in the siting of nuclear waste facilities has been recognized in recent years. Limited evidence from a survey of rural Wisconsin residents in 1980 indicates that incentives may help achieve the twin goals of increasing local support and decreasing local opposition to hosting nuclear waste facilities. Incentives are classified according to functional categories (i.e., mitigation, compensation, and reward) and the conditions which may be prerequisites to the use of incentives are outlined (i.e., guarantee of public health and safety, some measure of local control, and a legitimation of negotiations during siting). Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives in nuclear waste repository siting are developed. Incentive packages may be more useful than single incentives, and nonmonetary incentives, such as independent monitoring and access to credible information, may be as important in eliciting support as monetary incentives. Without careful attention to prerequisites in the siting process it is not likely that incentives will facilitate the siting process.

  15. Practical implications of incentive systems are utilized by dental franchises.

    PubMed

    Yavner, S B

    1989-01-01

    The success of any dental practice depends, among other factors, on the critical role of staff employees. In order to encourage desired staff behaviors, incentive systems can be designed for employee dentists, assistants/hygienists and managers. A survey of dental franchises was conducted in 1987 for the purpose of examining their incentive control systems. The specific incentives employed by these dental franchises for their employees are analyzed. The implications of these incentive systems used by dental franchise organizations for all dental practices are then discussed.

  16. DSM shareholder incentives: Current designs and economic theory

    SciTech Connect

    Stoft, S.; Eto, J.; Kito, S.

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews recent DSM shareholder incentive designs and performance at 10 US utilities identifies opportunities for regulators to improve the design of DSM shareholder incentive mechanisms to increase the procurement of cost-effective DSM resources. We develop six recommendations: (1) apply shared-savings incentives to DSM resource programs; (2) use markup incentives for individual programs only when net benefits are difficult to measure, but are known to be positive; (3) set expected incentive payments based on covering a utility`s {open_quotes}hidden costs,{close_quotes} which include some transitional management and risk-adjusted opportunity costs; (4) use higher marginal incentives rates than are currently found in practice, but limit total incentive payments by adding a fixed charge; (5) mitigate risks to regulators and utilities by lowering marginal incentive rates at high and low performance levels; and (6) use an aggregate incentive mechanism for all DSM resource programs, with limited exceptions (e.g., information programs where markups are more appropriate).

  17. Financial incentives for healthy behavior: ethical safeguards for behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Lunze, Karsten; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K

    2013-06-01

    Economic incentives to promote healthy behavior are becoming increasingly common and have been suggested as an approach to decreasing healthcare costs. Ethical concerns about programs with such incentives are that they may contribute to inequities, be coercive, interfere with therapeutic relationships, undermine personal responsibility for health, and decrease social solidarity. Additionally, they may be a source of stigma or discrimination, promote dependence, and be unfair for those already engaged in targeted health behaviors or those who cannot fulfill the incentivized behaviors. Incentive programs need to incorporate appropriate safeguards to monitor these risks and support fairness in offering economic incentives to promote healthy behavior.

  18. A National Perspective: Teacher Incentives and Educational Reform Measures. Policy Perspectives on Teacher Incentive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Carol A.

    Many recent reports have predicted an impending crisis in the teaching profession. At the heart of the reports and the reform effort lies the notion that in order to improve school experience for children, school experiences for teachers ought to be improved. This paper deals with teacher incentives as a means of attracting, retaining, and…

  19. A National Perspective: Teacher Incentives and Educational Reform Measures. Policy Perspectives on Teacher Incentive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Carol A.

    Many recent reports have predicted an impending crisis in the teaching profession. At the heart of the reports and the reform effort lies the notion that in order to improve school experience for children, school experiences for teachers ought to be improved. This paper deals with teacher incentives as a means of attracting, retaining, and…

  20. Incentive and Disincentive to Participation in the Work Incentive Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvin, Charles D., Ed.

    Initially this report presents a summary of three Work Incentive Programs (WIN) undertaken by a consortium of schools of social work at the University of Chicago, University of Michigan, and Case Western Reserve University, discussing in detail the design, major findings, and recommendations made. The next two chapters are devoted to discussions…

  1. Growing a market economy

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  2. Sleep to grow smart?

    PubMed

    Volk, Carina; Huber, Reto

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is undisputable an essential part of our life, if we do not sleep enough we feel the consequences the next day. The importance of sleep for healthy brain functioning has been well studied in adults, but less is known for the role of sleep in the paediatric age. Childhood and adolescence is a critical phase for brain development. The increased need for sleep during this developmental phase fosters the growing recognition for a central role of sleep during development. In this review we summarize the findings that demonstrate a close relationship between sleep and brain maturation, discuss the consequences of insufficient sleep during childhood and adolescence and outline initial attempts that have been made in order to improve sleep in this age range.

  3. "Freedom to grow".

    PubMed

    Kelley-Lainé, Kathleen

    2015-03-01

    Writing is a dangerous activity, especially as it is seemingly harmless: we rarely know what we are getting into at the start. Continuing her work on the writings of J.M. Barrie, especially on the question of the "lost child" who never grows up, the author invites the reader to listen to Sándor Ferenczi's "lost childhood" between the lines of his Clinical Diary. He begins the Diary on January 7, 1932 and the last entry is October 2 of the same year; Ferenczi died on May 22, 1933. The exceptional text of the diary is the fruit of his incisive clinical insights, his disappointment and anger with Freud and his ruthless self-analysis. The author pinpoints her reading of Ferenczi, the "wise baby-lost child".

  4. 5 CFR 575.107 - Agency recruitment incentive plan and approval levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency recruitment incentive plan and... SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Recruitment Incentives § 575.107 Agency recruitment incentive plan and...

  5. 5 CFR 575.207 - Agency relocation incentive plan and approval levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency relocation incentive plan and... SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Relocation Incentives § 575.207 Agency relocation incentive plan and...

  6. 5 CFR 575.307 - Agency retention incentive plan and approval levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency retention incentive plan and... SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Retention Incentives § 575.307 Agency retention incentive plan and approval...

  7. Behavior Analysis in Distance Education by Boosting Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zang, Wei; Lin, Fuzong

    2006-01-01

    Student behavior analysis is an active research topic in distance education in recent years. In this article, we propose a new method called Boosting to investigate students' behaviors. The Boosting Algorithm can be treated as a data mining method, trying to infer from a large amount of training data the essential factors and their relations that…

  8. Birth planning propaganda, incentives and peer pressure.

    PubMed

    Schima, M E; Chen, P C; Oakley, D; Gille, H; Grant, J P; Oakley, D

    1980-03-01

    Family planning policies are promoted at every level of Chinese society through the 3 concepts: lateness in marriage and childbirth, spacing of children, and reduction in family size (late, long, and few). The minimum legal age for girls to marry is 18, for boys, 20, but marriage is discouraged until ages 23 and 25. The Chinese put free family planning services within the reach of every eligible couple. An equally great effort is put into the acceptance and use of the services. Propaganda is pervasive, and peer pressure at the community level is intense. Individual and group sessions effect sanctions against noncompliance. Generous paid leaves are the incentives for sterilization and abortion. Community involvement in birth control has evolved to the point where annual birth quotas are established and allotted among couples. To some visitors these methods are highly coercive, a serious invasion of privacy. The 1-child family is being publicized and promoted with a generous incentive program which pays 5 yuan a month as child-care subsidy until the child is 14 years old. Living space will be given the 1-child family on a preferential basis. When 1-child couples retire they will be entitled to a monthly pension for as long as they live. The pension amounts to 80% or higher of their monthly wage at the time of retirement. Childless couples will receive 100% of their wages.

  9. Carbon prices and incentives for technological development.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Tommy; Marklund, Per-Olov; Samakovlis, Eva; Zhou, Wenchao

    2015-03-01

    There is concern that the carbon prices generated through climate policies are too low to create the incentives necessary to stimulate technological development. This paper empirically analyzes how the Swedish carbon dioxide (CO2) tax and the European Union emission trading system (EU ETS) have affected productivity development in the Swedish pulp and paper industry 1998-2008. A Luenberger total factor productivity (TFP) indicator is computed using data envelopment analysis. The results show that climate policy had a modest impact on technological development in the pulp and paper industry, and if significant it was negative. The price of fossil fuels, on the contrary, seems to have created important incentives for technological development. Hence, the results suggest that the carbon prices faced by the industry through EU ETS and the CO2 tax have been too low. Even though the data for this study is specific for Sweden, the models and results are applicable internationally. When designing policy to mitigate CO2 emissions, it is vital that the policy creates a carbon price that is high enough - otherwise the pressure on technological development will not be sufficiently strong. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A utility that believes in incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.W.

    1992-12-01

    PSI Energy, not so long ago a ship in distress, is developing internal practices and regulatory proposals designed to provide incentives at every level of the company. When Jim Rogers can to PSI Energy (then Public Service Co. of Indiana) in 1988 as chairman, president and chief executive officer, he faced a difficult task. First, he had to rebuild the financial health of a utility that had virtually all its common equity wiped out by the write-off of the abandoned Marble Hill nuclear project, in which the company had 83% interest. Second, he had to restore the company's public image and the credibility gap between PSI and most of its stakeholders. Lastly, he had to restore the pride and energy of a work force that had been beaten down by over ten years of dealing with the Marble Hill problem. This article discusses the changes implemented at PSI that have involved not only various proposals to regulators for more incentive-based regulatory mechanisms, but also innovations in how employee performance is measured and rewarded. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  11. The role of incentive design, incentive value, communications strategy, and worksite culture on health risk assessment participation.

    PubMed

    Seaverson, Erin L D; Grossmeier, Jessica; Miller, Toni M; Anderson, David R

    2009-01-01

    To examine the impact of financial incentives, communications strategy, and worksite culture on health risk assessment (HRA) participation rates. A cross-sectional study design was used to examine factors that influence employee participation, including incentive value, incentive design, communications strategy, and worksite culture. Large private-sector and public-sector employers. Thirty-six employers (n = 559,988 employees) that provided financial incentives to promote employee HRA participation. Organizations implemented the HRA as part of a more comprehensive worksite health promotion strategy that included follow-up interventions and a variety of other components. The primary outcome of interest was employee HRA participation. Information on program design and structure, as well as on HRA eligibility and participation, was collected for each organization via standard client report and semistructured interviews with account managers. General linear regression models were used to examine the extent to which factors influence HRA participation independently and when controlled for other factors. Incentive value (r2 = .433; p < .000), benefits-integrated incentive design (r2 = .184; p = .009), culture (r2 = .113; p = .045), and communications strategy (r = .300; p = .001) had positive bivariate associations with HRA participation rates. When all factors were included in the model, incentive value (p = .001) and communications strategy (p = .023) were significantly associated with HRA participation. Variance accounted for by all factors combined was R12 = .584. This study suggests that incentive value, incentive type, supportive worksite culture, and comprehensive communications strategy may all play a role in increasing HRA participation.

  12. Boosted one dimensional fermionic superfluids on a lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Sayonee; Mukerjee, Subroto; Shenoy, Vijay B.

    2017-09-01

    We study the effect of a boost (Fermi sea displaced by a finite momentum) on one dimensional systems of lattice fermions with short-ranged interactions. In the absence of a boost such systems with attractive interactions possess algebraic superconducting order. Motivated by physics in higher dimensions, one might naively expect a boost to weaken and ultimately destroy superconductivity. However, we show that for one dimensional systems the effect of the boost can be to strengthen the algebraic superconducting order by making correlation functions fall off more slowly with distance. This phenomenon can manifest in interesting ways, for example, a boost can produce a Luther-Emery phase in a system with both charge and spin gaps by engendering the destruction of the former.

  13. Boost type PWM HVDC transmission system

    SciTech Connect

    Ooi, B.T.; Wang, X. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1991-10-01

    This paper reports that conventional HVdc is built around the mercury arc rectifier or the thyristor which requires line commutation. The advances of fast, high power GTO's and future devices such as MCT's with turn off capabilities, are bringing PWM techniques within the range of HVdc applications. By combining PWM techniques to the boost type bridge topology, one has an alternate system of HVdc Transmission. On the ac side, the converter station has active controls over: the voltage amplitude, the voltage angle and the frequency. On the dc side, parallel connections facilitate multi-terminal load sharing by simple local controls so that redundant communication channels are not required. Bidirectional power through each station is accomplished by the reversal of the direction of dc current flow. These claims have been substantiated by experimental results from laboratory size multi-terminal models.

  14. Orbiter aborts from boost: Presimulation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backman, H. D.; Brechka, K. G.

    1972-01-01

    A description of a hybrid simulation of the 040C orbiter aborting from boost to specified landing site is provided. The simulation starts when the abort is initiated and continues until a terminal energy state (associated with the selected landing site) is reached. At abort it is assumed that all SRM's are jettisoned with the external tank remaining with the orbiter. The simulation described has six degrees of freedom with the vehicle simulated as a rigid body. A conventional form of autopilot is provided to control engine gimbaling during powered flight. An ideal form of an autopilot is provided to test conventional autopilot function and provide pseudo RCS function during coasting flight. The simulation is proposed to provide means for studies of abort guidance function and to gain information concerning ability to control the abort trajectory.

  15. Inflammation boosts bacteriophage transfer between Salmonella spp.

    PubMed

    Diard, Médéric; Bakkeren, Erik; Cornuault, Jeffrey K; Moor, Kathrin; Hausmann, Annika; Sellin, Mikael E; Loverdo, Claude; Aertsen, Abram; Ackermann, Martin; De Paepe, Marianne; Slack, Emma; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2017-03-17

    Bacteriophage transfer (lysogenic conversion) promotes bacterial virulence evolution. There is limited understanding of the factors that determine lysogenic conversion dynamics within infected hosts. A murine Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) diarrhea model was used to study the transfer of SopEΦ, a prophage from STm SL1344, to STm ATCC14028S. Gut inflammation and enteric disease triggered >55% lysogenic conversion of ATCC14028S within 3 days. Without inflammation, SopEΦ transfer was reduced by up to 10(5)-fold. This was because inflammation (e.g., reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, hypochlorite) triggers the bacterial SOS response, boosts expression of the phage antirepressor Tum, and thereby promotes free phage production and subsequent transfer. Mucosal vaccination prevented a dense intestinal STm population from inducing inflammation and consequently abolished SopEΦ transfer. Vaccination may be a general strategy for blocking pathogen evolution that requires disease-driven transfer of temperate bacteriophages.

  16. Boosting jet power in black hole spacetimes.

    PubMed

    Neilsen, David; Lehner, Luis; Palenzuela, Carlos; Hirschmann, Eric W; Liebling, Steven L; Motl, Patrick M; Garrett, Travis

    2011-08-02

    The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford-Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet that arises from single boosted black holes and binary black hole systems. In the latter case, we find that increasing the orbital angular momenta of the system and/or the spins of the individual black holes results in an enhanced Poynting flux.

  17. Giving top quark effective operators a boost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, Christoph; Moore, Liam; Nordström, Karl; Russell, Michael

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the prospects to systematically improve generic effective field theory-based searches for new physics in the top sector during LHC run 2 as well as the high luminosity phase. In particular, we assess the benefits of high momentum transfer final states on top EFT-fit as a function of systematic uncertainties in comparison with sensitivity expected from fully-resolved analyses focusing on t t bar production. We find that constraints are typically driven by fully-resolved selections, while boosted top quarks can serve to break degeneracies in the global fit. This demystifies and clarifies the importance of high momentum transfer final states for global fits to new interactions in the top sector from direct measurements.

  18. Boosting jet power in black hole spacetimes

    PubMed Central

    Neilsen, David; Lehner, Luis; Palenzuela, Carlos; Hirschmann, Eric W.; Liebling, Steven L.; Motl, Patrick M.; Garrett, Travis

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford–Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet that arises from single boosted black holes and binary black hole systems. In the latter case, we find that increasing the orbital angular momenta of the system and/or the spins of the individual black holes results in an enhanced Poynting flux. PMID:21768341

  19. Boosted top quarks and jet structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schätzel, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    The Large Hadron Collider is the first particle accelerator that provides high enough energy to produce large numbers of boosted top quarks. The decay products of these top quarks are confined to a cone in the top quark flight direction and can be clustered into a single jet. Top quark reconstruction then amounts to analysing the structure of the jet and looking for subjets that are kinematically compatible with top quark decay. Many techniques have been developed in this context to identify top quarks in a large background of non-top jets. This article reviews the results obtained using data recorded in the years 2010-2012 by the experiments ATLAS and CMS. Studies of Standard Model top quark production and searches for new massive particles that decay to top quarks are presented.

  20. Hydrodynamic approach to boost invariant free streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetta, E.

    2015-08-01

    We consider a family of exact boost invariant solutions of the transport equation for free-streaming massless particles, where the one-particle distribution function is defined in terms of a function of a single variable. The evolution of second and third moments of the one-particle distribution function [the second moment being the energy momentum tensor (EMT) and the third moment the nonequilibrium current (NEC)] depends only on two moments of that function. Given those two moments, we show how to build a nonlinear hydrodynamic theory which reproduces the early time evolution of the EMT and the NEC. The structure of these theories may give insight on nonlinear hydrodynamic phenomena on short time scales.

  1. Beyond the Business Model: Incentives for Organizations to Publish Software Source Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindman, Juho; Juutilainen, Juha-Pekka; Rossi, Matti

    The software stack opened under Open Source Software (OSS) licenses is growing rapidly. Commercial actors have released considerable amounts of previously proprietary source code. These actions beg the question why companies choose a strategy based on giving away software assets? Research on outbound OSS approach has tried to answer this question with the concept of the “OSS business model”. When studying the reasons for code release, we have observed that the business model concept is too generic to capture the many incentives organizations have. Conversely, in this paper we investigate empirically what the companies’ incentives are by means of an exploratory case study of three organizations in different stages of their code release. Our results indicate that the companies aim to promote standardization, obtain development resources, gain cost savings, improve the quality of software, increase the trustworthiness of software, or steer OSS communities. We conclude that future research on outbound OSS could benefit from focusing on the heterogeneous incentives for code release rather than on revenue models.

  2. Michigan's fee-for-value physician incentive program reduces spending and improves quality in primary care.

    PubMed

    Lemak, Christy Harris; Nahra, Tammie A; Cohen, Genna R; Erb, Natalie D; Paustian, Michael L; Share, David; Hirth, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    As policy makers and others seek to reduce health care cost growth while improving health care quality, one approach gaining momentum is fee-for-value reimbursement. This payment strategy maintains the traditional fee-for-service arrangement but includes quality and spending incentives. We examined Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan's Physician Group Incentive Program, which uses a fee-for-value approach focused on primary care physicians. We analyzed the program's impact on quality and spending from 2008 to 2011 for over three million beneficiaries in over 11,000 physician practices. Participation in the incentive program was associated with approximately 1.1 percent lower total spending for adults (5.1 percent lower for children) and the same or improved performance on eleven of fourteen quality measures over time. Our findings contribute to the growing body of evidence about the potential effectiveness of models that align payment with cost and quality performance, and they demonstrate that it is possible to transform reimbursement within a fee-for-service framework to encourage and incentivize physicians to provide high-quality care, while also reducing costs.

  3. Blood donors' attitudes towards incentives: influence on motivation to donate.

    PubMed

    Kasraian, Leila; Maghsudlu, Mahtab

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the factors that motivate donors to donate will facilitate improvements in recruitment programmes. Donation incentives are often used to improve the effect of recruitment programmes. This cross-sectional study was designed to understand donors' attitudes toward incentives. Participants (n=421) were recruited among volunteer donors at the Shiraz Blood Transfusion Centre when they registered for blood donation. They completed a questionnaire with items regarding demographic characteristics, donation status (first-time donor or regular donor), and their motivation for donating, their attitude towards incentives, and the best type of incentives. Multiple logistic regression and chi-squared tests were used to analyse the data with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The majority of donors (85.6%) donated blood for altruistic reasons. One quarter of the donors (25.3%) believed that incentives should be offered to encourage them to donate. Most donors (84.5%) believed that the most effective incentive was offering specific blood tests. Donors who had donated for non-altruistic reasons were more interested in receiving incentives. The desire to receive incentives was more widespread among younger, married, first-time donors, donors with a lower educational level and donors with a history of more than five donations. The desire to receive incentives decreased as age increased. Most of the donors (74.7%) had no desire to receive incentives, and this was even more apparent among donors who donated for altruistic reasons. Non-monetary incentives may be effective in attracting younger, married, first-time donors, donors with a lower educational level and donors with a history of more than five donations.

  4. Blood donors’ attitudes towards incentives: influence on motivation to donate

    PubMed Central

    Kasraian, Leila; Maghsudlu, Mahtab

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the factors that motivate donors to donate will facilitate improvements in recruitment programmes. Donation incentives are often used to improve the effect of recruitment programmes. This cross-sectional study was designed to understand donors’ attitudes toward incentives. Material and methods Participants (n=421) were recruited among volunteer donors at the Shiraz Blood Transfusion Centre when they registered for blood donation. They completed a questionnaire with items regarding demographic characteristics, donation status (first-time donor or regular donor), and their motivation for donating, their attitude towards incentives, and the best type of incentives. Multiple logistic regression and chi-squared tests were used to analyse the data with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results The majority of donors (85.6%) donated blood for altruistic reasons. One quarter of the donors (25.3%) believed that incentives should be offered to encourage them to donate. Most donors (84.5%) believed that the most effective incentive was offering specific blood tests. Donors who had donated for non-altruistic reasons were more interested in receiving incentives. The desire to receive incentives was more widespread among younger, married, first-time donors, donors with a lower educational level and donors with a history of more than five donations. The desire to receive incentives decreased as age increased. Discussion Most of the donors (74.7%) had no desire to receive incentives, and this was even more apparent among donors who donated for altruistic reasons. Non-monetary incentives may be effective in attracting younger, married, first-time donors, donors with a lower educational level and donors with a history of more than five donations. PMID:22044949

  5. Boosting for multi-graph classification.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia; Pan, Shirui; Zhu, Xingquan; Cai, Zhihua

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we formulate a novel graph-based learning problem, multi-graph classification (MGC), which aims to learn a classifier from a set of labeled bags each containing a number of graphs inside the bag. A bag is labeled positive, if at least one graph in the bag is positive, and negative otherwise. Such a multi-graph representation can be used for many real-world applications, such as webpage classification, where a webpage can be regarded as a bag with texts and images inside the webpage being represented as graphs. This problem is a generalization of multi-instance learning (MIL) but with vital differences, mainly because instances in MIL share a common feature space whereas no feature is available to represent graphs in a multi-graph bag. To solve the problem, we propose a boosting based multi-graph classification framework (bMGC). Given a set of labeled multi-graph bags, bMGC employs dynamic weight adjustment at both bag- and graph-levels to select one subgraph in each iteration as a weak classifier. In each iteration, bag and graph weights are adjusted such that an incorrectly classified bag will receive a higher weight because its predicted bag label conflicts to the genuine label, whereas an incorrectly classified graph will receive a lower weight value if the graph is in a positive bag (or a higher weight if the graph is in a negative bag). Accordingly, bMGC is able to differentiate graphs in positive and negative bags to derive effective classifiers to form a boosting model for MGC. Experiments and comparisons on real-world multi-graph learning tasks demonstrate the algorithm performance.

  6. The attentional boost effect and context memory.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Neil W; Smith, S Adam; Spataro, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    Stimuli co-occurring with targets in a detection task are better remembered than stimuli co-occurring with distractors-the attentional boost effect (ABE). The ABE is of interest because it is an exception to the usual finding that divided attention during encoding impairs memory. The effect has been demonstrated in tests of item memory but it is unclear if context memory is likewise affected. Some accounts suggest enhanced perceptual encoding or associative binding, predicting an ABE on context memory, whereas other evidence suggests a more abstract, amodal basis of the effect. In Experiment 1, context memory was assessed in terms of an intramodal perceptual detail, the font and color of the study word. Experiment 2 examined context memory cross-modally, assessing memory for the modality (visual or auditory) of the study word. Experiments 3 and 4 assessed context memory with list discrimination, in which 2 study lists are presented and participants must later remember which list (if either) a test word came from. In all experiments, item (recognition) memory was also assessed and consistently displayed a robust ABE. In contrast, the attentional-boost manipulation did not enhance context memory, whether defined in terms of visual details, study modality, or list membership. There was some evidence that the mode of responding on the detection task (motoric response as opposed to covert counting of targets) may impact context memory but there was no evidence of an effect of target detection, per se. In sum, the ABE did not occur in context memory with verbal materials. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Ventriculogram segmentation using boosted decision trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, John A.; Sheehan, Florence H.

    2004-05-01

    Left ventricular status, reflected in ejection fraction or end systolic volume, is a powerful prognostic indicator in heart disease. Quantitative analysis of these and other parameters from ventriculograms (cine xrays of the left ventricle) is infrequently performed due to the labor required for manual segmentation. None of the many methods developed for automated segmentation has achieved clinical acceptance. We present a method for semi-automatic segmentation of ventriculograms based on a very accurate two-stage boosted decision-tree pixel classifier. The classifier determines which pixels are inside the ventricle at key ED (end-diastole) and ES (end-systole) frames. The test misclassification rate is about 1%. The classifier is semi-automatic, requiring a user to select 3 points in each frame: the endpoints of the aortic valve and the apex. The first classifier stage is 2 boosted decision-trees, trained using features such as gray-level statistics (e.g. median brightness) and image geometry (e.g. coordinates relative to user supplied 3 points). Second stage classifiers are trained using the same features as the first, plus the output of the first stage. Border pixels are determined from the segmented images using dilation and erosion. A curve is then fit to the border pixels, minimizing a penalty function that trades off fidelity to the border pixels with smoothness. ED and ES volumes, and ejection fraction are estimated from border curves using standard area-length formulas. On independent test data, the differences between automatic and manual volumes (and ejection fractions) are similar in size to the differences between two human observers.

  8. Boosted classification trees result in minor to modest improvement in the accuracy in classifying cardiovascular outcomes compared to conventional classification trees

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Peter C; Lee, Douglas S

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Classification trees are increasingly being used to classifying patients according to the presence or absence of a disease or health outcome. A limitation of classification trees is their limited predictive accuracy. In the data-mining and machine learning literature, boosting has been developed to improve classification. Boosting with classification trees iteratively grows classification trees in a sequence of reweighted datasets. In a given iteration, subjects that were misclassified in the previous iteration are weighted more highly than subjects that were correctly classified. Classifications from each of the classification trees in the sequence are combined through a weighted majority vote to produce a final classification. The authors' objective was to examine whether boosting improved the accuracy of classification trees for predicting outcomes in cardiovascular patients. Methods: We examined the utility of boosting classification trees for classifying 30-day mortality outcomes in patients hospitalized with either acute myocardial infarction or congestive heart failure. Results: Improvements in the misclassification rate using boosted classification trees were at best minor compared to when conventional classification trees were used. Minor to modest improvements to sensitivity were observed, with only a negligible reduction in specificity. For predicting cardiovascular mortality, boosted classification trees had high specificity, but low sensitivity. Conclusions: Gains in predictive accuracy for predicting cardiovascular outcomes were less impressive than gains in performance observed in the data mining literature. PMID:22254181

  9. The reach for charged Higgs bosons with boosted bottom and boosted top jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Zack; Pedersen, Keith

    2017-01-01

    At moderate values of tan(β) , a supersymmetric charged Higgs boson H+/- is expected to be difficult to find due its small cross section and large backgrounds. Using the new μx boosted bottom jet tag, and measured boosted top tagging rates from the CERN LHC, we examine the reach for TeV-scale charged Higgs bosons at 14 TeV and 100 TeV colliders in top-Higgs associated production, where the charged Higgs decays to a boosted top and bottom quark pair. We conclude that the cross section for charged Higgs bosons is indeed too small to observe at the LHC in the moderate tan(β) ``wedge region,'' but it will be possible to probe charged Higgs bosons at nearly all tan(β) up to 6 TeV at a 100 TeV collider. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under award No. DE-SC0008347.

  10. Growing for different ends.

    PubMed

    Catts, Oron; Zurr, Ionat

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative biology are usually discussed in relation to biomedical research and applications. However, hand in hand with developments of this field in the biomedical context, other approaches and uses for non-medical ends have been explored. There is a growing interest in exploring spin off tissue engineering and regenerative biology technologies in areas such as consumer products, art and design. This paper outlines developments regarding in vitro meat and leather, actuators and bio-mechanic interfaces, speculative design and contemporary artistic practices. The authors draw on their extensive experience of using tissue engineering for non-medical ends to speculate about what lead to these applications and their possible future development and uses. Avoiding utopian and dystopian postures and using the notion of the contestable, this paper also mentions some philosophical and ethical consideration stemming from the use of non-medical approaches to tissue constructs. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation.

  11. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section 538.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual...

  12. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section 538.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual...

  13. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section 538.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual...

  14. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section 538.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual...

  15. Something for Nothing: Cash Flow as a Contract Incentive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Defense AT&L: March-April 2016 16 Something for Nothing “Cash Flow” as a Contract Incentive John Pritchard n John Krieger Pritchard and...negligible resources are required to implement the incentive, this is the closest the government ever will come to getting something for nothing . The

  16. 48 CFR 216.403 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive contracts. 216.403 Section 216.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Contracts 216.403 Fixed-price incentive contracts. ...

  17. Teachers' Perceptions of Administrative Support in Incentive Grant Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, William J., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate teachers' perceptions of administrative support in incentive grant schools. The primary objective of this study is to determine the effect of participation in an incentive grant on the perceived level of administrative support. The research questions were as follows: 1) Do teachers who are participating…

  18. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the project...

  19. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the project...

  20. School and Teacher Performance Incentives: The Latin American Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizala, Alejandra; Romaguera, Pilar

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses performance evaluation and the introduction of incentives into education in Latin America from an analytical and methodological perspective. The aim is to describe ongoing strategies and learn from practical experiences in this field. The cases analyzed reveal that school-level evaluations and collective incentives adapt…

  1. Game-theory approach to consumer incentives for solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, J. K.

    1981-11-01

    Solar energy is currently not competitive with fossil fuels. Fossil fuel price increases may eventually allow solar to compete, but incentives can change the relative price between fossil fuel and solar energy, and make solar compete sooner. Examples are developed of a new type of competitive game using solar energy incentives. Competitive games must have players with individual controls and conflicting objectives, but recent work also includes incentives offered by one of the players to the others. In the incentive game presented here, the Government acts as the leader and offers incentives to consumers, who act as followers. The Government incentives offered in this leader-follower (Stackelberg) game reduce the cost of solar energy to the consumer. Both the Government and consumers define their own objectives with the Government determining an incentive (either in the form of a subsidy or tax) that satisfies its objective. The two hypothetical examples developed show how the Government can achieve a stated utilization rate with the proper incentives.

  2. 48 CFR 1552.216-77 - Award term incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... overall award term evaluation and award term decision. The Contracting Officer will unilaterally decide... to achieve the performance measures for the corresponding evaluation period; or (iii) The Government... authority. (e) Award term incentive administration. The award term incentive evaluation(s) will be completed...

  3. Using Incentives To Promote Employee Health. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenney, Sharon L.

    The use of incentives by businesses is a well-accepted pattern of management-employee collaboration. Increasingly, U.S. businesses are using incentives to encourage employees to stay healthy. Research in the field of behavior modification indicates that positive reinforcement, negative consequences and restrictions, and feedback have great…

  4. Influence of financial incentive programs in sustaining wildlife values

    Treesearch

    Thomas J. Straka; Michael A. Kilgore; Michael G. Jacobson; John L. Greene; Steven E. Daniels

    2007-01-01

    Conservation incentive programs have substantial impacts on the nation’s forests and wildlife habitat. There are eight major conservation incentive programs. The Forest Stewardship Program (FSP) provides forest landowner assistance by focusing on resource management plans embodying multi-resource stewardship principles. The Forest Land Enhancement Program (FLEP) is the...

  5. 7 CFR 250.68 - Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Donated Food Outlets § 250.68 Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). (a) Distribution of donated...

  6. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the project...

  7. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the project...

  8. Individual Teacher Incentives, Student Achievement and Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Pedro S.

    2010-01-01

    There is great interest in understanding the potential of teacher incentives to improve student achievement. In fact, teacher incentives, either individual or collective, may improve student achievement if they succeed in aligning the public or social goals with the goals of the teacher. However, an approach in which reward is based on outputs can…

  9. Financial Incentives for Steering Education and Training. Getting Skills Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This report examines how governments use financial incentives to promote a better alignment between labour market needs, on the one hand, and the supply of skills, on the other. In doing so, it identifies: (1) innovative models that countries may be interested in learning from; (2) best practice in the design and use of financial incentives; (3)…

  10. 7 CFR 701.45 - Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. 701.45 Section 701.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. The regulations governing the FIP as of July 31, 2002, and...

  11. 7 CFR 701.45 - Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. 701.45 Section 701.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.45 Forestry Incentives Program (FIP...

  12. 7 CFR 701.45 - Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. 701.45 Section 701.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. The regulations governing the FIP as of July 31, 2002, and...

  13. 7 CFR 701.45 - Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. 701.45 Section 701.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. The regulations governing the FIP as of July 31, 2002, and...

  14. 7 CFR 701.45 - Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. 701.45 Section 701.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. The regulations governing the FIP as of July 31, 2002, and...

  15. 48 CFR 1816.402-270 - NASA technical performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false NASA technical performance incentives. 1816.402-270 Section 1816.402-270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND....402-270 NASA technical performance incentives. (a) Pursuant to the guidelines in 1816.402, NASA has...

  16. 48 CFR 1816.402-270 - NASA technical performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false NASA technical performance incentives. 1816.402-270 Section 1816.402-270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND....402-270 NASA technical performance incentives. (a) Pursuant to the guidelines in 1816.402, NASA has...

  17. 48 CFR 1816.402-270 - NASA technical performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false NASA technical performance incentives. 1816.402-270 Section 1816.402-270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND....402-270 NASA technical performance incentives. (a) Pursuant to the guidelines in 1816.402, NASA has...

  18. 48 CFR 1816.402-270 - NASA technical performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false NASA technical performance incentives. 1816.402-270 Section 1816.402-270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND....402-270 NASA technical performance incentives. (a) Pursuant to the guidelines in 1816.402, NASA has...

  19. 48 CFR 916.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 916.405 Section 916.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 916.405...

  20. 48 CFR 916.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 916.405 Section 916.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 916.405...

  1. 48 CFR 916.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 916.405 Section 916.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 916.405...

  2. 48 CFR 916.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 916.405 Section 916.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 916.405...

  3. 48 CFR 916.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 916.405 Section 916.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 916.405...

  4. Teachers' Perceptions of Administrative Support in Incentive Grant Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, William J., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate teachers' perceptions of administrative support in incentive grant schools. The primary objective of this study is to determine the effect of participation in an incentive grant on the perceived level of administrative support. The research questions were as follows: 1) Do teachers who are participating…

  5. Technology Incentives: Motivating Teachers to Attend Professional Development Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    Technology incentives are a great way to motivate teachers to learn to use technology. Polk County Schools in Florida has proven that technology incentives work to their advantage. A highlight that motivates Polk County teachers, is that a technology coaching program is in place to assist teachers at different schools. In this article, the author…

  6. The Effect of Incentives on Cognitive Processing of Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konheim-Kalkstein, Yasmine L.; van den Broek, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the effect of incentives, a motivational manipulation, on cognitive processes of reading. Extrinsic motivation was manipulated through the use of monetary incentives to assess its effect on information processing in reading. One group of college students was paid for what they remembered from several narrative passages they…

  7. Early-Retirement Incentive Programs for Medical School Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 115 medical schools concerning early retirement benefits and incentives for faculty found that defined-contribution plans were preferred and were available at 37 percent of institutions. Incentive programs were used by 70 percent of schools during 1987-91. However, few early retirements have occurred. Program characteristics,…

  8. Linking Financial Incentives to Teacher Accountability in School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, James E.; Nottingham, Marvin A.

    1974-01-01

    Because of political forces operant in school districts, incentive pay schemes based on individual performances are extremely difficult to implement and, therefore, usually ineffective. This study reports the use of a school district "profit sharing" incentive scheme that is based on collegial, not individual, teacher performance and which sets…

  9. Encouraging Contributions in Learning Networks Using Incentive Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, H. G. K.; Burgos, D.; Tattersall, C.; Brouns, F.; Kurvers, H.; Koper, R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate incentive mechanisms to increase active participation in Learning Networks (LNs). The LN under study is LN4LD, an LN for the exchange of information about the IMS Learning Design specification. We examine how to encourage learners in LN4LD to contribute their knowledge, and whether incentive mechanisms can increase the level of…

  10. 48 CFR 49.115 - Settlement of terminated incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Revision—Firm Target, and 52.249-2, Termination for Convenience of the Government (Fixed-Price). (1... Price Revision—Firm Target, or paragraph (1) of the clause at 52.216-17, Incentive Price Revision—Successive Targets. The contracting officer shall apply the incentive price revision provisions to completed...

  11. 48 CFR 49.115 - Settlement of terminated incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Revision—Firm Target, and 52.249-2, Termination for Convenience of the Government (Fixed-Price). (1... Price Revision—Firm Target, or paragraph (1) of the clause at 52.216-17, Incentive Price Revision—Successive Targets. The contracting officer shall apply the incentive price revision provisions to completed...

  12. 12 CFR 2.4 - Bonus and incentive plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bonus and incentive plans. 2.4 Section 2.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.4 Bonus and incentive plans. A bank employee or officer may participate in a bonus or...

  13. 12 CFR 2.4 - Bonus and incentive plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bonus and incentive plans. 2.4 Section 2.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.4 Bonus and incentive plans. A bank employee or officer may participate in a bonus or...

  14. 42 CFR 495.106 - Incentive payments to CAHs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentive payments to CAHs. 495.106 Section 495.106 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE...

  15. 1985 Winners of the Cost Reduction Incentive Awards. Tenth Anniversary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Fifty-two cost reduction efforts on college and university campuses are described, as part of the Cost Reduction Incentive Awards Program sponsored by the National Association of College and University Business Officers and the United States Steel Foundation. The incentive program is designed to stimulate cost-effective ideas and awareness of the…

  16. 48 CFR 216.403 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive contracts. 216.403 Section 216.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Contracts 216.403 Fixed-price incentive contracts. ...

  17. 48 CFR 1852.216-83 - Fixed price incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed price incentive. 1852.216-83 Section 1852.216-83 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... 1852.216-83 Fixed price incentive. As prescribed in 1816.406-70(c), insert the following clause: Fixed...

  18. 48 CFR 216.403 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive contracts. 216.403 Section 216.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Contracts 216.403 Fixed-price incentive contracts. ...

  19. 48 CFR 216.403 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive contracts. 216.403 Section 216.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Contracts 216.403 Fixed-price incentive contracts. ...

  20. 48 CFR 216.403 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fixed-price incentive contracts. 216.403 Section 216.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Contracts 216.403 Fixed-price incentive contracts. ...