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Sample records for growth contemporary

  1. Transportation technology transitions and macroeconomic growth -- Contemporary evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents international and temporal extensions of evidence for a theory developed by the author concerning the interaction of transportation technology transitions and macroeconomic growth. The period 1970 to the present is examined for the nations of Japan, the US, and Europe (France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom collectively). An addition to the abstract logic supporting the general arguments of the theory is also presented. The theory has been developed concerning the role of significant transportation technology transitions as a cause of significant macroeconomic declines in nations for which the manufacture of transportation vehicles (ships, locomotives, and automobiles) is a dominant economic activity. The theory offers an explanation for periods of pronounced multiyear decline in economic growth rate--sometimes called depressions and sometimes called stagnations. One purpose of this paper is to explore whether or not Japan and Europe have each recently experienced a multiyear event of this type. In the theory and the evidence presented for it, environmental regulation of transportation vehicles has been shown to be an initiating cause of significant technical change, with sharp, sustained fuel price increases being a second frequent initiating cause. These causes of significant technical change, and their possible consequences, are potentially important considerations for those proposing policies to deal with global warming, since both fuel economy regulation and fuel price increases have been recommended by policy analysts as means to reduce transportation`s contribution to global warming. The theory has been offered and supported by publications developing mathematical models and examining US historical evidence consistent with the theory.

  2. Contemporary evolution of plant growth rate following experimental removal of herbivores.

    PubMed

    Turley, Nash E; Odell, Walter C; Schaefer, Hanno; Everwand, Georg; Crawley, Michael J; Johnson, Marc T J

    2013-05-01

    Herbivores are credited with driving the evolutionary diversification of plant defensive strategies over macroevolutionary time. For this to be true, herbivores must also cause short-term evolution within plant populations, but few studies have experimentally tested this prediction. We addressed this gap using a long-term manipulative field experiment where exclosures protected 22 plant populations from natural rabbit herbivory for <1 to 26 years. We collected seeds of Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae) from our plots and grew them in a common greenhouse environment to quantify evolved differences among populations in individual plant growth rate, tolerance to herbivory, competitive ability, and the concentration of secondary metabolites (tannins and oxalate) implicated in defense against herbivores. In 26 years without rabbit herbivory, plant growth rate decreased linearly by 30%. We argue that plant growth rate has evolved as a defense against intense rabbit herbivory. In contrast, we found no change in tolerance to herbivory or concentrations of secondary metabolites. We also found no change in competitive ability, suggesting that contemporary evolution may not feed back to alter ecological interactions within this plant community. Our results combined with those of other studies show that the evolution of gross morphological traits such as growth rate in response to herbivory may be common, which calls into question assumptions about some of the most popular theories of plant defense.

  3. A contemporary description of French newborns' growth using the Efemeris cohort.

    PubMed

    Beau, A-B; Tauber, M; Chollet, C; Hurault-Delarue, C; Bouilhac, C; Montastruc, J-L; Lacroix, I; Damase-Michel, C

    2017-05-01

    Overweight and obesity in childhood are a major concern in developed countries. Reference growth curves are used in current practice to identify children at risk, especially at risk of overweight or obesity. National reference growth curves were published 35 years ago from children born in the 1950s to study growth from birth to adulthood. Additionally, more recent national curves exist to study birth weight and height according to gestational age. The primary objective was to describe anthropometric measurements of French children born in the 2000s and to compare them with the French references. The secondary objective was to describe overweight indicators during infancy. A total of 77,315 singletons live-born from 1 July 2004 to 31 December 2013 recorded in the Efemeris (a French cohort of women and their children) were included. The z-score means based on the French references for weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) at birth, 9 months, and 24 months were calculated. At birth, the weight and height of the cohort did not deviate from the recent French references taking into account gestational age. At 9 and 24 months, the cohort was between 0.12 and 0.39 standard deviations (SD) heavier and between 0.70 and 0.97 SD taller than the old French reference population. Between 0 and 2 years, 28.6% of the children underwent a rapid weight gain (change in SD scores>0.67). The prevalence of overweight at 2 years was between 5 and 6% using the International obesity task force (IOTF) references. The distributions of the height, weight, and BMI during early childhood differ from those of children in the national growth references. Contemporary children at 2 years are taller and heavier than children born in the 1950s. Approximately one in 20 children is overweight at 2 years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Cultural Complexity That Affects Young Children's Contemporary Growth, Change, and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyun, Eunsook

    Based on the view that the group orientation to multicultural education reinforces group stereotyping and seldom allows acknowledgement of diverse children's unique capabilities and differences or helps children build self-identity while learning to appreciate others, this paper presents and discusses contemporary cultures of young children's…

  5. The problem of population and growth: a review of the literature from Malthus to contemporary models of endogenous population and endogenous growth.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, I; Lui, F

    1997-01-01

    This review traces the evolution of literature on population and economic growth through the main paradigms suggested to explain the observed covariation of per capita income and population levels (or their rates of growth) over time and space, and determine which public policies will improve the human condition. As the main paradigms evolved, key variables were progressively treated as endogenous (instead of exogenous) to the growth process. After the introduction, section 2 looks at the "classical model" of Malthusian population theory and its refinements. Section 3 identifies empirical data that bears on the secular and cross-sectional association between levels of rates of growth of population and per capita income. The inconsistency of these data with the classical model helps explain declining interest in this model over time and increased interest in a more systematic type of population and growth theory. The beginning of this new interest is traced in section 4 with a look at the "neo-classical growth model" and the reformulated theory of population, which was based on Becker's work on fertility behavior. The first line of inquiry branching from these theoretical works (section 5) treats population as an endogenous variable in static and dynamic settings. The second line of inquiry (section 6) analyzes population and growth within a unified model of growth and development. In section 7, recent studies of key policy issues (population control policies, mandatory social security schemes) are surveyed. The concluding section notes that contemporary research must face the challenge of providing additional insights into longevity as an aspect of economic growth and development and of developing a model of endogenous population and economic growth based on heterogeneous agents.

  6. Environmental influences on human growth and development: historical review and case study of contemporary influences.

    PubMed

    Schell, Lawrence M; Gallo, Mia V; Ravenscroft, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 100 years, the study of environmental influences on human physical growth and development has focused on the influences of social and economic factors; family and household characteristics; urbanization/modernization; nutrition; and features of the physical environment such as altitude, temperature and climate. Continuing in this tradition are current investigations into the roles of pollutants and other aspects of the human-made environment in affecting patterns of human growth and development, specifically the timing of sexual maturation and the development of obesity. Some of the methodological problems in conducting such studies are presented, as are results from an ongoing investigation among one Native American community that show relationships of pollutants to sexual maturation, overweight/obesity and thyroid system function which can impact growth and maturation.

  7. Production, reproduction, health, and growth traits in backcross Holstein × Jersey cows and their Holstein contemporaries.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, D W; Weigel, K A; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Coblentz, W K; Halbach, T J

    2011-10-01

    A total of 648 purebred Holstein and 319 backcross Holstein × Jersey dairy cattle were compared for production, reproduction, health, linear type, and growth traits. Animals were born between 2003 and 2009 and were housed in the University of Wisconsin-Madison Integrated Dairy Facility. All animals had Holstein dams; lactating dams were mated to unproven Holstein sires to produce purebred (control) Holsteins or to unproven F(1) Jersey × Holstein crossbred sires to produce backcross animals, whereas nulliparous dams were mated to proven Holstein sires to produce purebred (other) Holsteins. Traits were analyzed using mixed linear models with effects of season of birth, age of dam, sire, birth year of sire, days in milk, lactation, and linear type score evaluator. Control Holsteins had greater 305-d milk yield (12,645 vs. 11,456 kg), 305-d mature equivalent milk yield (13,420 vs. 12,180 kg), peak daily milk yield (49.5 vs. 46.4 kg), total lactation milk yield (11,556 vs. 10,796 kg), and daily fat-corrected milk yield (43 vs. 40 kg) compared with backcrosses. Days open and services per conception as a heifer or cow did not differ between control Holsteins, other Holsteins, or backcrosses. The proportion of first-parity births that required assistance was less in control Holsteins than in backcross cows (3.7 vs. 11.2%). The incidence of scours or respiratory problems in calves did not differ between control Holsteins, other Holsteins, and backcrosses, nor did the incidence of mastitis, injury, or feet problems. Control Holstein heifers were heavier (629 vs. 557 kg), with greater hip height (145 vs. 139 cm), body length (167 vs. 163 cm), heart girth (205 vs. 198 cm), and hip width (54 vs. 53 cm) at 22 mo of age. On a 50-point scale for linear type traits, Holsteins were larger in stature compared with backcrosses (41 vs. 28), had wider rumps (37 vs. 33), and wider rear udders (34 vs. 32). Results of this study suggest that backcross Holstein × Jersey cattle have

  8. Contemporary Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Gilbert, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue of "InSEA News" focuses on contemporary technology and art education. The articles are: "International Travel and Contemporary Technology" (Gilbert Clark); "Recollections and Visions for Electronic Computing in Art Education" (Guy Hubbard); "Using Technologies in Art Education: A Review of…

  9. Contemporary reliance on bicarbonate acquisition predicts increased growth of seagrass Amphibolis antarctica in a high-CO2 world.

    PubMed

    Burnell, Owen W; Connell, Sean D; Irving, Andrew D; Watling, Jennifer R; Russell, Bayden D

    2014-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 is increasing the availability of dissolved CO2 in the ocean relative to HCO3 (-). Currently, many marine primary producers use HCO3 (-) for photosynthesis, but this is energetically costly. Increasing passive CO2 uptake relative to HCO3 (-) pathways could provide energy savings, leading to increased productivity and growth of marine plants. Inorganic carbon-uptake mechanisms in the seagrass Amphibolis antarctica were determined using the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (AZ) and the buffer tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (TRIS). Amphibolis antarctica seedlings were also maintained in current and forecasted CO2 concentrations to measure their physiology and growth. Photosynthesis of A. antarctica was significantly reduced by AZ and TRIS, indicating utilization of HCO3 (-)-uptake mechanisms. When acclimated plants were switched between CO2 treatments, the photosynthetic rate was dependent on measurement conditions but not growth conditions, indicating a dynamic response to changes in dissolved CO2 concentration, rather than lasting effects of acclimation. At forecast CO2 concentrations, seedlings had a greater maximum electron transport rate (1.4-fold), photosynthesis (2.1-fold), below-ground biomass (1.7-fold) and increase in leaf number (2-fold) relative to plants in the current CO2 concentration. The greater increase in photosynthesis (measured as O2 production) compared with the electron transport rate at forecasted CO2 concentration suggests that photosynthetic efficiency increased, possibly due to a decrease in photorespiration. Thus, it appears that the photosynthesis and growth of seagrasses reliant on energetically costly HCO3 (-) acquisition, such as A. antarctica, might increase at forecasted CO2 concentrations. Greater growth might enhance the future prosperity and rehabilitation of these important habitat-forming plants, which have experienced declines of global significance.

  10. Contemporary reliance on bicarbonate acquisition predicts increased growth of seagrass Amphibolis antarctica in a high-CO2 world

    PubMed Central

    Burnell, Owen W.; Connell, Sean D.; Irving, Andrew D.; Watling, Jennifer R.; Russell, Bayden D.

    2014-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 is increasing the availability of dissolved CO2 in the ocean relative to HCO3−. Currently, many marine primary producers use HCO3− for photosynthesis, but this is energetically costly. Increasing passive CO2 uptake relative to HCO3− pathways could provide energy savings, leading to increased productivity and growth of marine plants. Inorganic carbon-uptake mechanisms in the seagrass Amphibolis antarctica were determined using the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide (AZ) and the buffer tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (TRIS). Amphibolis antarctica seedlings were also maintained in current and forecasted CO2 concentrations to measure their physiology and growth. Photosynthesis of A. antarctica was significantly reduced by AZ and TRIS, indicating utilization of HCO3−-uptake mechanisms. When acclimated plants were switched between CO2 treatments, the photosynthetic rate was dependent on measurement conditions but not growth conditions, indicating a dynamic response to changes in dissolved CO2 concentration, rather than lasting effects of acclimation. At forecast CO2 concentrations, seedlings had a greater maximum electron transport rate (1.4-fold), photosynthesis (2.1-fold), below-ground biomass (1.7-fold) and increase in leaf number (2-fold) relative to plants in the current CO2 concentration. The greater increase in photosynthesis (measured as O2 production) compared with the electron transport rate at forecasted CO2 concentration suggests that photosynthetic efficiency increased, possibly due to a decrease in photorespiration. Thus, it appears that the photosynthesis and growth of seagrasses reliant on energetically costly HCO3− acquisition, such as A. antarctica, might increase at forecasted CO2 concentrations. Greater growth might enhance the future prosperity and rehabilitation of these important habitat-forming plants, which have experienced declines of global significance. PMID:27293673

  11. Currents in Contemporary Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Ruby

    Several of the important themes of post-World War II English, French, and German drama are analyzed in this book. The first chapter briefly examines the major contemporary playwrights in each national literature. Subsequent chapters discuss contemporary drama as an expression of Artaud's "theatre of cruelty," its relationship to the changing…

  12. Currents in Contemporary Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Ruby

    Several of the important themes of post-World War II English, French, and German drama are analyzed in this book. The first chapter briefly examines the major contemporary playwrights in each national literature. Subsequent chapters discuss contemporary drama as an expression of Artaud's "theatre of cruelty," its relationship to the changing…

  13. Teaching Contemporary Italian Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivelli, Remo J.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a workshop offered at the Middlebury College Italian School on contemporary Italy. The morning sessions consisted of a discussion by a native Italian scholar of contemporary Italy and of related readings and the afternoon sessions consisted of readings and discussions and hands-on activities in lesson preparation. (SED)

  14. Cloned cattle fetuses with the same nuclear genetics are more variable than contemporary half-siblings resulting from artificial insemination and exhibit fetal and placental growth deregulation even in the first trimester.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rita S F; Peterson, A James; Donnison, Martyn J; Ravelich, Susan; Ledgard, Anita M; Li, Ning; Oliver, Jan E; Miller, Andria L; Tucker, Fleur C; Breier, Bernhard; Wells, David N

    2004-01-01

    The cloning of cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) is associated with a high incidence of abnormal placentation, excessive fluid accumulation in the fetal sacs (hydrops syndrome), and fetal overgrowth. Fetal and placental development was investigated at Day 50, during placentome formation; at Day 100, when placentation was completed; and at Day 150, when the hydrops syndrome frequently develops. The NT fetuses were compared with contemporary half-siblings generated from in vitro-produced embryos or by artificial insemination (AI). Fetal cotyledon formation and vascularization of the chorioallantoic membranes was initiated normally in NT conceptuses, but fewer cotyledons successfully formed placentomes. By Day 100, the mean number of placentomes was significantly lower in surviving NT fetuses. Only those with normal placentome numbers were represented in surviving NT pregnancies at Day 150. The mean total caruncle tissue weight of the placentomes was significantly higher in the surviving NT groups at Days 100 and 150, irrespective of the placentome numbers, indicating that increased NT placental weight was caused by excessive uterine tissue growth. By Day 100, NT fetuses exhibited growth deregulation, and those that survived to Day 150 were 17% heavier than contemporary AI controls. Placentome, liver, and kidney overgrowth accompanied the hydrops syndrome at Day 150. The NT fetal overgrowth was not a consequence of in vitro embryo culture and showed no correlation with placental overgrowth. However, in vitro culture and incomplete reprogramming of the donor genome are epigenetic effects that may override genetic traits and contribute to the greater variability in placental and fetal development in the NT group compared with AI half-siblings.

  15. Contemporary Radical Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Howard J.

    1984-01-01

    The origins of contemporary radical economics are examined. Applications of radical economics to price and value theory, labor segmentation theory, business cycles, industrial organization, government and business, imperialism and development, and comparative systems are reviewed. (Author/RM)

  16. Contemporary Radical Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Howard J.

    1984-01-01

    The origins of contemporary radical economics are examined. Applications of radical economics to price and value theory, labor segmentation theory, business cycles, industrial organization, government and business, imperialism and development, and comparative systems are reviewed. (Author/RM)

  17. Contemporary Obstetric Triage.

    PubMed

    Sandy, Edward Allen; Kaminski, Robert; Simhan, Hygriv; Beigi, Richard

    2016-03-01

    The role of obstetric triage in the care of pregnant women has expanded significantly. Factors driving this change include the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act, improved methods of testing for fetal well-being, increasing litigation risk, and changes in resident duty hour guidelines. The contemporary obstetric triage facility must have processes in place to provide a medical screening examination that complies with regulatory statues while considering both the facility's maternal level of care and available resources. This review examines the history of the development of obstetric triage, current considerations in a contemporary obstetric triage paradigm, and future areas for consideration. An example of a contemporary obstetric triage program at an academic medical center is presented. A successful contemporary obstetric triage paradigm is one that addresses the questions of "sick or not sick" and "labor or no labor," for every obstetric patient that presents for care. Failure to do so risks poor patient outcome, poor patient satisfaction, adverse litigation outcome, regulatory scrutiny, and exclusion from federal payment programs. Understanding the role of contemporary obstetric triage in the current health care environment is important for both providers and health care leadership. This study is for obstetricians and gynecologists as well as family physicians. After completing this activity, the learner should be better able to understand the scope of a medical screening examination within the context of contemporary obstetric triage; understand how a facility's level of maternal care influences clinical decision making in a contemporary obstetric triage setting; and understand the considerations necessary for the systematic evaluation of the 2 basic contemporary obstetric questions, "sick or not sick?" and "labor or no labor?"

  18. Symposium on Contemporary Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David A.; Graff, Gerald; Nelson, Cary

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss contemporary challenges. David Berry offers advice on teaching the humanities at a community college; Gerald Graff examines how the traditional organization of universities undermines student learning; and Cary Nelson considers the effects on the humanities of the increasing reliance on contingent faculty.

  19. Contemporary Imagemaker Expressing Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Sandy

    1994-01-01

    Profiles the career of Larry McNeil, Tlingit photographer and professor at the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, New Mexico. As with his own work, McNeil teaches his students that the fundamental task of image making is to raise questions concerning the portrayal of contemporary Native Americans. (LP)

  20. Contemporary Imagemaker Expressing Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Sandy

    1994-01-01

    Profiles the career of Larry McNeil, Tlingit photographer and professor at the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, New Mexico. As with his own work, McNeil teaches his students that the fundamental task of image making is to raise questions concerning the portrayal of contemporary Native Americans. (LP)

  1. Contemporary Discourses of Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight; Harnish, Jason

    2006-01-01

    Meanings of "citizenship," a concept that has informed teaching practices since nation-states first institutionalized schooling, are shaped over time and through cultural struggles. This article presents a conceptual framework for the discourses that currently construct the meanings of citizenship in contemporary Western cultures,…

  2. Critiques of Contemporary Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Karlyn Kohrs

    The purpose of this book is to define characteristics of rhetorical discourse, explain man's capacity to influence and be influenced, and describe the purposes and processes of rhetorical criticism. Representative speech texts, with critiques, are included on the following contemporary topics: withdrawal from Vietnam (Richard M. Nixon);…

  3. Contemporary Native American Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestas, John R., Ed.

    A compilation of 58 representative speeches from the American Indian Community, this book is divided into 2 parts; Part I deals with issues of contemporary concern and Part II illustrates speech types and styles. All speeches are classified by issue as follows: sovereignty (2 speeches, 1 on the rise and fall of Indian sovereignty); trust…

  4. Comenius and Contemporary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobinson, C. H., Ed.

    The Governing Board of the Unesco Institute for Education, in its 21st Session held in Hamburg in April of 1969, decided to publish a book commemorating the tercentenary of the death of Jan Amos Comenius. This great 17th century educator is still a constant inspiration to those concerned with the improvement of contemporary education. Publication…

  5. Preferring the Contemporary Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Marc

    1980-01-01

    Describes a study that indicated that readers of college newspapers prefer a front page style that is contemporary and emphasizes a horizontal layout to either an avant-garde style that features an entirely horizontal layout or a traditional layout having a vertical page. (TJ)

  6. Contemporary Issues in Mentoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jean Baldwin, Ed.

    This document contains six papers exploring contemporary issues in mentoring. "The Practice, Quality, and Cost of Mentoring" (Jean Baldwin Grossman) provides an introduction to and overview of the remaining five papers. "Mentoring Adolescents: What Have We Learned?" (Cynthia L. Sipe) reviews the literature on mentoring, discusses key elements in…

  7. Symposium on Contemporary Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David A.; Graff, Gerald; Nelson, Cary

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss contemporary challenges. David Berry offers advice on teaching the humanities at a community college; Gerald Graff examines how the traditional organization of universities undermines student learning; and Cary Nelson considers the effects on the humanities of the increasing reliance on contingent faculty.

  8. Contemporary Story Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miletich, Yvonne Petrich

    A collection of 90 contemporary mathematics story problems are presented for use by elementary teachers. The problems enable students to exercise the steps of problem solving involving operational skills. Instructions given to students list five directions for finding solutions. The answers to all 90 problems are included. This document is part of…

  9. Contemporary endodontic surgery.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Richard; Torabinejad, Mahmoud

    2004-06-01

    During the past decade, endodontics has seen a dramatic shift in the application of periradicular surgery and the role it plays in endodontic treatment. With the introduction of enhanced magnification, periradicular ultrasonics and other associative technologies, teeth that might otherwise be extracted now have a chance for retention. This article describes the role of these advances in contemporary endodontic surgery.

  10. Contemporary Native American Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestas, John R., Ed.

    A compilation of 58 representative speeches from the American Indian Community, this book is divided into 2 parts; Part I deals with issues of contemporary concern and Part II illustrates speech types and styles. All speeches are classified by issue as follows: sovereignty (2 speeches, 1 on the rise and fall of Indian sovereignty); trust…

  11. Critiques of Contemporary Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Karlyn Kohrs

    The purpose of this book is to define characteristics of rhetorical discourse, explain man's capacity to influence and be influenced, and describe the purposes and processes of rhetorical criticism. Representative speech texts, with critiques, are included on the following contemporary topics: withdrawal from Vietnam (Richard M. Nixon);…

  12. Contemporary management of aniseikonia.

    PubMed

    Achiron, L R; Witkin, N; Primo, S; Broocker, G

    1997-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of aniseikonia has become a lost art. Refractive surgery and intraocular lens implantation has created a new patient population of anisometropia. Measurement of aniseikonia through instrumentation such as the space eikonometer is not readily available. Therefore, estimating the degree of aniseikonia based on the dioptral differences between the two eyes may be the most practical approach. The optical principles of spectacle magnification can be translated by the prescribing eye doctor to reduce ocular image disparity. Contemporary lens designs, such as hi-index and aspherics, allow the practitioner to modify shape and power factors to achieve higher levels of aniseikonic correction in a cosmetically fashionable pair of spectacles.

  13. Charcot in contemporary literature.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Christopher G

    2006-03-01

    Charcot and his medical observations remain an enduring topic of scientific study in neurology, but he is also the topic of modern literary works. This essay examines the depiction of Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) as a character in late-twentieth-century literature as an index of the contemporary nonmedical literary public's interest in neurology and Charcot. It focuses on three contemporary works that involve Charcot as a central figure with comparison between primary source documents and the rendered context, character development, and plot lines of these literary works. The two French novels [Slumbers of Indiscretion and Dr. Charcot of the Salpêtrière] and one American play [Augustine (Big Hysteria)] approach Charcot and neurology with differing levels of historical accuracy. All create a figure of authority, each with a different coloration of the balance between power and its abuse. Two focus almost exclusively on his work with hysteria and inaccurately amplify Charcot's concern with symbolic sexual conflict as the origin of hysteria and fictionalize more extensive interactions with Freud than historical documents support. The three works demonstrate that Charcot retains an enduring fascination with an enigmatic personality, a controversial career, and a pivotal role in the development of studies involving the brain and behavior. Neurologists should not look to these works as replacements for more seriously composed historical studies, but as enrichments anchored in the imaginative possibilities of Charcot and his fin de siècle era.

  14. Growth

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  15. Contemporary Treatment of APL

    PubMed Central

    Cull, Elizabeth H.; Altman, Jessica K.

    2014-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by coagulopathy, leukopenic presentation and sensitivity to anthracyclines, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO). For the last 25 years, APL has been treated with a combination of ATRA and chemotherapy for induction followed by consolidation and maintenance therapy. This general treatment approach has resulted in cure rates of 80–90%. ATO, originally approved in relapsed APL, has been incorporated into contemporary upfront treatment regimens with excellent response rates. Recent studies show that most patients with APL can be cured with ATRA and ATO alone, eliminating cytotoxic chemotherapy and resulting in superior outcomes compared to standard treatment. We will herein review historical treatment of APL, treatment considerations in specific patient populations, and therapeutic updates. PMID:24643310

  16. Contemporary treatment of APL.

    PubMed

    Cull, Elizabeth H; Altman, Jessica K

    2014-06-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by coagulopathy, leukopenic presentation and sensitivity to anthracyclines, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO). For the last 25 years, APL has been treated with a combination of ATRA and chemotherapy for induction followed by consolidation and maintenance therapy. This general treatment approach has resulted in cure rates of 80-90 %. ATO, originally approved in relapsed APL, has been incorporated into contemporary upfront treatment regimens with excellent response rates. Recent studies show that most patients with APL can be cured with ATRA and ATO alone, eliminating cytotoxic chemotherapy and resulting in superior outcomes compared to standard treatment. We will herein review historical treatment of APL, treatment considerations in specific patient populations, and therapeutic updates.

  17. Contemporary Literature/Traditional Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Jamieson

    An upper school English program has been experimenting with ways to reinforce its traditional literary curriculum with contemporary works. Three contemporary novels in particular (Naylor's "The Women of Brewster Place," Walker's "The Color Purple," and Miller's "A Canticle for Leibowitz") have been found to foster a sense of continuity with the…

  18. Ribosomal Antibiotics: Contemporary Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach-Nevo, Tamar; Baram, David; Bashan, Anat; Belousoff, Matthew; Breiner, Elinor; Davidovich, Chen; Cimicata, Giuseppe; Eyal, Zohar; Halfon, Yehuda; Krupkin, Miri; Matzov, Donna; Metz, Markus; Rufayda, Mruwat; Peretz, Moshe; Pick, Ophir; Pyetan, Erez; Rozenberg, Haim; Shalev-Benami, Moran; Wekselman, Itai; Zarivach, Raz; Zimmerman, Ella; Assis, Nofar; Bloch, Joel; Israeli, Hadar; Kalaora, Rinat; Lim, Lisha; Sade-Falk, Ofir; Shapira, Tal; Taha-Salaime, Leena; Tang, Hua; Yonath, Ada

    2016-01-01

    Most ribosomal antibiotics obstruct distinct ribosomal functions. In selected cases, in addition to paralyzing vital ribosomal tasks, some ribosomal antibiotics are involved in cellular regulation. Owing to the global rapid increase in the appearance of multi-drug resistance in pathogenic bacterial strains, and to the extremely slow progress in developing new antibiotics worldwide, it seems that, in addition to the traditional attempts at improving current antibiotics and the intensive screening for additional natural compounds, this field should undergo substantial conceptual revision. Here, we highlight several contemporary issues, including challenging the common preference of broad-range antibiotics; the marginal attention to alterations in the microbiome population resulting from antibiotics usage, and the insufficient awareness of ecological and environmental aspects of antibiotics usage. We also highlight recent advances in the identification of species-specific structural motifs that may be exploited for the design and the creation of novel, environmental friendly, degradable, antibiotic types, with a better distinction between pathogens and useful bacterial species in the microbiome. Thus, these studies are leading towards the design of “pathogen-specific antibiotics,” in contrast to the current preference of broad range antibiotics, partially because it requires significant efforts in speeding up the discovery of the unique species motifs as well as the clinical pathogen identification. PMID:27367739

  19. Contemporary sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  20. Contemporary Aspects of Atomic Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, R. G. A.

    1972-01-01

    The approach generally used in writing undergraduate textbooks on Atomic and Nuclear Physics presents this branch as historical in nature. Describes the concepts of astrophysics, plasma physics and spectroscopy as contemporary and intriguing for modern scientists. (PS)

  1. Contemporary Aspects of Atomic Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, R. G. A.

    1972-01-01

    The approach generally used in writing undergraduate textbooks on Atomic and Nuclear Physics presents this branch as historical in nature. Describes the concepts of astrophysics, plasma physics and spectroscopy as contemporary and intriguing for modern scientists. (PS)

  2. Contemporary Argentine Cinema during Neoliberalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    In this article I analyze contemporary Argentine cinematic production assessing the impact of Law 24,377 that was implemented in 1995 and that provided much-needed funds for national productions. By looking at film production and consumption, the emergence of young filmmakers and the performance of both commercial films and those belonging to the…

  3. Woman's Quest in Contemporary Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semeiks, Jonna Gormely

    Depending primarily on Joseph Campbell's treatment of the quest or hero myth, this paper provides analyses of recent women's fiction in terms of contemporary women's quests for personal identity and freedom. Following discussions of a proposed definition of myth, its connotations, and its use as a literary device and as a tool for critical…

  4. Contemporary Art and Multicultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Susan; Kocur, Zoya

    1994-01-01

    Argues that much of what is used currently to teach about multiculturalism in art consists of art made "long ago" or "far away." Presents four contemporary art works incorporating elements of mass media, popular culture, and diverse artistic traditions. Includes four full-page color photographs of the art works. (CFR)

  5. Young People and Contemporary Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illeris, Helene

    2005-01-01

    In this article empirical examples are used to connect theories about young people, contemporary art forms and learning. The first part of the article introduces the new forms of consciousness which, according to the youth researchers Birgitte Simonsen and Thomas Ziehe, characterize young people of today. In the second part, the qualities of…

  6. Contemporary Cambodian: The Social Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kheang, Lim Hack; And Others

    "Contemporary Cambodian" consists of seven parts: the "Grammatical Sketch," the "Introduction," four intermediate modules, and a Cambodian-English glossary containing all the words in the series. After completing the "Introduction," a student can study the intermediate modules in any order, since each serves as a partial review of the others. This…

  7. Young People and Contemporary Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illeris, Helene

    2005-01-01

    In this article empirical examples are used to connect theories about young people, contemporary art forms and learning. The first part of the article introduces the new forms of consciousness which, according to the youth researchers Birgitte Simonsen and Thomas Ziehe, characterize young people of today. In the second part, the qualities of…

  8. Making Connections with Contemporary Echoes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bernie

    1995-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary high school course that used contemporary films to illustrate overarching themes in the U.S. experience. Themes included individualism/social responsibility, isolation/internationalism, and liberal/conservative. Emphasis was on conceptual rather than historic relationships (e.g. "Norma Rae" illustrated…

  9. Woman's Quest in Contemporary Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semeiks, Jonna Gormely

    Depending primarily on Joseph Campbell's treatment of the quest or hero myth, this paper provides analyses of recent women's fiction in terms of contemporary women's quests for personal identity and freedom. Following discussions of a proposed definition of myth, its connotations, and its use as a literary device and as a tool for critical…

  10. Making Connections with Contemporary Echoes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bernie

    1995-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary high school course that used contemporary films to illustrate overarching themes in the U.S. experience. Themes included individualism/social responsibility, isolation/internationalism, and liberal/conservative. Emphasis was on conceptual rather than historic relationships (e.g. "Norma Rae" illustrated…

  11. Contemporary Cambodian: The Social Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kheang, Lim Hack; And Others

    "Contemporary Cambodian" consists of seven parts: the "Grammatical Sketch," the "Introduction," four intermediate modules, and a Cambodian-English glossary containing all the words in the series. After completing the "Introduction," a student can study the intermediate modules in any order, since each serves as a partial review of the others. This…

  12. Contemporary Argentine Cinema during Neoliberalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    In this article I analyze contemporary Argentine cinematic production assessing the impact of Law 24,377 that was implemented in 1995 and that provided much-needed funds for national productions. By looking at film production and consumption, the emergence of young filmmakers and the performance of both commercial films and those belonging to the…

  13. Mentoring: Contemporary Principles and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bey, Theresa M., Ed.; Holmes, C. Thomas, Ed.

    In the spirit of educational reform efforts, an initiative exists to restructure the education of teachers through collaborative action, using mentoring to build alliances. This monograph, based on contemporary principles and issues of mentoring, presents ways to conceptualize the professional preparation and development of teachers. Following a…

  14. Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waag, Andreas

    This chapter is devoted to the growth of ZnO. It starts with various techniques to grow bulk samples and presents in some detail the growth of epitaxial layers by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The last section is devoted to the growth of nanorods. Some properties of the resulting samples are also presented. If a comparison between GaN and ZnO is made, very often the huge variety of different growth techniques available to fabricate ZnO is said to be an advantage of this material system. Indeed, growth techniques range from low cost wet chemical growth at almost room temperature to high quality MOCVD growth at temperatures above 1, 000∘C. In most cases, there is a very strong tendency of c-axis oriented growth, with a much higher growth rate in c-direction as compared to other crystal directions. This often leads to columnar structures, even at relatively low temperatures. However, it is, in general, not straight forward to fabricate smooth ZnO thin films with flat surfaces. Another advantage of a potential ZnO technology is said to be the possibility to grow thin films homoepitaxially on ZnO substrates. ZnO substrates are mostly fabricated by vapor phase transport (VPT) or hydrothermal growth. These techniques are enabling high volume manufacturing at reasonable cost, at least in principle. The availability of homoepitaxial substrates should be beneficial to the development of ZnO technology and devices and is in contrast to the situation of GaN. However, even though a number of companies are developing ZnO substrates, only recently good quality substrates have been demonstrated. However, these substrates are not yet widely available. Still, the situation concerning ZnO substrates seems to be far from low-cost, high-volume production. The fabrication of dense, single crystal thin films is, in general, surprisingly difficult, even when ZnO is grown on a ZnO substrate. However

  15. The dream in contemporary psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Reiser, M F

    2001-03-01

    This article offers selective reviews of cogent sectors of research regarding the dream in contemporary psychiatry. First, the author discusses relatively recent research (1953-1999) on the neurobiology and clinical psychophysiology of dreaming sleep; second, he reviews experimental cognitive neuroscientific studies of perception, emotion, and memory and the putative interrelationships among them in generating dream imagery; and third, he interprets psychoanalytic studies (1900-1999) on related aspects of dreams and the dream process. Exploration for interrelationships among information from these three areas entails discussion of the mind/brain problem. These considerations illuminate some of the logical and interpretive dilemmas that enter into debates about Freud's theory of the dream. The author proposes a preliminary psychobiologic concept of the dream process and discusses, in light of the foregoing considerations, the importance of collaborative research for developing a realistic perspective concerning the proper place of the dream in contemporary psychiatry.

  16. Contemporary management of pyloric stenosis.

    PubMed

    Jobson, Matthew; Hall, Nigel J

    2016-08-01

    Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is a common surgical cause of vomiting in infants. Following appropriate fluid resuscitation, the mainstay of treatment is pyloromyotomy. This article reviews the aetiology and pathophysiology of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, its clinical presentation, the role of imaging, the preoperative and postoperative management, current surgical approaches and non-surgical treatment options. Contemporary postoperative feeding regimens, outcomes and complications are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Contemporary Management of Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David; Fradet, Yves

    1991-01-01

    Bladder cancer is currently the fifth most common cancer in Western society, and its incidence appears to be increasing. Important advances have recently occurred in both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to bladder neoplasms. Presentation is not unique, and physician awareness is important to identify patients who are at risk for bladder neoplasia and consequently require further investigation. A diagnostic approach and contemporary management are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4 PMID:21229043

  18. Penile revascularization—contemporary update

    PubMed Central

    Dicks, Brian; Bastuba, Martin; Goldstein, Irwin

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary therapies for erectile dysfunction are generally targeted towards older men and universally engage pharmacological and/or device related treatment options. Penile revascularization, using microvascular arterial bypass surgical techniques, is a non-pharmacological, non-device-related, and reconstructive surgical strategy for men with erectile dysfunction that was first described by Dr Vaclav Michal in 1973. Contemporary penile revascularization attempts to ‘cure' pure arteriogenic erectile dysfunction in young men with arterial occlusive pathology in the distal internal pudendal, common penile or proximal cavernosal artery secondary to focal endothelial injury from blunt pelvic, perineal or penile trauma. A microvascular anastomosis is fashioned between the donor inferior epigastric and recipient dorsal penile artery. Increased perfusion pressure is theoretically communicated to the cavernosal artery via perforating branches from the dorsal artery. This article will review the history, indications and pathophysiology of blunt trauma-induced focal arterial occlusive disease in young men with erectile dysfunction, current surgical techniques utilized and results of surgery. Contemporary use of penile revascularization is a logical and wanted therapeutic option to attempt to reverse erectile dysfunction in young men who have sustained blunt pelvic, perineal or penile trauma. PMID:23241636

  19. Perspectives on contemporary lesbian relationships.

    PubMed

    Holley, Sarah R

    2017-01-02

    This article introduces the special issue on contemporary lesbian relationships. The beginning notes some of the prominent changes that have occurred in the past 15 years in the visibility and positive representation of lesbian couples in our popular U.S. culture. The remainder focuses on identifying and summarizing the primary themes of the special issue, including the implications of changes in marriage rights, the acknowledgment and exploration of the effects of sexual minority stress, and a shift in the framing of research to better reflect the diversity of lesbian relationship experiences.

  20. Controversies in Contemporary Facial Reanimation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Leslie; Byrne, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    Facial palsy is a devastating condition with profound functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial implications. Although the complexity of facial expression and intricate synergy of facial mimetic muscles are difficult to restore, the goal of management is to reestablish facial symmetry and movement. Facial reanimation surgery requires an individualized treatment approach based on the cause, pattern, and duration of facial palsy while considering patient age, comorbidities, motivation, and goals. Contemporary reconstructive options include a spectrum of static and dynamic procedures. Controversies in the evaluation of patients with facial palsy, timing of intervention, and management decisions for dynamic smile reanimation are discussed.

  1. The Contemporary Physics Education Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, R. Michael

    1996-05-01

    The Contemporary Physics Education Project (CPEP) has produced full-color wallcharts and accompanying software and educational materials on particle physics and fusion/plasma physics. CPEP is a non-profit organization comprised of physicists, teachers, and educators who volunteer their time. Our World-Wide Web site has received great acclaim and heavy usage. It features "The Particle Adventure: An interactive tour of the inner workings of the atom and the tools for discovery" and "Fusion - Physics of a Fundamental Energy Source: An online interactive "course" for introductory physics students and teachers." CPEP materials have gained world-wide recognition (including in Science magazine and on the BBC World Service). More than 100,000 copies of the Particles chart have been distributed to scientists, students, and the general public in all 50 states and 80 countries. New products are under development. CPEP conducts many workshops around the country that assist teachers in making use of CPEP materials in their classrooms.

  2. Contemporary issues in hydrogels research

    SciTech Connect

    Peppas, N.A.

    1993-12-31

    The last ten years has seen an explosion in hydrogels research, the result of improved understanding of the structure and behavior of these water-swollen, crosslinked polymers. After the early developments of Flory And Katchalsky in the 1940s, the great Czechoslovakian researchers of the 1960s and Andrade, Hoffman, Ratner and Merrill of the early 1970s, hydrogels have again attracted significant research interest, especially through the imaginative research of Tanaka in the 1980s and others. Eight general areas of contemporary research in hydrogels are identified: (i) kinetic analysis of the copolymerization/crosslinking reactions used in hydrogel preparation; (ii) gelation and percolation theories; (iii) novel methods for tailor-made copolymers with desirable functional groups, or biodegradable chains; (iv) biomimetic hydrogels; (V) hydrogels of controlled porous structure; (vi) ultrapure hydrogels devoid of crosslinking agents, emulsifiers, etc.; (vii) critical phenomena in hydrogels; and (viii) behavior of anionic, cationic and amphiphilic hydrogels.

  3. Contemporary management of shoulder dystocia.

    PubMed

    Gittens-Williams, Lisa

    2010-11-01

    Shoulder dystocia is an uncommon but potentially catastrophic intrapartum event. Although risk factors such as maternal diabetes, obesity and macrosomia can be identified, shoulder dystocia most frequently occurs in patients who lack risk factors. Many maneuvers have been described to assist the operator in the safe release of the shoulder and subsequent delivery; however, no prospective trials have compared these maneuvers in such a way to suggest that one maneuver is superior to another. This article describes the identification of patients at risk for shoulder dystocia, clinical management of the shoulder dystocia, event documentation and the contemporary use of drills and simulation training to improve team preparedness for this unpredictable and usually unavoidable event.

  4. Contemporary Debates in Childhood Education and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggate, Sebastian, Ed.; Reese, Elaine, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Contemporary Debates in Childhood Education and Development" is a unique resource and reference work that brings together leading international researchers and thinkers, with divergent points of view, to discuss contemporary problems and questions in childhood education and developmental psychology. Through an innovative format whereby leading…

  5. Contemporary Issues in Science. Implementation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staten Island Continuum of Education, NY.

    Contemporary Issues in Science Program (CIIS) is designed to provide teachers and students with the necessary tools and strategies for bringing contemporary scientific issues into the classroom. Provided in this document are discussions of the three major elements in the program, support elements, and major activities. Major elements include the…

  6. School Counselors: A Review of Contemporary Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Steve F.

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to review the topic of school counselors and the contemporary issues surrounding this profession. An introduction to the profession and overview of its history provides a comprehensive basis on which to understand today's school counseling profession. An examination of contemporary themes of school counseling will include job…

  7. Contemporary Debates in Childhood Education and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggate, Sebastian, Ed.; Reese, Elaine, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Contemporary Debates in Childhood Education and Development" is a unique resource and reference work that brings together leading international researchers and thinkers, with divergent points of view, to discuss contemporary problems and questions in childhood education and developmental psychology. Through an innovative format whereby leading…

  8. Discussing Global Issues through Contemporary Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Sarah M.; Ellerbrock, Cheryl R.; Cruz, Bárbara C.

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary global issues can be examined through the lens of modern photographic art. In an effort to prepare global-ready graduates, this article explores the pressing problems of environmental degradation, urbanization, and homelessness through the work of three contemporary artists. Illustrative works, suggested approaches, and curriculum…

  9. Contemporary issues in transfusion medicine informatics

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gaurav; Parwani, Anil V.; Raval, Jay S.; Triulzi, Darrell J.; Benjamin, Richard J.; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2011-01-01

    The Transfusion Medicine Service (TMS) covers diverse clinical and laboratory-based services that must be delivered with accuracy, efficiency and reliability. TMS oversight is shared by multiple regulatory agencies that cover product manufacturing and validation standards geared toward patient safety. These demands present significant informatics challenges. Over the past few decades, TMS information systems have improved to better handle blood product manufacturing, inventory, delivery, tracking and documentation. Audit trails and access to electronic databases have greatly facilitated product traceability and biovigilance efforts. Modern blood bank computing has enabled novel applications such as the electronic crossmatch, kiosk-based blood product delivery systems, and self-administered computerized blood donor interview and eligibility determination. With increasing use of barcoding technology, there has been a marked improvement in patient and specimen identification. Moreover, the emergence of national and international labeling standards such as ISBT 128 have facilitated the availability, movement and tracking of blood products across national and international boundaries. TMS has only recently begun to leverage the electronic medical record to address quality issues in transfusion practice and promote standardized documentation within institutions. With improved technology, future growth is expected in blood bank automation and product labeling with applications such as radio frequency identification devices. This article reviews several of these key informatics issues relevant to the contemporary practice of TMS. PMID:21383927

  10. Contemporary issues in transfusion medicine informatics.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaurav; Parwani, Anil V; Raval, Jay S; Triulzi, Darrell J; Benjamin, Richard J; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2011-01-07

    The Transfusion Medicine Service (TMS) covers diverse clinical and laboratory-based services that must be delivered with accuracy, efficiency and reliability. TMS oversight is shared by multiple regulatory agencies that cover product manufacturing and validation standards geared toward patient safety. These demands present significant informatics challenges. Over the past few decades, TMS information systems have improved to better handle blood product manufacturing, inventory, delivery, tracking and documentation. Audit trails and access to electronic databases have greatly facilitated product traceability and biovigilance efforts. Modern blood bank computing has enabled novel applications such as the electronic crossmatch, kiosk-based blood product delivery systems, and self-administered computerized blood donor interview and eligibility determination. With increasing use of barcoding technology, there has been a marked improvement in patient and specimen identification. Moreover, the emergence of national and international labeling standards such as ISBT 128 have facilitated the availability, movement and tracking of blood products across national and international boundaries. TMS has only recently begun to leverage the electronic medical record to address quality issues in transfusion practice and promote standardized documentation within institutions. With improved technology, future growth is expected in blood bank automation and product labeling with applications such as radio frequency identification devices. This article reviews several of these key informatics issues relevant to the contemporary practice of TMS.

  11. Smoking in contemporary American cinema.

    PubMed

    Omidvari, Karan; Lessnau, Klaus; Kim, Jeannie; Mercante, Donald; Weinacker, Ann; Mason, Carol

    2005-08-01

    The true prevalence of smoking among characters portrayed in the movies is unknown. This study examines this prevalence objectively. The top 10 movies on the weekly box office charts were reviewed. Whether or not the top five characters in these movies smoked, was documented. It was determined prior to the start of the study that 300 male characters and 300 female characters were needed to detect any significant difference. A total of 447 movies, composed of 193 movies rated restricted (R) [children < 17 years of age must be accompanied by an adult], 131 movies rated PG13 for parental guidance suggested for children < 13 years of age (PG) and 123 movies rated PG for parental guidance suggested, were examined until the sample size was reached. Smoking prevalence is the same in contemporary American movies and in the general US population (23.3% vs 24.8%, respectively). However, there was more smoking in these movies among men than among women (25.5% vs 20.5%, respectively; p < 0.006), among antagonists than among protagonists (35.7% vs 20.6%, respectively; p < 0.001), lower vs middle vs upper socioeconomic class (SEC) [48.2%, 22.9%, and 10.5%, respectively; p < 0.001], among independent vs studio movies (46.2% vs 18.2%, respectively; p < 0.001); and among R-rated vs PG13-rated vs PG-rated movies (37.3%, 16.2%, and 8.1%, respectively; p < 0.001). In R-rated movies, and in both subcategories of R-rated studio movies and R-rated independent movies, smoking prevalence is higher than in the US population (37.3%, 30.5%, and 50.6% vs 24.8%, respectively; p < 0.001 for all). Additionally, compared to the US population, men, women and lower SEC members smoke more in R-rated movies, R-rated studio movies, and R-rated independent movies. In R-rated movies, antagonists smoke more than protagonists (43.9% vs 35.8%, respectively; p < 0.001), and whites smoke more than nonwhites (38.3% vs 26.4%, respectively; p < 0.001). In R-rated studio movies, antagonists smoke more than

  12. [Contemporary demographic survey of Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Osorio, E

    1985-01-01

    Current demographic trends in Venezuela are reviewed, based on data from the 1981 census. Topics covered include population growth, age structure, family characteristics, school-age population, foreign population, spatial distribution, labor force, and housing.

  13. Contemporary vascular smartphone medical applications.

    PubMed

    Carter, Thomas; O'Neill, Stephen; Johns, Neil; Brady, Richard R W

    2013-08-01

    Use of smartphones and medical mHealth applications (apps) within the clinical environment provides a potential means for delivering elements of vascular care. This article reviews the contemporary availability of apps specifically themed to major vascular diseases and the opportunities and concerns regarding their integration into practice. Smartphone apps relating to major vascular diseases were identified from the app stores for the 6 most popular smartphone platforms, including iPhone, Android, Blackberry, Nokia, Windows, and Samsung. Search terms included peripheral artery (arterial) disease, varicose veins, aortic aneurysm, carotid artery disease, amputation, ulcers, hyperhydrosis, thoracic outlet syndrome, vascular malformation, and lymphatic disorders. Forty-nine vascular-themed apps were identified. Sixteen (33%) were free of charge. Fifteen apps (31%) had customer satisfaction ratings, but only 3 (6%) had greater than 100. Only 13 apps (27%) had documented medical professional involvement in their design or content. The integration of apps into the delivery of care has the potential to benefit vascular health care workers and patients. However, high-quality apps designed by clinicians with vascular expertise are currently lacking and represent an area of concern in the mHealth market. Improvement in the quality and reliability of these apps will require the development of robust regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Deinstitutionalizing the history of contemporary psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Eghigian, Greg

    2011-06-01

    While contemporary mental health services have been marked by the burgeoning of outpatient and preventive care, the historiography of psychiatry remains largely tied to the study of custodial and palliative treatment.The work in which contemporary psychiatry has been involved cannot be adequately understood as a singular, autonomous enterprise based in a residential facility. It has become a technoscience that operates in numerous settings and alongside multiple sciences, technologies and decision-makers. This paper explores what it might mean to 'deinstitutionalize' the history of contemporary psychiatry by examining the case of social therapy for sex offenders in West Germany.

  15. Contemporary Issues in Student Housing Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Mary Ann

    2003-01-01

    This chapter presents contemporary financial issues in student housing programs framed through the topical areas of occupancy management, facilities, new construction, residential life programs, technology, and residential dining. (Contains 27 references.) (Author)

  16. Contemporary Criticism and the Return of Zeno.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Wendell V.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that contemporary critical literary theories such as hermaneutics, reader-response, speech-act, structuralism, and deconstructionism share with pre-Platonic Eleatic thought a distrust of cause-and-effect reasoning and an emphasis on paradox. (MM)

  17. Contemporary Treatment Paradigms in Keratoconus.

    PubMed

    McGhee, Charles N J; Kim, Bia Z; Wilson, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    The past 20 years have witnessed an explosion in our knowledge of keratoconus, accompanied by a radical transformation of management options. A 2-hit hypothesis proposes an underlying genetic predisposition coupled with external environmental factors, including eye rubbing and atopy. The variable prevalence and natural history have been better defined including significant cone progression in middle age. Therefore, current management must include early diagnosis, regular monitoring, and treatment of environmental cofactors. Spectacles and contact lenses remain fundamental to the optical management of keratoconus. Intrastromal corneal ring segments have been increasingly used, providing improvement in the corneal shape, corrected visual acuity, and contact lens wear. However, like contact lenses, intrastromal corneal ring segments do not treat the underlying disease process. Therefore, current approaches must also consider treatments to minimize keratoconus progression. Fortunately, there is increasing evidence that corneal collagen crosslinking will halt or slow progression in most cases. Until relatively recently, penetrating keratoplasty was the preferred intervention for advanced keratoconus, with long-term success in the region of 90%; however, the greatest risk of failure remains endothelial allograft rejection. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty has emerged in the new millennium as a preferred approach to conserve the host endothelium and avoid rejection. Nonetheless, the overall superiority of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty compared with penetrating keratoplasty, in terms of optical and survival benefits, is still debated. This perspective provides an overview of our current knowledge of keratoconus and current management options. A step-ladder approach to managing keratoconus is outlined to provide the practitioner with a contemporary management paradigm.

  18. Contemporary neuroscience in the media.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric; Waldman, Sarah; Rosenberg, Jarett; Illes, Judy

    2010-08-01

    Technological innovations in neuroscience have opened new windows to the understanding of brain function and the neuronal underpinnings of brain activity in neuropsychiatric disorders and social behavior. Public interest and support for neuroscience research through initiatives like the Decade of the Brain project and increasingly diverse brain-related initiatives have created new interfaces between neuroscience and society. Against this backdrop of dynamic innovation, we set out to examine how different features of neuroscience are depicted in print media. We used the 'guided news' function of the LexisNexis Academic database with keyword searches to find news articles published between 1995 and 2004 in major U.S. and U.K. English-language news sources. We performed searches on headlines, lead paragraphs, and body terms to maximize search yields. All articles were coded for overall tone of coverage, details on reported studies, presence of ethical, legal, and social discussion as well as the emerging interpretations of neuroscience - in the form of neuro-essentialism, neuro-realism, and neuro-policy. We found that print media coverage of the use of neurotechnology for diagnosis or therapy in neuropsychiatric disorders was generally optimistic. We also found that, even within articles that were identified as research reports, many did not provide details about research studies. We also gained additional insights into the previously identified phenomena of neuro-essentialism, neuro-realism, and neuro-policy showing some profound impacts of neuroscience on personal identity and policy-making. Our results highlight the implications of transfer of neuroscience knowledge to society given the substantial and authoritative weight ascribed to neuroscience knowledge in defining who we are. We also discuss the impact of these findings on neuroscience and on the respective contributions of the social sciences and the biological sciences in contemporary psychiatry and mental

  19. Women and class structure in contemporary Japan.

    PubMed

    Shirahase, S

    2001-09-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine how to determine the class position of women, especially married women, in Japan. This study examines three different approaches to conceptualizing women's position in the class structure: the conventional approach, the individual approach, and the dominance approach. Since 1975, the overall rate of female labour force participation in Japan has increased, and given this growth, particularly of employees working outside home, I discuss whether the increased entry of women, particularly married women, into the labour market challenges the conventional way of assigning class positions to women by simply deriving them from their husband's class positions. The data set used in this study is derived from the 1995 Japanese Social Stratification and Mobility Survey. An examination of class distributions suggests that the pictures of macro-class structure provided by the conventional approach and the dominance approach show very little difference. Married women who belong to the female-dominant family still form a very small minority of all married women in the society. Furthermore, the male-dominant family shows the greatest stability over the life course whereas the female-dominant family, where the wife experiences withdrawal from the labour market, is least stable. The increasing number of married women in the labour market, thus, has not yet become a major threat to the conventional way of assigning women to a class position in contemporary Japan. Women, even among those working on a full-time basis, perceive their position in the stratification system using not only their own work, but also their husband's. In contrast, men's perception is determined by their own education and employment, not by their wives'. This asymmetry in the effect of the husband's class and of the wife's class on class identification is related not only to gender inequality within the labour market but also to the division of labour by gender within

  20. Fitness in contemporary dance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Angioi, M; Metsios, G S; Metsios, G; Koutedakis, Y; Wyon, M A

    2009-07-01

    It has been suggested that dancers are less fit compared to other athletes. However, the majority of studies make their arguments based on data deriving mainly from ballet. Therefore, the aim of the current review was to investigate: a) aerobic and anaerobic fitness, muscular strength and body composition characteristics in contemporary dancers of different levels, and b) whether supplementary exercise interventions, in addition to normal dance training, further improves contemporary dance performance. Three databases (Medline, Cochrane and the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health research database) were searched to identify publications regarding the main fitness components of contemporary professional and student dancers. At a professional level, it appears that contemporary dancers demonstrate higher maximal oxygen uptake and higher scores in muscular endurance than ballet dancers. However, contemporary dance students are equally fit compared to their ballet counterparts and their body composition is also very similar. Only two studies have investigated the effects of supplementary exercise training on aspects of dance performance. Further research is needed in order to confirm preliminary data, which suggest that the implementation of additional fitness training is beneficial for contemporary dance students to achieve a better performance outcome.

  1. Contemporary Challenges to Black Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruse, Harold

    1984-01-01

    Reviews Maulana Karenga's "Introduction to Black Studies" (1982). Discusses the academic and social relevance of the discipline and its growth out of economic, political, and historical forces. Concurs with Karenga's Afrocentric approach but notes the difficulties in its implementation within the current academic climate. (GC)

  2. The mandibular muscles in contemporary orthodontic practice: a review.

    PubMed

    Woods, M G

    2017-03-01

    It is widely accepted that all dentists should have a thorough understanding of the muscles involved in moving or stabilizing the mandible. However, there is still much discussion regarding the influence of the mandibular muscles on normal facial growth and dental development, as well as on orthodontic treatment and post-treatment stability. Potential patients with different underlying vertical muscle patterns will have differences in the expected directions of future mandibular growth, lateral profile shape, facial and arch widths and vertical occlusal relationships. In turn, thorough diagnoses are likely to lead to differences in individual aims and objectives, treatment plans, timing of commencement, mechanical design, lateral profile and smile-aesthetics outcomes, choice of retention and plans for long-term maintenance. The potential influence of the mandibular muscles on normal morphologic variation and the soft tissue implications on contemporary orthodontic treatment and stability will be addressed in this review.

  3. [Contemporary nuclear medicine diagnostics of neuroendocrine tumors].

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The new positron emission tomography (PET/CT) methods for neuroendocrine tumors detection are presented and compared with classic, conventional methods. Conventional methods use a gamma scintillation camera for patients with neuroendocrine tumor imaging, after intravenous injection of one of the following radiopharmaceuticals: 1) somatostatin analogues labeled with indium-111 (111In-pentetreotide) or technetium-99m (99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC); 2) noradrenaline analogue labeled with iodine-131 or -123 (131/123I-MIBG); or 3) 99mTc(V)-DMSA. Contemporary methods use PET/CT equipment for patients with neuroendocrine tumor imaging, after intravenous injection of pharmaceuticals labeled with positron emitters [fluorine-18 (18F), galium-68 (68Ga), or carbon-11 (11C)]: 1) glucose analogue (18FDG); 2) somatostatin analogue (68Ga-DOTATOC/68Ga-DOTATATE/68Ga-DOTANOC); 3) aminoacid precursors of bioamines: [a) dopamine precursor 18F-DOPA (6-18F-dihydroxyphenylalanine), b) serotonin precursor 11C-5HTP (11C-5-hydroxytryptophan)]; or 4) dopamine analogue 18F-DA (6-18F-fluorodopamine). Conventional and contemporary (PET/ CT) somatostatin receptor detection showed identical high spe- cificity (92%), but conventional had very low sensitivity (52%) compared to PET/CT (97%). It means that almost every second neuroendocrine tumor detected by contemporary method cannot be discovered using conventional (classic) method. In metastatic pheochromocytoma detection contemporary (PET/ CT) methods (18F-DOPA and 18F-DA) have higher sensitivity than conventional (131I/123I-MIBG). In medullary thyroid carcinoma diagnostics contemporary method ([18F-DOPA) is more sensitive than conventional 99mTc(V)-DMSA method, and is similar to 18FDG, computed tomography and magnetic resonance. In carcinoid detection contemporary method (18F-DOPA) shows similar results with contemporary somatostatin receptor detection, while for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors it is worse. To conclude, contemporary (PET

  4. Growth charts: A diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Khadilkar, Vaman; Khadilkar, Anuradha

    2011-09-01

    Assessment of growth by objective anthropometric methods is crucial in child care. India is in a phase of nutrition transition and thus it is vital to update growth references regularly. To review growth standards and references for assessment of physical growth of Indian children for clinical use and research purposes. Basics of growth charts and importance of anthropometric measurements are described. A comparison between growth standards and references is provided. Further, Indian growth reference curves based on the data collected by Agarwal et al. and adopted by the Indian Academy of Pediatrics, World Health Organization growth standards for children under the age of 5 years (2006) and contemporary Indian growth references published on apparently healthy affluent Indian children (data collected in 2007-08) are discussed. The article also discusses the use of adult equivalent body mass index (BMI) cut-offs for screening for overweight and obesity in Indian children. For the assessment of height, weight and BMI, WHO growth standards (for children < 5 years) and contemporary cross sectional reference percentile curves (for children from 5-18 years) are available for clinical use and for research purposes. BMI percentiles (adjusted for the Asian adult BMI equivalent cut-offs) for the assessment of physical growth of present day Indian children are also available. LMS values and Microsoft excel macro for calculating SD scores can be obtained from the author (email: vamankhadilkar@gmail.com). Contemporary growth charts can be obtained by sending a message to 08861201183 or email: gntd@novonordisk.com.

  5. Contemporary Youth and the Postmodern Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Steven; Kellner, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Contemporary youth are major players in the postmodern adventure because it is they who will enter the future and further shape the world to come. For youth today, change is the name of the game and they are forced to adapt to a rapidly mutating and crisis-ridden world characterized by novel information, computer and genetic technologies; a…

  6. Language Rights in Historical and Contemporary Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruthiaux, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a reconceptualisation of language rights, drawing on historical sources and contemporary practice. It shows that early advocates of rights saw these as limits on the state's ability to deprive citizens of basic liberties. Only later did the concept come to include the requirement that the state be proactive in providing…

  7. The Frankenstein Myth in Contemporary Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushing, Janice Hocker; Frentz, Thomas S.

    1989-01-01

    Critiques three contemporary films, "Rocky IV,""Blade Runner," and "The Terminator." Constructs an evolving dystopian shadow myth that expresses the culture's repressed fears about its relationship to technology. Offers implications for the reinterpretation of the dystopian myth and for the conduct of other cultural…

  8. The "Inscrutable Albino" in Contemporary Ethnic Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TuSmith, Bonnie

    1993-01-01

    In both canonical European American literature and contemporary ethnic American literature, there exists a counterpart to the "inscrutable Oriental" stereotype, the "inscrutable Albino." The albino motif is explored in some ethnic works to demonstrate how the trope functions in each and what this says about the author's world…

  9. Contemporary Youth and the Postmodern Adventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Steven; Kellner, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Contemporary youth are major players in the postmodern adventure because it is they who will enter the future and further shape the world to come. For youth today, change is the name of the game and they are forced to adapt to a rapidly mutating and crisis-ridden world characterized by novel information, computer and genetic technologies; a…

  10. Contemporary computerized methods for logging planning

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1988-01-01

    Contemporary harvest planning graphic software is highlighted with practical applications. Planning results from a production study of the Clearwater Cable Yarder are summarized. Application of the planning methods to evaluation of proposed silvicultural treatments is included. Results show that 3-dimensional graphic analysis of proposed harvesting or silvicultural...

  11. Contemporary-Music Studies Bloom in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces the Beijing Contemporary Music Institute where more than 3,000 undergraduates study music and dance. In a country where most music departments and conservatories are dedicated to teaching classical Chinese and Western music, the institute is breaking new ground. The college, which opened in 1993 with just 100…

  12. The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…

  13. Making James Joyce Contemporary: Recreating Classical Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Can you make James Joyce's short story "Eveline" contemporary and create a modern short story based on Joyce's work? The purpose of this study was to provide a context to Joyce's short story "Eveline," illustrate the journey of my fiction writing, and expand the conversation on using classical fiction as a guide to modern short…

  14. Languages in Contemporary Anglophone Caribbean Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Melva P.

    2013-01-01

    The paper Languages in Contemporary Anglophone Caribbean Societies examines how language is treated in Jamaica and other Anglophone Caribbean societies and the effects of a haphazard approach to language planning on the social dynamics of the society as well as the individual. It briefly explores how Language is handled in Francophone or…

  15. Climate history shapes contemporary leaf litter decomposition

    Treesearch

    Michael S. Strickland; Ashley D. Keiser; Mark A. Bradford

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition is mediated by multiple variables, of which climate is expected to be a dominant factor at global scales. However, like other organisms, traits of decomposers and their communities are shaped not just by the contemporary climate but also their climate history. Whether or not this affects decomposition rates is underexplored. Here we source...

  16. Moral Choices in Contemporary Society: Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellman, Mary, Ed.

    One of several supplementary materials for a newspaper course on moral choices in contemporary society, this sourcebook contains program ideas and resources to help civic leaders and educators plan programs based on the course topics. There are four sections. The first section explains how the topics can be used in planning programs, identifies…

  17. Contemporary Views of Audience: A Rhetorical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coney, Mary B.

    1987-01-01

    Finds that current pedagogical emphases on audience analysis and adaptation in the field of technical writing are based largely on classical conceptions of audience and society. Traces the influences of rhetoricians who challenge the classical model as inadequate or inappropriate for contemporary rhetorical situations. (SKC)

  18. On Contemporary Literature: Critiques, Reviews and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The articles in this focused issue draw attention to works of contemporary literature with classroom potential. Four articles suggest new approaches for the reading and teaching of such established writers as Robert Frost; Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.; Eudora Welty; and Saul Bellow. Two other articles examine the bestsellers "Ordinary People" and "The Color…

  19. Katherine Anne Porter on Her Contemporaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Phyllis

    Personal experiences with and critical judgments of leading artists and intellectuals of the twentieth century are recorded in Katherine Anne Porter's essays, letters and conversations which provide snapshots of her attitudes and encounters. Porter's commentaries about such contemporaries as Ernest Hemingway, William Faulkner, Saul Bellow,…

  20. An overview of contemporary American rodeo

    Treesearch

    Gene L. Theodori

    1998-01-01

    Impromptu roping, riding, and racing affairs and western pageantries whetted public appetites for a competitive cowboy sport. Despite its increasing popularity and types, American rodeo has received little attention from social scientists. This paper discusses seven different types of contemporary rodeo-professional, women's, collegiate, high school, senior, gay,...

  1. Contemporary Science and Worldview-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordero, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of contemporary scientific knowledge on worldviews. The first three sections provide epistemological background for the arguments that follow. Sections 2 and 3 discuss the reliable part of science, specifically the characterization, scope and limits of the present scientific canon. Section 4 deals with the mode of…

  2. Teaching Medical Student Psychiatry Through Contemporary Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, William H.

    1977-01-01

    An audio technique uses contemporary music recordings to illustrate various personality disorders, including: schizoid, paranoid, compulsive, antisocial, and hysterical. The works of Bob Dylan, Paul Simon, Harry Chapin, the Beatles, Janis Ian, James Taylor, Tammy Wynette, and others are cited. (LBH)

  3. A Contemporary Story of School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annan, Jean; Priestley, Anna

    2012-01-01

    A review of recent school psychology publications was conducted to discover the espoused theory of contemporary school psychology, as distinct from school psychology practice. We considered that identification of the espoused theory of school psychology, the story of school psychology, would support professional reflection and the identification…

  4. Teachers and Teaching: A Contemporary Muslim Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogra, Imran

    2010-01-01

    This article appreciates Muhammad as an educator based on the primary sources of Islam with a view to establish teaching as a "sunnah" (practice) of Muhammad in particular and of other messengers in general. In so doing it advocates a reconceptualization for prospective and contemporary Muslim teachers. Consequently such a stance then becomes a…

  5. Medical Education and the Contemporary World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, George E., Ed.

    Proceedings of a conference on Medical Education in the Contemporary World, organized by Dr. George E. Miller and sponsored by the University of Illinois in Chicago, September 13-14, 1976, are presented. American and foreign medical edu- cation experts considered the principal and recurrent problems confronting the field in a period of rapid…

  6. Successful Aging: Early Influences and Contemporary Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruchno, Rachel A.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Rose, Miriam; Cartwright, Francine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Positing that successful aging has independent, yet related, dimensions that are both objective and subjective, we examine how early influences and contemporary characteristics define 4 groups of people. Design and Methods: Data were gathered from 5,688 persons aged 50-74 years living in New Jersey who participated in telephone…

  7. The Cultural Revolution and Contemporary Chinese Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Guey-Meei; Suchan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Using this instructional resource, teachers can explore the impact of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) on contemporary art in mainland China with their students. The three artists Luo Zhongli (b. 1948), Xu Bing (b. 1955), and Wang Guangyi (b. 1957) came of age during the Cultural Revolution and are representative of a much larger number of…

  8. A Test of Contemporary Misconceptions in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Rick M.; Brown, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and evaluate a contemporary misconception test based on popular myths in psychology. Misconceptions in psychology are commonplace, strongly held, and can be problematic for teaching accurate information. This study examined several predictors of misconceptions in eleven psychological topic areas. We also…

  9. Contemporary Issues Education: Rural Perspectives and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamorey, Suzanne; Perry, Nancy

    As the inclusion movement integrates students with disabilities into community situations, these students become more vulnerable to various forms of exploitation and manipulation. This paper compares rural and urban teachers' provision of contemporary issues education to special education students and describes the development of Web-based…

  10. A Contemporary Approach to American Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benham, William J.

    The exigencies of contemporary native American education require a thorough review. Issues considered in establishing a viable conceptual framework are Indian control of education, role of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and Office of Indian Education, application of federal programs and appropriations, characteristics of the new generation of…

  11. The Library and the Contemporary Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurstad, Betty L.

    A collection of papers which were presented at two series of seminars sponsored by the Michigan Library Association are concerned with the role of public libraries in providing services and developing collections dealing with the contemporary arts. The papers included are: (1) Public Library Programs and the Arts, a discussion of the public…

  12. Contemporary optical instrument design, fabrication and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Beckmann, L.H.J.F.; Briers, J.D.; Yodev, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings consist of papers divided between the following sessions: Integration of the design into the system, Fabrication and testing techniques, and Contemporary Optical Instrumentation. Some of the titles are: Optical replication: an overview and design guide for the systems engineer, Fabrication and testing of highly nonconventional optics, Narcissus, a testing tool, and Automatic gauge block measurement using multiple wavelength interferometry.

  13. Contemporary Indian Issues: A Course Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, Cecil T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the background of American Indian Studies as an academic discipline and offers a course syllabus that emphasizes cross cultural awareness and understanding of the forces and events that shaped the field of contemporary Indian affairs. The general education course for colleges and universities aims to generate mutual respect…

  14. [Contemporary clinical medicine--assurances and uncertainties].

    PubMed

    Pacovský, V

    2009-01-01

    Selected topics in the contemporary clinical medicine are reflected. The main fields of interest and characteristic features unifying theory and praxis are outlined; specificities of clinical thinking and decision making, and conception of clinical medicine as a scientific discipline are presented. Author deals with assurances, various forms of irresolution in clinical medicine and with problems resulting from the scientific progress.

  15. Art as Social Practice: Exploring the Contemporary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leake, Maria D.

    2012-01-01

    Art as social practice encourages active, critical reflections on relevant issues among real people in locally situated engagements and with unpredictable outcomes. This instructional resource focuses on art as social practice that puts critical value on processes of engagement over the creation of art products by exploring contemporary artists…

  16. Successful Aging: Early Influences and Contemporary Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruchno, Rachel A.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Rose, Miriam; Cartwright, Francine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Positing that successful aging has independent, yet related, dimensions that are both objective and subjective, we examine how early influences and contemporary characteristics define 4 groups of people. Design and Methods: Data were gathered from 5,688 persons aged 50-74 years living in New Jersey who participated in telephone…

  17. Existential Considerations for Contemporary Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maglio, Asa-Sophia T.; Butterfield, Lee D.; Borgen, William A.

    2005-01-01

    This article was written to remind career counselors of the potential depth and subjective impact of both unemployment and employment transitions. An existential framework is used in discussing today's world of work, previous and contemporary career counseling models, existential theory in career counseling, and existential considerations for…

  18. The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Roger J., Ed.; Ikeno, Osamu, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers an overview of contemporary Japanese culture, and can serve as a resource for classes studying Japan. The 28 essays offer an informative, accessible look at the values, attitudes, behavior patterns, and communication styles of modern Japan from the unique perspective of the Japanese people. Filled with examples…

  19. State, Schooling and Society: Contemporary Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalanyane, Tanakie

    2010-01-01

    The paper articulates debates surrounding schools and schooling in the contemporary era with a view of showing some granted assumptions about schools and schooling by some educationists. The paper further shows that schools are always arenas or sites of struggle where ideological hegemonic control is fought for by various actors, such as: the…

  20. Child Adoption in Contemporary Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Weiguo

    2006-01-01

    Based on qualitative information from in-depth interviews and quantitative data from a survey of 425 adoptive families conducted in summer 2001 in rural China, this study attempts to explain the social and demographic patterns of adoption and investigate the roles of the State and families in adoption processes in contemporary rural China. Within…

  1. A Portfolio of Outstanding Contemporary American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Theodore E. B.

    The portfolio contains 24 portraits with biographical sketches of outstanding contemporary American Indians. Representing several tribes, occupations, and points of view, the subjects are: Henry Adams, Louis W. Ballard, Robert L. Bennett, George Blue Spruce, Jarrett Blythe, Louis R. Bruce, Leon Cook, Ada Deer, Vine Deloria, Jr., James Gladstone,…

  2. Childhood in America: A Contemporary Portrait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Stewart; McAllister, Joseph

    Past and contemporary themes characterizing the structure and quality of children's lives are traced in this discussion. Specifically examined are various changes in family life patterns, new educational involvements in children's lives, and the emerging role of extra-familial and extra-educational sources of influence upon children's development.…

  3. Art as Social Practice: Exploring the Contemporary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leake, Maria D.

    2012-01-01

    Art as social practice encourages active, critical reflections on relevant issues among real people in locally situated engagements and with unpredictable outcomes. This instructional resource focuses on art as social practice that puts critical value on processes of engagement over the creation of art products by exploring contemporary artists…

  4. Narrative Significations of Contemporary Black Girlhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Wanda; Sekayi, Dia; Savage, Lorraine; Waller, Ellyn; Picot, Iresha

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how Black girlhood is constructed through fiction. The following research question guided this study: How do writers represent the heterogeneity of urban teenage girls in school-sanctioned African American young adult literature? Five popular narratives that exemplify the contemporary lives of urban African American female…

  5. Preparing Teachers for the Contemporary Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoli, Nkechi J.; Ogbondah, Livinus; Ekpefa-Abdullahi, Janet Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper focused on preparing teachers for the contemporary Nigeria. Teaching is a versatile field that requires at all times the correct identification of indices of developments in the society. This responsibility makes it imperative that teachers be an embodiment of a constant search for updated knowledge in various fields of Endeavour. The…

  6. Contemporary Comment on Changing Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majer, Kenneth S., Ed.

    1973-01-01

    A series of writings describing some contemporary thoughts about training professional educators and some efforts to meet changing needs are collected in this issue of "Viewpoints." An article on methods of inquiry, written by Ivor Davies, is the first chapter. The problems of the bilingual Latino, with respect to his American schooling, are…

  7. Education in Contemporary Japan: Inequality and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okano, Kaori; Tsuchiya, Motonori

    This book offers a balanced introduction to and examination of contemporary Japanese education that considers criticisms of Japanese schooling practices made by the participants themselves. While the post World War 2 system of schooling has provided valuable ingredients for economic success, the book argues that these have been accompanied by…

  8. The Ideology of Logic in Contemporary Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Rex

    2006-01-01

    This paper comments on the article "Psychology and Phenomenology: A Clarification" by H. H. Kendler. In this article, Kendler sought to resolve the methodological issue that divides much of contemporary psychology--namely, the difference between natural science and human science in their respective views of psychological life. Whereas Kendler…

  9. Contemporary Sexism in the South African Navy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Wijk, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The military traditionally embraces highly sexist attitudes. Over the past decade, the South African Navy (SAN) has been exposed to an increasingly progressive political environment. This study investigated contemporary expressions of sexism in the SAN. A representative sample of 476 sailors completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, Modern Sexism…

  10. The Cultural Revolution and Contemporary Chinese Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Guey-Meei; Suchan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Using this instructional resource, teachers can explore the impact of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) on contemporary art in mainland China with their students. The three artists Luo Zhongli (b. 1948), Xu Bing (b. 1955), and Wang Guangyi (b. 1957) came of age during the Cultural Revolution and are representative of a much larger number of…

  11. Werner's Relevance for Contemporary Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Joseph A.

    1992-01-01

    Considers the contributions of Heinz Werner to developmental psychology and identifies the tensions between Werner's theory and the practices of contemporary developmental psychology. Core issues of Werner's psychology concern: (1) development as heuristic, rather than phenomenon; (2) developmental process analysis; and (3) conceptions of the…

  12. The Library and the Contemporary Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurstad, Betty L.

    A collection of papers which were presented at two series of seminars sponsored by the Michigan Library Association are concerned with the role of public libraries in providing services and developing collections dealing with the contemporary arts. The papers included are: (1) Public Library Programs and the Arts, a discussion of the public…

  13. On Contemporary Literature: Critiques, Reviews and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The articles in this focused issue draw attention to works of contemporary literature with classroom potential. Four articles suggest new approaches for the reading and teaching of such established writers as Robert Frost; Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.; Eudora Welty; and Saul Bellow. Two other articles examine the bestsellers "Ordinary People" and "The Color…

  14. The Frankenstein Myth in Contemporary Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushing, Janice Hocker; Frentz, Thomas S.

    1989-01-01

    Critiques three contemporary films, "Rocky IV,""Blade Runner," and "The Terminator." Constructs an evolving dystopian shadow myth that expresses the culture's repressed fears about its relationship to technology. Offers implications for the reinterpretation of the dystopian myth and for the conduct of other cultural…

  15. Contemporary Development of Marxist Philosophy in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Ouyang

    2002-01-01

    There are many points of interest pertaining to the development of Marxist philosophy in contemporary China. This paper will focus on the following areas and problems: (1) the debate about the criterion of truth; (2) Marxist philosophical textbook reform; (3) the inquiry into the human agent and subjectivity; (4) Marxism and Confucianism; (5) Deng…

  16. Contemporary criticisms of the received wilderness idea

    Treesearch

    J. Baird Callicott

    2000-01-01

    Names are important. The name “wilderness” is fraught with historical baggage obfuscating the most important role of wilderness areas for contemporary conservation. The received wilderness idea has been and remains a tool of androcentrism, racism, colonialism, and genocide. It privileges virile and primitive recreation, because the...

  17. A Portfolio of Outstanding Contemporary American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Theodore E. B.

    The portfolio contains 24 portraits with biographical sketches of outstanding contemporary American Indians. Representing several tribes, occupations, and points of view, the subjects are: Henry Adams, Louis W. Ballard, Robert L. Bennett, George Blue Spruce, Jarrett Blythe, Louis R. Bruce, Leon Cook, Ada Deer, Vine Deloria, Jr., James Gladstone,…

  18. A Test of Contemporary Misconceptions in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Rick M.; Brown, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and evaluate a contemporary misconception test based on popular myths in psychology. Misconceptions in psychology are commonplace, strongly held, and can be problematic for teaching accurate information. This study examined several predictors of misconceptions in eleven psychological topic areas. We also…

  19. Teaching Medical Student Psychiatry Through Contemporary Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, William H.

    1977-01-01

    An audio technique uses contemporary music recordings to illustrate various personality disorders, including: schizoid, paranoid, compulsive, antisocial, and hysterical. The works of Bob Dylan, Paul Simon, Harry Chapin, the Beatles, Janis Ian, James Taylor, Tammy Wynette, and others are cited. (LBH)

  20. Language Rights in Historical and Contemporary Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruthiaux, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a reconceptualisation of language rights, drawing on historical sources and contemporary practice. It shows that early advocates of rights saw these as limits on the state's ability to deprive citizens of basic liberties. Only later did the concept come to include the requirement that the state be proactive in providing…

  1. Design for a Contemporary Curriculum in Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Sarah S.

    When designing a contemporary curriculum in communication, it is important to adapt the specific set of skills and knowledge to the needs of the marketplace. The change in the transformation from speech to communication to communication/information technology is reflected in the various names of university departments. Schools that have changed…

  2. Education in Contemporary Japan: Inequality and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okano, Kaori; Tsuchiya, Motonori

    This book offers a balanced introduction to and examination of contemporary Japanese education that considers criticisms of Japanese schooling practices made by the participants themselves. While the post World War 2 system of schooling has provided valuable ingredients for economic success, the book argues that these have been accompanied by…

  3. Contemporary Greek Presentations of Ancient Greek Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metallinos, Nikos

    Confronted with the problems imposed by the stage presentation and interpretation of ancient Greek theatre to contemporary audiences, scholars have developed four major approaches to the presentation of Greek drama over the past 70 years. The first approach, referred to as modificationist or realist, claims that communicating ancient Greek drama…

  4. Contemporary-Music Studies Bloom in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces the Beijing Contemporary Music Institute where more than 3,000 undergraduates study music and dance. In a country where most music departments and conservatories are dedicated to teaching classical Chinese and Western music, the institute is breaking new ground. The college, which opened in 1993 with just 100…

  5. Contemporary Social Psychology in Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Dorwin

    1979-01-01

    The current state of social psychology is assessed in light of its historical and social context. The discipline is viewed as a social system, and it is argued that the properties of this system have influenced the research techniques, substantive content, and theories of contemporary social psychology. (Author/RD)

  6. The Ideology of Logic in Contemporary Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Rex

    2006-01-01

    This paper comments on the article "Psychology and Phenomenology: A Clarification" by H. H. Kendler. In this article, Kendler sought to resolve the methodological issue that divides much of contemporary psychology--namely, the difference between natural science and human science in their respective views of psychological life. Whereas Kendler…

  7. Educational Reform and Renewal in Contemporary Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickman, William W.

    This study is one of a series of Office of Education publications on educational developments in other countries. It describes and analyzes in social, economic, and historical context the educational changes mandated in Spain by the Education Reform Law of 1970, one of contemporary Europe's most far-reaching plans for educational reform and…

  8. Katherine Anne Porter on Her Contemporaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Phyllis

    Personal experiences with and critical judgments of leading artists and intellectuals of the twentieth century are recorded in Katherine Anne Porter's essays, letters and conversations which provide snapshots of her attitudes and encounters. Porter's commentaries about such contemporaries as Ernest Hemingway, William Faulkner, Saul Bellow,…

  9. Contemporary Drama in the English Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegfried, William

    1968-01-01

    Various approaches that teachers can use to help students interpret contemporary plays are presented in this discussion of teaching drama. Plays discussed include two from the Theater of Illusion ("Look Back in Anger,""A Raisin in the Sun"), two from the Theater of the Absurd ("Rhonoceros,""Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead"), and two from…

  10. A Contemporary Story of School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annan, Jean; Priestley, Anna

    2012-01-01

    A review of recent school psychology publications was conducted to discover the espoused theory of contemporary school psychology, as distinct from school psychology practice. We considered that identification of the espoused theory of school psychology, the story of school psychology, would support professional reflection and the identification…

  11. Contemporary Sexism in the South African Navy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Wijk, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The military traditionally embraces highly sexist attitudes. Over the past decade, the South African Navy (SAN) has been exposed to an increasingly progressive political environment. This study investigated contemporary expressions of sexism in the SAN. A representative sample of 476 sailors completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, Modern Sexism…

  12. Narrative Significations of Contemporary Black Girlhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Wanda; Sekayi, Dia; Savage, Lorraine; Waller, Ellyn; Picot, Iresha

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how Black girlhood is constructed through fiction. The following research question guided this study: How do writers represent the heterogeneity of urban teenage girls in school-sanctioned African American young adult literature? Five popular narratives that exemplify the contemporary lives of urban African American female…

  13. Contemporary Trends in Radiation Oncology Resident Research.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vivek; Burt, Lindsay; Gimotty, Phyllis A; Ojerholm, Eric

    2016-11-15

    To test the hypothesis that recent resident research productivity might be different than a decade ago, and to provide contemporary information about resident scholarly activity. We compiled a list of radiation oncology residents from the 2 most recent graduating classes (June 2014 and 2015) using the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology annual directories. We queried the PubMed database for each resident's first-authored publications from postgraduate years (PGY) 2 through 5, plus a 3-month period after residency completion. We abstracted corresponding historical data for 2002 to 2007 from the benchmark publication by Morgan and colleagues (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;74:1567-1572). We tested the null hypothesis that these 2 samples had the same distribution for number of publications using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. We explored the association of demographic factors and publication number using multivariable zero-inflated Poisson regression. There were 334 residents publishing 659 eligible first-author publications during residency (range 0-17; interquartile range 0-3; mean 2.0; median 1). The contemporary and historical distributions were significantly different (P<.001); contemporary publication rates were higher. Publications accrued late in residency (27% in PGY-4, 59% in PGY-5), and most were original research (75%). In the historical cohort, half of all articles were published in 3 journals; in contrast, the top half of contemporary publications were spread over 10 journals-most commonly International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics (17%), Practical Radiation Oncology (7%), and Radiation Oncology (4%). Male gender, non-PhD status, and larger residency size were associated with higher number of publications in the multivariable analysis. We observed an increase in first-author publications during training compared with historical data from the mid-2000s. These contemporary figures may be useful to medical students

  14. Biodeterioration of modern materials in contemporary collections: can biotechnology help?

    PubMed

    Cappitelli, Francesca; Principi, Pamela; Sorlini, Claudia

    2006-08-01

    Contemporary collections frequently contain man-made materials. Although synthetic materials are considered more resistant to chemical, physical and biological damage than natural materials, they can also undergo rapid deterioration. In this Opinion article, we claim that biotechnology can help to identify biodeteriogens and prevent colonisation of polymeric surfaces through the application of biological products that reduce cell adhesion. We report the study of 'Futuro', made in 1965 by the Finnish architect Matti Suuronne. This ski-cabin, constructed of glassfibre-reinforced polyester, polyester-polyurethane, and poly(methylmethacrylate), was significantly degraded by conspicuous growth of microorganisms, identified as Cyanobacteria and Archaea using fluorescent in situ hybridisation. Ultimately, if biodeteriogens are able to adhere to the polymer surfaces, molecules with enzymatic activity can help to prevent the formation of biofilms--a main cause of deterioration--and aid the work of the conservator.

  15. Contemporary Practice in the Elementary Classroom: A Study of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thulson, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Elementary school is not too early to introduce contemporary art; young students are especially adept at learning by mimicry and embracing contemporary art practices, including site-specific works. Elementary students are poised and capable to comprehend and respond to contemporary art. Tangible products can be made within a conceptual,…

  16. Contemporary Practice in the Elementary Classroom: A Study of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thulson, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Elementary school is not too early to introduce contemporary art; young students are especially adept at learning by mimicry and embracing contemporary art practices, including site-specific works. Elementary students are poised and capable to comprehend and respond to contemporary art. Tangible products can be made within a conceptual,…

  17. Contemporary Technologies...2...An Updated Plan for NIACC's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Alfred R.; And Others

    Background information on and plans for the use of contemporary technologies at North Iowa Area Community College (NIACC) are provided in this report. Part I begins with a discussion of the integration of contemporary technology in business and industry; describes NIACC's contemporary technology strategic planning initiative; and gives an overview…

  18. Contemporary outcomes research: tools of the trade.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Casey M

    2008-05-01

    Outcomes are, simply put, why a surgeon comes to work each day. For decades, surgeons have insisted on a regular self-examination of outcomes to ensure the optimal treatment of our patients. Clinical research in pediatric surgery has largely subsisted on outcome analysis as it relates to the rudimentary end-result of an operation, utilizing variables such as mortality, operative time, specific complication rates, and hospital length of stay to name a few. Recently, outcomes research has become a more complex endeavor. This issue of Seminars in Pediatric Surgery addresses a wide array of these newfound complexities in contemporary outcomes research. The purpose of this review is to assist the pediatric surgeon in understanding the tools that are used in contemporary outcomes research and to be able to use this information to ask new questions of our patients and ourselves as we continue to strive for excellence in caring for sick infants and children.

  19. Contemporary treatment of class II dens invaginatus.

    PubMed

    Sathorn, C; Parashos, P

    2007-04-01

    To present the nonsurgical management of a tooth with class II dens invaginatus with an open apex utilizing contemporary techniques. Root canal treatment of teeth with complex root canal anatomy such as dens invaginatus can be problematic because infected pulpal tissues may remain in inaccessible areas of the canal system. The cleaning and debridement of such root canal systems are therefore challenging and may sometimes be considered impossible. An immature apical root-end development is another challenge in root canal treatment especially in controlling the apical extent of the filling material and achieving an apical seal. When difficulties in cleaning and filling combine, management options may include surgical intervention or extraction. This article reports the nonsurgical endodontic treatment of a case of an open apex and dens invaginatus utilizing the operating microscope, endodontic ultrasonic instruments and mineral trioxide aggregate. Teeth with class II dens evaginatus and an open apex may be managed successfully with contemporary nonsurgical materials and techniques.

  20. Reconceptualising manual therapy skills in contemporary practice.

    PubMed

    Rabey, Martin; Hall, Toby; Hebron, Clair; Palsson, Thorvaldur Skuli; Christensen, Steffan Wittrup; Moloney, Niamh

    2017-03-06

    With conflicting evidence regarding the effectiveness of manual therapy calls have arisen within some quarters of the physiotherapy profession challenging the continued use of manual skills for assessment and treatment. A reconceptualisation of the importance of manual examination findings is put forward, based upon a contemporary understanding of pain science, rather than considering these skills only in terms of how they should "guide" manual therapy interventions. The place for manual examination findings within complex, multidimensional presentations is considered using vignettes describing the presentations of five people with low back pain. As part of multidimensional, individualised management, the balance of evidence relating to the effectiveness, mechanisms of action and rationale for manual skills is discussed. It is concluded that if manual examination and therapeutic skills are used in a manner consistent with a contemporary understanding of pain science, multidimensional patient profiles and a person-centred approach, their selective and judicious use still has an important role.

  1. Contemporary Review on Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection.

    PubMed

    Saw, Jacqueline; Mancini, G B John; Humphries, Karin H

    2016-07-19

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is gaining recognition as an important cause of myocardial infarction, especially in young women. There has been a surge in the diagnosis of SCAD in recent years, presumably due to an increased use of coronary angiography, and the clinical availability and application of high-resolution intracoronary imaging. The improved recognition and diagnosis, together with increased publications and attention through social media, have considerably raised awareness of this condition, which was once believed to be very rare. Recent publications of moderate to large contemporary case series have helped elucidate the early natural history, presenting characteristics (clinical and angiographic), underlying etiology, management, and cardiovascular outcomes with this condition, thus providing observations and important clinical insights of value to clinicians managing this challenging and perplexing patient cohort. The aim of our review is to provide a comprehensive contemporary update of SCAD to aid health care professionals in managing these patients in both the acute and chronic settings.

  2. Embodiment and aging in contemporary physiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hay, Melissa E; Connelly, Denise M; Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne

    2016-05-01

    Contemporary discourses in the health sciences vary in their treatment of aging bodies and the mind-body relationship, yet our understanding of aging experiences and health care practices can be limited by an overreliance on biomedical or social constructionist approaches alone. This paper offers a conceptual exploration of embodiment as an innovative approach to enhance our understandings of aging bodies and health in physiotherapy practice. Embodiment attends to body and mind, nature and culture, structure and agency, while appreciating differences in aging bodies and health in aging. Conclusions consider embodiment in the practice and disciplinary discourse of contemporary physiotherapy, specifically, considering the ways embodied perspectives can support therapists in their health care practice and relationships with people with aging bodies.

  3. Eurasianism: A Historical and Contemporary Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    unlimited EURASIANISM: A HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY CONTEXT Andrew T. Stafford Lieutenant, United States Navy B.S., United States Naval...Caucaso-Asia.’”11 Dugin disagrees with the international relations policies of the United States and the degree to which Eurasianism coincides with...likely possibility of its joining an alliance with the United States .84 Certainly, a Sino-US pact would pose a credible threat to Dugin’s designs for

  4. Contemporary Considerations in Cranial-Base Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Charles E.; Rogers, G. Aaron

    2008-01-01

    The development of new surgical and medical management techniques in skull-base surgery allows for improved patient care. The operative complexities encountered in these procedures necessitate a team-based approach to address total care of the surgical patient. A review of contemporary considerations in management of the patient undergoing skull-base surgery reveals the need for pre- and postoperative planning of surgical and medical management. PMID:19242578

  5. Madness and disability in contemporary Chinese film.

    PubMed

    Knight, Deirdre Sabina

    2006-01-01

    This article draws on recent research in the medical humanities to analyze two contemporary Chinese films: Zhang Yuan's Sons (1996) and Zhou Xiaowen's The Common People (1998). By portraying psychic and physical anguish in ways that refuse to divorce biology from culture, such films offer rare moral dialogues on biomedical issues and contribute a cross-cultural perspective invaluable to the task of responding to illness and suffering.

  6. The influence of genetics on contemporary art.

    PubMed

    Nelkin, Dorothy; Anker, Suzanne

    2002-12-01

    Contemporary visual artists are incorporating genetic concepts into their work, and this work has become prominently featured in numerous museum and gallery exhibitions. Such art uses visual images that represent the language of genomics, the values affected by genetic understanding of the body and the implications of bioengineering. Here, we present various examples of how artists depict aspects of genetics as cultural icons and symbols; in particular, their focus on DNA as information and on the commercialization of genetics research material.

  7. Contemporary Views on Criterion-Referenced Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    slightly different area of application, Knipe (1973) sumarized the Grand Forks Learning System in which CRTs played a salient part. The Grand Forks School ...Knipe concluded: "The criterion-referenced test is the only Contemporary Views 54 type of test that a school district can use to determine if it is...mathematics and science curriculum for the elementary school ’ (6) "National Assessment of Educational Progress", CRTs designed to assess student.achievement

  8. Population growth and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize

  9. Skin care: Historical and contemporary views

    PubMed Central

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M.; AlHomoudi, Fahad A.; Khurram, Huma

    2013-01-01

    Primary prevention, specifically skin care, is an important principle in Islamic theology just as it is emphasized in contemporary medicine. Many skin diseases can be prevented by a proactive approach to skin care, such as proper hygiene and routine inspections, principles that are constantly highlighted in the Islamic literature. Islam promotes primary prevention of disease, including recommendations for skin care practices. The recommendations for skin care practices in Islamic teachings are analogous to current medical guidelines. Sun avoidance, which is recommended by Islam, is mandatory for diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, melasma and skin cancers. Skin care and hygiene practices are recommended in Islam and it is considered an important mechanism for reducing the transmission of infections in modern medicine. The body creases and hair are ideal sites for malicious infestations to grow. The practice of “Wudu” includes washing the hands, feet, and hair with clean water. It is an indispensible part of daily prayers which is mandatory for every Muslim. Oral hygiene is also an integral part of both preventive medicine and Islamic teachings. Genital hygiene, particularly after urination and defecation, is recommended in Islamic teachings and is known to prevent urinary and vaginal infections in contemporary medicine. Male circumcision is an Islamic practice. Recently, it was proven that circumcised men are less likely to have sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. This paper reviews skin care from an Islamic perspective and its relevance to contemporary medicine by translating the simple self care principles into practical guidelines in everyday use. PMID:25061400

  10. Skin care: Historical and contemporary views.

    PubMed

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M; AlHomoudi, Fahad A; Khurram, Huma

    2014-07-01

    Primary prevention, specifically skin care, is an important principle in Islamic theology just as it is emphasized in contemporary medicine. Many skin diseases can be prevented by a proactive approach to skin care, such as proper hygiene and routine inspections, principles that are constantly highlighted in the Islamic literature. Islam promotes primary prevention of disease, including recommendations for skin care practices. The recommendations for skin care practices in Islamic teachings are analogous to current medical guidelines. Sun avoidance, which is recommended by Islam, is mandatory for diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, melasma and skin cancers. Skin care and hygiene practices are recommended in Islam and it is considered an important mechanism for reducing the transmission of infections in modern medicine. The body creases and hair are ideal sites for malicious infestations to grow. The practice of "Wudu" includes washing the hands, feet, and hair with clean water. It is an indispensible part of daily prayers which is mandatory for every Muslim. Oral hygiene is also an integral part of both preventive medicine and Islamic teachings. Genital hygiene, particularly after urination and defecation, is recommended in Islamic teachings and is known to prevent urinary and vaginal infections in contemporary medicine. Male circumcision is an Islamic practice. Recently, it was proven that circumcised men are less likely to have sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. This paper reviews skin care from an Islamic perspective and its relevance to contemporary medicine by translating the simple self care principles into practical guidelines in everyday use.

  11. [Psychiatric disorders of the contemporary battlefield].

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2008-06-01

    This article presents the factors exerted an influence on psychiatric health status of participants of military missions and psychiatric disorders forming on the contemporary battlefield. The main stressors are threats being a result of duty in warfare, also hard climatic conditions, long-lasting separation from family, foreign language of local population, other customs, religion, caused alienation of mission personnel. Significant factors seem also dependences on duty and unofficial relationships prevailing in military environment. The consequence of survived psychiatric trauma being a result of short-lived incident or prolonged event are often acute stress disorder (ASD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

  12. Contemporary Network Proteomics and Its Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Wilson Wen Bin; Wong, Limsoon; Sng, Judy Chia Ghee

    2013-01-01

    The integration of networks with genomics (network genomics) is a familiar field. Conventional network analysis takes advantage of the larger coverage and relative stability of gene expression measurements. Network proteomics on the other hand has to develop further on two critical factors: (1) expanded data coverage and consistency, and (2) suitable reference network libraries, and data mining from them. Concerning (1) we discuss several contemporary themes that can improve data quality, which in turn will boost the outcome of downstream network analysis. For (2), we focus on network analysis developments, specifically, the need for context-specific networks and essential considerations for localized network analysis. PMID:24833333

  13. Contemporary Perspectives on Spirituality and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pulkit; Charak, Ruby; Sharma, Vibha

    2009-01-01

    The paper strives to elucidate the complex yet intimate relation between spirituality and mental health from contemporary perspectives. The diverse and constantly evolving views that spiritualists and mental health professionals have held toward each other over last century are discussed with special accent on the transpersonal spiritual framework within psychology. The role of spirituality in promoting mental health and alleviating mental illness is highlighted. The paper is concluded with an increasing need to integrate spirituality within the mental health field albeit there are several impediments in achieving the same, which need to be worked through circumspectly. PMID:21938086

  14. Evidence for contemporary evolution during Darwin's lifetime.

    PubMed

    Hart, Adam G; Stafford, Richard; Smith, Angela L; Goodenough, Anne E

    2010-02-09

    Darwin's On the Origin of Species[1] introduced the world to the most fundamental concept in biological sciences - evolution. However, in the 150 years following publication of his seminal work, much has been made of the fact that Darwin was missing at least one crucial link in his chain of evidence - he had no evidence for contemporary evolution through natural selection. Indeed, as one commentator noted on the centenary of the publication of Origin, "Had Darwin observed industrial melanism he would have seen evolution occurring not in thousands of years but in thousands of days - well within his lifetime. He would have witnessed the consummation and confirmation of his life's work"[2].

  15. A contemporary Kleinian contribution to understanding racism.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Brian; Salhani, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This article applies a contemporary Kleinian understanding to the problem of racism and, in particular, to microaggressions. The article contributes to the social work literature on racism by (1) moving closer to an explanatory model of the relation between the social and the psyche; (2) adding depth and structure to the concept of unconscious racism; and (3) highlighting a range of Kleinian concepts, such as projection, projective identification, splitting, developmental positions, envy, and reparation, that contribute to understanding the internal and external dimensions of racialized encounters. The dynamic interaction of the psyche and the social is central to understanding racism and to effective antiracist intervention strategies.

  16. Contemporary perspectives on spirituality and mental health.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pulkit; Charak, Ruby; Sharma, Vibha

    2009-01-01

    The paper strives to elucidate the complex yet intimate relation between spirituality and mental health from contemporary perspectives. The diverse and constantly evolving views that spiritualists and mental health professionals have held toward each other over last century are discussed with special accent on the transpersonal spiritual framework within psychology. The role of spirituality in promoting mental health and alleviating mental illness is highlighted. The paper is concluded with an increasing need to integrate spirituality within the mental health field albeit there are several impediments in achieving the same, which need to be worked through circumspectly.

  17. Nasal Myiasis in Hinduism and Contemporary Otorhinolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Bosmia, Anand N; Zimmermann, Terence M; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Shane Tubbs, R; Rosenthal, Eben L

    2017-08-01

    Various case reports on nasal myiasis written during the 1990s and 2000s state that nasal myiasis, which is known as peenash among South Asian natives, is a form of divine punishment in Hindu mythology, but do not provide citations from Hindu scriptures that would suggest this interpretation. This paper aims to discuss the phenomenon of peenash in a historical context by examining medical literature written during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, to identify Hindu texts contributing to the belief of some Hindus that nasal myiasis is a form of divine punishment, and to provide an overview of contemporary treatment for and management of nasal myiasis.

  18. A Contemporary Approach to Facial Reanimation.

    PubMed

    Jowett, Nate; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2015-01-01

    The management of acute facial nerve insult may entail medical therapy, surgical exploration, decompression, or repair depending on the etiology. When recovery is not complete, facial mimetic function lies on a spectrum ranging from flaccid paralysis to hyperkinesis resulting in facial immobility. Through systematic assessment of the face at rest and with movement, one may tailor the management to the particular pattern of dysfunction. Interventions for long-standing facial palsy include physical therapy, injectables, and surgical reanimation procedures. The goal of the management is to restore facial balance and movement. This article summarizes a contemporary approach to the management of facial nerve insults.

  19. What is urban in the contemporary world?

    PubMed

    Monte-Mór, Roberto Luís

    2005-01-01

    Central concepts of contemporary life such as politics, civilization, and citizenship derive from the city's form and social organization. The city expresses the socio-spatial division of labor, and Henri Lefebvre proposes to view its transformation within a continuum from the political city to the urban, whereby it completes its domination over the countryside. The city's transformation into the urban takes place when industry brings production (and the proletariat) into that space of power. The city, locus of surplus, power, and the fiesta, a privileged scenario for social reproduction, was subordinated to the industrial logic and underwent a dual process: its centrality imploded, and its outskirts exploded on surrounding areas through the urban fabric, bearing with it the seeds of the polis and civitas. The urban praxis, formerly restricted to the city, re-politicized social space as a whole. In Brazil, the urban has its origins in the military governments' centralizing and integrating policies, following Vargas's expansionism and Kubitschek's developmental interiorization (or occupation of the hinterlands). Today, urban-industrial processes impose themselves over virtually all social space, in contemporary extended urbanization.

  20. The Bobath concept in contemporary clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Graham, Julie Vaughan; Eustace, Catherine; Brock, Kim; Swain, Elizabeth; Irwin-Carruthers, Sheena

    2009-01-01

    Future development in neurorehabilitation depends upon bringing together the endeavors of basic science and clinical practice. The Bobath concept is widely utilized in rehabilitation following stroke and other neurological conditions. This concept was first developed in the 1950s, based on the neuroscience knowledge of those times. The theoretical basis of the Bobath concept is redefined based on contemporary neuroscience and rehabilitation science. The framework utilized in the Bobath concept for the analysis of movement and movement dysfunction is described. This framework focuses on postural control for task performance, the ability to move selectively, the ability to produce coordinated sequences of movement and vary movement patterns to fit a task, and the role of sensory input in motor behaviour and learning. The article describes aspects of clinical practice that differentiate this approach from other models of practice. Contemporary practice in the Bobath concept utilizes a problem-solving approach to the individual's clinical presentation and personal goals. Treatment is focused toward remediation, where possible, and guiding the individual towards efficient movement strategies for task performance. The aim of this article is to provide a theoretical framework on which future research into the Bobath concept can be based.

  1. A Seminar Course on Contemporary Pharmacy Issues

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To implement and evaluate an innovative approach to a pharmacy seminar course intended to develop students' presentation skills and encourage them to think critically about contemporary pharmacy issues. Design The instructor provided lectures intended to prepare students for their presentations. These lectures included tips on writing abstracts, learning objectives, use of visual aids, and presentation delivery. Pairs of students chose a pharmacy issue, researched their topic including identifying various strengths of evidence to support a perspective, wrote an abstract and learning objectives, prepared their visual aids, and delivered a pro/con perspective. Students also provided peer evaluations for these presentations. A personal response system was used to provide class input on the presentations. Assessment Ninety-five percent of the peer evaluations of the presentations were good to excellent. The overall course evaluations indicated achievement of course goals. Conclusions A pharmacy seminar course intended to develop student presentation skills and critical thinking about contemporary pharmacy issues was demonstrated to be successful. The “taking sides” format was an effective design for accomplishing these objectives. PMID:18483598

  2. [Stereotyping of overweight children by their contemporaries].

    PubMed

    Thiel, Ansgar; Alizadeh, Manuela; Giel, Katrin; Zipfel, Stephan

    2008-12-01

    Childhood obesity represents not only a health risk but results also in social exclusion and stigmatization. While several studies have been conducted on this topic in America [1-3], there are hardly any German trials on the social impact of obesity in childhood and adolescence. This study investigates whether and how obese children and adolescents are stigmatized by their contemporaries because of their corpulence. A total of 454 (230 female, 224-male) children and adolescents aged 10-15 years from high and secondary modern schools in a Southern German university city were asked about how they appreciate their obese contemporaries. The interviewees were asked to assess six photographs of girls and boys with regard to sympathy, playmate preference, activity, intelligence and attractiveness. Obese children were assessed far more negatively in all asked areas compared to normal weight healthy and physically disabled children respectively. They were also referred to as more dislikable, lazy, less intelligent, unalluring and less considerable as playmates. This applies particularly for the obese boy. Hence, negative stereotypization of obese people can already be observed in childhood and adolescence.

  3. Intergenerational fertility correlations in contemporary developing counties.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the magnitude of intergenerational continuities in total and effective fertility among women in a group of 46 contemporary developing countries. Information collected from 93,000 women aged 45-49 for estimation of maternal mortality in the demographic and health surveys (DHS) program is analyzed using Pearson product moment intergenerational fertility correlations. A positive but usually small intergenerational correlation is found for both completed fertility (CFS, total number of children born) and effective fertility (EFS, number of children surviving to age of reproduction). Although the developing countries are mainly located in sub-Saharan Africa, a similar pattern appears to hold for the Asian and Latin American countries included. Women in the second generation with no education have a stronger relationship with their parents' fertility than women with some education. The relationship is also stronger in rural than in urban areas and in countries with lower levels of development. Intergenerational correlations of completed fertility in both generations are marginally stronger than for effective fertility largely because the number of a woman's total sibs is more strongly related to her subsequent childbearing than her number of adult sibs. Values of intergenerational correlations for these countries are similar to published values for a number of Western pretransitional populations, but well below values in contemporary developed societies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A contemporary microbially maintained subglacial ferrous "ocean".

    PubMed

    Mikucki, Jill A; Pearson, Ann; Johnston, David T; Turchyn, Alexandra V; Farquhar, James; Schrag, Daniel P; Anbar, Ariel D; Priscu, John C; Lee, Peter A

    2009-04-17

    An active microbial assemblage cycles sulfur in a sulfate-rich, ancient marine brine beneath Taylor Glacier, an outlet glacier of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, with Fe(III) serving as the terminal electron acceptor. Isotopic measurements of sulfate, water, carbonate, and ferrous iron and functional gene analyses of adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase imply that a microbial consortium facilitates a catalytic sulfur cycle. These metabolic pathways result from a limited organic carbon supply because of the absence of contemporary photosynthesis, yielding a subglacial ferrous brine that is anoxic but not sulfidic. Coupled biogeochemical processes below the glacier enable subglacial microbes to grow in extended isolation, demonstrating how analogous organic-starved systems, such as Neoproterozoic oceans, accumulated Fe(II) despite the presence of an active sulfur cycle.

  5. Digoxin: its role in contemporary medicine.

    PubMed

    Stucky, Marcelle A; Goldberger, Zachary D

    2015-09-01

    Digoxin has been a key therapeutic for heart failure and atrial tachyarrhythmias for over 200 years following Withering's groundbreaking work depicting the therapeutic benefit of the common botanical foxglove in his 1785 monograph. The use of digoxin preceded any randomised evidence or even basic understanding of its mechanism of action. Over the past two decades, there has been mounting evidence further challenging the safety and efficacy of digoxin, while multiple other therapies for both heart failure and atrial tachyarrhythmias have proven to be more effective and safe. Altogether, digoxin still has an important role in contemporary pharmacotherapeutics, though its role remains controversial and should be reserved for selective patients and clinical situations, with careful attention to serum concentrations.

  6. Noise and vibration issues in contemporary facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Jack B.

    2005-09-01

    Contemporary medical facilities, whether for diagnosis, treatment or research, must accommodate the needs of humans and medical instruments or equipment. With regard to acoustics, the disparate requirements vary from acoustic privacy to freedom from intrusive noise, to vibration control. Medical facilities also grow and change, subjecting occupants to demolition and construction disturbances. Acoustical criteria employed in building designs are often inadequate to control the full spectral range of requirements, although criteria for many conditions do exist. This paper presents interesting problems and conditions that occur in healthcare and research facilities with brief case studies to illustrate them, including construction disturbances, tonal noise affects on patients, privacy, and vibration and low frequency noise affects on medical equipment. Measurement data will contrast ambient versus disturbed conditions. Solution concepts to example problems will be presented with photo or drawing illustrations. Discussion will include typical conflicts, constraints, limitations and compromises. Concluding remarks will suggest application of appropriate and comprehensive acoustical, noise and vibration criteria.

  7. Intravital microscopy in historic and contemporary immunology.

    PubMed

    Secklehner, Judith; Lo Celso, Cristina; Carlin, Leo M

    2017-07-01

    In this review, we discuss intravital microscopy of immune cells, starting from its historic origins to current applications in diverse organs. It is clear from a quantitative review of the literature that intravital microscopy is a key tool in both historic and contemporary immunological research, providing unique advances in our understanding of immune responses. We have chosen to focus this review on how intravital microscopy methodologies are used to image specific organs or systems and we present recent descriptions of fundamental immunological processes that could not have been achieved by other methods. The following target organs/systems are discussed in more detail: cremaster muscle, skin (ear and dorsal skin fold chamber), lymph node, liver, lung, mesenteric vessels, carotid artery, bone marrow, brain, spleen, foetus and lastly vessels of the knee joint.

  8. The Bhagavad Gita and contemporary psychotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Subhash C.; Madabushi, Jayakrishna; Kolli, Venkata; Bhatia, Shashi K.; Madaan, Vishal

    2013-01-01

    The Bhagavad Gita is based on a discourse between Lord Krishna and Arjuna at the inception of the Kurukshetra war and elucidates many psychotherapeutic principles. In this article, we discuss some of the parallels between the Gita and contemporary psychotherapies. We initially discuss similarities between psychodynamic theories of drives and psychic structures, and the concept of three gunas. Arjuna under duress exhibits elements of distorted thinking. Lord Krishna helps remedy this through a process akin to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). We ascertain the analogies between the principles of Gita and CBT, grief emancipation, role transition, self-esteem, and motivation enhancement, as well as interpersonal and supportive psychotherapies. We advocate the pragmatic application of age old wisdom of the Gita to enhance the efficacy of psychotherapeutic interventions for patients from Indian subcontinent and to add value to the art of western psychotherapies. PMID:23858274

  9. Aquinas and Contemporary Cosmology: Creation and Beginnings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, William E.

    Discussions in the Middle Ages about creation and the temporal beginning of the world involved sophisticated analyses in theology, metaphysics, and natural philosophy. Mediaeval insights on this subject, especially Thomas Aquinas' defense of the intelligibility of an eternal, created universe, can help to clarify reflections about the philosophical and theological implications of contemporary cosmological theories: from the "singularity" of the Big Bang, to "quantum tunneling from nothing," to multiverse scenarios. Thomas' insights help us to see the value of Georges Lemaître's insistence that his cosmological reflections must be kept separate from an analysis of creation. This essay will look at different senses of "beginning" and examine the claim that creation, in its fundamental meaning, tells us nothing about whether there is a temporal beginning to the universe. Multiverse models, like that recently proposed by Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow, may challenge certain views of a Grand Designer, but not of a Creator.

  10. Methane hydrates and contemporary climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2011-01-01

    As the evidence for warming climate became better established in the latter part of the 20th century (IPCC 2001), some scientists raised the alarm that large quantities of methane (CH4) might be liberated by widespread destabilization of climate-sensitive gas hydrate deposits trapped in marine and permafrost-associated sediments (Bohannon 2008, Krey et al. 2009, Mascarelli 2009). Even if only a fraction of the liberated CH4 were to reach the atmosphere, the potency of CH4 as a greenhouse gas (GHG) and the persistence of its oxidative product (CO2) heightened concerns that gas hydrate dissociation could represent a slow tipping point (Archer et al. 2009) for Earth's contemporary period of climate change.

  11. Differential Kinematics Of Contemporary Industrial Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkodny, T.

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents a simple method of avoiding singular configurations of contemporary industrial robot manipulators of such renowned companies as ABB, Fanuc, Mitsubishi, Adept, Kawasaki, COMAU and KUKA. To determine the singular configurations of these manipulators a global form of description of the end-effector kinematics was prepared, relative to the other links. On the basis of this description , the formula for the Jacobian was defined in the end-effector coordinates. Next, a closed form of the determinant of the Jacobian was derived. From the formula, singular configurations, where the determinant's value equals zero, were determined. Additionally, geometric interpretations of these configurations were given and they were illustrated. For the exemplary manipulator, small corrections of joint variables preventing the reduction of the Jacobian order were suggested. An analysis of positional errors, caused by these corrections, was presented

  12. Contemporary art and the ethics of anatomy.

    PubMed

    Barilan, Y Michael

    2007-01-01

    The ethics of anatomy bears on the ways in which we present and behold human bodies and human remains, as well as on the duties we have with regard to the persons whose bodies or body parts are presented. Anatomy is also a mode of thought and of social organization. Following Merleau-Ponty's assertion that the human body belongs both to the particular and to the metaphysical, I contend that art's ways of rendering of the particular in human anatomy often bring into relief metaphysical and ethical insights relevant to clinical medicine. This paper discusses the art of Gideon Gechtman, Mary Ellen Mark, Shari Zolla, and Christine Borland. It considers the relationship of these artists to earlier artistic traditions and the implications of their work for contemporary medicine and the biopsychosocial paradigm. Andrew Wyeth, the Visible Male Project, the Isenheim Altarpiece by GrA(1/4)newald, and an anonymous Dutch Baroque portrait are also discussed.

  13. Augmentation cystoplasty: Contemporary indications, techniques and complications

    PubMed Central

    Veeratterapillay, Rajan; Thorpe, Andrew C.; Harding, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Augmentation cystoplasty (AC) has traditionally been used in the treatment of the low capacity, poorly compliant or refractory overactive bladder (OAB). The use of intravesical botulinum toxin and sacral neuromodulation in detrusor overactivity has reduced the number of AC performed for this indication. However, AC remains important in the pediatric and renal transplant setting and still remains a viable option for refractory OAB. Advances in surgical technique have seen the development of both laparoscopic and robotic augmentation cystoplasty. A variety of intestinal segments can be used although ileocystoplasty remains the most common performed procedure. Early complications include thromboembolism and mortality, whereas long-term problems include metabolic disturbance, bacteriuria, urinary tract stones, incontinence, perforation, the need for intermittent self-catheterization and carcinoma. This article examines the contemporary indications, published results and possible future directions for augmentation cystoplasty. PMID:24235795

  14. [The discourse of psychosis in contemporary philosophy].

    PubMed

    Stompe, Thomas; Ritter, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    The preoccupation of philosophy with madness can be traced back till the Greek antiquity. For many philosophers like Descartes psychotic phenomena were symbols for the fragility of human mental powers, while others like Plato or Nietzsche saw madness as a way to escape the constraints of rationality. After 1960 three direction of contemporary philosophy dealt with the topics madness--schizophrenia--psychosis: Following Nietzsche and Bataille, Foucault as well as Deleuze and Guattari considered schizophrenia as the societal oppressed reverse of modern rationality, a notion which had a strong influence on the anti-psychiatric movement. Philosophical phenomenology primarily focussed on ontological problems of the psychotic existence. Finally Philosophy of Mind, the modern Anglo-American version of analytical philosophy, analyzed the logical coherence of psychotic inferences and experiences. Especially the insights of analytical philosophy may be important for a more sophisticated interpretation of psychopathological research as well as of the new findings of neuroscience.

  15. Contemporary evaluation and management of renal trauma.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, Jyoti D; Winer, Andrew G; Johnson, Christina; Weiss, Jeffrey P; Hyacinthe, Llewellyn M

    2016-04-01

    Renal trauma occurs in approximately 1%-5% of all trauma cases. Improvements in imaging and management over the last two decades have caused a shift in the treatment of this clinical condition. A systematic search of PubMed was performed to identify relevant and contemporary articles that referred to the management and evaluation of renal trauma. Computed tomography remains a mainstay of radiological evaluation in hemodynamically stable patients. There is a growing body of literature showing that conservative, non-operative management of renal trauma is safe, even for Grade IV-V renal injuries. If surgical exploration is planned due to other injuries, a conservative approach to the kidney can often be utilized. Follow up imaging may be warranted in certain circumstances. Urinoma, delayed bleeding, and hypertension are complications that require follow up. Appropriate imaging and conservative approaches are a mainstay of current renal trauma management.

  16. Quantifying Training Loads in Contemporary Dance.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Annie C; Wallace, Lee; Coutts, Aaron J

    2017-07-01

    To describe the training demands of contemporary dance and determine the validity of using the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) to monitor exercise intensity and training load in this activity. In addition, the authors examined the contribution of training (ie, accelerometry and heart rate) and non-training-related factors (ie, sleep and wellness) to perceived exertion during dance training. Training load and ActiGraphy for 16 elite amateur contemporary dancers were collected during a 49-d period, using heart-rate monitors, accelerometry, and sRPE. Within-individual correlation analysis was used to determine relationships between sRPE and several other measures of training intensity and load. Stepwise multiple regressions were used to determine a predictive equation to estimate sRPE during dance training. Average weekly training load was 4283 ± 2442 arbitrary units (AU), monotony 2.13 ± 0.92 AU, strain 10677 ± 9438 AU, and average weekly vector magnitude load 1809,707 ± 1015,402 AU. There were large to very large within-individual correlations between training-load sRPE and various other internal and external measures of intensity and load. The stepwise multiple-regression analysis also revealed that 49.7% of the adjusted variance in training-load sRPE was explained by peak heart rate, metabolic equivalents, soreness, motivation, and sleep quality (y = -4.637 + 13.817%HRpeak + 0.316 METS + 0.100 soreness + 0.116 motivation - 0.204 sleep quality). The current findings demonstrate the validity of the sRPE method for quantifying training load in dance, that dancers undertake very high training loads, and a combination of training and nontraining factors contribute to perceived exertion in dance training.

  17. Contemporary Culture: A Model for Teaching a Culture's Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Tom

    Current approaches to teaching culture which have adapted the anthropological model to contemporary life situations can serve as a guide to the organization of traditional civilization course material, from which exercises can be developed. Culture instruction should incorporate a cross-cultural dimension, be authentically contemporary, and be…

  18. Embodying Multiplicity: The Independent Contemporary Dancer's Moving Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I argue for an acknowledgement of the significance of the dancer's role in the creation of independent contemporary dance. I propose the term "moving identity" to outline the independent contemporary dancer's "way of moving" which could be perceived as the accumulation of various factors including training approaches,…

  19. Embodying Multiplicity: The Independent Contemporary Dancer's Moving Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I argue for an acknowledgement of the significance of the dancer's role in the creation of independent contemporary dance. I propose the term "moving identity" to outline the independent contemporary dancer's "way of moving" which could be perceived as the accumulation of various factors including training approaches,…

  20. Using Classic and Contemporary Visual Images in Clinical Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Janine C.

    1990-01-01

    The patient's body is an image that medical students and residents use to process information. The classic use of images using the patient is qualitative and personal. The contemporary use of images is quantitative and impersonal. The contemporary use of imaging includes radiographic, nuclear, scintigraphic, and nuclear magnetic resonance…

  1. "Tupy or not Tupy?" Examining Hybridity in Contemporary Brazilian Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastos, Flavia M. C.

    2006-01-01

    Updating the 1920s notion of Anthropophagy developed to symbolize through cannibalistic ritual the process of cultural assimilation that influences art, this article examines issues of naming, describing, and representing contemporary Brazilian art. In the first part of the article, the work of four contemporary Brazilian artists recently…

  2. Moral Values in Contemporary Literature: A Teaching Dissertation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikins, Mary Patricia Truxler

    This dissertation dealt with the preparation, design, teaching, and evaluation of a course in moral values in contemporary literature. Through lectures, group discussions, and multi-media presentations the course examined the possibility of using the moral approach to literary criticism as a form of analysis for contemporary literature. The course…

  3. Are Teens "Post-Gay"? Contemporary Adolescents' Sexual Identity Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Stephen T.; Clarke, Thomas J.; Clary, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that historically typical sexual identity labels--"gay," "lesbian" and "bisexual"--have lost meaning and relevance for contemporary adolescents. Yet there is little empirical evidence that contemporary teenagers are "post-gay." In this brief study we investigate youths' sexual identity…

  4. The Contemporary Women's Movement and Women's Education in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Ila

    1998-01-01

    Examines how the contemporary women's movement in India (1975-present) has addressed the issue of women's education. Highlights contributions of the 19th-century social-reformist movement and the nationalist movement. Details the role of the contemporary women's movement in redefining knowledge and the curriculum. Concludes with challenges facing…

  5. On Speech Communication; An Anthology of Contemporary Writings and Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Charles J.

    This anthology of contemporary messages is designed to offer the student a combination of varied readings related to the medium and subject matter of speech communication. The messages involve a variety of speakers and issues. The emphasis is on the contemporary, with special attention given to the relevance of speech communication to our society.…

  6. Using Classic and Contemporary Visual Images in Clinical Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Janine C.

    1990-01-01

    The patient's body is an image that medical students and residents use to process information. The classic use of images using the patient is qualitative and personal. The contemporary use of images is quantitative and impersonal. The contemporary use of imaging includes radiographic, nuclear, scintigraphic, and nuclear magnetic resonance…

  7. A Woven Collective: Transformative Practices through Contemporary Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, Jane

    2015-01-01

    When first encountering contemporary art, the viewer is confronted with particular challenges--the works can be both surprising in application of materials and provocative in presentation. Contemporary art can confound its audience as they attempt to decode and interpret its meaning. This Instructional Resource outlines an approach for art…

  8. Social Engagements with Contemporary Art: Connecting Theory with Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leake, Maria D.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Leake is arguing for the relevance of contemporary art as a way to bridge the gap between theory and practice in the spaces of art education. Graeme Sullivan develops a similar argument in his "Studies" article, "The Art of Research." Where Leake looks to possibilities for contemporary art as it is presented in…

  9. Art and the Contemporary Scene. Art Education: 6677.11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Jean; Hilf, Anne

    This curriculum guide for Art Education, grades 7-12, deals with forms of contemporary artistic expression--plastics, stitchery, posters, macrame, leather, and candle making. The rationale of the course is to legitimize experimental art in the curriculum and broaden the learner's interest in contemporary art activities. The course includes…

  10. Teen Artists: Impact of a Contemporary Art Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Hales, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the effects of a yearlong, multivisit teen program in a contemporary art museum on adolescents' reflections about art. Our purpose was to discover whether this program, focused on experiences with contemporary art and artists with its metacognitive approach, affected students' thinking about their own artmaking. The…

  11. Social Engagements with Contemporary Art: Connecting Theory with Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leake, Maria D.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Leake is arguing for the relevance of contemporary art as a way to bridge the gap between theory and practice in the spaces of art education. Graeme Sullivan develops a similar argument in his "Studies" article, "The Art of Research." Where Leake looks to possibilities for contemporary art as it is presented in…

  12. A Woven Collective: Transformative Practices through Contemporary Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, Jane

    2015-01-01

    When first encountering contemporary art, the viewer is confronted with particular challenges--the works can be both surprising in application of materials and provocative in presentation. Contemporary art can confound its audience as they attempt to decode and interpret its meaning. This Instructional Resource outlines an approach for art…

  13. Teen Artists: Impact of a Contemporary Art Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Hales, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the effects of a yearlong, multivisit teen program in a contemporary art museum on adolescents' reflections about art. Our purpose was to discover whether this program, focused on experiences with contemporary art and artists with its metacognitive approach, affected students' thinking about their own artmaking. The…

  14. Pestalozzian and Froebelian Influences on Contemporary Elementary School Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarr, Patricia

    1989-01-01

    Explores the reasons art teaching practices developed by Pestalozzi and Froebel in the 1800's continue to influence contemporary schools, especially at the kindergarten and primary grades. Argues that 19th century school art coexists in contemporary North American elementary schools with school art forms originated by Cizek because each represents…

  15. "Playing Attention": Contemporary Aesthetics and Performing Arts Audience Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prendergast, Monica

    2004-01-01

    This essay draws on the contemporary aesthetic theories of four writers -Hans-Georg Gadamer, Paul Ricoeur, Paul Thom, and James O. Young-who represent both the continental and analytic contemporary philosophical schools of thought. Each writer offers valuable perspectives on issues in aesthetic education pertaining to a key question in my…

  16. Codes of medical ethics: traditional foundations and contemporary practice.

    PubMed

    Sohl, P; Bassford, H A

    1986-01-01

    The Hippocratic Coprus recognized the interaction of 'business' and patient-health moral considerations, and urged that the former be subordinated to the latter. During the 1800s with the growth of complexity in both scientific knowledge and the organization of health services, the medical ethical codes addressed themselves to elaborate rules of conduct to be followed by the members of the newly emerging national medical associations. After World War II the World Medical Association was established as an international forum where national medical associations could debate the ethical problems presented by modern medicine. The International Code of Medical ethics and the Declaration of Geneva were written as 20th century restatements of the medical profession's commitment to the sovereignty of the patient-care norm. Many ethical statements have been issued by the World Medical Association in the past 35 years; they show the variety and difficulties of contemporary medical practice. The newest revisions were approved by the General Assembly of the World Medical Association in Venice, Italy October 1983. Their content is examined and concern is voiced about the danger of falling into cultural relativism when questions about the methods of financing medical services are the subject of an ethical declaration which is arrived at by consensus in the W.M.A.

  17. Saving Satir: Contemporary Perspectives on the Change Process Model.

    PubMed

    Wretman, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Virginia Satir continues to be a highly influential figure in family therapy. The summation of her decades of work with families, the Satir growth model (SGM), remains a relevant therapeutic approach that is still practiced by many. This narrative review sought to examine (a) the core therapeutic methods developed by Satir for working with families, and (b) the empirical evidence to support the use of such methods. The author reviewed both firsthand and secondhand accounts of Satir's model of therapy, as well as extant research. Results from four included studies lend equivocal support for the continued use of Satir's approaches in contemporary family therapy. Implications for clinicians include the need for further refinement and systematization of the SGM. Also, researchers must empirically test Satir's methods using stronger methodology with larger and more diverse samples. In an age where evidence-based practice has become standard, all stakeholders must actively work to bolster the support for Virginia Satir's work, lest her important contributions to family therapy be forgotten due to insufficient evidence.

  18. Blood-building foods in contemporary Chinese populations.

    PubMed

    Ludman, E K; Newman, J M; Lynn, L L

    1989-08-01

    According to ancient Chinese medicine, "weak blood" is a yin condition that occurs during growth, pregnancy, the postpartum period, and old age. Treatment requires use of special foods that are "yang" in nature. This article investigated the use of such blood-building foods in seven contemporary Chinese populations throughout the world. Analysis of questionnaires from 379 respondents indicated that high-protein foods, such as pork liver and other meats, were recommended most often. Although these and other foods recommended were primarily yang, only 8.1% of respondents considered weak blood a "yin" condition. Comparison of 717 responses concerning foods that should be used to treat weak blood showed more similarities than differences between Chinese populations in different parts of the world. Strong adherence to cultural practices was also evident. Self-diagnosis and self-prescription are common modes of treating symptoms in the Chinese and other cultures. Knowledge of beneficial food-related health practices can enable practitioners to counsel their clients more effectively and to develop bilingual educational materials that incorporate familiar cultural practices.

  19. Neanderthal ancestry drives evolution of lipid catabolism in contemporary Europeans.

    PubMed

    Khrameeva, Ekaterina E; Bozek, Katarzyna; He, Liu; Yan, Zheng; Jiang, Xi; Wei, Yuning; Tang, Kun; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Prufer, Kay; Kelso, Janet; Paabo, Svante; Giavalisco, Patrick; Lachmann, Michael; Khaitovich, Philipp

    2014-04-01

    Although Neanderthals are extinct, fragments of their genomes persist in contemporary humans. Here we show that while the genome-wide frequency of Neanderthal-like sites is approximately constant across all contemporary out-of-Africa populations, genes involved in lipid catabolism contain more than threefold excess of such sites in contemporary humans of European descent. Evolutionally, these genes show significant association with signatures of recent positive selection in the contemporary European, but not Asian or African populations. Functionally, the excess of Neanderthal-like sites in lipid catabolism genes can be linked with a greater divergence of lipid concentrations and enzyme expression levels within this pathway, seen in contemporary Europeans, but not in the other populations. We conclude that sequence variants that evolved in Neanderthals may have given a selective advantage to anatomically modern humans that settled in the same geographical areas.

  20. Neanderthal ancestry drives evolution of lipid catabolism in contemporary Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Khrameeva, Ekaterina E.; Bozek, Katarzyna; He, Liu; Yan, Zheng; Jiang, Xi; Wei, Yuning; Tang, Kun; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Prufer, Kay; Kelso, Janet; Paabo, Svante; Giavalisco, Patrick; Lachmann, Michael; Khaitovich, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Although Neanderthals are extinct, fragments of their genomes persist in contemporary humans. Here we show that while the genome-wide frequency of Neanderthal-like sites is approximately constant across all contemporary out-of-Africa populations, genes involved in lipid catabolism contain more than threefold excess of such sites in contemporary humans of European descent. Evolutionally, these genes show significant association with signatures of recent positive selection in the contemporary European, but not Asian or African populations. Functionally, the excess of Neanderthal-like sites in lipid catabolism genes can be linked with a greater divergence of lipid concentrations and enzyme expression levels within this pathway, seen in contemporary Europeans, but not in the other populations. We conclude that sequence variants that evolved in Neanderthals may have given a selective advantage to anatomically modern humans that settled in the same geographical areas. PMID:24690587

  1. Improving the Teaching of Contemporary Europe: A Textbook Study [and] Improving the Teaching of Contemporary Europe: Conference Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Merry; Hutton, Deborah

    Results of a textbook study to determine what U.S. secondary school students are learning about contemporary Europe are presented, and highlights of the "Conference on Improving the Teaching of Contemporary Europe" at which the study was presented are summarized. A sampling of secondary school geography, world history, and U.S. history textbooks…

  2. Contemporary and futuristic views of pollution control devices in foundries.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, R

    2015-10-01

    Foundry practices are used in contemporary world to produce large volume of components and products. Foundry practices involve the melting of metals and pouring the molten metal into the cavities called molds. On solidification, the metals which assume the shape of molds are removed as castings. Foundries that employ these practices were growing in large number till the middle part of the twentieth century in the world. After the middle part of the twentieth century, the world community begun to realize that, foundries were emitting pollutants which were affecting the health of humans. In order to overcome this situation, several countries in the world promulgated laws stipulating the maximum level of pollutants that can emit by foundries. These laws affected the functioning and growth of foundries. In order to sustain amidst these constraints, foundries begun to install energy efficient melting technologies and pollution control devices (PCDs). In this back ground, this paper reports to assess the contemporary scenario and project the future needs for sustaining the foundries. During the conduct of this literature review, it was discernable that, research papers have reported three categories of researches. In the first category of research papers, the researches reporting the achievement of cleaner production technologies in foundries using PCDs have appeared. In the second category of research papers, the application of cleaner production technology in foundries located in different countries has been examined. In the third category of research papers, the application of efficient melting technologies and PCDs in different clusters of foundries located in different parts of world has been explored. Subsequently implementation technics of Environmental Management System in cleaner production technics in foundries has been described the analysis of the information and knowledge drawn from these three categories of papers has revealed that, researches exploring the

  3. 75 FR 53731 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Contemporary Argentine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... for Exhibition Determinations: ``Contemporary Argentine Masterworks'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given... hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Contemporary Argentine...

  4. Shrinking fish: comparisons of prehistoric and contemporary salmonids indicate decreasing size at age across millennia.

    PubMed

    Turrero, Pablo; García-Vázquez, Eva; de Leaniz, Carlos Garcia

    2014-10-01

    A comparison of Upper Palaeolithic and contemporary salmonid vertebrae from the Iberian Peninsula indicates that there has been a significant decrease in the mean body size for a given age among Atlantic salmon and brown trout inhabiting the southernmost range of their endemic distribution. Mean size at age was greater in prehistoric specimens for all age classes during the freshwater phase of their life histories. Fisheries-induced evolution (selection for smaller sizes) is an obvious explanation for the observed reduction in fish body size, but recent changes in the aquatic habitat affecting density-dependent growth cannot be ruled out.

  5. Shrinking fish: comparisons of prehistoric and contemporary salmonids indicate decreasing size at age across millennia

    PubMed Central

    Turrero, Pablo; García-Vázquez, Eva; de Leaniz, Carlos Garcia

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of Upper Palaeolithic and contemporary salmonid vertebrae from the Iberian Peninsula indicates that there has been a significant decrease in the mean body size for a given age among Atlantic salmon and brown trout inhabiting the southernmost range of their endemic distribution. Mean size at age was greater in prehistoric specimens for all age classes during the freshwater phase of their life histories. Fisheries-induced evolution (selection for smaller sizes) is an obvious explanation for the observed reduction in fish body size, but recent changes in the aquatic habitat affecting density-dependent growth cannot be ruled out. PMID:26064529

  6. Contemporary perspectives on Lacanian theories of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    In contemporary Lacanian psychoanalysis, Verhaeghe's theory of actualpathology psychopathology in psychosis and the Millerian idea of "ordinary psychosis" provide diverging conceptual approaches to psychosis. In this paper, the two approaches to psychosis are examined with a particular emphasis on "mild psychosis" and compensatory mechanisms. Despite the shared focus on similar clinical phenomena, particularly body disturbances, these two theories provide different explanations of psychosis. Verhaeghe's theory of psychosis is a synthesis of Lacanian theory, Freud's idea of actual neurosis and psychoanalytic attachment concepts. Moreover, these ideas are situated in the "schizophrenia/paranoia dichotomy" an important heuristic device utilized in clinical practice with psychosis. In contrast, the Millerian field of ordinary psychosis aims to broaden the idea of psychosis by reviving the idea of "mild psychosis" and the different forms of stabilization possible in psychosis. Clinicians adapting the idea of ordinary psychosis aim to rethink pivotal Lacanian concepts-"untriggered" psychosis and stabilization-beyond the scope of the schizophrenia/paranoia dichotomy. Although the idea of ordinary psychosis requires further development, it promise greater utility than Verhaeghe's model, as it provides a broader and more nuanced approach to the complex vicissitudes of triggering and restitution in psychosis.

  7. Clinical effectiveness of contemporary dentin bonding agents

    PubMed Central

    Krithikadatta, Jogikalmat

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on the clinical effectiveness of contemporary resin-based dentin bonding agents primarily focussing on the longevity of restoration. Materials and Methods: The literature published from June 2004 up to September 2010 was reviewed for clinical trials that tested the effectiveness of dentin bonding agents in the longevity of noncarious class V restoration. Results of each study reported using the USPHS criteria for clinical assessment of restoration were included and tabulated. The American Dental Association guidelines for dentin and enamel adhesives were used as a reference to compare the performance of individual bonding agents. Kruskal–Wallis followed by Mann–Whitney U was done to compare the mean Alfa score percentage for the three categories of bonding systems [etch-and-rinse (ER), self-etch primer (SEP), and self-etch-adhesive (SEA)]. Results: A comparison of the mean Alfa score percentages revealed no difference between the ER, SEP, and SEA categories of bonding systems except for marginal adaptation where ER was found to be superior to SEA. Conclusion: The clinical effectiveness of resin-based bonding agents is comparable among the three categories. PMID:21217944

  8. Benefits of Greenery in Contemporary City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtudes, Ana

    2016-10-01

    Greenery has always played an important role in the construction of cities. The need for green spaces has been present at city level since ancient times. However, the description of the evolutionary process of form and function of urban green spaces as it has developed from antiquity depends greatly upon the different roles played by these places throughout history. Nowadays, given that the main part of the world population is living in cities, it can be said that greenery has a strategic importance in the contemporary urban fabric. Therefore, urban design solutions should always consider both buildings and vegetation as being defining city's elements. However, the city is currently dominated by building structures which are detrimental to green spaces, causing problems of congestion and pollution. The most recent and compulsory Portuguese urban rehabilitation principles emphasize the improvement of sustainability. It is, therefore, critical to draw attention to this area and find innovative solutions in this domain, especially with regards the integration of vegetation in historical areas. In this sense, this research aims to present an approach about the importance of greenery in cities, referring some examples of green spaces as landmarks in the urban historiography. It is also focused on the benefits of green spaces in dense urban areas and their contribution for the sustainability of the cities.

  9. Contemporary perspectives on Lacanian theories of psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    In contemporary Lacanian psychoanalysis, Verhaeghe's theory of actualpathology psychopathology in psychosis and the Millerian idea of “ordinary psychosis” provide diverging conceptual approaches to psychosis. In this paper, the two approaches to psychosis are examined with a particular emphasis on “mild psychosis” and compensatory mechanisms. Despite the shared focus on similar clinical phenomena, particularly body disturbances, these two theories provide different explanations of psychosis. Verhaeghe's theory of psychosis is a synthesis of Lacanian theory, Freud's idea of actual neurosis and psychoanalytic attachment concepts. Moreover, these ideas are situated in the “schizophrenia/paranoia dichotomy” an important heuristic device utilized in clinical practice with psychosis. In contrast, the Millerian field of ordinary psychosis aims to broaden the idea of psychosis by reviving the idea of “mild psychosis” and the different forms of stabilization possible in psychosis. Clinicians adapting the idea of ordinary psychosis aim to rethink pivotal Lacanian concepts—“untriggered” psychosis and stabilization—beyond the scope of the schizophrenia/paranoia dichotomy. Although the idea of ordinary psychosis requires further development, it promise greater utility than Verhaeghe's model, as it provides a broader and more nuanced approach to the complex vicissitudes of triggering and restitution in psychosis. PMID:23825465

  10. Modern analytical chemistry in the contemporary world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šíma, Jan

    2016-12-01

    Students not familiar with chemistry tend to misinterpret analytical chemistry as some kind of the sorcery where analytical chemists working as modern wizards handle magical black boxes able to provide fascinating results. However, this approach is evidently improper and misleading. Therefore, the position of modern analytical chemistry among sciences and in the contemporary world is discussed. Its interdisciplinary character and the necessity of the collaboration between analytical chemists and other experts in order to effectively solve the actual problems of the human society and the environment are emphasized. The importance of the analytical method validation in order to obtain the accurate and precise results is highlighted. The invalid results are not only useless; they can often be even fatal (e.g., in clinical laboratories). The curriculum of analytical chemistry at schools and universities is discussed. It is referred to be much broader than traditional equilibrium chemistry coupled with a simple description of individual analytical methods. Actually, the schooling of analytical chemistry should closely connect theory and practice.

  11. VOLUMETRIC POLYMERIZATION SHRINKAGE OF CONTEMPORARY COMPOSITE RESINS

    PubMed Central

    Nagem, Halim; Nagem, Haline Drumond; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Coutinho, Kennedy Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill Magic, Alert, and Solitaire) to determine whether there are differences among these materials. The tests were conducted with precision of 0.1 mg. The volumetric shrinkage was measured by hydrostatic weighing before and after polymerization and calculated by known mathematical equations. One-way ANOVA (á=0.05) was used to determine statistically significant differences in volumetric shrinkage among the tested composite resins. Suprafill (1.87±0.01) and Definite (1.89±0.01) shrank significantly less than the other composite resins. SureFil (2.01±0.06), Filtek Z250 (1.99±0.03), and Fill Magic (2.02±0.02) presented intermediate levels of polymerization shrinkage. Alert and Solitaire presented the highest degree of polymerization shrinkage. Knowing the polymerization shrinkage rates of the commercially available composite resins, the dentist would be able to choose between using composite resins with lower polymerization shrinkage rates or adopting technical or operational procedures to minimize the adverse effects deriving from resin contraction during light-activation. PMID:19089177

  12. Growing pains: contemporary knowledge and recommended practice

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Angela M

    2008-01-01

    Background Leg pain in children, described as growing pains, is a frequent clinical presentation seen by an array of health care professionals. Described since 1823, growing pains continues to puzzle practitioners, yet diagnostic criteria and evidence based treatment is available. Methods The medical literature has been searched exhaustively to access all articles (English language) pertaining to leg pains in children which are ascribed to being 'growing pains'. Results The literature, whilst plentiful in quantity and spanning two centuries, is generally replete with reiterated opinion and anecdote and lacking in scientific rigour. The author searched 45 articles for relevance, determined according to title, abstract and full text, resulting in a yield of 22 original studies and 23 review articles. From the original studies, one small (non-blinded) randomised controlled trial that focused on GP treatment with leg muscle stretching was found. Nine prevalence studies were found revealing disparate estimates. Ten cohort (some case-controlled) studies, which investigated pain attribute differences in affected versus unaffected groups, were found. One series of single case experiment designs and one animal model study were found. Conclusion Growing pains is prevalent in young children, presents frequently in the health care setting where it is poorly managed and is continuing to be researched. A common childhood complaint, growing pains needs to be acknowledged and better managed in the contemporary medical setting. PMID:18822152

  13. Contemporary genetic technologies and female reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Fauser, B.C.J.M.; Diedrich, K.; Bouchard, P.; Domínguez, F.; Matzuk, M.; Franks, S.; Hamamah, S.; Simón, C.; Devroey, P.; Ezcurra, D.; Howles, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The Fifth Evian Annual Reproduction (EVAR) Workshop Meeting discussed knowledge regarding contemporary genetics in female reproduction. METHODS Specialist reproductive medicine clinicians and geneticists delivered presentations based on published literature and current research. The content of this report is based on the expert presentations and subsequent group discussions that took place during this Workshop. RESULTS Numerous ovarian genes with a role in infertility have been identified. Future challenges for genetic screening of patients, such as those with polycystic ovary syndrome, primary ovarian insufficiency or endometriosis, include the identification of high-throughput strategies and how to apply these findings to infertile patients. The identification of high-quality embryos in IVF using objective technologies remains a high priority in order to facilitate single-embryo transfer. Gene expression profiling of cumulus cells surrounding the oocyte, and proteomic and metabolomic approaches in embryo culture media may significantly improve non-invasive embryo quality assessment. CONCLUSIONS The way forward in advancing the knowledge of genes involved in reproduction was considered to be through genome-wide association studies involving large numbers of patients. Establishing international collaboration is required to enable the application of such technologies in sufficient numbers of patients. PMID:21896560

  14. Digital dental photography: a contemporary revolution.

    PubMed

    Desai, Vela; Bumb, Dipika

    2013-09-01

    Photographs are symbolic of memories and with the advent of digital photography it has become much easier to collect them in a second in a more comprehensive and qualitative manner. Technological advancements in the field of digital photography have revolutionized the concept of photography as a powerful medium of expression and communication. It also offers a spectrum of perception, interpretation and execution. Photography and dentistry go hand in hand for revelation of the hidden and overlooked defects in teeth and other parts of the cavity. This article emphasizes on the significance of digital photography in dentistry and guidelines for capturing orofacial structures and radiographs in a more accurate and informative manner. Dental world constitutes of microstructures that have to be recorded in a detailed manner in order to perform patient education, documentation of records and treatment, illustration of lectures, publication and web connectivity of complicated cases. How to cite this article: Desai V, Bumb D. Digital Dental Photography: A Contemporary Revolution. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):193-196.

  15. [Thoughts on demographic optimization in contemporary Poland].

    PubMed

    Oledzki, M

    1980-01-01

    This article presents the viewpoint of the Polish school of social policy of the Institute of Social Economy concerning the problem of optimization of demographic structures and processes in contemporary Poland. This school was created under the leadership of the outstanding sociologist Ludwik Krzywicki (1859-1941). The reasoning concerns, first of all, the scientific premises of the choice of criteria of demographic optimization examined and then there is a critical assessment of modern simplified approaches to the definition of optimum population. It also shows actual possibilities of demographic optimization and the complexity of analytical categories of socioeconomic processes which determine the development of the population in specific time and space. In conclusion, the theory of demographic optimization is regarded as a task too ambitious and perhaps even utopian in view of the assumptions needed for its satisfactory realization. This conclusion confirms the thesis contained in the handbook of demography by J.Z. Holzer published in 1970. The author considers, however, that the search for a theory of demographic optimization is still a task which mobilizes social sciences to an integration centered on demography and social policy. (author's)

  16. Contemporary geophysics from Babylonian clay tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, L. V.; Stephenson, F. R.

    1997-01-01

    History and astronomy can be brought to bear on problems in contemporary geophysics. From seemingly crude ancient and medieval observations of eclipses, we show that variations in the length of the day can be traced back over the past 2500 years. The tidal torque exerted by the Moon (and, to a lesser extent, by the Sun) is the dominant mechanism in reducing the Earth's spin. It is known that by this mechanism, the length of the day is increasing by .- 1 + 2 3ms per century (mscy ). By analysing observations of eclipses, we find the actual measured change in the length of the day to be + 1.7mscy , from which we conclude that besides the tidal contribution, there is another long-term component acting to reduce - 1 the length of the day by- 0.6mscy . This component, which is thought to result from the decrease in the Earth's oblateness following the last Ice Age, is consistent with recent measurements made by artificial satellites. - 1

  17. Contemporary Clinical Management of Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dinkelspiel, Helen E.; Wright, Jason D.; Lewin, Sharyn N.; Herzog, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Although the contemporary management of endometrial cancer is straightforward in many ways, novel data has emerged over the past decade that has altered the clinical standards of care while generating new controversies that will require further investigation. Fortunately most cases are diagnosed at early stages, but high-risk histologies and poorly differentiated tumors have high metastatic potential with a significantly worse prognosis. Initial management typically requires surgery, but the role and extent of lymphadenectomy are debated especially with well-differentiated tumors. With the changes in surgical staging, prognosis correlates more closely with stage, and the importance of cytology has been questioned and is under evaluation. The roles of radiation in intermediate-risk patients and chemotherapy in high-risk patients are emerging. The therapeutic index of brachytherapy needs to be considered, and the best sequencing of combined modalities needs to balance efficacy and toxicities. Additionally novel targeted therapies show promise, and further studies are needed to determine the appropriate use of these new agents. Management of endometrial cancer will continue to evolve as clinical trials continue to answer unsolved clinical questions. PMID:23864861

  18. Contemporary research of dynamically induced phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, L. M.

    2017-01-01

    Dynamically induced phase transitions in metals, within the present discussion, are those that take place within a time scale characteristic of the shock waves and any reflections or rarefactions involved in the loading structure along with associated plastic flow. Contemporary topics of interest include the influence of loading wave shape, the effect of shear produced by directionality of the loading relative to the sample dimensions and initial velocity field, and the loading duration (kinetic effects, hysteresis) on the appearance and longevity of a transformed phase. These topics often arise while considering the loading of parts of various shapes with high explosives, are typically two or three-dimensional, and are often selected because of the potential of the transformed phase to significantly modify the motion. In this paper, we look at current work on phase transitions in metals influenced by shear reported in the literature, and relate recent work conducted at Los Alamos on iron's epsilon phase transition that indicates a significant response to shear produced by reflected elastic waves. A brief discussion of criteria for the occurrence of stress induced phase transitions is provided. Closing remarks regard certain physical processes, such as fragmentation and jet formation, which may be strongly influenced by phase transitions.

  19. Contemporary Research of Dynamically Induced Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Lawrence

    2015-06-01

    Dynamically induced phase transitions in metals, within the present discussion, are those that take place within a time scale characteristic of the shock waves and any reflections or rarefactions involved in the loading structure along with associated plastic flow. Contemporary topics of interest include the influence of loading wave shape, the effect of shear produced by directionality of the loading relative to the sample dimensions and initial velocity field, and the loading duration (kinetic effects, hysteresis) on the appearance and longevity of a transformed phase. These topics often arise while considering the loading of parts of various shapes with high explosives, are typically two or three-dimensional, and are often selected because of the potential of the transformed phase to significantly modify the motion. In this paper, we look at current work on phase transitions in metals influenced by shear reported in the literature, and relate recent work conducted at Los Alamos on iron's epsilon phase transition that indicates a significant response to shear produced by reflected elastic waves. A brief discussion of criteria for the occurrence of stress induced phase transitions is provided. Closing remarks regard certain physical processes, such as fragmentation and jet formation, which may be strongly influenced by phase transitions. Supported by the DoD/DOE Joint Munitions Technology Development Program.

  20. Contemporary issues: diseases with a food vector.

    PubMed Central

    Archer, D L; Young, F E

    1988-01-01

    Foodborne disease has become a contemporary issue. Several large, well-publicized outbreaks of foodborne disease have heightened public awareness that harmful microorganisms may be present in food and that chronic as well as acute disease may be caused by foodborne microbes. The field of food microbiology has likewise experienced a resurgence of interest. New tools, such as recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid technology and monoclonal antibody production, used to elucidate microbial virulence factors have facilitated identification of disease-causing microbes once thought to be harmless and demonstrated the complexity of individual virulence mechanisms previously considered to be well understood. Foodborne pathogens are also causing disease via some surprising food vectors, such as chopped, bottled garlic and sauteed onions. In addition to acute gastrointestinal disturbances, certain microorganisms may, through complex interactions with the human immune response, cause chronic diseases that affect several major organ systems. These microbes are serving as models in studies of molecular mimicry and genetic interrelatedness of procaryotes and eucaryotes. Other recently recognized attributes of foodborne microorganisms, such as the heat shock phenomenon and the possible nonculturability of some bacteria, may affect their ability to cause disease in humans. Because foodborne disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, the study of these diseases and their causative microorganisms presents a unique challenge to many professionals in the subdisciplines of microbiology, epidemiology, and clinical medicine. PMID:3069199

  1. Global biogeochemical modeling of contemporary fire emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Depaz, J. M.; van der Werf, G. R.; Giglio, L.; Morton, D. C.; Kasibhatla, P.; Defries, R. S.; Jin, Y.; Mu, M.; Collatz, G. J.

    2008-12-01

    Improved estimates of contemporary fire emissions are needed to better understand the effects of a changing fire regime on climate and air quality. At a global scale, uncertainties in fire emissions arise from several sources, including estimates of burned area, aboveground biomass, combustion completeness, and emission factors. The development of long-term time series requires addressing additional sources of uncertainty related to the integration of different satellite fire products, the representation of organic soils and peatlands, and the use of fire in the deforestation process. Here we describe improvements to a global fire emissions time series (Global Fire Emissions Database version 3) that reduce uncertainties associated with many of the factors described above. We then characterized long-term trends in fire emissions for different continental-scale regions during 1996-2007. Using South America as an example, we show how climate and human activity contribute to interannual variability in emissions and how the spatial pattern of emissions has changed over time. In a final step we use atmospheric observations of carbon monoxide (CO) from Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) and Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) to refine and validate our bottom-up emissions estimates for South America.

  2. Contemporary systemic therapy for male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Katherine L; Tyldesley, Scott; Speers, Caroline H; Woods, Ryan; Villa, Diego

    2014-02-01

    The use, effectiveness, and tolerability of tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors, and trastuzumab in early and advanced male breast cancer were examined at a population level. A total of 158 consecutively referred men with invasive breast cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2010 were identified. Stage and prognostic factors were compared with a random sample of contemporary female patients. Survival outcomes were compared with a separate female cohort matched 2:1 by prognostic and treatment factors. Men were older (median 69.5 years) than women (median 60 years) and presented with more advanced stage disease. Estrogen receptor was positive in 96% (n = 152) of cases. Tamoxifen was more commonly used than aromatase inhibitors in the curative and metastatic settings. Adherence to adjuvant tamoxifen therapy was generally adequate with estimated actuarial rates of persistence at 1 year and 3.5 years of 89% and 70%, respectively. For the 146 men treated with curative intent, 5-year overall survival, breast cancer-specific survival and progression-free survival were 72%, 86%, and 62%, respectively. Outcomes were similar to matched female patients in univariate and multivariate analyses. In this large population-based study, outcomes appear similar between male and risk-matched female patients with breast cancer. Side effect profiles, tolerance, adherence, and outcomes after tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors, and trastuzumab in men appear comparable with those described in the literature for women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Music and Astronomy: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The link between music and astronomy has deep historical roots. William Herschel, who is considered to be the father of modern astronomy, began his career as a musician. He was a composer, organist at a church in Bath, UK, and a major contributor to the musical life of that community. Like Herschel, I too am an organist and composer, and much of my creative work focuses on connections between music and astronomy. This presentation will explore briefly aspects of William Herschel's musical career, and will then focus on contemporary music inspired by astronomical phenomena. Emphasis will be placed on the use of music as a creative teaching tool in informal education environments. The University of Arizona's Astronomy Camp, hosted at both Mt. Lemmon and Kitt Peak National Observatory, will be used as an example and case study. Examples from my creative activity as an organ performer and composer will be important features of this presentation. This presentation builds on the session exploring the life and work of the Herschels at the January 2011 AAS Historical Astronomy Division meeting in Seattle, WA.

  4. Contemporary spirituality: a call to wholeness.

    PubMed

    Coleman, H

    1986-06-01

    Our society and thus our health care organizations are beset by a dualistic perspective that identifies some groups as embodying "masculine" characteristics that are desirable, implying that other groups are less valuable. This perspective, visible in ageism, sexism, and racism, threatens the call to live and heal as Jesus lived and healed, which is the cornerstone of the Catholic health care ministry. A contemporary wholistic spirituality must be articulated that emphasizes individual responsibility for living as a person who believes in the dignity of all persons created by God. Modifying the language of health care is one way to better reflect a wholistic orientation. Two expressions that require special attention are "health care provider" and "patient." Substituting "health care promoter" and "client" for these terms would emphasize the health care ministry's role in helping persons with health care needs to be involved in the healing process. Since a health care organization's effectiveness depends on its members' commitment to healing, it is imperative that the organization's values be modeled and communicated to the members through the organization's decisions and activities. It likewise is important that those involved in the healing ministry reflect on their spirituality, their relationships with self, God, and others, to monitor those values that affect their relationships and experiences.

  5. Contemporary "urologic" intervention in the pancreaticobiliary tree.

    PubMed

    Ponsky, L E; Geisinger, M A; Ponsky, J L; Streem, S B

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the role of minimally invasive "urologic" interventional techniques for the treatment of pancreaticobiliary calculi in contemporary practice. Fourteen patients with retained cystic duct (n = 2), hepatic duct (n = 5), common duct (n = 2), pancreatic duct (n = 4), or gallbladder (n = 1) calculi were treated with 19 procedures, including shock wave lithotripsy (n = 9) and percutaneous flexible endoscopy with electrohydraulic or holmium laser lithotripsy (n = 10). Previous attempts using standard gastroenterologic or radiologic interventions before the urologic referral had failed in all 14 patients. A successful result, defined by the resolution of stones and symptoms, was achieved in 12 patients (86%); 2 patients (14%) had residual calculi that ultimately required an open operative procedure. The hospital stay for each intervention was 0 to 2 nights, and no patients had any significant complications. Even in this age of advanced gastroenterologic technology, including laparoscopic cholecystectomy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatoscopy, and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, the urologist can play a significant role in the minimally invasive treatment of patients with complicated biliary disease such that the need for open operative "salvage" procedures will be further minimized.

  6. Learning from a contemporary history of immunology.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Melvin

    2017-06-01

    This essay is a selected aspect of the history of contemporary immunology seen from a "what can we learn" point of view. It is limited to the ideas and experiments from which we might draw a take-home message. The emphasis is on the convoluted pathway that was actually used by immunologists to arrive at understanding compared to the direct pathway that could have been used given the knowledge at that time. It takes the reader through the instructionist era of the 1940s to the present by stressing the elements of thinking most conducive to the arrival at a default understanding of the intact immune system. It is a personalized account because the author participated directly in the debates that led eventually to agreed-upon or default conceptualizations. Given this, a peek at the future is attempted as a test of the validity of a Cartesian or reductionist approach to arriving at simplification of complexity and at the maximizing of generalization. A reasoned guess (i.e., a theory) is the only way we have to understand the world around us.

  7. Digital Dental Photography: A Contemporary Revolution

    PubMed Central

    Bumb, Dipika

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Photographs are symbolic of memories and with the advent of digital photography it has become much easier to collect them in a second in a more comprehensive and qualitative manner. Technological advancements in the field of digital photography have revolutionized the concept of photography as a powerful medium of expression and communication. It also offers a spectrum of perception, interpretation and execution. Photography and dentistry go hand in hand for revelation of the hidden and overlooked defects in teeth and other parts of the cavity. This article emphasizes on the significance of digital photography in dentistry and guidelines for capturing orofacial structures and radiographs in a more accurate and informative manner. Conclusion: Dental world constitutes of microstructures that have to be recorded in a detailed manner in order to perform patient education, documentation of records and treatment, illustration of lectures, publication and web connectivity of complicated cases. How to cite this article: Desai V, Bumb D. Digital Dental Photography: A Contemporary Revolution. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):193-196. PMID:25206221

  8. 2. Contemporary photograph of the view depicted in photograph 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Contemporary photograph of the view depicted in photograph 1. Isolated kiln at left is the leftmost in photo 1. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  9. The Contemporary Hazard of Cometary Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, David

    1994-01-01

    Cosmic impacts pose a continuing hazard of loss of human life and property. Significant contemporary risk is associated with projectiles in the energy range from about 10 megatons of TNT up to the size of the K/T impactor. The lower threshold for damage is defined by the atmosphere of the Earth, which effectively shields us From smaller projectiles. Up to energies of about a gigaton of TNT, the effects are local or regional for impacts on the land, or coastal for ocean impacts, which can generate large tsunamis. A greater risk is associated with still larger impacts, which are capable of causing global ecological catastrophe, possibly leading to mass mortality From starvation and epidemics. If such a impact took place anywhere on Earth during our lifetimes, we would each be in danger, independent of where the projectile struck. Statistical estimates indicate that each human on this planet runs a risk of roughly 1 in 20,000 of dying from this cause. Prudence suggests that we should be concerned about such impacts and seek ways of avoiding them or mitigating their consequences. The primary objective of any program to deal with this hazard is to determine whether or not such a near-term impact is likely. The best approach for the asteroidal component is a comprehensive telescopic survey, which can discover all Earth-crossing asteroids larger than 1 km in diameter and provide decades of warning in which to plan ways to deflect or destroy a threatening object. Long-period comets, however, pose a much greater challenge, since they cannot be discovered long in advance of a possible impact, their orbits are harder to predict, and they are significantly more difficult to deflect or destroy.

  10. Contemporary issues in Australian midwifery regulation.

    PubMed

    Brodie, P; Barclay, L

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on research that examined the Nurses' Acts, regulations and current policies of each state and territory in Australia, in order to determine their adequacy in regulating the education and practice of midwifery. This is part of a three-year study (Australian Midwifery Action Project) set up to identify and investigate barriers to midwifery within the provision of mainstream maternity services in Australia. Through an in-depth examination and comparison of key factors in the various statutes, the paper identifies their effect on contemporary midwifery roles and practices. The work assessed whether the current regulatory system that subsumes midwifery into nursing is adequate in protecting the public appropriately and ensuring that minimum professional standards are met. This is of particular importance in Australia, where many maternity health care services are seeking to maximise midwives' contributions through the development of new models of care that increase midwives' autonomy and level of accountability. A lack of consistency and evidence of discrepancies in the standards of midwifery education and practice regulation nationally are identified. When these are considered alongside the planned development of a three-year Bachelor of Midwifery, due to be introduced into Australia in mid-2002, there exists an urgent need for regulatory change. The need is also identified for appropriate national midwifery competency standards that meet consumer, employer and practitioner expectations, which can be used to guide state and territory regulations. We argue the importance of a need for change in the view and legal positioning of the Australian Nursing Council and all Nurses Boards regarding the identification of midwifery as distinct from nursing, and substantiate it with a rationale for a national and consistent approach to midwifery regulation.

  11. The Contemporary Hazard of Cometary Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, David

    1994-01-01

    Cosmic impacts pose a continuing hazard of loss of human life and property. Significant contemporary risk is associated with projectiles in the energy range from about 10 megatons of TNT up to the size of the K/T impactor. The lower threshold for damage is defined by the atmosphere of the Earth, which effectively shields us From smaller projectiles. Up to energies of about a gigaton of TNT, the effects are local or regional for impacts on the land, or coastal for ocean impacts, which can generate large tsunamis. A greater risk is associated with still larger impacts, which are capable of causing global ecological catastrophe, possibly leading to mass mortality From starvation and epidemics. If such a impact took place anywhere on Earth during our lifetimes, we would each be in danger, independent of where the projectile struck. Statistical estimates indicate that each human on this planet runs a risk of roughly 1 in 20,000 of dying from this cause. Prudence suggests that we should be concerned about such impacts and seek ways of avoiding them or mitigating their consequences. The primary objective of any program to deal with this hazard is to determine whether or not such a near-term impact is likely. The best approach for the asteroidal component is a comprehensive telescopic survey, which can discover all Earth-crossing asteroids larger than 1 km in diameter and provide decades of warning in which to plan ways to deflect or destroy a threatening object. Long-period comets, however, pose a much greater challenge, since they cannot be discovered long in advance of a possible impact, their orbits are harder to predict, and they are significantly more difficult to deflect or destroy.

  12. Contemporary issues surrounding folic Acid fortification initiatives.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Yates, Zoe; Veysey, Martin; Heo, Young-Ran; Lucock, Mark

    2014-12-01

    The impact of folate on health and disease, particularly pregnancy complications and congenital malformations, has been extensively studied. Mandatory folic acid fortification therefore has been implemented in multiple countries, resulting in a reduction in the occurrence of neural tube defects. However, emerging evidence suggests increased folate intake may also be associated with unexpected adverse effects. This literature review focuses on contemporary issues of concern, and possible underlying mechanisms as well as giving consideration the future direction of mandatory folic acid fortification. Folate fortification has been associated with the presence of unmetabolized folic acid (PteGlu) in blood, masking of vitamin B12 deficiency, increased dosage for anti-cancer medication, photo-catalysis of PteGlu leading to potential genotoxicity, and a role in the pathoaetiology of colorectal cancer. Increased folate intake has also been associated with twin birth and insulin resistance in offspring, and altered epigenetic mechanisms of inheritance. Although limited data exists to elucidate potential mechanisms underlying these issues, elevated blood folate level due to the excess use of PteGlu without consideration of an individual's specific phenotypic traits (e.g. genetic background and undiagnosed disease) may be relevant. Additionally, the accumulation of unmetabolized PteGlu may lead to inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase and other enzymes. Concerns notwithstanding, folic acid fortification has achieved enormous advances in public health. It therefore seems prudent to target and carefully monitor high risk groups, and to conduct well focused further research to better understand and to minimize any risk of mandatory folic acid fortification.

  13. Contemporary Issues Surrounding Folic Acid Fortification Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Yates, Zoe; Veysey, Martin; Heo, Young-Ran; Lucock, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The impact of folate on health and disease, particularly pregnancy complications and congenital malformations, has been extensively studied. Mandatory folic acid fortification therefore has been implemented in multiple countries, resulting in a reduction in the occurrence of neural tube defects. However, emerging evidence suggests increased folate intake may also be associated with unexpected adverse effects. This literature review focuses on contemporary issues of concern, and possible underlying mechanisms as well as giving consideration the future direction of mandatory folic acid fortification. Folate fortification has been associated with the presence of unmetabolized folic acid (PteGlu) in blood, masking of vitamin B12 deficiency, increased dosage for anti-cancer medication, photo-catalysis of PteGlu leading to potential genotoxicity, and a role in the pathoaetiology of colorectal cancer. Increased folate intake has also been associated with twin birth and insulin resistance in offspring, and altered epigenetic mechanisms of inheritance. Although limited data exists to elucidate potential mechanisms underlying these issues, elevated blood folate level due to the excess use of PteGlu without consideration of an individual’s specific phenotypic traits (e.g. genetic background and undiagnosed disease) may be relevant. Additionally, the accumulation of unmetabolized PteGlu may lead to inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase and other enzymes. Concerns notwithstanding, folic acid fortification has achieved enormous advances in public health. It therefore seems prudent to target and carefully monitor high risk groups, and to conduct well focused further research to better understand and to minimize any risk of mandatory folic acid fortification. PMID:25580388

  14. Contemporary Science and Worldview-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, Alberto

    2009-06-01

    This paper discusses the impact of contemporary scientific knowledge on worldviews. The first three sections provide epistemological background for the arguments that follow. Sections 2 and 3 discuss the reliable part of science, specifically the characterization, scope and limits of the present scientific canon. Section 4 deals with the mode of thinking responsible for both the canon’s credibility and its power to guide speculative activity. With these preliminaries in place, the remainder of the paper addresses the issue of tolerance to “alternative perspectives”. The analyses in this part focus on the extent to which mature scientific thought embodies open-mindedness, with pluralism and competition between perspectives as central themes. I argue for four related claims, concerning scientific literacy, the impact of the canon on rational speculation, the limits of scientific pluralism, and the popular idea that recent forms of “scientific (natural) theology” have rational merit and can help worldview-making in our age, respectively: (C1) Which theories and narratives (or parts of them) belong in the scientific canon, and whether they are worldview independent, are matters contingent upon the state of knowledge—not something one can convincingly determine on metascientific or transcendental insight. (C2) The current scientific canon and its associated methodology provide research with strong directionality, often against popular currents. (C3) Current science does marginalize some views dear to many people. (C4) Although natural theology “officially” purports to embody scientific methodology, all it presently has on offer are poorly thought out ventures embodying (at best) only relaxed versions of that methodology; if so, the relationship between current projects in natural theology and science cannot (without begging the question) be reasonably described as one of “partial overlap”, “mutual modification”, or “ongoing complementarity”.

  15. Contemporary labor patterns and maternal age.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Mary N; Hibbard, Judith U; Kominiarek, Michelle A

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate labor progress and length according to maternal age. Data were abstracted from the Consortium on Safe Labor, a multicenter retrospective study from 19 hospitals in the U.S. We studied 120,442 laboring gravid women with singleton, term, cephalic fetuses with normal outcomes and without a prior cesarean delivery from 2002 to 2008. Maternal age categories were younger than 20 years of age, 20-29 years of age, 30-39 years of age, and 40 years of age or older with the reference being younger than 20 years of age. Interval-censored regression analysis was used to determine median traverse times (progression centimeter by centimeter) with 95th percentiles adjusting for covariates (race, admission body mass index, diabetes, gestational age, induction, augmentation, epidural use, and birth weight). A repeated-measures analysis with an eighth-degree polynomial model was used to construct mean labor curves for each maternal age category stratified by parity. Traverse times for nulliparous women demonstrated the time to progress from 4 to 10 cm decreased as age increased up to age 40 years (median 8.5 hours compared with 7.8 hours in those 20-29 years of age group and 7.4 hours in the 30-39 years of age group, P<.001); the length of the second stage with and without epidural increased with age (P<.001). For multiparous women, time to progress from 4 to 10 cm decreased as age increased (median 8.8 hours, 7.5, 6.7, and 6.5 from the youngest to oldest maternal age groups, P<.001). Labor progressed faster with increasing maternal age in both nulliparous and multiparous women in the labor curves analysis. The first stage of labor progressed more quickly with increasing age for nulliparous women up to age 40 years and all multiparous women. Contemporary labor management should account for maternal age. II.

  16. [Bioethical issues in contemporary medical sciences].

    PubMed

    Zyciński, B J

    1996-01-01

    Unprecedented advances in the natural sciences and in medical technology bring many moral issues unknown to previous generations. Very often in their medical practice physicians face problems in which the basic role is played by moral commitment. In this context, a set of qualitatively new questions emerges: Should we continue medical treatment when the patient asks that it be discontinued? Must we preserve the life of the irreversibly comatose patients? How to assess moral aspects of various forms of donating organs for transplants in evolving social-cultural situation? Does any religion provide a definition of biological death that would be inconsistent with the definition provided by the medical sciences? To answer such ethical questions that emerge in our evolving culture, there is an urgent need for interdisciplinary discussions developed by scientists, philosophers, and theologians. In a philosophically justified attitude of Christian personalism, any life has an unique value, though it cannot be regarded as an absolutely highest value (The Catechism of the Catholic Church, p. 2289). The donation of the organs should be regarded as an act of love. To be an act of human person, the decision of donation should be expressed in a free and deliberate, manne. In this perspective, the principle of the presumed consent is assessed critically because it implies hierarchy of values in which pure pragmatism is appreciated more than the love to our neighbours (The Catechism... p. 2296). Certainly, the standpoint of pragmatism as such must not be assessed negatively; the sacredness of life, its dignity, God-dependence and objective value cannot be, however, adequately expressed in purely pragmatic terms. The latter categories are basic also in providing Christman answer to may ethical questions raised in contemporary medical sciences.

  17. Contemporary Oxygenator Design Relative to Hemolysis.

    PubMed

    Venema, Leonie H; Sharma, Ajay S; Simons, Antoine P; Bekers, Otto; Weerwind, Patrick W

    2014-09-01

    Hemolysis is a well-known phenomenon during cardiovascular surgery and generally attributed to cardiopulmonary bypass, particularly when using high-resistant oxygenators. This study aimed at investigating whether transoxygenator pressure drop can be considered an independent factor of hemolysis. Additionally, intraoxygenator blood distribution and shear stress were assessed. A low-resistant (LR, n = 3), a moderate-resistant (MR, n = 3), and a high-resistant (HR, n = 3) clinically used membrane oxygenator were tested in vitro using a roller pump and freshly drawn heparinized porcine blood. Flow rates were set to 2 and 4 L/min and maximum flow compliant to the oxygenator type for 1 hour each. As a control, the oxygenator was excluded from the system. Blood samples were taken every 30 minutes for plasma-free hemoglobin assay and transoxygenator pressure was measured inline. Intraoxygenator blood distribution was assessed using an ultrasound dilution technique. Despite the relatively broad spectrum of pressure drop and resultant transoxygenator pressure drops (LR: 14-41 mmHg, MR: 29-115 mmHg, HR: 77-284 mmHg, respectively), no significant association (R2 = .074, p = .22) was found with the normalized index of hemolysis. The shear stress of each oxygenator at maximum flow rate amounted to 3.0 N/m2 (LR), 5.7 N/m2 (MR), and 8.4 N/m2 (HR), respectively. Analysis of blood flow distribution curves (kurtosis and skewness) revealed intraoxygenator blood flow distribution to become more homogeneous when blood flow rates increased. Contemporary oxygenators were shown not to be a predominant factor for red blood cell damage.

  18. Population changes: contemporary models and theories.

    PubMed

    Sauvy, A

    1981-01-01

    In many developing countries rapid population growth has promoted a renewed interest in the study of the effect of population growth on economic development. This research takes either the macroeconomic viewpoint, where the nation is the framework, or the microeconomic perspective, where the family is the framework. For expository purposes, the macroeconomic viewpoint is assumed, and an example of such an investment is presented. Attention is directed to the following: a simplified model--housing; the lessons learned from experience (primitive populations, Spain in the 17th and 18th centuries, comparing development in Spain and Italy, 19th century Western Europe, and underdeveloped countries); the positive factors of population growth; and the concept of the optimal rate of growth. Housing is the typical investment that an individual makes. Hence, the housing per person (roughly 1/3 of the necessary amount of housing per family) is taken as a unit, and the calculations are made using averages. The conclusion is that growth is expensive. A population decrease might be advantageous, for this decrease would enable the entire population to benefit from past capital accumulation. It is also believed, "a priori," that population growth is more expensive for a developed than for a developing country. This belief may be attributable to the fact that the capital per person tends to be high in the developed countries. Any further increase in the population requires additional capital investments, driving this ratio even higher. Yet, investment is not the only factor inhibiting economic development. The literature describes factors regarding population growth, yet this writer prefers to emphasize 2 other factors that have been the subject of less study: a growing population's ease of adaptation and the human factor--behavior. A growing population adapts better to new conditions than does a stationary or declining population, and contrary to "a priori" belief, a growing

  19. [On mistakes in contemporary literatures of extra points in China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Long-Xiang; Huang, You-Min

    2013-06-01

    Contemporary literatures which are taken as the base of literature study of extra points are insufficient and lack of reliability. The foundation of study is very weak. Based on abundant firsthand materials, analyses are made on the major problems of confounded names and locations, unclear quotation and source of reference in the study of contemporary literatures of extra points. Meanwhile, methods and way of thinking for solving the above mentioned problems are discussed in this article as well.

  20. Ideal proportions in full face front view, contemporary versus antique.

    PubMed

    Mommaerts, M Y; Moerenhout, B A M M L

    2011-03-01

    To compare the facial proportions of contemporary harmonious faces with those of antiquity, to validate classical canons and to determine new ones useful in orthofacial surgery planning. Contemporary beautiful faces were retrieved from yearly polls of People Magazine and FHM. Selected B/W frontal facial photographs of 31 men and 74 women were ranked by 20 patients who had to undergo orthofacial surgery. The top-15 female faces and the top-10 male faces were analyzed with Scion Image software. The classical facial index, the Bruges facial index, the ratio lower facial height/total facial height and the vertical tri-partite of the lower face were calculated. The same analysis was done on pictures of classical sculptures representing seven goddesses and 12 gods. Harmonious contemporary female faces have a significantly lower classical facial index, indicating that facial height is less or facial width is larger than in male and even than in antique female faces. The Bruges index indicates a similar difference between ideal contemporary female and male faces. The contemporary male has a higher lower face (48%) compared to total facial height than the contemporary female (45%), although this is statistically not significant (P=0.08). The lower facial thirds index remained quite stabile for 2500 years, without gender difference. A good canon for both sexes today is stomion-gnathion being 70% of subnasale-stomion. The average ideal contemporary female face is shorter than the male face, given the fact that interpupillary distance is similar. The Vitruvian thirds in the lower face have to be adjusted to a 30% upper lip, 70% lower lip-chin proportion. The contemporary ideal ratios are suitable to be implemented in an orthofacial planning concept. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Motivation to learn: an overview of contemporary theories.

    PubMed

    Cook, David A; Artino, Anthony R

    2016-10-01

    To succinctly summarise five contemporary theories about motivation to learn, articulate key intersections and distinctions among these theories, and identify important considerations for future research. Motivation has been defined as the process whereby goal-directed activities are initiated and sustained. In expectancy-value theory, motivation is a function of the expectation of success and perceived value. Attribution theory focuses on the causal attributions learners create to explain the results of an activity, and classifies these in terms of their locus, stability and controllability. Social- cognitive theory emphasises self-efficacy as the primary driver of motivated action, and also identifies cues that influence future self-efficacy and support self-regulated learning. Goal orientation theory suggests that learners tend to engage in tasks with concerns about mastering the content (mastery goal, arising from a 'growth' mindset regarding intelligence and learning) or about doing better than others or avoiding failure (performance goals, arising from a 'fixed' mindset). Finally, self-determination theory proposes that optimal performance results from actions motivated by intrinsic interests or by extrinsic values that have become integrated and internalised. Satisfying basic psychosocial needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness promotes such motivation. Looking across all five theories, we note recurrent themes of competence, value, attributions, and interactions between individuals and the learning context. To avoid conceptual confusion, and perhaps more importantly to maximise the theory-building potential of their work, researchers must be careful (and precise) in how they define, operationalise and measure different motivational constructs. We suggest that motivation research continue to build theory and extend it to health professions domains, identify key outcomes and outcome measures, and test practical educational applications of the principles

  2. Contemporary cardiac surgery for adults with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Beurtheret, Sylvain; Tutarel, Oktay; Diller, Gerhard Paul; West, Cathy; Ntalarizou, Evangelia; Resseguier, Noémie; Papaioannou, Vasileios; Jabbour, Richard; Simpkin, Victoria; Bastin, Anthony J; Babu-Narayan, Sonya V; Bonello, Beatrice; Li, Wei; Sethia, Babulal; Uemura, Hideki; Gatzoulis, Michael A; Shore, Darryl

    2017-08-01

    Advances in early management of congenital heart disease (CHD) have led to an exponential growth in adults with CHD (ACHD). Many of these patients require cardiac surgery. This study sought to examine outcome and its predictors for ACHD cardiac surgery. This is an observational cohort study of prospectively collected data on 1090 consecutive adult patients with CHD, undergoing 1130 cardiac operations for CHD at the Royal Brompton Hospital between 2002 and 2011. Early mortality was the primary outcome measure. Midterm to longer-term survival, cumulative incidence of reoperation, other interventions and/or new-onset arrhythmia were secondary outcome measures. Predictors of early/total mortality were identified. Age at surgery was 35±15 years, 53% male, 52.3% were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I, 37.2% in class II and 10.4% in class III/IV. Early mortality was 1.77% with independent predictors NYHA class ≥ III, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) <15 mm and female gender. Over a mean follow-up of 2.8±2.6 years, 46 patients died. Baseline predictors of total mortality were NYHA class ≥ III, TAPSE <15 mm and non-elective surgery. The number of sternotomies was not independently associated with neither early nor total mortality. At 10 years, probability of survival was 94%. NYHA class among survivors was significantly improved, compared with baseline. Contemporary cardiac surgery for ACHD performed at a single, tertiary reference centre with a multidisciplinary approach is associated with low mortality and improved functional status. Also, our findings emphasise the point that surgery should not be delayed because of reluctance to reoperate only. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. The future historian: Reflections on the archives of contemporary sciences.

    PubMed

    de Chadarevian, Soraya

    2016-02-01

    Historians working on recent science work close to where the archives are created or become accessible. Based on this experience, the essay presents a reflection on the archives of contemporary life sciences. It addresses three questions: firstly, what is special about the archival situation of contemporary sciences? Secondly, which sources do contemporary historians use and what opportunities and challenges do they offer? And finally, what potential changes to the archives of contemporary sciences are we witnessing? The essay draws a distinction between, on the one side, the history of science when the actors are still alive-a situation that presents a particular set of issues in respect to the available sources-and, on the other side, questions relating specifically to the life sciences at the turn of the millennium--a period which will eventually not be considered as 'contemporary' any more. It reviews changes in scientific practice, historiographical trends and archival practices and considers the place of paper records, digital sources, material artefacts and oral sources in the archives of contemporary sciences. It argues that the commercialisation and privatisation of science may prove a bigger problem for the future historian than the shift to the digital medium. It concludes by welcoming the closer interactions between scientists, historians, curators and archivists prompted by recent developments.

  4. The Moral Impotence of Contemporary Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filion, Yves R.

    2004-01-01

    Technological growth in developed and developing countries in the 20th century has lent a great deal of importance to scientific reasoning in the management of human affairs. An important outgrowth has been the development of systems thinking to organize the workplace. The business reengineering process and the enterprise resource planning system…

  5. The Moral Impotence of Contemporary Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filion, Yves R.

    2004-01-01

    Technological growth in developed and developing countries in the 20th century has lent a great deal of importance to scientific reasoning in the management of human affairs. An important outgrowth has been the development of systems thinking to organize the workplace. The business reengineering process and the enterprise resource planning system…

  6. Contemporary Classroom Vocabulary Assessment for Content Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Katherine A. Dougherty; Bravo, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of teaching disciplinary vocabulary effectively is the paucity of available, classroom-friendly vocabulary assessments that can be used to gauge students' vocabulary growth and to inform vocabulary instruction. This article describes the intricacies of word knowledge that make assessment difficult. Three continua…

  7. Pushing Boundaries: Reflections on Teaching and Learning Contemporary Dance in Amman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    This study reflects on teaching and learning contemporary dance in Amman, Jordan, focusing on the experiences of three contemporary dance students. Through the three case studies, various issues regarding teaching and learning contemporary dance in a Jordanian context are raised, revealing that contemporary dance can be perceived as a taboo and…

  8. Pushing Boundaries: Reflections on Teaching and Learning Contemporary Dance in Amman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    This study reflects on teaching and learning contemporary dance in Amman, Jordan, focusing on the experiences of three contemporary dance students. Through the three case studies, various issues regarding teaching and learning contemporary dance in a Jordanian context are raised, revealing that contemporary dance can be perceived as a taboo and…

  9. Contemporary Labor Patterns and Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    ZAKI, Mary N.; HIBBARD, Judith U.; KOMINIAREK, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate labor progress and length according to maternal age. Methods Data were abstracted from the Consortium on Safe Labor, a multicenter retrospective study from 19 hospitals in the United States. We studied 120,442 laboring gravid women with singleton, term, cephalic fetuses with normal outcomes and without a prior cesarean delivery from 2002 to 2008. Maternal age categories were less than 20 years old, greater than or equal to 20 to less than 30, greater than or equal to 30 to less than 40 and greater than or 40 years old, with the reference being less than 20 years. Interval-censored regression analysis was used to determine median traverse times (progression cm by cm) with 95th percentiles, adjusting for covariates (race, admission body mass index, diabetes, gestational age, induction, augmentation, epidural use and birth weight). A repeated-measures analysis with an eighth-degree polynomial model was used to construct mean labor curves for each maternal age category, stratified by parity. Results Traverse times for nulliparous women demonstrated the time to progress from 4 to 10 cm decreased as age increased up to age 40 (median 8.5 hrs vs. 7.8 hrs in those greater than or equal to 20 to less than 30 year old group and 7.4 hrs in the greater than or equal to 30 to less than 40 year old group, p<0.001); the length of the second stage with and without epidural increased with age (p<0.001). For multiparous women, time to progress from 4 to 10 cm decreased as age increased (median 8.8 hrs, 7.5, 6.7 and 6.5 from the youngest to oldest maternal age groups, p<0.001). Labor progressed faster with increasing maternal age in both nulliparous and multiparous women in the labor curves analysis. Conclusion The first stage of labor progressed more quickly with increasing age for nulliparous up to age 40 and all multiparous women. Contemporary labor management should account for maternal age. PMID:24104787

  10. Marriage and Socioeconomic Change in Contemporary Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Nobles, Jenna; Buttenheim, Alison

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between economic trends and entry into marriage in a rapidly developing setting. We examine Indonesian marriage in the 1990’s, a decade of substantial economic growth followed by a sudden financial collapse in 1998. We use discrete-time hazard models to analyze information on 4,078 women and 4,496 men from the Indonesia Family Life Survey. While previous research has shown that marriages may be postponed after economic downturn, we find no evidence of such delays at the national level following the 1998 financial crisis. In contrast, we use regional wage rate data to show that entry into marriage is inversely related to economic growth throughout the decade for all women and for men from lower socioeconomic strata. PMID:26336321

  11. Contemporary Dietary Practices: FODMAPs and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Dharmapuri, Sadhana; Hettich, Kyndal; Goday, Praveen S

    2016-01-01

    There is no diet that is recommended for all individuals. Some special diets (eg, gluten-free for celiac disease) are necessary for health and quality of life. Other diets may be recommended for a short period of time to aid in symptom relief but may not be recommended for the long- term (eg, LFD). Popular diets continue to come and go with varying levels of success. When considering adolescents, continued growth and development are most important, and restrictive diets can lead to nutrient inadequacies and poor growth. Before making any recommendation, it is important to consider the goal of the diet and the cost versus benefits associated with following the diet. Adherence is always a challenge, regardless of the type of diet implemented. If a special diet is not warranted for the health, safety, and desired quality of life of the individual, it should not be implemented.

  12. Contemporary management of complicated monochorionic twins.

    PubMed

    Moise, Karen Y; Kugler, Lisa; Jones, Tyra

    2012-01-01

    Monochorionic twins are at increased risk for unique complications including twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR), and twin-reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence. Twin-twin transfusion syndrome is treated with laser photocoagulation whereas selective reduction is an option in previable sIUGR or TRAP sequence. The nurse is integral in the management, education, care and support of women with complicated pregnancies. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  13. Growth hormone and growth?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Steve

    2013-09-01

    Pituitary GH is obligatory for normal growth in mammals, but the importance of pituitary GH in avian growth is less certain. In birds, pituitary GH is biologically active and has growth promoting actions in the tibia-test bioassay. Its importance in normal growth is indicated by the growth suppression following the surgical removal of the pituitary gland or after the immunoneutralization of endogenous pituitary GH. The partial restoration of growth in some studies with GH-treated hypophysectomized birds also suggests GH dependency in avian growth, as does the dwarfism that occurs in some strains with GHR dysfunctions. Circulating GH concentrations are also correlated with body weight gain, being high in young, rapidly growing birds and low in slower growing older birds. Nevertheless, despite these observations, there is an extensive literature that concludes pituitary GH is not important in avian growth. This is based on numerous studies with hypophysectomized and intact birds that show only slight, transitory or absent growth responses to exogenous GH-treatment. Moreover, while circulating GH levels correlate with weight gain in young birds, this may merely reflect changes in the control of pituitary GH secretion during aging, as numerous studies involving experimental alterations in growth rate fail to show positive correlations between plasma GH concentrations and the alterations in growth rate. Furthermore, growth is known to occur in the absence of pituitary GH, as most embryonic development occurs prior to the ontogenetic appearance of pituitary somatotrophs and the appearance of GH in embryonic circulation. Early embryonic growth is also independent of the endocrine actions of pituitary GH, since removal of the presumptive pituitary gland does not impair early growth. Embryonic growth does, however, occur in the presence of extrapituitary GH, which is produced by most tissues and has autocrine or paracrine roles that locally promote growth and development

  14. The population ecology of contemporary adaptations: what empirical studies reveal about the conditions that promote adaptive evolution.

    PubMed

    Reznick, D N; Ghalambor, C K

    2001-01-01

    Under what conditions might organisms be capable of rapid adaptive evolution? We reviewed published studies documenting contemporary adaptations in natural populations and looked for general patterns in the population ecological causes. We found that studies of contemporary adaptation fall into two general settings: (1) colonization of new environments that established newly adapted populations, and (2) local adaptations within the context of a heterogeneous environments and metapopulation structure. Local ecological processes associated with colonizations and introductions included exposure to: (1) a novel host or food resource; (2) a new biophysical environment; (3) a new predator community; and (4) a new coexisting competitor. The new environments that were colonized often had depauperate communities, sometimes because of anthropogenic disturbance. Local adaptation in heterogeneous environments was also often associated with recent anthropogenic changes, such as insecticide and herbicide resistance, or industrial melanism. A common feature of many examples is the combination of directional selection with at least a short-term opportunity for population growth. We suggest that such opportunities for population growth may be a key factor that promotes rapid evolution, since directional selection might otherwise be expected to cause population decline and create the potential for local extinction, which is an ever-present alternative to local adaptation. We also address the large discrepancy between the rate of evolution observed in contemporary studies and the apparent rate of evolution seen in the fossil record.

  15. Stratification of women's sport in contemporary China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Huan

    2011-01-01

    Since economic reform in the 1980s, Chinese sport has undergone an extraordinary transformation. The most distinguishing phenomenon is the rapid growth of mass sport at the grassroots level with increasing demands for physical activities in women's daily lives. The rapid growth of women's sports participation at the grassroots is deeply embedded in the process of social stratification as a result of the urbanisation of Chinese society. The purpose of this paper is to use the socialist, feminist and theoretical framework to explore how Chinese women's different economic, educational, domestic and cultural situations shape their sports values and patterns of participation, marking social boundaries in Chinese urban communities. Semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted with 60 female physical exercisers in sports clubs, parks and neighbourhood playgrounds. Documentary research was also applied as a complement method to the interview. The findings indicate that within different classes (middle class, working class and a group who were unemployed), many different opportunities for and limitations on women to participate in sport are noticed. Chinese women have not fully and equally utilised sports opportunities created by urbanisation. Most Chinese women still live within patriarchal arrangements. Consequently, they do not completely fulfil their ambitions in sport.

  16. Subhealth: questioning the quality of bodies in contemporary China.

    PubMed

    Bunkenborg, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I explore contemporary medical and popular discourse on subhealth (yajiankang) in China. The idea that most people suffer from subhealth was at first associated with the marketing of a health product in the 1990 s, but subhealth acquired new meanings when it was popularized in media reports of sudden death and it gradually became a field of medical research. Subhealth discourse revolves around bodies characterized by lack and need of improvement, and thus it mirrors the governmental concern with lack of quality (suzhi) that has figured prominently in contemporary anthropological writings on China. The widespread concern with subhealth, however, suggests that the health care industry has significant influence on the way bodies are imagined and acted upon, and I argue that anthropological research on processes of subject formation in contemporary China might be enriched by looking beyond the state and exploring the field of liberalized health care ethnographically.

  17. Revisiting the Navajo way: lessons for contemporary healing.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Gregory W; DeHaven, Mark J

    2003-01-01

    Given the paradox of the success of modern medical technology and the growing patient dissatisfaction with present-day medicine, critics have called for a reevaluation of contemporary medical practice. This paper offers a phenomenological analysis of traditional Navajo healers and their ceremonies to highlight key aspects of healing. A phenomenological view of medical practice takes into account three key features: the lifeworld, the lived body, and understanding. Because of their closeness to a phenomenological view, traditional Navajo mythology and healing practices offer insight into the healing process. Contemporary physicians can appreciate the phenomenological elements of Navajo healing ceremonies, including the Mountain Chant. Navajo healers help patients make sense of their illnesses and direct their lives accordingly, an outcome available to contemporary practitioners, who are also gifted with the benefits of new technologies. By examining scientific medicine, Navajo healing practices, and phenomenology as complementary disciplines, the authors provide the groundwork for reestablishing a more therapeutic view of health.

  18. Historic land use influences contemporary establishment of invasive plant species.

    PubMed

    Mattingly, W Brett; Orrock, John L

    2013-08-01

    The legacy of agricultural land use can have widespread and persistent effects on contemporary landscapes. Although agriculture can lead to persistent changes in soil characteristics and plant communities, it remains unclear whether historic agricultural land use can alter the likelihood of contemporary biological invasions. To understand how agricultural land-use history might interact with well-known drivers of invasion, we conducted factorial manipulations of soil disturbance and resource additions within non-agricultural remnant sites and post-agricultural sites invaded by two non-native Lespedeza species. Our results reveal that variation in invader success can depend on the interplay of historic land use and contemporary processes: for both Lespedeza species, establishment was greater in remnant sites, but soil disturbance enhanced establishment irrespective of land-use history, demonstrating that contemporary processes can help to overcome legacy constraints on invader success. In contrast, additions of resources known to facilitate seedling recruitment (N and water) reduced invader establishment in post-agricultural but not in remnant sites, providing evidence that interactions between historic and contemporary processes can also limit invader success. Our findings thus illustrate that a consideration of historic land use may help to clarify the often contingent responses of invasive plants to known determinants of invasibility. Moreover, in finding significantly greater soil compaction at post-agricultural sites, our study provides a putative mechanism for historic land-use effects on contemporary invasive plant establishment. Our work suggests that an understanding of invasion dynamics requires knowledge of anthropogenic events that often occur decades before the introduction of invasive propagules.

  19. Adaptive responses reveal contemporary and future ecotypes in a desert shrub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Bryce A.; Kitchen, Stanley G.; Pendleton, Rosemary L.; Pendleton, Burton K.; Germino, Matthew J.; Rehfeldt, Gerald E.; Meyer, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Interacting threats to ecosystem function, including climate change, wildfire, and invasive species necessitate native plant restoration in desert ecosystems. However, native plant restoration efforts often remain unguided by ecological genetic information. Given that many ecosystems are in flux from climate change, restoration plans need to account for both contemporary and future climates when choosing seed sources. In this study we analyze vegetative responses, including mortality, growth, and carbon isotope ratios in two blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) common gardens that included 26 populations from a range-wide collection. This shrub occupies ecotones between the warm and cold deserts of Mojave and Colorado Plateau ecoregions in western North America. The variation observed in the vegetative responses of blackbrush populations was principally explained by grouping populations by ecoregions and by regression with site-specific climate variables. Aridity weighted by winter minimum temperatures best explained vegetative responses; Colorado Plateau sites were usually colder and drier than Mojave sites. The relationship between climate and vegetative response was mapped within the boundaries of the species–climate space projected for the contemporary climate and for the decade surrounding 2060. The mapped ecological genetic pattern showed that genetic variation could be classified into cool-adapted and warm-adapted ecotypes, with populations often separated by steep clines. These transitions are predicted to occur in both the Mojave Desert and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. While under contemporary conditions the warm-adapted ecotype occupies the majority of climate space, climate projections predict that the cool-adapted ecotype could prevail as the dominant ecotype as the climate space of blackbrush expands into higher elevations and latitudes. This study provides the framework for delineating climate change-responsive seed transfer guidelines, which are

  20. Adaptive responses reveal contemporary and future ecotypes in a desert shrub.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Bryce A; Kitchen, Stanley G; Pendleton, Rosemary L; Pendleton, Burton K; Germino, Matthew J; Rehfeldt, Gerald E; Meyer, Susan E

    2014-03-01

    Interacting threats to ecosystem function, including climate change, wildfire, and invasive species necessitate native plant restoration in desert ecosystems. However, native plant restoration efforts often remain unguided by ecological genetic information. Given that many ecosystems are in flux from climate change, restoration plans need to account for both contemporary and future climates when choosing seed sources. In this study we analyze vegetative responses, including mortality, growth, and carbon isotope ratios in two blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) common gardens that included 26 populations from a range-wide collection. This shrub occupies ecotones between the warm and cold deserts of Mojave and Colorado Plateau ecoregions in western North America. The variation observed in the vegetative responses of blackbrush populations was principally explained by grouping populations by ecoregions and by regression with site-specific climate variables. Aridity weighted by winter minimum temperatures best explained vegetative responses; Colorado Plateau sites were usually colder and drier than Mojave sites. The relationship between climate and vegetative response was mapped within the boundaries of the species-climate space projected for the contemporary climate and for the decade surrounding 2060. The mapped ecological genetic pattern showed that genetic variation could be classified into cool-adapted and warm-adapted ecotypes, with populations often separated by steep dines. These transitions are predicted to occur in both the Mojave Desert and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. While under contemporary conditions the warm-adapted ecotype occupies the majority of climate space, climate projections predict that the cool-adapted ecotype could prevail as the dominant ecotype as the climate space of blackbrush expands into higher elevations and latitudes. This study provides the framework for delineating climate change-responsive seed transfer guidelines, which are needed

  1. Photochemical weathering and contemporary volatile loss on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huguenin, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    In an earlier series of papers by the author it was proposed that photochemical weathering of Fe(2+) in magnetite and in mafic silicates may be occurring in the contemporary surface environment with a resultant loss of O2 from the atmosphere. Morris and Lauer challenged the photochemical weathering model, proposing that oxidation by radiant heating rather than UV photoelectron emission induced oxidation may have dominated in the authors experiments. Subsequent laboratory studies of photochemical weathering of magnetite described here support the authors original proposal that UV illunimation can indeed drive the oxidation of magnetite under contemporary Martian surface conditions. The negative results of the Morris and Lauer study can now be explained.

  2. Experimenting new design languages in contemporary home design.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Francesca; Rinaldi, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    The changes in society at the beginning of this millennium are giving rise to deep transformations in the behavioural trends and tastes of home users, as well as in their lifestyles and consumption patterns. This opens up a wide range of opportunities for innovation within the context of contemporary home design. Due to the emergence of new user profiles, new needs and models are coming to the attention of designers and manufacturing companies. Just think about the new needs resulting from the changing composition of households, new forms of cohabitation and the contemporary multi-ethnic society.

  3. Distinguishing and diagnosing contemporary and conventional features of dental erosion.

    PubMed

    Bassiouny, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    The vast number and variety of erosion lesions encountered today require reconsideration of the traditional definition. Dental erosion associated with modern dietary habits can exhibit unique features that symbolize a departure from the decades-old conventional image known as tooth surface loss. The extent and diversity of contemporary erosion lesions often cause conflicting diagnoses. Specific examples of these features are presented in this article. The etiologies, genesis, course of development, and characteristics of these erosion lesions are discussed. Contemporary and conventional erosion lesions are distinguished from similar defects, such as mechanically induced wear, carious lesions, and dental fluorosis, which affect the human dentition.

  4. Transnationalism: A Framework for Advancing Nursing Research with Contemporary Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S.; Boutain, Doris M.; Mohammed, Selina A.

    2016-01-01

    This article advances nursing research by presenting transnationalism as a framework for inquiry with contemporary immigrants. Transnationalism occurs when immigrants maintain relationships that transcend the geographical borders of their origin and host countries. Immigrants use those relationships to experience health differently within concurrent socioeconomic, political and cultural contexts than national situated populations. Nurse researchers are called upon to consider these trans-border relationships when exploring the health of contemporary immigrants. Such consideration is needed to develop relevant research designs, methods, analysis, and dissemination strategies. PMID:26836998

  5. Revisioning fat lesbian subjects in contemporary lesbian periodicals.

    PubMed

    Snider, Stefanie

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult to find a visual representation of any fat individual, let alone a queer woman, that is not denigrating and oppressive in conventional media outlets and contemporary visual culture. But even as the negative imagery of fat individuals has expanded over the past forty years in mainstream distribution channels, fat-positive imagery has come to the fore within many feminist and lesbian publications during this same time frame. This article looks at the strategies of representation taken by three contemporary United States lesbian feminist periodicals in visualizing fat and lesbian women within their pages since the 1980s.

  6. Contemporary use of social media by consultant colorectal surgeons.

    PubMed

    McDonald, J J; Bisset, C; Coleman, M G; Speake, D; Brady, R R W

    2015-02-01

    There is evidence of significant growth in the engagement of UK health-care professionals with 'open' social media platforms, such as Twitter and LinkedIn. Social media communication provides many opportunities and benefits for medical education and interaction with patients and colleagues. This study was undertaken to evaluate the uptake of public social media membership and the characteristics of use of such media channels amongst contemporary UK consultant colorectal surgeons. Colorectal surgeons were identified from the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland (ACPGBI) national registry of colorectal mortality outcomes and were cross-referenced with the General Medical Council (GMC) register. Individuals were identified by manual searching on a number of social media platforms. Matching accounts were then examined to confirm ownership and to evaluate key markers of use. Six-hundred and eighteen individual consultant colorectal surgeons from 142 health authorities were studied (79.5% were ACPGBI members and 90.8% were male). Two-hundred and twenty-nine (37.1%) had LinkedIn profiles (37.7% male surgeons, 29.8% female surgeons; P = 0.2530). LinkedIn membership was significantly higher in ACPGBI members (P < 0.001) and in those with GMC registration before 1997 vs after this date (39% before 1997 vs 30% after 1997; P = 0.03). LinkedIn members had a mean of 62 connections (median = 22), and 19 (3.1%) surgeons had Twitter profiles with a mean of 82 (median = 16; range: 0-914) followers and their accounts were followed by a mean of 87 (median = 27; range: 0-642) persons. UK consultant colorectal surgeons are less engaged with social media than reported studies from other health-care professional groups. Further education and appropriate guidance on usage may encourage uptake and confidence, particularly in younger consultants. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  7. Ecological effects of aphid abundance, genotypic variation, and contemporary evolution on plants.

    PubMed

    Turley, Nash E; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-07-01

    Genetic variation and contemporary evolution within populations can shape the strength and nature of species interactions, but the relative importance of these forces compared to other ecological factors is unclear. We conducted a field experiment testing the effects of genotypic variation, abundance, and presence/absence of green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) on the growth, leaf nitrogen, and carbon of two plant species (Brassica napus and Solanum nigrum). Aphid genotype affected B. napus but not S. nigrum biomass explaining 20 and 7% of the total variation, respectively. Averaging across both plant species, the presence/absence of aphids had a 1.6× larger effect size (Cohen's d) than aphid genotype, and aphid abundance had the strongest negative effects on plant biomass explaining 29% of the total variation. On B. napus, aphid genotypes had different effects on leaf nitrogen depending on their abundance. Aphids did not influence leaf nitrogen in S. nigrum nor leaf carbon in either species. We conducted a second experiment in the field to test whether contemporary evolution could affect plant performance. Aphid populations evolved in as little as five generations, but the rate and direction of this evolution did not consistently vary between plant species. On one host species (B. napus), faster evolving populations had greater negative effects on host plant biomass, with aphid evolutionary rate explaining 23% of the variation in host plant biomass. Together, these results show that genetic variation and evolution in an insect herbivore can play important roles in shaping host plant ecology.

  8. Low birth weight of contemporary African Americans: an intergenerational effect of slavery?

    PubMed

    Jasienska, Grazyna

    2009-01-01

    The average birth weight in the contemporary African-American population is about 250 g lower than the average birth weight of European Americans. Differences in genetic and socioeconomic factors present between these two groups can explain only part of birth weight variation. I propose a hypothesis that the low birth weight of contemporary African Americans not only results from the difference in present exposure to lifestyle factors known to affect fetal development but also from conditions experienced during the period of slavery. Slaves had poor nutritional status during all stages of life because of the inadequate dietary intake accompanied by high energetic costs of physical work and infectious diseases. The concept of "fetal programming" suggests that physiology and metabolism including growth and fat accumulation of the developing fetus, and, thus its birth weight, depend on intergenerational signal of environmental quality passed through generations of matrilinear ancestors. I suggest that several generations that have passed since the abolition of slavery in the United States (1865) has not been enough to obliterate the impact of slavery on the current biological and health condition of the African-American population.

  9. Relevance of the Flexner Report to contemporary medical education in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Amin, Zubair; Burdick, William P; Supe, Avinash; Singh, Tejinder

    2010-02-01

    A century after the publication of Medical Education in the United States and Canada: A Report to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (the Flexner Report), the quality of medical education in much of Asia is threatened by weak regulation, inadequate public funding, and explosive growth of private medical schools. Competition for students' fees and an ineffectual accreditation process have resulted in questionable admission practices, stagnant curricula, antiquated learning methods, and dubious assessment practices. The authors' purpose is to explore the relevance of Flexner's observations, as detailed in his report, to contemporary medical education in South Asia, to analyze the consequences of growth, and to recommend pragmatic changes. Major drivers for growth are the supply-demand mismatch for medical school positions, weak governmental regulation, private sector participation, and corruption. The consequences are urban-centric growth, shortage of qualified faculty, commercialization of postgraduate education, untenable assessment practices, emphasis on rote learning, and inadequate clinical exposure. Recommendations include strengthening accreditation standards and processes possibly by introducing regional or national student assessment, developing defensible student assessment systems, recognizing health profession education as a field of scholarship, and creating a tiered approach to faculty development in education. The relevance of Flexner's recommendations to the current status of medical education in South Asia is striking, in terms of both the progressive nature of his thinking in 1910 and the need to improve medical education in Asia today. In a highly connected world, the improvement of Asian medical education will have a global impact.

  10. Artificial intelligence: contemporary applications and future compass.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Sunali

    2010-08-01

    The clinical use of information technology in the dental profession has increased substantially in the past 10 to 20 years. In most developing countries an insufficiency of medical and dental specialists has increased the mortality of patients suffering from various diseases. Employing technology, especially artificial intelligence technology, in medical and dental application could reduce cost, time, human expertise and medical error. This approach has the potential to revolutionise the dental public health scenario in developing countries. Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are computer programs that are designed to provide expert support for health professionals. The applications in dental sciences vary from dental emergencies to differential diagnosis of orofacial pain, radiographic interpretations, analysis of facial growth in orthodontia to prosthetic dentistry. However, despite the recognised need for CDSS, the implementation of these systems has been limited and slow. This can be attributed to lack of formal evaluation of the systems, challenges in developing standard representations, cost and practitioner scepticism about the value and feasibility of CDSS. Increasing public awareness of safety and quality has accelerated the adoption of generic knowledge based CDSS. Information technology applications for dental practice continue to develop rapidly and will hopefully contribute to reduce the morbidity and mortality of oral and maxillofacial diseases and in turn impact patient care.

  11. Contemporary Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Stukalin, Igor; Alimohamed, Nimira; Heng, Daniel Y.C.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of targeted therapy has revolutionized the treatment of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The current standard of care focuses on the inhibition of angiogenesis through the targeting of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Over the past few years, research exploring novel targeted agents has blossomed, leading to the approval of various targeted therapies. Furthermore, results from the CheckMate025 and the METEOR trials have brought about two additional novel options: the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab and the MET/VEGFR/AXL inhibitor cabozantinib, respectively. With the variety of therapeutic agents available for treatment of mRCC, research examining appropriate sequencing and combinations of the drugs is ongoing. This review discusses the role of prognostic criteria, such as those from the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) criteria. It also covers the current standard of treatment for mRCC with targeted therapy in first-, second-, and third-line setting. Additionally, the novel mechanism of action of nivolumab and cabozantinib, therapeutic sequencing and ongoing clinical trials are discussed. PMID:27471582

  12. A contemporary review of mechanical circulatory support.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chetan B; Cowger, Jennifer A; Zuckermann, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    Mechanical circulatory support has seen numerous advances in the recent years, with important observations made to guide patient selection for the therapy, indications for use, and management of devices after implantation. There is rapid growth in the use of left ventricular assist device therapy (LVAD) for advanced heart failure, with a movement to pursue device intervention earlier in the disease spectrum before comorbidities escalate. With this increase in LVAD use have come new challenges, including unanticipated adverse events and high readmission rates. Simultaneously, complications encountered during LVAD support and an increased number of patients supported with a goal for transplant have had an important effect on the allocation of cardiac allografts. Still, the field continues to evolve and address these challenges in systematic fashion to provide novel solutions and meet the needs of a growing population with advanced heart failure. This has led to an extensive body of literature, ranging from case reports to multicenter clinical trials, which will enhance the future of LVAD technology and patient outcomes. This review summarizes important publications in mechanical circulatory support during the past 24 months.

  13. Contemporary medical therapy for polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lanham, M S M; Lebovic, D I; Domino, S E

    2006-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a multi-system endocrinopathy with long-term metabolic and cardiovascular health consequences. Patients typically present due to symptoms of irregular menstruation, hair growth, or infertility; however, recent management options are aimed at further treating underlying glucose-insulin abnormalities as well as androgen excess for proactive control of symptoms. By a 2003 international consensus conference, diagnosis is made by two out of three criteria: chronic oligoovulation or anovulation after excluding secondary causes, clinical or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism (but not necessarily hirsutism due to inter-patient variability in hair follicle sensitivity), and radiological evidence of polycystic ovaries. Traditional medical treatment options include oral contraceptive pills, cyclic progestins, ovulation induction, and anti-androgenic medications (aldosterone antagonist, 5alpha-reductase antagonist, and follicle ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor). Recent pharmacotherapies include insulin-sensitizing medications metformin and two thiazolidinediones (rosiglitazone/Avandia and pioglitazone/Actos), a CYP19 aromatase inhibitor (letrozole/Femara), and statins to potentially lower testosterone levels.

  14. Contemporary Treatment of Reliability and Validity in Educational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this presidential address is on the contemporary treatment of reliability and validity in educational assessment. Highlights on reliability are provided under the classical true-score model using tools from latent trait modeling to clarify important assumptions and procedures for reliability estimation. In addition to reliability,…

  15. Manic Defences in Contemporary Society. The Psychocultural Approach.

    PubMed

    Rudan, Dusko; Jakovljevic, Miro; Marcinko, Darko

    2016-12-01

    The article discusses the impact of contemporary culture on the individual's personality. We used the "psychocultural" approach whose key feature is the amalgamation of theories and methods belonging to psychodynamic and psychosocial studies, as well as those used in the field of media and cultural studies. The idea of a potentially therapeutic effect of culture (therapy culture) can already been seen in Freud's and Lacan's texts, and it is often used in critical analyses of contemporary corporate culture, which is more or less developed in some parts of the world. In their criticisms, many contemporary authors emphasize that modern societies have a tendency towards the weakening of basic commitment, or lack thereof, to a social equivalent of Winnicott's concept of environmental provisions as an inalienable democratic right essential for human emotional and mental progress or emotional well-being. The article describes frequent resorting to the so-called manic defences that defensively distort, deny and obscure the awareness that a human being is not the omnipotent source of life, but instead depends on other human beings, and often tries to compensate for loss through various activities. The article describes excessive shopping as an activity that often serves as an attempt to find what was lost, i.e. to fill an emotional void. This solution (resorting to manic defences) is encouraged by contemporary culture, especially through promotional material (e.g. advertising). The main theses of this article are supported by quotations and data from world literature.

  16. Township of Ocean School District Contemporary Science. Student Enrichment Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truex, Ronald T.

    Contemporary Science is a program designed to provide non-academic disaffected students as well as college-bound high school students with a meaningful and positive educational experience in science in order to bridge the gap between science and the citizen in a technological world. The program, designed as a full year elective course, involves…

  17. Unsettling America: An Anthology of Contemporary Multicultural Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillan, Maria Mazziotti, Ed.; Gillan, Jennifer, Ed.

    This collection of poems by contemporary poets stretches across the boundaries of skin color, ethnicity, language, and religion to give voice to the lives and experiences of ethnic Americans. The poems address common themes of assimilation, self-perception, and communication. In recording everyday life in the many American cultures, the poems…

  18. Capacity-Communication-Power: Foucault on Contemporary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Roger

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the implications of Michel Foucault's specific references to contemporary education. Foucault developed a model for educational institutions which emphasises human capacities, communication and power relations, and which can be applied both to schools and to universities. Though he paid the closest attention to the role of…

  19. Blocks as a Tool for Learning: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Examines the central historical and contemporary role of blocks and construction toys in early childhood education. Describes how commercially produced blocks were conceptualized as a surface for displaying symbols, as pure form, or as a way to transmit a cultural heritage of architectural styles. Discusses how blocks were used in early…

  20. Challenges for Curriculum Leadership in Contemporary Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines the complex contemporary milieu of Australian teacher education within which curriculum leaders responsible for designing teacher education programs must make their program design decisions. Particular attention is paid to the collision of vertical ("hierarchical" or "academic rationalist") and horizontal…

  1. Moral Education in Contemporary Belarus: Return to a Soviet Past?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidorovitch, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses moral education in contemporary Belarus. It offers an insight into the problem of educational change in post-Soviet societies in general and investigates the need for moral education reform in Belarus in particular. It provides a brief description of the situation with respect to moral education in some former Soviet…

  2. La France contemporaine: bibliographie (Contemporary France: A Bibliography)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santoni, Georges V.

    1976-01-01

    A selective bibliography of relatively recent titles useful for incorporating cultural instruction in a French language or civilization course. It is divided into the following headings: reference; contemporary history; general works; the family; woman; teaching and youth; social groups; economics; urbanism and ecology; religion; information;…

  3. Learning Outcomes in Affective Domain within Contemporary Architectural Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savic, Marko; Kashef, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary architectural education has shifted from the traditional focus on providing students with specific knowledge and skill sets or "inputs" to outcome based, student-centred educational approach. Within the outcome based model, students' performance is assessed against measureable objectives that relate acquired knowledge…

  4. Township of Ocean School District Contemporary Science. Student Enrichment Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truex, Ronald T.

    Contemporary Science is a program designed to provide non-academic disaffected students as well as college-bound high school students with a meaningful and positive educational experience in science in order to bridge the gap between science and the citizen in a technological world. The program, designed as a full year elective course, involves…

  5. Alienation and Transformation: An International Education in Contemporary Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates experiences of an international education in dance. Through the narratives of seven female dance practitioners from the southern Mediterranean region, who have trained in contemporary dance in Western cultural contexts, a multiplicity of encounters are illustrated. Two key findings emerged from the dancers' experiences.…

  6. Thinking in action: thought made visible in contemporary dance.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Catherine; McKechnie, Shirley

    2005-12-01

    Contemporary dance-movement deliberately and systematically cultivated for its own sake-is examined in the light of the procedural and declarative view of long-term knowledge. We begin with a description of two settings in which new works of contemporary dance are created and performed. Although non-verbal, contemporary dance can be a language declared through movement and stillness of the body. Ideas for new movement material come from objects, events or imaginings that are spoken, seen, heard, imagined, or felt. Declared through movement, the idea becomes visible. Communication in dance involves general psychological processes such as direct visual perception of motion and force, motor simulation via mirror neurons, and implicit learning of movement vocabularies and grammars. Creating and performing dance appear to involve both procedural and declarative knowledge. The latter includes the role of episodic memory in performance and occasional labelling of movement phrases and sections in rehearsal. Procedural knowledge in dance is augmented by expressive nuance, feeling and communicative intent that is not characteristic of other movement-based procedural tasks. Having delineated lexical and grammatical components in dance, neural mechanisms are identified based on Ullman's (Ullman in Cognition 92:231-270, 2004) alignment of lexical knowledge with declarative memory and mental grammar with procedural memory. We conclude with suggestions for experiments to test these assumptions that concern thought in action in composition, performance and appreciation of contemporary dance.

  7. The Traditional in Contemporary Curricula of Preschool Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina; Savovic, Margit

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary curricula of preschool education are the result of the improvement of pedagogical and didactic theories. They imply a technical plan with which it is possible to achieve measurable objectives of preschool education. The curriculum is also defined as a tool for quality and equal education for all. It represents a reflection of the…

  8. Roots and Rhizomes--Some Reflections on Contemporary Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munday, Ian

    2012-01-01

    During this article, I look at three images of thought which feature in Deleuze and Guattari's "A Thousand Plateaus" and consider their relevance to contemporary pedagogy. Deleuze and Guattari begin by discussing tree-like thought, which involves an insular depiction of the world. I suggest that the performative apparatus, which structures…

  9. Traditional versus Contemporary Navajo Views of Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Catherine; Jones, Doris; Miller, Susan

    A survey and interviews examined the beliefs of traditional and contemporary Navajos concerning individuals with disabilities. Participants were 30 staff members from the Kayenta and Pinon Unified School Districts (Arizona), of whom 21 were Navajos, 8 Anglos, and 1 Hispanic; 1 Anglo and 8 Navajo community professionals; and 15 Navajo parents,…

  10. Educating "The Simpsons": Teaching Queer Representations in Contemporary Visual Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padva, Gilad

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes queer representation in contemporary visual media and examines how the episode "Homer's Phobia" from Matt Groening's animation series "The Simpsons" can be used to deconstruct hetero- and homo-sexual codes of behavior, socialization, articulation, representation and visibility. The analysis is contextualized in the…

  11. The Writing Skill in the Contemporary Society: The Kenyan Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okari, Florence Mokeira

    2016-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the writing skill in the lower levels of learning in the contemporary society. The following areas of writing are highlighted: the writing programme and its goals, the basic methodology for writing tasks, broad groups of writing skills, the teaching of the writing skills in pre-primary and primary schools where…

  12. "Vraisemblance" and the Western Setting in Contemporary Science Fiction Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Lane

    Analyzing the setting of six recent "blockbuster" films, this study outlines numerous instances of the Western's influence on several contemporary science fiction films, "Star Wars,""Battlestar Galactica,""Star Trek: The Motion Picture,""The Black Hole,""The Empire Strikes Back," and…

  13. Alienation and Transformation: An International Education in Contemporary Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates experiences of an international education in dance. Through the narratives of seven female dance practitioners from the southern Mediterranean region, who have trained in contemporary dance in Western cultural contexts, a multiplicity of encounters are illustrated. Two key findings emerged from the dancers' experiences.…

  14. Climate Change: A "Green" Approach to Teaching Contemporary Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melin, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a newly designed upper division German language course, "Contemporary Germany: Food, Energy Politics," and two sampling methods of assessment for measuring parallel gains in German skills and sustainable development (SD) thinking. Second Language Acquisition (SLA) informed course design, key assignments, and…

  15. Moments in Contemporary Rhetoric and Communication. No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesebro, James W., Ed.; Cragan, John F., Ed.

    1972-01-01

    This quarterly publication is a forum for graduate and undergraduate student thinking on contemporary issues. This issue opens with "Hell is Other People," a critical analysis of Sartre's play "No Exit." The first section contains an article on nonviolence and militancy as contrasting strategies of the black struggle; a satiric playscript based on…

  16. New Perspectives in Special Education: Contemporary Philosophical Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This book should be read by everyone who wants to understand special education today. "New Perspectives in Special Education" opens the door to the fascinating and vitally important world of theory that informs contemporary special education. It examines theoretical and philosophical orientations such as "positivism", "poststructuralism" and…

  17. Climate Change: A "Green" Approach to Teaching Contemporary Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melin, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a newly designed upper division German language course, "Contemporary Germany: Food, Energy Politics," and two sampling methods of assessment for measuring parallel gains in German skills and sustainable development (SD) thinking. Second Language Acquisition (SLA) informed course design, key assignments, and…

  18. Moral Choices in Contemporary Society: A Courses by Newspaper Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieff, Philip, Ed.; Finkle, Isaac, Ed.

    This reader, which contains 135 primary source readings about morality, is one of several college-level instructional materials developed to supplement a nationwide newspaper course on moral issues in contemporary society. The authors represent a diverse group including theologians, psychologists, politicians, professional athletes, lawyers, and…

  19. "Listen Then, Or, Rather, Answer": Contemporary Challenges to Socratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullam, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of Jacques Rancière in recent work in educational philosophy has rejuvenated discussion of the merits and weaknesses of Socratic education, both in Plato's dialogues and in invocations of Socrates in contemporary educational practice. In this essay Jordan Fullam explores the implications of this trend through comparing…

  20. Transformative Critique: What Confucianism Can Contribute to Contemporary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurðsson, Geir

    2017-01-01

    Critical thinking is currently much celebrated in the contemporary West and beyond, not least in higher education. Tertiary education students are generally expected to adopt a critical attitude in order to become responsible and constructive participants in the development of modern democratic society. Currently, the perceived desirability of…

  1. Travelling Home(s): Contemporary Korean Art after the Postcolonial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Michelle; Dimitriadis, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary discussions of globalisation (in general) and postcolonialism (more specifically) have largely remained wed to critiques of the West, including around its outsized role in the proliferation of neoliberal economic logics. As Chen argues in "Asia as Method," these discussions have precluded other kinds of discussions about…

  2. Moments in Contemporary Rhetoric and Communication. No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesebro, James W., Ed.; Cragan, John F., Ed.

    1972-01-01

    This quarterly publication is a forum for graduate and undergraduate student thinking on contemporary issues. This issue opens with "Hell is Other People," a critical analysis of Sartre's play "No Exit." The first section contains an article on nonviolence and militancy as contrasting strategies of the black struggle; a satiric playscript based on…

  3. Synthesis of Contemporary SAE Research 1994-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rank, Bryan D.; Retallick, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    In the 1990s, a series of research syntheses were conducted regarding supervised agricultural experience. These syntheses included supervised agricultural experience (SAE) research from 1964 through 1993. With these past syntheses as the premise, contemporary SAE research was identified, synthesized, and coded into emerging themes. Inclusion…

  4. Investigating the Usefulness of Lexical Phrases in Contemporary Coursebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koprowski, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, lexical theory, corpus statistics, and psycholinguistic research have pointed to the pedagogical value of lexical phrases. In response, commercial publishers have been quick to import these insights into their materials in a bid to accommodate consumers and to profit from the "lexical chunk" phenomenon. Contemporary British…

  5. Why Theory Matters: An Examination of Contemporary Learning Time Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGiacomo, Daniela K.; Prudhomme, Joshua J.; Jones, Hannah R.; Welner, Kevin G.; Kishner, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the contemporary policy reform push to extend and expand learning time in schools. In light of the potential and continued prominence of learning time reforms in today's national educational landscape, this article makes visible the ways in which theory matters for the near- and long-term success of equity-focused educational…

  6. Dr. Spock on Parenting: Sensible, Reassuring Advice for Contemporary Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spock, Benjamin

    Compiling essays authored by Benjamin Spock and published in magazines, this book addresses the changing traditional family structure and the challenges faced by contemporary parents. The chapters are: (1) "Anxieties in Our Lives," discussing stressors, decisions regarding work, and late parenting; (2) "Being a Father Today,"…

  7. A Role for Neuroscience in Shaping Contemporary Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca; Bryant, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Advanced technologies have made it possible for neuroscientists to make remarkable discoveries regarding how our brains learn. This research should provide new insights into the designs of learning environments. This essay is an attempt to suggest how the possibilities of neuroscience might be employed to meet contemporary educational demands,…

  8. Contemporary Concerns, Assessments, and Aspirations in Jewish Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This essay reviews the Vision and Practice section of the "International Handbook of Jewish Education" published in 2011. Gathered in this section, 24 Jewish educators (spread across 18 chapters) offer theoretical reflections on the state of Jewish education in the contemporary moment. These chapters seem, on first reading, a rather eclectic…

  9. Modular Curriculum: English, Contemporary American Poetry: 1946 to the Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutch, Richard

    In this university course for independent study of contemporary American poetry, the following points are brought out: (1) Poetry is essentially formal; (2) Poetry is the product of the conscious mind; (3) Poetry should appeal to the intellect; (4) Poetry is essentially apolitical. In the course of study presented, seven assignments are included:…

  10. Going Contemporary in the Intermediate-Advanced Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melin, Charlotte; Laun, Jurgen

    2007-01-01

    The essay recommends the incorporation of contemporary works in third-year courses at college level based on the redesign of two courses, "Advanced Conversation and Composition" and "GermanMedia." Curricular connections across the German studies major and focus on literacy skills can be enhanced through the systematic integration of recent…

  11. Stages of Drama: Classical to Contemporary Theater. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaus, Carl H.; And Others

    Organized along broadly historical lines, this comprehensive collection of outstanding plays includes 41 works from the classical Greek period to the contemporary. As an introduction to the theater, the collection is unmatched for its theatrical variety and cultural diversity. It provides: (1) a general introduction on reading and witnessing a…

  12. A Developmental Perspective on Adolescent Risk Taking in Contemporary America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    1987-01-01

    Adolescent risk-taking behavior needs to be understood in the context of contemporary youth culture and normal development. To facilitate passage through adolescence, parents should sustain a climate of control and commitment balanced by respect for the adolescent's increased capacity for self-regulation. (Author)

  13. The Traditional in Contemporary Curricula of Preschool Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina; Savovic, Margit

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary curricula of preschool education are the result of the improvement of pedagogical and didactic theories. They imply a technical plan with which it is possible to achieve measurable objectives of preschool education. The curriculum is also defined as a tool for quality and equal education for all. It represents a reflection of the…

  14. CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS--IV. SHORT STORIES, PART 1. TEXTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCARUS, ERNEST N.; AND OTHERS

    THIS TWO-PART VOLUME IS THE FOURTH IN THE FIVE-VOLUME SERIES "CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS." ON AN INTERMEDIATE LEVEL, THE CONTENT OF "SHORT STORIES, PART I"--TEN SHORT STORIES AND ONE PLAY--ASSUMES MASTERY OF BASIC ARABIC GRAMMAR AND PROVIDES FOR VOCABULARY EXPANSION AND APPRECIATION OF STYLE AND IDIOMATIC EXPRESSION. THE SELECTIONS REPRESENT THE…

  15. Contemporary European Studies: A Model for Interdisciplinary Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannerbeck, Francis J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the University of South Carolina's (Columbia) Contemporary European Studies program, which drew on current course offerings and existing financial resources to provide study about post-French Revolution European languages, cultures, politics, history, geography, and economics. Options exist at many other institutions to create broadly…

  16. Teacher's Guide to Accompany Living Latin: A Contemporary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph

    This guide, designed to assist teachers in the classroom use of "Living Latin: A Contemporary Approach", emphasizes procedures to be followed in each chapter of Book One; special procedures for teaching the introduction and first chapter are treated separately. Use of the text as a supplement to Sweet's "Artes Latinae" is discussed. Appendixes…

  17. Unframing Immigration: Looking through the Educational Space of Contemporary Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Dipti

    2010-01-01

    This article uses the lens of contemporary visual art as a counternarrative to explore the racialization of immigration in the United States and its relationship to education. Drawing on critical race theory, I argue that today several artists use their artistic practice to intervene strategically in the immigration debates. These artistic…

  18. The Art of Open Spaces: Contemporary Sea and Prairiescapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The number of contemporary Kansas prairie artists whose works project an affinity for the sea continues to grow. This article focuses on six in particular: painters Robert Sudlow, Keith Jacobshagen, Lisa Grossman, and Louis Copt, and photographers Terry Evans and Larry Schwarm. Each of these Kansas-connected prairie artists has exhibited…

  19. Contemporary Indian Issues: A One-Quarter Course Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, Cecil T.

    1986-01-01

    Compiled for a course in Contemporary Indian Issues, this bibliography contains brief descriptions of lecture topics for each week of the 11-week course followed by bibliographic references that supplement the course texts. Many of the 106 entries are for books; but journals, government reports, and publications of Indian organizations are also…

  20. Second-Person Address Forms in Contemporary Uruguayan Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosales Lagos, María José; Moyna, María Irene

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the representations of singular address ("voseo," "tuteo," and "ustedeo") in contemporary Uruguayan children's literature from 1997 to 2011 as part of a broader analysis of variation and change in Uruguayan Spanish (Behares 1981; Bertolotti 2011; Bertolotti and Coll 2003; Elizaincín and Díaz…

  1. Moments in Contemporary Rhetoric and Communication. No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesebro, James W., Ed.; Cragan, John F., Ed.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to present the thinking of graduate and undergraduate students on contemporary issues, particularly those related to modern rhetoric and communication. The first section of this issue consists of articles on such topics as the current status of the Weathermen movement; the sexual revolution in America; a…

  2. Characters with Exceptionalities Portrayed in Contemporary Canadian Children's Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmerson, Jean; Brenna, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which exceptionality is addressed in Canadian children's literature, offering critical literacy as an avenue toward social justice. A content analysis (Berg, 2009) of 134 Canadian children's books offers a wide scope of contemporary titles to include in classrooms. We developed conceptual categories to explore…

  3. The Absurdist Vision, English, Contemporary Literature: 5114.148.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Eva-Lynn M.

    This course introduces students to plays and novels of contemporary European and American authors whose works expose the absurdity of conventional social and literary modes but also suggest positive human values. The objectives of the course include: (1) a definition of the meaning of the absurd; (2) an understanding of the absurdist theme of the…

  4. Teaching Darwin: Contemporary Social Studies through Controversial Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Helge

    2010-01-01

    I explore Darwin and his Theory of Natural Selection from a Social Science perspective and a social studies approach of inquiry into contemporary issues. This approach augments the more common natural science focus on the mechanics of natural selection and evolution in favor of a focus on social issues, controversy, and dialog necessary to support…

  5. Tora no Maki II. Lessons for Teaching about Contemporary Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for the Social Studies, Washington, DC.

    "Tora no Maki" or "Scroll of the Tiger" is a teacher's guide designed to aid in teaching appropriate standards for social studies content and skills, using a contemporary focus on Japan's culture and economy. Topics of the 22 lessons include: group culture, school population, economics, geography, the Internet, family values,…

  6. The Gifted Child in Contemporary Fiction: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder-Davis, Stephen

    This annotated bibliography lists contemporary, realistic fiction with gifted school-age protagonists. The 82 novels, published between 1946 and 1992, are arranged alphabetically by author. Each listing includes the publisher, specific talent areas, and a suggested grade-level target audience, from early elementary to senior high. The bibliography…

  7. The Multimodal Writing Process: Changing Practices in Contemporary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards-Groves, Christine Joy

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents research exploring "writing and text construction" practices in contemporary primary classrooms. In particular, the ways 17 teachers and their students engaged with technologies in the construction of classroom texts were investigated. The case studies presented prompt the necessity to extend more traditional…

  8. Bibliography of Contemporary American Indian and Eskimo Arts and Crafts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn. Task Force on Ethnic Studies.

    This annotated bibliography comprised of 70 citations is another in the series produced by the Minnesota Public Schools and has as its main topics the arts and crafts of contemporary American Indians and Eskimos. The first section contains citations of overview-types of books and pamphlets on the arts and crafts. The second section is divided into…

  9. Young Children's Interpretations of Page Breaks in Contemporary Picture Storybooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipe, Lawrence R.; Brightman, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study of the responses of a second-grade class to the page breaks in contemporary picturebooks. In a picturebook, the text and accompanying illustrations are divided into a series of facing pages called openings, and the divisions between the openings are called page breaks or turns. Unlike a novel, in which the page…

  10. Contemporary Music Student Expectations of Musicianship Training Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannan, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The practical training of contemporary popular musicians, that is, the preparation of performers, songwriters, and music production personnel for the global popular music industry, is still in its infancy. This article seeks to discuss the specific issue of what musicianship skills should be taught, by interrogating the perceptions of a cohort of…

  11. Bridget Jones Meets Mr. Darcy: Challenges of Contemporary Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Justine

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study seeks to investigate the collection practices of English Literature librarians with regard to contemporary fiction, including popular genres such as detective fiction and "chick lit". Results of an online survey suggest literature librarians are increasingly receptive to the acquisition of popular genres and identify the…

  12. An Analysis of Contemporary Literature on Strategy in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eacott, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, contemporary literature on strategy in education is examined in an integrative and analytical manner. To achieve this, an empirical investigation on strategy in education was undertaken. As the goal is to understand and propose specific research directions, the findings are both descriptive and analytical. Initially, peer reviewed…

  13. Writing Homer, Reading Riordan: Intertextual Study in Contemporary Adolescent Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Amy

    2011-01-01

    When readers of contemporary adolescent literature are encouraged to participate in conversations about what is considered canonical literature, the literary value of adolescent reading expands past narrowly defined borders. Several recent adolescent novels provide access to the classics and may generate interest among middle school students in…

  14. The Contemporary City as Backbone: Museum Rotterdam Meets the Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Laar, Paul Th.

    2013-01-01

    Changes at Museum Rotterdam illustrate how history museums can rethink their relationship to history and community. Recognizing that its residents are increasingly transnational, without ties to the Rotterdam of the past, Museum Rotterdam is using the tools of urban anthropologists to involve residents in exploring contemporary heritage. Museum…

  15. Viewing a Poem as Argument: Helping Students Understand Contemporary Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Sara

    2008-01-01

    When high school honors students were put off by contemporary poetry, the author engaged them by analyzing the poem as an "argument." Using the Toulmin model to establish a warrant, advance a claim, and locate details to support that claim, students were able, by treating a poem as an argument, to increase their understanding of the…

  16. Re-Imagining Classrooms: Educational Environments in Contemporary Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Overlaps between contemporary artistic and pedagogical practices have become commonplace in debates and publications in various fields: from curating and museum studies to art education. Often, such overlaps--particularly pedagogical projects initiated by artists--have been studied from curatorial or art historical perspectives. This paper…

  17. Stages of Drama: Classical to Contemporary Theater. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaus, Carl H.; And Others

    Organized along broadly historical lines, this comprehensive collection of outstanding plays includes 41 works from the classical Greek period to the contemporary. As an introduction to the theater, the collection is unmatched for its theatrical variety and cultural diversity. It provides: (1) a general introduction on reading and witnessing a…

  18. The Contemporary Gothic: Literacy and Childhood in Unsettled Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrington, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that the revival of the Gothic as an expression of contemporary tensions and issues has significance for our views of childhood and, as a consequence, for literacy and literacy education. While the ways in which Gothic literature and other Gothic popular culture forms are used to speak to these tensions have shifted across time…

  19. African Music: Negotiating a Space in Contemporary Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dawn; Human, Rene

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of African music as a way forward to negotiate a "space" in contemporary society. The word "space" is used as a metaphor to explore and experiment with the dynamics of culture and hybridity. The authors view themselves as "agents of change" and knowledgeable professionals in the teaching…

  20. Contemporary European Studies: A Model for Interdisciplinary Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannerbeck, Francis J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the University of South Carolina's (Columbia) Contemporary European Studies program, which drew on current course offerings and existing financial resources to provide study about post-French Revolution European languages, cultures, politics, history, geography, and economics. Options exist at many other institutions to create broadly…

  1. Investigating the Usefulness of Lexical Phrases in Contemporary Coursebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koprowski, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, lexical theory, corpus statistics, and psycholinguistic research have pointed to the pedagogical value of lexical phrases. In response, commercial publishers have been quick to import these insights into their materials in a bid to accommodate consumers and to profit from the "lexical chunk" phenomenon. Contemporary British…

  2. Characters with Exceptionalities Portrayed in Contemporary Canadian Children's Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmerson, Jean; Brenna, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which exceptionality is addressed in Canadian children's literature, offering critical literacy as an avenue toward social justice. A content analysis (Berg, 2009) of 134 Canadian children's books offers a wide scope of contemporary titles to include in classrooms. We developed conceptual categories to explore…

  3. Dr. Spock on Parenting: Sensible, Reassuring Advice for Contemporary Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spock, Benjamin

    Compiling essays authored by Benjamin Spock and published in magazines, this book addresses the changing traditional family structure and the challenges faced by contemporary parents. The chapters are: (1) "Anxieties in Our Lives," discussing stressors, decisions regarding work, and late parenting; (2) "Being a Father Today,"…

  4. "Listen Then, Or, Rather, Answer": Contemporary Challenges to Socratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullam, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of Jacques Rancière in recent work in educational philosophy has rejuvenated discussion of the merits and weaknesses of Socratic education, both in Plato's dialogues and in invocations of Socrates in contemporary educational practice. In this essay Jordan Fullam explores the implications of this trend through comparing…

  5. Contemporary Orality: A New Theory for Understanding Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Shakuntala

    1991-01-01

    An ethnographic study examined illiterates and their understanding of literacy. The theoretical background of the study is based on the thesis of "contemporary orality": that India is a fundamentally oral culture that retains all the characteristics of primary orality (Walter Ong's term) through the use of speech as the dominant medium…

  6. Transformative Critique: What Confucianism Can Contribute to Contemporary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurðsson, Geir

    2017-01-01

    Critical thinking is currently much celebrated in the contemporary West and beyond, not least in higher education. Tertiary education students are generally expected to adopt a critical attitude in order to become responsible and constructive participants in the development of modern democratic society. Currently, the perceived desirability of…

  7. STUDIES OF THE LIFE WORK OF FOUR CONTEMPORARY FRENCH AUTHORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NOSTRAND, HOWARD L.

    REPORTED ARE ANALYSES OF THE WORKS OF FOUR CONTEMPORARY FRENCH AUTHORS (RENE MARILL ALBERES, YVES BONNEFOY, MICHEL BUTOR, AND JEAN BRULLER UNDER THE PSEUDONYM VERCORS). THE ANALYSES WERE PREPARED IN FRENCH BY THE INDIVIDUAL AUTHORS FOR THE FRENCH CULTURE RESEARCH PROJECT, A LANGUAGE RESEARCH EFFORT. THE STUDIES ILLUSTRATE THE AUTHORS' THEMES IN…

  8. Creation Education: An Overview of Contemporary Theological Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Brennan R.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that contemporary theology of creation is concerned with social, ecological, and nuclear crises, pointing out that many theologians assume responsibility for offering values needed for earth's survival. Reports on the perspectives of four theologians on creation: Gibson Winter; John Haught; A. R. Peacocke; and Sallie McFague. Suggest…

  9. CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS--II. ARABIC ESSAYS, PART 1. TEXTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCARUS, ERNEST N.; AND OTHERS

    INTENDED FOR INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL STUDENTS, "PART 1" OF THIS SECOND VOLUME IN THE "CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS" SERIES PRESENTS A COLLECTION OF 20 ESSAYS WRITTEN BY OUTSTANDING ARAB LITERARY FIGURES. SUBJECTS RANGE FROM POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHY IN THE ARAB WORLD TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND REFORMS IN AGRICULTURE AND THE WRITING SYSTEM. THE…

  10. Second-Person Address Forms in Contemporary Uruguayan Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosales Lagos, María José; Moyna, María Irene

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the representations of singular address ("voseo," "tuteo," and "ustedeo") in contemporary Uruguayan children's literature from 1997 to 2011 as part of a broader analysis of variation and change in Uruguayan Spanish (Behares 1981; Bertolotti 2011; Bertolotti and Coll 2003; Elizaincín and Díaz…

  11. CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS--II. ARABIC ESSAYS, PART 1. TEXTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCARUS, ERNEST N.; AND OTHERS

    INTENDED FOR INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL STUDENTS, "PART 1" OF THIS SECOND VOLUME IN THE "CONTEMPORARY ARABIC READERS" SERIES PRESENTS A COLLECTION OF 20 ESSAYS WRITTEN BY OUTSTANDING ARAB LITERARY FIGURES. SUBJECTS RANGE FROM POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHY IN THE ARAB WORLD TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND REFORMS IN AGRICULTURE AND THE WRITING SYSTEM. THE…

  12. Patterns of Interactive Media Use among Contemporary Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Beemt, A.; Akkerman, S.; Simons, P. R. J.

    2011-01-01

    The intensive use of interactive media has led to assertions about the effect of these media on youth. Rather than following the assumption of a distinct Net generation, this study investigates diversity in interactive media use among youth. Results from a pilot study show that contemporary youth can be divided into clusters based on the use of…

  13. An Analysis of Contemporary Literature on Strategy in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eacott, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, contemporary literature on strategy in education is examined in an integrative and analytical manner. To achieve this, an empirical investigation on strategy in education was undertaken. As the goal is to understand and propose specific research directions, the findings are both descriptive and analytical. Initially, peer reviewed…

  14. A Contemporary Leadership Model to Promote Teacher Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Harold L.; Tinley, Alice; Berman, Barbara T.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a contemporary leadership model comprised of three elements necessary to successfully recognize and promote teacher leaders. The elements include establishing an appropriate school culture, recognizing teacher leaders, and inspiring teachers' confidence. The three elements, along with enabled teacher leadership, create positive cultural…

  15. Arab Contributions to World Knowledge: A Contemporary Curriculum Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hazza, Tami Craft; Lucking, Robert

    2015-01-01

    American K-12 school curricula are often bereft of acknowledgements of the historical contributions of Arab societies to our present-day intellectual heritage, an oversight most apparent in the sciences. Teachers in a thriving democracy are obliged to introduce contemporary scholarship that reflects the contributions of Arab scientists between the…

  16. Teaching Darwin: Contemporary Social Studies through Controversial Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Helge

    2010-01-01

    I explore Darwin and his Theory of Natural Selection from a Social Science perspective and a social studies approach of inquiry into contemporary issues. This approach augments the more common natural science focus on the mechanics of natural selection and evolution in favor of a focus on social issues, controversy, and dialog necessary to support…

  17. Towards Building Science Teachers' Understandings of Contemporary Science Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Greg; Corrigan, Deborah; Fazio, Lisa; Burke, Joanne; Overton, David

    2017-01-01

    Faculties of Education and Science at Monash University have designed a Masters unit to assist pre-service and in-service science teachers in exploring the practices of contemporary science and examine how varied understandings can influence science communication. Teachers are encouraged to explore their current understandings of the Nature of…

  18. A Sense of Story: Essays on Contemporary Writers for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, John Rowe

    This is an introduction to the work of 19 contemporary English-language writers for children. It consists of critical essays on the works of Joan Aiken, L. M. Boston, H. F. Brinsmead, John Christopher, Helen Cresswell, Meindert DeJong, Eleanor Estes, Paula Fox, Leon Garfield, Alan Garner, Madeleine L'Engle, William Mayne, Andre Norton, Scott…

  19. A Role for Neuroscience in Shaping Contemporary Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca; Bryant, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Advanced technologies have made it possible for neuroscientists to make remarkable discoveries regarding how our brains learn. This research should provide new insights into the designs of learning environments. This essay is an attempt to suggest how the possibilities of neuroscience might be employed to meet contemporary educational demands,…

  20. The Contemporary City as Backbone: Museum Rotterdam Meets the Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Laar, Paul Th.

    2013-01-01

    Changes at Museum Rotterdam illustrate how history museums can rethink their relationship to history and community. Recognizing that its residents are increasingly transnational, without ties to the Rotterdam of the past, Museum Rotterdam is using the tools of urban anthropologists to involve residents in exploring contemporary heritage. Museum…

  1. Unframing Immigration: Looking through the Educational Space of Contemporary Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Dipti

    2010-01-01

    This article uses the lens of contemporary visual art as a counternarrative to explore the racialization of immigration in the United States and its relationship to education. Drawing on critical race theory, I argue that today several artists use their artistic practice to intervene strategically in the immigration debates. These artistic…

  2. A Conversation with Four Contemporary Poets about Oral Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Kristin

    The ideas of four contemporary poets--Ann Deagon, Lyn Lifshin, Marge Piercy, and Alice Walker--concerning the oral interpretation of poetry are presented in this paper. The poets' ideas relate to the following topics: (1) the importance of reading poems aloud; (2) reasons why they give poetry readings, and effects of their poetry readings on their…

  3. Portrait of a Contemporary Drive-In Movie Theater Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Bruce A.

    Personal interviews were conducted with drive-in theatre patrons in an attempt to paint an empirical portrait of a contemporary drive-in movie theatre audience. A total of 607 patrons of one Rochester, New York, drive-in were interviewed by trained college undergraduates using a prepared 33-item questionnaire consisting of open- and close-ended…

  4. Travelling Home(s): Contemporary Korean Art after the Postcolonial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Michelle; Dimitriadis, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary discussions of globalisation (in general) and postcolonialism (more specifically) have largely remained wed to critiques of the West, including around its outsized role in the proliferation of neoliberal economic logics. As Chen argues in "Asia as Method," these discussions have precluded other kinds of discussions about…

  5. This Path We Travel: Celebrations of Contemporary Native American Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Pena, Frank

    1994-01-01

    An exhibition at the opening of the George Gustav Heye Center in New York City presents the talents of 15 contemporary Native American artists who during the past several years met at four different locations representing the cardinal directions. The exhibit combines sculpture, performance, poetry, music, and video to portray Indian world views…

  6. Voicing Concerns: Sociological Perspectives on Contemporary Education Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnot, Madeleine, Ed.; Barton, Len, Ed.

    The 11 papers in this book address, from a sociological perspective, a variety of contemporary educational reform issues in Great Britain. The papers examine the direction and role of sociological research in education. Sociology education has an important role to play in raising questions about the British educational system and its premises. The…

  7. Learning Outcomes in Affective Domain within Contemporary Architectural Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savic, Marko; Kashef, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary architectural education has shifted from the traditional focus on providing students with specific knowledge and skill sets or "inputs" to outcome based, student-centred educational approach. Within the outcome based model, students' performance is assessed against measureable objectives that relate acquired knowledge…

  8. Grandmotherhood: Contemporary Meaning among African American Middle-Class Grandmothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timberlake, Elizabeth M.; Chipungu, Sandra Stukes

    1992-01-01

    Explored how contemporary middle-class African American grandmothers perceived themselves in relation to their children. Found moderate relationship between values of 100 grandchildren to 100 grandmothers, timing of role assumption, and current situational context. Values included expansion of self; morality or altruism; power, influence, or…

  9. Contemporary California Indians, oaks and Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthora ramorum)

    Treesearch

    Beverly R. Ortiz

    2008-01-01

    This paper begins with a survey of contemporary California Indian utilization of acorns for food, including an examination of: (1) familial, community and cultural contexts in which acorn is shared and eaten; (2) new and old acorn processing techniques in use today and the foods that result; (3) the symbolic context of the foods in terms of ecological and social...

  10. Arab Contributions to World Knowledge: A Contemporary Curriculum Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hazza, Tami Craft; Lucking, Robert

    2015-01-01

    American K-12 school curricula are often bereft of acknowledgements of the historical contributions of Arab societies to our present-day intellectual heritage, an oversight most apparent in the sciences. Teachers in a thriving democracy are obliged to introduce contemporary scholarship that reflects the contributions of Arab scientists between the…

  11. Moral Choices in Contemporary Society: A Courses by Newspaper Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieff, Philip, Ed.; Finkle, Isaac, Ed.

    This reader, which contains 135 primary source readings about morality, is one of several college-level instructional materials developed to supplement a nationwide newspaper course on moral issues in contemporary society. The authors represent a diverse group including theologians, psychologists, politicians, professional athletes, lawyers, and…

  12. Unsettling America: An Anthology of Contemporary Multicultural Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillan, Maria Mazziotti, Ed.; Gillan, Jennifer, Ed.

    This collection of poems by contemporary poets stretches across the boundaries of skin color, ethnicity, language, and religion to give voice to the lives and experiences of ethnic Americans. The poems address common themes of assimilation, self-perception, and communication. In recording everyday life in the many American cultures, the poems…

  13. An Organizational and Procedural Model for Teaching Contemporary Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, B. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a basic organizational plan, patterned after the U.S. Department of State, which can be used as a model for teaching secondary level contemporary affairs. Each student becomes a specialist in a chosen global region while developing skills in geographic analysis and independent research. (AM)

  14. Contemporary wood utilization research needs in the Western United States.

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Monserud; Eini C. Lowell; Dennis R. Becker; Susan Stevens Hummel; Ellen M. Donoghue; R. James Barbour; Kenneth A. Kilborn; David L. Nicholls; Joe Roos; Randall A. Cantrell

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary wood utilization research needs in the Western United States are examined in this problem analysis. Key focal areas include: A. Changes in forest management actions and policies affect forest conditions and people, which in turn affect wood quality and wood utilization opportunities. B. Effects of natural disturbances (e.g., wildfire, insect outbreaks) on...

  15. Understanding Immigrants, Schooling, and School Psychology: Contemporary Science and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby, Craig L.; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2016-01-01

    Immigration into the United States is a particularly salient topic of current contemporary educational, social, and political discussions. The school-related needs of immigrant children and youth can be well served by rigorous research and effective school psychology preservice training and preparation. This overview highlights key definitions,…

  16. Educating "The Simpsons": Teaching Queer Representations in Contemporary Visual Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padva, Gilad

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes queer representation in contemporary visual media and examines how the episode "Homer's Phobia" from Matt Groening's animation series "The Simpsons" can be used to deconstruct hetero- and homo-sexual codes of behavior, socialization, articulation, representation and visibility. The analysis is contextualized in the…

  17. Girlfight the Power: Teaching Contemporary Feminism and Pop Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardsley, Alyson

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a course she taught entitled, "Grrl Power and Beyond: Third Wave Feminism and Contemporary Popular Culture," in the interdisciplinary American Studies Program at her college. Here, she lays out her goals in designing the course, and the ways that her students, her circumstances, and her classroom…

  18. "Vraisemblance" and the Western Setting in Contemporary Science Fiction Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Lane

    Analyzing the setting of six recent "blockbuster" films, this study outlines numerous instances of the Western's influence on several contemporary science fiction films, "Star Wars,""Battlestar Galactica,""Star Trek: The Motion Picture,""The Black Hole,""The Empire Strikes Back," and…

  19. Understanding Immigrants, Schooling, and School Psychology: Contemporary Science and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby, Craig L.; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2016-01-01

    Immigration into the United States is a particularly salient topic of current contemporary educational, social, and political discussions. The school-related needs of immigrant children and youth can be well served by rigorous research and effective school psychology preservice training and preparation. This overview highlights key definitions,…

  20. A Sense of Story: Essays on Contemporary Writers for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, John Rowe

    This is an introduction to the work of 19 contemporary English-language writers for children. It consists of critical essays on the works of Joan Aiken, L. M. Boston, H. F. Brinsmead, John Christopher, Helen Cresswell, Meindert DeJong, Eleanor Estes, Paula Fox, Leon Garfield, Alan Garner, Madeleine L'Engle, William Mayne, Andre Norton, Scott…

  1. Signs of Change: Contemporary Attitudes to Australian Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slegers, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This study explores contemporary attitudes to Australian Sign Language (Auslan). Since at least the 1960s, sign languages have been accepted by linguists as natural languages with all of the key ingredients common to spoken languages. However, these visual-spatial languages have historically been subject to ignorance and myth in Australia and…

  2. Contemporary Art, Science, Ecology, and a Critical Pedagogy of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    In contemporary life and education, the local is marginalized in favor of large-scale economies of consumption that are indifferent to ecological concerns. The consequences of neglecting local human and natural communities include a degraded habitat, loss of wilderness, alienation, rootlessness, and lack of connection to communities. Place-based…

  3. The Sublime and Depictions of Violence in Some Contemporary Artworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Gearold; McKee, Patrick; Ragouzis, Perry

    2009-01-01

    Images of extreme and ever more graphic violence are a part of contemporary culture. Since students cannot avoid them, such images should be addressed by aesthetic educators. But this will require a theory for the analysis and evaluation of the aesthetic properties of violent imagery. The main thesis of this essay is that depiction of violence in…

  4. The contemporary mindfulness movement and the question of nonself1.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Geoffrey

    2015-08-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), and other "mindfulness"-based techniques have rapidly gained a significant presence within contemporary society. Clearly these techniques, which derive or are claimed to derive from Buddhist meditational practices, meet genuine human needs. However, questions are increasingly raised regarding what these techniques meant in their original context(s), how they have been transformed in relation to their new Western and global field of activity, what might have been lost (or gained) on the way, and how the entire contemporary mindfulness phenomenon might be understood. The article points out that first-generation mindfulness practices, such as MBSR and MBCT, derive from modernist versions of Buddhism, and omit or minimize key aspects of the Buddhist tradition, including the central Buddhist philosophical emphasis on the deconstruction of the self. Nonself (or no self) fits poorly into the contemporary therapeutic context, but is at the core of the Buddhist enterprise from which contemporary "mindfulness" has been abstracted. Instead of focussing narrowly on the practical efficacy of the first generation of mindfulness techniques, we might see them as an invitation to explore the much wider range of practices available in the traditions from which they originate. Rather, too, than simplifying and reducing these practices to fit current Western conceptions of knowledge, we might seek to incorporate more of their philosophical basis into our Western adaptations. This might lead to a genuine and productive expansion of both scientific knowledge and therapeutic possibilities.

  5. A Festival of Contemporary Science for Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Tim; Berry, Bryan; Shallcross, Dudley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe the first Festival of Contemporary Science for Science Teachers which was held in January 2010. Focusing on a number of leading-edge science topics, this new festival was organised by Bristol ChemLabS, in collaboration with the Science Learning Centre South West, and involved academics from several departments…

  6. Blocks as a Tool for Learning: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Examines the central historical and contemporary role of blocks and construction toys in early childhood education. Describes how commercially produced blocks were conceptualized as a surface for displaying symbols, as pure form, or as a way to transmit a cultural heritage of architectural styles. Discusses how blocks were used in early…

  7. The Role of the Family and Women Under Contemporary Urbanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Suzanne; Seymour, Lee

    This paper examines how selected aspects of contemporary urban environment influence the form and function of the family and the position of women within the family and within society. The study was undertaken within the framework of Marxian analysis and with a specific focus on how advanced industrial capitalism perpetuates the family in its…

  8. Contemporary Perspectives on the Constitution and Separation of Powers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    A collection of essays designed to provide educators and other interested individuals with contemporary perspectives on the U.S. Constitution and separation of powers is presented. Separation of powers refers to one of the enduring principles of the U.S. constitutional system of government, in which governmental powers are subject to a division of…

  9. New Perspectives in Special Education: Contemporary Philosophical Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This book should be read by everyone who wants to understand special education today. "New Perspectives in Special Education" opens the door to the fascinating and vitally important world of theory that informs contemporary special education. It examines theoretical and philosophical orientations such as "positivism", "poststructuralism" and…

  10. The oblique perspective: philosophical diagnostics of contemporary life sciences research.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Hub

    2017-12-01

    This paper indicates how continental philosophy may contribute to a diagnostics of contemporary life sciences research, as part of a "diagnostics of the present" (envisioned by continental thinkers, from Hegel up to Foucault). First, I describe (as a "practicing" philosopher) various options for an oblique (or symptomatic) reading of emerging scientific discourse, bent on uncovering the basic "philosophemes" of science (i.e. the guiding ideas, the basic conceptions of nature, life and technology at work in contemporary life sciences research practices). Subsequently, I outline a number of radical transformations occurring both at the object-pole and at the subject-pole of the current knowledge relationship, namely the technification of the object and the anonymisation or collectivisation of the subject, under the sway of automation, ICT and big machines. Finally, I further elaborate the specificity of the oblique perspective with the help of Lacan's theorem of the four discourses. Philosophical reflections on contemporary life sciences concur neither with a Master's discourse (which aims to strengthen the legitimacy and credibility of canonical sources), nor with university discourse (which aims to establish professional expertise), nor with what Lacan refers to as hysterical discourse (which aims to challenge representatives of the power establishment), but rather with the discourse of the analyst, listening with evenly-poised attention to the scientific files in order to bring to the fore the cupido sciendi (i.e. the will to know, but also to optimise and to control) which both inspires and disrupts contemporary life sciences discourse.

  11. Contemporary Challenges and Changes: Principals' Leadership Practices in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michelle; Adams, Donnie; Joo, Mabel Tan Hwee; Muniandy, Vasu; Perera, Corinne Jaqueline; Harris, Alma

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the findings from a contemporary study of principals' leadership practices in Malaysia as part of the 7 System Leadership Study. Recent policy developments within Malaysia have increased principals' accountability and have underlined the importance of the role of the principals in transforming school performance and student…

  12. Understanding Contemporary Italy: Supplementing Texts in Beginning Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skubikowski, Ugo

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the problem of the scarcity of instructional materials for teaching Italian and contemporary Italian culture to beginning college students. Looks at current practices and materials. Argues the need for preassessing cultural content of structural materials and suggests some criteria for devising supplementary cultural materials, along…

  13. Contemporary Challenges and Changes: Principals' Leadership Practices in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michelle; Adams, Donnie; Joo, Mabel Tan Hwee; Muniandy, Vasu; Perera, Corinne Jaqueline; Harris, Alma

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the findings from a contemporary study of principals' leadership practices in Malaysia as part of the 7 System Leadership Study. Recent policy developments within Malaysia have increased principals' accountability and have underlined the importance of the role of the principals in transforming school performance and student…

  14. Contemporary Issues Education: Rural Risks, Obstacles and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamorey, Suzanne; Leigh, Jim

    Youth with disabilities are particularly susceptible to dangerous outcomes associated with contemporary issues such as teenage pregnancy, substance abuse, and domestic violence. Several studies document the high degree of social, medical, and legal risk to which youth with disabilities are exposed. The extent to which public schools provide risk…

  15. Young Children's Interpretations of Page Breaks in Contemporary Picture Storybooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipe, Lawrence R.; Brightman, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study of the responses of a second-grade class to the page breaks in contemporary picturebooks. In a picturebook, the text and accompanying illustrations are divided into a series of facing pages called openings, and the divisions between the openings are called page breaks or turns. Unlike a novel, in which the page…

  16. Roots and Rhizomes--Some Reflections on Contemporary Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munday, Ian

    2012-01-01

    During this article, I look at three images of thought which feature in Deleuze and Guattari's "A Thousand Plateaus" and consider their relevance to contemporary pedagogy. Deleuze and Guattari begin by discussing tree-like thought, which involves an insular depiction of the world. I suggest that the performative apparatus, which structures…

  17. Bridget Jones Meets Mr. Darcy: Challenges of Contemporary Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Justine

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study seeks to investigate the collection practices of English Literature librarians with regard to contemporary fiction, including popular genres such as detective fiction and "chick lit". Results of an online survey suggest literature librarians are increasingly receptive to the acquisition of popular genres and identify the…

  18. Representations of Adoption in Contemporary Realistic Fiction for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Sue Christian; Fuxa, Robin; Kander, Faryl; Hardy, Dana

    2017-01-01

    In this critical content analysis of thirty-seven contemporary realistic fiction books about adoption, the authors examine how adoption and adoptive families are depicted in young adult (YA) literature. The critical literacy theoretical frame brings into focus significant social implications of these depictions as the researchers illuminate and…

  19. Magazine Profiles: Studies of a Dozen Contemporary Magazine Groupings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL. Medill School of Journalism.

    The 12 papers collected in this volume were written by graduate students in a magazine publishing seminar conducted at the Medill School of Journalism, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. Papers discuss a range of topics related to contemporary magazines and are of interest to editors, publishers, journalism educators, and students.…

  20. Contemporary Issues in U.S.-Mexico Relations, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Amy; Kim, Pearl; Lai, Selena; Mukai, Gary; Nunez, Lucia; Valadez, Martin

    The lessons in this 3-part series are intended to provide students with a basic understanding of the relationship between the United States and Mexico, with emphasis on multiple perspectives, conflict and cooperation, and interdependence. This curriculum unit, Part 2, examines three contemporary issues: immigration, the North American Free Trade…

  1. The Contemporary World History Project for Culturally Diverse Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Ron; Weil, Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Contemporary World History Project (CWHP), a year-long, two-part program that integrates the study of world problems within a traditional world history curriculum. Outlines the two parts, historical background and a simulation, and the objectives fulfilled by CWHP. Notes the variety of project topics available to teachers. (DSK)

  2. Girlfight the Power: Teaching Contemporary Feminism and Pop Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardsley, Alyson

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a course she taught entitled, "Grrl Power and Beyond: Third Wave Feminism and Contemporary Popular Culture," in the interdisciplinary American Studies Program at her college. Here, she lays out her goals in designing the course, and the ways that her students, her circumstances, and her classroom…

  3. The Art of Open Spaces: Contemporary Sea and Prairiescapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The number of contemporary Kansas prairie artists whose works project an affinity for the sea continues to grow. This article focuses on six in particular: painters Robert Sudlow, Keith Jacobshagen, Lisa Grossman, and Louis Copt, and photographers Terry Evans and Larry Schwarm. Each of these Kansas-connected prairie artists has exhibited…

  4. Interrupting the telos: locating subsistence in contemporary US forests

    Treesearch

    Marla R. Emery; Alan R. Pierce

    2005-01-01

    People continue to hunt, fish, trap, and gather for subsistence purposes in the contemporary United States. This fact has implications for forest policy, as suggested by an international convention on temperate and boreal forests, commonly known as the Montreal Process. Three canons of law provide a legal basis for subsistence activities by designated social groups in...

  5. The Army in Amphibious Warfare: A Contemporary Appraisal.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-05

    candidate: Douglas A. Goepfert Title of thesis: The Army in Amphibious Warf are: A Contemporary Appraisal Approved by: Thesis Committee Chairman Cotone ...whole bunch of taper." 1 safi, "At least all the administrative asoects are finished . All we need now is the blsssing, the ’go ahead’ and the to ars o

  6. Contemporary Social Studies: An Essential Reader. Teaching and Learning Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, William B., III, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The field of social studies is unique and complex. It is challenged by the differing perspectives related to the definition, goals, content, and purpose of social studies. Contemporary Social Studies: An Essential Reader discusses the contemporary issues surrounding social studies education today. Contemporary Social Studies: An Essential Reader…

  7. Assessing the Practicality and Relevance of Adventist Educational Philosophy in a Contemporary Education Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, W. Marc

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the key tenets of contemporary education philosophy and compares it to the principles of the Adventist educational philosophy. The intent is to determine whether Adventist educational philosophy aligns with the demands of contemporary education. In this vein, 10 key principles of contemporary education are first described.…

  8. Coming-of-Age among Contemporary American Indians as Portrayed in Adolescent Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markstrom-Adams, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed nine contemporary novels (1971-86) to examine dominant themes evident in contemporary novels involving American Indian adolescents. In contrast to earlier novels, these contemporary novels reflected greater realism toward and less stereotyping of American Indians. Most salient themes dealt with prejudice and discrimination, hopelessness…

  9. Assessing the Practicality and Relevance of Adventist Educational Philosophy in a Contemporary Education Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, W. Marc

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the key tenets of contemporary education philosophy and compares it to the principles of the Adventist educational philosophy. The intent is to determine whether Adventist educational philosophy aligns with the demands of contemporary education. In this vein, 10 key principles of contemporary education are first described.…

  10. Contemporary Social Studies: An Essential Reader. Teaching and Learning Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, William B., III, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The field of social studies is unique and complex. It is challenged by the differing perspectives related to the definition, goals, content, and purpose of social studies. Contemporary Social Studies: An Essential Reader discusses the contemporary issues surrounding social studies education today. Contemporary Social Studies: An Essential Reader…

  11. Clinical Growth: An Evolutionary Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Barkimer, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Clinical growth is an essential component of nursing education, although challenging to evaluate. Considering the paradigm shift toward constructivism and student-centered learning, clinical growth requires an examination within contemporary practices. A concept analysis of clinical growth in nursing education produced defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences. Attributes included higher-level thinking, socialization, skill development, self-reflection, self-investment, interpersonal communication, and linking theory to practice. Identification of critical attributes allows educators to adapt to student-centered learning in the clinical environment. These findings allow educators to determine significant research questions, develop situation-specific theories, and identify strategies to enhance student learning in the clinical environment.

  12. Boscovich's philosophical meditations in the history of contemporary thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, P.

    The content of Boscovich's Theoria philosophiae naturalis was well-known to his contemporaries, but both scientists and philosophers chiefly discussed it during the 19th century. The observations that Boscovich presented in this text, and that he himself defined as ``philosophicas metitationes", soon showed their being a good programme for the forthcoming atomic physics, and contributed to get rid of the mechanistic paradigm in science. In this paper I will go back to some meaningful moments of the history of Boscovich's reception in the era of contemporary philosophy, by referring to what authors such as Popper, Cassirer, Nietzsche and Fechner wrote about him. These thinkers, indeed, particularly stressed the importance of the Theoria in the history of Western thought, and showed that it can easily be evaluated beyond the plane of a pure scientific investigation.

  13. Defenses and morality: Adam Smith, Sigmund Freud, and contemporary psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Gabrinetti, Paul A; Özler, Sule

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we follow the development and transmission of moral learning from Adam Smith's impartial spectator to Sigmund Freud's superego and then to contemporary psychoanalysis. We argue that defenses are an integral component in the acquisition of any moral system. Elaborating on this argument, we assert that there is a progression from defensive systems that are "closed" to defensive systems that are "open," as defined in a recent work by Novick and Novick. The former system is "static, avoids reality, and is characterized by power dynamics, sadomasochism, and omnipotent defense." The latter, on the other hand, is a system that allows for "joy, creativity, spontaneity, love and it is attuned to reality." Furthermore, while Smith and Freud's systems are more one-person systems of defense, contemporary psychoanalysis has moved to more of a two-person system.

  14. Adaptation: a contemporary view, revisiting Crichton-Miller's 1925 paper.

    PubMed

    Music, Graham

    2016-03-01

    In this paper I discuss a contemporary 'take' on the concept of adaptation in light of Crichton-Miller's original 1926 paper. I look briefly at some of the ways that contemporary thinking is both similar to and different from ideas of 90 years ago. In particular I think about how recent neurobiological findings, epigenetic research and attachment theory have cast new light on our understanding of the ways humans adapt to social and emotional environments. It looks at how psychiatric presentations which are seen as maladaptive might well have an adaptive origin in early life. In this account I emphasise how a more modern version of evolutionary theory can be developed, particularly one influenced by life history theory, and suggest that such ideas have powerful explanatory power as well as being based solidly in good research.

  15. Gaps and spaces: representations of dementia in contemporary British poetry.

    PubMed

    Zeilig, Hannah

    2014-03-01

    This article considers the work of a number of contemporary British poets who have attempted to articulate some of the experiences that dementia entails. The unique potential of poetry as a means of portraying the dislocations and reinventions of self that dementia involves has been mostly overlooked. The insights offered by critical gerontology are central to this article. This perspective calls for critical thought about the ways in which dementia has been socially constructed. The challenges posed by poets such as Vuyelwa Carlin, Valerie Laws and Jo Shapcott in particular, are examined. The complex poetic representations offered by these poets acknowledge the pathological declines of dementia and simultaneously celebrate the individuality and life of their subjects. Considering dementia with reference to the work of contemporary poets and critical gerontology is one way in which we can deepen our understanding of what this illness involves and humanise those who suffer from it.

  16. The ethics of postmortem examinations in contemporary Islam.

    PubMed

    Rispler-Chaim, V

    1993-09-01

    Postmortem examinations have recently become common practice in Western medicine: they are used to verify the cause of death and to obtain additional scientific information on certain diseases, as well as to train medical students. For religious people of the monotheistic faiths postmortems present several ethical questions even though the advantages attributed to postmortems in the West are also acknowledged by Jews, Christians and Muslims. The Islamic way of dealing with such questions will be surveyed via contemporary fatawa (legal opinions) issued primarily by Egyptian scholars; Islamic law, which was formulated in the eighth to ninth centuries, did not speak of postmortems. I will therefore depict the means whereby contemporary scholars approach postmortems in the absence of clear legal reference. The difficulties that postmortems create for Muslims at present will be weighed against some shar i instructions which may help circumvent them. While the ethical and religious debate continues, postmortems seem to be accepted but not, however, without certain reservations.

  17. Spectroscopic characterization of a contemporary Indian miniature painting.

    PubMed

    Cardeira, Ana Mafalda; Longelin, Stéphane; Le Gac, Agnès; Nogueira, Isabel; Carvalho, Maria Luísa; Manso, Marta

    2013-12-01

    A case study on a contemporary Indian miniature was carried out through the application of different spectroscopic techniques. Painting support, pigments, and dyes were largely characterized by means of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence and Raman microspectroscopy directly on the artwork. Regarding golden motifs and silvered areas, for which these techniques have not provided enough information, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy was used as a complementary technique. The painting support was identified as the Bombyx mori silk. Among the colorant matters, several pigments were identified such as chrome yellow, lithopone, hematite, lamp black, mica-titania pearlescent pigment, and tin-based metallic silver, and dyes such as phthalocyanine blue and the recent synthetic pigment red PR9 naphthol AS. All this materials will provide evidence in the support of the contemporary production of the artwork for future studies.

  18. The Contemporary Women's Movement and Women's Education in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Ila

    1998-03-01

    The contemporary women's movement in India (1975-present) has played an important role in bringing gender issues to the forefront of development planning and defining feminist politics. This paper examines how this movement has addressed the issue of women's education. The first section highlights contributions of the social reformist movement in the 19th century and the nationalist movement in promoting women's education. The role of the contemporary women's movement in changing school curricula is examined in the second section, followed by discussion on how women's studies has contributed to redefining knowledge. The fourth section discusses women's empowerment and education from the perspective of the women's movement. The article concludes by highlighting challenges facing the women's movement in promoting women's education for equality and empowerment.

  19. Pre-colonial Ethnic Institutions and Contemporary African Development.

    PubMed

    Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the role of deeply-rooted pre-colonial ethnic institutions in shaping comparative regional development within African countries. We combine information on the spatial distribution of ethnicities before colonization with regional variation in contemporary economic performance, as proxied by satellite images of light density at night. We document a strong association between pre-colonial ethnic political centralization and regional development. This pattern is not driven by differences in local geographic features or by other observable ethnic-specific cultural and economic variables. The strong positive association between pre-colonial political complexity and contemporary development obtains also within pairs of adjacent ethnic homelands with different legacies of pre-colonial political institutions.

  20. Pre-colonial Ethnic Institutions and Contemporary African Development*

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the role of deeply-rooted pre-colonial ethnic institutions in shaping comparative regional development within African countries. We combine information on the spatial distribution of ethnicities before colonization with regional variation in contemporary economic performance, as proxied by satellite images of light density at night. We document a strong association between pre-colonial ethnic political centralization and regional development. This pattern is not driven by differences in local geographic features or by other observable ethnic-specific cultural and economic variables. The strong positive association between pre-colonial political complexity and contemporary development obtains also within pairs of adjacent ethnic homelands with different legacies of pre-colonial political institutions. PMID:25089052

  1. Rupturing otherness: becoming Estonian in the context of contemporary Britain.

    PubMed

    Märtsin, Mariann

    2010-03-01

    While identity construction continues to be a widely discussed and researched area in contemporary social sciences, the existing theories have overlooked the importance of understanding why and how identities as semiotic constructions emerge in individuals' consciousness in the flow of their everyday functioning. This article seeks to address this limitation in the theorizing by proposing an alternative conceptualization of identity, according to which identity construction is triggered by rupturing life-experience, which surfaces another perspective and makes the person aware of a possibility to be otherwise or of the reality of being different. Theoretical claims put forward in the paper are drawn from data gathered in a recent study, which explored lived-through experiences of young Estonians, who made study-visits to the United Kingdom. The discussed data will also highlight some interesting aspects in Estonians' self-definition as it is constructed in relation to Eastern-European identity in the context of contemporary Britain.

  2. Contemporary psychosurgery and a look to the future.

    PubMed

    Feldman, R P; Alterman, R L; Goodrich, J T

    2001-12-01

    Despite a long and controversial history, psychosurgery has persisted as a modern treatment option for some severe, medically intractable psychiatric disorders. The goal of this study was to review the current state of psychosurgery. In this review, the definition of psychosurgery, patient selection criteria, and anatomical and physiological rationales for cingulotomy, subcaudate tractotomy, anterior capsulotomy, and limbic leukotomy are discussed. The historical developments, modern procedures, and results of these four contemporary psychosurgical procedures are also reviewed. Examples of recent advances in neuroscience indicating a future role for neurosurgical intervention for psychiatric disease are also mentioned. A thorough understanding of contemporary psychosurgery will help neurosurgeons and other physicians face the ethical, social, and technical challenges that are sure to lie ahead as modern science continues to unlock the secrets of the mind and brain.

  3. Adhesion to tooth structure mediated by contemporary bonding systems.

    PubMed

    Stangel, Ivan; Ellis, Thomas H; Sacher, Edward

    2007-07-01

    Given the enormity of the field of adhesion and the number of commercial products available, the discipline of modern adhesive dentistry can be daunting with respect to materials and techniques. This article organizes contemporary bonding practice and materials around an understanding of the fundamentals of adhesion to tooth structure. In providing this context, adhesive development, bonding systems, and their appropriate use are better understood. The end result is the better practice of adhesive dentistry.

  4. Contemporary discursive psychology: issues, prospects, and Corcoran's awkward ontology.

    PubMed

    Potter, Jonathan

    2010-12-01

    This paper is both an overview of the status of contemporary discursive psychology and a response to Corcoran's critical article. The first part of the paper reports on the main traditions that make up contemporary discursive psychology and how they relate to one another. Then it responds to Corcoran's claims that much of contemporary discursive psychology: (a) is over concerned with epistemic issues at the expense of ontological issues; (b) is too concerned with data purity while failing reflexively to address its own practices; (c) fails to address ethical, applied, and political issues in the way that a reformed 'ontological' discursive psychology would be able to; (d) fails to provide an adequate and rich account of relationality (of the kind offered by thinkers such as Bakhtin, Shotter, and Chouliaraki). The limitations of each point are addressed in turn, highlighting errors and confusions. The broadly epistemic focus is appropriate for the subject matter of discursive psychology; discursive psychology is less concerned with data purity than with pursuing the radical and empirically progressive possibilities in studying records of people living their lives in everyday and institutional settings (a surprising oversight in a discipline focused on the actions of human beings) and it has a reflexive tradition going back two decades; it has a strong and distinctive focus on ethical, applied, and political issues; it has an account of relationality that is grounded in conversational materials. A single example from interaction on a child protection helpline is analysed to illustrate the way relationality, knowledge, and intersubjectivity have been made analytically tractable in contemporary discursive research.

  5. Contemporary Evolutionary Divergence for a Protected Species following Assisted Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Collyer, Michael L.; Heilveil, Jeffrey S.; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Contemporary evolution following assisted colonization may increase the probability of persistence for refuge populations established as a bet-hedge for protected species. Such refuge populations are considered “genetic replicates” that might be used for future re-colonization in the event of a catastrophe in the native site. Although maladaptive evolutionary divergence of captive populations is well recognized, evolutionary divergence of wild refuge populations may also occur on contemporary time scales. Thus, refuge populations may lose their “value” as true genetic replicates of the native population. Here, we show contemporary evolutionary divergence in body shape in an approximately 30-year old refuge population of the protected White Sands pupfish (Cyprinodon tularosa) resulting in a body-shape mismatch with its native environment. Methodology/Principal Findings Geometric morphometic data were collected from C. tularosa cultures raised in experimental mesocosms. Cultures were initiated with fish from the two native populations, plus hybrids, in high or low salinity treatments representing the salinities of the two native habitats. We found that body shape was heritable and that shape variation due to phenotypic plasticity was small compared to shape variation due to population source. C. tularosa from the high salinity population retained slender body shapes and fish from the low salinity population retained deep body shapes, irrespective of mesocosm salinity. These data suggest that the observed divergence of a recently established pupfish population was not explained by plasticity. An analysis of microsatellite variation indicated that no significant genetic drift occurred in the refuge population, further supporting the adaptive nature of changes in body shape. These lines of evidence suggest that body shape divergence of the refuge population reflects a case of contemporary evolution (over a 30-year period). Conclusions

  6. Selected anatomists: at the boundary of contemporary ethics.

    PubMed

    Arango, Dillon; Greiffenstein, Patrick; O'Leary, James Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Fascination with the interworkings of the human body has permeated scientific discovery for eons. Materials for dissection proved problematic for anatomists. Andreas Vesalius solved his dilemma by visiting local gallows where criminals had been executed. Eduard Pernkopf has been alleged to have taken some of his materials from victims of the Holocaust. Even today, executed criminals have served as subjects for anatomical educational purposes. These circumstances are explored and the contemporary ethics of each are compared.

  7. Contemporary evolutionary divergence for a protected species following assisted colonization.

    PubMed

    Collyer, Michael L; Heilveil, Jeffrey S; Stockwell, Craig A

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary evolution following assisted colonization may increase the probability of persistence for refuge populations established as a bet-hedge for protected species. Such refuge populations are considered "genetic replicates" that might be used for future re-colonization in the event of a catastrophe in the native site. Although maladaptive evolutionary divergence of captive populations is well recognized, evolutionary divergence of wild refuge populations may also occur on contemporary time scales. Thus, refuge populations may lose their "value" as true genetic replicates of the native population. Here, we show contemporary evolutionary divergence in body shape in an approximately 30-year old refuge population of the protected White Sands pupfish (Cyprinodon tularosa) resulting in a body-shape mismatch with its native environment. Geometric morphometic data were collected from C. tularosa cultures raised in experimental mesocosms. Cultures were initiated with fish from the two native populations, plus hybrids, in high or low salinity treatments representing the salinities of the two native habitats. We found that body shape was heritable and that shape variation due to phenotypic plasticity was small compared to shape variation due to population source. C. tularosa from the high salinity population retained slender body shapes and fish from the low salinity population retained deep body shapes, irrespective of mesocosm salinity. These data suggest that the observed divergence of a recently established pupfish population was not explained by plasticity. An analysis of microsatellite variation indicated that no significant genetic drift occurred in the refuge population, further supporting the adaptive nature of changes in body shape. These lines of evidence suggest that body shape divergence of the refuge population reflects a case of contemporary evolution (over a 30-year period). These results suggest assisted colonization can introduce novel, and

  8. Glacial Isostatic Adjustment and Contemporary Sea Level Rise: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spada, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) encompasses a suite of geophysical phenomena accompanying the waxing and waning of continental-scale ice sheets. These involve the solid Earth, the oceans and the cryosphere both on short (decade to century) and on long (millennia) timescales. In the framework of contemporary sea-level change, the role of GIA is particular. In fact, among the processes significantly contributing to contemporary sea-level change, GIA is the only one for which deformational, gravitational and rotational effects are simultaneously operating, and for which the rheology of the solid Earth is essential. Here, I review the basic elements of the GIA theory, emphasizing the connections with current sea-level changes observed by tide gauges and altimetry. This purpose is met discussing the nature of the "sea-level equation" (SLE), which represents the basis for modeling the sea-level variations of glacial isostatic origin, also giving access to a full set of geodetic variations associated with GIA. Here, the SLE is employed to characterize the remarkable geographical variability of the GIA-induced sea-level variations, which are often expressed in terms of "fingerprints". Using harmonic analysis, the spatial variability of the GIA fingerprints is compared to that of other components of contemporary sea-level change. In closing, some attention is devoted to the importance of the "GIA corrections" in the context of modern sea-level observations, based on tide gauges or satellite altimeters.

  9. Organisms as natural purposes: the contemporary evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Walsh, D M

    2006-12-01

    Kant's conception of organisms as natural purposes raises a challenge to the adequacy of mechanistic explanation in biology. Certain features of organisms appear to be inexplicable by appeal to mechanical law alone. Some biological phenomena, it seems, can only be accounted for teleologically. Contemporary evolutionary biology has by and large ignored this challenge. It is widely held that Darwin's theory of natural selection gives us an adequate, wholly mechanical account of the nature of organisms. In contemporary biology, the category of the organism plays virtually no explanatory role. Contemporary evolutionary biology is a science of sub-organismal entities-replicators. I argue that recent advances in developmental biology demonstrate the inadequacy of sub-organismal mechanism. The category of the organism, construed as a 'natural purpose' should play an ineliminable role in explaining ontogenetic development and adaptive evolution. According to Kant the natural purposiveness of organisms cannot be demonstrated to be an objective principle in nature, nor can purposiveness figure in genuine explain. I attempt to argue, by appeal to recent work on self-organization, that the purposiveness of organisms is a natural phenomenon, and, by appeal to the apparatus of invariance explanation, that biological purposiveness provides genuine, ineliminable biological explanations.

  10. Growth Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... because their parents are. But some children have growth disorders. Growth disorders are problems that prevent children from developing ... or other features. Very slow or very fast growth can sometimes signal a gland problem or disease. ...

  11. Growth Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... function and also play a role in growth. Hypothyroidism can cause slow growth because the thyroid gland ... to support normal growth. A major symptom of hypothyroidism is feeling tired or sluggish. A blood test ...

  12. Nursing education development in China (1887-1949): influences on contemporary nursing.

    PubMed

    Yan, Z; Li, J An; McDonald, T

    2014-09-01

    On 8 May 2013, the Chinese Nursing Association joined the International Council of Nurses. It is hoped that by sharing the history of nursing in China, scholars globally can incorporate into current thinking the challenges that Chinese nurses have faced in pursuing educational development and professional acknowledgement. To review the history of nurse education in China between 1887 and 1949 and summarize events marking its development; and to provide historical references for considering contemporary nurse education and discipline development in China. Content analysis using bibliometric and historical research methods on available documentation sources. Milestone events were listed and their historical significance analysed. Nurse education development during this period was affected by three major influences: (1) international nursing collaboration and involvement with Chinese nursing in China and abroad, (2) the determination of leaders to develop nursing as a unique and ethical profession, and (3) the pressure of war and civilian need on the focus of nursing development in China. The development of nurse education in China occurred within an environment of social change, war and international collaboration. Throughout the Modern China period (1887-1949), nursing leadership has guided the growth of nurse education to be responsive to individual and community needs as well as ensuring nurse accountability for conduct and nursing practice. Contemporary Chinese nursing and education owes much to those throughout the Modern China period, who laid the foundations that support the current position and status of nursing. The study displays the benefits and challenges of participation in policy and forums that help nurse scholars and practitioners understand the development of nurse education in China. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  13. The contemporary face of gender differences and similarities in depression throughout adolescence: Development and chronicity.

    PubMed

    Salk, Rachel H; Petersen, Jennifer L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Hyde, Janet S

    2016-11-15

    We probe the adolescent gender difference in depression, asking two critical questions. First, most longitudinal studies of gender differences in adolescent depression date from the 1980s and 1990s, raising the need for a body of evidence on whether the developmental pattern is similar or different today. Second, despite the importance of chronicity to depression, we do not know whether there is a gender difference in the chronicity burden of the disorder. In a contemporary longitudinal sample of U.S. adolescents, depression symptoms were assessed at ages 11, 13, 15, and 18, and depression diagnoses were assessed at age 20. To capture the chronicity burden of clinical depression, we assessed for every depressive episode in an individual's lifetime and summed the total number of days spent in episode. A gender difference emerged at age 13 for depression symptoms and at ages 13-14 for diagnoses. These findings are similar to those in the 1980s and 1990s despite many social changes that have occurred. However, the magnitude of the gender difference in symptoms at ages 13 and 15 may be larger than those documented previously. Latent growth curve modeling of depression symptoms indicated that girls' symptoms accelerated early in adolescence whereas boys' symptoms accelerated later. Although more girls (24%) than boys (15%) experienced major depression or dysthymia by age 20, the chronicity burden among those with depression showed gender similarities (median=2.6% days depressed for boys and 2.4% for girls). Depression diagnoses were assessed retrospectively; however, symptom data were assessed prospectively, and symptom and diagnostic data converged. The sample was also predominantly White, limiting generalizability. In a contemporary adolescent sample we observed gender differences in depression symptoms and diagnoses beginning at age 13. We documented distinct developmental trajectories of depression for adolescent girls and boys, suggesting different developmental

  14. Contemporary Trends of Inpatient Surgical Management of Stone Disease: National Analysis in an Economic Growth Scenario.

    PubMed

    Marchini, Giovanni Scala; Mello, Marcos F; Levy, Renata; Vicentini, Fábio Carvalho; Torricelli, Fábio César Miranda; Eluf-Neto, José; Mazzucchi, Eduardo; Srougi, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    To assess trends in urologic surgical management of upper tract urolithiasis in Brazil over the past 15 years. The Public Health System of Brazil (SUS) provides health coverage to 47% to 74% of the population. SUS has a longitudinal hospital inpatient database (SIH/SUS). Hospital discharges between January 1,1998 and December 31, 2012 were abstracted from the SIH/SUS. All inpatient hospitalizations for patients of any age with a primary/secondary diagnosis code of N20.x (calculus of kidney or ureter) were abstracted (ICD-9/10). All urolithiasis-related procedure codes were analyzed. The absolute number of procedures/year and the proportion among all techniques were analyzed for Brazil and also separately for the five distinguished regions of the country. Prevalence trends over the studied period were quantified by the estimated annual percent change (EAPC) using the least squares linear regression methodology. Significance was set at P<0.05. The number of surgical interventions for stone disease increased significantly from 10080 to 24713 (+145%; EAPC=1008.1; P<0.001). The most common surgical modalities in 1998 were nephrectomy (n=2918; 29%), ureterolithotomy (n=2361; 23%), and pyelolithotomy (n=1771; 18%). In 2012, ureteroscopy (URS) was the most commonly performed procedure (n=8725; 35%), followed by ureterolithotomy (n=5822; 24%), and nephrectomy (n=3466; 14%). Between 1998 and 2012, percutaneous nephrolithotomy had the highest significant relative increase (+791.8%; EAPC=0.6%; P<0.001), followed by URS (+607%; EAPC=1.78%; P<0.001). Pyelolithotomy showed the most significant decrease (-47.5%; EAPC = -0.91%; P<0.001). All five regions presented a significant positive increase in the EAPC (P<0.001). Trends of stone disease surgical management in the public health system of Brazil follow worldwide tendencies toward less invasive treatment modalities.

  15. The origins of contemporary urbanization in Venezuela: growth without accumulation between 1920 and 1945.

    PubMed

    Negron, M A

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of urbanization in Venezuela between 1920 and 1945 is presented. This period is seen as a transitional one in which urbanization changed from a colonial to a modern pattern. Consideration is given to geographical variations in urbanization patterns and to developments since 1945. A comment by Alejandro Rofman is also included (pp. 27-8).

  16. The New Institutionalism: Mismatches with Private Higher Education's Global Growth. PROPHE Working Paper Series. WP No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Daniel C.

    2004-01-01

    Spectacular contemporary growth in private higher education challenges the "new institutionalism" and its emphasis on "isomorphism." The growth brings great inter-organizational distinctiveness and is linked to technically rational competition. Findings about this growth and distinctiveness lead us to re-assess and revise…

  17. Neem (Azadirachta indica): prehistory to contemporary medicinal uses to humankind.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Venugopalan Santhosh; Navaratnam, Visweswaran

    2013-07-01

    The divine tree neem (Azadirachta indica) is mainly cultivated in the Indian subcontinent. Neem has been used extensively by humankind to treat various ailments before the availability of written records which recorded the beginning of history. The world health organization estimates that 80% of the population living in the developing countries relies exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care. More than half of the world's population still relies entirely on plants for medicines, and plants supply the active ingredients of most traditional medical products. The review shows the neem has been used by humankind to treat various ailments from prehistory to contemporary.

  18. Appraisal of the Deqi Concept among Contemporary Chinese Acupuncturists.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng; Guo, Shengnan; Marmori, Federico; Wang, Yanping; Zhao, Qi; Wang, Baokai; Ha, Eunhae; Miao, Yanhuan; Xiang, Li; Zhao, Mingwen; Huo, Yuwei; Nan, Yinan; Liu, Li-An; Zhao, Jiping

    2013-01-01

    Deqi, an important component of the traditional theory of acupuncture and moxibustion, is the key factor in determining clinical therapeutic effect of acupuncture. In this paper, based on the digging up, arrangement, and in-depth analysis of the famous contemporary Chinese acupuncturists' perspectives of deqi, the authors summarize the concept and manifestation, as well as the properties of deqi, and correlativity of deqi with acupuncture manipulation through reviewing modern clinical research. Proposals for more scientific and standardized acupuncture research are introduced to reexamine and restore the implication of deqi in combination with the clinical practice.

  19. Appraisal of the Deqi Concept among Contemporary Chinese Acupuncturists

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shengnan; Marmori, Federico; Wang, Yanping; Zhao, Qi; Wang, Baokai; Ha, Eunhae; Miao, Yanhuan; Xiang, Li; Zhao, Mingwen; Huo, Yuwei; Nan, Yinan; Liu, Li-an; Zhao, Jiping

    2013-01-01

    Deqi, an important component of the traditional theory of acupuncture and moxibustion, is the key factor in determining clinical therapeutic effect of acupuncture. In this paper, based on the digging up, arrangement, and in-depth analysis of the famous contemporary Chinese acupuncturists' perspectives of deqi, the authors summarize the concept and manifestation, as well as the properties of deqi, and correlativity of deqi with acupuncture manipulation through reviewing modern clinical research. Proposals for more scientific and standardized acupuncture research are introduced to reexamine and restore the implication of deqi in combination with the clinical practice. PMID:24198844

  20. Salem witchcraft and lessons for contemporary forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Howie, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In 1692 and 1693, in Salem, Massachusetts, more than 150 colonists were accused of witchcraft, resulting in 19 being hanged and one man being crushed to death. Contributions to these events included: historical, religious and cultural belief systems; social and community concerns; economic, gender, and political factors; and local family grievances. Child witnessing, certainty of physician diagnosis, use of special evidence in the absence of scholarly and legal scrutiny, and tautological reasoning were important factors, as well. For forensic psychiatry, the events at Salem in 1692 still hold contemporary implications. These events of three centuries ago call to mind more recent daycare sexual abuse scandals.

  1. What contemporary viruses tell us about evolution: a personal view.

    PubMed

    Moelling, Karin

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in information about viruses have revealed novel and surprising properties such as viral sequences in the genomes of various organisms, unexpected amounts of viruses and phages in the biosphere, and the existence of giant viruses mimicking bacteria. Viruses helped in building genomes and are driving evolution. Viruses and bacteria belong to the human body and our environment as a well-balanced ecosystem. Only in unbalanced situations do viruses cause infectious diseases or cancer. In this article, I speculate about the role of viruses during evolution based on knowledge of contemporary viruses. Are viruses our oldest ancestors?

  2. The grief account: dimensions of a contemporary bereavement genre.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Michael Robert

    2008-01-01

    The genre of the grief account is identified to include published narratives of surviving grief. Thematic analysis of Andrew Holleran's (2006) Grief: A Novel, Lolly Winston's (2004) Good Grief: A Novel, Joan Didion's (2005) The Year of Magical Thinking, and J. Canfield and M. V. Hansen's (2003) Chicken Soup for the Grieving Soul: Stories About Life, Death and Overcoming the Loss of a Loved One is informed by recent scholarship regarding eulogies and illness and dying narratives. Six dimensions (restorative, evaluative, interpretive, affirmative, affective, transformative) of contemporary grief accounts are recognized as sources of inspiration for the practice and experience of bereavement.

  3. [Biodiesel-fuel: content, production, producers, contemporary biotechnology (review)].

    PubMed

    Feofilova, E P; Sergeeva, Ia E; Ivashechkin, A A

    2010-01-01

    The necessity of expanding studies on producing renewable biofuel is reviewed. Special attention is given to biodiesel, the history of its creation, and its advantages and disadvantages in comparison with diesel-fuel. The main part of the review is devoted to an analysis of diesel biofuel on the basis of bacterial lipids, filamentous fungi, yeasts, plants, photo- and heterotrophic algae. Biodiesel on the basis of filamentous fungi is studied in detail and the possibility of creation of the most perspective biotechnology using these producers is grounded. The contemporary state of biotechnology in Russia is discussed in connection with the development of energetics based on renewable biofuels.

  4. Neem (Azadirachta indica): Prehistory to contemporary medicinal uses to humankind

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Venugopalan Santhosh; Navaratnam, Visweswaran

    2013-01-01

    The divine tree neem (Azadirachta indica) is mainly cultivated in the Indian subcontinent. Neem has been used extensively by humankind to treat various ailments before the availability of written records which recorded the beginning of history. The world health organization estimates that 80% of the population living in the developing countries relies exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care. More than half of the world's population still relies entirely on plants for medicines, and plants supply the active ingredients of most traditional medical products. The review shows the neem has been used by humankind to treat various ailments from prehistory to contemporary. PMID:23835719

  5. Contemporary artists and colour: Meaning, organisation and understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Judith

    2006-06-01

    What implications do the ranges of traditional and non-traditional media used by contemporary artists have for understanding the selection and specification of coloured materials? Interviews with prominent artists explore their use of colour and their views on the role of colour in their work. The paper establishes that the interview respondents operate successfully within a professional and permeable frame of reference, with different approaches to determination of colour meaning. The colour propositions of neuroscience, psychophysics and anthropological linguistics appear to have little impact on the respondents' practice, and the paper concludes by suggesting the need to explore boundaries between disciplines.

  6. Opportunities and strategies in contemporary health system executive leadership.

    PubMed

    McCausland, Maureen P

    2012-01-01

    The contemporary health care environment presents opportunities for nurse executive leadership that is patient and family centered, satisfying to professional nurses and their colleagues, and results in safe quality care that is fiscally responsible and evidence based. This article focuses on the strategic areas of systemness, people, performance, and innovation and offers strategies and tactics to help move nursing in integrated delivery systems from important entity-based services to a system approach where the nursing leadership team and entity chief nursing officers are recognized as major contributors to system success.

  7. Contemporary paradigms for research related to women's mental health.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Shelley Anne; Letourneau, Nicole Lyn; Stoppard, Janet M

    2010-04-01

    Mental health problems are serious health concerns that affect women across diverse settings internationally. Knowledge of this population historically has been informed by research using a positivist approach. This article is a critical examination of contemporary paradigms for research related to women's mental health. We begin the article with an introduction to women's mental health, followed by an overview of the postpositivist, critical theory, and constructivist paradigms. We then present a critical examination of the benefits and limitations of these paradigms in relation to the study of women's mental health. We conclude with implications for research and practice.

  8. Microsurgical reconstruction of the smile--contemporary trends.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Arash; Chang, James; Khosla, Rohit K

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of facial palsy is a complex and challenging area of plastic surgery. Microsurgical innovation has introduced the modern age of dynamic reconstruction for facial palsy. This review will focus on microsurgical reconstruction for smile restoration in patients with long-standing facial palsy. The most common donor muscles and nerves will be presented. The advantages and disadvantages of single-stage versus multi-stage reconstruction will be discussed. Contemporary trends will be highlighted and the authors' preferred practice outlined. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Confucian ethic of death with dignity and its contemporary relevance.

    PubMed

    Lo, P-C

    1999-01-01

    This paper advances three claims. First, according to contemporary Western advocates of physician-assisted suicide and voluntary euthanasia, "death with dignity" is understood negatively as bringing about death to avoid or prevent indignity, that is, to avoid a degrading existence. Second, there is a similar morally affirmative view on death with dignity in ancient China, in classical Confucianism in particular. Third, there is a consonance as well as dissonance between these two ethics of death with dignity, such as that the Confucian perspective would regard the argument for physician-assisted suicide and voluntary euthanasia as less than compelling because of the latter's impoverished vision of human life.

  10. Contemporary Outcomes of Endovascular Intervention for Critical Limb Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Pratik K; Prasad, Anand

    2017-04-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Optimal treatment strategies for CLI remain controversial. The only randomized trial comparing surgical with endovascular revascularization suggests no significant difference in limb salvage between open surgical bypass and angioplasty. Although novel endovascular strategies are now available, their efficacies remain largely untested in a randomized fashion. This review provides an overview of the data surrounding contemporary outcomes of endovascular therapy with an emphasis on current knowledge gaps.

  11. Promoting Science Learning and Scientific Identification through Contemporary Scientific Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Horne, Katie

    This dissertation investigates the implementation issues and the educational opportunities associated with "taking the practice turn" in science education. This pedagogical shift focuses instructional experiences on engaging students in the epistemic practices of science both to learn the core ideas of the disciplines, as well as to gain an understanding of and personal connection to the scientific enterprise. In Chapter 2, I examine the teacher-researcher co-design collaboration that supported the classroom implementation of a year-long, project-based biology curriculum that was under development. This study explores the dilemmas that arose when teachers implemented a new intervention and how the dilemmas arose and were managed throughout the collaboration of researchers and teachers and between the teachers. In the design-based research of Chapter 3, I demonstrate how students' engagement in epistemic practices in contemporary science investigations supported their conceptual development about genetics. The analysis shows how this involved a complex interaction between the scientific, school and community practices in students' lives and how through varied participation in the practices students come to write about and recognize how contemporary investigations can give them leverage for science-based action outside of the school setting. Finally, Chapter 4 explores the characteristics of learning environments for supporting the development of scientific practice-linked identities. Specific features of the learning environment---access to the intellectual work of the domain, authentic roles and accountability, space to make meaningful contributions in relation to personal interests, and practice-linked identity resources that arose from interactions in the learning setting---supported learners in stabilizing practice-linked science identities through their engagement in contemporary scientific practices. This set of studies shows that providing students with the

  12. On contemporary sedimentation at the titanic survey area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukashin, V. N.

    2009-12-01

    The basic parameters of the sedimentation environment are considered: the Western Boundary Deep Current that transports sedimentary material and distributes it on the survey area; the nepheloid layer, its features, and the distribution of the concentrations and particulate standing crop in it; the distribution of the horizontal and vertical fluxes of the sedimentary material; and the bottom sediments and their absolute masses. The comparison of the vertical fluxes of the particulate matter and the absolute masses of the sediments showed that the contemporary fluxes of sedimentary material to the bottom provided the distribution of the absolute masses of the sediments in the survey area during the Holocene.

  13. Mythos and mental illness: psychopathy, fantasy, and contemporary moral life.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Geoff

    2008-12-01

    Medical accounts of the absence of conscience are intriguing for the way they seem disposed to drift away from the ideal of scientific objectivity and towards fictional representations of the subject. I examine here several contemporary accounts of psychopathy by Robert Hare and Paul Babiak. I first note how they locate the truth about their subject in fiction, then go on to contend that their accounts ought to be thought of as a "mythos," for they betray a telling uncertainty about where "fact" ends and "fantasy" begins, as well as the means of distinguishing mental health from mental illness in regard to some social roles.

  14. Undoing trauma: contemporary neuroscience. A Jungian clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Margaret

    2003-04-01

    This paper uses insights from contemporary neuroscience and attachment theory to explore the profound dissociative defences associated with trauma. I discuss the effects of trauma on the emotional, intellectual and imaginative life of the individual and on the development of the self. Based on work with three patients with very different experiences of trauma, the paper offers clinical illustration of 'right brain to right brain' Jungian analysis. I argue that through repeated transference and countertransference experiences dissociative defences may be undone and change brought about.

  15. Measurements and modeling of contemporary radiocarbon in the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanu, A. M.; Comfort, L. L.; Guilderson, T. P.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Bergmann, D. J.; Atlas, E. L.; Schauffler, S.; Boering, K. A.

    2016-02-01

    Measurements of the 14C content of carbon dioxide in air collected by high-altitude balloon flights in 2003-2005 reveal the contemporary radiocarbon distribution in the northern midlatitude stratosphere, four decades after the Limited Test Ban Treaty restricted atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. Comparisons with results from a 3-D chemical-transport model show that the 14CO2 distribution is now largely governed by the altitude/latitude dependence of the natural cosmogenic production rate, stratospheric transport, and propagation into the stratosphere of the decreasing radiocarbon trend in tropospheric CO2 due to fossil fuel combustion. From the observed correlation of 14CO2 with N2O mixing ratios, an annual global mean net flux of 14CO2 to the troposphere of 1.6(±0.4) × 1017‰ mol CO2 yr-1 and a global production rate of 2.2(±0.6) × 1026 atoms 14C yr-1 are empirically derived. The results also indicate that contemporary 14CO2 observations provide highly sensitive diagnostics for stratospheric transport and residence times in models.

  16. Contemporary doming of the Adirondack mountains: Further evidence from releveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isachsen, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The Adirondack Mountains constitute an anomalously large, domical uplift on the Appalachian foreland. The dome has a NNE-SSW axis about 190 km long, and an east-west dimension of about 140 km. It has a structural relief of at least 1600 m, and a local topographic relief of up to 1200 m. First-order leveling in 1955, and again in 1973 along a north-south line at the eastern margin of the Adirondack shows an uplift rate of 2.2 mm/yr at the latitude of the center of the dome and a subsidence rate of 2.8 mm/yr at the northern end of the line near the Canadian border. The net amount of arching along this releveled line is 9 cm ?? 2 cm (Isachsen, 1975). To test the idea that this arching represented an "edge effect" of contemporary doming of the Adirondacks as a whole, the National Geodetic Survey was encouraged to relevel a 1931 north-south line between Utica and Fort Covington (near the Canadian border) which crosses the center of the dome. The releveling showed that the mountain mass is undergoing contemporary domical uplift at a rate which reaches 3.7 mm/yr near the center of the dome (compare with 1 mm/yr for the Swiss Alps). Three other releveled lines in the area support this conclusion. ?? 1981.

  17. Eating disorders and attachment: a contemporary psychodynamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Balfour, Louise

    2014-06-01

    A contemporary psychodynamic framework can add much to our understanding of eating disorders. Eating disorders are associated with complex comorbidities, high levels of mortality, and therapist countertransferences that can complicate psychological treatments. Mainstream models currently focus on cognitive, biological, or cultural factors to the near exclusion of attachment functioning, and the individual's dynamics. As such, standard models appear to exclude person-centred and developmental considerations when providing treatments. In this article, we describe a contemporary psychodynamic model that understands eating disorder symptoms as a consequence of vulnerability to social pressures to be thin and biological predispositions to body weight. Individual vulnerabilities are rooted in unmet attachment needs causing negative affect, and subsequent maladaptive defenses and eating disorder symptoms as a means of coping. We describe how this model can inform transdiagnostic eating disorder treatment that focuses on symptoms as well as specific attachment functions including: interpersonal style, affect regulation, reflective functioning, and coherence of mind. Two clinical examples are presented to illustrate case formulations and psychological treatments informed by these conceptualizations.

  18. Contemporary leadership in healthcare organizations: fragmented or concurrent leadership.

    PubMed

    Wikstrøm, Ewa; Dellve, Lotta

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to gain a deeper understanding of the main contemporary challenges for healthcare leaders in their everyday work practice, and the support they need to master their experienced dilemmas. Qualitative in-depth interviews (n=52), and focus-group interviews (n=6) with 31 first-line and 45 second-line healthcare leaders are analysed in line with constructivist grounded theory. In this paper, two leadership models are proposed for defining and differentiating ways of meeting different logics and demands made on leaders in the healthcare sector. The first model is leadership by separating different logics and fragmentation of time. Here, leaders express a desire for support in defining, structuring, dividing, and allocating tasks. The second model is leadership by integrating different logics and currentness of solutions. In this case, leaders want support in strengthening proactive leadership and shaping the basis for participative employeeship. This research is designed to describe what people experience rather than to assess the frequency of that experience in the studied settings. However, it would be interesting to elaborate on the findings of this study using other research methodologies. The findings contribute to contextual knowledge that is of relevance in supporting healthcare leaders. This is helpful in identifying important conditions that support the establishment of leadership and employeeship, leading to improvements in healthcare practice. The paper describes how contemporary leadership in the healthcare sector is constituted through different strategies for meeting multiple logics.

  19. Exploring compassion: implications for contemporary nursing. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Straughair, Collette

    A range of contemporary political and professional literature endorse the principle of compassion in nursing as a core and underpinning philosophy fundamental to the profession. However, despite pledges to ensure that compassion lies at the heart of nursing, the concept has not been clearly defined. It is evident that uncovering the true meaning is complex and challenging owing to its subjective nature. In light of this, several implications must be considered. Effective student nurse recruitment is essential to ensure that the most appropriate individuals are selected. Contemporary marketing campaigns must be implemented, and recruitment strategies developed, which consider specific values and attitudes. Service user involvement in recruitment and selection, curriculum planning and learning and teaching strategies, and post-qualification education, can enhance nurses' understanding of the patient perspective and make headway in embedding compassion as a core nursing value. Additionally, effective role modelling in practice which demonstrates high-quality compassionate nursing care is essential. Nurses must be adequately supported in the clinical environment to facilitate compassionate behaviours and clinical leadership at all levels must uphold political and professional pledges to achieve this. Consideration of these implications for practice is essential to ensure that nurses are able to respond to patients with humanity and kindness, and deliver high-quality, compassionate care to all.

  20. Measurements and modeling of contemporary radiocarbon in the stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kanu, A. M.; Comfort, L. L.; Guilderson, T. P.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Bergmann, D. J.; Atlas, E. L.; Schauffler, S.; Boering, K. A.

    2016-01-29

    Measurements of the 14C content of carbon dioxide in air collected by high-altitude balloon flights in 2003–2005 reveal the contemporary radiocarbon distribution in the northern midlatitude stratosphere, four decades after the Limited Test Ban Treaty restricted atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. Comparisons with results from a 3-D chemical-transport model show that the 14CO2 distribution is now largely governed by the altitude/latitude dependence of the natural cosmogenic production rate, stratospheric transport, and propagation into the stratosphere of the decreasing radiocarbon trend in tropospheric CO2 due to fossil fuel combustion. From the observed correlation of 14CO2 with N2O mixing ratios, an annual global mean net flux of 14CO2 to the troposphere of 1.6(±0.4) × 1017‰ mol CO2 yr–1 and a global production rate of 2.2(±0.6) × 1026 atoms 14C yr–1 are empirically derived. Furthermore, the results also indicate that contemporary 14CO2 observations provide highly sensitive diagnostics for stratospheric transport and residence times in models.

  1. [Secular bioethics and religious bioethics. Keys to a contemporary argument].

    PubMed

    Díaz de Terán Velasco, M Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Within the context of the contemporary plural debate, it is common to use the adjective secular as if it were the only manner to participate in the bioethical debate of Western multi-ethnic society. This situation gives rise to the question of whether there can be a religious contribution to the current bioethical debate. There are two possible answers. The first, an affirmative one, is centered on the fact that contemporary society is characterized by pluralistic and secular values on which is based the obligations of its members, defined by consensus through democratic procedures. In this context, religious contribution, as something from the private sphere, must be excluded. The alternative response to our central question may be negative, based on the assertion that human beings are identified as members of different value systems, many of them imbued with religious elements. From this point of view, the religious phenomenon would be one of the most important elements in the debate on cultural pluralism, because it guides, and serves as an inspiration of our conduct. This article aims to answer our central question by analyzing each of the two possible positions. The article is divided into two sections; the first analyses the significance of the term secular when it is employed in the sphere of bioethics and the second examines whether, within the scope of democratic societies, the current religious contribution to the bioethics debate has any legitimacy. The article ends with some conclusions.

  2. Measurements and modeling of contemporary radiocarbon in the stratosphere

    DOE PAGES

    Kanu, A. M.; Comfort, L. L.; Guilderson, T. P.; ...

    2016-01-29

    Measurements of the 14C content of carbon dioxide in air collected by high-altitude balloon flights in 2003–2005 reveal the contemporary radiocarbon distribution in the northern midlatitude stratosphere, four decades after the Limited Test Ban Treaty restricted atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. Comparisons with results from a 3-D chemical-transport model show that the 14CO2 distribution is now largely governed by the altitude/latitude dependence of the natural cosmogenic production rate, stratospheric transport, and propagation into the stratosphere of the decreasing radiocarbon trend in tropospheric CO2 due to fossil fuel combustion. From the observed correlation of 14CO2 with N2O mixing ratios, an annualmore » global mean net flux of 14CO2 to the troposphere of 1.6(±0.4) × 1017‰ mol CO2 yr–1 and a global production rate of 2.2(±0.6) × 1026 atoms 14C yr–1 are empirically derived. Furthermore, the results also indicate that contemporary 14CO2 observations provide highly sensitive diagnostics for stratospheric transport and residence times in models.« less

  3. The body complex in contemporary science, literature, and culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Christopher Jason

    1998-12-01

    In the simplest terms, the purpose of this dissertation, entitled The Body Complex in Contemporary Science, Literature, and Culture is to examine the relationships between popular quantum mechanics, Chaos Theory (or complex dynamics), and contemporary Feminist/Gender theory. As the title is intended to suggest, this examination is narrowed to the 'event' of the body as it appears within the discourses of several different disciplines. The primary question is, 'what is the body and how do we define it?' And more, how do we conceive of 'a body' at all, from the cosmic to the molecular. How do these very different ideas of body reinforce and/or challenge our own concept of self and the experience of our bodies? And, how is this sense of embodiment represented in popular science, literature, and culture? Finally, the conclusion explores the possibility of liberating practices-complex actions-which may help to reveal the structures of power and alter in some useful ways our own sense of embodiment. This project relies most heavily upon the work of Michel Foucault and other gender critics such as Donna J. Harraway and Judith Butler. However, in support of these arguments a geneology of criticism is established which includes the Renaissance view of the body, a discussion of Karl Marx and materialism, Sigmund Freud and the body as the origin of mind, Lacan's linguistic approach to self-perception, and the theories of the French school of Feminism.

  4. Infrastructural intelligence: Contemporary entanglements between neuroscience and AI.

    PubMed

    Bruder, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, I reflect on contemporary entanglements between artificial intelligence and the neurosciences by tracing the development of Google's recent DeepMind algorithms back to their roots in neuroscientific studies of episodic memory and imagination. Google promotes a new form of "infrastructural intelligence," which excels by constantly reassessing its cognitive architecture in exchange with a cloud of data that surrounds it, and exhibits putatively human capacities such as intuition. I argue that such (re)alignments of biological and artificial intelligence have been enabled by a paradigmatic infrastructuralization of the brain in contemporary neuroscience. This infrastructuralization is based in methodologies that epistemically liken the brain to complex systems of an entirely different scale (i.e., global logistics) and has given rise to diverse research efforts that target the neuronal infrastructures of higher cognitive functions such as empathy and creativity. What is at stake in this process is no less than the shape of brains to come and a revised understanding of the intelligent and creative social subject. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Underwater sound radiation patterns of contemporary merchant ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassmann, M.; Wiggins, S. M.; Hildebrand, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    Merchant ships radiate underwater sound as an unintended by-product of their operation and as consequence contribute significantly to low-frequency, man-made noise in the ocean. Current measurement standards for the description of underwater sound from ships (ISO 17208-1:2016 and ANSI S12.64-2009) require nominal hydrophone depths of 15°, 30° and 45° at the starboard and portside of the test vessel.To opportunistically study the underwater sound of contemporary merchant ships that were tracked by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), an array of seven high-frequency acoustic recording packages (HARPs) with a sampling frequency of 200 kHz was deployed in the Santa Barbara Channel in the primary outgoing shipping lane for the port of Los Angeles and Long Beach. The vertical and horizontal aperture of the array allowed for starboard and portside measurements at all standard-required nominal hydrophone depths in addition to measurements taken at the keel aspect. Based on these measurements, frequency-dependent radiation patterns of contemporary merchant ships were estimated and used to evaluate current standards for computing ship source levels.

  6. Slide track analysis of eight contemporary hip simulator designs.

    PubMed

    Calonius, Olof; Saikko, Vesa

    2002-11-01

    In an earlier paper, the authors presented a new method of computation of slide tracks in the relative motion between femoral head and acetabular cup of total hip prostheses. For the first time, computed tracks were verified experimentally and with an alternative method of computation. Besides being an efficient way to illustrate hip kinematics, the shapes of the slide tracks are known to be of fundamental importance regarding the wear behaviour of prostheses. The verified method was now applied to eight contemporary hip simulator designs. The use of correct motion waveforms and an Euler sequence of rotations in each case was again found to be essential. Considerable differences were found between the simulators. For instance, the shapes of the tracks drawn by the resultant contact force included a circle, ellipse, irregular oval, leaf, twig, and straight line. Computation of tracks correctly for the most widely used hip simulator, known as biaxial, was made possible by the insight that the device is actually three-axial. Slide track patterns have now been computed for virtually all contemporary hip simulators, and both for the heads and for the cups. This comparative analysis forms a valuable basis for studies on the relationship between the type of multidirectional motion and wear. These studies can produce useful information for the design of joint simulators, and improve the understanding of wear phenomena in prosthetic joints.

  7. Suffering, meaning, and healing: challenges of contemporary medicine.

    PubMed

    Egnew, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    This essay explores the thesis that changes in contemporary society have transformed the work of doctoring and challenge doctors to be physician-healers. Medical advances in the prevention and management of acute disease have wrought a growing population of chronically ill patients whose care obliges physicians to become holistic healers. Holistic healing involves the transcendence of suffering. Suffering arises from perceptions of a threat to the integrity of person-hood, relates to the meaning patients ascribe to their illness experience, and is conveyed as an intensely personal narrative. Physician-healers use the power of the doctor-patient relationship to help patients discover or create new illness narratives with fresh meanings that reconnect them to the world and to others and thereby transcend suffering and experience healing. Physician-healers equipped with the attitudes, skills, and knowledge to assist patients to transcend suffering are indispensable if contemporary medicine is to maintain its tradition as a healing profession. In the process, physicians may discover meaningful connections with patients that bring new and refreshing perspectives to their work.

  8. Contemporary Quality of Life Issues Affecting Gynecologic Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Jeanne; Penson, Richard; Barakat, Richard; Wenzel, Lari

    2015-01-01

    Gynecologic cancers account for approximately 11% of the newly diagnosed cancers in women in the United States and 18% in the world.1 The most common gynecologic malignancies occur in the uterus and endometrium (53%), ovary (25%), and cervix (14%).2 Cervical cancer is most prevalent in premenopausal women, during their childbearing years, whereas uterine and ovarian cancers tend to present in the perimenopausal or menopausal period. Vaginal and vulvar cancers and malignancies arising from gestation, or gestational trophoblastic neoplasms, occur to a lesser extent. Regardless of cancer origin or age of onset, the disease and its treatment can produce short- and long-term sequelae (ie, sexual dysfunction, infertility, or lymphedema) that adversely affect quality of life (QOL). This article outlines the primary contemporary issues or concerns that may affect QOL and offers strategies to offset or mitigate QOL disruption. These contemporary issues are identified within the domains of sexual functioning, reproductive issues, lymphedema, and the contribution of health-related QOL (HRQOL) in influential gynecologic cancer clinical trials. PMID:22244668

  9. Suffering, Meaning, and Healing: Challenges of Contemporary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Egnew, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    This essay explores the thesis that changes in contemporary society have transformed the work of doctoring and challenge doctors to be physician-healers. Medical advances in the prevention and management of acute disease have wrought a growing population of chronically ill patients whose care obliges physicians to become holistic healers. Holistic healing involves the transcendence of suffering. Suffering arises from perceptions of a threat to the integrity of person-hood, relates to the meaning patients ascribe to their illness experience, and is conveyed as an intensely personal narrative. Physician-healers use the power of the doctor-patient relationship to help patients discover or create new illness narratives with fresh meanings that reconnect them to the world and to others and thereby transcend suffering and experience healing. Physician-healers equipped with the attitudes, skills, and knowledge to assist patients to transcend suffering are indispensable if contemporary medicine is to maintain its tradition as a healing profession. In the process, physicians may discover meaningful connections with patients that bring new and refreshing perspectives to their work. PMID:19273873

  10. Inferring contemporary and historical genetic connectivity from juveniles.

    PubMed

    Feutry, Pierre; Berry, Oliver; Kyne, Peter M; Pillans, Richard D; Hillary, Richard M; Grewe, Peter M; Marthick, James R; Johnson, Grant; Gunasekera, Rasanthi M; Bax, Nicholas J; Bravington, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Measuring population connectivity is a critical task in conservation biology. While genetic markers can provide reliable long-term historical estimates of population connectivity, scientists are still limited in their ability to determine contemporary patterns of gene flow, the most practical time frame for management. Here, we tackled this issue by developing a new approach that only requires juvenile sampling at a single time period. To demonstrate the usefulness of our method, we used the Speartooth shark (Glyphis glyphis), a critically endangered species of river shark found only in tropical northern Australia and southern Papua New Guinea. Contemporary adult and juvenile shark movements, estimated with the spatial distribution of kin pairs across and within three river systems, was contrasted with historical long-term connectivity patterns, estimated from mitogenomes and genome-wide SNP data. We found strong support for river fidelity in juveniles with the within-cohort relationship analysis. Male breeding movements were highlighted with the cross-cohort relationship analysis, and female reproductive philopatry to the river systems was revealed by the mitogenomic analysis. We show that accounting for juvenile river fidelity and female philopatry is important in population structure analysis and that targeted sampling in nurseries and juvenile aggregations should be included in the genomic toolbox of threatened species management. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Temporal dynamics within a contemporary latitudinal diversity gradient.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jonathan A D; Frank, Kenneth T; Petrie, Brian; Leggett, William C; Shackell, Nancy L

    2008-09-01

    Poleward declines in species diversity [latitudinal diversity gradients (LDG)] remain among the oldest and most widespread of macroecological patterns. However, their contemporary dynamics remain largely unexplored even though changing ecological conditions, including global change, may modify LDG and their respective ecosystems. Here, we examine temporal variation within a temperate Northwest Atlantic LDG using 31 years of annual fisheries-independent surveys and explore its dynamics in relation to a dominant climate signal [the wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)] that varies interannually and alters the latitudinal gradient of Northwest Atlantic continental shelf bottom water temperatures. We found that the slopes of the annual LDG vary dramatically due to changes in geographic distributions of 100+ species, variations that are concealed within the cumulative, static LDG. These changes are strongly associated with changes in NAO sign and strength. This is the first illustration of temporal dynamics in a contemporary LDG and the first demonstration of the speed at which local environmental variations can alter an LDG. Our findings underscore the need to investigate factors that modify LDG separately from those that contribute to their origins.

  12. Science-specialty literatures their legendary contemporary polarity, based on the transmission of information between generations.

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, D A

    1975-01-01

    Each of fifteen scientific specialty fields was represented by a journal and the percent of "legendary" papers (those with at least one reference twenty-five or more years old) was calculated for each field. Non-legendary papers were designated as "contemporary". A historical divergence was uncovered when the highly legendary field, physiology, was compared with the highly contemporary field, microbiology, both fields being moderately contemporary in 1922. The legendary contemporary field characteristics of a field are useful for estimating libraries' requirements for back holdings and for appraising literature searches. PMID:1095096

  13. Health Care's Other "Big Deal": Direct Primary Care Regulation in Contemporary American Health Law.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Glenn E

    2017-03-01

    Direct primary care is a promising, market-based alternative to the fee-for-service payment structure that shapes doctor–patient relationships in America. Instead of billing patients and insurers service by service, direct primary care doctors charge their patients a periodic, prenegotiated fee in exchange for providing a wide range of healthcare services and increased availability compared to traditional practices. This “subscription” model is intended to eliminate the administrative burdens associated with insurer interaction, which, in theory, allows doctors to spend more time with their patients and less time doing paperwork. Direct practices have become increasingly popular since Congress passed the Affordable Care Act (ACA). This growth has been driven by legislation in several states that resolves a number of legal questions that slowed the model’s growth and by the ACA’s recognition of the model as a permissible way to cover primary care in "approved" health plans. Yet legal scholars have hardly focused on direct primary care. Given the model’s growth, however, the time is ripe for a more focused legal inquiry. This Note begins that inquiry. After tracing the model’s evolution and its core components, this Note substantively examines the laws in states that regulate direct practices and analyzes how those laws address a number of potential policy concerns. It then analyzes direct primary care’s broader role in the contemporary American healthcare marketplace. Based upon that analysis, this Note concludes that direct primary care is a beneficial innovation that harmonizes well with a cooperative-federalism-based healthcare policy model.

  14. Historical versus contemporary medicinal plant uses in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Soelberg, J; Asase, A; Akwetey, G; Jäger, A K

    2015-02-03

    Three extraordinary, historical documents stemming from observations made in 1697, 1803 and 1817 quote medicinal plant uses among the Fante, Ga and Ashanti people of present-day Ghana, and can be linked to original botanical specimens in European herbaria. This provides a unique opportunity to gain insight to the historical materia medica of Ghana and compare this to contemporary medicinal plant uses. By critical literary and taxonomic review, the present study (re-)establishes the earliest known history of many important Ghanaian medicinal plants, and assesses the scale of change and loss of medicinal plant knowledge in Ghana over time. The study provides the foundation to reconstruct lost or discontinued Ghanaian plant uses in local or ethnopharmacological contexts. Historical botanical specimens were located in the herbaria of University of Copenhagen Herbarium (C) and British Museum of Natural History (BM). The classification and synonymy of the specimens were updated for the study, and the historical vernacular names and medicinal uses of the plants compared with 20th/21st century literature. The plants of the historical Ga materia medica were (re-)collected to aid in semi-structured interviews. The interviews aimed to document the contemporary uses and names of the plants among the Ga, and to determine to what extent the historical medicinal uses and names are extant. The study identified 100 species in historical medicinal use in Ghana, which could be linked to 134 unique uses and 105 vernacular names in Twi (Ashanti/Fante) and Ga. Most of the plants are common in Ghana. At least 52% of the historical vernacular names appear to still be in use today. Of the specific historical uses, 41 (31%) were traced among contemporary medicinal plant uses in Ghana and represent some of the most important Ghanaian medicinal plant species. However, 93 (69%) of the historical uses could not be traced and appears to be discontinued or forgotten. Among the Ga, two medicinal

  15. The development and validation of the Contemporary Critical Consciousness Measure.

    PubMed

    Shin, Richard Q; Ezeofor, Ijeoma; Smith, Lance C; Welch, Jamie C; Goodrich, Kristopher M

    2016-03-01

    The development of critical consciousness (CC) has been theorized to be an essential prerequisite for individual and collective action toward changing inequitable social conditions. However, empirically supported instruments intended to measure this important construct have only recently been introduced to the literature. The purpose of this project was to create a brief, psychometrically sound measure of CC. Two studies with over 600 observations provide initial reliability and validity data on the Contemporary Critical Consciousness Measure (CCCM). Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggest that the final 19-item CCCM assesses CC associated with racism, classism, and heterosexism and provides a general index of CC. Results support the internal consistency and factor structure of the measure. Expected relationships between the CCCM and existing measures of symbolic racism, classism, and homonegativity provide evidence for the validity of the instrument. Limitations, future directions for research, and counseling implications are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Measuring the evolution of contemporary western popular music.

    PubMed

    Serrà, Joan; Corral, Alvaro; Boguñá, Marián; Haro, Martín; Arcos, Josep Ll

    2012-01-01

    Popular music is a key cultural expression that has captured listeners' attention for ages. Many of the structural regularities underlying musical discourse are yet to be discovered and, accordingly, their historical evolution remains formally unknown. Here we unveil a number of patterns and metrics characterizing the generic usage of primary musical facets such as pitch, timbre, and loudness in contemporary western popular music. Many of these patterns and metrics have been consistently stable for a period of more than fifty years. However, we prove important changes or trends related to the restriction of pitch transitions, the homogenization of the timbral palette, and the growing loudness levels. This suggests that our perception of the new would be rooted on these changing characteristics. Hence, an old tune could perfectly sound novel and fashionable, provided that it consisted of common harmonic progressions, changed the instrumentation, and increased the average loudness.

  17. Deep significance of the field concept in contemporary biomedical sciences.

    PubMed

    Jerman, Igor; Krasovec, Rok; Leskovar, Robert T

    2009-01-01

    Since antiquity, biology has had two opposing views of life and organisms: holistic (organismic) and reductionist. In contemporary biology, the molecular reductionist approach prevails--its central entity being the gene. Organicism lingers on the margin of biology, having well-elaborated ideas but no empirical confirmation for the integrative biological entity. The latter could be found in the endogenous coherent EM field (ECEMF), since it organizes countless cellular processes, including cell's division, and through the coupling of coherence domains integrates the whole organism. A serious and thorough reconsideration of life and organisms in light of this new biological entity would have far-reaching consequences in all areas of biological science, i.e., in ontogeny, the theory of evolution, understanding and combating serious illnesses, and above all, cancer.

  18. Contemporary sediment-transport processes in submarine canyons.

    PubMed

    Puig, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Martín, Jacobo

    2014-01-01

    Submarine canyons are morphological incisions into continental margins that act as major conduits of sediment from shallow- to deep-sea regions. However, the exact mechanisms involved in sediment transfer within submarine canyons are still a subject of investigation. Several studies have provided direct information about contemporary sedimentary processes in submarine canyons that suggests different modes of transport and various triggering mechanisms. Storm-induced turbidity currents and enhanced off-shelf advection, hyperpycnal flows and failures of recently deposited fluvial sediments, dense shelf-water cascading, canyon-flank failures, and trawling-induced resuspension largely dominate present-day sediment transfer through canyons. Additionally, internal waves periodically resuspend ephemeral deposits within canyons and contribute to dispersing particles or retaining and accumulating them in specific regions. These transport processes commonly deposit sediments in the upper- and middle-canyon reaches for decades or centuries before being completely or partially flushed farther down-canyon by large sediment failures.

  19. Ancient and methane-derived carbon subsidizes contemporary food webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvecchia, Amanda G.; Stanford, Jack A.; Xu, Xiaomei

    2016-11-01

    While most global productivity is driven by modern photosynthesis, river ecosystems are supplied by locally fixed and imported carbon that spans a range of ages. Alluvial aquifers of gravel-bedded river floodplains present a conundrum: despite no possibility for photosynthesis in groundwater and extreme paucity of labile organic carbon, they support diverse and abundant large-bodied consumers (stoneflies, Insecta: Plecoptera). Here we show that up to a majority of the biomass carbon composition of these top consumers in four floodplain aquifers of Montana and Washington is methane-derived. The methane carbon ranges in age from modern to up to >50,000 years old and is mostly derived from biogenic sources, although a thermogenic contribution could not be excluded. We document one of the most expansive ecosystems to contain site-wide macroinvertebrate biomass comprised of methane-derived carbon and thereby advance contemporary understanding of basal resources supporting riverine productivity.

  20. Ancient and methane-derived carbon subsidizes contemporary food webs

    PubMed Central

    DelVecchia, Amanda G.; Stanford, Jack A.; Xu, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    While most global productivity is driven by modern photosynthesis, river ecosystems are supplied by locally fixed and imported carbon that spans a range of ages. Alluvial aquifers of gravel-bedded river floodplains present a conundrum: despite no possibility for photosynthesis in groundwater and extreme paucity of labile organic carbon, they support diverse and abundant large-bodied consumers (stoneflies, Insecta: Plecoptera). Here we show that up to a majority of the biomass carbon composition of these top consumers in four floodplain aquifers of Montana and Washington is methane-derived. The methane carbon ranges in age from modern to up to >50,000 years old and is mostly derived from biogenic sources, although a thermogenic contribution could not be excluded. We document one of the most expansive ecosystems to contain site-wide macroinvertebrate biomass comprised of methane-derived carbon and thereby advance contemporary understanding of basal resources supporting riverine productivity. PMID:27824032