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Sample records for growing cold dark

  1. Clumpy cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  2. Clumpy cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  3. How cold is cold dark matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Neelakanta, Jayanth T. E-mail: jtneelak@syr.edu

    2014-03-01

    If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be non-interacting and non-relativistic by definition. In most cold dark matter models however, dark matter particles inherit a non-vanishing velocity dispersion from interactions in the early universe, a velocity that redshifts with cosmic expansion but certainly remains non-zero. In this article, we place model-independent constraints on the dark matter temperature to mass ratio, whose square root determines the dark matter velocity dispersion. We only assume that dark matter particles decoupled kinetically while non-relativistic, when galactic scales had not entered the horizon yet, and that their momentum distribution has been Maxwellian since that time. Under these assumptions, using cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum observations, we place upper limits on the temperature to mass ratio of cold dark matter today (away from collapsed structures). These limits imply that the present cold dark matter velocity dispersion has to be smaller than 54 m/s. Cold dark matter has to be quite cold, indeed.

  4. Cold dark matter heats up.

    PubMed

    Pontzen, Andrew; Governato, Fabio

    2014-02-13

    A principal discovery in modern cosmology is that standard model particles comprise only 5 per cent of the mass-energy budget of the Universe. In the ΛCDM paradigm, the remaining 95 per cent consists of dark energy (Λ) and cold dark matter. ΛCDM is being challenged by its apparent inability to explain the low-density 'cores' of dark matter measured at the centre of galaxies, where centrally concentrated high-density 'cusps' were predicted. But before drawing conclusions, it is necessary to include the effect of gas and stars, historically seen as passive components of galaxies. We now understand that these can inject heat energy into the cold dark matter through a coupling based on rapid gravitational potential fluctuations, explaining the observed low central densities.

  5. Cold Fusion Dark Matter and Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, Mark

    2009-05-01

    Explanation of Cold Fusion [1] ``It is k-capture forming dineutrons followed by absorption by palladium.'' with excess heat energy no more than about .15 MeV per nucleon. Experimentally [1], ^1H and electrons are at high pressure at the center of a palladium wire sample, ``After hours of loading with ^1H, bubbles were present on the wire surface and the wire's resistance had stopped increasing, there was a fizz of hydrogen from the wire within a few seconds after loading current and large bubbles were stopped.'' a repeatable cycle. K-capture rate is affected by environment at the 1/10000 level has has been known since 1946 ( ref. [6]in [1]); and recently has been seen at the 0.35% level for 7Be in C60 [2]. Neutron halos have been seen recently in 8He [3], 6He [4] and others long ago. Conclusions: 1) the evidence for dineutrons is fairly good and as in all K-captures is accompanied by a neutrino emission. collapse of a star to a neutron star has a succession of K-captures in conditions like cold fusion i.e. high pressure. 2)Dark matter is dineutrons from formation of neutron stars and black holes, and dark energy of neutrinos generated in neutron stars, ordinary stars and black holes. If in the latter, then their mass must be zero for an infinite horizon. References: [1] M. Levi, DAMOP Meeting poster paper, session WP, 16-19 May,1995 [2]T. Ohtsuku et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 252501 (2007) [3] V. I. Ryjkov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 01901 (2008) [4] L. B. Wang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 ,142501 (2004).

  6. Isocurvature cold dark matter fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Efstathiou, G.; Bond, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    According to Preskill et al. (1983), the axion field represents a particularly attractive candidate for the dark matter in the universe. In many respects it behaves like other forms of cold dark matter, such as massive gravitinos, photinos, and monopoles. It is, however, a pseudo-Goldstone boson of very low mass, and it is only because of rapid coherent oscillations of the field that it can dominate the mass density of the universe. In the present paper it is assumed that the isocurvature mode is dominant. The linear evolution calculations conducted do not depend upon specific details of particle physics. For this reason, the conducted discussion is applicable to any cold dark matter model with isocurvature perturbations. The results of the study lead to the conclusion that scale-invariant isocurvature perturbations do not seem an attractive possibility for the origin of large-scale structure. The findings strengthen the review that primordial adiabatic perturbations were the dominant fluctuations in the early stages of the Big Bang.

  7. Isocurvature cold dark matter fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Efstathiou, G.; Bond, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    According to Preskill et al. (1983), the axion field represents a particularly attractive candidate for the dark matter in the universe. In many respects it behaves like other forms of cold dark matter, such as massive gravitinos, photinos, and monopoles. It is, however, a pseudo-Goldstone boson of very low mass, and it is only because of rapid coherent oscillations of the field that it can dominate the mass density of the universe. In the present paper it is assumed that the isocurvature mode is dominant. The linear evolution calculations conducted do not depend upon specific details of particle physics. For this reason, the conducted discussion is applicable to any cold dark matter model with isocurvature perturbations. The results of the study lead to the conclusion that scale-invariant isocurvature perturbations do not seem an attractive possibility for the origin of large-scale structure. The findings strengthen the review that primordial adiabatic perturbations were the dominant fluctuations in the early stages of the Big Bang.

  8. Condensation of galactic cold dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Visinelli, Luca

    2016-07-07

    We consider the steady-state regime describing the density profile of a dark matter halo, if dark matter is treated as a Bose-Einstein condensate. We first solve the fluid equation for “canonical” cold dark matter, obtaining a class of density profiles which includes the Navarro-Frenk-White profile, and which diverge at the halo core. We then solve numerically the equation obtained when an additional “quantum pressure” term is included in the computation of the density profile. The solution to this latter case is finite at the halo core, possibly avoiding the “cuspy halo problem” present in some cold dark matter theories. Within the model proposed, we predict the mass of the cold dark matter particle to be of the order of M{sub χ}c{sup 2}≈10{sup −24} eV, which is of the same order of magnitude as that predicted in ultra-light scalar cold dark matter models. Finally, we derive the differential equation describing perturbations in the density and the pressure of the dark matter fluid.

  9. Condensation of galactic cold dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visinelli, Luca

    2016-07-01

    We consider the steady-state regime describing the density profile of a dark matter halo, if dark matter is treated as a Bose-Einstein condensate. We first solve the fluid equation for ``canonical'' cold dark matter, obtaining a class of density profiles which includes the Navarro-Frenk-White profile, and which diverge at the halo core. We then solve numerically the equation obtained when an additional ``quantum pressure'' term is included in the computation of the density profile. The solution to this latter case is finite at the halo core, possibly avoiding the ``cuspy halo problem'' present in some cold dark matter theories. Within the model proposed, we predict the mass of the cold dark matter particle to be of the order of Mχ c2 ≈ 10-24 eV, which is of the same order of magnitude as that predicted in ultra-light scalar cold dark matter models. Finally, we derive the differential equation describing perturbations in the density and the pressure of the dark matter fluid.

  10. Astronomical Constraints on Quantum Cold Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivey, Shane; Musielak, Z.; Fry, J.

    2012-01-01

    A model of quantum (`fuzzy') cold dark matter that accounts for both the halo core problem and the missing dwarf galaxies problem, which plague the usual cold dark matter paradigm, is developed. The model requires that a cold dark matter particle has a mass so small that its only allowed physical description is a quantum wave function. Each such particle in a galactic halo is bound to a gravitational potential that is created by luminous matter and by the halo itself, and the resulting wave function is described by a Schrödinger equation. To solve this equation on a galactic scale, we impose astronomical constraints that involve several density profiles used to fit data from simulations of dark matter galactic halos. The solutions to the Schrödinger equation are quantum waves which resemble the density profiles acquired from simulations, and they are used to determine the mass of the cold dark matter particle. The effects of adding certain types of baryonic matter to the halo, such as a dwarf elliptical galaxy or a supermassive black hole, are also discussed.

  11. Cosmological explosions from cold dark matter perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The cosmological-explosion model is examined for a universe dominated by cold dark matter in which explosion seeds are produced from the growth of initial density perturbations of a given form. Fragmentation of the exploding shells is dominated by the dark-matter potential wells rather than the self-gravity of the shells, and particular conditions are required for the explosions to bootstrap up to very large scales. The final distribution of dark matter is strongly correlated with the baryons on small scales, but uncorrelated on large scales.

  12. Cosmological explosions from cold dark matter perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The cosmological-explosion model is examined for a universe dominated by cold dark matter in which explosion seeds are produced from the growth of initial density perturbations of a given form. Fragmentation of the exploding shells is dominated by the dark-matter potential wells rather than the self-gravity of the shells, and particular conditions are required for the explosions to bootstrap up to very large scales. The final distribution of dark matter is strongly correlated with the baryons on small scales, but uncorrelated on large scales.

  13. Axion cold dark matter in nonstandard cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Visinelli, Luca; Gondolo, Paolo

    2010-03-15

    We study the parameter space of cold dark matter axions in two cosmological scenarios with nonstandard thermal histories before big bang nucleosynthesis: the low-temperature reheating (LTR) cosmology and the kination cosmology. If the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaks during inflation, we find more allowed parameter space in the LTR cosmology than in the standard cosmology and less in the kination cosmology. On the contrary, if the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaks after inflation, the Peccei-Quinn scale is orders of magnitude higher than standard in the LTR cosmology and lower in the kination cosmology. We show that the axion velocity dispersion may be used to distinguish some of these nonstandard cosmologies. Thus, axion cold dark matter may be a good probe of the history of the Universe before big bang nucleosynthesis.

  14. Halo cold dark matter and microlensing

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, Evalyn; Turner, Michael S.

    1993-12-01

    There is good evidence that most of the baryons in the Universe are dark and some evidence that most of the matter in the Universe is nonbaryonic with cold dark matter (cdm) being a promising possibility. We discuss expectations for the abundance of baryons and cdm in the halo of our galaxy and locally. We show that in plausible cdm models the local density of cdm is at least $10^{-25}\\gcmm3$. We also discuss what one can learn about the the local cdm density from microlensing of stars in the LMC by dark stars in the halo and, based upon a suite of reasonable two-component halo models, conclude that microlensing is not a sensitive probe of the local cdm density.

  15. Hot News for Cold Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-06-01

    Astronomers have used NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to make the most detailed probe yet of the distribution of dark matter in a massive cluster of galaxies. Their results indicate that about 80 percent of the matter in the universe consists of cold dark matter - mysterious subatomic particles left over from the dense early universe. Chandra observed a cluster of galaxies called Abell 2029 located about a billion light years from Earth. The cluster is composed of thousands of galaxies enveloped in a gigantic cloud of hot gas, and an amount of dark matter equivalent to more than a hundred trillion Suns. At the center of this cluster is an enormous, elliptically shaped galaxy that is thought to have been formed from the mergers of many smaller galaxies. The X-ray data show that the density of dark matter increases smoothly all the way into the central galaxy of the cluster. This discovery agrees with the predictions of cold dark matter models, and is contrary to other dark matter models that predict a leveling off of the amount of dark matter in the center of the cluster. "I was really surprised at how well we could measure the dark matter so deep into the core of a rich cluster," said Aaron Lewis of the University of California, Irvine, lead author of a paper describing the results in a recent issue of The Astrophysical Journal. "We still have very little idea as to the exact nature of these particles, but our results show that they must behave like cold dark matter." Cold dark matter gets its name from the assumption that the dark matter particles were moving slowly when galaxies and galaxy clusters began to form. Dark matter particles interact with each other and "normal" matter only through gravity. The astronomers' success in placing such tight constraints on the dark matter distribution was partly due to Chandra's ability to make a high resolution intensity and temperature map, and partly due to their choice of a target. The cluster and central galaxy are

  16. Axions as hot and cold dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Kwang Sik; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Fuminobu E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-02-01

    The presence of a hot dark matter component has been hinted at 3σ by a combination of the results from different cosmological observations. We examine a possibility that pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons account for both hot and cold dark matter components. We show that the QCD axions can do the job for the axion decay constant f{sub a}∼

  17. The cosmological constant and cold dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstathiou, G.; Sutherland, W. J.; Maddox, S. J.

    1990-12-01

    It is argued here that the success of the cosmological cold dark matter (CDM) model can be retained and the new observations of very large scale cosmological structures can be accommodated in a spatially flat cosmology in which as much as 80 percent of the critical density is provided by a positive cosmological constant. In such a universe, expansion was dominated by CDM until a recent epoch, but is now governed by the cosmological constant. This constant can also account for the lack of fluctuations in the microwave background and the large number of certain kinds of objects found at high redshift.

  18. Search for pseudoscalar cold dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    van Bibber, K.; Stoeffl, W.; LLNL Collaborators

    1992-05-29

    AH dynamical evidence points to the conclusion that the predominant form of matter in the universe is in a non-luminous form. Furthermore, large scale deviations from uniform Hubble flow, and the recent COBE reports of inhomogeneities in the cosmic microwave background strongly suggest that we live in an exactly closed universe. If this is true, then ordinary baryonic matter could only be a minority component (10% at most) of the missing mass, and that what constitutes the majority of the dark matter must involve new physics. The axion is one of very few well motivated candidates which may comprise the dark matter. Additionally it is a `cold` dark-matter candidate which is preferred by the COBE data. We propose to construct and operate an experiment to search for axions which may constitute the dark matter of our own galaxy. As proposed by Sikivie, dark-matter axions may be detected by their stimulated conversion into monochromatic microwave photons in a tunable high-Q cavity inside a strong magnetic field. Our ability to mount an experiment quickly and take data within one year is due to a confluence of three factors. The first is the availability of a compact high field superconducting magnet and a local industrial partner, Wang NMR, who can make a very thermally efficient and economical cryostat for it. The second is an ongoing joint venture with the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences to do R&D on metalized precision-formed ceramic microwave cavities for the axion search, and INR has commited to providing all the microwave cavity arrays for this experiment, should this proposal be approved. The third is a commitment of very substantial startup capital monies from MIT for all of the state-of-the-art ultra-low noise microwave electronics, to one of our outstanding young collaborators who is joining their faculty.

  19. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, David H.; Bullock, James S.; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H. G.

    2015-01-01

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way’s dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these “small-scale controversies.” Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years. PMID:25646464

  20. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, David H; Bullock, James S; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H G

    2015-10-06

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way's dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these "small-scale controversies." Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years.

  1. Cold dark matter. 1: The formation of dark halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelb, James M.; Bertschinger, Edmund

    1994-01-01

    We use numerical simulations of critically closed cold dark matter (CDM) models to study the effects of numerical resolution on observable quantities. We study simulations with up to 256(exp 3) particles using the particle-mesh (PM) method and with up to 144(exp 3) particles using the adaptive particle-particle-mesh (P3M) method. Comparisons of galaxy halo distributions are made among the various simulations. We also compare distributions with observations, and we explore methods for identifying halos, including a new algorithm that finds all particles within closed contours of the smoothed density field surrounding a peak. The simulated halos show more substructure than predicted by the Press-Schechter theory. We are able to rule out all omega = 1 CDM models for linear amplitude sigma(sub 8) greater than or approximately = 0.5 because the simulations produce too many massive halos compared with the observations. The simulations also produce too many low-mass halos. The distribution of halos characterized by their circular velocities for the P3M simulations is in reasonable agreement with the observations for 150 km/s less than or = V(sub circ) less than or = 350 km/s.

  2. Cold dark matter. 1: The formation of dark halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelb, James M.; Bertschinger, Edmund

    1994-01-01

    We use numerical simulations of critically closed cold dark matter (CDM) models to study the effects of numerical resolution on observable quantities. We study simulations with up to 256(exp 3) particles using the particle-mesh (PM) method and with up to 144(exp 3) particles using the adaptive particle-particle-mesh (P3M) method. Comparisons of galaxy halo distributions are made among the various simulations. We also compare distributions with observations, and we explore methods for identifying halos, including a new algorithm that finds all particles within closed contours of the smoothed density field surrounding a peak. The simulated halos show more substructure than predicted by the Press-Schechter theory. We are able to rule out all omega = 1 CDM models for linear amplitude sigma(sub 8) greater than or approximately = 0.5 because the simulations produce too many massive halos compared with the observations. The simulations also produce too many low-mass halos. The distribution of halos characterized by their circular velocities for the P3M simulations is in reasonable agreement with the observations for 150 km/s less than or = V(sub circ) less than or = 350 km/s.

  3. The second coming of cold dark matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, W. H.; Bromley, B. C.; Warren, M. S.

    While the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model has received numerous marks against it on the basis of a variety of observational data, the prediction of high (Sigma)(Upsilon), the pairwise-velocity dispersion between galaxies, on small (megaparsec) scales was reported as perhaps one of its greatest failings. Here, we reexamine the case of CDM and (Sigma)(Upsilon), with high-resolution numerical simulations. The statistic was measured in simulations, in artificial galaxy catalogs, and in the CfA North Forty redshift survey. In our reanalysis of the CfA data, we found that (Sigma)(Upsilon) (approximately) 500 km/s, significantly higher than the original estimates of Davis & Peebles (1983). This new value, along with our estimate of the velocity bias, leads to a virial measure of the cosmological density parameter, (Omega) (approximately) 0.9, which is more than four times the traditionally cited CfA result. Analysis of the simulations indicates that while the method of Davis and Peebles works well, the (Sigma)(Upsilon) statistic itself is not generally robust: there is large scatter from catalog to catalog and evidence that the recovered (Sigma)(Upsilon) value depends strongly on a small fraction of galaxies in the central regions of rare, massive clusters. Thus, at present the CDM model cannot be deemed incompatible with observed small-scale peculiar velocities.

  4. The second coming of cold dark matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, W. H.; Bromley, B. C.; Warren, M. S.

    1995-07-01

    While the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model has received numerous marks against it on the basis of a variety of observational data, the prediction of high σv, the pairwise-velocity dispersion between galaxies, on small (megaparsec) scales was reported as perhaps one of its greatest failings. Here, we reexamine the case of CDM and σv with high-resolution numerical simulations. The σv statistic was measured in simulations, in artificial galaxy catalogs, and the CfA North Forty redshift survey. In our reanalysis of the CfA data, we found that σv~500 km/s, significantly higher than the original estimates of Davis & Peebles (1983). This new value, along with our estimate of the velocity bias, leads to a virial measure of the cosmological density parameter, Ω~0.9, which is more than four times the traditionally cited CfA result. Analysis of the simulations indicates that while the method of Davis and Peebles works well, the σv statistic itself is not generally robust: there is large scatter from catalog to catalog and evidence that the recovered σv value depends strongly on a small fraction of galaxies in the central regions of rare, massive clusters. Thus, at present the CDM model cannot be deemed incompatible with observed small-scale peculiar velocities.

  5. The second coming of cold dark matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, W.H.; Warren, M.S.; Quinn, P.J.; Salmon, J.K.

    1993-12-31

    In recent years standard cold dark matter (CDM) theory, which enjoyed a large following throughout much of the past decade, has been abandoned by virtually all of its early supporters. The most serious argument against CDM was the incompatibility between the relatively high value of the pairwise radial velocity dispersion between galaxies, {sigma}{sub v}, inferred from numerical simulation with the much lower observational estimates. We reexamine this argument in the light of our new, high-resolution, COBE-normalized simulations and conclude that {sigma}{sub v} is significantly overestimated in simulations which do not have sufficient resolution (i.e., which have masses of galaxies comparable to the mass of N-body particles) and that it is also difficult to reliably estimate {sigma}{sub v} from the observational catalogues used for this purpose. We conclude that inflationary cosmology and CDM are not -- contrary to the presently prevailing prejudice -- incompatible with the observations of small scale peculiar velocities, as characterized, for example, by {sigma}{sub v}.

  6. Updating the axion cold dark matter energy density

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Kyu Jung; Huh, Ji-Haeng; Kim, Jihn E E-mail: jhhuh@phya.snu.ac.kr

    2008-09-15

    We improve the estimate of the axion cold dark matter energy density by considering the new values of current quark masses, the quantum chromodynamics phase transition effect and a possible anharmonic effect.

  7. Is Cold Dark Matter a Vacuum Effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlden, Michael A.

    Current theories about the Universe based on an FLRW model conclude that it is composed of ~4% normal matter, ~28 % dark matter and ~68% Dark Energy which is responsible for the well-established accelerated expansion: this model works extremely well. As the Universe expands the density of normal and dark matter decreases while the proportion of Dark Energy increases. This model assumes that the amount of dark matter, whose nature at present is totally unknown, has remained constant. This is a natural assumption if dark matter is a particle of some kind - WIMP, sterile neutrino, lightest supersysmmetric particle or axion, etc. - that must have emerged from the early high temperature phase of the Big Bang. This paper proposes that dark matter is not a particle such as these but a vacuum effect, and that the proportion of dark matter in the Universe is actually increasing with time. The idea that led to this suggestion was that a quantum process (possibly the Higgs mechanism) might operate in the nilpotent vacuum that Rowlands postulates is a dual space to the real space where Standard Model fundamental fermions (and we) reside. This could produce a vacuum quantum state that has mass, which interacts gravitationally, and such states would be `dark matter'. It is proposed that the rate of production of dark matter by this process might depend on local circumstances, such as the density of dark matter and/or normal matter. This proposal makes the testable prediction that the ratio of baryonic to dark matter varies with redshift and offers an explanation, within the framework of Rowlands' ideas, of the coincidence problem - why has cosmic acceleration started in the recent epoch at redshift z ~0.55 when the Dark Energy density first became equal to the matter density?. This process also offers a potential solution to the `missing baryon' problem.

  8. Cosmological simulations of multicomponent cold dark matter.

    PubMed

    Medvedev, Mikhail V

    2014-08-15

    The nature of dark matter is unknown. A number of dark matter candidates are quantum flavor-mixed particles but this property has never been accounted for in cosmology. Here we explore this possibility from the first principles via extensive N-body cosmological simulations and demonstrate that the two-component dark matter model agrees with observational data at all scales. Substantial reduction of substructure and flattening of density profiles in the centers of dark matter halos found in simulations can simultaneously resolve several outstanding puzzles of modern cosmology. The model shares the "why now?" fine-tuning caveat pertinent to all self-interacting models. Predictions for direct and indirect detection dark matter experiments are made.

  9. Sub-horizon evolution of cold dark matter perturbations through dark matter-dark energy equivalence epoch

    SciTech Connect

    Piattella, O.F.; Martins, D.L.A.; Casarini, L. E-mail: denilsonluizm@gmail.com

    2014-10-01

    We consider a cosmological model of the late universe constituted by standard cold dark matter plus a dark energy component with constant equation of state w and constant effective speed of sound. By neglecting fluctuations in the dark energy component, we obtain an equation describing the evolution of sub-horizon cold dark matter perturbations through the epoch of dark matter-dark energy equality. We explore its analytic solutions and calculate an exact w-dependent correction for the dark matter growth function, logarithmic growth function and growth index parameter through the epoch considered. We test our analytic approximation with the numerical solution and find that the discrepancy is less than 1% for 0k = during the cosmic evolution up to a = 100.

  10. Cold Positrons from Decaying Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Boubekeur, Lotfi; Dodelson, Scott; Vives, Oscar

    2012-11-01

    Many models of dark matter contain more than one new particle beyond those in the Standard Model. Often heavier particles decay into the lightest dark matter particle as the Universe evolves. Here we explore the possibilities that arise if one of the products in a (Heavy Particle) $\\rightarrow$ (Dark Matter) decay is a positron, and the lifetime is shorter than the age of the Universe. The positrons cool down by scattering off the cosmic microwave background and eventually annihilate when they fall into Galactic potential wells. The resulting 511 keV flux not only places constraints on this class of models but might even be consistent with that observed by the INTEGRAL satellite.

  11. Phase-space structure of cold dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Sikivie, P.; Ipser, J.R.

    1991-12-31

    A galactic halo of cold dark matter particles has a sheet-like structure in phase-space. The energy and momentum spectra of such particles on earth has a set of peaks whose central values and intensities form a record of the formation of the Galaxy. Scattering of the dark matter particles by stars and globular clusters broadens the peaks but does not erase them entirely. The giant shells around some elliptical galaxies may be a manifestation of this structure.

  12. Phase-space structure of cold dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Sikivie, P.; Ipser, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    A galactic halo of cold dark matter particles has a sheet-like structure in phase-space. The energy and momentum spectra of such particles on earth has a set of peaks whose central values and intensities form a record of the formation of the Galaxy. Scattering of the dark matter particles by stars and globular clusters broadens the peaks but does not erase them entirely. The giant shells around some elliptical galaxies may be a manifestation of this structure.

  13. Detection of interstellar hydrogen sulfide in cold, dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Irvine, W. M.; Ziurys, L. M.

    1989-01-01

    Interstellar H2S has been detected toward the cold, dark clouds L134N and TMC 1. Total column densities at the SO peak of L134N and the NH3 peak of TMC 1 are found to be about 2.6 X 10 to the 13th/sq cm and 7.0 X 10 to the 12th/sq cm, respectively. The results suggest that grain surface reactions may play a major role in the synthesis of H2S in cold, dark clouds.

  14. A tilted cold dark matter cosmological scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cen, Renyue; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Kofman, Lev A.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1992-01-01

    A new cosmological scenario based on CDM but with a power spectrum index of about 0.7-0.8 is suggested. This model is predicted by various inflationary models with no fine tuning. This tilted CDM model, if normalized to COBE, alleviates many problems of the standard CDM model related to both small-scale and large-scale power. A physical bias of galaxies over dark matter of about two is required to fit spatial observations.

  15. THE COLD AND DARK PROCESS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, J; William Austin, W; Cathy Sizemore, C

    2007-01-31

    The deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of a facility exposes D&D workers to numerous hazards. One of the more serious hazards is coming into contact to hazardous energy sources (e.g. electrical, pressurized steam). At the Savannah River Site (SRS) a formal process for identifying and eliminating sources of hazardous energy was developed and is called ''Cold & Dark''. Several ''near miss'' events involving cutting of energized conductors during D&D work in buildings thought to be isolated identified the need to have a formal process to identify and isolate these potentially hazardous systems. This process was developed using lessons learned from D&D activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) in Colorado. The Cold & Dark process defines an isolation boundary (usually a building perimeter) and then systematically identifies all of the penetrations through this boundary. All penetrations that involve hazardous energy sources are then physically air-gapped. The final product is a documented declaration of isolation performed by a team involving operations, engineering, and project management. Once the Cold & Dark declaration is made for a building work can proceed without the usual controls used in an operational facility (e.g. lockout/tagout, arc flash PPE). It is important to note that the Cold & Dark process does not remove all hazards from a facility. Work planning and controls still need to address hazards that can be present from such things as chemicals, radiological contamination, residual liquids, etc., as well as standard industrial hazards.

  16. Cold keV dark matter from decays and scatterings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeck, Julian; Teresi, Daniele

    2017-08-01

    We explore ways of creating cold keV-scale dark matter by means of decays and scatterings. The main observation is that certain thermal freeze-in processes can lead to a cold dark matter distribution in regions with a small available phase space. In this way the free-streaming length of keV particles can be suppressed without decoupling them too much from the Standard Model. In all cases, dark matter needs to be produced together with a heavy particle that carries away most of the initial momentum. For decays, this simply requires an off-diagonal dark matter (DM) coupling to two heavy particles; for scatterings, the coupling of soft DM to two heavy particles needs to be diagonal, in particular in spin space. Decays can thus lead to cold light DM of any spin, while scatterings only work for bosons with specific couplings. We explore a number of simple models and also comment on the connection to the tentative 3.5 keV line.

  17. Splashback Shells of Cold Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Philip; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Diemer, Benedikt

    2017-05-01

    The density field in the outskirts of dark matter halos is discontinuous as a result of a caustic formed by matter at its first apocenter after infall. In this paper, we present an algorithm to identify the “splashback shell” formed by these apocenters in individual simulated halos using only a single snapshot of the density field. We implement this algorithm in the code Shellfish (SHELL Finding In Spheroidal Halos) and demonstrate that the code identifies splashback shells correctly and measures their properties with an accuracy of < 5 % for halos with more than 50,000 particles and mass accretion rates of {{{Γ }}}{DK14}> 0.5. Using Shellfish, we present the first estimates for several basic properties of individual splashback shells, such as radius, {R}{sp}, mass, and overdensity, and provide fits to the distribution of these quantities as functions of {{{Γ }}}{DK14}, {ν }200{{m}}, and z. We confirm previous findings that {R}{sp} decreases with increasing {{{Γ }}}{DK14}, but we show that, independent of accretion rate, it also decreases with increasing {ν }200{{m}}. We also study the 3D structures of these shells and find that they generally have non-ellipsoidal oval shapes. We find that splashback radii estimated by Shellfish are 20%-30% larger than those estimated in previous studies from stacked density profiles at high accretion rates. We demonstrate that the latter are biased low owing to the contribution of high-mass subhalos to these profiles, and we show that using the median instead of mean density in each radial bin mitigates the effect of substructure on density profiles and removes the bias.

  18. Dark matter halo merger histories beyond cold dark matter - I. Methods and application to warm dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Andrew J.; Farahi, Arya; Cole, Shaun; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Jenkins, Adrian; Lovell, Mark; Kennedy, Rachel; Helly, John; Frenk, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We describe a methodology to accurately compute halo mass functions, progenitor mass functions, merger rates and merger trees in non-cold dark matter universes using a self-consistent treatment of the generalized extended Press-Schechter formalism. Our approach permits rapid exploration of the subhalo population of galactic haloes in dark matter models with a variety of different particle properties or universes with rolling, truncated or more complicated power spectra. We make detailed comparisons of analytically derived mass functions and merger histories with recent warm dark matter cosmological N-body simulations, and find excellent agreement. We show that once the accretion of smoothly distributed matter is accounted for, coarse-grained statistics such as the mass accretion history of haloes can be almost indistinguishable between cold and warm dark matter cases. However, the halo mass function and progenitor mass functions differ significantly, with the warm dark matter cases being strongly suppressed below the free-streaming scale of the dark matter. We demonstrate the importance of using the correct solution for the excursion set barrier first-crossing distribution in warm dark matter - if the solution for a flat barrier is used instead, the truncation of the halo mass function is much slower, leading to an overestimate of the number of low-mass haloes.

  19. The galaxy population in cold and warm dark matter cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lan; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Xie, Lizhi; Cooper, Andrew P.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Gao, Liang; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Helly, John; Lovell, Mark R.; Jiang, Lilian

    2017-07-01

    We use a pair of high-resolution N-body simulations implementing two dark matter models, namely the standard cold dark matter (CDM) cosmogony and a warm dark matter (WDM) alternative where the dark matter particle is a 1.5 keV thermal relic. We combine these simulations with the galform semi-analytical galaxy formation model to explore differences between the resulting galaxy populations. We use galform model variants for CDM and WDM that result in the same z = 0 galaxy stellar mass function by construction. We find that most of the studied galaxy properties have the same values in these two models, indicating that both dark matter scenarios match current observational data equally well. Even in underdense regions, where discrepancies in structure formation between CDM and WDM are expected to be most pronounced, the galaxy properties are only slightly different. The only significant difference in the local universe we find is in the galaxy populations of 'Local Volumes', regions of radius 1-8 Mpc around simulated Milky Way analogues. In such regions, our WDM model provides a better match to observed local galaxy number counts and is five times more likely than the CDM model to predict subregions within them that are as empty as the observed Local Void. Thus, a highly complete census of the Local Volume and future surveys of void regions could provide constraints on the nature of dark matter.

  20. Perturbations from cosmic strings in cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Stebbins, Albert

    1991-01-01

    A systematic linear analysis of the perturbations induced by cosmic strings in cold dark matter is presented. The power spectrum is calculated and it is found that the strings produce a great deal of power on small scales. It is shown that the perturbations on interesting scales are the result of many uncorrelated string motions, which indicates a much more Gaussian distribution than was previously supposed.

  1. Perturbations from cosmic strings in cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Stebbins, Albert

    1992-01-01

    A systematic linear analysis of the perturbations induced by cosmic strings in cold dark matter is presented. The power spectrum is calculated and it is found that the strings produce a great deal of power on small scales. It is shown that the perturbations on interesting scales are the result of many uncorrelated string motions, which indicates a much more Gaussian distribution than was previously supposed.

  2. Perturbations from cosmic strings in cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Stebbins, Albert

    1992-01-01

    A systematic linear analysis of the perturbations induced by cosmic strings in cold dark matter is presented. The power spectrum is calculated and it is found that the strings produce a great deal of power on small scales. It is shown that the perturbations on interesting scales are the result of many uncorrelated string motions, which indicates a much more Gaussian distribution than was previously supposed.

  3. The Structure and Evolution of Cold Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diemand, Jürg; Moore, Ben

    2011-02-01

    In the standard cosmological model a mysterious cold dark matter (CDM) component dominates the formation of structures. Numerical studies of the f ormation of CDM halos have produced several robust results that allow unique tests of the hierarchical clustering paradigm. Universal properties of halos, including their mass profiles and substructure properties are roughly consistent with observational data from the scales of dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters. Resolving the fine grained structure of halos has enabled us to make predictions for ongoing and planned direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments. While simulations of pure CDM halos are now very accurate and in good agreement (recently claimed discrepancies are addressed in detail in this review), we are still unable to make robust, quantitative predictions about galaxy formation and about how the dark matter distribution changes in the process. Whilst discrepancies between observations and simulations have been the subject of much debate in the literature, galaxy formation and evolution needs to be understood in more detail in order to fully test the CDM paradigm. Whatever the true nature of the dark matter particle is, its clustering properties must not be too different from a cold neutralino like particle to maintain all the successes of the model in matching large scale structure data and the global properties of halos which are mostly in good agreement with observations.

  4. A hydrodynamic approach to cosmology - Texture-seeded cold dark matter and hot dark matter cosmogonies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cen, R. Y.; Ostriker, J. P.; Spergel, D. N.; Turok, N.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation in a texture-seeded cosmology are presented, with attention given to Omega = 1 galaxies dominated by both hot dark matter (HDM) and cold dark matter (CDM). The simulations include both gravitational and hydrodynamical physics with a detailed treatment of collisional and radiative thermal processes, and use a cooling criterion to estimate galaxy formation. Background radiation fields and Zel'dovich-Sunyaev fluctuations are explicitly computed. The derived galaxy mass function is well fitted by the observed Schechter luminosity function for a baryonic M/L of 3 and total M/L of 60 in galaxies. In both HDM and CDM texture scenarios, the 'galaxies' and 'clusters' are significantly more strongly correlated than the dark matter due to physical bias processes. The slope of the correlation function in both cases is consistent with observations. In contrast to Gaussian models, peaks in the dark matter density distributrion are less correlated than average.

  5. A hydrodynamic approach to cosmology - Texture-seeded cold dark matter and hot dark matter cosmogonies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cen, R. Y.; Ostriker, J. P.; Spergel, D. N.; Turok, N.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation in a texture-seeded cosmology are presented, with attention given to Omega = 1 galaxies dominated by both hot dark matter (HDM) and cold dark matter (CDM). The simulations include both gravitational and hydrodynamical physics with a detailed treatment of collisional and radiative thermal processes, and use a cooling criterion to estimate galaxy formation. Background radiation fields and Zel'dovich-Sunyaev fluctuations are explicitly computed. The derived galaxy mass function is well fitted by the observed Schechter luminosity function for a baryonic M/L of 3 and total M/L of 60 in galaxies. In both HDM and CDM texture scenarios, the 'galaxies' and 'clusters' are significantly more strongly correlated than the dark matter due to physical bias processes. The slope of the correlation function in both cases is consistent with observations. In contrast to Gaussian models, peaks in the dark matter density distributrion are less correlated than average.

  6. Galaxies and gas in a cold dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Neal; Hernquist, Lars; Weinberg, David H.

    1992-01-01

    We use a combined gravity/hydrodynamics code to simulate the formation of structure in a random 22 Mpc cube of a cold dark matter universe. Adiabatic compression and shocks heat much of the gas to temperatures of 10 exp 6 - 10 exp 7 K, but a fraction of the gas cools radiatively to about 10 exp 4 K and condenses into discrete, highly overdense lumps. We identify these lumps with galaxies. The high-mass end of their baryonic mass function fits the form of the observed galaxy luminosity function. They retain independent identities after their dark halos merge, so gravitational clustering produces groups of galaxies embedded in relatively smooth envelopes of hot gas and dark matter. The galaxy correlation function is approximately an r exp -2.1 power law from separations of 35 kpc to 7 Mpc. Galaxy fluctuations are biased relative to dark matter fluctuations by a factor b about 1.5. We find no significant 'velocity bias' between galaxies and dark matter particles. However, virial analysis of the simulation's richest group leads to an estimated Omega of about 0.3, even though the simulation adopts Omega = 1.

  7. Galaxies and gas in a cold dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Neal; Hernquist, Lars; Weinberg, David H.

    1992-01-01

    We use a combined gravity/hydrodynamics code to simulate the formation of structure in a random 22 Mpc cube of a cold dark matter universe. Adiabatic compression and shocks heat much of the gas to temperatures of 10 exp 6 - 10 exp 7 K, but a fraction of the gas cools radiatively to about 10 exp 4 K and condenses into discrete, highly overdense lumps. We identify these lumps with galaxies. The high-mass end of their baryonic mass function fits the form of the observed galaxy luminosity function. They retain independent identities after their dark halos merge, so gravitational clustering produces groups of galaxies embedded in relatively smooth envelopes of hot gas and dark matter. The galaxy correlation function is approximately an r exp -2.1 power law from separations of 35 kpc to 7 Mpc. Galaxy fluctuations are biased relative to dark matter fluctuations by a factor b about 1.5. We find no significant 'velocity bias' between galaxies and dark matter particles. However, virial analysis of the simulation's richest group leads to an estimated Omega of about 0.3, even though the simulation adopts Omega = 1.

  8. COBE DMR-normalized open inflation cold dark matter cosmogony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorski, Krzysztof M.; Ratra, Bharat; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Banday, Anthony J.

    1995-01-01

    A cut-sky orthogonal mode analysis of the 2 year COBE DMR 53 and 90 GHz sky maps (in Galactic coordinates) is used to determine the normalization of an open inflation model based on the cold dark matter (CDM) scenario. The normalized model is compared to measures of large-scale structure in the universe. Although the DMR data alone does not provide sufficient discriminative power to prefer a particular value of the mass density parameter, the open model appears to be reasonably consistent with observations when Omega(sub 0) is approximately 0.3-0.4 and merits further study.

  9. COBE DMR-normalized open inflation cold dark matter cosmogony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorski, Krzysztof M.; Ratra, Bharat; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Banday, Anthony J.

    1995-01-01

    A cut-sky orthogonal mode analysis of the 2 year COBE DMR 53 and 90 GHz sky maps (in Galactic coordinates) is used to determine the normalization of an open inflation model based on the cold dark matter (CDM) scenario. The normalized model is compared to measures of large-scale structure in the universe. Although the DMR data alone does not provide sufficient discriminative power to prefer a particular value of the mass density parameter, the open model appears to be reasonably consistent with observations when Omega(sub 0) is approximately 0.3-0.4 and merits further study.

  10. The Cold Dark Matter Search test stand warm electronics card

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, Bruce; Hansen, Sten; Huber, Martin; Kiper, Terry; Rau, Wolfgang; Saab, Tarek; Seitz, Dennis; Sundqvist, Kyle; Mandic, Vuk; /Minnesota U.

    2010-11-01

    A card which does the signal processing for four SQUID amplifiers and two charge sensitive channels is described. The card performs the same functions as is presently done with two custom 9U x 280mm Eurocard modules, a commercial multi-channel VME digitizer, a PCI to GPIB interface, a PCI to VME interface and a custom built linear power supply. By integrating these functions onto a single card and using the power over Ethernet standard, the infrastructure requirements for instrumenting a Cold Dark Matter Search (CDMS) detector test stand are significantly reduced.

  11. Cell physiology of plants growing in cold environments.

    PubMed

    Lütz, Cornelius

    2010-08-01

    The life of plants growing in cold extreme environments has been well investigated in terms of morphological, anatomical, and ecophysiological adaptations. In contrast, long-term cellular or metabolic studies have been performed by only a few groups. Moreover, a number of single reports exist, which often represent just a glimpse of plant behavior. The review draws together the literature which has focused on tissue and cellular adaptations mainly to low temperatures and high light. Most studies have been done with European alpine plants; comparably well studied are only two phanerogams found in the coastal Antarctic. Plant adaptation in northern polar regions has always been of interest in terms of ecophysiology and plant propagation, but nowadays, this interest extends to the effects of global warming. More recently, metabolic and cellular investigations have included cold and UV resistance mechanisms. Low-temperature stress resistance in plants from cold environments reflects the climate conditions at the growth sites. It is now a matter of molecular analyses to find the induced genes and their products such as chaperones or dehydrins responsible for this resistance. Development of plants under snow or pollen tube growth at 0 degrees C shows that cell biology is needed to explain the stability and function of the cytoskeleton. Many results in this field are based on laboratory studies, but several publications show that it is not difficult to study cellular mechanisms with the plants adapted to a natural stress. Studies on high light and UV loads may be split in two parts. Many reports describe natural UV as harmful for the plants, but these studies were mainly conducted by shielding off natural UV (as controls). Other experiments apply additional UV in the field and have had practically no negative impact on metabolism. The latter group is supported by the observations that green overwintering plants increase their flavonoids under snow even in the absence of

  12. Mixed axion/neutralino cold dark matter in supersymmetric models

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Howard; Lessa, Andre; Rajagopalan, Shibi; Sreethawong, Warintorn E-mail: lessa@nhn.ou.edu E-mail: wstan@nhn.ou.edu

    2011-06-01

    We consider supersymmetric (SUSY) models wherein the strong CP problem is solved by the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) mechanism with a concommitant axion/axino supermultiplet. We examine R-parity conserving models where the neutralino is the lightest SUSY particle, so that a mixture of neutralinos and axions serve as cold dark matter (a Z-tilde {sub 1} CDM). The mixed a Z-tilde {sub 1} CDM scenario can match the measured dark matter abundance for SUSY models which typically give too low a value of the usual thermal neutralino abundance, such as models with wino-like or higgsino-like dark matter. The usual thermal neutralino abundance can be greatly enhanced by the decay of thermally-produced axinos (ã) to neutralinos, followed by neutralino re-annihilation at temperatures much lower than freeze-out. In this case, the relic density is usually neutralino dominated, and goes as ∼ (f{sub a}/N)/m{sub ã}{sup 3/2}. If axino decay occurs before neutralino freeze-out, then instead the neutralino abundance can be augmented by relic axions to match the measured abundance. Entropy production from late-time axino decays can diminish the axion abundance, but ultimately not the neutralino abundance. In a Z-tilde {sub 1} CDM models, it may be possible to detect both a WIMP and an axion as dark matter relics. We also discuss possible modifications of our results due to production and decay of saxions. In the appendices, we present expressions for the Hubble expansion rate and the axion and neutralino relic densities in radiation, matter and decaying-particle dominated universes.

  13. Stochastic gravitational wave background from cold dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Carbone, Carmelita; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Matarrese, Sabino

    2006-03-15

    The current knowledge of cosmological structure formation suggests that Cold Dark Matter (CDM) halos possess a nonspherical density profile, implying that cosmic structures can be potential sources of gravitational waves via power transfer from scalar perturbations to tensor metric modes in the nonlinear regime. By means of a previously developed mathematical formalism and a triaxial collapse model, we numerically estimate the stochastic gravitational-wave background generated by CDM halos during the fully nonlinear stage of their evolution. Our results suggest that the energy density associated with this background is comparable to that produced by primordial tensor modes at frequencies {nu}{approx_equal}10{sup -18}-10{sup -17} Hz if the energy scale of inflation is V{sup 1/4}{approx_equal}1-2x10{sup 15} GeV, and that these gravitational waves could give rise to several cosmological effects, including secondary CMB anisotropy and polarization.

  14. Redshift space clustering of galaxies and cold dark matter model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, Neta A.; Cen, Renyue; Gramann, Mirt

    1993-01-01

    The distorting effect of peculiar velocities on the power speturm and correlation function of IRAS and optical galaxies is studied. The observed redshift space power spectra and correlation functions of IRAS and optical the galaxies over the entire range of scales are directly compared with the corresponding redshift space distributions using large-scale computer simulations of cold dark matter (CDM) models in order to study the distortion effect of peculiar velocities on the power spectrum and correlation function of the galaxies. It is found that the observed power spectrum of IRAS and optical galaxies is consistent with the spectrum of an Omega = 1 CDM model. The problems that such a model currently faces may be related more to the high value of Omega in the model than to the shape of the spectrum. A low-density CDM model is also investigated and found to be consistent with the data.

  15. Redshift space clustering of galaxies and cold dark matter model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, Neta A.; Cen, Renyue; Gramann, Mirt

    1993-01-01

    The distorting effect of peculiar velocities on the power speturm and correlation function of IRAS and optical galaxies is studied. The observed redshift space power spectra and correlation functions of IRAS and optical the galaxies over the entire range of scales are directly compared with the corresponding redshift space distributions using large-scale computer simulations of cold dark matter (CDM) models in order to study the distortion effect of peculiar velocities on the power spectrum and correlation function of the galaxies. It is found that the observed power spectrum of IRAS and optical galaxies is consistent with the spectrum of an Omega = 1 CDM model. The problems that such a model currently faces may be related more to the high value of Omega in the model than to the shape of the spectrum. A low-density CDM model is also investigated and found to be consistent with the data.

  16. Gravitational lensing in a cold dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Ramesh; White, Simon D. M.

    1988-01-01

    Gravitational lensing due to mass condensations in a biased cold dark matter (CDM) universe is investigated using the Press-Schechter (1974) theory with density fluctuation amplitudes taken from previous N-body work. Under the critical assumption that CDM haloes have small core radii, a distribution of image angular separations for high-z lensed quasars with a peak at about 1 arcsec and a half-width of a factor of about 10. Allowing for selection effects at small angular separations, this is in good agreement with the observed separations. The estimated frequency of lensing is somewhat lower than that observed, but the discrepancy can be removed by invoking amplification bias and by making a small upward adjustment to the density fluctuation amplitudes assumed in the CDM model.

  17. Gravitational lensing in a cold dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Ramesh; White, Simon D. M.

    1988-01-01

    Gravitational lensing due to mass condensations in a biased cold dark matter (CDM) universe is investigated using the Press-Schechter (1974) theory with density fluctuation amplitudes taken from previous N-body work. Under the critical assumption that CDM haloes have small core radii, a distribution of image angular separations for high-z lensed quasars with a peak at about 1 arcsec and a half-width of a factor of about 10. Allowing for selection effects at small angular separations, this is in good agreement with the observed separations. The estimated frequency of lensing is somewhat lower than that observed, but the discrepancy can be removed by invoking amplification bias and by making a small upward adjustment to the density fluctuation amplitudes assumed in the CDM model.

  18. Nanoscale "Dark State" Optical Potentials for Cold Atoms.

    PubMed

    Łącki, M; Baranov, M A; Pichler, H; Zoller, P

    2016-12-02

    We discuss the generation of subwavelength optical barriers on the scale of tens of nanometers, as conservative optical potentials for cold atoms. These arise from nonadiabatic corrections to Born-Oppenheimer potentials from dressed "dark states" in atomic Λ configurations. We illustrate the concepts with a double layer potential for atoms obtained from inserting an optical subwavelength barrier into a well generated by an off-resonant optical lattice, and discuss bound states of pairs of atoms interacting via magnetic dipolar interactions. The subwavelength optical barriers represent an optical "Kronig-Penney" potential. We present a detailed study of the band structure in optical Kronig-Penney potentials, including decoherence from spontaneous emission and atom loss to open "bright" channels.

  19. Cold dark matter. 2: Spatial and velocity statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelb, James M.; Bertschinger, Edmund

    1994-12-01

    We examine high-resolution gravitational N-body simulations of the omega = 1 cold dark matter (CDM) model in order to determine whether there is any normalization of the initial density fluctuation spectrum that yields acceptable results for galaxy clustering and velocities. Dense dark matter halos in the evolved mass distribution are identified with luminous galaxies; the most massive halos are also considered as sites for galaxy groups, with a range of possibilities explored for the group mass-to-light ratios. We verify the earlier conclusions of White et al. (1987) for the low-amplitude (high-bias) CDM model-the galaxy correlation function is marginally acceptable but that there are too many galaxies. We also show that the peak biasing method does not accurately reproduce the results obtained using dense halos identified in the simulations themselves. The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) anisotropy implies a higher normalization, resulting in problems with excessive pairwise galaxy velocity dispersion unless a strong velocity bias is present. Although we confirm the strong velocity bias of halos reported by Couchman & Carlberg (1992), we show that the galaxy motions are still too large on small scales. We find no amplitude for which the CDM model can reconcile simultaneously and galaxy correlation function, the low pairwise velocity dispersion, and the richness distribution of groups and clusters. With the normalization implied by COBE, the CDM spectrum has too much power on small scales if omega = 1.

  20. Cold dark matter. 2: Spatial and velocity statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelb, James M.; Bertschinger, Edmund

    1994-01-01

    We examine high-resolution gravitational N-body simulations of the omega = 1 cold dark matter (CDM) model in order to determine whether there is any normalization of the initial density fluctuation spectrum that yields acceptable results for galaxy clustering and velocities. Dense dark matter halos in the evolved mass distribution are identified with luminous galaxies; the most massive halos are also considered as sites for galaxy groups, with a range of possibilities explored for the group mass-to-light ratios. We verify the earlier conclusions of White et al. (1987) for the low-amplitude (high-bias) CDM model-the galaxy correlation function is marginally acceptable but that there are too many galaxies. We also show that the peak biasing method does not accurately reproduce the results obtained using dense halos identified in the simulations themselves. The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) anisotropy implies a higher normalization, resulting in problems with excessive pairwise galaxy velocity dispersion unless a strong velocity bias is present. Although we confirm the strong velocity bias of halos reported by Couchman & Carlberg (1992), we show that the galaxy motions are still too large on small scales. We find no amplitude for which the CDM model can reconcile simultaneously and galaxy correlation function, the low pairwise velocity dispersion, and the richness distribution of groups and clusters. With the normalization implied by COBE, the CDM spectrum has too much power on small scales if omega = 1.

  1. Cold dark matter. 2: Spatial and velocity statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelb, James M.; Bertschinger, Edmund

    1994-01-01

    We examine high-resolution gravitational N-body simulations of the omega = 1 cold dark matter (CDM) model in order to determine whether there is any normalization of the initial density fluctuation spectrum that yields acceptable results for galaxy clustering and velocities. Dense dark matter halos in the evolved mass distribution are identified with luminous galaxies; the most massive halos are also considered as sites for galaxy groups, with a range of possibilities explored for the group mass-to-light ratios. We verify the earlier conclusions of White et al. (1987) for the low-amplitude (high-bias) CDM model-the galaxy correlation function is marginally acceptable but that there are too many galaxies. We also show that the peak biasing method does not accurately reproduce the results obtained using dense halos identified in the simulations themselves. The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) anisotropy implies a higher normalization, resulting in problems with excessive pairwise galaxy velocity dispersion unless a strong velocity bias is present. Although we confirm the strong velocity bias of halos reported by Couchman & Carlberg (1992), we show that the galaxy motions are still too large on small scales. We find no amplitude for which the CDM model can reconcile simultaneously and galaxy correlation function, the low pairwise velocity dispersion, and the richness distribution of groups and clusters. With the normalization implied by COBE, the CDM spectrum has too much power on small scales if omega = 1.

  2. Large scale structure in universes dominated by cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, J. Richard

    1986-01-01

    The theory of Gaussian random density field peaks is applied to a numerical study of the large-scale structure developing from adiabatic fluctuations in models of biased galaxy formation in universes with Omega = 1, h = 0.5 dominated by cold dark matter (CDM). The angular anisotropy of the cross-correlation function demonstrates that the far-field regions of cluster-scale peaks are asymmetric, as recent observations indicate. These regions will generate pancakes or filaments upon collapse. One-dimensional singularities in the large-scale bulk flow should arise in these CDM models, appearing as pancakes in position space. They are too rare to explain the CfA bubble walls, but pancakes that are just turning around now are sufficiently abundant and would appear to be thin walls normal to the line of sight in redshift space. Large scale streaming velocities are significantly smaller than recent observations indicate. To explain the reported 700 km/s coherent motions, mass must be significantly more clustered than galaxies with a biasing factor of less than 0.4 and a nonlinear redshift at cluster scales greater than one for both massive neutrino and cold models.

  3. Effects of the cosmological constant on cold dark matter clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Membrado, M.; Pacheco, A. F.

    2014-07-01

    Context. Cold dark matter inhomogeneities are considered in a homogeneous background of matter, radiation, and the cosmological constant in a flat universe. Aims: We investigate the influence of the cosmological constant on the non-linear collapse of cold dark matter clusters. Methods: For simplicity, a spherical infall model has been used to describe the collapse of non-relativistic mass shells; besides, an average distribution of density around a cluster of galaxies has been taken. Boundary conditions are imposed by the solution of the linearized equation for the growth of matter perturbations and by the cold dark matter power spectrum. Results: For an average cluster, the radii of shells and masses enclosed by them have been obtained at their zero proper acceleration (ZA) redshifts, at their turn-around (TA) redshifts and at their virialization (VIR) redshifts. According to our results at present, the shell that reaches its turn-around point shows [rTA] 0 = 6.85 Mpc and [ℳTA] 0 = 6.76 × 1014 ℳ⊙. The virializing shell fulfills [rTA] 0 = 4.57 [rVIR] 0 and [ℳTA] 0 = 1.95 [ℳVIR] 0. These results differ appreciably from those derived from a model with cosmological constant equal to zero in a flat universe: [rTA(Λ = 0)] 0 = 6.62 [rVIR(Λ = 0)] 0 and [ℳTA(Λ = 0)] 0 = 5.26 [ℳVIR(Λ = 0)] 0; this discrepancy could be considered as a new independent proof of the existence of dark energy. The shell with zero proper acceleration presents [rZA] 0 = 1.59 [rTA] 0 and [ℳZA] 0 = 1.63 [ℳTA] 0. We have found that there is a limit to the mass of the average cluster, which is able to virialize; its value is { ℳVIR } MAX = 8.1 × 1014 M⊙. As expected, we found that shells present null proper acceleration at redshift values that are smaller than 0.755. Conclusions: We have noticed that the cosmological constant imposes an upper limit for the mass enclosed by shells, which are able to reach zero proper velocity. Hence, this mass is the maximum mass of the

  4. Instrument Packages for Cold, Dark, High Radiation Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Yeh, P. S.; Beaman, B.; Brigham, D.; Feng, S.

    2011-03-01

    We are developing a small cold temperature in-strument package concept that integrates cold tempera-ture power system and radhard ULT ULP electronics into a ‘cold temperature surface operational’ version of a planetary surface instrument package.

  5. The least-action method, cold dark matter, and omega

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, A. M.; Laflamme, R.

    1995-01-01

    Peebles has suggested an interesting technique, called the least-action method, to trace positions of galaxies back in time. This method applied on the Local Group galaxies seems to indicate that we live in an omega approximately = 0.1 universe. We have studied a cold dark matter (CDM) N-body simulation with omega = 0.2 and H = 50 km/s/Mpc and compared trajectories traced back by the least-action method with the ones given by the center of mass of the CDM halos. We show that the agreement between these sets of trajectories is at best qualitative. We also show that the line-of-sight peculiar velocities of halos are underestimated. This discrepancy is due to orphans, i.e., CDM particles which do not end up in halos. We vary the value of omega in the least-action method until the line-of-sight velocities agree with the CDM ones. The best value for this omega underestimates one of the CDM simulations by a factor of 4-5.

  6. The least-action method, cold dark matter, and omega

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, A. M.; Laflamme, R.

    1995-01-01

    Peebles has suggested an interesting technique, called the least-action method, to trace positions of galaxies back in time. This method applied on the Local Group galaxies seems to indicate that we live in an omega approximately = 0.1 universe. We have studied a cold dark matter (CDM) N-body simulation with omega = 0.2 and H = 50 km/s/Mpc and compared trajectories traced back by the least-action method with the ones given by the center of mass of the CDM halos. We show that the agreement between these sets of trajectories is at best qualitative. We also show that the line-of-sight peculiar velocities of halos are underestimated. This discrepancy is due to orphans, i.e., CDM particles which do not end up in halos. We vary the value of omega in the least-action method until the line-of-sight velocities agree with the CDM ones. The best value for this omega underestimates one of the CDM simulations by a factor of 4-5.

  7. Velocity fields in non-Gaussian cold dark matter models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchin, F.; Matarrese, S.; Messina, A.; Moscardini, L.; Tormen, G.

    1995-02-01

    We analyse the large-scale velocity field obtained by N-body simulations of cold dark matter (CDM) models with non-Gaussian primordial density fluctuations, considering models with both positive and negative primordial skewness in the density fluctuation distribution. We study the velocity probability distribution and calculate the dependence of the bulk flow, one-point velocity dispersion and cosmic Mach number on the filtering size. We find that the sign of the primordial skewness of the density field provides poor discriminatory power on the evolved velocity field. All non-Gaussian models considered here tend to have lower velocity dispersion and bulk flow than the standard Gaussian CDM model, while the cosmic Mach number turns out to be a poor statistic in characterizing the models. We also compare the large-scale velocity field of a composite sample of optically selected galaxies as described by the Local Group properties, bulk flow, velocity correlation function and cosmic Mach number with the velocity field of mock catalogues extracted from the N-body simulations. The comparison does not clearly single out the best model: the standard Gaussian model is, however, marginally preferred by the maximum likelihood analysis.

  8. Axion cold dark matter in view of BICEP2 results.

    PubMed

    Gondolo, Paolo; Visinelli, Luca

    2014-07-04

    The properties of axions that constitute 100% of cold dark matter (CDM) depend on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r at the end of inflation. If r=0.20(-0.05)(+0.07) as reported by the BICEP2 Collaboration, then "half" of the CDM axion parameter space is ruled out. Namely, in the context of single-field slow-roll inflation, for axions to be 100% of the CDM, the Peccei-Quinn symmetry must be broken after the end of inflation, so that axion nonadiabatic primordial fluctuations are compatible with observational constraints. The cosmic axion density is then independent of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r, and the axion mass is expected to be in a narrow range that, however, depends on the cosmological model before primordial nucleosynthesis. In the standard Lambda CDM cosmology, the CDM axion mass range is ma=(71±2  μeV)(αdec+1)6/7, where αdec is the fractional contribution to the cosmic axion density from decays of axionic strings and walls.

  9. A hydrodynamic treatment of the cold dark matter cosmological scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah

    1992-07-01

    The evolution of structure in a postrecombination Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe containing both gaseous baryons and cold dark matter (CDM) is studied by means of an Eulerian code coupled with a standard particle-mesh code. Ionization state and radiative opacity are calculated in detail, and the hydrodynamic simulations make it possible to compute properties of gas distribution on scales larger than three cell sizes. The model yields a soft X-ray background consistent with the latest cosmic nucleosynthesis values, and can accurately reproduce the galaxy-galaxy two-point correlation. The rate of galaxy formation peaks at a relatively late epoch. With regard to mass function, the smallest objects are stabilized against collapse by thermal energy: the mass-weighted mass spectrum peaks in the vicinity of m(b) = 10 exp 9.2 solar masses with a reasonable fit to the Schecter luminosity function if the baryon mass to blue light ratio is approximately 4. Overall, the simulations provide strong support for the CMD scenario. Of particular interest is that, while the baryons are not biased on scales greater than 1/h Mpc, the galaxies are, and that the 'galaxies' have a correlation function of the required slope and the correct amplitude.

  10. A hydrodynamic treatment of the cold dark matter cosmological scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of structure in a postrecombination Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe containing both gaseous baryons and cold dark matter (CDM) is studied by means of an Eulerian code coupled with a standard particle-mesh code. Ionization state and radiative opacity are calculated in detail, and the hydrodynamic simulations make it possible to compute properties of gas distribution on scales larger than three cell sizes. The model yields a soft X-ray background consistent with the latest cosmic nucleosynthesis values, and can accurately reproduce the galaxy-galaxy two-point correlation. The rate of galaxy formation peaks at a relatively late epoch. With regard to mass function, the smallest objects are stabilized against collapse by thermal energy: the mass-weighted mass spectrum peaks in the vicinity of m(b) = 10 exp 9.2 solar masses with a reasonable fit to the Schecter luminosity function if the baryon mass to blue light ratio is approximately 4. Overall, the simulations provide strong support for the CMD scenario. Of particular interest is that, while the baryons are not biased on scales greater than 1/h Mpc, the galaxies are, and that the 'galaxies' have a correlation function of the required slope and the correct amplitude.

  11. A hydrodynamic treatment of the cold dark matter cosmological scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of structure in a postrecombination Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe containing both gaseous baryons and cold dark matter (CDM) is studied by means of an Eulerian code coupled with a standard particle-mesh code. Ionization state and radiative opacity are calculated in detail, and the hydrodynamic simulations make it possible to compute properties of gas distribution on scales larger than three cell sizes. The model yields a soft X-ray background consistent with the latest cosmic nucleosynthesis values, and can accurately reproduce the galaxy-galaxy two-point correlation. The rate of galaxy formation peaks at a relatively late epoch. With regard to mass function, the smallest objects are stabilized against collapse by thermal energy: the mass-weighted mass spectrum peaks in the vicinity of m(b) = 10 exp 9.2 solar masses with a reasonable fit to the Schecter luminosity function if the baryon mass to blue light ratio is approximately 4. Overall, the simulations provide strong support for the CMD scenario. Of particular interest is that, while the baryons are not biased on scales greater than 1/h Mpc, the galaxies are, and that the 'galaxies' have a correlation function of the required slope and the correct amplitude.

  12. D{sub 6} family symmetry and cold dark matter at CERN LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Kajiyama, Yuji; Kubo, Jisuke; Okada, Hiroshi

    2007-02-01

    We consider a nonsupersymmetric extension of the standard model with a family symmetry based on D{sub 6}xZ{sub 2}xZ{sub 2}, where one of Z{sub 2}'s is exactly conserved. This Z{sub 2} forbids the tree-level neutrino masses and simultaneously ensures the stability of cold dark matter candidates. From the assumption that cold dark matter is fermionic we can single out the D{sub 6} singlet right-handed neutrino as the best cold dark matter candidate. We find that an inert charged Higgs with a mass between 300 and 750 GeV decays mostly into an electron (or a positron) with a large missing energy, where the missing energy is carried away by the cold dark matter candidate. This will be a clean signal at LHC.

  13. Self-similar infall models for cold dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Delliou, Morgan Patrick

    2002-04-01

    How can we understand the mechanisms for relaxation and the constitution of the density profile in CDM halo formation? Can the old Self-Similar Infall Model (SSIM) be made to contain all the elements essential for this understanding? In this work, we have explored and improved the SSIM, showing it can at once explain large N-body simulations and indirect observations of real haloes alike. With the use of a carefully-crafted simple shell code, we have followed the accretion of secondary infalls in different settings, ranging from a model for mergers to a distribution of angular momentum for the shells, through the modeling of a central black hole. We did not assume self-similar accretion from initial conditions but allowed for it to develop and used coordinates that make it evident. We found self-similar accretion to appear very prominently in CDM halo formation as an intermediate stable (quasi-equilibrium) stage of Large Scale Structure formation. Dark Matter haloes density profiles are shown to be primarily influenced by non-radial motion. The merger paradigm reveals itself through the SSIM to be a secondary but non-trivial factor in those density profiles: it drives the halo profile towards a unique attractor, but the main factor for universality is still the self-similarity. The innermost density cusp flattening observed in some dwarf and Low Surface Brightness galaxies finds a natural and simple explanation in the SSIM embedding a central black hole. Relaxation in cold collisionless collapse is clarified by the SSIM. It is a continuous process involving only the newly-accreted particles for just a few dynamical times. All memory of initial energy is not lost so relaxation is only moderately violent. A sharp cut off, or population inversion, originates in initial conditions and is maintained through relaxation. It characterises moderately violent relaxation in the system's Distribution Function. Finally, the SSIM has shown this relaxation to arise from phase

  14. A Radio Astronomy Search for Cold Dark Matter Axions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Katharine; Quinn, P. J.

    2017-08-01

    The search for axions has gained ground in recent years, with laboratory searches for cold dark matter (CDM) axions, relativistic solar axions, and ultra-light axions as the subject of extensive literature. In particular, the interest in axions as CDM candidates has been motivated by their potential to account for all of the inferred values of {{{Ω }}}{DM}˜ 0.26 in the standard {{Λ }}{CDM} model. Indeed, the value of {{{Ω }}}{DM}˜ 0.26 could be provided by a light axion. We investigate the possibility of complementing existing axion search experiments with radio telescope observations in an attempt to detect axion conversion in astrophysical magnetic fields. Searching for a CDM axion signal from a large-scale astrophysical environment provides new challenges, with the magnetic field structure playing a crucial role in both the rate of interaction and the properties of the observed photon. However, with a predicted frequency in the radio band (200 MHz-200 GHz) and a distinguishable spectral profile, next-generation radio telescopes may offer new opportunities for detection. The SKA-mid telescope has a planned frequency range of 0.4-13.8 GHz with optimal sensitivity in the range of ˜2-7 GHz. Considering observations at ˜500 MHz, the limiting sensitivity is expected to be ˜0.04 mK based on a 24 hr integration time. This compares with a predicted CDM axion all-sky signal temperature of ˜0.04 mK using SKA Phase 1 telescopes and up to ˜1.17 mK using a collecting area of (1 km)2 as planned for Phase 2.

  15. The COBE normalization for standard cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunn, Emory F.; Scott, Douglas; White, Martin

    1995-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE) detection of microwave anisotropies provides the best way of fixing the amplitude of cosmological fluctuations on the largest scales. This normalization is usually given for an n = 1 spectrum, including only the anisotropy caused by the Sachs-Wolfe effect. This is certainly not a good approximation for a model containing any reasonable amount of baryonic matter. In fact, even tilted Sachs-Wolfe spectra are not a good fit to models like cold dark matter (CDM). Here, we normalize standard CDM (sCDM) to the two-year COBE data and quote the best amplitude in terms of the conventionally used measures of power. We also give normalizations for some specific variants of this standard model, and we indicate how the normalization depends on the assumed values on n, Omega(sub B) and H(sub 0). For sCDM we find the mean value of Q = 19.9 +/- 1.5 micro-K, corresponding to sigma(sub 8) = 1.34 +/- 0.10, with the normalization at large scales being B = (8.16 +/- 1.04) x 10(exp 5)(Mpc/h)(exp 4), and other numbers given in the table. The measured rms temperature fluctuation smoothed on 10 deg is a little low relative to this normalization. This is mainly due to the low quadrupole in the data: when the quadrupole is removed, the measured value of sigma(10 deg) is quite consistent with the best-fitting the mean value of Q. The use of the mean value of Q should be preferred over sigma(10 deg), when its value can be determined for a particular theory, since it makes full use of the data.

  16. The COBE normalization for standard cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunn, Emory F.; Scott, Douglas; White, Martin

    1995-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE) detection of microwave anisotropies provides the best way of fixing the amplitude of cosmological fluctuations on the largest scales. This normalization is usually given for an n = 1 spectrum, including only the anisotropy caused by the Sachs-Wolfe effect. This is certainly not a good approximation for a model containing any reasonable amount of baryonic matter. In fact, even tilted Sachs-Wolfe spectra are not a good fit to models like cold dark matter (CDM). Here, we normalize standard CDM (sCDM) to the two-year COBE data and quote the best amplitude in terms of the conventionally used measures of power. We also give normalizations for some specific variants of this standard model, and we indicate how the normalization depends on the assumed values on n, Omega(sub B) and H(sub 0). For sCDM we find the mean value of Q = 19.9 +/- 1.5 micro-K, corresponding to sigma(sub 8) = 1.34 +/- 0.10, with the normalization at large scales being B = (8.16 +/- 1.04) x 10(exp 5)(Mpc/h)(exp 4), and other numbers given in the table. The measured rms temperature fluctuation smoothed on 10 deg is a little low relative to this normalization. This is mainly due to the low quadrupole in the data: when the quadrupole is removed, the measured value of sigma(10 deg) is quite consistent with the best-fitting the mean value of Q. The use of the mean value of Q should be preferred over sigma(10 deg), when its value can be determined for a particular theory, since it makes full use of the data.

  17. The Effects of Cold Dark Matter on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Ronald John David

    We show that the annihilation of cold, weakly -interacting dark matter candidates (chi) subsequent to chichi freeze -out can significantly affect the primordial abundance of light elements. The largest effects are (1) between the n/p freeze-out temperature (T ~eq 0.7 MeV) and the onset of nucleosynthesis at T ~eq 0.1 MeV, chichi annihilations increase the n/p ratio, leading to increased ^4He production; (2) following ^4He synthesis, baryonic products n,n,p of chichi annihilations dissociate some the the ^4He into D and ^3He, leading to increased D + ^3He abundances; (3) toward the end of nucleosynthesis, neutrons from chi chi annihilation lead to n + ^7 Be to p + ^7 Li, resulting in increased ^7Li + ^7Be production for low values of eta equiv n_{rm b}/n _gamma and decreased ^7 Li + ^7Be production for large eta, and (4) long after nucleosynthesis, once the universe cools below T ~eq 1 keV, the electromagnetic shower produced by electrons, positrons and photons from residual chichi annihilations cause further dissociation of ^4He, leading to increased CD + ^3He abundances. The most important result is that for Direc and Majorna neutrinos, the ^7 Li constraints on eta from SBBN are noticeably affected, with larger values of eta being favored. A summary of scattering rates for processes in the electromagnetic shower, containing corrections to numerous misprints in other sources, is presented in an Appendix. A listing of FORTRAN code used in the shower calculation is also included. Finally, the results are discussed in the light of Maharishi's Vedic Science, an ancient science which presents both knowledge and experience of the transcendental basis of life.

  18. Two-singlet model for light cold dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Abada, Abdessamad; Ghaffor, Djamal; Nasri, Salah

    2011-05-01

    We extend the standard model by adding two gauge-singlet Z{sub 2}-symmetric scalar fields that interact with visible matter only through the Higgs particle. One is a stable dark matter WIMP, and the other one undergoes a spontaneous breaking of the symmetry that opens new channels for the dark matter annihilation, hence lowering the mass of the WIMP. We study the effects of the observed dark matter relic abundance on the WIMP annihilation cross section and find that in most regions of the parameters' space, light dark matter is viable. We also compare the elastic-scattering cross section of our dark matter candidate off a nucleus with existing (CDMSII and XENON100) and projected (SuperCDMS and XENON1T) experimental exclusion bounds. We find that most of the allowed mass range for light dark matter will be probed by the projected sensitivity of the XENON1T experiment.

  19. Galaxy Formation: Cold Dark Matter, Feedback, and the Hubble Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Götz, Martin; Portinari, Laura

    2003-10-01

    TreeSPH simulations of galaxy formation in a standard Λ cold dark matter cosmology, including star formation and the effects of energetic stellar feedback processes and of a metagalactic UV field, have been performed, resulting in a mix of realistic disk, lenticular, and elliptical galaxies at redshift z=0. The disk galaxies are deficient in angular momentum by only about a factor of 2 compared with observed disk galaxies for simulations with fairly strong starbursts in early, protogalactic clouds, leading to ``blow-away'' of the remaining gas in the clouds. In this respect the present scenario is hence doing almost as well as the warm dark matter (WDM) scenarios discussed by Sommer-Larsen & Dolgov. The surface density profiles of the stellar disks are approximately exponential, and those of the bulges range from exponential to r1/4, as observed. The bulge-to-disk ratios of the disk galaxies are consistent with observations, as are their integrated B-V colors, which have been calculated using stellar population synthesis techniques. Furthermore, the observed I-band Tully-Fisher relation can be matched, provided that the stellar mass-to-light ratio of disk galaxies is M/LI~0.8, similar to what was found by Sommer-Larsen & Dolgov from their WDM simulations and in fair agreement with several recent observational determinations of M/LI for disk galaxies. The elliptical and lenticular galaxies have approximately r1/4 stellar surface density profiles, are dominated by nondisklike kinematics, and are flattened as a result of nonisotropic stellar velocity distributions, again consistent with observations. Hot halo gas is predicted to cool out and be accreted onto the Galactic disk at a rate of 0.5-1 Msolar yr-1 at z=0, consistent with upper limits deduced from Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer observations of O VI. We have analyzed in detail the formation history of two disk galaxies with circular speeds comparable to that of the Milky Way and find gas accretion

  20. Instrument Packages for the Cold, Dark, High Radiation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Yeh, P. S.; Beamna, B.; Brigham, D.; Feng, S.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing a small cold temperature instrument package concept that integrates a cold temperature power system and radhard ultra low temperature ultra low power electronics components and power supplies now under development into a cold temperature surface operational version of a planetary surface instrument package. We are already in the process of developing a lower power lower tem-perature version for an instrument of mutual interest to SMD and ESMD to support the search for volatiles (the mass spectrometer VAPoR, Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith) both as a stand alone instrument and as part of an environmental monitoring package.

  1. Toward electroweak scale cold dark matter with local dark gauge symmetry and beyond the DM EFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Pyungwon

    2016-06-01

    In this talk, I describe a class of electroweak (EW) scale dark matter (DM) models where its stability or longevity are the results of underlying dark gauge symmetries: stable due to unbroken local dark gauge symmetry or topology, or long-lived due to the accidental global symmetry of dark gauge theories. Compared with the usual phenomenological dark matter models (including DM EFT or simplified DM models), DM models with local dark gauge symmetries include dark gauge bosons, dark Higgs bosons and sometimes excited dark matter. And dynamics among these fields are completely fixed by local gauge principle. The idea of singlet portals including the Higgs portal can thermalize these hidden sector dark matter very efficiently, so that these DM could be easily thermal DM. I also discuss the limitation of the usual DM effective field theory or simplified DM models without the full SM gauge symmetry, and emphasize the importance of the full SM gauge symmetry and renormalizability especially for collider searches for DM.

  2. Toward electroweak scale cold dark matter with local dark gauge symmetry and beyond the DM EFT

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Pyungwon

    2016-06-21

    In this talk, I describe a class of electroweak (EW) scale dark matter (DM) models where its stability or longevity are the results of underlying dark gauge symmetries: stable due to unbroken local dark gauge symmetry or topology, or long-lived due to the accidental global symmetry of dark gauge theories. Compared with the usual phenomenological dark matter models (including DM EFT or simplified DM models), DM models with local dark gauge symmetries include dark gauge bosons, dark Higgs bosons and sometimes excited dark matter. And dynamics among these fields are completely fixed by local gauge principle. The idea of singlet portals including the Higgs portal can thermalize these hidden sector dark matter very efficiently, so that these DM could be easily thermal DM. I also discuss the limitation of the usual DM effective field theory or simplified DM models without the full SM gauge symmetry, and emphasize the importance of the full SM gauge symmetry and renormalizability especially for collider searches for DM.

  3. Perceiving the equation of state of Dark Energy while living in a Cold Spot

    SciTech Connect

    Valkenburg, Wessel

    2012-01-01

    The Cold Spot could be an adiabatic perturbation on the surface of last scattering, in which case it is an over-density with comoving radius of the order of 1 Gpc. We assess the effect that living in a similar structure, without knowing it, has on our perception of the equation of state of Dark Energy. We find that structures of dimensions such that they could cause the Cold Spot on the CMB, affect the perceived equation of state of Dark Energy possibly up to ten percent.

  4. THE INNER STRUCTURE OF DWARF-SIZED HALOS IN WARM AND COLD DARK MATTER COSMOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    González-Samaniego, A.; Avila-Reese, V.; Colín, P.

    2016-03-10

    By means of N-body + hydrodynamic zoom-in simulations we study the evolution of the inner dark matter and stellar mass distributions of central dwarf galaxies formed in halos of virial masses M{sub v} = (2–3) × 10{sup 10} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙} at z = 0, both in a warm dark matter (WDM) and cold dark matter (CDM) cosmology. The half-mode mass in the WDM power spectrum of our simulations is M{sub f} = 2 × 10{sup 10} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}. In the dark matter (DM) only simulations halo density profiles are well described by the Navarro–Frenk–White parametric fit in both cosmologies, though the WDM halos have concentrations lower by factors of 1.5–2.0 than their CDM counterparts. In the hydrodynamic simulations, the effects of baryons significantly flatten the inner density, velocity dispersion, and pseudo phase space density profiles of the WDM halos but not of the CDM ones. The density slope, measured at ≈0.02R{sub v}, α{sub 0.02}, becomes shallow in periods of 2–5 Gyr in the WDM runs. We explore whether this flattening process correlates with the global star formation (SF), M{sub s}/M{sub v} ratio, gas outflow, and internal specific angular momentum histories. We do not find any clear trends, but when α{sub 0.02} is shallower than −0.5, M{sub s}/M{sub v} is always between 0.25% and 1%. We conclude that the main reason for the formation of the shallow core is the presence of strong gas mass fluctuations inside the inner halo, which are a consequence of the feedback driven by a very bursty and sustained SF history in shallow gravitational potentials. Our WDM halos, which assemble late and are less concentrated than the CDM ones, obey these conditions. There are also (rare) CDM systems with extended mass assembly histories that obey these conditions and form shallow cores. The dynamical heating and expansion processes behind the DM core flattening apply also to the stars in such a way that the stellar age and metallicity gradients of the

  5. The distribution of dark matter, galaxies, and the intergalactic medium in a cold dark matter dominated universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.; Chiang, Wei-Hwan

    1988-01-01

    The evolution and distribution of galaxies and the intergalactic medium (IGM) have been studied, along with collisionless dark matter in a Universe dominated by cold dark matter. The Einstein-deSitter universe with omega sub 0 = 1 and h = 0.5 was considered (here h = H sub 0 bar 100/kms/Mpc and H sub 0 is the present value of the Hubble constant). It is assumed that initially dark matter composes 90 pct and baryonic matter composes 10 pct of total mass, and that the primordial baryonic matter is comprised of H and He, with the abundance of He equal to 10 pct of H by number. Galaxies are allowed to form out of the IGM, if the total density and baryonic density satisfy an overdensity criterion. Subsequently, the newly formed galaxies release 10 to the 60th ergs of energy into the IGM over a period of 10 to the 8th years. Calculations have been performed with 32 to the 3rd dark matter particles and 32 to the 3rd cells in a cube with comoving side length L = 9.6/h Mpc. Dark matter particles and galaxies have been followed with an N-body code, while the IGM has been followed with a fluid code.

  6. Cosmic background radiation anisotropy in an open inflation, cold dark matter cosmogony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Ratra, Bharat; Spergel, David N.; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    1994-01-01

    We compute the cosmic background radiation anisotropy, produced by energy-density fluctuations generated during an early epoch of inflation, in an open cosmological model based on the cold dark matter scenario. At Omega(sub 0) is approximately 0.3-0.4, the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) normalized open model appears to be consistent with most observations.

  7. Cosmic background radiation anisotropy in an open inflation, cold dark matter cosmogony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Ratra, Bharat; Spergel, David N.; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    1994-01-01

    We compute the cosmic background radiation anisotropy, produced by energy-density fluctuations generated during an early epoch of inflation, in an open cosmological model based on the cold dark matter scenario. At Omega(sub 0) is approximately 0.3-0.4, the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) normalized open model appears to be consistent with most observations.

  8. Scalar representations in the light of electroweak phase transition and cold dark matter phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    AbdusSalam, Shehu S.; Chowdhury, Talal Ahmed E-mail: chowdhu@sissa.it

    2014-05-01

    The extension of the standard model's minimal Higgs sector with an inert SU(2){sub L} scalar doublet can provide light dark matter candidate and simultaneously induce a strong phase transition for explaining Baryogenesis. There is however no symmetry reasons to prevent the extension using scalars with higher SU(2){sub L} representations. By making random scans over the models' parameters, we show that in the light of electroweak physics constraints, strong first order electroweak phase transition and the possibility of having sub-TeV cold dark matter candidate the higher representations are rather disfavored compared to the inert doublet. This is done by computing generic perturbativity behavior and impact on electroweak phase transitions of higher representations in comparison with the inert doublet model. Explicit phase transition and cold dark matter phenomenology within the context of the inert triplet and quartet representations are used for detailed illustrations.

  9. Statistics of the cosmic Mach number from numerical simulations of a cold dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suto, Yasushi; Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of an analysis of the cosmic Mach number, M, the ratio of the streaming velocity, v, to the random velocity dispersion, sigma, of galaxies in a given patch of the universe, which was performed on the basis of hydrodynamical simulations of the cold dark matter scenario. Galaxy formation is modeled by application of detailed physical processes rather than by the ad hoc assumption of 'bias' between dark matter and galaxy fluctuations. The correlation between M and sigma is found to be very weak for both components. No evidence is found for a physical 'velocity bias' in the quantities which appear in the definition of M. Standard cold-dark-matter-dominated universes are in conflict, at a statistically significant level, with the available observation, in that they predict a Mach number considerably lower than is observed.

  10. Statistics of the cosmic Mach number from numerical simulations of a cold dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suto, Yasushi; Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of an analysis of the cosmic Mach number, M, the ratio of the streaming velocity, v, to the random velocity dispersion, sigma, of galaxies in a given patch of the universe, which was performed on the basis of hydrodynamical simulations of the cold dark matter scenario. Galaxy formation is modeled by application of detailed physical processes rather than by the ad hoc assumption of 'bias' between dark matter and galaxy fluctuations. The correlation between M and sigma is found to be very weak for both components. No evidence is found for a physical 'velocity bias' in the quantities which appear in the definition of M. Standard cold-dark-matter-dominated universes are in conflict, at a statistically significant level, with the available observation, in that they predict a Mach number considerably lower than is observed.

  11. Characteristics of cold-induced dark, firm, dry broiler chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Dadgar, S; Lee, E S; Crowe, T G; Classen, H L; Shand, P J

    2012-01-01

    1. A study was designed to characterise dark, firm, dry (DFD) breast meat resulting from cold exposure of broilers and compare its properties with normal breast meat from cold-stressed and control birds. 2. A total of 140 broilers were selected from 5- and 6-week-old birds exposed to cold temperatures ranging from -18 to -4°C, or a control temperature of +20°C for 3 h in an environmental chamber. Half of these birds were slaughtered immediately following the cold exposure and the other half were given 2 h of lairage. 3. Breast meat samples were categorised based on ultimate pH (pH(u)) and colour L* (lightness) values into normal (5·7 ≤ pH(u)≤ 6·1; 46 ≤ L* ≤ 53) breast meat from control (control-normal) or cold-stressed (cold-normal) birds, and DFD (pH(u) > 6·1; L* < 46) breast meat, which only occurred in cold-stressed birds (cold-DFD). 4. Residual glycogen was not different between cold-DFD and control-normal breast meat. Lactate concentration was lower in cold-DFD compared with control-normal breast meat. Lactate concentration almost tripled for all the samples by 30 h post-mortem, which resulted in a drop in pH of normal meat, but did not have any effect on pH of DFD breast meat. Glycolytic potential at both 5 min and 30 h post-mortem was lower in DFD breast meat compared with the normal breast meat from both cold-stressed and control birds. 5. Cold-DFD breast meat was significantly darker, with higher pH(u), lower cook loss, higher water-binding capacity and processing cook yield than cold-normal and control-normal breast meat, which were not different from each other.

  12. Hyperfine anomalies of HCN in cold dark clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Walmsley, C.M.; Churchwell, E.; Nash, A.; Fitzpatrick, E.

    1982-07-15

    We report observations of the J = 1..-->..0 line of HCN measured toward six positions in nearby low-temperature dark clouds. The measured relative intensities of the hyperfine components of the J = 1..-->..0 line are anomalous in that the F = 0..-->..1 transition is stronger than would be expected if all three components (F = 2..-->..1, F = 1..-->..1, F = 0..-->..1) had equal excitation temperatures. Differences of approximately 20% in the populations per sublevel of J = 1 could account for the observations. The results are in contrast to the situation observed in warmer molecular clouds associated with H II regions where the F = 1..-->..1 line is anomalously weak. The apparent overpopulation of J = 1, F = 0 in dark clouds may be related to the phenomenon observed in the J = 1..-->..0 transitions of HCO/sup +/ and HNC in the same objects where /sup 13/C substituted version of these species is found to be stronger than the /sup 12/C species.

  13. Cold dark matter from heavy right-handed neutrino mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, Alexey; Di Bari, Pasquale

    2009-10-01

    We show that, within the seesaw mechanism, an almost decoupled right-handed (RH) neutrino species N{sub DM} with mass M{sub DM} > or approx. 100 GeV can play the role of dark matter (DM). The N{sub DM}'s can be produced from nonadiabatic conversions of thermalized (source) RH neutrinos with mass M{sub S} lower than M{sub DM}. This is possible if a nonrenormalizable operator is added to the minimal type I seesaw Lagrangian. The observed DM abundance can be reproduced for M{sub DM}{delta}{sup 1/4}{approx}10{sup -13}{lambda}{sub eff}{xi}, where {lambda}{sub eff} is a very high energy new physics scale, {delta}{identical_to}(M{sub DM}-M{sub S})/M{sub DM}, and {xi} < or approx. 1 is a parameter determined by the RH neutrino couplings.

  14. Survival, recovery and microcystin release of Microcystis aeruginosa in cold or dark condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yi; Gan, Nanqin; Liu, Jin; Zheng, Lingling; Li, Lin; Song, Lirong

    2017-03-01

    Microcystis often dominates phytoplankton in eutrophic lakes and must survive a long period of cold or dark conditions. However, the survival strategies of Microcystis to withstand cold or dark stress are less well known. In this study, we conducted experiments on the responses of two toxic Microcystis aeruginosa strains (FACHB-905 and FACHB-915) and their microcystin release in conditions of low temperature (15°C or 4°C, with illumination) or darkness, and subsequent recovery in standard conditions (25°C with illumination). On exposure to 15°C, a small decrease in cell viability was observed, but the cell number increased gradually, suggesting that M. aeruginosa FACHB-905 and FACHB-915 cells seem in general tolerant in 15°C. Interestingly, our results show that a higher carotenoid content and microcystin release potentially enhance the fitness of surviving cells at 15°C. M. aeruginosa cells exposed to lower temperature light stress (4°C) did not completely lose viability and retained the ability to reinitiate growth. In darkness, the maximum quantum yield ( F v/ F m) and the maximum electron transport rate (ETRmax) values and cell viability of M. aeruginosa cells gradually decreased with time. During the recovery period, the photosynthetic efficiency of M. aeruginosa reverted to the normal level. Additionally, M. aeruginosa FACHB-905 and FACHB-915 exposed to low temperature had increased caspase-3-like activity and DNA fragmentation, which suggests the occurrence of a type of cell death in M. aeruginosa cells under cold stress similar to programmed cell death. Overall, our findings could confer certain advantages on the Microcystis for surviving cold or dark conditions encountered in the annual cycle, and help explain its repeated occurrence in water blooms in large and shallow lakes.

  15. Survival, recovery and microcystin release of Microcystis aeruginosa in cold or dark condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yi; Gan, Nanqin; Liu, Jin; Zheng, Lingling; Li, Lin; Song, Lirong

    2016-05-01

    Microcystis often dominates phytoplankton in eutrophic lakes and must survive a long period of cold or dark conditions. However, the survival strategies of Microcystis to withstand cold or dark stress are less well known. In this study, we conducted experiments on the responses of two toxic Microcystis aeruginosa strains (FACHB-905 and FACHB-915) and their microcystin release in conditions of low temperature (15°C or 4°C, with illumination) or darkness, and subsequent recovery in standard conditions (25°C with illumination). On exposure to 15°C, a small decrease in cell viability was observed, but the cell number increased gradually, suggesting that M. aeruginosa FACHB-905 and FACHB-915 cells seem in general tolerant in 15°C. Interestingly, our results show that a higher carotenoid content and microcystin release potentially enhance the fi tness of surviving cells at 15°C. M. aeruginosa cells exposed to lower temperature light stress (4°C) did not completely lose viability and retained the ability to reinitiate growth. In darkness, the maximum quantum yield (F v/F m) and the maximum electron transport rate (ETRmax) values and cell viability of M. aeruginosa cells gradually decreased with time. During the recovery period, the photosynthetic effi ciency of M. aeruginosa reverted to the normal level. Additionally, M. aeruginosa FACHB-905 and FACHB-915 exposed to low temperature had increased caspase-3-like activity and DNA fragmentation, which suggests the occurrence of a type of cell death in M. aeruginosa cells under cold stress similar to programmed cell death. Overall, our fi ndings could confer certain advantages on the Microcystis for surviving cold or dark conditions encountered in the annual cycle, and help explain its repeated occurrence in water blooms in large and shallow lakes.

  16. CONFRONTING COLD DARK MATTER PREDICTIONS WITH OBSERVED GALAXY ROTATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Obreschkow, Danail; Meyer, Martin; Power, Chris; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Ma, Xiangcheng; Zwaan, Martin; Drinkwater, Michael J.

    2013-04-01

    The rich statistics of galaxy rotations as captured by the velocity function (VF) provide invaluable constraints on galactic baryon physics and the nature of dark matter (DM). However, the comparison of observed galaxy rotations against cosmological models is prone to subtle caveats that can easily lead to misinterpretations. Our analysis reveals full statistical consistency between {approx}5000 galaxy rotations, observed in line-of-sight projection, and predictions based on the standard cosmological model ({Lambda}CDM) at the mass-resolution of the Millennium simulation (H I line-based circular velocities above {approx}50 km s{sup -1}). Explicitly, the H I linewidths in the H I Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) are found to be consistent with those in S{sup 3}-SAX, a post-processed semi-analytic model for the Millennium simulation. Previously found anomalies in the VF can be plausibly attributed to (1) the mass-limit of the Millennium simulation, (2) confused sources in HIPASS, (3) inaccurate inclination measurements for optically faint sources, and (4) the non-detectability of gas-poor early-type galaxies. These issues can be bypassed by comparing observations and models using linewidth source counts rather than VFs. We investigate if and how well such source counts can constrain the temperature of DM.

  17. THE FORMATION OF SHELL GALAXIES SIMILAR TO NGC 7600 IN THE COLD DARK MATTER COSMOGONY

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Andrew P.; Martinez-Delgado, David; Helly, John; Frenk, Carlos; Cole, Shaun; Crawford, Ken; Zibetti, Stefano; Carballo-Bello, Julio A.

    2011-12-10

    We present new deep observations of 'shell' structures in the halo of the nearby elliptical galaxy NGC 7600, alongside a movie of galaxy formation in a cold dark matter (CDM) universe. The movie, based on an ab initio cosmological simulation, shows how continuous accretion of clumps of dark matter and stars creates a swath of diffuse circumgalactic structures. The disruption of a massive clump on a near-radial orbit creates a complex system of transient concentric shells which bare a striking resemblance to those of NGC 7600. With the aid of the simulation we interpret NGC 7600 in the context of the CDM model.

  18. Coarse graining the distribution function of cold dark matter - II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, R. N.

    2004-12-01

    We study analytically the coarse- and fine-grained distribution function (DF) established by the self-similar infall of collisionless matter. We find this function explicitly for isotropic and spherically symmetric systems in terms of cosmological initial conditions. The coarse-grained function is structureless and steady but the familiar phase-space sheet substructure is recovered in the fine-grained limit. By breaking the self-similarity of the halo infall we are able to argue for a central density flattening. In addition there will be an edge steepening. The best-fitting analytic density function is likely to be provided by a high-order polytrope fit smoothly to an outer power law of index -3 for isolated systems. There may be a transition to a -4 power law in the outer regions of tidally truncated systems. As we find that the central flattening is progressive in time, dynamically young systems such as galaxy clusters may well possess a Navarro, Frenk and White type density profile, while primordial dwarf galaxies, for example, are expected to have cores. This progressive flattening is expected to end either in the non-singular isothermal sphere, or in the non-singular metastable polytropic cores; as the DFs associated with each of these arise naturally in the bulk halo during the infall. We suggest, based on previous studies of the evolution of de-stabilized polytropes, that a collisionless system may pass through a family of polytropes of increasing order, finally approaching the limit of the non-singular isothermal sphere, if the `violent' collective relaxation is frequently re-excited by `merger' events. Thus central dominant (cD) galaxies, and indeed all bright galaxies that have grown in this fashion, should be in polytropic states. Our results suggest that no physics beyond that of wave-particle scattering is necessary to explain the nature of dark matter density profiles. However, this may be assisted by the scattering of particles from the centre of the

  19. The double dark resonance in a cold gas of Cs atoms and molecules.

    PubMed

    Feng, ZhiFang; Li, WeiDong; Xiao, LianTuan; Jia, SuoTang

    2008-09-29

    We theoretically investigated the properties of the effective four-level stimulated Raman adiabatic passage scheme in a cold gas of Cs atoms and molecules, where exists the tunnelling coupling between two excited molecular states due to the 0(g)- (6S,6P(3/2)) double well structure. The double dark resonance is predicted in the absorption spectrum when the tunnelling coupling strength is large enough. The double dark resonance not only reveals the formation of the ultra-cold molecules, but also provides further evidence for the tunnelling as one effective coupling mechanism between the two excited molecular states. The effect of the various experimental conditions on this phenomena has been discussed.

  20. Multi-dark-state resonances in cold multi-Zeeman-sublevel atoms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Han, Yanxu; Xiao, Jintao; Yang, Xudong; Xie, Changde; Wang, Hai; Xiao, Min

    2006-12-15

    We present our experimental and theoretical studies of multi-dark-state resonances (MDSRs) generated in a unique cold rubidium atomic system with only one coupling laser beam. Such MDSRs are caused by different transition strengths of the strong coupling beam connecting different Zeeman sublevels. Controlling the transparency windows in such an electromagnetically induced transparency system can have potential applications in multiwavelength optical communication and quantum information processing.

  1. Large N-body simulations of a universe dominated by cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Changbom

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that pure gravitational evolution from an initial random density field with the standard cold dark matter (CDM) power spectrum does occasionally lead to filaments, walls, and voids remarkably like those seen in observed samples. A problem with the flat CDM model is the degree of streaming of galaxies relative to their velocity dispersion. A biased open CDM model seems to be more compatible with the observational data though it requires a higher amplitude of microwave background fluctuations.

  2. The shape-alignment relation in Λ cold dark matter cosmic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilakos, S.; Plionis, M.; Yepes, G.; Gottlöber, S.; Turchaninov, V.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the supercluster-cluster morphological properties using one of the largest (2 × 5123) smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH)+N-body simulations of large-scale structure formation in a Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model, based on the publicly available code GADGET. We find that filamentary (prolate-like) shapes are the dominant supercluster and cluster dark matter halo morphological feature, in agreement with previous studies. However, the baryonic gas component of the clusters is predominantly spherical. We investigate the alignment between cluster haloes (using either their dark matter or their baryonic components) and their parent supercluster major-axis orientation, finding that clusters show such a preferential alignment. Combining the shape and the alignment statistics, we also find that the amplitude of supercluster-cluster alignment increases, although weakly, with supercluster filamentariness.

  3. Cold- and Growing-Season Microbial Substrate Use in Arctic Tundra Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimel, J.; McMahon, S.

    2006-12-01

    Microbial communities will play a critical role in determining arctic ecosystem response to warming due to global climate change since decomposition, which is responsible for both CO2 evolution and plant nutrient availability, is a microbially-mediated process. Microorganisms living in tundra soil have access to two broad categories of carbon compounds via decomposition: complex polymers such as cellulose, lignin, protein and soil organic matter, and simple monomers such as glucose, phenolics and amino acids. Thermodynamically, labile substrates are easier to degrade because the activation energy of the reaction is lower than for more recalcitrant polymers. Thus, metabolic processes involving simple compounds are more likely under frozen conditions during the cold season. To test this theory, we incubated soils collected at Toolik Lake, Alaska before and after snowmelt and freeze-up with a variety of 13C-labelled substrates to track microbial carbon use during cold- and growing-season conditions. Surprisingly, tussock soils respired more protein-derived carbon under frozen pre-thaw conditions than late growing-season conditions. Organic shrub soils respired more glutamic acid-derived carbon under all conditions. Since nitrogen is more abundant in shrub than tussock soils, microbes in the shrub soil can afford to respire glutamic acid as an energy source rather than incorporate it into microbial biomass as a nitrogen source. This study indicates that winter substrate use may not follow predictions made strictly on a thermodynamic basis and hints at the complex nature of cold-tolerant microorganisms.

  4. Large-scale structure formation and cosmic microwave anisotropy in a cold plus hot dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Robert K.; Shafi, Qaisar; Stecker, Floyd W.

    1989-01-01

    Several particle physics models suggest the simultaneous existence of both cold and hot forms of dark matter particles. Assuming a Harrison-Zel'dovich spectrum of primordial density fluctuations and Omega = 1, the formation of structure in a universe dominated by a combination of cold dark matter and massive neutrinos is explored. It is found that the presence of the hot dark matter component can cause enough power on large scales to explain some recent observations, while there is still sufficient power on small scales to allow galactic structure formation. Spatial anisotropies in the microwave background radiation are computed and found to be compatible with observational limits.

  5. Large-scale structure formation and cosmic microwave anisotropy in a cold plus hot dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Robert K.; Shafi, Qaisar; Stecker, Floyd W.

    1989-01-01

    Several particle physics models suggest the simultaneous existence of both cold and hot forms of dark matter particles. Assuming a Harrison-Zel'dovich spectrum of primordial density fluctuations and Omega = 1, the formation of structure in a universe dominated by a combination of cold dark matter and massive neutrinos is explored. It is found that the presence of the hot dark matter component can cause enough power on large scales to explain some recent observations, while there is still sufficient power on small scales to allow galactic structure formation. Spatial anisotropies in the microwave background radiation are computed and found to be compatible with observational limits.

  6. Galaxy and cluster formation in a universe dominated by cold dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Primack, J.R.

    1984-07-01

    The dark matter (DM) that appears to be gravitationally dominant on all astronomical scales larger than the cores of galaxies can be classified, on the basis of its characteristic free-streaming damping mass M/sub D/, as hot (M/sub D/ approx. 10/sup 15/ M/sub mass/), warm (M/sub D/ approx. 10/sup 11/ M/sub mass/), or cold (M/sub D < 10/sup 8/ M/sub mass/). For the case of cold DM, the shape of the DM fluctuation spectrum is determined by (a) the primordial spectrum (on scales larger than the horizon), and (b) stagspansion, the stagnation of the growth of DM fluctuations that enter the horizon while the universe is still radiation-dominated. An attractive feature of the cold dark matter hypothesis is its considerable predictive power: the post-recombination fluctuation spectrum is calculable, and it in turn governs the formation of galaxies and clusters. Good agreement with the data is obtained for a Zeldovich spectrum of primordial fluctuations.

  7. Recent observations of organic molecules in nearby cold, dark interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, H.; Ohishi, M.; Morimoto, M.; Kaifu, N.; Friberg, P.

    1985-01-01

    Recent investigations of the organic chemistry of relatively nearby cold, dark interstellar clouds are reported. Specifically, the presence of interstellar tricarbon monoxide (C3O) in Taurus Molecular Cloud 1 (TMC-1) is confirmed. The first detection in such regions of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), the most complex oxygen-containing organic molecule yet found in dark clouds is reported, as well as the first astronomical detection of several molecular rotational transitions, including the J = 18-17 and 14-13 transitions of cyanodiacetylene (HC5N), the 1(01)-0(00) transition of acetaldehyde, and the J = 5-4 transition of C3O. A significant upper limit is set on the abundance of cyanocarbene (HCCN) as a result of the first reported interstellar search for this molecule.

  8. Cyanide and isocyanide abundances in the cold, dark cloud TMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.; Schloerb, F. P.

    1984-01-01

    Cold, dark molecular clouds are particularly useful for the study of interstellar chemistry because their physical parameters are better understood than those of heterogeneous, complex giant molecular clouds. Another advantage is their relatively small distance from the solar system. The present investigaation has the objective to provide accurate abundance ratios for several cyanides and isocyanides in order to constrain models of dark cloud chemistry. The relative abundances of such related species can be particularly useful for the study of chemical processes. The cloud TMC-1 considered in the current study has a remarkably high abundance of acetylene and polyacetylene derivatives. Data at 3 mm, corresponding to the J = 1 to 0 transitions of HCN, H(C-13)N, HN(C-13), HC(N-15), and H(N-15)C were obtained.

  9. Recent observations of organic molecules in nearby cold, dark interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, H.; Ohishi, M.; Morimoto, M.; Kaifu, N.; Friberg, P.

    1985-01-01

    Recent investigations of the organic chemistry of relatively nearby cold, dark interstellar clouds are reported. Specifically, the presence of interstellar tricarbon monoxide (C3O) in Taurus Molecular Cloud 1 (TMC-1) is confirmed. The first detection in such regions of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), the most complex oxygen-containing organic molecule yet found in dark clouds is reported, as well as the first astronomical detection of several molecular rotational transitions, including the J = 18-17 and 14-13 transitions of cyanodiacetylene (HC5N), the 1(01)-0(00) transition of acetaldehyde, and the J = 5-4 transition of C3O. A significant upper limit is set on the abundance of cyanocarbene (HCCN) as a result of the first reported interstellar search for this molecule.

  10. Fingerprints of the initial conditions on the density profiles of cold and warm dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polisensky, E.; Ricotti, M.

    2015-06-01

    We use N-body simulations of dark matter haloes in cold dark matter (CDM) and a large set of different warm dark matter (WDM) cosmologies to demonstrate that the spherically averaged density profile of dark matter haloes has a shape that depends on the power spectrum of matter perturbations. Density profiles are steeper in WDM but become shallower at r < 0.01Rvir. Virialization isotropizes the velocity dispersion in the inner regions of the halo but does not erase the memory of the initial conditions in phase space. The location of the observed deviations from CDM in the density profile and in phase space can be directly related to the ratio between the halo mass and the filtering mass and are most evident in small mass haloes, even for a 34 keV thermal relic WDM. The rearrangement of mass within the haloes supports analytic models of halo structure that include angular momentum. We also find evidence of a dependence of the slope of the inner density profile in CDM cosmologies on the halo mass with more massive haloes exhibiting steeper profiles, in agreement with the model predictions and with previous simulation results. Our work complements recent studies of microhaloes near the filtering scale in CDM and strongly argue against a universal shape for the density profile.

  11. Bounds on galactic cold dark matter particle candidates and solar axions from a Ge-spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Gelmini, G.

    1986-11-01

    The ultralow background Ge spectrometer developed by the USC/PNL group is used as a detector of cold dark matter candidates from the halo of our galaxy and of solar axions (and other light bosons), yielding interesting bounds. Some of them are: heavy standard Dirac neutrinos with mass 20 GeV less than or equal to m less than or equal to 1 TeV are excluded as main components of the halo of our galaxy; Dine-Fischler-Srednicki axion models with F/2x/sub e/' less than or equal to 0.5 x 10/sup 7/ GeV are excluded. 22 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background in nonstandard cold dark matter models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittorio, Nicola; Silk, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    Small angular scale cosmic microwave anisotropies in flat, vacuum-dominated, cold dark matter cosmological models which fit large-scale structure observations and are consistent with a high value for the Hubble constant are reexamined. New predictions for CDM models in which the large-scale power is boosted via a high baryon content and low H(0) are presented. Both classes of models are consistent with current limits: an improvement in sensitivity by a factor of about 3 for experiments which probe angular scales between 7 arcmin and 1 deg is required, in the absence of very early reionization, to test boosted CDM models for large-scale structure formation.

  13. Anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background in nonstandard cold dark matter models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittorio, Nicola; Silk, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    Small angular scale cosmic microwave anisotropies in flat, vacuum-dominated, cold dark matter cosmological models which fit large-scale structure observations and are consistent with a high value for the Hubble constant are reexamined. New predictions for CDM models in which the large-scale power is boosted via a high baryon content and low H(0) are presented. Both classes of models are consistent with current limits: an improvement in sensitivity by a factor of about 3 for experiments which probe angular scales between 7 arcmin and 1 deg is required, in the absence of very early reionization, to test boosted CDM models for large-scale structure formation.

  14. Simulating the cold dark matter-neutrino dipole with TianNu

    DOE PAGES

    Inman, Derek; Yu, Hao-Ran; Zhu, Hong-Ming; ...

    2017-04-20

    Measurements of neutrino mass in cosmological observations rely on two-point statistics that are hindered by significant degeneracies with the optical depth and galaxy bias. The relative velocity effect between cold dark matter and neutrinos induces a large scale dipole in the matter density field and may be able to provide orthogonal constraints to standard techniques. In this paper, we numerically investigate this dipole in the TianNu simulation, which contains cold dark matter and 50 meV neutrinos. We first compute the dipole using a new linear response technique where we treat the displacement caused by the relative velocity as a phasemore » in Fourier space and then integrate the matter power spectrum over redshift. Then, we compute the dipole numerically in real space using the simulation density and velocity fields. We find excellent agreement between the linear response and N-body methods. Finally, utilizing the dipole as an observational tool requires two tracers of the matter distribution that are differently biased with respect to the neutrino density.« less

  15. Cold exposure impairs dark-pulse capacity to induce REM sleep in the albino rat.

    PubMed

    Baracchi, Francesca; Zamboni, Giovanni; Cerri, Matteo; Del Sindaco, Elide; Dentico, Daniela; Jones, Christine Ann; Luppi, Marco; Perez, Emanuele; Amici, Roberto

    2008-06-01

    In the albino rat, a REM sleep (REMS) onset can be induced with a high probability and a short latency when the light is suddenly turned off (dark pulse, DP) during non-REM sleep (NREMS). The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent DP delivery could overcome the integrative thermoregulatory mechanisms that depress REMS occurrence during exposure to low ambient temperature (Ta). To this aim, the efficiency of a non-rhythmical repetitive DP (3 min each) delivery during the first 6-h light period of a 12 h:12 h light-dark cycle in inducing REMS was studied in the rat, through the analysis of electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, hypothalamic temperature and motor activity at different Tas. The results showed that DP delivery triggers a transition from NREMS to REMS comparable to that which occurs spontaneously. However, the efficiency of DP delivery in inducing REMS was reduced during cold exposure to an extent comparable with that observed in spontaneous REMS occurrence. Such impairment was associated with low Delta activity and high sympathetic tone when DPs were delivered. Repetitive DP administration increased REMS amount during the delivery period and a subsequent negative REMS rebound was observed. In conclusion, DP delivery did not overcome the integrative thermoregulatory mechanisms that depress REMS in the cold. These results underline the crucial physiological meaning of the mutual exclusion of thermoregulatory activation and REMS occurrence, and support the hypothesis that the suspension of the central control of body temperature is a prerequisite for REMS occurrence.

  16. Water and complex organic chemistry in the cold dark cloud Barnard 5: Observations and Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirström, Eva; Charnley, Steven B.; Taquet, Vianney; Persson, Carina M.

    2015-08-01

    Studies of complex organic molecule (COM) formation have traditionally been focused on hot cores in regions of massive star formation, where chemistry is driven by the elevated temperatures - evaporating ices and allowing for endothermic reactions in the gas-phase. As more sensitive instruments have become available, the types of objects known to harbour COMs like acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3), methyl formate (CH3OCHO), and ketene (CH2CO) have expanded to include low mass protostars and, recently, even pre-stellar cores. We here report on the first in a new category of objects harbouring COMs: the cold dark cloud Barnard 5 where non-thermal ice desorption induce complex organic chemistry entirely unrelated to local star-formation.Methanol, which only forms efficiently on the surfaces of dust grains, provide evidence of efficient non-thermal desorption of ices in the form of prominent emission peaks offset from protostellar activity and high density tracers in cold molecular clouds. A study with Herschel targeting such methanol emission peaks resulted in the first ever detection of gas-phase water offset from protostellar activity in a dark cloud, at the so called methanol hotspot in Barnard 5.To model the effect a transient injection of ices into the gas-phase has on the chemistry of a cold, dark cloud we have included gas-grain interactions in an existing gas-phase chemical model and connected it to a chemical reaction network updated and expanded to include the formation and destruction paths of the most common COMs. Results from this model will be presented.Ground-based follow-up studies toward the methanol hotspot in B5 have resulted in the detection of a number of COMs, including CH2CO, CH3CHO, CH3OCH3, and CH3OCHO, as well as deuterated methanol (CH2DOH). Observations have also confirmed that COM emission is extended and not localised to a core structure. The implications of these observational and theoretical studies of B5 will be discussed

  17. Cold or warm? Constraining dark matter with primeval galaxies and cosmic reionization after Planck

    SciTech Connect

    Lapi, A.; Danese, L. E-mail: danese@sissa.it

    2015-09-01

    Dark matter constitutes the great majority of the matter content in the Universe, but its microscopic nature remains an intriguing mystery, with profound implications for particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. Here we shed light on the longstanding issue of whether the dark matter is warm or cold by combining the measurements of the galaxy luminosity functions out to high redshifts 0z∼ 1 from the Hubble Space Telescope with the recent cosmological data on the reionization history of the Universe from the Planck mission. We derive robust and tight bounds on the mass of warm dark matter particle, finding that the current data require it to be in the narrow range between 2 and 3 keV . In addition, we show that a mass not exceeding 3 keV is also concurrently indicated by astrophysical constraints related to the local number of satellites in Milky Way-sized galaxies, though it is in marginal tension with analysis of the Lyman-α forest. For warm dark matter masses above 3 keV as well as for cold dark matter, to satisfy the Planck constraints on the optical depth and not to run into the satellite problem would require invoking astrophysical processes that inhibit galaxy formation in halos with mass M{sub H} ∼< few × 10 {sup 8} M{sub ⊙}, corresponding to a limiting UV magnitude M{sub UV}≈ −11. Anyway, we predict a downturn of the galaxy luminosity function at z∼ 8 faintward of M{sub UV}≈ −12, and stress that its detailed shape is extremely informative both on particle physics and on the astrophysics of galaxy formation in small halos. These expectations will be tested via the Hubble Frontier Fields and with the advent of the James Webb Space Telescope, which will enable probing the very faint end of the galaxy luminosity function out to z ∼ 8–10.

  18. Can cold neutrons give hint to understanding nature of dark matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybolt, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The composition of Dark Matter remains a mystery despite numerous searches. We explore an alternative to the WIMP paradigm in which Ordinary Matter and Dark Matter ``Mirror'' sectors are made of the same particles with the Standard Model interactions in each sector, except two sectors do not interact with each other by the Standard Model interactions. They only interact gravitationally and by some BSM mechanisms that can mix neutral components from both sectors. Thus, for example, photons can mix with sterile mirror photons via ``kinetic mixing'' mechanism, neutrinos can oscillate into sterile mirror neutrinos, and neutrons into sterile mirror neutrons. I explore the possibility to search for this Dark ``Mirror'' Sector by looking at mixing between neutron and mirror neutron. This can be done in a cold neutron beam where neutrons can oscillate into mirror neutrons and pass through a neutron absorber and then transform back into ordinary neutrons where they are detected. The regeneration of neutron depends on the magnitude and direction of a magnetic field.

  19. Cold dark matter confronts the cosmic microwave background - Large-angular-scale anisotropies in Omega sub 0 + lambda 1 models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorski, Krzysztof M.; Silk, Joseph; Vittorio, Nicola

    1992-01-01

    A new technique is used to compute the correlation function for large-angle cosmic microwave background anisotropies resulting from both the space and time variations in the gravitational potential in flat, vacuum-dominated, cold dark matter cosmological models. Such models with Omega sub 0 of about 0.2, fit the excess power, relative to the standard cold dark matter model, observed in the large-scale galaxy distribution and allow a high value for the Hubble constant. The low order multipoles and quadrupole anisotropy that are potentially observable by COBE and other ongoing experiments should definitively test these models.

  20. Cold dark matter confronts the cosmic microwave background - Large-angular-scale anisotropies in Omega sub 0 + lambda 1 models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorski, Krzysztof M.; Silk, Joseph; Vittorio, Nicola

    1992-01-01

    A new technique is used to compute the correlation function for large-angle cosmic microwave background anisotropies resulting from both the space and time variations in the gravitational potential in flat, vacuum-dominated, cold dark matter cosmological models. Such models with Omega sub 0 of about 0.2, fit the excess power, relative to the standard cold dark matter model, observed in the large-scale galaxy distribution and allow a high value for the Hubble constant. The low order multipoles and quadrupole anisotropy that are potentially observable by COBE and other ongoing experiments should definitively test these models.

  1. The mass-concentration-redshift relation of cold and warm dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludlow, Aaron D.; Bose, Sownak; Angulo, Raúl E.; Wang, Lan; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Navarro, Julio F.; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2016-08-01

    We use a suite of cosmological simulations to study the mass-concentration-redshift relation, c(M, z), of dark matter haloes. Our simulations include standard Λ-cold dark matter (CDM) models, and additional runs with truncated power spectra, consistent with a thermal warm dark matter (WDM) scenario. We find that the mass profiles of CDM and WDM haloes are self-similar and well approximated by the Einasto profile. The c(M, z) relation of CDM haloes is monotonic: concentrations decrease with increasing virial mass at fixed redshift, and decrease with increasing redshift at fixed mass. The mass accretion histories (MAHs) of CDM haloes are also scale-free, and can be used to infer concentrations directly. These results do not apply to WDM haloes: their MAHs are not scale-free because of the characteristic scale imposed by the power spectrum suppression. Further, the WDM c(M, z) relation is non-monotonic: concentrations peak at a mass scale dictated by the truncation scale, and decrease at higher and lower masses. We show that the assembly history of a halo can still be used to infer its concentration, provided that the total mass of its progenitors is considered (the `collapsed mass history'; CMH), rather than just that of its main ancestor. This exploits the scale-free nature of CMHs to derive a simple scaling that reproduces the mass-concentration-redshift relation of both CDM and WDM haloes over a vast range of halo masses and redshifts. Our model therefore provides a robust account of the mass, redshift, cosmology and power spectrum dependence of dark matter halo concentrations.

  2. Pairwise velocities of dark matter haloes: a test for the Λ cold dark matter model using the bullet cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Robert; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2012-02-01

    The existence of a bullet cluster (such as 1E 0657-56) poses a challenge to the concordance Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model. Here we investigate the velocity distribution of dark matter (DM) halo pairs in large N-body simulations with differing box sizes (250 h-1 Mpc? Gpc) and resolutions. We examine various basic statistics such as the halo masses, pairwise halo velocities (v12), collisional angles and pair separation distances. We then compare our results to the initial conditions required to reproduce the observational properties of 1E 0657-56 in non-cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. We find that the high-velocity tail of the v12 distribution extends to greater velocities as we increase the simulation box size. We also find that the number of high v12 pairs increases as we increase the particle count and resolution with a fixed box size; however, this increase is mostly due to lower mass haloes which do not match the observed masses of 1E 0657-56. We find that the redshift evolution effect is not very strong for the v12 distribution function between z= 0.0 and z˜ 0.5. We identify some pairs whose v12 resemble the required initial conditions, however, even the best candidates have either wrong halo mass ratios or too large separations. Our simulations suggest that it is very difficult to produce such initial conditions at z= 0.0, 0.296 and 0.489 in comoving volumes as large as (2 h-1 Gpc)3. Based on the extrapolation of our cumulative v12 function, we find that one needs a simulation with a comoving box size of (4.48 h-1 Gpc)3 and 22403 DM particles in order to produce at least one pair of haloes that resembles the required v12 and observed masses of 1E 0657-56. From our simulated v12 probability distribution function, we find that the probability of finding a halo pair with v12≥ 3000 km s-1 and masses ? to be 2.76 × 10-8 at z= 0.489. We conclude that either 1E 0657-56 is incompatible with the concordance ΛCDM universe or the initial conditions

  3. The spin and shape of dark matter haloes in the Millennium simulation of a Λ cold dark matter universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bett, Philip; Eke, Vincent; Frenk, Carlos S.; Jenkins, Adrian; Helly, John; Navarro, Julio

    2007-03-01

    We investigate the spins and shapes of over a million dark matter haloes identified at z = 0 in the Millennium simulation. Our sample spans halo masses ranging from dwarf galaxies to rich galaxy clusters. The very large dynamic range of this Λ cold dark matter cosmological simulation enables the distribution of spins and shapes and their variation with halo mass and environment to be characterized with unprecedented precision. We compare results for haloes identified using three different algorithms, and investigate (and remove) biases in the estimate of angular momentum introduced both by the algorithm itself and by numerical effects. We introduce a novel halo definition called the TREE halo, based on the branches of the halo merger trees, which is more appropriate for comparison with real astronomical objects than the traditional `friends-of-friends' and `spherical overdensity' (SO) algorithms. We find that for this many objects, the traditional lognormal function is no longer an adequate description of the distribution, P(λ), of the dimensionless spin parameter λ, and we provide a different function that gives a better fit for TREE and SO haloes. The variation in spin with halo mass is weak but detectable, although the trend depends strongly on the halo definition used. For the entire population of haloes, we find median values of λmed = 0.0367-0.0429, depending on the definition of a halo. The haloes exhibit a range of shapes, with a preference for prolateness over oblateness. More-massive haloes tend to be less spherical and more prolate. We find that the more-spherical haloes have less coherent rotation in the median, and those closest to being spherical have a spin independent of mass (λmed ~ 0.033). The most-massive haloes have a spin independent of shape (λmed ~ 0.032). The majority of haloes have their angular momentum vector aligned with their minor axis and perpendicular to their major axis. We find a general trend for higher spin haloes to be

  4. An Isocurvature Cold Dark Matter Cosmogony. I. A Worked Example of Evolution through Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, P. J. E.

    1999-01-01

    I present a specific worked example of evolution through inflation to the initial conditions for an isocurvature cold dark matter (ICDM) model for structure formation. The model invokes three scalar fields: one that drives power-law inflation, one that survives to become the present-day CDM, and one that gives the CDM field a mass that slowly decreases during inflation and therefore ``tilts'' the primeval mass fluctuation spectrum of the CDM. The functional forms for the potentials and the parameter values that lead to an observationally acceptable model for structure formation do not seem to be out of line with current ideas about the physics of the very early universe. I argue in an accompanying paper that the model offers a not unacceptable fit to main observational constraints.

  5. Limits on cold dark matter cosmologies from new anisotropy bounds on the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittorio, Nicola; Meinhold, Peter; Lubin, Philip; Muciaccia, Pio Francesco; Silk, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    A self-consistent method is presented for comparing theoretical predictions of and observational upper limits on CMB anisotropy. New bounds on CDM cosmologies set by the UCSB South Pole experiment on the 1 deg angular scale are presented. An upper limit of 4.0 x 10 to the -5th is placed on the rms differential temperature anisotropy to a 95 percent confidence level and a power of the test beta = 55 percent. A lower limit of about 0.6/b is placed on the density parameter of cold dark matter universes with greater than about 3 percent baryon abundance and a Hubble constant of 50 km/s/Mpc, where b is the bias factor, equal to unity only if light traces mass.

  6. Mass-Discrepancy Acceleration Relation: A Natural Outcome of Galaxy Formation in Cold Dark Matter Halos.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Aaron D; Benítez-Llambay, Alejandro; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; Frenk, Carlos S; Bower, Richard; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A; Navarro, Julio F; Fattahi, Azadeh; Oman, Kyle A

    2017-04-21

    We analyze the total and baryonic acceleration profiles of a set of well-resolved galaxies identified in the eagle suite of hydrodynamic simulations. Our runs start from the same initial conditions but adopt different prescriptions for unresolved stellar and active galactic nuclei feedback, resulting in diverse populations of galaxies by the present day. Some of them reproduce observed galaxy scaling relations, while others do not. However, regardless of the feedback implementation, all of our galaxies follow closely a simple relationship between the total and baryonic acceleration profiles, consistent with recent observations of rotationally supported galaxies. The relation has small scatter: Different feedback implementations-which produce different galaxy populations-mainly shift galaxies along the relation rather than perpendicular to it. Furthermore, galaxies exhibit a characteristic acceleration g_{†}, above which baryons dominate the mass budget, as observed. These observations, consistent with simple modified Newtonian dynamics, can be accommodated within the standard cold dark matter paradigm.

  7. Cold dark matter and degree-scale cosmic microwave background anisotropy statistics after COBE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorski, Krzysztof M.; Stompor, Radoslaw; Juszkiewicz, Roman

    1993-01-01

    We conduct a Monte Carlo simulation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy in the UCSB South Pole 1991 degree-scale experiment. We examine cold dark matter cosmology with large-scale structure seeded by the Harrison-Zel'dovich hierarchy of Gaussian-distributed primordial inhomogeneities normalized to the COBE-DMR measurement of large-angle CMB anisotropy. We find it statistically implausible (in the sense of low cumulative probability F lower than 5 percent, of not measuring a cosmological delta-T/T signal) that the degree-scale cosmological CMB anisotropy predicted in such models could have escaped a detection at the level of sensitivity achieved in the South Pole 1991 experiment.

  8. Large-scale structure after COBE: Peculiar velocities and correlations of cold dark matter halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurek, Wojciech H.; Quinn, Peter J.; Salmon, John K.; Warren, Michael S.

    1994-01-01

    Large N-body simulations on parallel supercomputers allow one to simultaneously investigate large-scale structure and the formation of galactic halos with unprecedented resolution. Our study shows that the masses as well as the spatial distribution of halos on scales of tens of megaparsecs in a cold dark matter (CDM) universe with the spectrum normalized to the anisotropies detected by Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) is compatible with the observations. We also show that the average value of the relative pairwise velocity dispersion sigma(sub v) - used as a principal argument against COBE-normalized CDM models-is significantly lower for halos than for individual particles. When the observational methods of extracting sigma(sub v) are applied to the redshift catalogs obtained from the numerical experiments, estimates differ significantly between different observation-sized samples and overlap observational estimates obtained following the same procedure.

  9. Cold dark matter and degree-scale cosmic microwave background anisotropy statistics after COBE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorski, Krzysztof M.; Stompor, Radoslaw; Juszkiewicz, Roman

    1993-01-01

    We conduct a Monte Carlo simulation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy in the UCSB South Pole 1991 degree-scale experiment. We examine cold dark matter cosmology with large-scale structure seeded by the Harrison-Zel'dovich hierarchy of Gaussian-distributed primordial inhomogeneities normalized to the COBE-DMR measurement of large-angle CMB anisotropy. We find it statistically implausible (in the sense of low cumulative probability F lower than 5 percent, of not measuring a cosmological delta-T/T signal) that the degree-scale cosmological CMB anisotropy predicted in such models could have escaped a detection at the level of sensitivity achieved in the South Pole 1991 experiment.

  10. Is a massive tau neutrino just what cold dark matter needs?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodelson, Scott; Gyuk, Geza; Turner, Michael S.

    1994-01-01

    The cold dark matter (CDM) scenario for structure formation in the Universe is very attractive and has many successes; however, when its spectrum of density perturbations is normalized to the COBE anisotropy measurement the level of inhomogeneity predicted on small scales is too large. This can be remedied by a tau neutrino of mass 1 MeV - 10MeV and lifetime 0.1 sec - 100 sec whose decay products include electron neutrinos because it allows the total energy density in relativistic particles to be doubled without interfering with nucleosynthesis. The anisotropies predicted on the degree scale for 'tau CDM' are larger than standard CDM. Experiments at e(sup +/-) collides may be able to probe such a mass range.

  11. The evolution of large-scale structure in a universe dominated by cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, M.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C. S.; White, S. D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The results of numerical simulations of nonlinear gravitational clustering in universes dominated by weakly interacting, 'cold' dark matter are presented. The numerical methods used and the way in which initial conditions were generated are described, and the simulations performed are catalogued. The evolution of the fundamental statistical properties of the models is described and their comparability with observation is discussed. Graphical comparisons of these open models with the observed galaxy distribution in a large redshift survey are made. It is concluded that a model with a cosmological density parameter omega equal to one is quite unacceptable if galaxies trace the mass distribution, and that models with omega of roughly two, while better, still do not provide a fully acceptable match with observation. Finally, a situation in which galaxy formation is suppressed except in sufficiently dense regions is modelled which leads to models which can agree with observation quite well even for omega equal to one.

  12. Limits on cold dark matter cosmologies from new anisotropy bounds on the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittorio, Nicola; Meinhold, Peter; Lubin, Philip; Muciaccia, Pio Francesco; Silk, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    A self-consistent method is presented for comparing theoretical predictions of and observational upper limits on CMB anisotropy. New bounds on CDM cosmologies set by the UCSB South Pole experiment on the 1 deg angular scale are presented. An upper limit of 4.0 x 10 to the -5th is placed on the rms differential temperature anisotropy to a 95 percent confidence level and a power of the test beta = 55 percent. A lower limit of about 0.6/b is placed on the density parameter of cold dark matter universes with greater than about 3 percent baryon abundance and a Hubble constant of 50 km/s/Mpc, where b is the bias factor, equal to unity only if light traces mass.

  13. Strangeness in the Nucleon, Cold Dark Matter in the Universe, and Neutrino Scattering off Liquid Argon

    SciTech Connect

    Papavassiliou, V.

    2010-03-30

    The strangeness content of the nucleon and the contribution of strange quarks to various nucleon quantum numbers, besides being of fundamental interest, also affects calculations of cross sections of processes that are important in searches for new physics. Here we focus on direct searches for cold dark matter, in the scenario in which the lightest supersymmetric neutral particle dominates the CDM density in the universe and point out that interpretation of searches, as well as the choice of optimal materials for future experiments, are hobbled by uncertainties in the contribution of strange quarks to the nucleon spin. We show how a future low-energy neutrino experiment using a liquid-Ar TPC can make important contributions in determining this quantity with much better precision and reduced theoretical uncertainties.

  14. The formation of galaxies and quasars in a texture-seeded cold dark matter cosmogony

    SciTech Connect

    Gooding, A.K.; Turok, N.; Spergel, D.N. Princeton University Observatory, NJ )

    1991-05-01

    The nonGaussian perturbations produced by global texture lead to the early formation of stars, quasars, and galaxies. Growth of the density fluctuation in cold dark matter induced by the unwinding of a texture 'knot' is calculated and the evolution of the mass multiplicity function in this galaxy formation model is determined. By z of about 50, about 3 percent of the mass of the universe has formed nonlinear objects of mass greater than 10 to the 6th solar masses - these objects may have reionized the universe. Most objects larger than 10 to the 12th solar masses form by z about 2-3, consistent with the observed epoch of QSO formation. Today, about 35 percent of the mass of the universe is in bound objects of mass greater than 10 to the 12th solar masses. It is found that the slope and the amplitude of the multiplicity function is consistent with the observed galaxy luminosity function. 24 refs.

  15. Diesel soot aging in urban plumes within hours under cold dark and humid conditions.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, A C; Wittbom, C; Roldin, P; Sporre, M; Öström, E; Nilsson, P; Martinsson, J; Rissler, J; Nordin, E Z; Svenningsson, B; Pagels, J; Swietlicki, E

    2017-09-28

    Fresh and aged diesel soot particles have different impacts on climate and human health. While fresh diesel soot particles are highly aspherical and non-hygroscopic, aged particles are spherical and hygroscopic. Aging and its effect on water uptake also controls the dispersion of diesel soot in the atmosphere. Understanding the timescales on which diesel soot ages in the atmosphere is thus important, yet knowledge thereof is lacking. We show that under cold, dark and humid conditions the atmospheric transformation from fresh to aged soot occurs on a timescale of less than five hours. Under dry conditions in the laboratory, diesel soot transformation is much less efficient. While photochemistry drives soot aging, our data show it is not always a limiting factor. Field observations together with aerosol process model simulations show that the rapid ambient diesel soot aging in urban plumes is caused by coupled ammonium nitrate formation and water uptake.

  16. Large-scale structure after COBE: Peculiar velocities and correlations of cold dark matter halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurek, Wojciech H.; Quinn, Peter J.; Salmon, John K.; Warren, Michael S.

    1994-01-01

    Large N-body simulations on parallel supercomputers allow one to simultaneously investigate large-scale structure and the formation of galactic halos with unprecedented resolution. Our study shows that the masses as well as the spatial distribution of halos on scales of tens of megaparsecs in a cold dark matter (CDM) universe with the spectrum normalized to the anisotropies detected by Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) is compatible with the observations. We also show that the average value of the relative pairwise velocity dispersion sigma(sub v) - used as a principal argument against COBE-normalized CDM models-is significantly lower for halos than for individual particles. When the observational methods of extracting sigma(sub v) are applied to the redshift catalogs obtained from the numerical experiments, estimates differ significantly between different observation-sized samples and overlap observational estimates obtained following the same procedure.

  17. Is Cold Dark Matter Still a Strong Buy? The Lesson From Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Governato, Fabio; Ghigna, Sebastiano; Moore, Ben

    For the last few years the Cold Dark Matter model (ticker: CDM), has been the dominant theory of structure formation. We briefly review the recent advancements and predictions of the model in the field of galaxy clusters. A new set of very high resolution simulations of galaxy clusters show that they have (1) density profiles with central slopes very close to -1.6 and (2) abundance of subhalos similar to the ones observed in real clusters. These results show a remarkably small cluster to cluster variation and a weak dependence from the particular CDM cosmology chosen (LCDM having ~40% less substructure than SCDM). While still a speculative theory with a high prediction/evidence ratio, subject to strong challenges from observational data and competition from other hierarchical theories, we give CDM a rating of ``market outperform'' and of ``long term BUY''.

  18. Is dark matter with long-range interactions a solution to all small-scale problems of Λ cold dark matter cosmology?

    PubMed

    van den Aarssen, Laura G; Bringmann, Torsten; Pfrommer, Christoph

    2012-12-07

    The cold dark matter paradigm describes the large-scale structure of the Universe remarkably well. However, there exists some tension with the observed abundances and internal density structures of both field dwarf galaxies and galactic satellites. Here, we demonstrate that a simple class of dark matter models may offer a viable solution to all of these problems simultaneously. Their key phenomenological properties are velocity-dependent self-interactions mediated by a light vector messenger and thermal production with much later kinetic decoupling than in the standard case.

  19. A new parameter space study of the fermionic cold dark matter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagherian, Z.; Ettefaghi, M. M.; Haghgouyan, Z.; Moazzemi, R.

    2014-10-01

    We consider the standard model (SM) extended by a gauge singlet fermion as cold dark matter (SFCDM) and a gauge singlet scalar (singlet Higgs) as a mediator. The parameter space of the SM is enlarged by seven new ones. We obtain the total annihilation cross section of singlet fermions to the SM particles and singlet Higgs at tree level. Regarding the relic abundance constraint obtained by WMAP observations, we study the dependency on each parameter separately, for dark matter masses up to 1 TeV. In particular, the coupling of SFCDM to singlet Higgs gs, the SFCDM mass mψ, the second Higgs mass mh2, and the Higgs bosons mixing angel θ are investigated accurately. Three other parameters play no significant role. For a maximal mixing of Higgs bosons or at resonances, gs is applicable for the perturbation theory at tree level. We also obtain the scattering cross section of SFCDM off nucleons and compare our results with experiments which have already reported data in this mass range; XENON100, LUX, COUPP and PICASSO collaborations. Our results show that the SFCDM is excluded by these experiments for choosing parameters which are consistent with perturbation theory and relic abundance constraints.

  20. A new parameter space study of the fermionic cold dark matter model

    SciTech Connect

    Bagherian, Z.; Ettefaghi, M.M.; Haghgouyan, Z.; Moazzemi, R. E-mail: mettefaghi@qom.ac.ir E-mail: r.moazzemi@qom.ac.ir

    2014-10-01

    We consider the standard model (SM) extended by a gauge singlet fermion as cold dark matter (SFCDM) and a gauge singlet scalar (singlet Higgs) as a mediator. The parameter space of the SM is enlarged by seven new ones. We obtain the total annihilation cross section of singlet fermions to the SM particles and singlet Higgs at tree level. Regarding the relic abundance constraint obtained by WMAP observations, we study the dependency on each parameter separately, for dark matter masses up to 1 TeV. In particular, the coupling of SFCDM to singlet Higgs g{sub s}, the SFCDM mass m{sub ψ}, the second Higgs mass m{sub h{sub 2}}, and the Higgs bosons mixing angel θ are investigated accurately. Three other parameters play no significant role. For a maximal mixing of Higgs bosons or at resonances, g{sub s} is applicable for the perturbation theory at tree level. We also obtain the scattering cross section of SFCDM off nucleons and compare our results with experiments which have already reported data in this mass range; XENON100, LUX, COUPP and PICASSO collaborations. Our results show that the SFCDM is excluded by these experiments for choosing parameters which are consistent with perturbation theory and relic abundance constraints.

  1. A hydrodynamic treatment of the tilted cold dark matter cosmological scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1993-01-01

    A standard hydrodynamic code coupled with a particle-mesh code is used to compute the evolution of a tilted cold dark matter (TCDM) model containing both baryonic matter and dark matter. Six baryonic species are followed, with allowance for both collisional and radiative ionization in every cell. The mean final Zel'dovich-Sunyaev y parameter is estimated to be (5.4 +/- 2.7) x 10 exp -7, below currently attainable observations, with an rms fluctuation of about (6.0 +/- 3.0) x 10 exp -7 on arcmin scales. The rate of galaxy formation peaks at a relatively late epoch (z is about 0.5). In the case of mass function, the smallest objects are stabilized against collapse by thermal energy: the mass-weighted mass spectrum peaks in the vicinity of 10 exp 9.1 solar masses, with a reasonable fit to the Schechter luminosity function if the baryon mass to blue light ratio is about 4. It is shown that a bias factor of 2 required for the model to be consistent with COBE DMR signals is probably a natural outcome in the present multiple component simulations.

  2. A hydrodynamic treatment of the tilted cold dark matter cosmological scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1993-01-01

    A standard hydrodynamic code coupled with a particle-mesh code is used to compute the evolution of a tilted cold dark matter (TCDM) model containing both baryonic matter and dark matter. Six baryonic species are followed, with allowance for both collisional and radiative ionization in every cell. The mean final Zel'dovich-Sunyaev y parameter is estimated to be (5.4 +/- 2.7) x 10 exp -7, below currently attainable observations, with an rms fluctuation of about (6.0 +/- 3.0) x 10 exp -7 on arcmin scales. The rate of galaxy formation peaks at a relatively late epoch (z is about 0.5). In the case of mass function, the smallest objects are stabilized against collapse by thermal energy: the mass-weighted mass spectrum peaks in the vicinity of 10 exp 9.1 solar masses, with a reasonable fit to the Schechter luminosity function if the baryon mass to blue light ratio is about 4. It is shown that a bias factor of 2 required for the model to be consistent with COBE DMR signals is probably a natural outcome in the present multiple component simulations.

  3. Large-scale structure in a texture-seeded cold dark matter cosmogony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Changbom; Spergel, David N.; Turok, Nail

    1991-01-01

    This paper studies the formation of large-scale structure by global texture in a flat universe dominated by cold dark matter. A code for evolution of the texture fields was combined with an N-body code for evolving the dark matter. The results indicate some promising aspects: with only one free parameter, the observed galaxy-galaxy correlation function is reproduced, clusters of galaxies are found to be significantly clustered on a scale of 20-50/h Mpc, and coherent structures of over 50/h Mpc in the galaxy distribution were found. The large-scale streaming motions observed are in good agreement with the observations: the average magnitude of the velocity field smoothed over 30/h Mpc is 430 km/sec. Global texture produces a cosmic Mach number that is compatible with observation. Also, significant evolution of clusters at low redshift was seen. Possible problems for the theory include too high velocity dispersions in clusters, and voids which are not as empty as those observed.

  4. The evolving intergalactic medium - The uncollapsed baryon fraction in a cold dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Paul R.; Giroux, Mark L.; Babul, Arif

    1991-01-01

    The time-varying density of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is calculated by coupling detailed numerical calculations of the thermal and ionization balance and radiative transfer in a uniform IGM of H and He to the linearized equations for the growth of density fluctuations in both gases and a dark component in a cold dark matter universe. The IGM density is identified with the collapsed baryon fraction. It is found that even if the IGM is never reheated, a significant fraction of the baryons remain uncollapsed at redshifts of four. If instead the collapsed fraction releases enough ionizing radiation or thermal energy to reionize the IGM by z greater than four as required by the Gunn-Peterson (GP) constraint, the uncollapsed fraction at z of four is even higher. The known quasar distribution is insufficient to supply the ionizing radiation necessary to satisfy the GP constraint in this case and, if stars are instead responsible, a substantial metallicity must have been produced by z of four.

  5. The evolving intergalactic medium - The uncollapsed baryon fraction in a cold dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Paul R.; Giroux, Mark L.; Babul, Arif

    1991-01-01

    The time-varying density of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is calculated by coupling detailed numerical calculations of the thermal and ionization balance and radiative transfer in a uniform IGM of H and He to the linearized equations for the growth of density fluctuations in both gases and a dark component in a cold dark matter universe. The IGM density is identified with the collapsed baryon fraction. It is found that even if the IGM is never reheated, a significant fraction of the baryons remain uncollapsed at redshifts of four. If instead the collapsed fraction releases enough ionizing radiation or thermal energy to reionize the IGM by z greater than four as required by the Gunn-Peterson (GP) constraint, the uncollapsed fraction at z of four is even higher. The known quasar distribution is insufficient to supply the ionizing radiation necessary to satisfy the GP constraint in this case and, if stars are instead responsible, a substantial metallicity must have been produced by z of four.

  6. Large-scale structure in a texture-seeded cold dark matter cosmogony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Changbom; Spergel, David N.; Turok, Nail

    1991-01-01

    This paper studies the formation of large-scale structure by global texture in a flat universe dominated by cold dark matter. A code for evolution of the texture fields was combined with an N-body code for evolving the dark matter. The results indicate some promising aspects: with only one free parameter, the observed galaxy-galaxy correlation function is reproduced, clusters of galaxies are found to be significantly clustered on a scale of 20-50/h Mpc, and coherent structures of over 50/h Mpc in the galaxy distribution were found. The large-scale streaming motions observed are in good agreement with the observations: the average magnitude of the velocity field smoothed over 30/h Mpc is 430 km/sec. Global texture produces a cosmic Mach number that is compatible with observation. Also, significant evolution of clusters at low redshift was seen. Possible problems for the theory include too high velocity dispersions in clusters, and voids which are not as empty as those observed.

  7. The evolution of X-ray clusters in a cold plus hot dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Greg L.; Klypin, Anatoly; Loken, Chris; Norman, Michael L.; Burns, Jack O.

    1994-01-01

    We present the first self-consistently computed results on the evolution of X-ray properties of galaxy clusters in a cold + hot dark matter (CHDM) model. We have performed a hydrodynamic plus N-body simulation for the COBE-compatible CHDM model with standard mass components: Omega(sub hot) = 0.3, Omega (sub cold) = 0.6 and Omega(sub baryon) = 0.1 (h = 0.5). In contrast with the CDM model, which fails to reproduce the observed temperature distribution function dN/dT (Bryan et al. 1994b), the CHDM model fits the observational dN/dT quite well. Our results on X-ray luminosity are less firm but even more intriguing. We find that the resulting X-ray luminosity functions at redshifts z = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.7 are well fit by observations, where they overlap. The fact that both temperatures and luminosities provide a reasonable fit to the available observational data indicates that, unless we are missing some essential physics, there is neither room nor need for a large fraction of gas in rich clusters: 10% (or less) in baryons is sufficient to explain their X-ray properties. We also see a tight correlation between X-ray luminosity and gas temperature.

  8. The evolution of X-ray clusters in a cold plus hot dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Greg L.; Klypin, Anatoly; Loken, Chris; Norman, Michael L.; Burns, Jack O.

    1994-01-01

    We present the first self-consistently computed results on the evolution of X-ray properties of galaxy clusters in a cold + hot dark matter (CHDM) model. We have performed a hydrodynamic plus N-body simulation for the COBE-compatible CHDM model with standard mass components: Omega(sub hot) = 0.3, Omega (sub cold) = 0.6 and Omega(sub baryon) = 0.1 (h = 0.5). In contrast with the CDM model, which fails to reproduce the observed temperature distribution function dN/dT (Bryan et al. 1994b), the CHDM model fits the observational dN/dT quite well. Our results on X-ray luminosity are less firm but even more intriguing. We find that the resulting X-ray luminosity functions at redshifts z = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.7 are well fit by observations, where they overlap. The fact that both temperatures and luminosities provide a reasonable fit to the available observational data indicates that, unless we are missing some essential physics, there is neither room nor need for a large fraction of gas in rich clusters: 10% (or less) in baryons is sufficient to explain their X-ray properties. We also see a tight correlation between X-ray luminosity and gas temperature.

  9. Hints against the cold and collisionless nature of dark matter from the galaxy velocity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Aurel; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Reed, Darren S.; Lake, George

    2017-09-01

    The observed number of dwarf galaxies as a function of rotation velocity is significantly smaller than predicted by the standard model of cosmology. This discrepancy cannot be simply solved by assuming strong baryonic feedback processes, since they would violate the observed relation between maximum circular velocity (vmax) and baryon mass of galaxies. A speculative but tantalizing possibility is that the mismatch between observation and theory points towards the existence of non-cold or non-collisionless dark matter (DM). In this paper, we investigate the effects of warm (WDM), mixed (MDM, i.e. warm plus cold), and self-interacting DM (SIDM) scenarios on the abundance of dwarf galaxies and the relation between observed H I line width and maximum circular velocity. Both effects have the potential to alleviate the apparent mismatch between the observed and theoretical abundance of galaxies as a function of vmax. For the case of WDM and MDM, we show that the discrepancy disappears, even for lukewarm models that evade stringent bounds from the Lyman-α forest. SIDM scenarios can also provide a solution as long as they lead to extended (≳1.5 kpc) DM cores in the density profiles of dwarf galaxies. Only models with velocity-dependent cross-sections can yield such cores without violating other observational constraints at larger scales.

  10. The peculiar velocities of rich clusters in the hot and cold dark matter scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhee, George F.; West, Michael J.; Villumsen, Jens V.

    1993-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the peculiar velocities of rich clusters of galaxies. The peculiar motion of rich clusters in various cosmological scenarios is of interest for a number of reasons. Observationally, one can measure the peculiar motion of clusters to greater distances than galaxies because cluster peculiar motions can be determined to greater accuracy. One can also test the slope of distance indicator relations using clusters to see if galaxy properties vary with environment. We have used N-body simulations to measure the amplitude and rms cluster peculiar velocity as a function of bias parameter in the hot and cold dark matter scenarios. In addition to measuring the mean and rms peculiar velocity of clusters in the two models, we determined whether the peculiar velocity vector of a given cluster is well aligned with the gravity vector due to all the particles in the simulation and the gravity vector due to the particles present only in the clusters. We have investigated the peculiar velocities of rich clusters of galaxies in the cold dark matter and hot dark matter galaxy formation scenarios. We have derived peculiar velocities and associated errors for the scenarios using four values of the bias parameter ranging from b = 1 to b = 2.5. The growth of the mean peculiar velocity with scale factor has been determined and compared to that predicted by linear theory. In addition, we have compared the orientation of force and velocity in these simulations to see if a program such as that proposed by Bertschinger and Dekel (1989) for elliptical galaxy peculiar motions can be applied to clusters. The method they describe enables one to recover the density field from large scale redshift distance samples. The method makes it possible to do this when only radial velocities are known by assuming that the velocity field is curl free. Our analysis suggests that this program if applied to clusters is only realizable for models with a low value of the bias

  11. Can optimal resource allocation models explain why ectotherms grow larger in cold?

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, J; Czarnoleski, M; Danko, M

    2004-12-01

    Basically all organisms can be classified as determinate growers if their growth stops or almost stops at maturation, or indeterminate growers if growth is still intense after maturation. Adult size for determinate growers is relatively well defined, whereas in indeterminate growers usually two measures are used: size at maturation and asymptotic size. The latter term is in fact not a direct measure but a parameter of a specific growth equation, most often Bertalanffy's growth curve. At a given food level, the growth rate in determinate growers depends under given food level on physiological constraints as well as on investments in repair and other mechanisms that improve future survival. The growth rate in indeterminate growers consists of two phases: juvenile and adult. The mechanisms determining the juvenile growth rate are similar to those in determinate growers, whereas allocation to reproduction (dependent on external mortality rate) seems to be the main factor limiting adult growth. Optimal resource allocation models can explain the temperature-size rule (stating that usually ectotherms grow slower in cold but attain larger size) if the exponents of functions describing the size-dependence of the resource acquisition and metabolic rates change with temperature or mortality increases with temperature. Emerging data support both assumptions. The results obtained with the aid of optimization models represent just a rule and not a law: it is possible to find the ranges of production parameters and mortality rates for which the temperature-size rule does not hold.

  12. How do anions grow in the cold upper atmosphere of Titan? Insights from the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biennier, L.; Carles, S.; Codier, S.; Guillemin, J.-C.; Bourgalais, J.; Le Picard, S.; Faure, A.

    2013-09-01

    The Cassini-Huygens probe has revealed the existence of a profusion of negatively charged molecular species in the cold upper atmosphere of Titan (˜950 km). The presence of large amounts of negative ions was unexpected and the chemical pathways leading to their formation mostly unknown. The investigation of the negative ion chemistry appears therefore to be a key factor for modeling Titan's upper atmosphere. According to a recent study, the formation of aerosols in Titan's upper atmosphere could also be directly related to ion processes [1]. Here, we present the first low temperature experimental kinetic studies involving CN-and C3N-. These negative ions were proposed by Vuitton et al. [2] to be responsible for the low mass peaks emerging from the mass spectrum measured by the CAPS-ELS instrument onboard the Cassini spacecraft. The temperature dependence of the rate coefficient of the CN-+ HC3N reaction was explored over the 49-294 K temperature range in uniform supersonic flows using the CRESU technique. Cyanoacetylene, HC3N, represents one of the most abundant nitrogen containing constituents of the atmosphere of Titan, with a strong acidity that could promote the charge transfer. Our measurements show that the kinetics of this reaction is fast (k˜5×10-9cm3 molec-1 s-1) and presents a slightly negative temperature dependence well reproduced by long-range based capture theory. C3N-+ HCN represents the dominant exit channel demonstrating that this reaction could participate efficiently to the growth of negative ions in the atmosphere of Titan. In order to understand how the ions grow further, the study has been then extended to C3N-+ HC3N using an isotopically labeled nitrogen 15N precursor for the negative ion. Preliminary results have allowed to identify proton exchange as the major channel. The temperature dependence of the reaction will be examined. Our research illustrates that the accurate determi- nation of reaction rate coefficients over relevant cold

  13. The redshift dependence of the structure of massive Λ cold dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang; Navarro, Julio F.; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.; White, Simon D. M.; Springel, Volker; Jenkins, Adrian; Neto, Angelo F.

    2008-06-01

    We use two very large cosmological simulations to study how the density profiles of relaxed Λ cold dark matter dark haloes depend on redshift and on halo mass. We confirm that these profiles deviate slightly but systematically from the NFW form and are better approximated by the empirical formula, d logρ/d logr ~ rα, first used by Einasto to fit star counts in the Milky Way. The best-fitting value of the additional shape parameter, α, increases gradually with mass, from α ~ 0.16 for present-day galaxy haloes to α ~ 0.3 for the rarest and most massive clusters. Halo concentrations depend only weakly on mass at z = 0, and this dependence weakens further at earlier times. At z ~ 3 the average concentration of relaxed haloes does not vary appreciably over the mass range accessible to our simulations (M >~ 3 × 1011h-1Msolar). Furthermore, in our biggest simulation, the average concentration of the most massive, relaxed haloes is constant at ~ 3.5-4 for 0 <= z <= 3. These results agree well with those of Zhao et al. and support the idea that halo densities reflect the density of the universe at the time they formed, as proposed by Navarro, Frenk & White. With their original parameters, the NFW prescription overpredicts halo concentrations at high redshift. This shortcoming can be reduced by modifying the definition of halo formation time, although the evolution of the concentrations of Milky Way mass haloes is still not reproduced well. In contrast, the much-used revisions of the NFW prescription by Bullock et al. and Eke, Navarro & Steinmetz predict a steeper drop in concentration at the highest masses and stronger evolution with redshift than are compatible with our numerical data. Modifying the parameters of these models can reduce the discrepancy at high masses, but the overly rapid redshift evolution remains. These results have important implications for currently planned surveys of distant clusters.

  14. Physical drivers of galaxies' cold-gas content: exploring environmental and evolutionary effects with Dark Sage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Adam R. H.; Brown, Toby

    2017-10-01

    We combine the latest spectrally stacked data of 21-cm emission from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey with an updated version of the Dark Sage semi-analytic model to investigate the relative contributions of secular and environmental astrophysical processes on shaping the H I fractions and quiescence of galaxies in the local Universe. We calibrate the model to match the observed mean H I fraction of all galaxies as a function of stellar mass. Without consideration of stellar feedback, disc instabilities and active galactic nuclei, we show how the slope and normalization of this relation would change significantly. We find Dark Sage can reproduce the relative impact that halo mass is observed to have on satellites' H I fractions and quiescent fraction. However, the model satellites are systematically gas-poor. We discuss how this could be affected by satellite-central cross-contamination from the group-finding algorithm applied to the observed galaxies, but that it is not the full story. From our results, we suggest the anticorrelation between satellites' H I fractions and host halo mass, seen at fixed stellar mass and fixed specific star formation rate, can be attributed almost entirely to ram-pressure stripping of cold gas. Meanwhile, stripping of hot gas from around the satellites drives the correlation of quiescent fraction with halo mass at fixed stellar mass. Further detail in the modelling of galaxy discs' centres is required to solidify this result, however. We contextualize our results with those from other semi-analytic models and hydrodynamic simulations.

  15. Tidal features of classical Milky Way satellites in a Λ cold dark matter universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.-Y.; Fattahi, Azadeh; Cooper, Andrew P.; Sawala, Till; Strigari, Louis E.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Navarro, Julio F.; Oman, Kyle; Schaller, Matthieu

    2017-07-01

    We use the APOSTLE (A Project Of Simulating The Local Environment) cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to examine the effects of tidal stripping on cold dark matter subhaloes that host three of the most luminous Milky Way dwarf satellite galaxies: Fornax, Sculptor and Leo I. We identify simulated satellites that match the observed spatial and kinematic distributions of stars in these galaxies, and track their evolution after infall. We find ˜30 per cent of subhaloes hosting satellites with present-day stellar mass 106-108 M⊙ experience >20 per cent stellar mass-loss after infall. Fornax analogues have earlier infall times compared to Sculptor and Leo I analogues. Star formation in Fornax analogues continues for ˜3-6 Gyr after infall, whereas Sculptor and Leo I analogues stop forming stars <2-3 Gyr after infall. Fornax analogues typically show more significant stellar mass-loss and exhibit stellar tidal tails, whereas Sculptor and Leo I analogues, which are more deeply embedded in their host dark matter haloes at infall, do not show substantial mass-loss due to tides. When additionally comparing the orbital motion of the host subaloes to the measured proper motion of Fornax, we find the matching more difficult; host subhaloes tend to have pericentres smaller than that measured for Fornax itself. From the kinematic and orbital data, we estimate that Fornax has lost 10-20 per cent of its infall stellar mass. Our best estimate for the surface brightness of a stellar tidal stream associated with Fornax is Σ ˜ 32.6 mag arcsec-2, which may be detectable with deep imaging surveys such as DES and LSST.

  16. The rise and fall of a challenger: the Bullet Cluster in Λ cold dark matter simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Robert; Davé, Romeel; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2015-09-01

    The Bullet Cluster has provided some of the best evidence for the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model via direct empirical proof of the existence of collisionless dark matter, while posing a serious challenge owing to the unusually high inferred pairwise velocities of its progenitor clusters. Here, we investigate the probability of finding such a high-velocity pair in large-volume N-body simulations, particularly focusing on differences between halo-finding algorithms. We find that algorithms that do not account for the kinematics of infalling groups yield vastly different statistics and probabilities. When employing the ROCKSTAR halo finder that considers particle velocities, we find numerous Bullet-like pair candidates that closely match not only the high pairwise velocity, but also the mass, mass ratio, separation distance, and collision angle of the initial conditions that have been shown to produce the Bullet Cluster in non-cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. The probability of finding a high pairwise velocity pair among haloes with Mhalo ≥ 1014 M⊙ is 4.6 × 10-4 using ROCKSTAR, while it is ≈34 × lower using a friends-of-friends (FoF)-based approach as in previous studies. This is because the typical spatial extent of Bullet progenitors is such that FoF tends to group them into a single halo despite clearly distinct kinematics. Further requiring an appropriately high average mass among the two progenitors, we find the comoving number density of potential Bullet-like candidates to be of the order of ≈10-10 Mpc-3. Our findings suggest that ΛCDM straightforwardly produces massive, high relative velocity halo pairs analogous to Bullet Cluster progenitors, and hence the Bullet Cluster does not present a challenge to the ΛCDM model.

  17. Effect of dietary protein levels on sex hormones in growing male rats kept under constant darkness.

    PubMed

    Hanai, Miho; Esashi, Takatoshi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to clarify the effects of dietary protein levels on the gonadal development and sex hormones in male rats kept under constant darkness as a model of disturbed daily rhythm. Four-week-old male rats (Fischer 344 strain) were kept under constant darkness or normal lighting (12-h light/dark cycle). Two kinds of experimental diet were prepared, one with low dietary protein levels (9% casein) and one with normal levels (18% casein). Harper mineral mixture and Panvitan were used as mineral and vitamin sources, respectively. After 4 weeks, gonadal weight, serum testosterone, and other hormone contents were evaluated. The gonadal weight in the constant darkness groups (D-groups) was lower than that in the normal lighting groups (N-groups). Although the low-protein diet in the D-groups significantly reduced gonadal weight, the normal-protein diet mitigated the reduction of gonadal weight in rats kept under constant darkness. Serum testosterone and androstenedione concentrations were lower in D-group rats fed the low-protein diet. There were no effects of lighting condition or protein levels on serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle- stimulating hormone (FSH), or progesterone concentrations. These results indicate that the suppression of gonadal development in D-group rats fed the low-protein diet was caused by low testosterone, which we attribute to the inhibition of synthesized androstenedione, a precursor of testosterone. The present study showed that constant darkness and the low- protein diet inhibited the synthetic pathway from progesterone to androstenedione.

  18. Observations of some oxygen-containing and sulfur-containing organic molecules in cold dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.; Friberg, P.; Kaifu, N.; Kitamura, Y.; Kawaguchi, K.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of nine oxygen- and sulfur-containing organic molecules have been made toward the cold dark clouds TMC-1 and L134N. The presence of paraketene (H2C2O) in TMC-1 is confirmed for orthoketene, and has been observed for the first time and a total ketene column density of about 10 to the 13th/sq cm is found. Thioformaldehyde (H2CS) is easily detectable in both TMC-1 and L134N, with a column density about five times larger in the former source. The fractional abundance of ketene is comparable to the predictions of ion-molecule chemistry, while that of thioformaldehyde in TMC-1 is one to two orders of magnitude greater than that expected from such models at steady state. Interstellar sulfur chemistry thus continues to be poorly understood. Upper limits are set for the column densities of formic acid (HCOOH), vinyl alcohol (CH2CHOH), methyl formate (HCO2CH3), formamide (NH2CHO), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), isothiocyanic acid (HNCS), and thioketene (H2C2S) in both sources.

  19. The formation of cosmic structure in a texture-seeded cold dark matter cosmogony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, Andrew K.; Park, Changbom; Spergel, David N.; Turok, Neil; Gott, Richard, III

    1992-01-01

    The growth of density fluctuations induced by global texture in an Omega = 1 cold dark matter (CDM) cosmogony is calculated. The resulting power spectra are in good agreement with each other, with more power on large scales than in the standard inflation plus CDM model. Calculation of related statistics (two-point correlation functions, mass variances, cosmic Mach number) indicates that the texture plus CDM model compares more favorably than standard CDM with observations of large-scale structure. Texture produces coherent velocity fields on large scales, as observed. Excessive small-scale velocity dispersions, and voids less empty than those observed may be remedied by including baryonic physics. The topology of the cosmic structure agrees well with observation. The non-Gaussian texture induced density fluctuations lead to earlier nonlinear object formation than in Gaussian models and may also be more compatible with recent evidence that the galaxy density field is non-Gaussian on large scales. On smaller scales the density field is strongly non-Gaussian, but this appears to be primarily due to nonlinear gravitational clustering. The velocity field on smaller scales is surprisingly Gaussian.

  20. Correlation of QSO absorption lines in universes dominated by cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salmon, J.; Hogan, C.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical predictions for the redshift correlations between QSO absorption-line systems are investigated in the context of 'cold dark matter' cosmological models. Particles in 'particle-mesh' N-body simulations are interpreted as absorbing clouds at epochs corresponding to mean redshifts, z, of 0.0, 1.25, and 3.0. The velocity correlation function for absorbing clouds is found by passing lines-of-sight through the systems and computing velocity differences for those particles which lie close to the lines. It depends strongly on z and Omega but only weakly, if at all, on the number density, diameter or mass of the clouds. Two interpretations are possible: (1) the heavy element absorption systems are associated with galaxies which are an unbiased sample of the mass distribution in an Omega(0) = 0.2 universe or (2) the Lyman-alpha absorbers are an unbiased sample of the mass in an Omega(0) = 1 universe and the heavy-element absorption systems, like galaxies, are more strongly clustered than the mass.

  1. Axion as a Cold Dark Matter Candidate: Proof to Fully Nonlinear Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Hyerim; Hwang, Jai-chan; Park, Chan-Gyung

    2017-09-01

    We present proof of the axion as a cold dark matter (CDM) candidate to the fully nonlinear order perturbations based on Einstein’s gravity. We consider the axion as a coherently oscillating massive classical scalar field without interaction. We present the fully nonlinear and exact, except for ignoring the transverse-tracefree tensor-type perturbation, hydrodynamic equations for an axion fluid in Einstein’s gravity. We show that the axion has the characteristic pressure and anisotropic stress; the latter starts to appear from the second-order perturbation. But these terms do not directly affect the hydrodynamic equations in our axion treatment. Instead, what behaves as the effective pressure term in relativistic hydrodynamic equations is the perturbed lapse function and the relativistic result coincides exactly with the one known in the previous non-relativistic studies. The effective pressure term leads to a Jeans scale that is of the solar-system scale for conventional axion mass. As the fully nonlinear and relativistic hydrodynamic equations for an axion fluid coincide exactly with the ones of a zero-pressure fluid in the super-Jeans scale, we have proved the CDM nature of such an axion in that scale.

  2. Galaxy clusters and cold dark matter - A low-density unbiased universe?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, Neta A.; Cen, Renyue

    1992-01-01

    Large-scale simulations of a universe dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) are tested against two fundamental properties of clusters of galaxies: the cluster mass function and the cluster correlation function. We find that standard biased CDM models are inconsistent with these observations for any bias parameter b. A low-density, low-bias CDM-type model, with or without a cosmological constant, appears to be consistent with both the cluster mass function and the cluster correlations. The low-density model agrees well with the observed correlation function of the Abell, Automatic Plate Measuring Facility (APM), and Edinburgh-Durham cluster catalogs. The model is in excellent agreement with the observed dependence of the correlation strength on cluster mean separation, reproducing the measured universal dimensionless cluster correlation. The low-density model is also consistent with other large-scale structure observations, including the APM angular galaxy-correlations, and for lambda = 1-Omega with the COBE results of the microwave background radiation fluctuations.

  3. The formation of cosmic structure in a texture-seeded cold dark matter cosmogony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, Andrew K.; Park, Changbom; Spergel, David N.; Turok, Neil; Gott, Richard, III

    1992-01-01

    The growth of density fluctuations induced by global texture in an Omega = 1 cold dark matter (CDM) cosmogony is calculated. The resulting power spectra are in good agreement with each other, with more power on large scales than in the standard inflation plus CDM model. Calculation of related statistics (two-point correlation functions, mass variances, cosmic Mach number) indicates that the texture plus CDM model compares more favorably than standard CDM with observations of large-scale structure. Texture produces coherent velocity fields on large scales, as observed. Excessive small-scale velocity dispersions, and voids less empty than those observed may be remedied by including baryonic physics. The topology of the cosmic structure agrees well with observation. The non-Gaussian texture induced density fluctuations lead to earlier nonlinear object formation than in Gaussian models and may also be more compatible with recent evidence that the galaxy density field is non-Gaussian on large scales. On smaller scales the density field is strongly non-Gaussian, but this appears to be primarily due to nonlinear gravitational clustering. The velocity field on smaller scales is surprisingly Gaussian.

  4. Is the vast polar structure of dwarf galaxies a serious problem for Λ cold dark matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipnicky, Andrew; Chakrabarti, Sukanya

    2017-06-01

    The dwarf galaxies around the Milky Way are distributed in a so-called vast polar structure (VPOS) that may be in conflict with Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) simulations. Here, we seek to determine if the VPOS poses a serious challenge to the ΛCDM paradigm on galactic scales. Specifically, we investigate if the VPOS remains coherent as a function of time. Using the measured Hubble Space Telescope (HST) proper motions and associated uncertainties, we integrate the orbits of the classical Milky Way satellites backwards in time and find that the structure disperses well before a dynamical time. We also examine, in particular, Leo I and Leo II using their most recent proper motion data, both of which have extreme kinematic properties, but these satellites do not appear to drive the polar fit that is seen at the present day. We have studied the effect of the uncertainties on the HST proper motions on the coherence of the VPOS as a function of time. We find that 8 of the 11 classical dwarfs have reliable proper motions; for these eight, the VPOS also loses significance in less than a dynamical time, indicating that the VPOS is not a dynamically stable structure. Obtaining more accurate proper motion measurements of Ursa Minor, Sculptor and Carina would bolster these conclusions.

  5. Cold dark matter dominated, inflationary universe with Omega(0) less than 1 and n less than 1

    SciTech Connect

    Vittorio, N.; Matarrese, S.; Lucchin, F.

    1988-05-01

    The theoretical prejudice for a flat universe with an initially scale-invariant power spectrum has restricted the number of cosmological scenarios investigated for studying the formation of structure in the universe. A cold dark matter-dominated universe with a density parameter Omega(0) and a primordial spectral index n different from unity is considered, and its possible consistency with the inflationary model is discussed. It is shown that some of the difficulties of a flat cold dark matter scenario can be avoided by having Omega(0) less than 1 and n less than 1. For Omega(0) roughly 0.4 and n roughly 0.75 a good agreement is obtained with the large-scale drifts, the bounds on the cosmic microwave background smoothness, the Abell cluster abundance, and their correlation function. 85 references.

  6. NIHAO IX: the role of gas inflows and outflows in driving the contraction and expansion of cold dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, Aaron A.; Macciò, Andrea V.; Dekel, Avishai; Wang, Liang; Stinson, Gregory; Obreja, Aura; Di Cintio, Arianna; Brook, Chris; Buck, Tobias; Kang, Xi

    2016-09-01

    We use ˜100 cosmological galaxy formation `zoom-in' simulations using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GASOLINE to study the effect of baryonic processes on the mass profiles of cold dark matter haloes. The haloes in our study range from dwarf (M200 ˜ 1010 M⊙) to Milky Way (M200 ˜ 1012 M⊙) masses. Our simulations exhibit a wide range of halo responses, primarily varying with mass, from expansion to contraction, with up to factor ˜10 changes in the enclosed dark matter mass at 1 per cent of the virial radius. Confirming previous studies, the halo response is correlated with the integrated efficiency of star formation: ɛSF ≡ (Mstar/M200)/(Ωb/Ωm). In addition, we report a new correlation with the compactness of the stellar system: ɛR ≡ r1/2/R200. We provide an analytic formula depending on ɛSF and ɛR for the response of cold dark matter haloes to baryonic processes. An observationally testable prediction is that, at fixed mass, larger galaxies experience more halo expansion, while the smaller galaxies more halo contraction. This diversity of dark halo response is captured by a toy model consisting of cycles of adiabatic inflow (causing contraction) and impulsive gas outflow (causing expansion). For net outflow, or equal inflow and outflow fractions, f, the overall effect is expansion, with more expansion with larger f. For net inflow, contraction occurs for small f (large radii), while expansion occurs for large f (small radii), recovering the phenomenology seen in our simulations. These regularities in the galaxy formation process provide a step towards a fully predictive model for the structure of cold dark matter haloes.

  7. A Hydrodynamic Treatment of the Cold Dark Matter Cosmological Scenario with a Cosmological Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Renyue; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1993-11-01

    We compute the evolution of open, but spatially flat, cold dark matter (CDM) models with a cosmological constant (Ω + Δ = 1) containing both baryonic matter and dark matter. Hydrodynamics is treated with a highly developed Eulerian hydrodynamic code (see Cen 1992). A standard particle-mesh (PM) code to calculate the motion of collisionless particles is coupled with this hydrodynamic code. We adopt the following parameters: h ≡ H0/100 km s-1 Mpc-1 = ⅔, Ω = 0.3, λ = 0.7, Ωb = 0.034 with amplitude of the perturbation spectrum fixed by the COBE DMR measurements (Smoot et al. 1992) being sun8 = 0.67. Three different boxes are simulated with box sizes of L = (64, 16, 4) h-1 Mpc, respectively, the smallest box providing good resolution but little valid information due to the absence of large-scale power. We use 1283 = 106.3 baryonic cells and an equal number of dark matter particles. In addition to the dark matter we follow separately six baryonic species (H, H+ He, He+, He++, e-) with allowance for both (nonequilibrium) collisional and radiative ionization in every cell. The background radiation field is also followed in detail with allowance made for both continuum and line processes, to allow nonequilibrium heating and cooling processes to be followed in detail. The mean final Zel'dovich-Sunyaev γ parameter is estimated to be γbar = (3.6±1.8) × 10-7, below currently attainable observations, with a rms fluctuation of approximately (δbarγ= (4.0±2.0) × 10-7 on arcminute scales. The rate of galaxy formation peaks at a relatively earlier epoch (Ζ ˜ 2.0) than in the standard (Ω = 1) CDM model (Ζ ˜ 0.5) . With regard to mass function, the smallest objects are stabilized against collapse by thermal energy: the mass-weighted mass spectrum has a broad peak in the vicinity of mb = 109.5 Msun with a reasonable fit to the Schechter luminosity function if the baryon mass to blue light ratio is approximately 4. In addition, one very large PM simulation was made

  8. Cold Dark Matter Cosmogony with Hydrodynamics and Galaxy Formation: Galaxy Properties at Redshift Zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1993-11-01

    We have supplemented our code, which computes the evolution of the physical state of a representative piece of the universe, to include not only the dynamics of dark matter (with a standard PM code) and the hydrodynamics of the gaseous component (including detailed collisional and radiative processes), but also galaxy formation on a heuristic but plausible basis. If, within a cell, the gas is Jeans-unstable, collapsing and cooling rapidly, it is transformed to galaxy subunits, which are then followed with a collisionless code. We study two representative boxes with sizes L = (80, 8) h-1 Mpc, in both cases utilizing a mesh of 2003 cells containing 2003 dark matter particles and having nominal resolutions of (400, 40) h-1 kpc, respectively, with true resolution approximately 2.5 times worse. We adopt the standard cold dark matter (CDM) perturbation spectrum with an amplitude of σ8 ≡ = (δM/M)rms,8 = 0.77, a compromise between the COBE normalization σ8 = 1.05 and that indicated by the small-scale velocity dispersion (perhaps σ8 = 0.45). We find a mass function which is similar to that observed. There is a strong correlation between galactic age and environment. Identifying the oldest fraction with elliptical and 50 galaxies, we find a density morphology relation of the same type as is observed as well as a correlation between gas mass/total mass ratio and morphology that is similar to observations. In addition, we find that low-mass galaxies contain relatively more dark matter than giants. We present analytic fits to our derived results for "bias," the dependence of ρgal/ <ρgal> on ρtot/<ρtot>. Spatial structures resemble quantitatively those seen in redshift surveys, with galaxies concentrated in clusters and on filaments (or sheets) which surround quite empty voids. The void probability statistics indicate that this model is consistent with magnitude-limited real data. The small-scale velocity field is too large compared with the observed velocity

  9. The asymmetry of existence: do we owe our existence to cold dark matter and the weak force?

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea T; Davis, Paul A; Gershwin, M Eric

    2004-01-01

    A common theme throughout biology is homochirality, including its origin and especially implications. Homochirality has also intrigued scientists because of the hypothesis that life, as it currently exists, could not have occurred without it. In this review, we discuss several hypotheses regarding homochirality and their linkage to processes that range from subatomic in scale to processes that help define the structure of the universe. More importantly, this exploration begins with the knowledge that humans inhabit the universe in which there is an excess of normal matter over antimatter. It is a universe characterized by homochirality but is nonetheless contained in what is most easily described as a 3+1 dimensional spacetime wherein most laws of physics are invariant under spacetime transformations. This restriction on spacetime poses significant constraints on the processes that can be invoked to explain homochirality. However, in dealing with such restraints, including the total mass contained in the universe, the concepts of cold dark matter and dark energy can be incorporated into cosmological models with resultant behaviors and predictions very much in accord with the findings of the cosmic background surveys. Indeed, the introduction of cold dark matter and dark energy to solve problems relating to the mass found in the universe may provide a means for generating the needed asymmetry to allow homochirality to arise.

  10. A model for the distribution of dark matter, galaxies, and the intergalactic medium in a cold dark matter-dominated universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.; Chiang, Wei-Hwan

    1989-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the cold-dark-matter (CDM) and baryonic components of CDM-dominated cosmological models are characterized, summarizing the results of recent theoretical investigations. The evolution and distribution of matter in an Einstein-de Sitter universe on length scales small enough so that the Newtonian approximation is valid is followed chronologically, assuming (1) that the galaxies, CDM, and the intergalactic medium (IGM) are coupled by gravity, (2) that galaxies form by taking mass and momentum from the IGM, and (3) that the IGM responds to the energy input from the galaxies. The results of the numerical computations are presented in extensive graphs and discussed in detail.

  11. A model for the distribution of dark matter, galaxies, and the intergalactic medium in a cold dark matter-dominated universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.; Chiang, Wei-Hwan

    1989-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the cold-dark-matter (CDM) and baryonic components of CDM-dominated cosmological models are characterized, summarizing the results of recent theoretical investigations. The evolution and distribution of matter in an Einstein-de Sitter universe on length scales small enough so that the Newtonian approximation is valid is followed chronologically, assuming (1) that the galaxies, CDM, and the intergalactic medium (IGM) are coupled by gravity, (2) that galaxies form by taking mass and momentum from the IGM, and (3) that the IGM responds to the energy input from the galaxies. The results of the numerical computations are presented in extensive graphs and discussed in detail.

  12. Adjusted light and dark cycles can optimize photosynthetic efficiency in algae growing in photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Eleonora; Simionato, Diana; Giacometti, Giorgio Mario; Bertucco, Alberto; Morosinotto, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels from algae are highly interesting as renewable energy sources to replace, at least partially, fossil fuels, but great research efforts are still needed to optimize growth parameters to develop competitive large-scale cultivation systems. One factor with a seminal influence on productivity is light availability. Light energy fully supports algal growth, but it leads to oxidative stress if illumination is in excess. In this work, the influence of light intensity on the growth and lipid productivity of Nannochloropsis salina was investigated in a flat-bed photobioreactor designed to minimize cells self-shading. The influence of various light intensities was studied with both continuous illumination and alternation of light and dark cycles at various frequencies, which mimic illumination variations in a photobioreactor due to mixing. Results show that Nannochloropsis can efficiently exploit even very intense light, provided that dark cycles occur to allow for re-oxidation of the electron transporters of the photosynthetic apparatus. If alternation of light and dark is not optimal, algae undergo radiation damage and photosynthetic productivity is greatly reduced. Our results demonstrate that, in a photobioreactor for the cultivation of algae, optimizing mixing is essential in order to ensure that the algae exploit light energy efficiently.

  13. Adjusted Light and Dark Cycles Can Optimize Photosynthetic Efficiency in Algae Growing in Photobioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Sforza, Eleonora; Simionato, Diana; Giacometti, Giorgio Mario; Bertucco, Alberto; Morosinotto, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels from algae are highly interesting as renewable energy sources to replace, at least partially, fossil fuels, but great research efforts are still needed to optimize growth parameters to develop competitive large-scale cultivation systems. One factor with a seminal influence on productivity is light availability. Light energy fully supports algal growth, but it leads to oxidative stress if illumination is in excess. In this work, the influence of light intensity on the growth and lipid productivity of Nannochloropsis salina was investigated in a flat-bed photobioreactor designed to minimize cells self-shading. The influence of various light intensities was studied with both continuous illumination and alternation of light and dark cycles at various frequencies, which mimic illumination variations in a photobioreactor due to mixing. Results show that Nannochloropsis can efficiently exploit even very intense light, provided that dark cycles occur to allow for re-oxidation of the electron transporters of the photosynthetic apparatus. If alternation of light and dark is not optimal, algae undergo radiation damage and photosynthetic productivity is greatly reduced. Our results demonstrate that, in a photobioreactor for the cultivation of algae, optimizing mixing is essential in order to ensure that the algae exploit light energy efficiently. PMID:22745696

  14. Cold Dark Matter Substructure and Galactic Disks I: Morphological Signatures of Hierarchical SatelliteAccretion

    SciTech Connect

    Kazantzidis, Stelios; Bullock, James S.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2007-12-03

    We conduct a series of high-resolution, fully self-consistent dissipation less N-body simulations to investigate the cumulative effect of substructure mergers onto thin disk galaxies in the context of the {Lambda}CDM paradigm of structure formation. Our simulation campaign is based on a hybrid approach combining cosmological simulations and controlled numerical experiments. Substructure mass functions, orbital distributions, internal structures, and accretion times are culled directly from cosmological simulations of galaxy-sized cold dark matter (CDM) halos. We demonstrate that accretions of massive subhalos onto the central regions of host halos, where the galactic disk resides, since z {approx} 1 should be common occurrences. In contrast, extremely few satellites in present-day CDM halos are likely to have a significant impact on the disk structure. This is due to the fact that massive subhalos with small orbital pericenters that are most capable of strongly perturbing the disk become either tidally disrupted or suffer substantial mass loss prior to z = 0. One host halo merger history is subsequently used to seed controlled N-body experiments of repeated satellite impacts on an initially-thin Milky Way-type disk galaxy. These simulations track the effects of six dark matter substructures, with initial masses in the range {approx} (0.7-2) x 10{sup 10} M{sub {circle_dot}} ({approx} 20-60% of the disk mass), crossing the disk in the past {approx} 8 Gyr. We show that these accretion events produce several distinctive observational signatures in the stellar disk including: a long-lived, low-surface brightness, ring-like feature in the outskirts; a significant flare; a central bar; and faint filamentary structures that (spuriously) resemble tidal streams in configuration space. The final distribution of disk stars exhibits a complex vertical structure that is well-described by a standard 'thin-thick' disk decomposition, where the 'thick' disk component has emerged

  15. Cold-acclimation limits low temperature induced photoinhibition by promoting a higher photochemical quantum yield and a more effective PSII restoration in darkness in the Antarctic rather than the Andean ecotype of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ecotypes of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae) from Andes Mountains and Maritime Antarctic grow under contrasting photoinhibitory conditions, reaching differential cold tolerance upon cold acclimation. Photoinhibition depends on the extent of photodamage and recovery capability. We propose that cold acclimation increases resistance to low-temperature-induced photoinhibition, limiting photodamage and promoting recovery under cold. Therefore, the Antarctic ecotype (cold hardiest) should be less photoinhibited and have better recovery from low-temperature-induced photoinhibition than the Andean ecotype. Both ecotypes were exposed to cold induced photoinhibitory treatment (PhT). Photoinhibition and recovery of photosystem II (PSII) was followed by fluorescence, CO2 exchange, and immunoblotting analyses. Results The same reduction (25%) in maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm) was observed in both cold-acclimated (CA) and non-acclimated (NA) plants under PhT. A full recovery was observed in CA plants of both ecotypes under dark conditions, but CA Antarctic plants recover faster than the Andean ecotype. Under PhT, CA plants maintain their quantum yield of PSII, while NA plants reduced it strongly (50% and 73% for Andean and Antarctic plants respectively). Cold acclimation induced the maintenance of PsaA and Cyt b6/f and reduced a 41% the excitation pressure in Antarctic plants, exhibiting the lowest level under PhT. xCold acclimation decreased significantly NPQs in both ecotypes, and reduced chlorophylls and D1 degradation in Andean plants under PhT. NA and CA plants were able to fully restore their normal photosynthesis, while CA Antarctic plants reached 50% higher photosynthetic rates after recovery, which was associated to electron fluxes maintenance under photoinhibitory conditions. Conclusions Cold acclimation has a greater importance on the recovery process than on limiting photodamage. Cold acclimation determined the kinetic and extent of

  16. Cold-acclimation limits low temperature induced photoinhibition by promoting a higher photochemical quantum yield and a more effective PSII restoration in darkness in the Antarctic rather than the Andean ecotype of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Bascuñán-Godoy, Luisa; Sanhueza, Carolina; Cuba, Marely; Zuñiga, Gustavo E; Corcuera, Luis J; Bravo, León A

    2012-07-24

    Ecotypes of Colobanthus quitensis Kunt Bartl (Cariophyllaceae) from Andes Mountains and Maritime Antarctic grow under contrasting photoinhibitory conditions, reaching differential cold tolerance upon cold acclimation. Photoinhibition depends on the extent of photodamage and recovery capability. We propose that cold acclimation increases resistance to low-temperature-induced photoinhibition, limiting photodamage and promoting recovery under cold. Therefore, the Antarctic ecotype (cold hardiest) should be less photoinhibited and have better recovery from low-temperature-induced photoinhibition than the Andean ecotype. Both ecotypes were exposed to cold induced photoinhibitory treatment (PhT). Photoinhibition and recovery of photosystem II (PSII) was followed by fluorescence, CO2 exchange, and immunoblotting analyses. The same reduction (25%) in maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm) was observed in both cold-acclimated (CA) and non-acclimated (NA) plants under PhT. A full recovery was observed in CA plants of both ecotypes under dark conditions, but CA Antarctic plants recover faster than the Andean ecotype.Under PhT, CA plants maintain their quantum yield of PSII, while NA plants reduced it strongly (50% and 73% for Andean and Antarctic plants respectively). Cold acclimation induced the maintenance of PsaA and Cyt b6/f and reduced a 41% the excitation pressure in Antarctic plants, exhibiting the lowest level under PhT. xCold acclimation decreased significantly NPQs in both ecotypes, and reduced chlorophylls and D1 degradation in Andean plants under PhT.NA and CA plants were able to fully restore their normal photosynthesis, while CA Antarctic plants reached 50% higher photosynthetic rates after recovery, which was associated to electron fluxes maintenance under photoinhibitory conditions. Cold acclimation has a greater importance on the recovery process than on limiting photodamage. Cold acclimation determined the kinetic and extent of recovery process under darkness in

  17. Testing the velocity field in non-scale-invariant cold dark matter models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscardini, Lauro; Tormen, Giuseppe; Matarrese, Sabino; Lucchin, Francesco

    1995-04-01

    We analyze the cosmic peculiar velocity field as traced by a sample of 1184 spiral, elliptical and SO galaxies, grouped in 704 objects. We perform a statistical analysis, by calculating the bulk flow, cosmic Mach number and velocity correlation function for this sample and for mock catalogs extracted from a set of N-body simulations. We run four cold dark matter (CDM) simulations: two tilted models (with spectral index n = 0.6 and n = 0.8), the standard model (n = 1) and a 'blue' one (n = 1.2), with different values of the linear bias parameter b. By means of a maximum-likelihood analysis we estimate the ability of our models to fit the observations, as measured by the above statistics, and to reproduce the Local group properties. On the basis of this analysis we conclude that the best model is the unbiased standard model (n, b) = (1, 1), even though the overall flatness of the joint likelihood function implies that one cannot strongly discriminate models in the range 0.8 less than or = n less than or equal to 1, and 1 less than or = b less than or = 1.5. Models with b greater than or = 2.5 are rejected at the 95% confidence level. For n = 0.8 the values of b preferred by the present analysis, together with the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) data, require a negligible contribution to Delta T/T by gravitational waves. Finally, the blue model, normalized to COBE, does not provide a good fit to the velocity data.

  18. Cosmology and astrophysics from relaxed galaxy clusters - V. Consistency with cold dark matter structure formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantz, A. B.; Allen, S. W.; Morris, R. G.

    2016-10-01

    This is the fifth in a series of papers studying the astrophysics and cosmology of massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. Our sample comprises 40 clusters identified as being dynamically relaxed and hot in Papers I and II of this series. Here we use constraints on cluster mass profiles from X-ray data to test some of the basic predictions of cosmological structure formation in the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm. We present constraints on the concentration-mass relation for massive clusters, finding a power-law mass dependence with a slope of κm = -0.16 ± 0.07, in agreement with CDM predictions. For this relaxed sample, the relation is consistent with a constant as a function of redshift (power-law slope with 1 + z of κζ = -0.17 ± 0.26), with an intrinsic scatter of σln c = 0.16 ± 0.03. We investigate the shape of cluster mass profiles over the radial range probed by the data (typically ˜50 kpc-1 Mpc), and test for departures from the simple Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) form, for which the logarithmic slope of the density profile tends to -1 at small radii. Specifically, we consider as alternatives the generalized NFW (GNFW) and Einasto parametrizations. For the GNFW model, we find an average value of (minus) the logarithmic inner slope of β = 1.02 ± 0.08, with an intrinsic scatter of σβ = 0.22 ± 0.07, while in the Einasto case we constrain the average shape parameter to be α = 0.29 ± 0.04 with an intrinsic scatter of σα = 0.12 ± 0.04. Our results are thus consistent with the simple NFW model on average, but we clearly detect the presence of intrinsic, cluster-to-cluster scatter about the average.

  19. Are fossil groups a challenge of the cold dark matter paradigm?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibetti, Stefano; Pierini, Daniele; Pratt, Gabriel W.

    2009-01-01

    We study six groups and clusters of galaxies suggested in the literature to be `fossil' systems (i.e. to have luminous diffuse X-ray emission and a magnitude gap of at least 2mag R between the first and the second ranked member within half of the virial radius), each having good quality X-ray data and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic or photometric coverage out to the virial radius. The poor cluster AWM4 is clearly established as a fossil system, and we confirm the fossil nature of four other systems (RXJ1331.5+1108, RXJ1340.6+4018, RXJ1256.0+2556 and RXJ1416.4+2315), while the cluster RXJ1552.2+2013 is disqualified as fossil system. For all systems, we present the luminosity functions within 0.5 and 1 virial radius that are consistent, within the uncertainties, with the universal luminosity function of clusters. For the five bona fide fossil systems, having a mass range 2 × 1013-3 × 1014Msolar, we compute accurate cumulative substructure distribution functions (CSDFs) and compare them with the CSDFs of observed and simulated groups/clusters available in the literature. We demonstrate that the CSDFs of fossil systems are consistent with those of normal observed clusters and do not lack any substructure with respect to simulated galaxy systems in the cosmological Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) framework. In particular, this holds for the archetype fossil group RXJ1340.6+4018 as well, contrary to earlier claims.

  20. The effects of cold dark matter on standard big bang nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagelin, John S.; Parker, Ron J. D.

    1990-01-01

    We show that the annihilation of cold, weakly-interacting dark matter candidates (χ) subsequent to χχ freeze-out can significantly affect the primordial abundance of light elements. The largest effects are (i) between the n/p freeze-out temperature (T ⋍ 0.7 MeV) and the onset of nucleosynthesis at T ⋍ 0.1 MeV, χχ annihilations increase the n/p ratio, leading to increased 4He production; (ii) following 4He synthesis, baryonic products p, n, n of χχ annihilations dissociate some of the 4he into D and 3He, leading to increased D + 3He abundances; (iii) toward the end of nucleosynthesis, neutrons from χχ annihilation lead to n + 7Be --> p + 7Li, resulting in increased 7Li + 7Be production for low values of η ≡ nb/nγ and decreased 7Li + 7Be production for large η and (iv) long after nucleosynthesis, once the universe cools below T ⋍ 1 keV, the electromagnetic shower produced by electrons, positrons and photons from residual χχ annihilations causes further dissociation of 4He, leading to increased D + 3He abundances. The most important result is that for Dirac and Majorana neutrinos, the 7Li constraints on η from SBBN are significantly affected, with larger values of η being favored. A summary of scattering rates for processes in the electromagnetic shower, including corrections to numerous misprints in other sources, is presented in the appendix.

  1. Cosmology and astrophysics from relaxed galaxy clusters – V. Consistency with cold dark matter structure formation

    SciTech Connect

    Mantz, A. B.; Allen, S. W.; Morris, R. G.

    2016-07-15

    This is the fifth in a series of papers studying the astrophysics and cosmology of massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. Our sample comprises 40 clusters identified as being dynamically relaxed and hot in Papers I and II of this series. Here we use constraints on cluster mass profiles from X-ray data to test some of the basic predictions of cosmological structure formation in the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm. We present constraints on the concentration–mass relation for massive clusters, finding a power-law mass dependence with a slope of κm = -0.16 ± 0.07, in agreement with CDM predictions. For this relaxed sample, the relation is consistent with a constant as a function of redshift (power-law slope with 1 + z of κζ = -0.17 ± 0.26), with an intrinsic scatter of σln c = 0.16 ± 0.03. We investigate the shape of cluster mass profiles over the radial range probed by the data (typically ~50 kpc–1 Mpc), and test for departures from the simple Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) form, for which the logarithmic slope of the density profile tends to -1 at small radii. Specifically, we consider as alternatives the generalized NFW (GNFW) and Einasto parametrizations. For the GNFW model, we find an average value of (minus) the logarithmic inner slope of β = 1.02 ± 0.08, with an intrinsic scatter of σβ = 0.22 ± 0.07, while in the Einasto case we constrain the average shape parameter to be α = 0.29 ± 0.04 with an intrinsic scatter of σα = 0.12 ± 0.04. Our results are thus consistent with the simple NFW model on average, but we clearly detect the presence of intrinsic, cluster-to-cluster scatter about the average.

  2. Cosmology and astrophysics from relaxed galaxy clusters – V. Consistency with cold dark matter structure formation

    DOE PAGES

    Mantz, A. B.; Allen, S. W.; Morris, R. G.

    2016-07-15

    This is the fifth in a series of papers studying the astrophysics and cosmology of massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. Our sample comprises 40 clusters identified as being dynamically relaxed and hot in Papers I and II of this series. Here we use constraints on cluster mass profiles from X-ray data to test some of the basic predictions of cosmological structure formation in the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm. In addition, we present constraints on the concentration–mass relation for massive clusters, finding a power-law mass dependence with a slope of κm = –0.16 ± 0.07, in agreement with CDM predictions.more » For this relaxed sample, the relation is consistent with a constant as a function of redshift (power-law slope with 1 + z of κζ = –0.17 ± 0.26), with an intrinsic scatter of σln c = 0.16 ± 0.03. We investigate the shape of cluster mass profiles over the radial range probed by the data (typically ~50 kpc–1 Mpc), and test for departures from the simple Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) form, for which the logarithmic slope of the density profile tends to –1 at small radii. Specifically, we consider as alternatives the generalized NFW (GNFW) and Einasto parametrizations. For the GNFW model, we find an average value of (minus) the logarithmic inner slope of β = 1.02 ± 0.08, with an intrinsic scatter of σβ = 0.22 ± 0.07, while in the Einasto case we constrain the average shape parameter to be α = 0.29 ± 0.04 with an intrinsic scatter of σα = 0.12 ± 0.04. Our results are thus consistent with the simple NFW model on average, but we clearly detect the presence of intrinsic, cluster-to-cluster scatter about the average.« less

  3. European cold wave during February 2012 and impacts in wine growing regions of Moldavia (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planchon, Olivier; Quénol, Hervé; Irimia, Liviu; Patriche, Cristi

    2015-05-01

    A severe cold wave hits a large part of Europe between late January and mid-February 2012 and caused damages in the vineyard of Moldavia in Northeastern Romania. During the cold wave, the daily minimum temperature fell near -30 °C at some weather stations in Moldavia, but the hilly terrain caused strong temperature differences at small scales: up to 10 °C in a few kilometres. Three main cold spells with very low minimum temperatures were identified in association with the succession of three circulation types (according to the Hess-Brezowsky classification): Fennoscandian high anticyclonic (HFA, January 29-February 4), Central European ridge (BM, February 5-7) and northeast anticyclonic NEA (NEA, February 8-11). A multi-scale agroclimatic analysis in the vineyard of Cotnari (Moldavia, Romania) was carried out in the particular meteorological context of the early 2012 European cold wave. The results especially pointed out the local-scale (topoclimatic) effects on the high spatial variability of temperature and consequently a contrasting spatial distribution of damage on grape vine. The analysis of data recorded from temperature loggers installed in several test sites in the vineyard of Cotnari, depending on its topographical features, and of the observations of frost damage on grape vines (on vine buds, vine canes and even vine arms and trunks) pointed out a significant correlation between the topographic position and the grape vine variety.

  4. Reionization in a cold dark matter universe: The feedback of galaxy formation on the intergalactic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Paul R.; Giroux, Mark L.; Babul, Arif

    1994-01-01

    We study the coupled evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the emerging structure in the universe in the context of the cold dark matter (CDM) model, with a special focus on the consequences of imposing reionization and the Gunn-Peterson constraint as a boundary condition on the model. We have calculated the time-varying density of the IGM by coupling our detailed, numerical calculations of the thermal and ionization balance and radiative transfer in a uniform, spatially averaged IGM of H and He, including the mean opacity of an evolving distribution of gas clumps which correspond to quasar absorption line clouds, to the linearized equations for the growth of density fluctuations in both the gaseous and dark matter components in a CDM universe. We use the linear growth equations to identify the fraction of the gas which must have collapsed out at each epoch, an approach similar in spirit to the so-called Press-Schechter formalism. We identify the IGM density with the uncollapsed baryon fraction. The collapsed fraction is postulated to be a source of energy injection into the IGM, by radiation or bulk hydrodynamical heating (e.g., via shocks) or both, at a rate which is marginally enough to satisfy the Gunn-Peterson constraint at z less than 5. Our results include the following: (1) We find that the IGM in a CDM model must have contained a substantial fraction of the total baryon density of the universe both during and after its reionization epoch. (2) As a result, our previous conclusion that the observed Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs) at high redshift are not sufficient to ionize the IGM enough to satisfy the Gunn-Peterson constraint is confirmed. (3) We predict a detectable He II Gunn-Peterson effect at 304(1 + z) A in the spectra of quasars at a range of redshift z greater than or approx. 3, depending on the nature of the sources of IGM reionization. (4) We find, moreover, that a CDM model with high bias parameter b (i.e., b greater than or approx. 2

  5. Reionization in a cold dark matter universe: The feedback of galaxy formation on the intergalactic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Paul R.; Giroux, Mark L.; Babul, Arif

    1994-01-01

    We study the coupled evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the emerging structure in the universe in the context of the cold dark matter (CDM) model, with a special focus on the consequences of imposing reionization and the Gunn-Peterson constraint as a boundary condition on the model. We have calculated the time-varying density of the IGM by coupling our detailed, numerical calculations of the thermal and ionization balance and radiative transfer in a uniform, spatially averaged IGM of H and He, including the mean opacity of an evolving distribution of gas clumps which correspond to quasar absorption line clouds, to the linearized equations for the growth of density fluctuations in both the gaseous and dark matter components in a CDM universe. We use the linear growth equations to identify the fraction of the gas which must have collapsed out at each epoch, an approach similar in spirit to the so-called Press-Schechter formalism. We identify the IGM density with the uncollapsed baryon fraction. The collapsed fraction is postulated to be a source of energy injection into the IGM, by radiation or bulk hydrodynamical heating (e.g., via shocks) or both, at a rate which is marginally enough to satisfy the Gunn-Peterson constraint at z less than 5. Our results include the following: (1) We find that the IGM in a CDM model must have contained a substantial fraction of the total baryon density of the universe both during and after its reionization epoch. (2) As a result, our previous conclusion that the observed Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs) at high redshift are not sufficient to ionize the IGM enough to satisfy the Gunn-Peterson constraint is confirmed. (3) We predict a detectable He II Gunn-Peterson effect at 304(1 + z) A in the spectra of quasars at a range of redshift z greater than or approx. 3, depending on the nature of the sources of IGM reionization. (4) We find, moreover, that a CDM model with high bias parameter b (i.e., b greater than or approx. 2

  6. Spatial and dynamical properties of voids in a Λ cold dark matter universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, N. D.; Ceccarelli, L.; Lambas, D. G.

    2005-11-01

    We study the statistical properties of voids in the distribution of mass, dark-matter haloes and galaxies (BJ < -16) in a Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM)numerical simulation populated with galaxies using a semi-analytic galaxy formation model (GALFORM, Cole et al.). We find that the properties of voids selected from GALFORM galaxies are compatible with those of voids identified from a population of haloes with mass M > 1011.5h-1Msolar, similar to the median halo mass, Mmed= 1011.3h-1Msolar. We also find that the number density of galaxy- and halo-defined voids can be up to two orders of magnitude higher than mass-defined voids for large void radii, however, we observe that this difference is reduced to about half an order of magnitude when the positions are considered in redshift space. As expected, there are outflow velocities that show their maximum at larger void-centric distances for larger voids. We find a linear relation for the maximum outflow velocity, vmax=v0rvoid. The void-centric distance where this maximum occurs follows a suitable power-law fit of the form log(dvmax)=(rvoid/A)B. At sufficiently large distances, we find mild infall motions on to the subdense regions. The galaxy velocity field around galaxy-defined voids is consistent with the results of haloes with masses above the median, showing milder outflows than the mass around mass-defined voids. We find that a similar analysis in redshift space would make both outflows and infalls appear with a lower amplitude. We also find that the velocity dispersion of galaxies and haloes is larger in the direction parallel to the void walls by ~=10-20 per cent. Given that voids are by definition subdense regions, the cross-correlation function between galaxy-defined voids and galaxies is close to ξ=-1 out to separations comparable to the void size, and at larger separations the correlation function level increases, approaching the values of the auto-correlation function of galaxies. The cross

  7. Cosmology and astrophysics from relaxed galaxy clusters – V. Consistency with cold dark matter structure formation

    SciTech Connect

    Mantz, A. B.; Allen, S. W.; Morris, R. G.

    2016-07-15

    This is the fifth in a series of papers studying the astrophysics and cosmology of massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. Our sample comprises 40 clusters identified as being dynamically relaxed and hot in Papers I and II of this series. Here we use constraints on cluster mass profiles from X-ray data to test some of the basic predictions of cosmological structure formation in the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm. In addition, we present constraints on the concentration–mass relation for massive clusters, finding a power-law mass dependence with a slope of κm = –0.16 ± 0.07, in agreement with CDM predictions. For this relaxed sample, the relation is consistent with a constant as a function of redshift (power-law slope with 1 + z of κζ = –0.17 ± 0.26), with an intrinsic scatter of σln c = 0.16 ± 0.03. We investigate the shape of cluster mass profiles over the radial range probed by the data (typically ~50 kpc–1 Mpc), and test for departures from the simple Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) form, for which the logarithmic slope of the density profile tends to –1 at small radii. Specifically, we consider as alternatives the generalized NFW (GNFW) and Einasto parametrizations. For the GNFW model, we find an average value of (minus) the logarithmic inner slope of β = 1.02 ± 0.08, with an intrinsic scatter of σβ = 0.22 ± 0.07, while in the Einasto case we constrain the average shape parameter to be α = 0.29 ± 0.04 with an intrinsic scatter of σα = 0.12 ± 0.04. Our results are thus consistent with the simple NFW model on average, but we clearly detect the presence of intrinsic, cluster-to-cluster scatter about the average.

  8. Deuterium fractionation of a distant cold dark cloud along the line of sight of W51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastel, C.; Mookerjea, B.; Pety, J.; Gerin, M.

    2017-01-01

    Herschel/HIFI observations toward the compact HII region W51 has revealed the presence of a cold dense core along its line of sight in a high-velocity stream located just in front of W51. This detection has been made possible through absorption measurements of low-energy transitions of HDO, NH3, and C3 against the bright background emitted by the star-forming region. We present a follow-up study of this core using the high sensitivity and high spectral resolution provided by the IRAM 30m telescope. We report new detections of this core in absorption for DCO+ (2-1, 3-2), H13CO+ (1-0), DNC (3-2), HN13C (1-0), p-H2CO (20,2-10,1, 30,3-20,2), and in emission for o-NH2D. We also report interferometric observation of this last species using the IRAM/NOEMA telescope, revealing the fragmented nature of the source through the detection of two cores, separated by 0.19-0.24 pc, with average sizes of less than 0.16-0.19 pc. From a non-LTE analysis, we are able to estimate the density ( 2.5 × 104 cm-3) and temperature ( 10 K) of this component, typical of what is found in dark clouds. This component (called W51-core) has the same DCO+/HCO+ ratio (0.02) as TMC-1 and a high DNC/HNC ratio (0.14). Detection of these deuterated species indicates that W51-core is similar to an early-phase low-mass star-forming region, formed from the interaction between the W51 giant molecular cloud and the high-velocity stream in front of it. The W51 complex being at about 5 kpc, these findings lead to what is the first detection of the earliest phase of low-mass star-forming region at such a large distance. IRAM 30m data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/597/A45

  9. Cosmology and astrophysics from relaxed galaxy clusters – V. Consistency with cold dark matter structure formation

    SciTech Connect

    Mantz, A. B.; Allen, S. W.; Morris, R. G.

    2016-07-15

    This is the fifth in a series of papers studying the astrophysics and cosmology of massive, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters. Our sample comprises 40 clusters identified as being dynamically relaxed and hot in Papers I and II of this series. Here we use constraints on cluster mass profiles from X-ray data to test some of the basic predictions of cosmological structure formation in the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm. In addition, we present constraints on the concentration–mass relation for massive clusters, finding a power-law mass dependence with a slope of κm = –0.16 ± 0.07, in agreement with CDM predictions. For this relaxed sample, the relation is consistent with a constant as a function of redshift (power-law slope with 1 + z of κζ = –0.17 ± 0.26), with an intrinsic scatter of σln c = 0.16 ± 0.03. We investigate the shape of cluster mass profiles over the radial range probed by the data (typically ~50 kpc–1 Mpc), and test for departures from the simple Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) form, for which the logarithmic slope of the density profile tends to –1 at small radii. Specifically, we consider as alternatives the generalized NFW (GNFW) and Einasto parametrizations. For the GNFW model, we find an average value of (minus) the logarithmic inner slope of β = 1.02 ± 0.08, with an intrinsic scatter of σβ = 0.22 ± 0.07, while in the Einasto case we constrain the average shape parameter to be α = 0.29 ± 0.04 with an intrinsic scatter of σα = 0.12 ± 0.04. Our results are thus consistent with the simple NFW model on average, but we clearly detect the presence of intrinsic, cluster-to-cluster scatter about the average.

  10. Environmental systems biology of cold-tolerant phenotype in Saccharomyces species adapted to grow at different temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Paget, Caroline Mary; Schwartz, Jean-Marc; Delneri, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Temperature is one of the leading factors that drive adaptation of organisms and ecosystems. Remarkably, many closely related species share the same habitat because of their different temporal or micro-spatial thermal adaptation. In this study, we seek to find the underlying molecular mechanisms of the cold-tolerant phenotype of closely related yeast species adapted to grow at different temperatures, namely S. kudriavzevii CA111 (cryo-tolerant) and S. cerevisiae 96.2 (thermo-tolerant). Using two different systems approaches, i. thermodynamic-based analysis of a genome-scale metabolic model of S. cerevisiae and ii. large-scale competition experiment of the yeast heterozygote mutant collection, genes and pathways important for the growth at low temperature were identified. In particular, defects in lipid metabolism, oxidoreductase and vitamin pathways affected yeast fitness at cold. Combining the data from both studies, a list of candidate genes was generated and mutants for two predicted cold-favouring genes, GUT2 and ADH3, were created in two natural isolates. Compared with the parental strains, these mutants showed lower fitness at cold temperatures, with S. kudriavzevii displaying the strongest defect. Strikingly, in S. kudriavzevii, these mutations also significantly improve the growth at warm temperatures. In addition, overexpression of ADH3 in S. cerevisiae increased its fitness at cold. These results suggest that temperature-induced redox imbalances could be compensated by increased glycerol accumulation or production of cytosolic acetaldehyde through the deletion of GUT2 or ADH3, respectively. PMID:25243355

  11. Criticality and big brake singularities in the tachyonic evolutions of closed Friedmann universes with cold dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Zsolt; Keresztes, Zoltán; Kamenshchik, Alexander Yu.; Gergely, László Á.

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of a closed Friedmann universe filled by a tachyon scalar field with a trigonometric potential and cold dark matter (CDM) is investigated. A subset of the evolutions consistent to 1 σ confidence level with the Union 2.1 supernova data set is identified. The evolutions of the tachyon field are classified. Some of them evolve into a de Sitter attractor, while others proceed through a pseudotachyonic regime into a sudden future singularity. Critical evolutions leading to big brake singularities in the presence of CDM are found and a new type of cosmological evolution characterized by singularity avoidance in the pseudotachyon regime is presented.

  12. Angular momentum and vortex formation in Bose-Einstein-condensed cold dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Shapiro, Paul R.

    2012-05-01

    Various extensions of the standard model of particle physics predict the existence of very light bosons, with masses ranging from about 10-5 eV for the QCD axion down to 10-33 eV for ultra-light particles. These particles could be responsible for all or part of the cold dark matter (CDM) in the Universe. For such particles to serve as CDM, their phase-space density must be high enough to form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The fluid-like nature of BEC-CDM dynamics differs from that of standard collisionless CDM, however, so different signature effects on galactic haloes may allow observations to distinguish them. Standard CDM has problems with galaxy observations on small scales; cuspy central density profiles of haloes and the overabundance of subhaloes seem to conflict with observations of dwarf galaxies. It has been suggested that BEC-CDM can overcome these shortcomings for a large range of particle mass m and self-interaction coupling strength g. For quantum coherence to influence structure on the scale of galactic haloes of radius R and mass M, either the de-Broglie wavelength λdeB≲R, which requires m≳mH≅ 10-25(R/100 kpc)-1/2(M/1012 M⊙)-1/2 eV, or else λdeB≪R but gravity is balanced by self-interaction, which requires m≫mHandg≫gH≅ 2 × 10-64(R/100 kpc)(M/1012 M⊙)-1 eV cm3. Here we study the largely neglected effects of angular momentum on BEC haloes. Dimensionless spin parameters λ≃ 0.05 are expected from tidal-torquing by large-scale structure formation, just as for standard CDM. Since laboratory BECs develop quantum vortices if rotated rapidly enough, we ask whether this amount of angular momentum is sufficient to form vortices in BEC haloes, which would affect their structure with potentially observable consequences. The minimum angular momentum required for a halo to sustain a vortex, LQM, corresponds to ℏ per particle, or ℏM/m. For λ= 0.05, this requires m≥ 9.5mH, close enough to the particle mass required to influence

  13. Cosmic microwave background anisotropies in cold dark matter models with cosmological constant: The intermediate versus large angular scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stompor, Radoslaw; Gorski, Krzysztof M.

    1994-01-01

    We obtain predictions for cosmic microwave background anisotropies at angular scales near 1 deg in the context of cold dark matter models with a nonzero cosmological constant, normalized to the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) detection. The results are compared to those computed in the matter-dominated models. We show that the coherence length of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy is almost insensitive to cosmological parameters, and the rms amplitude of the anisotropy increases moderately with decreasing total matter density, while being most sensitive to the baryon abundance. We apply these results in the statistical analysis of the published data from the UCSB South Pole (SP) experiment (Gaier et al. 1992; Schuster et al. 1993). We reject most of the Cold Dark Matter (CDM)-Lambda models at the 95% confidence level when both SP scans are simulated together (although the combined data set renders less stringent limits than the Gaier et al. data alone). However, the Schuster et al. data considered alone as well as the results of some other recent experiments (MAX, MSAM, Saskatoon), suggest that typical temperature fluctuations on degree scales may be larger than is indicated by the Gaier et al. scan. If so, CDM-Lambda models may indeed provide, from a point of view of CMB anisotropies, an acceptable alternative to flat CDM models.

  14. Cosmic microwave background anisotropies in cold dark matter models with cosmological constant: The intermediate versus large angular scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stompor, Radoslaw; Gorski, Krzysztof M.

    1994-01-01

    We obtain predictions for cosmic microwave background anisotropies at angular scales near 1 deg in the context of cold dark matter models with a nonzero cosmological constant, normalized to the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) detection. The results are compared to those computed in the matter-dominated models. We show that the coherence length of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy is almost insensitive to cosmological parameters, and the rms amplitude of the anisotropy increases moderately with decreasing total matter density, while being most sensitive to the baryon abundance. We apply these results in the statistical analysis of the published data from the UCSB South Pole (SP) experiment (Gaier et al. 1992; Schuster et al. 1993). We reject most of the Cold Dark Matter (CDM)-Lambda models at the 95% confidence level when both SP scans are simulated together (although the combined data set renders less stringent limits than the Gaier et al. data alone). However, the Schuster et al. data considered alone as well as the results of some other recent experiments (MAX, MSAM, Saskatoon), suggest that typical temperature fluctuations on degree scales may be larger than is indicated by the Gaier et al. scan. If so, CDM-Lambda models may indeed provide, from a point of view of CMB anisotropies, an acceptable alternative to flat CDM models.

  15. Evaluation of the dark signal performance of different SiPM-technologies under irradiation with cold neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durini, Daniel; Degenhardt, Carsten; Rongen, Heinz; Feoktystov, Artem; Schlösser, Mario; Palomino-Razo, Alejandro; Frielinghaus, Henrich; van Waasen, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we report the results of the assessment of changes in the dark signal delivered by three silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) detector arrays, fabricated by three different manufacturers, when irradiated with cold neutrons (wavelength λn=5 Å or neutron energy of En=3.27 meV) up to a neutron dose of 6×1012 n/cm2. The dark signals as well as the breakdown voltages (Vbr) of the SiPM detectors were monitored during the irradiation. The system was characterized at room temperature. The analog SiPM detectors, with and without a 1 mm thick Cerium doped 6Li-glass scintillator material located in front of them, were operated using a bias voltage recommended by the respective manufacturer for a proper detector performance. Iout-Vbias measurements, used to determine the breakdown voltage of the devices, were repeated every 30 s during the first hour and every 300 s during the rest of the irradiation time. The digital SiPM detectors were held at the advised bias voltage between the respective breakdown voltage and dark count mappings repeated every 4 min. The measurements were performed on the KWS-1 instrument of the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ) in Garching, Germany. The two analog and one digital SiPM detector modules under investigation were respectively fabricated by SensL (Ireland), Hamamatsu Photonics (Japan), and Philips Digital Photon Counting (Germany).

  16. Can cold dark matter paradigm explain the central-surface-densities relation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Man-Ho

    2017-07-01

    Recently, a very strong correlation between the central surface density of stars and dynamical mass in 135 disk galaxies has been obtained. It has been shown that this central-surface-densities relation agrees very well with Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). In this article, we show that if we assume the baryons have an isothermal distribution and dark matter exists, then it is possible to derive by means of the Jeans equation an analytic central-surface-densities relation connecting dark matter and baryons that agrees with the observed relation. We find that the observed central-surface-densities relation can also be accommodated in the context of dark matter provided the latter is described by an isothermal profile. Therefore, the observed relation is consistent with not only MOND.

  17. Survey on indigenous Oenococcus oeni strains isolated from red wines of Valtellina, a cold climate wine-growing Italian area.

    PubMed

    Vigentini, Ileana; Picozzi, Claudia; Tirelli, Antonio; Giugni, Anna; Foschino, Roberto

    2009-11-30

    Spontaneous MLF in high acidity wines produced in cool-climate regions remains problematic though indispensable for the development of sensory characteristics. Genetic aspects and phenotypic traits of thirty-six Oenococcus oeni strains, most of them isolated from Valtellina wines over three consecutive years, were investigated. Molecular typing achieved by RAPD PCR and PFGE analyses allowed 27 different genotypes to be discriminated, whereas from the comparison of results arising by physiological tests (sugar fermentation, alcohol resistance, growth at low temperatures, biogenic ammines production) 28 different phenotypic profiles were obtained. Particularly, 69% of Valtellina isolates were able to develop at 5 degrees C in cultural broth. Micro-vinification experiments allowed the selection of strains with potential oenological performances and an interesting capability to grow in cold conditions was confirmed. Some O. oeni strains formed phenylethylamine (up to 47 mg/L) and tyramine (up to 36 mg/L) both in cultural broth and wine.

  18. Progress report on the search for cold dark matter using ultralow-background germanium detectors at homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drukier, A. K.; Avignone, F. T.; Brodzinski, R. L.; Collar, J. I.; Gelmini, G.; Miley, H. S.; Morales, A.; Reeves, J. H.; Spergel, D.

    1992-07-01

    Counting rates from the two 1-kg PNL/USC ultralow-background germanium detectors are ≤0.3 counts keV -1 kg -1 d -1 between 6 and 9 keV and ˜ 2 counts keV -1 kg -1 d -1 between 4 and 6 keV. These data show a significant short-time rate dependence due to blasting and other mining operations in the Homestake good mine. The mean shift in the centroid of the gallium x-ray peak was about 50 eV over a total period of about 500 days, indicating adequate stability for a search for annual modulation of Cold Dark Matter (CDM) particles.

  19. Measurements of the H2(13)CO ortho/para ratio in cold dark molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Dickens, J. E.; Irvine, W. M.; McGonagle, D.

    1995-01-01

    H2(13)CO has been detected for the first time toward cold dark molecular clouds using the NRAO 12 m telescope. The H2(13)CO ortho/para abundance ratio R for B335, which we report as R approximately 1.7, suggests equilibrium at the local kinetic temperature and appears to be distinctly different from that for both TMC-1 and L134N, where R is close to or higher than the statistical value 3. Since only B335 among the observed positions includes an imbedded IR source, this difference may result from heating of the grain surfaces, providing the energy necessary for desorption of formaldehyde formed on the grains.

  20. Measurements of the H2(13)CO ortho/para ratio in cold dark molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Dickens, J. E.; Irvine, W. M.; McGonagle, D.

    1995-01-01

    H2(13)CO has been detected for the first time toward cold dark molecular clouds using the NRAO 12 m telescope. The H2(13)CO ortho/para abundance ratio R for B335, which we report as R approximately 1.7, suggests equilibrium at the local kinetic temperature and appears to be distinctly different from that for both TMC-1 and L134N, where R is close to or higher than the statistical value 3. Since only B335 among the observed positions includes an imbedded IR source, this difference may result from heating of the grain surfaces, providing the energy necessary for desorption of formaldehyde formed on the grains.

  1. Internal structure of a cold dark molecular cloud inferred from the extinction of background starlight.

    PubMed

    Alves, J F; Lada, C J; Lada, E A

    2001-01-11

    Stars and planets form within dark molecular clouds, but little is understood about the internal structure of these clouds, and consequently about the initial conditions that give rise to star and planet formation. The clouds are primarily composed of molecular hydrogen, which is virtually inaccessible to direct observation. But the clouds also contain dust, which is well mixed with the gas and which has well understood effects on the transmission of light. Here we use sensitive near-infrared measurements of the light from background stars as it is absorbed and scattered by trace amounts of dust to probe the internal structure of the dark cloud Barnard 68 with unprecedented detail. We find the cloud's density structure to be very well described by the equations for a pressure-confined, self-gravitating isothermal sphere that is critically stable according to the Bonnor-Ebert criteria. As a result we can precisely specify the physical conditions inside a dark cloud on the verge of collapse to form a star.

  2. Characterization of gene expression of QM from Caragana jubata, a plant species that grows under extreme cold.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Pardeep Kumar; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Kumar, Sanjay

    2010-02-01

    Caragana [Caragana jubata (Pall.) Poir] is a temperate plant that thrives well under extremes of cold in high altitude of Himalaya and hence the plant is expected to be a source of genes that might play an important role in tolerance to low temperature (LT). In order to identify LT inducible gene(s), differential display of mRNA (DD) was performed using the apical buds growing under snow as well as growing in the near vicinity without snow, and a LT inducible QM gene (CjQM) homologue was identified. Realizing the importance of QM gene (which encodes human Wilms' tumor suppressor QM protein) in aggregation of 40 and 60S ribosomal subunit and that not much has been reported on this gene in plant systems in relation to its relationship with LT, full length cDNA of CjQM was cloned through rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The gene (977 bp), encoded by small gene family, had an open reading frame of 651 bp and was found to be intronless. The gene exhibited up-regulation within 20 min of exposure to LT and abscisic acid (ABA), but no significant change in gene expression was observed in response to drought stress (DS), salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MJ) application. Up-regulation of CjQM was obtained in the tissues growing in situ under snow. Non-responsiveness of CjQM towards DS, SA and MJ, but up-regulation in response to LT and ABA suggested a specific regulation of the gene in Caragana under varied cues.

  3. LOW-MASS SUPPRESSION OF THE SATELLITE LUMINOSITY FUNCTION DUE TO THE SUPERSONIC BARYON-COLD-DARK-MATTER RELATIVE VELOCITY

    SciTech Connect

    Bovy, Jo; Dvorkin, Cora

    2013-05-01

    We study the effect of the supersonic baryon-cold-dark-matter (CDM) flow, which has recently been shown to have a large effect on structure formation during the dark ages 10 {approx}< z {approx}< 1000, on the abundance of luminous, low-mass satellite galaxies around galaxies like the Milky Way. As the supersonic baryon-CDM flow significantly suppresses both the number of halos formed and the amount of baryons accreted onto such halos of masses 10{sup 6} < M{sub halo}/M{sub Sun} < 10{sup 8} at z {approx}> 10, a large effect results on the stellar luminosity function before reionization. As halos of these masses are believed to have very little star formation after reionization due to the effects of photoheating by the ultraviolet background, this effect persists to the present day. We calculate that the number of low-mass 10{sup 6} < M{sub halo}/M{sub Sun} < 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} halos that host luminous satellite galaxies today is typically suppressed by 50%, with values ranging up to 90% in regions where the initial supersonic velocity is high. We show that this previously ignored cosmological effect resolves some of the tension between the observed and predicted number of low-mass satellites in the Milky Way, reducing the need for other mass-dependent star-formation suppression before reionization.

  4. NIHAO X: reconciling the local galaxy velocity function with cold dark matter via mock H I observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macciò, Andrea V.; Udrescu, Silviu M.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Obreja, Aura; Wang, Liang; Stinson, Greg R.; Kang, Xi

    2016-11-01

    We used 87 high-resolution hydrodynamical cosmological simulations from the NIHAO suite to investigate the relation between the maximum circular velocity (V_max^DM) of a dark matter halo in a collisionless simulation and the velocity width of the H I gas in the same halo in the hydrodynamical simulation. These two quantities are normally used to compare theoretical and observational velocity functions and have led to a possible discrepancy between observations and predictions based on the cold dark matter (CDM) model. We show that below 100 km s-1, there is clear bias between H I -based velocities and V_max^DM, that leads to an underestimation of the actual circular velocity of the halo. When this bias is taken into account, the CDM model has no trouble in reproducing the observed velocity function and no lack of low-velocity galaxies is actually present. Our simulations also reproduce the linewidth-stellar mass (Tully-Fisher) relation and H I sizes, indicating that the H I gas in our simulations is as extended as observed. The physical reason for the lower than expected linewidths is that, in contrast to high-mass galaxies, low-mass galaxies no longer have extended thin H I rotating discs, as is commonly assumed.

  5. Constraints on cold dark matter theories from observations of massive x-ray-luminous clusters of galaxies at high redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luppino, G. A.; Gioia, I. M.

    1995-01-01

    During the course of a gravitational lensing survey of distant, X-ray selected Einstein Observatory Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS) clusters of galaxies, we have studied six X-ray-luminous (L(sub x) greater than 5 x 10(exp 44)(h(sub 50)(exp -2))ergs/sec) clusters at redshifts exceeding z = 0.5. All of these clusters are apparently massive. In addition to their high X-ray luminosity, two of the clusters at z approximately 0.6 exhibit gravitationally lensed arcs. Furthermore, the highest redshift cluster in our sample, MS 1054-0321 at z = 0.826, is both extremely X-ray luminous (L(sub 0.3-3.5keV)=9.3 x 10(exp 44)(h(sub 50)(exp -2))ergs/sec) and exceedingly rich with an optical richness comparable to an Abell Richness Class 4 cluster. In this Letter, we discuss the cosmological implications of the very existence of these clusters for hierarchical structure formation theories such as standard Omega = 1 CDM (cold dark matter), hybrid Omega = 1 C + HDM (hot dark matter), and flat, low-density Lambda + CDM models.

  6. Constraints on cold dark matter theories from observations of massive x-ray-luminous clusters of galaxies at high redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luppino, G. A.; Gioia, I. M.

    1995-01-01

    During the course of a gravitational lensing survey of distant, X-ray selected Einstein Observatory Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS) clusters of galaxies, we have studied six X-ray-luminous (L(sub x) greater than 5 x 10(exp 44)(h(sub 50)(exp -2))ergs/sec) clusters at redshifts exceeding z = 0.5. All of these clusters are apparently massive. In addition to their high X-ray luminosity, two of the clusters at z approximately 0.6 exhibit gravitationally lensed arcs. Furthermore, the highest redshift cluster in our sample, MS 1054-0321 at z = 0.826, is both extremely X-ray luminous (L(sub 0.3-3.5keV)=9.3 x 10(exp 44)(h(sub 50)(exp -2))ergs/sec) and exceedingly rich with an optical richness comparable to an Abell Richness Class 4 cluster. In this Letter, we discuss the cosmological implications of the very existence of these clusters for hierarchical structure formation theories such as standard Omega = 1 CDM (cold dark matter), hybrid Omega = 1 C + HDM (hot dark matter), and flat, low-density Lambda + CDM models.

  7. The Velocity Width Function of Galaxies from the 40% ALFALFA Survey: Shedding Light on the Cold Dark Matter Overabundance Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papastergis, Emmanouil; Martin, Ann M.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.

    2011-09-01

    The ongoing Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey is a wide-area, extragalactic HI-line survey conducted at the Arecibo Observatory. Sources have so far been extracted over ~3000 deg2 of sky (40% of its final area), resulting in the largest HI-selected sample to date. We measure the space density of HI-bearing galaxies as a function of their observed velocity width (uncorrected for inclination) down to w = 20 km s-1, a factor of two lower than the previous generation HI Parkes All-Sky Survey. We confirm previous results that indicate a substantial discrepancy between the observational distribution and the theoretical one expected in a cold dark matter (CDM) universe, at low widths. In particular, a comparison with synthetic galaxy samples populating state-of-the-art CDM simulations imply a factor of ~8 difference in the abundance of galaxies with w = 50 km s-1 (increasing to a factor of ~100 when extrapolated to the ALFALFA limit of w = 20 km s-1). We furthermore identify possible solutions, including a keV warm dark matter scenario and the fact that HI disks in low-mass galaxies are usually not extended enough to probe the full amplitude of the galactic rotation curve. In this latter case, we can statistically infer the relationship between the measured HI rotational velocity of a galaxy and the mass of its host CDM halo. Observational verification of the presented relationship at low velocities would provide an important test of the validity of the established dark matter model.

  8. Darkness

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-22

    Saturn's main rings, seen here on their "lit" face, appear much darker than normal. That's because they tend to scatter light back toward its source -- in this case, the Sun. Usually, when taking images of the rings in geometries like this, exposures times are increased to make the rings more visible. Here, the requirement to not over-expose Saturn's lit crescent reveals just how dark the rings actually become. Scientists are interested in images in this sunward-facing ("high phase") geometry because the way that the rings scatter sunlight can tell us much about the ring particles' physical make-up. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 6 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Jan. 12, 2014. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 1.4 million miles (2.3 million kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 152 degrees. Image scale is 86 miles (138 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18294

  9. Testing the {lambda} cold dark matter model (and more) with the time evolution of the redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, Kayll

    2007-09-15

    With the many ambitious proposals afoot for new generations of very large telescopes, along with spectrographs of unprecedented resolution, there arises the real possibility that the time evolution of the cosmological redshift may, in the not too distant future, prove to be a useful tool rather than merely a theoretical curiosity. Here I contrast this approach with the standard cosmological procedure based on the luminosity (or any other well-defined) distance. I then show that such observations would not only provide a direct measure of all the associated cosmological parameters of the LCDM model, but would also provide wide-ranging internal consistency checks. Further, in a more general context, I show that without introducing further time derivatives of the redshift one could in fact map out the dark energy equation of state should the LCDM model fail. A consideration of brane-world scenarios and interacting dark energy models serves to emphasize the fact that the usefulness of such observations would not be restricted to high redshifts.

  10. The universe in a box - Thermal effects in the standard cold dark matter scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cen, R. Y.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Jameson, Anthony; Liu, Feng

    1990-01-01

    An attempt is made to compute the evolution of a representative piece of the universe at a minimal resolution of a flux-based mesh code coupled with a standard particle-mesh dark matter code. It is found that, on scales greater than 1/h Mpc, dark matter is more clumped than gas. Bremsstrahlung and Compton cooling are unimportant on scales of 1 Mpc or greater. Shocks gradually heat the gas, leaving most of it in voids at T = 10 exp 3.5 K or less, but with a small fraction reaching T = 10 million K or more. Ultraviolet and soft X-ray emission from the heated gas is significant, providing an important part of the background radiation field and significant ionizing of the intergalactic medium. The mean induced Delta T/T for microwave background radiation in the Rayleigh-Jeans part of the spectrum is 1.1 x 10 to the -6th with fluctuation of 5.6 x 10 to the -7th on arcmin scales and a mean y parameter of 5.5 x 10 to the -7th, which is potentially detectable by the COBE satellite.

  11. The other side of bulge formation in a Λ cold dark matter cosmology: bulgeless galaxies in the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontanot, Fabio; De Lucia, Gabriella; Wilman, David; Monaco, Pierluigi

    2011-09-01

    We study the physical properties, formation histories and environment of galaxies without a significant 'classical' spheroidal component, as predicted by semi-analytical models of galaxy formation and evolution. This work is complementary to the analysis presented in De Lucia et al., where we focus on the relative contribution of various physical mechanisms responsible for bulge assembly in a Λ cold dark matter cosmology. We find that the fraction of bulgeless galaxies is a strong decreasing function of stellar mass: they represent a negligible fraction of the galaxy population with M★ > 1012 M⊙, but dominate at M★ < 1010 M⊙. We find a clear dichotomy in this galaxy population, between central galaxies of low-mass dark matter haloes and satellite galaxies in massive groups/clusters. We show that bulgeless galaxies are relatively young systems, that assemble most of their mass at low redshift, but they can also host very old stellar populations. Since galaxy-galaxy mergers are assumed to lead to the formation of a spheroidal component, in our models these galaxies form preferentially in low-mass haloes that host a small number of satellites galaxies. We show that the adopted modelling for galaxy mergers represents a key ingredient in determining the actual number of bulgeless galaxies. Our results show that these galaxies are not a rare population in theoretical models: at z ˜ 0, galaxies with no classical bulge (but often including galaxies with the equivalent of pseudo-bulges) account for up to 14 per cent of the galaxies with 1011 < M★/M⊙ < 1012.

  12. Seasonal changes in daily metabolic patterns of tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae) placed in the cold (17 degrees C) and dark.

    PubMed

    Milsom, William K; Andrade, Denis V; Brito, Simone P; Toledo, Luis F; Wang, Tobias; Abe, Augusto S

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Oxygen consumption rate was measured continuously in young tegu lizards Tupinambis merianae exposed to 4 d at 25 degrees C followed by 7-10 d at 17 degrees C in constant dark at five different times of the year. Under these conditions, circadian rhythms in the rate of oxygen consumption persisted for anywhere from 1 d to the entire 2 wk in different individuals in all seasons except the winter. We also saw a progressive decline in standard oxygen consumption rate (at highly variable rates in different individuals) to a very low rate that was seasonally independent (ranging from 19.1 +/- 6.2 to 27.7 +/- 0.2 mL kg(-1) h(-1) across seasons). Although this degree of reduction appeared to take longer to invoke when starting from higher metabolic rates, tegu lizards reduced their metabolism to the low rates seen in winter dormancy at all times of the year when given sufficient time in the cold and dark. In the spring and summer, tegus reduced their standard metabolic rate (SMR) by 80%-90% over the experimental run, but only roughly 20%-30% of the total fall was due to the reduction in temperature; 70%-80% of the total fall occurred at constant temperature. By autumn, when the starting SMR on the first night at 25 degrees C was already reduced by 59%-81% (early and late autumn, respectively) from peak summer values, virtually all of the fall (63%-83%) in metabolism was due to the reduction in temperature. This suggests that the temperature-independent reduction of metabolism was already in place by autumn before the tegus had entered winter dormancy.

  13. High-z objects and cold dark matter cosmogonies - Constraints on the primordial power spectrum on small scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashlinsky, A.

    1993-01-01

    Modified cold dark matter (CDM) models were recently suggested to account for large-scale optical data, which fix the power spectrum on large scales, and the COBE results, which would then fix the bias parameter, b. We point out that all such models have deficit of small-scale power where density fluctuations are presently nonlinear, and should then lead to late epochs of collapse of scales M between 10 exp 9 - 10 exp 10 solar masses and (1-5) x 10 exp 14 solar masses. We compute the probabilities and comoving space densities of various scale objects at high redshifts according to the CDM models and compare these with observations of high-z QSOs, high-z galaxies and the protocluster-size object found recently by Uson et al. (1992) at z = 3.4. We show that the modified CDM models are inconsistent with the observational data on these objects. We thus suggest that in order to account for the high-z objects, as well as the large-scale and COBE data, one needs a power spectrum with more power on small scales than CDM models allow and an open universe.

  14. High-z objects and cold dark matter cosmogonies - Constraints on the primordial power spectrum on small scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashlinsky, A.

    1993-01-01

    Modified cold dark matter (CDM) models were recently suggested to account for large-scale optical data, which fix the power spectrum on large scales, and the COBE results, which would then fix the bias parameter, b. We point out that all such models have deficit of small-scale power where density fluctuations are presently nonlinear, and should then lead to late epochs of collapse of scales M between 10 exp 9 - 10 exp 10 solar masses and (1-5) x 10 exp 14 solar masses. We compute the probabilities and comoving space densities of various scale objects at high redshifts according to the CDM models and compare these with observations of high-z QSOs, high-z galaxies and the protocluster-size object found recently by Uson et al. (1992) at z = 3.4. We show that the modified CDM models are inconsistent with the observational data on these objects. We thus suggest that in order to account for the high-z objects, as well as the large-scale and COBE data, one needs a power spectrum with more power on small scales than CDM models allow and an open universe.

  15. Comparing the Evolution of the Galaxy Disk Sizes with Cold Dark Matter Models: The Hubble Deep Field.

    PubMed

    Giallongo; Menci; Poli; D'Odorico; Fontana

    2000-02-20

    The intrinsic sizes of the field galaxies with Icold dark matter (CDM) predictions. Extending to the lower luminosities and to the higher z that our previous analysis performed on the NTT field alone, we find the distribution of the galaxy disk sizes at different cosmic epochs is within the range predicted by typical CDM models. However, the observed size distribution of faint (MB>-19) galaxies is skewed with respect to the CDM predictions, and an excess of small-size disks (Rd<2 kpc) is already present at z approximately 0.5. The excess persists up to z approximately 3 and involves brighter galaxies. Such an excess may be reduced if luminosity-dependent effects, like starburst activity in interacting galaxies, are included in the physical mechanisms governing the star formation history in CDM models.

  16. Chinese Wild-Growing Vitis amurensis ICE1 and ICE2 Encode MYC-Type bHLH Transcription Activators that Regulate Cold Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weirong; Jiao, Yuntong; Li, Ruimin; Zhang, Ningbo; Xiao, Dongming; Ding, Xiaoling; Wang, Zhenping

    2014-01-01

    Winter hardiness is an important trait for grapevine breeders and producers, so identification of the regulatory mechanisms involved in cold acclimation is of great potential value. The work presented here involves the identification of two grapevine ICE gene homologs, VaICE1 and VaICE2, from an extremely cold-tolerant accession of Chinese wild-growing Vitis amurnensis, which are phylogenetically related to other plant ICE1 genes. These two structurally different ICE proteins contain previously reported ICE-specific amino acid motifs, the bHLH-ZIP domain and the S-rich motif. Expression analysis revealed that VaICE1 is constitutively expressed but affected by cold stress, unlike VaICE2 that shows not such changed expression as a consequence of cold treatment. Both genes serve as transcription factors, potentiating the transactivation activities in yeasts and the corresponding proteins localized to the nucleus following transient expression in onion epidermal cells. Overexpression of either VaICE1 or VaICE2 in Arabidopsis increase freezing tolerance in nonacclimated plants. Moreover, we show that they result in multiple biochemical changes that were associated with cold acclimation: VaICE1/2-overexpressing plants had evaluated levels of proline, reduced contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased levels of electrolyte leakage. The expression of downstream cold responsive genes of CBF1, COR15A, and COR47 were significantly induced in Arabidopsis transgenically overexpressing VaICE1 or VaICE2 upon cold stress. VaICE2, but not VaICE1 overexpression induced KIN1 expression under cold-acclimation conditions. Our results suggest that VaICE1 and VaICE2 act as key regulators at an early step in the transcriptional cascade controlling freezing tolerance, and modulate the expression levels of various low-temperature associated genes involved in the C-repeat binding factor (CBF) pathway. PMID:25019620

  17. The Nature of Damped Lyα Systems and Their Hosts in the Standard Cold Dark Matter Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Renyue

    2012-04-01

    Using adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with a physically motivated supernova feedback prescription, we show that the standard cold dark matter model can account for extant observed properties of damped Lyα systems (DLAs). With detailed examination of DLAs identified for each redshift snapshot through ray tracing through the simulation volumes containing thousands of galaxies, we find the following: (1) While DLA hosts roughly trace the overall population of galaxies at all redshifts, they are always gas-rich and have tendencies of being slightly smaller and bluer. (2) The history of DLA evolution is cosmological in nature and reflects primarily the evolution of the underlying cosmic density, galaxy size, and galaxy interactions. With higher density and more interactions at high redshift the size of DLAs is a larger fraction of their virial radius. (3) The variety of DLAs at high redshift is richer with a large contribution coming from galactic aqueducts, created through close galaxy interactions. The portion of gaseous disks of galaxies where most stars reside makes a relatively small contribution to DLA incidence at z = 3-4. (4) The majority of DLAs arise in halos of mass Mh = 1010-1012 M ⊙ at z = 1.6-4, as these galaxies dominate the overall population of galaxies then. At z = 3-4, 20%-30% of DLA hosts are Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), 10%-20% are due to galaxies more massive than LBGs, and 50%-70% are from smaller galaxies. (5) Galactic winds play an indispensable role in shaping the kinematic properties of DLAs. Specifically, the high velocity width DLAs are a mixture of those arising in high-mass, high velocity dispersion halos and those arising in smaller mass systems where cold gas clouds are entrained to high velocities by galactic winds. (6) In agreement with observations, we see a weak but noticeable evolution in DLA metallicity. The metallicity distribution centers at [Z/H] = -1.5 to -1 and spans more than three decades at

  18. X-ray clusters from a high-resolution hydrodynamic PPM simulation of the cold dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Greg L.; Cen, Renyue; Norman, Michael L.; Ostriker, Jermemiah P.; Stone, James M.

    1994-01-01

    A new three-dimensional hydrodynamic code based on the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) is utilized to compute the distribution of hot gas in the standard Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized cold dark matter (CDM) universe. Utilizing periodic boundary conditions, a box with size 85 h(exp-1) Mpc, having cell size 0.31 h(exp-1) Mpc, is followed in a simulation with 270(exp 3)=10(exp 7.3) cells. Adopting standard parameters determined from COBE and light-element nucleosynthesis, Sigma(sub 8)=1.05, Omega(sub b)=0.06, we find the X-ray-emitting clusters, compute the luminosity function at several wavelengths, the temperature distribution, and estimated sizes, as well as the evolution of these quantities with redshift. The results, which are compared with those obtained in the preceding paper (Kang et al. 1994a), may be used in conjuction with ROSAT and other observational data sets. Overall, the results of the two computations are qualitatively very similar with regard to the trends of cluster properties, i.e., how the number density, radius, and temeprature depend on luminosity and redshift. The total luminosity from clusters is approximately a factor of 2 higher using the PPM code (as compared to the 'total variation diminishing' (TVD) code used in the previous paper) with the number of bright clusters higher by a similar factor. The primary conclusions of the prior paper, with regard to the power spectrum of the primeval density perturbations, are strengthened: the standard CDM model, normalized to the COBE microwave detection, predicts too many bright X-ray emitting clusters, by a factor probably in excess of 5. The comparison between observations and theoretical predictions for the evolution of cluster properties, luminosity functions, and size and temperature distributions should provide an important discriminator among competing scenarios for the development of structure in the universe.

  19. X-ray clusters from a high-resolution hydrodynamic PPM simulation of the cold dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Greg L.; Cen, Renyue; Norman, Michael L.; Ostriker, Jermemiah P.; Stone, James M.

    1994-01-01

    A new three-dimensional hydrodynamic code based on the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) is utilized to compute the distribution of hot gas in the standard Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized cold dark matter (CDM) universe. Utilizing periodic boundary conditions, a box with size 85 h(exp-1) Mpc, having cell size 0.31 h(exp-1) Mpc, is followed in a simulation with 270(exp 3)=10(exp 7.3) cells. Adopting standard parameters determined from COBE and light-element nucleosynthesis, Sigma(sub 8)=1.05, Omega(sub b)=0.06, we find the X-ray-emitting clusters, compute the luminosity function at several wavelengths, the temperature distribution, and estimated sizes, as well as the evolution of these quantities with redshift. The results, which are compared with those obtained in the preceding paper (Kang et al. 1994a), may be used in conjuction with ROSAT and other observational data sets. Overall, the results of the two computations are qualitatively very similar with regard to the trends of cluster properties, i.e., how the number density, radius, and temeprature depend on luminosity and redshift. The total luminosity from clusters is approximately a factor of 2 higher using the PPM code (as compared to the 'total variation diminishing' (TVD) code used in the previous paper) with the number of bright clusters higher by a similar factor. The primary conclusions of the prior paper, with regard to the power spectrum of the primeval density perturbations, are strengthened: the standard CDM model, normalized to the COBE microwave detection, predicts too many bright X-ray emitting clusters, by a factor probably in excess of 5. The comparison between observations and theoretical predictions for the evolution of cluster properties, luminosity functions, and size and temperature distributions should provide an important discriminator among competing scenarios for the development of structure in the universe.

  20. [Effects of nitrogen addition on available nitrogen content and acidification in cold-temperate coniferous forest soil in the growing season].

    PubMed

    Chen, Gao-Qi; Fu, Wa-Li; Luo, Ya-Chen; Gao, Wen-Long; Li, Sheng-Gong; Yang, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Based on a low-level and multi-form N addition control experiment, this study took cold-temperate coniferous forest in Daxing'an Ling as the research object. After long-term and continuous nitrogen addition in situ, the available nitrogen (NH4(+) -N & NO3(-) -N) contents and pH values of the soil (0-10 cm) were measured in the early growing season (May) and the peak growing season (August) in 2010, 2012 and 2013. The results showed that, the available nitrogen in the early and peak growing seasons was mainly NH4(+) -N which accounted for over 96% of the inorganic nitrogen content, while the content of NO3(-) -N was very low. With the time extension of nitrogen addition, the effects of nitrogen addition on the NH4(+) -N content in 0-10 cm soil were more obvious in the early growing season than that in the peak growing season, and the NH4(+) -N content was mainly affected by the type of nitrogen addition. On the contrary, the NO3(-) -N content in 0-10 cm soil was higher in the peak growing season than that in the early growing season. The effect of N input was obvious on NO3(-) -N content in both early and peak growing seasons, and low nitrogen treatment tended to promote the enrichment of NO3(-) -N. As time went on, the response of NH4(+) -N and NO3(-) -N content to N addition was changed from insignificant in the early stage to significant in the late stage. N addition had a significant impact on the pH value of the 0-10 cm soil in the early and peak growing seasons. The pH values of the soil with low nitrogen treatment and the soil in the peak growing season were relatively lower. With the extension of the nitrogen addition time, the response of pH value also turned from insignificant in the early stage to significant in the late stage. Because of the long-term and continuous nitrogen addition, the 0 - 10 cm soil in this cold-temperate coniferous forest was obviously acidified.

  1. Effects of smoke, heat, darkness and cold stratification on seed germination of 40 species in a cool temperate zone in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuyuzaki, S; Miyoshi, C

    2009-05-01

    The effects of smoke, heat, darkness and cold stratification on seed germination were examined for 40 species with various life history attributes. These species establish in early successional stages on a volcano and are distributed in cool temperate zones of northern Japan. Smoke decreased seed germination in 11 species and increased it in one species, Leucothoe grayana. Germination of Polygonum longisetum was enhanced by a combination of smoke and cold, and that of Aralia elata by smoke and heat. Heat increased germination for three species and decreased it for one. Cold stratification broke dormancy in seeds of 11 species. Continuous darkness decreased germination of 22 species and did not increase germination for any species, showing that approximately half of the species require light for maximum germination. Although most species are sun plants that establish in early stages of succession and/or in disturbed areas, smoke and heat do not enhance germination of these species after disturbance, even when the disturbance is fire. Germination of slender and/or large seeds tends to be decreased more by smoke, probably because of their larger surface area. Light is more important than smoke and heat for detection of disturbance and for seed germination in this region. However, despite the low fire frequency in the region, germination of a few species was increased by fire-derived stimuli.

  2. THE NATURE OF DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEMS AND THEIR HOSTS IN THE STANDARD COLD DARK MATTER UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Cen Renyue

    2012-04-01

    Using adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with a physically motivated supernova feedback prescription, we show that the standard cold dark matter model can account for extant observed properties of damped Ly{alpha} systems (DLAs). With detailed examination of DLAs identified for each redshift snapshot through ray tracing through the simulation volumes containing thousands of galaxies, we find the following: (1) While DLA hosts roughly trace the overall population of galaxies at all redshifts, they are always gas-rich and have tendencies of being slightly smaller and bluer. (2) The history of DLA evolution is cosmological in nature and reflects primarily the evolution of the underlying cosmic density, galaxy size, and galaxy interactions. With higher density and more interactions at high redshift the size of DLAs is a larger fraction of their virial radius. (3) The variety of DLAs at high redshift is richer with a large contribution coming from galactic aqueducts, created through close galaxy interactions. The portion of gaseous disks of galaxies where most stars reside makes a relatively small contribution to DLA incidence at z = 3-4. (4) The majority of DLAs arise in halos of mass M{sub h} = 10{sup 10}-10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} at z = 1.6-4, as these galaxies dominate the overall population of galaxies then. At z = 3-4, 20%-30% of DLA hosts are Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), 10%-20% are due to galaxies more massive than LBGs, and 50%-70% are from smaller galaxies. (5) Galactic winds play an indispensable role in shaping the kinematic properties of DLAs. Specifically, the high velocity width DLAs are a mixture of those arising in high-mass, high velocity dispersion halos and those arising in smaller mass systems where cold gas clouds are entrained to high velocities by galactic winds. (6) In agreement with observations, we see a weak but noticeable evolution in DLA metallicity. The metallicity distribution centers at [Z/H] = -1.5 to -1 and

  3. Hot gas in the cold dark matter scenario: X-ray clusters from a high-resolution numerical simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Hyesung; Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Ryu, Dongsu

    1994-01-01

    A new, three-dimensional, shock-capturing hydrodynamic code is utilized to determine the distribution of hot gas in a standard cold dark matter (CDM) model of the universe. Periodic boundary conditions are assumed: a box with size 85 h(exp -1) Mpc having cell size 0.31 h(exp -1) Mpc is followed in a simulation with 270(exp 3) = 10(exp 7.3) cells. Adopting standard parameters determined from COBE and light-element nucleosynthesis, sigma(sub 8) = 1.05, omega(sub b) = 0.06, and assuming h = 0.5, we find the X-ray-emitting clusters and compute the luminosity function at several wavelengths, the temperature distribution, and estimated sizes, as well as the evolution of these quantities with redshift. We find that most of the total X-ray emissivity in our box originates in a relatively small number of identifiable clusters which occupy approximately 10(exp -3) of the box volume. This standard CDM model, normalized to COBE, produces approximately 5 times too much emission from clusters having L(sub x) is greater than 10(exp 43) ergs/s, a not-unexpected result. If all other parameters were unchanged, we would expect adequate agreement for sigma(sub 8) = 0.6. This provides a new and independent argument for lower small-scale power than standard CDM at the 8 h(exp -1) Mpc scale. The background radiation field at 1 keV due to clusters in this model is approximately one-third of the observed background, which, after correction for numerical effects, again indicates approximately 5 times too much emission and the appropriateness of sigma(sub 8) = 0.6. If we have used the observed ratio of gas to total mass in clusters, rather than basing the mean density on light-element nucleosynthesis, then the computed luminosity of each cluster would have increased still further, by a factor of approximately 10. The number density of clusters increases to z approximately 1, but the luminosity per typical cluster decreases, with the result that evolution in the number density of bright

  4. Hot gas in the cold dark matter scenario: X-ray clusters from a high-resolution numerical simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Hyesung; Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Ryu, Dongsu

    1994-01-01

    A new, three-dimensional, shock-capturing hydrodynamic code is utilized to determine the distribution of hot gas in a standard cold dark matter (CDM) model of the universe. Periodic boundary conditions are assumed: a box with size 85 h(exp -1) Mpc having cell size 0.31 h(exp -1) Mpc is followed in a simulation with 270(exp 3) = 10(exp 7.3) cells. Adopting standard parameters determined from COBE and light-element nucleosynthesis, sigma(sub 8) = 1.05, omega(sub b) = 0.06, and assuming h = 0.5, we find the X-ray-emitting clusters and compute the luminosity function at several wavelengths, the temperature distribution, and estimated sizes, as well as the evolution of these quantities with redshift. We find that most of the total X-ray emissivity in our box originates in a relatively small number of identifiable clusters which occupy approximately 10(exp -3) of the box volume. This standard CDM model, normalized to COBE, produces approximately 5 times too much emission from clusters having L(sub x) is greater than 10(exp 43) ergs/s, a not-unexpected result. If all other parameters were unchanged, we would expect adequate agreement for sigma(sub 8) = 0.6. This provides a new and independent argument for lower small-scale power than standard CDM at the 8 h(exp -1) Mpc scale. The background radiation field at 1 keV due to clusters in this model is approximately one-third of the observed background, which, after correction for numerical effects, again indicates approximately 5 times too much emission and the appropriateness of sigma(sub 8) = 0.6. If we have used the observed ratio of gas to total mass in clusters, rather than basing the mean density on light-element nucleosynthesis, then the computed luminosity of each cluster would have increased still further, by a factor of approximately 10. The number density of clusters increases to z approximately 1, but the luminosity per typical cluster decreases, with the result that evolution in the number density of bright

  5. Hot gas in the cold dark matter scenario: X-ray clusters from a high-resolution numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyesung; Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Ryu, Dongsu

    1994-06-01

    A new, three-dimensional, shock-capturing hydrodynamic code is utilized to determine the distribution of hot gas in a standard cold dark matter (CDM) model of the universe. Periodic boundary conditions are assumed: a box with size 85 h-1 Mpc having cell size 0.31 h-1 Mpc is followed in a simulation with 2703 = 107.3 cells. Adopting standard parameters determined from COBE and light-element nucleosynthesis, sigma8 = 1.05, omegab = 0.06, and assuming h = 0.5, we find the X-ray-emitting clusters and compute the luminosity function at several wavelengths, the temperature distribution, and estimated sizes, as well as the evolution of these quantities with redshift. We find that most of the total X-ray emissivity in our box originates in a relatively small number of identifiable clusters which occupy approximately 10-3 of the box volume. This standard CDM model, normalized to COBE, produces approximately 5 times too much emission from clusters having Lx is greater than 1043 ergs/s, a not-unexpected result. If all other parameters were unchanged, we would expect adequate agreement for sigma8 = 0.6. This provides a new and independent argument for lower small-scale power than standard CDM at the 8 h-1 Mpc scale. The background radiation field at 1 keV due to clusters in this model is approximately one-third of the observed background, which, after correction for numerical effects, again indicates approximately 5 times too much emission and the appropriateness of sigma8 = 0.6. If we have used the observed ratio of gas to total mass in clusters, rather than basing the mean density on light-element nucleosynthesis, then the computed luminosity of each cluster would have increased still further, by a factor of approximately 10. The number density of clusters increases to z approximately 1, but the luminosity per typical cluster decreases, with the result that evolution in the number density of bright clusters is moderate in this redshift range, showing a broad peak near z = 0

  6. Dark matter and dark energy: The critical questions

    SciTech Connect

    Michael S. Turner

    2002-11-19

    Stars account for only about 0.5% of the content of the Universe; the bulk of the Universe is optically dark. The dark side of the Universe is comprised of: at least 0.1% light neutrinos; 3.5% {+-} 1% baryons; 29% {+-} 4% cold dark matter; and 66% {+-} 6% dark energy. Now that we have characterized the dark side of the Universe, the challenge is to understand it. The critical questions are: (1) What form do the dark baryons take? (2) What is (are) the constituent(s) of the cold dark matter? (3) What is the nature of the mysterious dark energy that is causing the Universe to speed up.

  7. Natural Communities of Novel Archaea and Bacteria Growing in Cold Sulfurous Springs with a String-of-Pearls-Like Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Christian; Wanner, Gerhard; Huber, Robert

    2001-01-01

    We report the identification of novel archaea living in close association with bacteria in the cold (approximately 10°C) sulfurous marsh water of the Sippenauer Moor near Regensburg, Bavaria, Germany. These microorganisms form a characteristic, macroscopically visible structure, morphologically comparable to a string of pearls. Tiny, whitish globules (the pearls; diameter, about 0.5 to 3.0 mm) are connected to each other by thin, white-colored threads. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) studies have revealed that the outer part of the pearls is mainly composed of bacteria, with a filamentous bacterium predominating. Internally, archaeal cocci are the predominant microorganisms, with up to 107 cells estimated to be present in a single pearl. The archaea appear to be embedded in a polymer of unknown chemical composition. According to FISH and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the archaea are affiliated with the euryarchaeal kingdom. The new euryarchaeal sequence represents a deep phylogenetic branch within the 16S rRNA tree and does not show extensive similarity to any cultivated archaea or to 16S rRNA gene sequences from environmental samples. PMID:11319120

  8. A model of the matter-antimatter asymmetry and cold dark matter with U(1)B - L ⊗ U(1)D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei-Min

    2016-11-01

    I suggest an effective model between the GUT and the electroweak scale. It only introduces the two symmetries of U(1) B - L and U(1)D besides the SM groups. The two symmetries are individually broken at the reheating temperature of the universe of 1012 GeV and the scale of 3 ∼ 4 TeV. The model can simultaneously accommodate the tiny neutrino masses, the matter-antimatter asymmetry and the cold dark matter (CDM). In particular, the model gives some interesting results and predictions, for instance, the neutrinos are of Dirac nature and their masses are related to the U(1)D breaking, the size of the matter-antimatter asymmetry is closely related to the mass hierarchy of the quarks and charged leptons, the CDM mass is probably in the range of 250 ∼ 350 GeV. Finally, it is feasible to test the model in future collider experiments.

  9. Release of the β-Galactosidase-Synthesizing System from Ultraviolet Catabolite Repression by Cyclic 3′,5′-Adenosine Monophosphate, Dark Repair, Photoreactivation, and Cold Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Recovery from the inhibitory effect of ultraviolet irradiation on the induced synthesis of β-galactosidase was studied in Escherichia coli B/r. When irradiated cells (520 ergs/mm2 at 254 nm) were induced and incubated in minimal medium supplemented with Casamino Acids (conditions of catabolite repression), the ability to form enzyme was greatly reduced for about 100 min and then recovery began. The inhibition observed immediately after ultraviolet irradiation was partially reversed by cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) or by photoreactivation treatment. Inhibition was reduced if the cells were given cold treatment (5 C) before or during irradiation; the kinetics of induced enzyme formation in each case were similar to those of irradiated cells receiving cyclic AMP. These kinetics suggest that the cold treatments, like cyclic AMP, cause the release of the β-galactosidase-synthesizing system from catabolite repression. When irradiated cells were incubated for various times before cyclic AMP or photoreactivation treatment, some reversal of the inhibition of induced enzyme formation was obtained, but by 100 min the treatments were ineffective. Because 100 min was also the time at which dark recovery of enzyme formation began, the recovery process was interpreted to be the result of completion of DNA repair, which, in turn, released the β-galactosidase-synthesizing system from catabolite repression. PMID:4333380

  10. Fine-scale anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background in a universe dominated by cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittorio, N.; Silk, J.

    1984-01-01

    The fine-scale anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation has been studied in cosmological models with a scale-invariant primordial adiabatic density fluctuation spectrum dominated by cold, weakly interacting particles. Normalization of the present fluctuation spectrum to the observed galaxy distribution results in excessive temperature anisotropy when compared to a recent upper limit on 4.5 arcmin unless the density parameter exceeds 0.4. When this result is combined with the requirement that the universe be at least 13 billion years old, it is found that if the cosmological constant is zero, then the density parameter is between roughly 0.4 and 1 and the Hubble constant is between roughly 60 km/s/Mpc and 50 km/s/Mpc.

  11. Complete Quantum State Selectivity in Cold Molecular Beams Using Deflection-Resistant Dark States in a STIRAP Configuration.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Eilam, Asaf; Shapiro, Moshe

    2014-11-06

    One of the main goals of chemical dynamics is the creation of molecular beams composed of a single (vibrational, rotational, and magnetic) quantum state of choice. In this Letter, we propose a method to achieve complete quantum state selectivity by producing resistance to electromagnetically induced deflection (EID) and that the state to be selected can be "dialed in" at will. We illustrate the method by showing in detail how to purify thermal beams of the LiRb and IF molecules to yield molecular beams composed of a variety of prechosen single internal quantum states and/or superpositions of such states. We expect that this method will be implemented in all subsequent explorations of the fundamentals of chemical reactions and their control and the use of cold molecules as a vehicle for studying some of the most profound issues of quantum dynamics.

  12. Galaxy evolution from strong-lensing statistics: the differential evolution of the velocity dispersion function in concord with the Λ cold dark matter paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Kyu-Hyun

    2010-03-01

    We study galaxy evolution from z = 1 to 0 as a function of velocity dispersion σ for galaxies with σ >~ 95kms-1 based on the measured and Monte Carlo realized local velocity dispersion functions (VDFs) of galaxies and the revised statistical properties of 30 strongly lensed sources from the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey, the PMN-NVSS Extragalactic Lens Survey and the Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot survey. We assume that the total (luminous plus dark) mass profile of a galaxy is isothermal in the optical region for 0 <= z <= 1 as suggested by mass modelling of lensing galaxies. This study is the first to investigate the evolution of the VDF shape as well as the overall number density. It is also the first to study the evolution of the total and the late-type VDFs in addition to the early-type VDF. For the evolutionary behaviours of the VDFs, we find that: (1) the number density of massive (mostly early-type) galaxies with σ >~ 200kms-1 evolves differentially in the way that the number density evolution is greater at a higher velocity dispersion; (2) the number density of intermediate- and low-mass early-type galaxies (95kms-1 <~ σ <~ 200kms-1) is nearly constant and (3) the late-type VDF transformed from the Monte Carlo realized circular velocity function is consistent with no evolution in its shape or integrated number density consistent with galaxy survey results. These evolutionary behaviours of the VDFs are strikingly similar to those of the dark halo mass function (DMF) from N-body simulations and the stellar mass function (SMF) predicted by recent semi-analytic models of galaxy formation under the current Λ cold dark matter hierarchical structure formation paradigm. Interestingly, the VDF evolutions appear to be qualitatively different from `stellar-mass-downsizing' evolutions obtained by many galaxy surveys. The co-evolution of the DMF, the VDF and the SMF is investigated in quantitative detail based on up-to-date theoretical and observational results in a

  13. Life in the Slow, Dark, Salty, Cold and Oxygen-Depleted Lane - Insights on Habitability from Lake Vida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, A.

    2014-04-01

    Ice-entrained Lake Vida brine has provided an accessible natural habitat to study life in the slow lane - where cellular growth is limited, but not extinguished. We measured in situ stable isotopic signatures of N2O, SO42-, H2, conducted experiments utilizing stable isotope geochemical tracers to detect microbial transformations and employed radioisotopically-labeled amino acid precursors to detect cellular macromolecule biosynthesis. The results indicated a dominance of abiotic processes in the brine - yet support metabolically active life through detection of nominal rates of protein biosynthesis. At the same time, the brine has posed a challenge to our understanding of ecosystem energetics. Data collected thus far suggests that the brine is isolated from surfical processes and receives no new mass or energy from above. Calculations have estimated carbon remineralization rates, which indicate that resources should be depleted to the level of small molecules perhaps supporting a methanogenic ecosystem given the amount of time since encapsulation at the temperatures recorded - yet the brine is resource-rich harboring abundant bacteria and large molecules, in addition to a complex mixture of both reduced and oxidized compounds. This has motivated explorations into alternative sources of energy such as hydrogen - which was detected at levels ~ 10 micromolar - that could be generated by brine-rock interactions and supply endogenous energy to this closed ecosystem. This cold, salty, anoxic and organically rich brine, provides insight into a new category of habitable earth ecosystems that may also give us food for thought when considering habitability of giant planet icy worlds or of icy exoplanets. However, the methods we use, and the framework of scientific inquiry applied, are limited by perception and familiarity of rates of change that are important in human time scales. The Vida-icy brine ecosystem provides a model for expansion of our understanding of

  14. The Formation of Milky Way-mass Disk Galaxies in the First 500 Million Years of a Cold Dark Matter Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yu; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Croft, Rupert; Tenneti, Ananth; Bird, Simeon; Battaglia, Nicholas; Wilkins, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    Whether or not among the myriad tiny protogalaxies there exists a population with similarities to present-day galaxies is an open question. We show, using BlueTides, the first hydrodynamic simulation large enough to resolve the relevant scales, that the first massive galaxies to form are predicted to have extensive rotationally supported disks. Although their morphology resembles in some ways Milky Way types seen at much lower redshifts, these high-redshift galaxies are smaller, denser, and richer in gas than their low-redshift counterparts. From a kinematic analysis of a statistical sample of 216 galaxies at redshift z = 8-10, we have found that disk galaxies make up 70% of the population of galaxies with stellar mass {10}10{M}⊙ or greater. Cold dark matter cosmology therefore makes specific predictions for the population of large galaxies 500 million years after the Big Bang. We argue that wide-field satellite telescopes (e.g., WFIRST) will in the near future discover these first massive disk galaxies. The simplicity of their structure and formation history should make new tests of cosmology possible.

  15. New interactions in the dark sector mediated by dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Brookfield, Anthony W.; Bruck, Carsten van de; Hall, Lisa M. H.

    2008-02-15

    Cosmological observations have revealed the existence of a dark matter sector, which is commonly assumed to be made up of one particle species only. However, this sector might be more complicated than we currently believe: there might be more than one dark matter species (for example, two components of cold dark matter or a mixture of hot and cold dark matter) and there may be new interactions between these particles. In this paper we study the possibility of multiple dark matter species and interactions mediated by a dark energy field. We study both the background and the perturbation evolution in these scenarios. We find that the background evolution of a system of multiple dark matter particles (with constant couplings) mimics a single fluid with a time-varying coupling parameter. However, this is no longer true on the perturbative level. We study the case of attractive and repulsive forces as well as a mixture of cold and hot dark matter particles.

  16. Dark matter and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between cold'' and hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  17. Dark matter and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ``cold`` and ``hot`` non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ``seeds`` that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  18. X-ray clusters in a cold dark matter + lambda universe: A direct, large-scale, high-resolution, hydrodynamic simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1994-01-01

    A new, three-dimensional, shock-capturing, hydrodynamic code is utilized to determine the distribution of hot gas in a cold dark matter (CDM) + lambda model universe. Periodic boundary conditions are assumed: a box with size 85/h Mpc, having cell size 0.31/h Mpc, is followed in a simulation with 270(exp 3) = 10(exp 7.3) cells. We adopt omega = 0.45, lambda = 0.55, h identically equal to H/100 km/s/Mpc = 0.6, and then, from the cosmic background explorer (COBE) and light element nucleosynthesis, sigma(sub 8) = 0.77, omega(sub b) = 0.043. We identify the X-ray emitting clusters in the simulation box, compute the luminosity function at several wavelength bands, the temperature function and estimated sizes, as well as the evolution of these quantities with redshift. This open model succeeds in matching local observations of clusters in contrast to the standard omega = 1, CDM model, which fails. It predicts an order of magnitude decline in the number density of bright (h nu = 2-10 keV) clusters from z = 0 to z = 2 in contrast to a slight increase in the number density for standard omega = 1, CDM model. This COBE-normalized CDM + lambda model produces approximately the same number of X-ray clusters having L(sub x) greater than 10(exp 43) erg/s as observed. The background radiation field at 1 keV due to clusters is approximately the observed background which, after correction for numerical effects, again indicates that the model is consistent with observations.

  19. X-ray clusters in a cold dark matter + lambda universe: A direct, large-scale, high-resolution, hydrodynamic simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1994-01-01

    A new, three-dimensional, shock-capturing, hydrodynamic code is utilized to determine the distribution of hot gas in a cold dark matter (CDM) + lambda model universe. Periodic boundary conditions are assumed: a box with size 85/h Mpc, having cell size 0.31/h Mpc, is followed in a simulation with 270(exp 3) = 10(exp 7.3) cells. We adopt omega = 0.45, lambda = 0.55, h identically equal to H/100 km/s/Mpc = 0.6, and then, from the cosmic background explorer (COBE) and light element nucleosynthesis, sigma(sub 8) = 0.77, omega(sub b) = 0.043. We identify the X-ray emitting clusters in the simulation box, compute the luminosity function at several wavelength bands, the temperature function and estimated sizes, as well as the evolution of these quantities with redshift. This open model succeeds in matching local observations of clusters in contrast to the standard omega = 1, CDM model, which fails. It predicts an order of magnitude decline in the number density of bright (h nu = 2-10 keV) clusters from z = 0 to z = 2 in contrast to a slight increase in the number density for standard omega = 1, CDM model. This COBE-normalized CDM + lambda model produces approximately the same number of X-ray clusters having L(sub x) greater than 10(exp 43) erg/s as observed. The background radiation field at 1 keV due to clusters is approximately the observed background which, after correction for numerical effects, again indicates that the model is consistent with observations.

  20. Fingerprinting dark energy. II. Weak lensing and galaxy clustering tests

    SciTech Connect

    Sapone, Domenico; Amendola, Luca

    2010-11-15

    The characterization of dark energy is a central task of cosmology. To go beyond a cosmological constant, we need to introduce at least an equation of state and a sound speed and consider observational tests that involve perturbations. If dark energy is not completely homogeneous on observable scales, then the Poisson equation is modified and dark matter clustering is directly affected. One can then search for observational effects of dark energy clustering using dark matter as a probe. In this paper we exploit an analytical approximate solution of the perturbation equations in a general dark energy cosmology to analyze the performance of next-decade large-scale surveys in constraining equation of state and sound speed. We find that tomographic weak lensing and galaxy redshift surveys can constrain the sound speed of the dark energy only if the latter is small, of the order of c{sub s} < or approx. 0.01 (in units of c). For larger sound speeds the error grows to 100% and more. We conclude that large-scale structure observations contain very little information about the perturbations in canonical scalar field models with a sound speed of unity. Nevertheless, they are able to detect the presence of cold dark energy, i.e. a dark energy with nonrelativistic speed of sound.

  1. Dark-disk universe.

    PubMed

    Fan, JiJi; Katz, Andrey; Randall, Lisa; Reece, Matthew

    2013-05-24

    We point out that current constraints on dark matter imply only that the majority of dark matter is cold and collisionless. A subdominant fraction of dark matter could have much stronger interactions. In particular, it could interact in a manner that dissipates energy, thereby cooling into a rotationally supported disk, much as baryons do. We call this proposed new dark matter component double-disk dark matter (DDDM). We argue that DDDM could constitute a fraction of all matter roughly as large as the fraction in baryons, and that it could be detected through its gravitational effects on the motion of stars in galaxies, for example. Furthermore, if DDDM can annihilate to gamma rays, it would give rise to an indirect detection signal distributed across the sky that differs dramatically from that predicted for ordinary dark matter. DDDM and more general partially interacting dark matter scenarios provide a large unexplored space of testable new physics ideas.

  2. Warm dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Horiuchi, Shunsaku

    2016-06-21

    The cold dark matter paradigm has been extremely successful in explaining the large-scale structure of the Universe. However, it continues to face issues when confronted by observations on sub-Galactic scales. A major caveat, now being addressed, has been the incomplete treatment of baryon physics. We first summarize the small-scale issues surrounding cold dark matter and discuss the solutions explored by modern state-of-the-art numerical simulations including treatment of baryonic physics. We identify the too big to fail in field galaxies as among the best targets to study modifications to dark matter, and discuss the particular connection with sterile neutrino warm dark matter. We also discuss how the recently detected anomalous 3.55 keV X-ray lines, when interpreted as sterile neutrino dark matter decay, provide a very good description of small-scale observations of the Local Group.

  3. News and Views: Life on Mars? Astronomical model is world's biggest; Prizes for identifying dark matter; NAM 2013: call for sessions; Paintballing to save the planet; Happy Birthday ESO; Dark sky park grows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-12-01

    The University of Edinburgh, crowdsourcing website Kaggle and Winton Capital Management have joined forces to launch a competition to identify dark matter haloes. The Scientific Organizing Committee of the RAS National Astronomy Meeting 2013, the UK Solar Physics and Magnetosphere, Ionosphere and Solar-Terrestrial meetings, are seeking nominations for parallel discussion session themes. A winner of the 2012 Move an Asteroid Technical Paper Competition suggests painting asteroids white in order to boost their albedo and take advantage of solar radiation pressure to alter their orbits.

  4. Recirculating System Design, Loading, and Water Quality and Atlantic Salmon Grow-Out Performance at the USDA National Cold Water Marine Aquaculture Center

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Northeastern U.S has the ideal location and unique opportunity to be a leader in cold-water marine finfish aquaculture. However, problems and regulations on environmental issues, mandatory stocking of 100 percent native North American salmon, and disease have impacted economic viability of the U...

  5. Dark matter axions and caustic rings

    SciTech Connect

    Sikivie, P.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains discussions on the following topics: the strong CP problem; dark matter axions; the cavity detector of galactic halo axions; and caustic rings in the density distribution of cold dark matter halos.

  6. Elastically Decoupling Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim; Lorier, Nicolas Rey-Le; Tsai, Yu-Dai

    2016-06-03

    We present a novel dark matter candidate, an elastically decoupling relic, which is a cold thermal relic whose present abundance is determined by the cross section of its elastic scattering on standard model particles. The dark matter candidate is predicted to have a mass ranging from a few to a few hundred MeV, and an elastic scattering cross section with electrons, photons and/or neutrinos in the 10^{-3}-1  fb range.

  7. Dark stars: a review.

    PubMed

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only [Formula: see text]0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ∼[Formula: see text] as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >[Formula: see text] and luminosities  >[Formula: see text], making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  8. Dark stars: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only ≲ 0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (˜10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ˜10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ˜1{{M}⊙} as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >{{10}6}{{M}⊙} and luminosities  >{{10}10}{{L}⊙} , making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  9. Dark Spots and Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As winter turns to spring at the south polar ice cap of Mars, the rising sun reveals dark spots and fans emerging from the cold polar night. Using visual images (left) and temperature data (right) from the Thermal Emission Imaging system on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter, scientists have built a new model for the origin of the dark markings. Scientists propose the markings come from dark sand and dust strewn by high-speed jets of carbon-dioxide gas. These erupt from under a layer of carbon-dioxide ice that forms each Martian winter.

  10. Metastable dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landim, Ricardo G.; Abdalla, Elcio

    2017-01-01

    We build a model of metastable dark energy, in which the observed vacuum energy is the value of the scalar potential at the false vacuum. The scalar potential is given by a sum of even self-interactions up to order six. The deviation from the Minkowski vacuum is due to a term suppressed by the Planck scale. The decay time of the metastable vacuum can easily accommodate a mean life time compatible with the age of the universe. The metastable dark energy is also embedded into a model with SU(2)R symmetry. The dark energy doublet and the dark matter doublet naturally interact with each other. A three-body decay of the dark energy particle into (cold and warm) dark matter can be as long as large fraction of the age of the universe, if the mediator is massive enough, the lower bound being at intermediate energy level some orders below the grand unification scale. Such a decay shows a different form of interaction between dark matter and dark energy, and the model opens a new window to investigate the dark sector from the point-of-view of particle physics.

  11. Dark matter universe.

    PubMed

    Bahcall, Neta A

    2015-10-06

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter--a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations--from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology--a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)--fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle.

  12. Dark matter universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahcall, Neta A.

    2015-10-01

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter-a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations-from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology-a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)-fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle.

  13. Dark matter universe

    PubMed Central

    Bahcall, Neta A.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter—a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations—from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is “cold” (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology—a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)—fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle. PMID:26417091

  14. Theory and Motivations of Dark Sector Dark Matter and Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Philip

    2017-01-01

    We present the theory and motivations underlying ``dark'' or ``hidden'' sector dark matter and new force scenarios. Dark sector scenarios with sub-GeV mass scales have attracted particular attention in the past several years, motivated in part by findings from direct detection, satellite, and LHC experiments, as well as precision measurements. Moreover, these scenarios offer some of the simplest and least explored possibilities for dark matter. As such, sub-GeV dark sector scenarios have become the focus of a broad and growing international program of experiments.

  15. On dark degeneracy and interacting models

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, S.; Borges, H.A. E-mail: humberto@ufba.br

    2014-06-01

    Cosmological background observations cannot fix the dark energy equation of state, which is related to a degeneracy in the definition of the dark sector components. Here we show that this degeneracy can be broken at perturbation level by imposing two observational properties on dark matter. First, dark matter is defined as the clustering component we observe in large scale structures. This definition is meaningful only if dark energy is unperturbed, which is achieved if we additionally assume, as a second condition, that dark matter is cold, i.e. non-relativistic. As a consequence, dark energy models with equation-of-state parameter −1 ≤ ω < 0 are reduced to two observationally distinguishable classes with ω = −1, equally competitive when tested against observations. The first comprises the ΛCDM model with constant dark energy density. The second consists of interacting models with an energy flux from dark energy to dark matter.

  16. Cold Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  17. Higher production of C-phycocyanin by nitrogen-free (diazotrophic) cultivation of Nostoc sp. NK and simplified extraction by dark-cold shock.

    PubMed

    Lee, Na Kyeong; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik; Ahn, Chi-Yong

    2017-03-01

    Nostoc sp. NK (KCTC 12772BP) was isolated and cultivated in a BG11 medium and a nitrate-free BG11 medium (BG110). To enhance C-phycocyanin (C-PC) content in the cells, different fluorescent lamps (white, plant, and red) were used as light sources for complementary chromatic adaptation (CCA). The maximum biomass productivity was 0.42g/L/d and 0.32g/L/d under BG11 and BG110 conditions, respectively. The maximum C-PC contents were 8.4% (w/w) under white lamps, 13.6% (w/w) under plant lamps, and 18% (w/w) under BG110 and the red light condition. The maximum C-PC productivity was 57.4mg/L/d in BG110 under the red lamp condition. These results indicate that a higher C-PC content could be obtained under a diazotrophic condition and a CCA reaction. The C-PC could be released naturally from cells without any extraction processes, when Nostoc sp. NK was cultivated in the BG110 medium with CO2 aeration and put in dark conditions at 5°C.

  18. Structure formation with scalar field dark matter: the field approach

    SciTech Connect

    Magaña, Juan; Sánchez-Salcedo, F.J.; Matos, Tonatiuh; Suárez, Abril E-mail: tmatos@fis.cinvestav.mx E-mail: jsanchez@astro.unam.mx

    2012-10-01

    We study the formation of structure in the Universe assuming that dark matter can be described by a scalar field Φ-tilde with a potential V(Φ) = −m{sup 2}Φ-tilde {sup 2}/2+λΦ-tilde {sup 4}/4. We derive the evolution equations of the scalar field in the linear regime of perturbations. We investigate the symmetry breaking and possibly a phase transition of this scalar field in the early Universe. At low temperatures, the scalar perturbations have an oscillating growing mode and therefore, this kind of dark matter could lead to the formation of gravitational structures. In order to study the nonlinear regime, we use the spherical collapse model and show that, in the quadratic potential limit, this kind of dark matter can form virialized structures. The main difference with the traditional Cold Dark Matter paradigm is that the formation of structure in the scalar field model can occur at earlier times. Thus, if the dark matter behaves as a scalar field, large galaxies are expected to be formed already at high redshifts.

  19. Is Dark Energy Falsifiable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, C. H.; Schild, R. E.

    2011-11-01

    Is the accelerating expansion of the Universe true, inferred through observations of distant supernovae, and is the implied existence of an enormous amount of anti- gravitational dark energy material driving the accelerating expansion of the universe also true? To be physically useful these propositions must be falsifiable; that is, subject to observational tests that could render them false, and both fail when viscous, diffusive, astro-biological and turbulence effects are included in the interpretation of observations. A more plausible explanation of negative stresses producing the big bang is turbulence at Planck temperatures. Inflation results from gluon viscous stresses at the strong force transition. Anti-gravitational (dark energy) turbulence stresses are powerful but only temporary. No permanent dark energy is needed. At the plasma-gas transition, viscous stresses cause fragmentation of plasma proto-galaxies into dark matter clumps of primordial gas planets, each of which falsifies dark-energy cold-dark-matter cosmologies. Clumps of these planets form all stars, and explain the alleged accelerating expansion of the universe as a systematic dimming error of Supernovae Ia by light scattered in the hot turbulent atmospheres of evaporated planets surrounding central white dwarf stars.

  20. Discovery of the Methoxy Radical, CH3O, toward B1: Dust Grain and Gas-phase Chemistry in Cold Dark Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernicharo, J.; Marcelino, N.; Roueff, E.; Gerin, M.; Jiménez-Escobar, A.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.

    2012-11-01

    We report on the discovery of the methoxy radical (CH3O) toward the cold and dense core B1-b based on the observation, with the IRAM 30 m radio telescope, of several lines at 3 and 2 mm wavelengths. Besides this new molecular species we also report on the detection of many lines arising from methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), formic acid (HCOOH), propynal (HCCCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3), methyl formate (CH3OCOH), and the formyl radical (HCO). The column density of all these species is sime1012 cm-2, corresponding to abundances of sime10-11. The similarity in abundances for all these species strongly suggest that they are formed on the surface of dust grains and ejected to the gas phase through non-thermal desorption processes, most likely cosmic rays or secondary photons. Nevertheless, laboratory experiments indicate that the CH3O isomer released to the gas phase is CH2OH rather than the methoxy one. Possible gas-phase formation routes to CH3O from OH and methanol are discussed. This work was based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).

  1. Axion dark matter searches

    DOE PAGES

    Stern, Ian P.

    2014-01-01

    We report nearly all astrophysical and cosmological data point convincingly to a large component of cold dark matter in the Universe. The axion particle, first theorized as a solution to the strong charge-parity problem of quantum chromodynamics, has been established as a prominent CDM candidate. Cosmic observation and particle physics experiments have bracketed the unknown mass of the axion between approximately a μeV and a meV. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiement (ADMX) has successfully completed searches between 1.9 and 3.7 μeV down to the KSVZ photon-coupling limit. ADMX and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiement High-Frequency (ADMX-HF) will search for axionsmore » at weaker coupling and/or higher frequencies within the next few years. Status of the experiments, current research and development, and projected mass-coupling exclusion limits are presented.« less

  2. Axion dark matter searches

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Ian P.

    2014-01-01

    We report nearly all astrophysical and cosmological data point convincingly to a large component of cold dark matter in the Universe. The axion particle, first theorized as a solution to the strong charge-parity problem of quantum chromodynamics, has been established as a prominent CDM candidate. Cosmic observation and particle physics experiments have bracketed the unknown mass of the axion between approximately a μeV and a meV. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiement (ADMX) has successfully completed searches between 1.9 and 3.7 μeV down to the KSVZ photon-coupling limit. ADMX and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiement High-Frequency (ADMX-HF) will search for axions at weaker coupling and/or higher frequencies within the next few years. Status of the experiments, current research and development, and projected mass-coupling exclusion limits are presented.

  3. Axion dark matter searches

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Ian P.; Collaboration: ADMX Collaboration; ADMX-HF Collaboration

    2014-06-24

    Nearly all astrophysical and cosmological data point convincingly to a large component of cold dark matter in the Universe. The axion particle, first theorized as a solution to the strong charge-parity problem of quantum chromodynamics, has been established as a prominent CDM candidate. Cosmic observation and particle physics experiments have bracketed the unknown mass of the axion between approximately a μeV and a meV. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiement (ADMX) has successfully completed searches between 1.9 and 3.7 μeV down to the KSVZ photon-coupling limit. ADMX and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiement High-Frequency (ADMX-HF) will search for axions at weaker coupling and/or higher frequencies within the next few years. Status of the experiments, current research and development, and projected mass-coupling exclusion limits are presented.

  4. Dark Matters

    ScienceCinema

    Joseph Silk

    2016-07-12

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark.  Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious, but pervasive dark matter which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe.  I will describe the complex interplay between galaxy formation and dark matter detectability and review recent attempts to measure particle dark matter by direct and indirect means.

  5. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  6. Cold Urticaria

    MedlinePlus

    ... throat when consuming cold food or drink Severe reactions may include: A whole-body response (anaphylaxis), which ... to cold water. The majority of cold urticaria reactions occur when skin is exposed to temperatures lower ...

  7. Mixed dark matter from technicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, Alexander; Frandsen, Mads T.; Sarkar, Subir; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We study natural composite cold dark matter candidates which are pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons (pNGB) in models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. Some of these can have a significant thermal relic abundance, while others must be mainly asymmetric dark matter. By considering the thermal abundance alone we find a lower bound of m{sub W} on the pNGB mass when the (composite) Higgs is heavier than 115 GeV. Being pNGBs, the dark matter candidates are in general light enough to be produced at the LHC.

  8. Sourcing dark matter and dark energy from α-attractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Swagat S.; Sahni, Varun; Shtanov, Yuri

    2017-06-01

    In [1], Kallosh and Linde drew attention to a new family of superconformal inflationary potentials, subsequently called α-attractors [2]. The α-attractor family can interpolate between a large class of inflationary models. It also has an important theoretical underpinning within the framework of supergravity. We demonstrate that the α-attractors have an even wider appeal since they may describe dark matter and perhaps even dark energy. The dark matter associated with the α-attractors, which we call α-dark matter (αDM), shares many of the attractive features of fuzzy dark matter, with V(varphi) = ½m2varphi2, while having none of its drawbacks. Like fuzzy dark matter, αDM can have a large Jeans length which could resolve the cusp-core and substructure problems faced by standard cold dark matter. αDM also has an appealing tracker property which enables it to converge to the late-time dark matter asymptote, langlewrangle simeq 0, from a wide range of initial conditions. It thus avoids the enormous fine-tuning problems faced by the m2varphi2 potential in describing dark matter.

  9. Hierarchical phase space structure of dark matter haloes: Tidal debris, caustics, and dark matter annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Afshordi, Niayesh; Mohayaee, Roya; Bertschinger, Edmund

    2009-04-15

    Most of the mass content of dark matter haloes is expected to be in the form of tidal debris. The density of debris is not constant, but rather can grow due to formation of caustics at the apocenters and pericenters of the orbit, or decay as a result of phase mixing. In the phase space, the debris assemble in a hierarchy that is truncated by the primordial temperature of dark matter. Understanding this phase structure can be of significant importance for the interpretation of many astrophysical observations and, in particular, dark matter detection experiments. With this purpose in mind, we develop a general theoretical framework to describe the hierarchical structure of the phase space of cold dark matter haloes. We do not make any assumption of spherical symmetry and/or smooth and continuous accretion. Instead, working with correlation functions in the action-angle space, we can fully account for the hierarchical structure (predicting a two-point correlation function {proportional_to}{delta}J{sup -1.6} in the action space), as well as the primordial discreteness of the phase space. As an application, we estimate the boost to the dark matter annihilation signal due to the structure of the phase space within virial radius: the boost due to the hierarchical tidal debris is of order unity, whereas the primordial discreteness of the phase structure can boost the total annihilation signal by up to an order of magnitude. The latter is dominated by the regions beyond 20% of the virial radius, and is largest for the recently formed haloes with the least degree of phase mixing. Nevertheless, as we argue in a companion paper, the boost due to small gravitationally-bound substructure can dominate this effect at low redshifts.

  10. Unified dark energy-dark matter model with inverse quintessence

    SciTech Connect

    Ansoldi, Stefano; Guendelman, Eduardo I. E-mail: guendel@bgu.ac.il

    2013-05-01

    We consider a model where both dark energy and dark matter originate from the coupling of a scalar field with a non-canonical kinetic term to, both, a metric measure and a non-metric measure. An interacting dark energy/dark matter scenario can be obtained by introducing an additional scalar that can produce non constant vacuum energy and associated variations in dark matter. The phenomenology is most interesting when the kinetic term of the additional scalar field is ghost-type, since in this case the dark energy vanishes in the early universe and then grows with time. This constitutes an ''inverse quintessence scenario'', where the universe starts from a zero vacuum energy density state, instead of approaching it in the future.

  11. Cold adaptations.

    PubMed

    Launay, Jean-Claude; Savourey, Gustave

    2009-07-01

    Nowdays, occupational and recreational activities in cold environments are common. Exposure to cold induces thermoregulatory responses like changes of behaviour and physiological adjustments to maintain thermal balance either by increasing metabolic heat production by shivering and/or by decreasing heat losses consecutive to peripheral cutaneous vasoconstriction. Those physiological responses present a great variability among individuals and depend mainly on biometrical characteristics, age, and general cold adaptation. During severe cold exposure, medical disorders may occur such as accidental hypothermia and/or freezing or non-freezing cold injuries. General cold adaptations have been qualitatively classified by Hammel and quantitatively by Savourey. This last classification takes into account the quantitative changes of the main cold reactions: higher or lower metabolic heat production, higher or lesser heat losses and finally the level of the core temperature observed at the end of a standardized exposure to cold. General cold adaptations observed previously in natives could also be developed in laboratory conditions by continuous or intermittent cold exposures. Beside general cold adaptation, local cold adaptation exists and is characterized by a lesser decrease of skin temperature, a more pronounced cold induced vasodilation, less pain and a higher manual dexterity. Adaptations to cold may reduce the occurrence of accidents and improve human performance as surviving in the cold. The present review describes both general and local cold adaptations in humans and how they are of interest for cold workers.

  12. Observational constraints on dark energy with a fast varying equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Felice, Antonio; Nesseris, Savvas; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2012-05-01

    We place observational constraints on models with the late-time cosmic acceleration based on a number of parametrizations allowing fast transitions for the equation of state of dark energy. In addition to the model of Linder and Huterer where the dark energy equation of state w monotonically grows or decreases in time, we propose two new parametrizations in which w has an extremum. We carry out the likelihood analysis with the three parametrizations by using the observational data of supernovae type Ia, cosmic microwave background, and baryon acoustic oscillations. Although the transient cosmic acceleration models with fast transitions can give rise to the total chi square smaller than that in the Λ-Cold-Dark-Matter (ΛCDM) model, these models are not favored over ΛCDM when one uses the Akaike information criterion which penalizes the extra degrees of freedom present in the parametrizations.

  13. Dark strings

    SciTech Connect

    Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2009-09-15

    Recent astrophysical observations have motivated novel theoretical models of the dark matter sector. A class of such models predicts the existence of GeV scale cosmic strings that communicate with the standard model sector by Aharonov-Bohm interactions with electrically charged particles. We discuss the cosmology of these 'dark strings' and investigate possible observational signatures. More elaborate dark sector models are argued to contain hybrid topological defects that may also have observational signatures.

  14. Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir, A.; Cotti, U.; De Leon, C. L.; Raya, A; Villasenor, L.

    2008-07-02

    One of the biggest scientific mysteries of our time resides in the identification of the particles that constitute a large fraction of the mass of our Universe, generically known as dark matter. We review the observations and the experimental data that imply the existence of dark matter. We briefly discuss the properties of the two best dark-matter candidate particles and the experimental techniques presently used to try to discover them. Finally, we mention a proposed project that has recently emerged within the Mexican community to look for dark matter.

  15. Dark matter and dark radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, Lotty; Buckley, Matthew R.; Carroll, Sean M.; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2009-01-15

    We explore the feasibility and astrophysical consequences of a new long-range U(1) gauge field ('dark electromagnetism') that couples only to dark matter, not to the standard model. The dark matter consists of an equal number of positive and negative charges under the new force, but annihilations are suppressed if the dark-matter mass is sufficiently high and the dark fine-structure constant {alpha}-circumflex is sufficiently small. The correct relic abundance can be obtained if the dark matter also couples to the conventional weak interactions, and we verify that this is consistent with particle-physics constraints. The primary limit on {alpha}-circumflex comes from the demand that the dark matter be effectively collisionless in galactic dynamics, which implies {alpha}-circumflex < or approx. 10{sup -3} for TeV-scale dark matter. These values are easily compatible with constraints from structure formation and primordial nucleosynthesis. We raise the prospect of interesting new plasma effects in dark-matter dynamics, which remain to be explored.

  16. Growing Crystals for Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    Unidirectional solidification yields bulk crystals with compositional homogeneity. Unidirectionaly crystal-growth furnace assembly travels vertically so crystal grows upward from bottom tapered end of ampoule. Separately controlled furnaces used for hot (upper) and cold (lower) zones. New process produces ingots with radial compositional homogeneity suitable for fabricating infrared detectors.

  17. Partially acoustic dark matter, interacting dark radiation, and large scale structure

    SciTech Connect

    Chacko, Zackaria; Cui, Yanou; Hong, Sungwoo; Okui, Takemichi; Tsai, Yuhsinz

    2016-12-21

    The standard paradigm of collisionless cold dark matter is in tension with measurements on large scales. In particular, the best fit values of the Hubble rate H0 and the matter density perturbation σ8 inferred from the cosmic microwave background seem inconsistent with the results from direct measurements. We show that both problems can be solved in a framework in which dark matter consists of two distinct components, a dominant component and a subdominant component. The primary component is cold and collisionless. The secondary component is also cold, but interacts strongly with dark radiation, which itself forms a tightly coupled fluid. The growth of density perturbations in the subdominant component is inhibited by dark acoustic oscillations due to its coupling to the dark radiation, solving the σ8 problem, while the presence of tightly coupled dark radiation ameliorates the H0 problem. The subdominant component of dark matter and dark radiation continue to remain in thermal equilibrium until late times, inhibiting the formation of a dark disk. We present an example of a simple model that naturally realizes this scenario in which both constituents of dark matter are thermal WIMPs. Our scenario can be tested by future stage-IV experiments designed to probe the CMB and large scale structure.

  18. Partially acoustic dark matter, interacting dark radiation, and large scale structure

    DOE PAGES

    Chacko, Zackaria; Cui, Yanou; Hong, Sungwoo; ...

    2016-12-21

    The standard paradigm of collisionless cold dark matter is in tension with measurements on large scales. In particular, the best fit values of the Hubble rate H0 and the matter density perturbation σ8 inferred from the cosmic microwave background seem inconsistent with the results from direct measurements. We show that both problems can be solved in a framework in which dark matter consists of two distinct components, a dominant component and a subdominant component. The primary component is cold and collisionless. The secondary component is also cold, but interacts strongly with dark radiation, which itself forms a tightly coupled fluid.more » The growth of density perturbations in the subdominant component is inhibited by dark acoustic oscillations due to its coupling to the dark radiation, solving the σ8 problem, while the presence of tightly coupled dark radiation ameliorates the H0 problem. The subdominant component of dark matter and dark radiation continue to remain in thermal equilibrium until late times, inhibiting the formation of a dark disk. We present an example of a simple model that naturally realizes this scenario in which both constituents of dark matter are thermal WIMPs. Our scenario can be tested by future stage-IV experiments designed to probe the CMB and large scale structure.« less

  19. Partially acoustic dark matter, interacting dark radiation, and large scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacko, Zackaria; Cui, Yanou; Hong, Sungwoo; Okui, Takemichi; Tsai, Yuhsinz

    2016-12-01

    The standard paradigm of collisionless cold dark matter is in tension with measurements on large scales. In particular, the best fit values of the Hubble rate H 0 and the matter density perturbation σ 8 inferred from the cosmic microwave background seem inconsistent with the results from direct measurements. We show that both problems can be solved in a framework in which dark matter consists of two distinct components, a dominant component and a subdominant component. The primary component is cold and collisionless. The secondary component is also cold, but interacts strongly with dark radiation, which itself forms a tightly coupled fluid. The growth of density perturbations in the subdominant component is inhibited by dark acoustic oscillations due to its coupling to the dark radiation, solving the σ 8 problem, while the presence of tightly coupled dark radiation ameliorates the H 0 problem. The subdominant component of dark matter and dark radiation continue to remain in thermal equilibrium until late times, inhibiting the formation of a dark disk. We present an example of a simple model that naturally realizes this scenario in which both constituents of dark matter are thermal WIMPs. Our scenario can be tested by future stage-IV experiments designed to probe the CMB and large scale structure.

  20. Crystal growing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neville, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    One objective is to demonstrate the way crystals grow and how they affect the behavior of material. Another objective is to compare the growth of crystals in metals and nonmetals. The procedures, which involve a supersaturated solution of a salt that will separate into crystals on cooling and the pouring off of an eutectic solution to expose the crystals formed by a solid solution when an alloy of two metals forms a solid and eutectic solution on cooling, are described.

  1. Methanol in dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friberg, P.; Hjalmarson, A.; Madden, S. C.; Irvine, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    The first observation of methanol in cold dark clouds TMC 1, L 134 N, and B 335 is reported. In all three clouds, the relative abundance of methanol was found to be in the range of 10 to the -9th (i.e., almost an order of magnitude more abundant than acetaldehyde), with no observable variation between the clouds. Methanol emission showed a complex velocity structure; in TMC 1, clear indications of non-LTE were observed. Dimethyl ether was searched for in L 134 N; the upper limit of the column density of dimethyl ether in L 134 N was estimated to be 4 x 10 to the 12th/sq cm, assuming 5 K rotation temperature and LTE. This limit makes the abundance ratio (CH3)2O/CH3OH not higher than 1/5, indicating that dimethyl ether is not overabundant in this dark cloud.

  2. Methanol in dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friberg, P.; Hjalmarson, A.; Madden, S. C.; Irvine, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    The first observation of methanol in cold dark clouds TMC 1, L 134 N, and B 335 is reported. In all three clouds, the relative abundance of methanol was found to be in the range of 10 to the -9th (i.e., almost an order of magnitude more abundant than acetaldehyde), with no observable variation between the clouds. Methanol emission showed a complex velocity structure; in TMC 1, clear indications of non-LTE were observed. Dimethyl ether was searched for in L 134 N; the upper limit of the column density of dimethyl ether in L 134 N was estimated to be 4 x 10 to the 12th/sq cm, assuming 5 K rotation temperature and LTE. This limit makes the abundance ratio (CH3)2O/CH3OH not higher than 1/5, indicating that dimethyl ether is not overabundant in this dark cloud.

  3. Dark stars: Gravitational and electromagnetic observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maselli, Andrea; Pnigouras, Pantelis; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund; Kouvaris, Chris; Kokkotas, Kostas D.

    2017-07-01

    Theoretical models of self-interacting dark matter represent a promising answer to a series of open problems within the so-called collisionless cold dark matter paradigm. In case of asymmetric dark matter, self-interactions might facilitate gravitational collapse and potentially lead to the formation of compact objects predominantly made of dark matter. Considering both fermionic and bosonic (scalar ϕ4 ) equations of state, we construct the equilibrium structure of rotating dark stars, focusing on their bulk properties and comparing them with baryonic neutron stars. We also show that these dark objects admit the I -Love-Q universal relations, which link their moments of inertia, tidal deformabilities, and quadrupole moments. Finally, we prove that stars built with a dark matter equation of state are not compact enough to mimic black holes in general relativity, thus making them distinguishable in potential events of gravitational interferometers.

  4. Versatile cold atom target apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Goetz, Simone; Hoeltkemeier, Bastian; Hofmann, Christoph S.; Litsch, Dominic; DePaola, Brett D.; Weidemueller, Matthias

    2012-07-15

    We report on a compact and transportable apparatus that consists of a cold atomic target at the center of a high resolution recoil ion momentum spectrometer. Cold rubidium atoms serve as a target which can be operated in three different modes: in continuous mode, consisting of a cold atom beam generated by a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap, in normal mode in which the atoms from the beam are trapped in a three-dimensional magneto-optical trap (3D MOT), and in high density mode in which the 3D MOT is operated in dark spontaneous optical trap configuration. The targets are characterized using photoionization.

  5. Versatile cold atom target apparatus.

    PubMed

    Götz, Simone; Höltkemeier, Bastian; Hofmann, Christoph S; Litsch, Dominic; DePaola, Brett D; Weidemüller, Matthias

    2012-07-01

    We report on a compact and transportable apparatus that consists of a cold atomic target at the center of a high resolution recoil ion momentum spectrometer. Cold rubidium atoms serve as a target which can be operated in three different modes: in continuous mode, consisting of a cold atom beam generated by a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap, in normal mode in which the atoms from the beam are trapped in a three-dimensional magneto-optical trap (3D MOT), and in high density mode in which the 3D MOT is operated in dark spontaneous optical trap configuration. The targets are characterized using photoionization.

  6. Dark catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Randall, Lisa; Scholtz, Jakub

    2017-08-01

    Recently it was shown that dark matter with mass of order the weak scale can be charged under a new long-range force, decoupled from the Standard Model, with only weak constraints from early Universe cosmology. Here we consider the implications of an additional charged particle C that is light enough to lead to significant dissipative dynamics on galactic times scales. We highlight several novel features of this model, which can be relevant even when the C particle constitutes only a small fraction of the number density (and energy density). We assume a small asymmetric abundance of the C particle whose charge is compensated by a heavy X particle so that the relic abundance of dark matter consists mostly of symmetric X and bar X, with a small asymmetric component made up of X and C. As the universe cools, it undergoes asymmetric recombination binding the free Cs into (XC) dark atoms efficiently. Even with a tiny asymmetric component, the presence of C particles catalyzes tight coupling between the heavy dark matter X and the dark photon plasma that can lead to a significant suppression of the matter power spectrum on small scales and lead to some of the strongest bounds on such dark matter theories. We find a viable parameter space where structure formation constraints are satisfied and significant dissipative dynamics can occur in galactic haloes but show a large region is excluded. Our model shows that subdominant components in the dark sector can dramatically affect structure formation.

  7. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000678.htm Common cold To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, ...

  8. Sterile neutrino dark matter with supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakya, Bibhushan; Wells, James D.

    2017-08-01

    Sterile neutrino dark matter, a popular alternative to the WIMP paradigm, has generally been studied in non-supersymmetric setups. If the underlying theory is supersymmetric, we find that several interesting and novel dark matter features can arise. In particular, in scenarios of freeze-in production of sterile neutrino dark matter, its superpartner, the sterile sneutrino, can play a crucial role in early Universe cosmology as the dominant source of cold, warm, or hot dark matter, or of a subdominant relativistic population of sterile neutrinos that can contribute to the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom Neff during big bang nucleosynthesis.

  9. Cold Sore

    MedlinePlus

    ... genitals. Most people who are infected with the virus that causes cold sores never develop signs and symptoms. Cold sores ... an infection — test positive for evidence of the virus that causes cold sores. People who have weakened immune systems are ...

  10. Dark coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Gavela, M.B.; Hernández, D.; Honorez, L. Lopez; Mena, O.; Rigolin, S. E-mail: d.hernandez@uam.es E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es

    2009-07-01

    The two dark sectors of the universe—dark matter and dark energy—may interact with each other. Background and linear density perturbation evolution equations are developed for a generic coupling. We then establish the general conditions necessary to obtain models free from non-adiabatic instabilities. As an application, we consider a viable universe in which the interaction strength is proportional to the dark energy density. The scenario does not exhibit ''phantom crossing'' and is free from instabilities, including early ones. A sizeable interaction strength is compatible with combined WMAP, HST, SN, LSS and H(z) data. Neutrino mass and/or cosmic curvature are allowed to be larger than in non-interacting models. Our analysis sheds light as well on unstable scenarios previously proposed.

  11. Dark Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-01-01

    It's a dark, dark universe out there, and I don't mean because the night sky is black. After all, once you leave the shadow of the Earth and get out into space, you're surrounded by countless lights glittering everywhere you look. But for all of Sagan's billions and billions of stars and galaxies, it's a jaw-dropping fact that the ordinary kind of…

  12. Dark Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-01-01

    It's a dark, dark universe out there, and I don't mean because the night sky is black. After all, once you leave the shadow of the Earth and get out into space, you're surrounded by countless lights glittering everywhere you look. But for all of Sagan's billions and billions of stars and galaxies, it's a jaw-dropping fact that the ordinary kind of…

  13. Cosmological dynamics of interacting logarithmic entropy corrected holographic dark energy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darabi, F.; Felegary, F.; Setare, M. R.

    We investigate the cosmological dynamics of interacting Logarithmic Entropy Corrected Holographic Dark Energy model with Cold Dark Matter. Fixed points are determined and their corresponding cosmological models are presented. Moreover, the dynamical properties of these fixed points are derived.

  14. Stellar discs in Aquarius dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBuhr, Jackson; Ma, Chung-Pei; White, Simon D. M.

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the gravitational interactions between live stellar discs and their dark matter haloes, using Λ cold dark matter haloes similar in mass to that of the Milky Way taken from the Aquarius Project. We introduce the stellar discs by first allowing the haloes to respond to the influence of a growing rigid disc potential from z = 1.3 to 1.0. The rigid potential is then replaced with star particles which evolve self-consistently with the dark matter particles until z = 0.0. Regardless of the initial orientation of the disc, the inner parts of the haloes contract and change from prolate to oblate as the disc grows to its full size. When the disc's normal is initially aligned with the major axis of the halo at z = 1.3, the length of the major axis contracts and becomes the minor axis by z = 1.0. Six out of the eight discs in our main set of simulations form bars, and five of the six bars experience a buckling instability that results in a sudden jump in the vertical stellar velocity dispersion and an accompanying drop in the m = 2 Fourier amplitude of the disc surface density. The bars are not destroyed by the buckling but continue to grow until the present day. Bars are largely absent when the disc mass is reduced by a factor of 2 or more; the relative disc-to-halo mass is therefore a primary factor in bar formation and evolution. A subset of the discs is warped at the outskirts and contains prominent non-coplanar material with a ring-like structure. Many discs reorient by large angles between z = 1 and 0, following a coherent reorientation of their inner haloes. Larger reorientations produce more strongly warped discs, suggesting a tight link between the two phenomena. The origins of bars and warps appear independent: some discs with strong bars show little disturbances at the outskirts, while the discs with the weakest bars show severe warps.

  15. Dark-Skies Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.

    2009-05-01

    The arc of the Milky Way seen from a truly dark location is part of our planet's natural heritage. More than one fifth of the world population, two thirds of the United States population and one half of the European Union population have already lost naked eye visibility of the Milky Way. This loss, caused by light pollution, is a serious and growing issue that impacts astronomical research, the economy, ecology, energy conservation, human health, public safety and our shared ability to see the night sky. For this reason, "Dark Skies” is a cornerstone project of the International Year of Astronomy. Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people worldwide involved in a variety of programs that: 1. Teach about dark skies using new technology (e.g., an activity-based planetarium show on DVD, podcasting, social networking on Facebook and MySpace, a Second Life presence) 2. Provide thematic events on light pollution at star parties and observatory open houses (Dark Skies Discovery Sites, Nights in the (National) Parks, Sidewalk Astronomy) 3. Organize events in the arts (e.g., a photography contest) 4. Involve citizen-scientists in naked-eye and digital-meter star hunting programs (e.g., GLOBE at Night, "How Many Stars?", the Great World Wide Star Count and the radio frequency interference equivalent: "Quiet Skies") and 5. Raise awareness about the link between light pollution and public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security, and astronomy (e.g., The Starlight Initiative, World Night in Defense of Starlight, International Dark Sky Week, International Dark-Sky Communities, Earth Hour, The Great Switch Out, a traveling exhibit, downloadable posters and brochures). The presentation will provide an update, describe how people can become involved and take a look ahead at the program's sustainability. For more information, visit www.darkskiesawareness.org.

  16. Dark Energy simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Marco

    2012-11-01

    Cosmology is presently facing the deep mystery of the origin of the observed accelerated expansion of the Universe. Be it a cosmological constant, a homogeneous scalar field, or a more complex inhomogeneous field possibly inducing effective modifications of the laws of gravity, such elusive physical entity is indicated with the general term of “Dark Energy”. The growing role played by numerical N-body simulations in cosmological studies as a fundamental connection between theoretical modeling and direct observations has led to impressive advancements also in the development and application of specific algorithms designed to probe a wide range of Dark Energy scenarios. Over the last decade, a large number of independent and complementary investigations have been carried out in the field of Dark Energy N-body simulations, starting from the simplest case of homogeneous Dark Energy models up to the recent development of highly sophisticated iterative solvers for a variety of Modified Gravity theories. In this review -which is meant to be complementary to the general Review by Kuhlen et al. (2012) [1] published in this Volume - I will discuss the range of scenarios for the cosmic acceleration that have been successfully investigated by means of dedicated N-body simulations, and I will provide a broad summary of the main results that have been obtained in this rather new research field. I will focus the discussion on a few selected studies that have led to particularly significant advancements in the field, and I will provide a comprehensive list of references for a larger number of related works. Due to the vastness of the topic, the discussion will not enter into the finest details of the different implementations and will mainly focus on the outcomes of the various simulations studies. Although quite recent, the field of Dark Energy simulations has witnessed huge developments in the last few years, and presently stands as a reliable approach to the investigation

  17. Consequences of dark matter-dark energy interaction on cosmological parameters derived from type Ia supernova data

    SciTech Connect

    Amendola, Luca; Campos, Gabriela Camargo; Rosenfeld, Rogerio

    2007-04-15

    Models where the dark matter component of the Universe interacts with the dark energy field have been proposed as a solution to the cosmic coincidence problem, since in the attractor regime both dark energy and dark matter scale in the same way. In these models the mass of the cold dark matter particles is a function of the dark energy field responsible for the present acceleration of the Universe, and different scenarios can be parametrized by how the mass of the cold dark matter particles evolves with time. In this article we study the impact of a constant coupling {delta} between dark energy and dark matter on the determination of a redshift dependent dark energy equation of state w{sub DE}(z) and on the dark matter density today from SNIa data. We derive an analytical expression for the luminosity distance in this case. In particular, we show that the presence of such a coupling increases the tension between the cosmic microwave background data from the analysis of the shift parameter in models with constant w{sub DE} and SNIa data for realistic values of the present dark matter density fraction. Thus, an independent measurement of the present dark matter density can place constraints on models with interacting dark energy.

  18. Iapetus Bright and Dark Terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Saturn's outermost large moon, Iapetus, has a bright, heavily cratered icy terrain and a dark terrain, as shown in this Voyager 2 image taken on August 22, 1981. Amazingly, the dark material covers precisely the side of Iapetus that leads in the direction of orbital motion around Saturn (except for the poles), whereas the bright material occurs on the trailing hemisphere and at the poles. The bright terrain is made of dirty ice, and the dark terrain is surfaced by carbonaceous molecules, according to measurements made with Earth-based telescopes. Iapetus' dark hemisphere has been likened to tar or asphalt and is so dark that no details within this terrain were visible to Voyager 2. The bright icy hemisphere, likened to dirty snow, shows many large impact craters. The closest approach by Voyager 2 to Iapetus was a relatively distant 600,000 miles, so that our best images, such as this, have a resolution of about 12 miles. The dark material is made of organic substances, probably including poisonous cyano compounds such as frozen hydrogen cyanide polymers. Though we know a little about the dark terrain's chemical nature, we do not understand its origin. Two theories have been developed, but neither is fully satisfactory--(1) the dark material may be organic dust knocked off the small neighboring satellite Phoebe and 'painted' onto the leading side of Iapetus as the dust spirals toward Saturn and Iapetus hurtles through the tenuous dust cloud, or (2) the dark material may be made of icy-cold carbonaceous 'cryovolcanic' lavas that were erupted from Iapetus' interior and then blackened by solar radiation, charged particles, and cosmic rays. A determination of the actual cause, as well as discovery of any other geologic features smaller than 12 miles across, awaits the Cassini Saturn orbiter to arrive in 2004.

  19. Iapetus Bright and Dark Terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Saturn's outermost large moon, Iapetus, has a bright, heavily cratered icy terrain and a dark terrain, as shown in this Voyager 2 image taken on August 22, 1981. Amazingly, the dark material covers precisely the side of Iapetus that leads in the direction of orbital motion around Saturn (except for the poles), whereas the bright material occurs on the trailing hemisphere and at the poles. The bright terrain is made of dirty ice, and the dark terrain is surfaced by carbonaceous molecules, according to measurements made with Earth-based telescopes. Iapetus' dark hemisphere has been likened to tar or asphalt and is so dark that no details within this terrain were visible to Voyager 2. The bright icy hemisphere, likened to dirty snow, shows many large impact craters. The closest approach by Voyager 2 to Iapetus was a relatively distant 600,000 miles, so that our best images, such as this, have a resolution of about 12 miles. The dark material is made of organic substances, probably including poisonous cyano compounds such as frozen hydrogen cyanide polymers. Though we know a little about the dark terrain's chemical nature, we do not understand its origin. Two theories have been developed, but neither is fully satisfactory--(1) the dark material may be organic dust knocked off the small neighboring satellite Phoebe and 'painted' onto the leading side of Iapetus as the dust spirals toward Saturn and Iapetus hurtles through the tenuous dust cloud, or (2) the dark material may be made of icy-cold carbonaceous 'cryovolcanic' lavas that were erupted from Iapetus' interior and then blackened by solar radiation, charged particles, and cosmic rays. A determination of the actual cause, as well as discovery of any other geologic features smaller than 12 miles across, awaits the Cassini Saturn orbiter to arrive in 2004.

  20. Dark Areas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-10

    This 220-mile (350-kilometer) wide view of Pluto from NASA's New Horizons spacecraft illustrates the incredible diversity of surface reflectivities and geological landforms on the dwarf planet. The image includes dark, ancient heavily cratered terrain; bright, smooth geologically young terrain; assembled masses of mountains; and an enigmatic field of dark, aligned ridges that resemble dunes; its origin is under debate. The smallest visible features are 0.5 miles (0.8 kilometers) in size. This image was taken as New Horizons flew past Pluto on July 14, 2015, from a distance of 50,000 miles (80,000 kilometers). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19933

  1. Axion dark matter from topological defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Saikawa, Ken'ichi; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu

    2015-03-01

    The cosmological scenario where the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is broken after inflation is investigated. In this scenario, topological defects such as strings and domain walls produce a large number of axions, which contribute to the cold dark matter of the Universe. The previous estimations of the cold dark matter abundance are updated and refined based on the field-theoretic simulations with improved grid sizes. The possible uncertainties originated in the numerical calculations are also discussed. It is found that axions can be responsible for the cold dark matter in the mass range ma=(0.9 - 1.4 )×1 0-4 eV for the models with the domain wall number NDW=1 , and ma≈O (1 0-4- 1 0-2) eV with a mild tuning of parameters for the models with NDW>1 . Such higher mass ranges can be probed in future experimental studies.

  2. Capture of inelastic dark matter in white dwarves

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, Matthew; Fairbairn, Malcolm

    2010-04-15

    We consider the capture of inelastic dark matter in white dwarves by inelastic spin-independent scattering on nuclei. We show that if the dark matter annihilates to standard-model particles then, under the assumption of primordial globular cluster formation, the observation of cold white dwarves in the globular cluster M4 appears inconsistent with explanations of the observed DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation signal based on spin-independent inelastic dark matter scattering. Alternatively if the inelastic dark matter scenario were to be confirmed and it was found to annihilate to standard-model particles then this would imply a much lower dark matter density in the core of M4 than would be expected if it were to have formed in a dark matter halo. Finally we argue that cold white dwarves constitute a unique dark matter probe, complementary to other direct and indirect detection searches.

  3. Dark matter and dark energy accretion on to intermediate-mass black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, C.; Pellizza, L. J.; Romero, G. E.

    2012-03-01

    In this work we investigate the accretion of cosmological fluids on to an intermediate-mass black hole at the centre of a globular cluster, focusing on the influence of the parent stellar system on the accretion flow. We show that the accretion of cosmic background radiation and the so-called dark energy on to an intermediate-mass black hole is negligible. On the other hand, if cold dark matter has a non-vanishing pressure, the accretion of dark matter is large enough to increase the black hole mass well beyond the present observed upper limits. We conclude that either intermediate-mass black holes do not exist, or dark matter does not exist, or it is not strictly collisionless. In the latter case, we set a lower limit for the parameter of the cold dark matter equation of state.

  4. Reconciling MOND and dark matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruneton, Jean-Philippe; Liberati, Stefano; Sindoni, Lorenzo; Famaey, Benoit

    2009-03-01

    Observations of galaxies suggest a one-to-one analytic relation between the inferred gravity of dark matter at any radius and the enclosed baryonic mass, a relation summarized by Milgrom's law of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). However, present-day covariant versions of MOND usually require some additional fields contributing to the geometry, as well as an additional hot dark matter component to explain cluster dynamics and cosmology. Here, we envisage a slightly more mundane explanation, suggesting that dark matter does exist but is the source of MOND-like phenomenology in galaxies. We assume a canonical action for dark matter, but also add an interaction term between baryonic matter, gravity, and dark matter, such that standard matter effectively obeys the MOND field equation in galaxies. We show that even the simplest realization of the framework leads to a model which reproduces some phenomenological predictions of cold dark matter (CDM) and MOND at those scales where these are most successful. We also devise a more general form of the interaction term, introducing the medium density as a new order parameter. This allows for new physical effects which should be amenable to observational tests in the near future. Hence, this very general framework, which can be furthermore related to a generalized scalar-tensor theory, opens the way to a possible unification of the successes of CDM and MOND at different scales.

  5. Confronting the Dark Side of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengsten, Soren; Barnett, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we philosophically explore the notion of darkness within higher education teaching and learning. Within the present-day discourse of how to make visible and to explicate teaching and learning strategies through alignment procedures and evidence-based intellectual leadership, we argue that dark spots and blind angles grow too. As we…

  6. New interaction between dark energy and dark matter changes sign during cosmological evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cheng-Yi; Yue, Rui-Hong

    2012-02-01

    It is found by Cai and Su that the interaction between dark energy and cold dark matter is likely to change the sign during the cosmological evolution. Motivated by this, we suggest a new form of interaction between dark energy and dark matter, which changes from negative to positive as the expansion of or universe changes from decelerated to accelerated. We find that the interacting model is consistent with the second law of thermodynamics and the observational constraints. And, we also discuss the unified adiabatic-squared sound speed of the model.

  7. Dark Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Dark spots (left) and 'fans' appear to scribble dusty hieroglyphics on top of the Martian south polar cap in two high-resolution Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Orbiter Camera images taken in southern spring. Each image is about 3-kilometers wide (2-miles).

  8. Dark matter via massive bigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Luc; Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2015-05-01

    In this work we investigate the existence of relativistic models for dark matter in the context of bimetric gravity, used here to reproduce the modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) at galactic scales. For this purpose we consider two different species of dark matter particles that separately couple to the two metrics of bigravity. These two sectors are linked together via an internal U (1 ) vector field, and some effective composite metric built out of the two metrics. Among possible models only certain classes of kinetic and interaction terms are allowed without invoking ghost degrees of freedom. Along these lines we explore the number of allowed kinetic terms in the theory and point out the presence of ghosts in a previous model. Finally, we propose a promising class of ghost-free candidate theories that could provide the MOND phenomenology at galactic scales while reproducing the standard cold dark matter model at cosmological scales.

  9. Theoretical Comparison Between Candidates for Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeough, James; Hira, Ajit; Valdez, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Since the generally-accepted view among astrophysicists is that the matter component of the universe is mostly dark matter, the search for dark matter particles continues unabated. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) improvements, aided by advanced computer simulations at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's (Berkeley Lab) National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) and Brown University's Center for Computation and Visualization (CCV), can potentially eliminate some particle models of dark matter. Generally, the proposed candidates can be put in three categories: baryonic dark matter, hot dark matter, and cold dark matter. The Lightest Supersymmetric Particle(LSP) of supersymmetric models is a dark matter candidate, and is classified as a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP). Similar to the cosmic microwave background radiation left over from the Big Bang, there is a background of low-energy neutrinos in our Universe. According to some researchers, these may be the explanation for the dark matter. One advantage of the Neutrino Model is that they are known to exist. Dark matter made from neutrinos is termed ``hot dark matter''. We formulate a novel empirical function for the average density profile of cosmic voids, identified via the watershed technique in ΛCDM N-body simulations. This function adequately treats both void size and redshift, and describes the scale radius and the central density of voids. We started with a five-parameter model. Our research is mainly on LSP and Neutrino models.

  10. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  11. Stability of curvature perturbation with new covariant form for energy-momentum transfer in dark sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cheng-Yi; Song, Yu; Yue, Rui-Hong

    2013-02-01

    It was found that the model with interaction between cold dark matter (CDM) and dark energy (DE) proportional to the energy density of CDM ρ m and constant equation of state of DE w d suffered from instabilities of the density perturbations on the super-Hubble scales. Here we suggest a new covariant model for the energy-momentum transfer between CDM and DE. Then using the covariant model, we analyze the evolution of density perturbations on the super-Hubble scale. We find that the instabilities can be avoided in the model with constant w d and interaction proportional to ρ m . Furthermore, we analyze the dominant non-adiabatic mode in the radiation era and find that the mode grows regularly.

  12. Spectroscopy with cold and ultra-cold neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abele, Hartmut; Jenke, Tobias; Konrad, Gertrud

    2015-05-01

    We present two new types of spectroscopy methods for cold and ultra-cold neutrons. The first method, which uses the R×B drift effect to disperse charged particles in a uniformly curved magnetic field, allows to study neutron β-decay. We aim for a precision on the 10-4 level. The second method that we refer to as gravity resonance spectroscopy (GRS) allows to test Newton's gravity law at short distances. At the level of precision we are able to provide constraints on any possible gravity-like interaction. In particular, limits on dark energy chameleon fields are improved by several orders of magnitude.

  13. Cold tolerance in Arabidopsis kamchatica.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Jessica J; Takebayashi, Naoki; Sformo, Todd; Wolf, Diana E

    2015-03-01

    Cold tolerance is a critically important factor determining how plants will be influenced by climate change, including changes in snowcover and extreme weather events. Although a great deal is known about cold tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana, it is not highly cold tolerant. This study examined cold tolerance and its genetic diversity in an herbaceous subarctic relative, Arabidopsis kamchatica, which generally occurs in much colder climates.• Thermal analysis and electrolyte leakage were used to estimate supercooling points and lethal temperatures (LT50) in cold-acclimated and nonacclimated families from three populations of A. kamchatica.• Arabidopsis kamchatica was highly cold tolerant, with a mean LT50 of -10.8°C when actively growing, and -21.8°C when cold acclimated. It also was able to supercool to very low temperatures. Surprisingly, actively growing plants supercooled more than acclimated plants (-14.7 vs. -12.7°C). There was significant genetic variation for cold tolerance both within and among populations. However, both cold tolerance and genetic diversity were highest in the midlatitude population rather than in the far north, indicating that adaptations to climate change are most likely to arise in the center of the species range rather than at the edges.• Arabidopsis kamchatica is highly cold tolerant throughout its range. It is far more freeze tolerant than A. thaliana, and supercooled to lower temperatures, suggesting that A. kamchatica provides a valuable complement to A. thaliana for cold tolerance research. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  14. Chandra's Find of Lonely Halo Raises Questions About Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    Dark matter continues to confound astronomers, as NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory demonstrated with the detection of an extensive envelope of dark matter around an isolated elliptical galaxy. This discovery conflicts with optical data that suggest a dearth of dark matter around similar galaxies, and raises questions about how galaxies acquire and keep such dark matter halos. The observed galaxy, known as NGC 4555, is unusual in that it is a fairly large, elliptical galaxy that is not part of a group or cluster of galaxies. In a paper to be published in the November 1, 2004 issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Ewan O'Sullivan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA and Trevor Ponman of the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom, use the Chandra data to show that the galaxy is embedded in a cloud of 10-million-degree-Celsius gas. X-ray/Optical Composite of NGC 4555 X-ray/Optical Composite of NGC 4555 This hot gas cloud has a diameter of about 400,000 light years, about twice that of the visible galaxy. An enormous envelope, or halo, of dark matter is needed to confine the hot cloud to the galaxy. The total mass of the dark matter halo is about ten times the combined mass of the stars in the galaxy, and 300 times the mass of the hot gas cloud. A growing body of evidence indicates that dark matter - which interacts with itself and "normal" matter only through gravity - is the dominant form of matter in the universe. According to the popular "cold dark matter" theory, dark matter consists of mysterious particles left over from the dense early universe that were moving slowly when galaxies and galaxy clusters began to form. "The observed properties of NGC 4555 confirm that elliptical galaxies can posses dark matter halos of their own, regardless of their environment," said O'Sullivan. "This raises an important question: what determines whether elliptical galaxies have dark matter halos?" DSS Optical Image of NGC

  15. Dark Matter Properties and Halo Central Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, S. M. Khairul; Bullock, James S.; Weinberg, David H.

    2002-06-01

    Using an analytic model calibrated against numerical simulations, we calculate the central densities of dark matter halos in a ``conventional'' cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant (LCDM) and in a ``tilted'' model (TLCDM) with slightly modified parameters motivated by recent analyses of Lyα forest data. We also calculate how warm dark matter (WDM) would modify these predicted densities by delaying halo formation and imposing phase-space constraints. As a measure of central density, we adopt the quantity ΔV/2, the density within the radius RV/2 at which the halo rotation curve falls to half of its maximum value, in units of the critical density. We compare the theoretical predictions to values of ΔV/2 estimated from the rotation curves of dark matter-dominated disk galaxies. Assuming that dark halos are described by Navarro-Frenk-White profiles, our results suggest that the conventional LCDM model predicts excessively high dark matter densities, unless there is some selection bias in the data toward the low-concentration tail of the halo distribution. A WDM model with particle mass 0.5-1 keV provides a better match to the observational data. However, the modified cold dark matter model, TLCDM, fits the data equally well, suggesting that the solution to the ``halo cores'' problem might lie in moderate changes to cosmological parameters rather than radical changes to the properties of dark matter. If cold dark matter halos have the steeper density profiles found by Moore et al., then neither conventional LCDM nor TLCDM can reproduce the observed central densities.

  16. Dark scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahonen, Pasi; Alahuhta, Petteri; Daskala, Barbara; Delaitre, Sabine; Hert, Paul De; Lindner, Ralf; Maghiros, Ioannis; Moscibroda, Anna; Schreurs, Wim; Verlinden, Michiel

    In this chapter, we present four "dark scenarios" that highlight the key socio-economic, legal, technological and ethical risks to privacy, identity, trust, security and inclusiveness posed by new AmI technologies. We call them dark scenarios, because they show things that could go wrong in an AmI world, because they present visions of the future that we do not want to become reality. The scenarios expose threats and vulnerabilities as a way to inform policy-makers and planners about issues they need to take into account in developing new policies or updating existing legislation. Before presenting the four scenarios and our analysis of each, we describe the process of how we created the scenarios as well as the elements in our methodology for analysing the scenarios.

  17. [Dark matter and dark energy of the universe].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Peris, José

    2005-01-01

    At the turn of the 20th Century, the Universe was thought to consist of our solar system, the Sun, planets, satellites and comets, floating under the Milky Way. The astronomers were ignorant of the existence of galaxies, clusters, quasars and black holes. Over the last ten years the Cosmology has made remarkable progress in our understanding of the composition of the Universe: 23 per cent is in an unknown form called dark matter; 73 per cent in another form called dark energy; 3 per cent is made of free hydrogen and helium atoms; 0.5 per cent makes up all the light we see in the night including the stars, clusters and superclusters; 0.3 per cent is in free neutrino particles; and finally, 0.03 per cent is in the heavier nuclei of which the Sun, the Earth and ourselves are made. In this work we study specially the dark matter and the dark energy. The first one appears to be attached to galaxies, and astronomers agree that it is cold, meaning that the particles that make up that matter are not moving fast. Very recently astronomers discovered that a tremendous amount of the so-cahled dark energy exists and that it is pushing and accelerating the expansion of the Universe. Should this expansion continue for another 14,000 million years, the sky will darken with only a handful of galaxies remaining visible.

  18. Effective theory of interacting dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Gleyzes, Jérôme; Mancarella, Michele; Vernizzi, Filippo; Langlois, David E-mail: langlois@apc.univ-paris7.fr E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr

    2015-08-01

    We present a unifying treatment of dark energy and modified gravity that allows distinct conformal-disformal couplings of matter species to the gravitational sector. In this very general approach, we derive the conditions to avoid ghost and gradient instabilities. We compute the equations of motion for background quantities and linear perturbations. We illustrate our formalism with two simple scenarios, where either cold dark matter or a relativistic fluid is nonminimally coupled. This extends previous studies of coupled dark energy to a much broader spectrum of gravitational theories.

  19. Dark matter

    PubMed Central

    Peebles, P. James E.

    2015-01-01

    The evidence for the dark matter (DM) of the hot big bang cosmology is about as good as it gets in natural science. The exploration of its nature is now led by direct and indirect detection experiments, to be complemented by advances in the full range of cosmological tests, including judicious consideration of the rich phenomenology of galaxies. The results may confirm ideas about DM already under discussion. If we are lucky, we also will be surprised once again. PMID:24794526

  20. Dark matter.

    PubMed

    Peebles, P James E

    2015-10-06

    The evidence for the dark matter (DM) of the hot big bang cosmology is about as good as it gets in natural science. The exploration of its nature is now led by direct and indirect detection experiments, to be complemented by advances in the full range of cosmological tests, including judicious consideration of the rich phenomenology of galaxies. The results may confirm ideas about DM already under discussion. If we are lucky, we also will be surprised once again.

  1. New astrophysical probes of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mei-Yu

    In my thesis, I present four studies to explore astrophysical methods for understanding dark matter properties. To understand the nature of dark matter, I explore a few unstable dark matter models that are invoked as ways to address apparent discrepancies between the predictions of standard cold dark matter and observations of small-scale galactic structure. My studies are aimed at developing independent large-scale constraints on these models. One of the model is a decaying dark matter model such that one dark matter particle decays into two relativistic non-interacting particles. In the second model, a dark matter particle decays into a less massive, stable dark matter particle with a recoil kick velocity Vk and a relativistic non-interacting particle. I consider two types of experiments: one is weak lensing cosmic shear with future or forthcoming surveys like Dark Energy Survey (DES) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST); the other one is Lyman-alpha forest spectrum, which has contemporary data from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and other observations. I found that large-scale structure growth is sensitive to the change of dark matter properties due to these decay processes, and they can provide competitive constraints comparing to other existing limits. On small scale, the gravitational interplay of baryon and dark matter can affect the clustering of dark matter. I examine adiabatic contraction (AC) models what are traditionally used to parametrize the dark matter response to the cooling of baryons by investigating a suite of numerical simulations. We found that the errors in AC reconstructions are correlated with baryonic physics and certain halo properties. Our results indicate that existing AC models need significant calibration in order to predicting realistic matter distribution.

  2. Dark Matter with Variable Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Bellido, Juan

    String effective theories contain a dilaton scalar field which couples to gravity, matter and radiation. In general, particle masses will have different dilaton couplings. We can always choose a conformal frame in which baryons have constant masses while (nonbaryonic) dark matter have variable masses, in the context of a scalar-tensor gravity theory. We are interested in the phenomenology of this scenario. Dark matter with variable masses could have a measurable effect on the dynamical motion of the halo of spiral galaxies, which may affect cold dark matter models of galaxy formation. As a consequence of variable masses, the energy-momentum tensor is not conserved; there is a dissipative effect, due to the dilaton coupling, associated with a “dark entropy” production. In particular, if axions had variable masses they could be diluted away, thus opening the “axion window.” Assuming that dark matter with variable masses dominates the cosmological evolution during the matter era, it will affect the primordial nucleosynthesis predictions on the abundances of light elements. Furthermore, the dilaton also couples to radiation in the form of a variable gauge coupling. Experimental bounds will constrain the parameters of this model.

  3. Maverick dark matter at colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán, Maria; Hooper, Dan; Kolb, Edward W.; Krusberg, Zosia A. C.; Tait, Tim M. P.

    2010-09-01

    Assuming that dark matter is a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) species X produced in the early Universe as a cold thermal relic, we study the collider signal of pp or pbar{p} rightarrow bar{X}X + jets and its distinguishability from standard-model background processes associated with jets and missing energy. We assume that the WIMP is the sole particle related to dark matter within reach of the LHC — a “maverick” particle — and that it couples to quarks through a higher dimensional contact interaction. We simulate the WIMP final-state signal Xbar{X} + jets and dominant standard-model (SM) background processes and find that the dark-matter production process results in higher energies for the colored final state partons than do the standard-model background processes. As a consequence, the detectable signature of maverick dark matter is an excess over standard-model expectations of events consisting of large missing transverse energy, together with large leading jet transverse momentum and scalar sum of the transverse momenta of the jets. Existing Tevatron data and forthcoming LHC data can constrain (or discover!) maverick dark matter.

  4. Cold intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    Some causes of cold intolerance are: Anemia Anorexia nervosa Blood vessel problems, such as Raynaud phenomenon Chronic severe illness General poor health Underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ) Problem with the hypothalamus (a part ...

  5. Dipolar dark matter with massive bigravity

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchet, Luc; Heisenberg, Lavinia E-mail: laviniah@kth.se

    2015-12-01

    Massive gravity theories have been developed as viable IR modifications of gravity motivated by dark energy and the problem of the cosmological constant. On the other hand, modified gravity and modified dark matter theories were developed with the aim of solving the problems of standard cold dark matter at galactic scales. Here we propose to adapt the framework of ghost-free massive bigravity theories to reformulate the problem of dark matter at galactic scales. We investigate a promising alternative to dark matter called dipolar dark matter (DDM) in which two different species of dark matter are separately coupled to the two metrics of bigravity and are linked together by an internal vector field. We show that this model successfully reproduces the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales (i.e. MOND) as a result of a mechanism of gravitational polarisation. The model is safe in the gravitational sector, but because of the particular couplings of the matter fields and vector field to the metrics, a ghost in the decoupling limit is present in the dark matter sector. However, it might be possible to push the mass of the ghost beyond the strong coupling scale by an appropriate choice of the parameters of the model. Crucial questions to address in future work are the exact mass of the ghost, and the cosmological implications of the model.

  6. Dipolar dark matter with massive bigravity

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchet, Luc; Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2015-12-14

    Massive gravity theories have been developed as viable IR modifications of gravity motivated by dark energy and the problem of the cosmological constant. On the other hand, modified gravity and modified dark matter theories were developed with the aim of solving the problems of standard cold dark matter at galactic scales. Here we propose to adapt the framework of ghost-free massive bigravity theories to reformulate the problem of dark matter at galactic scales. We investigate a promising alternative to dark matter called dipolar dark matter (DDM) in which two different species of dark matter are separately coupled to the two metrics of bigravity and are linked together by an internal vector field. We show that this model successfully reproduces the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales (i.e. MOND) as a result of a mechanism of gravitational polarisation. The model is safe in the gravitational sector, but because of the particular couplings of the matter fields and vector field to the metrics, a ghost in the decoupling limit is present in the dark matter sector. However, it might be possible to push the mass of the ghost beyond the strong coupling scale by an appropriate choice of the parameters of the model. Crucial questions to address in future work are the exact mass of the ghost, and the cosmological implications of the model.

  7. Cosmological constraints on superconducting dark energy models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keresztes, Zoltán; Gergely, László Á.; Harko, Tiberiu; Liang, Shi-Dong

    2015-12-01

    We consider cosmological tests of a scalar-vector-tensor gravitational model, in which the dark energy is included in the total action through a gauge-invariant, electromagnetic type contribution. The ground state of dark energy, corresponding to a constant potential V , is a Bose-Einstein type condensate with spontaneously broken U(1) symmetry. In other words, dark energy appears as a massive vector field emerging from a superposition of a massless vector and a scalar field, the latter corresponding to the Goldstone boson. Two particular cosmological models, corresponding to pure electric and pure magnetic type potentials, respectively, are confronted with type IA supernovae and Hubble parameter data. In the electric case, a good fit is obtained along a narrow inclined stripe in the Ωm-ΩV parameter plane, which includes the Λ cold dark matter limit as the best fit. The other points on this admissible region represent superconducting dark energy as a sum of a cosmological constant and a time-evolving contribution. In the magnetic case the cosmological test selects either (i) parameter ranges of the superconducting dark energy allowing for the standard baryonic sector plus dark matter or (ii) a unified superconducting dark matter and dark energy model, additionally including only the baryonic sector.

  8. (Mainly) axion dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Howard

    2016-06-01

    The strong CP problem of QCD is at heart a problem of naturalness: why is the FF ˜ term highly suppressed in the QCD Lagrangian when it seems necessary to explain why there are three and not four light pions? The most elegant solution posits a spontaneously broken Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry which requires the existence of the axion field a. The axion field settles to the minimum of its potential thus removing the offensive term but giving rise to the physical axion whose coherent oscillations can make up the cold dark matter. Only now are experiments such as ADMX beginning to explore QCD axion parameter space. Since a bonafide scalar particle- the Higgs boson- has been discovered, one might expect its mass to reside at the axion scale fa ˜ 1011 GeV. The Higgs mass is elegantly stabilized by supersymmetry: in this case the axion is accompanied by its axino and saxion superpartners. Requiring naturalness also in the electroweak sector implies higgsino-like WIMPs so then we expect mixed axion-WIMP dark matter. Ultimately we would expect detection of both an axion and a WIMP while signals for light higgsinos may show up at LHC and must show up at ILC.

  9. Analysis of dark matter and dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongquan, Han

    2016-05-01

    As the law of unity of opposites of the Philosophy tells us, the bright material exists, the dark matter also exists. Dark matter and dark energy should allow the law of unity of opposites. The Common attributes of the matter is radiation, then common attributes of dark matter must be absorb radiation. Only the rotation speed is lower than the speed of light radiation, can the matter radiate, since the speed of the matter is lower than the speed of light, so the matter is radiate; The rotate speed of the dark matter is faster than the light , so the dark matter doesn't radiate, it absorbs radiation. The energy that the dark matter absorb radiation produced (affect the measurement of time and space distribution of variations) is dark energy, so the dark matter produce dark energy only when it absorbs radiation. Dark matter does not radiate, two dark matters does not exist inevitably forces, and also no dark energy. Called the space-time ripples, the gravitational wave is bent radiation, radiation particles should be graviton, graviton is mainly refers to the radiation particles whose wavelength is small. Dark matter, dark energy also confirms the existence of the law of symmetry.

  10. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  11. Cold urticaria.

    PubMed

    Claudy, A

    2001-11-01

    Cold urticaria is one form of urticaria that may be associated with other forms of physical urticarias. Frequency is generally estimated at two or three per 100. The triggering effect of cold is found at history taking in most of the cases. The urticaria is usually superficial, and more rarely associated with deep and/or mucosal urticaria. The diagnosis is based on history taking and the ice cube test. An exhaustive search for an etiologic factor is often unfruitful, and the presence of a cryopathy should lead to a complete work-up. Therapy of cold urticaria may prove to be difficult. In patients with secondary cold urticaria, underlying disease must be treated in order to resolve the skin symptoms. H1-antihistamines can be used but the clinical responses are highly variable. Short-time treatment with low concentration corticosteroids suppresses the symptoms only partially and temporarily. In patients who do not respond to previous treatments, induction of cold tolerance may be proposed but the procedure is difficult to carry out in daily life over an extended period. Key word: cryoglobulins.

  12. Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter axions.

    PubMed

    Sikivie, P; Yang, Q

    2009-09-11

    We show that cold dark matter axions thermalize and form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). We obtain the axion state in a homogeneous and isotropic universe, and derive the equations governing small axion perturbations. Because they form a BEC, axions differ from ordinary cold dark matter in the nonlinear regime of structure formation and upon entering the horizon. Axion BEC provides a mechanism for the production of net overall rotation in dark matter halos, and for the alignment of cosmic microwave anisotropy multipoles.

  13. COLD TRAP

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1963-03-12

    An improved linear-flow cold trap is designed for highvacuum applications such as mitigating back migration of diffusion pump oil moiecules. A central pot of liquid nitrogen is nested within and supported by a surrounding, vertical, helical coil of metai sheet, all enveloped by a larger, upright, cylindrical, vacuum vessel. The vertical interstices between successive turns of the coil afford lineal, axial, high-vacuum passages between open mouths at top and bottom of said vessel, while the coil, being cold by virtue of thermal contact of its innermost turn with the nitrogen pot, affords expansive proximate condensation surfaces. (AEC)

  14. Leaf-, panel- and latex-expressed sequenced tags from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) under cold-stressed and suboptimal growing conditions: the development of gene-targeted functional markers for stress response.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carla C; Mantello, Camila C; Campos, Tatiana; Souza, Livia M; Gonçalves, Paulo S; Souza, Anete P

    2014-01-01

    Hevea brasiliensis is a native species of the Amazon Basin of South America and the primary source of natural rubber worldwide. Due to the occurrence of South American Leaf Blight disease in this area, rubber plantations have been extended to suboptimal regions. Rubber tree breeding is time-consuming and expensive, but molecular markers can serve as a tool for early evaluation, thus reducing time and costs. In this work, we constructed six different cDNA libraries with the aim of developing gene-targeted molecular markers for the rubber tree. A total of 8,263 reads were assembled, generating 5,025 unigenes that were analyzed; 912 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) represented new transcripts, and two sequences were highly up-regulated by cold stress. These unigenes were scanned for microsatellite (SSR) regions and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In total, 169 novel EST-SSR markers were developed; 138 loci were polymorphic in the rubber tree, and 98 % presented transferability to six other Hevea species. Locus duplication was observed in H. brasiliensis and other species. Additionally, 43 SNP markers in 13 sequences that showed similarity to proteins involved in stress response, latex biosynthesis and developmental processes were characterized. cDNA libraries are a rich source of SSR and SNP markers and enable the identification of new transcripts. The new markers developed here will be a valuable resource for linkage mapping, QTL identification and other studies in the rubber tree and can also be used to evaluate the genetic variability of other Hevea species, which are valuable assets in rubber tree breeding.

  15. Light's Darkness

    ScienceCinema

    Padgett, Miles [University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland

    2016-07-12

    Optical vortices and orbital angular momentum are currently topical subjects in the optics literature. Although seemingly esoteric, they are, in fact, the generic state of light and arise whenever three or more plane waves interfere. To be observed by eye the light must be monochromatic. Laser speckle is one such example, where the optical energy circulates around each black spot, giving a local orbital angular momentum. This talk with report three on-going studies. First, when considering a volume of interfering waves, the laser specs map out threads of complete darkness embedded in the light. Do these threads form loops? Links? Or even knots? Second, when looking through a rapidly spinning window, the image of the world on the other side is rotated: true or false? Finally, the entanglement of orbital angular momentum states means measuring how the angular position of one photons sets the angular momentum of another: is this an angular version of the EPR (Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen) paradox?

  16. Dynamical Dark Matter from strongly-coupled dark sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Huang, Fei; Su, Shufang; Thomas, Brooks

    2017-02-01

    Dynamical Dark Matter (DDM) is an alternative framework for dark-matter physics in which the dark sector comprises a vast ensemble of particle species whose Standard-Model decay widths are balanced against their cosmological abundances. Previous studies of this framework have focused on a particular class of DDM ensembles—motivated primarily by Kaluza-Klein towers in theories with extra dimensions—in which the density of dark states scales roughly as a polynomial of the mass. In this paper, by contrast, we study the properties of a different class of DDM ensembles in which the density of dark states grows exponentially with mass. Ensembles with this Hagedorn-like property arise naturally as the "hadronic" resonances associated with the confining phase of a strongly-coupled dark sector; they also arise naturally as the gauge-neutral bulk states of Type I string theories. We study the dynamical properties of such ensembles, and demonstrate that an appropriate DDM-like balancing between decay widths and abundances can emerge naturally—even with an exponentially rising density of states. We also study the effective equations of state for such ensembles, and investigate some of the model-independent observational constraints on such ensembles that follow directly from these equations of state. In general, we find that such constraints tend to introduce correlations between various properties of these DDM ensembles such as their associated mass scales, lifetimes, and abundance distributions. For example, we find that these constraints allow DDM ensembles with energy scales ranging from the GeV scale all the way to the Planck scale, but that the total present-day cosmological abundance of the dark sector must be spread across an increasing number of different states in the ensemble as these energy scales are dialed from the Planck scale down to the GeV scale. Numerous other correlations and constraints are also discussed.

  17. Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes oral herpes, or cold sores. Type 1 herpes virus infects more than half of the U.S. population by the time they reach their 20s. Type 2 usually affects the genital area Some people have no symptoms from the ...

  18. Cold Hands

    MedlinePlus

    ... you have a problem with the nerves or blood circulation or a problem with tissue damage in your hands or fingers. ... of causes. Having cold hands could signal a problem with your blood circulation or the blood vessels in your hands. Make ...

  19. Project COLD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  20. Can dark matter decay in dark energy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, S. H.; Jesus, J. F.

    2009-02-01

    We analyze the interaction between dark energy and dark matter from a thermodynamical perspective. By assuming they have different temperatures, we study the possibility of occurring a decay from dark matter into dark energy, characterized by a negative parameter Q. We find that, if at least one of the fluids has nonvanishing chemical potential, for instance μx<0 and μdm=0 or μx=0 and μdm>0, the decay is possible, where μx and μdm are the chemical potentials of dark energy and dark matter, respectively. Using recent cosmological data, we find that, for a fairly simple interaction, the dark matter decay is favored with a probability of ˜93% over the dark energy decay. This result comes from a likelihood analysis where only background evolution has been considered.

  1. Growing and Growing: Promoting Functional Thinking with Geometric Growing Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markworth, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Design research methodology is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated instruction theory about students' development of functional thinking in the context of geometric growing patterns. The two research questions are: (1) How does students' functional thinking develop in the context of geometric growing patterns? (2) What are…

  2. New Efforts to Identify Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    Could the dark matter in our universe be warm instead of cold? Recent observations have placed new constraints on the warm dark matter model.Whats the Deal with Cold/Warm/Hot Dark Matter?An example of cold dark matter: MACHOs, massive objects like black holes that are hiding in the halo of our galaxy. [Alain r]Nobody knows what dark matter is made of, but we have a few theories. The objects or particles that could make up dark matter fall into three broad categories cold, warm, and hot dark matter based on something called their free streaming length, or how far they moved due to random motions in the early universe.Neutrinos are an example of hot dark matter: very light particles with free streaming lengths much longer than the size of a typical galaxy. Cold dark matter could consist of objects like black holes or brown dwarfs, or particles like WIMPs all of which are very heavy and therefore have free streaming lengths much shorter than the size of a galaxy.Warm dark matter is whats in between: middle-mass particles with free streaming lengths roughly the size of a galaxy. There arent any known particles that fit this description, but there are theorized particles such as sterile neutrinos or gravitinos that do.Cumulative mass functions at z = 6 for different values of the warm dark matter particle mass mX. The shaded boxs on the left correspond to the observed number density of faint galaxies within different confidence levels. [Menci et al. 2016]Smoothing Out the UniverseThe widely favored model is lambda-CDM, in which cold dark matter makes up the missing matter in our universe. This model nicely explains much of what we observe, but it still has a few problems. The biggest issue with lambda-CDM is that it predicts that there should be many more small, dwarf galaxies than we observe.While this could just mean that we havent yet managed to see all the existing, faint dwarf galaxies, we should also consider alternative models the warm dark matter model chief

  3. Dark matter that can form dark stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gondolo, Paolo; Huh, Ji-Haeng; Kim, Hyung Do; Scopel, Stefano E-mail: jhhuh@phya.snu.ac.kr E-mail: scopel@sogang.ac.kr

    2010-07-01

    The first stars to form in the Universe may be powered by the annihilation of weakly interacting dark matter particles. These so-called dark stars, if observed, may give us a clue about the nature of dark matter. Here we examine which models for particle dark matter satisfy the conditions for the formation of dark stars. We find that in general models with thermal dark matter lead to the formation of dark stars, with few notable exceptions: heavy neutralinos in the presence of coannihilations, annihilations that are resonant at dark matter freeze-out but not in dark stars, some models of neutrinophilic dark matter annihilating into neutrinos only and lighter than about 50 GeV. In particular, we find that a thermal DM candidate in standard Cosmology always forms a dark star as long as its mass is heavier than ≅ 50 GeV and the thermal average of its annihilation cross section is the same at the decoupling temperature and during the dark star formation, as for instance in the case of an annihilation cross section with a non-vanishing s-wave contribution.

  4. Dark interactions and cosmological fine-tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Quartin, Miguel; Calvao, Mauricio O; Joras, Sergio E; Reis, Ribamar R R; Waga, Ioav E-mail: orca@if.ufrj.br E-mail: ribamar@if.ufrj.br

    2008-05-15

    Cosmological models involving an interaction between dark matter and dark energy have been proposed in order to solve the so-called coincidence problem. Different forms of coupling have been studied, but there have been claims that observational data seem to narrow (some of) them down to something annoyingly close to the {Lambda}CDM (CDM: cold dark matter) model, thus greatly reducing their ability to deal with the problem in the first place. The smallness problem of the initial energy density of dark energy has also been a target of cosmological models in recent years. Making use of a moderately general coupling scheme, this paper aims to unite these different approaches and shed some light on whether this class of models has any true perspective in suppressing the aforementioned issues that plague our current understanding of the universe, in a quantitative and unambiguous way.

  5. Dark Matter Millilensing and VSOP-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiik, K.; Zackrisson, E.; Riehm, T.

    2009-08-01

    According to the cold dark matter scenario, a large number of dark subhalos should be located within the halo of each Milky-way sized galaxy. One promising possibility for detecting such subhalos is to try to observe their gravitational lensing effects on background sources. Dark matter subhalos in the 10^6 -- 1010 M⊙ mass range should cause strong gravitational lensing on the (sub)milliarcsecond scales, which can be observed only using space VLBI. We study the feasibility of a strong-lensing detection of dark subhalos by deriving the image separations expected for density profiles favoured by current simulations and comparing it to the angular resolution of both existing and upcoming observational facilities. We show that the detection of subhalos is likely much more difficult than suggested in previous studies, due to the smaller image separations predicted for subhalo density profiles that are more realistic than the singular isothermal sphere models often adopted.

  6. Constraining the dark fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David; Gao Changjun

    2009-10-15

    Cosmological observations are normally fit under the assumption that the dark sector can be decomposed into dark matter and dark energy components. However, as long as the probes remain purely gravitational, there is no unique decomposition and observations can only constrain a single dark fluid; this is known as the dark degeneracy. We use observations to directly constrain this dark fluid in a model-independent way, demonstrating, in particular, that the data cannot be fit by a dark fluid with a single constant equation of state. Parametrizing the dark fluid equation of state by a variety of polynomials in the scale factor a, we use current kinematical data to constrain the parameters. While the simplest interpretation of the dark fluid remains that it is comprised of separate dark matter and cosmological constant contributions, our results cover other model types including unified dark energy/matter scenarios.

  7. Hot, Cold, and Really Cold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a physics experiment investigating temperature prediction and the relationship between the physical properties of heat units, melting, dissolving, states of matter, and energy loss. Details the experimental setup, which requires hot and cold water, a thermometer, and ice. Notes that the experiment employs a deliberate counter-intuitive…

  8. Hot, Cold, and Really Cold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a physics experiment investigating temperature prediction and the relationship between the physical properties of heat units, melting, dissolving, states of matter, and energy loss. Details the experimental setup, which requires hot and cold water, a thermometer, and ice. Notes that the experiment employs a deliberate counter-intuitive…

  9. The cooling time scales of growing sunspots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Dean-Yi

    1987-01-01

    The evolution of brightness and magnetic fields of growing sunspots is studied. Growing sunspots are found to be brighter (or less dark) than stable sunspots with the same magnetic field strength. From comparison of brightness and magnetic fields of a growing sunspot with those of stable sunspots, a dynamical parameter, the cooling time, of the growing sunspot is obtained. Ten growing sunspots are studied, and cooling times of 0.5 to 9 hr are found. Two models, the inhibition model and the Alfven wave model, give cooling times of about 0.05 hr, based on linear theory. The discrepancy between theory and observation may be due to the fact that the observed sunspots are in the nonlinear regime.

  10. Origin of ΔN{sub eff} as a result of an interaction between dark radiation and dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bjaelde, Ole Eggers; Das, Subinoy; Moss, Adam E-mail: subinoy@physik.rwth-aachen.de

    2012-10-01

    Results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) and recently from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) have indicated the possible existence of an extra radiation component in addition to the well known three neutrino species predicted by the Standard Model of particle physics. In this paper, we explore the possibility of the apparent extra dark radiation being linked directly to the physics of cold dark matter (CDM). In particular, we consider a generic scenario where dark radiation, as a result of an interaction, is produced directly by a fraction of the dark matter density effectively decaying into dark radiation. At an early epoch when the dark matter density is negligible, as an obvious consequence, the density of dark radiation is also very small. As the Universe approaches matter radiation equality, the dark matter density starts to dominate thereby increasing the content of dark radiation and changing the expansion rate of the Universe. As this increase in dark radiation content happens naturally after Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), it can relax the possible tension with lower values of radiation degrees of freedom measured from light element abundances compared to that of the CMB. We numerically confront this scenario with WMAP+ACT and WMAP+SPT data and derive an upper limit on the allowed fraction of dark matter decaying into dark radiation.

  11. Non-adiabatic perturbations in Ricci dark energy model

    SciTech Connect

    Karwan, Khamphee; Thitapura, Thiti E-mail: nanodsci2523@hotmail.com

    2012-01-01

    We show that the non-adiabatic perturbations between Ricci dark energy and matter can grow both on superhorizon and subhorizon scales, and these non-adiabatic perturbations on subhorizon scales can lead to instability in this dark energy model. The rapidly growing non-adiabatic modes on subhorizon scales always occur when the equation of state parameter of dark energy starts to drop towards -1 near the end of matter era, except that the parameter α of Ricci dark energy equals to 1/2. In the case where α = 1/2, the rapidly growing non-adiabatic modes disappear when the perturbations in dark energy and matter are adiabatic initially. However, an adiabaticity between dark energy and matter perturbations at early time implies a non-adiabaticity between matter and radiation, this can influence the ordinary Sachs-Wolfe (OSW) effect. Since the amount of Ricci dark energy is not small during matter domination, the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect is greatly modified by density perturbations of dark energy, leading to a wrong shape of CMB power spectrum. The instability in Ricci dark energy is difficult to be alleviated if the effects of coupling between baryon and photon on dark energy perturbations are included.

  12. Growing media [Chapter 5

    Treesearch

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    Selecting the proper growing medium is one of the most important considerations in nursery plant production. A growing medium can be defined as a substance through which roots grow and extract water and nutrients. In native plant nurseries, a growing medium can consist of native soil but is more commonly an "artificial soil" composed of materials such as peat...

  13. Asymmetric dark matter and the sun.

    PubMed

    Frandsen, Mads T; Sarkar, Subir

    2010-07-02

    Cold dark matter particles with an intrinsic matter-antimatter asymmetry do not annihilate after gravitational capture by the Sun and can affect its interior structure. The rate of capture is exponentially enhanced when such particles have self-interactions of the right order to explain structure formation on galactic scales. A "dark baryon" of mass 5 GeV is a natural candidate and has the required relic abundance if its asymmetry is similar to that of ordinary baryons. We show that such particles can solve the "solar composition problem." The predicted small decrease in the low energy neutrino fluxes may be measurable by the Borexino and SNO+ experiments.

  14. COLD TRAPS

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, W.I.

    1958-09-30

    A cold trap is presented for removing a condensable component from a gas mixture by cooling. It consists of a shell, the exterior surface of which is chilled by a refrigerant, and conductive fins welded inside the shell to condense the gas, and distribute the condensate evenly throughout the length of the trap, so that the trap may function until it becomes completely filled with the condensed solid. The contents may then be removed as either a gas or as a liquid by heating the trap. This device has particuinr use as a means for removing uranium hexafluoride from the gaseous diffusion separation process during equipment breakdown and repair periods.

  15. Dark Energy in the Dark Ages

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, Eric V.

    2006-04-11

    Non-negligible dark energy density at high redshifts would indicate dark energy physics distinct from a cosmological constant or"reasonable'" canonical scalar fields. Such dark energy can be constrained tightly through investigation of the growth of structure, with limits of<~;;2percent of total energy density at z>> 1 for many models. Intermediate dark energy can have effects distinct from its energy density; the dark ages acceleration can be constrained to last less than 5percent of a Hubble e-fold time, exacerbating the coincidence problem. Both the total linear growth, or equivalently sigma 8, and the shape and evolution of the nonlinear mass power spectrum for z<2 (using the Linder-White nonlinear mapping prescription) provide important windows. Probes of growth, such as weak gravitational lensing, can interact with supernovae and CMB distance measurements to scan dark energy behavior over the entire range z=0-1100.

  16. Dark Skies are a Universal Resource: IYA Programs on Dark Skies Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.; Bueter, C.; Pompea, S. M.; Berglund, K.; Mann, T.; Gay, P.; Crelin, B.; Collins, D.; Sparks, R.

    2008-05-01

    The loss of a dark night sky as a natural resource is a growing concern. It impacts not only astronomical research, but also health, ecology, safety, economics and energy conservation. Because of its relevance, "Dark Skies” is a theme of the US Node for the International Year of Astronomy (IYA). Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people involved in a variety of dark skies-related programs. To reach this goal, the ASP session will immerse participants in hands-on, minds-on activities, events and resources on dark skies awareness. These include a planetarium show on DVD, podcasting, social networking, a digital photography contest, The Great Switch Out, Earth Hour, National Dark Skies Week, a traveling exhibit, a 6-minute video tutorial, Dark Skies Teaching Sites, Astronomy Nights in the (National) Parks, Sidewalk Astronomy Nights, and unaided-eye and digital-meter star counting programs like GLOBE at Night. The ASP "Dark Skies” session is offered to provide IYA dark skies-related programs to a variety of attendees. Participants include professional or amateur astronomers, education and public outreach professionals, science center/museum/planetarium staff and educators who want to lead activities involving dark skies awareness in conjunction with IYA. During the session, each participant will be given a package of educational materials on the various dark skies programs. We will provide the "know-how” and the means for session attendees to become community leaders in promoting these dark skies programs as public events at their home institutions during IYA. Participants will be able to jump-start their education programs through the use of well-developed instructional materials and kits sent later if they commit to leading IYA dark skies activities. For more information about the IYA Dark Skies theme, visit http://astronomy2009.us/darkskies/.

  17. Evidence for dark matter interactions in cosmological precision data?

    SciTech Connect

    Lesgourgues, Julien; Marques-Tavares, Gustavo; Schmaltz, Martin E-mail: gusmt@stanford.edu

    2016-02-01

    We study a two-parameter extension of the cosmological standard model ΛCDM in which cold dark matter interacts with a new form of dark radiation. The two parameters correspond to the energy density in the dark radiation fluid ΔN{sub fluid} and the interaction strength between dark matter and dark radiation. The interactions give rise to a very weak ''dark matter drag'' which damps the growth of matter density perturbations throughout radiation domination, allowing to reconcile the tension between predictions of large scale structure from the CMB and direct measurements of σ{sub 8}. We perform a precision fit to Planck CMB data, BAO, large scale structure, and direct measurements of the expansion rate of the universe today. Our model lowers the χ-squared relative to ΛCDM by about 12, corresponding to a preference for non-zero dark matter drag by more than 3σ. Particle physics models which naturally produce a dark matter drag of the required form include the recently proposed non-Abelian dark matter model in which the dark radiation corresponds to massless dark gluons.

  18. Dark atoms with nuclear shell: A status review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudell, J. R.; Khlopov, M.

    2015-11-01

    Among dark atom scenarios, the simplest and most predictive one is that of O-helium (OHe) dark atoms, in which a leptonlike doubly charged particle O-- is bound to a primordial helium nucleus, and is the main constituent of dark matter. The OHe cosmology has several successes: it leads to a warmer-than-cold-dark matter scenario for large-scale-structure formation, it can provide an explanation for the excess in positron annihilation line in the galactic bulge and it may explain the results of direct dark matter searches. This model liberates the physics of dark atoms from many unknown features of new physics, but it is still not free from astrophysical uncertainties. It also demands a deeper understanding of the details of known nuclear and atomic physics, which are still somewhat unclear in the case of nuclear interacting "atomic" shells. These potential problems of the OHe scenario are also discussed.

  19. Phantom dark ghost in Einstein-Cartan gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Chiao; Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Chen, Pisin

    2017-05-01

    A class of dynamical dark energy models is constructed through an extended version of fermion fields corresponding to phantom dark ghost spinors, which are spin 1/2 with mass dimension 1. We find that if these spinors interact with torsion fields in a homogeneous and isotropic universe, then it does not imply any future dark energy singularity or any abrupt event, though the fermion has a negative kinetic energy. In fact, the equation of state of this dark energy model will asymptotically approach the value w=-1 from above without crossing the phantom divide and inducing therefore a de Sitter state. Consequently, we expect the model to be stable because no real phantom fields will be created. At late time, the torsion fields will vanish as the corresponding phantom dark ghost spinors dilute. As would be expected, intuitively, this result is unaffected by the presence of cold dark matter although the proof is not as straightforward as in general relativity.

  20. The dark matter distribution of M87 and NGC 1399

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, John C.

    1993-01-01

    Recent X-ray observations of clusters of galaxies indicate that, outside the innermost about 100 kpc region, the ratio of dark matter density to baryonic matter density declines with radius. We show that this result is consistent with a cold dark matter simulation, suggesting the presence of dissipationless dark matter in the observed clusters. This is contrary to previous suggestions that dissipational baryonic dark matter is required to explain the decline in the density ratio. The simulation further shows that, in the inner 100 kpc region, the density ratio should rise with radius. We confirm this property in M87 and NGC 1399, which are close enough to allow the determination of the density ratio in the required inner region. X-ray mappings of the dark matter distribution in clusters of galaxies are therefore consistent with the presence of dissipationless dark matter.

  1. The dark matter distribution of M87 and NGC 1399

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, John C.

    1993-01-01

    Recent X-ray observations of clusters of galaxies indicate that, outside the innermost about 100 kpc region, the ratio of dark matter density to baryonic matter density declines with radius. We show that this result is consistent with a cold dark matter simulation, suggesting the presence of dissipationless dark matter in the observed clusters. This is contrary to previous suggestions that dissipational baryonic dark matter is required to explain the decline in the density ratio. The simulation further shows that, in the inner 100 kpc region, the density ratio should rise with radius. We confirm this property in M87 and NGC 1399, which are close enough to allow the determination of the density ratio in the required inner region. X-ray mappings of the dark matter distribution in clusters of galaxies are therefore consistent with the presence of dissipationless dark matter.

  2. Cold Urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Stephen I.; Soter, Nicholas A.; Center, David M.; Austen, K. Frank

    1977-01-01

    Sera were obtained from the venous effluents of cold-challenged arms of patients with idiopathic cold urticaria without plasma or serum cryoproteins; these sera exhibited increased neutrophil chemotactic activity without alterations of the complement system. A two- to fourfold augmentation of the base-line neutrophil chemotactic activity of serum from the immersed extremity began within 1 min, peaked at 2 min, and returned to base-line levels within 15 min, whereas there was no change in the serum chemotactic activity in the control arm. The augmented chemotactic activity in the serum specimens from the challenged arm of each patient appeared in a high molecular-weight region, as assessed by the difference in activity recovered after Sephadex G-200 gel filtration of the paired lesional and control specimens. Sequential purification of this high molecular-weight activity by anion- and cation-exchange chromatography revealed a single peak of activity at both steps. The partially purified material continued to exhibit a high molecular weight, being excluded on Sepharose 4B, and had a neutral isoelectric point. The partially purified material showed a preferential chemotactic activity for neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes, required a gradient for expression of this function, and exhibited a capacity to deactivate this cell type. This active principle, termed high molecular-weight neutrophil chemotactic factor, exhibited a time-course of release that could be superimposed upon that of histamine and the low molecular-weight eosinophil chemotactic factor and may represent another mast cell-derived mediator. PMID:874083

  3. Scale of dark QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yang; Schwaller, Pedro

    2014-03-01

    Most of the mass of ordinary matter has its origin from quantum chromodynamics (QCD). A similar strong dynamics, dark QCD, could exist to explain the mass origin of dark matter. Using infrared fixed points of the two gauge couplings, we provide a dynamical mechanism that relates the dark QCD confinement scale to our QCD scale, and hence provides an explanation for comparable dark baryon and proton masses. Together with a mechanism that generates equal amounts of dark baryon and ordinary baryon asymmetries in the early Universe, the similarity of dark matter and ordinary matter energy densities can be naturally explained. For a large class of gauge group representations, the particles charged under both QCD and dark QCD, necessary ingredients for generating the infrared fixed points, are found to have masses at 1-2 TeV, which sets the scale for dark matter direct detection and novel collider signatures involving visible and dark jets.

  4. Chiral Dark Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Co, Raymond T.; Harigaya, Keisuke; Nomura, Yasunori

    2017-03-01

    We present a simple and natural dark sector model in which dark matter particles arise as composite states of hidden strong dynamics and their stability is ensured by accidental symmetries. The model has only a few free parameters. In particular, the gauge symmetry of the model forbids the masses of dark quarks, and the confinement scale of the dynamics provides the unique mass scale of the model. The gauge group contains an Abelian symmetry U (1 )D , which couples the dark and standard model sectors through kinetic mixing. This model, despite its simple structure, has rich and distinctive phenomenology. In the case where the dark pion becomes massive due to U (1 )D quantum corrections, direct and indirect detection experiments can probe thermal relic dark matter which is generically a mixture of the dark pion and the dark baryon, and the Large Hadron Collider can discover the U (1 )D gauge boson. Alternatively, if the dark pion stays light due to a specific U (1 )D charge assignment of the dark quarks, then the dark pion constitutes dark radiation. The signal of this radiation is highly correlated with that of dark baryons in dark matter direct detection.

  5. The Dark Energy Survey: More than dark energy - An overview

    DOE PAGES

    Abbott, T.

    2016-03-21

    This overview article describes the legacy prospect and discovery potential of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) beyond cosmological studies, illustrating it with examples from the DES early data. DES is using a wide-field camera (DECam) on the 4m Blanco Telescope in Chile to image 5000 sq deg of the sky in five filters (grizY). By its completion the survey is expected to have generated a catalogue of 300 million galaxies with photometric redshifts and 100 million stars. In addition, a time-domain survey search over 27 sq deg is expected to yield a sample of thousands of Type Ia supernovae andmore » other transients. The main goals of DES are to characterise dark energy and dark matter, and to test alternative models of gravity; these goals will be pursued by studying large scale structure, cluster counts, weak gravitational lensing and Type Ia supernovae. However, DES also provides a rich data set which allows us to study many other aspects of astrophysics. In this paper we focus on additional science with DES, emphasizing areas where the survey makes a difference with respect to other current surveys. The paper illustrates, using early data (from `Science Verification', and from the first, second and third seasons of observations), what DES can tell us about the solar system, the Milky Way, galaxy evolution, quasars, and other topics. In addition, we show that if the cosmological model is assumed to be Lambda+ Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) then important astrophysics can be deduced from the primary DES probes. Lastly, highlights from DES early data include the discovery of 34 Trans Neptunian Objects, 17 dwarf satellites of the Milky Way, one published z > 6 quasar (and more confirmed) and two published superluminous supernovae (and more confirmed).« less

  6. The Dark Energy Survey: more than dark energy - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Vikram, Vinu; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Aleksic, J.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Balbinot, E.; Banerji, M.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Levy, A.

    2016-08-01

    This overview paper describes the legacy prospect and discovery potential of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) beyond cosmological studies, illustrating it with examples from the DES early data. DES is using a wide-field camera (DECam) on the 4 m Blanco Telescope in Chile to image 5000 sq deg of the sky in five filters (grizY). By its completion, the survey is expected to have generated a catalogue of 300 million galaxies with photometric redshifts and 100 million stars. In addition, a time-domain survey search over 27 sq deg is expected to yield a sample of thousands of Type Ia supernovae and other transients. The main goals of DES are to characterize dark energy and dark matter, and to test alternative models of gravity; these goals will be pursued by studying large-scale structure, cluster counts, weak gravitational lensing and Type Ia supernovae. However, DES also provides a rich data set which allows us to study many other aspects of astrophysics. In this paper, we focus on additional science with DES, emphasizing areas where the survey makes a difference with respect to other current surveys. The paper illustrates, using early data (from ‘Science Verification’, and from the first, second and third seasons of observations), what DES can tell us about the Solar system, the Milky Way, galaxy evolution, quasars and other topics. In addition, we show that if the cosmological model is assumed to be Λ+cold dark matter, then important astrophysics can be deduced from the primary DES probes. Highlights from DES early data include the discovery of 34 trans-Neptunian objects, 17 dwarf satellites of the Milky Way, one published z > 6 quasar (and more confirmed) and two published superluminous supernovae (and more confirmed).

  7. Dark radiation constraints on mixed Axion/Neutralino dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Kyu Jung; Baer, Howard; Lessa, Andre E-mail: baer@nhn.ou.edu

    2013-04-01

    Recent analyses of CMB data combined with the measurement of BAO and H{sub 0} show that dark radiation — parametrized by the apparent number of additional neutrinos ΔN{sub eff} contributing to the cosmic expansion — is bounded from above by about ΔN{sub eff}∼<1.6 at 95% CL. We consider the mixed axion/neutralino cold dark matter scenario which arises in R-parity conserving supersymmetric (SUSY) models wherein the strong CP problem is solved by hadronic axions with a concommitant axion(a)/saxion(s)/axino(ã) supermultiplet. Our new results include improved calculations of thermal axion and saxion production and include effects of saxion decay to axinos and axions. We show that the above bound on ΔN{sub eff} is easily satisfied if saxions are mainly thermally produced and m{sub LSP} < m{sub ã}∼dark matter are highly constrained by combined CMB, BBN and Xe-100 constraints. In particular, supersymmetric models with a standard overabundance of neutralino dark matter are excluded for all values of the Peccei-Quinn breaking scale. Next generation WIMP direct detection experiments may be able to discover or exclude mixed axion-neutralino CDM scenarios where s → aa is the dominant saxion decay mode.

  8. The Dark Energy Survey: more than dark energy - an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dark Energy Survey Collaboration; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Aleksić, J.; Allam, S.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Balbinot, E.; Banerji, M.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Blazek, J.; Bonnett, C.; Bridle, S.; Brooks, D.; Brunner, R. J.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Caminha, G. B.; Capozzi, D.; Carlsen, J.; Carnero-Rosell, A.; Carollo, M.; Carrasco-Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Clerkin, L.; Collett, T.; Conselice, C.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Davis, T. M.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Dodelson, S.; Doel, P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Estrada, J.; Etherington, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fabbri, J.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Foley, R. J.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Giannantonio, T.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Guarnieri, P.; Gutierrez, G.; Hartley, W.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jeltema, T.; Jouvel, S.; Kessler, R.; King, A.; Kirk, D.; Kron, R.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Lin, H.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; Manera, M.; Maraston, C.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; McMahon, R. G.; Melchior, P.; Merson, A.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Morice-Atkinson, X.; Naidoo, K.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Ostrovski, F.; Palmese, A.; Papadopoulos, A.; Peiris, H. V.; Peoples, J.; Percival, W. J.; Plazas, A. A.; Reed, S. L.; Refregier, A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Ross, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sadeh, I.; Sako, M.; Sánchez, C.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Soumagnac, M.; Suchyta, E.; Sullivan, M.; Swanson, M.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, R. C.; Tucker, D.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Weller, J.; Wester, W.; Whiteway, L.; Wilcox, H.; Yanny, B.; Zhang, Y.; Zuntz, J.

    2016-08-01

    This overview paper describes the legacy prospect and discovery potential of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) beyond cosmological studies, illustrating it with examples from the DES early data. DES is using a wide-field camera (DECam) on the 4 m Blanco Telescope in Chile to image 5000 sq deg of the sky in five filters (grizY). By its completion, the survey is expected to have generated a catalogue of 300 million galaxies with photometric redshifts and 100 million stars. In addition, a time-domain survey search over 27 sq deg is expected to yield a sample of thousands of Type Ia supernovae and other transients. The main goals of DES are to characterize dark energy and dark matter, and to test alternative models of gravity; these goals will be pursued by studying large-scale structure, cluster counts, weak gravitational lensing and Type Ia supernovae. However, DES also provides a rich data set which allows us to study many other aspects of astrophysics. In this paper, we focus on additional science with DES, emphasizing areas where the survey makes a difference with respect to other current surveys. The paper illustrates, using early data (from `Science Verification', and from the first, second and third seasons of observations), what DES can tell us about the Solar system, the Milky Way, galaxy evolution, quasars and other topics. In addition, we show that if the cosmological model is assumed to be Λ+cold dark matter, then important astrophysics can be deduced from the primary DES probes. Highlights from DES early data include the discovery of 34 trans-Neptunian objects, 17 dwarf satellites of the Milky Way, one published z > 6 quasar (and more confirmed) and two published superluminous supernovae (and more confirmed).

  9. The Dark Energy Survey: More than dark energy - An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, T.

    2016-03-21

    This overview article describes the legacy prospect and discovery potential of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) beyond cosmological studies, illustrating it with examples from the DES early data. DES is using a wide-field camera (DECam) on the 4m Blanco Telescope in Chile to image 5000 sq deg of the sky in five filters (grizY). By its completion the survey is expected to have generated a catalogue of 300 million galaxies with photometric redshifts and 100 million stars. In addition, a time-domain survey search over 27 sq deg is expected to yield a sample of thousands of Type Ia supernovae and other transients. The main goals of DES are to characterise dark energy and dark matter, and to test alternative models of gravity; these goals will be pursued by studying large scale structure, cluster counts, weak gravitational lensing and Type Ia supernovae. However, DES also provides a rich data set which allows us to study many other aspects of astrophysics. In this paper we focus on additional science with DES, emphasizing areas where the survey makes a difference with respect to other current surveys. The paper illustrates, using early data (from `Science Verification', and from the first, second and third seasons of observations), what DES can tell us about the solar system, the Milky Way, galaxy evolution, quasars, and other topics. In addition, we show that if the cosmological model is assumed to be Lambda+ Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) then important astrophysics can be deduced from the primary DES probes. Lastly, highlights from DES early data include the discovery of 34 Trans Neptunian Objects, 17 dwarf satellites of the Milky Way, one published z > 6 quasar (and more confirmed) and two published superluminous supernovae (and more confirmed).

  10. Secretly asymmetric dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Kilic, Can; Swaminathan, Sivaramakrishnan; Trendafilova, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    We study a mechanism where the dark matter number density today arises from asymmetries generated in the dark sector in the early Universe, even though the total dark matter number remains zero throughout the history of the Universe. The dark matter population today can be completely symmetric, with annihilation rates above those expected from thermal weakly interacting massive particles. We give a simple example of this mechanism using a benchmark model of flavored dark matter. We discuss the experimental signatures of this setup, which arise mainly from the sector that annihilates the symmetric component of dark matter.

  11. Jovian Dark Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A recently discovered black spot in Jupiter's clouds is darker than any feature ever before observed on the giant planet. The spot may be the result of a downward spiraling wind that blows away high clouds and reveals deeper, very dark cloud layers. These three panels depict the same area of Jupiter's atmosphere. A map of Jovian temperatures near 250 millibar pressure (top) panel is derived from the photopolarimeter-radiometer instrument on NASA's Galileo Jupiter orbiter. This map is compared with maps derived from images of the same area in visible light (middle panel)and thermal radiation sensitive to cloud-top temperatures (bottom panel).

    The single downward-pointing arrow in the top panel indicates the location of a warm area that corresponds to the position of a so-called 'black spot'(shown in the middle panel), a feature that is about a year old. Features this dark are rare on Jupiter. The bottom panel, sensitive to temperatures at Jupiter's cloud tops, shows this feature as a bright object, meaning that upper-level cold clouds are missing - allowing us to see deeper into Jupiter's warmer interior. The dark visible appearance of the feature than most likely represents the color of very deep clouds. The warm temperatures and cloud-free conditions imply that this feature is a region where dry upper-atmospheric gas is being forced to converge, is warmed up and then forced to descend, clearing out clouds. It is the opposite of wet, upwelling gas in areas such as Jupiter's Great Red Spot or white ovals. On the other hand, it is unlike the dry and relatively cloudless feature into which the Galileo probe descended in 1995, because that region had the same temperatures as its surroundings and did not appear nearly as dark as this new spot.

    The temperatures sampled by the photopolarimeter radiometer are near the top of Jupiter's troposphere, where wind motions control the atmosphere. The top row of arrows shows the location of temperature waves in a warm region

  12. Jovian Dark Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A recently discovered black spot in Jupiter's clouds is darker than any feature ever before observed on the giant planet. The spot may be the result of a downward spiraling wind that blows away high clouds and reveals deeper, very dark cloud layers. These three panels depict the same area of Jupiter's atmosphere. A map of Jovian temperatures near 250 millibar pressure (top) panel is derived from the photopolarimeter-radiometer instrument on NASA's Galileo Jupiter orbiter. This map is compared with maps derived from images of the same area in visible light (middle panel)and thermal radiation sensitive to cloud-top temperatures (bottom panel).

    The single downward-pointing arrow in the top panel indicates the location of a warm area that corresponds to the position of a so-called 'black spot'(shown in the middle panel), a feature that is about a year old. Features this dark are rare on Jupiter. The bottom panel, sensitive to temperatures at Jupiter's cloud tops, shows this feature as a bright object, meaning that upper-level cold clouds are missing - allowing us to see deeper into Jupiter's warmer interior. The dark visible appearance of the feature than most likely represents the color of very deep clouds. The warm temperatures and cloud-free conditions imply that this feature is a region where dry upper-atmospheric gas is being forced to converge, is warmed up and then forced to descend, clearing out clouds. It is the opposite of wet, upwelling gas in areas such as Jupiter's Great Red Spot or white ovals. On the other hand, it is unlike the dry and relatively cloudless feature into which the Galileo probe descended in 1995, because that region had the same temperatures as its surroundings and did not appear nearly as dark as this new spot.

    The temperatures sampled by the photopolarimeter radiometer are near the top of Jupiter's troposphere, where wind motions control the atmosphere. The top row of arrows shows the location of temperature waves in a warm region

  13. Falsification of dark energy by fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Carl H.

    2011-11-01

    The 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded for the discovery from observations of increased supernovae dimness interpreted as distance, so that the Universe expansion rate has changed from a rate decreasing since the big bang to one that is now increasing, driven by anti-gravity forces of a mysterious dark energy material comprising 70% of the Universe mass-energy. Fluid mechanical considerations falsify both the accelerating expansion and dark energy concepts. Kinematic viscosity is neglected in current stan- dard models of self-gravitational structure formation, which rely on cold dark matter CDM condensations and clusterings that are also falsified by fluid mechanics. Weakly collisional CDM particles do not condense but diffuse away. Photon viscosity predicts su- perclustervoid fragmentation early in the plasma epoch and protogalaxies at the end. At the plasma-gas transition, the plasma fragments into Earth-mass gas planets in trillion planet clumps (proto-globular-star-cluster PGCs). The hydrogen planets freeze to form the dark matter of galaxies and merge to form their stars. Dark energy is a systematic dimming error for Supernovae Ia caused by dark matter planets near hot white dwarf stars at the Chandrasekhar carbon limit. Evaporated planet atmospheres may or may not scatter light from the events depending on the line of sight.

  14. Foreword: Dark energy and CMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodelson, Scott; Huterer, Dragan

    2015-03-01

    Maps of the Universe when it was 400,000 years old from observations of the cosmic microwave background and over the last ten billion years from galaxy surveys point to a compelling cosmological model. This model requires a very early epoch of accelerated expansion, inflation, during which the seeds of structure were planted via quantum mechanical fluctuations. These seeds began to grow via gravitational instability during the epoch in which dark matter dominated the energy density of the universe, transforming small perturbations laid down during inflation into nonlinear structures such as million light-year sized clusters, galaxies, stars, planets, and people. Over the past few billion years, we have entered a new phase, during which the expansion of the Universe is accelerating presumably driven by yet another substance, dark energy.

  15. Tying dark matter to baryons with self-interactions.

    PubMed

    Kaplinghat, Manoj; Keeley, Ryan E; Linden, Tim; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2014-07-11

    Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) models have been proposed to solve the small-scale issues with the collisionless cold dark matter paradigm. We derive equilibrium solutions in these SIDM models for the dark matter halo density profile including the gravitational potential of both baryons and dark matter. Self-interactions drive dark matter to be isothermal and this ties the core sizes and shapes of dark matter halos to the spatial distribution of the stars, a radical departure from previous expectations and from cold dark matter predictions. Compared to predictions of SIDM-only simulations, the core sizes are smaller and the core densities are higher, with the largest effects in baryon-dominated galaxies. As an example, we find a core size around 0.3 kpc for dark matter in the Milky Way, more than an order of magnitude smaller than the core size from SIDM-only simulations, which has important implications for indirect searches of SIDM candidates.

  16. Impeded Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Slatyer, Tracy; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Xue, Wei

    2016-12-12

    Here, we consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario \\Impeded Dark Matter". We also demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. Furthermore, for positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  17. Impeded Dark Matter

    DOE PAGES

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Slatyer, Tracy; ...

    2016-12-12

    Here, we consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario \\Impeded Dark Matter". We also demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may evenmore » be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. Furthermore, for positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.« less

  18. Impeded Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Xue, Wei

    2016-12-01

    We consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario "Impeded Dark Matter". We demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. For positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  19. Dark matter and dark energy from the solution of the strong CP problem.

    PubMed

    Mainini, Roberto; Bonometto, Silvio A

    2004-09-17

    The Peccei-Quinn (PQ) solution of the strong CP problem requires the existence of axions, which are viable candidates for dark matter. If the Nambu-Goldstone potential of the PQ model is replaced by a potential V(|Phi|) admitting a tracker solution, the scalar field |Phi| can account for dark energy, while the phase of Phi yields axion dark matter. If V is a supergravity (SUGRA) potential, the model essentially depends on a single parameter, the energy scale Lambda. Once we set Lambda approximately equal to 10(10) GeV at the quark-hadron transition, |Phi| naturally passes through values suitable to solve the strong CP problem, later growing to values providing fair amounts of dark matter and dark energy.

  20. Sucrose helps regulate cold acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Rekarte-Cowie, Iona; Ebshish, Omar S.; Mohamed, Khalifa S.; Pearce, Roger S.

    2008-01-01

    A test was carried out to see if sucrose could regulate cold-acclimation-associated gene expression in Arabidopsis. In plants and excised leaves, sucrose caused an increase in GUS activity, as a reporter for the activity of the cold-responsive COR78 promoter. This increase was transient at 21 °C but lasted for at least 4 d at 4 °C in continuous darkness. However, at 4 °C with a 16 h photoperiod, GUS activity was similarly high with solutions lacking sucrose or with different concentrations of sucrose. In peeled lower epidermis in the cold dark environment, 40 mM sucrose increased COR78 transcript abundance to substantially above that in the controls, but sorbitol had no effect. Similarly to the cold and dark conditions, sucrose increased COR78 transcript abundance in the epidermis in the warm light and warm dark environments, but not in a cold light environment. Sucrose had much less effect on COR78 transcript abundance in leaves without the lower epidermis. Thus sucrose regulates expression of COR78, possibly mainly in the epidermis, at the level of transcription. Furthermore, 40 mM sucrose at 4 °C for 24 h in constant darkness was sufficient to give the same GUS activity as in fully acclimated plants of the same age in a 16 h photoperiod, although by 48 h, GUS activity had become intermediate between control and fully cold-acclimated plants. Thus sucrose has a regulatory role in the acclimation of whole plants to cold and this may be important during diurnal dark periods. PMID:18980951

  1. Alternative to particle dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, Justin

    2015-01-01

    We propose an alternative to particle dark matter that borrows ingredients of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) while adding new key components. The first new feature is a dark matter fluid, in the form of a scalar field with small equation of state and sound speed. This component is critical in reproducing the success of cold dark matter for the expansion history and the growth of linear perturbations, but does not cluster significantly on nonlinear scales. Instead, the missing mass problem on nonlinear scales is addressed by a modification of the gravitational force law. The force law approximates MOND at large and intermediate accelerations, and therefore reproduces the empirical success of MOND at fitting galactic rotation curves. At ultralow accelerations, the force law reverts to an inverse-square law, albeit with a larger Newton's constant. This latter regime is important in galaxy clusters and is consistent with their observed isothermal profiles, provided the characteristic acceleration scale of MOND is mildly varying with scale or mass, such that it is 12 times higher in clusters than in galaxies. We present an explicit relativistic theory in terms of two scalar fields. The first scalar field is governed by a Dirac-Born-Infeld action and behaves as a dark matter fluid on large scales. The second scalar field also has single-derivative interactions and mediates a fifth force that modifies gravity on nonlinear scales. Both scalars are coupled to matter via an effective metric that depends locally on the fields. The form of this effective metric implies the equality of the two scalar gravitational potentials, which ensures that lensing and dynamical mass estimates agree. Further work is needed in order to make both the acceleration scale of MOND and the fraction at which gravity reverts to an inverse-square law explicitly dynamical quantities, varying with scale or mass.

  2. DarkSide search for dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, T.; Alton, D.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Beltrame, P.; Benziger, J.; Bonfini, G.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Bussino, S.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Chidzik, S.; Cocco, A. G.; Condon, C.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Vincenzi, M. De; Haas, E. De; Derbin, A.; Pietro, G. Di; Dratchnev, I.; Durben, D.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Franco, D.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guo, C.; Guray, G.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Al; Ianni, An; Joliet, C.; Kayunov, A.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C.; Kidner, S.; Klemmer, R.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Komor, M.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Li, P.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Love, C.; Ludhova, L.; Luitz, S.; Lukyanchenko, L.; Lund, A.; Lung, K.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I.; Mari, S.; Maricic, J.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meroni, E.; Meyers, P.; Mohayai, T.; Montanari, D.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B.; Muratova, V.; Nelson, A.; Nemtzow, A.; Nurakhov, N.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Parsells, R.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Perfetto, F.; Pinsky, L.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Sands, W.; Seigar, M.; Semenov, D.; Shields, E.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvarov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Thompson, J.; Tonazzo, A.; Unzhakov, E.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wang, H.; Westerdale, S.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zehfus, M.; Zhong, W.; Zuzel, G.

    2013-11-22

    The DarkSide staged program utilizes a two-phase time projection chamber (TPC) with liquid argon as the target material for the scattering of dark matter particles. Efficient background reduction is achieved using low radioactivity underground argon as well as several experimental handles such as pulse shape, ratio of ionization over scintillation signal, 3D event reconstruction, and active neutron and muon vetos. The DarkSide-10 prototype detector has proven high scintillation light yield, which is a particularly important parameter as it sets the energy threshold for the pulse shape discrimination technique. The DarkSide-50 detector system, currently in commissioning phase at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory, will reach a sensitivity to dark matter spin-independent scattering cross section of 10-45 cm2 within 3 years of operation.

  3. Dark matter search project PICO-LON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fushimi, K.; Ejiri, H.; Hazama, R.; Ikeda, H.; Imagawa, K.; Inoue, K.; Kanzaki, G.; Kozlov, A.; Orito, R.; Shima, T.; Takemoto, Y.; Teraoka, Y.; Umehara, S.; Yasuda, K.; Yoshida, S.; PICO-LON Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The PICO-LON project aims at search for cold dark matter by means of highly radio-pure and large volume NaI(Tl) scintillator. The NaI powder was purified by chemical processing to remove lead isotopes and selecting a high purity graphite crucible. The concentrations of radioactive impurities of 226Ra and 228Th were effectively reduced to 58 ± 4 µBq/kg and 1.5 ± 1.9 µBq/kg, respectively. It should be remarked that the concentration of 210Pb, which is crucial for the sensitivity to dark matter, was reduced to 24 ± 2 µBq/kg. The total background rate at 10 keVee was as low as 8 keV-1kg-1day-1, which was sufficiently low to search for dark matter. Further purification of NaI(Tl) ingot and future prospect of PICO-LON project is discussed.

  4. Sources and distributions of dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sikivie, P. |

    1995-12-31

    In the first section, the author tries to convey a sense of the variety of observational inputs that tell about the existence and the spatial distribution of dark matter in the universe. In the second section, he briefly reviews the four main dark matter candidates, taking note of each candidate`s status in the world of particle physics, its production in the early universe, its effect upon large scale structure formation and the means by which it may be detected. Section 3 concerns the energy spectrum of (cold) dark matter particles on earth as may be observed some day in a direct detection experiment. It is a brief account of work done in collaboration with J. Ipser and, more recently, with I. Tkachev and Y. Wang.

  5. Seeded hot dark matter models with inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratsias, John; Scherrer, Robert J.; Steigman, Gary; Villumsen, Jens V.

    1993-01-01

    We examine massive neutrino (hot dark matter) models for large-scale structure in which the density perturbations are produced by randomly distributed relic seeds and by inflation. Power spectra, streaming velocities, and the Sachs-Wolfe quadrupole fluctuation are derived for this model. We find that the pure seeded hot dark matter model without inflation produces Sachs-Wolfe fluctuations far smaller than those seen by COBE. With the addition of inflationary perturbations, fluctuations consistent with COBE can be produced. The COBE results set the normalization of the inflationary component, which determines the large-scale (about 50/h Mpc) streaming velocities. The normalization of the seed power spectrum is a free parameter, which can be adjusted to obtain the desired fluctuations on small scales. The power spectra produced are very similar to those seen in mixed hot and cold dark matter models.

  6. Seeded hot dark matter models with inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratsias, John; Scherrer, Robert J.; Steigman, Gary; Villumsen, Jens V.

    1993-01-01

    We examine massive neutrino (hot dark matter) models for large-scale structure in which the density perturbations are produced by randomly distributed relic seeds and by inflation. Power spectra, streaming velocities, and the Sachs-Wolfe quadrupole fluctuation are derived for this model. We find that the pure seeded hot dark matter model without inflation produces Sachs-Wolfe fluctuations far smaller than those seen by COBE. With the addition of inflationary perturbations, fluctuations consistent with COBE can be produced. The COBE results set the normalization of the inflationary component, which determines the large-scale (about 50/h Mpc) streaming velocities. The normalization of the seed power spectrum is a free parameter, which can be adjusted to obtain the desired fluctuations on small scales. The power spectra produced are very similar to those seen in mixed hot and cold dark matter models.

  7. Gravitational focusing of imperfect dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Ramazanov, Sabir

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by the projectable Horava-Lifshitz model/mimetic matter scenario, we consider a particular modification of standard gravity, which manifests as an imperfect low pressure fluid. While practically indistinguishable from a collection of nonrelativistic weakly interacting particles on cosmological scales, it leaves drastically different signatures in the Solar system. The main effect stems from gravitational focusing of the flow of imperfect dark matter passing near the Sun. This entails strong amplification of imperfect dark matter energy density compared to its average value in the surrounding halo. The enhancement is many orders of magnitude larger than in the case of cold dark matter, provoking deviations of the metric in the second order in the Newtonian potential. Effects of gravitational focusing are prominent enough to substantially affect the planetary dynamics. Using the existing bound on the post-Newtonian parameter βPPN, we deduce a stringent constraint on the unique constant of the model.

  8. Codecaying Dark Matter.

    PubMed

    Dror, Jeff Asaf; Kuflik, Eric; Ng, Wee Hao

    2016-11-18

    We propose a new mechanism for thermal dark matter freeze-out, called codecaying dark matter. Multicomponent dark sectors with degenerate particles and out-of-equilibrium decays can codecay to obtain the observed relic density. The dark matter density is exponentially depleted through the decay of nearly degenerate particles rather than from Boltzmann suppression. The relic abundance is set by the dark matter annihilation cross section, which is predicted to be boosted, and the decay rate of the dark sector particles. The mechanism is viable in a broad range of dark matter parameter space, with a robust prediction of an enhanced indirect detection signal. Finally, we present a simple model that realizes codecaying dark matter.

  9. Asymmetric dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Jason

    2014-06-24

    We review the theoretical framework underlying models of asymmetric dark matter, describe astrophysical constraints which arise from observations of neutron stars, and discuss the prospects for detecting asymmetric dark matter.

  10. The dark side of cosmology: dark matter and dark energy.

    PubMed

    Spergel, David N

    2015-03-06

    A simple model with only six parameters (the age of the universe, the density of atoms, the density of matter, the amplitude of the initial fluctuations, the scale dependence of this amplitude, and the epoch of first star formation) fits all of our cosmological data . Although simple, this standard model is strange. The model implies that most of the matter in our Galaxy is in the form of "dark matter," a new type of particle not yet detected in the laboratory, and most of the energy in the universe is in the form of "dark energy," energy associated with empty space. Both dark matter and dark energy require extensions to our current understanding of particle physics or point toward a breakdown of general relativity on cosmological scales. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Lorentz-violating dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondragon, Antonio R.

    Observations from the 1930s until the present have established the existence of dark matter with an abundance that is much larger than that of luminous matter. Because none of the known particles of nature have the correct properties to be identified as the dark matter, various exotic candidates have been proposed. The neutralino of supersymmetric theories is the most promising example. Such cold dark matter candidates, however, lead to a conflict between the standard simulations of the evolution of cosmic structure and observations. Simulations predict excessive structure formation on small scales, including density cusps at the centers of galaxies, that is not observed. This conflict still persists in early 2007, and it has not yet been convincingly resolved by attempted explanations that invoke astrophysical phenomena, which would destroy or broaden all small scale structure. We have investigated another candidate that is perhaps more exotic: Lorentz-violating dark matter, which was originally motivated by an unconventional fundamental theory, but which in this dissertation is defined as matter which has a nonzero minimum velocity. Furthermore, the present investigation evolved into the broader goal of exploring the properties of Lorentz-violating matter and the astrophysical consequences-a subject which to our knowledge has not been previously studied. Our preliminary investigations indicated that this form of matter might have less tendency to form small-scale structure. These preliminary calculations certainly established that Lorentz-violating matter which always moves at an appreciable fraction of the speed of light will bind less strongly. However, the much more thorough set of studies reported here lead to the conclusion that, although the binding energy is reduced, the small-scale structure problem is not solved by Lorentz-violating dark matter. On the other hand, when we compare the predictions of Lorentz-violating dynamics with those of classical

  12. Direct and indirect detection of dissipative dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, JiJi; Katz, Andrey; Shelton, Jessie E-mail: katz.andrey@gmail.com

    2014-06-01

    We study the constraints from direct detection and solar capture on dark matter scenarios with a subdominant dissipative component. This dissipative dark matter component in general has both a symmetric and asymmetric relic abundance. Dissipative dynamics allow this subdominant dark matter component to cool, resulting in its partial or total collapse into a smaller volume inside the halo (e.g., a dark disk) as well as a reduced thermal velocity dispersion compared to that of normal cold dark matter. We first show that these features considerably relax the limits from direct detection experiments on the couplings between standard model (SM) particles and dissipative dark matter. On the other hand, indirect detection of the annihilation of the symmetric dissipative dark matter component inside the Sun sets stringent and robust constraints on the properties of the dissipative dark matter. In particular, IceCube observations force dissipative dark matter particles with mass above 50 GeV to either have a small coupling to the SM or a low local density in the solar system, or to have a nearly asymmetric relic abundance. Possible helioseismology signals associated with purely asymmetric dissipative dark matter are discussed, with no present constraints.

  13. Inhomogeneous dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav E-mail: viatcheslav.Mukhanov@lmu.de

    2016-02-01

    We modify Einstein General Relativity by adding non-dynamical scalar fields to account simultaneously for both dark matter and dark energy. The dark energy in this case can be distributed in-homogeneously even within horizon scales. Its inhomogeneities can contribute to the late time integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, possibly removing some of the low multipole anomalies in the temperature fluctuations of the CMB spectrum. The presence of the inhomogeneous dark matter also influences structure formation in the universe.

  14. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold ... tos y el resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ...

  15. Cold symptoms (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Colds are caused by a virus and can occur year-round. The common cold generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. Other symptoms include sore throat, cough, and headache. A cold usually lasts ...

  16. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold ... Someone Quit? Avoiding DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ...

  17. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may he elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should ma be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well.

  18. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may he elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should ma be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well.

  19. Holographic Dark Energy Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadat, Hassan

    2011-06-01

    In this article we consider the cosmological model based on the holographic dark energy. We study dark energy density in Universe with arbitrary spatially curvature described by the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric. We use Chevallier-Polarski-Linder parametrization to specify dark energy density.

  20. NUV Detector Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Colin

    2011-10-01

    Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

  1. NUV Detector Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, Justin

    2012-10-01

    Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

  2. NUV Detector Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, Justin

    2013-10-01

    Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

  3. NUV Detector Dark Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei

    2010-09-01

    Perform routine monitoring of MAMA detector dark current. The main purpose isto look for evidence of a change in the dark rates, both to track on-orbit timedependence and to check for a detector problem developing. The spatial distribution of dark rates on the detector and the effect of SAA will also be studied.

  4. DARK FLUID: A UNIFIED FRAMEWORK FOR MODIFIED NEWTONIAN DYNAMICS, DARK MATTER, AND DARK ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Hongsheng; Li Baojiu E-mail: b.li@damtp.cam.ac.u

    2010-03-20

    Empirical theories of dark matter (DM) like modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) gravity and of dark energy (DE) like f(R) gravity were motivated by astronomical data. But could these theories be branches rooted from a more general and hence generic framework? Here we propose a very generic Lagrangian of such a framework based on simple dimensional analysis and covariant symmetry requirements, and explore various outcomes in a top-down fashion. The desired effects of quintessence plus cold DM particle fields or MOND-like scalar field(s) are shown to be largely achievable by one vector field only. Our framework preserves the covariant formulation of general relativity, but allows the expanding physical metric to be bent by a single new species of dark fluid flowing in spacetime. Its non-uniform stress tensor and current vector are simple functions of a vector field with variable norm, not coupled with the baryonic fluid and the four-vector potential of the photon fluid. The dark fluid framework generically branches into a continuous spectrum of theories with DE and DM effects, including the f(R) gravity, tensor-vector-scalar-like theories, Einstein-Aether, and nuLAMBDA theories as limiting cases. When the vector field degenerates into a pure scalar field, we obtain the physics for quintessence. Choices of parameters can be made to pass Big Bang nucleosynthesis, parameterized post-Newtonian, and causality constraints. In this broad setting we emphasize the non-constant dynamical field behind the cosmological constant effect, and highlight plausible corrections beyond the classical MOND predictions.

  5. Dark Fluid: A Unified Framework for Modified Newtonian Dynamics, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, HongSheng; Li, Baojiu

    2010-03-01

    Empirical theories of dark matter (DM) like modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) gravity and of dark energy (DE) like f(R) gravity were motivated by astronomical data. But could these theories be branches rooted from a more general and hence generic framework? Here we propose a very generic Lagrangian of such a framework based on simple dimensional analysis and covariant symmetry requirements, and explore various outcomes in a top-down fashion. The desired effects of quintessence plus cold DM particle fields or MOND-like scalar field(s) are shown to be largely achievable by one vector field only. Our framework preserves the covariant formulation of general relativity, but allows the expanding physical metric to be bent by a single new species of dark fluid flowing in spacetime. Its non-uniform stress tensor and current vector are simple functions of a vector field with variable norm, not coupled with the baryonic fluid and the four-vector potential of the photon fluid. The dark fluid framework generically branches into a continuous spectrum of theories with DE and DM effects, including the f(R) gravity, tensor-vector-scalar-like theories, Einstein-Aether, and νΛ theories as limiting cases. When the vector field degenerates into a pure scalar field, we obtain the physics for quintessence. Choices of parameters can be made to pass Big Bang nucleosynthesis, parameterized post-Newtonian, and causality constraints. In this broad setting we emphasize the non-constant dynamical field behind the cosmological constant effect, and highlight plausible corrections beyond the classical MOND predictions.

  6. Cold confusion

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G.

    1989-07-01

    On March 23 two chemists, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons startled the world with a press conference at the University of Utah where they announced that they had achieved nuclear fusion at room temperatures. As evidence they cited the production of ''excess'' amounts of heat in an electrochemical apparatus and observation of neutron production. While the production of heat in a chemical apparatus is not in itself unusual the observation of neutrons is certainly extraordinary. As it turned out, though, careful measurements of the neutron production in electrochemical apparatus similar to that used by Fleischmann and Pons carried out at dozens of other laboratories has shown that the neutron production fails by many orders of magnitude to support the assertion by Fleischmann and Pons that their discovery represents a new and cheap source of fusion power. In particular, independent measurements of the neutron production rate suggest that the actual rate of fusion energy production probably does not exceed 1 trillionth of a watt. This paper discusses the feasibility that cold fusion is actually being achieved. 7 refs.

  7. Dark microglia: Why are they dark?

    PubMed

    Bisht, Kanchan; Sharma, Kaushik; Lacoste, Baptiste; Tremblay, Marie-Ève

    2016-01-01

    Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) we recently characterized a microglial phenotype that is induced by chronic stress, fractalkine receptor deficiency, aging, or Alzheimer disease pathology. These 'dark' microglia appear overly active compared with the normal microglia, reaching for synaptic clefts, and extensively engulfing pre-synaptic axon terminals and post-synaptic dendritic spines. From these findings we hypothesized that dark microglia could be specifically implicated in the pathological remodeling of neuronal circuits, which impairs learning, memory, and other essential cognitive functions. In the present addendum we further discuss about the possible causes of their dark appearance under TEM.

  8. The Dark Matter Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Robert H.

    2014-02-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Early history of the dark matter hypothesis; 3. The stability of disk galaxies: the dark halo solutions; 4. Direct evidence: extended rotation curves of spiral galaxies; 5. The maximum disk: light traces mass; 6. Cosmology and the birth of astroparticle physics; 7. Clusters revisited: missing mass found; 8. CDM confronts galaxy rotation curves; 9. The new cosmology: dark matter is not enough; 10. An alternative to dark matter: Modified Newtonian Dynamics; 11. Seeing dark matter: the theory and practice of detection; 12. Reflections: a personal point of view; Appendix; References; Index.

  9. Hunting the dark Higgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerr, Michael; Grohsjean, Alexander; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Penning, Bjoern; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Schwanenberger, Christian

    2017-04-01

    We discuss a novel signature of dark matter production at the LHC resulting from the emission of an additional Higgs boson in the dark sector. The presence of such a dark Higgs boson is motivated simultaneously by the need to generate the masses of the particles in the dark sector and the possibility to relax constraints from the dark matter relic abundance by opening up a new annihilation channel. If the dark Higgs boson decays into Standard Model states via a small mixing with the Standard Model Higgs boson, one obtains characteristic large-radius jets in association with missing transverse momentum that can be used to efficiently discriminate signal from backgrounds. We present the sensitivities achievable in LHC searches for dark Higgs bosons with already collected data and demonstrate that such searches can probe large regions of parameter space that are inaccessible to conventional mono-jet or di-jet searches.

  10. The PICASSO Dark Matter Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichoski, Ubi

    2011-12-01

    The PICASSO experiment searches for cold dark matter through the direct detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) via their spin-dependent interactions with fluorine at SNOLAB, Sudbury—ON, Canada since 2002. The detection principle is based on the superheated droplet technique; the detectors consist of a gel matrix with millions of liquid droplets of superheated fluorocarbon (C4F10) dispersed in it. Recently, a new setup has been built and installed in the Ladder Lab area at SNOLAB. In the present phase of the experiment the Collaboration is running 4.5-litre detector modules with approximately 85 g of active mass per module. Here, we give an overview of the experiment and discuss the progress in background mitigation, in particular background discrimination in the PICASSO detectors.

  11. Detection of supersymmetric dark matter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xinrui, Hou; Li, Xueqian; Xinhe, Meng; Zhijian, Tao

    1997-10-01

    A re-analysis of a heavy charged particle production event observed at the cloudy chamber of the Yunnan Cosmic Ray Station (YCRS) in 1972 indicates that the mysterious heavy particle may be identified as a supersymmetric (SUSY) particle produced by bombarding a neutral SUSY cosmic ray particle on a proton. Based on the assumption, following literature studies that the neutral SUSY particle which constitutes the main fraction of the cold dark matter is a scalar neutrino (sneutrino) or neutralino (photino), the authors evaluate the flux of such SUSY particles which gain sufficient energies via elastic scattering with charged cosmic particles on the way to an Earth detector and the capture rates in both the sneutrino and photino cases respectively. The errors appearing in the study are briefly discussed and this work may provide a basis of designing cosmic ray detectors to search for SUSY particles.

  12. Cold energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, John P.

    2015-12-04

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  13. Cold energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, John P.

    2015-12-01

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  14. DARK MATTER POWERED STARS: CONSTRAINTS FROM THE EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, A.; Raue, M.; Kneiske, T.; Horns, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Hauschildt, P. H.

    2012-02-01

    The existence of predominantly cold non-baryonic dark matter is unambiguously demonstrated by several observations (e.g., structure formation, big bang nucleosynthesis, gravitational lensing, and rotational curves of spiral galaxies). A candidate well motivated by particle physics is a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP). Self-annihilating WIMPs would affect the stellar evolution especially in the early universe. Stars powered by self-annihilating WIMP dark matter should possess different properties compared with standard stars. While a direct detection of such dark matter powered stars seems very challenging, their cumulative emission might leave an imprint in the diffuse metagalactic radiation fields, in particular in the mid-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this work, the possible contributions of dark matter powered stars (dark stars, DSs) to the extragalactic background light (EBL) are calculated. It is shown that existing data and limits of the EBL intensity can already be used to rule out some DS parameter sets.

  15. Pulsar timing signal from ultralight scalar dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Khmelnitsky, Andrei; Rubakov, Valery E-mail: rubakov@ms2.inr.ac.ru

    2014-02-01

    An ultralight free scalar field with mass around 10{sup −23}−10{sup −22} eV is a viable dark mater candidate, which can help to resolve some of the issues of the cold dark matter on sub-galactic scales. We consider the gravitational field of the galactic halo composed out of such dark matter. The scalar field has oscillating in time pressure, which induces oscillations of gravitational potential with amplitude of the order of 10{sup −15} and frequency in the nanohertz range. This frequency is in the range of pulsar timing array observations. We estimate the magnitude of the pulse arrival time residuals induced by the oscillating gravitational potential. We find that for a range of dark matter masses, the scalar field dark matter signal is comparable to the stochastic gravitational wave signal and can be detected by the planned SKA pulsar timing array experiment.

  16. Future CMB cosmological constraints in a dark coupled universe

    SciTech Connect

    Martinelli, Matteo; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Honorez, Laura Lopez

    2010-05-15

    Cosmic microwave background satellite missions as the ongoing Planck experiment are expected to provide the strongest constraints on a wide set of cosmological parameters. Those constraints, however, could be weakened when the assumption of a cosmological constant as the dark energy component is removed. Here we show that it will indeed be the case when there exists a coupling among the dark energy and the dark matter fluids. In particular, the expected errors on key parameters as the cold dark matter density and the angular diameter distance at decoupling are significantly larger when a dark coupling is introduced. We show that it will be the case also for future satellite missions as EPIC, unless CMB lensing extraction is performed.

  17. Wandering in the Lyman-alpha forest: a study of dark matter-dark radiation interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krall, Rebecca; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Dvorkin, Cora

    2017-09-01

    The amplitude of large-scale matter fluctuations inferred from the observed Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) cluster mass function and from weak gravitational lensing studies, when taken at face value, is in tension with measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO). In this work, we revisit whether this possible discrepancy can be attributed to new interactions in the dark matter sector. Focusing on a cosmological model where dark matter interacts with a dark radiation species until the epoch of matter-radiation equality, we find that measurements of the Lyman-alpha flux power spectrum from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey provide no support to the hypothesis that new dark matter interactions can resolve the possible tension between CMB and large-scale structure (LSS). Indeed, while the addition of dark matter-dark radiation interactions leads to an improvement of 2Δ&ln;Script L=12 with respect to the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model when only CMB, BAO, and LSS data are considered, the inclusion of Lyman-alpha data reduces the improvement of the fit to 2Δ&ln;Script L=6 relative to ΛCDM . We thus conclude that the statistical evidence for new dark matter interactions (largely driven by the Planck SZ dataset) is marginal at best, and likely caused by systematics in the data. We also perform a Fisher forecast analysis for the reach of a future dataset composed of a CMB-S4 experiment combined with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope galaxy survey. We find that the constraint on the effective number of fluid-like dark radiation species, Δ Nfluid, will be improved by an order of magnitude compared to current bounds.

  18. Cosmological simulations of decaying dark matter: implications for small-scale structure of dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mei-Yu; Peter, Annika H. G.; Strigari, Louis E.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Arant, Bryan; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Rocha, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    We present a set of N-body simulations of a class of models in which an unstable dark matter particle decays into a stable dark matter particle and a non-interacting light particle with decay lifetime comparable to the Hubble time. We study the effects of the recoil kick velocity (Vk) received by the stable dark matter on the structures of dark matter haloes ranging from galaxy-cluster to Milky Way-mass scales. For Milky Way-mass haloes, we use high-resolution, zoom-in simulations to explore the effects of decays on Galactic substructure. In general, haloes with circular velocities comparable to the magnitude of kick velocity are most strongly affected by decays. We show that models with lifetimes Γ-1 ˜ H_0^{-1} and recoil speeds Vk ˜ 20-40 km s-1 can significantly reduce both the abundance of Galactic subhaloes and their internal densities. We find that decaying dark matter models that do not violate current astrophysical constraints can significantly mitigate both the `missing satellites problem' and the more recent `too big to fail problem'. These decaying models predict significant time evolution of haloes, and this implies that at high redshifts decaying models exhibit the similar sequence of structure formation as cold dark matter. Thus, decaying dark matter models are significantly less constrained by high-redshift phenomena than warm dark matter models. We conclude that models of decaying dark matter make predictions that are relevant for the interpretation of small galaxies observations in the Local Group and can be tested as well as by forthcoming large-scale surveys.

  19. Formation of subgalactic objects within two-component dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Umemura, M.; Ikeuchi, S.

    1985-12-15

    We consider the Einstein--de Sitter universe dominated by two kinds of collisionless relics: neutrinos as hot dark matter, and X particles having negligible thermal velocity as cold dark matter (CDM). We assume ..cap omega../sub v/>..cap omega../sub c/> or =..cap omega../sub b/ = 0.05, which is referred to as the hybrid model. On scales larger than that of neutrino collisionless damping, neutrino fluctuations develop with time, producing large-scale neutrino overdense (NOD) and underdense (NUD) regions which evolve consequently to superclusters and huge voids, respectively. We calculate the growth of fluctuations of CDM and induced fluctuations of baryons on subgalactic scales in the NOD and NUD regions from the recombination epoch to the present. CDM fluctuations on subgalactic scales can grow faster in the NOD region than in the NUD region. It is shown that dwarf galaxies are preferably formed in NOD regions, induced by CDM potential wells; and subgalactic baryon fluctuations in NUD regions are subject to UV heating by QSOs before collapse and converted to expanding clouds unclustered in voids. These clouds are favorable candidates for Ly..cap alpha.. absorbers with just the same neutral hydrogen column density as observed, irrespective of ..cap omega../sub c/. This scenario for the formation of subgalactic objects is successful if 0.15< or =..cap omega../sub c/< or =0.35, and correspondingly 0.8> or =..cap omega../sub v/> or =0.6, assuming the constant curvature spectrum. It is another characteristic of the hybrid model that ordinary galaxies, including QSOs, are formed early from aggregations of dwarfs; and some galaxies can be born in voids in an environment of few dwarfs after the birth of galaxies in NOD regions.

  20. Non-linear dark energy clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Anselmi, Stefano; Ballesteros, Guillermo; Pietroni, Massimo E-mail: ballesteros@pd.infn.it

    2011-11-01

    We consider a dark energy fluid with arbitrary sound speed and equation of state and discuss the effect of its clustering on the cold dark matter distribution at the non-linear level. We write the continuity, Euler and Poisson equations for the system in the Newtonian approximation. Then, using the time renormalization group method to resum perturbative corrections at all orders, we compute the total clustering power spectrum and matter power spectrum. At the linear level, a sound speed of dark energy different from that of light modifies the power spectrum on observationally interesting scales, such as those relevant for baryonic acoustic oscillations. We show that the effect of varying the sound speed of dark energy on the non-linear corrections to the matter power spectrum is below the per cent level, and therefore these corrections can be well modelled by their counterpart in cosmological scenarios with smooth dark energy. We also show that the non-linear effects on the matter growth index can be as large as 10–15 per cent for small scales.

  1. Dark Forces and Light Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Dan; Weiner, Neal; Xue, Wei

    2012-09-01

    We consider a simple class of models in which the dark matter, X, is coupled to a new gauge boson, phi, with a relatively low mass (m_phi \\sim 100 MeV-3 GeV). Neither the dark matter nor the new gauge boson have tree-level couplings to the Standard Model. The dark matter in this model annihilates to phi pairs, and for a coupling of g_X \\sim 0.06 (m_X/10 GeV)^1/2 yields a thermal relic abundance consistent with the cosmological density of dark matter. The phi's produced in such annihilations decay through a small degree of kinetic mixing with the photon to combinations of Standard Model leptons and mesons. For dark matter with a mass of \\sim10 GeV, the shape of the resulting gamma-ray spectrum provides a good fit to that observed from the Galactic Center, and can also provide the very hard electron spectrum required to account for the observed synchrotron emission from the Milky Way's radio filaments. For kinetic mixing near the level naively expected from loop-suppressed operators (epsilon \\sim 10^{-4}), the dark matter is predicted to scatter elastically with protons with a cross section consistent with that required to accommodate the signals reported by DAMA/LIBRA, CoGeNT and CRESST-II.

  2. Enhanced tidal stripping of satellites in the galactic halo from dark matter self-interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, Gregory A.; Peter, Annika H. G.; Vogelsberger, Mark; Zavala, Jesús; Frebel, Anna

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the effects of self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) on the tidal stripping and evaporation of satellite galaxies in a Milky Way-like host. We use a suite of five zoom-in, dark-matter-only simulations, two with velocity-independent SIDM cross-sections, two with velocity-dependent SIDM cross-sections, and one cold dark matter (CDM) simulation for comparison. After carefully assigning stellar mass to satellites at infall, we find that stars are stripped at a higher rate in SIDM than in CDM. In contrast, the total bound dark matter mass-loss rate is minimally affected, with subhalo evaporation having negligible effects on satellites for viable SIDM models. Centrally located stars in SIDM haloes disperse out to larger radii as cores grow. Consequently, the half-light radius of satellites increases, stars become more vulnerable to tidal stripping, and the stellar mass function is suppressed. We find that the ratio of core radius to tidal radius accurately predicts the relative strength of enhanced SIDM stellar stripping. Velocity-independent SIDM models show a modest increase in the stellar stripping effect with satellite mass, whereas velocity-dependent SIDM models show a large increase in this effect towards lower masses, making observations of ultrafaint dwarfs prime targets for distinguishing between and constraining SIDM models. Due to small cores in the largest satellites of velocity-dependent SIDM, no identifiable imprint is left on the all-sky properties of the stellar halo. While our results focus on SIDM, the main physical mechanism of enhanced tidal stripping of stars apply similarly to satellites with cores formed via other means.

  3. Observational effects of the early episodically dominating dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan-Gyung; Lee, Jae-heon; Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the observational consequences of the early episodically dominating dark energy on the evolution of cosmological structures. For this aim, we introduce the minimally coupled scalar-field dark energy model with the Albrecht-Skordis potential, which allows a sudden ephemeral domination of a dark energy component during the radiation or early matter era. The conventional cosmological parameters in the presence of such an early dark energy are constrained with WMAP and Planck cosmic microwave background radiation data including other external data sets. It is shown that in the presence of such an early dark energy, the estimated cosmological parameters can deviate substantially from the currently known Λ cold dark matter (Λ CDM )-based parameters, with best-fit values differing by several percent for WMAP and by a percent level for Planck data. For the latter case, only a limited amount of dark energy with episodic nature is allowed since the Planck data strongly favor the Λ CDM model. Compared with the conventional dark energy model, the early dark energy dominating near the radiation-matter equality or at the early matter era results in the shorter cosmic age or the presence of tensor-type perturbation, respectively. Our analysis demonstrates that the alternative cosmological parameter estimation is allowed based on the same observations even in Einstein's gravity.

  4. Dark matter as a Bose-Einstein Condensate: the relativistic non-minimally coupled case

    SciTech Connect

    Bettoni, Dario; Colombo, Mattia; Liberati, Stefano E-mail: mattia.colombo@studenti.unitn.it

    2014-02-01

    Bose-Einstein Condensates have been recently proposed as dark matter candidates. In order to characterize the phenomenology associated to such models, we extend previous investigations by studying the general case of a relativistic BEC on a curved background including a non-minimal coupling to curvature. In particular, we discuss the possibility of a two phase cosmological evolution: a cold dark matter-like phase at the large scales/early times and a condensed phase inside dark matter halos. During the first phase dark matter is described by a minimally coupled weakly self-interacting scalar field, while in the second one dark matter condensates and, we shall argue, develops as a consequence the non-minimal coupling. Finally, we discuss how such non-minimal coupling could provide a new mechanism to address cold dark matter paradigm issues at galactic scales.

  5. Colds and the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014October 2014familydoctor.org editorial staff OverviewWhat is the common cold and the flu?The common cold and the flu are viral infections of the ... have a cold or the flu?Although the common cold and the flu share many similar symptoms, they ...

  6. Cold remedies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sore throat, cough, stuffy nose, sneezing, runny nose, fever, chills, and muscle aches are all symptoms associated with the common cold. Over-the-counter medicines for a cold only alleviate cold symptoms but do not shorten the duration of a cold. As always, ...

  7. Facts about the Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Influenza Facts About The Common Cold What Is a Cold? Colds are minor infections ... for 10 to 40 percent of colds. Other common cold viruses include coronavirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) . ...

  8. Growing Pains (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Feeding Your 4- to 7-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Growing ... > For Parents > Growing Pains Print A A A What's in ...

  9. A Look at the U.S. Cold Snap from NASA Infrared Imagery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation of AIRS imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite from Dec. 1 to 11 shows the movement of cold air over the U.S. Cooler temperatures appear in darker blue and warmer temperatures in dark or...

  10. Model of dark matter and dark energy based on gravitational polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchet, Luc; Le Tiec, Alexandre

    2008-07-15

    A model of dark matter and dark energy based on the concept of gravitational polarization is investigated. We propose an action in standard general relativity for describing, at some effective or phenomenological level, the dynamics of a dipolar medium, i.e. one endowed with a dipole moment vector, and polarizable in a gravitational field. Using first-order cosmological perturbations, we show that the dipolar fluid is undistinguishable from standard dark energy (a cosmological constant {lambda}) plus standard dark matter (a pressureless perfect fluid), and therefore benefits from the successes of the {lambda}-cold-dark-matter scenario at cosmological scales. Invoking an argument of 'weak clusterization' of the mass distribution of dipole moments, we find that the dipolar dark matter reproduces the phenomenology of the modified Newtonian dynamics at galactic scales. The dipolar medium action naturally contains a cosmological constant, and we show that if the model is to come from some fundamental underlying physics, the cosmological constant {lambda} should be of the order of a{sub 0}{sup 2}/c{sup 4}, where a{sub 0} denotes the modified Newtonian dynamics constant acceleration scale, in good agreement with observations.

  11. Neutrinos and dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, Alejandro

    2015-07-15

    Neutrinos could be key particles to unravel the nature of the dark matter of the Universe. On the one hand, sterile neutrinos in minimal extensions of the Standard Model are excellent dark matter candidates, producing potentially observable signals in the form of a line in the X-ray sky. On the other hand, the annihilation or the decay of dark matter particles produces, in many plausible dark matter scenarios, a neutrino flux that could be detected at neutrino telescopes, thus providing non-gravitational evidence for dark matter. More conservatively, the non-observation of a significant excess in the neutrino fluxes with respect to the expected astrophysical backgrounds can be used to constrain dark matter properties, such as the self-annihilation cross section, the scattering cross section with nucleons and the lifetime.

  12. Lens Mapping of Dark Matter Substructure with VSOP-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, S.; Chiba, M.; Inoue, K. T.

    2009-08-01

    Hierarchical clustering models of cold dark matter (CDM) predict that about 5% - 10% of a galaxy-sized halo with mass ˜ 1012 solar masses (M⊙ ) resides in substructures (CDM subhalos) with masses ⪉ 108 M⊙. To directly identify such substructures, we propose to observe radio continuum emission from multiply imaged QSOs using VSOP-2 with a high angular resolution.

  13. The Light and Dark Sides of a Distant Planet

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-10-12

    The top graph consists of infrared data from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. It tells astronomers that a distant planet, called Upsilon Andromedae b, always has a giant hot spot on the side that faces the star, while the other side is cold and dark.

  14. Holographic dark energy reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Yungui; Wang Bin; Zhang Yuanzhong

    2005-08-15

    We have reexamined the holographic dark energy model by considering the spatial curvature. We have refined the model parameter and observed that the holographic dark energy model does not behave as phantom model. Comparing the holographic dark energy model to the supernova observation alone, we found that the closed Universe is favored. Combining with the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) data, we obtained the reasonable value of the spatial curvature of our Universe.

  15. Interacting warm dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David; Avelino, Arturo E-mail: guillermo.palma@usach.cl E-mail: avelino@fisica.ugto.mx

    2013-05-01

    We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear λρ{sub m}{sup α}ρ{sub e}{sup β} form, where ρ{sub m} and ρ{sub e} are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters α and β are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (λ,α,β) as well as w{sub m} and w{sub e} of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a warm dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a warm dark matter – phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ΛCDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (λ,α,β) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used.

  16. Dark Matter 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Marc

    2014-10-01

    This article reviews the status of the exciting and fastly evolving field of dark matter research as of summer 2013, when it was discussed at the International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC) 2013 in Rio de Janeiro. It focuses on the three main avenues to detect weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter: direct detection, indirect detection, and collider searches. The article is based on the dark matter rapporteur talk summarizing the presentations given at the conference, filling some gaps for completeness.

  17. Dark-matter QCD-axion searches

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Leslie J.

    2015-01-12

    In the late 20th century, cosmology became a precision science. At the beginning of the next century, the parameters describing how our universe evolved from the Big Bang are generally known to a few percent. One key parameter is the total mass density of the universe. Normal matter constitutes only a small fraction of the total mass density. Observations suggest this additional mass, the dark matter, is cold (that is, moving nonrelativistically in the early universe) and interacts feebly if at all with normal matter and radiation. There’s no known such elementary particle, so the strong presumption is the dark matter consists of particle relics of a new kind left over from the Big Bang. One of the most important questions in science is the nature of this dark matter. One attractive particle dark-matter candidate is the axion. The axion is a hypothetical elementary particle arising in a simple and elegant extension to the standard model of particle physics that nulls otherwise observable CP-violating effects (where CP is the product of charge reversal C and parity inversion P) in quantum chromo dynamics (QCD). A light axion of mass 10-(6–3) eV (the invisible axion) would couple extraordinarily weakly to normal matter and radiation and would therefore be extremely difficult to detect in the laboratory. But, such an axion is a compelling dark-matter candidate and is therefore a target of a number of searches. Compared with other particle dark-matter candidates, the plausible range of axion dark-matter couplings and masses is narrowly constrained. This focused search range allows for definitive searches, where a nonobservation would seriously impugn the dark-matter QCD-axion hypothesis. Axion searches use a wide range of technologies, and the experiment sensitivities are now reaching likely dark-matter axion couplings and masses. Our paper is a selective overview of the current generation of sensitive axion searches. Finally, not all techniques and

  18. Dark-matter QCD-axion searches.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Leslie J

    2015-10-06

    In the late 20th century, cosmology became a precision science. Now, at the beginning of the next century, the parameters describing how our universe evolved from the Big Bang are generally known to a few percent. One key parameter is the total mass density of the universe. Normal matter constitutes only a small fraction of the total mass density. Observations suggest this additional mass, the dark matter, is cold (that is, moving nonrelativistically in the early universe) and interacts feebly if at all with normal matter and radiation. There's no known such elementary particle, so the strong presumption is the dark matter consists of particle relics of a new kind left over from the Big Bang. One of the most important questions in science is the nature of this dark matter. One attractive particle dark-matter candidate is the axion. The axion is a hypothetical elementary particle arising in a simple and elegant extension to the standard model of particle physics that nulls otherwise observable CP-violating effects (where CP is the product of charge reversal C and parity inversion P) in quantum chromo dynamics (QCD). A light axion of mass 10(-(6-3)) eV (the invisible axion) would couple extraordinarily weakly to normal matter and radiation and would therefore be extremely difficult to detect in the laboratory. However, such an axion is a compelling dark-matter candidate and is therefore a target of a number of searches. Compared with other particle dark-matter candidates, the plausible range of axion dark-matter couplings and masses is narrowly constrained. This focused search range allows for definitive searches, where a nonobservation would seriously impugn the dark-matter QCD-axion hypothesis. Axion searches use a wide range of technologies, and the experiment sensitivities are now reaching likely dark-matter axion couplings and masses. This article is a selective overview of the current generation of sensitive axion searches. Not all techniques and experiments

  19. Dark-matter QCD-axion searches

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Leslie J

    2015-01-01

    In the late 20th century, cosmology became a precision science. Now, at the beginning of the next century, the parameters describing how our universe evolved from the Big Bang are generally known to a few percent. One key parameter is the total mass density of the universe. Normal matter constitutes only a small fraction of the total mass density. Observations suggest this additional mass, the dark matter, is cold (that is, moving nonrelativistically in the early universe) and interacts feebly if at all with normal matter and radiation. There’s no known such elementary particle, so the strong presumption is the dark matter consists of particle relics of a new kind left over from the Big Bang. One of the most important questions in science is the nature of this dark matter. One attractive particle dark-matter candidate is the axion. The axion is a hypothetical elementary particle arising in a simple and elegant extension to the standard model of particle physics that nulls otherwise observable CP-violating effects (where CP is the product of charge reversal C and parity inversion P) in quantum chromo dynamics (QCD). A light axion of mass 10−(6–3) eV (the invisible axion) would couple extraordinarily weakly to normal matter and radiation and would therefore be extremely difficult to detect in the laboratory. However, such an axion is a compelling dark-matter candidate and is therefore a target of a number of searches. Compared with other particle dark-matter candidates, the plausible range of axion dark-matter couplings and masses is narrowly constrained. This focused search range allows for definitive searches, where a nonobservation would seriously impugn the dark-matter QCD-axion hypothesis. Axion searches use a wide range of technologies, and the experiment sensitivities are now reaching likely dark-matter axion couplings and masses. This article is a selective overview of the current generation of sensitive axion searches. Not all techniques and

  20. Dark energy and extended dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.

    2012-03-01

    The cosmological mean matter (dark and baryonic) density measured in the units of the critical density is Ωm = 0.27. Independently, the local mean density is estimated to be Ωloc = 0.08-0.23 from recent data on galaxy groups at redshifts up to z = 0.01-0.03 (as published by Crook et al. 2007, ApJ, 655, 790 and Makarov & Karachentsev 2011, MNRAS, 412, 2498). If the lower values of Ωloc are reliable, as Makarov & Karachentsev and some other observers prefer, does this mean that the Local Universe of 100-300 Mpc across is an underdensity in the cosmic matter distribution? Or could it nevertheless be representative of the mean cosmic density or even be an overdensity due to the Local Supercluster therein. We focus on dark matter halos of groups of galaxies and check how much dark mass the invisible outer layers of the halos are able to host. The outer layers are usually devoid of bright galaxies and cannot be seen at large distances. The key factor which bounds the size of an isolated halo is the local antigravity produced by the omnipresent background of dark energy. A gravitationally bound halo does not extend beyond the zero-gravity surface where the gravity of matter and the antigravity of dark energy balance, thus defining a natural upper size of a system. We use our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy to estimate the maximal sizes and masses of the extended dark halos. Using data from three recent catalogs of galaxy groups, we show that the calculated mass bounds conform with the assumption that a significant amount of dark matter is located in the invisible outer parts of the extended halos, sufficient to fill the gap between the observed and expected local matter density. Nearby groups of galaxies and the Virgo cluster have dark halos which seem to extend up to their zero-gravity surfaces. If the extended halo is a common feature of gravitationally bound systems on scales of galaxy groups and clusters, the Local Universe could be typical or even

  1. DARK ADAPTATION IN DINEUTES

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Leonard B.

    1938-01-01

    The level of dark adaptation of the whirligig beetle can be measured in terms of the threshold intensity calling forth a response. The course of dark adaptation was determined at levels of light adaptation of 6.5, 91.6, and 6100 foot-candles. All data can be fitted by the same curve. This indicates that dark adaptation follows parts of the same course irrespective of the level of light adaptation. The intensity of the adapting light determines the level at which dark adaptation will begin. The relation between log aI0 (instantaneous threshold) and log of adapting light intensity is linear over the range studied. PMID:19873056

  2. Asymmetric Dark Matter and Dark Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias; Martinez, Enrique Fernandez; Mena, Olga; Redondo, Javier; Serra, Paolo E-mail: enfmarti@cern.ch E-mail: redondo@mppmu.mpg.de

    2012-07-01

    Asymmetric Dark Matter (ADM) models invoke a particle-antiparticle asymmetry, similar to the one observed in the Baryon sector, to account for the Dark Matter (DM) abundance. Both asymmetries are usually generated by the same mechanism and generally related, thus predicting DM masses around 5 GeV in order to obtain the correct density. The main challenge for successful models is to ensure efficient annihilation of the thermally produced symmetric component of such a light DM candidate without violating constraints from collider or direct searches. A common way to overcome this involves a light mediator, into which DM can efficiently annihilate and which subsequently decays into Standard Model particles. Here we explore the scenario where the light mediator decays instead into lighter degrees of freedom in the dark sector that act as radiation in the early Universe. While this assumption makes indirect DM searches challenging, it leads to signals of extra radiation at BBN and CMB. Under certain conditions, precise measurements of the number of relativistic species, such as those expected from the Planck satellite, can provide information on the structure of the dark sector. We also discuss the constraints of the interactions between DM and Dark Radiation from their imprint in the matter power spectrum.

  3. Polytropic dark matter flows illuminate dark energy and accelerated expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleidis, K.; Spyrou, N. K.

    2015-04-01

    Currently, a large amount of data implies that the matter constituents of the cosmological dark sector might be collisional. An attractive feature of such a possibility is that, it can reconcile dark matter (DM) and dark energy (DE) in terms of a single component, accommodated in the context of a polytropic-DM fluid. In fact, polytropic processes in a DM fluid have been most successfully used in modeling dark galactic haloes, thus significantly improving the velocity dispersion profiles of galaxies. Motivated by such results, we explore the time evolution and the dynamical characteristics of a spatially-flat cosmological model, in which, in principle, there is no DE at all. Instead, in this model, the DM itself possesses some sort of fluidlike properties, i.e., the fundamental units of the Universe matter-energy content are the volume elements of a DM fluid, performing polytropic flows. In this case, together with all the other physical characteristics, we also take the energy of this fluid's internal motions into account as a source of the universal gravitational field. This form of energy can compensate for the extra energy, needed to compromise spatial flatness, namely, to justify that, today, the total energy density parameter is exactly unity. The polytropic cosmological model, depends on only one free parameter, the corresponding (polytropic) exponent, Γ. We find this model particularly interesting, because for Γ ≤ 0.541, without the need for either any exotic DE or the cosmological constant, the conventional pressure becomes negative enough so that the Universe accelerates its expansion at cosmological redshifts below a transition value. In fact, several physical reasons, e.g., the cosmological requirement for cold DM (CDM) and a positive velocity-of-sound square, impose further constraints on the value of Γ, which is eventually settled down to the range -0.089 < Γ ≤ 0. This cosmological model does not suffer either from the age problem or from the

  4. FDA Throws Cold Water on Whole Body Cryotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163907.html FDA Throws Cold Water on Whole Body Cryotherapy Exposure to ultra-low temperatures shows no benefits ... There's no evidence that a growing trend called whole body cryotherapy is effective, but it does pose a number ...

  5. The Growing Human Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyfitz, Nathan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the issue of human population. Illustrates the projections of the growing human population in terms of developed and less developed countries. Describes the family planning programs in several countries. Lists three references for further reading. (YP)

  6. Apparatus for growing crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Thomas J. (Inventor); Witt, August F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for growing crystals from a melt employing a heat pipe, consisting of one or more sections, each section serving to control temperature and thermal gradients in the crystal as it forms inside the pipe.

  7. How Your Baby Grows

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Pregnancy week by week Pregnancy week by week Week by week Videos Swipe to advance Learn ... grows each week during pregnancy. Pick your week. Weeks 1-2 Conception (also called fertilization) usually happens ...

  8. Crop growing practices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter reviews the literature on two specific aspects of cotton growing practices; tillage management and nutrient management. Conservation tillage systems were developed to reduce soil erosion from agricultural fields. Besides this function, conservation tillage systems can improve the water ...

  9. The Growing Human Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyfitz, Nathan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the issue of human population. Illustrates the projections of the growing human population in terms of developed and less developed countries. Describes the family planning programs in several countries. Lists three references for further reading. (YP)

  10. Growing America's Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    The emerging U.S. bioenergy industry provides a secure and growing supply of transportation fuels, biopower, and bioproducts produced from a range of abundant, renewable biomass resources. Bioenergy can help ensure a secure, sustainable, and economically sound future by reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil, developing domestic clean energy sources, and generating domestic green jobs. Bioenergy can also help address growing concerns about climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to create a healthier environment for current and future generations.

  11. Galactic Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, Benjamin P.

    The precise phase-space distribution and properties of Galactic dark matter necessary for its direct and indirect detection are currently unknown. Since the distributions of normal and dark matter in the Milky Way are coupled to each other as they both move in the same gravitational potential, constraints on the distribution and properties of dark matter can be derived by studying the distribution of visible matter in the Galaxy and making some general assumptions regarding the phase-space distribution of the dark matter. In this study, the visible components of the Galaxy have been comprehensively reviewed to create an axisymmetric model of the Galaxy that is consistent with the available observations, and the dark matter phase-space distribution is assumed to follow a lowered-isothermal form. Poisson's equations are then solved self-consistently to construct models of the spatial and velocity distribution of Galactic dark matter. The total gravitational potential from normal and dark matter are calculated and compared to the current observations of the rotation curve and to the radial velocity distributions of blue horizontal-branch and blue straggler stars. It is found that this analysis allows for a wide range of parameters for the dark matter. The implications for direct and indirect detection of dark matter are discussed in detail. In the appendices, two additional projects are presented. In Appendix A, the recent observations of the positron fraction and the total electron spectrum in cosmic rays are addressed by considering a nested leaky-box model for the propagation of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. This is found to obviate the need for exotic processes such as the annihilation or decay of dark matter to explain the recent observations. In Appendix B, we discuss a novel dark matter detector involving triggered cavitation in acoustic fields. The theory behind the detector is presented in detail, and we discuss the work than has been done to create a prototype

  12. Investigation of the Strawberry Acute Cold Response through Transcriptome Sampling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria xananassa) is a valuable perennial crop, yet in most growing regions cold temperature stress can dramatically impinge on fresh fruit production. In the interest of long-term crop improvement it is important to understand the molecular response of strawberry to cold, a...

  13. Dark microglia: Why are they dark?

    PubMed Central

    Bisht, Kanchan; Sharma, Kaushik; Lacoste, Baptiste; Tremblay, Marie-Ève

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) we recently characterized a microglial phenotype that is induced by chronic stress, fractalkine receptor deficiency, aging, or Alzheimer disease pathology. These ‘dark’ microglia appear overly active compared with the normal microglia, reaching for synaptic clefts, and extensively engulfing pre-synaptic axon terminals and post-synaptic dendritic spines. From these findings we hypothesized that dark microglia could be specifically implicated in the pathological remodeling of neuronal circuits, which impairs learning, memory, and other essential cognitive functions. In the present addendum we further discuss about the possible causes of their dark appearance under TEM. PMID:28042375

  14. Ultra-Cold Atoms on Optical Lattices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Parag

    2009-01-01

    The field of ultra-cold atoms, since the achievement of Bose-Einstein Condensation (Anderson et al., 1995; Davis et al., 1995; Bradley et al., 1995), have seen an immensely growing interest over the past decade. With the creation of optical lattices, new possibilities of studying some of the widely used models in condensed matter have opened up.…

  15. Ultra-Cold Atoms on Optical Lattices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Parag

    2009-01-01

    The field of ultra-cold atoms, since the achievement of Bose-Einstein Condensation (Anderson et al., 1995; Davis et al., 1995; Bradley et al., 1995), have seen an immensely growing interest over the past decade. With the creation of optical lattices, new possibilities of studying some of the widely used models in condensed matter have opened up.…

  16. Effects of tidal gravitational fields in clustering dark energy models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Francesco; Reischke, Robert; Meyer, Sven; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2017-04-01

    We extend a previous work by Reischke et al. by studying the effects of tidal shear on clustering dark energy models within the framework of the extended spherical collapse model and using the Zel'dovich approximation. As in previous works on clustering dark energy, we assumed a vanishing effective sound speed describing the perturbations in dark energy models. To be self-consistent, our treatment is valid only on linear scales since we do not intend to introduce any heuristic models. This approach makes the linear overdensity δc mass dependent and similarly to the case of smooth dark energy, its effects are predominant at small masses and redshifts. Tidal shear has effects of the order of per cent or less, regardless of the model and preserves a well-known feature of clustering dark energy: When dark energy perturbations are included, the models resemble better the Lambda cold dark matter evolution of perturbations. We also showed that effects on the comoving number density of haloes are small and qualitatively and quantitatively in agreement with what were previously found for smooth dark energy models.

  17. Dark Energy, or Worse

    ScienceCinema

    Professor Sean Carroll

    2016-07-12

    General relativity is inconsistent with cosmological observations unless we invoke components of dark matter and dark energy that dominate the universe. While it seems likely that these exotic substances really do exist, the alternative is worth considering: that Einstein's general relativity breaks down on cosmological scales. I will discuss models of modified gravity, tests in the solar system and elsewhere, and consequences for cosmology.

  18. Working the Dark Edges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Environmentalism's wider and wilder possibilities today appear as regions of seeming darkness that bracket or frame acceptable environmental thinking. One of these barely-mentionable darknesses is outer space--the cosmos. Another is the inner and chthonic powers of the land and natural beings generally. This essay aims to bring these two kinds of…

  19. Dark Energy, or Worse

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Sean Carroll

    2006-11-13

    General relativity is inconsistent with cosmological observations unless we invoke components of dark matter and dark energy that dominate the universe. While it seems likely that these exotic substances really do exist, the alternative is worth considering: that Einstein's general relativity breaks down on cosmological scales. I will discuss models of modified gravity, tests in the solar system and elsewhere, and consequences for cosmology.

  20. Working the Dark Edges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Environmentalism's wider and wilder possibilities today appear as regions of seeming darkness that bracket or frame acceptable environmental thinking. One of these barely-mentionable darknesses is outer space--the cosmos. Another is the inner and chthonic powers of the land and natural beings generally. This essay aims to bring these two kinds of…

  1. Condensate dark matter stars

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.Y.; Harko, T.; Cheng, K.S. E-mail: harko@hkucc.hku.hk

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the structure and stability properties of compact astrophysical objects that may be formed from the Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter. Once the critical temperature of a boson gas is less than the critical temperature, a Bose-Einstein Condensation process can always take place during the cosmic history of the universe. Therefore we model the dark matter inside the star as a Bose-Einstein condensate. In the condensate dark matter star model, the dark matter equation of state can be described by a polytropic equation of state, with polytropic index equal to one. We derive the basic general relativistic equations describing the equilibrium structure of the condensate dark matter star with spherically symmetric static geometry. The structure equations of the condensate dark matter stars are studied numerically. The critical mass and radius of the dark matter star are given by M{sub crit} ≈ 2(l{sub a}/1fm){sup 1/2}(m{sub χ}/1 GeV){sup −3/2}M{sub s}un and R{sub crit} ≈ 1.1 × 10{sup 6}(l{sub a}/1 fm){sup 1/2}(m{sub χ}/1 GeV){sup −3/2} cm respectively, where l{sub a} and m{sub χ} are the scattering length and the mass of dark matter particle, respectively.

  2. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  3. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  4. Fingerprinting dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sapone, Domenico; Kunz, Martin

    2009-10-15

    Dark energy perturbations are normally either neglected or else included in a purely numerical way, obscuring their dependence on underlying parameters like the equation of state or the sound speed. However, while many different explanations for the dark energy can have the same equation of state, they usually differ in their perturbations so that these provide a fingerprint for distinguishing between different models with the same equation of state. In this paper we derive simple yet accurate approximations that are able to characterize a specific class of models (encompassing most scalar-field models) which is often generically called 'dark energy'. We then use the approximate solutions to look at the impact of the dark energy perturbations on the dark matter power spectrum and on the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  5. Dark cosmic rays

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Ping-Kai; Kusenko, Alexander; Takhistov, Volodymyr

    2017-02-22

    If dark matter particles have an electric charge, as in models of millicharged dark matter, such particles should be accelerated in the same astrophysical accelerators that produce ordinary cosmic rays, and their spectra should have a predictable rigidity dependence. Depending on the charge, the resulting “dark cosmic rays” can be detected as muon-like or neutrino-like events in Super-Kamiokande, IceCube, and other detectors. We present new limits and propose several new analyses, in particular, for the Super-Kamiokande experiment, which can probe a previously unexplored portion of the millicharged dark matter parameter space. Here, most of our results are fairly general andmore » apply to a broad class of dark matter models.« less

  6. Analysis of cold worked holes for structural life extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, David H.; Cutshall, Jon T.; Burnside, O. Hal; Cardinal, Joseph W.

    1994-01-01

    Cold working holes for improved fatigue life of fastener holes are widely used on aircraft. This paper presents methods used by the authors to determine the percent of cold working to be applied and to analyze fatigue crack growth of cold worked fastener holes. An elastic, perfectly-plastic analysis of a thick-walled tube is used to determine the stress field during the cold working process and the residual stress field after the process is completed. The results of the elastic/plastic analysis are used to determine the amount of cold working to apply to a hole. The residual stress field is then used to perform damage tolerance analysis of a crack growing out of a cold worked fastener hole. This analysis method is easily implemented in existing crack growth computer codes so that the cold worked holes can be used to extend the structural life of aircraft. Analytical results are compared to test data where appropriate.

  7. Dark-matter QCD-axion searches

    DOE PAGES

    Rosenberg, Leslie J.

    2015-01-12

    In the late 20th century, cosmology became a precision science. At the beginning of the next century, the parameters describing how our universe evolved from the Big Bang are generally known to a few percent. One key parameter is the total mass density of the universe. Normal matter constitutes only a small fraction of the total mass density. Observations suggest this additional mass, the dark matter, is cold (that is, moving nonrelativistically in the early universe) and interacts feebly if at all with normal matter and radiation. There’s no known such elementary particle, so the strong presumption is the darkmore » matter consists of particle relics of a new kind left over from the Big Bang. One of the most important questions in science is the nature of this dark matter. One attractive particle dark-matter candidate is the axion. The axion is a hypothetical elementary particle arising in a simple and elegant extension to the standard model of particle physics that nulls otherwise observable CP-violating effects (where CP is the product of charge reversal C and parity inversion P) in quantum chromo dynamics (QCD). A light axion of mass 10-(6–3) eV (the invisible axion) would couple extraordinarily weakly to normal matter and radiation and would therefore be extremely difficult to detect in the laboratory. But, such an axion is a compelling dark-matter candidate and is therefore a target of a number of searches. Compared with other particle dark-matter candidates, the plausible range of axion dark-matter couplings and masses is narrowly constrained. This focused search range allows for definitive searches, where a nonobservation would seriously impugn the dark-matter QCD-axion hypothesis. Axion searches use a wide range of technologies, and the experiment sensitivities are now reaching likely dark-matter axion couplings and masses. Our paper is a selective overview of the current generation of sensitive axion searches. Finally, not all techniques and

  8. Galaxy formation in an Omega = 1 cold dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardeen, James M.

    1986-01-01

    A model for galaxy formation is proposed which assumes that bright galaxies form where the primordial density fluctuations exceed a high threshold. Most of the mass in the universe is uncondensed or associated with low surface brightness galaxies. Physical mechanisms and predicitons for the galaxy-galaxy correlation function are discussed.

  9. Cold dark matter candidates and the solar neutrino problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, L. M.; Freese, K.; Spergel, D. N.; Press, W. H.

    1985-12-01

    Certain currently proposed weakly interacting elementary particles can have a high probability of solar capture if they make up the Galactic halo. Their present abundance in the sun is here determined by balancing capture rates against annihilation rates. Both particle physics and cosmological considerations impose constraints on scattering and annihilation cross sections. In general, for the candidate particles here discussed (massive neutrinos, supersymmetric scalar neutrinos, and photinos), the inferred solar abundances are too small by three to four orders of magnitude to solve the solar neutrino problem. Extreme fine tuning, marginally possible in the case of the photino, could increase solar abundances to a level where the neutrino signature would be affected. Otherwise, either a particle with a net cosmological asymmetry, or else a new mechanism for strengthening the existing Majorana suppression of s-wave annihilation at very low energies, would seem to be required.

  10. Galaxy formation in an Omega = 1 cold dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardeen, James M.

    1986-01-01

    A model for galaxy formation is proposed which assumes that bright galaxies form where the primordial density fluctuations exceed a high threshold. Most of the mass in the universe is uncondensed or associated with low surface brightness galaxies. Physical mechanisms and predicitons for the galaxy-galaxy correlation function are discussed.

  11. Cold dark matter searches at the Canfranc underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebrián, S.; García, E.; Gonzalez, D.; Irastorza, I. G.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Ortiz, A.; Peruzzi, A.; Puimedon, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Scopel, S.; Villar, J. A.

    2000-07-01

    An overview of the searches for weak interacting massive particles (WIMPs) through detection of their scattering off various target nuclei carried out in the Canfranc Tunnel Astroparticle Laboratory (at 675 and at 2450 metres of water equivalent (m.w.e.)) is given. The main experimental results both for conventional (COSME, IGEX and NaI-32) and for cryogenic detectors (ROSEBUD) are sketched, and a briefing on the forthcoming experiment ANAIS is also presented. The results of a solar axion search are also reported.

  12. Tuber starch amylose content is associated with cold-induced sweetening in potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cold induced sweetening (CIS) is the accumulation of reducing sugars in potato tubers due to cold storage. It is undesirable because it results in dark fry products. Potato varieties vary in resistance to CIS. Research efforts have focused on enzymes that contribute to the accumulation of reducing s...

  13. Exploring dark matter with Milky Way substructure.

    PubMed

    Kuhlen, Michael; Madau, Piero; Silk, Joseph

    2009-08-21

    The unambiguous detection of dark matter annihilation in our Galaxy would unravel one of the most outstanding puzzles in particle physics and cosmology. Recent observations have motivated models in which the annihilation rate is boosted by the Sommerfeld effect, a nonperturbative enhancement arising from a long-range attractive force. We applied the Sommerfeld correction to Via Lactea II, a high-resolution N-body simulation of a Milky Way-sized galaxy, to investigate the phase-space structure of the galactic halo. We found that the annihilation luminosity from kinematically cold substructure could be enhanced by orders of magnitude relative to previous calculations, leading to the prediction of gamma-ray fluxes from as many as several hundred dark clumps that should be detectable by the Fermi satellite.

  14. The Dark Age of the universe.

    PubMed

    Miralda-Escudé, Jordi

    2003-06-20

    The Dark Age is the period between the time when the cosmic microwave background was emitted and the time when the evolution of structure in the universe led to the gravitational collapse of objects, in which the first stars were formed. The period of reionization started with the ionizing light from the first stars, and it ended when all the atoms in the intergalactic medium had been reionized. The most distant sources of light known at present are galaxies and quasars at redshift z congruent with 6, and their spectra indicate that the end of reionization was occurring just at that time. The Cold Dark Matter theory for structure formation predicts that the first sources formed much earlier.

  15. Interacting vacuum energy in the dark sector

    SciTech Connect

    Chimento, L. P.; Carneiro, S.

    2015-03-26

    We analyse three cosmological scenarios with interaction in the dark sector, which are particular cases of a general expression for the energy flux from vacuum to matter. In the first case the interaction leads to a transition from an unstable de Sitter phase to a radiation dominated universe, avoiding in this way the initial singularity. In the second case the interaction gives rise to a slow-roll power-law inflation. Finally, the third scenario is a concordance model for the late-time universe, with the vacuum term decaying into cold dark matter. We identify the physics behind these forms of interaction and show that they can be described as particular types of the modified Chaplygin gas.

  16. Neutralino dark matter from heavy gravitino decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Jun'Ichi

    2005-10-01

    We propose a new scenario of nonthermal production of neutralino cold dark matter, in which the overproduction problem of lightest supersymmetric particles (LSPs) in the standard thermal history is naturally solved. The mechanism requires a heavy modulus field which decays mainly to ordinary particles releasing large entropy to dilute gravitinos produced just after inflation and thermal relics of LSPs. Significant amount of gravitinos are also pair-produced at the decay, which subsequently decay into the neutralinos. We identify the regions of the parameter space in which the requisite abundance of the neutralino dark matter is obtained without spoiling the big-bang nucleosynthesis by injection of hadronic showers from gravitino decay. The neutralino abundance obtained in this mechanism is insensitive to the details of the superparticle mass spectrum, unlike the standard thermal abundance. We also briefly mention the testability of the scenario in future experiments.

  17. Interacting vacuum energy in the dark sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimento, L. P.; Carneiro, S.

    2015-03-01

    We analyse three cosmological scenarios with interaction in the dark sector, which are particular cases of a general expression for the energy flux from vacuum to matter. In the first case the interaction leads to a transition from an unstable de Sitter phase to a radiation dominated universe, avoiding in this way the initial singularity. In the second case the interaction gives rise to a slow-roll power-law inflation. Finally, the third scenario is a concordance model for the late-time universe, with the vacuum term decaying into cold dark matter. We identify the physics behind these forms of interaction and show that they can be described as particular types of the modified Chaplygin gas.

  18. Mimicking dark matter in Horndeski gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano

    2017-06-01

    Since the rediscovery of Horndeski gravity, a lot of work has been devoted to the exploration of its properties, especially in the context of dark energy. However, one sector of this theory, namely the one containing the coupling of the Einstein tensor to the kinetic term of the scalar field, shows some surprising features in the construction of black holes and neutron stars. Motivated by these new results, I explore the possibility that this sector of Horndeski gravity can mimic cold dark matter at cosmological level and also explain the flattening of galactic rotation curves. I will show that, in principle, it is possible to achieve both goals with at least two scalar fields and a minimal set of assumptions.

  19. Cold Weather Pet Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... accordingly. You will probably need to shorten your dog’s walks in very cold weather to protect you ... slipping and falling. Long-haired or thick-coated dogs tend to be more cold-tolerant, but are ...

  20. Cold and Cough Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  1. Vitamin C and colds

    MedlinePlus

    ... belief is that vitamin C can cure the common cold . However, research about this claim is conflicting. Although ... Fashner J, Ericson K, Werner S. Treatment of the common cold in children and adults. Am Fam Physician. 2012; ...

  2. Cold medicines and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... aspx . Accessed July 26, 2016. Cherry JD. The common cold. In: Cherry JD, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinbach ... 2014:chap 7. Miller EK, Williams JV. The common cold. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, ...

  3. Skin Reactions to Cold

    PubMed Central

    Talpash, Orest

    1976-01-01

    Although skin reactions to cold are seen surprisingly infrequently in Canada, it is important to manage them correctly when they do occur. Frostbite, cold urticarias, Raynaud's disease and phenomenon, and several miscellaneous changes are discussed. PMID:21308019

  4. Cold knife cone biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... biopsy; Pap smear - cone biopsy; HPV - cone biopsy; Human papilloma virus - cone biopsy; Cervix - cone biopsy; Colposcopy - cone biopsy Images Female reproductive anatomy Cold cone biopsy Cold cone removal References American ...

  5. Plant adaptation to cold climates

    PubMed Central

    Körner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In this short review, I will first summarize criteria by which environments can be considered “cold”, with plant stature (size, height above ground) playing a central role for the climate actually experienced. Plants adapted to such environments have to cope with both extremes and with gradual influences of low temperature. The first requires freezing resistance, which is tightly coupled to developmental state (phenology) and prehistory (acclimation). Gradual low temperature constraints affect the growth process (meristems) long before they affect photosynthetic carbon gain. Hence, plants growing in cold climates are commonly not carbon limited. PMID:27990251

  6. Temporal heterogeneity of cold acclimation phenotypes in Arabidopsis leaves.

    PubMed

    Gorsuch, Peter A; Pandey, Subedar; Atkin, Owen K

    2010-02-01

    To predict the effects of temperature changes on plant growth and performance, it is crucial to understand the impact of thermal history on leaf morphology, anatomy and physiology. Here, we document a comprehensive range of leaf phenotypes in 25/20 degrees C-grown Arabidopsis thaliana plants that were shifted to 5 degrees C for up to 2 months. When warm-grown, pre-existing (PE) leaves were exposed to cold, leaf thickness increased due to an increase in mesophyll cell size. Leaves that were entirely cold-developed (CD) were twice as thick (eight cell layers) as their warm-developed (WD) counterparts (six layers), and also had higher epidermal and stomatal cell densities. After 4 d of cold, PE leaves accumulated high levels of total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC). However, glucose and starch levels declined thereafter, and after 45 d in the cold, PE leaves exhibited similar TNC to CD leaves. A similar phenomenon was observed in delta(13)C and a range of photosynthetic parameters. In cold-treated PE leaves, an increase in respiration (R(dark)) with cold exposure time was evident when measured at 25 degrees C but not 5 degrees C. Cold acclimation was associated with a large increase in the ratio of leaf R(dark) to photosynthesis. The data highlight the importance of understanding developmental thermal history in determining individual phenotypic traits.

  7. Grow your own fuelwood

    SciTech Connect

    Moll, G.

    1984-11-01

    The 14th article in a ''how-to'' series describes how to grow and harvest fuelwood. Several species of fast-growing trees, notably hybrid poplars, are available, although there is a wide range in heat values among species. The author explains how to assess available resources, how to start a fuelwood plantation, how to harvest cuttings and sprouts, how to maintain yard trees, and how to cut and stack a wood pile. He also cautions against thoughtless practices that can damage a woodlot. 5 figures, 1 table.

  8. Dark matter maps reveal cosmic scaffolding.

    PubMed

    Massey, Richard; Rhodes, Jason; Ellis, Richard; Scoville, Nick; Leauthaud, Alexie; Finoguenov, Alexis; Capak, Peter; Bacon, David; Aussel, Hervé; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Koekemoer, Anton; McCracken, Henry; Mobasher, Bahram; Pires, Sandrine; Refregier, Alexandre; Sasaki, Shunji; Starck, Jean-Luc; Taniguchi, Yoshi; Taylor, Andy; Taylor, James

    2007-01-18

    Ordinary baryonic particles (such as protons and neutrons) account for only one-sixth of the total matter in the Universe. The remainder is a mysterious 'dark matter' component, which does not interact via electromagnetism and thus neither emits nor reflects light. As dark matter cannot be seen directly using traditional observations, very little is currently known about its properties. It does interact via gravity, and is most effectively probed through gravitational lensing: the deflection of light from distant galaxies by the gravitational attraction of foreground mass concentrations. This is a purely geometrical effect that is free of astrophysical assumptions and sensitive to all matter--whether baryonic or dark. Here we show high-fidelity maps of the large-scale distribution of dark matter, resolved in both angle and depth. We find a loose network of filaments, growing over time, which intersect in massive structures at the locations of clusters of galaxies. Our results are consistent with predictions of gravitationally induced structure formation, in which the initial, smooth distribution of dark matter collapses into filaments then into clusters, forming a gravitational scaffold into which gas can accumulate, and stars can be built.

  9. Non-virialized clusters for detection of dark energy-dark matter interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Delliou, M.; Marcondes, R. J. F.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Abdalla, E.

    2015-10-01

    The observation of galaxy and gas distributions, as well as cosmological simulations in a ΛCDM cold dark matter universe, suggests that clusters of galaxies are still accreting mass and are not expected to be in equilibrium. In this work, we investigate the possibility to evaluate the departure from virial equilibrium in order to detect, in that balance, effects from a dark matter-dark energy interaction. We continue, from previous works, using a simple model of interacting dark sector, the Layzer-Irvine equation for dynamical virial evolution, and employ optical observations in order to obtain the mass profiles through weak-lensing and X-ray observations giving the intracluster gas temperatures. Through a Monte Carlo method, we generate, for a set of clusters, measurements of observed virial ratios, interaction strength, rest virial ratio and departure from equilibrium factors. We found a compounded interaction strength of -1.99^{+2.56}_{-16.00}, compatible with no interaction, but also a compounded rest virial ratio of -0.79 ± 0.13, which would entail a 2σ detection. We confirm quantitatively that clusters of galaxies are out of equilibrium but further investigation is needed to constrain a possible interaction in the dark sector.

  10. Characterizing convective cold pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drager, Aryeh J.; van den Heever, Susan C.

    2017-06-01

    Cold pools produced by convective storms play an important role in Earth's climate system. However, a common framework does not exist for objectively identifying convective cold pools in observations and models. The present study investigates convective cold pools within a simulation of tropical continental convection that uses a cloud-resolving model with a coupled land-surface model. Multiple variables are assessed for their potential in identifying convective cold pool boundaries, and a novel technique is developed and tested for identifying and tracking cold pools in numerical model simulations. This algorithm is based on surface rainfall rates and radial gradients in the density potential temperature field. The algorithm successfully identifies near-surface cold pool boundaries and is able to distinguish between connected cold pools. Once cold pools have been identified and tracked, composites of cold pool evolution are then constructed, and average cold pool properties are investigated. Wet patches are found to develop within the centers of cold pools where the ground has been soaked with rainwater. These wet patches help to maintain cool surface temperatures and reduce cold pool dissipation, which has implications for the development of subsequent convection.

  11. The common cold.

    PubMed

    2009-02-01

    1) Most colds are due to viruses and resolve spontaneously after a few days. Available drugs do not modify the course of a viral cold; 2) Some drugs used to treat colds carry a risk of serious adverse effects. This includes nasal sprays, especially vasoconstrictors such as pseudo-ephedrine and, in young children, menthol, camphor, and terpene derivatives.

  12. Coping with Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... found inside the mouth.) What Causes Cold Sores? Cold sores are caused by a virus called herpes (say: HUR-peez). Herpes is one ... the world. The medical name for the specific virus that causes cold sores is herpes simplex. There are two types ...

  13. Resurrection of neutrinos as dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.

    1986-05-01

    It is shown that new observations of large scale structure in the universe (voids, foam, and large-scale velocity fields) are best understood if the dominant matter of the universe is in the form of massive (9eV less than or equal to m/sub nu/ less than or equal to 35 eV) neutrinos. Cold dark matter, even with biasing, seems unable to duplicate the combination of these observations (although a fine-tuned loophole with cold matter and percolated explosions may also marginally work.) The previous fatal problems of galaxy formation with neutrinos can be remedied by combining them with either cosmic strings or explosive galaxy formation. The former naturally gives the scale-free correlation function for galaxies, clusters, and superclusters, and gives large, but not necessarily spherical voids. The latter naturally gives spherical voids, but requires fine tuning and percolation to get the large scales and the scale-free correlation function. 39 refs.

  14. An antenna for directional detection of WISPy dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeckel, Joerg; Redondo, Javier E-mail: redondo@mpp.mpg.de

    2013-11-01

    It is an intriguing possibility that the cold dark matter of the Universe may consist of very light and very weakly interacting particles such as axion(-like particles) and hidden photons. This opens up (but also requires) new techniques for direct detection. One possibility is to use reflecting surfaces to facilitate the conversion of dark matter into photons, which can be concentrated in a detector with a suitable geometry. In this note we show that this technique also allows for directional detection and inference of the full vectorial velocity spectrum of the dark matter particles. We also note that the non-vanishing velocity of dark matter particles is relevant for the conception of (non-directional) discovery experiments and outline relevant features.

  15. Significant gamma lines from inert Higgs dark matter.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Michael; Lundström, Erik; Bergström, Lars; Edsjö, Joakim

    2007-07-27

    One way to unambiguously confirm the existence of particle dark matter and determine its mass would be to detect its annihilation into monochromatic gamma-rays in upcoming telescopes. One of the most minimal models for dark matter is the inert doublet model, obtained by adding another Higgs doublet with no direct coupling to fermions. For a mass between 40 and 80 GeV, the lightest of the new inert Higgs particles can give the correct cosmic abundance of cold dark matter in agreement with current observations. We show that for this scalar dark matter candidate, the annihilation signal of monochromatic gammagamma and Zgamma final states would be exceptionally strong. The energy range and rates for these gamma-ray line signals make them ideal to search for with the soon upcoming GLAST satellite.

  16. Dark matter decaying into a Fermi sea of neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjælde, Ole Eggers; Das, Subinoy

    2010-08-01

    We study the possible decay of a coherently oscillating scalar field, interpreted as dark matter, into light fermions. Specifically, we consider a scalar field with sub-eV mass decaying into a Fermi sea of neutrinos. We recognize the similarity between our scenario and inflationary preheating where a coherently oscillating scalar field decays into standard model particles. Like the case of fermionic preheating, we find that Pauli blocking controls the dark matter decay into the neutrino sea. The radius of the Fermi sphere depends on the expansion of the universe leading to a time varying equation of state of dark matter. This makes the scenario very rich and we show that the decay rate might be different at different cosmological epochs. We categorize this in two interesting regimes and then study the cosmological perturbations to find the impact on structure formation. We find that the decay may help in alleviating some of the standard problems related to cold dark matter.

  17. Pseudoscalar portal dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlin, Asher; Gori, Stefania; Lin, Tongyan; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2015-07-01

    A fermion dark matter candidate with a relic abundance set by annihilation through a pseudoscalar can evade constraints from direct detection experiments. We present simplified models that realize this fact by coupling a fermion dark sector to a two-Higgs doublet model. These models are generalizations of mixed bino-Higgsino dark matter in the minimal supersymmetric standard model, with more freedom in the couplings and scalar spectra. Annihilation near a pseudoscalar resonance allows a significant amount of parameter space for thermal relic dark matter compared to singlet-doublet dark matter, in which the fermions couple only to the standard model (SM) Higgs doublet. In a general two-Higgs doublet model, there is also freedom for the pseudoscalar to be relatively light and it is possible to obtain thermal relic dark matter candidates even below 100 GeV. In particular, we find ample room to obtain dark matter with mass around 50 GeV and fitting the Galactic center excess in gamma-rays. This region of parameter space can be probed by LHC searches for heavy pseudoscalars or electroweakinos, and possibly by other new collider signals.

  18. Exothermic dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Peter W.; Saraswat, Prashant; Harnik, Roni; Rajendran, Surjeet

    2010-09-15

    We propose a novel mechanism for dark matter to explain the observed annual modulation signal at DAMA/LIBRA which avoids existing constraints from every other dark matter direct detection experiment including CRESST, CDMS, and XENON10. The dark matter consists of at least two light states with mass {approx}few GeV and splittings {approx}5 keV. It is natural for the heavier states to be cosmologically long-lived and to make up an O(1) fraction of the dark matter. Direct detection rates are dominated by the exothermic reactions in which an excited dark matter state downscatters off of a nucleus, becoming a lower energy state. In contrast to (endothermic) inelastic dark matter, the most sensitive experiments for exothermic dark matter are those with light nuclei and low threshold energies. Interestingly, this model can also naturally account for the observed low-energy events at CoGeNT. The only significant constraint on the model arises from the DAMA/LIBRA unmodulated spectrum but it can be tested in the near future by a low-threshold analysis of CDMS-Si and possibly other experiments including CRESST, COUPP, and XENON100.

  19. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised ... syrup is sometimes diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines ...

  20. Testing the interaction between dark energy and dark matter with H(z) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Pan; Li, Li; Shuo, Cao; Na-na, Pan; Yi, Zhang; Zi-xuan, Hu

    2016-04-01

    With the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, we constrain an interactive dark energy model by combing the up-to-date observational data of Hubble parameter H(z) with the 7-year baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) data, and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) data observed by the Planck satellite. Under the joint constraint of the three kinds of data, the best-fit values of the model parameters and their 1-σ errors are obtained as follows: the energy density Ωm =0.266-0.028+0.028 (1 σ) , the interaction factor γ =0.090-0.098+0.100 (1 σ) , the parameter of state equation of dark matter wX = -1.307-0.269+0.263 (1 σ) , and the Hubble Constant H0 =7420-4.56+4.66 (1 σ) , where the coupling parameter γ > 0 means that the energy is transferred from dark matter to dark energy, and the coincidence problem in the Lambda-Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) model is slightly alleviated in the 1σ range. For comparisons, we constrain the same model with the BAO+CMB observations and H(z) data separately. The results are as follows: (1) The H(z) data could put stricter constraint on the parameter γ than the BAO+CMB observations. (2) The ΛCDM model is best fitted, and the coupling parameter γ is correlated with parameters Ωm and H0. (3) The inconsistency of the constraint results of H0 between the local distance ladder measurements and the Planck observations can be alleviated after taking account of the interaction between dark energy and dark matter.